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9- -"^ 



GOOD ROADS 



DEVOTED TO THE CONSTRUCTION AND 

MAINTENANCE OF ROADS 

AND STREETS 



'/,■ 



■'I 



VOLUME ^ 
JULY--DECEMBER, 1915 




THE E. L. POWERS CO. 

150 Nassau Street 
NEW YORK 



INDEX TO VOLUME X 

JULY-DECEMBER. 1915 
GENERAL INDEX, 



PaS« 
A 

AcaoMallw. Hlshway. Systam In. By 
a D. OilWl >»» 

Aik4 a*orste eountlM to biuld 

roads ** 

OoBTlct Ubor In ■ ** 

t}oo« Road* Oay«~ flxed by t*»- .„ 

laUtar* *J| 

HMaZ%««lh oir'an" Undeiiirabie 
L*c>aUllv« Meaaura In th«.(Bd.) tS8 

Buta bichway oOlclala ..■■■ IT 

SUtta road laws, chancaa made by 

Uia L<aclalatura In tba SI* 

BUtlatlcs on road work » 

MkM: 

Hlchvay laws f J 

SUta hlfbwAr offlclala I] 

SUIIsUc* oa read work o 

f gri-nn and Europaan pavementa, 

eeaip*r<son of •" 

Anarlcan H1tO*>7 Aaaoclatlon: 

HUlory and d»«<-rlpllon of 'KT 

Th« Pan-AjD*rtc«n Road Congresa 

«B4.» 1" 

(Saa alsor-Aaaoclatlona" and "Moet- 
IBS«") 
AbmHcab Road Builders' Association: 
Beard at Diractors Plana tbe 1S16 

Qpoveatlon 268 

Batfnasa Uactlns at the Pan- 

Anarican Road Ooneress. . .ISS, 217 
CoavanUoo at PlttsBurich: 

Cbaniro of date 210 

The Conilns. <Ed.) 2S8 

History and description of 'IIT 

International Road Congress at 
Worcester: 

Not to Participate In the 229 

Rasolotlon Rclatlva to the... 268 
Mambars: 

Haw 56 

Pan-American Road ConKresa: 
Appointed State Delegates 

to the 162 

At the 99 

On the procram 56. 99 

Presidential Address by 

Oeo. W. Tlllson 181 

Tbe Pan-American Road Con- 

sraas. (Ed.) 117 

(8aa also "Associations" and 
•^e«tlnKS~> 
A. R. a A. |>aKa..56. 99. 162. 217. 268. 210 
AoMrlcan Soclsty of Municipal Im- 
prevemants: 
Cencrata PaTcment SpeelOcatlons 267 
Convention. Abstracts of Papers 
Presented at: 

A Study of Brick Pavement 
Construction. By Will P. 

Blair 264 

Joint Plllera for Qranlte Block 
Pavements. By Clarence D. 

Pollock 264 

Napped or Recut Granite Pav- 
ing as Used and Constructed 
In Baltimore. By R. M. 

Cookaey 267 

Soma Bzparlenres in Creosoted 
Wood Block Pavlnc By E. 

R. Dullon 266 

Tba Trafllc Census and Ita 
BcarInK on tbe Selection of 
Pavements. By W. W. 

Croaby 266 

Artsona: 

County enclneers form parmanent 

organisation 105 

Hicbway laws 82 

State hiKbway officials 17 

Statistics on road work S 

Arkanaaa; 

And Trzas Commercial Bodies 
Plan Houaton-St. Louis Road... 225 

HlKbway laws 82 

SUte hicbway officials 17 

Slatlatlcs on road work 6 

Aapkall: 

Dopoalt In Honduras. Raeent Dis- 
covery of 167 

ffatvral. Production of, durlnc 

1914 161 

Katoral and oil. production of, 
dorlDK paat r—Jr 10* 

•niMtratad. 



Page 
Asphalt (continued): 

Producers Decide to Form an Or- 

Kanlsatlon 327 

Rock, analysis of, In Philippine 
Islands H* 

Asphalt Paving: 
Block: 

Methods of construction and 
costs In cities of United 

States 21 

Sheet: 

Methods of construction and 
costs in cities of United 
States 21 

Asphalt Plant: 

Manhattan, New York City, Oper- 
ation of the Municipal 298 

Portable mixing (Barber, Iro- 
quois) 'OS 

Repair Plant, Operation of the 

Scranton Municipal '216 

Associations: 

American Society of Municipal 

Improvements 267 

Forrest Highway Association or- 
gan ised Bo 

Institute of Paving Brick Manu- 
facturers 159 

Street cleaning officials consider- 
ing formation of association... 223 
Notices of Coming Meetings: 

Alabama Good Roads Associa- 
tion 111. 226 

American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, 
Section D (Engineering)... 327 
American Road Builders' As- 
sociation: 

1916 Convention. .239, 277, 

281, 288 (Ed.), 310, 312, 319 
Not to Participate in the 
International Road Con- 
gress at Worcester.... 239 
American Society of Civil En- 
gineers (Special Committee 
on Materials for Road Con- 
struction) 323 

American Society of Municipal 

Improvements 177, 226 

(Canada) Dominion Good 

Roads Association 323 

Cement Products Kxhibltion 

Co 286 

Colorado-to-Gult Highway As- 
sociation 71 

Conference on Concrete Road 

Building 75 

(England) County Councils 

Association 75 

Institute of Paving Brick 

Manufacturers 174 

International Engineering 

Congress 71 

Jackson Highway Association 174 
Jefferson Highway Association 174 
(Mass.) Worcester Chamber of 
Commerce, 

219, 229, 239, 269, 277, 286, 312 
Montana Institute of Munici- 
pal Engineers - 323 

National Paving Brick Manu- 
facturers' Association 226 

Paclflc Highway Association 101 
Southern Appalachian Good 

Roads Association 116, 226 

Texas: 

Good Roads Association.. 67 
League of Municipalities 236 
Notices of Meetings: 

American Highway Associa- 
tion (See "Pan-American 
Road Congress," under 
"Meetings"). 
American Road Builders' As- 
sociation (See "Pan-Amer- 
ican Road Congress," un- 
der "Meetings"). 
Paclflo Highway Association 
(See "Pan-American Road 
Congress," under "Meet- 
ings"). 
TrI-State Good Roads Asso- 
ciation (See "Pan-American 
Road Congress," under 
"Meetings"). 



Associations (continued): 
Reports of Meetings: 

Alabama Good Roads Associa- 
tion 235 

American Society of Munici- 
pal Improvements •230 

(England) County Councils 
Association 67 

Jefferson Highway Associa- 

^ tion 286 

Kansas County Clerks, County 
Commislsoners and Regis- 
ters of Deeds 328 

Kentucky Good Roads Asso- 
ciation 236 

Louisiana State Good Roads 
Association 269 

(Mass.) Worcester Chamber 
of Commerce 324 

National Paving Brick Manu- 
facturers' Association •232 

Nebraska Engineering Society 328 

New Mexico Highway Officials 
Association 278 

New York County Highway 
Superintendents 7i 

North Carolina Good Roads 
Association 67 

Ohio County Engineers 75 

Society for Street Cleaning 
and Refuse Disposal of the 
United States and Canada. . 231 

State Highway Offlcials' Asso- 
ciation 319 

Texas: 

Good Roads Association.. 107 
Highway League of 278 

Washington State Good Roads 

Association 269, 278 

Automobile Club of America; Lecture 
Course 317 

Automobile Number Plate, New York 
State to Use New Style of 237 

B 

Barber Asphalt Paving Co., Iroquois 

Works, asphalt plant 'BS 

Bensel, Lucas and Parker Form Engi- 
neering Association, Messrs 320 

Better Roads, The Benefits and Bur- 
dens of. By S. B. Bradt 212 

Biles. Geo. H., Second Deputy State 
Highway Commissioner of Pennsyl- 
vania •ss 

Bltulithic paving, methods and costs 

of, in cities of the U. S 21 

Bituminous concrete paving, methods 

and costs of. In cities of the U. S.. 21 
Bituminous Construction: 

Discussion of penetration and mix- 
ing methods by Daniel T. Pierce '260 
Types of, and Their Limitations.. 285 
Bituminous macadam paving, methods 
and costs of in cities of the U. S... 21 

Bituminous Paving Brick •162 

Block Pavement Construction: 

Eliminating the Sand Cushion in. 

„ (Ed.) 242 

Standard practice in (Ed.) 78 

Bond Issues: 

California, Los Angeles County, to 

vote on Issue 224 

County, for Road Work During 

the Present Year 280 

Louisiana; $5,000,000 issue pro- 
posed 113 

Bonds: 

Discussion of, by N. P. Lewis. .158, 194 
Tennessee Highway Department 

Will Aid In Sales of County 283 

Book Notices: 

Elements of Highway Engineer- 
ing; Blanchard. The Columbia- 
America's Great Highway; Lan- 
caster 273 

Brick: 

Bituminous Paving •162 

Vitrified Paving, production of, in 
1914 106 

Brick Pavement Construction: 

A Study of. By Will P. Blair 264 

Buffalo Road, Erie County, Pa.... ^79 
Elimination of sand cushion In. 
(Ed.) 242 



February 5, 1916 



INDEX TO GOOD ROADS. 



in 



Page 
Brick Pavement Construction (con- 
tinued) : 

Methods and costs of, in cities of 

tlie U. S 21 

In King County, Wasliington '3 

Old, at Cleveiand and Terre Haute 'SI 

Standard practice in (Ed.) 78 

Bridge, interstate, over Columbia 

River 61 

Bridge, reinforced concrete, bids to be 

received for, at Bridgeport, Conn... 113 
Bridges and Structures, Higliway. By 

\V. S. Gearhart 254 

Bridges and Viaducts on tlie Multno- 
mali County Section of tlie Columbia 

River Higliway ♦243 

Britisii Road Board operations during 

1914 187 

Britisli Road Work, Notes on 187 

C 

California: 

Berkeley; plans for paving 113 

Bids wanted for road work 62 

Convicts doing road work under 

new law 114 

Fresno County; road bond issue 

plans 2 

Highway Commission to Build 

More Concrete Roads, The 319 

Highway laws 83 

Los Angeles County: 

Highway work in '289 

To Build Mint Canyon Road.. 280 
To Vote on Road Bond Issue 224 
Marysville to be represented at 
Tri-State Good Roads Conven- 
tion 66 

Oakland, City of, and Its Street 

Work. By W. H. Jordan *127 

San Diego, The Puente Cabrillo at *159 
San Francisco, the Exposition City; 
Its History and Development 
with Especial Reference to 

its Street System 'ISS 

State highway officials .17 

State Highways. By Austin B. 

Fletcher *119 

Statistics on road work 5 

Canada: 

Montreal, Increased Paving in 

During the Present Year 318 

Ontario, Department of Public 

Highways in 279 

Cement Show, Ninth Chicago 286 

Central America, Road Conditions in 

the countries of 308 

Cities of the United States, statistics 

on paving work in 21 

Civil service examination for inspect- 
ors. New Jersey .....61, 77 (Ed.) 

Classification, road, in Great Britain.. 97 
Colorado: 

Extensive road improvements 

planned in 227 

Fremont County, The Parkdale- 
Cotopaxi Cut-Off — A State High- 
way in ♦302 

Highway Laws 83 

Phases of road work 97 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Columbia River Highway, Bridges and 
Viaducts on the Multnomah County 

Section of the ^243 

Columbia University: 

Graduate Course in Highway En- 
gineering at 233 

Lecture Course 317 

Coming Meetings, 

57, 63, 67, 71, 75, 100, 107, 

111, 115, 165, 177, 218, 225, 229, 235, 

239, 269, 277, 281, 285, 312, 319, 323, 327 

Concrete Pavement Construction in 

Pennsylvania Highway Work, A 

Demonstration of ♦SOO 

Concrete Pavement: 

In Los Angeles County, California ^289 

Specifications — A. S. M. 1 267 

Methods of construction and costs 

in cities of United States 21 

Concrete Road Construction, Hydrated 

Lime In *305 

Concrete Roads, the California High- 
way Commission to build more 319 

Congresses (See "Meetings") 
Connecticut: 

Bridgeport to receive bids for con- 
crete bridge 113 

Highway laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Conventions (See 'Meetings") 
Convict Labor: 

Alabama roads 82 

California, under new law 114 

Colorado, Fremont County ^302 

For Hlghwuv Work. By G. P. 

Coleman 208 

Maine, Cumberland County, used 
in 69 

•Illustrated. 



Page 
Convict Labor (continued): 

New Jersey 308 

(N. C.) Ashevllle Board of Trade, 

favored by 153 

Tennessee Experiments With, on 

Road Work 280 

Cornell University; "Good Roads 

Week" 321 

Costs: 

Convict labor in Alabama 82 

Different pavements, labor and 
paving materials in cities of the 

United States 21 

Curb Radii at Street Intersections, 
Increased ^161 

D 

Data, Uniformity for Highway Statis- 
tics and. By H. B. Breed 257 

Defense, National: 

Federal Aid and. (Ed.) 242 

Road Improvement for. (Ed.).... 180 
Delaivare: 

Highway laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Dillon, H. B., reinforced concrete 

guard rail ^59 

District of Columbia: 

District highway officials 17 

Highway laws 83 

Street Work, Funds Asked of Con- 
gress for 325 

Drainage and Foundations, Road. By 

Geo. W. Cooley 202 

Durax Pavement: 

Kentucky, Louisville ♦ISS 

New York City, Grand Central 

Terminal 98 

Durham, H. W., compares European 

and American pavements 65 

Dust Suppression and Street Clean- 
ing. By Wm. H. Connell 249 

E 

Editorials: 

An Unusual Opportunity to Study 

Highway Work 118 

Death of an Undesirable Legisla- 
tive Measure in the Alabama 

House 288 

Eliminating the Sand Cushion in 

Block Pavement Construction.. 242 
Examinations for Road Workers.. 77 
Federal Aid and National Defense 242 

Financing Highway Work 180 

Highway Laws 179 

Highway Work in the United 

States 1 

Making the Roads Safe for Pres- 
ent Traffic 287 

Provision for Through Routes in 
City and Village Street Plans.. 118 

Road Building Terms 288 

Road Improvement for National 

Defense 180 

Specifications and Proposals 241 

Standard Practice in the Construc- 
tion of Block Pavements 78 

The Coming American Road 
Builders' Association Conven- 
tion at Pittsburgh 288 

The Pan-American Road Congress 117 
Equipment for Highway Work. By 

A. H. Blanchard 252 

European and American pavements, 

comparison of 65 

Excavation with steam shovel. Brie 

County, Pennsylvania ^79 

Exhibition of Street Cleaning Machin- 
ery and Appliances in New York 

City, Second Annual 223, ^228 

Exhibits: 

Government road, at Panama-Pa- 
cific International Exposition... 16 
New York City Street Cleaning 

Entries for 167 

North Carolina State Fair 73 

Road and Street, at the Panama- 
Pacific Internationa! Exposition ^154 
Expenditures for Road Work, State... 304 

F 

Federal Aid and National Defense. 

(Ed.) 242 

Fillers, Joint, for Granite Block Pave- 
ments. By Clarence D. Pollock.... 264 

Financing Highway Work. (Ed.) 180 

Financing road work, State Highway 

Commissioner Cowen of Ohio, on... 74 
Florida: 

Counties, road funds voted in 175 

Highway laws 83 

State highway ofi^cials 17,224 

Statistics on road work 5 

Foundations, Road Drainage and. By 
(3eo. W. Cooley , . . , ?02 



G 

Page 
Gallon Iron Works & Mfg. Co.; gravel 

screening plant ^220 

Georgia: 

And Alabama Counties to build 

roads 66 

Bill Creating a State Highway 

Commission in 2 

Highway laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Germany, Breslau, granite block pav- 
ing in 70 

"Good Roads Days": 

Alabama 175 

Kansas 73, 106 

Granite Block Pavement: 

Joint Fillers for. By C. D. Pol- 
lock 264 

Tearing up old; Worcester, Mass. ^140 
Granite Block Paving: 

In Breslau, Germany 70 

Sand cushion abandoned in New 
York City, Manhattan Borough 65 
Granite Paving as Used and Con- 
structed in Baltimore, Napped or 

Recut. By R. M. Cooksey 267 

Great Britain: 

Notes on Road Work in 187 

Operations of Road Board During 

1914 187 

Road Classification 97 

The Use of Wood Block Paving In 234 

H 
Harris, G. Montagu, on road classifi- 
cation in Great Britain 97 

Highway Engineering: 

Columbia University; graduate 

course In 233 

Iowa State College; graduate 

course in 275 

Maryland Agricultural College; 

course in 325 

Michigan, University of; short 

course in 259 

New York City; course of lectures 

on 317 

History and Future of Highway Im- 
provement. By L. W. Page 189 

Honduras, Recent discovery of asphalt 

in 167 

Howard & Morse; Testing instrument.^314 

I 

Idaho: 

And Montana Counties Building 

Cooperative Roads 281 

Highway laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Illinois: 

Allotment of state funds 73 

Bridge specifications issued 67 

Cook County Commissioners In- 
spect State Aid Roads 319 

Highway laws 83 

State Highway Department: 

Fiscal regulations 66 

Has Form of Affidavit for Con- 
tractors 284 

Shop Inspection of Steel by 

the 272 

State highway oflBcials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

University of; Road School 321 

Indebtedness, Highway: Its Limita- 
tion and Regulation. By N. P. Lewis 194 
Indiana: 

Highway laws 83 

Indianapolis Making Progress in 

Street Paving 275 

Members of State Highway Com- 
mission 17 

State Automobile Association for 
a state highway department.... 75 

Statistics on road work 5 

Terre Haute, long-lived pavement 

at ♦SI 

Iowa: 

Allows Road Tax Rebate for Wide 

Tires, The State of 319 

Better Roads Commission Favors 
Local Option on Road Building 

Material 227 

Governor of. Appoints Board to 

Investigate Road Matters 114 

Highway laws 83 

Road Plans Must be Approved by 

State Highway Commission.... 275 
State College to Have Post-Grad- 

uate Highway Course 275, 321 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

J 

Jeffreys, W. Rees, notes by, on Brit- 
ish road work 187 

Justifiable Outlay for Specific Cases 
of Highway Improvement, The De- 
termination of. By Clifford Rich- 
ardson 196 



INDEX TO GOOD ROADS. 



February 5, 1916 



~=^90* RMda Dayif "• JOJ 

UUrli»«y Laws »' 

PfopoMd Cy>nstructlon of a Croas- 

Stat* Hlchwar In >«« 

State bisbway offlclala '• 

Stattatlca on road work J 

KaU]r-8|>Hnsflel<l Road Roller Co •III 

K»at«eky: . „ ,j 

Coantiea Award Road and UridK* ... 

Contracla. Sixty-One ITJ 

Blcti way L*w» v i.- • V 

Jefferson County. The I s« of Rock _ 

As|>halt In »»' 

Louisville. Durax Pavlnit In 'IM 

Stale hichway ofltclals >> 

Stallstira on road woHc . . ^ 



Labor, cost of. In United States ritles 21 

Lamsoa. Jobn S.. Jr., Death <<f 31- 

Laws: 

ClHU>K«« Made by the Alabama 

Leirlslsture In the State Road.. S2( 
For HiBhway Work. The Essen- 
tials of rroper: 

By A. N. Johnson 1»3 

By Col. E. A. Stevens 191 

HIcbway 6S. >3. lT9(Ed.) 

PonnarlTanla tractor law ez- 

plalnsd 1«7 

Vlriclnla. proposed chances In ... . 1 M 

Wisconsin, chanses In 1'* 

Leirlslsllon In New Jersey, Prospec- 
tive HlKhway ITS 

Letter to the Editor: The Topeka 
Paremenls In the Boroufch of 
Queens. New Tork City (W. B. 

Spencer) »!' 

Ume. Hydrated: 

In Concrete Road Construction. .'SOB 
The Use of. In Concrete Roads. 

By U N. Whltt-raft 1«0 

Location. Proper Road: Its Importance 

and Effects. By Wm. R. Roy JOO 

Lonr-llved pavements, examples of. . . *81 
Loul'Isna: 

HlKhway laws «S 

New Orleans to Pave S4 Miles of 

Str'-ets Next Tear 27« 

Proposed 15.000,000 bond Issue 113 

State hiRhway officials 17 

Statistics on road work o 



MacOonald. James H.: New Jersey 

civil service examination 61 

Machinery and Annllances. New: 

Asphalt niiitrlbutor 'lOS 

Asphalt Mlxlnir Plant. Portable.. 'SS 
Barrow for Concrete. Measurinc. .•22« 
Concrete Mixers. Low Chariclnc. .•271 
Culvert, Sectional Interlocking 

Concrete '220 

Ouard P'll. Reinforced Concrete.. '59 
I^vke Hand Level In Highway 

Work The '272 

Penetrometer, Electrically Con- 
trolled 'JIl 

Scarifier, Pressure Cylinder 'JIS 

Screenins Plant, Gravel •221 

Maine: 

Cumberland County, convict labor 

In «J 

HIrbwav laws »3 

State Hlrhwav Commission: 

Plons Hl«hwny Bvstem 229 

Plans Work for Next Tear... 322 

Stal* hichway officials 17 

Statistics on road work •'' 

Malrlennnce; 

M'terials and Methods. By A. W. 

Dean 206 

Of Pavements. By Jacob L. Bauer 309 

Patrol Svstem In Pennsylvania... 89 

Maloney. J E.. on Colorado road work 97 

MapDinic. Street. By Ix>uls L. Tribus 235 

Mary Is n't: 

ArHcultural Coltece. Course In 

Road BulldlnfT at the 325 

Baltimore: 

Naoped or Recut Ornnite Pav- 
Inc e* ITaed and Constructed 

In. By R. M Cooksey 2«7 

Pavtnir Commission Has 

Paved no Miles of Streets 237 
Pevlnr plans for next year.. 110 
Will Endeavor to Continue 

Pavlnr Work 2«0 

HIrhwey laws 31 

Route man of 132 

Slate hlKhway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Mass-x-husetts: 

Boatnn. I.«r(re Expenditures Ad- 

viaed for Street Work In S34 

Hlahwar laws 33 

p,,.. .,i..i,_-,y offlclala 17 

S' r-^ad work S 

■W ':..I.iyln«t Street Rall- 

•.!> ir.><l«s in an Old Oranite 
Block Parsroent on Main Street '140 

•moatratad. 



Page 
Medina block pavement at Cleveland. 

Ohio 'SI 

.MeetinKs: 

Notices of Comtns: 

Alabama Good Roads Assoi'lii- ■ 

tlon 111. 326 

American Association tor the 
AJviiiK-ement of Science, 
Section n (EnBlnecrlnK) . . 327 

American Road Huilders' .As- 
sociation: 

Business Meeting 1«3 

1916 Convention.. 239, 268, 
277. 281, 288, SIO, 312, 319 

American Society of Civil 
Engineers (Special Com- 
mittee on Materials tor 
Road Construction) 32S 

American Society of Munici- 
pal Improvements 177, 225 

Canadian and International 
Good Roads Congress 
(Third) 323 

Chicago Cement Show, Ninth 286 

Institute of Paving Brick ^ 
Manufacturers 174 

International Engineering 
Congress "1 

International Road Congress, 
First. 
229, 239. 268. 269, 277. 285, 312 

Jackson Highway Association 174 

Jefferson Highway Associa- 
tion l'< 

(Mass.) Worcester Chamber 
of Commerce (See "First 
International Road Con- 
gress" under this heading.) 

Montana Institute of Munici- 
pal Engineers 323 

National Conference on Con- 
crete Road BulldlnB 75, 218 

National Paving Bricli Manu- 
facturers' Association 225 

Northwestern Good Roads 
(Congress 165 

Pacific Highway Association. . 101 

Pan-American Road Congress, 
100, 107. 115, 117 (Ed.), '147, 169 

Southern Appalachian Good 
Roads Association 116, 2^5 

Good Roads Association.. 67 
League of Municipalities 236 
Reports of: 

Alabama Good Roads Associa- 
tion 236 

American Road Builders' As- 
sociation (Business Meet- 
ing) 217 

American Society of Municipal 

Improvements '230 

(England) County Councils 

Association ''" 

Illinois County Superinten- 
dents of Highways HI 

International Road Congress, 

First 324 

Jefferson HiRhway Association 286 

Kansas County Officials 328 

Kentucky Good Roads Asso- 
ciation 236 

Louisiana State Govd Roads 

Association '. 269 

Massachusetts: 

Hiarhway Association .... 170 
Worcester Chamber of 

(jommerce 324 

Montana Good Goads Concrress 165 
National Pavine Brick Manu- 
facturers' Association •232 

Nebraska Enflneerlner Society 328 
New Mexico Highway Offlclala 

Association 278 

New Tork County Highway 

Sunerlntendents 71 

North Carolina Good Roads 

AsROclation 67, 71 

Northwestern Road Congress, 

226, 231 

Ohio Countv En'rlneers 75 

Pan-American Road Congress, 

171, 181 
Pennavlvania: 

Good Ronds Association 
of Washlnirton County.. 75 

Welfare Conference 281 

State Hlorhway Officials' As- 
sociation 319 

Street Cleaning Officials Or- 
ganize 231 

Texas: 

Good Roads Association.. 107 
Oood Roads Congress.... 282 

H'-''Wov I^ca^ne of 278 

Vlrorlnla. Convention at Ab- 

Inirdon 75 

Washington State Good Roads 

Asiiorlatlon 269, 278 

Mpetlni'«..67 71. 75, 107. 111. 165, 170, 

2?6. 235. 269. 278 281, 286. 819. 824. 328 
Methods of constructing various pave- 
ments 21 



Michigan: Page 

Highway laws 83 

New Method of Levying Road 

Taxes 167 

State htfhwav officials 17 

Statistics on road worlt 5 

Universitv of, Short Course in 
Highway Engineering at the, 

Minnesota: 

Highway laws 83 

Minneapolis: Some Experiences In 
Creosoted Wood Blocl< Paving. 

By Ellis R. Dutton 266 

State luanway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Mississippi: 

HiK'iway laws 83 

Legislature to be Asked for State 

Hit'''-' nient 317 

State highway offlcials 17 

Statistics on mad work .") 

Missouri: 

Highway laws 83 

Kansas City. Pavements in 205 

St. Louis, Paving AggieKatinB $:i,- 

000,000 Contemplated in 110 

St. Louis Countv, Campaign for 

$3,000,000 Bond Issue in 279 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Montana: 

And Idaho Counties Building Co- 
operative Roads 281 

Highway laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

N 

National aid for roads for defense. 

(Ed.) 180 

Nebraska: 

Highway laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Nevada: 

Hiphway laws 83 

State hiehway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

New Hampshire: 

Highwav laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

New Jersey: 

Civil service examination for in- 
spectors 61, 77 (Ed.) 

Convicts Show Beneficial Effect of 

Road Work 308 

Hiehwav laws 83 

Prospective Highway Legislation 

in 175 

Resorts. System of Bridges Planned 

to Connect 239 

Roads. Reno't States $51,000,000 

Is Needed for 284 

State highway offlcials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Sussex County Plans Road Con- 
struction 281 

New Mexico: 

HlKhWP- laws S3 

State highway offclals 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

New York: 

Highwav laws 83 

St. Lawrence Countv Plans Two 
Years' Road Work 283 

tStpte Hi^V^'Wnv CoTr>Tr>f "(s'oper Duf- 

fey opposes consolidation of 

state departments 109 

State hir'hway offcials 17 

State Highways, Recommends 

Traffic Officer for 283 

.State roads inspected bv Canadian 

officials 114 

State to Use New Style of Auto- 

■ mobile Number Plate 237 

Statistics on road work 5 

New York City: 

Course of Lectures on High- 
way Work in 317 

Dnrax pavement laid at Grand 

Central Terminal 98 

Exhibition of Street Cleaning 
M^chinerv and A^^nliances. 

Second Annual 167. 223. •228 

Manhattan. Borouerh of: 

Operation of the Municipal 

Asphalt Plant of the... 298 
Sand cushion for granite 

blocks abandoned 6.1 

Prizes for plans to relieve 

traffic conerestion 62 

Queens, Bnroucrh of. The To- 
peka Pavements in the. 
(Letter to the Editor from 

W. B Snencer) 311 

Sn"w Removal In. By J. T. 

Fetherstnn 322 

Street cieanlnfi' officials con- 
siderating formation of as- 
sociation 223 

Traffic regulation bv block 
system tried 69, 233 



February 5, 1916 



Page 

North Carolina: 

Asheville Board o£ Trade favors 

convict labor '■'"' 

Counties: „ » •■ „f 

Active in the Construction of 

Roads ••■■ 1'''* 

BenefltinK by State Highway 

Commission ^^^ 

Highway laws " 

Road exhibit at state fair li 

State highway officials -ii 

Statistics on road work . a 

University of; Road School i^i- 

North Dakota: „„ 

Highway laws ■■•••• "■,'1 

State highway officials .••• ^i 

Statistics on road work » 

O 
( ifficials: „ - . 

Road, appointed in Tennessee 74 

State Highway, Directory of 17 

Ohio: , , , 

Additional contracts for road work 

awarded in 227 

Bids: „ 

Opened for Twelve State Road 

Contracts in 318 

Received on $800,000 of road 

work ■- • 109 

Cleveland, long-lived pavements 

in ■ • *1 

Contracts awarded for state road 

work ^?i ''3 

Counties, Future Road Expendi- 
tures in 275 

Finances. State Highway Commis- 
sioner Cowen discusses 74 

Highway laws 83 

Road program for 1915 Practically 

completed . .' 1*^3 

State Highway Commissioner Asks 

Bids for Road Work 283 

State Hichwav Department to let 

contracts for road work 105 

State highway officials 17 

State road contracts to be let.... 66 

Statistics on road work 5 

Toledo to Award Contracts for 

Twelve Paving Jobs 321 

<Hled concrete roads — California type. 

—By Austin B. Fletcher 'lis 

ed macadam pavement in Los An- 
geles County. California *289 

I iklahoma: 

Highwav laws 8^ 

State highway officials IJ 

Statistics on road wprk a 

Tulsa, Reinforced Concrete Bridge 

Over Arkansas River at 110 

I 'regon: 

Crater Lake Park roads to be hard 

surfaced ■ 109 

Hierhway Commission Apportions 

Funds for Next Tear 284 

Highway laws 83 

Multnomah County: 

Bridges and Viaducts on the 

Columbia River Highway . ..♦243 
More Highway Expenditures 

Planned in 279 

Protrress of Road Work in... 239 

Road improvement in '141 

Portland: interstate bridge 61 

State highway officials 17 

S^tatistics on road work 5 

Organization and System in Highway 
Work. By Austin B. Fletcher 197 

P 

Panama-Pacific International Exposi- 
tion, road and street exhibits at....*154 
Tanama. Road and Street Work in the 

City of. By H. W. Durham '144 

Pan-American Road Congress: 

And the Organziations Under the 
Auspices of Which It Will Be 

Held *147 

Papers at: 

Convict Labor for Highway 

Work. By G. P. Coleman... 208 
Du.«<t Suppression and Street 

Cleaning. By W. H. Connell 249 
Eauipment for Highway Work. 

Bv A. H. Blanchard 252 

Highwav Bridges and Struc- 
tures. By W. S. Gearhart.. 254 
HiE-hway Indebtedness: Its 
Limitation and Regulation. 

Bv N. P. Lewis 194 

Maintenance: Materials and 

Methods. By A. W. Dean.. 206 
Ore^nnization and Svstem in 
Hiehwav Work. By A. B. 

Fletcher 197 

Prooer Road Location: Its Im- 
portance and Effects. By W. 

R. P.ov 200 

Resurfacirxr Old Roads. By 

W. D Uhlor 2in 

Rond Drainnere and Founda- 
tions. By G. W. Cooley. . . . 202 

•Ulustratea. 



INDEX TO GOOD ROADS. 



Page 
Pan-American Road Congress; Papers 
at (continued^: 

Roadway Surfacings. By F. 

P. Rogers 203 

Street Pavements. By Curtia 

Hill 205 

System in Highway Account- 
ing. By S. D. Gilbert 199 

The Benefits and Burdens of 

Better Roads. By S. E. Bradt 212 
The Determination of the Jus- 
tifiable Outlay for Specitic 
Cases of Highwav Improve- 
ment. By Clifford Richard- 
son 196 

The Eessentials of Proper 
Laws for Highwav Work: 

By A. N. Johnson 193 

Bv E. A. Stevens 191 

The History and Future of 
Highway Improvement. By 

L. W. Page 189 

Unlformitv for Highway Stat- 
istics and Data. By H. B. 

Breed 267 

"Proceedings" of the 217 

(See also "Pan-American Road 
Congress" under "Meetings.") 
Patents, Recent: 

•60, »104, •166, •222, ♦274, •316 

Pavement crowns, formula for 16 

Pavements: 

European and American, compari- 
son of 65 

Street. By Curtis Hill 205 

Paving Brick Manufacturers, Institute 

of 159 

Paving materials, costs of. In United 

States cities 21 

Paving methods followed in various 

United States cities 21 

Paving statistics of United States 

cities " 21 

Penetration Roads, The Comparative 

Value of. By Daniel T. Pierce •260 

Pennsylvania: 

Biles, Geo. H., appointed Second 
Deputy State Highway Commis- 
sioner *5o 

Contracts awarded for three state 

aid roads 106 

Erie, roads damaged by floods in 

vicinity of 109 

Erie County; construction of Buf- 
falo Road •79 

Highway laws 83 

Highwav Work, A Demonstration 
of Concrete Pavement Construc- 
tion in •SOO 

Patrol system of maintenance.... 69 
Philadelphia: 

Allotment of Proposed Loans 

for Paving in 319 

Dust Suppression and Street 

Cleaning. By W. H. Connell 249 
Planning Boards in Bureau of 
Highways and Street Clean- 
ing. By W. H. Connell 168 

Standard plans for streets.. 105 
Street improvements planned 

in 113 

Pittsburgh: 

Extensive Improvements Plan- 
ned in 297 

Street improvement funds 

voted 177 

Purchase of turnpikes 70 

Scranton; Operation of the Mu- 
nicipal Asphalt Repair Plant.. 216 

State College; Road School 321 

State funds for counties 63 

State Highwav Department: 

Explains Tractor Law 167 

Makes Important Changes.... 326 

State highway officials 17 

State Highways to be Inspected 

by the Governor 171 

Statistics on road work 5 

Toll Roads, Highway Commis- 
sioner Speaks on 110 

Personal Notes.. 57. 63. 68. 72, 75, 102, 
108, 111, 116. 170, 174, 177, 226. 
236. 269. 278. 282, 312 320. 323. 328 
Philippine Islands. Increased Road 

Construction in the 224 

Planning Boards in Philadelphia Bu- 
reau of Highways and Street Clean- 
ing. B" W. H. Connell 168 

Plans and Specifications, Uniform... 263 
Pronosals, Specifications and. (Ed..) 241 
Publications, New: 

Bulletin of the Pacific Highway 

Association 57 

Construction and Maintenance of 

Roads and Bridges 219 

Contract Form and General Speci- 
fications for Bridge Work. (Il- 
linois) 102 

Fi="al Res-t>'->tinn<! Illinois State 

Hisrhwav Department 102 

For a Better Form of Government 
for the City of Norfolk, Va 102 



Page 
Publications, New (continued): 

Highway Bridges and Culverts. 
liJ. K. Coghian) 67 

Illinois Specifications for State 
Aid Bridge Work 164 

Institution of Municipal and 
County Engineers (Great Brit- 
ain) 219 

Oil Mixed Cement Concrete...... 102 

Pennsvlvania State Highway De- 
partment, Bureau of Township 
Highways; "Road Laws and In- 
structions" 270 

Portland Cement Concrete Pave- 
ments for County Roads 164 

Rhode Island Highway News 270 

Road Models (U. S. Office of Pub- 
lic Roads) 67 

State Highway Mileage and Ex- 
penditures to January 1, 1915.. 312 

State Management of Public Roads 164 

The Pacific Coast Good Roads 312 

Tlirough New Mexico on the Ca- 
mino Real 164 

Trinidad and Bermudez Lake As- 
phalts and Their Use in High- 
way Construction (C. Richard- 
son) 57 

University of Michigan; Short 
Course in Highway Engineer- 
ing, Proceedings of 270 

Vitrified Brick Pavements for 
Country Roads 164 

Working Convicts on the Public 

Roads of Alabama 102 

Purdue University; Road school 321 

R 

Records: 

Cost, discussion of, by S. D. Gil- 
bert 199 

Uniformity for highway. (By H. 

E. Breed) 257 

Reports: 

Alabama, State Highway Commis- 
sion of. Fourth Annual Report. 102 
(Canada) Ontario Good Roads As- 
sociation 164 

Colorado: 

Boulder (City Clerk and De- 

nartments) 219 

Denver Department of Im- 
provements 164 

Delaware, Wilmington, Street and 

Sewer Department 270 

Dust Prevention and Road Preser- 
vation. Progress Reports of Ex- 
periments in 101 

Great Britain, Road Board of: 

Fifth Annual Report 219' 

Iowa State Highway Commission. 270 
Maine. Portland, Commissioner of 

Public Works 219 

Michigan: 

Bnerineering Society, Proceed- 
ings ("The Michigan Engi- 
neer") 270 

Wayne County Board of Coun- 
ty Road Commissioners. . . . 270 
New York: 

Conference of Mayors and 
Other Cltv Officials of the 

State of 164 

Municipal Engineers of the 

Cit" of, Proceedine-s, 1914.. 219 
State Commissioner of High- 
ways 219 

Ohio, Cincinnati, Department of 

Public Service 164 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Bu- 
reau of Highways 164 

Resurfacing Old Roads. By W. D. 

Uhler 210 

Rhode Island: 

Highway laws 83 

Results of State Inspection of 

Roads in .• 276 

Road Board Submits Estimate for 

1916 Work 318 

State hisrhway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Road Schools 317. 321 

Road Work, Review of, for 1914, and 

forecast nf. for 1915 5 

Rock Asnhalt in Jefferson County, 

Kentucky, The Use of 297 

Rolling of Plastic Pavements, The 

Proper. Bv Ed. Wright •248 

Rolling of road crusts, specifications 
for. By W. W. Crosby 172 

S 

Sand Cushion. Eliminating the, In 
Block Pavement Construction. (Ed.) 242 

Schulz & Hode.'!on; Sectional Inter- 
locking Concrete Culvprt ^220 

Smith Co.. T. L.; Low Charging Con- 
crete Mixers . ^271 

Snow Romnval in New York Citv. By 
J. T. Fetherston '....'. 322 

.''outh Carolina: 

Farmers, State Highway Commis- 
sion to be Urged by 106 



VI 



INDEX TO GOOD ROADS. 



February 5, 1916 



•witli OuvUb* (eoBtlBvad): 

Htsbwar UwB <S 

8taie hl(bwBv oWetals IT 

SiBUsltca OB roBd work i 

BMlh DBkou: 

Highway Uws M 

mat* hishway olBciala 1< 

atBUatIca on road work S 

^rMMeatlona: 

AM Propoaala. iBd.) t41 

Oo»er«U Favamaat: 

A. a u. 1 ..•• *" 

Loa ABV*l«a Countr, Califor- 
nia. 1«» 

Dtalnucrated Granite Koundatton: 

L«a Anfclca County. Calirornia, 189 
OU Macadam Pavement; Los An- 

(•lea Countr. California tit 

Read Oil: Los Anseles County, 

California • J»» 

Uniform Plana and 1*S 

Statistics: 

And Data. Uniformity for Hish- 
way. By H. B. Breed KT 

Pavinc work In cities of the 

United States 11 

Road work In various states 6 

Btarila" Wbsslbarrow Co.; Concrete 

MaaaurlBC Barrow *M0 

Mob* block ^vement. standard prac- 
tice In eonslrurtlon. (Ed.) 78 

Stone block pavlnr: 

Methods of construction and costs 

In cities of United States 21 

Street ClesnInK: 

Dtist Suppression and. By W. H. 

ConnelT U9 

Machinery and Appliances, Second 
Annual Exhibition of. In New 

Tork City »IS, •JI8 

Streot Mapping. By Louis U Tribus. . 235 
Street Plans; provision for through 

routes. (Ed.) 118 

Studying hiKhway work, an unusual 

opportunity for. (Ed.) 118 

SarfaclnKS, Roadway. By F. P. Rogers 208 

T 

Experiments with Convict Labor 

on Road Work 180 

Hamilton County. Road Work In.. 110 
Hishway Department: 

Starts Good Roads Movement. 168 
Will Aid In Sales of County 

Bonds 183 

Hishway laws 88 

Knox County Makes Plans for 

Road Work 327 

Nashville. Pavlns In, Under Spe- 
cial Tax Law 275 

State highway officials 17, 74 

Statistics on rosd work 6 

University of; Road School 321 

Terma, Road Bulldlns- (Ed.) 288 

Testlns at the University of Texas, 

Road Material •238 

Texas: 

And Arkansas Commercial Bodies 

PIsn Houston-St. Louis Road... 326 
County units In, belne; organized 
In campaign for sood roads... 105 

Highway laws 83 

San Antonio, pavement completed 

In Ill 

State hiahwav olTlclaU IT 

Statistics on road work 5 

University of. Road Material Test- 
ing St the •238 

ToDcka Pavements In the Borough of 
Queens. New Tork City, The. (Let- 
ter to the Editor from W. B. Spen- 
cer) 311 

Trsck work In Worcester, Mass., In 
old granite block pavement •140 

•Illuatratad. 



Page 
Trade, News of the: 

American Clay Machinery Co 328 

American Rolling Mill Co 177, 315 

American Steel Dredge Co 226 

Appiantte Pavement Co 76 

Austin Bros 272 

Austin-Western Road Machinery 

Co 116 

Baldwin Locomotive Works 177 

Ball Engine Co 102, 273, 328 

Barber Asphalt Paving Co 64, 315 

Barr Clay Co 174 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co 226 

Berger Mfg. Co 272 

Blaw Steel Construction Co... 165, 316 

Bucyrus Co., The 236 

Carey Co.. Philip 174 

Case Threshing Machine Co., J. I. 64 
Cement Products Exhibition Co.. 236 

Concrete Form Co.. Inc 226 

Detroit Trailer Co., Inc 170 

Dunn Wire-Cut-Lug Brick Co 178 

du Pont de Nemours Powder Co., 

E 1 68, 165 

du Pont de Nemours & Co.. E. I.. 226 

Engineering Construction Co 102 

Gallon Iron Works Co 278 

Garford Motor Truck Co 102 

General Electric Co. of Schenec- 
tady, New York 240 

Good Roads Construction Co 116 

Good Roads Machinery Co., Inc.. 170 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co 273 

Gramm-Bernsteln Co 328 

Hassam Paving Co 240, '271 

Hunt & Co., Robert W 221 

HuntlnRton-Chesapeake Bridge Co. 272 
Illinois Gravel & Material Co. . . 6S 

International Harvester Co 102 

Interstate Wood Fibre Asphalt Co. 174 

Jamison. H. V 165 

Knox Motors Co 'SIS 

Koehrine Machine Co 68, 116 

Luten Bridge Patents: 

Decision on the, Handed Down 

in Colorado 315 

Postponed, Investigration of.. 315 

Marlon Steam Shovel Co 64 

Martin. C. H 116 

Mixers, Ratine Batch Concrete... 221 
National Lime Manufacturers' As- 
sociation (Hydrated Lime Bu- 
reau) 282 

National Pavlnc Co 328 

National Slae Co 64 

Orensteln-Arthur Koppel Co 72 

Phoenix Paving Co 64 

Ragan, Inc., L. E 68 

Rocmac Road Corporation of 

America 67 

Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Co.. 273 

Schulz & Hodprson 57 

Smith Co.. T. L 240 

Standard Oil Co. of Indiana. .272, •314 

Standard Paving Co 236 

Stanollnd Paving Asphalt, Con- 
struction of an Asphalt Macadam 

Road with '314 

Stockland Road Machinery Co... 170 

Studebaker 76 

Sullivan Machinery Co 278 

Tamante Corporation Ill 

Tiffin Wagon Co 57 

Tractor and Trailer Test at Cin- 
cinnati. Ohio, A '313 

Troy Waeon Works Co.. 177, 282, 328 

Trussed Concrete Steel Co 177 

Tucker Brick Co 112 

United States Asphalt ReflnlnE; Co. 165 
United States Motor Truck Co... 64 
United States Steel Products Co.. 273 

Vlbrollthlc Construction Co 76 

Warren Bros. Co 828 

Waterloo Cement Machlnerv Co... 76 



Page 
Trade, News of the (continued): 

Wav-Cleanse Co 112 

Willlte Road Construction Co 108 

Youngstown Car & Mtsr. Co 282 

Zelnicker Supply Co., Walter A.. 108 
Traffic: 

Making the Roads Safe for Pres- 
ent, (Ed.) 287 

Officer recommended for New York 

State Highways 283 

Prizes awarded for plans to relieve 62 
Regulation in New York City by 

block system 69, 233 

Traffic Census and Its Bearing on the 
Selection of Pavements, The. By W. 
W. Crosby 265 

U 

Uniform Asphalt Distributor Co 'US 

United States, Highway Work In the. 

(Ed.) 1 

Utah: 

Highway laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 



V 

Vermont: 

Highway laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Virginia: 

Cities and Towns May Aid In High- 
way Construction 325 

Highway laws 83, 114 

State hlghwav officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 



W 

Warrenlte pavement in Multnomah 

County, Oregon •141 

Washington: 

Highway laws 83 

King County, Brick Paving In... •S 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Vancouver; Interstate bridge 61 

West Virginia: 

Highway laws 83 

School of Good Roads, Third An- 
nual Session of 317, 321 

State highway ofBcials 17 

Statistics on road work 6 

White Co., David. (The Locke Hand 

Level in Highway Work) ^272 

Wide Tires. The State of Iowa Allows 

Road Tax Rebate for 319 

Williams, A. D., discusses uniform 

Dlans and specifications 263 

Wisconsin: 

Counties Planning Extensive Road 

Work, Several 318 

HlE-hway Commission; Road School 321 

Hlghwav laws 83, 176 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 

Wood block pavement, standard prac- 
tice In construction. (Ed.) 78 

Wood Block Paving: 

Creosotefl, Some Experiences In. 

Bv Ellis R. Dutton 266 

In the United Kingdom, The Use of 234 
Methods and costs of, in cities of 

the U. S 21 

Wyoming: 

Hlghwav laws 83 

State highway officials 17 

Statistics on road work 5 



INDEX TO AUTHORS. 



B Pasa 

Baaar, Jacob L tOf 

Blalr. Will P 1(4 

Blanchard. A. H IBl 

Bradt. B. B. lit 

Br*<>d, H. B 157 

C 

Cotoman, O. P 208 

ConBcll. Wm. H 1(8, 24* 

Cookaay. R. M 1(7 

Co«Ur, Oao. W 201 

CrMbr. W. W 171, 2(5 

D 

DM*. A. W 206 

Dorfcan. H. W ^144 

Dvtton, Ellla R 26( 

r 

ratkaratOB J. T 222 

rtatebar, Austin B •lis, l}7 

•Illnatratad. 



Q Page R Page 

Oearhart, W, S 254 Richardson, Clifford 196 

Gilbert, S. D 199 Roy, William R 200 

B S 

Spencer, W, B. (Letter to the Editor) 311 



Hill, Curtis 



205 



Stevens, E. A 



191 



Johnson, A. N 193 T 

Jordan, W. H •127 Tlllson, George W 181 

^ Tribus, Louis L 235 



Lewis, Nelson P. 



194 



Uhler, Wm. D. 



Page, Logan Waller 189 

Pierce, Daniel T •260 Whltcraft, L. N. 

Pollock, C. D 264 Wright, Edward 



U 

W 



210 



160 
248 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Contracting 



OldSerlei. Vol. XLVin. 
New Sariet, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, JULY 3, 1915 



Nambi t 
1 



Founded January, 1892. 

published weekly by 
The E.L. Powers Company 



8. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, S^. 



150 NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address: Gudrodes, New York. 



Subacription price: Fifty-two numbers, $2.00 a year in the United StatM, 
Maxico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.60 elsewhere. Twelra 
ammbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 aycar in the United Statei, Maxieo, 
Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New YorV office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to advertlwrt 
ahould reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the first issue of tba 
month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other issues, by noon on 
Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted— including 
•'Proposal, ""For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertisements — will ba 
accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 



Copyright 1918 by the B. L. Power* Co. 

Entered In .N'ew York Post Offlce as Second Class Mattri 



CONTENTS 

EDITORIAL: 

Highway Work in the United States 1 

LEADING ARTICLES: 

Brick Paving in King- County, Washington. (Illus- 
trated) 3 

Review of Road Work Done in the Several States in 
1914 and that Proposed for the Current Year 5 

Directory of State Highway Officials 17 

Statistics on Paving In Cities of the United States.... 21 
MISCELLANEOUS : 

Georgia Legislature to Receive Bill Creating a State 
Highway Commission 2 

Fresno County, California, Planning for a Large Issue 
of Road Bonds , 2 

Formula for the Crown of Pavements 16 

The Government Good Roads Exhibit at the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition 16 

Highway Laws 65 

George H. Biles, Second Deputy State Highway Com- 
missioner of Pennsylvania. (Illustrated) 55 

A. R. B. A. PAGE 56 

COMING MEETINGS 57 

NEW PUBLICATIONS 67 

PERSONAL NOTES 57 

NEWS OF THE TRADE 57 

NEW MACHINERY AND APPLIANCES 58 

Portable Asphalt Mixing Plant. (Illustrated.) 
Reinforced Concrete Guard Rail. (Illustrated.) 

RECENT PATENTS 60 



HIGHWAY WORK IN THE UNITED STATES 

By far the larger portion of this issue of "Good Roads" 
is given to the presentation of data on road and street 
work in the United States, the statistics presented form- 
ing the most thorough and comprehensive review and 
forecast of road and street work ever printed in a single 
issue of this or any other publication. We believe that 
this information will prove of very great value to officials, 
engineers and contractors and of considerable interest to 
others interested in highway matters. 

The preparation of the two statistical articles has in- 
volved the mailing of over five thousand requests for data. 
While every effort has been made to secure the greatest pos- 
sible accuracy, the mass of data which it has been necessary 
to collect from blanks which have been returned to us, from 
official reports and from informal reports made by highway 
officials, has precluded the very careful checking of figures 
that is accorded to such matters in connection with the pre- 
paration of ordinary articles. Instead, the figures in most 
cases have been printed as given by the officials supplying 
the information and it is probable that such discrepancies as 
may appear are of minor importance. 

.\lthough, as noted elsewhere, the digests of state laws 
governing highway work are not included in this issue, it is 
proper to note here some of the salient features of the legis- 
lation of the past year, as the legislatures of nearly 90 per 
cent, of the states have met since the first of January. In 
some states changes have been made in the basic laws and 
in others new legislation is pending as we go to press. 

Few radical changes have been made in state road laws 
since digests were printed in 1914. Florida, Indiana, North 
Carolina and Tennessee have taken their initial steps toward 
centralizing the administration of highway affairs and, in 
some other states, where the state aid principle had already 
been adopted, laws providing for the state's more extensive 
participation in road work have been written into the 
statutes. In a few cases attempts have been made to pro- 
cure the enactment of measures that would mean a retro- 
gression, but such activity has usually been due to the in- 
jection of partisan politics into the question and, happily, 
have met defeat. In general, such new laws as have been 
passed have marked forward steps in the spread of the state 
aid idea, and at this writing, state aid in some form is ex- 
tended to the local units in almost all of the states in the 
Union. 

A year ago it seemed not unlikely that within a year, there 
would be enacted some federal law providing for the na- 
tional government's participation in road work. Such action, 
though we believe not regarded favorably by the majority 
of those best informed, has seemed inevitable for some time. 
The rise of questions of the gravest character during the 
past year, however, prevented action by Congress, and at 
present, legislation in the immediate future does not seem 
likely. We feel that this is fortunate, for it is certain that 
to date there has been proposed no plan for federal aid that 
is sufficiently well considered to be practicable and equitable. 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



irral aid is so strongly indorsed in some quarters 

^cly to be put into operation at some time, the for- 

muialioa of a workable method of application is something 

to which road builders are in duty bound to give a part of 

tbeir attention. 

While the data presented in the review comprise the 
haMs for estimating the total amount of road work and 
city »tre«t work done during the year of 1914, the efforts 
of the editorial department have been devoted solely to the 
collection and compilation of the statistics and no attempt 
hac as jret been made to summarize the figures. In the 
issue of Dec 5. 1914, in which a progress report on road 
work was printed, it was stated that estimates placing the 
aoMNnit spent for the construction and maintenance of roads 
and parements at between three and four hundred million 
dollars annually were conservative and that it was apparent 
that road building work, in general, would sufTer no de- 
crease in 1915. From somewhat close observation of the data 
printed in this issue it would seem that the statement made 
in December would apply equally well now. While less 
moaey may be spent in some states this year than was 
spent last year — as in Connecticut where the legislature ap- 
propriated no money for new work during the coming 
bienninm— we believe that these apparent backward move- 
ments are due to local causes and are not indicative of any 
iceneral falling off in volume of work to be done, and that 
they will be more than offset by increased expenditures in 
other sections. 

Few changes in methods of construction and maintenance 
have been made during the past year. Considerable pro- 
gress has already been made in standardizing methods of 
building the usual types of roadways and pavements and the 
general trend is toward the further standardization of 
methods. Much of the credit for this is due to the several 
organizations of manufacturers of paving materials, to whose 
ranks has been added during the past year an association 
of the makers of stone paving blocks. These organizations, 
though having for their prime object the selling of material, 
have devoted much time and money to the study of methods 
of using their products and have been largely instrumental 
in the formulation and adoption of standard specifications. 
No small part of their success has been due to the fact that 
most of them have recognized the limitations of their own 
products and have not alienated the support of the engineer- 
ing profession by the advocacy of one particular kind of 
pavement for all roads. 

In connection with this last point it may be noted that 
there is a itrowing tendency to recognize the engineering 
principles governing the selection of pavements and that 
public opinion is more ready than formerly to leave engineer- 
ing questions to engineers. This is manifest in all branches, 
but is perhaps especially noticeable in its effects upon high- 
way enigneers whose work, more than the work in some 
other branches, the average layman is interested in and feels 
competent to pass judgment upon. 

.\mong other matters in which progress can be noted are 
the financing of highway work and the maintenance prob- 
lem. There is a steady advance in the understanding of bond 
issues and there is a realization of the folly of some methods 
of financing that have obtained in the past. There is also 
manifest a recognition of the gravity of the maintenance 
problem, of the fact that maintenance should begin with 
the completion of construction and continue until recon- 
«truction becomes necessary. 

In the educational field normal progress has been made. 
Sporadic cases of attempts to introduce highly specialized 
courses into undergraduate study in technical schools and 
engineering colleges have been noted, but as a rule this ex- 
pedient of more than doubtful value has failed of adoption. 
On the other hand there have been some extensions of the 
plan of post graduate specializ^tipn and the holding of so- 



called good roads schools has continued. These latter, under 
the auspices of educational institutions or state highway de- 
partments, have doubtless served to bring about a broader 
dissemination of the knowledge of the science and art of 
highway engineering. The "good roads days" that have 
been held so extensively should also be included in any dis- 
cussion of work in this field, for their greatest value lies 
in their efficiency in educating the public to an appreciation 
of the desirability of road improvement conducted along 
proper lines. 

.\niong the events of the past year which should not be 
omitted from any review of work of this kind, however 
brief, are the road conventions that have been held. The 
most important of these were the two national conventions 
held by the American Road Builders' Association and the 
American Highway Association, the first named at Chicago 
in December and the other at .Atlanta in November. During 
the year many others — which space does not permit us even 
to list — were held in various cities in the United States and 
Canada. This year the .'American Road Builders' Association 
is to join forces with the .\nierican Highway Association 
and other organizations in the holding of a convention at 
Oakland, Cal., which will be known as the Pan-American 
Road Congress. Although there is to be no road show in 
conjunction with this congress, it is expected to bring to- 
gether a larger number of people interested in road improve- 
ment than has any similar meeting ever held, and in many re- 
spects to surpass all previous efforts of either of th; organi- 
zations under whose auspices it is to be held. 



Georgia Legislature to Receive Bill Creating a 
State Highway Commission 

It is announced that Representative W. P. Andrews of 
Fulton County. Ga., will introduce a bill at the recently con- 
vened session of the Georgia Legislature, providing for the 
creation of a Public Highway Commission. 

-According to reports, the bill will also advocate the con- 
struction of a number of state roads, the utilization of the 
road funds obtained from motor vehicle license fees by the 
state instead of by the counties as at present, and a number 
of other sweeping changes, having for their object t' c im- 
provement of roads throughout the state. 

The bill is said to have the approval of the State Prison 
Commission which now takes some part in road building 
work. 



Fresno County, California, Planning for a 
Large Issue of Road Bonds 

.Advices from Fresno, Cal., state that it is proposed to 
construct a series of laterals to the trunk line of the Cal- 
ifornia State Highway which passes through the center of 
Fresno County, thereby connecting all county towns with 
the county seat. 

In order to carry on this work, a road bond issue of 
$3,000,000 is planned and an active campaign is being con- 
ducted by the Fresno Commercial Club. The matter of the 
bond issue will be submitted to a referendum vote, probably 
on October 26, at which time a special state election will 
be held. 

The Board of Supervisors of Fresno County recently ap- 
pointed a Board of County Highway Commissioners com- 
posed of George Waterman, President of the Fresno Com- 
mercial Club; H. E. Vogel, President of the Fresno Hard- 
ware Co., and Harry Winnes, President of the Reedley 
Chamber of Commerce. 



Approximately $1,000,000 Worth of BrldBen were destroyed 
durlnR the recent high water In the Kaw River Valley. 

K.T*", """'■" "' HiBhway., Philadelphia. Pa., will receive 
bids for approximately $635,000 worth of street and brldire 
work on July 13. 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



Brick Paving in King County, Washington 



During the past three years brick has been used exten- 
sively in paving work in King County, Washington, particu- 
larly on the Pacific Highway and the North Trunk Road. 
At present the county has 20.13 miles of brick road, which 
has been laid at a total cost of something over a half million 
dollars. 



Highway, 6.13 miles on the North Trunk Road and 3.3 miles 
on the Bothell Boulevard — a portion of the Pacific Highway 
between Seattle and Bothell. The contract for the 2.9-mile 
job amounted to $88,681; the contract for the North Trunk 
Road $151,280, and the Bothell Boulevard contract $84,918. 
The first was paved to a width of 20 ft. and the others 18 ft. 














GROUP OP THIRTEEN STUMPS, THE SMALLEST OF WHICH 
IS OVER ONE FOOT IN DIAMETER. ON THE RIGHT OF 
WAY OF A HIGHWAY IN KING COUNTY, WASHINGTON- 
SHOWING NATURE OP CLEARING WORK. 

The first contract was awarded on May 9, 1912, and was 
for the construction of 2.75 miles of road, built at a cost 
of $59,523.92. The pavement was laid on a 5-in. concrete 
foundation, with concrete curbs built with the foundation. 
No. 2 brick was used, and the pavement was provided with 
longitudinal expansion joints. 

The satisfaction which this road gave led to the adop- 
tion of brick for three jobs undertaken during the following 
year — 1913. These included 2.9 additional miles on the Pacific 




ANOTHER VIEW SHOWING THE CHARACTER OF CLEAR- 
ING AND GRUBBING ENCOUNTERED IN HIGHWAY WORK 
IN KING COUNTY, WASH. — VIEW ON THE RIGHT OP WAY 
OF THE CASCADE SCENIC HIGHWAY. 

During the following spring, there was completed another 
contract on the Pacific Highway which provided a pavement 
all of the way between Seattle and Tacoma. Traffic counts 
on this road have shown records as high as 5,000 vehicles a 
day, which is as heavy traffic as is carried on some of the 
busiest streets in the city of Seattle. According to Arthur 
P. Denton, Engineer of King County, the road has shown 
very little sign of wear. The Bothell Boulevard at certain 
seasons carries a traffic of about 3,000 vehicles a day. Mr. 




A PORTION OF THE BOTHELL BOULEVARD, KING CuUNTY, WASH.— PAVED IN 1913 WITH NO. 2 BRICK ON A 5-IN. 

CONCRETE FOUNDATION, 18 FT. WIDE. 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 




A mKTC "'I'T ox A ROAP IN K.\ . . .\ i ■! . \\ \>11 SHOW- 
IXO NATl'KK UK UKAPIXU. 

i>Tiit>>ii ivi>ui>9 thai ihe only repairs which have been made 
on this road have been due to the settling of the till in the 
subgradc. 

In 1914 a contract was awarded for 1.64 miles of brick 
pavmg on the Kirkland-Xorth Bend Road. This was paved 
to a width of 18 ft., the construction costing $42,978. The 
road carries a traftic sometimes as great as 1,200 vehicles a 
day, but to date has required no maintenance. .Another 
brick pavement, 1.4 miles in length and 20 ft. wide, is now 
under construction. The work will involve an expenditure 
of about 153,000, this cost including the tearing up of a con- 
siderable area of worn-out macadam and the construction of 
.7 mile of new grade. 

In addition to the brick pavements laid by the county 
with state aid. 1.000 ft. of experimental brick road was laid 



c-(i.\ i; i..\ THE CASC.VDE SCENIC HIGHWAY, 

KING COUNTY, WASH. 

in 1913 by the Denny-Renton Clay & Coal Co., partly at 
that company's expense. This road is a portion of the 
Pacific Highway, just outside the city limits of Seattle, It 
was laid in 1913 and to date has required no maintenance. 
According to Mr. Denton, the average cost of the brick 
pavements laid in King County has been about $27,900 per 
mile, but it is pointed out that the roads have been paved 
to an unusual width and that much of the work has been 
done in a country where heavy grading has been necessary. 
On curves greater than 5 per cent., the outside edge of the 
pavement has been raised and extra width provided on the 
inner side. It is stated that aside from the scenic advan- 
tages of the roads, they have attracted a large amount of 
heavy trucking — so much that the volume of freight hauled 
by the railroads has Ijcen apprecial)ly decreased. 



# 



^ 



UKMK lAVKMK.NT ON THE IIOTHELL BOULEVARI>-ROAD SHOWN IN LARGE ILLUSTRATION 



ON PAGE 3. 



lulv 3. 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



Review of Road Work Done in the Several States in 1914 and 
That Proposed for the Current Year 



In accordance with the custom of the past several years, 
"Good Roads" presents in this issue a review of the road 
work accomplished in the several states during the past year 
and a forecast of that to be accomplished before the end of 
the current year. 

As has been explained in previous reviews, no attempt has 
been made to achieve the practically impossible work of col- 
lecting statistics covering every new road built, every road 
repaired, and all the maintenance work in the various states. 
As heretofore, the effort has been to gather and print such 
information as is necessary for a comprehensive survey of 
the road building field, leaving the presentation of details 
of the work for the regular news columns. 

There are now state highway departments in the ma- 
jority of the states and in many of the others there are 
similar organizations from which most of the necessary in- 
formation can be secured. On the other hand, there are 
many states where the road work is performed entirely by 
the local authorities, and in these states, as a rule, no re- 
ports are made to a central authority. Where the latter con- 
dition prevails, requests for information have to be made to 
the road authorities of the local units, and it is not always 
possible to secure data. This difficulty is due to a variety 
of causes, one of which is, no doubt, the fact that in some 
cases no records are kept. It should be noted that the same 
difficulty in securing data from local units is almost always 
experienced by state authorities even in those states where 
the laws provide that such returns shall be made. 

Little departure has been made from the plan followed in 
previous year in the preparation of the present review. The 
information from states having state highway departments 
or similar official organizations has been received from the 
officials of those bodies and the information from states where 
the road work is entirely in the hands of the counties has been 
obtained by inquiries sent to the county officials. Every 
effort has been made to secure data covering the country as 
a whole and the figures have been checked as carefully as 
possible. One change in the manner of presenting the data 
collected has been made by the inclusion of the large tables 
showing the mileages of different types of road built in 1914 
and to be built in 1915. This information has been secured 
from all states in which available, and though not including 
every state in the Union, will serve as an index of the kinds 
of road built in a large proportion of the states. 

ALABAMA 

According to information received from the State Highway 
Department of Alabama, the total expenditure for roads and 
bridges in that state during the fiscal year from April 1, 
1914, to April 1, 1915, was upwards of $3,000,000. The fol- 
lowing table from the report furnished by the State High- 
way Department shows the details of this expendit^.e: 

.\mount of money given by the state on state aid 

roads $181,025.30 

Amount of expenditure by state and counties (state 

aid roads) 340,127.25 

.\mount spent on bridges by state and counties 

(state aid bridges) 11,897.06 

Amount spent on roads by counties (not state aid) . 2,150,670.16 
Amount spent on bridges by counties (not state 

aid) 514,877.49 

Relative to the expenditure for 19)5, .'Assistant State High- 
way Engineer R. P. Boyd writes as follows: 

"In regard to the expenditures for 1915, there is available 
from the state approximately $200,000. To secure this money 
the counties must contribute a like amount, making total 
available for state aid, approximately $400,000. There is no 
way for us to tell upon what class or mileage of road this 



money will be expended, as we receive applications from 
time to time during the year and the character of and expen- 
diture on each road is determined as it comes up. I am sure 
that the expenditure and mileage this year will be greater 
than last year." 

ALASKA 

The total fund available for road work in Alaska for the 
fiscal year 1914-15 was $25,3,367.03, of which $125,000 was ap- 
propriated by Congress and the balance was received from 
federal taxes collected in .\laska. These funds were ex- 
pended as follows: For construction (or extensive improve- 
ment), $37,290.89; for maintenance (including minor im- 
provements), $216,076.14. 

For the fiscal year 1915-16, there is available a congres- 
sional appropriation of $165,000, in addition to which the 
tax fund, according to estimates, will yield about $130,000, 
making a total of approximately $295,000 available. Ac- 
cording to present plans, $66,000 of this will be expended for 
construction (or extensive improvement) and $229,000 will 
be expended for maintenance (including minor improve- 
ments). 

The total mileage of roads in Alaska now maintained is 
3,663, which is divided as follows: Roads, 872 miles; sled 
roads, 582 miles; trails, 2,209 miles. 

ARIZONA 

The fiscal year in Arizona ends on June 30, and data are 
not available for either the calendar year of 1914 or the 
fiscal year of 1914-15. The last reports received from Ari- 
zona indicated a total expenditure during the two years 
ending June 30, 1914, of approximately $1,400,000, exclusive 
of bond issues. It is probable that this expenditure was 
somewhat larger and that the total for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1915, will be found to exceed $1,000,000. From the 
information available, it is likely that the expenditure during 
the next fiscal year will be not less than that during the 
fiscal year just ended. There is available besides the funds by 
the counties an annual state appropriation of $250,000. 

ARKANSAS 

.\ccording to such information as is available, it is probable 
that the total expenditure for road work in 1914 in Arkansas 
was about $4,000,000. It is estimated that there will be an 
increase of about $1,000,000 this year, which will make the total 
expenditure for 1915 approximately $5,000,000. 

CALIFORNIA 

The state's part of road work in California is performed with 
the proceeds of the $18,000,000 bond issue voted in 1910 and 
with funds from automobile registrations. At the beginning ot 
1914 about $15,500,000 of the $18,000,000 bond issue remained 
unexpended. The expenditure in 1914 by the state was between 
$1,000,000 and $1,500,000 from the bond issue, in addition to the 
expenditure for maintenance from the automobile registration 
fund. The latter fund amounts to about $350,000 annually. To 
date no report has been received of the amount expended by 
the state during 1914, but it is probable that it does not differ, 
very materially from that expended in 1913. 

The counties in California spend large amounts for road 
work, and in the first table on the next page are shown the 
expenditures in tho.se counties from which reports have been 
received. 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3. 1915 



COLORADO 

Acv^^iuiiii; to ihf report ul Slate Hi»ciivsa\ Loiiiinissioiier T. 
J. Ehrtart. for the period from April 7, 1913. to November 30, 
I9I4. the tot»k of appor- ~ of state money for 1913 and 

1914 were $S84J0O.OO ai. .25 respectively. In order to 

a\ail ibeinselves of this aiU. tlit counties appropriated $437,540 
U>t 1913 and $135,700 for 1914. making the total funds for 1913 
and 1914 $l.a.M.740 and $J57.845J5 respectively. On Nov. 30. 
1914, there remained unexpended $73,082.86 from the state fund 
and I47725J0 from the county fund. Many of the counties. 
however, expended more than the amounts appropriated to meet 
the state funds, with the result that the total expenditure for 
1913 and 1914 was $1,999,549.96. 

Suie funds for 1915 amount to about $105,000, which has 
been apportkwed to the counties. This sum will be met by 
coontjr funds amounting to about $100,000. In addition the 
counties w^ill have a\'ailable about $1,250,000, making the total 
aboat $1,455,000. 



The expenditures for administration during the eleven 
months amounted to $169,643.88. 

During the period from February 26, 1913, to October 1, 
1914. work was done by the department as shown in the fol- 
lowing table prepared by the Commission: 

Kind of Road . . ,, ^ 

Trunk Line Roads Stato Aid Roads 
Length in Miles Length in Miles 

> A. .^ 

Con- Recon- Con- Recon- 
structed structed structed structed 

Graded 21.11 14.79 14.46 1.89 

aravel 40.10 5.20 29.71 1.00 

Stone Surface 6.26 .... ■•■; 

Macadam 58.05 38.81 34.96 2.23 

Bituminous Macadam ... 22.14 .... 8.58 .... 

Bituminous Concrete .... 44.54 .... 188 .... 

Concrete 12.66 2.97 

Brick 29 

Total Mileage 205.15 68.80 92.56 6.12 

Total mileage of new construction on trunk line and 

state aid roads 297.71 

Total mileage of reconstructed roads on trunk line and 

state aid roads 63.92 





HIQBWAT WORK BY COUNTIES IN CALIFORNIA 

1914 Work 


f 


1915 \' 

Total amount 

available 

for roads 

and bridges. 

$'l'6,666 

25b!666 
i'2'o',666 

6'7'2.'»66 
30,000 

'i'3',666 

130,000 

5.000 

350,000 

' '('e')' ' 

'3 6, '000 






Total 


County 


Amo 


lunt Expen( 


ied T< 


jtal amount^ 
of bonds 

voted. 

None 

None 
None 

$270,000 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

1,125,000 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 


bonds voted 


Roads. 

$222,642 


Bridges. 

$18,000 

1,000 

i'2'o.o66 

77.053 
16,680 
20,000 
15,000 

' '5.666 
350.000 
10,000 
40.000 
1,000 
75,000 

'3'5',646 

'5'8',6i8 
7,000 


Total. 
$240,642(a) 

18,000 

20,000 
200,000 
178,916 

44,661 
130,000 

40,000 

69.344 

32.000 
l,850,000(d) 

23,000 

120,000 

5,000 

750,000 

l'5'4'.692 
252, 001(d) 
737,823 
300,000(d) 

'2'4',497(a) 
102.948 
32,500 


voted. 


Amador 

Ckinvtras 


17,000 


None 




80.000 


None 


Contra Coata 

r>«l Norte 


101. 86S 

28,981 

110.000 


$l'5'o',666(b) 
(c) 


Inyo ... 


26,000 




Kinn 

L*k« 

Los AncelM 

MftrlposA .....•••..•■ 


!;;!;!!!;!;!!!!!!;;] '2V.606 

1.600.000 

13,000 


672.500 
None 
None 
None 


Mendocino 

Mono 


80,000 

4,000 


None 
None 


Ormnse 

Pl«c«r 


675.000 


None 
None 
None 








San Mateo. . . 


702,777 










Shasta 






Sierra 






Tehama . ■ . 


44 930 


(f) 


Trinity 


25,600 




Vantura 




500,000 



(a) Amount of budget for the fiscal year from July 1, 1914. to June 30, 1915; (b) to be voted; (c) bonds may be voted this 
year: <d) for flscal year from July 1. 1914. to June 30, 1915; (e) most of the bond issue and some additional funds are avail- 
able for 1915 work: (f) bridge bonds to the amount of $200,000 may be voted this year. 



HIGHWAY WORK BY COUNTIES IN FLORIDA. 



Conntr. 



Raker 

Columbia . . 
Gadsden . . . 

Holmes 

Lafayette . . 

Lake 

Marlon 

Oranae 

Polk 

Putnam . . . 
Seminole . . . 
Voluula . . . . 
Washlnrton 





1914 


Work 






Total 






A 




Total amount 


amount of 












Expenditures 




Total amount 


available 


bonds voted 








of bonds 


for roads 


and to be 








Roads. 


BrMges. 


Total. 


voted. 


and bridKes. 




$5,500 


$2,500 


$8,000 


None 


$8,000 


$50,000 


10.600 


8,000 


18,600 


None 


260,000 


250,000 


15,000 


2,000 


17.000 


None 


30,000 


None 






40.000 




8,000 


None 


14,000 


4,006 


18,000 




13.000 








14,520 


500,000 


500,000 


None 


60,000 


2,000 


62,000 


None 


35,000 


None 


60,000 




60,000 


600.000 




None 


76,207 


3,821 


80,028 


None 


45,000 


None 


18,000 


7.000 


25.000 


None 


18.000 


150,000 






15,000 


None 


20,000 


None 






69,000 


None 


68,000 


(a) 


6.224 


3,000 


8,224 




4,811 





<s> Road bonds to the amount of tSOO.OOO to $600,000 to be voted upon. 



CONNECTICUT 
During the twelve months ending September 30, 1914, the 
total cash expenditure for work in which the state partici- 
pated was $3,259,487.54. There is considerable other work 
done in the state but it is done entirely by the towns, which 
make no returns to the State Highway Department or other 
central authority. Of the total for the twelve months ending 
Sepember 30, 1914, there was expended during the eleven 
months ending September 30, 1914, a total of $2,609,359 64. 
Thu. according to a report from the State Highway Com- 
mission, was divided as follows: 



Stai» Aid ... 
Trunk Uses 
Repairs 



.$»87,99a.6« 
. 741.601.93 
. 879,864.06 



No information is available relative to work for 1915. The 
Legislature of this year made no appropriations for construc- 
tion during the two-year period ending October 1, 1917. 

DELAWARE 

The total expenditures in the three counties of Delaware 
during 1914 and those probable in 1915, as reported by the 
authorities of the separate counties, are shown in the fol- 
lowing table: 

„„„„,., Expenditure Estimated Expen- 

„f<>""ty In 1914 dltureinl915 

5""'x--;, $30,000 $60,000 

New Castle 160.000' 171500 

8"«»ex 70,000 70,'000 

•For nine and one-half months. 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



FLORIDA 

In the second table on page 6 are presented the data 
obtained on work in those counties from which reports were 
received. 

GEORGIA 

There is no central authority having charge of road wurk in 
Georgia nor collecting data on work by the local units. Re- 
ports on the work from those counties from which reports 
have been received are shown in the table on this page. 



bond issue of 1913. About $75,000 of this amount was due 
as the state's share of construction work during the year 
1914, leaving a balance of $125,000 available, which with the 
amounts, to be contributed by counties on the basis of the 
state paying one-third of the total cost, made 1375,000 avail- 
able for expenditure during 1915. All of this will be required 
to complete work now proposed and under contract. Since 
the change in the highway law by the 1915 Legislature, only 
25 per cent, of the automobile license tax accrues to the 
state, and 10 per cent, is set aside to pay the interest on the 



County. 



Baker 

Bryan 

Bulloch . . . 

Burke 

Catoosa 
Charlton . . 
Chatham. . . 
Chattoog-a. . 
Cherokee . . 

Clarke 

Clayton . . . 

Cobb 

Colquitt . . . 
Coweta . . . . 

Dade 

Decatur . . . 

Echols 

Forsyth . . . 
Gordon . . . . 

Grady 

Greene .... 
Harris .... 

Henry 

Houston . . . 
Jackson . . . 
Jeff Davis . 
Jefferson . . 
Jenkins . . . 
Johnson . . . 
Liberty . . . 
Lumpkin . . 
Mcintosh . . 
Macon .... 
MeriTvether 
Morgan . . . . 
Muscogee . . 
Oconee . . . . 
Paulding . . 
Pierce .... 

Polk 

Richmond . 
Stewart . . . 
Thomas . . . 

Tift 

Towns .... 

Troup 

Walker . . . 
Warren . . . 
Whitfield . . 
Worth 



HIGHWAy WORK BY COUNTIES IN GEORGIA. 

1914 Work 



Expenditures 



Roads. 

$12,000 



Bridges. 
$2,000 



30,000 

27,000 

6,500 

'5 3, sob 

6,000 
32,117 
28,928 

'54', 65 5 

'45,666 
3,463 



6,000 
3,000 



2,500 
2,000 
3,587 
2.628 

isioss 
'i'5',666 

2,000 



2,000 


6,000 


14,000 


10,000 


25,000 


5,000 


10,000 


10,000 


24,000 


3,000 


19,475 


16,089 


9,000 


6,000 


12,000 


3,000 


4,000 


1,000 


21,000 


5,000 



3,604 



4,984 
20,000 
29,750 

'67,666 
8,000 
12,500 
14,645 
32,000 
58,000 
17,000 
40,000 
18,000 

'25,666 



17,000 
30,000 



1,292 



2,000 

10,000 

5,250 



4,000 
3,000 
1,226 
6,000 
7,000 
3,000 

20,000 

6,000 

100 

10,000 



8,000 
15,000 



Total. 
$14,000 

7,000 
36,000 
30,000 

6,500 

8,000 
56,000 

8,000 
35,704 
31,556 



69,748 

46,033 

60,000 

5,463 

50,000 



Total amount 
of bonds 
voted. 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 



8,000 
24,000 
30,000 
20,000 
27,000 
35,564 
15,000 
15,000 

5,000 
26,000 

(b) 

4,896 
13,275 

6,000 

6,984 
30,000 
35,000 
20,000 

'l'2',666 
15,500 
15,871 
38,000 
65,000 
20,000 
60,000 
24,000 
100 
35,000 
14,000 

'25,066 
45,000 



None 
None 
60,000 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 

None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 



1915 Work . 

Total 
Total amount amount of 
available bonds voted 

for roads and to be 
and bridges. voted. 

None 

$6,000 None 

30,000 None 

30,000 None 

8,500 None 

4,000 None 

23,500 225,000 

8,000 (a) 

36,000 None 

None 

None 

70.000 

None 

60,000 None 

None 

50,000 None 

None 

None 

24,000 None 

30,000 None 

20,000 60,000 

20,000 None 

32,551 None 

None 

1,600 None 

6,000 None 

28,000 None 

None 

5,000 None 

None 

6,000. None 

7,000 None 

25,000 None 

40,000 None 

25,000 None 

70,000 None 

10,000 None 

16,700 None 

'46,666 Noiie ' 

65,000 None 

20,000 None 

65,000 

25,000 None 

100 None 

35,000 None 

15,000 75,000 

Nothing None 

17,000 None 

35,000 None 



(a) Road bonds may be voted this year; (b) work done by day labor; figures not given. 



IDAHO 

As was noted in the review printed in December of last 
year, the State Highway Commission of Idaho was engaged 
during 1914 in organizing and in laying out a proposed sys- 
tem of state highways, which includes about 1,400 miles of 
the 8,000 miles of main traveled roads in the state. Most of 
the state system was surveyed during the year and con- 
tracts awarded for upwards of 360 miles. The majority of 
this was under construction in December of last year. The 
amount involved in the work was reported in December as 
approximately $280,000, of which $98,000 was for bridge 
work, $40,000 for the construction of gravel roads and the 
remainder for the building of earth roads. The counties of 
the state expended about $1,000,000 in 1913, according to 
State Highway Engineer E. S. Smith, and about $750,000 
in 1914. The total amount expended by the counties and 
the State Highway Department during 1914, according to 
Mr. Smith, was a little over $1,000,000. 

In regard to future work. State Highway Engineer Sm'th 
reports as follows: 

"At the beginning of the present year there was available 
$200,000, being the proceeds of the sale of the state highway 



state highway bond issue, leaving but 15 per cent, of the total 
license tax collected as the fund for operating expenses of 
this department." 

ILLINOIS 

The following from the review printed in December of last 
year comprises the available information regarding tHe work 
of 1914: 

The 1913 General Assembly ot Illinois, which passed a new 
road l^iw and established state aid, made an initial appropria- 
tion of $1,100,000 for the biennial period from July 1, 1913, to 
July 1, 1915. This was for state aid work, for which the coun- 
ties are obliged to contribute an equal amount, making the total 
amount available for state aid work $2,200,000. Of the state's 
■ appropriation, $400,000 was made available July 1, 1913, and 
$700,000 on July 1, 1914. It was Impossible to use any part of 
the $400,000 appropriation until late in June of this year, when 
the road law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme 
Court of the state. Since July 1, 1913, contracts have been 
awarded for over 90 miles of concrete and brick road, at an 
average cost of $12,000 per mile. 

In addition to the appropriation for state aid work, $100,000 
was appropriated for the administration of the State Highway 
Department. 

The amount expended by the townships during 1914 I3 esti- 
mated at not less than $7,000,000. 



8 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



In reference to the future work of the Highway Department, 
Chief State Highway Engineer \V. W". Marr reported early last 
month as foOowt: 

"Replying to your letter of May 13, we wish to say that by 
July I "**• w« will have entered into contract for the con- 
M iuc ti on of state aid road work to the extent of about $2,000,000, 
to enrer a period from July 1, 1914. The Legislature has not 
yet adjonmed. but we feel practically assured that there will 
be a p p r opri a ted for state aid road work, under the supervision 
of tWs department. $2,750,000, which, with an equal amount 
furnished by the counties, provides $5,500,000, for the bienniuni 
beginning July 1, 1915. 

"We can not furnish you with any additional information as 
to the probable mileage or type of roads that will be built, 
except to say that in all proliability the major portion of them 
will be of Portland cement concrete, though vitrified brick will 
be adopted by many of the counties." 

INDIANA 
Data on the expenditures during 1914, the amounts available 
for 1915 and on bonds voted and to be voted in various coun- 
ties in Indiana are shown in the table printed below. This 
table includes the reports on work in all of the counties from 
which advices have been received. 



It is stated that as closely as can be estimated the funds 
available in 1915 will be approximately the same as those in 
1914, this estimate being made by the State Highway Com- 
mission. 

KANSAS 

The State Highway Department of Kansas has available 
about $11,000 annually, this amount including funds for road, 
bridge, drainage and irrigation work. The township and 
county funds for road and bridge work for the year ending 
October 1, 1914, amounted to $5,250,000, and State Engineer 
Gearhart estimates that the amount for the year ending Oc- 
tober 1, 1915, will be about $250,000 more, making a total for 
the current year of approximately $5,500,000. 

.\bout 10 per cent, of the 108,500 miles of highways in the 
state has been classified as county roads and is being im- 
proved and maintained at the expense of the counties, the 
work being under the direction of county commissioners and 
county engineers. 

KENTUCKY 

.According to the last report received from the Department 
of Public Roads, the total expenditure by the counties of Ken- 
tucky during 1914 was about $2,000,000. No money was ex- 



Conntr. 



Benton 

Brown 

CUy 

rtavleu 

Dearborn . . . 

DcKalb 

Dulmis 

Fountain 

Grant 

Henry 

Jackson 

Jaaper 

J«y 

JeSeraon 

Jennlnc* ... 

Knox 

Kosciusko . . 

Martin 

Morgan 

Ohio 

Owen 

Porter 

Posey 

Putnam 

Saint Joseph 

Shelby 

Union 

VanderburK • 
Vermilion . . . 

Vigo 

Wabash 

Warrick 

Washington . 



HIGHWAY WORK BY COUNTIES IN INDIANA. 

1914 Work 



-1915 Work- 



Ex penditures 



Roads. 

$65,000 

1,500 

81.253 

155,695 



27,800 

s'bV.oIt 

15.833 
29,788 
97,867 



84,870 

10,305 

230,000 



5.096 
17,326 

'5'8',233 
42,402 
68,872 

170.056 

83,331 

89,638 

7,991 

201,935 
72,000 

168,530 



56.984 
48.000 



BrldKes. 

$5,000 
500 



16,991 



29,532 
36,826 
22,283 
20,240 
27,374 
27,210 
7,467 
20,000 

' '8.336 
2,785 

' 2Mi 
24,175 
19.902 
12,006 
104.836 
32.271 
2,676 
18,188 
15,000 
18,028 



30,368 
47,000 



Total. 

$70,000 

2,000 

81,353 

172,586 

106,382 

1.500 



Total amoun 
I of bonds 
voted. 
$86,000 
None 
57,600 
None 



392,649 
52,659 
52.071 

118,107 
27.374 

112,080 
17,772 

250,000 
13,586 
13,432 
20,111 
11,988 
60,847 
66,577 
78,774 

182,062 

188,166 

121,909 
10,667 

220,123 
87,000 

186,558 



87,352 
95,000 



Total 

Total amount amount of 
available bonds voted 



None 
None 

2i5,'l2'l 

None 

413,342 
91,750 

None 

Nona 

None 

None 
24,500 
10,041 
48,440 
8,400 
24,965 



20,000 
None 



Nono 
None 
167,490 
72,000 
137,667 



58,000 



for roads 

and bridges. 

$120,000 

12,300 

107,793 

9,000 

97,749 

8,000 

27,000 

36,000 



77,892 
100.000 



20,000 
16,310 



6,000 
22,700 

7,807 

20,000 

86,000 

40,000 

177,356 



26,000 

' (eV ■ 
46,000 

'60,666 
37,200 
80,000 



and to be 

voted. 

$200,000 

12,300 

64,600 

9,000 



(a) 


32,000 


35,000 


L73,n00 



20,000 (b) 

76,000 
None 

None 
None 
33,000 (c) 



None 
59.400 

(d) 
30,000 
None 

None 

None 

31,000 

(e) 

44,'7'o'o' (f) 

(PT) 
37.200 



(a) Road tmnds will be voted upon; (b) issued to date; more expected; (c) sold this year; (d) will vote on road bonds 
this raar; (e) bond issue expected this year, amount available depends upon the amount of this Issue: (f) vote on additional 
laaoc expected this year; (ts) expected that bonds will be voted this year. 



IOWA 

The total expenditure on Iowa roads during 1914 was 
approximately $11,601,000, according to a recent report from 
the State Highway Commission. This total was divided as 
follows: County road work, $3,403,000; township road work, 
•3.171.000; bridges and culverts, $5,027,000. 

The 13,403.000 expended for county road work was divided 

as follows: 

Permanent icradlnK $762,000 

Repair work 633,000 

Road machinery 160,000 

Tractor work ,-... 101,000 

RnrfacInK , 97,000 

Draaglna 280.000 

tTnclasslfled icradinK 66,000 

Road material on hand 22,000 

Unreported and unclassided expenditures.... 1,292.000 

The expenditure for bridge work included $3,100,000 for 
completed bridges and culverts and 11,160,000 for repair work, 
the remainder being for various other items. 



pended directly under the supervision . of the Department of 
Public Roads during that year except one piece of work in 
Lewis County, which was paid for by the state and county 
jointly. 

During the present year the Department of Public Roads will 
probably expend al)out $600,000 of state money, to which will 
be added an equal amount appropriated by the counties, making 
a total of $1,200,000 to be expended under the supervision of 
the department. In addition to this there will be expended 
whatever money is appropriated by the counties for work in- 
dependent of the state. 

LOUISIANA 

During 1914 the Highway Department extended state aid 
to ten parishes for the construction of twelve highway pro- 
jects, having a total length of about 135 miles. The esti- 
mated cost of these roads was approximately $400,000. Of 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



this the state contributed $100,000 and the parishes the re- 
mainder. 

In addition to the expenditure for work under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Highway Department, a very large amount of 
work was done by parish and municipal authorities. Accord- 
ing to recent advices from the Highway Department, the total 
expenditures for 1914 were as follows: 

Parish Expenditures $3,000,000 

Municipal Expenditures 2,000,000 

Contracts let by Highway Department 400,000 

Total $5,400,000 

In regard to 1915 work, it is estimated that the expendi- 
tures will be about as follows: 

Parish Expenditures $3,000,000 

Municipal Expenditures 3,000,000 

Expenditures by Highway Department 600,000 

Total $6,600,000 



MAINE 

The following in regard to expenditures in Maine for 
1914 and for 1915 has been supplied by Chief Engineer 
Paul D. Sargent of the State Highway Commission: 

"In 1914 there was expended upon state highways the 
sum of $850,000, all of which was furnished by the state; 
the state aid highway construction totaled about $600,000, 
approximately half of which was paid by cities and towns. 

"Under special legislative resolves and the automobile 
registration fund about $110,000 was expended, the prin- 
cipal work being bridge construction and maintenance. 

"On the maintenance of state aid highways there was 
expended in 1914, under the supervision of the department, 
approximately $75,000, covering over 650 miles of road. 

"Although no e.xact data are obtainable, it is probable 
that the expenditure throughout the state for general road 
purposes, outside of any work under the supervision of 
the State Highway Department, totaled $1,500,000. 

"In 1915 the available funds are substantially the same 
as last year, with the exception that the amount to be ex- 
pended on state highway construction is $500,000." 



MARYLAND 

The following tables furnished by Chief Engineer Henry 
G. Shirley of the Maryland State Roads Commission show 
the commission's estimates of expenditures in 1914 and those 
to be made during the current year: 

EXPENDITURES, 1914. 

State Road Fund $4,000,000 

State Aid Fund, including counties and state's nortlon. 500,000 
Amount spent in the counties by the counties' own 

departments 1,500,000 

EXPENDITURES, 1915. 

State Road Fund $2,500,000 

State Aid Fund, including counties and state's portion. 600,000 
Amount spent in the counties by the counties' own 

departments 1,600,000 



MICHIGAN. 

.According to State Highway Commissioner Frank F. 
Rogers, the following statement by him, which was printed 
in our review in December of last year contains the avail- 
able information relative to work during the past year: 

During the last fiscal year our automobile tax law was killed 
by the Supreme Court, thereby cutting oft the means of paying 
the ordinary state reward. The fiscal year ending June 30, 
1914, was the first one under which the payment of double 
reward on trunk line roads was made by this state. During 
that year there was paid from the trunk line fund in rewards 
$117,643. When the total available ordinary reward of about 
$470,000 had been paid out. there had been built the following: 

13 miles Sand-Clay at $ 250 to $ 425 

478 " Gravel " 500 " 850 

38 " Stone-Gravel " 750 " 1,275 

4 " Gravel-Slag " 750 " 1,275 

129 " Macadam " 1,000 " 1,700 

20 " Concrete "1,000 " 1,700 

Since the beginning of the present fiscal year, July 1, 1914, 

there has been paid from the trunk line fund $76,000, and my 
inspectors have accepted 367 miles of road for which there is 
now to be paid from the state $275,000. 

It is expected that the Legislature when it meets next Janu- 
ary will make a deficiency appropriation which will cover the 
amount due at that time, or which will become due before the 
close of the fiscal year. I do not expect that there will be any 
increase in the mileage of roads built during this fiscal year be- 
cause of the fact that the townships and counties who build 
the roads cannot wait until the I^egislature appropriates the 
state's share of the cost. 

In regard to funds available for future work. Commis- 
sioner Rogers has supplied the following list showing all 
of the money appropriated for highway purposes: 

STATE REWARD. 

July 1, 1914 — June 30, 1915 (Deficiency) $600,000 

July 1, 1915— June 30, 1916 600,000 

July 1, 1916— June 30, 1917 One-half Auto Tax 

TRUNK LINE 

July 1, 1914— June 30, 1915 $300,000 

July 1, 1915 — June 30, 1916 350,000 

July 1, 1916 — June 30, 1917 550,000 

MINNESOTA 

The total expenditure for road work supervised by the 
State Highway Commission in 1914 was approximately 
$4,000,000, of which about 75 per cent, was used for road 
and culvert construction. Of the remainder, $323,111.27 was 
expended for road maintenance and $684,000.00 for bridge 
construction. In addition to the expenditures for work super- 
vised by the State Highway Commission, those for road and 
bridge work by the towns amounted to abo,ut $2,400,000, 
making the total expenditure in the state for roads and 
bridges a little less than $6,500,000. 

Apportionment of the general road and bridge fund for 
1915 has been made to the counties of the state as noted 
in "Good Roads" for March 27, the total amount allotted 
being about $1,480,000. As the counties pay from 20 to 50 
per cent, of the cost of work done by state aid, the total 
expenditure for 1915 state aid work may be estimated at 
approximately $3,500,000. In addition, the town work may be 
estimated at about the same as last year, making the total 
probable expenditure about $6,000,000. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

The total amount expended by the Massachusetts State 
Highway Commission for construction during 1914 was 
$1,368,072, in addition to which there was expended for 
repairs and maintenance $805,723. In regard to the amount 
available for 1914, Chief Engineer Dean reports as follows: 

"It is absolutely impossible to give an estimate of the 
mileage to be built in 1915 of the different classes of road, 
or even to give a total mileage. It will, of course, be 
greater than last year, as we have an additional appropria- 
tion, of which it is probable we will expend about $500,000 
this year." 

Mr. Dean also estimates that the construction expendi- 
tures for 1915 will amount to about $1,700,000 and that about 
$900,000 will be expended for maintenance and resurfacing. 



MISSOURI 

Information as to the exact expenditure in Missouri during 
1914 is not available. It is probable, however, that fully as 
much was expended in 1914 as in 1913, and the expenditure 
in 1913 was placed at a little over $5,000,000. During 1913 
and 1914 about $225,000 was expended for dragging county 
seat highways, that amount having been taken from state 
funds and distributed to the counties. 

During 1915 and 1916 $350,000 will be expended through 
the State Highway Department for dragging roads con- 
necting county seats. In addition, there will be distributed 
through the State Highway Department about $500,000 for 
permanent culvert and bridge work. The local expenditures 
during 1915 will be not less than $8,000,000, according to 
State Highway Commissioner BulTum. Commissioner Buflfum 



10 



GOOD ROADS 



Tulv .1 1915 



»l*o report* that the department is locating about titty cross 
'Mate highway*, which arc being so located as to form con- 
itnuoas routes between different parts of the state. 

MISSISSIPPI 

There is no central authority having charge of road work in 
ViT'lT«Tri or lo which the local uniu are obliged to make re- 
turns. In the table printed on this page are presented data 
on work in those connties from which reports have been re- 
cctvco. 



state last year by the various counties were approximately 
H1H139. 

"There will be expended during the coming year an 
equal amount. The State Highway Commission will have 
about $25,000 per annum, which will be expended for equip- 
ment, bridge plans and executive expenses of the High- 
way Commission. 

"Several counties in the state are launching road improve- 
ment programs, purchasing large amounts of- equipment 
for grading and graveling purposes. The total amount of 



HUIHW.W WORK BY COUNTIES IN MISSISSIPPI. 

I»14 Work 



-1915 Work- 



Coantr. 

Banton 
Bolivar 
D* Soto . 
Itawamba 
Jackson . . 

Lamar 

lAwr«nc« 
Lowndea . . . 

Marion 

Monro* . . . . 
MontKomery 
Pontotoc . . . 
Prentiss . . ■ . 
Sharker . . . 



Bx penditures 



Roads. 

$8,960 



Brldfres. 
(1,998 



20.000 
40,000 
41,6S6 
10.000 
11.279 
63,000 
10,000 

'12,882 

"23,666 
2,000 



s,ooo 

10.000 

12,111 

5,000 

7.341 

7.000 

10,000 

■ '6,427 

' '4'.6bb 



Total. 

(10,948 

100,000 

25,000 

60,000 

63,796 

15,000 

18,620 

70,000 

20.000 

(b) 

19.309 

20,000 

27,000 

2,000 



Total amount 
of bonds 
voted. 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 

50,000 
None 



Total 

Total amount amount of 
available bonds voted 



for roads 
and bridges. 

»10,000 
100,000 



None 



70,000 
None 



10,000 
21,175 



15,000 



"Nothing" 
60.000 
2,000 



and to be 
voted. 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
(a) 
None 



None 
None 
None 
None 



(a) Bonds to b« voted upon this year; (b) In the latter part of 1913 the construction of about 100 miles of road was 
commenced: It is estimated that the total cost of this work will be about $500,000, including the cost of concrete and steel 
bridcsa. 



HIGHWAY WORK BY COUNTIES IN NEBRASKA. 

1914 Work 



-1915 Work- 



County. 



Expenditures 



Adams 

Antslops . . . 

Arthur 

Buffalo 

Caas 

Chsrsnn* . . . 

Clar 

Colfax 

CnmlDK 

Custer 

Dmwson 

Deuel 

Dodse 

DouKlas . . . . 
rranklln ... 
Frontier . . . . 

Gave 

Oarfleld 

Hall 

Hitchcock .. 
Hooker .... 
Howard .... 
Jefferson . . . 

Johnson 

Keys pahs 

Knox 

Lincoln 

Merrick 

Nance 

Nuckolls ... 

Otoe 

Perkins .... 

Platte 

Polk 

Red Willow 
Richardson . 

Sarpy 

Saunders . . . 

Seward 

Slonz 

WaahinRtoD 



Roads. 

$15,000 
10,000 



40,000 

8.000 

10,000 

18.000 

'i'5',666 

30.000 
1,500 
3,863 

70,210 

' '7,666 

12,000 

900 

' '2.666 

2.000 

6,000 

10,000 

15,000 

'45.666 
15.000 

' 1,666 

12,000 
36,000 
600 
23,120 
20,000 
10,303 
10,000 
18,618 
26,000 
35,000 
5.000 
10.000 



Bridges. 
$1,500 
25,000 

'2'6',666 
60,000 
4.000 
15.000 
24,000 



Total. 
$16,600 
35,000 



20.000 
30,000 
500 
41,442 
82,387 

'l'3',666 

40.000 

600 

20,000 

6,000 

600 

5,000 

17.000 

25,000 

'30,666 
26,000 

'i'6',666 

24,000 
36,000 

'l'5'.953 
16.000 
10,445 
10 000 
16.918 
45,000 
26,000 
3,500 
20,000 



90,000 
12,000 
25,000 
42,000 

'35,666 

60,000 

2,000 

45,295 

152,597 



Total amount 
of bonds 
voted. 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 



Total 

Total amount amount of 
available bonds voted 



for roads 

and bridges. 

20,000 

40,000 

25,"o"o'o' 
50,000 
18,000 
28,000 
44,000 



20,000 
52,000 

1,500 
20,000 

8,000 

2,500 
11,000 
27,000 
40,000 

5,900 
75,000 
40,000 
17.000 
17,000 
36,000 
72,000 
500 
39,073 
35.000 
.20,748 
50.000 
35,636 
70,000 
61,000 

8,600 
30,000 



None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
10,000 
None 
None 
None 
30,000 

None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 

None 
None 
None 
None 



35,000 

55,000 

7,500 

43,700 

(a) 
17,000 
21,000 

' '2',666 
25,000 
10,000 
3,500 
26,000 



6,000 
60,000 
50,000 
26,000 
30,000 
42,000 
100,000 
3,000 
40,000 
35.000 
20,000 



and to be 
voted. 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
25,000 (b) 
None 
None 
5,000 (b) 
None 
None 



35,000 

75,noo 

60,000 

9,000 

30,000 



None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 

None 
None 
None 
None 
None 



(a) About the same amount is available for 1916 as was expended in 1914; (b) to be voted upon. 



MONTANA. 

The following statement regarding road work in Mon- 
tana during 1914 and that proposed for 1915 has been furn- 
ished by Secretary George R. Metlen of the Board of 
Highway Commissioners: 

**The total amount paid out at the end of the fiscal year 
was $2,553,772; the balance on hand was $1,518,020. with 
outstanding warrants totaling $1,640,366.99. I have no data 
at hand whereby I can estimate the number of 1913 warrants 
carried over into the 1914 outstanding, but I believe the 
amonnt is relatively small. So the total expenditures in the 



money available, however, will be limited by the assessed 
valuation of the state, which will be aljout $300,000,000 for 
road purposes, upon which a levy of no more than five mills 
on each dollar is collectable. Bonding is not popular. 
However some outstanding warrants will probably be taken 
up by funding bonds." 

NEBRASKA 

Data on highway work in those counties from which reports 
have been received are presented in one of the accompanying 
tables. 



July 3, 1915 GOOD 

NEVADA 

There is no central authority having charge of road work in 
Nevada or to which the counties are obUged to report. Data 
on work in those counties from which reports have been re- 
ceived are shown in the following table : 

Amount Available 

Expenditure in 1914 for 1915 Road 

County Roads Bridges Total and Bridge Work 

Clark..'... $16,000 $14,000 $30,000 $17,000 

Lyon ... 21,324 2,535 23,859 21,000 

Nye 12,000 12,000 15,000 

Storey .... 2,000 2,000 1,500 

In addition the following amounts were reported a year ago 
as available for 1914 work: Churchill County, $8,000; Douglas 
County, $12,000; Eureka County, $6,455; White Pine County, 
$13,000. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

The total amount of money expended for road construc- 
tion in 1914, according to a statement furnished by Acting 
State Highway Commissioner F. E. Everett, was $550,000, 
while the total expended for maintenance was $244,155.38. 
There has been appropriated for road workjn 1915 the sum 
of $315,000 for construction and about $225,000 for main- 
tenance. The latter amount depends upon the receipts from 
automobile fees and is an estimate only. 

It should be noted that while the figures for 1914 include 
money furnished by the towns as well as that furnished 
by the state, the amount for 1915 is the state's portion 
only. The money appropriated by the towns will probably 
increase this to about $300,000, making the probable total 
expenditure in 1915 about $850,000. 

NEW JERSEY 

During the fiscal year ending October 31, 1914, the total ex- 
penditure of state funds in New Jersey amounted to about 
$1,238,000. Of this amount about $558,000 was expende,d from 
public road funds and the balance from the motor vehicle fund. 
As these amounts represent the state's share, or 40 per cent, 
of the total cost, the total expenditure for state aid work may 
be estimated at something over $3,000,000. 

NEW MEXICO 

According to the available information, the total expendi- 
ture for road work in New Mexico in 1914 was about 
$526,400, of which $364,400 was furnished by the counties, 
the balance being furnished by the state. In 1913 a state 
bond issue of $500,000 was authorized but to within a few 
weeks ago had not been sold, the interest being fixed at 
4 per cent., and the bonds having to be sold at par. 

Leaving this bond issue out of consideration, the amounts 
available for 1915 are estimated by State Engineer James 
A. French as follows: State, $191,000; counties, $329,000; 
total, $520,000. 



NEW YORK 

The following statement from the review published m 
December of last year has been revised and includes the 
data on work in New York in 1914 and 1915. , 

In 1913 the Legislature released $5,000,000, and in 1914 $10,- 
000.000 for highway construction work In New York State. 
One-half of this latter amount was available In the spring and 
the balance on Oct. 1, 1914. The amount available in 1915 is 
$10,000,000. 

Not all of the money released in 1913 was actually expended, 
but the major part of It was obligated by contracts put under 
that year, and entirely exhausted by additional work adver- 
tised in 1914. During that year and the preceding year the 
department put under contract construction work totaling 
$15,000,000. 

In addition to the amounts expended for construction, the 
state paid out approximately $4,000,000 for maintenance work 
In 1914. Both the funds for construction and maintenance 



ROADS 



11 



were used exclusively on state and county highways. To help 
out the towns of the state in keeping in proper shape the 
75.000 miles of town highways the state gave $1,814,000 during 
the year 1914. The towns by local assessment raised nearly 
$3,000,000 to help out their roads. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

The following table prepared by Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
State Geologist and Secretary of the State Highway Com- 
mission, shows the expenditures during 1914: 

MONEY SPENT ON ROADS DURING 1914. 

Special Tax $1,500,000 

Bond Issues — $4,865,000, of which about one-half was 

expended 2,430,000 

Value of convict labor (1,800 men) 360,000 

Value of free labor 800,000 

Private subscriptions 100,000 

Total $5,190,000 

The funds expected to be available for road work during 
1915 amount to $6,250,000, divided as shown in the follow- 
ing table: 

Special Tax $2,000,000 

Bond Issues 3,000,000 

Value of convict labor (about 2,000 men) 400,000 

Value of free labor 800,000 

Private subscriptions 50,000 

By Jan. 1, 1915, coiinties and townships in North Carolina 
had voted road bonds to the amount of $8,376,300, of which 
$777,000 worth were voted during 1914. 



NORTH DAKOTA 

According to State Engineer Jay W. Bliss, exact figures 
on the amount of money expended during 1914 are not at 
present available. It is estimated, however, that the total 
amount used for road and bridge work during 1^14 
amounted to about $2,365,000, this figure including $1,200,000 
of taxes worked out in the various townships. 

The 1915 Legislature appropriated no funds for the con- 
struction of state roads so that the only basis for esti- 
mating the expenditure in 1915 is the amount expended in 
1914. It is probably safe to assume that the total amount 
expended during the current year will not be far from the 
amount expended last year. 

OHIO 

The following statement by State Highway Commissioner 
Clinton Cowen contains the available data on work in Ohio 
in 1914-15: 

"Ohio's highway program contemplates the improvement 
and continual maintenance of the system of inter-county 
highways, embracing a network of the main thoroughfares 
of the state totaling 9,874 miles. 

"On January 1, 1915, the several boards of county com- 
missioners had filed resolutions covering the application for 
improvement of 8,359 miles of this system. 

"In 1914 the State Highway Department supervised the 
actual expenditure of $3,482,834 for construction and main- 
tenance on this system, of which $1,855,250 was state funds. 
This represents the constructioii of 35.8 miles of brick, 37.2 
miles of concrete, 71.9 miles of macadam, 1.0 mile of gravel 
and 1.7 miles of graded roadway, a total of 147.6 miles. The 
maintenance expenditure, $258,666. covered the repair and 
upkeep of scattered portions of a total of 390 miles of state 
highways. This includes repairs and reconstruction on 83.6 
miles of standard improvements made by local officials on 
the inter-county system, which were taken over by the state 
for continual maintenance. 

"In 1914 the actual work placed under contract, under the 
supervision of the State Highway Department, was as fol- 
lows: 



j2 GOOD ROADS 

,C«i«r«c«ion. 495 miles, at a contract price of.. ^.877.300 

Rc«oa>tniclk>n. 46.7 miles, at a contract price of 310,355 
Maintenance and repair, force account, the up- 

keep of 38$ miles, costing 218.6S9 

Total cost ?7.406.344 

-Ob November l.\ l^U. ^"nio had 1,143 miles of the inter- 
comty system either improved, or under contract, by th.e 
State Highway Department. There are appro.\iniately 5,000 
miles of old improvements on this system in need of recon- 

stfvctioii. 

The State highway improvement fund, raised by a 0.5 
mill levy on the grand tax duplicate of the state netted 
93.35a000 in 1914. The levy has been reduced to 0.3 mill, 
which on a greatly increased duplicate will produce $2,- 
260.000. This means an actual retrenchment in state road 
fnnds of considerably over $1,000,000. 

"For 1915 the Legislature has appropriated the following 
fnads: 
To construct, improve, maintain and repair inter- 

connty highways $2,043,763 

To construct, improve, maintain and repair main 

market roads 370,053 

To repair, maintain, protect, police and patrol 

public highways 556,305 

Total $2,970,121 

OKLAHOMA 
.According to the latest advices received from the State High- 
way Department, the toul expenditure for roads and bridges 
during 1914 amounted to about $4,250,000, of wliich $3,000,000 
was expended for roads and the balance on bridges. This rep- 
resents work done by the local units. 



July 3, 1915 



department, including amount to be distributed as a bonus 
to townships on cash tax basis, amount to be expended 
for purchase of toll roads, cost of operation, Bureau of 
Township Roads, Testing Laboratory, Automobile Regis- 
tration Division, and maintenance of division offices and ad- 
ministration expense. 

"On January 1, 1915, the sum of $214,292.49 only was 
available for construction and maintenance, to which, how- 
ever, has been added the receipts from automobile regis- 
trations for the year 1915 up to June 1, 1915, which amounted 
to $1,420,433, practically all of which has been or will be 
used for maintenance of state highway routes. 

"During the above year, 6,882 miles of state highway 
routes and state aid roads were maintained by the State 
Highway Department; snow was removed from 1,928.54 
miles; 72.54 miles were oiled with asphalt oil, and 34 con- 
crete bridges constructed. 

"The following appropriations available for the two fiscal 
years commencing June 1, 1915, are now before the Gov- 
ernor for signature: 

"For the maintenance and improvement of state highways, 
two years, $6,000,000. 

"For the payment of the commonwealth's share in the 
expense of "constructing and maintaining state aid high- 
ways, two years, $500,000. 

"For the rebuilding, repair and maintenance of the Na- 
tional Road in the counties of Somerset, Fayette and 
Washington, two years, $100,000. 

"For the purchase of toll roads forming part of state 
highway routes, $300,000. 

"For distril)ution as bonus deficiency to townships on 
cash tax basis, $1,500,000. 

"The above appropriations are to include and not be in 
addition to automobile registration receipts formerly avail- 
able to the State Highway Department." 



OREGON 

The following statement relative to work in Oregon 
during 1914 has been furnished by Chief Deputy State 
Engineer E. L Cantine: 

"The department had available $2,160,000 made up as 
follows: County bond issues, $1,335,000; county levies, 
$595,000; state appropriation, $230,000. 

"The work undertaken included 152 miles of grading, 10 
miles of two-course concrete 16 ft. wide; 4 miles of single- 
coarse concrete pavement 8 ft. wide; 5 miles of asphaltic- 
concrete pavement (Topeka specifications) 16 ft. wide; 
2 miles of asphaltic pavement (Warrenite) 9 ft. wide, and 
the building of some 35 steel and concrete bridges. All of 
the pavement and bridges and fully 80 per cent, of the 
grading were completed last year." 

Regarding 1915 work, Mr. Cantine reports as follows: 

"For the year 1915 there is available for new work only 
the state appropriation of $230,000. This amount will be 
tucd in assisting the various counties to complete the work 
undertaken last season, and in surveying and grading 27 
miles of new road." 

PENNSYLVANU 

The following statement relative to highway work in 
Pennsylvania has been supplied by Chief Engineer W. D. 
Uhler of the State Highway Department: 

"During the calendar year of 1914 the Pennsylvania State 
Highway Department let contracts for 63,33 miles of new 
roads, and constructed, reconstructed or resurfaced 296.69 
miles of same by its maintenance forces, making a total 
construction and reconstruction for the year 1914 of 360.02 
mile*. Daring the year funds in amount $3,786,009.31 were 
available for construction and maintenance work, and 
(1.208.650.73 was available for all other activities of this 



RHODE ISLAND 

In the review published in the issue of December 5 there 
was printed a statement from Irving W. Patterson, En- 
gineer of the State Board of Public Roads, according to 
which the total expenditure by the board during 1914 was 
placed at about $150,000. As this statement was made late 
in the fall it may be taken to represent practically the entire 
expenditure during the year. Mr. Patterson also advised 
us that the expenditures by the towns of the state would 
probably amount to about $400,000 for the year, making the 
total expenditure in the state about $550,000. 

In regard to work in 1915, Mr. Patterson reports as 
follows: 

"Our funds this year are limited to the net receipts 
secured from the licensing of automobiles. Estimates of what 
this amount will be vary between $175,000 and $190,000. 
By law this money must be spent for maintenance, although 
since we have no appropriation for office expenses the total 
expense of operating our office together with all salaries 
except for the salaries for the five members of the board 
must come out of the automobile fund. 

"This is the second consecutive year that our funds have 
been limited to the automobile fund. This fund is alto- 
gether inadequate for our maintenance work, since we have 
about 80 miles of old water bound macadam roads which 
are completely worn out and which must be reconstructed 
in order to secure even a fair road. With reconstruction 
according to modern standards ranging from $10,000 per 
mile upward, it is readily to be seen that it is impossible for 
us to make more than a very small showing with the funds 
at hand. Oiling, general repairs, including patrolling our 
roads, and office and engineering expense will call for all 
of the money which we have for our use in 1915, and as a 
matter of fact calls for much more." 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



13 



SOUTH DAKOTA 



Regarding road work done in 1914 and that to be done 
during the current year, State Engineer Homer M. Derr 
of South Dakota reports as follows: 

"The total amount of funds expended in road work by 
counties and townships during 1914 amounted to $1,421,501. 
The total levy by counties in 1914 for road work was $579,- 
948. I have just been informed by the Secretary of State 
that they have thus far collected since the beginning of the 
fiscal year, July 1, 1914, $18,133.18, from the automobile 
fund, and they estimate that at least $1,000 more will be 
collected before the coming 1st of July. As this is only one- 
eighth of the total amount collected by the state from auto- 
mobile licenses, and since our laws provide that seven- 
eighths of that fund shall be expended by the various 
counties from which it is collected in road building, there 



to from 30 to 40 ft. and the elimination of the usual deep 
ditches on the side of the road. During the year the 30-mile 
entirely new link of the Washington to Atlanta Highway was 
constructed and is on the way to completion. This highr 
way now extends entirely across the state, and is mam- 
tained under the supervision of United States road engi- 
neers. During the year the new, well-constructed highway 
from Spartanburg to Asheville, N. C, through the Blue 
Ridge Mountains, was also completed. 

"Three townships in Chesterfield County have issued bonds 
for road purposes, and the State Legislature has authorized 
an issue of $1,250,000 of funds for public highways in Rich- 
land County, and $960,000 for the same purpose in Green- 
ville County. Proposed large bond issues were voted on 
in Anderson and Union Counties, but in each instance were 
voted down owing to the fact that politics became mixed up 
in the issues. Before the State Legislature there is now 



County. 

Anderson 

Bedford 

Bledsoe 

Bradley .... 

Cannon 

Carroll 

Claiborne . . . 
Cumberland . 
Decatur .... 

Dyer 

Fentress . . . . 

Giles 

Grainger . . . . 

Hamilton . . 

Hancock . . . 

Hardin 

Hawkins . . . 

Haywood . . . 

Houston . . . . 

Humphreys 

Jackson . . . . 

James 

Lake 

Macon 

Marion 

Maury 

Monroe 

Morgan 

Overton 

Perry 

Putnam . . . . 

Robertson . 

Scott 

Sevier 

Shelby 

Smith 

Stewart ... 

Sumner . . . . 

Tipton 

Unicoi 

Union 

Washington 

Wayne .... 

White 

Williamson 

Wilson .... 



HIGHWAY WORK BY COUNTIES IN TENNESSEE. 

1914 Work 



-1915 Work- 



Ex penditures 



Roads. 

$10,000 

8,000 

98,000 

8,000 

7,500 



2,000 



6,000 
3,800 



650 
3,000 



45,000 
1,000 
2,929 
3,884 
6,500 

42,338 



1,200 



Bridges. 



$3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,500 

' '5,000 
6,000 
2,000 



4,000 
1,200 



6,000 



5,000 
755 

2,400 
500 

'2,870 



940 
2,500 



11,000 


1,000 


14,000 


1,000 


45,000 


5,000 


251,500 


61,000 


6,000 


1,000 


5,000 




5,000 




25,000 


10,000 


2,200 


1,300 


25,000 




6,000 




5,711 


2,649 


14,000 


2,500 




10,000 



Total. 

$10,000 

11,000 ( 

100,000 

10,000 

9,000 

17,868 

5,000 

8,000 

2,000 

30,000 

5,000 

10,000 

5,000 

"650 
9,000 



a) 



Total amount 

of bonds 

voted. 

None 
None 
97,000 
25,000 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 

None 
None 

None 



Total 

Total amount amount of 
available bonds voted 



10,000 



for roads 
and bridges. 

$120,000 

6,000 

70,000 

40,000 



None 
None 
None 
None 



372,000 
200,000 

'30,666 



12,000 

1,500 

150,000 

650 

6,000 

27,000 

10,000 

170,741 





None 




50,000 


None 


50,000 


1,755 


None 




5,329 


None 


5,400 


4,384 


None 


5,000 


6.500 


None 


7,500 


45,208 


None 


(b) 


None 


None 




(h) 






940 


None 




3,700 


14,500 (i) 


2,500 


None 


None 


None 


12,000 


None 




15,000 


None 


16,000 


50,000 


185,000 


130,000 


312,500 


None 


346,000 


7,000 


None 




6,000 


None 


5,000 


5,000 


None 


12,000 


35,000 


25,000 (i) 


45,000 


1,000 




(3) 


3,500 


None 


2,500 


25,000 


None 


35.000 


6,000 


None 


7,000 


8.360 


None 




16,500 


None 


(b) 


10,000 


None 


8,000 



and to be 

voted. 
$107,000 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
372,000 
200,000 

None 

None 
150,000 (c) 

None 
200,000 
150,000 
(d) 

None 
477,000 (e) 

None 



(f) 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 

■ '('g')' ' 

None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
3,000 
None 

None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 



(a) From $8,000 to $11,000 spent in 1914 — $6,000 to $8,000 for roads and $2,000 to $3,000 for bridges; (b) amount available 
In 1915 about the same as that expended In 1914; (c) bonds voted for a north and south road through the county; (d) road 
bonds will probably be voted this year; (e) $27,000 in bonds already voted; (f) road and bridge bonds will probably be voted 
this year; (g) road bonds may be voted this year; (h) "nothing to report"; (1) bridge bonds; (j) will spend more in 1915 
than was expended In 1914. 



will be further available for such purpose (road work for 
1915) about $132,932, making a total available of about 
$713,880." 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

The following report on work in South Carolina has been 
furnished by E. J. Watson, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Commerce and Industries: 

"During the year 1914 approximately $1,000,000 was spent 
by the several counties in that state in road construction 
and maintenance. Practically every dollar was expended 
upon earth, sand-clay and natural cement gravel roads. Dur- 
ing the year about three times the usual mileage of improved 
roads was turned out, and the chief characteristic of the 
new work has been the broadening of existing highways 



pending a state highway commission, which may become 
law at the session in January, 1916." 

TENNESSEE 

There has been no central authority having charge of road 
work in Tennessee nor are the counties obliged to make 
returns to any state official. In the table on this page is 
presented the information obtained relative to work in those 
counties from which reports have been received. 

TEXAS 

Road work in Texas is performed by the counties and 
there is no state highway department or other central au- 
thority which does road work or supervises it. No returns 
are made by county authorities to a central authority show- 



14 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



what is done and for that reason accurate data on the 
of work done are not available. Many of the coun- 
ties kave voted large bond issues for road building and the 
reports of these are the best indications of what has been 
accompUshed. 

Fnoc to I9I3, something over $11,000,000 in bonds had 
bee* voted for road building, and in 1913 the sum of about 
$4.000t000 was voted. During 1914 bonds wore issued for 
from ^OOaOOO to $10,000,000 more and probably about 75 
per cent, of the money voted was expended or obligated. 

The Texas Good Roads Association, one of the most 
prominent of many highway organizations in the state, has 
taken a very active part in advocating road improvement 
and the issuance of bonds for highway work. Regarding 
I9JS work. Secretary D. E. Colp of that association re- 
ports that a special effort is being made to bring about the 
voting of bonds this year to the amount of $15,000,000. 

UTAH 
According to a recent report from State Road Engineer 
E. R. Morgan, the total expenditure by the State Road 
Conunissioner for work on the state roads during 1914 amounted 
to $475J61.41. He also states that it is estimated that during 
1915 there will be expended by the State Road Commission 
about $750,000. Additional data, showing county work, will be 
found in the table printed below; in which are presented 
data on work in those counties from which reports have been 
received. 



"The time has come, even for the small state of Vermont, 
when construction, which has naturally held the prominent 
place for the past ten years, has to yield largely to the vital 
question of maintenance. Special attention is being given in 
1915 to this feature of the road problem. Road officials of 
the towns are being held to a more strict accountability on 
the regular means of maintenance, while the plan of patrol, 
inaugurated in 1913, has been continued, with reasonably 
satisfactory results. The problem is by no means solved, 
but the present method is as well adapted to the existing 
circumstances as any that has been suggested. The patrol 
has gained in popularity because of the noticeable improve- 
ment of the roads under patrol, and because of the finan- 
cial assistance given by the state to the towns under this 
plan. The progress has been as follows: 1913, 10 routes — 
70 miles; 1914, 44 routes — 286 miles; so far as reported to 
date in 1915, about 60 routes covering some 400 miles. The 
average cost in 1914 was about $74 per mile. The main- 
tenance fund, from which the expense of the patrol routes 
is paid, has materially increased from $25,000 in 1908 to 
about $150,000 in 1914 and about $175,000 estimated for 
1915. Besides the patrol, it covers assistance to the towns 
in their regular maintenance of all their state roads which 
usually comprise from a quarter to a third of their total 
mileage. It is also used to assist villages in the oiling of 
the state roads, to overcome the dust nuisance. The pay- 
ment to the towns for regular maintenance is on the basis 
of about $10 per mile of their state roads." 



County. 

Boxcldcr 

Caeb* 

Carbon .. 

DsrU 

Pint* 

Rich 

Salt LaJc* 
San Joan . 
B ov It . . . . 
Sammlt . . 
TooeU .... 

Utak 

Wabar . . . 



WORK 


BY COUNTIES 


1 IN UT.AH. 
















.— — 1915 Work ^ 




1914 


Work 






Total 






A 




Total amount 


amount of 












Ex peiidltures 




Total amount 


available 


bonds voted 








of bonds 
voted. 


for roads 
and bridges. 


and to be 
voted. 


Roads. 


Brtdees. 
$10,000 


Total. 


$20,000 


$30,000 


None 


$30,000 


None 


26.235 


15,000 


41,235 


None 


30,000 


None 


11,316 


1,666 


12,981 


None 


31.000 


31.000 (a) 


22,360 




22,360 


None 


14,000 


None 


2,000 




2,000 
5,553 


None 
None 


5,000 


None 


176,828 


6,410 


182,238 


None 


200,000 


None 


7,000 


3,000 


10,000 


None 


12,000 


None 






7.298 


None 


8,494 


None 


30,000 




30,000 


None 


25,000 


None 


17,600 


1,600 


19,200 


None 


12,600 


None 






80,000 


None 


40,000 


None 


60,694 


5,000 


65,694 


None 


75,000 


None 



<a> Road bonds already voted. 



VERMONT 

The following statement relative to work in Vermont has 
been furnished by the State Highway Department: 

"For 1914 the usual type of road — gravel and gravel-tel- 
ford — was built, with the usual expenditure for construc- 
tion and an increased expenditure for maintenance as shown 
below. The same plan of state work was followed in im- 
proving the worst places, no matter where they were nor 
their size, providing only that they were on state roads, of 
which there are 4,000 miles in the state out of a total mile- 
age of some 15,000. About $450,000 was expended for con- 
struction. In 1913 some $500,000 was used, as an additional 
$50,000 was appropriated for supplementing some special 
features of the work. In 1915 there will be some $475,000 
expended, as $25,000 was appropriated for special work. 
The plan of improving the worst places, rather than the 
building of continued miles of road, has proven for Ver- 
mont the most satisfactory plan, and it has opened Vermont 
to the tourist for very comfortable traveling from one state 
line to another across it. The mileage improved in 1914 is 
estimated to he about 175 miles, and that for 1915 about 
185 miles. Town line signs have been erected on the state 
roads, which adds materially to the pleasure of traveling. 
This year, danger signs will be erected on all public roads 
•ome 500 ft before a railway crossing. 



VIRGINIA 

The total expenditure for work under the supervision of 
the Virginia State Highway Commission in 1914 was ap- 
proximately $1,500,000, of which $500,000 comprised the 
state's appropriation for road work. In addition, a largt 
amount of work was done by convicts. During the year, 
about 850 miles of road were built. 

In regard to future work, Stale Highway Commissioner 
G. P. Coleman reports as follows: 

"The last Legislature made a direct appropriation for 
this department for the year 1915 of $411,000. In addition 
to this, we receive the automobile tax, which, for this year, 
will amount to between $135,000 and $140,000, making a 
total from all state sources of approximately $500,000. In 
addition to this, various counties and districts throughout 
the state have issued bonds, from which source there is 
available for this year, approximately $1,500,000. making a 
total from all sources for this year of $2,000,000. 

"At the present time we have 34 convict camps distributed 
throughout the various counties of the state, these camps 
varying from 40 to 65 men, the total varying from 1,800 to 
2,000 prisoners employed on the roads. This labor costs 
the state to clothe, feed, guard and otherwise provide for, 
a little over S3 cts. per ten-hour working day. 

"Wc h?vf every reason to believe that the next Legisla- 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD R O A D S 



15 



ture will, if possible, increase the state's appropriation for 
construction, and in addition to this make some provision 
for the maintenance of the roads which have been con- 
structed." 



$1,260,919.56 and $693,447.66, respectively. The expenditures 
by counties from the general road and bridge fund and the 
county road district funds are estimated, in the report, to 
have been at least $8,000,000 during the two years preceding 



TABLE SHOWING THE MILEAGE OP DIFFERENT KINDS OF ROADS BUILT 

HIGHWAY OFFICIALS. 



DURING 1914, AS REPORTED BY STATE 



State. 



Alabama (a) 

Arkansas 

Connecticut (b) 

Delaware: 

Kent County 

Newcastle County.... 

Sussex County 

Idaho (c) 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Louisiana (d) 

Maine (e) 

Maryland 

Massachusetts (t) 

Montana 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey (g) li 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio (h) 

Oregon (i) 

Pennsylvania (J) 

Vermont 

Virg-inia 

Wisconsin 



5 ">■" 

Scso 
.l5.£ 



46.42 



3.00 



15.64 
4.48 



:2,248 
'5'. 6 4 



5.00 
12,83 



1.09 



to .c 

P '^ _ 

5 o e 

2 'if 



1.00 
30.72 



2.00 

20.50 

8.25 

34.60 

'5.60 
9,902 

36Y.35 



22.68 



9.00 
1.97 






0.29 



0.50 



73.23 

200.00 

32.28 



1.41 



9SZ. 



5«o. 
ai> c 



96, 
1. 



233, 



165. 
14. 



O p C 



D 1= 



27,00 



50(5) ■ 
35 



1,50 



26.95(8) 



00(5) 
00 



52.23 







■O 






•0 




Si 


^ 




0*^ 


> 

IS 








« 
CO 


OJ'O 

J= c 

55 


583,83 


201.16 


39,54 


406.33 


191.94(1) 


1,800.00 


400.00 


175.00 


5.00 


65.00(2) 


52.25 


76.01 


134.05 




6.26(3) 






6.00 


19.00 


11.00(4) 






15.00 






10.00 


5.00 




10.00 


5.00(4) 


100.00 


15.00 


4.00 


5.00 






65,00 


3.30 


1.80 


3.00 




50.00 


50.00 








65.00 




66.50 


1.18(4) 


5.30 


227.30 


3,90 


1.60 






46.50 


72,62 




4.62 


22.20 


70.08 


30,76 


1.65 


18.08 


500.00(6) 










15.58 


119.73 


9,42 








500,802 


98,065 




264,539(7) 


357.00 


113.00 








1.24 


0.91 


405,46 




37.43(9) 


1,058.00 


188.00 
34.00 


37,00 
560.00 


1,270.00 




152.00 


17'5'66(11) 


292.'2"3 


..... 


2.00(10) 


104.00 


475,00 


152.00 


434.00(12) 


50.00(13) 


1,219.65 


213,84(14) 


330.20 




94.37(15) 



(a) Built by state aid and by counties; (b) trunk line and state aid roads constructed or reconstructed during the 
period from Feb. 26, 1913, to Oct. 1, 1914; (c) state highways; (d) state aid work; (e) includes only work done under super- 
vision of the State Highway Department; (f) includes state road and "small town" work; (g) amounts given in sq. yds.; (h) 
work by state and counties; (i) by or under supervision at- State Highway Department; (J) includes roads constructed by con- 
tract and roads reconstructed or resurfaced by maintenance forces, 

(4) shell: (5) includes concrete both with and with- 

-,f mo,^.j(jam with bituminous dressing and 38,561 sq, 

,, f nr. j^jjgg Qf asphalt block 

and "soil"; (13) kind not 
g," 27,2 miles shale, 4.15 




TABLE SHOWING THE MILEAGE OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF ROADS TO BE BUILT DURING 1915, AS REPORTED BY 

STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS. 



«." 



o 



n 



sB I? ^ 6"! ill * E ^« I w 

•l-l ■ i| II- If I ^1 ^ 5 

Arkansas .,,, 3.00 ■ , . ^^ 30.00 .... 1,900.00 500.00 350,00 ,,,. 35.00(1) 

Delaware: ■ iru-.^'jinjeif 

Kent County 2.00 . . ■ ■ h-i^y-n,U, 30.00 6.00(2) 

Newcastle County ... ..T. .... (3) 

Idaho (a) -. ■ Vi'r..-. .... 400,00 25,00 ,,,, ,.,, 

Kentucky 5. 00 5.00 2.00 3.00 100.00 150.00 10.00(4) 

Louisiana , . . .y... .... 70,00 ,,,. 81,00 1,00(5) 

Maine fb) . ,. , . n.go 7,70 li50- 5,30 175,60 6.60 5.30 

Montana .... . .... 1,000,00(6) ,,,. .... .... 

New Jersey (c) 786,328 56,792 6,315 5,600- 593,600 599,665 87,157(7) 

Oregon (d) ... .. . .... ,.,. 31.00 .... 3.00 

Vermont .... .... 185.00 .... .... .... 

Virginia 5. 00 25 00 .... 125.00 450.00 150.00 400.00<8) .... 

Washington (e) 15.20(9) 16.50 .-. . . 83,00 10,00 

Wisconsin ,,,, 43. 00 1,000.00 175.00(10) 270.00 81.00(11) 

(a) State highways; (b) includes only work done under the supervision of the State Highway Department; (c) 
amounts given in sq. yds,; (d) by or under the supervision of the State Highway Department; (e) work which has been 
placed under contract since April'l, 1915, or for which plans have been completed and approved by the State Highway Com- 
mission, 

(1) Macadam base, gravel top; (2) shell; (3) "only a few miles"; (4) "bituminous carpet;" (5) shell; (6) estimated 
part earth and part gravel; (7) "macadam with bituminous dressing;" (8) sand-clay and "soil;" (9) not separated; (10) part 
classed as gravel-macadam; (11) includes 42 miles of "non-permanent surfacing." ' ' 



WASHINGTON 

According to the fifth biennial report of the State High- 
way Department, covering the period from Oct. 1, 1912, to 
Sept. 30, 1914, appropriations for the two-pear period end- 
ing March 31, 1915, were made as follows: Public highway 
fund, $1,954,367.22; permanent highway fund, $3,264,091.37. 
To Oct, 1, 1914, the expenditures from those funds were 



the date of the report. This expenditure is exclusive of 
amounts expended from the funds previously mentioned, 
those from county bond issues and the sum represented by 
donation work. 

Relative to future work. State Highway Commissioner 
William R. Roy reports as follows: 

"For the biennial period beginning April 1, 1915, there 



16 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



'ha* been appropriated the sum o( $1,937,985 for state high- 
way cooftnirtion and maintenance, $145,357 of which is 
4c«)(«aied to be used in maintenance work. For the con- 
•tmction and maintenance of permanent highways there 
has been appropriated, for the same period, the sum of 

"Approximately one-half of the state highway appropria- 
(ioo will be expended or obligated during 1915, the balance 
daring 1916. 

~.\t the present date, the State Highway Board has plans 
coonpleted. and contracts already let or being advertised for 
aboat 160 miles of highway construction, at an estimated 
cost of around $700,000. 

"Activities of the counties, under the permanent highway 
law provisions, have been marked this year, and at the 
present date work which has been placed under contract 
since April I. or for which plans have been completed and 
approved by the Highway Commissioner, stands as follows: 

"Gravel roads, 83 miles, $383,000; macadam roads, 10 
miles. $65,000: concrete pavements, 16.5 miles, $216,350; 
asphaltic concrete or macadam pavements, 15.2 miles, 
$206^5." 

* 

WEST VIRGINIA 

.'Khhough exact data on the expenditures in 1914 in West 
Virginia are not available, it is estimated that the county funds 
obtained from levies for 1914 work amounted to from 
$2j000.000 to $2,500,000. In addition to these funds, there was 
available an equal amount from bond issues for roads and 
bridges. 

At the beginning of 1915 it was estimated that the total 
county funds from levies would amount to about $2,500,000, 
in addition to which there would be other funds derived 
from bond issues. 

WISCONSIN 

According to data furnished by the State Highway Com- 
mission, the total expenditure in the state for state aid 
roads in 1914 amounted to $3,928,501.02, of which $2,315,- 
441.70 was expended for work classed as permanent surfac- 
ing. Of the balance, $1,188,660.81 was expended for grad- 
ing; $295,000.72 was expended for drainage, and $41,370.74 
was expended for the construction of surfaces classed as 
non-permanent. The remainder was expended for miscel- 
laneous items. The work done by towns outside of work 
under the supervision of the State Highway Department 
costs on the average about $3,000,000 a year, according to 
State Highway Engineer Hirst. 

To these figures should be added about $800,000 for state 
and county aid bridges, making the total expenditure for 
roads and bridges in the state approximately $7,750,000. 

The following estimate of 1915 road work has been fur- 
nished by the State Highway Commission: 

U*"i, ,, Amount Cost 

nraalnc. mile* i ooo tsjio nan 

MlM-«ll.n.ou.. Guard Rail, Rl«ht if wiy ' J980.000 

W »r. n«arln«. etc 72,000 

ronrrct* culverts, number 1.960 188.500 

Iroii cuW.rtn. number 3<3 ,o 600 

Repaired, number 9] 4600 

Oihor dralnaKc atructurea 28000 

Non-I'ermanrnl Kurfaclnira ' ii tVonn 

Ftrmmntnt HurfaclnB: J->.»uu 

Cruahcd alone macadam, milea 270 820 000 

Cruahed rravcl macadam, miles 68 145000 

uJ^,^^rk,X;t^^ ■::::::::::::::/::■■■, » Jg 

'"*'"' 13,225.600 

WYOMING 

The following statement from State Engineer J. B. True 
conuins the available data on work in Wyoming: 

"The amount expended on the roads throughout the 
entire slate during the year of 1914 was $426,447.90. The 



estimated amount to be expended during the year of 1915 is 
$475,500. To this will be added $4 for each automobile in 
the state. There are at present 3,133 automobiles registered; 
it is expected that before the end of the year there will 
be approximately 3.600. Another source of revenue is the 
inheritance tax. The amount of this 1 have been unable 
to get. 

"We estimate that there are 15,500 miles of main traveled 
roads, of which probably 50 per cent, are crowned and 
drained. The remainder are merely trails on which prac- 
tically no work has been done. There are practically no 
roads in this state which are gravel, or improved in a like 
manner." 



Formula for the Crown of Pavements 

In the article "Pavement Widths and Crowns" by H. J. 
Fixmer, Division Engineer in Charge of Paving, Board of 
Local Improvements, Chicago, 111., printed in the issue of 
June 5, a mistake appeared in Formula 1 on page 231. This 
formula is for use in determining pavement crowns in con- 
nection with the constants given in Table III in the ar- 
ticle referred to. The formula was printed as follows: 

C = WF 
where 

C ^ crown, in inches. 

W .= width of roadway, in feet. 

F = a constant. 

The value of "C" should be in feet, the formula being as 
follows: 

C = WF 
where 

C = crown, in feet. 
W = width of roadway, in feet. 

F = a constant. 



The Government Good Roads Exhibit at the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition 

The Office of Public Roads of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has in the Machinery Palace of the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco. Cal.. what is 
said to be the most comprehensive road exhibit ever shown 
by the office. The exhibit is intended to stimulate road 
building and to encourage better methods of construction 
and maintenance. 

The location, drainage, aesthetics, construction and main- 
tenance of roads is illustrated by models one-twelfth actual 
size. A miniature crushing plant and a power roller are 
shown in actual operation and there are models illustrating 
the construction of reinforced concrete bridges and culverts. 
Enlarged photographs and lantern slides show the economic 
effect of good reads. 

One of the most interesting features of the exhibit is a set 
of six models showing the development of stone road l)uild- 
ing from the Roman period to the present time. 

The exhibit was prepared in Washington. D. C, the models 
being made by W. H. Hendley and an assistant under the 
immediate direction of J. E. Pennybacker, Chief of the 
Division of Road Economics. The work required about six 
months to complete. M. O. Eldredge, the Special Agent 
in charge of the exhibit, gives lectures on road building 
daily in the government lecture room in the Liberal Arts 
Palace. 



Carrollton. O. The oomMotlon nf^ thi ^^tr^oP RO'id to West 
recently at WashlnKton ^rnnfrton, Va., was incorporated 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



17 



Directory of State Highway Officials 



III accordance with the plan followed in printing the review 
which appeared in 1914, there are presented in the following 
paragraphs the names and titles of the chief highway officials 
in each state. For those states which have no highway depart- 
ments the names given are those of the officials of the state 
government most directly concerned with the administration of 
road work. In a few states there are no officials having any 
connection with road work, and under the names of such states 
are short explanatory paragraphs. 

In general the addresses of the officials and engineers of the 
state highway departments, with the exception of division or 
assistant engineers, are the same as that of the department. In 
some special cases, however, other addresses are given for some 
of the officials. 

ALABAMA 

State Highway Commission, Montgomery : Robert E. Spra- 
gins, Chairman; John Craft, Julien Smith; Dr. Eugene A. 
Smith (State Geologist) ; G. N. Mitcham (Professor of Engi- 
neering, Alabama Polytechnic Institute). 

State Highway Engineer, W. S. Keller; Assistant State High- 
way Engineer, R. P. Boyd. 

ALASKA 

Board of Road Commissioners, Valdez : President, Lieutenant- 
Colonel W. P. Richardson, C. E., U. S. A.; Secretary and Dis- 
bursing Office, Lieutenant L. A. Kunzig, U. S. A. ; Engineer 
Officer, Lieutenant Glen E. Edgerton, C. E., U. S. A. 

ARIZONA 

State Board of Control, Phoenix : Ex-officio, Governor George 
W. P. Hunt and State Auditor J. C. Callaghan ; Chas. R. 
Osburn, Secretary. 

State Engineer, Lamar Cobb. 

Office Engineer, T. F. Nichols. 

Chief Clerk, E.'P. Adams. 

Division Engineers: J. S. Barlow, J. C. Ryan, F. G. Twitchell 
and Frank R. Goodman. 

ARKANSAS 

State Highway Commission, Little Rock; William B. Owen, 
Commissioner of State Lands, Highways and Improvemrnts, 
ex-officio Chairman; A. S. Kilgore; Thomas Burress; Ben 
Spires, Deputy Commissioner of State Lands. 

Secretary, M. F. Dickinson. 

State Highway Engineer, H. R. Carter. 

CALIFORNIA 

State Highway Commission, Sacramento : Charles D. Blaney, 
Chairman; Xewell D. Darlington; Charles F. Stern. 

Secretary, Wilson R, Ellis. 

State Highway Engineer, Austin B. Fletcher; First Assistant 
Highway Engineer, George R. Winslow ; Second Assistant High- 
way Engineer, Lester H. Gibson. 

Attorney, Charles C. Carleton; Purchasing .Agent, H. L. War- 
ren; Chief Accountant, John H. Small; Geologist, Clarence B. 
Osborne; Chief of Right of Way Department, George B. Har- 
rison. 

Division and Assistant Division Engineers : Division 1— F. G. 
Somner, Division Engineer, Willits ; F. W. Haselwood, Principal 
Assistant Engineer, Willits. Division 2— T. A. Bedford, Divi- 
sion Engineer, Dunsmuir; R. H. Stalnaker, Principal Assistant 
Engineer, Dunsmuir; H. S, Comly, Assistant Division Engineer, 
Dunsmuir. Division 3— W. S. Caruthers, Division Engineer. 
Sacramento; T. E. Stanton, Jr., Assistant Division Engineer. 
Sacramento; S. S. Stahl, Assistant Division Engineer, Sacra- 



mento. Division 4 — A. E. Loder, Division Engineer, San Fran- 
cisco; R. K. West, Principal Assistant Engineer, San Francisco. 
Division 5— W. C. Howe, EHvision Engineer, San Luis Obispo; 
A. A. Peters, Assistant Division Engineer, San Luis Obispo; 
George Mattis, Assistant Division Engineer, San Luis Obispo. 
Division 6 — J. B. Woodson, Division Engineer, Fresno; D. W. 
Chamberlain, Assistant EHvision Engineer, Fresno. Division 7 — 
W. L. Clark, Division Engineer, Los Angeles; S. V. Cortelyou, 
Assistant Division Engineer, Los Angeles; W. W. Patch, As- 
sistant Division Engineer, Los Angeles. 

Advisory Board: Governor Hiram W. Johnson; J. J. Dwyer, 
President, State Board of Harbor Commissioners ; F. W. Hatch, 
General Superintendent of State Hospitals; W. F. McClure, 
State Engineer; Messrs. Blaney, Darlington and Stern (of the 
commission), appointed members. 

COLORADO 

State Highway Commission, Denver: State Highway Com- 
missioner, T. J. Ehrhart ; Secretary- Engineer, J. E. Maloney. 

Advisory Board, Denver : J. M. Kuykendall, Chairman ; L. E. 
Curtis, Vice Chairman, Colorado Springs ; Charles R. McLain, 
Canon City; C. E. Herr, Durango ; L. Boyd Walbridge, Meeker. 

CONNECTICUT 

State Highway Commission, Hartford : State Highway Com- 
1 'ssioner, Charles J. Bennett ; I>eputy Highway Commissioner, 
kijiard L. Saunders; Superintendent of Repairs, W. Leroy 
"Irich. 

Division Engineers : Robert W. Stevens, Hartford ; Elmer C. 
Welden, Willimantic ; Carrol C. Campbell, Middletown ; George 
E. iSmith, New Milford ; Robet S. Hulbert, Winsted ; Orrin W. 
Head, New Haven. 

Supervisors of Repairs: Jedediah Deming, Hartford; F". W. 
Pratt, West Willington R. E. Donnelly, Bridgeport; B. A. 
Cooke, New Haven; E. P. O'Brien, Naugatuck; H. H. Daven- 
port, Pomfret; M. F. Mulville, Norfolk; D. R. Kane, Deep 
River; A. C. Innis, New Milford. 

DELAWARE 

Kent County — County Road Engineer, W. Hart Scott, Dover. 

New Castle County — State Highway Commissioner and County 
Engineer, James Wilson, Wilmington. 

Sussex County — County Road Engineer, Morgan T. Gum, 
Georgetown. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Engineer Department: Engineer-Commissioner, Major Charles 
W. Kutz, U. S. A. 

Chief Clerk, Daniel E. Garges. 

Surface Division : Capt. W. D. A. Anderson, Assistant to 
Engineer-Commissioner, in charge ; Engineer of Highways, C. 
B. Hunt ; Superintendent of Streets, H. N. Moss ; Superinten- 
dent of Suburban Roads, L. R. Grabill ; Engineer of Bridges, 
D. E. McComb; Superintendent of Street Cleaning, J. W. Pax- 
ton ; Inspector of Asphalts and Cements. J. O. Hargrove ; Sur- 
veyor, M. C. Hazen ; Superintendent of Trees and Parkings, 
Trueman Lanham. 

Assistant Engineers : J. W. Dare, G. V. Rector, A. S. Fennell, 
W. W. Curtiss, A. S. Fernald, E. G. Emack, O. B. Magruder, 
T. J. Powell and S. J. Gass. 

FLORIDA 

A law providing for a State Road Department consisting 
of five members, has recently been passed by the Florida 
Legislature. Up to the time of going to press, however, no 
information had been received relative to appointments. 



18 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3. 1915 



GEORGIA 

Tbrrr is iio crnlral authority having charge ut read wurk in 
Gcorjim. Th* Prison Commission has su|HTvision over the state 
coavkts wiio are used on roail work. thouKh the coinniissinn 
exercises no anthorily over the work done hy the prisoners. 
In the past, both the Prison (.'omniission and the (Geological 
IVpanmenl have collected data on road work in the slate. 

Prison Commission, .\tlania : (."hairinau, R. F-". Davison: T. E. 
Patterson; E. I_ Rainey; Thomas P. Stanley, Highway Sn|K>r- 
tisor (appointed hy the Prison Commission). 

Suie Geokiftical IV|>artment. Atlanta: S. W . McCallie. State 
Geologist; J. K. Brantly, .\ssistant Geologist: H. K. Shearer, 
.\tsistant Slate Geologist; Edgar Everhart. Chemist. 

IDAHO 

Mate Highway Commi-ssion. Hoisc : U . .\. Hrodhead, Chair- 
man : K. .\. \'an Sicklin ; Secretary of State George R. Harker, 
Secretary. 

Sla'r lti,..t.>i:.v l-'iigincvr. li. il. Itooth. 

ILLINOIS 

State Highway Commission, Springfield : .\. I). Gash, Presi- 
dent; S. E. Rradl. Secretary: James P. W il-son. 

Chief Stale Highway Engineer, \V. \V. Marr: Assistant Stale 
Highway Engineer, P. C. Mc.Ardle: Road Engineer. II. E. Bil- 
grr; Bridge Engineer. C. OWer; .Vssi.stant Engineers, R. H. 
Picpmeier and G. F. Burch ; Testing Engineer, F. L. Roman ; 
Chief CTerk. J. M. McCoy. 

Dirision Engineers: H. M. Hushnell. .\urora: K. L. Bell. 
Paris: H. E. Surman. Rock Island: .\. II. Hunter, Peoria: Fred 
Tarrant. Springfield; C. M. Slaymaker, Fjtst St. Ix)uis: J. E. 
Huber, Marion. 

INDIANA 

Stale Highway Coniniission (for'investigation), Indianap- 
olis: President, .\ddison C. Harris. Indianapolis: Thomas 
Taggart. Indianapolis; \V. H. O'Brien, Lawrenceburg; Leon- 
ard B. Clore, La Porte; Prof. R. L. Sackett, Purdue Univer- 
sity, Lafayette: Secretary. Luke W. Duffey. 

.Advisory Commission: First District, Lewis Taylor, New- 
Imrg: Second District. E. R. Cumings, Bloomington; Third 
District. .\Ibert P. Fenn. Tell City: Fourth District, I. Newton 
Brown. Franklin: Rfth District. William \\ Franklin. Danville: 
Sixth District, Maurice Douglas, llatrock: Seventh District, 
C. .\. Kenyon. Indianapolis: Eighth District, John H. Rether- 
ford. .Muncie: Ninth District, D. F. .\faish, Frankfort, and J. G. 
Short. Hilbboro; Tenth District, .Michael Duffey. l-'owler; Elev- 
enth District. William Jones. F'airmount, and Oliver Kline. 
Huntington ; TweKth District. George V. Kcll, l-ort Wayne; 
Thirteenth District, .\aron Jones. South Bend. 

IOWA 

Stale Highway Commission, .\mes: Commissioners: A. Mars- 
ton. Chairman; J. W. Holdeu:.H. C. Beard. 

Highway Engineer. Thomas H. .Macdonald; Designing Engi- 
neer. C. B. .McCullough: Field Engineer. F. R. White; Office 
Engineer. J. H .Ames: Engineer in Charge. Educational Depart- 
ment. J. S. Dodds: Engineer in Charge of Safe Crossings 
llepartment. E. Williams. 

Chief Clerk. ,\nnie I^urie Bowcn. 

District Fjigineers; District 1. C. C. Coykendall. Ames: Dis- 
trict 2. U. H. Root. Mason City; District 3. W. i:. Jones, Ames; 
District 4. I.. M. Martin. .Atlantic. 

KANSAS 

'»ff>ce of Suie Fjigincer. Kansas State .Agricultural OjUcge. 
Manhattan; State Engineer. W. S. Gearhart: Drainage and 
frrigalinn Fjigineer. H, B. Walker. 

AsMstani Engineers: A R. Ij)sh, C. T. Felps and AV. J. King. 



KENTUCKY 

Department of Public. Koads, Frankfurt: Commissioner of 
Public Roads, R. C. Terrell: Bridge Engineer R. Wiley; First 
.Assistant Highway ICngineer, R. H. Reese; .Assistant Bridge 
I-'ngineers, J. l'". Grimes and W. J. Carrel : .Assistant Engineer, 
W. L. .\IcI>>'er; Division Engineers, M. D. Ross, T. B. Webber, 
Lewis T. Haney and Walter K. Rowe : Engineer of Tests. O. V. 
Terrell : Chief Clerk, J, M. Kendall. 

LOUISIANA 

Board of Stale luigineers, Higliway Dcpartinent. Xevv Orle- 
ans: State Highway Engineer, W. K. .\tkinson : .Assistant 
Engineer, Charles M. Kerr : Engineer of Construction and 
-Maintenance, Lewis T. Gilmer; Secretary, Charles K. Wood: 
Ortice Engineer, C. G. Cappel ; Draftsman. K. G. Sandoz. 

Resident Engineers: T. S. Shields, Baton Rouge; II. T. 
Richardson, Hammond; l\'. C. Daigre, Shreveport: A. 1). Lam- 
bert, Covington; W. H. Norckauer, Baton Rouge: E. J. C. 
Burroughs, Jena; C. .A. Spencer, Belcher: J. L. Wheless, Cov- 
ington; H. H. flolloway. Baton Rouge: W. P. Reymmul. Jr., 
I^fayette: L. J. Daigre, Minden. 

MAINE 

Stale lligliway Commission, .Augusta: Pliilip J. Deiriiig. 
Chairman: Wm. M. .Ayer; b'rank .A. Peal)ody. 

Chief Engineer, Paul D. Sargent. 

.Assistant Engineers: P. L. Hardison, in Charge of State 
Aid; L. D. Barrows; L W. Barbour: \V. T. Allen; G. F. H. 
Bragdon; H. H. Dole. 

MARYLAND 

State Roads Commission, Baltimore : Ex-Officio, Governor 
Philips Lee Goldsborough ; Chairman, O. E. Wcller : .\ssistant 
to Chairman, Frank .A. Zouck; Thomas Parran ; John M. Ferry: 
J. I'rank Smith: Andrew Ramsay: Walter B. Miller. 

Secretary, \\illiam .A. Marcy. 

Chief Engineer, Henry G. Shirley: luiginecr of Surveys, John 
N. Mackall : .Assistant Engineer, B. F, I larrison. 

Resident Engineers : R. W. Owens, Washington. D. C. : W. F. 
Childs, Jr., Salisbury; Gault Applcgarth, Chestertown : L. T. 
r>owney, Cumberland; C. A. Tenney, Frederick; C. S. Gale. 
Washington, D. C. ; E. H. Wroe, Baltimore: E. Friesc, Bal- 
timore. 

Maintenance Engineer, A. 1". Shurc, Baltimore. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Highway Commission, I'.oston : Chairman, Wm. D. Sohier: 
I'Vank D. Kemp : James W. Synan. 

Secretary, Frank I. Bieler. 

Chief Engineer, Arthur W. Dean; First Assistant Engineer, 
.Andrew M. Lovis. 

Division Engineers: C. H. Howes, Greenfield: J. A. Johnston. 
Springfield; V. C. Pillsbury, Boston: W. R. Farrington, Middle- 
boro. 

MICHIGAN 

State Highway Department, Lansing: State Highway Com- 
missioner, Frank F. Rogers; Deputy State Highway Commis- 
sioner, Leroy C. Smith. 

Bridge luigincer, C. V. Dewart. 

Office Engineer, W. S. Cumming. 

Chief Draftsman, H. L. Brightman. 

District Engineers: L. H. Belknap, Lansing; Wm. W. Cox, 
Kalamazoo; L. H, Neilsen, Cadillac: R. W. Roberts, Saginaw; 
K. I. Sawyer, Escanaba; L. D. Townsend, [.ansing. 

MINNESOTA 

Stale Highway Commission, St. Paul: C. M. Rabcock, Chair- 
man; F. B. Lynch; Clarence L McNair. 

Secretary and State Engineer, George W. Cooley. 

Deputy Engineers; Roads, John H. Mullen; Bridges, Carl 
E. Nagel. 

Chief Clerk, S. C. Notestein. 



)uly 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



19 



MISSISSIPPI 

There is no central authority having charge of road work in 
this state. 

MISSOURI 

State Highway Department, Jeflfcrson City: hVank VV. Huffum, 
State Highway Commissioner; E. W. Sheets, Deputy State 
Highway Commissioner. 

MONTANA 

State Highway Commission, Helena: Ex-Officio, State Engi- 
neer A. \V. iMahon; L. D. Conklin. 

Secretary and Highway Engineer, George R. Metlen. 
Bridge Engineer, C. A. Kyle. 

NEBRASKA 

State Board of Irrigation, Highways and Drainage, Lincoln: 
Governor John H. ^ilorehead, President ; Attorney General Wil- 
lis E. Reed ; Commissioner of Public L^ids and Buildings Fred 
Beckmann, 

State Engineer, George E. Johnson ; .-Vssistant State Engineer, 
VV. D. J. Steckelberg. 

NEVADA 

There is no central authority having charge of road work in 
this state. 



Resident Engineers; Division 1, E. J. Howe, Lowell Gross- 
man and John R. Kalley, Poughkeepsie ; Division 2, Charles T. 
Fisher, Albany, and .\. S. Mirick, Plattsburg; Division 3, 
Thomas- J. Schoenlaub, VVatertown ; Division 4, Roy F. Hall, 
Utica; Division 5, R. E. Miller, and Arthur Richards, Assistant 
1-ngineer; Division 6, R, J. Marcher, Syracuse; Division 7, 
James E. Kelley, Rochester; Division 8, Richard V. Collings, 
Hornell; Division 9, Charles M. Edwards, Buffalo, and Geo. T. 
Keith, Olean. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

State Highway Commission, Raleigh : Chairman, Governor 
Locke Craig; Secretary, State Geologist Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt; 
Benehan Cameron ; \V. C. Riddick ( Professor, North Carolina 
Agricultural and Mechanical College); T. F. Hickerson (Pro- 
fessor, University of North Carolina); Guy V. Roberts. 

State Highway Engineer, VV. S. Fallis. 

Highway Engineers: D. Tucker Brown, Greensboro; R. E. 
Snowden, Snowden ; R. P. Coble, Sanford; R. T. Brown, Lex- 
ington; Wythe M. Peyton, Spruce Pine; J. Roy Pennell, Snow 
Hill; Ira B. Mullis, Lumherton ; S. B. Howard, Henderson. 

NORTH DAKOTA 

State Highway Commission, Bismarck: Governor L. B. 
Hanna; C. A. Grow, Minot; Secretary, State Engineer Jay 
W. Bliss. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 

State Highway Department, Concord : Acting State Highway 
Commissioner, F. E. Everett. 

Division Engineers: F. W. Brown, Concord; W. A. Grover, 
Dover; F. H. Colburn, Concord; H. L. Smith, Lakeport ; C. M. 
Brooks, Keene; C. H. Chandler, Whitefield; O. M. James, 
Northwood Narrows ; C. P. Riford, Concord. 

Chief Clerk, C. C. Howe. 

NEW JERSEY 

Department of Public Roads, Trenton : State Commissioner 
of Ptiblic Roads, Col. Edwin A. Stevens ; State Highway Engi- 
neer, Robert A. Meeker. 

Division Engineers : E. M. Vail, Plainfield ; Edward E. Reed, 
Trenton ; Lloyd McEntire, Trenton ; Roy Mullins, Collingswood. 

NEW MEXICO 

State Highway Commission, Santa Fe : Chairman, Governor 
Wm. C. McDonald ; Secretary, Land Commissioner Robert P. 
Ervien ; Engineer, State Engineer James A. French. 

NEW YORK 

State Commission of Highways, Albany : State Commissioner 
of Highways. Edwin Duffey; First Deputy Commissioner, H. 
Filing Breed; Second Deputy Commissioner, Fred W. Sarr; 
Third Deputy Commissioner, Benjamin J. Rice. 

Secretary. Irving J. Morris. 

Secretary to the State Commissioner of Highways, James 
T. Taaffe. 

Supervising Engineer, E. A. Bonney. 

Headquarters : S. D. Gill)ert, Auditor ; l>>ank R. Pennock, 
Assistant Secretary; Harry P. Condon, Cliief Clerk; John H. 
Richardson, Claim Agent ; Frank A. Hermans, Engineer of 
ISridgcs ; F. W. Burleigh, Chief of Bureau of Tests ; Jo ;ph 
E. Meyers, Chemist ; Mark W. Nelson, Assistant to First ^ -viiiy 
Commissioner ; R. VV. Baker, Assistant to Second Deputy Com- 
missioner; Fred Buck, Assistant to Third Deputy Commissioner. 

Division Engineers : Division 1, Bertrand H. Wait, Pough- 
keepsie ; Division 2, H. O. Schermerhorn, Albany ; Division 3. 
Theron M. Ripley, Watertown ; Division 4, James H. Sturde- 
vant, Utica ; Division 5. Howard E. Smith, Binghamton ; Divi- 
sion 6, Charles J. McDonough, Syracuse ; Division 7, Perry 
Filkin. Rochester; Division 8, Frederick Steele Strong, Hor- 
nell ; Division 9, William M. Acheson, Buffalo. 



OHIO 

State Highway Department, Columbus: State Highway Com- 
missioner, Clinton Cowen; Deputies: H. M. Sharp (Construc- 
tion), A. H. Hinkle (Maintenance and Repair) and J. R. Cham- 
berlin (Bridges). 

Chief Clerk, H. L. Hastings. 

Secretary, Marmion L. Freeman. 

Division Engineers: D. W. Seitz, Nicholas Koehler, T. T. 
Richards, W. G. Smith, Tracy Brindle, John Laylin, Harwood 
Lersch and H. D. Bruning. 

Engineers: Frank E. Withgott, Arch. W. Smith, Paul K. 
Scheidler, Glenn R. Logue, R. N. Waid, J. R. Burkey, J. W. 
Graham and R. K. Speidel. 

Testing Engineer, A. S. Rea. 

OKLAHOMA 

State Highway Department, Oklahoma City: State Commis- 
sioner of Highways, Sidney Suggs; Assistant State Commis- 
sioner of Highways and Secretary, Walter S. Gilbert; Highway 
Engineer, A. H. Collins, Tulsa. 

OREGON 

State Highway Commission, Salem: Governor James Withy- 
combe; Secretary of State Ben W. Olcott; State Treasurer 
Thomas B. Kay. 

Advisory Board: S. Benson, Portland; J. H. Alberts, Salem; 
Leslie Butler, Hood River. 

State Engineer, John II. Lewis (head of Highway Depart- 
ment) ; Chief Deputy State Engineer, E. I. Cantine; Auditor, 
G. Ed. Ross; Assistant Engineers, Howard W. Holmes, Salem, 
and Lyman Griswald, Portland ; Resident Engineer, E. F. 
Ayres, Sherwood. 

Division Engineers : VV. M. , Peters, -Vstoria ; F. A. Kittredge, 
Siskiyou; J. A. Elliott, Hood River; C. C. Kelly, Rainier. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

State Highway Department, Harrisburg : State Highway Com- 
missioner, Robert J. Cunningham; First Deputy Commissioner 
(in charge of Bureau of Township Highways), J. W. Hunter; 
Second Deputy Commissioner, George H. Biles. 

Chief Engineer, William D. Uhler. 

Bridge Engineer, Willis Whited. 

Chief Clerk, H. W. Fry; Statistician, W. R. D. Hall; Auditor, 
VV. R. Main. 



20 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



' \<*isUM En«in»*r»: P. M. Tebbs. Scranton: A. W. Burk, 
Sioi«stown; A. S. CUy. Bloomsburg; H. W. Gaybaugh, Frank- 
Hb: W. F- Crwsman. PhiUdclphia; W. A. Van Duzcr. \ork; 
W R. WoMmger, Harrisburg C. W. Hardt. Harrisburg; S. W. 
I.ck»n. Pittsborgh; J. T. Gcphart. Jr. (Acting Engineer). 
AnenM)«t.: C S. Lemon. Hollidaysbirg ; W. D. Meyers. Clear- 
held: T. C. Frame. Warren; A. B. Gray. Washuigton; J. S. 
Rhcfaey. WelUboro. 

AaaatuK NJaintenance Engineer. J. T. Gephart, Jr. 

MiiwiiBinrr Engineer, Bureau of Township Highways, W. A. 

Wyna. . ,-.• * 

Soperintendent of Asphakic Construction and Director ot 

Experimenul Laboratory. T. J. Keane. 

RHODE ISLAND 

Sttte Board of Public Roads. Providence: Chairman, John F. 
Rkbmood; Secretary. William C. Peckham; Benjamin F. Rob- 
iuon: Abram U Atwood; Frank Cole. 

Clerk. Peter J. Lannon. 

Oiief Engineer. Irving W. Patterson. 

SOUTH CAROLINA 
Department of .\griculture. Commerce and Industries, Colum- 
bia: Commissioner. E. J. Watson; Clerk. M. J. .Miller. 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

State Highway Commission. Pierre: Chairman, E. C. Issen- 
hatii. Redtield; SecreUry. Ben M. Wood. Rapid City; N. O. 
Ifonterud, Humboldt. 

Sutc Engineer, Homer M. Derr. 

TENNESSEE 

A law establishing a State Highway Commission was 
paMcd by the 19IS Legislature. Up to the time of going to 
prcM no advices as to appointments had been received. 

TEXAS 

There is no central authority having charge of road work 
in this state. 

UTAH 

State Road Commission, Salt Lake City: Chairman. William 
Spry; Vice Chairman, R. R. Lyman; Jesse D. Jewkes; William 
Peterson; W. D. Beers. 

Sttte Road Engineer and Secretary, E. R. Morgan. 



.Assistant State Highway Commissioner, C. B. Scott. 

Bridge Engineer, C. D. Snead; Assistant Engineer, D. 
McDonald. 

.\ssistant Engineers: W. V. Cocke, Richmond; F. D. Henley. 
Richmond; A. H. Pettigrew, Bristol; S. L. von Gcmmingen, 
Lynchburg. 

County Engineers : M. L. .Appleton, Houston ; C. L. Scott, Jr., 
Waynesboro; A. F". Brown, Danville; W. F. Anson, Lebanon; 

B. ,S. Crawford. Marion; G. W. Scott, Big Stone Gap; W. B. 
Deneen, Boydton; G. A. Martin, Tazewell; E. R. Cocke, Jr., 
Gate City. 

Resident Engineers: E. F. LaPrade, Onley; J. L. Cresap, 
Washington. D. C. ; G. E. Lemmon, .Arrington; J. D. Faunt- 
leroy, .Mexandria; S. J. Sadler, Uwrenceville ; B. R. Cowherd, 
Jr., Petersburg; F. H. Murray, Newport News; G. C. Applcton, 
Warrenton; C. S. Mullen. Richmond; W. I. Lee, Harrisonburg; 
S. C. Liggett. Gordonsville ; V. von Gemmingen, Victoria; J. J. 
Wright, Vienna. 

WASHINGTON 

State Highway Board, Olympia: Chairman, Governor Ernest 
Lister; Secretary, State Highway Commissioner W. R. Roy; 
Ex-Officio, State Treasurer Edward Meath; State Auditor C. 
W. Clausen; Charles A. Reynolds. 

Highway Department: State Highway Commissioner, W. R. 
Roy; Assistant State Highway Commissioner, Thos. G. Bush; 
Chief Engineer, James Allen; Right of Way Agent, Chas. L. 
Dufault; Principal .Assistant Engineers, C. R. Ege and H. W. 
Pettijohn. 

Assistant Engineers: F. K. Ausfahl. C. D. Ball, H. W. Boetz- 
kes, W. L. Bowen, H. J. Doolittle, J. A. Earley, Robert F. 
Foster, R. M. Gillis, C. F. Healey. Hans Mumm, l. C. Otis, 

C. H. Packer, F. H. Richardson, Chas. I. Signer, R. B. Thomas 
and P. W. Williams. 



WEST VIRGINIA 

State Road Bureau, Morgantown : Chief Road Engineer, A. 
Dennis Williams ; Dean of the College of Agriculture and Direc- 
tor of Experiment Station (at present vacant); A. H. Gray; 
J. William Lynch. 

Bridge Engineer, Dr. Roland Parker Davis; Assistant Bridge 
Engineers, Lawrence Lee Jemison, Joseph Shields Miller and 
Earl Lazier Miller. 

Chief Chemist, Bert Holmes Hite. 

Clerks, Bessie Catherine Scott and Charles Clifton Gill. 



VERMONT 

State Highway Department, Franklin: State Highway Com- 
■unioncr, Stoddard B. Bates. 

County Highway Supervisors : Addison County, J. E. But- 
tolph. Middlebury; Bennington County, J. I- Davis, Manchester 
Center; Caledonia County, M. M. Stocker, Danville; Chittenden 
County. M. E. Carpenter, Charlotte; Essex County, G. G. 
Temple. Lunenburg: Franklin County, J. C. Towle, Enosburg 
Falls; Grand Isle County. State Highway Commissioner Stod- 
dard B. Bates, f'ranklin ; Lamoille County, G. A. Barrows, Mor- 
rifrille: Orange County. M. C. Flanders, Tunbridge; Orleans 
County, A. B. Cobleigh. West Derby; Rutland County, C. F. 
WtlKs. Rutland: Washington County. R. S. Currier, Barre; 
Windham County, D. T. Perry, Brattleboro; Windsor County, 
M. C. Noye*. Sharon. 

VIRGINIA 
Sttte Highway Commission. Richmond : State Highway Com- 
misMoner. George P. Coleman: Wm. M. Thornton (Dean, Engi- 
neering Department. University of Virginia) ; R. B. H. Begg 
( Enginccrtng lAcpartment, Virginia Polytechnic Institute); Col. 
T. A. Jones (Professor of Civil Engineering. Virginia Military 
lostttnte). 



WISCONSIN 

State Highway Commission, Madison : Commissioners : John 
A. Hazelwood, Chairman ; W. O. Hotchkiss, Secretary ; F. E. 
Turneaure ; John S. Owen ; J. H. Van Doren. 

State Highway Engineer, A. R. Hirst. 

Bridge Engineer, M. W. Torkelson ; Engineer of Surveys, 

A. L. Luedke; Chief Inspector, J. T. Donaghey; Chief Clerk, 
William Dawson. 

Division Engineers : F. M. Balsley, Madison ; W. M. Conway, 
Green Bay; J. E. Gillespie, Grand Rapids; W. C. Buctow, La 
Crosse; S. P. Hall, Eau Claire; F. M. Sergeant, Ashland. 

Assistant Engineers: H. D. Blake, Madison; G. H. Nickell, 
Waukesha ; D. E. Dodge, Madison ; A. E. Kringel, Green Bay ; 
F. F. Mengel, Grand Rapids ; T. M'. Reynolds, La Crosse ; 
W. M. de Berard, Waukesha ; Gordon F. Daggett, Madison. 

WYOMING 

There is no central authority having charge of road work 
in the state. 
State Engineer, James B. True ; Deputy State Engineer, Albert 

B. Bartlett ; Assistant State Engineer, C. D. Shawver. 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



21 



Statistics on Paving in Cities of the United States 



In the several tables forming the larger part of this article 
are presented statistics on street paving work done in leading 
cities of the United States in 1914 and on similar work planned 
for the current year. The figures have been obtained from the 
city engineers, superintendents of streets or other officials having 
charge of street work in about 500 cities. 

In order to secure this data, inquiries were sent to the author- 
ities having charge of street work in all of the cities, towns and 
villages of the United States of over 5,000 population— a total 
of upwards of 1,200. The returns as they were received were 
transferred to the tables printed herewith, which explains the 
apparent lack of order in the reference marks referring to 
footnotes for the several tables. 

Tal)le I shows the total amounts and costs of pavements laid 
in 1914 and laid or to be laid in 1915 in the various cities; 
Tables II-A and II-B show the amounts and costs of each of 
several kinds laid in 1914, and Tables III-A and III-B are 
similar to II-A and II-B but are for 1915. Tables IV to XII, 
inclusive, show the methods of construction followed for various 
kinds of pavements in the different cities, and Table XIII shows 
the prevailing prices of labor and materials in different 
localities. 

While the greater part of the information collected can 
readily be shown in tabular form, certain special features can 
not be indicated in the tables. So far as possible, these spe- 
cial points have been covered by marks referring to footnotes 
printed at the end of each table. In other cases a footnote 
to cover the point involved would be too lengthy and, there- 
fore, recourse has been had to more extensive notes, which 
should be read in connection with the tables. These notes are 
referred to by the reference mark (r), which appears fre- 
quently in most of the tables, and which appears in the foot- 
notes for each table, as follows: "(r) See notes on Table — ." 
For instance, the reference mark (r) in Table I against a 
return from any particular city refers to the paragraph on that 
city under the caption "Notes on Table I." 

The figures given by the city officials have been taken from 
the blanks and transferred to the tables without change, 
except in some few cases of obvious errors in notation, and, 
therefore, some discrepancies will be noted. For instance, it 
may be that the total amount of paving laid in 1914 in a cer- 
tain city as indicated by the figures in Table I will not cor- 
respond exactly to the total amount of paving laid in that 
city as obtained J)y adding the figures for each different kind 
given in Tables II-A and II-B. With the large number of 
cities which replied, it has been found impossible to check all 
of the returns and make the necessary inquiries to correct 
these errors where errors were found. It is believed, how- 
ever, that none of the discrepancies of this kind are serious. 
NoteH on Table I. 
Los Angeles, Cal. — Data given for fiscal year ending July 1, 
1914. 

Danbury, Conn. — No new worl< scheduled for 1915. About 
112,000 will be expended for repalr.s. 

Meriden, Conn. — Costs of pavement laid in 1914 given as fol- 
lows: Brick, $2.50 per sq. yd.; reinforced concrete, without 
bituminous topping, $1.25 to $1.32 per sq. yd.; wood block, $3.04 
to $3.32 per sq. yd.; costs including foundation but not grading. 
Tallahassee, Fla. — City proposes to do considerable paving 
and curbing, but exact amount not yet determined. 

Des Moines, la. — Cost includes incidental work but not 
grading. 

Fort Madison, la. — See Tables II-A and II-B. 
Baltimore. Md. — Work under Jurisdiction of the Paving Com- 
mission. In addition the Paving Commission joined the City 
Engineer's Department by paying a portion of the cost of lay- 
ing about 11,285 sq. yds. of sheet asphalt and granite block 
paving. 

Brookline. Mass, — Costs of pavement laid in 1914 given as 
follows: Bitulithic, $1.61 per sq. yd.; bituminous macadam, 45 
to 80 cts. per sq. yd.; water bound macadam, 45 cts. per sq. yd.; 
all prices including grading but not foundation. 



Needham, Mass. — Costs of paving laid in 1914 given as follows: 
Bituminous macadam, 62% cts. per sq. yd.; gravel, 35 cts. to 45 
cts. per sq. yd.; costs including foundation but not grading. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Total cost not given; see unit cost of 
each particular kind of pavement. 

Anaconda, Mont.— Eight blocks of asphaltlc concrete pave- 
ment contracted for. 

Great Falls. Mont. — Costs of 1914 work given as follows: 
Gravel-Bltulithic, $1.81 cts. per sq. yd.; concrete without bitu- 
minous topping. $1.25 per sq. yd.; water bound macadam. 35 
cts. per sq. yd.; costs including foundation but not grading. 
No cost given for wood block. 

Livingston, Mont. — Will probably lay about 25,000 sq. yds. 

Kearney, Neb.— See Tables II-A and II-B. 

Keene, N. H.— Amount laid reported too small to be taken 
into account. 

Summit, N. J. — See Table II-B. 

New York, N. Y., Borough of the Bronx.— Amount depends 
upon petitions from property owners and cannot be given in 
advance. 

Solvay, N. Y. — See Table II-B. 

Zanesvllle, Ohio. — Probable amount. 

Hanover, Pa. — Yardage given includes 11,000 sq. yds. of War- 
renite built under state aid. 

Philadelphia. Pa. — Amount of work to be done in 1915 cannot 
be estimated. The total amount available for all kinds of work 
done under the supervision of the Bureau amounts to about 

$7,900,000. 

Scranton, Pa. — Figures given for pavements to be laid in 1915 
include contracts awarded to May 11; additional contracts will 
be awarded later. 

Pawtucket, R. I.— In 1914 laid 9,235 sq. yds. of pavement and 
also 1.05 miles; see Tables II-A and II-B for details. 

Charleston, S. C. — Only unit prices given; see Tables II-A 
and II-B. 

Aberdeen, Wash. — Only unit costs given; see Tables II-A 
and II-B. 

Charleston, W. Va. — Data not available at present. City is 
making about $485,000 worth of street improvements. 

Notes on Table II-A. 

Los Angeles, Cal, — See note for Table I. 

Hartford, Conn. — Sheet asphalt laid comprised 19,000 sq. yds. 
of resurfacing and 19,290 sq. yds. of new work. The work was 
done by contract at the price given in table. In addition, there 
was laid 5,330 sq. yds. of street railway area work, the cost of 
which is not included in the price given. Concrete with bitu- 
minous topping done by city labor. 

Baltimore, Md. — Work under jurisdiction of Paving Commis- 
sion only. Contract prices as follows: Sheet asphalt paving, 
average exclusive of unusual bids, $1.22 to $1.95 per sq. yd.; 
sheet asphalt repaving, $1.80 per sq. yd.; concrete, $1.17 per 
sq. yd. 

Boston, Mass. — Bituminous concrete comprised 25,861 sq. yds. 
on a concrete foundation costing $1,375 per sq. yd. and 15,335 
sq. yds. on an old macadam foundation costing $0,896 per sq. 
yd., both costs Including grading. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Bituminous concrete laid in 1914 includes 
15,704 sq. yds. of new work, at $1.49 per sq. yd., the cost includ- 
ing a 5-in. concrete base, and 26,918 sq. yds. of resurfacing on 
an old stone block pavement at a cost of 85 cts. per sq. yd. 

Kansas City. Mo. — Bituminous macadam laid includes 27,700 
sq. yds. of resurfacing on an old base. 

Reno, Nev. — Asphalt pavement was resurfacing work. 

Buffalo, N. Y. — Sheet asphalt laid in 1914 comprised 74,595 
sq. yds., costing $263,238; 4,730 sq. yds. of sheet asphalt on an 
old base, costing $13,950, and 136,376 sq. yds. of asphalt repaving. 
costing $444,850. The prices are contract prices and Include 
grading and some incidental work. 

New York. N. Y.. Borough of Manhattan. — Cost includes in- 
cidental work, but usually not grading, streets being to grade 
when paving operations take place. 

New York, N. Y., Borough of Queens. — Bituminous macadam 
laid by department labor. 

Schenectady, N, Y. — Sheet asphalt included 7,286 sq. yds. "sand 
filled" at $2.00 per sq. yd., and 63,173 sq. yds. of "stone filled" 
at $1.50 per sq. yd., both costs being the total cost. 
[Notes Continued on Page 47.] 



GOOD ROADS 



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GOOD ROADS 



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GOOD ROADS 



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38 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 191; 



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GOOD ROADS 



'39 



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40 



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July 3, 1915 



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GOOD ROADS 



TABLE IV.-CONSTRUCTION DETAILS-SHEET ASPHALT 



-Foundati 



Q <U 

ll 

city. Kind. ^ 
AIal>aiiiii. 

Gadsden Concrete :;:3:.") 

California. 

Bakersfleld. . . .Ash. Concr 

Long Beach Concrete 1:7 

Sacramento Concrete .... 

Connecticut. 

Bridgeport Concrete ):.'!:i; 

Hartford Concrete l;3:i; 

New Haven Concrete l;.'!:i; 

DlHt. of Columbia. 

Washington Concrete l:.'<:T 

Illinois. 

Chicago Concrete l::!:il 

Roclc Island Concrete l;3:6 

Indiana. 

Fort Wayne Concrete l:;i:r) 

South Bend Concrete i:, 

Kansas. 

Salina Concrete 1:3:6 

Kentucicy. 

Louisville Concrete 1:3:6 

Louisiana. 

New Orleans ....Concrete 1:3:5 

Massachusetts. 

Boston Concrete 1:3:7 

MIciiigan. 

Detroit Concrete 1:3:6 

Saginaw Concrete I:-'/™ 

Minnesota. 

St. Paul Concr. (a) ... 

Missouri. 

St. Louis Concrete 1:4:7 

Nebraska. 

Lincoln Concrete 1:3:6 

Nevada. 
Reno Cem. Concr 

Ne^T Jersey. 

Bayonne Concrete 1:3:6 

Camden Concrete 1:3:6 

Newark Concrete 1:3:6 

New York. 

Albany Concrete 1:3:6 

Buffalo Concrete .... 

New York: 

Bronx Cem. Concr. 1:3:6 

Brooklyn Concrete 1:3:6 

Manhattan Concrete 1:3:6 

Queens ...Concrete i:3:6 

Poughkeepsie ....Concrete 1:3:5 

Schenectady Concrete 1:":6 

Syracuse Concrete 1:3:6 

Yonkers Concrete 1:3:5 

North Carolina. 

Charlotte Concrete 1:3:6 

Ohio. 

Columbus Concrete 1:4:7 

Hamilton Concrete 1:7 

Lorain Concrete 1:3:6 

Sandusky Concrete 1:3:6 

Oregon. 

Portland Concrete 1:3:6 

Pennsylvania. 

Allentown Concrete 1:3:6 

Chester Concrete 1:3:6 

Dunmore 

Erie Concrete 1:2 V2 : 

Philadelphia Concrete 1:3:6 

Scranton Concrete 1:3:6 

Wilkes Barre ....Concrete 1:3:6 

Rhode Island. 

Pawtucket Concrete .... 

Providence Concrete 1:3:6 







Wearing Surface 


a 
Q 


|i 

Is 






5 


1 


2 2 


6 


4 

4 
4 


1 

2 
1 


1% 1% 
1% 2% 
1% 1V4 


None 
None 


6 
6 
6 


2 
2 
2 


l^-l'/4 3 
1%-H4 3 
l'/2-l% 3 


5 
5 
5 


6 


2 


1%-1% 3 


5 


6 
5 


2 
2 


l%-2 3V4 
1>A-1% 3 


5 
6 


6 
5 


2 
2 


1 -1% 2'A 
1V4-1% 3 


5 
5 


5 


1 


2 


5 


5 


2 


1-2 3 


5 


6 


2 


2 -1% 3% 


5 


6 


2 


lH-1% 3 


5 


6 
5 6 


2 

2 


1^-2 3^4 
1 -1% 2% 


10 
5 


6 


2 


1-2 3 




5 


1 






5 


2 


1%-1V4 3 


5 


6 


2 


2 -1% 3% 




5 
6 
6 


2 
2 

2 


1 -1% 2% 
1 -2 3 
1V4-2 3% 


5&10 
5 or 10 


6 
6 




3 

3% 


5 
10 


6 
4, 5 or 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


2 

6 2 

2 

2 

"2 
2 
2 


1 -Ihi 2^ 
1 -2 3 
I'/i-l^ 3 
1-2 3 

1 ' '-2 ■ 3' ' 
1-2 3 
1-2 3 


5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
• 5 
5 or 10 
5 


4 


2 


1-2 3 


5 


6 
6 
6 
6 


2 
2 
2 
2 


1-2 3 
1 -I'A 2% 
1 -1% 2% 
1 -1% 2% 


5 
5 
5 
5 


5 


2 


1 -2 3 


10 


4-5 
6 


2 


1%-1 3 


5 
5 


7 5 

• 6 

6 

6 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


1-2 
114-1^ 3 
1-2 3 
1-2 3 


5 
5 
5 
5 
10 



2 1 



-Foundation- 



Wearing Surface 



is 

52 






City. Kind. 

South Carolina. 

Anderson Concrete 

Charleston . . . . Concrete 

Tennessee. 

KnoxvlUe Concrete 

.Memphis Concrete 

Utah. 
Ogden Concrete 

Virslnia. 
.Vorfolk Concrete 

Washlnston. 

Aberdeen Concrete 

Olympia Concrete 

Seattle Concrete 

Wisconsin. 

Green Bay Concrete 

Madison Concrete 

Stevens Point . . . .Concrete .... 
Superior Concrete l:2i^:5 



1:3:5 
1:3:6 



1:3:6 
1:3:6 



1:3:6 



1:3:6 
1:3:6 



1:3:5 
1:3:5 



Is 



!S2 
f.5 






1%-lJ 
1V4-M 



si 

CM 



2 ] 



-2 3 

-1% 3% 



4 
4 to I 



1%-1V4 3 
1 -1% 2% 



-2 3 

-1% 2% 
-2 3 



3 

2 

2H 



§1 



6 

6 

6 
5 

6 

5 

4 (r) 
5 



(a)natural cement concrete. 



TABLE VI.— CONSTRUCTION DETAILS— BITULITHIC 



-Foundatlon- 



■o 

c 

City 5 

Alabama. 

Gadsden Concrete 

.\rizona. 

Phoenix Concrete 

Arkansas. 

Helena Concrete 

Kansas. 

Rosedale Concrete 

Louisiana. 

New Orleans Concrete 

Massachusetts. 

Boston Concrete 

Brookline 

New Bedford Bkn. Stone 

Springfield Concrete 

Missouri. 

St. Louis Concrete 

SpringHeld Concrete 

Montana. 

Billings Concrete 

Bozeman Rock 

Great Falls Concrete 

Nebraska. 

Columbus Concrete 

Ne^v Hampshire. 
Portsmouth Concrete 

Ne^v Jersey 

Newark Concrete 



O t. »> 



1:3:6 



Wearing 
—Surface— 



«-.£(« 



1:3 
1:3 
1:3 
1:3 

lV3':E 

1:4:'! 
1:3:7 

1:6 
1:3 -5 

1:2:4 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 



0-5 





5 
4 
6 

6 

'4 
5 

5 
4 

5 
4 
4 

6% 
4-5 



0.0 



c 3 S 



0- ^°^ 



2 None 

1% 5 . 
2 5 

2 6 

2>4 .. 
2 5 

2% B(a) 



TABLE V.-CONSTRUCTION DETAILS— ASPHALT BLOCK PAVEMENT 



Foundation. 



Wearing Surface. 



City. 



Kind. 



Washington. D. C Concrete 

Savannah, Ga Sand 

Arkansas City, Kan Concrete 

New Orleans, La Concrete 

Newark, N. J Concrete 

Albany. N. Y Concrete 

New Rochelle, N. Y Old Concrete 

New York, N. Y. — 

Manhattan Concrete 

Bronx Cement Concrete 

Queens Concrete 

Yonkers, N. Y Concrete 

Defiance. Ohio Concrete 

West Pittston. Pa 

.«an Antonio, Tex Cnnrrefe 



Proportions 
CPor con- 
crete). 



1:2^4:5 
1:3:5 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:5 

1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:5 
1:3:» 

lV3':6 



Depth 
(Ins.) 



4 
6 
6 
6 
4 

6 
6 
6 
6 

6% 

■5 



Is Sand 

Cushion 

Used? 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes (b) 



Depth of 

Sand 
Cushion 
(Ins.) 






Kind of 
Filler 
Used 

Cement Grout 
Sand 



Tes 
Yes (c) 



(a)5-year guarantfe with optional 5 years longer at a fixed price per sq. yd. 
(d)speclflcatlons on which bids are received. 



Sand 
Sand 

Sand 
Sand 
Sand 

None 
Sand (d) 



Length of 

Guarantee 

Period 

(Years.) 

5 

'5 

5 or 10 
6 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
S 



(b)"sand and cement": (c)"dry mix" 



42 



GOOD ROADS 



Julv 3, 1915 



^AMi Vt-CONST«UCTION DETAILS-BITUUTHIC (Conti«u«l) 

Wearing 
FaundaHoo^ , ,-Surface-^ 



TABLE vn -CONSTRUCTION DETAILS-BITUMINOUS CONCRETE, 
lABLt vii.-^, MIXING METHOD (Continued) 

, Foundation , r-^^ laims huihue-^ 



atr 

nam T*rk. 

Herkimer . 
Ultl* PalU 
N«« Rochvll. 

N«w Tork: 

UUea 

Te«k*ra 






.I'oncrtfte l;S:S 

, Concrete I:>M:S 

old. Macadam 

i*oncreto 



,ind 
old Macadam 




ScrantOB Concrete 

Yoi-li Concrete 



Pr«rld«BC« Concrete 

AMtU*" Concrete 

Corpus Ckri»U Concrete 

Hooaloo Concrete 

San Antonio .Concrete 

VlrctBla. 
Richmond Concrete 

Waakta««ra 

Aberdeen "i?.?"",'* 

*-»^ '^•"- ?'^rrL".r" .... 2H(b)lV4 6 

T/^Tr.^'tfr".,•^T;"\b•',«YiV'l."E{i2lY^}..c^^2T-1n.'°X^- 
minoua cSncretrwIth IVk-ln. bltullthlc top^ 



l:S:B 

1:S:« 
l:J:7 

l:S:S 

1:S:S 



1:S:C 
1:S:6 

1:3:6 

1:7 
1:S:6 

{ 1:S :6 
1:S:6 

1:3:S 

1:3:6 



c 



a-- 



Ok 

52| 

bldu 

1 

6 



2 
3 

IH 



2 . 

2 

2 

7 . 

2 

1V4 



6 

10 



TABLE VII -CONSTRUCTION DETAILS-BITUMINOUS CONCRETE. 
MIXING METHOD. 

, Foundation ^ 



-Wearing Surface — > 



5 



I 



risrtAai 
Jaekaonrllle 



a 

I 

"s. .Concrete 
ntl 
..Old Mao 
. .Qravel 

1 . .Concrete 

.Concrete 



c 
1:2:3% 



C 



4± 

6-8 



Q 



Chicago Concrete 

BiKin Concrete 

Branaton Concrete 

Old Mac 
Waokesan . . . Concrete 



Elkhart Concrete 

Port Wayne. . .Concrete 

Itoone Concrete 

KaBBMi 
Junction City. .Concrete 
Manhattan ...Concrete 

Krs«Mkyi 
I»ulsvllle ....Concrete 

Lake ChATlea. .Concrete 
New Orleans. .Concrete 
■■■■■rk— rttoi 

Hprlnsfleld ...Concrete 
Old Mac. 

Weatboro 

Wcatfleld Ifacadam 

MIcMoai 
Battle Creek . .Concrete 
Detroit Concrete 



1:2:4 

1:3:6 
1:3:6 

1:3:6 
1:3:6 

1:3:E 
1:3:6 

1:3:4 

1:3:6 
l:5(b) 

1:3:6 

1:3:6 
1:3:5 



o'O 



(a) 
1 



to 

C 3 ^ 



None 
5 



1:7 
1:3:6 



Grand Rapids. .Concrete 1:3U:7 
Kalaroaaoo ...Concrete 1:8 



Manlstae Concrete 



1:3:6 

Bt-'^PaurT'TT" . .Concrete 1:2:6 

Ml— —til 

JopIlD Concrete 1:6 

8prtlM(fl«ld ...Concrete 1:3:7 

■■■•■■■I 
niiaswii Rock .... 

Wikiaalm 

Beatrice Concrete 1:3:6 

IJncoln I'oncrete 1:2:6 

%r^ HsMiiMblm 
Iji'orila rroncrata 1:2H:6 

\rm Jersey I 
Trrnton (irConr. 1:1:6 

>p«( Mesie*! 
l!-.««tfll Concrete 1:8 



4 to 6 

" '4 

6 
6 
6 

(S 
5 



2 
2 

IH 

2 
2 

2 
« 
2 



2 
2 

2M 

2 

2 



2(c) 
1 

2 

1 
) 



s 

O I 

New Yorki 

New York: 

Bronx Concrete l.i.b 

Richmond .Old Mac. .... 

Utica Concrete l:s:7 

No. Carolina I 

RalelR-h Concrete 

Obloi . , „ , 

Uelphos Concrete 1:2:4 

Lakewood Concrete 1:3:6 

Lima Concrete 1:3:6 

Ix)rain Concrete 1:3:6 

Oklahomat , „ . 

Mo.\lester ....Concrete 1:3:5 

Oreicon: 

Portland Cr. Stone .... 

Salem Concrete 1:3:6 

Pennsylvania! 

AUento wn ... Old Mac. .... 

Northampton .Slag Cone. 1:3:6 
Philadelphia ...Macadam 

and Cone. 1:3:6 

Rhode island! 

Pawtucket ...Concrete 

So. Cnrollnai , „ , 

Columbia Concrete 1:3:5 

Spartanburg ..Concrete 1:3:6 

So. Dakota I 

Watertown ...Concrete (d) 

Texas I „ . 

Denlson Concrete 1:3:5 

Houston Concrete 1:2V4:5 

Houston Concrete 1:3:6 

VIrKinIa: 

Danville Concrete 1:3:6 

WaHblnKton: 

Aberdeen Concrete .... 

Hoqulam Concrete (f) 

No. Yakima. . .Concrete 1:3:5 

Spokane Concrete 1:3:6 

Walla Walla 

Wisconsin! 
Madison Telford 



one 
S 



^(B>t 






0. 


c 


0) 


s= ? a; 


4 
■"5 




2 
2 
2 


1 
1 
1 


5 
5 

5 


4 




2 


1 


5 


6 
6 
6 
6 




2 

2 


1 
1 
1 

1 


6 

■ --j 
5 


4 




2 






4 
4 




2M, 
1% 


2 


10 


'"5 




"2% 


.. . . 


1 


4-5 




2-2 >^ 


1 


3 


4 




2 


1 




4 
4 




2 
2 


1 
1 


5 
6 


5 




2 


1 


5 


5 
5 
6 




2 
2 
2 


1 


5 

.=. 
5 


4 




2 


1 


None 


6 
6 

4 
5 




2 
2 

1% 
2 
(e) 


t 

1 
1 
1 
2 


Nonp 
2 

' "b 

6 



2yi 



(a)Warrenlte: (b) gravel concrete; (c) depths, % in. and 1% 
In.; (d)one sack cement to 6 cu. ft. of concrete in place; (e)two 
Itlnds — 3-ln. bituminous concrete with 1%-in. Topeka specifica- 
tion top, and 4-ln. crushed stone base with 2-in. Topeka speci- 
fication top; (f)one sack cement to 6^^ cu. ft. aggregate. 



VIII.— CONSTRUCTION DETAILS-BITUMINOUS MACADAM 
(PENETRATION METHOD). 



TABLE 



City 
California. 

Long Beach. . 
Redlands .... 



i^Foundation- 
Depth 
Kind (Ins.) 



Wearing 

Surface, 

Depth 

(Ins.) 



Binder Length 

Ap- of 

plied by Guar- 
Gravity antee 
or under Period 
Pressure (Yrs.) 



e% 



Gravity 
Pressure 



None 



Connectlcnt. 

Danbury 

New Haven... 
New London. . 
Putnam 



Georsla. 

Atlanta . . 



Illinois. 

Chicago Slag or 

Stone 

Elgin Macadam 

Evanston Slag and 

Limestone 



2Vi 
2V4 



Gravity 
Pressure 1 
Pressure 
Pressure 



Gravity None 



Indiana. 

Gary 



.Slag 



9 3 



6 3 



Kansas. 

Atchison Macadam 

Ottawa Macadam 

Keatncky. 

Bowling Green.. .Old W. B. 
Macadam 
Dayton Stone 

Ijoulslano. 

Baton Houm:*- 



6 3 



Gravity 2 
Gravity 3 

Gravity 3 



Gravity 5 
Gravity 2 



6 (4-1) 
4 (3-1) 



6 2 



None 



Maine. 

Portland 



Gravity 

Pressure 
Gravity 



[ulv 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



43 



TABLE Vin.-CONSTRUCTION DETAILS— BITUMINOUS MACADAM (PENETRATION METHOD) (Continued) 



Wearing 
, — Foundation — , Surface, 
Deptti Depth 
City Kind (Ins.) (Ins.) 

MnssaohuNetts. 

Atliol 

Boston 6 

Brooltline 

Concord Old Mac. 6 3 

Havertiill 6 (4-2) 

Loweil Old Mac. 4 4 

Needham Gravel 8 6 (4 and 2) 

No. Attieboro Gravel 5 4 (3 and 1) 

Northampton 4 (2%-li^) 

Springfleid Macadam 4 2 

Waltham Macadam .. 6 (41^-1-1%) 

Weliesley Gravel .. 6 

Westfield Macadam . . 6 

Mlchljj;iin. 

Marquette W.B.Mac. 6 2 (.1%-!) 

MiHHoarl. 

Kansas City Base Rock . 7 3 

3ievada. 

Reno 7 

Xe^v Hampshire. 

Laconia . . 5 (4-1) 

New York. 

Hoosick Palls 6 

Malone 3 8 

Mamaroneck Telford 8 4 

New Rochelle.. . .Macadam 4 2 
New York. 

Richmond Old Mac. .. 3 

Poughkeepsie 8 (4-3-1) 

Syracuse Limestone 6 3 



Binder Length 

Ap- of: 
plied by Guar- 
Gravity antee 
or under Period 
Pressure (Yrs.) 


Pressure 
Pressure 
Pressure 
Pressure 




Pressure 

Pressure 

Pressure 

Pressure 

Gravity 

Pressure 

Pressure 




Pressure 
Pressure 




Gravity 





Gravity 


to3 


Pressure 




Pressure 




Gravity 

Pressure 

Pressure 


None 
None 


Gravity 


1 


Gravity 


2 



Wearing 
, — Foundation — ^ Surface, 
Depth Depth 
City Kind (Ins.) (Ins.) 

I'ennsylvanlH. 
Pittston 8 

Rhode Inland. 

Providence Br'k'n St'ne 

or Gravel 5 2% 

South Carolina. 

Columbia Concrete 4 2 

Rock Hill 

Texas 

Longview Limestone 6 3 

San Antonio Macadam 6 9 

Wichita Palls. .. .Crushed 

Rock 6 8 



Vermont. 

Rutland 

Virginia. 

Danville Old Mac. 

Newport News... Earth 

West Virginia. 

Bluefleld Concrete 

AVisconsin, 

Chippewa Palls. .Concrete 

La Crosse Concrete 

Madison Telford 



6 2 



21/2 



Binder Length 

Ap- of 

piled by Ouar- 
Gravity antee 
or under Period 
Pressure (Yrs.) 

Gravity 

Pressure 

Gravity 

Gravity 



Gravity 1 
Pressure 5 

Gravity 5 



Gravity 



Pressure 



Gravity 



3»^ (3-%) 
2'/i 



Gravity 1 

Gravity 

Gravity None 



TABLE IX.-CONSTRUCTION DETAILS-BRICK. 



-Foundation- 



City Kind 

Arkansas. 

Fort Smith 

Helena Concrete 

Connecticut. 
Norwalk 

Florida. 
Jacksonville . . .- Concrete 

Georgia. 
Savannah Sand 

Illinois. 

Blue Island Concrete 

Chicago Concrete 

Chicago Heights Concrete 

Danville Concrete 

East St. Louis Concrete 

Elgin Concrete 

Evanston Concrete 

Freeport J Concrete 

) Crushed Stone 

Herrin Concrete 

Kankakee Concrete 

Mattoon C^oncrete 

Monmouth Concrete 

Pana Concrete 

Paris Concrete 

Peoria Concrete 

Pontiac Concrete 

Rockford Concrete 

Rock Island Concrete 

Springfield Concrete 

Taylorville (Concrete 

Waukegan Concrete 

Indiana. 

Crawfordsville Concrete 

Elkhart Concrete 

Fort Wayne Concrete 

Gary Concrete 

Huntington Concrete 

Laporte Concrete 

Lebanon Concrete 

Nob] PS v ill e Gravel 

Seymour 

South Bend Gravel 

Vincennes Concrete 

lon-a. 

Burlington Concrete 

Council Bluffs Concrete 

Fort Madison Concrete 

Oskaloosa Concrete 

Sioux City Concrete 

Kansas. 

.Atchison Concrete 

Fort Scott Concrete 

Hutchinson Concrete 

Independence Crushed Stone 

Ottawa Concrete 

Pittsburg /Concrete 

Rosedale Concrete 

Sallna Concrete 



Proportions 
(For Concrete) 



1:3:6 



1:3:6 



1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:8 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:5 
1:2:3 



'^:5 



1:3:6 

1:3:5 

1:10 

1:5 

1:8 

1:8 

1:2:3 

1:2 

1:3:6 

1:3:6 

1:7 

1:2:3 

1:3:6 



1:3:5 

1:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:5 
1:2%: 

1:3:7 



1:3:6 

1:3:6 
1:3:5 
1:3:5 

1:5 
1:21^:4 

1:2%:5 

1:3 -6 

1:3:5 
l:l%:5 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 



Depth 
(Ins.) 



5 
5 

6% 



4 
6 
6 
-5 
4 
5 
5 
6 
6(b) 



6 

6 

6 

10 

' "6 
5 

4 

4 

4 

4-6 

4 

4 
4 
6 
6 
4 
4 
5 



Depth 

of Sand 

Cushion 

(Ins.) 

4 
1% 

IH 



2 

2 

2 

2 

1% 

2 

2 

I'A 

lH(a) 

2 



-Wearing Surface- 



1% 
1% 
2 

1% 



IV2 

' i 

2 

1V4 
2 
2 

2 

1% 



1 

1^ 
2 

1% 
1 

1 
2 
2 

'2 
H4 
l'/4 
IW 



Kind of 
Filler Used 

Sand 

Cement grout 

Sand 



Length of 

Guarantee 

Period 

(Years) 



Cement grout 


2 


Coal Tar Pitch 


5 


Asphalt 


10 


Cement 




Cement 


1 


Sand 


5 


Sand 


3 


Sand 




Sand 


None 


Asphalt 




Cement grout 


1 


Cement 


None 


Sand 


1 


Cement 


None 


Cement 




Cement grout 


1 


Asphalt 


5 


Asphalt (c) 


■"5 


Cement 


2 


Cement 


5 
5 
5 


Cement 


Cement grout 


5 


Cement 





Cement 


5 


Cement 


5 


Cement grout 


5 


Elastite 


"i 

1 
2 


Sand 


Sand 


■ "2 


Cement 


1 


Cement grout 


None 


Asphalt 


5 


Asphalt or grout 


5 


Asphalt 


1 


Asphalt 




Orout 


2 


Sand 


None 


Texaco 


6 


Asphalt 


5 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3. 1915 



TABLE IX.-CONSTRUCTION DETAILS— BRICK (ContiBuad) 
Foundation , 



CttT 

LottUrlllr 

llaioa Roam. 
Uak* Ckana* 



Kind 



i.'oncrete 



. . Concrete 
. .Concrete 



Athol • ■ .Concrete 

Canbrldsc . - .Concrete 
OrMB«*M Concrete 

ABBArbor Concrete 

Battle Cr*ek Concrete 

Detroit Concrete 

Grand Rapids Concrete 

loBla > Concrete 

Kalamasoo ; Concrete 

Lanelas Concrete 

Nil»» Gravel 



. . Concrete 
. . Macadam 



Proportions 
(For Concrete) 



!:<:( 



BL Paul. 
Wlaoaa 



Brookfleld Sand 

Kaaaaa City Concrete 

gu Loula Concrete 

Xekraaka. 

IWatrlce . . Concrete 

Kearney Concrete 

Llnc«l> • Concrete 

Tork '•• .Concrete 

Xew Jeeaay* 

Newark Concrete 

Trenton Grav. Concrete 

!«•« Yark. 

Albany ... Concrete 

Amaterdam Concrete 

Buffalo Concrete 

Cornlns Stone Concrete 

Elmlra Concrete 

Homrll Concrete 

New Kochelle Concrete 

New York: 

Richmond Concrete 

Norwich . Concrete 

Oawefo Concrete 

Poushkaepsle . . .Concrete 

Schenactady Concrete 

Solvay Concrete 

Sjrracnae 

Rarth Ca>*llBa. 

Charlotte Concrete 

Bllsabeth City Eartli 

Ohla. 

Aahtabola ...Concrete 

Athens Gravel 

Bellefontaina Concrete 

Bucrnis 

Chillicothe Concrete(e) 

Cleveland ; Concrete 

Columbus Concrete 

Coshocton .- Gravel 

Dayton Concrete 

Deflanca Concrete 

Delphoa Concrete 

East Liverpool Concrete(f) 

Lakewood Concrete 

Lima Concrete 

Lorain Concrete 

Xaasfleld Concrete 

Mount VemoD Concrete 

Newark Gravel 

Niles Slag 

PalnesvUle Concrete 

Portsmouth Concrete 

Sandusky Concrete 

Btaobenvllle Concrete 

Zanesvllle Concrete 



Portland Concrete 

PvBaaylvaala. 

Alioona ... Concrete 

Bradford Concrete 

Carlisle Old Macadam 

Charlerol Slag 

Corry Concrete 

wl* ^ Concrete 

FXBklln Concrete 

Graeasbarc Slag 

OraeovlUe Concrete 

KlOKston Concrete 

Lansford Concrete 

Lahlshton Concrete 

Monneaaen Stone and gravel 

Philadelphia Concrete 

Pliuton ConcreU 

I'IrmoDtb Concrete 

I'ollatown Blag 

5«nkl" Gravel 

R~^"« Concrete 

M. Marys Concrete 

Scranlon Concrete 

■■»''«'" • . .Concrete 

WllkM-narrr ..Concrete 

S. k'f .Concrete 

J?"!'*' .Concrete 

Torh Concrete 



1:3:6 
1:3:6 



1:S:< 



1:7 
1:3:6 
l:3V|:7 

1:8 



1:1 :S 



Depth 
tins.) 



Depth 
of Sand 
Cushion 

(Ins.) 



H4 



-Wearing Surface- 



2 
3 

1V4 

2 

2 

1 

1% 
1 
1 

i^ 

2 

IH 



Kind of 
Filler Used 



Cement 

Asphaltic 
Asphalt 



Length of 

Guarantee 

Period 

(Years) 



Pitch 
Cement 

Cement 
Cement 
Grout 



Pitch 

Asphalt 

Asphalt 



None 



• • * • 


4 


4 


Concrete . 


2 


1:3:6 


4-5 


1 


Asphalt and grout 


5 





6 


1 


Cement grout 




1:3:6 


4-5 


l'^ 


Asphalt 1 


and 5 


1:3:4 




1 


Asphalt 


5 


1:3:6 




2 


Grout or Asphalt 


1 


1:1:4 




1% 


Asphalt 


6 


1:3:6 




IH 


Cement 5 or 10(a) 


1:3:6 




1% 


Cement grout 


1 


1:3:6 




1% 


Cement 


6 


1:3:6 




2 


Cement 


None 


1:10 




1^ 


Cement 




1:3:6 




IVi 


Cement 


6 


1:3:6 




l'/4 


Cement grout 


5 


1:8 




1 


Cement 


1 


1:3:6 




1% 


Cement grout 


5 


1:3:6 




IW 


Cement grout 


1 


1:2:6 




1% 


Cement 


6 


1:3:6 




iV4 


Cement grout 


6 


1:3 :6 1 
;l:lH:6j 


6 


2 




B 


1:3:6 


6 


1% 


Sand 


5 


1:3:6 


8 


x^ 


Cement grout 


5 


.... 




1% 


Mortar 


2 


1:3:6 


4 


2 
2 


Cement 


6 


1:3:6 


6 


2 


Asphalt 


6 




6 


1 


Sand 


1 






1 


Cement 


5 




.... 


1% 


Cement 


1 


.... 


.... 


1 


Cement 




1:3:6 


6 


1% 


Cement grout 


3 


1:4:7 


6 


1V4 


Cement grout 


6 


.... 


8 


2 


Tar 


5 


1:3:7 


6 


1% 


Cement 


6 


1:3:5 


6 


2 


Cement grout 


3 


1:3:6 


6 


1 


Asphalt 


5 


1:2:5 


6 


2 


Cement grout(t) 


1 


1:3:6 


4-6 


1% 


Cement grout 


3 


1:3:6 


6 


1^ 


Cement 


6 


1:3:6 


6 


1 ^ 


Cement grout 


5 


\^'' 


4 


1% 


Asphalt 




6 


2 


Pitch and Cement 


5 




6 


2 


Cement grout 


1 




7 


2 


Cement grout 


2 


1:2V4:5 


6 


1% 


Cement grout 


None 




6 


2 


Tar and Cement 


10 


1:8:6 


6 


1 ^ 


Cement 


3 


1:2:6 


4 


...!'^ 


Grout 
Cement grout 


1 


1:3:6 


6 


1 




20 


1:3:8 


4-6 


iMi 


Cement grout 


6 


1:3:6 


6 


1 ^ 


Cement grout 


5 




12-18 


1X4 


Cement grout 




.... 


8 


l4-2 






1:6 


5 




Cement grout 


3 


.... 


4 

5 


1V4 


Cement 


6 


.... 


6 


2 


Sand 




1:4:6 


5 


1% 


Pitch 


3 


1:3:6 


6 










6 


2 


Grout 


6 


1:3:6 


7 


1 


Cement 


6 




8 


2 


Sand 


3 


1:3:6 


6 


1 


Cement grout 


5 


1:2:5 


5 
6 
8 
8 


1% 


Grout 


5 




"i 


Sand ' 


. . .^ 


1:3:6 
1:3:6 


6 
6 


\^ 


Grout 
Grout 


1 

6 


1:3:6 


6 


2 


Cement 


5 


1:3:6 


6 


i^ 


Asphalt 


6 


1:3:6 


6 


2 


Cement 


5 




i* 


iM 


Grout 


None 




6 


2 


Cement 


I 


1:3:5 


6 


} 


Cement 


5 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



45 



TABLE IX.— CONSTRUCTION DETAILS— BRICK (Continued) 



-Foundation 



City Kind 

Sonth Cnrollna. 

Anderson Concrete 

Columbia Concrete 

Orangeburg Concrete 

Spartanburg Concrete 

Texas. 

Denison Concrete 

Greenville Concrete 

Houston Concrete 

Longview Concrete 

San Antonio Concrete 

Washlngrton. 
Seattle Concrete 

West VIrslnla. 

Bluefleld Concrete 

Huntington Gravel 

Wisconsin. 

Appleton Concrete 

Eau Claire Concrete 

La Crosse Concrete 

Madison Concrete 

Marslifield Concrete 

Slieboygan Concrete 

Stevens Point Sand 





\ 


Proportions 
(For Concrete) 


Depth 
(Ins.) 


1:3:5 
1:3:5 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 


4 

5 

5 
4 


1:3:6 
1:7 
(1:2V4:5 
1:3 :6 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 


6 

4 
61 

V 
6 


1:3:6 


4—6 


1:3:6 


4 
10 


1:3:6 

1:3:6 

1:2«,:5 

1:3:5 

1:2:4 

1:3:5 


5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



Depth 

of Sand 

Cushion 

(Ins.) 



2 

1% 
1% 



2 

\^ 

2 
1% 

1% 

1% 



1 
1% 

2 
> 

1% 



, Wearing Surface — — -j 

' Length of 

Guarantee 
Kind of Period 

Filler Used (Years) 



Cement grout 

Pitch 

Cement 



Texaco 



Cement 
Asphalt 

Grout 

Asphalt 
Sand 

(Srout 

Cement 

Asphalt 

Grout 

Cement grout 

Cement grout 

Grout 



None 
5 

None 
5 



(a) on a %-in. course of screenings; (b) 4 ins. on alley paving; Cc)sand filler on alley paving; (d)5-year guarantee with 
optional 5 years longer at a fixed price per sq. yd.; (e)rolledgravel also used; (f)gravel foundation with sand filler also 
used; (g) 3-ln. vertical fiber brick on ll^-in. sand cushion; standard brick on 1-in. cushion. 



TABLE X.-CONSTRUCTION DETAILS.-CONCRETE 

Depth of Concrete, Ins. 



City 

Arkansas. 

Fort Smith . 

California. 

Santa Ana. . 



Colorado. 

Boulder 

Conneetlcnt. 

Hartford 

Norwalk 



Number of First 
Courses Course 
(Concrete) 



Georgia. 

Macon . . . 



Illinois. 

Charleston 
Chicago . . 
Kankakee 
Mattoon . . 
Peoria . . . . 
Rockford . 
TaylorvUle. 



Indiana. 

Anderson . . . 

Elkhart 

Fort Wayne. 
Gary 



Huntington 
Seymour . . 
South Bend. 



lon^a. 

Burlington . . . . 
Cedar Rapids.. 
Council Bluffs. 
Fort Dodge. . . 
Marshalltown . 
Sioux City 



Kansas. 

Atchison 

Tola 

Junction City 
Manhattan . . . 
Pittsburg . . . . 



Massachusetts. 

Springfield 

Michigan. 

Alpena 

Ann Arbor 

Coldwater 

Detroit 

Dowagiac 

Grand Rapids 

Lansing 

Manistee 

Minnesota. 

Chisholm 

Mankato 

Rochester 

St. Cloud 

St. Paul 



Second 
Course 



2 


4 


2 


1 






2 


5% 


2 


2 


4^ 


1% 


1 






2 


4 


2 


2 


6 


2 


1 




• • ■ - 


9 


5 


2 


1 


7 




2 


6 


1% 


1 






2 


5% 


1% 


1 






1 






2 


5 


2 


1 


"5 




2 


5 


2 


1 






2 


5 


1 


2 


4 


2 


1 






1 






1 







2 


6 


2 




5 


2 


1 






1 






2 


4 


2 


2 


5% 


1 


1 






1 






2 


5 


3 


1 


6 




1 






1 


7 




2 


5 


2 


2 


5 


IV 



Total 



Propor 


tions 


With or 

Without 

Bituminous 

Topping 


Length of 

Guarantee 

Period 

(Years) 


r 

First 
Course 


Second 
Course 


1:6 




without 


.... 


1:3:6 




with 




l:2%:4l^ 


1:2 


without 


.... 


1:2:4 
1:2:4 




with 
without 





1:2:3 



Tvith 



6 






without 


none 


7 


1:2:3 




both 


2 


7H 


1:2-V4:4 


.... 


without 


1 


6 






without 


none 


6 


1:2:3 




without 


.... 


6 


1:3:6 


.... 


without 


.... 


6 


1:2:3% 




without 


5 


g 


l:2%:4 


1:2 


without 




6 






without 


5 


7 


1:2:4 


1:1 


without 


6 


7 


1:2:3 




without 


.... 


7% 


1:2%:4 


1:1% 


without 


2 


8 






without 


6 


7 


1:2:4 


1:2 


without 


6 


7 






without 


1 


6 


1:2:4 




without 


2 


7 






without 


• > • • 


6H 


1:3:5 




without 


• ■ > • 




1:2:5 




with 


5 


7 


1:2%:5 




without 


. none 


6 






without 


none 


6 


1:2%:5 




without 


6 


6 


1:2%:6 




without 




6 


1:2:4 




without 


5 


6 


1:3% 




without 


6 


6 






without 


none 


6 


1:2:4 




with 





S 


1:6 




without 




7 




1:2 


with 




6 


1:8 




with 


.... 


2 


1:3:6 




without 




6 


1:7 


1:2 


without 




6^ 


1:2H:5 




without 


5 


6 






with 




5-6 


(a) 




both 


(b) 


8 


1:2:3 




without 




6 


1:2%:4% 




without 


none 


5 


1:3:5 




with 


5 


7 


1:2:3 




without 




7 


1:2%:5 


1:1:1 


without 


2 


6V4 






without 


• • • t 



46 



GOOD ROADS 

TABLE X.-C0NSTRUCT10N DETAILS.-CONCRETE (Continu«J) 



ulv 



1915 



Depth of Concrete. Ins. 



Proportions 



titr 




TrantoB . . 
BUUacs 




City. 



N«w Bmnawtrk 
Raw Vark. 

AlbMT 

Port Chester. 
8elMn*cl«dr . 
T««aw«iida . 



CtovaUuid 
Dayton ... 
Suraaskr ■ 



Portland 
Salem . . . 

PaaaajriTaala. 

OarlUle 

Camerl* 

Raadlns 

West Pittaton . . . 

Soatk CarsUaa. 
Columbia 

Soatk Dakata. 
Watcrtown 

Tvxas. 

Auttin 

irichlta Fall* 

WaaklBctaa. 
Abardeen ... 

Boqulam 

North Y&klma . . . 

Olrmpla 

Baattlo 

Bpekana 



AppUton . . 

Bau Claire . 

Marloatta .. 
Shaborran 
Suparlor . . . 



Nnmbar of First 
Coursea Course 
(Concrete) 

J 

1 

I 



1 
1 
3 

1 
1(d) 

1 
I 

1 
2 
S 

1 

1 

i 

2 



2 

1 
1 

a 

11 



1 

2 
2 
3 






4 

S 
5 
S 

i 

4^ 



4^4 



4H 
4 
-( 



l"" 



Second 
Course 



H 



2 

IWr 



IH 
IH 



IH 



Total 

5 
6 
6 

r. 

«— 8 

7 
6 

e 

6 

8 
6 
6 



6% 

7 
R 

7 
8 

7 

S 
6 

6 
6 
8 
5 

6 

6—8(0) 

6 
< 

8 
6 
6 
6 

8% 
6—8 



6—8 
6—7 

7 

7% 



First 
Course 

1:2U:B 

'■%\'^ 

1:6 
1:2V4:4\4 

1:2:4 
1:1V^:8 

1:6 
1:2:4 

1:2:4 
1:3:6 
1:2:4 

1:2:4 

1:8:6 

1:2:4 

1:2:4 

1:H4:3 

1:3:6 

i:'2:4 

1:2:4 
1:2:4 



1:2:4 
1:3:6 



1:7 
1:3:5 



1:2:4 
1:3:6 
1:3:8 
1:3:6 



1:3:6 
1:2:3 

1:2H:5 



Second 
Course 



1:11^:3 



1:4 



1:1:1% 



With or 

Without 

Bituminous 

Topping 

"Dolarway" 
without 

"]>olarway" 
without 
without 

with 
without 
without 
without 

without 
without 

without 
without 
without 

with 

with 
without 

without 
without 

without 
without 
without 

without 
without 

without 

with 

with 
without 

without 

without 

without 
without 

without 
without 
without 
without 
without 

with 
Without 

without 
without 
without 
without 
without 



;^'~ngth of 

Guarantee 

Period 

(Years) 



3 

none 

I 

B 
7 
3 



6 

6 
3 
3 

5 
5 
5 

10 
none 



none 
2 



(a)l:m:t for plain concrete and 1:8:6 for concrete with bituminous topping; (b)5 years for plain concrete; (c)6 1ns. 
for alleys and t Ins. for streets: (d)alley pavement 



TABLE XI.-CONSTRUCTION DETAILS— STONE BLOCK 



Foundation. 



Kind. 

aty. 

BrldKcport. Conn Concrete 

Atlanta. Oa Cinders 

Savannah. Ga Sand 

CblcaKo III Concrete 

New Orleans, La Concrete 

Blddcford. Me Gravel 

Portland, lie 

Athol. Maaa Band 

Boalon, Ifaas Concrete 

Oambrfdce. Mass Concrete 

HarerhllT. Mass 

Lawrence, Maas 

Lowell. Maas Natural Soil 

New Bedford. Maas Concrete 

Xprlnrfleld. Mass Concrete 

r>etrolt, Mich Concrete 

Minneapolis. Minn 

Red Wlnic. Minn....'. 

St. Paul. Minn Concrete 

Camden. X. J Concrete 

Newark, N. J Concrete 

Albany. N. T Concrete 

Ameterdam, N. T 

Buffalo. N. T Concrete 

tittle Falls N T Concrete 

New Tork. N T — 

Bronx. ... . . . (r) 

Brooklyn. ..Concrete 

Manhattan Concrete 

Queens Concrete 

Richmond Concrete 

Sebaoactady, N. T Concrete 



frrscosa. M._T.. 
Toakera. 



K. T Concrete 

Cleveland. Ohio Concrete 

rolumbns, Ohio Concrete 

Portland. Ora Concrete 



Proportions 
For con- 
crete. 
1:3:6 



1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:4:7 
1:3:6 



Depth 
(Ins.) 



' 'l':S':6 
1:3:5 


6 
6 
6 


' ■l:3:7 
1:2^:5 


5 


' 'l:V:8 
1:8:6 


5 
5 


■ V:2:5 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 


'h 

6 
6 
6 


"i:ld 
l:2>/4:5 


6 
5 


(r) 
1:3:6 
l:3:fi 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 


(r> 
6 
6 
6 
8 
6 



Depth of 

Sand 
Cushion 
(Ins.) 
1% 



2 

J^ 
2 

2 
2 
1 
2 
2 

2 
2 

1% 

1 

1 

3 

I 'A 

l'/4 

2 

3 

2 

H4 

(1) 



Wearing Surface. 



Kind 
of Stone. 



Granite 



Kind of 
Filler 
Used. 
Cement 
Sand 
Sand 

Coal tar pitch 
Cement mortar 



Length of 
Guarantee 
Period 
(Years). 



Grout 



Grout-gravel 



Cement grout 
Cement grout 
Cement grout 
Cement grout 
Grout 



20 



.Sandstone 


Cement grout 


Granite 


Sand 


Sandstone 


Cement grout 


Sandstone 


Cement grout 




Cement grout 


Granite (a) 


Cement grout 5 




Cement grout 


Sandstone 


Pitch 




Cement grout 




Asphalt 


<r) 


(r) 


Granite 


Coal tar pitch & gravel 




Cement & sand 


Tmpr. Gran. 


Cem. & bituminous 




Bituminous 


Granite 


Sand 


Sandstone 


Mortar 




Cement grout 


Medina 


Cement grout 




Cement grout 

f . , . , , 



5-10(b) 
5 



?9 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



47 



TABLE XI.-CONSTRUCTION DETAILS-STONE BLOCK (Continued) 



Foundation. 



Grit 



Kind. 
City. 

Altoona, Penn Conor, and Gravel 

Piiiladelphia, Penn Concrete 

Reading, Penn Jjimeston 

Scranton, Penn Hand 

Willies-Barre, Penn Concrete 

Providence, R. I Concrete 

Woonsocliet, R. I Concrete 

Danville, Va Concrete 

Seattle, Wasli Concrete 

Madison, Wis Concrete 

She.vboygan, Wis Concrete 



Proportions 
For con- 
crete). 
1:3:8 
1:3:6 



1:3:6 
1:3:6 

'lV3':6 
1:3:6 
1:3:5 
1:3:5 



Deptii 

(Ins.) 

4 
6 
3 
3 
6 
6 
6 
4 
4-6 
6 
6 



Deptli of 

Sand 
Cusiiion 
(Ins.) 
2 
1% 

3 

2 

1 

1 to2 



Kind 
of Stone 



Granite 
Granite 



Wearing Surface. 



Sandstone 
Sandstone 



Kind of 
Filler 
Used. 

Cement grout 
Cement grout 



Sand 
Cement grout 

(c) 
Cement 
Asplialt 
Grout 
Cement grout 



Lengtii of 
Guarantee 
Period 
(Years). ■ 
6 
6 
1 
5 



(a)nevf or napped bloclis; (b)5-year guarantee with optional B years more at a fixed price per sq. yd.: (c)cement grout 
or pea gravel and paving cement; (d)l-in. cushion; 1 cement. 3 sand. h j , v / c ^..l e'uut 



TABLE XII.— CONSTRUCTION DETAILS— WOOD BLOCK 



Foundation- 



City Kind 

Bridgeport, Conn Concrete 

New Haven, Conn Concrete 

Atlanta, Ga Concrete 

Chicago, 111 Concrete 

Granite City, III Concrete 

Cedar Rapids, la Concrete 

Louisville, Ky Concrete 

New Orleans, La Concrete 

Boston, Mass Concrete 

Cambridge, Mass Concrete 

Springfield, Mass Concrete 

Detroit, Mich Concrete 

New Ulm, Minn (Concrete 

Red Wing, Minn Concrete 

Rochester, Minn Concrete 

St. Paul, Minn Concrete 

Joplln, Mo Concrete 

Kansas City, Mo Concrete 

St. Louis, Mo (joncrete 

Billings, Mont Concrete 

Great Falls, Mont Concrete 

Newark, N. J Concrete 

Albany, N. Y Concrete 

New York, N. Y.: 

Brooklvn Concrete 

Manhattan Concrete 

Richmond Old Concrete 

Dayton, Ohio Concrete 

Portland, Ore Concrete 

Lebanon, Pa Concrete 

Philadelphia, Pa Concrete 

Reading. Pa. . ^ Concrete 

York, Pa Concrete 

Providence, R. I Concrete 

Charleston, S. C Concrete 

Austin, Texas .... 

Houston, Texas Concrete 

San Antonio, Texas Concrete 

Seattle, Wash Concrete 

Spokane, Wash Concrete 



Proportions 
(For Con- 
crete) 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 

1;'3:6 
1:3:5 
1:3:5 
1:3:6 
1:3:5 
1:3:7 
1:2%:5 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:5 
1:7 
1:3:6 
1:2:6 

1:3':6 

■ i':6 
1:3:5 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 

1:3:6 
1:3:6 

1:3': 7 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 
1:3:5 
1:3:6 
1:3:6 

( 1:2h':5 
1 1:3:6 

1:3:6 

1:3:6 

1:3:6 



Depth of 

Sand 
Cushion 
Depth (Ins.) (Ins.) 



I] 



1 
1 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
-1 

1 

1 
% 
% 

(b) 
% 
(b) 
1 
(c) 



i— 1 

"i 



(b) 
(d) 



-Wearing Siirface- 



Kind of 

Filler Used 

Sand 

Sand 

Sand 

Coal tar pitch 
Pitch 
Asphalt 



Length of 

Guarantee 

Period (Years) 



5 
5 
3 

5 

None 



Coal tar pav. pitch 

Grout 

Cement 

Sand 

Sand and tar .... 

Tar 5 

Pitch 

Pitch 5 

Pitch 

Sand None 

Asphalt 5 

Sand 

Asphalt & pitch mixed 6 

Pitch 5 

Sand 5-10(a) 

Sand 6 



Sand 
Bitumen 
Sand 
Sand 

Sand 

Sand 

Dry sand 

Sand 

Sand 

Sand 

Pitch 



Sand-cement 
Asphalt 



6 
6 
6 
5 
20 

"5 
1 
6 
6 
6 



(a)5-year guarantee with optional 5 years at a fixed price per sq. yd.; 
cement, 4 sand; (d)some y2-in. mortar cushion; some 1-in. sand cushion. 



(b)'/i-in. mortar cushion; (c)l-ln. cushion; 1 



Philadelphia, Pa. — Work under sheet asphalt was paving and 
repaying; bituminous concrete work included surfacing and 
resurfacing. 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa. — Costs for different kinds of pavement laid 
in 1914 not separated. Total cost, including foundation and 
grading, $162, .")82 for the following work: sheet asphalt, 43,887 
sq. yds.; brick, 18,070 sq. yds.; stone block, 513 sq. yds. 

Rutland, Vt. — Cost includes pavement only; foundation had 
been built previously. 

Hoqulam, Wash. — Cost of concrete without tjituminous 
topping includes curbs, catch basins. Inlets and drains. 

Walla Walla, Wash. — BituUthlc laid was a H^-ln. bltulithic 
wearing surface on a 2^^-in. bituminous concrete foundation. 
Notes on Table II-B. 

Danbury, Conn. — "Other Kinds" comprise 12,500 sq. yds. of 
Amiesite on concrete foundation at a cost of $1.75 per sq. yd. 
and 18,600 sq. yds. of Amiesite on a "ballast" base at $1.05 per 
sq. yd., both prices including foundation but not grading. 

Hartford, Conn.^ — Macadam laid by city labor. 

Atlanta, Ga. — Old stone block. 

Evanston, 111. — Brick pavement laid in 1914 comprised 9,715 
sq. yds. on concrete foundation at a cost of $25,998, and 4,335 
sq. yds. on sand at a cost of $6,724, both costs including foun- 
dation but not grading. 

Freeport, 111. — Brick pavement laid includes 12,990 sq. yds. 
pt pavement-op. ^ concrete foundation, costing $24,421.90, in- 



cluding foundation but not grading; 12,415 sq. yds. of pavement 
on a crushed stone foundation, costing $19,429, including 
foundation but not grading, and 1,000 sq. yds. of bridge fioor 
paving, costing $2,000. 

.\rkansas City, Kan. — Pavement laid in 1914 was a 114-in. 
rock asphalt wearing surface on a 4-in. 1:2% :5 concrete foun- 
dation with a 5-year guarantee. 

Independence, Kan. — Brick paving laid included 7,033 sq. yds. 
of standard brick paving at $1.32 per sq. yd., including founda- 
tion but not grading, and 1,500 sq. yds. of fiber block, costing 
$1.25 per sq. yd., including foundation but not grading. 

Houlton, Me. — Work in 1914 comprised about 2,200 lln. ft. of 
gravel and stone water bound macadam road, the total cost. 
Including rock excavation, drainage and surfacing, being $2,- 
746.45. 

Baltimore, Md. — Work under Jurisdiction of Paving Commis- 
sion, only. Contract prices as follows: Brick block paving, 
average exclusive of unusual bids, $2.07 to $2.30 per sq. yd.; 
stone block, old block, new block, etc., average $1.25 to $4.08; 
wood block, average $2.47 to $2.85; scoria block (included 
under "other kinds") average $2.95 to $3.85. 

Haverhill. Mass. — Stone block paving laid in 1914 included 
1,177 sq. yds., costing $3,531, including grading, and relaying 
14,430 sq. yds., at a cost of $11,638, including grading. 

New Bedford, Mass. — Endurite. 

[Notes continued on pa^e 64] 



48 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



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GOOD ROADS 



49 



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M 



Norin .\ni«boro, 
«ta p*r •«. yd. 

iviroii. Mich.— wood Mock pavemant laid oonalsted of I6J,- 
»»> 1> »* yd*, of pUln cedar block at a coat of I65S.163.&7, and 
*.lvi.t; mn. yda. of cr*oaot«d wood block at a coat of $11,020.87. 
botk coals tncladlnc foundation. cradlnK. «tc. 

MinnaapoUa. Iflnn. — CreoMtrd wood block laid in 1914 con- 
sisted of 1»I.»1» aq. yda of JH-ln- block, at W.SS per wj. yd., 
and i:.»«» ao- yda. of «-ln. block, at IJ.OS per aq. yd. 

Cbmicoihc Mo.— Pavement Hated under "other kinds" com- 
prlavd «.»•• a«. yda. of Hasaam. coating »10.01J, exclusive of 
sradlBK. and «.»»» aq. yda. of Dolarway. costing 111,234. ex- 
dtistve of cradlnc. 

|fa»«^T City. Mo. — AmounU of brick and wood block laid 
do bM Include 10.000 sq. yda of brick block and 50.000 sq. yds. 
of wood block laid by the Terminal Hallway Co. 

Newark. N. J.— Stone block laid In 1914 Included 57,923 sq. 
yda of new pavement, costing $234,953. and 29.985 sq. yds. of 
napped granite block, coating $93,330. including grading and 
Incidental work. 

Kummlt. N. J. — Bltuminoua resurfacing. 

Buffalo. N. Y.— Btone block laid In 1914 comprised 6.892 sq. yds. 
of new pavement, coating $23,356. and 6,388 sq. yds. of repav- 
tns. coating 124.230. Prices are for contract work and Include 
ending and sumt- incidental work. 

New York. N. Y. — Borough of the Bronx. — Stone block pave- 
ment laid in 1914 compriaed the following: 34,756 sq. yds. of 
recut and redreased granite block, at 31.90 per sq. yd.; 27,818 
sq. yds. of new improved granite block pavement at $3.78 per 
sq. yd.: 22.913 sq. yds. of granite block on a sand foundation. 
at t2 (2 per sq. yd., all costa including foundation, grading and 
Incidental work. 

New York. N. T.. Borough of Manhattan. — See note for Ta< 
bis II-A. 

New York. N. Y.. Borough of Queens. — Stone block pavement 
laid comprised 27.150 sq. yds. of improved granite block on con- 
crete foundation, costing $3.75 per sq. yd., including base, and 
CI.(25 sq. yds. of granite block on sand, costing $2.40 per sq. 
yd.. Including base. 

Poughkeepsie. N. Y. — Brick pavement laid in 1914 comprised 
>,TU sq. yda at $2.45. including foundation but not grading. 
and 7&0 sq. yda at $1.19, including foundation but not grading. 
The brick for the latter was furnished by the city. 

Ulica. N. Y. — Resurfacing asphaltic pavements. 

Cbillicothe. Ohio. — Brick pavement laid comprised 4,600 sq. 
yds. on a concrete foundation, at a cost of $6,234, Including 
foundation and grading, and 2,295 sq. yds. on rolled gravel, 
at a cost of $2,048, including foundation and grading. 

Bast Liverpool. Ohio. — Brick pavement laid in 1914 Included 
(.021 sq. yds., laid on a concrete foundation, and the balance 
on a gravel foundation. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Brick paving includes 104,219 sq. yds. of 
paving and repaving, at a cost of $266,633.43, not Including 
grading, and 20,647 sq. yds. of resurfacing, at a cost of $40,- 
002.36. Work tabulated under water bound macadam com- 
prises 95,952 sq. yds. of surfacing, at a cost of $114,497.66; 65,- 
$24 sq. yds. of resurfacing by city forces, at a cost of $34,228.46; 
I92.CM sq. yds. of resurfacing by city forces, at a cost of $76,- 
&T2.5t, and 1.024.470 sq. yds. of water bound macadam roads 
given bituminous surface treatments, at a cost of $118,794.86. 
f Stone block work included paving and repaving. Wood block 
work consisted of repaving. Work listed under "other kinds" 
comprises asphalt resurfacing. In addition to the work tab- 
ulated, there should be Included 632.889 cu. yds. of grading, at 
a total cost of $372,224.24. 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa.— Bee note for Table II-A. 

Houston. Tex. — The 103.689 sq. yds. given in table comprised 
tl.tie sq. yda. of Uvalde rock asphalt pavement, cost not given; 
S.>4t sq. yds. of Hassam pavement, cost not given, and 12,841 
sq. yds. of shell road, cost not given. 

Staunton. Va. — Cost of water bound macadam low because 
mncb of the material was donated to the city. 

Aberdoen, Wash. — The wood block pavement was laid by 
the street railway company, and no cost is given. The 6,954 
sq. yds. given under "other kinds" was plank. 
Xotrs OB Table 1 1 1- A. 
Los Angeles. Cal. — See note for Table I. 

Washington. D. C— No deUlIs given as to kinds of pave- 
ments to be laid In 1915. 

<'hi>«go. IlL — Amounts of various kinds of pavements to be 
laid In 1*15 approximately the same as In 1914. 

.V- »• Bedford. Mass — gome bituminous concrete pavement 
wkll probably be laid: amount not known. 

Anaconda, Mont— Eight blocks of asphaltic concrete pave- 
ment under contract, 

Livingston, MonU— ««s not* for Table 1. 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



-About 13,000 sq. .vds. to be paved; ma- 



yds. 
cost 

laid. 



Grand Island, Neb.- 
terlal not known. 

Paterson, N. J. — Bids to be leceived for about 28,000 sq. 
of asphalt block, granite block or wood block; work to 
about $30,000. 

Kingston, N. Y. — Some bituminous macadam to be 
amount not determined. 

Schenectady. N. Y. — Sheet asphalt to be laid includes 20,000 
sq. yds. ".sand tilled" at $2.10 per sq. yd. and 107,730 sq. yds. 
"stone filled" at $1.60 per sq. yd. 

Defiance, Ohio. — About 27,000 sq. yds. of pavement to be laid; 
bids open to all material; estimated cost, about $80,000. 

Gallon, Ohio. — .\bout 37,000 sq. yds. to be laid; bids open to 
all materials. 

Lakewood, Ohio.— In 1915, 40,000 sq. yds. of asphalt pave- 
ment; also 60,000 sq. yds. on which alternate bids to be received 
on asphalt, brick and asphalt block. 

Zanesvllle, Ohio. — Probable amount; whether with or with- 
out bituminous topping not stated. 

Lebanon, Pa. — About 25,000 sq. yds. of bituminous concrete, 
vitrified brick or wood block to be laid. 

West Plttston, Pa. — Bids to be received for .sheet asphalt, 
asphalt block, bltulithic, bituminous concrete, bituminous mac- 
adam, brick and concrete without bituminous top; about 23,000 
sq. yds. contemplated. 

Providence, R. I. — Cost of bituminous macadam from $1.29 to 
$1.73 per sq. yd., not Including cobble gutter, laid on streets 
formerly of water bound macadam. 

Greenwood, S. C. — About 130,000 sq. yds. to be laid; kind not 
decided upon. 

Taylor, Tex. — Kind of pavement to be laid not yet decided 
upon. 

Vancouver, Wash. — About 2,100 sq. yds. to be laid; kind not 
decided upon. 

Walla Walla, Wash. — Bltulithic to be laid, 17,600 sq, yds. %- 
In. bltulithic pavement on 2'^-in. bituminous concrete, at a 
cost of $21,810, Including foundation but not grading; bitumi- 
nous concrete to be laid, 18,505 sq. yds. l'/..-in. Topeka specifi- 
cation mixture on 3-in. bituminous concrete, at a cost of $18,- 
350, including foundation but not grading, and 13,300 sq. yds. 
of 2-in. Topeka specification wearing surface on a 4-in. crushed 
rock base, at a cost of $12,238, including foundation but not 
grading. 

Notes on Table Ill-n. 

Hartford. Conn. — Macadam to be laid by city labor. Small 
amount of wood block to be laid. 

Washington, D. C. — See note for Table III-A. 

Evanston, 111. — See note on Table I. 

Tallahassee, Fla. — See note for Table III-A. 

Chicago, 111. — See note for Table III-A. 

North Attleboro, Mass. — Coat of gravel road, 25 cts. per lln. 
ft., not Including grading; macadam, 30 to 35 cts. per sq. yd., 
not including grading. 

Grand Island, Neb. — See note for Table III-A. 

Paterson, N. J. — See note for Table ni-.\. 

Chllllcothe, Ohio. — Brick pavement to be laid will comprise 
2,377 sq. yds. on concrete foundation, at a cost of $3,318, in- 
cluding foundation but not grading, and 12,500 sq. yds. on a 
rolled gravel foundation, at a cost of $20,000, including foun- 
dation but not grading. 

Defiance, Ohio. — See note for Table III-A. 

Gallon, Ohio — See note for Table III-A. 

Lakewood, Ohio. — See note for Table III-A. 

Lebanon, Pa. — See note for Table III-A. 

Reading. Pa. — Stone block furnished by city. 

West Plttston, Pa. — See note for Table III-A. 

Greenwood, S. C. — See note for Table III-A. 

Orangeburg, S. C— Cost of brick and wood block pavements 
listed, given as $13,151, Including grading. 

Taylor, Tex. — See note for Table III-A. 

Vancouver, Wash. — See note for Table III-A. 

Antlgo, Wis.— 20,000 sq. yds. water bound macadam to be re- 
surfaced and 5,000 sq. yds. of Westrumite to be taken up and 
replaced with some other pavement. 

Note on Table IV. 

Aberdeen, Wash. — Maintenance bid is Separate from construc- 
tion and Is paid out of general fund. Construction is charged 
to Improvement district. 

Note on Table X. 

New York. N. Y., Borough of the Bronx. — Recut and redressed 
granite block, 34,755 sq. yds. on 6-ln. cement concrete base 
(1:3:6) with cement grout filler; total depth, 51/4-6% in. New 
granite (Improved) 27,818 sq. yds. on 6-ln. cement concrete base 
(1:3:6) with cement grout filler; total depth, 4'!4-5»4 In. 23,913 
»q. yds. granite block on sand base, with sand filler; total 
depth, 7-8 in. 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



55 



Highway Laws 

In 1912 and each year since then there have been printed 
in the review number digests of the lavtfs governing the 
administration, construction and maintenance of highways 
in the several states. The same plan was to have been fol- 
lowed this year, but the amount of space required for the 
presentation of the statistics on paving and road building 
printed in this issue has necessitated the postponement of 
the publication of the digest until the issue of August 7. 



George H. Biles, Second Deputy State High- 
way Commissioner of Pennsylvania 

George H. Biles, who was appointed Second Deputy State 
Highway Commissioner of Pennsylvania, as noted in "Good 
Roads" for June 12, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Novem- 
ber 7, 1879. He was educated in the public schools of that 
city, and later took a two-year course in engineering, at 
the same time being engaged as an apprentice in the Fifth 
Survey District. 




GEORGE H, BILES. 
Second Deputy State Highway Commissioner of Pennsylvania. 

In January, 1900, after passing a civil service examination, 
he received an appointment as chairman on a special corps 
of the Philadelphia Department of Public Works. He was 
promoted to rodman, then to transitman and then to 
draftsman, and in 1904 qualified for Principal Assistant Engi- 
neer. 

In June, 1905, he was appointed Chief Draftsman in 
the State Highway Department, and a year later was made 
Division Engineer in charge of the central and a portion 
of the eastern counties of the state. During this period he 
was engaged in experimental road work with bituminous 
materials. He also laid out and supervised the construc- 
tion of many of the state's finest highways, including the 
Lewistown Narrows Model Road — the first road built under 
the Sproul Main Highway Act — and also the River Drive 
leading out of the city of Harrisburg. 

In December, 1912, he became Assistant to the Chief 
Engineer, and in April, 1913, was appointed Engineer of 



Maintenance in charge of all the state highways and state 
aid roads in the state. While acting in this capacity, he 
organized the Division of Maintenance, standardizing and 
systematizing the maintenance operations, purchasing ma- 
chinery and equipment and introducing scientific cost ac- 
counting and advanced business methods in the work. 

He remained in this position until his appointment as 
Second Deputy Commissioner. 



NEWS NOTES 



The Paving Program of London, Ontario, Involves the expen- 
diture of $150,000. 



lienidents of Joneaboro, Arliansaa, have started a campaign to 
pave eight miles of city streets. 



CitizeuH of Je«f Davis Parinh, Louisiana, have Inaugrurated a 

campaign for a road bond issue of ?400,000. 



The Commissioners of Leavenworth, Kansas, have decided to 
use only concrete or steel in bridge construction hereafter. 



The Olympic Highway Between Olympia and Port Angeles, 
«ash., a distance of 105 miles, has been opened to the public. 

Since the Begrinntng of the Fiscal Year, August 1, 1914, the 
State of Minnesota has paid $1,321,593.80 for roads and bridges. 



The Fairmount District of West Virginia held a special elec- 
tion recently at which a road bond issue of $100,000 was au- 
thorized. 



The Little Falls, Minnesota, Automobile Club has ottered 
prizes amounting to $100 for a road building contest between 
the farmers of Morrison County. 



All State Highways In Pennsylvania are to be treated with 
oil at the earliest opportunity, according to a recent order of 
the State Highway Department. 



Cochise County, Texas, Is anticipating an election on a road 
bond issue of $1,000,000 as a result of the efforts of the Cochise 
County Road Bond Issue Association. 



The Board of Supervisors of Harrison County, Mississippi, has 

decided to build the beach road between Qulfport and Biloxl, 
Mississippi, according to a survey made by a government en- 
gineer. 



Macon, Georgia, AVlil UtiUxe «300,0<IO obtained by the sale of 

paving bonds in laying 115,000 sq. yds, of concrete, 15,000 sq. 
yds. of brick and 5,000 sq. yds. of wood block. 



The Route of the Direct Highway Between Birmingham anil 
Leeds, Alal>ama, has been fixed. The road will run from Bir- 
mingham through Iiondale, Weems and Henry Ellen to Leeds. 



The Board of Freeholders of Mercer County, New Jersey, has 

decided to purchase a seven-passenger automobile for the use 
of the Road and Bridge Committee and the County Engineer's 
staff. 



The Precinct No. 2 Good Roads Club was organized recently 
at Lemonville, Tex. J. P. Hilliard, of Maurlcevllle, was elected 
President, and J. P. Voss, of Lemonville, was chosen Secre- 
tary-Treasurer. 



.\ccording to the Monthly Report of the National Highways 
Protective Association, 26 children were killed on the streets 
of New York City during the month of June. Of these, 16 
were due to automobiles, 3 to trolley cars and 7 to wagons. 
The total number of persons killed during the month was 42. 
In New York State outside of the city, 36 persons were killed 
by automobiles, 4 by trolley cars and 2 by wagons. During 
the first six months of 1915 the number of deaths In New York 
State, due to automobiles was 241. as against 183 during the 
corresponding period of 1914, In New Jersey 40 persons were 
killed by automobiles, 4 by trolley cars and 2 by wagons dur- 
ing June. This is the greatest number of automobile fatalities 
that has ever occurred In that state during any one month. 
During the first six months of 1915, automobiles caused the 
death of 88 persons in New Jersey, as against 48 during the 
first six months of 1914. 



56 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



AMERICAN ROAD BUILDERS' ASSOCIATION 



160 NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



OK>. W. TILLSON. Braoklyn. N. Y 

Pint VkaPnridMii 
A. W. DKAN. BoMOD. Mu». 

Stami Vio* Pnmknt 
A. B. PLBTCHBR S«cT»m«into. Cu. 




Thrtuth the nurttty tf the publisher »f "Good Roads," 
tbit p^tt, tack mtnth, it dtvtttd t» the use tf the American 
lifsd BmiUtrs' Jsstciatitn. It is silely in the interests of the 
Jtstdttitm, tmd it it the desire of the Executive Committee that 
mil mtmkert fttl that this space is their own, and that they 
comlrihute freely to it, not only as retards anything concerning 
the Association itself, hut also that which will further the good 
rtsds movement. Besides the official announcements of the 
Atstiation, there will appear on the page contributions by 
membtrs, items of news concerning the Association activities 
mud ptrtonal notes about its members. All contributions should 
b* tent to the headquartert of the Attociation at 150 Nassau 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

Executive Committee: 
Nelson P. Lewis 
A. W. Dean 
E. L. Powers 

Members Who Are to Take Part in the Pan- 
American Road Congress 

Many members of the A. H. B. A. are among those whose 
names appear on the preliminary list of speakers and chair- 
men (or the Pan-American Koad Congress, which has recently 
been announced by the Executive Committee having in 
charge the arrangements for that meeting. 

Among those who will preside at the sessions are: Presi- 
dent George W. Tillson, Consulting Engineer to the Presi- 
dent of the Borough of Brooklyn, New York, N. Y.; Past 
President W. A. McLean, Chief Engineer of Highways and 
Commissioner of the Ontario Public Roads and Highways 
Commission, and Col. William D. Sohier, Chairman of the 
Massachusetts Highway Commission. 

Members who, to date, have accepted assignments on 
the program, with the titles of their paper;;, arc as follows: 

Wm. H. Connell, Chief, Bureau of Hii;hways and Street 
Cleaning, Philadelphia, Pa.. "Dust Suppression and Street 
Cleaning." 

George W. Cooley, State Engineer of Minnesota, "Road 
Drainage and Foundations." 

A. W. Dean, Chief Engineer, Massachusetts Highway Com- 
mission, "Maintenance, Materials and Methods." 

A. B. Fletcher, State Highway Engineer of California. 
"Organization and System in Highway Work." 

W. S. Gearhart, State Engineer of Kansas, "Highway 
Bridges and Structures." 

Nelson P. Lewis. Chief Engineer, Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment of New York City, "Highway Indebted- 
ness — Its Limitation and Regulation." 

L. W. Page, Director, U. S. Office of Public Roads, "The 
History and Futurt of Highway Improvement." 

Frank F. Rogers, State Highway Commissioner of Michi- 
gan, "Roadway Surfacings." 

Col. E. A. Stevens, State Commissioner of Public Roads 
of New Jersey, "The Essentials of Proper Laws for High- 
way Work." 

W. D. Uhler, Chief Engineer, Pennsylvania State High- 
way Department. "Resurfacing Old Roads." 



Third Vice President 

(Office to be filled.) 

Secretary 

B. L. POWERS, New York. N. Y. 

Treasurer 
W. W. CROSBY. Baltimore, Md 



New Members 

The following have recently been elected Active Members 
of the Association: 

Edgar J. Buttenheim, President, "The American City," 87 
Nassau St., New York, N. Y. 

Charles W. Gates, Governor of the State of Vermont, 
Montpelier, Vt. 

William D. Hallowell, Street Paving Contractor, 50 Mor- 
gan Ave., Montgomery, Ala. 

Frank R. Rau, Superintendent of Public Works, 68 Grand 
St., Rockville, Conn. 



A. R. B. A. Notes 

Edward S. Smith has resigned as State Highway Engineer 
of Idaho, his resignation taking effect on June 1. 

' E. F. Ayres has been appointed Resident Engineer of the 
Oregon State Highway Commission, with headquarters at 
Sherwood, Ore. Mr. Ayres will have charge of a six-mile 
section of the Capitol Highway in Washington County. 

Past President Nelson P. Lewis, Chief Engineer of the 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment of New York City, 
spoke on "City Streets and How to Pay for Them" at the 
Sixth Annual Conference of Mayors and Other City Officials 
of New York State, held at Troy, N. Y., early in June. 

Henry Wells Durham, M. Am. Soc. C. E., formerly Chief 
Engineer of Highways of the Borough of Manhattan, New 
York City, has entered private practice with Percival R. 
Moses. The new firm has opened offices at 366 Fifth Ave., 
New York, N. Y. Mr. Durham will specialize in municipal 
engineering work. 

E. A. Kingsley, who has been engaged for some time as 
.Supervising Engineer of the $700,000 highway system con- 
structed in Bell County, Texas, became Paving Engineer 
of San Antonio, Tex., on July 1. Mr. Kingsley was formerly 
City Engineer of Little Rock, Ark., and later Highway Engi- 
neer of that state. 

R. L. Morrison, Professor of Highway Engineering at the 
Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College, was one of the 
speakers at the recent Texas Good Roads and Drainage Con- 
gress, held at Houston, Tex. Prof. Morrison's paper was 
entitled "Some Engineering Phases of Good Roads Under- 
takings — Class of Construction, First Cost and Indispensable 
Upkeep." 

Among the speakers at the recent spring meeting of the 
Massachusetts Highway Commission, held at the Hotel 
Kimball, Springfield, Mass., were the following A. R. B. A. 
members: Charles J. Bennett, State Highway Commissioner 
of Connecticut; Irving W. Patterson, Engineer of the State 
Board of Public Roads of Rhode Island, and James W. 
Synan, Member of the Massachusetts Highway Commission. 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



57 



COMING MEETINGS 



July 14-16 — North Carolina Good Roads Association — An- 
nual meeting, Asheville, N. C. Secretary, Joseph Hyde Pratt 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 

August 5-7. — Texas Good Roads Association and County 
Judges' and Commissioners' Association — Mid-Summer Meet- 
ing, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, College 
Station, Tex. Secy., Texas Good Roads Association, D. E. 
Colp, San Antonio. 

August 11-12. — Pacific Highway Association.— Fifth an- 
nual meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. 
Bowlby, 510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

Sept. 13. — Tri-State Roads Association. — Third annual con- 
vention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. Boos, 
1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17 — American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — Pan American Road 
Congress, Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Road Builders' 
Association, E. L. Powers, 150 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Secretary, American Highway Association, I. S. 
Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg, Washington, D. C. 

October 4-7 — Northwestern Road Congress — Annual meet- 
ing, Cedar Rapids, la. Secy.-Treas., J. P. Keenan, Sentinel 
Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12 — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-14 — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments — Annual convention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

November 17-19 — National Municipal League — Annual con- 
vention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogers Woodruff, 
705 North American Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES AND CULVERTS, by B. K. Coghlan, As- 
sociate Profesor of Highway Engineering, Agricultural and 
Mechanical College of Texas. (Bulletin of the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College of Texas.) Paper; 6x9 Ins., 30 pp.; 
illustrated. 

This publication, which is printed as the May number of 
the "Bulletin of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of 
Texas," is a brief treatise on the construction of highway 
bridges and culverts. It covers the inspection, repair and 
maintenance of existing bridges, as well as the building of 
new structures. The illustrations consist of halftones show- 
ing good and bad types of bridges, and bridges under con- 
struction. 

TRINIDAD AND BERMUDEZ LAKE ASPHALTS AND THEIR 
USE IN HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION, by Clifford Richard- 
son; Issued by the Barber Asphalt Paving Co., Philadelphia, 
Pa. Paper; 6x9 ins., 29 pp.; illustrated. 

The first portion of this publication is devoted to de- 
scriptions of the Trinidad and Bermudez asphalt deposits 
and discussions of the composition of the asphalt from each. 
The remainder of the book describes methods of construction 
with these materials. The illustrations consist of halftones 
showing the Trinidad and Bermudez asphalt deposits, scenes 
near these deposits and views showing the laying of asphalt 
pavements and the construction of asphalt bound broken 
stone roads. 



UOAD MODELS; Bulletin No. 220, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture; contribution from the Office of Public Roads. 
Paper; 6x9 ins., 24 pp. and covers. 

This bulletin, issued under date of June 7, 1915, comprises 
an illustrated description of the models of roads, bridges, 
culvert and road machinery owned by the U. S. Office of 
Public Roads and exhibited by that office at conventions, 
exhibitions and fairs in various sections of the country. Con- 
siderable space is also given to the discussion of methods of 
construction. The illustrations consist of halftones, printed 
on inset pages of particularly good paper, showing the vari- 
ous models. 

BULLETIN OP THE PACIFIC HIGHWAY ASSOCIATION; 
Issued June 8, 1915, by the PaciHc Highway Association of 
North America— Henry L. Bowlby, Executive Officer, 510 
Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. Paper; 6x9 
Ins., 20 pp. 

Included in this bulletin are announcements of the peace 
celebration to be held on the Pacific Highway at Blaine, 
Wash., on July 4, under the auspices of the Pacific Highway 
Association, and of the fifth annual convention of that organi- 
zation which will be held at San Francisco, August 11-12. 
The bulletin also contains data on the Pacific Highway and 
a log of that road made in the spring by President Samuel 
Hill and Executive Officer Bowlby of the association. The 
by-laws of the association and the minutes of a meeting held 
at Maryhill, Wash., in May, are also included. 



PERSONAL NOTES 



E. E. Price has been elected Superintendent of Streets of 
Granite City, 111. 

John B. Wright has resigned as Commissioner of Public 
Works of Amsterdam, N. Y. 

James Bunten has been appointed City Engineer of Canon 
City, Colo., vice B. K. Curtis, resigned. 

B. M. Williams has been appointed Assistant City Engineer 
of El Paso, Tex., to succeed J. W. Carter. 

H. E. Smith has been appointed County Engineer of 
Okanogan County, Wash., vice George J. Gardiner, deceased. 

John A. Goetz has been appointed City Engineer of 
Mattoon, 111., to succeed C. L. James, whose appointment 
to another office is noted elsewhere in this column. 

Ralph Folks, Deputy Commissioner of Public Works of 
the Borough of Manhattan, New York City, has been ap- 
pointed Commissioner of Public Works, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the resignation of E. V. Frothingham, which was 
noted in "Good Roads" for May 15. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



The Rocmac Road Corporation of x\merica has opened a 
new branch office in the Hoge Building, Seattle, Wash. 

A comprehensive handbook of 24 pages, explaining the 
manufacture of the Hall interlocking concrete culvert, has 
been issued by Schulz & Hodgson, Chicago, eastern distrib- 
utors. In addition to the text, the booklet contains many 
excellent half-tone reproductions of sections of the device. 

The Tiffin Wagon Co., Tiffin, O., has recently issued a 16- 
page booklet describing its motor and horse-drawn street 
sprinklers and flushers and also the sanitary carts and dump 
wagons manufactured by the company. The booklet is well 
printed on fine paper and is fully illustrated. The cover, ol 
heavy paper, is printed in brown duotone. 



58 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



NEW MACHINERY AND APPLIANCES 



Portable Asphalt Mixinir Plant. 

A portable asphalt inixiui; plant which has recently been 
pat on the market is shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tton. The plant has been designed particularly to meet the 
lYquirements of contractors and municipalities having con- 
struction and maintenance work distributed over considera- 
ble territory or in amounts too small to allow the economical 
nsc of « stationary plant. 

The machine shown is the main unit of the two-unit 
plant, the second unit consisting of an asphalt melting 
kettle. The plant is also furnished in three units, one con- 
sitting of the melting kettle, another the unit shown in the 
accompanying illustration but without the boiler and engine, 
and the third the traction engine, road roller, portable engine 
and boiler or other source of power. 

The unit shown in the illustration consists of a boiler, 
engine, cold material elevator, heating drum, hot material 
elevator, screen, sand and stone storage bin, sand and stone 
measuring box. asphalt weighing bucket, mixer and other 
parts. The whole is mounted on a heavy frame carried on 
four wheels. The main frame consists of IS-in. 33-lb. chan- 
nels, the rear end, which carries the mixer, being raised above 
the ground so that there is a clearance of 6 ft. The center 
line of the mixer being 3 ft. in a horizontal direction from 
the nearest point on the main frame permits a contractor's 
wagon to drive directly under the mixer for loading. The 
boiler is built for a working pressure of 150 lbs. per sq. 



in., in accordance with the boiler inspection rules of the 
states of Massachusetts and Ohio. The boiler regularly sup- 
plied burns coal, but a boiler suitable for ail as fuel is sup- 
plied when especially ordered. The engine is of the heavy 
duty, single cylinder type, rated at 26 HP., built with a 
9x9-in. cylinder. The engine is geared to the main driving 
shaft, which runs the full length of the plant back of the 
engine and is provided with clutches by means of which the 
individual units may be operated independently. 

In operation the sand and stone is lifted by means of 
a bucket elevator, as shown. This elevator has a capacity 
of 7 cu. ft. of material per minute, which may be increased 
by the installation of additional buckets. From the elevator 
the material passes into the heating drum, which is 10 ft. 
long and 48 ins. in diameter. It is of the revolving type and 
is provided with 18 staggered channel flights for distributing 
the material across the area of the drum. The drum is 
heated by means of a burner, which uses any grade of fuel 
oil. Grates for burning coal are furnished when desired. 
The heated material passes from the drum into the hot ma- 
terial chute which extends inside and outside of the drum 
setting and discharges the material into the lower boot of 
the hot material elevator. The hot material chute is 
equipped with a swinging gate, which permits the material 
to pass out but prevents cold air from being drawn into 
the drum housing. The hot material elevator, which is of the 
chain and bucket type, delivers the hot material to the screen, 




IROQUOIS PORTABLE ASPHALT MIXING PLANT. 



July 3, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



59 



which is mounted directly over the sand and stone storage 
bin. The fipe materials are screened and discharged into 
the smaller compartment of the bin, while the balance passes 
into the stone compartment or into the tailings pipe. The 
entire top surface of the bin, as well as the screen and cradle, 
is covered with a hood to prevent cold air coming in contact 
with the heated material. The sand and stone bin is built 
of sheet steel, the smaller compartment having a capacity 
of approximately 20 cu. ft. and the larger compartment of 
approximately 40 cu. ft. It is provided with a tailings pipe, 
through which any material larger than required is delivered 
to a convenient point on the ground. The bin has two dis- 
charging gates in the bottom, through which either sand 
or stone is discharged to the measuring box. The measuring 
box rests on platform scales, by means of which the aggre- 
gate can be weighed and discharged through a gate at the 
bottom directly to the mixer. The asphalt bucket is sus- 
pended from a beam scale, permitting the asphalt to be either 
measured or weighed. The bucket is raised from the ground 
to the mixing platform by means of a small hoist projecting 
over the frame supporting the storage bins. The plant can 
be provided with a mechanically driven rotary asphalt pump 
when especially ordered. The bucket can be rotated to dis- 
charge directly into the mixer. The mixer is the standard 
Iroquois 7-cu. ft. asphalt mixer, steam jacketed and pro- 
vided with a hand lever for dumping. 



front wheels 36 ins. When desired for stationary use, the 
plant is furnished without the wheels and axles, and can be 
set on concrete piers or other foundation at any desired 
height. 

The capacity of the plant for standard sheet asphalt, con- 
sisting of sand, filler and the necessary amount of asphalt, 
is rated at not less than 800 sq. yds. of finished 2-in. pave- 
ment per 10-hour day, provided the material does not con- 
tain more than 5 per cent, of moisture with an air tempera- 
ture of 70° F., the hot sand being delivered to the weighing 
box at a temperature of not less than 350° F. Its capacity 
for asphaltic concrete is considerably greater than the 
capacity for sheet asphalt and is dependent entirely upon 
the amount of sand or other fine material contained in the 
aggregate. 

The machine is known as the Iroquois Portable Asphalt 
Mixing Plant and is manufactured by the Iroquois Works 
of the Barber Asphalt Paving Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 



Reinforced Concrete Guard Rail 

A reinforced concrete guard rail for which a patent has 
recently been granted is shown in the accompanying sketch. 

The rail consists of 6-in. round posts 6 ft. 5^4 ins. in length, 
set 3 ft. 6 ins. into the ground, and surmounted by rein- 
forced concrete rails. The posts are reinforced with rods, 




__ijyii 



ELEVATION AND SECTION OF DILLON REINFORCED CONCRETE GUARD RAIL. 



A removable mixing platform is provided consisting of 2-in. 
planks, supported on brackets fastened to the main frame. 
It has a clear width of not less than 2 ft. on each side of 
the frame and is surrounded by pipe railing. The clutches 
and levers for operating the plant, with the exception of 
the clutches for throwing out the cold material elevator and 
the drum, are located on one side of this platform, making 
only one man necessary on the platform. 

The driving chains are Link-Belt chains of various sizes. 
On special orders plants are supplied with storage bins of 
any desired number of compartments, and screens of differ- 
ent meshes. The plant is also furnished, when desired, with 
a separate dust elevator for limestone dust or cement to a 
special compartment in the storage bin. The plant is regu- 
larly supplied mounted on four heavy wheels, with 12-in. 
faces, those in the rear being 48 ins. in diameter, and the 



as shown, and the rails with mesh reinforcement. At a 
distance of 1 ft. from the bottom the post begins to spread 
out, reaching a diameter of 1 ft. at the bottom, the purpose 
being to provide greater stability. 

An anchor bolt is set in the top of each post and a short 
anchor bolt extends downward from each rail at a distance 
of S ins. from the end. Connection between the posts and 
rails is made by means of these bolts and a 2xJ4-in. steel 
plate with three slots, the method of connecting being as 
shown in the accompanying section and elevation. These 
connections also provide for expansion and contraction. 

The guard rail while built in units and set up on the 
ground has the appearance of monolithic construction. It 
can also be fitted to curves. 

The guar4 rail is manufactured by H. E. Dillon, of Olean, 
N. Y, 



60 



GOOD ROADS 



July 3, 1915 



RECENT PATENTS 



The following list contains the numbers of the principal 
patents relating to roads and pavements and to machinery 
used in their construction or maintenance which have re- 
cently been issued, together with the names and addresses 
of the patentees, dates of filing, serial numbers, etc. In some 
cases the principal drawing has also been reproduced. 
Printed copies of patents listed may be obtained for 5 cts. 
each by application to the Commissioner of Patents, Patent 
Office. Washington, D. C. 




1.141.470. 
MIXERS. 

KoehrInK 
.Serial No. 



DISTRIBUTING MECHANISM FOR CONCRETE 
Erich H. UchtenberK. Milwaukee. Wis., assignor to 
Marhine Co.. Milwaukee. Wis. Filed Oct. 21, 1912. 
7JT.0n. (01. 214-14.) 




^. y";J.'.*. CONCRETE MIXER. Oeorg* F. Nye. Kearney. 
Neb. Filed April ^1. I»14. Serial No. 831,662. (CI. S3-73.) 




I.Ut.MI. PAVING FORM. Charlea D. McArthur. Plttaburgh, 
r?;-,^^'"".*? *"*r. Collapalble 8te«l Cente"lng c:"" PlttS: 




l,m,581. STONE CRUSHING Mac.^IaK. Ture Gustat Ren- 
iierfelt, Stockholm. Sweden. Filed Mar. 25, 1913. Serial No. 
756,791. (CI. 83-53.) 




1,142,648. SCREENING CONVEYER. Thomas F. Webster, 
Sewickley, Pa., assigner to Link Belt Co., Chicago, III., a cor- 
poration of Illinois. Filed Jan. 27. 1912. Serial No. 673.708. 
(CI. 83-66.) 




,.i.-ii^.:^^^- COLLAPSIBLE CORE FOR CONCRETE CUL- 
VERTS. Arthur E. Camblin, Stella, Neb. Filed Aug. 16, 1912 
Serial No. 715,322. (CI. 25-118.) , 



The Question o« iMuing; »150,0(K) Worth of Bonds for the con- 
Htruction of a bridge across the Trinity River at Dallas, Tex., 
will be submitted to the voters of Dallas County on July 24. 

The Pennsylvania State Highway Department has made a 
final agreement to construct a 12-mlle highway from Allen- 
town to Easton, by way of Bethlehem, Pa., with cement 
donated by the Association of American Cement Manufactur- 
ers and stone furnished by public-spirited citizens of Lehigh 
and Northampton Counties. Mention of the project was made 
In "Good Roade" ^or June 19, ' 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Contracting 



Old S*rlei. Vol. XLVIII. 
M«w8ailM,Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, JULY 10, 1915 



Nmbn 

2 



Founded Jannaiy, 1892. 

published weekly by 
Thk E. Hi. Powers Company 



B. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec>. 



150 NASSA.U STREET 
NB:W YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address: Gudrodes, New York. 



Sabicription price: Fifty-two numbers, 12.00 a year in the United Statei, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; (3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
numbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 ayear in the United Statei, Mexico, 
Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. * 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to advertUer* 
should reach the New York office as follows: Forinsertion in the first issue of the 
month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other issues, by noon oa 
Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted — including 
"Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertisements — will be 
accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 



With reference to the examination, Mr. MacDonald in a 
letter to Gardner Colby, Chief Examiner and Secretary of the 
New Jersey State Civil Service Commission, wrote as follows: 

"I want to congratulate you on the innovation you have 
made. By a singular coineidence, New Jersey is the first 
state to go outside of her borders for a civil seryice examiner 
in road building. The mother of all states in road building 
has led the way once more to all the states in the Union in 
this new departure. I hope and trust that other states may 
take up the merit system that has been adopted in your state." 



Copyright 1915 by the B. L. Powen Co. 
Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Mattef 



Civil Service Examination for Road Inspectors 
in New Jersey 

The New Jersey Civil .Service Commission recently held 
very successful examinations at Trenton and Newark, N. J., 
for the position of road inspector. A bill was passed at the 
recent session of the New Jersey Legislature raising the 
pay of road inspectors from $3 a day to a possible maximum 
of $4.50 a day, with the idea of improving the general char- 
acter of applicants. 

The positions were divided into the following classes: 
Inspector on Gravel Roads, Inspector on Water Bound Mac- 
adam Roads, Inspector on Bituminous Concrete Roads, In- 
spector on Portland Cement Concrete Roads; Inspector on 
Block Pavement (stone and brick) Roads and Inspector on 
Bridge Construction. 

The candidates were examined as to their qualifications for 
the type of work on which they desired appointment, but 
were permitted to qualify in more than one class if they so 
desired. The subjects and relative w.eights were as follows: 
Experience, training and fitness, 4; duties of the position, 
including practical questions on materials, road construction 
and maintenance, drainage, grading, inspection, computation 
of volume and area, plan reading, etc., 4; oral examination on 
construction, inspection, identification of materials, etc., 2; 
total, 10 counts. Candidates were required to be physically 
fit and at least 21 years old. They must have had at least two 
years' experience in practical road work and some experience 
in handling men. The examination was divided into two 
parts, a written examination in the subjects indicated and an 
oral examination by James H. MacDonald, former State 
Highway Commissioner of Connecticut, who was retained 
for the purpose. 



Interstate Bridge Over the Columbia River at 
Portland, Oregon 

The Columbia River interstate bridge, now in course of 
construction, with its approaches, will extend across the 
Columbia River Valley from Portland, Ore., to Vancouver, 
Wash., a distance of about three and a quarter miles. The 
structure will form one of the most important and expensive 
sections of the so-called Pacific Highway from Vancouver, 
B. C, to San Diego, Cal., and will cost, according to esti- 
mates, about $1,560,000. 

Information furnished by E. E. Howard of the engineering 
firm of Harrington, Howard & Ash, Kansas City, Mo., of 
which John Lyle Harrington, the engineer in charge of the 
bridge, is a member, gives comprehensive details of the 
structure which are of considerable interest. 

There will be about 5,000 lin. ft. of steel bridge structure 
with about 12,000 ft. of embankment and a secondary 
approach on the Oregon side for which, at the present time, 
an embankment about 6,000 ft. long will be built. The 
bridge will have accommodations for vehicular, street car 
and pedestrian traffic. 

The bridge will consist of a series of truss spans, three 
having a length of 275 ft. and ten of 265 ft., with a small 
deck girder span at the Vancouver end, making a total 
length of 3,531 ft. 5ji in. between end shoes. Provision for 
river navigation is made by a vertical lift-span, the center 
of the three 27S-ft. spans being arranged to lift between 
towers on the two other spans so as to afford a channel 
of 250 ft. at right angles to the current of the river and 
about 150 ft. above ordinary high water. The lift span will 
be operated by electric power and will have a gasoline engine, 
connected through a speed reducer, for use in emergencies. 

The trusses are spaced 41 ft., center to center, with the 
roadway between and the sidewalk beyond one truss. The 
floor will be a 5j4-in-. reinforced concrete slab. The road- 
way will be 38 ft. wide between curbs and the sidewalk will 
be 5 ft. wide. 

The exceptional facilities for securing piles of great length 
at reasonable cost, was a factor in determining the type of 
piers to be used. These are to be of concrete containing 
and resting upon wooden piles sunk to a depth of about 
105 ft. below low water. 

The main channel of the Columbia River at the site of 
the bridge is 3,500 ft. wide, with a maximum depth of 30 ft. 
at extreme low water and with variations of 33 ft. from 



62 



GOOD ROADS 



July 10, 1915 



AnrcnM low to extreme high water. The average spring 
rise U about 20 ft, with a rise of 25 ft. about once in four 
years. A rise of 33 ft. has been recorded only once. 

The Oregon Slongh. 1,000 ft. wide and 25 ft. deep, is separ- 
ated from the main channel by an. island 1,500 ft. wide, and 
form* an im|>ortant secondary channel. The bridge over 
this will consist of ten deck girder spans 100 ft. long and 
one 115 ft. long, provided with a roadway and floor of the 
•ame general character as that of the main structure. 

In the main approach on the Oregon side there will be 
about 1,000,000 cu. yds. of embankment and in the secondary 
approach there will be about 500,000 cu. yds. These embank- 
ments will be of sand dredged from the Oregon Slough. 
They will be 42 ft wide at the top, with side slopes of two 
to one. and will average 20 to 25 ft. high. The upstream 
tide will be protected by 4-in. reinforced concrete slabs. 

The construction of the bridge is the result of a popular 
movement originated by the Commercial Clubs of Portland 
and Vancouver. .\n attempt to have the states of Oregon 
and Washington assume the cost was unsuccessful, so bonds 
were issued by yultnomah County, Ore., and Clarke County, 
Wash., for $1,250,000 and $500,000, respectively. The work 
is being done under the direction of the Columbia River 
Interstate Bridge Commission, composed of the County Com- 
missioners of the two counties, with the Governor of Oregon 
acting as a Commissioner of Multnomah County for certain 
purposes. It is expected that the bridge will be ready for 
traffic late in the autumn of 1916. 



Contracts Awarded for Road Work in Eight 
Ohio Counties 

State Highway Superintendent Clinton Cowen of Ohio, 
recently awarded contracts for highway improvements 
amounting to over $175,000. The work is to be done in eight 
coimties of the state. All of the bids received were well be- 
low the estimated cost. 

The names of the successful bidders together with the 
amount and character of the work ;ind the figures at which 
the contracts were awarded, are given below. 

Franklin County, 8.55 miles bituminous macadam, Graham 
& Kinnear, Columbus, $60,128.96; alternate bid for bituminous 
macadam, waterbound macadam treated, same bidder, $63,- 
341.44; 3.34 miles bituminous macadam, same bidder, $26,- 
372.20; Lake County, 1.98 miles bituminous macadam. Public 
Contracting Co., Elyria, $14,802; Licking County, 0.5 mile 
waterbound macadam, J. C. Imboden, Logan, 13,375; 1.9 mile 
waterbound macadam. E. C. Radebaugh, Logan, $6,566.14; 
Lucas County 4.72 miles bituminous macadam, Public Con- 
tracting Co., $17,374.65; Medina County, 1.85 mile water- 
bound macadam. Hart & Kempf, Elyria, $12,187.95; Musk- 
ingum County, 0.6 mile brick, including bridges and culverts. 
Ward, Patrick & Co., Wheeling W. Va., $9,927.62; Sandusky 
County, 1.24 mile concrete. Earl Walters, Sandusky, $15,490; 
Union County 1.36 mile bituminous macadam, Sylvester 
Baaghman. Marysville, $10,642. 



Prizes Awarded for Street Crossing Designs 
for New York City 

The Municipal Art Commission of New York recently 
awarded three cash prizes amounting to $600, for plans for 
the relief of traffic congestions at the intersection of an 
avenue and a street Mention of the competition was made 
in "Good Roads" for April 3. The first prize of $300 went 
to John Floyd Yewell of New York City, the second prize 
of $200 was awarded to John Ambrose Thompson and Ernest 
F. Lewis, and Calvin Kiessling and Herbert E. Davis re- 
ceived the third prize of $100. 

*" f? ^^ designs were submitted. They were placed on 
exhibition and the awards were made by a jury composed 



of city officials and engineers, including police and subway 
officials, a member of the Municipal Art Commission and 
several prominent architects. 

Mr. Yewell's plan involves the use of a tunnel under the 
avenue and the cutting of a small portion from each of the 
four corners of the intersection. The elimination of de- 
livery wagon traffic is accomplished by means of a delivery 
court in the center of each of the four blocks surrounding the 
intersection, approached through a driveway leading from 
the cross streets above and below the intersection. In the 
center of the intersection is a clock tower which not only 
divides traffic, but provides accommodations for fire or other 
municipal apparatus and for a stairway to the tunnel. 

The fact that so many designs were submitted indicates the 
interest shown in the subject and it is believed that the 
Municipal Art Commission will hold a similar competition 
each year. 



California Highway Commission Wants Bids 
on Large Road Mileage 

The California State Highway Commission expects to 
award contracts shortly for the construction of 37.4 miles 
of state highway in fiive counties. 

Bids will be received by the Commission until July 26 on 
the following units: 

Colusia County, 0.3 mile asphalt, 55 ft. wide; Marin Coun- 
ty, about 4 miles of grading, between Burdell and St. Vin- 
cent; Monterey County, about 11.7 miles concrete, between 
Greenfield and Camphora; Santa Barbara County, 11.4 miles 
of grading between Gaviota Pass and Zaca Station; San Luis 
Obispo County, 10 miles concrete from Atascadero Creek to 
Paso Robles. 



NEWS NOTES 



The City of Urbana, Ohio, has adopted the eight-hour day for 
all public contracts. 



The County CommlsslonerB of Cabell County, W. Va., will re- 
ceive bids on 15 miles of paving on August 3. 



A Bid of ¥451,843 for $475,000 worth of state highway bonds 
has been accepted by the Board of Supervisors of Tulare 
County, Cal. 



The Clly KnslneerluK Department of Indlanapolix, Ind„ has 

completed plans for a 324-tt. bridge across Fall Creek at 
Meridian St., to cost about $150,000. 



The Pennaylvanla State Highway Department has given no- 
tice that owners of traction engines operated for other than 
agricultural purposes, will be held accountable for damage done 
to state highways. 



PreMldent Faherty of the Board of Loeal Improvements, Chi- 
caso. III., has rejected all bids for approximately $200,000 worth 
of paving because of their similarity and also because he con- 
sidered them too high. 



Kepreaentatlvea of Alameda, Berkeley and Oakland, Cal., re- 
cently perfected plans for a bridge to replace the Webster 
street drawbridge at Alameda and a committee was authorized 
to secure government approval. The bridge will cost $700,000 
according to estimates. 



The Bnreaa of ForelKu and Domeatic Commerce of the De- 
partment of Commerce, announces that the Acting British 
Consul General at Bangkok, Siara, reports that tenders will 
be received until Oct. 29 by the Director General of the Siamese 
Royal Railway Department (broad gauge), Bangkok, Siam, for 
three steel viaducts. Bids should be marked "Tender for via- 
ducts" and give price per ton delivered on the railway wharf 
at Bangkok. Copies of specifications and drawings may be ob- 
tained from the Director General of the Department on pay- 
ment of $3.77. 



July 10, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



63 



State Highway Funds Available for County 
Use in Pennsylvania 

The Pennsylvania State Highway Department has com- 
pleted the apportionment of state aid funds among the 
counties and has determined the amount available for state 
aid highway construction during 1915 and 1916. 

State Highway Commissioner Cunningham and Chief En- 
gineer Uhler are of the opinion that it is unwise for the 
state to spend money for state aid construction only to have 
such work deteriorate from lack of care. In consequence of 
this view, the estimated amount of money necessary for 
maintenance during 1915 and 1916 of previously constructed 
state aid highways, has been deducted from the sum avail- 
able for state aid construction in each county. 

A number of counties have not used the state aid appro- 
priations made by the Legislatures of 1911 and 1913 and in 
such cases, the unexpended balance has been added to the 
apportionment of the 1915 appropriation. Other counties 
have contracts outstanding which will use up all of the 1911- 
1913 balance as well as the 1915 apportionment. These coun- 
ties, consequently, face a deficit, and, in some instances will 
be unable to have even the necessary state aid maintenance. 

The following table shows the balance available for state 
aid construction during 1915 and 1916, the amount esti- 
mated for maintenance and the net balance from which state 
aid construction will be financed during the next two years. 



COMING MEETINGS 






Balance 
County. Available. 

Adam.s J21,889.67 

Allegheny* — 25,875.14 

Armstrong- 113,349.12 

Beaver* — 117,522.83 



Bedford 

Berks 

Blair 

Bradford 

Bucks* 

Butler 

Cambria* 

Cameron 

Carbon 

Centre 

Chester 

Clarion 

Clearfield 

Clinton* 

Columbia 

Crawford 

Cumberland* . . . 

Dauphin ■ 

Delaware 

Klk 

P^rie* 

Fayette* 

Forest 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Greene 

Huntingdon . . . . 

Indiana 

Jefferson 

Juaniata 

Lackawanna* . . 

Lancaster* 

Ijawrence 

Lebanon* 

Lehigh 

Luzerne 

Lycoming 

McKean* 

Mercer 

Mifflin 

Monroe 

Montgomery* . . . 

Montour 

Northampton . . . 
Northumberland 

Perrv 

Pike 

Potter* 

Schuylkill 

Snyder 

Somer.set 

Sullivan 

Susquehanna . . . 

Tioga 

Union 

Venango* 

Warren 

Washington* . . . 

Wayne 

Westmoreland . . 

Wyoming 

York* 



19,655.12 
125,661.19 

6,847.15 
56,184.02 

6,751.18 
27.394.75 

— 11,391.40 

3,011.62 
25,127.23 
45,871.65 
33,432.18 
90,403.94 
29,981,25 

— 4,721.41 
12,209.94 
70,993.79 
39,724.21 
27,068.84 
22,059.38 

6,609.81 

— 5,932.58 
21,209.29 
12,169.91 
36.208.52 

7,443.12 
33,621.27 
13,885.04 
62,974.47 
16,773.47 

8,602.40 
14,857.25 

1,593.90 
54,026.43 
14,118.53 
42,132.49 
43,735.54 
23,062.12 

— 1,468.47 
67,734.93 
23,250.46 
62.533.44 

5,804.35 

4,097.00 
12.370.08 
48,640.27 
11,355.72 

6.204.80 
13,189.76 
54,917.05 

8,483.84 
65,219.43 

5,783.24 
28,146.49 
38,908.72 
11.191.51 
12,851.53 
36,817.80 

— 92,480.62 
36.088.91 
45,018.24 
24,452.10 

— 9,069.94 



Maintenance, 

1915-1916. 

$3,925.17 

600.00 

21,982.95 

30,607.18 

18,390,00 

5,600.00 



19,657.40 

29,815.00 

23,545.74 

9,575.00 



21,063.79 

21,465.00 

9,784.58 

23,063.49 

22,803.30 

4,703.50 

4,990.00 

52,775.30 

1,350.00 

7,650.00 

5,800.00 

15,100.00 

25,846.01 

1,000.00 

13,999.00 

Vo's'.is 

5,124.00 

2,904.46 

4.364.40 

820.00 

21,238.18 

66,300.00 

13,901.48 

16,900.00 

24,600.00 

10,318.75 

902.40 

9,250.00 

18,583.51 

520.00 

1,529.00 

34,330.00 

1.444.00 

iis'oV.oi 
's.'eVs'.go 

19,673.46 
2,510.00 

22,'5'3'4'.66 

1,149.50 

675.00 

14,488.00 

i9,'9'4'8'.66 
250.00 

48,673.56 
2,227.85 

32,218.00 
5,101.31 
6,250.00 



Net 
Balance. 
$964.67 

- 26,475.14 
91,366.17 

-148,130.01 

1,265,12 

120,061.19 

6,847.15 

36,526.62 

- 23,063.82 

3,849.01 

- 20,966.40 

3,011.62 
25,127.23 
24,807.86 
11,967.18 
80,619.36 

6,917.76 

- 27,524.71 

7,506.44 
66,003.79 

- 13,051.09 
25,718.84 
14,409.38 

809.81 

- 21,032.58 

- 4,636.72 
11,169.91 
22,209.52 

7,443.12 
32,717.49 

8,761.04 
60,070.01 
12,409.07 

7,782.40 

- 6,380.93 

- 64,706.10 
40.124.95 

- 2,781.47 
17,532.49 
33,416.79 
22,159.72 

- 10,718.47 
49,151.42 
22,730.46 
61,004.44 

- 28,525.65 

2,653.00 
12,370.08 
33,832.23 
11,355.72 

2,565.90 

- 6,483.70 
52,407.05 

8,483.84 
42,685.43 

4,633,74 
27,471.49 
24,420.72 
11.191.51 

- 7,097.07 
36,567.80 

-141,154.18 
33,861.06 
12,800.24 
19,350.79 

- 15,319.94 



July 14-16 — North Carolina Good Roads Association — An- 
nual meeting, Asheville, N. C. Secretary, Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 

August 5-7. — Texas Good Roads Association and County 
Judges' and Commissioners' Association — Mid-Summer Meet- 
ing, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, College 
Station, Tex. Secy., Texas Good Roads Association, D. E. 
Colp, San Antonio. 

August 11-12. — Pacific Highway Association. — Fifth an- 
nual meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. 
Bowlby, 510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

Sept. 13. — Tri-State Roads Association. — Third annual con- 
vention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. Boos, 
1220 Flood Bldg,, San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17 — AmericcUi Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — Pan American Road 
Congress, Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Road Builders' 
Association, E. L. Powers, 150 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Secretary, American Highway Association, I. S. 
Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg, Washington, D. C. 

October 4-7 — Northwestern Road Congress — Annual meet- 
ing. Cedar Rapids, la. Secy.-Treas., J. P. Keenan, Sentinel 
Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12 — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg,, Cleveland, O. 

October 12-14 — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments — Annual convention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

November 17-19 — National Mtmicipal League — Annual con- 
vention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogers Woodruff, 
705 North American Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 



The New York State Automobile Association will hold its 
mid-summer meeting at Niagara Falls, N. Y., on Monday, 
July 19. Headquarters will be at the Prospect House, but 
arrangements have been made for special rates at other hotels 
and garages. The program includes visits to the plant of 
the Niagara Falls Power Co., and to other of the large manu- 
factories located at Niagara Falls. The meeting will close 
with a ball. 



PERSONAL NOTES 



*Indicates that appropriation has been exhausted and that 
contracts are outstanding requiring the indicated sum In excess 
of the apportionment. 



E. J. Holland has resigned as City Engineer of Guelph, Ont. 

L. E. Thornton has been reelected City Engineer of Pen- 
sacola, Fla. 

A. A. Sellers, Superintendent of Highways of Chester 
County, Pa., has resigned. 

William MacKenzic Hughes, M. Am. Soc. C. E., a well-_ 
known consulting bridge engineer, died recently at his home 
in Chicago, 111. 

W. J. Knauer, Inspecting Engineer of the New York 
State Highway Commission, has been appointed Superin- 
tendent of Highways of Chautauqua County, N. Y. 

Captain Louis D. C. Gaskill died recently at his home in 
Denver, Colo. He l)uilt the first road over the Rocky 
Mountains, connecting the Eastern and Western slopes over 
Berthoud Pass. 



64 



GOOD ROADS 



July 10, 1915 



Ambrose U. White, Assistant Engineer to the Paving Com- 
mission o( Baltimore. Md.. has resigned to take a position 
with the Pennsylvania State Highway Commission. 

John H. Boschen has been appointed Assistant Commis- 
sioner of Public Works of the Borough of Manhattan, New 
York City, to fill the vacancy caused by the promotion of 
Ralph Folks to the Comniissioncrship, as noted in "Good 
Roads" for June 26. Mr. Boschen was President of the Com- 
moawealth Savings Bank of New York City. 

F. F. Prentiss, Vice President of the Cleveland Twist Drill 
Co.; Morris A. Black, President of the H. Black Co.; H. M. 
Farnsworth, President of the Cuyahoga County Park Board; 
William G. Mather, President of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron 
Ca, and O. P. Van Sweringcn, Director of the Cleveland & 
Youngstown Railroad Co., have been appointed members of 
the recently authorized City Plan Commission of Cleveland, O. 

H. E. Bilger, M. Am Soc. C. K., Road Engineer, Illinois 
State Highway Department, has had the degree of Mastei 
of Science, pro merito, conferred upon him by Bucknell Uni- 
versity. Mr. Bilger is a graduate of Bucknell with the degree 
of Ph. B., and also of the University of Missouri with the 
degree of B. S. in C. E. For six years following 1907 he 
served the Illinois State Highway Commission as Assistant 
Engineer and Division Engineer, residing to accept the posi- 
tion of Senior Highway Engineer with the United States 
Government. In April, 1914, he resigned to take up the work 
of his present position which was won in open competition 
with lOJ candidates. 



Tkc Voters uf Mohave County, Arlsoun, will vote on a bond 
Issue of $100,000 for pood roads July 27. ' 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



The Phoenix Paving Co. has been incorporated at Astoria, 
Ore., with a capital stock of $50,000. 

The National Slag Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., has trans- 
ferred its branch office from 30 Church St., New York City, to 
the Kinney Building, Broad and Market Sts., Newark, N. J. 

The United States Motor Truck Co. has issued a 24-page 
and cover catalogue, descriptive of its heavy service motor 
trucks. The catalogue contains specifications of the various 
types and is illustrated. 

The J. I. Case Threshing Machine Co., Racine, Wis., has 
taken over the plant and equipment of the Perfection Road 
Machinery Co., Galion, O., makers of Perfection road grad- 
ers, drags and rooter plows. The product of this company 
has been sold exclusively by the Case Co. for several years. 
The Perfection plant will be moved to Racine and the 
graders will be manufactured and sold as Case graders. 

".Asphalt Roadways for Private Estates, Club Grounds 
and Parks" is the title of a booklet recently issued by the 
Barber Asphalt Paving Co., Philadelphia. Pa. It contains 
a number of half-tone reproductions of views of the roads 
on some of the well-known estates as well as those of clubs 
and parks. The text consists of a discussion of the best 
types of roadway construction under such conditions as the 
title would suggest. 

The Marion Steam Shovel Co. and the Marion-Osgood 
Co., Marion, O., announce that the litigation which has been 
carried on between them for several years has been amicably 
adjusted. The settlement covers all machinery heretofore 
shipped by the Marion-Osgood Co., and grants to that con- 
cern the shop rights to continue the use of those patents 
held by the Marion Steam Shovel Co. which are involved 
in the Marion-Osgood Company's machines as at present 
constmctcd. 



Thr Commiaalonera' Court of Kl Pa«o County, Texas, has 

called an election for July 27 on a $750,000 bond Issue for a 
system of Improved highways. 



Surveys Are BeInK Made for the Calro-Hnrtvllle Road In 

Stark (.'ounty, Ohio, a distance of about 5 miles. Petitioners 
for the road want a concrete pavement. 



The Hoard of County Commissioners of MontKomery County, 
Ohio, is considering the improvement of four miles of public 
hiBhway from Phllllpsburg, O., to the Salem Pike. 



St. Mary I'arlsh, La., has authorized the construction of 66 
miles of Kravcl road from Berwick to Jeanerette. A bond Issue 
of $250,000 has been voted to pay for the Improvement. 



County Coiiinilssioners of Cuyahonca, GeaiiKU, PortaKe and 
Summit Counties, Ohio, have agreed to pave the county line 
road between their counties. The road is about four miles long. 



CommlsHloner Lafaye of the Department of Public Property, 
New Orleans, liOulslana, has announced that contracts exceed- 
ing $1,500,000 win probably be advertised within the next 60 
days. 



The City Knglneer of Los Angreles, Cal., has filed with the 
City Council a preliminary report on the Bunker Hill open 
cut Improvement plan. The cost of the project Is estimated 
at $3,700,000. 



According to Assistant City Engineer Dutton of Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, only abouf half of the $1,000,000 worth of new pav- 
ing ordered for this year, will be completed owing to delay In 
securing funds. 



The Voters of Miami, Florida, will vote on a bond issue of 
$550,000 during the month of August. Of this amount it is 
planned to use $150,000 for the constructipn of two bridges 
across the Miami River. 



l~he Hoard of Governors of the Florida Good Roads Associa- 
tion will meet at St. Augustine, Fla., on July 24. This is the 
first of a series of similar meetings which it is planned to hold 
during the summer. - 



The County Commissioners of Chatham County, Georgia, are 

being urged to call an election on a $1,000,000 bond issue. It is 
planned to use $375,000 of this amount for a road from Savan- 
nah to Tybee, Ga., and $225,000 for permanent good roads in 
the county. 



Crooker Hill, a Dangerous Spot on the so-called Lincoln 
Highway at Effingham, 111., was rernoved recently by the use 
of dynamite. It is estimated that 143 cu. yds. were blasted out 
by the use of 125 lbs. of explosive. The work was done by em- 
ployes of the du Pont Powder Co. 



The OrganlKatlon of the Chloago-Dnliuque Highway Associa- 
tion was completed at a meeting held recently at Frecport, 111., 
when the following officers were elected: President, J. P. Car- 
son. Warren, 111.; Vice-President, B. P. Hill, Frecport, 111.; Sec- 
retary. R. R. Sherrard, Warren, 111.; Treasurer, G. L. Baldwin, 
Lena. 111. 



The Dixie Short Route Highway Association has been formed 
by citizens of Pulaski, Wilcox, Ben Hill, Irwin, Coffee, Ware, 
Charlton, Houston and Pierce Counties, Georgia, at a meeting 
held recently at HawkinsviUe, Ga. The following officers were 
elected: Chairman, W. R. Bowen; VIce-Chairman, J. C. Brewer; 
Secretary, M. Gilders; Treasurer, J. J. Whitfield. 



The I'uliilc Works Committee of the I,os .Angeles, Cal., City 
Council has approved the plan of the Board of Public Utilities 
for viaducts across the bed of the Los Angeles River and the 
Industrial district of the city. This plan, which involves an 
estimated expenditure of $4,260,000, was outlined In "Good 
Roads" for June 19. although at that time the probable cost 
was placed at a lower flBur?, 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Contracting 



Old Scrlas, Vol. XLVUI. 
New SetlM.Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, JULY 17, 1915 



Niunfier 



Founded January, 1892. 

published weekly by 
The E.L. Powers Company 



B. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sefr'jr. 



150 NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address: Gudrodes, New York. 



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Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. TwelT* 
numbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 ayear in the United States, Mexico, 
Cuba and Porto Rico ; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to advertltsrs 
should reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the first issue of ths 
month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other issues, by noon on 
Thursday of the week befor^date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted — including 
"Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertisements — will be 
accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 



provided with a library, a phonograpli and a baseball outfit, 
and each convict has been given an outfit of fishing tackle. 

By order of the Governor, each convict is given two days' 
commutation of sentence each month, for good behavior, 
and after the eight-hour work day has been completed, the 
county pays the men for two hours' extra work at the pre- 
vailing rate of wages. 

State Highway Commissioner Buflfum has given personal 
attention to the commissariat. The bill of fare includes 
cereals, eggs, fresh meat, vegetables, milk, butter, sugar and 
fresh fish which the men catch themselves. 



Copyright 1915 by the B. L. Powen Co. 

Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Mattrf 



Sand Cushion for Granite Blocks Abandoned 
in the Borough of Manhattan 

According to a recent announcement by Eugene W. Stern, 
Chief Engineer in Charge of Highways of the Borough of 
Manhattan, New York City, the use of a sand cushion for 
granite blocks has been abandoned. In reference to this 
action, Chief Engineer Stern says: 

"Under the 1915 specifications a mortar bed is used con- 
sisting of one (1) part Portland cement to three (3) parts 
sand, mixed almost dry. The blocks are just as readily 
brought to a proper surface by ramming as when the old 
sand cushion was used. The mortar hardens in a few weeks 
even under traffic. 

"The great advantage of the mortar bed over the sand 
cushion is that surface water leaking through the joints of 
the blocks does not cause depressions in the surface, which 
was the case with the sand cushion, and the cost of mainte- 
nance is considerably reduced thereby." 



Convict Labor Being Used On Road Work in 
Missouri 

The State of Missouri has established its first convict road 
camp under the direction of State Highway Commissioner 
Frank W. Buflfum and, according to recent reports, the ex- 
periment has been a success from every point of view. 

The camp is in Osage County, about 25 miles east of Jef- 
ferson City, Mo., where a stretch of road on the edge of 
a rock bluflf is being widened. Tents were purchased out 
of the state road fund and quarry tools were loaned by 
one of the county judges of Osage County. The camp is 



The Comparison of European and American 
Pavements 

About three years ago we took occasion to note editorially 
the prevalence of the idea that the pavements of the Euro- 
pean countries are superior to those in this country and the 
implied lack of ability an the part of .American engineers. 
Our comments on tlii.s matter were made in reviewing the 
report on New York City pavements made by a committee 
of twenty-two appointed by the late Mayor Ga'ynor of New 
York at the instigation of a joint committee representing 
the Chamber of Commerce of New York, the Merchants' 
•Association of New York, the Board of Transportation of 
New York and the Automobile Club of America. 

An interesting and instructive discussion of alleged Euro- 
pean superiority appears in the introduction to the report 
on street paving and maintenance in European cities, by 
former Chief Engineer of the Bureau of Highways of the 
Borough of Manhattan, H. W. Durham, which was noted in 
"Good Roads" for June S. Mr. Durham says in part: 

"The casual tourist in the course of a trip notes some 
point of street practice which comes to his attention as 
differing from that at home, and on his return becomes a 
paving expert by urging its superiority and demanding its 
installation here. He may have no knowledge of the reasons 
behind the different practices he has seen. He has probably 
no information as to the extent to which what he has noted 
is typical. But on the strength of being able to say, 'I have 
been there and seen it,' he obtains a hearing for his asser- 
tions much more extensive than their importance warrants. 

"It was strongly desired to avoid any such error by mak- 
ing, not a hasty survey, but a careful inspection of each 
city. Some of the places were visited two or three times 
at different periods, in order to correct first impressions 
and to see the streets at diflferent seasons. Some cities 
which were in most orderly condition during public cele- 
brations or at the height of the fashionable season were 
later found in considerable disarray. 

"Visits were made to the officials charged with the care 
of the streets and information obtained from them as to the 
entire area under their jurisdiction. The most conscientious 
official, however, would naturally desire to display the best 
side of the work under his charge, and inspection trips were, 
accordingly, not confined to those made in the company of 



66 



GOOD ROADS 



lulv 17, 1915 



'the ciiy official*, although many such courtesies were ex- 
tendea by them; but a Urge mileage of the streets in eacli 
city was traversed informally with the object of observing 
not only the good but the inferior conditions prevalent and 
the ordinary methods of doing construction, maintenance 
and repair work when not under formal inspection. 

"The tourist sees only a limited, usually the best, part 
of a great city, and by this limited and cursory impression 
later measures the average or the poorest condition in his 
own city. This method of comparing a maximum with an 
average gives ample opportunity for destructive criticism 
and personal importance, but is of no value in an effective 
study of relative conditions. Particular care was taken to 
avoid it by obtaining all the facts available in regard to 
the subject. 

"The study included the following countries: Great Britain, 
France, Germany. Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, Austria 
and Italy. The governments of these countries represent 
all types prevalent in Europe. Their forms of city organiza- 
tion differ as widely as do those of the nations. But there 
was not found such a diversity of methods of organization 
for the control of streets. 

"A* a general thing, one of two methods was found in 
force: 

"First, where a strongly centralized authority, reporting 
to a general city government, controls all municipal work 
through a system of small unit organizations, each in charge 
of a district, supervising all construction within its area. 

"Second, local control, existing in large cities without a 
centralized government, or in small cities where the or- 
ganization does not require subdivisions, where each borough 
is largely independent of highway authority and places con- 
trol of city work under a single head reporting to its govern- 
ing council; the subdivisions being usually charged with 
independent direction throughout the entire borough of the 
different classes of work controlled. 

"Numberless variations to any such rules are to be en- 
countered, but in every city there was found some equiva- 
lent to our public works department, usually operated under 
the authority of the city council or governing officials and 
usually headed by an executive officer, who is almost in- 
variably an engineer. Frequently " this officer controls all 
street work, including pavements, sewers, lighting, clean- 
ing, subways and water supply. In other cities there are 
separate departments for some of the latter, and he has 
charge of only the pavements proper — their drainage, clean- 
ing and lighting. 

"With the exception of the strongly centralized and com- 
plex organization prevalent throughout France, the foreign 
public works department is of somewhat simpler form than 
onri. Everywhere records and machinery of control are 
regarded as more of a means and not so much an end as 
in this country. The aim of the municipal engineer abroad, 
however he may fail of reaching it, is to maintain his streets 
in perfect condition, and not so especially to have a system 
of card records and filing cases for exhibit and for a basis 
of learned discussion, as is sometimes the case in this 
country. 

"It should be noted before proceeding to a detailed study 
of the cities visited that there must be constantly borne in 
mind, when making comparisons, the fundamental differ- 
ence in spirit between the European and American, perhaps 
best manifested in the greater regard for the letter of the 
law and an orderly method of procedure observed abroad, 
possibly due to each individual having a sense of belonging 
to a particular station in life with consequent less personal 
freedom. 7*he advantages of our type of government entail 
certain disadvantages in administration, and no recognition 
of the difference wilt make possible any material change." 



Illinois Highway Department Issues Fiscal 
Regulations 

The fiscal regulations ot tlio Illinois State Highway De- 
partment have been recently issued in booklet form, known 
as Bulletin No. 7, for the information of department om- 

ployes. 

The booklet contains all of the department rogula'ions 
regarding recommendations and appointments, field hours, 
vacations, expense accounts, the purchasing of materials and 
tools in the field and a section devoted to general notes 
to employes. 



Marysville, California, to be Represented at the 
Tri-State Convention 

Marysville, Cal., will be well represented at the annual 
convention of the Tri-State Good Roads Association which 
opens September 13 at San Francisco, Cal., as already an- 
nounced in "Good Roads." 

In addition to Mayor H. E. Hyde and the members of the 
City Council, who will attend by virtue of office, the Mayor 
has appointed the following delegates: 

H. B. P. Garden, W. G. Sutliflf, Clarence Hopkins, Harry 
Hoskins, Samuel Ewell, C. J. McCoy, F. D. Gordon, Edward 
Lewis, P. Powell, J. R. Foster, J. O. Gates, E. J. Booth, 
S. Lemek, F. E. Smith, G. Schneider A. L. Harris, C. A. 
Wetmore, Martin Sullivan, Edward Wallis and Philip Wil- 



Ohio to Let Road Contracts Amounting to 
More Than $1,000,000 

State Highway Commissioner Cowcn of Ohio will award 
contracts for more than $1,000,000 worth of highway work 
at Columbus, O., on July 2i. 

It is expected that a large number of road men will at- 
tend the opening of the bids and the gathering is to be made 
the occasion of a meeting under the auspices of the Ohio 
Good Roads Association and the Ohio Engineei-ing Society. 

An attempt will be made to adopt standard specifications 
for all counties in an effort to remedy what is considered 
a serious defect in the Cass highway law. The law permits 
a county to share in state funds on certification that 40 per 
cent, of its roads have been repaired up to a certain stand- 
ard, but permits each county to set its own standard. , 



Alabama and Georgia Counties to Build 132 
Miles of Highway 

At a recent meeting held at Rome, Ga., by citizens of 
Cherokee, Etowah, Jefferson and St. Clair Counties, Ala., 
and Floyd County, Ga., an organization known as the Forrest 
Highway Association was formed for the purpose of build- 
ing a highway 132 miles in length, from Rome, Ga., to Birm- 
ingham, Ala., connecting the counties interested with the 
trunk lines of the so-called Dixi^ and Jackson Highways. 

The following officers were chosen at the meeting: Presi- 
dent, R. W. Massey, Birmingham, Ala.; Vice-Presidents, 
T. J. Simpson, Floyd County; J. M. Garvin, Cherokee 
County; L. L. Herzberg, Etowah County; N. A. Wood, St. 
Clair County; J. W. O'Neill, Birmingham; Secretary, H. A. 
Wheeling, Rome, Ga.; Treasurer, Earl Lay, Gadsden, Ala. 



Autharltlen of Detroit, Mich., are contemplating a charter 
amendment to give the city broader powers in the issuing of 
bonds. 



The County HiKhway C'onunlmilon of HiimphreyR County, 
Tenn., lias rejected all bids for an issue of $250,000 worth of 
road bonds. 



The Faulkner County, Ark.. Good Roadu .\i<«iorlatlon was or- 
ganized recently at Conway. Ark. Wellington Robbins is 
Chairman and William B. Stark, ot Conway, Is Secretary. 



July 17, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



67 



New Bridge Specifications and Contract Forms 
Issued in Illinois 

The Illinois State Highway Ucpaitmeiit has just issued 
new contract forms and general specifications for inter- 
county bridge work. These are embodied in a book of 34 
pages which has been sent to all bridge contractors and 
county superintendents of highways. 

In addition to a form of contract, the book contains a 
set of general clauses regarding the observance of laws 
and ordinances, the use of patented devices, clearing up, 
payments, bond, etc., a description of types of bridges and 
specifications as to loads and stresses. 

There are also specifications for foundations, concrete 
and steel bridges, painting, creosoted timber, plank, Idock 
and bituminous wearing surface floors and for piling. 



COMING MEETINGS 



August 5-7. — Texas Good Roads Association and County 
Judges' and Commissioners' Association — Mid-Summer Meet- 
ing, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, College 
Station, Tex. Secy., Texas Good Roads Association, D. E. 
Colp, San Antonio. 

August 11-12. — Pacific Highway Association. — Fifth an- 
nual meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. 
Bowlby, 510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

Sept. 13. — Tri-State Roads Association. — Third annual con- 
vention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. Boos, 
1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17 — American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — Pan American Road 
Congress, Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Road Builders' 
Association, E. L. Powers, 150 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Secretary, American Highway Association, I. S. 
Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg, Washington, D. C. 

October 4-7 — Northwestern Road Congress — Annual meet- 
ing. Cedar Rapids, la. Secy.-Treas., J. P. Keenan, Sentinel 
Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12 — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland. O. 

October 12-14 — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments — Annual convention. Dayton, O. Secretarj', Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

November 17-19 — National Municipal League — Annual con- 
vention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton RogCiS Woodrufif, 
705 North American Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 



The Texas Good Roads Association 

It is announced that practically every road material and 
machinery company doing business in Texas has arranged to 
have an exhibit at the joint convention of the Texas Good 
Roads Association and the County Judges' and Commis- 
sioners' .Association which will be held at the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College of Texas at College Station, Tex., on 
August 5, 6 and 7. 

The first day will be devoted entirely to registration and 
organization, a session for the latter purpose Ijcing scheduled 
for 2 p. m., with Dean D. W. Spence of the college, presid- 
ing. Thursday evening there will be illustrated lectures and 
moving pictures showing different methods of road con- 
struction. 

The program for Friday morning, August 6, includes the 
following subjects, each to be followed by a general dis- 
cussion: 



"Should a Highway Engineer or Competent County Road 
Superintendent be Employed by the Wealthier Counties 
When Only tlie Road and Bridge Fund Is to Be Expended 
on Roads?" by Judge J. R. Davis, San Antonio; "Are Special 
Road Laws Advisable?" by Judge J. P. Pool, Victoria; 
"Should a Commissioner be -Supreme in the Expenditure of 
Money in His Own Precinct?" Commissioner James Miller, 
Dallas; "County Convict Labor: (a) How Do You Handle 
Convicts? (b) Are They Satisfactory in Handling Road 
Graders? (c) Do You Use the 'Bat'? (d) Should Chains 
Be Used Indiscriminately?" Judge W. N. Tidwell, Waxa- 
hachie; "Girls' Training School," Judge Quentin D. Corley, 
Dallas. 

At the afternoon session on Friday, Governor James E. 
Ferguson will make an address and there will be a discus- 
sion of state and county highway legislation led by A. N. 
Johnson of the Bureau of Municipal Research, New York 
City, N. Y. Those taking part in the discussion will be L. E. 
Boykin, U. S. Office of Public Roads; Senator H. L. Darwin 
of Cooper, Tex.; Judge A. J. Eylers of El Paso, and R. L. 
Potts of Waco. This session will include the discussion of 
a l)ill providing for a State Highway Commission in Texas 
and for the organization of a County Highway Department 
as outlined in "Good Roads" for June 26. 

There will be a banquet on Friday evening and the final 
session will commence at 9 a. m. on Saturday when Dr. L. 
I. Hewes of the U. S. office of Public Roads will lead a dis- 
cussion on the subject "Maintenance of Public Roads." 
Those taking part will be Lamar Cobb, State Highway En- 
gineer of Arizona; A. N. Johnson of the Bureau of Municipal 
Research, New York City, and John B. Hawley, President 
Texas Association of Members of the \n\. Soc. C. E. 



MEETINGS 



The County Councils Association 

The National Road Conference of Great Britain and the 
National Road Exhibition were held in the Royal Agricul- 
tural Hall, London, England, from June 25 to July 1, 
under the auspices of the County Councils Association. 

The conference proper opened on Monday, June 26, with 
a discussion on the use of tar, pitch and bitumen in road 
construction and maintenance, led by Percy J. Sheldon, M. 
Inst. C. E., and Alfred J. Lyddon, Assoc. M. Inst. C. E., 
respectively Surveyor and Deputy Surveyor of the County 
of Essex. 

Papers read during the conference included the following: 
"The Adequacy of Bituminous Roads," by G. H. Jack, 
County Surveyor of Hertfordshire; "Heavy Traffic," by Har- 
court E. Clare, Clerk of the Lancashire County Council, and 
Ernest J. Elford, M. Inst. C. E., Borough Engineer, South- 
end-on-sea; "The Classification of Roads," by G. Montagu 
Harris, Secretary to the County Councils Association, and 
"The Reconstruction of Roads in Belgium," by Henri Van- 
dervin. Engineer in Chief and Director of Bridges and 
Highways of Belgium. 



North Carolina Good Roads Association 

The annual meeting of the North Carolina Good Roads 
Association was held at Asheville, N. C, on Wednesday, 
Thursday and Friday of this week and, according to reports, 
was attended by a large number of delegates and others 
interested in the movement from all parts of the state. 

It was found to be impossible to secure a complete report 
of the proceedings for publicaion in this issue of "Good 
Roads," but a more extended account of the meeting will 
appear in a subsequent issue. 



68 



GOOD ROADS 



July 17, 1915 



PERSONAL NOTES 



Samuel J. Mott has been appointed City Engineer of Sara- 
toga Springs, N. Y. 

W. \V. Kraft has been appointed Superintendent of 
Streets of Evanston, III. 

Daniel J. ilack, a street paving contractor, died recently 
at his home in Tappan, N. Y. 

B. H. Klycc, Assoc. M. Am. See C. E., has been appointed 
City Engineer of Miami, Fla. 

A. K. Xicolayson has resigned as .\ssistant City Engineer 
in charge of bridge construction of San Antonio, Tex. 

.\aron Ward, a well-known contractor of Camden, N. J., 
died recently in Cooper Hospital, Camden, aged 81 years. 

E. M. Turner, .\ssistant City Engineer of Shreveport, La., 
has been elected City Engineer vice G. R. Wilson, resigned. 

F. Le Cocq. .Assistant Engineer in the City Engineering 
Department of Aberdeen, S. D., has been appointed City 
Engineer. 

J. K. Hilton has resigned as .Assistant County Engineer of 
Sac County, la., to engage in drainage work in Green 
County, la. 

Guy Nevil of the City Engineering Department, San An- 
tonio. Tex., has resigned to go to Spain for the Pearson 
Engineering Co. 

W. R. Butler has retired from the professorship of civil 
engineering in the Royal Military College, Kingston, Ont., 
after 18 years* service. 

E. V. Booth has resigned as .Assistant City Engineer of 
Youngstown, O.. and formed a partnership with R. C. Shook 
in the contracting business. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



The Koehring Machine Co., Milwaukee, Wis., has re- 
cently issued quite an elaborate folder, printed in colors, 
containing material descriptive of the Koehring street pav- 
ing mixer. 

The Illinois Gravel & Material Co., Joliet, 111., has been 
incorporated under the laws of Illinois, with a capital stock 
of $40,000. Frederick D. Tucker, Walter L. Follett and Por- 
ter Pickett, all of Joliet, are the incorporators. 

L. E. Ragan, Inc., Chatham, N. V., with a capital of $10,- 
000. was recently incorporated under the laws of New York, 
to carry on a contracting business, devoting especial atten- 
tion to paving and bridge construction. The incorporators 
are C. Bunkoff, T. B. Warriger and L. E. Ragan, all of 
Chatham. 

The du Pont Powder Co., Wilmington, Del., announces 
the publication of a comprehensive treatise on the location, 
construction and maintenance of roads. The booklet, which 
is intended for free distribution, is illustrated with photo- 
graphic views and special plan and sectional drawings of 
roads. 



NEWS NOTES 



('•■■tira la Knatrm Tranrmte are expending more than 
tl.OM.OOO for Kood roada tlili season. 



Clrrrlaad. Ohl^ is rontemplating street Improvements for 
nrxl (eaaon amounting to $2,000,000. 

WaaUastoa. Pa.. Will Have a Meetlas on July 29 In the Inter- 
eat of the so-cullcd National Road. 



Croc-fccit, Dyer and MndiHon Counties, Tenn., are planning the 
const luot Ion of nn improved liigtiway between Jacl<son and 
Pyorsburs, Tenn. 

Bloiint and Scott (onntleH, Tenn.. have called elections to 
ratify l)ond issues of $300,000 in each county to be used for 
road construction. 



ContraetH AKKreKntlni; yi,«0O,O<M) for the elimination of grade 
crosslnRs In I'hiladelphia, Tn., will be awarded during the next 
few weeks. 



The .\uthniitira of liUaeme County, Pa., have approved the 
plan to construct a JGOO.OOO bridge over the Susquehanna River 
at Market St., Wilkes-Barre. 



The Hoard of Freeholdera o( Bergen County, N. J., has ap- 
proved recommendations of the County Road Committee involv- 
ingr the expenditure of over $180,000. 

The Voters of Smith Township, Whitley County, Ga., will vote 
Augrust 7 on the question of constructing two new highways 
agrgrregating about eight miles in length. 



The County Court of ninrion County, Tenn., lias voted to bond 
the county for $100,000 to be used in constructing a section of 
the so-called Dixie Highway. 



County Knsrineer It. K. Hugrhes of Tnlsa County, Okla., has 

announced that the contract for a $200,000 concrete bridge 
across the Arkansas River will be let September 1. 



The County Court of Grainger County, Tenn., will meet on 
August 2 to order an election on a proposition to issue $200,000 
worth of bonds for the construction of pike roads. 



The County Court of Jefferson County, Tenn., has appointed 
the following Road Commissioners: R. C. Bell, White Pine; D. L. 
Butler, Jefferson City, and J. D. Day, Hodges. 



The City Council of Kankakee, III., has passed an ordinance 
requiring traction engines with spiked or lugged wheels to lay 
planks under the wheels when crossing paved streets. 



The I'roiHtHltion to Construct 23 Miles of Concrete Itoud 

through five townships in the western part of Noble County, 
Ind.. at an estimated cost of $300,000, was defeated at a recent 
election. 



The .Itmore Branch of the Alabama Good Roads Association 

was organized recently with the following officers: President, 
H. H. Patterson. Vice President, Dr. J. P. McMurphy; Secretary, 
J. H. Williamson; Treasurer, E. P. Goldsmith. 

The TonnshlpH of Fayette, HlllMdale, Woodbrlrtse and Amboy, 
Mich., are interested in an attempt to establish the highway 
from Jonesvilie through Hillsdale and Frontier to the Ohio 
state line as a trunk line road, making a through route from 
Detroit to Chicago. 



.\ MeetiUK was Held at Marlon, O., recently to consider plans 
for a model cross-state road to be known as Market Road No. 8. 
The route contemplated extends from Portsmouth, O., through 
Chilllcothe, Clreleville, Columbus, Delaware, Bucyrus, Fremont 
and Upper Sandusky to Sandusky. 

The Bureau of Forclsn and Domestic Commerce, Department 
of Conmierce, will furnish the name and address of a Brazilian 
business man who intends starting a cement block factory and 
desires to import about 300 barrels of cement a month. Inqui- 
ries should refer to No. 17,471. 



American Manufacturers and Bxporters of all kinds of road 
and grading machinery are Invited to send catalogues and price 
lists to a business house in Wales, the address of which may be 
obtained from the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. Inquiries should 
refer to No. 17,493. 



The Police Jury of Jeff Davis Parish, I.a., has designated the 
roads which will be first improved under the $400,000 bond issue 
to be voted on July 27. The main road will run from Merman- 
tau through Jennings, Roanoke and Welsh. Connecting lines 
win run from Lake Arthur to Elton, Thornwell, Welsh and Fen- 
ton and from Woodlawn to Rice. 



The Department of Commerce reports that a Spanish business 
house desires to receive catalogues and price lists from Ameri- 
can manufacturers of road sprinkling machines. The name and 
address of the Inquirer may be obtained from the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce 
Inquiries should refer to No. 17,465. 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street En^eering and Contracting 



OM Series, Vol. XLVIII. 
New Serie., Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, JULY 24, 1915 



Number 

4 



Founded January, 1892. 

published weekly by 
The E. Ij. Powers Company 



E. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address: Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price: Fifty-two numbers, $2.00 a year in the United States, 
Meiico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
□umbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 ayear in the United States, Mexico, 
Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to advertisers 
should reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the first issue of the 
month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other issues, by noon on 
Thursday of the week before date of issue. ^ 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted— including 
•'Proposal, ""For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertisements — will be 
accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 



Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co. 
Entered in New York Post Office at Second Class Matter. 



New System of Traffic Regulation Being Tried 
in New York City 

A system of regulating street traffic by means of sema- 
phore signals in charge of policemen attached to the Traffic 
Squad, is being tried in New York City at present. 

Traffic is controlled in sections five blocks long, by means 
of a central semaphore, the movements of which regulate 
semaphores at the four other intersections of the section. 
Vehicles are permitted to proceed north and south for a 
period estimated as that required for an automobile to cover 
the five blocks of a section, at a speed of 12 miles an hour, 
when the semaphore is set for east and west traffic for a 
similar length of time. 

According to police officials, the plan works well, although 
some little confusion resulted at first because chauffeurs and 
drivers did not notice the unaccustomed semaphores and 
waited for the blowing of the whistle of the traffic police. 



Patrol System of Highway Maintenance to Be 
Used in Pennsylvania 

The patrol system of maintenance will be established on 
state highway routes in Pennsylvania on August 1, accord- 
ing to the plans of State Highway Commissioner Cunning- 
ham. The force of patrolmen will number 190 and the ter- 
ritory to be covered will extend through 46 counties. The 
men will be paid at the rate of from IS to 20 cents an hour, 
depending upon the prevailing rate of wages for labor in 
their respective districts. This will mean an annual expendi- 



ture of $120,000, according to the estimates of the State 
Highway Department. 

These patrolmen will be directly under the county super- 
intendents of highways and will be supplied with the tools 
and equipment necessary for the work and also with a small 
red flag which will be placed in a conspicuous position on the 
road whenever, for any reason, the patrolman is required to 
leave the road during working hours. 

Small piles of stone chips and gravel will be placed along 
the roads at frequent intervals and barrels or drums of 
bituminous material will be placed at intervals of from a 
quarter to a third of a mile. When the patrolman finds a 
spot which shows signs of wear, he will repair it at once. 
The patrolmen will also be required to look after the edges 
of the roads, to keep the berms clear of weeds and grass and 
to protect the shoulders of the roads to prevent water from 
getting underneath. 

Each man will be supplied with the following outfit: A 
small combination melting and pouring pot on wheels, a 
hand-pouring pot, an asphalt tamper, a wheelbarrow, a push- 
brush, a pick, short and long-handled shovels, a scythe and 
snath, a mattock, a rake and a brush hook. It is the inten- 
tion that each man shall have not more than six miles of 
roadway to patrol and this distance only in sections where 
the character of the road is such that it can be covered con- 
veniently in a day. 



Cumberland County, Maine, Approves of Con- 
vict Labor on Roads 

A few monhs ago, as noted in "Good Roads" for April 10, 
Cumberland County, Me., inaugurated a test of the employ- 
ment of convict labor on the roads of the county and a 
recent report by John C. Scates, Secretary-Treasurer of the 
Maine Automobile Association, indicates that the experiment 
has been a success not only from an economic standpoint 
but from a moral and social point of view as well. 

An average of 40 prisoners are worked from a central 
camp. The road work is under the direction of the State 
Highway Department, but the entire care of the prisoners 
is under the supervision of the Sheriff and the County Com- 
missioners. The work is located on the state road at Wind- 
ham and Raymond, about 20 miles from the jail at Portland. 

The camp was built by the prisoners themselves and con- 
sists of a room large enough for 40 beds and a smaller 
wardrobe room where the men leave their clothes at night. 
This room is kept locked during the night. 

In addition to the camp, which is built in sections for easy 
removal to some other location, an old house was leased to 
provide storage room and quarters for the foremen and 
guards of whom there are three, two for day and one for 
night duty. The kitchen is also located in the house. 

The men do not wear the prison uniform and there is noth- 
ing in their appearance to distinguish them from an ordinary 
road crew. They are given an abundance of plain food, the 



70 



GOOD ROADS 



July 24, 1915 



co«t of which averages about 45 cts. per man per day, as 
against an arerage of 15 cts. per man per day for regular 
prison fare. 

Considerable liberty is permitted after working hours, but 
the mm are required to be in camp and prepare for bed at 
eight o'clock. So far, only short-term men, serving sen- 
tences of frona 30 days to nine months, have been employed 
on the road gang. .Ml of the men who have been so em- 
ployed show marked physical improvement over the men 
remaining in prison. When the camp was first started con- 
siderable attention was paid to discipline, but at the end of 
a few weeks, the work and regulations became a matter of 
routine. 

It is estimated that each man in the gang is worth ap- 
proximately $1.75 a day to the county, less the cost of food. 
The day's work in jail brings the county only 9 cts. per 
day and the men naturally had to be fed in addition. 



Pennsylvania Negotiating for the Purchase of 
a Number of Turnpikes 

The Pennsylvania State Highway Department has opened 
negotiations with a number of turnpike companies for the 
purchase of a number of turnpikes under the appropriation 
of $250,000 made for this purpose by the last Legislature. 

Those turnpikes which are under consideration embrace 
69.07 miles in the following counties: Mifflin, Franklin, 
Bucks, Lackawanna, Centre, Cambria, Delaware, Lancaster 
and Berks. 

In case the prices placed on the property by the turnpike 
companies are regarded as excessive, the State Highway 
Department contemplates either the construction of roads 
paralleling the turnpikes and connecting with the state high- 
way at either end, or diverting money from the county in 
which the turnpikes in question are located and using it for 
the purchase of turnpikes in other counties. 



The Use of Granite Block for Paving in Bres- 
lau, Germany 

According to a recent report from Consul H. G. Seltzer, at 
Breslau, Germany, to the Department of Commerce, granite 
block, with cement mortar filling, is the paving material 
used on a greater part of the streets of Breslau, there being 
2,059,153 sq. yds. of paving of this character out of a total 
of 2,483,972 sq. yds. of paved streets. 

Consul Seltzer calls attention to the permanence of all 
paving in Breslau and states that torn up streets arc so rare 
a* to be noteworthy which, his report states, is remarkable 
considering the fact that the city lies only a few feet above 
high water and, there being no stratum of hard rock or im- 
pervious clay, the drainage difficulties present a considerable 
problem. On this account concrete foundations form a most 
important part in all paving operations. 

Recently it became necessary to make repairs to the street 
railway tracks in a section of the city and an opportunity was 
afforded to observe the paving operations. The blocks were 
taken up, it being necessary to smash one block in order 
to provide a space in which to commence the work of tear- 
ing up. Each block as it was taken up was carefully cleaned 
and piled for resetting. The old sand bed was screened to 
remove all broken stone and mortar and was then replaced. 

The granite blocks, which are dressed with the top smooth, 
were then set on the sand cushion, water was poured into 
the interstices and each block tamped solidly into place. The 
interstices were then filled with a thin cement mortar which. 
in hardening, made a solid and practically noiseless pavement. 
Tbe blocks were set square between the rails and diagona'.ly 
between the rails and the curb. The crown is such as to 
secure the best possible drainage, but owing to the general 
flatness of the streets there are often three or more sewer 
inlets in one city square. 



Consul Seltzer admits that the paving operations are con- 
ducted very slowly, as compared to American methods, 
owing to the attention to detail, but points to the lasting 
qualities and the practical elimination of repairs as an offset 
to any loss of time in doing the work. The work is done 
by contract, the city and the railway each paying a share of 
the cost. Definite specifications are prepared and the in- 
spection is very rigid. On this account, according to the 
report, lawsuits for breach of contract or for inferior work 
are practically unknown. 

Materials are sometimes furnished by the city and some- 
times by contractors. There are large supplies of good pav- 
ing granite in the Province of Breslau and large cement 
works are located at Oppeln, while there are quantities of 
good buildings and all along the Oder River, which flows 
through the city. 

In addition to the yardage of granite block pavement noted 
above, the city has 129,288 sq. yds. of asphalt, 53,102 sq. yds. 
of wood block and 242,429 sq. yds. of streets paved with 
other materials. There are 32.54 miles of street railway 
owned by the municipality and 11.37 miles of privately owned 
lines. 



NEWS NOTES 



Three Miles of Burliil Avenue In Kant t'leveland, O., are to be 

paved this fall at a cost (# approximately $200,000. The cost 
will be divided equally between Cuyahoga County, East Cleve- 
land and the owners of property benefited. 



An OrsanUatlon Has Been Formed in Bourbon County, Kan., 

for the purpose of promoting lietter methods of working dirt 
roads. The officers are as follows: Chairman, C. E. Hood, 
Osage; Secretary, A. R. Peterman, Scott, Kan. 



State Road ISnelneer A. D. WtlllnmH of West Virginia, Is com- 
piling a list of all road and bridge engineers and contractors 
in the state, with an Idea to facilitate the improvement of 
roads and to stimulate competition for state contracts. 



The PavJngr Commission of Baltimore, Md., which began work 
in 1911, reports that an expenditure of nearly $5,000,000 has re- 
sulted in the repaying with smooth surface pavements of 100 
miles of city streets which were formerly paved with cobble- 
stones. 



The County Commissioners of Taylor County, W. Va., have 
awarded a contract for a $500,600 bridge across Tygart's Val- 
ley River, connecting East and West Grafton, W. Va. The 
bridge will be of concrete, 560 ft. long. The Luten Bridge Co., 
York, Pa., has the contract. 



St. Paul Mlnn„ is contemplating the widening of 9t. Paul St., 
between Lexington and Hamilton Sts. It is estimated that the 
net cost to the city will be approximately $100,000 in addition 
to the purchase of St. Elizabeth's Home, an institution located 
on the right of way. 



Residents of Delaware and Chester Counties, Pa., living along 
the Baltimore Pike, have agreed with State Highway Commis- 
sioner Cunningham to contribute $50,000 toward the cost of 
constructing an improved road. The total cost of the road is 
estimated at $300,000. 



The Board of Supervisors of Plaeer County, Cal., will pur- 
chase $250,000 worth of state highway bonds of a $2,000,000 
issue to be placed on sale July 28. The funds will be used for 
the completion of the state highway trunk line in Placer 
County and the Roseville-Auburn lateral. 



The California State Hlithway Commission has adopted plana 
for eight new units of the state highway system, including 
three bridges, at a total estimated cost of $362,000. The work 
embraces 33.92 miles in the counties of Alameda, Colusa, Los 
Angeles, Marin, Santa Clara and Shasta. 



The County Commissioners of Westmoreland and Allegheny 
Counties, Pa., have approved the construction of an inter- 
county bridge over the Allegheny River between Natrona, In 
Allegheny County, and Braeburn, In Westmoreland County. 
The cost is estimated at $225,000. 



July 24, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



7; 




August 5-7. — Texas Good Roads Association and County 
Judges' and Commissioners' Association — Mid-Suninier Meet- 
ing, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, College 
Station, Tex. Secy., Texas Good Roads Association, U. E. 
Colp, San Antonio. 

August 11-12. — Pacific Highway Association. — I'ifth an- 
nual meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. 
Bowlby, 510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

Sept. 13. — Tri-State Roads Association. — Tliird annual con- 
vention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. Boos, 
1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (.\Ieeiing to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17 — American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — Pan American Road 
Congress, Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Road Builders' 
.Association, E. L. Powers, 150 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Secretary, American Highway Association, 1. S. 
Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg, Washington, D. C. 

October 4-7 — Northwestern Road Congress — Annual meet- 
ing. Cedar Rapids, la. Secy.-Treas., J. P. Keenan, Sentinel 
Bldg., Milwaukee. Wis. 

October 11-12 — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation — .Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary. Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-14 — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments — Annual convention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

November 17-19 — National Municipal League — Annual con- 
vention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogti's Woodruflf, 
705 North American Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 



International Engineering Congress 

An International Knijineering Congress will be held in 
San Francisco, Cal., beginning September 20 and continuing 
until September 25, under the auspices of the following na- 
tional organizations: The American Society of Civil En- 
gineers, the American Institute of Mining Engineers, the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Naval 
-Architects and Marine Engineers. 

Major General G. W. Goethals, Governor of the Canal 
Zone, has consented to act as Honorary President of the 
Congress and is expected to preside over the general ses- 
sions. 

The program covers a wide range of subjects and papers 
are expected from eminent engineers of 20 countries other 
than the United States. 



The annual meeting of the Colorado-to-Gulf Highway As- 
sociation will be held at Amarillo, Tex., on July 29 and 30, 
for the election of officers and the transaction of such other 
business as may properly come before it. 



MEETINGS 



New York County Highway Superintendents. 

At the meeting of the New York County Superintendents 
of Highways held recently at Niagara Falls, N. Y., a com- 
mittee was appointed to consider the advisability of forming 
a perma.nent organization, there being at present, as stated 



in "Good Roads" for June 19, no formal organization of the 
superintendents. The committee consists of Benjamin J. 
Kice, Third Deputy State Highway Commissioner, and the 
following county superintendents: Charles Van Amburg, 
Broome; Richard T. Mace, Clinton; L. J. Bashford, Colum- 
l>ia; D wight B. Coleman, Cortland; George C. Diehl,. Erie; 
••"rank E. Bogardus, Onondaga; James F. Loughran, Ulster; 
(). C. Richards, Washington; E. J. WulflF, Westchester. 



North Carolina Good Roads Association 

The annual meeting of the North Carolina Good Roads 
.Association, brief mention of which was made in the last 
issue of "Good Roads," was held at .Asheville, N. C, July 14 
to 16, and was attended by about 250 delegates from 42 
counties of the state. 

The first session on Wednesday, July 14, was devoted to 
addresses of welcome by Mayor J. T. Rankin, of Asheville; 
Chairman W. E. Johnson of the Board of County Commis- 
sioners, and Vance Brown, President of the Asheville Board 
of Trade. President H. B. Varner, of the Association, re- 
.sponded. Then followed the reports of officers. Hon. James 
J. Britt, Member of Congress from North Carolina, made an 
address on "Federal Aid to Public Roads," and Hon. Galla- 
tin Roberts, Member of the North Carolina General Assem- 
bly, spoke on "State Aid to Public Roads." 

Among the papers read at the afternoon session on 
Wednesday were "Working Prisoners Without Guards," by 
William A. McGirt, Chairman of the Board of Commissjon- 
ers of New Hanover County, and R. E. Snowden, Highway 
Engineer. In the evening there were illustrated lectures on 
"Right Drainage and Grading," by Dr. J. H. Squires, and 
".American Ingot Iron," by Wilson Wood. 

The session Thursday morning dealt with the subject, 
"Maintenance of Public Roads." D. H. Winslow, Highway 
Engineer of the U. S. Office of Public Roads, advocated the 
use of the patrol system of road maintenance. W. H. Fallis, 
State Highway Engineer, spoke on the "Maintenance and 
Repair of Macadam Roads," and explained the methods in 
vogue in certain sections of the state. The paper was fol- 
lowed by a general discussion, the consensus of opinion be- 
ing that, except under very special conditions, no water- 
botmd macadam roads should be built in the state but that 
the upper course should be of bituminous macadam. 

Major W. A. Graham, Commissioner of Agriculture, dis- 
cussed the question of maintenance as it relates to the up- 
keep of market roads. In a further discussion of the ques- 
tion of maintenance, Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 
and Secretary of the Association, stated that one of the 
purposes of the .Association during the coming year was to 
cultivate and spread interest in the maintenance of roads. 

Lieutenant Governor E. L. Daughtridge discussed the 
question of state aid and the use of state convicts in road 
construction. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Henry B. Varner, Lexington; Secretary, Joseph 
Hyde Pratt, Chapel Hill; Treasurer, Joseph G. Brown, 
Raleigh; Director, D. Tucker Brown, Chapel Hill. 

The association adopted the following resolution as in- 
dicative of its views on several road matters: 

First: The maintenance of improved roads already con- 
structed is of momentous importance to every community and 
members of this? association are urgently reouested to iro beforo 
the boards of commissioners of their counties and their local 
highway commissions, as members of this association, for the 
purpose of impressing upon the members of said boards the im- 
portance of providing sufflcient funds for the maintenance of 
the improved highways already constructed. 

Second: That the association desires to record its opposition 
to the issuing of bonds for the construction of roads without 
making proper provision for the maintenance of the roads 
constructed with a bond issue, and thiit the Oene-al Assembly 
be urged to refuse to pass any bond issue tor any county or 
township for road construction without a provision in the act 
which will make it obligatory upon the road officiate to main- 
tain the roads and that the state shall have authority to see 
that such maintenance is carried out. 

Third: That this association heartily endorsed the action 
of the General Assembly of North Carolina in creating the 



72 



GOOD ROADS 



July 24, 1915 



v-arolina HlKhway Commission «nd It Is hop«d that the 

.1 ....,.,1.1, .,f 1S17 ivalliiMK the Importanoo aiul ettl- 

isaton will materially Inoreaae the appro- 

itilsslon. ^ . 

. ,....,.-l,.j,>n heartily approves of and en- 

.11 Assembly In establishing and 

. Svi-iiu- HiKhway. ami ims as- 

,.., oo-operatlon and assistance In 

nc a- "f the same. 

v.. 1 ,.{ this association that upon the 

ctlon ... .>.-. 's. all able-bodied state convicts 

\ h«. .sra in I! tlon of public roads. 

Tf<»i <'ur ^ :id members of Congress be re- 

.rt I.. .11... .nlluenoe and voto the bill appro- 
funds to aid In the i^^nstructlon of state roads, 
.t the members of this association impress upon 
• .-.■uniy or road commissioners the Importance of 
■ ide posts at all Intersections of roads within their 

KiK- .!»: That we hear with pleasure that certain counties 
In the siite have established the honor system In connection 
with worklnrt the convicts on a p\iblle road, and we herewltn 
rt^-ommrnd the adaption of this system In all our counties con- 
durllnic a convict force as It tends to Improve the character or 
(be convict and the efficiency of his work. 



Ktfi 
. ..n pl 
rhoul' 

Silt 




F. C Smith. City Engineer of Sioux City, la., has re- 
(igncd to become connected with the Philip Carey Co., Inc., 
Cincinnati, O., as consulting enpincer. 

C C. Gillespie, Assistant City Engineer of Sacramento, 
CaL. has been appointed Chief Engineer of the California 
Slate Sanitary Engineering Bureau. 

T. H. Johnson, who was Assistant City Engineer of Sioux 
City, la., has ben appointed City Engineer vice F. C. Smith, 
notice of whose resignation appears elsewhere in this column. 

.\. L. I'pham. formerly Resident Engineer of the Massa- 
cliU!>e.ts Highway Commission and later with the Du Pont 
Road. Inc., has been appointed Paving Inspector on the 
granite block paving work being done at Woonsocket, R. I. 

Major V. X. Zivley. of Houston, Tex., hcs been appointed 
by Governor Ferguson of Texas, to survey the old King's 
Highway from Nacogdoches to San Antonio. An appropria- 
tion of $5,000 has been made for the work. 

Prevost Hubbard has been appointed Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Road Materials Tests and Research in the U. S. 
OtVire ol Public Roads, and has resigned as Chemical En- 
^iiuir in charge of the Division of Roads and Pavements 
of the Institute of Industrial Research. 

J. H. Moore. City Engineer and Commissioner of Public 
Works of Evanston, III., has resigned to take effect Septem- 
ber 1. Mr. Moore has served the city continuously for 16 
years. The City Council commended his services and voted 
him 30 days' vacation with pay as a mark of appreciation. 

State Highway Commissioner R. J. Cunningham and Chief 
Engineer Uhler. of the Pennsylvania State Highway Depart- 
ment, have been appointed delegates to the Pan-American 
Road Congress by Governor Brumbaugh of Pennsylvania. 
The Governor has also invited Dr. W. D. Martin of Wash- 
ington County, Pa., the originator of the "Good Roads Day" 
idea in Pennsylvania, and .\. P, Irwin, of Chester County, 
to go as delegates representing the citizens of Pennsylvania. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



The Orenstein-Arthur Koppel Co., Koppel, Pa., has issued 
(Catalog No. 911, which is published for road contractors, 
highway engineers and state, county and township officials. 
It contains some very interesting information in regard to 
the use of hauling apparatus in road work and illustrated 
matter descriptive of the Koppel industrial railways, por- 
table track, dinkey engines and dump and service cars. The 
book also embraces a dictionary of road terms as recom- 
„.,_.i-j x^. ,j,p .\„,erican Society of Civil Engineers, 



NEWS NOTES 



Five U«ad Ulstrlctii of Hed Ulver County, Tex., have voted 
bonds aKSrosatiiiK $405,000 for good ro.ails. 



\ .Movement llaM Ileen Started In Sumter founty, Kla., to 

issue $250,000 worth of bonds for the construction of good 
roads. 



The Police Jury of Cameron Parish, La., has raised the tax 
rate 4 mills for the purpose of iinpi-oving the parish road sys- 
tem. 



Kent County, Mich., has organized a county board of direct- 
ors to further plans for a proposed highway from Grand Haven 
to Detroit, Mich. 



The Attorney General of Texas has approved an issue of 
$225,000 worth of road Improvement bonds In District No. 2 of 
Kaufman County. 



Director of imbllc \*'ork» Hayes of Scranton, Pa., reports 
that the city has saved about $13,000 by the use of the muni- 
cipal asphalt repair plant. 



Voters of Vermilion County, III., have approved a proposition 
to issue $1,600,000 w orth of bonds for the construction of a 
system of paved roads. 



Plans Are lleiUK Made to Connect Lost Creek and West Mll- 
(ord. In Harrison County, W. Vs., by a 4-mlle improved road 
with tarvia or brick surface. The cost of the proposed road is 
estimated at about $15,000 a mile. 



The Polk County. Pla., Good Roads Association is urging a 
referendum vote on a $2,000,000 bond issue for the purpose of 
building a system of roads. 



County HIs'hway Bngrineer CartcHI of Buchanan County, Mo., 

is Urging the purchase of a motor truck In order to handle road 
materials more expeditiously. 



The Chamber of Commerce of Los Angeles, Cal., has ap- 
pointed a committee to consider plans for a system of boule- 
vards throughout Southern California. 



The Quarter Court of Maury County, Tenn., has declared in 
favor of free turnpikes and is committed to a policy of buying 
the toll roads in the county. 



Bethlehem, Pa., is considering the expenditure of $100,000 
within the borough to form a link in the projected permanent 
highway between AUentown and Baston, Pa. 



Palestine, Texas, will experiment with asphalt from the as- 
phalt beds of Anderson County, Texas. The material has al- 
ready been successfully employed in street repair work. 



Civic Organizations of CnshInK and Guthrie, Okla., are back 
of a movement looking to the construction of a state highway 
between the two cities and on to Sapulpa and Tulsa, Okla. 



The Board of Public Service of St. Louis, Mo., has awarded a 
contract for approximately 23,000 tons of steel for the east ap- 
proach to the new Free Bridge, to the American Bridge Co., at 
about $1,035,000. 



DnrlnK 1014 the Government of New Zealand spent $3,236,- 
222 on road and bridge construction. A reinforced concrete 
bridge S20 ft. long, across Manakau Harbor, costing $121,562, 
was opened recently. 



The .\uthorltles of Wllmlnslon, Del., have decided on addi- 
tional paving aggregating about 118,000 sq. yds. The specifi- 
cations Include sheet asphalt, asphalt block, asphaltic con- 
crete, bltulithlc, Warrenlte and brick. 



The County Commlsloners of Harris County, Tex., have or- 
dered a survey of the Clinton Road with the Intention of ex- 
tending It seven miles to Penn City, thus making a direct road 
between that plape ^nfl Houston. 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street En^eerlnft and Contracting 



Old Series, Vol. XLVIII. 
Neo Stries, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, JULY 31, 1915 



Number 



Founded January, 1892. 
PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

The E. Li. JPowehs Company 



E, L, Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



ISO NASSAU STREET 
NEW YOKK, N. Y. 



Cable Aduress: Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price: Fifty-two numbers, $2.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
Dumbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 ayear in the United States, Mexico, 
Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to advertisers 
should reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the first issue of the 
month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other issues, by noon on 
Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted — including 
"Proposal," "For Sale," "Wai?t" and other classified advertisements — will be 
accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 



Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co. 

Entered in* New York Post Office as Second Class Matter. 



Good Roads Days Will Be Observed in Kansas 
in September 

The State of Kansas will have two "good roads days" 
early m the autumn, Governor Alfred Capper having an- 
nounced his intention of issuing a proclamation on his ic- 
turn from California, where he is attending the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition. 

It is believed that two days early in September will be 
designated, as the heavy work of the harvest will be over 
by that time and farmers will be in a position to devote at- 
tention to road work. 

Kansas roads have suffered severely from heavy rains this 
year, the damage in the Kaw Valley alone amounting to more 
than $400,000, according to a report by State Highway En- 
gineer W. S. Gearhart. 



Contracts for $805,000 Worth of Road Work 
Awarded in Ohio 

Road contracts amounting to $805,000 were awarded re- 
cently by the Ohio State Highway Department; about $400,- 
000 worth of work was not let for one reason or another 
and nearly $600,000 worth of contracts, it is announced, 
will be awarded on Aug. 6. 

Of the work awarded all but about $20,000 worth was 
for new construction involving the use of brick, concrete, 
macadam and bituminous materials. Some of the largest 
awards were as follows: 

Ashland County, 3.58 miles macadam, D. A. Phillips. Ash- 



land, $44,036; Montgomery County, 2.45 miles brick, Strod- 
bick Bros., Middletown, $62,359; Stark County, Canton- 
Steubenville Road, 2.59 miles, Turnbull Bros. & Co., Canton, 
$51,084; Union Comity, 4.27 miles concrete. Gather M. Junk, 
Chillicothe, $51,990; Morgan County, 2.84 miles macadam, 
Frank J. Bentz, Columbus, $40,888. 

Approximately $400,<X)0 worth of contracts were held up 
either because no bids were received or because those which 
were received were rejected. 

The State Highway Department has announced that con- 
tracts will be let on August 6 for approximately $593,857 
worth of work. The proposed improvements are located in 
twelve counties and vary in length from 0.107 miles in Musk- 
ingum County to 19.15 miles in Licking County. The work 
is as follows: 

Champaign County, 1 mile; Clermont County, 6.1 miles; 
Cuyahoga County, 3 miles; Fairfield County, bridges and 
culverts; Hocking County, 1.46 miles; Lawrence County, 
lining tunnel; Licking County, 19.15 miles; Loraine County, 
4.4 miles; Muskingum County, 0.107 mile; Shelby County, 
2.75 miles; Trumbull County, 3.84 miles; Wood County, 
3.65 miles. 



Road Building Exhibit at the North Carolina 
State Fair 

The North Carolina State Fair, which will be held in 
Raleigh, N, C, from October 19 to 22 inclusive, will present 
an innovation in the form of a joint federal and state road 
building exhibit, arranged by Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Sec- 
retary of the North Carolina Good Roads Association. 

It is planned to make the exhibit a feature of the fair and, 
to that end, it will be as complete as possible. It will con- 
sist of models of various types of roads, samples of the in- 
stallation of culverts, models of two standard bridges that 
are being used in the South, photographs illustrating road 
construction, maps showing location of roads and samples 
of road materials. 

Dr. Pratt also has in mind a demonstration of actual con- 
struction of a section of model road during the four days of 
the fair and also the demonstration of the use of various 
road machines. 



Illinois State Highway Commission Allots 
$990,000 for Road Work 

The State Highway Commission of Illinois recently ajj- 
portioned funds amounting to $990,000 among the 102 
counties of the state, to be used for road work during 1915 
and 1916. 

The allotments, which range from $108,994 in the case of 
Cook County, down to $661 for Hardin County, are as 
follows : 

Adams, $9,951; Alexander, $10,390; Bond, $4,334; Boone, 
$5,808; Brown, $2,799; Bureau, $19,764; Calhoun. $1,596; 
Carroll, $7,407; Cass, $6,893; Champaign. $20,676; Christian, 
$12,912; Clark, $5,446; Clay, $3,487; Clinton, $4,851; Coles, 



74 



GOOD ROADS 



July 31, 1915 



I8.505: Cook. $108,994: Crawford, $4,904; Cumberland, $3,220, 
0«Kalb. $15,482: De Witt. $7,920; Douglas, $7,951; Dupage, 
$11,266; Edgar. $1J.529; Edwards, $1,552; Effingham, $3,904; 
Fayette. $7,253; Ford. $8,503: Franklin, $6,185; Fulton, 
$11,811; Gallatin. $2,267; Greene. $7,049; Grundy. $8,841; Ham- 
ilton. $3,489; Hancock. $9,719; Hardin. $661; Henderson, 
$5,107; Henry. $13,027; Iroquois. $19,294; Jackson, $7,880; 
Jasper. $4,052; Jeflferaon. $5,124; Jersey, $3,808; Jo Daviess, 
$6,285: Johnson. $984; Kane. $23,582; Kankakee, $10,394; 
Kendall. $6,050; Knox. $11,624; Lake. $11,953; La Salle, $28- 
384; Lawrence. $6,647; Lee. $10,461; Livingston, $15,880; 
Logan. $10,936; Macon. $16,683; Macoupin. $11,027; Madisor. 
$15,469; Marion. $6,042; Marshall. $6,118; Mason, $5,336: 
Uasttc. $1,552: McDonou^:;h. $7,987; McHenry, $12,956; M.-- 
Lean. $24,196; Menard. $3,657; Mercer. $9,085; Monroe, 
Montgomery. $10,818; Morgan. $9,304; Moultrie, 

Ogle. $12,949; Peoria, $21,744; Perry, $2,618; Piatt. 

Pike. ^664; Pope. $1,243; Pulaski, $1,987; Putman, 
Randolph. $3,615: Richland, $3,337; Rock Island. 

Saline, $8,462; Sangamon, $17,010; Schuyler, $4,587; 
Scott. $3,370; Shelby. $11,904; Stark, $5,097; St. Clair, $10,085; 
Stephenson. $10,348; Tazewell. $9,240; Union, $2,526; Ver- 
million. $29,482; Wabash. $2,846; Warren, $9,069; Washing- 
ton. $4,356; Wayne. $5,844; White. $4,531; Whiteside, $13,741; 
Will. $17,772; Williamson. $5,440; Winnebago. $14,042; Wood- 
ford. $8,415. 



$2,896; 
$5,626; 
$7,223; 
$2,585; 
$6^285; 



State Highway Commissioner Cowen of Ohio 
Discusses State Road Finances 

In a letter to county officials. State Higli/ay Commis- 
sioner Ointon Cowen of Ohio calls attention to difficulties 
under which the State Highway Department is operating at 
present and warns the local authorities against heedless con- 
tracting in view of a shortage of funds. The letter, in part, 
is printed below: 

Tile relmtlon«hip In road matters between the boards of coun- 
ty rommlaaloners throughout the State of Ohio and the State 
Hlxhway Commissioner Is one which requires a thorough mu- 
tual understanding of existing conditions, and for this reason. 
and with a view toward a closer co-operation, we deem it proper 
at this time to call your attention to certain limitations under 
which the State Highway Department Is now operating:. The 
original law providing a state levy for highway Improvement 
purposes was passed by the legislature April 8, 1913, and pro- 
ridcd for a levy of 6-10 mill on all the taxable property of the 
state. Taxes levied under this act were first collected In De- 
remtter. 1»1J. and the total amount which came Into the state 
treasury by reason of this levy during the year of 1914 was 
tl.i7(.457.17. • •• • •• .. • 

On July 20. 1)14, the Legislature of Ohio was called In special 
aeaalon • • • to reduce state levies. The then governor. 
In hia message to the General Assembly recommended that the 
levy for highway Improvement purposes be reduced from 5-10 
mill to 3-10 mill, and advised the members of the General As- 
sembly that the new rate suggested by him. to wit, 
J-10 mill, would produce almost three million dollars a 
year. The confidence of Governor Cox In this regard 
was misplaced and subsequent developments have proven 
that the redaction In the state levy for highway Improvement 
purposes • • • has resulted in a very large decrease In the 
amount produced, as compared with the year 1914. While the 
Ury of S-IO mill, made In 1»1S, produced tl,S89,079.7S at the Feb- 
marr. 1»I4. settlement, the levy of 3-10 mill, made In 1914, pro- 
duced only tI,lI3.0«S.21 at the February. 1915, settlement. It Is 
therefore apparent that the State Highway Department this 
yaar will be compelled to operate with an Income which has 
been reduced one-third. •••••••• 

The above constitutes only one of several facts tending to re- 
strict the activities of the State Highway Department for the 
year 1»1J. To be frank, the department Is compelled to operate 
not only with an Income that has been decreased approximately 
on<-thlrd. as compared with the Income of the department last 
year, but It has also been compelled to use a substantial part 
of lu l*It Income to meet obligations created by the department 
In l»M. over and above the Income of the department for that 
year. While the Stata Highway Department In the year 1914 
had IID.l 14.41 available for the construction of main market 



roads, the department attempted during the year 1914 to enter 
Into contracts for the construction of main market roads to the 
amount of J98.6, 047.58, being $165,933.29 more than the total 
amount available for the year. While these contracts were 
Illegal and void, to the extent of $165,933.29, yet local officials 
and contractors had acted In good faith and Incurred obligations 
under these void contracts and it was necessary, therefore, for 
the Legislature, when.lt met in 1915. to validate these contracts 
and make an opproprlation to meet the same. 

* • • The same situation exists as to inter-county high- 
way funds, to the extent of $87,348.40. 

It will thus be seen that the State Highway Commissioner Is 
not only conmpelled to operate the department with a substan- 
tially reduced Income, but out of that reduced Income he Is 
compelled to pay over a quarter of a million dollars on the debts 
of the department contracted last year, over and above the 
Income for that year. 

The reduction In the Income of the State Highway Depart- 
ment for the present year * » * means that It will be abso- 
lutely necessary to curtail the activities of the State Highway 
Department during the year 1915. 

When the Finance Committee of the House of Representatives 
began Its work early in 1915, it Invited the State Highway De- 
partment, as then constituted, to submit a budget, but the form- 
er State Highway Commissioner and those associated with him 
were of the opinion that the department could not comply with 
this request. • * • Of necessity, the Finance Committee was 
compelled to depend upon the oral statements of certain repre- 
sentatives of the Highway Department as then constituted. 
• • * that there were no unexpended balances left over 
from the appropriation for 1914. As a matter of fact, there 
were balances to the amount of $555,686.88 in the inter-county 
highway funds to the credit of many of the counties and there 
was. also, a balance of $56,305.13 in the maintenance and repair 
fund. The members of the House Finance Committee were de- 
ceived by the faulty information Imparted to them by the rep- 
resentatives of the Highway Department called before them 
and, as a result, the balances above referred to were lapsed by 
House Bill No. 314. 

The lapsing of these balances and the time required to draft 
and secure the passage of legislation re-appropriatlng such bal- 
ances and making them available for the use of the department, 
has also been the cause of much delay in the letting of contracts 
In a number of counties in the State. 

In the drafting of legislation to make available funds to meet 
contracts entered Into In 1914 without authority of law, and in 
excess of the appropriation for that year, it was also necessary 
to bear In mind that such legislation was not an appropriation 
for the current expenses of the state government or state In- 
stitutions, but was, in effect, a recognition of a moral claim 
against the state and a provision for the payment of the same. 
This legislation, therefore, can not go into effect until August 
31, 1915, being ninety days after the law in question was filed In 
the office of the Secretary of State. 

Taking into consideration the facts as given, It will be very 
evident to you that the position In which the State Highway 
Department has been placed is one requiring, not the heedless 
contracting against funds which do not exist, but a policy of 
careful, thoughtful expenditure of existing funds where the In- 
terests of the people of Ohio will be best subserved. 



New State Highway Commission Appointed 
by Governor Rye of Tennessee 

Governor T. C. Rye of Tennessee has announced the names 
of tlie three appointive members of the new State Highway 
Commission which was created by act of the lasi General 
Assembly. 

The law provides that a member shall be appointed to rep- 
resent each of the three grand divisions of the state. The 
appointees are W. H. Crox of Bradley County, representing 
Eastern Tennessee; Arthur H. Crownover of Franklin Coun- 
ty, representing Middle Tennessee, and Charles W. Williams 
of Henry County, representing Western Tennessee. 

Others who are members of the commission by virtue of 
office are Governor Rye, Dean Ferris of the Engineering 
and Highway Department of the University of Tennessee, 
and State Geologist A. H. Purdue. 

Funds for the administration of the commission, the 
members of which serve without salary, are derived from a 
tax on motor vehicles, including traction engines, which, 
it is estimated will yield between 170,000 and $80,000. 



July 31, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



75 



Indiana Automobilists Seek Establishment of 
a State Highway Department 

The newly formed Indiana State Automobile Association, 
whicli nunil)ers among its charter members some of the 
most prominent men in the state, has announced as its prime 
object, the establishment of a state highway department 
in Indiana with state aid for the construction and mainte- 
nance of roads. 

It is proposed to conduct a state wide campaign of educa- 
tion to this end, until the next session of the legislature in 
1917. The association will also take up the question of 
providing markers for roads throughout the state. 



COMING MEETINGS 



August 5-7. — Texas Good Roads Association and County 
Judges' and Commissioners' Association — Mid-Summer 
Meeting, Agricultural and Mechanical College ol Texas, 
College Station, Tex. Secy., Texas Good Roads Associa- 
tion, D. E. Colp, San Antonio. 

September 13.— Tri-State Roads Association.— Third annual 
convention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. 
Boos, 1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17. — American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — I'an-American Road 
Congress. Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Roaa Build- 
ers' Association, E. L. Powers. 150 Nassau St., New York, 
N. Y. Executive Secretary, .'American Highway Associa- 
tion, I. S. Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

September 16. — Pacific Highway Association. — Fifth annual 
meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. Bovvlby. 
510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

October 4-7. — Northwestern Road Congress. — .Annual 
meeting, Cedar Rapids, la. Secy-Trcas., J. P. Keenan, 
Sentinel Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12. — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg.. Cleveland. O. 

October 12-14. — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments. — .Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 

November 17-19. — National Municipal League. — Annual 
convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogers Wood- 
ruff, 705 North American Bldg., 'Philadelphia, Pa. 

February 15-18, 1916. — National Conference on Concrete 
Road Building. — .Second National conference, Chicago, 111. 
Secretary of Advisory Committee, J. P. Beck, 208 South 
La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 



Conference on Concrete Road Building 

The second National Conference on Concrete Road Build- 
ing will be held in Chicago, 111., February IS, 16, 17 and 18, 
1916. Seventeen committees have been named, each to in- 
vestigate and submit a report upon the following specific 
topics: 

"Drainage and Preparation of Subgrade;" "Economical 
Widths of Pavement and Shoulders;" "Problems of Design, 
Thickness, Crown and Grade;" "Aggregates;" "Handling 
and Hauling Materials and Water Supply;" Organization of 
Concreting Crew;" '"Proportions of Materials and Con- 
sistency of Concrete; "Mixing and Placing Concrete;" "Re- 
inforcing;" "Joint Location and Construction;" "Expansion 
and Contraction;" "Finishing and Curing;" "Construction 
of Shoulders and Curbs;" "Method-> and Cost jf Mainten- 
ance;" "Form of Specifications;" "Cost of Construction;" 
"Estimating and Inspection Problems." 



The Advisory Committee has again selected Dr. W. F. 
M. Goss, Dean of the College of Engineering of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois as Chairman, and J. P. Beck of Chicago 
as Secretary. 



The National Road Exhibition 

At a meeting of the representatives of firms exhibiting at 
the National Road Exhiliition which was held at Horticul- 
tural Hall, London, England, recently, as noted in "Good 
Roads," for June 17, it was resolved that as soon after the war 
as convenient, the exhibitors would welcome the holding of a 
similar exhibition by the County Councils Association. Dur- 
ing the last exhibition M. Helleputte, Belgian Minister of 
Public Works, announced the intention of the Belgian Gov- 
ernment to give opportunities to a large number of exhibit- 
ors to undertake contracts in Belgium at a later date. 



MEETINGS 



Ohio County Engineers 

.\ meeting of the county engineers of the State of Ohio 
was held recently at Columbus, O., for the purpose of dis- 
cussing the new state highway law, which becomes eflfective 
on September 4. A committee was appointed to formulate a 
plan for bringing about a standardization of specifications 
for road construction in all counties. 



A three-days' Good Roads Convention and Farmers' In- 
stitute was held at Abingdon, Va., commencing on July 12. 
Among the speakers was L. E. Boykin, of the Department of 
Agriculture, whose subject was "The Value of Good Roads 
to Towns and Rural Communities." 



The Executive Committee of the Good Roads Association 
of Washington County, Pa., at a recent meeting prepared 
plans for the formation of a state good roads association in 
Pennsylvania. It is proposed to call a meeting at an early 
date at which all county organizations will be represented, 
with a view to effecting a state organization. 



PERSONAL NOTES 



E. B. Ulrich has been re-elected City Engineer of Read- 
ing, Pa. 

L. E. Tuttle has been appointed Assistant City luigincer 
of Stamford, Conn. 

H. Mc-Auslan has Ijeen appointed Town Engineer of North 
Bay, Ont., vice John Shaw, resigned. 

H. E. Tanner has been appointed City Engineer of 
Verdun, P. Q., vice Henry Hadley, Jr., resigned. 

W. S. Keller was recently re-elected State Highway En- 
gineer by the Alabama State Highway Commission. 

A. L. Smith has been appointed Resident Engineer of lii2 
-Mabama State Highway Department at Selma, Ala. 

John Craft of Mobile, Ala., has been reappointed State 
Highway Commissioner of Alabama by Governor Henderson. 

S. R. Walker, Park Commissioner of San Antonio Tex., 
has been appointed to the newly created office of Sit'ewalk 
Commissioner. 

Robert E. Spragins, recently reappointed State Highway 
Commissioner of Alabama, has been re-elected Chairman 
of the Commission. 

R. P. Roadgap. Goshen, Va., has been elected Cliairnian 
of the Good Roads Committee of the Virginia Rural Letter 
Carriers' Association. 



76 



GOOD ROADS 



July 31, 1915 



' John H. Eldert, a member of the road contracting nim of 
Twombley & Eldert, Jamaica. N. Y., died recently at his 
home in Richmond Hill. K. Y. 

Edwin Duffey, Commissioner of Highways of New York 
Stale, was the principal speaker at the recent annual high- 
way meeting of Wyoming County, N. Y. 

J. B. Rylance of Dadeville. Ala., has been appointcH State 
Highway Commissioner of .Mabaina, vice Julien Smith, whose 
term of office expired recently. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



The Appianite I'avcment Co., of New York City, was incor- 
porated recently under the laws of New York, with a 
capital stock of $20,000. The incorporators are Alexan- 
der Reed, Howard G. Wilson and Herbert McKennis, all of 
New York City. 



The Waterloo Cement Machinery Co., Waterloo, la., has 
issued a handsomely printed circular descriptive of the 
Wonder paver. The circular contains eight pages and is 
illustrated with half-tone reproductions of the machine and 
its various parts. 



The Vibrolithic Construction Co., capitalized at $100,000, 
has been organized at Dallas. Tex., and will conduct a gen- 
eral paving business in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kan- 
sas, Louisiana and Mississippi. The officers are W. C. 
Connor. President; H. L. Seay, Vice President; E. C. Connor, 
Manager; F. E. Austin, Treasurer; H. T. Allen, Secretary, 
and R. C Stubbs, Chief Engineer. 



Studebaker, South Bend, Ind., has just issued Catalog No. 
1005, an illustrated booklet of 31 pages, in which its line 
of bottom dump wagons and dump boxes is fully covered. 
In addition, the catalogue contains descriptions of the Stude- 
baker road oilers, sprinklers, flushers and sweepers. The 
illustrations consist of half-tone reproductions of the appa- 
ratus and various operating mechanisms. 



NEWS NOTES 



■"• "^'y C««rt of :vr<rra«tlr < oiiin,. nn.. has awarded con- 
tracU for the resurfacing of al...ut If. miles of roads. 

TMm mt Xraroc Ccaat^. Tean.. recently defeated a project 
t« l»«ue IJOO.OOO In bon ds for the co mpletion of road work. 

•* ■•■* !■■■« of •SSO.oeo for Road Coantructlon wag ratlfled 
at a recent election In the 3d Commlssloner-s District of De 
Land. Fla. 



Aa Elwtloa Will Be Held at Clearvrater, Fla.. on Aug. 18 

on the queatlon of Issuing $715,000 bonds for roads, bridges 
and culverts. 



T»« C«aa«r CoatailMlaaeni of Darke and Mercer Conntles, 

Ohtm, have sranted a petition to Improve the Rammel Road 
between the two counties. 



AB BertI— Will Be Held la Iberville Parish, La., on AuK. 
7 for the purpose of voting a road tax In the newly estab- 
Uah«4 Road District No. 4. 



Tk* City Tnwtees •( Sawtelle. Cal., have decided to pave 
Santa Monica Boulevard with Warrenlte on a concrete base 
at so approximate cost of $100,000. 



The B«ard of Saperrlaors of NIacara Coaal^. N. Y., has ap- 
proved plans for new countv highways to cost $256,000. The 
eotinlir's share In the cost is $15>.000. 



>p«rtaak«nr Cmmmtr, •• C, authorities will award contracts 
for six steel brldxes durlnir the next few weeks. The bridges 
raas* from >0 ft. to 100 ft. In length. 



Gillespie County, Tex., is conslderlnK the matter of raising 
funds either by bond Issue or by direct taxation tor the pur- 
pose of building; an adequate system of good roads. 



CktcnKO. III.. Has Filed an Assessment Roll of $7,262, SS.'i as 
a step toward the realization of plans for the Michigan Ave- 
nue Boulevard link which Includes a double-deck bridge over 
the Chicago River. 



The Dominion of Canada imported paving brick to the value 
of $171,617 during 1914, according to recently issued customs 
statistics. Of this amount 83 per cent, was Imported from 
the United States. 



The Hoard of Freeholders of I<:.isex County, N. J., has ap- 
proved recommendations for a new bridge over the Passaic 
River at Pine Brook, the acquisition of a new county road 
and the repavlng of seven county roads. 



A Committee of Fifty Has Been Appointed to conduct a cam- 
paign for good roads in Madison County, Ga. According to 
report, there are 1,500 miles of roads to be Improved or con- 
structed. A bond issue of $1,000,000 Is planned. 



Tyler County, Tex., Held Its Flriit Good Roads Meetinic re- 
cently when the question of creating a road district of the 
southern part of the county and issuing $150,000 in bonds 
was considered. The project received the support of the 
meeting. 



Chief Road Bnslneer A. D. Williams of West VIrKinia. re- 
porting to the National Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor, 
states that convicts did road work in West Virginia at a 
cost of $11,589.92, for which the lowest bid from a private con- 
tractor was $lo,418.06. 



The Commissioner's Court of Brnioria County. Tex., has 

called an election for Aug. 21 for the formation of Road Dis- 
trict No. 13 and the issuance of $150,000 in bonds for the 
purpose of hard surfacing roads. The Town of Brazoria Is 
included in the proposed district. 



.\uKnst 10 and 17 Have Been Selected as "good roads days" 
by the Executive Committee of the Alabama Good Roads As- 
sociation. August 15, being Sunday, will be devoted to re- 
ligious services in connection with the good roads movement, 
at the suggestion of Governor Henderson. 



The Illinois Division of the Dixie Higrhway was dedicated at 
Watseka, 111., recently, when Joseph G. Cannon, former Speaker 
of the House of Representatives, removed the first shovelful 
of earth. The dedication was the occasion of a celebration 
in which, it is stated, more than 2,000 persons took part. 



The Voters of Detroit, Mich., voted against the proposition to 
issue $2,000,000 bonds for a bridge to replace the Belle Isle 
Bridge which was burned some time ago, as noted In the May 
8 issue of "Good Roads." The erection of a footbridge, for 
which about $100,000 is available, is now advocated by the 
Mayor. 



The State Highway Commission of Montana has prepared 
plans for the uniform construction of bridges throughout the 
state in conformity to the law passed by the last Legislature. 
These plans are modified to suit local conditions on receipt 
of data from county oflicials and the bridges are built under 
the direction of the State Highway Commission. 



The rubllc Works Department of the Federated Malay States 

reports a steady increase In the mileage of paved roads. Dur- 
ing the past year 85 miles were added to the system, which now 
embraces 2,250 miles. There are 185 miles of unpaved roads 
and 1,738 miles of bridle roads and paths. The sum of 
$401,486 was spent on widening and improving existing roads 
and $703,210 on new construction. 



The SacTiimento Good Roads Asnoclation was formed recently 
at a meetlti'< held at Sacramento, Cal., and the following oflfi- 
cers were elected: President, George W. Peltier; Vice Presi- 
dents, Charles B. Bills, Emmett Phillips, R. T. Devlin, Benjamin 
Leonard, 1^. C. Simpson; Secretary, W. A. Meyer; Assistant Sec- 
retary, John Montgomery. The organization is committed in 
favor of bonding the county to raise funds tor the construc- 
tion of a system of permanent highways. 



-7T. 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Contracting 



Old SeriM. Vol. XLVIII. 
New Series, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, AUGUST 7, 1915 



Number 

6 



Founded January, 1892. 

published weekly by 
The E.L. Powers Company 



B. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NASSAtr STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address: Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price; Fifty-two numbers, S2.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and S3. 50 elsewhere. Twelve 
numbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 ayear in the United States, Mexico, 
Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. 
. Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to advertisers 
should reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the first issue of the 
month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other issues, by noon on 
Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

, Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted — including 
"Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertisements — will be 
accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 

Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co. 
Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Matter 



CONTENTS 

Page 
EDITORIAL: 

Examinations for Road Workers 77 

Standard Practice in the Construction of Block Pave- 
ments 78' 

LEADING ARTICLES: 

Equipment and Methods Used on a State Aid Road 

Contract in Pennsylvania (Illustrated) 79 

Some Examples of Long-Lived Pavements (Illustrated) 81 

Highway Laws of the United States: Digests of the laws 
Governing the Administration, Construction and Main- 
tenance of Highways in the Several States 83 

MISCELLANEOUS: 

Convict Labor on Alabama Roads 82 

Road Classification in Great Britain 97 

Stome Phases of Road Improvement Work in Colorado.. 97 
Durax Pavement in the Grand Central Terminal Im- 
provement 98 

A. R. B. A. PAGE 99 

COMING MEETINGS 100 

REPORTS 101 

NEW PUBLICATIONS 102 

PERSONAL NOTES 102 

NEWS OF THE TRADE 102 

NEW MACHINERY AND APPLIANCES 103 

RECENT PATENTS 104 



EXAMINATIONS FOR ROAD WORKERS 

In an article printed in the issue of July 10, describing an 
examination for road inspectors recently conducted by the 
New Jersey Civil Service Commission, there were noted sev- 
eral features which merit the attention of road and street 
officials. While the New Jersey examination was for select- 
ing inspectors, the principles involved are equally applicable 
to the conduct of examinations for other positions. 

The first point to which attention is directed is that the 
positions were filled through examination and that the ap- 
pointees so selected are to be protected by civil service rules 
and regulations. While there will always be some question 
as to the efficacy of an examination — of the usual kind, at 
least — for selecting men to fill positions calling for various 
qualifications other than technical knowledge, there can be 
no doubt that such a method is far preferable to choice 
governed by politics, favoritism, nepotism or mere chance. 
As regards the placing of public employees under civil 
service there can be very little honest difference of opinion. 
This has already been done in many state highway depart- 
ments, though it may be noted that unfortunately it is too 
often comparatively easy for the politicians to evade civil 
service laws when they desire the appointment or promo- 
tion of a henchman or the dismissal or demotion of some- 
one who has incurred their displeasure. 

The next point of excellence in the New Jersey examina- 
tions was the making of a part of the examination oral. 
Most satisfactory results may reasonably be expected from 
such an examination, properly conducted, 'for it brings out 
much that it is impossible to ascertain from any examina- 
tion paper. By even a short talk with a candidate, an ex- 
aminer accustomed to measure men can form a fairly accurate 
estimate of what the man is as well as of what he knows, 
while the latter — and that but imperfectly — is all that can be 
concluded from the written answers to a set of formal ques 
ti^.s and problems. The oral examination is of peculiar 
value in the selection of employees to fill positions that 
bring their occupants into constant contact with men, for 
probably by no other means, short of a trial of the can- 
didate in the position, can the qualifications for such work be 
determined. Reliance upon a written examination only, 
might result in the rejection of first-class men and the 
choosing of men absolutely without the most essential quali- 
fications. On the other hand, the able man conducting an 
oral examination might discover in an otherwise promising 
candidate certain characteristics that would absolutely unfit 
him for a position in which he would have to deal with other 
men, or might find in some candidate, whose technical knowl- 
edge was questionable, certain qualities of tact, good judg- 
ment and pleasant address that would assure his success in 
spite of his technical deficiencies. 

It should be borne in mind, however, that all of the points 
cited in favor of the oral examination become disadvantages 
instead of advantages unless the examiner is selected with 
care and intelligence. He must be a man who himself under- 
stands the duties of the position to be filled and who knows 
the work to be done; he must be a man who can so question 



78 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



» candidate as to draw him out and make hira reveal his 
fitness or unfitness; and he must be a good judge of men. 
Above alt the examiner must be some one unacquainted with 
the candidates and. therefore, free from all inclination to 
favor or discriminate against. 

The New Jersey Civil Service Commission insured the 
fairness of its selections by choosing as examiner a man 
from outside of the state, who, we are informed, knew the 
candidates only by numbers. By selecting former State High- 
way Commissioner MacDonald of Connecticut the com- 
mission also secured a man of long training in the school of 
experience in both building roads and picking men. 

In this case, as in many others, the example of New 
Jersey in the conduct of road affairs may well be followed 
by other states. The adoption of civil service does much to 
attract more able men; the use of the oral examination to 
supplement written tests makes more likely the choice of 
employees possessed of tact, good judgment and the ability 
to handle men, as well as the requisite technical knowledge; 
and the bringing in of a capable outside man as examiner' 
throws around the selection an added protection from choice 
based upon any grounds except qualifications for the work 
to be done. 



STANDARD PRACTICE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF 
BLOCK PAVEMENTS 

While considerable time has been devoted by various 
organi2ations to the formulation and advocacy of so-called 
standard specifications for various kinds of pavements, very 
little information has been published showing to what extent 
practice in the construction of pavements has actually been 
standardized. With this in mind, a study has been made 
of the statistics on the construction details of block pave- 
ments printed in the July 3 issue of this publication, and 
from these the data in the following paragraphs have been 
secured. 

Before setting forth the statistics obtained, it should be 
pointed out that the returns from which the figures have 
been secured are from a sufficiently large number of cities to 
insure a reasonable degree of accuracy and that the different 
cities from which data have been obtained vary sufficiently 
in size and location so that they may be considered repre- 
sentative. 

The three kinds of pavement considered are brick, stone 
block and wood block. 

Of the cities reporting the kind of foundation used for 
brick pavement, 86 per cent, use concrete, while the remain- 
ing 14 per cent, use gravel, crushed stone, sand, macadam, 
stag and other materials. Of the concrete foundations, 47 per 
cent are of a 1:3:6 mixture, 16 per cent, are of a 1:3:5 mixture 
and the remaining 37 per cent, are divided among eighteen 
other mixtures, ranging from those as rich as 1 :5 to those as 
lean as 1:4:8. The concrete foundations laid range in depth 
from 4 to 8 ins., 48 per cent, being 6 ins. deep, 25 per cent. 
5 ins. deep, 18 per cent. 4 ms. deep and 9 per cent, of other 
depths. Sand cushions used range from 1 to 2 ins., 46.5 
per cent, being I'/i ins. deep, 36 per cent, being 2 ins. deep, 
14.5 per cent, being 1 in. deep and 3 per cent, being of other 
varying depths. Cement filler, according to the reports re- 
ceived, is used for 61 per cent, of the pavements, bituminous 
filler for 23 per cent., sand filler for 12 per cent., and other 
niters for 4 per cent. The guarantee period on brick pave- 
ments as reported ranges from none to 20 years, 56 per 
cent, being guaranteed for 5 years, 17.5 per cent, for 1 year, 
9 per cent, bein? laid without guarantee, 6.5 per cent, for two 
years, 6.5 per cent, for three years and 4.5 per cent, for other 
periods. From these, it would seem that what may be 
designated as the brick pavement most nearly typical of 
American practice is one laid on a \'A-in. sand cushion rest- 
ing on a 1:3:6 concrete foundation, 6 ins. deep, filled with a 
cement filler and guaranteed for five years. 



Data secured on the practice in laying stone block pave- 
mcrft showed 77.5 per cent, of such pavement to be laid on 
a concrete foundation, 7.5 per cent, on a sand foundation and 
IS per cent, on foundations of other kinds. As in the case of 
the brick pavement, the mix most commonly used is 1:3:6, 
of which 61 per cent, of the foundations arc made. A 1:3:5 
mixture is used for 13 per cent., a 1:2% :5 mixture for 6.5 
per cent, and 19.5 per cent, are laid on concrete foundations 
of other proportions. The depths of the concrete founda- 
tions range from 4 to 8 ins., 70 per cent, being 6 ins. deep, 
20 per cent. 5 ins. deep and 10 per cent, of other depths. The 
sand cushion in 48 per cent, of the cases covered is 2 ins 
deep, in 26 per cent, it is IH 'ns. deep, in 13 per cent. 1 in. 
deep and in 13 per cent, is of other depths. Cement filler 
leads others with a percentage of 61, while bituminous 
fillers and sand fillers are each used in 12 per cent, of the 
cases reported. The remaining 15 per cent, of the reports 
indicate other fillers. The guarantee period ranges from 
1 to 20 years, 48 per cent, being for 5 years, 26 per cent, 
being for 1 year and 26 per cent, for other lengths of time. 
These figures would indicate that the typical stone block 
pavement is laid on a 2-in. sand cushion resting on a 1:3:6 
concrete foundation, 6 ins. deep; filled with grout, and guar- 
anteed for 5 years. 

Figures on wood block pavement show a concrete founda- 
tion to be used in 100 per cent, of the cases reported. As is 
the case with the other two pavements, the greater propor- 
tion ot the foundations are of the 1:3:6 mixture, the exact 
percentage being 59. Of the remainder, 20,5 per cent, are of 
a 1:3:5 mix and 20.5 per cent, are of other mixtures. The 
depths of the concrete range from 4 to 8 ins., 54 per cent, 
being 6 ins. deep, 35 per cent, being 5 ins. deep and 11 per 
cent, of other depths. A sand cushion is used on top of the 
foundation in 84 per cent, of the pavements on which reports 
were received, the depths varying from Yi in. to 2 ins. In 
the cases in which the depths of the sand cushion were re- 
ported, 63 per cent, are 1 in. deep, 15 per cent, are % in. 
deep and 22 per cent, are of other depths. Sand filler is 
used in 49 per cent, of the cases, bituminous fillers in 40 
per cent, and other fillers in 11 per cent. The guarantee 
period, as in the case of the brick block pavement, ranges 
from no guarantee to 20 years, 78 per cent, being guaranteed 
for S years and the remaining 22 per cent, being laid without 
guarantee or for periods other than 5 years. The repre- 
sentative wood block pavement, as shown by these figures, 
is laid on a 1-in. sand cushion on a 1:3:6 concrete founda- 
tion, 6 ins. deep; filled with sand, and guaranteed for 5 years. 



Ilow Much Street RnllTvny ComimnleN Should Re Hequlred to 
I'ay Toward the Cont of Hlshnay llrldRe Construction was 

considered In a paper recently presented before the Western 
Society of Engineers by Chas. M. Spofford, Hayward Professor 
of Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Boston, Mass,, and also a member of Fay, Spoftord & Thorn- 
dtke, Consulting Engineers, Boston, Mass. Prof. Spofford's con- 
clusions were as follows: "(a) Additional width to provide 
for street cars Is ordinarily necessary only in the case ot 
bridges with narrow roadways, providing for no more than two 
lines of traffic, (b) The extra expense Involved In strengthen- 
ing heavy city bridges of permanent type to provide for 50-ton 
trolley cars would not ordinarily be greatei- ihan 10 per cent, 
of the total cost, and may be as low as 6 per cent. This per- 
centage will be greater for light country highway bridges 
without paved floors, but if such bridges are designed for 
heavy motor truck traffic, as they should be, the additional 
expense will not be excessive. (c) To apportion the cost 
equitably, and with credit to the engineering profession, the 
engineers on the two sides should try to agree upon the addi- 
tional coat of provisions for street cars before the case is pre- 
sented to an apportionment commission. This can ordinarily 
be done If both sides are reasonable, (d) It Is doubtful if the 
railroad company should ordinarily be charged for additional 
convenience due to the reconstructed bridge. This, however, is 
a matter the settlement of which hardly comes into the prov- 
ince of the engineer." 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



79 



Equipment and Methods Used on a State Aid Road Contract 

in Pennsylvania 



Work of especial interest because of the utilization of up- 
to-date equipment has been done on a state aid road con- 
tract in Erie County, Pennsylvania, which is now nearing 
completion. The work comprises the construction of a brick 
pavement on the road formerly known as the Buffalo Road, 
which is being improved under State Highway Application 
No. 454. The road extends from the east line of the city 
of Erie to Wesleyville Borough, a distance of 9,800 ft. When 
completed the roadway will be 32 ft. in width, with the track 
of the Buflfalo & Lake Erie Traction Co. occupying 8 ft. in 
the center. The traction company is bearing the expense of 



12, 191S, when a type "B" Erie shovel was put into opera- 
tion at the westerly end of the road. The excavated mate- 
rial was delivered by the shovel to dump wagons and dis- 
posed of to adjoining property owners. The teams used in 
this work were practically the only ones used on the entire 
job. The cut made was 26 ft. wide, extending from the street 
car track along the side of the road to the curb line on the 
opposite side, the depth varying from nothing to 2 ft., the 
average being about 1 ft. Eighteen days were used in this 
grading work, the accompanying table showing the record 
made by the shovel and the teams. 



RECORD OF EARTH EXCAVATION ON THE BUFFALO. ROAD, ERIE COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA. 

"B" 



Work Performed by Type 
Date 

Day (1915) Depth of Cut Notes 

Monday April 12 10" Started noon 

Tuesday " 13 

Wednesday " 14 ......... 

Thursday " 15 

Friday " 16 

Saturday " 17 

Monday " 19 

Tuesday " 20 

Wednesday " 21 

Thursday " 22 

Friday " 23 

Saturday...- " 24 

Monday " 26 

Tuesday " 27 ......'... 

Wednesday " 28 

Thursday " 29 

Friday " 30 

Saturday May 1 



Erie Shovel and Horse-Drawn, 1%-cu. yd. Dump Wagons. 

IH-cu. yd. loads 
moved 

86 

12 to 14" 342 

12 to 14" 2 hrs. lost account water pipes (In road) 246 

16" 447 

18". ; 535 

18" 528 

24" 605 

12" 491 

8" 328 

12 to 18" 458 

12 to 18" 422 

12 to 18" Stopped 2 p.m. held up securing water 210 

12" 422 

12" 426 

12" 449 

12" 412 

12" 416 

14" 460 



the construction of that portion of the road occupied by its 
track, all of that work having been done by the company's 
own forces after the contractor had completed the grading. 
The contract for the remainder is held by L. Vincent Metz, 
of Erie, Pa. 

Actual work on the state aid contract was started on April 



As soon as the grading was completed, the traction com- 
pany commenced work on the new railway track in the center 
of the road. The track was built by placing the ties on the 
completed subgrade and spiking directly to them S-in. 90-lb. 
T-rails. The track was then lined up and wooden blocks 
placed under the ends of each tie. The concrete foundation 




GRADING WITH AN ERIE STEAM SHOVEL ON THE BUFFALO ROAD BETWEEN THE CITY OF ERIE AND WESLEY- 
VILLE BOROUGH, ERIE COUNTY, PENN. 



80 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 




tXlXCnETE MIXIXC5 Pl^NT USED BY THE TRACTION COM- 

PANT FOR U-^YINa TRACK FOUNDATION— ELECTRI- 

CAULT OPERATED MIXER MOUNTED ON TRUCKS. 

was then placed by means of an electrically driven concrete 
mixer, mounted on a truck as shown in one of the accom- 
panying illustrations. The machine averaged 450 lin. ft. per 
day. each section placed being 8 ft. wide and 13 ins. deep 
from the subgrade to the bottom of the ties. 

Meanwhile, the contractor had made arrangements with 
the street railway company for use of the abandoned track 
on the south side of the road. A siding about 1,000 ft. long 
was built from the P. & E. Railroad tracks to this street car 
track, and all the material used on the work was hauled 
directly from the cars to the point where used by means of 
a 20-ton industrial locomotive and the necessary cars. The 
cars of brick are hauled directly from the trolley tracks to 
the work and the bricks handled from the cars to the brick- 
layers by means of roller conveyors, thus avoiding the cost 
of unloading from the cars, hauling to the work and piling 
along the street. This work was in operation at the time 



this article was written, about one mile of brick work hav- 
ing been completed at that time. 

The concrete foundation and curb were laid by means of a 
Koehring mixer, equipped with a boom and bucket, mounted 
on a flat car and operated over the abandoned trolley track. 
as shown in one of the accompanying illustrations. Gondola 
cars carrying the gravel and sand for the concrete were 
made up in the same train with the mixer car, while the 
cement was carried on one end <of the flat car used for the 
mixer. Runways for bringing the material from the one sand 
and two gravel cars were rigged along the sides of these 
three cars. Nine men were employed for charging the 
mixer, one man to operate it and four men for handling the 
material on the road. The rate of progress was about 600 
lin. ft. of S-in. concrete foundation, 12 ft. wide every 9 hours, 
this being the capacity of the mixer. 

There are no special features of the drainage work, ex- 
cept that about 1,000 ft. of the drainage goes into the com- 
bination sanitary and storm sewer of the city of Erie. 
House connections to the sewer and water and gas connec- 
tions were laid to each lot before the construction of the 
pavement was commenced. 

The work is under the direct supervision of T. C. Frame, 
Assistant Engineer of the Pennsylvania State Highway De- 
partment, who has charge of the work in the district in 
which Erie County is situated. We are indebted to Mr., 
Frame and to the Pennsylvania State Highway Department 
for our information and for the photographs from which 
the accompanying illustrations were made. 



DnrlDK 1914, 66,560 aq. yds. of Pavement Were Laid In the 
City of Waxahachie, Tex., at a total cost of about $120,000, 
according to a recent report. Of the total yardage laid, 
about 18,000 sq. yds. were of bituminous concrete; 
about 17,000 sq. yds. were of brick and about 15,000 sq. yds. 
were of plain concrete. During the current year the city 
will lay about 32,000 sq. yds. of pavement of bituminous con- 
crete and cement concrete with bituminous topping. The total 
cost of this work will be about |61,000. 




MIXING AND LATINO CONCRETB FOUNDATION, BUPFAIiO ROAD, BRIE COUNTY, PBNN.— SHOWING KOEHRING 
MIXER ON FLAT CAR. AND OTHER CARS USED FOR MATERIALiS. 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



81 



Some Examples of Long-Lived Pavements 

The word "permanent" when used to mean everlasting can 
not, of course, be applied to pavements — nor to any engin- 
eering structure. As ordinarily applied to roadways, how- 
ever, the word is used— doubtless rightly— to designate a 
pavement of great durability; one that will last with ordinary 
maintenance for a life-time, more or less. In the accom- 
panying illustrations, reproduced from photographs furnished 
by Will P. Blair, Secretary of the National Paving Brick 
Manufacturers' Association, are shown five pavements, which, 
using the latter meaning of the word, can properly be re- 
ferred to as "permanent." 

The illustration at the top of this page shows the south- 
west corner of a public square in the city of Cleveland, Ohio. 
The pavement is of Medina stone block, with cement filled 
joints. It was laid in 1901. 

The lower left-hand illustration on this page is of a por- 
tion of Linwood Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. According to 
Mr. Blair, to whom we are indebted for our information as 
well as for the photographs, this pavement, which is of 
brick, was laid in 1905 on a sand cushion resting upon a 
natural soil foundation. The street forms a drive through a 
first-class residential district of the city. 

The illustration at the lower right-hand corner of the page 
shows a portion of Ansel Road, which is also in Cleveland. 
It skirts Rockefeller Park and carries a variety of traffic, 
consisting of pleasure vehicles, automobile trucks and steel- 
tired wagons. The pavement is of brick, with cement-filled 
joints, laid in 1907 in the same manner as the pavement on 
Linwood Avenue. There has been no appreciable wear on 
the street, it is stated. 

The first illustration on the next page shows a portion of 
Holmden Avenue, a street traversing a thickly settled resi- 
dential district of Cleveland and carrying not only the traf- 
fic of the residents along it but also a considerable amount 
of traffic from one portion of the city to another. The pave- 
ment was laid in 1899 upon a sand cushion resting upon a 
natural soil foundation, and with cement filled joints. 




SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PUBLIC SQUARE, CLEVELAND, 

OHIO — MEDINA STONE BLOCKS WITH CEMENT 

FILLED JOINTS— LAID IN 1901. 

Although these three brick paved streets — Linwood Ave- 
nue, Ansel Road and Holmden Avenue — were built without 
artificial foundation, the sand cushion, which did not exceed 
Xyi ins. in depth, resting upon the natural soil, neither Holm- 
den Avenue nor Ansel Road has required any repairs due to 
wear. The photographs show their present condition, which 
would indicate many more years of service. 

In the last of the accompanying pictures is shown a part of 
South Sixth Street in Terre Haute, Ind. The pavement is 
of small wire-cut brick, laid on a 2-in. sand cushion resting 
upon a broken stone foundation. It was laid by contract 
in 1891-92, and no repairs due to wear have been made. 
During the life of the pavement it has suffered two slight 
ruptures through expansion, and the repair of these is esti- 
mated to have cost about $200. No expansion joints were 
provided when the pavement was constructed, and it is 




LINWOOD AVENUE, CLEVELAND, OHIO— BRICK 
MBNT ON NATURAL SOIL— LAID IN 1906. 



PAVE- 



ANSEL ROAD, CLEVELAND, OHIO— BRICK PAVEMENT ON 
NATURAL SOIL— LAID IN 1907. 



S2 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 




Ht»UMI>EN AVENUE. CLEVELu\ND. OHIO— BRICK PAVE- 
MENT ON NATURAL. SOILi— LAID IN 1899. 

interesting to note that the force of the expansion has been 
•officient to break several pieces of curb along the street. 
Another interesting fact in connection with this street is 
that although at several places the subgrade has settled on 
account of fills made during the course of sewer construction, 
it is stated that although the street carries a traffic, on at 
least a portion of its length, of more than 20,000 vehicles 
daily, the pavement surface has not broken down over any 
of these settlements. 

It is stated that each of the streets mentioned carries a 
much heavier traffic than is carried by any of the streets in 
cities of 20,000 population and less. At the same time, it is 
pointed out, the streets were built as cheaply as possible. 
without a concrete foundation in any case. 



Convict Labor on Alabama Roads 

A comprehensive description of the results obtained by 
the use of convicts in road work in Alabama is given in 
Bulletin No. 9 of the State Highway Department entitled 
"Working Convicts on the Public Roads of Alabama." It 
is by State Highway Engineer W. S. Keller and is noted on 
other pages of this issue. 

According to Mr. Keller, the possibility of the successful 
and economical use of county convicts in road work has 
been demonstrated in Alabama, particularly in Dallas, Jef- 
ferson, Bullock and Houston Counties, and he holds that 
if the plan is satisfactory in those counties it will be in all 
others where there is a sufficient number of convicts who 
hare been sentenced to hard labor. Failures, according to Mr. 




Keller, are due to three causes: (1) Lack of sufficient con- 
victs to offset overhead charges; (2) lack of system, and (3) 
superabundance of politics. 

In considering the first of these causes, Mr. Keller dis- 
cusses the proper force to be employed and compares its 
cost of operation with the cost of doing the work with 
free labor. A well equipped grading force, according to 
Mr. Keller, should consist of 10 teams, with the necessary 
tools and machinery, and a force of 23 convicts as follows: 
10 drivers, 1 dumper, 1 loader, 1 spreader, 1 plowman, 6 
men for clearing and grubbing. 1 water boy, 1 cook and 1 
cook's helper. This force will require 1 superintendent and 
2 guards and an extra guard who can be called upon when 
the division of the work makes it necessary. The daily cost 
of operation with such a force is given as follows: 

Feeding: and clothing 23 men, @ 60 cts $13.80 

Feeding superintendent and guards. @ 50 cts 2.00 

Superintendent's wages 3.00 

Wages of three guards. @ $1.50 4.50 

Feeding 20 mules, @ 50 cts 10.00 

Incidentals ' 2.00 

Court costs 6.00 

Total $41.30 

The item for court costs is included in order to cover the 
cost imposed upon a prisoner incident to his trial and con- 
viction, which, if he is unable to pay, must be paid by the 
county, the prisoner working it out at the rate of 75 cts. per 
day. The cost of convict maintenance for feeding and cloth- 
ing, which in the above statement is given at 60 cts. per man, 
is as low as 32 cts. in some counties. The total of $41.30 is 
a fixed daily cost for every day in the month, and, figuring 
30 days to the month, would amount to $1,239. Assuming 

22 working days would make the cost per working day 
$56.32. 

The daily cost of hired labor is given by Mr. Keller as 
follows: 

23 laborers, @ $1.10 $25.30 

Superintendent 3.00 

10 teams, @ $4.00 40.00 

Total $68.30 

These figures show that the iitilization of convicts effects 
a saving of $11.98 per day, or $263.56 per month, on the 
basis of 22 working days. 

It is pointed out that reducing the number of men re- 
duces the effectiveness, since practically the same equip- 
ment is required for 8 or 10 men as for 25 and since one 
cook and camp man can serve 30 men as easily as 10. The 
salaries of the superintendent and guards and the other 
fixed expenses of the camp also increase proportionately as 
the number of men is decreased. 

In discussing the lack of system as a cause of failure, Mr. 
Keller points out the desirability of keeping a full set of 
books and other records, and the careful watch over the use 
of food and other supplies. 

The principal point in Mr. Keller's discussion of the third 
cause of failure — politics — is the necessity of appointing the 
superintendent solely on the basis of his fitness for the work 
and not because of his political affiliations. 



BOUTH SIXTH STREET, TERRE HAUTE, IND.— BRICK 
PAVEMENT ON BROKEN STONE— LAID IN 1891-2. 



The U«e of Oil Mixed Portland Cement Concrete Is discussed 
in a treatise by Director Logan Waller Page ot the U. S. 
Ofllce of Public Roads, printed recently as a bulletin ot the 
Department of Agriculture. In discussing service tests, it 
is stated that this material was used on two bridge surfaces 
in the Borough of Richmond, New York City, In May, 1910; 
on about 400 ft. of street laid In the city of Washington In 
1910; on about one-half mile of roadway laid in the suburbs 
of Harrlsburg, Pa.; on sections of roadway on Hillside Ave., 
.Jamaica, N. Y., and on sections of roadway at Chevy Chase, 
Md. Observations made to date, according to Mr. Page, "show 
that no apparent advantage has been gained in these par- 
ticular cases by the addition of oil." In another part of Mr. 
Page's article It is stated that the use of o'll mixed concrete 
should prove of value for damp-proofing concrete bases on 
roads against the action of ground water, which Is particularly 
noticeable in the cases ot such road surfaces as asphalt, bitumi- 
nous concrete, etc. 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



83 



Highway Laws of the United States 

Digests of the Laws Governing the Administration, Construction and Maintenance of Highways 

in the Several States 



In accordance with the custom inaugurated in 1912, there 
are printed on the following pages brief digests of the laws 
relating to highway work in the several states, in Alaska 
and in the District of Columbia. As the Legislatures met 
in the majority of these states this year, the digests vary 
considerably from those printed last year. 

ALABAMA 

A law creating the State Highway Commission and estab- 
lishing a fund for state aid in the improvement of highways 
was passed by the Alabama Legislature in 1911. The com- 
mission consists of five members — the State Geologist, the Pro- 
fessor of Engineering at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 
and three men appointed by the Governor. A State Highway 
Engineer is appointed by the commission and he appoints as- 
sistants and a clerical staff with the approval of the commis- 
sioners. The State Highway Engineer acts in an advisory 
capacity for the benefit of county and township officials in all 
matters pertaining to highways. 

The fund for state aid amounts to ?154,000 annually and is 
taken from the convict fund. Of this expenditure, $10,000 is 
for salaries of engineers and expenses of the commission. The 
amount may be increased to $20,000 if conditions warrant it. 
The balance of the fund is divided equally among the counties 
of the state. The law provides that each county shall have 
appropriated an amount equal to its allotment before it is 
eligible to state aid. Plans for highway work to which state 
money is to be applied must be approved by the State Highway 
Engineer, and all state aid work is supervised by him. The 
annual allowance to each county may be increased by the 
Governor to $4,000, if the condition of the treasury permits it. 

The county is the unit in highway work, and each county 
has its own organization. In some counties the road work 
is in the hands of county commissioners and in others it 
is controlled by boards of revenue. In both cases the offi- 
cials are elected by the people in November of even years. 
Some local laws provide for the appointment of county engi- 
neers; others do- not. 

[Note: The Alabama Legislature reconvened on July 13, 
and at that time it was thought that some slight changes 
might be made in the highway laws.] 

ALASKA 

Road work in Alaska is conducted under acts of Congress 
providing for separate organizations for carrying on general 
and local work. Formerly a road overseer was appointed in 
each of the several mining districts to collect and direct the 
expenditure of an authorized road tax of $8 for each able- 
bodied male between the ages of 18 and 50 years. Recent 
legislation has abolished this tax. The construction and main- 
tenance of the more important routes is in charge of the Board 
of Road Commissioners for Alaska, consisting of three United 
States Army officers. Funds for this work are provided from 
liquor, trade and occupation licenses collected outside of incor- 
porated towns in the territory. The Board of Road Commis- 
sioners is authorized to undertake any project on its own 
motion, using this fund to pay the cost. In addition to this 
fund appropriations are made from time to time by special 
acts of Congress for specific work as recommended by the 
Board. 

ARIZONA 

According to the Arizona law, all highway and bridge work 
participated In by the state Is placed in the hands of the State 
Engineer, who Is appointed by the Governor with the consent 
of the Senate. He Is required to be a competent civil engineer 
and his duties include the preparation of plans and specifica- 
tions for state highways and bridges and the supervision of 
all state work. -He is also required to aid the county superin- 
tendents of roads by giving advice. 

An appropriation of $250,000 a year, raised by tax levies, is 
made for construction. Of this amount 75 per cent, is to bo 
expended, in the counties in which raised, under the direction 
of the county boards of supervisors and the State Engineer. 
The remaining 25 per cent, is expended under the direction of 
the State Engineer and the State Board of Control, which con- 



sists of the Governor, the Auditor and one citizen member ap- 
pointed by the Governor. All engineering expenses are also 
paid out of the 26 per cent, portion. 

For the purpose of bridge construction, a county which has 
expended its state road appropriation may borrow from the 
general fund of the state with the consent of the Board of 
Control an amount not exceeding $20,000. This is a loan, one- 
third of which must be returned to the general fund out of the 
first money received thereafter to the credit of the county's 
portion of the state road fund and the balance in equal amounts 
from the next two years' apportionment. A graded tax is 
imposed on automobiles and the proceeds paid into the 25 per 
cent, proportion of the state road fund. 

County work is in the hands of county boards of supervisors 
and is paid for by the proceeds of a tax levy which must not 
exceed 25 cts. on each $100 valuation In the county. The work 
was formerly done under the immediate supervision of the 
county superintendent of roads, an elective officer. An amend- 
ment to the law passed last year and taking effect Jan. 1, 1915, 
abolishes this office and provides that the county board of 
supervisors may appoint a county engineer at a salary not over 
$3,000 per year. 

The law also provides for the use of convicts on the roads, 
in accordance with rules and regulations made by the Sitate 
Engineer and approved by the State Board of Control. An 
appropriation of $60,000 per year is provided for working pris- 
oners, the additional expense necessary being paid from the 
counties' portion of the state road fund. It is also provided 
that there be paid from the prison fund into the state 
road fund in any county where prisoners are employed an 
amount equal to the daily cost of clothing and subsistence at 
the prison for each prisoner engaged in the work. The re- 
mainder of the cost of prosecuting convict work Is paid from 
the state road tax fund, the county in which the work is being 
done having to pay only for necessary materials. 

A special road district law provides for the formation of such 
districts not exceeding 10 miles in length and one mile in width. 
Bonds may be issued by these districts for the purpose of con- 
structing roads and bridges. 

ARKANSAS 

A law creating a State Highway Commission and providing 
for its maintenance was passed by the Legislature of 1913. 

By the terms of the law the commission is composed of the 
Commissioner of State Lands, Highways and Improvements 
(formerly the Commissioner of State Lands), who is ex-offlcio 
chairman, and two members appointed by the Governor for 
two-year terms. The chairman appoints a State Highway 
Engineer. 

The duties of the commission are to advise local officials, 
collect data and exercise a general supervision over work In 
some instances. The expenses of the department are paid 
from a highway improvement fund derived from motor vehicle 
license fees and fees from state lands. 

The law provides for the employment of convicts upon the 
public roads and in the preparation of road material. 

Various special legislative acts affecting particular locali- 
ties have created a variety of methods in the local administra- 
tion of road work. The control of highway work Is in the 
hands of County Judges. In general, the County Judges ap- 
point Road Commissioners and Overseers, but they are elected 
by the voters of the county, township or district in many 
cases. The general law provides for a tax levy of 3 mills 
when voted by people in each county. 

All citizens are subject to four days' labor or the payment 
of $4.00 in addition to the 3 mills levied. A tax of % mill is. 
also voted In most counties for bridges. 

The last Legislature passed several special acts providing 
that in place of "free labor" each citizen should pay a per 
capita tax f $3.00. 

Ten counties were also permitted to employ County Highway 
Engineers to work in connection with the state department. 

Act 338, the "Alexander Bill," which was passed, provides for 
the formation of road improvement districts over the entire 
state. 

An amendment to the constitution was provided for and will 
be voted on at the next general election which will permit 
counties to vote bonds running for a period not exceeding 30 
years. 



84 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



' CALirORNlA 

A Uw which created • Stmt* Department of Engineering was 
liiMill la Itll by the Lerlalature. This law provides that all 
matters of state road construction shall come under the control 
of this department, which consists of an Advisory Board com- 
posed of the Governor as a member and ex-offlclo Chairman, the 
Stat* Bnclneer, the General Superintendent of the State Hospital, 
the CkalmaD of the State Board of Harbor Commissioners of 
tea Francisco and three members appointed by the Governor. 
Tho department, by and throuKh the Chairman of the Advisory 
Beard, has the power to appoint a Highway Engineer and Super- 
intaadent. It has charge of all funds appropriated by the state 
(or highway purpose* and of all state roads built or being 
boUt at the time the law was passed and of those to be built 
with the proceeds of an {18,000.000 bond Issue which was 
authorised In 1»09. An act of the last Legislature provides 
for • referendum vot* on the question of a further Issue of 
tlt.M«,e«0 bonda 

Local road work Is controlled by county supervisors, five In 
each county, elected by vote of the people In November of even 
year*, for terms of four years. The people elect a county sur- 
▼oyer, who makes such surveys of county roads and performs 
■ocb other engineering work as the board of supervisors of the 
county may direct Taxes, levied by the supervisors, are paid 
In cash. Provision Is made by statute for the Issuing of bonds 
and for the permanent Improvement of main public highways 
In a county, under the Immediate direction of a county high- 
way commission, consisting of three members appointed by 
the board of supervisors, who, with the consent of the board of 
supervisors, may hire necessary engineers and other assistants 
and perform work either on a contract or day labor basis 
and do everything necessary and proper in the construction 
of such main public highway system. 

COLORADO 

State highway work, according to the provisions of a law 
pa*s*d In KIS, Is In the hands of a State Highway Commis- 
sioner and an Advisory Board. The Advisory Board consists of 
Ave members, one chosen from each of five districts of the 
state. One member retires each year. The State Highway 
Commissioner Is appointed for a four-year term and receives 
a salary of tS.OOO per year. The Highway Commissioner and the 
Advisory Board appoint a Secretary, who Is a civil engineer 
and whose salary Is fixed at not exceeding $2,100 per year. 
They also appoint such other assistants as may be necessary. 
The members of the Advisory Board serve without pay except 
that they are reimbursed for their actual and necessary ex- 
penses while employed in the discharge of the duties of their 
ofHce. the law providing that they meet at the oflflce of the 
State Highway Commissioner at stated times. 

The county is the unit of road work. In each county three 
county commissioners are elected by the people for general 
supervision over the work. They are elected In November of 
even years, one for four years and two for four years, alter- 
nately. All county commissioners take office on the second 
Tuesday in January following election. It is the duty of the 
county commissioners to do the necessary engineering work. 
Including the preparation of plans, specifications and estimates 
of coats for all work, on such roads within their respective 
counties. In accordance .with rules and regulations adopted by 
the State Highway Commissioner and Advisory Board, and re- 
port these to the State Highway Commissioner for approval 
or modification. The county commissioners also have charge of 
all construction and maintenance work on state roads In their 
respective counties, the work being done in accordance with 
the rale* of the State Highway Commissioner and Advisory 
Board, and may employ competent engineering assistants to 
have actual charge of this. 

AM Is extended to the counties In the construction of certain 
road* which are designated as state roads, the state funds 
available being apportioned to the counties by the State High- 
way Commission, which In doing so takes into consideration 
the population and area of each county, the amount of money 
expended by It for road construction and other factors. No 
money may b^ expended from this fund within the corporate 
limits of cities or towns, nor may any sum be expended In a 
county where the commissioners do not avail themselves of the 
apportionment by following the procedure prescribed by the 
law. Seventy-five per cent, of the money available for distri- 
bution among the counties must be used In those which have 
provided for an amount equal to that set aside by the State 
HiKhway Commissioner and the Advisory Board for state road 
work In that county, except In cases where, in the judgment of 
the Slate Highway Commissioner and the Advisory Board, the 
county re<|ulres further aid. In cases of this kind the amount 
•nay b* Increased to not more than five times tho amount 
appropriated by the county. The remaining 26 per cent, of 



state funds available is allotted by the State Highway Com- 
missioner and Advisory Board to such counties as, In their 
Judgment, are entitled to state aid without a proportionate 
appropriation from the counties. The people Initiated and 
voted a half-mill levy which becomes efteetive In 1916. 

On or before January 1 of each year the State Highway Com- 
missioner must prepare and keep on file a map showlnK the 
roads of each county In the state, on which are Indicated the 
roads which the State Highway Commissioner deems of suffi- 
cient public Importance to entitle them to state aid and which, 
when completed, will provide an adequate system of state 
roads connecting various market and business centers. It is 
provided that these roads be divided into two classes, one in- 
cluding those of primary importance and the other those of 
secondary importance, and unless otherwise ordered the roads 
of primary Importance must be constructed or improved first. 

To provide for carrying out the provisions of the law, there 
is appropriated annually from money in the state treasury not 
otherwise appropriated the sum of $15,000. There is also an 
annual appropriation of not over $15,000 for the salaries and 
expenses of the members and employes of the State Highway 
Commission and Advisory Board. 

CONNECTICUT 

By the provisions of a law passed In 1897 and subsequent 
amendments, state road work Is In charge of a State Highway 
Commissioner, appointed by the Governor, with the consent of 
the Senate. The commissioner is assisted in his duties by a 
Deputy Commissioner, a Superintendent of Repairs, seven 
Division Engineers and a corps of Supervisors of Repairs. State 
aid Is extended to townships upon application by the boards 
of selectmen. The plans, specifications and surveys are made 
by the Division Engineer in whose teritory proposed state aid 
work Is located, and the State Highway .Commissioner deter- 
mines the material to be used as well as the location of the 
roads to be built. 

In all improvements costing more than $1,000, the work 
is done by contract. Bids are advertised for by the State High- 
way Commissioner. Townships, as well as individuals and 
contracting firms, may submit bids, and are subject to the 
same regulations as individuals and firms. A grand list stand- 
ard of $1,250,000 is the basis upon which state aid funds are 
distriblted among the townships. If a township has a grand 
list which exceeds this amount, the state pays three-fourths 
of the cost of state aid roads and the township one-fourth; 
if the grand list is less than $1,250,000, the state pays seven- 
eighths and the township one-eighth. On all main trunk lines 
the state pays all the cost of origlninal construction and subse- 
quent maintenance. The state pays three-fourths of the cost 
of maintenance of main roads other than trunk lines. 

A town may construct a section or sections of highway under 
authority from the State Highway Department and in accord- 
ance with plans and specifications approved by the department, 
and may receive its proporton of the cost from the next appro- 
priation. 

The General Assembly of 1915 passed an act requiring the 
building or reconstruction of trunk line highway bridges of a 
greater span than 35 feet by the state. If located In a town the 
town shall reimburse the state for one-half of the cost; if 
located between towns such towns shall pay back to the state 
one-half of the cost in proportion to their grand lists; if located 
between counties each county shall reimburse the state for one- 
fourth of the cost. If the tracks of an electric railway cross 
any bridge so constructed, the cost shall be defrayed by the 
company, the state and the town or towns or counties, each pay- 
ing one-third. 

Local road work in the towns Is In the hands of boards of 
selectmen. Each town has three selectmen, who are elected 
by the people in October of each year. 

DELAWARE 

Each of the three counties of Delaware has a separate system 
of highway administration. New Castle County has a State 
Highway Commissioner and each county has a County Road 
Engineer. The control of road matters is in the hands of the 
Levy Courts, bodies of county officials elected by the people. 
Members of the Levy Courts serve four years. The last election 
was in November, 1914. Members take office on the first Tuesday 
In January after election. In Sussex County the Levy Court 
as at present constituted will be abolished on' the first Tuesday 
in January, 1917, and at the general election to be held in 
1916 three members of a new Levy Court will be elected to 
serve two, four and six years, respectively. Succeeding mem- 
bers will he elected to serve for six years. Road Supervisors, 
one in each hundred, in New Castle County, and one from each 
representative district in Kent County, and Road Overseers 
in Sussex County are elected by the Levy Courts. The Levy 
Courts also elect the County Road Engineers. Taxes for work 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



85 



on Improved roads and to meet bond issues are levied by the 
Levy Courts. The taxes for common roads within the boun- 
daries of the subdivisions of the counties known as hundreds 
are also levied by the Levy Courts. The counties may secure 
state aid to the extent of $10,000 each per annum, by levying a 
special tax on the taxpayers of the county for a similar amount. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

All road and street improvement in the District of Colum- 
bia is authorized by special acts of Congress. The work 
is under the direction of the Engineer Commissioner, who 
is at the head of the Engineer Department. He is an officer 
of the Corps of Engineers. U. S. A. A subdivision of the 
Engineer Department called the Surface Division of the En- 
gineer Department, under the direction of an assistant to the 
Engineer Commissioner, who is also an officer of the Corps 
of Engineers, has charge of the work. The work of the Sur- 
face Division is divided between five heads of departments, 
namely. Superintendent of Street Cleaning, Inspector of As- 
phalts and Cements, Surveyor, Superintendent of Trees and 
Parkings, and the Engineer of Highways, the latter having 
under him the Superintendent of Streets, the Superintendent 
of Suburban Roads and the Engineer of Bridges. 



FLORIDA 

The general statutes of Florida provide that all roads and 
highways shall be constructed by the several counties under 
the supervision of County Commissioners. There are five com- 
missioners in each county. They are elected by popular vote 
for terms of two years, elections being held in November of 
even years. Each county is subdivided into road districts. 
Any district may become a special tax road district if a ma- 
jority of its voters so decide at an election called by the 
County Commissioners. The election is called upon receipt of 
a petition signed by 25 per cent, of the taxpayers of the dis- 
trict. Three trustees are elected at the same time, and they 
make estimates of the amounts needed for the next year and 
certify same to the County Commissioners, who levy the tax, 
or provide for an election at which a bond issue is voted upon 
by the electors of the district. The county commissioners 
award all contracts for road and bridge construction. 

The Legislature of 1915 created a State Road Department, con- 
sisting of five commissioners, one from each of the four Con- 
gressional districts and one from the state at large. This 
department is authorized to employ a State Highway Commis- 
sioner and assistants at salaries to be fixed by the depart- 
ment. 

Ail boards of county commissioners are required to file quar- 
terly reports with the State Road Department of all road 
construction and disbursements of road and bridge funds. The 
department is maintained by revenues derived from 15 per 
cent, of the license tax levied In each county on all motor- 
drawn vehicles. 

While the department acts only in an advisory capacity 
it is believed that it will accomplish much good and that its 
powers will be greatly enlarged at the next session of the 
Iiegislature. Headquarters of the Florida State Roads Depart- 
ment will be at Tallahassee, Florida, after October 1, 1915. 



GKORGIA . 

The county is the unit In road improvement in Georgia. The 
supervision of the work Is in the hands of County Commis- 
sioners of Roads, three to five in a county. 

A law passed by the Georgia Legislature in 1908 provides 
state aid In the construction and maintenance of highways to 
the extent of authorizing the use of convict labor. Machinery 
and material are also purchased by the State Prison Commis- 
sion. The counties pay the cost of maintenance of machinery 
as well as the expenses of any force of convicts being worked 
on their roads. A law enacted by the last Legislature apportions 
the motor vehicle license fees among the counties in proportion 
to the rural postal route mileage in each. 



IDAHO 

The Highway L,aw as amended by the Legislature of 1915 
provides for a State Highway Commission consisting of the 
Secretary of State, who is ex-offlcio member and secretary of 
the commission, and two commissioners appointed by the Gov- 
ernor to hold office for two years. The members of the com- 
mission elect one of their number chairman. The mem- 
bers of the commission serve without remuneration, but 
are allowed traveling expenses. The State Highway Commis- 
sion appoints a State Highway Engineer, who supervises the 
location, construction and maintenance of all state highways. 



The function of the State Highway Commission Is to have 
general charge of the improvement of state highways through- 
out the state. It is authorized to make requisition upon the 
Warden ot the State Penitentiary for the services of convicts 
on state highways. 

The law authorizes the State Highway Commission to pro- 
vide for a system of state highways comprising main trunk 
lines connecting the important trade centers and opening up 
connections between the large cities and the remote sections 
of the state. 

All state highways are to be built by the state by contract 
and the cost apportioned as follows: One-third ot the cost of 
construction to be borne by the state and two-thirds by the 
counties through which the road passes. 

Upon completion, and acceptance by the State Highway Com- 
mission, all state roads are maintained thereafter by the 
state without further expense to the county. 

A fund, known as the state highway fund, was created by the 
law of 1913 and Includes 25 per cent, of the money received for 
the registration and licensing of motor vehicles, and of fines 
and penalties collected for violation of the provisions of the 
law. These funds are collected by county assessors. The re- 
maining 75 per cent, accrues to the county and shall be ap- 
portioned to the interest and sinking fund, any unexpended 
balance being apportioned to the treasurer of any highway or 
road district. 

The general session laws of 1911 provide for the division of 
the counties into highway districts. These districts where 
they have been organized are the units in highway work. Un- 
organized territory is under the supervision of boards of county 
commissioners, three commissioners in each board. The com- 
missioners are elected for terms of two years in January of 
odd years. 

Districts are organized upon petition by the residents of the 
territory in which such organization is proposed, confirmed 
by majority vote at a special election. These highway commis- 
sioners, elected by the people for terms of four years, have 
charge of all highways in their respective districts. Elections 
are held in November. The next election at which highway 
commissioners will be elected will be held in November, igiS. 
A presidejit of the board is elected by the members of the 
board. The board of highway commissioners appoints a direc- 
tor of highways, who must be an experienced road builder, 
and he Inspects and oversees all work of construction, repair 
and maintenance. Road poll taxes, the amount of which is de- 
termined by the board of highway commissioners, are paid in 
cash, as are all other taxes for highway purposes in the state. 

Bonds may be Issued by county or highway district commis- 
sioners upon a vote of two-thirds of the voters in a county or 
district. The amount of the bonds must not exceed 25 per cent, 
of the assessed valuation of the property of the district. 

Any county voting a road bond issue is entitled to receive 
70 per cent, of said tax collected within its boundaries, to be 
spent in connection with its general road and bridge fund 
under the direction of its board of county commissioners. The 
Legislature also authorized a state highway bond issue in the 
amount of $200,000 of 4 per cent, bonds, making a total fund 
for 1913-14 of about $230,000. 

ILLINOIS 

Under the provisions of the law enacted in 1905, and subse- 
quent amendments, state highway work in Illinois is in the 
hands of a State Highway Department composed of the three 
members of the State Highway Commission, the Chief State 
Highway Engineer, the Assistant State Highway Engineer and 
various subordinates. The members of the State Highway Com- 
mission are appointed by the Governor. The law passed in 
1913 provided for the appointment of the three members of the 
commission for two, tour and six-year terms, respectively. Be- 
ginning March 1, 1916, one commissioner is to be appointed 
every two years for a six-year term. Their salaries are fixed 
at $3,500 per year. The Chief State Highway Engineer and 
Assistant State Highway Engineer are appointed by the Gov- 
ernor for six-year terms. Their salaries are $4,000 and $2,500 
a year, respectively. Each must be a competent civil engineer 
and experienced in highway construction and maintenance. 

The duties of the commission Include the general supervision 
of highway and bridge work carried on wholly or in part by 
state money, the aiding of county and town highway officials 
in road and bridge work, the approval of plans, estimates, etc., 
prepared by the State Engineer, and the general oversight ot 
the road work in the state. The Chief State Highway Engineer 
and Assistant State Highway Engineer are the executive agents 
of the State Highway Commission, 

The local units In highway and bridge work In Illinois are 
the counties, towns and road districts. There are two forms of 
county organization, in one of which the county is divided into 



86 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



tow». .nd th. other Into dlatrct^ Under both •y»f"'» »^^^' 
w^ U in th. hand, of board, of thre. highway commUsloner. 
tallch town or in each dl.trlct. Th«.e official, ^re oi^cieitor 
uA«-7Mr term, at the AprU elecUon. one commlMloner being 

"Thr*hlThway""<;rh in each county i. in charge of the county 
eulerlntcndent of highway., who act. under the «"P";" °" 
«f7he SUle Highway Commlwilon In the work in which the 
Mate take. part. Thi. official is appointed for a term of six 
Tear, and 1. .elected by the county board from a list or 
eligible, returned by the State Highway Commission after a 
eompeUtlve •xamlnation of candidate, .ubmltted by the county 

State aid I. extended by the .Ute to the extent of half the 
coat of the improvement, the county or counties in which the 
road 1. located paying the other half. Roads built In this man- 
ner are designated a. state aid roadi The contracts for their 
con.truction are awarded by the State Highway Commission 
after adYertUement and they are repaired and maintained 
under the direction of the State Highway Commission and the 
coat paid out of the state road and bridge fund. The 1916 
legislature .o amended the law that when brick or concrete 
road, are built the .tate pays the whole cost of maintenance: 
when gravel or macadam roads are built the state and county 
e«ch pay half the cost of maintenance, and when the earth 
road, are built the county pays the entire cost of maintenance. 
The Uw authorises the State Highway Commission to purchase 
the neceMary tools, machinery, supplies and materials and 
labor neceaaary for this work. 

The highway, to be improved are selected by the County 
Board, of Supervisors In counties under township organization 
or by the boards of county commissioners in counties not 
under township organisation, subject to the approval of the 
State Highway Commlsson. These, according to the law, must 
be laid out M a. to make through roads between the various 
citle. and trading points of the different counties. 

Bridge, may be built In towns or road districts by the county 
board, at the entire expense of the county. Such bridges must 
be bnllt In accordance with plans and specifications prepared 
by the county superintendent of highways, subject to the ap- 
proval of the State Highway Engineer. The law also provides 
for a general tax levy for road and bridge purposes laid by the 
county. It Is provided that the rate for road and bridge pur- 
poM. must not exceed 81 cts. on each »100 valuation In any 
town or district. It also provides that bonds may be Issued 
by a vote of a special town or district meeting to raise 
money for the construction of bridges. Another provision 
authorise, the laying of a town or road district tax not exceed- 
ing »1 on each $100 of assessed valuation for the purpose of 
maintaining or building macadam, rock or other hard roads. 
Bonds may also be Issued for this purpose. 

The law alw> provide, that any township or road district 
through the proper procedure, as prescribed by the law, may 
vote to substitute a single highway commissioner, for the 
board of three. 



IOWA 

The law provide, for a State Highway Commission of three 
member., having broad powers. Two members of the com- 
mlsalon are appointed by the Governor frdm different political 
parties, while a third member is the Dean of Engineering at 
the Iowa State College. All are under bond. The executive 
officer of the commission Is the Highway Engineer, and the 
department la divided Into three divisions — Bridge, Road, and 
Administration — each In charge of a chief. The road and 
bridge work of the commission Is In Immediate charge of Ave 
Division Engineer, covering the whole state and reporting to 
the Road and Bridge Engineers In charge of the Road and 
Bridge Divisions. 

The Highway Commission Is charged with the supervision 
of the road and bridge work of the state, this work being 
nnder the direct charge of county and township officers assisted 
by County Engineers, appointed by the Supervisors of each 
county. The township officials have charge of the construction 
and maintenance of the township road system. The county 
official, have charge of the construction of all bridges and 
culvert, and of the county road system, which comprises those 
road, not Included In the township system. These roads con- 
nect principal trading points, the roads in each county being 
M> laid out a. to form a .tate system. 

All bridge and culvert work must be done In accordance 
with standard, provided by the State Highway Commission 
and all contracts for single structures costing over $2,000 must 
be approved by the Highway Commission. All plans for per- 
manent road grading, drainage and surfacing must be ap- 
provad by the comml..loD. 

Tl>« law aUo provide, for the levying of a l-mlU township 



tax to be used for road dragging and requires that 90 per 
cent, of automobile license fees shall be apportioned to the 
countle.. 

INDIANA 

By the provisions of the general statutes highway construc- 
tion and maintenance are in the hands of county commission- 
ers, three in each county, there being no state supervision. 
The commissioners are elected by the people at elections held 
In November of each year. One commissioner is elected for 
a term of three years at each election. Boards of township 
trustees, elected in November for terms of four years, divide 
the townships into road districts and a supervisor Is elected 
for a term of two years in each district In December of odd 
years. All repairs are under the care of supervisors. The 
county commissioners lay out and construct and otherwise 
Improve roads upon receipt of a petition signed by a majority 
of landowners whose properties lie within one mile of the pro- 
posed Improvement. Three disinterested viewers and a sur- 
veyor are appointed by the commissioners to examine the sue 
of any proposed improvement and the action of the commis- 
sion is based upon their report. After an Improvement has 
been authorized by the county commissioners, a superintendent 
of construction Is appointed for that particular operation. The 
costs of such work are paid from funds secured from taxes In 
the township In which work is done. The work Is done by con- 
tract, bids being received by the superintendent of construc- 
tion. Special elections may be called by the county commis- 
sioners for voting bridge or highway bonds. Special provision 
Is made for the maintenance of roads which are rural mail 
routes, in the shape of a fund In the hands of the township 
trustees. 

KANSAS 

A law passed in 1911 authorized the Board of Regents of the 
Kansas State Agricultural College to appoint a State Engineer 
of Highways and Bridges and authorized this official to act 
in an advisory capacity to local officials upon their request. 
The salaries and expenses of the State Engineer and his as- 
sistants are provided for from the appropriation of the college. 
The administration of road work is in the hands of county 
commissioners and township commissioners. There are three 
county commissioners in each county who are elected for four- 
year terms. Township commissioners are elected for two-year 
terms; elections are held in November of odd years. County 
engineers, appointed by the county commissioners, supervlsei 
county road and bridge work. 

The law requires the county commissioners of each county 
to classify the public highways within the county according to 
their relative Importance as county roads, mall route roads 
and township roads, the county roads to be the highways con- 
necting the cities and market centers, the mail routes the high- 
ways used for the postal service and not classified as county 
roads and all other roads to be township roads. It Is provided 
that the county roads In adjoining counties shall be as nearly 
continuous as possible. County roads are constructed and 
maintained at general county expense under the direction of 
the county commissioners and the county engineer. The mall 
routes and township roads are constructed and maintained at 
township expense under the direction of the township commis- 
sioners and the county engineer. 

A road tax of one mill on the dollar on all taxable property 
in the county may be levied annually by the county commis- 
sioners for work on county roads. Mail routes and township 
roads are paid for by the proceeds of a levy not exceeding 3 
mills. Bridges costing more than $200 are built at the expense 
of the county. A few counties In the state work under special 
acts of the Legislature authorizing the formation of road dis- 
tricts. Special acts of the Legislature are now prohibited by 
a constitutional amendment. 

The 1913 Legislature enacted a motor registration law under 
which an annual fee of $5.00 Is collected for each automobile 
and an annual fee of $2.00 for each motorcycle. These fees 
are collected by the county treasurer; 75 cents from each auto- 
mobile fee and 50 cents from each motorcycle fee Is turned 
over to the Secretary of State to pay for registration and for 
license plates. The remainder constitutes a special fund in 
each county which must be used only for the maintenance of 
county roads. Maintenance has been held by the Attorney 
General as dragging and slight repairs only. The 1913 Legis- 
lature also enacted a mandatory drag law. 

KENTUCKY 

The Legislature of 1912 provided for the appointment of a 
Commissioner of Public Roads by the Governor on or before 
July 1, 1912, and every four years thereafter, to act in the 
capacity of an advisor to local authorities. The law also prq> 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



87 



vided for the appointment of such engineering, clerical and 
stenographic assistants as might be required and provided for 
the setting aside of the funds derived from license taxes on 
motor-driven vehicles as a state road fund. Prom this fund 
$25,000 annually is appropriated to pay the expenses of the 
Department of Public Roads. 

Highway work in the state is in charge of county fiscal 
courts, each court consisting of the county judge and from 
five to eight justices of the peace from different sections of 
the county. Members of the fiscal court are elected b.v popular 
vote — county judges for four-year terms. The last election 
was In November, 1913. Under the provisions of the 1912 law 
the direct charge of road work in the counties was placed in 
the hands of county road engineers. It was provided that 
these officers should be appointed by the county judges with 
the consent of the fiscal courts, appointments to be made in 
October, 1912, and every two years thereafter. It was also 
specified in the law that candidates for the office of county 
engineer must pass an examination conducted by the State 
Commissioner of Public Roads. 

The 1914 session of the Kentucky Legislature passed several 
bills affecting the administration of road affairs in the state. 
These bills are as follows: 

A bill amending the road law to make it optional instead 
of mandatory upon the fiscal court of any county to employ 
a county road engineer. 

A bill providing for the establishment of a state aid fund 
by a levy of 5 cents on each $100 valuation to provide for a 
system of state roads. By the terms of this bill a county 
applying for state aid must appropriate a sum equal to the 
amount apportioned to it by the state, and it is further pro- 
vided that the work must be done under the direction of the 
State Commissioner of Public Roads. 

A bill defining an Intercounty seat system of highways and 
declaring the public highways to be public works. 

A bill calling for a vote on a constitutional amendment 
permitting the working of convicts on the public roads. 



liOUISIANA 

A legislative act passed in 1910 established state aid and 
placed the administration of state road work in the hands of 
the State Board of Engineers. A State Highway Engineer, 
appointed by the State Board of Engineers at a maximum an- 
nual salary of $5,000, has active charge of the work. The funds 
for carrying out the provisions of the state aid law are derived 
from the surplus revenues of the Oyster Commission of Louis- 
iana and the Commissioners for the Protection of Birds, Game 
and Fish, the proceeds of a tax of % mill levied on all taxable 
property, which amounts to about $130,000 annually, and all 
vehicle taxes eligible for that purpose. The money from these 
sources and any money received under dedication are deposited 
in the state treasury and designated a state highway fund- 
The money is distributed among the parishes or towns of the 
state as application is made, but with a limitation to $50,000 
to any one parish in any calendar year. The total cost of all 
road work done under the state aid act is paid by the State 
Treasurer from the state highway fund, and a refund of at 
least one-half is made by the town or parish in which the 
work is done. Convicts are worked upon public roads without 
cost other than their maintenance. 

The laws of Louisiana provide that" the work of improving 
and maintaining roads shall be directed by parish officials 
known as Police Juries, with the cooperation of the highway 
department. The members of these juries are elected by the 
people and serve four years. The last election was held in 
January, 1912. 



MAINB 

State aid was inaugurated in 1907 by the passage of a law 
establishing a State Highway Department, the chief offfcer of 
which was the State Highway Commissioner. The law was 
amended In 1909, and in 1913 a law was passed substituting a 
commission of three members and providing for an Issue of 
state highway bonds. The 1913 law is the one under which the 
state operates at present. 

Under this act the State Highway Commission, with the 
approval of the Governor and Council, appoint a Chief Engi- 
neer, upon terms to be fixed from time to time by the commis- 
sion, subject to the approval of the Governor and Council. 
The Chief Engineer, under the direction and control of the 
commission, has general charge of the oflBce, the records and 
all construction and maintenance work; and may, with the 
approval of the commission, employ such engineers, super- 
visors, assistants and help as he may deem necessary. 

The commi.ssion is charged with the work of L.ying out. 



constructing and maintaining a system of state and state aid 
highways. The state highways are to be constructed wholly 
by the state from the bond issue and the state aid highways by 
the state and municipalities jointly. Both classes of highways 
are to be maintained under the direction of the commission, 
the cost to be borne jointly by the state and municipalities. 
The charge against the municipalities for maintenance of state 
highways is $60 per mile per annum; for state aid highways 
it Is one-half the actual expense up to $30 per mile per annum. 

The commission has full power in the letting of all contracts 
for the construction of all state and state aid highways. The 
commission may make contracts with towns for the construc- 
tion of state aid roads without advertising for bids. 

Towns may make the following appropriations and apply for 
state aid: Towns having a valuation of $200,000 or less may 
appropriate any amount not exceeding $300; towns having a 
valuation of over $200,000, and not over $800,000 may appro- 
priate any amount not exceeding $533; towns having a valua- 
tion of over $800,000 and not over $1,000,000 may appropriate 
an amount not exceeding $600; towns having a valuation of 
over $1,000,000 and not over $3,000,000 may appropriate. In ad- 
dition to the sum of $600, a sum of $66 for each $200,000 or 
fraction* thereof valuation In excess of $1,000,000; towns having 
a valuation of over $3,000,000 and not over $4,000,000 may ap- 
propriate not exceeding $1,333, and towns having a valuation 
of over $4,000,000 may appropriate, in addition to the sum of 
$1,333, a sum not exceeding $133 for each additional $1,000,000 
of valuation. 

The commission apportions the state aid funds among the 
towns which have conformed to the provisions of the act as 
follows: To each town having a valuation of $200,000 or less, 
$2 for each dollar appropriated by the town; to each town 
having a valuation over $200,000 and not over $1,000,000, $1 for 
each dollar appropriated by the town; to each town having a 
valuation of over $1,0000,000 and not over $1,200,000, 92 cents 
for each dollar appropriated by the town; to each town having 
a valuation over $1,200,000 and not over $1,400,000, 85 cents for 
each dollar appropriated by the town; to each town having a 
valuation over $1,400,000 and not over $1,600,000, 80 cents for 
each dollar appropriated by the town, and to each town having 
a valuation of over $1,600,000, 75 cents for each dollar appro- 
priated by the town. The money appropriated by towns apply- 
ing for state aid and the amount apportioned by the commis- 
sion constitute a joint fund for the construction and improve- 
ment of the state-aid highways in such towns. 

Between July 15 and August 15 of each year, municipal offi- 
cers prepare and file with the commission suggestions for the 
improvement during the next calendar year of state aid high- 
ways located in each town, accompanied by plans so far as 
practicable, setting forth the location of the highways and the 
nature of the improvements desired. The commission examines 
these and reports on them, with its recommendations, to the 
municipal officers on or before Feb. 20, following. These re- 
ports are submitted to the voters of the towns at the next 
regular meeting. 

To provide funds for the construction of state aid highways, 
$300,000 is appropriated annually. To provide for the adminis- 
tration of the office and duties of the commission and for all 
expenditures, salaries and expenses incident thereto, and for 
the maintenance of all state and state aid highways $50,000 
is appropriated annually. For the construction of the state 
roads the Treasurer of State is authorized, under the direction 
of the Governor and Council, to Issue from time to time serial 
coupon bonds, not exceeding $2,000,000 in amount outstanding 
at any one time, payable at the State Treasury within 41 years 
from the date of Issue, the Interest on the bond issue and re- 
tirement of bonds to be provided for from the automobile 
license fees. Not more than $500,000 of bonds may be Issued 
In any one year. 

The fund for maintenance and administration is augmented 
each year by the balance remaining on Dec. 31 in the appro- 
priation for state aid highways; that Is, so much of the state's 
appropriation for this purpose as has not been apportioned 
to municipalities on account of state aid Is automatically 
carried into the fund for administration and maintenance for 
the succeeding year. This fund is further augmented by the 
balance remaining in the fund created by the licensing of auto- 
mobiles after providing for the payment of interest on the 
bonds issued and a sinking fund for the retirement of bonds. 



MARYLAND 

By virtue of a law passed in 1908, the administration of 
state highway work Is In the hands of a State Roads Commis- 
sion which consists of the Governor, ex-offlcio, and five citizens 
appointed by him. The preparation of plans, specifications, 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



•le^ la IB Um hands of a Chief BngrinMr, amployed by the 
foiwl— tea. 

Local r«ad work la under the supervision of boards of county 
conmlaalooers elected by the people. Election dates and terms 
of once Tary in different countlea. The number in each county 
▼•liea from three to seven. 

OBder an act passed by the Leclslature In 1904, the sum of 
UM.M* Is appropriated annually to be distributed among the 
eouBtlas In proportion to their road mllease. The county pays 
for the construction of state aid roads and collects a refund of 
eoe-balf the cost from the state after the completion of the 
work. 

By the provisions of a law establishing a fund for the con- 
struction of state roads as distinguished from tlie state aid 
roads, the sum of tlS, 600,000 has been appropriated. Of this a 
sum not to exceed t4.4OO.O0O Is speciflcally provided for ex- 
penditure within the limits of the city of Baltimore; the con- 
struction of certain inter-county bridges has been designated 
and a special appropriation, amounting to date to $450,000 
has been made for improving the old turnpilce between Balti- 
more and Washington. The special sums designated aggregate 
approximately tl,S00.000. The law authorises the distribution of 
the balance of the appropriation among the counties, accord- 
IBK to their road mileage. The commission has selected about 
l.»0« miles to form the state road system. The total cost of 
this work Is paid by the state. The annual expenditure for 
state road construction as distinguished from state aid worlt 
la limited to »1.000,000 and the commission Is required to com- 
plete all the work laid out by July 1, 1918. 

The net revenue from automobile licenses is set aside as a 
Biaintenance fund for highway purposes; one-fifth of this fund 
is turned over to the city of Baltimore. The remaining four- 
flftbs are divided between the State Roads Commission and the 
various counties, in proportion to the mileage of state or state 
aid roads completed up to April 1st of each year. 



IIASS.^CHVSETTS 

Laws paaaed by the L.eglslature in 1893 place the supervision 
of state highway work In the hands of a State Highway Com- 
mlaalon consisting of three members appointed by the Governor 
with the advice of the Council to serve for a term of three 
years. One of the commissioners is designated as chairman. 
H* receives an annual salary of $5,000. and the other commis- 
sioners receive $4,000. A chief engineer is appointed by the 
commissioners. 

The duties of the commission with relation to highways are 
to collect statistics as to road materials, to make maps, name 
hlghwaya, give advice to local road authorities, and to lay out 
and construct state highways and certain town roads. 

In addition to Its highway duties the commission controls 
the registration of motor vehicles and the licensing of operators. 

The highways of Massachusetts are divided into three classes: 
State, county and city or town highways. County, city and 
town highways are cared for by municipal authorities, street 
superintendents, road superintendents and highway surveyors, 
on* to each town or municipality. These officials are usually 
apiKtinted by mayors of cities or by the selectmen of towns. 
Purchasing power outside of cities Is in the hands of select- 
men, three to each town, elected by vote of the people on the 
nrst Monday in March of each year. They take office imme- 
diately: term of office is one year. Appropriations for con- 
struction and maintenance are made by the city government 
or at town meetings. County commissioners, acting upon 
petition, may lay out new roads or make specific improvements 
upon existing highways. They have authority to direct a town 
or city to make specific improvements or may make the re- 
pairs themselves and determine what portion of the cost shall 
be paid by the municipality benefited. 

Since 1894 state highways have been built at the expense 
of the state from the proceeds of bond Issues. The roads are 
built upon petition by town, city or county authorities. The 
state maintains such roads and has complete Jurisdiction over 
them. The State Highway Commission may expend 15 per cent. 
of the amount appropriated for state highway construction on 
town roads as follows: Five per cent. In towns of less than 
fl.OM.OOO valuation, upon petition, the town making no con- 
tribution: 6 per cent, in towns of less than $1,000,000 valuation, 
upon petition, the town contributing an equal amount; and 5 
per cent. In towns of more than $1,000,000 valuation, upon peti- 
tion, the town contributing an equal amount. The towns main- 
lain these roads. 

The net proceeds of automobile licenses and fines go toward 
the repair and maintenance of roads, 80 per cent, for state 
roads and JO per cent, for roads connecting towns or cities. 

The last Legislature passed a bill creating a commission to 
report a codification of the highway laws together with any 
recommendation relative to changes In existing laws to the 



next Legislature. The commission is to consist of the three 
members of the State Highway Commission and three county 
commissions and one layman to be appointed by the Governor. 



MICHIG.\N 

Under the highway law now in force, the state's participation 
in road work Is in charge of the State Highway Commissioner. 
The commissioner is elected by the people for a term of four 
years and the salary Is fixed at $3,500 per year. He Is em- 
powered to appoint two deputies at $2,500 per year each and 
may employ such other assistants as are necessary. The duties 
of the Highway Commissioner are to give instruction and ad- 
vice to local authorities, furnish plans and speciflcations for 
highway work, supervise the distribution of state aid by means 
of the state rewards and supervise such work in connection 
with the state trunk line system as is prescribed by law. 

The local units of road work are the township, the district 
and the county. In counties where the township system is 
operative, road work is in charge of a township highway com- 
missioner, acting under the supervision of the township board. 
Road districts may be formed by any combination of town- 
ships, villages or cities forming a continuous area in any 
county, and in such districts the road work is In charge of a 
body known as the board of good roads commissioners, con- 
sisting of one member from each township, incorporated vil- 
lage or city included in the district. Under the county sys- 
tem the work is in charge of a board of- county road commis- 
sioners, not exceeding three in number. County commissioners 
are elected for two, four or six years, depending upon the de- 
cision of the board of supervisors whether there shall be one, 
two or three commissioners. Elections are held biennially. 
Each county. is required to employ a county road engineer. 

State aid is extended in the form of rewards paid to local 
authorities for each mile of road constructed in accordance 
with the standards of the State Highway Department, the 
amount paid varying with the kind of road. There are seven 
classes of road, varying from earth roads of a certain standard 
to brick or concrete paved roads. The rewards vary from $250 
to $1,000 per mile. No one surveyed township is allowed re- 
wards on more than four miles of road in any one year, except 
that in certain cases a township may be credited with the 
amount and may draw the money called in, as available, until 
It has been paid. Certain money is also paid to towns so 
reconstructing or repairing a road as to raise it from one class 
to another. The law also provides that on or before Dec. 1 of 
each year a portion of the appropriations for state highway 
purposes equal to 2 per cent, of the total state rewards that 
have been paid at that time shall be credited to a repair fund 
which shall be paid out after Dec. 1 of each year tor repairs 
on state roads In the same manner as the rewards are paid. 

The employment of county prisoners upon county highways 
Is permitted under certain conditions, and state convicts may 
be used in the same way and in quarries and stone yards. 

The establishment of a system of trunk line highways Is 
provided for. This system, by the terms of the act, shall con- 
sist of the highways and bridges constituting routes indicated 
by the law. The act provides that under certain conditions 
double the legal reward shall be paid for the improvement of 
sections of road included in this system and makes other 
provisions to encourage the Improvement of the roads included. 



MINNESOTA 

A legislative act passed by the Legislature in 1905 and amend- 
ed In. 1911 and 1913 established a State Highway Commission 
and authorized state aid to counties in highway construction. 
The commission consists of three men who are appointed by 
the Governor for terms of three years. They serve without pay. 
The active work is done by a secretary appointed by the com- 
mission. The secretary must be a civil engineer and practical 
road builder, and is known as the State Engineer. It is the 
duty of the secretary to give advice, assistance and super- 
vision with regard to road and bridge construction through- 
out the state. 

For the purpose of state aid the highway commission each 
year apportions the money accruing to the state fund among 
the different counties in the state; not less than one nor more 
than three per cent, of the state road and bridge fund avail- 
able in any year may be apportioned to any county. Twenty 
per cent, of the allotment so made is for use in the maintenance 
of state roads and bridges. A sum not to exceed 25 per cent, 
of the apportionment from the state road and bridge fund to 
any county remaining after the amount for maintenance has 
been deducted may, when deemed advisable by the county 
board, be expended on county roads under such rules and 
regulations as may be prescribed by the State Highway Com- 
mission. The amount which may be paid by the state out of 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



2d 



the allotment of the road and bridge fund to any county as 
state aid, Is based on that county's assessed value of property 
for taxation purposes, its road mileage, area and necessities of 
development. The highway commission may appoint as many 
assistant engineers throughout the state as It may deem neces- 
sary for the purpose of supervising all work done on state 
roads. 

The state aid fund is raised by a tax levy of one mill on 
each dollar of assessed valuation of all taxable property in the 
state. An annual appropriation of $100,000 is made from the 
state treasury for the maintenance of the state highway de- 
partment. 

The county boards have general supervision of county roads, 
including those within their respective counties established by 
judicial authority, with the power to appropriate and expend 
such sums of money from the county road fund necessary for 
road and bridge construction. Improvement, etc. The boards 
of county commissioners consist of Ave members and are elect- 
ed by popular vote in each county. Elections are held in No- 
vember, and the board is elected for a term of four years, tak- 
ing ofBce on Jan. 1 following election. The last election was 
held in 1913. Town supervisors of roads conduct local work 
under the county commissioners. There are three supervisors 
In each town. 

9IISSISSIPPI 

The administration of road and bridge work is in the hands 
of county boards of supervisors, consisting of five members 
In each county elected from five districts known as super- 
visors' districts. They are elected for a term of four years. 
The last change was in January, 1912. 

All able-bodied male citizens between 18 and 50 years of 
age are subject to road duty a certain number of days in each 
year. This duty may be commuted by a payment of money 
equivalent. In cases where this system is not satisfactory 
the law authorizes the boards of supervisors to let out road 
work by contract. A law passed in 1910 provides that any 
one supervisors' district, or two or more districts or parts of 
districts may organize themselves into separate road districts 
and vote upon bond issues for road Improvement, such bonds 
to be secured by a fixed tax not to exceed one mill on property 
of the road district. These separate road districts are relieved 
from all tax and expenses of road maintenance for the rest of 
the county. The districts are formed by petitioning by 20 
per cent, of the qualified electors of the district asking for a 
bond issue, unless 20 per cent, or more petition against the 
issue, in which case an election is held to vote on the bonds. 
If the bonds are voted the district is formed and the funds are 
placed In the hands of three commissioners, who direct the 
making of surveys, selecting materials, and building the roads, 
subject to the approval of the county board of supervisors. 

MISSOURI 

Under the provision of a state law passed In March, 1913, the 
administration of state highway work is in the hands of a 
State Highway Commissioner, who Is appointed by the Gov- 
ernor. His term of office is four years, and his salary is $3,000 
per year. He exercises general supervision over the roads of 
the state, giving advice and assistance wherever needed and 
holding meetings over the state to encourage the building 
and maintenance of roads and bridges, '.find the buying of road 
machinery. The law provides for a Deputy Highway Com- 
missioner who must be a civil engineer, and who receives 
$2,000 per year. Road administration in the counties Is in the 
hands of the county court, consisting of three county judges 
elected by the people under what is termed "county organiza- 
tion." The presiding judge is elected for a term of four years; 
the last election was held in November, 19K. The other two mem- 
bers are elected in November of even years for a term of two 
years. The court appoints. If it desires, a county highway 
engineer In January of even years, who has general supervision 
over all road and bridge work in the county. His term of 
ofllce Is two years, and his office can be vacated by the people 
by a vote at any general election, the taxpayers petitioning the 
court to hold an election for that purpose. 

The Surveyor of the county, whose office Is constitutional, 
is elected by the people and is ex-offlcio county highway en- 
gineer when the court appoints no regular county highway en- 
gineer. In the twenty-two counties, which have voted a system 
which is termed "township organization," road ^vork Is conduct- 
ed by road overseers appointed by a township board, which con- 
sists of three members elected by the people. Each overseer has 
charge of road work in his district, of which there may be one 
or more in the township. In the counties not operating under 
township organization, the county court divides the county Into 
road districts of not less than nine miles nor more than one 



municipal township in area, and appoints a road overseer for 
each district. These overseers are responsible to the county 
highway engineer. 

The money used by the state to aid the counties is obtained 
from autonioblle licenses and from corporation charters and 
corporation taxes. The funds so collected, after deducting the 
expenses of collecting, form a general road fund, from which 
the Legislature at each session appropriates a sum deemed 
necessary for the purpose of dragging the county seat high- 
ways. These roads constitute all highways connecting different 
county seats and have a total length of about 12,000 miles. The 
money is paid to the different counties at the rate of $15 per 
mile for routes approved by the State Highway Depart- 
ment, and the money so paid must be used for dragging If 
possible or for road betterments such as culverts or bridges 
but not for the purchase of right of way. Work prosecuted 
with these funds Is handled by three highway commissioners 
appointed by the county court of each county. 

The balance remaining In the general road fund after the 
apportionments for dragging have been made. Is distributed 
among the counties for permanent Improvements, the money 
being apportioned according to the assessed valuation of the 
counties but no more than 3 per cent, of the total being 
apportioned to any one county. 

The laws provide for two forms of special road districts 
One of these must not exceed 64 square miles in area and must 
include an incorporated city or town. It is permitted to in- 
crease the county tax levy within itself by issuing bonds. It 
also receives one-half of county saloon or poolroom revenue 
and one-fourth the city saloon or poolroom revenue paid within 
the district. The other special district is a benefit assessment 
district formed for purposes of improving and maintaining a 
road. It can augment the funds from the regular road levy 
by a graduated acreage tax voted upon the lands within the 
district. The benefit assessment district law has been attacked 
as being unconstitutional and is at present before the Supreme 
Court of the United States. Each special district Is governed 
by three commissioners. 

MOIVTANA 

A law passed in 1913 established a Highway Commission 
consisting of the Professor of Civil Engineering at the Mon- 
tana State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, ex- 
officio; the State Engineer, ex-officio, and a civil engineer ex- 
perienced in road building to be appointed by the Governor. 
Each ex-officio member of the Highway Commission receives 
$10 per day while the commission Is In session, and the salary 
of the appointed member, who acts as Secretary of the com- 
mission and devotes his entire time to its work, is fixed at not 
over $3,500 per year. The duties of the commission are to 
collect information regarding the road situation of the state, 
with special reference to deposits of road material; plan a 
system of roads which, when completed, will provide an ade- 
quate system of state roads to the various market and business 
centers; to advise with county authorities in regard to road 
construction and maintenance; apportion the state highway 
fund among the several counties in the manner provided by 
law, and exercise general supervision over the plans, specifi- 
cations and estimates made by the county authorities for the 
construction or maintenance of state roads. 

The law provides that all roads constructed or improved 
under state supervision shall be designated as state roads and 
appropriates, out of the general fund of the state, $5,000 foi 
the expenses of the commission and for salaries of its em- 
ployees until the amont credited to the state highway fund Is 
available. 

The general highway laws of the state divide all public 
roads into three classes, as follows: Common highways, main 
highways and state highways. 

The unit of road work In Montana is the county, the work 
being in the hands of boards of county commissioners. It is 
the duty of these boards to divide their counties Into road 
districts and place each district in charge of a competent road 
supervisor. Road supervisors have direct charge of all road 
work in road districts under the county commissioners. There 
is also a county suveyor in each county who does the survey- 
ing In connection with road work. The county commissioners 
are also empowered by law to employ a competent road builder, 
at a salary of not over $12 per day, to have direct charge of 
work for the commission. 

Bridge work is also under the control of the county in ac- 
cordance with the plans furnished by the State Highway Com- 
mission. The funds for the work are obtained from a special 
tax not exceeding two mills on the dollar of taxable property 
in the county. 

Revenues for road work are obtained from general taxes, a 
poll tax and bond issues. The general tax is laid by the county 
authorities and must not be less than two nor more than five 



90 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



Bill* OD th* dollar. Tba poll Ux amounts to It per year on 
•aeh male between tl and tO years of age residing In the 
coontr- A brlds* lery of not to exceed i miUs on the dollar 
la alao made. Bonds may be Issued In such an amount as may 
ka im s— srj provldlns that with all other outstanding In- 
debtedneaa of the county they do not exceed S per cent, tif th^ 
value of the taxable property of the county. 

NBBRASKA 

The seoeral laws provide that the control of road adminis- 
tration shall be exercised entirely by the counties. The county 
commissioners or supervisors have general supervision over 
all the public roads in the counter. These commissioners or 
supervisors, generally designated as the Count) Board, are 
elected for a term of two years in November of even years, 
taking ofllce In the flrst week in January following election. 

There are two general systems of road administration, known 
as county organisation and township organization. Counties 
operating under county organisation are divided into 
road districts by the county boards, and the road work In 
each district Is in charge of a road overseer, who is also 
elected by the people. County highway commissioners are 
appointed by county boards In January of each year and are 
the active executives in county road affairs. In counties oper- 
ating under township organisation a road overseer, elected 
by the people, has charge of work in each township. County 
aid Is extended to cities of more than 25,000 and less than 
IM,0O0, the county board being authorised to pay not exceeding 
one-half the cost of improving any street leading into the city 
from adjacent territory. The last seston of the Legislature 
authorised the employment of convict labor by contract by 
any county, city or village, through the proper offlcers, for 
the building or repairing of roads or streets. State aid is 
extended to counties in the construction of bridges over streams 
more than 17S ft. wide, application having been made to the 
State Board of Irrigation, upon approval of the state engineer. 
The state pays one-half the cost of such bridges. 

Road taxes are paid in cash. One-half of all the money 
collected constitutes a road fund which is divided equally 
among the several districts and the other half constitutes a 
district road fund and is expended under the direction of the 
road overseer in the road district from which It was collected. 

The ofllce of the State Board of Irrigation, Highways and 
Drainage Is composed of the Governor, the Attorney General 
and the Commissioner of Public Lands and Buildings. These 
three men composing said board appoint the State Engineer, 
who selects his own oOlce force. The State Engineer's ofllce 
is in direct charge of all bridge work, whether county or state 
aid bridge work. In the state. A 1/5-miIl levy is made by the 
Lteglslature, making an appropriation which is limited to 
t7i,000 per year, for the purpose of building state aid bridges. 
Under the state aid bridge law the counties pay one-half the 
cost of said bridges and the state pays the other half, tha 
bridges being built under the supervision of the State Engi- 
neer's office, upon Its plans and specifications. 

The State Engineer's office also furnishes all plans for county 
bridges where the cost of the bridge exceeds $500, and fur- 
Dishes inspection on the same. It has also an advisory board 
which Is appointed by the state board and serves without com- 
pensation and advises with the State Engineer in regard to 
road work and other work concerning his office. Free advice 
Is given to county boards and other county officials In regard 
to making roads in the state, and help is furnished them by 
means of supplying them with an engineer to assist them in 
any way possible. 

By the terms of a law passed In 1915, a fund amounting to 
M per cent, of the fees obtained from the registration of auto- 
mobiles Is made available to the counties to be used for drag- 
ging, paving, repairing, oiling, or placing straw on sandy roads, 
and for no other purposes. Another law permits county boards 
In counties between 40,000 and 100,000 population to pave state 
or county roads and to Issue bonds to pay for such paving. 

KEVADA 

The laws of the state provide that the county commissioners 
of the various counties shall have charge of the roads. The 
county commissioners are elected by the people. The direct 
charge of road work In a county is in the hands of a county 
road supervisor appointed by the county commissioners or If 
the county commissioners shall decide not to appoint a super. 
visor, they may divide the county Into road districts and ap- 
point a board of three road eommlsslonrs for each of said 
disuicu. 

A county surveyor, appointed by the county commissioners, 
lays out roads and makes surveys, maps, etc. Each county is 
divided Into road districts, and a road overseer Is appointed In 



each district by the county commissioners. The county com- 
missioners are authorized to establish and lay out roads, pur- 
chase machinery and materials, and let contracts for road 
construction. 

At the last session of the Legislature a law was passed pro- 
viding for the raising of money for road construction by the 
issuance of county bonds. These bonds must not exceed in 
amount 3 per cent, of the total taxable valuation of the countyj 



NBW HAMPSHIRE 

The Legislature of 1915 passed a law creating a State High- 
way Department in charge of a State Highway Com- 
missioner. This offlcial is appointed by the Governor and 
Council for a term of five years, and exercises general super- 
vision over all highways, their location, maintenance and con- 
struction. 

The town is the unit in highway affairs. A road agent 
elected by the people, has charge of the work in each town, 
and material and machinery are purchased by selectmen, three 
in eacli town, also elected by the people. Elections are held 
in March of each year, and both road agents and selectmen 
are elected for terms, of one year, taking office immediately 
upon election. Highway Improvement in unincorporated towns 
is controlled by the county offlcers in whatever county they 
are located. 

State aid was authorized by an act pased in 1905 and 
amended in 1909. Under the provisions of this act bonds not 
to exceed $1,000,000 in amount may be issued and the proceeds 
used to pay for the construction of trunk lines, these being 
three continuous highways from the Massachusetts line, desig- 
nated by the Governor and Council for improvement. The 
Legislature of 1913 authorized a further bond issue of $200,000 
for the completion of the three north and south trunk lines 
before authorized, and of $100,000 for an east and west cross 
line from the Connecticut River to Portsmouth. The law au- 
thorizes an annual appropriation of $125,000 for the purpose of 
paying interest and annual installments of the principal of 
whatever bonds may be Issued for the maintenance of state 
highways and state aid roads. 

Apportionment of state aid funds is made among the towns 
on a basis of assessed valuation. Towns having a valuation 
of less than $100,000 receive $3 for each $1 they appropriate 
for state aid work. If the valuation is between $100,000 and 
$250,000 the town receives $1.25 for each $1. If the valuation 
is between $250,000 and $500,000 the town receives $0.60 for 
each $1. If the valuation is between $600,000 and $1,000,000 the 
town receives $0.40 for each $1. If the valuation is between 
$1,000,000 and $3,000,000 the town receives $0.25 for each $1. 
If the valuation exceeds $3,000,000 the town receives $0.20 for 
each $1. A limitation is set on the amount which each town 
can appropriate. This amount is also based on the assessed 
valuation. The amounts vary from $1 on each $1,000 of the 
valuation in towns of less than $2,000,000 in valuation to $0.25 
on each $1,000 in towns of $15,000,000 and upward. The law 
provides that work may be done either by contract or by the 
towns themselves, subject to the discretion of the Governor 
and Council. 

Certain roads are designated by the road laws of 1909 as 
state roads and these are constructed and maintained at the 
expense of the state. 



NBW JERSBY 

The state laws provide for a State Highway Commission, 
composed of the Governor, Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. President of the Senate, State Treasurer and the 
Commissioner of Public Roads, who is appointed by the Gov- 
ernor. 

The Commissioner is the executive head of the Department of 
Public Roads. The Commissioner is authorized to appoint a 
state highway engineer, four division highway engineers and 
ten regular inspectors. Additional inspectors are appointed 
as their services may be required in construction. The Com- 
missioner's term of service is three years. The division en- 
gineers and the ten regular Inspectors hold office under civil 
service tenure. 

County roads are under the jurisdiction of a Board of 
Chosen Freeholders of each county. Some of these boards are 
elected by the county at large and in other cases they are 
elected from each of the political subdivisions. Elections are 
held In November of each year and the term of office is two 
years. 

The board appoints a county engineer and a county super- 
visor of roads, the former having charge of construction and 
the latter of repair work. Both of these officials hold office 
for terms of five years. The last appointment was made in 
1912. The boards of freeholders levy taxes, purchase machin- 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



91 



ery and materials for town road improvement and direct th« 
work. 

State aid in road construction is extended to the counties 
and municipalities under an act passed in 1S91 and amended 
at various times since. In order to obtain state aid for the im- 
provement of any road the Board of li'reeholders of the county 
in which the proposed road is to be located must apply to the 
State Commissioner of Public Roads by resolution for consent 
to survey the road. If the consent is given the County En- 
gineer prepares necessary plans and specifications subject to 
the approval of the Board of Chosen Freeholders and sub- 
mits them to the Commissioner of Public Roads. Contract for 
construction is awarded by the Board of Chosen Freeholders 
subject to the approval of the Commissioner of Public 
Roads. Under a legislative act passed in 1912 the state pays 
40 per cent, of the cost of construction of these roads and the 
county the balance. Any municipality excepting a city may 
receive state aid in the same way as the counties. 

Automobile license fees, registration fees, and fines are di- 
verted to a fund known as the motor vehicle fund, which is 
used for the maintenance of the most important of the im- 
proved roads after the expenses of the Motor Vehicle Depart- 
ment and certain expenses of the Department of Public Roads 
are deducted. The Commissioner of Public Roads may award 
contract for repair of any road or he may distribute the motor 
vehicle fund among the counties and municipalities of the 
state at his discretion. 



NEW MEXICO 

A law passed by the New Mexico Legislature in 1912 pro- 
vides that a State Highway Commission shall have supervision 
over state road work. The commission consists of the Governor, 
the Commissioner of Public Lands, and the State Engineer. 
The Governor is Chairman, the Commisioner of Public Lands 
is Secretary, and the State Engineer is the chief executive 
officer of the board. It is the duty of the State Highway Com- 
mission to have general supervision over all highways and 
bridges constructed wholly or in part at state expense, and to 
construct and maintain either wholly or partly at state expense 
a system of state highways, for the purpose of building which, 
a bond issue amounting to $500,000 was authorized by a law 
passed in 1912, and ratified by popular vote in November of 
the same year. 

Local road work is in charge of County Road Boards ap- 
pointed by the State Highway Commission for three-year 
terms, one each year, at the end of April. The duties of the 
County Road Board are to have general supervision over all 
county roads and' to collect the road tax, which may be paid 
either in cash or in labor on the roads. This road tax is $3 
in cash or three days' labor. Besides the regular road tax a 
levy of three mills on the dollar is authorized by law. 

State aid is extended to the counties, the expenditures being 
paid from a revenue created by a one-mill tax levy. Convict 
labor is authorized by law, the expenses of the convicts, while 
employed on the road, being paid from the proceeds of the 
one-mill tax levy. The character of construction work by 
convicts is left to the discretion of the State Engineer. Coun- 
ties may cooperate financially in state aid work to whatever 
extent may be agreed upon by the County Road Boards and 
the State Highway Commission. Counties which contribute 
at least one-half of the expense of state aid roads are given 
preference. 

By the provisions of the 1912 law counties are permitted to 
issue bonds for the construction and repair of roads and 
bridges within their respective limits. These bonds must not 
bring the existing indebtedness of a county to more than 
four per cent, of the value of taxable property within the 
county. The law requires that all bridges costing more than 
$300 shall be built by contract. 



NEW YORK 

By virtue of a law approved by the Governor, March 14, 
1913, state highway administration in New York is in the 
hands of a Commissioner of Highways, appointed by the 
Governor with the approval of the Senate for a term of five 
years, at an annual salary not to exceed JIO.OOO per year. 

He is authorized to appoint a Secretary and Chief Auditor 
of the Department and three Deputy Commissioners, known as 
the First, Second and Third Deputies, respectively. Each of 
the deputies shall have been an experienced road builder. 
The First Deputy is required to be a practical civil engineer, 
and his duties relate to the plans, specifications and the exe- 
cution of all contracts pertaining to state and county high- 
ways. The duties of the Second Deputy relate to the main- 
tenance of state and county highways, and those of the Third 
Deputy to the repair, improvement and maintenance of town 



highways and bridges, and county roads and bridges on th« 
Indian reservations. The salary of the First Deputy Is $6,000 
per year, and that of the Second and Third, $5,000 each. The 
Chief Auditor receives a salary of $5,000 per year. The duties 
of the chief auditor are to determine the authority for and 
the accuracy of all expenditures of the state highway funds. 
His report is referred to the State Comptroller for final audit. 

The Commissioner of Highways has general supervision over 
?!1 highways and briuges which are constructed or main- 
tained in whole or in part by the use of state money. He de- 
termines the method of construction and maintenance of all 
public highways and bridges, and assists the district, county 
and town highway officials In establishing grades, systems, 
etc. He is also directed to determine upon the various meth- 
ods of road construction best adapted to various sections of 
the state. 

The State Commissioner of Highways is authorized to di- 
vide the state Into not more than nine divisions and to assign 
a Division Engineer in charge of each division. In making 
these divisions, he is not allowed to divide counties. 

Division engineers, who are appointed by the State Com- 
missioner of Highways must be practical civil engineers, ex- 
perienced in road, highway and bridge construction. This of- 
fice carries a salary of $4,000 per year. The duties of the 
office are to have general charge of the construction and main- 
tenance of the state and county roads in each division under 
the supervision of the deputy in whose jurisdiction the work 
lies. 

The State Commissioner of Highways appoints resident en- 
gineers, district superintendents, clerks, officers and other 
employees under civil service regulations. 

The use of any patented article or material in the construc- 
tion or repair of the state or county highways is prohibited 
by law, except under circumstances making possible fair com- 
petition. 

The maintenance and repair of improved state and county 
highways in towns, incorporated villages and cities of the 
third class are under the direct supervision of the State Com- 
missioner of Highways. The work of maintenance and re- 
pair of these highways may be done by the Department of 
Highways either directly or by contract, as the State Com- 
missioner of Highways may decide. The Sitate Commissioner 
of Highways has the power to purchase materials for such 
maintenance and repairs, except where the work is done by 
contract. 

The cost of maintenance and repairs of state and county 
highways is borne by the state, the towns, incorporated villages 
and cities through which the highways run. For the main- 
tenance and repair of county roads, the state pays an amount 
each year equal to 50 per cent, of the amount appropriated 
by the county for that work during the preceding year. 

Under the law the highways of the state are divided into 
four classes: State highways; county highways; county roads, 
and town highways. State highways are constructed at the 
expense of the state; county highways at the expense of the 
state and county jointly, the county paying 2 per cent, of the 
cost for each, $1,000 of assessed valuation of the county for 
each mile of public highway in the county outside of cities and 
incorporated villages, this not to exceed 35 per cent, of the 
cost; county roads at the expense of the county, and town 
highways at the expense of the state and town, the state's 
contribution being based on the amount of taxes raised for 
highway purposes by the town. 

The construction and maintenance of town highways are 
in the hands of town superintendents, elected by the people 
for terms of two years in November of even years. They are 
subject to supervision by the county superintendent. Taxes 
payable in cash are levied on all assessable property for high- 
way maintenance. 

A measure was carried at popular election in 1907 provid- 
ing for an issue of $50,000,000 in bonds for state highway pur- 
poses, and another measure providing for another similar issue 
was voted in 1912. Appropriations are made each year by the 
Legislature. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

The Legislature of 1915 passed an act creating a State High- 
way Commision consisting of the Governor, the State Geol- 
ogist, three members appointed by the Governor, who are to be 
residents of the eastern, western and central parts of the state 
and one of whom is to be a member of the minority political 
party; a professor of civil engineering of the University of 
North Carolina and a professor of the North Carolina Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College. The members are appointed 
for four years and receive actual expenses when employed on 
official business. The Highway Commission is empowered to 
appoint a State Highway Engineer tor a term of six years. 



92 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



TM ■•iiani aUtutM plao* th« control of higbway work In 
' Ik* haada u( Cuuaty Commlsaloners. There are Ave com- 
mlaaloa*ra to a oouoty, electe<l by tba people (or terms or 
two raara la November or even years. In some counties, by 
virtue of v^oelal laws, road work is controUeU by Township 
Koad Coaamiaaioners. three to a township, appointed by the 
County t>Mnmlaalonera for terms o( two years. The County 
CoBUBiaalonera levy taxea and also purchase machinery and 
aatertal. except in certain counties where apecial laws auth- 
oria* townahip orKanlsation, in which the purchasinK power 
ia IB the haads uf the Township Koad Commissioners. By 
spoclal act of the General Assembly, special road commission- 
era have been appointed in some counties to have charge of the 
county road work, and they have been given the same power 
and authority recardtnK the roads as rormerly was vested in 
the County Commlasioners. Upon request or the county road 
authoritlea brtdcea and roads are constructed according to 
plans and spectBcatlona approved by the State Highway Bn- 
^aeer, ensfneerlnK aaslstance Is given to counties and town- 
ahlpa. plana are drawn for roads and bridges and active 
supervision Is furnished during construction. 

Some counties issue bonds for road improvement, acting 
BBder special leglalation, contirmed by vote of the people. 

The lawa permit the working of county convicts on the roads 
and the judgea have the authority to sentence prisoners to 
work on the roads instead of to prison. 

NORTH U.VKOTA 

Under the North Dakota Highway Laws, in counties having 
no civil township organisation the county board of commission- 
era acts aa a Highway Board; in organized townships the auth- 
ority is vested in the Board of Supervisors. In localities where 
ther« is unorganised territory the County Commissioners may 
create aa many road districts as in their judgment is deemed 
expedient, and may appoint for each district an Overseer of 
Highways. At the first meeting of the Township Board, suc- 
ceeding the annual town meeting, it appoints a Township 
Orersaer or Highways, who has direct charge of the construc- 
tion and maintenance or the highways throughout the entire 
year. In unorganised territory the District Overseer or High- 
ways baa the aame powers and duties as Township Overseers 
or Highways in organized townships. In counties having a 
County Superintendent or Highways the Township Road Over- 
seer is cx-officio Deputy County Superintendent or Highways 
tor bis township. Upon recommendation or the overseer, the 
Board or Supervisors may, ir necessary, appoint one or more 
assistant overseers, such assistant overseers to work under the 
direction or the overseer and the board of supervisors. 

In 1>11 a law was passed providing that the couny com- 
missioners may at their option appoint a County Superin- 
tendent of Highways and Deputy Superintendents in organized 
counties, who have charge and supervision or the construc- 
tion, improvement and maintenance or roads within said coun- 
ties. Up to date only a small percentage or the counties have 
taken advantage or this law. 

A license ree or t3 per year is required by law for each 
motor vehicle operated in the state, and the law rurther pro- 
vides that the money received ror licenses, less the cost or tags 
and clerical expenses, shall be returned to he county rrom 
which It originates, to be used ror the maintenance and repair 
of highways. This law was enacted In 1911. 

In aditlon to the funds secured by automobile and motor- 
cycle licenses, the highway maintenance funds are secured b^ 
means of poll and property taxes. A poll tax or $1.50 is levied 
OB every male person between the ages or 21 and 50 years, and 
a property tax of not to exceed 4 mills on the dollar for 
bridges and not to exceed 6 mills on the dollar for high- 
ways may be levied by the county. In each county having a 
population or 2,000 or more, according to the latest United 
States or state census, there must be levied and collected a 
property tax of not less than % mill nor more than 4 mills 
on eacb dollar of the asessed valuation of all taxable property 
In the county, which, when collected is kept in a distinct 
fund known as the County Road Fund and levied and ex- 
pended In the Improvement of highways, under the direction of 
the Board of County Commissioners. Such fund is in addition 
to all other taxes for highway purposes otherwise provided 
by law, and is expended only in grading, ditching and surfac- 
ing. In proper condition for public travel, the principal 
thoroughfares of the county, communicating with shipping 
points and market places resorted to by inhabitants or the 
county, for which the means otherwise provided are not, in 
the opinion of the county commissioners, sufficient. 

The electors of eacb township have power at their annual 
mseling to vote to raise such sums of money for the repair 
and eoaatnictlon of roads and bridges as they deem expedient: 
provided, that the amount of tax for road purposes shall not 
•sc«ad t mills on the dollar, and the tax for bridge purposes 
sball not ssceed 1 mlllo on the dollar. 



A law was passed by the 1913 session of the Legislature, pro- 
viding ror the cash payment of highway taxes. This law pro- 
vides, however, that if any taxpayer desires to work 
upon the roads he shall notify the Township Overseer of High- 
ways, of his intention before the first day of May. Such tax- 
payer is then employed on the highways of the township at 
the time and place which the Township Overseer or the Deputy 
County Superintendent of Highways designates. Upon certifi- 
cate of the Township Overseer that the work has been satis- 
factorily performed, the Board of Township Supervisors issue 
a warrant therefor. 

A concurrent resolution providing that the state may grant 
aid In highway construction has been passed by the 1911 and 
1913 seslons of the Legislature. The matter was submitted 
to a vote of the people at the general election, November 3, 
1914, and carried, and laws granting state aid may now be 
passed. 

A law was passed by the 1913 session of the Legislature, 
creating a State Highway Commision consisting of the Gover- 
nor, the State Engineer and one member to be appointed by 
the Governor. The members of this commission serve without 
additional compensation, and It Is their duty to furnish plans 
and specifications and superintend the construction of any 
road when requested by the board having jurisdiction over 
said road, and also to Issue bulletins containing advice con- 
cerning highway construction and maintenance. 

A law was also passed at the same session, providing that 
the State Engineer shall prepare plans and specifications for 
any bridge or culvert, or examine and report on any exist- 
ing bridge or culvert, whenever requested to do so by any 
Board of County Commissioners or Township Supervisors. 

A concurrent resolution was passed by the 1915 Legislative 
Assembly amending the constitution to provide that any county 
may by a two-thirds vote Increase Its bonded Indebtedness 3 
per cent, on the assessed valuation beyond the 5 per cent., 
for the construction. Improvement and maintenance of public 
highways. This proposed amendment will be submitted to the 
Legislative Assembly of 1917, and it passed will be submitted 
to a vote of the people at the next general election. 

In 1915 a law was passed authorizing the County Commis- 
sioners to purchase road macliinery, also one authorizing the 
County Commissioners to employ a surveyor to lay out roads. 

Another law was passed in 1915, creating a Board of High- 
way Improvements in eacli county, such board consisting of 
one member from each road district within the county. Thi& 
law provides that the Board of Highway Improvements shall 
meet the second Monday in March of each year, at the county 
seat, and formulate plans and methods for the uniform work- 
ing and establishing of highways within their county; and 
such methods as they shall adopt shall be followed in each 
of the districts in said county. It is the purpose of this act 
to establish a board with full authority to adopt rules and 
regulations whereby there may be a uniform system through- 
out the county for the construction and maintenance of high- 
ways, especially with reference to the establishing of grades 
and cuts, and the construction of bridges and culverts and 
approaches thereto. 

OHIO 

A State Hlgliway Department, divided into a Bureau of Con- 
struction, a Bureau of Maintenance and Repair and a Bureau 
of Bridges, was established by a law passed in 1911. The state 
grants aid to the counties in the construction of certain roads 
designated on an inter-county system of highways, and, 
through the Highway Department, exercises a general super- 
vision over roads built or maintained wholly or in part with 
state money. 

The chief officer of the department is the State Highway 
Commissioner, appointed by the Governor, and each of the three 
bureaus is in charge of a Deputy Commissioner appointed by 
the State Highway Commissioner, who may also appoint as many 
division engineers as he may deem necessary. 

County work is in charge of boards of county commissioners, 
consisting of three members elected by the people in November 
of even years ror two-year terms. The executive highway of- 
ficial of the county is the County Surveyor, who is also elected 
by the people at the same time as the commissioners. Town- 
ship work Is in charge or township trustees, three In a town- 
ship, elected by popular vote in November of odd years for 
two-year terras. 

In granting state aid for inter-county highways, applica- 
tions for aid are made by the county commissioners to the State 
Highway Commissioner and approved or disapproved by him. In 
case the work is done, the plans and specifications are pre- 
pared by the State Highway Commissioner and the contracts 
awarded by him subject to the approval of the county com- 
missioners. The state pays 50 per cent., the county 25 per 
cent., the township 15 per cent., and abutting property owners 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



93 



10 per cent, of the cost. The county or township, however, may 
assume any part or all of the expense of an improvement In 
excess of the state's share. Main market roads may be con- 
structed in accordance with plans and specifications prepared 
by the State Highway Commissioner with the approval of the 
Governor, no petitions from county authorities being necessary. 

The state's share of the expense of road improvement ia paid 
from the state highway improvement fund, provided by an an- 
nual levy of 3-mill on all taxable property in the state. Of all 
money raised by this levy, 75 per cent, is to be applied for the 
construction, improvement or maintenance and repair of an in- 
ter-county system of highways and the remaining 25 per cent, 
for the construction, improvement, maintenance and repair 
of centain main market roads. The fund derived from the 
automobile license fees is devoted to the repairing, maintaining, 
protecting, policing and patrolling of public highways under 
the supervision of the State Highway Commission, and is not 
apportioned to the several counties. 

The Highway Commissioner is empowered to purchase equip- 
ment and material and employ labor for the construction of 
main market roads without letting contracts for the work, and 
he is also authorized to use convict labor for that work. When 
convicts are used for this work the cost of their transportation, 
guarding and maintenance is paid from the funds appropriated 
for the penitentiary or reformatory from which they come. 

Funds for the payment of a county's portion of the expense 
of road improvement are secured by a county tax levy not 
exceeding one mill on the dollar on all taxable property in the 
county. This levy is in addition to all other levies in the 
county for county purposes, subject to the maximum limita- 
tion on all levies. Funds for the payment of the township's 
portion of the cost of road work are provided for by a levy 
not to exceed three mills upon the dollar on all taxable prop- 
erty in the township or townships in which the road improve- 
ment is situated. This tax is levied by the county commis- 
sioners or township trustees. 

If the county commissioners of any county do not make use 
of the apportionment made to that county on or before the first 
day of May following the making of the apportionment, the 
State Highway Commissioner may make such improvements as 
are desirable either by contract, force account or in such man- 
ner as may be deemed for the best interest of the public, paying 
the full cost of the expense thereof from the apportionment to 
the county. Township trustees may apply for the improvement 
of inter-county highways, through the county commissioners. 



OKLAHOMA 

Through constitutional provision ond a law passed by the last 
Legislature the central road authority of the state is vested 
in a Department of Highways in charge of a Commissioner 
of Highways, appointed by the Governor at an annual salary 
of $2,500, who exercises supervision over all matters relating 
to state roads, highways and bridges. The chief executive 
ofBcer under the commissioner is the State Engineer, appointed 
by the commissioner, who is also empowered to appoint an As- 
sistant State Engineer and a stenographer, who shall be sec- 
retary to the commissioner. Appropriations are to be made 
to cover the expenses of the department. 

The county is the unit in local road administration and the 
board of county commissioners is empowered to employ a 
county engineer who may serve for more than one county. 
Upon the appointment of the county engineer, the board of 
county commissioners is required to select for improvement 
not less than 10 per cent, nor more than 15 per cent, of the 
main traveled roads of the county, outside the limits of cities 
and towns, which shall be mapped and designated as state 
roads. Such roads may be improved either by contract or 
volunteer subscription, convict or day labor or by force ac- 
count. All bridge and culvert contracts involving an expen- 
diture of more than $200 shall be awarded in competition. 

A tax of one-fourth mill is levied on all taxable property for 
the creation and maintenance of a state levy construction 
fund, each county to share therein according to the amount 
received from such county. County excise boards may levy an 
ad valorem tax of y^ mill which shall be converted into a 
county road construction fund, provided that the county levy 
for current expenses shall not exceed 8 mills. Counties mak- 
ing such levy are entitled to receive all money to their credit 
in the state fund. 

The Department of Highways is charged with the licensing 
of motor vehicles. Of the funds received from this source 
10 per cent, is to be paid into the general fund of the state 
and the balance is to be returned to the counties to be credited 
to the county road maintenance fund. 

Convict labor is authorized, the state furnishing tools and 
machinery, food, clothing and supervision. The county in 
which the convicts are to work is required to provide trans- 
portation for the men and equipment, subsistence for animals. 



fuel and materials for construction. Regulations are to be 
formulated regarding time allowance for good behavior and 
efflclent service of convicts. 



ORBGON 

A State Highway Commission was established in Oregon by 
the Legislature of 1913. The Highway Commission consists 
of the Governor, the Secretary of State and the State Treasurer, 
the Governor being the Chairman. This commission appoints 
a Chief Deputy in the office of the State Engineer, at an 
annual salary of $3,000 to act as the executive of the com- 
mission. The duties of the commission are to have general 
supervision over the construction of state roads and, through 
the Chief Deputy State Engineer, to furnish advice to county 
road authorities, furnishing specifications on request; to com- 
pile statistics, and to plan a system of trunk line roads to be 
improved and maintained at the cost of the state. It is spe- 
cifically provided that the commission shall build such roads 
as in its judgment seem for the best interest of the state but 
that such roads shall lead into or toward the chief market 
centers of the state and shall connect, as far as possible, 
with the principal county roads. 

The local units in road work in Oregon are the counties and 
road districts. The authorities having charge of county work 
are the county courts, which act through road masters, one or 
more in each county, appointed by them. It is the duty of 
the county courts to divide the counties into road districts, in 
each of which a road supervisor, appointed by the court, has 
direct charge of road work. Two or more counties may form 
a joint road district. County judges -are elected for four- 
year terms, the elections occurring In November of even years. 
Surveys for road work are made by the county surveyor. 

County authorities are empowered to levy annual taxes not 
exceeding ten mills on the dollar of all taxable property in 
the county for road purposes. County courts are also em- 
powered to issue bondjr. for road construction. These bonds 
must bear interest not exceeding 6 per cent, and must not ex- 
ceed, together with all other outstanding bonds, 2 per cent, of 
the assessed valuation of the county. It is also provided that 
a special fund must be set aside for repaying the bonds. Road 
districts are also empowered to levy special taxes for road 
construction, the amount realized to be paid to the county and 
placed to the credit of the district as a special road fund. 
Whenever the road fund of a district amounts to $1,000 or 
more, whether obtained from the general road fund or voted 
by the district as a special fund, plans and specifications for 
the proposed work must be prepared by the county road master 
or the county surveyor. 

Prisoners in county jails are under the control of the county 
courts and may be required to work upon the roads. The 
Governor is also empowered, upon request from county courts, 
to detail state prisoners for work on the roads or to detail 
convicts to work on state roads under the Highway Com- 
mission. 

The law provides that a state road fund be created by a 
state tax of one-fourth mill on each dollar of assessable prop- 
erty within the various counties, the tax to be collected by the 
counties and paid to tl?e State Treasurer. All money in this 
state road fund is at the disposal of the State Highway Com- 
mission. The law also appropriated $10,000 or as much thereof 
as necessary for the administration of the Highway Depart- 
ment until funds should become available from the state road 
tax. 

County courts are authorized to apply county funds to bridge 
building, and counties are authorized to issue bonds for the 
purpose of constructing inter-state bridges. 

The law provides for graduated automobile license fees and 
operators' licenses and provides that all money remaining in 
the motor vehicle fund on the first day of December each year, 
after the payment of the expenses connected with the regula- 
tion of motor vehicles, shall be apportioned among the various 
counties, in proportion to the amount received from each county 
for licences, to go into the road funds of the respective counties. 
The fees, penalties or forfeitures collected by county judicial 
officers are paid into the general road fund of the county in 
which collected. 



PENNSYLVANIA 

A law enacted by the Legislature in 1911 authorized the 
establishment of a State Highway Department, at the head 
of which is a State Highway Commissioner appointed by the 
Governor for a term of four years, at an annual salary of 
$8,000. Two deputy commissioners, known as first and second 
deputies, are appointed by the Governor at an annual salary of 
$6,000 each. Tiie Governor is also authorized to appoint a 
Chief Engineer of the department at an annual salary of $7,000. 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



Tk* dapu-tmant alao haa an auditor and a atatUtlclan. Tha 
eOBmlaatonar appolnu aa an aaaiatant to tha chief enginear, 
a> ansinear ot brldcaa. Ha may also appoint not to exceed 
It aaaiatant anrinaara, and SO auperintendents of highways, 
a chief draftsman, who ahall be a civil engineer, an engineer 
ot maintenance, an engineer of construction, and a staff of 
elarka and draftamen and other employes as may be needed. 
Tk* aaaiatant angtnaara ara assigned to districts throughout the 
•tata, and they ara In charge of the conatructlon of state roada, 
which ara built and maintained at the expense of the state, 
and of auta aid roads, which are built in co-operation with 
coaatlea or townahipa. Boards of county commisaionere, three 
la a county, elected by the people for four-year terras, are In 
dutrga of county work: and township supervisors, three to a 
townahlp. also elected by the people to alx-year terms, have 
■aparTlalon over townahlp work. 

Tka L«gialature of 1913 passed a law esUblishing a Bureau 
of Townahlp Highwaya under the State Highway Department. 
This bureau la under the direction of the First Deputy State 
Highway Commlsaioner, and haa general supervision of the 
township roada other than those designated in the act of 1911 
aatablishing the department. 

Township supervisors purchase machinery and materials, levy 
tjLz«»— which are i>aid in cash — and Improve township roads 
either by contract or force account 

State aid Is extended to counties or townships upon petition 
by the county commissioners or township supervisors to tha 
State Highway Department. The state pays 50 per cent, of 
the cost of constructing state aid roads. The 1911 law ap- 
propriated tl.OOO.OOO for the construction and maintenance ot 
roads designated as state highways and $1,000,000 for carrying 
out tha provisions of the state aid clause of the act. The 1913 
L«^alature appropriated (1,400,000 for state highways and 
axpanaaa, $1.&00,000 for maintenance and expenses, (900,000 for 
state aid. tSOO.OOO for state aid maintenance and (250,000 for 
the Township Road Bureau. In addition to the above the 1913 
Legislature appropriated (1,700,000 received from the taxation 
of motor vehicles to the State Highway Department for the 
construction and maintenance of state highways and (500,000 
from the same source for maintenance of state aid roads. The 
1>1S legislature appropriated (8,300,000 for construction, main- 
tenance, etc.. during the ensuing two years. Apportionment 
of the state aid fund is made among the counties according 
to mileage of roads In each county. State aid roads are 
maintained under the supervision of the State Highway De- 
partment, and the state pays 50 per cent, of the cost. 



RHODE ISI,AND 

A legislative measure enacted in 1902 established a State 
Board of Public Roads and authorized the laying out of a 
syatem of state roads to be built and maintained at the ex- 
pense of the state. 

Tha board consists of Ave members, one from each county In 
the state, apoplntad by the Governor, one every year for a 
term of five years. The members of the board receive (1,000 
per year, (500 each from the Road Department and (500 from 
tha receipts of the Automobile Department. They are also re- 
tanburaad for their actual expenses. The sum ot (5,000 per 
year is appropriated for engineering assistance and clerk hire. 
Surveys and maps, together with recommendation for state 
road work, are submitted by the board to the General Assembly 
and that body authorizes whatever work it may approve and 
makes appropriations to defray the estimated cost thereof. 
Tba law provides that all roads built at the expense of the 
state shall have a width of 14 to 18 ft. and wider at corners if 
tha Board of Public Roads so decides. Work is done by con- 
tract. Bids may be submitted by towns or cities for work 
within their limits, and preference Is given such towns or 
cities If their bids are no higher than those of individuals or 
contracting firms. 

The town Is the unit In local road work. Each town main- 
tains Its own system of administration. Some towns elect road 
commissioners or highway surveyors, in others the town coun- 
cil or board of aldermen appoint road officials, or direct the 
work themselves. Appropriations for town road Improvement 
and maintenance are made at town meetings, and each town 
decides whether road taxes shall be paid In cash or statute 
Ubor. 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

The laws of the state authorize the Department of Agrlcul- 
tore. Commerce and Industries, to collect statistics of road 
work done In the various counties of the state, and the State 
University maintains a course In road building In Its engineer- 
ing department. 

Tba administration of road work Is entirely within the lurls- 
dietlon ot tha conntiaa. County commlsslonara, elected by the 



people In November of even years for two-year terms, have 
charge of the work. These officers, except In a few Instances, 
take office about the loth of January following election. 
Methods of administration vary in the different counties. In 
some of the counties public highway commissioners are elected 
and In others the county commissioners appoint county engi- 
neers. In most counties, however, the work is under the super- 
vision ot a county supervisor elected by the people at the same 
time as the county commissioners. County commissioners 
purchase machinery and materials, and levy taxes. Taxes 
may be paid either in cash or in labor on the roads. 

Convict labor is used in all the counties in the construction 
of permanent roads. 



SOUTH DAKOTA 

At the 1913 session ot the Legislature a law was passed es- 
tablishing a State Highway Commission to consist ot three 
members, one from each congressional district ot the state, to 
be appointed by the Governor — one to serve two, one three and 
the other four years. The duties of the commission are to give 
advice and assistance to local authorities, investigate the loca- 
tion ot road materials throughout the state, ascertain the most 
approved methods for the improvement of the roads, Investigate 
the laws ot other states and supervise work on state roads. 
It Is provided that the State Highway Commission may desig- 
nate certain roads as state roads upon application from the 
county authorities and that the construction or improvement 
ot such roads shall be carried out by the county authorities 
under the supervision of the commission. 

Two systems of local administration are in force in the 
state — one known as the county system and the other as the 
township system. In counties operating under the county 
system, road work is in charge ot boards of county commis- 
sioners, consisting ot not less than three nor more than five 
members elected by the people. In counties under the town- 
ship system a township board ot three supervisors, also elected 
by the people, has supervision over road wrok. Maclilnery 
and materials are purchased by county commissioners or town- 
ship supervisors, according to the system under which the 
work Is done. In some counties all road taxes are paid in labor 
and in others partly in labor and partly in cash. Taxes are 
levied by county commissioners and township supervisors. An 
appropriation of (9,323.59 was this year made from the general 
fund ot the state to be apportioned among the counties, accord- 
ing to the number of automobiles assessed in each, and credited 
to the automobile road fund ot the county. At the end ot each 
fiscal year, the state auditor is directed to apportion among 
the counties any balance arising from motor vehicle licences. 



TBXAS 

The general statutes make the county the unit In road work. 
A law passed in 1909 permits the formation of districts or pre- 
cincts within the counties. These districts are authorized to 
issue bonds and otherwise raise funds and conduct road im- 
provements, under the general supervision ot the coutity of- 
ficials. 

The roads in the counties are under the control of county 
judges and county commissioners who compose the commis- 
sioners' court. There are four commissioners and one judge 
in each such court. The members of the commissioners' court 
are elected by the people ot the counties in November ot even 
years for two-year terms. 

Road work in districts or precincts is executed under the 
supervision ot district trustees, appointed by the commissioners' 
court at the same time as the court orders an election tor a 
district bond issue on request ot the voters. Road districts 
are under the supervision of the county commissioners unless 
otherwise provided by special legislative act. Some counties 
operate iinder such special laws. Machinery and materials are 
purchased and taxes are levied by the commissioners' court. 
Taxes are paid in cash and work is done by contract, in most 
cases. Sometimes, however, the court does the work by force 
account. 



tbnnesske; 

The Ijeglslature ot 1915 passed an act creating a State High- 
way Commission composed ot the Governor, the State Geologist 
and the Dean ot the Engineering Department ot the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee, ex-offlclo, and three members to be ap- 
pointed by the Governor, one from each grand division ot the 
state. The members serve tor six years and receive expenses 
and mileage. 

The commission Is empowered to elect a chairman and to 
appoint a secretary, each to serve for two years. 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



95 



The commission is required to establish standards for the 
construction and maintenance of roads, to act in an advisory 
capacity to county and district road officials and to exercise 
general supervision over state road and bridge work. It is 
required also to designate main traveled roads in each county 
which will connect all county seats, to be embodied in the 
general highway plan of the state. Such roads shall be under 
the Jurisdiction of the Commission. 

The funds received from motor vehicle taxes are set aside 
for highway work in the state. 

While some of the counties are operating under special laws 
permitting various local organizations to have supervision of 
roads, the general statutes invest the judges of county courts 
of each county with jurisdiction over all roads in the county. 
The judges are chairmen of the county courts, the members of 
which are elected by the people. 

At the January term of each odd year, the county court 
divides the county into one or more road districts and elects 
a road commissioner In each district to have general super- 
vision over the roads of his district. 

At the January term every fourth year, a board of turnpike 
commissioners is elected by the county court. This board Is 
composed of three persons, the county judge, who is ex-offlcio 
chairman, and two freeholders of the county not members of 
the county court. It is the duty of this board to look after all 
turnpikes and toll roads in the county, keep thera in repair and 
report to the county court. 

The road commissioners of each district appoint in January 
of each year a road overseer for each section of road as estab- 
lished by the county court. 

Taxes are payable in labor or cash, labor varying in number 
of days from four to eight per year, as determined by the 
county courts, and rated as equivalent to 75 cts. per day in 
cash. All able-bodied men between 18 and 50 years of age 
are subject to road duty. A tax of 2 cts. on the ?100 is also 
assessed annually, two-thirds of which may be worked out. 
Two-thirds of the proceeds of this tax must be expended in the 
district in which it is paid. 

One-fourth of the entire assessment for county purposes must 
be set aside by the county court for road work and appor- 
tioned among the several districts according to road mileage. 
County convicts may be worked upon the roads, subject to 
the direction of the county courts. 

By the terms of a law enacted by the 1913 Legislature 
counties are authorized to vote bonds for the construction of 
roads. Another law passed at the same time provides that road 
districts may be formed for the purpose of voting bond issues 
within their limits. 

UTAH 

A State Highway Commission, consisting of the Governor, the 
State Engineer, the State Treasurer and one member each of 
the faculties of the Agricultural College of Utah and the Uni- 
versity of Utah, was established by a law enacted in 1909. The 
same act established state aid in the construction of highways. 
The members of the commission serve without compensation. 
The duties of the commission are to select the roads which 
make up a system of state roads prescribed by the law, prepare 
plans and specifications for the benefit of county authorities 
and to direct the expenditure of the state building fund. 

The county is the unit In road work. Two county commis- 
sioners in each county are elected in November of even years 
to serve two and four years respectively. A county road 
commissioner is appointed in each county every two years by 
the county commissioners to take entire charge of road work. 
The county commissioners have charge of surveying, laying 
out, constructing and maintaining all county roads. The 
actual work pertaining to these duties is done by the county 
road commissioner. 

The last Legislature passed a motor vehicle tax law, part of 
the proceeds from which will exceed $100,000 per annum, and 
is to be available for road work. 

A standard system of road construction is prescribed by law 
and applies to all roads in the state outside of incorporated 
cities and towns, with reference to the relative width of side- 
walks, tree space, etc. The law authorizes the use of convict 
labor on public roads. The use of county prisoners is subject 
to regulations made by the county commissioners, and that of 
state prisoners is subject to regulations established by the 
State Board of Correction. 

The state aid fund is divided equally among the counties and 
the cost of construction is paid on a basis of assessed valua- 
tion. Counties having an assessed valuation of less than 
$2,000,000 duplicate one-fourth of the state appropriation; 
counties having between $2,000,000 and $4,000,000 duplicate one- 
half of the state appropriation; counties of over $4,000,000 
duplicate the full amount of the state appropriation. In ad- 
dition, whenever the State Road Commission decides to im- 



prove roads in any county, a special road tax not to exceed 6 
mills on the dollar is levied by the county commissioners on all 
taxable property in the precinct. Cities may levy a special 
tax not to exceed 2 mills for use on the state road system within 
the city limits. 



VERMONT 

Under the state-aid law passed In 1898 and subsequent 
amendments, state highway work is in the hands of the State 
Highway Commissioner, who Is appointed biennially by the 
Governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. Of the 
total road mileage of the state, about 4,000 miles are Included 
in the system of highways designated as state roads. The 
expenditures of state funds are made on these roads only and 
these roads are also the only ones over which the state has 
direct control. 

Funds for state work are derived from a 5 per cent, tax 
on the grand list of the towns, paid to the state and paid back 
to the towns upon the basis of the mileage of roads In each; 
from an annual state appropriation, part of which is used to 
meet money voted especially by the towns and the balance of 
which is expended by the State Highway Commissioner; and 
from the fees obtained from the registration of automobiles, 
which are used for the maintenance of state roads. 

The State Highway Commissioner has charge of the location 
of state work, but usually makes such locations after consul- 
tation with town authorities and generally with their approval. 
The supervision of such work is entirely by the state. State 
roads are maintained by the town road commissioner, who re- 
ceives for the work a portion of the state maintenance fund 
if the work is satisfactorily done. The state has no control 
over this work except through this apportionment of state 
money. In addition, a law passed in 1912 enables the towns to 
establish patrol routes with the approval of the State High- 
way Commissioner, in which case the towns appropriate cer- 
tain sums, the state taking over the work of maintaining the 
roads and paying the balance of the cost. 

In addition to this work by the state, aid is extended to 
the towns in the construction of bridges under the provi- 
sions of a law passed in 1915. The appropriation available for 
this work is at present $16,000. It must be devoted to bridges 
of spans ranging from 4 to 30 ft., located on state roads. The 
maximum aid extended amounts to 25 per cent, of the cost, 
but must not exceed $300 on any one bridge. The services of 
an engineer are also provided by the state for this work. 

Work on roads other than state roads situated within the 
limits of towns is controlled solely by the towns, except that 
each town is obliged by law to raise and expend on its roads 
a sum equal to 20 per cent, of its grand list. There are three 
selectmen in each town who are elected for three-year terms, 
one each year at the March election. At tlie same time a 
road commissioner is elected in each town for a one-year term. 
Selectmen and the road commissioners take oflice Immediately 
upon election. The selectmen purchase road materials and lo- 
cate all roads except state roads. 

VIRGINIA 

A legislative act approved March 6, 1906, established a State 
Highway Commission. The commission consists of a State 
Highway Commissioner, appointed by the Governor, and the 
professors of civil engineering of the University of Virginia, 
Virginia Military Institute and Virginia Agricultural and Me- 
chanical and Polytechnical Institute, each designated by the 
board of visitors of his respective institution. The State High- 
way Commissioner has general supervision over the main 
traveled roads of the state and may recommend to local au- 
thorities any needed improvements. He is appointed for a term 
of six years, the first six-year term beginning July 1, 1908. 
His annual salary is $3,000. 

The county is the unit in road work in Virginia. The gen- 
eral road laws of the state provide that, except in countii 
where some special law is in effect, the control of roads is in 
the hands of county boards of supervisors consisting of from 
three to seven members. These boards take office January 1, 
and serve four years. The last election was held in January, 
1912. County road superintendents, appointed by the board of 
supervisors, have charge of the work of highway improvement. 
The superintendent is appointed for a two-year term In Janu- 
ary of even years. 

The board of supervisors may appoint a road superintendent 
for each magisterial district. In counties where every magis- 
terial district has a road superintendent it is optional with 
the board whether or not a county superintendent is appointed. 
In larger counties where there is only the county superinten- 
dent, the county may be divided into road districts. Work in 
these districts is under the supervision of the superintendent 
or a deputy. 



96 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



« A Ux of not mora than «• conU on the hundred dollars on 
«U rt^l and peraooal property In the county is levied annually 
by Um board of •uparvisors for carrying on road work. Bonds 
bmlt be Issued by any county by vote of the people, tlie <tues- 
itoa bains submitted by order of the circuit court upon peti- 
UoB by a majority of the board of supervisors. 

^^■ly of the counties work under special road laws, in which 
run the (eneral laws do not apply. 

By Tirtue of a law passed in l»os, and amended in 1910, an 
^n«"-l sum U appropriated for distribution among the coun- 
l^f^ as state aid In highway improvement. The amount ap- 
propriated for 1»1« was IISMOO and for lt)15 Illi&.OUO. In addl- 
UoB to this the automobile license fees are paid into the state 
traaaury and constitute a special fund appropriated for high- 
way improvement. The money is apportioned according to the 
respective amounu of state taxes paid into the state treasury. 
The cost of roads for which state aid money is expended la 
equally divided between the state and the county in which the 
work Is done. 

Stale convicts are worked on roads as a form of state aid, 
by the provisions of a law passed in 1906. When convict labor 
U employed the counties supply materials, tools and supplies, 
and pay the salary of an engineer appointed by the State High- 
way Commissioner to supervise the work. In certain cases 
of felony the prisoners may be sentenced to work on the roads 
Instead of to Imprisonment In the penitentiary. 

Counties can not obtain both money aid and convict labor 
In the same year. 

WASHINGTON 

Stat* laws enaoted In 1>07 created a state department known 
as the State Highway Board, composed of the Governor, the 
State Treasurer, State Auditor, a State Highway Commissioner, 
and a member of the State Railroad Commission, designated by 
the Governor. 

The State Highway Commissioner Is the chief executive of- 
ficer and Secretary of the Board. He Is apoplnted by the Gov- 
ernor for a term of four years at an annual salary of $5,000.00. 
The term of the present Commissioner began Dec. 11, 1913. 
His duties are to compile statistics relative to public highways 
throughout the state, advise county officials and supervise the 
expenditure of all appropriations from the Public Highway 
Fund. He may employ engineers and other assistants, and has 
general direction of all contract and force account work on 
state highways, and must approve plans, specifications, con- 
tracts, and make final inspection of all permanent highways, 
done under the supervision of the county authorities. 

Two classes of roads come under direct supervision of the 
State Highway Board, through the State Highway Commis- 
sioner: State roads which are built and maintained entirely at 
the expense of the state, and permanent highways which are 
built and maintained from the Permanent Highway Fund. This 
fund is created by a 114 -mill levy, and each county is entitled to 
expend Its portion of the taxes collected. 

A system of county government is established by law. It 
contains a provision for township organization upon a major- 
ity vote by the citizens of any county. The governing of- 
ficials of the county are county commissioners, elected by 
the people In November of even years. There are three com- 
missioners, two being elected every two years, and one every 
four years, the long term alternating among the three. Un- 
less the county Is under township organization the county 
commissioners divide the county into districts and appoint a 
road supervisor in each district, to serve at the pleasure of the 
county commissioners. The duties of the road supervisors are 
to keep the roads and bridges in their several districts in re- 
pair, and supervise the highways generally, under the direc- 
tion of the county commissioners. 

A county engineer Is elected by the people of each county 
tor a term of two years. His election takes place In November 
of even years. His duties are to make plana and profiles of 
all roads to be Improved and to make recommendations as to 
the character of proposed improvement. All county commis- 
sioners and engineers take otCice on the second Monday In 
Janoary following election. 

WBST VIRGINIA 

A law passed by the Legislature In February, 1913, estab- 
lished a State Road Bureau, consisting of the professor in 
charge of railway and highway department of the State Uni- 
versity, who shall be the Chief Road Engineer and the chalr- 
naa of the Road Bureau; the director of the experimental 
station at the university for the time being, and two addi- 
tional members to be appointed by the Oovernor, to serve 
during his pleasure. The professor In charge of the railway 
and highway department at the State University Is also ap- 



pointed by the Governor, and he serves during the term of 
office of the Governor appointing him, or until his successor is 
appointed. His salary is placed at $3,500 annually, and the 
two other members of the bureau each receive $10 per day, 
not exceeding 90 days in any one year, for every day employed 
in the duties of the office. By the provisions of this law the 
State Road Bureau was ordered to assemble and organize as 
soon as possible after July 1st, 1913. This bureau is author- 
ized to have general supervision over all public roads as far as 
may be consistent with the authority over the roads already 
conferred on county courts by the state constitution. 

The principal functions of this bureau are to compile statis- 
tics, to aid county officials and advise them as to construction, 
improvement and maintenance of public roads and bridges, 
and to carry out such arrangements as may be made respect- 
ing roads and bridges with the several county courts. The 
bureau is also required to cause plans, specifications and esti- 
mates to be prepared when required to do so by county of- 
fliclals. 

All materials of every kind used in the construction and 
repair of roads and bridges in the state must be analyzed by 
the bureau and approved by the Chief Road Engineer. The 
State Road Bureau has authority to establish and maintain 
stone quarries, crushers and brick kilns and to furnish mate- 
rials to counties desiring them. 

County Commissioners, three in each county, have charge 
of the roads in their respective counties. The County Commis- 
sioners are elected for terms of six years, one commissioner 
being elected every two years. Elections are held in November 
of even years. The law authorizes the appointment, at the 
option of the counties, of a County Road Engineer. In coun- 
ties which take advantage of this authority the engineer is 
appointed by the county commissioners, at their option, for a 
term not to exceed one year and at a salary not to exceed 
$10 per day, if employed on that basis, or $1,500 per year, if 
employed by the year; except that in counties having more 
than 45,000 inhabitants the salary may be as high as, but not 
exceed, $3,000 per year. He has charge of the construc- 
tion of roads and bridges and Is authorized to purchase ma- 
chinery and materials as the agent of the county commission- 
ers, subject to the approval of the Chief Road Engineer as 
described. All county road engineers are required to receive 
at least 10 days' instruction each year at the office of the State 
Road Bureau. Taxes are levied by county commissioners and 
paid in cash. An appropriation for paying the necessary ex- 
penses which may be incurred by the county road engineer is 
placed in the hands of the sheriff of the county, and drafts 
may be made upon him as required upon certification by the 
county road engineer. 

The law provides for the working of prisoners on the roads, 
and any male person over 16 who commits an offense which 
is punishable by confinement in the county jail may be 
sentenced to work on the county roads under the supervision 
of the county road engineer. A prisoner charged with misde- 
meanor and unable to furnish a recognizance or bail bond 
may also elect to work on the roads pending his trial, and in 
case of conviction the time thus spent is credited to his period 
of service. In case of his acquittal he is allowed pay for his 
labor at the rate of fifty cents per day. 

State convicts are also worked in the state's quarries and 
brick kilns and on road construction. 

The 1915 Legislature changed the bonding law to permit 
counties or districts to vote bonds not to exceed 5 per cent, 
of the assessed valuation. The right of way law was also 
changed to permit the building of roads and the subsequent 
assessment of benefits by a commission of freeholders. 



'WISCONSIN 

By virtue of a law passed in 1911 and amended in 1913, state 
highway administration is in the hands of a commission of 
five members, consisting of the State Geologist, the Dean of 
the Engineering College of the State University and three 
commissioners appointed by the Governor with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. The three commissioners are appointed 
for terms of six years, one every odd year, taking office as 
soon as appointed. The members of the commission serve 
without compensation other than reimbursement for their 
traveling expenses. The commission is empowered to have 
charge of all matters pertaining to the expenditure of a slate 
aid highway fund authorized by the same law, to appoint en- 
gineering and clerical assistants, determine salaries of such 
employes and remove them at their discretion. The chief en- 
gineer of the commission is known as the State Highway En- 
gineer. The commission is also directed to advise the officials 
of towns, villages and counties In matters pertaining to high- 
way and bridge work when requested. 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



97 



County highways are In charge of a county board of super- 
visors in each county, elected in April to serve one year. In 
order to obtain state aid as prescribed by the law of 1911, each 
board of county commissioners must choose a county highway 
commissioner to supervise state aid construction and mainte- 
nance. These ofBcials are chosen through examinations given 
by the State Highway Commission, the highest two being rec- 
ommended by the commission to the county board, which may 
select either candidate. The term of ofllce of the county high- 
way commissioner is three years. He takes office usually on 
the first Monday in January. His salary is not less than $800 
per year, the amount being determined by the amount to be 
expended for construction during the year in the county. If 
the county board fails to choose a county highway commis- 
sioner, the board must by resolution request the state highway 
commission to take charge of the work, the county paying for 
the supervision. 

The county highway commissioner takes charge of all stat* 
aid road work under the state highway commission. He has 
charge of all machinery and makes contracts for the work of 
construction. 

In order to obtain state aid, county boards must adopt a 
system of roads which they propose to improve under the 
state aid act, and which must not exceed 15 per cent, of the 
total road mileage of the countj", or they may improve any road 
in the proposed system in such a way that it meets the approval 
of the State Highway Commission, and receives the share of 
cost to which such work is entitled. Counties may set aside 
10 per cent, of their allotments for maintenance. The state's 
share of the cost of construction of bridges is 20 per cent., and 
of highways, 33% per cent. The balance is borne by the 
counties and towns, the county boards furnishing not less than 
33 1/3 per cent, of the amount available for construction. Ma- 
chinery for state aid work must be provided by the counties. 
A tax of not more than three mills on the dollar may be voted 
to pay the county's share of state aid road work, or bonds may 
be Issued for the purpose. 

A state aid road fund amounting to $1,200,000 annually is ap- 
propriated, and the sum of $100,000 is annually appropriated 
for administration purposes. The portion each county re- 
ceives of the state aid fund in any year Is based upon th« 
amount of state taxes the county paid in the preceding year. 

The improvement and maintenance of town roads are in the 
hands of the town boards of the towns, consisting of three 
members, elected in April of each year for terms of one year, 
and taking office immediately upon election. Funds for road 
purposes are voted at the April town meetings and road taxes 
ranging from one. to seven mills on the dollar, payable in cash, 
are levied by the town boards of supervisors. The town board 
buys all materials and machinery. Towns, and also incor- 
porated villages and cities of the fourth class, under 5,000 
population, may receive state aid in the manner outlined above. 

WVOMING 

A system of public highways, aggregating 2,500 miles, to be 
built by convict labor under the authority and control of the 
State Commission of Prison Labor was established by legis- 
lative measures enacted in 1911 and 1913. The State Engineer, 
appointed by the Governor for a term of six years, is charged 
with the duty of surveying and providing plans and speci- 
fications for these roads. 

By a law enacted in 1915, the sum of $5,000 was appropriated 
for the two years ending March 31, 1917, for the purpose of 
purchasing equipment and supplies for carrying on road work 
by convict labor. 

The other roads of the state are under the control of the 
county commissioners of each county. The county commission- 
ers are elected by the people, three In each county, for terms 
of 2 and 4 years. The long term alternates among the three. 
Elections are held in November of even years, and officials take 
office on the first of January following. The county commis- 
sioners divide the county into road districts, and county road 
supervisors are elected in each district. The duties of the 
supervisor are to oversee repairs and keep roads open, under 
the county commissioners. Taxes are paid In cash and all 
work costing over $100 is done by contract. 



"The peculiar British genius for 'muddling along some- 
how' — in other words, for avoiding anything in the shape of 
a general principle of action or completely thought-out sys- 
tem of organization, for constantly patching old garments 
and so making them serve 'more or less' — is, perhaps, no- 
where better exemplified than in connection with our high- 
way administration. 

"Never have we had in this country — at any rate, since 
Roman times — a road system deliberately devised for the 
benefit of the community as a whole and, in consequence, 
never have we had any scheme of road classification. 

"The only distinctive terms we have for roads — 'main' and 
'district' — are quite arbitrary and meaningless, since the dis- 
tinction depends entirely upon the idiosyncrasies of each 
county council and consequently is no true classification at 
all." 

Of late years, however, there has been a strong movement 
favoring some system of classification, according to Mr. 
Harris, and had not the war intervened it is probable that 
something would have been accomplished by this time. Mr. 
Harris holds that the classification of the roads, has three 
objects — convenience of communication, convenience of 
administration and convenience of finance. The remainder 
of the paper is devoted to a historical sketch of the progress 
of the movement for road classification and to a discussion of 
the methods of such classification and of the methods of 
administration and finance dependent upon it. 



Road Classification in Great Britain 

A severe arraignment of British methods of administering 
road affairs appears in the opening paragraphs of a paper 
entitled "The Classification of Roads," presented by G. Mon- 
tagu Harris, Secretary to the County Councils' Association, 
at the recent National Road Conference and Exhibition held 
under the auspices of that organization at Westminster. 
London. In reference to this matter, Mr. Harris says: 



Some Phases of Road Improvement Work in 
Colorado 

In a paper presented by J. E. Maloney, Secretary-Engin- 
eer of the Colorado State Highway Commission, before a 
meeting of the Colorado Association of Members of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, much interesting in- 
formation relative to the administration and financing of 
road work in Colorado was given. 

Of the 31,000 miles of road of all kinds in the state, 5,400 
miles are designated as "state primary roads" and about 
600 as "state secondary roads." Under the highway law of 
the state, the State Highway Commission acts through the 
boards of county commissioners in all road improvement 
work, the commission having power to approve or reject 
work done and to designate roads upon which state money 
shall be expended. The state funds available for road work 
are allotted by the commission to the several counties, gen- 
erally upon a basis requiring the county to expend an 
amount equal to that appropriated by the state. In some 
cases, however, the proportion paid by the county may be 
considerably less than SO per cent, of the total cost of the 
work. Twenty-five per cent, of the total amount of state 
money may be apportioned for work for which the state 
pays the entire cost. The county commissioners are not 
bound to accept the allotments, however, and, according to 
Mr. Maloney, it would be better if the commission had 
power to improve stretches of road where the county au- 
thorities refuse or fail to act. 

During the past two years, according to Mr. Maloney, the 
commission has been engaged principally in such work as 
grading, crowning and ditching earth roads and the con- 
struction of drainage structures, and during that period about 
5,000 miles of the state road system have been graded, 
crowned and ditched. In addition, about 300 miles of state 
roads have been surfaced, mostly with gravel. Standards 
of construction have been adopted by the commission, but 
it is pointed out that these are not being used by all of the 
road overseers of the state. There are 63 counties, includ- 
ing Denver, in the state and in these the commissioners 
appoint some four hundred road overseers, who in many 
of the counties are changed every year. This method is 



9B 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



'txmiemnti u nneconomical and unbusinesslike, and it is 
argued by Mr. Maloney that the system promising the best 
resnits would be one whereby the county commissioners ap- 
pointed a general road overseer for each county, selecting a 
man thoroughly qualified for the work. 

Mr. Maloney points out that in most localities it is abso- 
Intely essential that some form of surfacing be placed upon 
the earth roads. While in many of the mountain districts 
it has been possible to use the gravel material of which the 
road is composed, for the majority of the mileage it will be 
necessary to provide some kind of a road covering, and in 
considering this question the matter of cost must in most 
cases, be the deciding factor as it is not financially possible 
to have the highest class of surfacing placed upon all the 
roads. Mr. Maloney's discussion of this particular point 
follows: 

"Taking the state road system as a whole, and considering 
that possibly 2,000 out of the 6,000 miles may be so for- 
tunately sittiated as to be composed of natural road surfac- 
ing material, and assuming that 4,000 miles of the 6,000 must 
be surfaced in some way, the question arises as to what 
should be used. For possibly 25 per cent, of this mileage — 
which would be of a class on which there was but light 
traffic — it would be possible to use a sand-clay formation, 
the mixture being made from local material at a reasonable 
cost, in most cases probably not exceeding $600 to $800 per 
mile; the width surfaced being from 16 ft. to 18 ft. This 
character of surfacing calls for very careful maintenance, in 
order that it may be kept in good condition, and would also 
call for renewal, possibly every second year, of either sand 
or clay, in order to keep the road in good condition. In 
many parts of the state we have been fortunate in having 
conveniently placed deposits of gravel, which can be crushed 
when necessary, and used for road surfacing. This character 
of surfacing will cost from $1,000 to $l,S0O per mile, for a 
width of about 16 to 18 ft. and an average thickness of 6 ins. 
This is the form of surfacing which the commission has 
found it possible to use for most of the roads. 

"A well-placed gravel road, properly maintained, will last 
for two or three years without requiring renewal. Gener- 
ally, however, after three years it will be found necessary 
to replace, in spots, some of the gravel. In some sections 
of the state where the material is within economical haul- 
ing distance, crushed basalt or a good quality of limestone 
rock has been used for surfacing; this stone being run 
through a crusher and placed for a width of 16 to 18 ft., and 
a depth of approximately 6 ins. It is desirable, of course, 
that this class of surfacing should be thoroughly rolled, but 
it has not been found feasible, except in one or two in- 
stances, to do this, the consolidation of both the gravel and 
the broken stone surfacing being left to the traffic. 

"Among the more solid forms of surfacing or paving, 
concrete would probably be the most desirable, when the 
proper mixture was used, taking the precaution, which has 
been found very necessary, to secure first-class material and 
work. The cost of this pavement is, however, prohibitive, 
except in localities close to the larger centers of population, 
where the traffic is heavy. The cost of this pavement would 
probably run from $9,000 to $12,000 per mile. These ap- 
proximate costs are exclusive of grading, culverts and 
bridges, which I have considered as being ready for the 
surfacing, and include only the work necessary to place the 
surfacing and provide the necessary shoulders. The width 
of the concrete pavement should, in my judgment, be not 
less than 18 ft., with a I'A-ft. shoulder of gravel on each 
tide. 

"It can be readily seen that it would be financially im- 
possible for this state to build 4,000 miles of concrete pave- 
ment, at a cost of say $10,000 per mile, as this would require 
an investment of some $40,000,000. Even considering the sur- 
facing of gravel at say $1,500 per mile, one may see that the 



4,000 miles, if surfaced with gravel, would cost about $6,- 
000,000, and with the resources at the command of the 
state, it will take a decade of continuous work in this line to 
surface these 4,000 miles with gravel, and this is without al- 
lowing anything for the upkeep of the gravel road after it 
is constructed. It may, however, be found advisable and en- 
tirely within reach of the counties and state to put in a few 
miles each year of the concrete pavement in the vicinity of 
the largest cities, such as Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo 
and others, and it will undoubtedly be found desirable to con- 
struct surfacing of either concrete, brick or bituminous con- 
crete for those short stretches of road in the vicinity of the 
beet dumps, where the very heavy traffic puts the present 
roads in an almost impassable condition at times. For the 
balance of the roads of the state it will probably be found 
desirable and economical to continue the use of our gravel 
and sand-clay construction for the surfacing, as being within 
the resources at our command. 

"So far as our experience shows, the maintenance of these 
dirt roads require an average of about $20 per mile per 
year to keep them in good passable condition; and in the 
sand-clay and gravel road, considering the necessity of 
placing new gravel or material upon parts of the road within 
about every third year, that $50 or $100 per mile per year 
would be needed to keep this class of road in good condi- 
tion for travel. On the concrete road, the cost for mainte- 
nance and repairs should be small for the first five years — 
possibly not to exceed an average cost of about $30 to $50 
per mile per year. I believe, however, that this cost of 
maintenance and repair would increase from the first few 
years, until it would probably be in the neighborhood of 
$100 to $200 per mile per year for the succeeding years." 



Durax Pavement in the Grand Central 
Terminal Improvement 

There is now under construction at the Mail Service Build- 
ing, on Lexington Ave., between 4Sth and 46th Sts., Grand 
Central Terminal, New York City, a Durax pavement simi- 
lar to that laid in the Brooklyn Navy Yard two years ago 
and described in these columns in the issue of June 7, 1913. 
The building, which is owned by the New York Central 
Railroad Co., is to be used for the handling of mail and 
express matter, and the pavement is being laid on the drive- 
ways leading from the street to the loading and unloading 
platforms. 

The total length of the driveways is about 300 ft., and 
the total area of the pavement being laid about 1,300 sq. yds. 
The blocks, which are from the quarries of the Harris Gran- 
ite Quarry Co., Salisbury, N. C, are about SYz by Syi ins., 
and 3y2 ins. deep. They are laid in concentric interlocking 
segments of circles, as is customary in European practice. 
The blocks are placed on a cushion of sharp sand, % in. in 
depth, resting upon a concrete foundation. After being 
placed, the blocks are rolled and the joints filled with as- 
phalt pitch. 

The pavement is being laid by the Metropolitan Paving 
Co., of New York, N. Y., which holds a sub-contract from 
the John Pierce Co., the contractor who is doing the building 
work. 



A Total of 80,875 Mq. yds. of Paveiupnt Wati Laid In Jeffer- 
son City, Mo., durlngr 1914, at a cost of about $135,000. Of 
the pavement latd, 96,000 sq. yds. were of bituminous mac- 
adam and 876 sq. yds. of brick. 



A Total of Abont $14,^00 'Wa* Bxpended for Road and Bridare 
Work in 'Wasatrb County, Utah, DnrlUK 1014. Of this total, 
about $7,500 was expended for road work, the remainder be- 
ing used for bridges. About $11,000 will probably be expended 
for road work this year. 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



99 



AMERICAN ROAD BUILDERS' ASSOCIATION 



150 NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



President 
GEO. W. TILLSON, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

First Vice President 
A. W. DEAN, Boston. Mass. 

Second Vice President 
A. B. FLETCHER, Sacramento, Cal. 




Third Vice President 

(Office to be filled.) 

Secretary 

E. L. POWERS. New York. N. Y. 

Treasurer 
W. W. CROSBY. Baltimore. Md 



Through the courtesy of the publisher of "Good Roads,'' 
this page, each month, is devoted to the use of the American 
Tiflad Builders' Association. It is solely in the interests of the 
Association, and it is the desire of the Executive Committeethat 
all members feel that this space is their own, and that they 
contribute freely to it, not only as regards anything concerning 
the Association itself, but also that which will further the good 
roads movement. Besides the official announcements of the 
Association, there will appear on the page contributions by 
members, items of news concerning the Association activities 
and personal notes about its members. All contributions should 
be sent to the headquarters of the Association at 150 Nassau 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

Executive Committee: 
Nelson P. Lewis 
A. IV. Dean 
E. L. Powers 

A. R. B. A. Members at the Pan-American 
Congress 

As noted on another page of this issue, members of the 
Association who were in good standing on June 1, of this year, 
are exempt from the payment of the $2 fee required for 
temporary membership in the Congress. 

All members of the Congress will be entitled to a copy of 
the Proceedings, when printed, and in addition all A. R. B. A. 
members, whether or not they attend the Congress, will be 
entitled to the Proceedings, provided their names appear on 
the official membership list, as of June 1, 1915. 

It should be noted, also, that the Pan-American Road Con- 
gress will, this year, take the place of the A. R. B. A. con- 
vention. For this reason, at some time during the Congress 
there will be held a business meeting of the Association for 
the election of a nominating committee in accordance with 
the by-laws of the Association. 



A. R. B. A. Members on the Pan-American 
Road Congress Program 

111 addition to the A. R. B. A. members who had accepted 
assignments on the Pan-American Road Congress program 
and whose names were noted on this page in the issue of 
July 3, others from whom the sub-committee on program has 
received acceptances are the following: 

S. E. Bradt, Secretary of the Illinois Highway Commission. 

Lamar Cobb, State Engineer of Arizona. 

A. W. Dean, First Vice President of the A. R. B. A. and 
Chief Engineer of the Massachusetts Highway Commission. 

Henry Welles Durham, former Chief Engineer of High- 
ways of the Borough of Manhattan, New York, N. Y. 

Prevost Hubbard, Chief of the Division of Road Material 
Tests and Research, Office of Public Roads, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. 

A. N. Johnson, Highway Engineer, Bureau of Municipal Re- 
search, New York, N. Y. 

Jas. H. MacDonald, former State Highway Commissioner of 
Connecticut. 



W. A. McLean, Chief Engineer of Highways and Commis- 
sioner, Ontario Public Roads and Highways Commission. 

Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Secretary of the North Carolina 
State Highway Commission. 

Paul D. Sargent, Chief Engineer of the Maine Highway 
Commission. 

Wm. D. Sohier, Chairman of the Massachusetts Highway 
Commission. 

Geo. W. Tillson, President of the A. R. B. A. and Consulting 
Engineer to the President of the Borough of Brooklyn, New 
York, N. Y. 

A. D. Williams, Chief Road Engineer of West Virginia. 



A. R. B. A. NOTES. 

John B. Wright has resigned as Commissioner of Public 
Works of Amsterdam, N. Y. 

W. S. Keller has been reelected State Highway Engineer of 
Alabama by the State Highway Commission of that state. 

W. S. Fallis, State Highway Engineer of North Carolina, 
spoke on the "Maintenance and Repair of Macadam Roads" 
at the recent annual meeting of the North Carolina Good 
Roads Association. 

Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist of North Carolina 
and Secretary of the State Highway Commission of that 
state, was elected Secretary of the North Carolina Good 
Roads Association at its recent meeting at Asheville, N. C. 

R. E. Snowden, County Highway Engineer of Craven 
County, N. C, was one of the authors of a' paper entitled 
■'Working Prisoners Without Guards," presented at the recent 
annual meeting of the North Carolina Good Roads Associa- 
tion. 

Past President Samuel Hill has recently been elected Presi- 
dent of the Pacific Highway Association, which, as noted else- 
where in this issue, will hold its annual convention in con- 
junction with the Pan-American Road Congress next Sep- 
tember. 

Among the nine members of a committee appointed at a 
recent meeting of the New York County Superintendents of 
Highways to consider the advisability of forming a permanent 
organization are the following A. R. B. A. members, all of 
whom are County Superintendents of Highways in New York 
State: F. J. Bashford, Columbia County; Geo. C. Diehl, Erie; 
Jas. F. Loughran, Ulster; O. C. Richards, Washington; E. J. 
Wulflf, Westchester. 

M. T. Calef, Road Engineer in the Rocmac Road Depart- 
ment of the Philadelphia Quartz Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., 
is the author of a thesis entitled "Specifying and Adopting 
Specifications for Patented Pavements and the Method of 
Calling for Bids Thereon." The thesis was submitted in par- 
tial fulfillment of the graduate course in highway engineering 
at Columbia University for the degree of Master of Arts. A 
considerable portion of the thesis is given to brief statements 



100 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



' of the practice in regard to the use of patented pavements in 
various states and cities. 

D. H. Winslow, Superintendent of Construction in the Of- 
fice of Public Roads, presented a paper on the maintenance 
of the northern section of the Washington-Atlanta Highway 
at the recent meeting of the North Carolina Good Roads As- 
sociation at Asheville, N. C. 



COMING MEETINGS 



July 14-16— North Carolina Good Roads Association— An- 
nual mcering. Asheville, N. C Secretary, Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
Chapel Hill. N. C. 

Aucnst 5-7. — Texas Good Roads Association and County 
Judges' and Commisaioners' Association — Mid-Summer Meet- 
ing, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, College 
Sution, Tex. Secy., Texas Good Roads Association, D. E. 
Colp, San Antonio. 

Angnst 11-12. — Pacific Highway Association. — Fifth an- 
nual meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. 
Bowlby, 510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

Sapt. 13. Tri-Sate Roads Association. — Third annual con- 

Tention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. Boos, 
1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17— American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association.— Pan American Road 
Congress, Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Road Builders' 
Association, E. L. Powers, ISO Nassau St., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Secretary, American Highway Association, I. S. 
Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg, Washington, D. C. 

October 4-7— Northwestern Road Congress— Annual meet- 
ing. Cedar Rapids, la. Secy.-Treas., J. P. Keenan, Sentinel 
Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12 — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation — Annual convention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-14 — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments — Annual convention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

November 17-19 — National Municipal League— Annual con- 
vention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Roge.-s Woodruff, 
705 North American Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Pan-American Road Congress 

The advance program of the Pan-American Road Congress, 
which will be held at Oakland, Cal., September 13-17, under 
the joint auspices of the American Road Builders' Association 
and the American Highway Association, has recently been 
issued by the Executive Committee having arrangements in 
charge. 

The formal opening of the Congress will take place in the 
Municipal Auditorium Building at Oakland, Cal., where all 
but one of the sessions are to be held, on Monday forenoon, 
September 13. The opening address will be made by Gov. 
Charles W. Gates of Vermont. The remainder of the session 
will be devoted to the addresses of Gov. Hiram W. Johnson 
of California; Gov. Ernest Lister of Washington; Gov. James 
Withycombe of Oregon; John L. Davie, Mayor of Oakland; 
James A. Barr, Director of Congresses, Panama Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition, and President Fairfax Harrison of the 
American Highway Association. 

The first session of the Congress will be called to order at 
2:00 p. m.. Monday, President Harrison of the A. II. A. pre- 
siding. The subjects for this session are as follows: "History 
and Future of Highway Improvement," L. W. Page, Director,. 



Office of Public Roads, U. S. Department of Agriculture; 
"The Relation of the Road to Rail and Water Transporta- 
tion"; "Benefits and Burdens of Better Roads," S. E. Bradt, 
Secretary, Illinois State Highway Commission; "Roadside Im- 
provement," Henry S. Graves, Chief, Bureau of Forestry, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture; "The Essentials of Proper 
Laws for Highway Work," Col. E. A. Stevens, State Com- 
missioner of Public Roads of New Jersey, and A. N. Johnson, 
Highway Engineer, Bureau of Municipal Research, New York, 
N. Y.; "National, State and Local Responsibility for Road 
Conditions and Ways of Securing Improvements," Judge J. T. 
Ronald, Seattle, Wash. 

The second session will convene at 10:00 a.m., Tuesday, 
September 14, President Geo. W. Tillson of the A. R. B. A., 
presiding. The proceedings for this session are scheduled as 
follows: "Proper Road Location; Its Importance and Ef- 
fects," paper by William R. Roy, State Highway Commis- 
sioner of Washington, discussion opened by Paul D. Sargent, 
Chief Engineer, Maine State Highway Commission, and W. F. 
McClure, State Engineer of California; "Road Drainage and 
Foundation," paper by Geo. W. Cooley, State Highway Engi- 
neer of Minnesota, discussion opened by R. K. Compton, 
Chairman of the Paving Commission, Baltimore, Md.; "High- 
way Bridges and Structures," paper by W. S. Gearhart, State 
Highway Engineer of Kansas, discussion opened by CliiTord 
Older, Bridge Engineer of the Illinois State Highway De- 
partment. 

The third session, which will begin at 2:00 p. m., Tuesday, 
will be presided over by Capt. Walter Coggeshall, President 
of the Tri-State Good Roads Association. The program is as 
follows: "Highway Indebtedness: Its Limitation and Regula- 
tion," paper by Nelson P. Lewis, Chief Engineer of the 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment, New York, N. Y., 
discussion opened by J. F. Witt, Dallas, Texas, W. I. Vawter, 
Medford, Ore., and B. A. Towne, Lodi, Cal.; "Organization 
and System in Highway Work," paper by A. B. Fletcher, 
State Highway Engineer of California, discussion opened by 
H. R. Carter, State Highway Engineer of Arkansas, and C. D. 
Blaney, Chairman of the California State Highwa'5' Commis- 
sion; "The Educational Field for Highway Departments," 
paper by L. S. Smith, Professor of Highway Engineering, 
University of Wisconsin, discussion opened by A. D. Williams, 
Chief State Road Engineer of West Virginia. 

Wednesday, September IS, is to be known as "Pan-Ameri- 
can Road Congress Day" at the Exposition, and the after- 
noon session will be held in Festival Hall, on the Exposi- 
tion grounds, San Francisco, at half-past two. At the morn- 
ing session, at ten o'clock Past President W. A. McLean, of 
the American Road Builders' Association, will preside. Papers 
will be presented as follows: "Roadway Surfacings," paper 
by F. F. Rogers, State Highway Commissioner of Michigan, 
discussion opened by E. R. Morgan, State Highway Engi- 
neer of Utah; "Resurfacing Old Roads," paper by W. D. 
Uhler, Chief Engineer of the Pennsylvania State Highway 
Department; "Street Pavements," paper by Curtis Hill, City 
Engineer of Kansas City, Mo., discussion opened by M. M. 
O'Shaughnessy, City Engineer of San Francisco. 

Judge W. S. Worden, Treasurer of the Tri-State Good 
Roads Association, will preside at the afternoon session, at 
which papers will be presented as follows: "System in High- 
way Accounting," paper by S. D. Gilbert, Auditor of the New 
York State Highway Department, discussion opened by A. R. 
Hirst, State Highway Engineer of Wisconsin; "Uniformity 
for Highway Statistics and Data," paper l)y H. E. Breed, First 
Deputy, State Highway Conimision, New York; "Engineering 
Supervision for Highway Work," paper by T. H. MacDonald, 
State Highway Engineer of Iowa, discussion opened by 
Lamar Cobb, State Engineer of Arizona, and Prevost Hub- 
bard, Chief of the Division of Road Material Tests and Re- 
search, Office of Public Roads, U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture. 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



101 



At the session at 10 o'clock, Thursday forenoon, James H. 
MacDonald, former Highway Commissioner of Connecticut, 
will preside and papers will be presented as follows: "The 
Merit System in Highway Work," paper by Richard Henry 
Dana, President of the U. S. Civil Service Reform League, 
discussion opened by Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Secretary of the 
North Carolina State Highway Commission; "The Deter- 
mination of the Justifiable Outlay for Specific Cases of High- 
way Improvement," paper by Clifford Richardson, New York, 
N. Y., discusion opened by Henry Welles Durham, formerly 
Chief Engineer of Highways, Borough of Manhattan, New 
York, N. Y.; "Convict Labor for Highway Work," paper by 
G. P. Coleman, State Highway Commissioner of Virginia, 
discussion opened by J. E. Maloney, Secretary-Engineer of the 
Colorado State Highway Commission. At this session the 
report of the committee on resolutions will be presented. 

The afternoon session on Thursday will be called to order 
at two o'clock, John A. Wilson, President of the American 
Automobile Asociation, presiding. The program for this ses- 
sion follows: "Motor Traffic: Its Development, Trend and 
Eflfects," paper by Elmer Thompson, Secretary of the Auto- 
mobile Club of America, discussion opened by Warren Gould, 
Chairman of the Automobile Club of Seattle, Wash., and 
W. G. Chanslor, of San Francisco; "Equipment for a High- 
way," paper by A. H. Blanchard, Professor of Highway Engi- 
neering, Columbia University, discussion opened by H. J. 
Kuelling, County Highway Commissioner of Milwaukee 
County, Wisconsin; "Load and Tire Efifect and Regulation," 
paper by F. H. Joyner, Road Commissioner of Los Angeles 
County, California, discussion opened by Prof. T. R. Agg, 
University of Iowa. 

The last session of the Congress to be devoted to the 
presentation and discussion of technical papers will be held at 
10:00 a. m., Friday, September 17, Col. W. D. Sohier, Chairman 
of the Massachusetts Highway Commission, presiding. The fol- 
lowing papers will be presented: "Comparisons of Traffic and 
Their Economic Value"; "Maintenance, Materials and Meth- 
ods," paper by A. W. Dean, Chief Engineer of the Massa- 
chusetts Highwa'y Commission; "Dust Suppression and 
Street Cleaning," paper by W. H. Connell, Chief of the 
Bureau of Highways and Street Cleaning, Philadelphia, Pa., 
discussion opened by Perry Brown, City Engr., Oakland, Cal. 

The closing session of the Congress will be held at 2:00 
p. m., Friday, Governor Chas. W. Gates of Vermont, presiding. 
A paper entitled "Lessons of the Congress" will be presented 
by Chas. F. Stern of the California State Highway Commis- 
sion. The remainder of the session will be devoted to un- 
finished business, to reports of committees, etc. 

As has previously been noted, the Tri-State Good Roads 
Association will cooperate with the American Road Builders' 
Association and the American Highway Association in the 
Pan-American Road Congress, the date of the annual meeting 
of the first named organization having been changed to make 
this cooperation possible. It has since been announced that 
the Pacific Highway Association, which was scheduled to 
meet in annual convention on August 11-12, has also changed 
the date of its meeting and will cooperate with the other 
organizations in holding the Pan-American Road Congress. 

In addition to the technical and business sessions various 
entertainments and excursions have been arranged. Among 
these are a smoker at the Hotel Oakland, on the evening of 
September 13; the Pan-American Road Congress Banquet on 
the evening of September 14; an official tour of the road 
machinery and material exhibits in the Exposition grounds; 
a special session on the evening of September 16, at which 
moving pictures and illustrated lectures will be the promi- 
nent features; an automobile inspection tour over the State 
Highway on September 18; and a visit to the Yosemite Na- 
tional Park on September 18 and 19. 

A special train will be run from Chicago to Oakland, leav- 



ing Chicago on September 2 over the Chicago and North- 
western Railway and arriving at Oakland on the morning 
of September 12. Stops will be made at St. Paul, Minn., Banff 
and Lake Louise, Canada, Seattle, Wash., and Portland, Ore. 
Various municipalities have invited members of the party to 
stop over and advantage will be taken of several of these 
offers of entertainment. The tour will be under the manage- 
ment of J. Howard Eager & Co., Baltimore, Md., from whom 
all desired information may be obtained. A return tour 
through Los Angeles, San Diego, the Grand Canyon of Ari- 
zona, Denver and Kansas City is under consideration. 

The members of the Pan-American Road Congress, as has 
previously been announced, are divided into two classes, donor 
members and temporary members. Donor members are 
firms or individuals contributing $50 or more toward the ex- 
penses of the Congress, while the temporary members are 
those who register at the convention and pay a fee of $2. 
Members of the A. R. B. A. and A. H. A., in good standing on 
June 1, are exempt from payment of this fee. A list of those 
who had become donor members up to July 10 follows: 

Adams, J. D., Co., American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Atlas 
Portland Cement Co., Austin-Western Road Machinery Co., 
A. D. Baker Mfg. Co., The R. D. Baker Co., Barrett Mfg. Co., 
Bessemer Limestone Co., "Better Roads & Streets," Bucyrus 
Co., Buflfalo Steam Roller Co., C. H. & E. Mfg. Co., Canton 
Culvert & Silo Co., Chicago Portland Cement Co., Cleveland 
Stone Co., Cleveland Trinidad Paving Co., Crescent Portland 
Cement Co., Dauch Mfg. Co., Dunn Wire-Cut-Lug Brick Co., 
"The Engineering News," "The Engineering Record," France 
Stone Co., Gallon Iron Works & Mfg. Co., Garford Motor 
Truck Co., "Good Roads," Good Roads Machinery Co., Robert 
W. Hunt & Co., Inland Steel Co., Inter-State Stone Mfrs. 
Association, Jaeger Machine Co., Jeflfery Mfg. Co., Kelley- 
Springfield Motor Truck Co., Kelley-Springfield Road Roller 
Co., Koehring Machine Co., Lehigh Portland Cement Co., 
Daniel B. Luten, Marion Steam Shovel Co., Marquette Port- 
land Cement Co., Metropolitan Paving Brick Co., New Aetna 
Portland Cement Co., New Egyptian Portland Cement Co., 
Ohio Marble Co., Ohio Quarries Co., Packard Motor Car Co., 
Robeson Process Co., T. L. Smith Co., Col. Wm. D. Sohier, 
Standard Oil Co. of Chicago, Standard Oil Co. of New York, 
Sydney Steel Scraper Co., Thew Automatic Shovel Co., Trin- 
ity Portland Cement Co., U. S. Asphalt Refining Co., Univer- 
sal Portland Cement Co., Wadsworth Stone & Paving Co., 
Warren Brothers Co., White Motor Truck Co. 



Pacific Highway Association 

The Pacific Highway Association has changed the date of 
its annual meeting from August 11 and 12 to September 15, 
at San Francisco, Cal., in order that its members may take 
part in the Pan-American Road Congress at Oakland during 
the week commencing September 13. It is understood that 
the sessions of the association have been so arranged as not 
to conflict with those of the congress. Henry L. Bowlby, 
Chamber of Commerce Building, Portland, Ore., is Secretary 
of the association. 



REPORTS 






PROGRESS REPORTS OF EXPERIMENTS IN DUST PRE- 
VENTION AND ROAD PRESERVATION, 1914; Bulletin No. 
257 of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Contribution 
from the Office of Public Roads, July 12, 1915. Paper; 6x9 
Ins., 44 pp. and covers. 

Included in this report are discussions of experiments made 
at Lemon City, Fla., in 1914; at West Palm Beach, Fla., in 
1914; at Miami, Fla., in 1913; on the Rockville Pike, Md., in 
1913; at Washington, D. C, in 1912; at Chevy Chase, Md., in 
' 1911 and 1912; at Jamaica, N. Y., in 1911; at New York, N. Y., 
fit Ridgewood, N. J., at Boise, Idaho, at Ames, la., and at 



102 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



Knoxvillc. Tfnn.. in 1910; at Youngstown. Ohio, in 1909; at 
Newton. Mass., and at Garden City, Dodge City, Bucklin 
ami Ford. Kan., in 1908, and at Bowling Green, Ky., in 1907. 
The report follows the general lines of the similar reports 
on the same subject which have been issued in previous 
years. 

STATE HUJHWAT i\>MMISSION OF AL,ABAMA. fOUKTH 
ANXfAI. RKl-OHT. Kor the Period from March SI, 1914, to 
April 1. I»li: Bulletin No. 8.— Paper; 6x9 ln».. 76 pp. and 
corera: Illustrated. 

Included in this are the following: A brief report by the 

Sute Highway Commission; a list of the members; a tabular 

statement shuwmg state aid given to the various counties 

during the four years ending March 31. 1915; a statement 

of the expenditures of the State Highway Department for the 

four years ending March 31, 1915; statements of mileages of 

different kinds of roads, appropriations, etc.; a description 

of state aid work in each of the counties of the state, and a 

table showing detailed costs of contract work undertaken. 

The illustrations consist of views of improved roads, methods 

of construction, bridges, convict camps, etc. 



PERSONAL NOTES 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 



WORKING CONVICTS ON THE PUBLIC ROADS OF ALA- 
BAMA, by W. 8. Keller. State Highway Engineer; Bulletin 
No. » of the State Highway Department. June, 1915. Pa- 
per; tx9 Ins., IX pp. and covers; Illustrated. 

This bulletin consists of a brief discussion of the utiliza- 
tion of convicts on the roads of Alabama, with special at- 
tention to the cost of the work. The illustrations consist 
of views of portable quarters used on convict work. 

CONTRACT FORM AND GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOK 
BRIDGE WORK; Illinois State Highway Department; Edi- 
tion of July. 1915. Paper; S^xlOK Ins.. 34 pp. and covers. 

The contract form and specifications included in this are 
those issued by the State Highway Commission this year for 
use after July 27 on all bridge work for which plans and 
specifications are furnished by the department. The specifi- 
cations cover both concrete and steel bridges and, in addi- 
tion, foundations, painting, specifications for various bridge 
pavements, etc. 

FISCAL REGULATIONS, ILLINOIS STATE HIGHWAY DE- 
PARTMENT: Bulletin No. 7, printed by the Commission, 
Springfleld. 111.. July, 1915. Paper; 3%x6 Ins., 20 pp. ana 
covers. 

This booklet contains the rules and regulations of the 
commission for the guidance of employees. The matter is 
taken up under the general heads of Employees, Communica- 
tions, Expense .\ccounts. State Property, Reports of Field 
Work. Expenditures, and .\ssistance to Rural Communities. 

OIL MIXED CEMENT CONCRETE, By Logan Waller Page. Di- 
rector. U. 8. Ofllce of Public Roads; Bulletin No. 230, United 
States Department of Agricultural; Contribution from the 
Office of t'ublic Roads; July 14, 1915. — Paper; 6x9 Ins.. 26 
pp.; Illustrated. 

The contents of this bulletin consist of a report on experi- 

metat work with Portland cement concrete containing a 

small percentage of oil, and discussions of the use of such 

concrete in structures of various kinds. The illustrations 

consist principally of halftones showing the results of tests, 

testing methods and machines, and diagrams showing the 

results of tests. 

FOR A BKTTKIl FORM OF GOVERNMENT FOR THE CITY 
OF NORFOLK. VIRGINIA; Issued by the Chamber of Com- 
merce of Norfolk. Paper; 4x8 Ins., 24 pp. and covers. 

This booklet is devoted to a discussion of various plans 
of city government, including those of Des Moines, la., 
Memphis. Tenn., Dayton, Ohio, and Springfield, Ohio, fol- 
lowed by conclusions drawn from these, recommendations for 
the city of Norfolk and a review of the constitutional changes 
deemed desirable in Virginia to permit the improvement of 
city government in that state. The committee, of which the 
iMioklet is the report, consisted of H. H. Rumble, Chairman; 
R, W. Pcatross, and Jno. E. Burke. 



John A. Bruce has been appointed City Engineer of Omaha, 
Neb. 

Robert E. Bustard, County Superintendent of Roads of 
Passaic County, N. J., died recently in St. Luke's Hospital, 
New York City. 

John Findley Wallace, of Chicago, 111., has been retained 
by the City of Dallas, Tex., to furnish plans for the elimina- 
tion of grade crossings. 

Sir Sanford Fleming, Hon. Mem. Can. Soc. C. E., one of the 
most prominent civil engineers in Canada, died recently in 
Halifax, N. S., aged 88 years. 

C. M. Rogers of Daytona, Fla., has been appointed engineer 
in charge of the proposed concrete bridge, one and one-eighth 
miles in length, across Indian River at Cocoa, Fla. 

A. R. Pardington, Vice President and General Manager of 
the Lincoln Highway Association, died recently in Detroit, 
Mich., after an illness of several months. He was 54 years old. 

E. E. Krauss, who recently resigned as Secretary of the 
American Concrete Institute, has been appointed sales man- 
ager at Philadelphia, Pa., for the Penn-AUen Cement Co., 
Allentown, Pa. 

Frank R. Williamson, M. Am. Soc. C. E., who has been en- 
gaged in bascule bridge design and construction as Assistant 
Engineer of the Sanitary District of Chicago, 111., died re- 
cently in that city. 

Philip P. Farley, who was Consulting Engineer of the New 
York State Highway Commission during the administration 
of Governor Glynn, has resumed private practice with offices 
at 103 Park Avenue, New York City. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



The Garford Motor Truck Co., Lima, O., has published a 
collection of letters to state and county officials and others, 
regarding the company's publication of S. M. Williams' book 
"Roads: Their Influence Upon Economic and Social Condi- 
tions." 

The Engineering Construction Co., Chicago, 111., has issued 
quite an elaborate book concerning the Thomas method of 
reinforced concrete construction, plans and estimates of which 
may be obtained from E. A. Clark, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 106 
North La Salle Street, Chicago, Chief Engineer of the com- 
pany. 

The Ball Engine Co., of Erie, Pa., has recently installed Erie 
■ shovels with P. H. Murray, the Fulton Engineering Co. and 
S. T. Benson & Co., New York contractors, who are using, 
or will use, the machines on state highway work. The com- 
pany has also installed a shovel with the Shore Transfer Co., 
of Winston-Salem, N. C. This shovel is for use on North 
Carolina state highway work. 

The International Harvester Company of America has is- 
sued a souvenir booklet on the Panama-Pacific and the Pana- 
ma-California Expositions at San Francisco and San Diego, 
Cal. Following a short description of the Panama Canal, 
are more extended sections dealing with the two expositions 
and the International Harvester exhibit at each. The booklet 
is printed in colors, is profusely illustrated and is a valuable 
addition to the mass of literature which has been published on 
this subject. 



August 7, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



103 



NEW MACHINERY AND APPLIANCES 



Asphalt Distributor 

An asphalt distributor of a new type, which has been 
brought out recently, is shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration. 

The machine, which is drawn behind a tank wagon carry- 
ing the supply of asphalt, consists of a gasoline engine, air 
compressor, heater and distributing mechanism, mounted on 
a four wheeled truck. It is about 14 ft. long, over all, and 
weighs approximately 3,200 lbs. A tractor, motor truck, 
road roller or team may be used to draw the machine and 
the tank wagon. 

The air compressor is driven by the gasoline engine, the 
compressed air being used to force the asphalt from the tank 
to the distributor, to force it through the distributing pipes 
and nozzles, to atomize the asphalt and to operate the reg- 
ulating mechanism of the distributor. Three air lines lead 
from the receiver, each line being under independent pressure 
control by means of a reducing valve. One line leads to the 
tank to force the asphalt back to the distributor, one to the 
automatic regulating valves, and one to the atomizing nozzles. 

In operation, the asphalt is forced from the tank through 
the main supply pipe to the distributing apparatus. The 
asphalt passes from this supply pipe through valves to the 
four flexible metallic tubes supplying the nozzles. The 



interfering with the automatic regulation of the flow in 
accordance with the speed of the truck. 

The machine is equipped with four distributing nozzles 
situated at the rear, as shown in the illustration. Each 
covers a width of 2 ft. of road surface, making the total width 
covered by the machine 8 ft. Each nozzle can be opened or 
closed without stopping the machine and without interference 
with the operation of the other three nozzles. Compressed 
air is supplied to the nozzles through a line leading from 
the air receiver through the heater and then to each nozzle 
through a flexible metallic tube, passing through the flexible 
metallic tube bringing the asphalt from the automatic valve 
to the nozzle. Each nozzle consists of an inner air nozzle 
and an outer nozzle for the asphalt. The heated air is utilized 
for atomizing the asphalt at the nozzle and for preventing 
the clogging of the pipes, which bring the asphalt from the 
automatic valves. 

Among the special claims made for the machine are that 
it accomplishes even distribution of the material regardless 
of the speed of the truck, that the amount of material to be 
applied to any particular portion of the roadway can be reg- 
ulated without interfering with the automatic control, that 
the placing of the hot air pipes within the asphalt pipes pro- 
vides a convenient and effective means of softening and 




valves are regulated automatically by compressed air 
brought to them by an air line that passes through a coil 
heater and also through a governor. The governor is oper- 
ated by a sprocket gear from the rear wheels of the truck 
and regulates the air in such a way as to open or close the 
valves as the speed of the truck is increased or decreased, 
thus providing for the distribution of the asphalt at a uni- 
form rate per unit of road surface. The heating of the air 
keeps the valves from sticking. Each of these valves is pro- 
vided with a gauge which registers the valve opening, and 
is also provided with a manual adjustment by which the 
amount of asphalt passing through may be varied without 



UNIFORM ASPHALT DlSTKiHUTOR. 

keeping liquid the asphalt and that one man can operate the 
machine. 

The machine is known as the Uniform Asphalt Distributor, 
and is manufactured by the Uniform Asphalt Distributor Co., 
of Meridian, Miss. 



About 57,874 sq. ylld. of Pavement Are to Be Laid in Hay 
City, Mich., durinjf the present year, according to recent re- 
ports. Of this total 31,155 sq. yds. will be of sheet asphalt and 
11,452 sq. yds. of concrete with a bituminous topplnfc. The 
total cost of the work, exclusive of grading and incidental 
work, will be nearly ?100,000. 



1(M 



GOOD ROADS 



August 7, 1915 



RECENT PATENTS 



The following list contains the numbers of the principal 
patents relating to roads and pavements and to machinery 
used in their construction or maintenance which have recently 
been issned, together with the names and addresses of the 
patentees, dates of filing, serial numbers, etc. In some cases 
the principal drawing has also been reproduced. Printed 
copies of patents listed may be obtained for 5 cts. each by 
application to the rnmmis'iioner of Patents, Patent Office, 
Washington, D. C. 




5 9 



t.I4tT(>. METHOD OF TREATING ROADWAYS. Eugene 
L Allen, Los Angeles. Cal. Filed Aug:. 7. 1912. Serial No. 713.- 
M. (CI. 104-58.) 




l.l4S,05I. STREET SWEEPER. Thomas R. Kerr, Norfolk, 
Vs. Filed Oct. 2», 1909. Serial No. 626,274. (CI. 16-17.) 




I.14» IJJ. STREET CLEANER. William R. Perry, Hazleton, 
Pa. Filed Feb. 4. 1915. Seiial No. 6.142. (CI. 16-17.) "'"^""• 




1.14t.l4l. STREET SWEEPER. Daniel SlUo. Aurora 111 



1,143,032. ROAD MACHINE. James M. Bresee. Mattoon, 111. 
Filed Oct. 25, 1913. Serial No. 797,333. (CI. 66-22.) 

1,143.190. AUTOMATIC CROSSING GATE. Charles I. Hall, 
Mount Vernon, Wash. Filed May 24, 1913. Serial No. 769,678. 
(CI. 39-88.) 



yryyyarxrymf; 




1,143,915. CATCH BASIN. William M. Rapp, Atlanta Ga. 
Filed Jan. 8, 1915. Serial No. 1,082. (CI. 182-10.) 




T^.V^i^V^"" „9ULVERT. William S. Hewett, Minneapolis. Minn. 
Filed Jan. 20, 1916. Serial No. 3,267. (CI. 72-52.) 




^^•\**i?^^- STREET SWEEPER. Alvin Brown. Plainfleld, 111. 
Filed Dec. 20, 1913. Serial No. 807,906. (CI. 15-17.) 

1,147,203. MEANS FOR DRYING AND HEATING SAND 
STONE, GRIT, OR OTHER MATERIALS. Fr.-ink mTiIs And. ews 
h-^iT' "^^^"^- *^"*^"' ^^y ''■ l^l*- Serial No. 837,036. (Cl'. 

1,147,492. GROUND-BREAKING DEVICE David Brter 
ff-lo! ' °*"°- ^"^^ -"""^ *■ ^"^- Serial No. 843,381 (Cl." 

1,147,648. TAR-SPREADER. Frank B. Rees Quinov 111 
Piled Jan. 18, 1915. Serial No. 2,971. (Cl. 137-63.) ^"'"°^' "'• 



/o^ 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Contracting 



Old Series, Vol. XLVIII. 
Kew Scries, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, AUGUST 14, 1915 



Number 
7 



Founded January, 1892 

published weekly by 
The E.L. Powers Company 



E. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address : Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price: Fifty-two numbers, $2.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
numbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to adver- 
tisers should reach the New York office as follows; For insertion in the 
first issue of the month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other 
issues, by noon on Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted— in- 
cluding "Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertise- 
ments — win be accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 

Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co. 
Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Matter 



Standard Plans for Streets in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania 

An ordinance providing for the more economical con- 
struction and maintenance of streets and a more uniform 
method of placing street improvements was recently ap- 
proved by Mayor Blankenburg of Philadelphia, Pa. 

The measure, which was framed by a committee composed 
exclusively of engineers connected with the Department of 
Public Works of Philadelphia, authorizes the adoption of 
standard plans and cross sections for the construction of 
street improvements and provides means for enforcing com- 
pliance with its provisions. 

The fundamental purpose of the ordinance is to permit of 
streets being paved to a width just sufficient to accommodate 
vehicular traffic requirements and to utilize the unpaved por- 
tions for lawn and tree areas. Provision is made for sub- 
sequent extension in the width of the paved area to meet any 
increasing traffic requirements. 



County Engineers of Arizona Form a 
Permanent Organization 

As a result of a recent conference of county engineers of 
Arizona, held at Flagstafif. Ariz., at the call of State En- 
gineer Lamar Cobb, a permanent organization, known as 
the Arizona Association of Highway Engineers, was formed. 
State Engineer Cobb was elected President and County En- 
gineer William H. Caruthers of Maricopa County, was 
chosen as Secretary. 

The charter members embrace the engineers of all of the 



14 counties of the state and all of the engineers who are 
employed in the State Engineer's department. ^ 

The association adopted resolutions recommending the 
standardization of bridge designs and favoring a uniform 
system of accounting to be adopted by all counties and the 
state engineer. The organization also went on record as 
favoring the approval of all bills for road and bridge work 
by the county engineer responsible for such expenditures. 



State Highway Commission to be Urged by 
South Carolina Farmers 

The State Farmers' Union of South Carolina met recently 
at Columbia, S. C, and adopted resolutions which are be- 
lieved to be likely to have an important bearing on the 
good roads movement in that state. 

The organization pledged itself to an endeavor to secure 
the establishment of a state highway system by the Legisla- 
ture of 1916, the creation of a state highway commission and 
the taxing of all motor vehicles to provide the necessary 
funds. 



County Units Being Organized in Texas 
Campaign for Good Roads 

The work of organizing the counties of the State of Texas 
into units in a state-wide campaign for good roads, having 
for its immediate object the construction of what is known 
locally as the Diamond Loop Highway, is progressing 
rapidly. 

The proposed highway will connect San Antonio, Laredo, 
Brownsville and Corpus Christi with 650 miles of continu- 
ous hard surfaced road. 

County leagues which are now being organized are affiliat- 
ed with the Texas Good Roads Association, which is sup- 
porting the project in its efforts to establish a complete 
system of permanent highways in the state. 



Ohio Highway Department to Let Contracts 
for More Road Work 

In addition to contracts already awarded, aggregating 
over $1,500,000, as noted in previous issues of "Good Roads," 
the State Highway Department of Ohio will let contracts to 
the amount of $586,826 on August 20. 

The work will be done in 20 counties and includes bridge 
and culvert work as well as paving. Some of the items are 
set for completion this year, while others will not be fin- 
ished until June or July of 1916. 

The various items and estimates are as follows: Adams- 
County, 3 miles, $16,300.35; Athens, 1.44 mile, $36,033.55; 
Clinton, 8.82 miles, $67,079.98; Fayette, 2.19 miles, $36,640.90; 
Fulton, 4.52 miles, $39,750.08; Guernsey, 3.43 miles, $53,- 
269.44; Henry, 5.61 miles, $54,956.11; Highland, 3.18 miles,. 
$23,335.19; Jackson, 2.14 miles, $15,742.02; Lucas, 2.11 miles, 
$23,781.94; Mahoning, 2.19 mi'es, $18,603.36; Portage, 1.04 



106 



GOOD ROADS 



August 14. 1915 



Biiie. $13,542.05: Sandusky, 4.27 miles. J51.063.28; Seneca, 
2.09 miles. $22,807.92; Vinton. 1.13 mile, $11,620.12; Williams, 
il8 mile*. $37,747.25, alternate, $30,581.17. 

The following items come under the Bureau of Mainte- 
nance and Repairs: Lorain, 2.19 miles, $16,773.10; Seneca, 
3.49 miles. $2832.20; Delaware. 1.44 mile. $9,10il3; Marion, 
1.08 mile. $10,448.68. 



The Production of Vitrified Paving Brick 
During 1914 

According to a report of the U. S. Geological Survey, pro- 
duction of vitrified paving brick during 1914 to the value of 
$12,500,866 was reported from 28 states. 

Ohio was the leading state in the production of paving 
brick during the year in question, reporting an output of 293,- 
381.000 brick, valued at $3,682,230, or $12.55 per thousand. 

Illinois ranked second in production and value, with an out- 
put of 157,176.000 brick, valued at $2,086,344. 

Two Days of Next Week Designated as Good 
Roads Days in Kansas 

Wednesday and Thursday of next week have been desig- 
nated as "good roads days" by Governor Alfred Capper of 
Kansas. It was at first intended to observe "good roads 
days" in September when the active harvest work would be 
over, as noted in "Good Roads" for July 31. 

Owing to the fact that Kansas roads have suffered severely 
from excessive rains and floods this year, it was decided to 
set the earlier dates noted above. 

In his proclamation Governor Capper urges all male citi- 
xens to volunteer their services or to furnish a substitute, 
and suggests that the women organize committees to furnish 
lunch for the workers. 



Production of Natural and Oil Asphalt During 
the Past Year 

A recent bulletin of the U. S. Geological Survey states 
that the output of natural asphalt in 1914 amounted to 77,588 
short tons valued at $630,623. The output of oil asphalt 
from domestic petroleum was 360,683 short tons, valued at 
$3,016,969 and the production of oil asphalt by American 
refineries from Mexican petroleum was 313.787 short tons, 
valued at $4,131,153. 

In certain localities, notably Texas and Utah, the output 
of certain varieties of natural asphalt required for special 
purposes showed an increase. In California there was an 
increase in the output of oil asphalt from domestic petro- 
leum resulting largely from an increased use of asphalt in 
highway construction in that state. 

Asphaltic material and products to the value of $186,142 
were imported for consumption during the calendar year 
of 1914 as against exports to the value of $1,247,020. 



Proposed Construction of a Cross-State 
Highway in Kansas 

A movement to construct a highway across the State of 
Kansas, from the Missouri state line at Bourbon County. 
Kan., to the Colorado line at Coolidge, is being organized 
hj citizens of Fort Scott, Kan., and, according to reports is 
receiving support from cities and towns along the proposed 
route. 

It i* planned to have the work done by convict labor, the 
law providing that counties or municipalities may employ 
convicts on road or street work at a cost of $1 per day, per 
taan, in addition to providing guards, tools and materials. 
Subsistence is furnished by the state, the cost being de- 
cocted from the money paid by the county or city. The 
balance remaining is paid to the family or dependents of the 



convict or, if he has none dependent upon him, is given to 
him on completion of his sentence. 

The promoters of the proposed highway have planned 
the route to include Fort Scott, Yates Center, Eureka, El 
Dorado and Wichita. 



Contracts Awarded for Three State Aid Roads 
in Pennsylvania 

State Highway Commissioner Cunningham of Pennsyl- 
vania awarded contracts for three state-aid roads during 
the past week. The total amount involved in the construc- 
tion is $115,645.04. 

The Franklin Construction Co., New York City, secured 
the contract for a road through the Borough of Strouds- 
burg in Monroe County, at $45,623.54. This section of high- 
way is 4,871 lineal feet in length and varies from 22 to 57 
ft. in width. The state pays one-half of the cost of a 16-ft. 
highway, the balance being paid by the borough. 

Dwyer & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., were awarded the con- 
tract for 5,843 ft. of 16-ft. roadway through the Borough" 
of Muncy, Lycoming County, at $41,877.07. 

The third contract is for the construction of 4,940 ft. 
of 16-ft. roadway in Milton, Northumberland County, and 
was awarded to Fogel & Co., HoIIidaysburg, Pa., at 
$28,144.43. 



NEWS NOTES 



A Convict Road Camp In Osag:c County, MisRourl, is being 
operated by the State Higliway Department of that state. The 
work being done consists of widening a road on the edge 
of a rock bluff. The men live in tents furnished by the State 
Highway Department. The results so far obtained are reported 
as satisfactory, and it is stated that if they continue so 
other counties are expected to take advantage of the oppor- 
tunity of utilizing convicts. 



PavlDK Brtcka Were Laid Directly on the Concrete Founda- 
tion in the construction of a road recently put down at Paris. 
111. The concrete foundation, consisting of a 1:6 mixture of 
cement and sand and gravel aggregate, was laid between espe- 
cially designed steel forms. It was finished by means of a 
steel template consisting of an I-beam and a channel section 
placed 2 ft. apart and carried over the forms by rollers at 
the ends. A dry. 1;5 mixture of sand and cement was kept 
between the two members of the template and was distri- 
buted in a thin film over the base as the template was moved 
forward. This film, which was about 3/16 in. deep, served to 
fill the slight depressions in the surface and took up moisture 
from the base. The wire-cut-lug bricks used for the pave- 
ment surface were laid directly on this surface, rolled with a 
hand roller and filled with cement grout. A 4-in. concrete 
foundation was used. 



An Automobile HiKhway from Cascade, Colo., to the Summit 
of Plkea Peak, which has been under construction by private 
enterprise. Is nearing completion. The company, which is 
known as the Pikes Peak Auto Highway Co.. will collect toll 
from those driving their own cars over the road and, in''addi- 
tion. will operate a fleet of 7 and 12-passenger touring cars for 
the transportation of passengers from Colorado Springs and 
Manitou to the summit and return. The road will be 17 miles 
long when completed, rising from an elevation of 7,415 ft. 
above sea level at the starting point to 14,109 ft. at the summit 
of Pikes Peak. The maximum grade is 10 per cent, and the 
average 6 per cent. The roadbed is 20 ft. wide and 
is Increased to 26 ft. on the shortest curves. Banks are cut 
back so as to provide a minimum sight distance of 200 ft., ex- 
cept In two places, where 125 ft. has been necessary. All 
curves are superelevated for a speed of 15 miles an hour. The 
bridges are concrete and steel deck structures with concrete 
parapet walls and are located on tangents in such a manner 
that they can be seen at least 300 ft. away. A portion of the 
road runs through the Pike National Forest, right of way hav- 
ing been secured from the government. 



August 14, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



107 



COMING MEETINGS 



Sept. 13. — Tri-Statc Roads Association. — Third annual con- 
vention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. Boos, 
1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17 — American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — Pan American Road 
Congress, Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Road Builders' 
Association, E. L. Powers, 150 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Secretary, American Highway Association, I. S. 
Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg, Washington, D. C. 

October 4-7— Northwestern Road Congress— Annual meet- 
ing, Cedar Rapids, la. Secy.-Treas., J. P. Keenan, Sentinel 
Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12— National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-14 — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments — Annual convention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

November 17-19— National Municipal League— Annual con- 
vention. Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Roge.-s Woodruflf, 
70S North American Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

February 15-18, 1916. — National Conference on Concrete 
Road Building. — Second National conference, Chicago, III. 
Secretary of Advisory Committee, J. P. Beck, 208 South 
La Salle St., Chicago. 



The Pan-American Road Congress Special Train 

As noted in the issue of June l2, arrangements have been 
made for a special train to accommodate delegates to the 
Pan-American Road Congress at Oakland, Cal., next month. 
The itinerary of the special has recently been made public, 
as has also a tentative schedule of the return trip. 

The train will leave Chicago, 111., over the Chicago and 
North Western Railroad at 6.45 p. m. Sept. 2 and will arrive 
at St. Paul, Minn., at 8.00 a. m. the next day. Breakfast will 
be served at the St. Paul Hotel, after which the party will 
take an automobile trip over the boulevards of the city. 
The ride will end at the Soo Line Station in time to board 
the special which will leave at 11.00 a. m. From St. Paul 
the train will run over the Soo Line and the Canadian Pa- 
cific through Minnesota and North Dakota and the Cana- 
dian provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta, arriving at 
Banff at 8.00 a. m. Sept. 5. The day will be spent at Banff, 
meals being provided at the Banff Springs Hotel. During 
the day there will be a special tally-ho ride to Tunnel Moun- 
tain, Buffalo Park and other points. At 8.20 p. m. the train 
will leave Banff, arriving at Lake Louise at 9.40 p. m. A 
special trolley will meet the train and carry the party to the 
Chateau Lake Louise where the following day, Sept. 6, will 
be spent. No special trips have been arranged for this day, 
the time being left for such sight-seeing as the individual 
members may desire. 

The party will leave Lake Louise at 9.30 a. m. Sept. 7 and 
will arrive in Vancouver at 9.25 a. m. Sept. 8. Leaving Van- 
couver at 10.00 a. m. by steamer, the party will reach Seattle 
at 9.00 p. m. The steamers touch at Victoria, where a two- 
hour stop will be made. At Seattle rooms and meals will 
be furnished at the New Washington Hotel. All September 
9 will be spent in that city, and automobiles will be fur- 
nished for a trip through the city and the suburbs. The 
party will leave Seattle at midnight over the Northern Pa- 
cific Railway, arriving in Portland at 7.00 a. m. Sept. 10, 



where another motor ride over the principal roads will be 
furnished during the day. At 8.15 p. m. the party will leave 
over the Southern Pacific, arriving at Oakland at 6.30 a. m., 
Sept. 12.' 

The train will be composed of drawing room, compart- 
ment and section Pullman cars, a dining car and a special 
baggage car. The trip will be under the management of 
J. Howard Eager & Co., Baltimore, Md., from whom more 
detailed information can be obtained. It is stated that the 
price of the trip will not exceed $188, this including rail 
tickets over the route indicated and back over any route; 
Pullman accommodations from Chicago to Oakland; accom- 
modations at first-class hotels, and meals for the entire trip 
both at hotels and on the dining car. 

The route of the return trip, which the Congress officials 
have under consideration, is through Santa Cruz, Del Monte, 
Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Diego and Riverside, Cal., 
the Grand Canyon of Arizona, Denver, Colo., and Kansas 
City, Mo. Acording to present plans, the train will leave 
San Francisco at 8.10 a. m., Sunday, Sept. 19, and arrive at 
Chicago at 8.20 a. m., Saturday, Oct. 2. Included in the 
trip are stops with side trips at Santa Cruz, Del Monte, 
Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Diego, Riverside, Grand 
Canyon of Arizona and Denver. A stop of about four hours 
will be made at Santa Cruz. The night of September 19 
will be spent at Del Monte, and the night of September 20 
and all day September 21 at Santa Barbara. All of Septem- 
ber 22 and 23 will be spent at Los Angeles and all day Sep- 
tember 24 at San Diego. 



MEETINGS 



Texas Good Roads Association 

The annual midsummer convention of the Texas Good 
Roads Association was held jointly with the convention of 
the State County Judges' and Commissioners' Association 
Aug. 5, 6 and 7, at Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
College Station, Tex. 

The most important feature was the adoption of reso- 
lutions to urge the enactment of a bill for the creation of 
a state highway department and the appointment of a state 
highway engineer. The use of convict labor on roads was 
also discussed. 

Dean D. W. Spence of the School of Engineering of the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, presided at the opening 
session. Dr. W. B. Bizzell, President of the college, spoke 
on the importance of good roads from a social and moral 
standpoint. County Judge J. T. Maloney of Brazos County 
urged direct taxation in preference to bond issues for build- 
in t;- roads. 

County Judge George N. Denton of McLennon Counfy 
advocated the employment of a competent highway engineer 
on all work where considerable money is to be spent. 
Homer D. Wade, former secretary of the association, spoke 
on "Good Roads From An Economic Standpoint." In the 
evening, A. M. Boles, Division Engineer of the Association 
of American Portland Cement Manufacturers, gave an illus- 
trated lecture on "Methods of Good Roads Construction." 

President J. W. Warren opened the second day's session. 
A. M. Johnson of the Bureau of Municipal Research, New 
York City, delivered an able ad'dress, explaining the func- 
tions of the bureau. George D. Marshall, of the U. S. Office 
of Public Roads and Rural Engineering, dwelt on the needs 
of a state highway department. Discussion on the question, 
"Are Special Road Laws Advisable?" was led by County 
Judge Beauchamp of Lamar County. Discussion on the use 
of convict labor was led by County Judge J. M. Tidwell. 



lOB 



GOOD ROADS 



August 14, 1915 



Tf. P. N«»h of the Bnrean of Economic Geology, University 
of Texas, discussed the various road materials found in 
the state. Mrs. March Culmore, President of the Texas 
Federation of Women's Clubs, spoke on "Why Women 
Want Good Roads." 

A plan to carry on systematic road work throughout the 
state by the organization of sections was adopted before 
the close of the meeting. The last day was devoted to de- 
tail work and entertainment, the convention closing with an 
informal dinner and smoker. The executive committee will 
decide upon the next meeting place. Officers will be elected 
at the meeting next February. 

In connection with the convention there were many ex- 
hibits of road materials and machinery, and a demonstra- 
tion gravel driveway was built with White motor trucks and 
an Austin grader. 



PERSONAL NOTES 



R. M. Mark has been appointed Assistant Engineer of the 
New York State Highway Department, with headquarters 
«t Rochester, N. Y. 

J. E. Conley has been appointed Superintendent of Con- 
stmction of the combined Departments of Sewers, Water 
and Highways, at Norwood, Mass. 

B. J. Finch, who has been engaged in road work in the. 
National Parks, has been placed in charge of road work in 
Division No. 6 of the U. S. Forest Service. 

J. Russell Ellis, Assistant City Engineer of Regina, Sask., 
has been appointed Acting City Engineer to fill the posi- 
tion caused by the resignation of G. McArthur. 

E. II. Terwilliger has been placed in charge of the recent- 
ly established office of the Austin-Western Road Machinery 
Co., Chicago, at 314 Bulletin Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Governor Whitman, of New York, has appointed the fol- 
lowing delegates to the Pan-American Road Congress: 
George W. Tillson, Brooklyn; Henry A. Van Alstyne and 
Edward A. Bond, Albany; W. Pierrepont White, Utica, and 
J. Y. McClintock, Rochester. 

R. T. Stall, E~ M. Cer., has become associated with the 
Dunn Wire-Cut-Lug Brick Co., Conneaut, O., as its ceramic 
engineer. Mr. StuU is widely known as the author of num- 
erous contributions to ceramic literature and has been for 
several years connected with the Department of Ceramic 
Engineering of the University of Illinois. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



The Willite Road Construction Co., of America, has been 
incorporated under the laws of Maine, with an authorized 
capital of $1,000,000, to construct highways and pavements 
generally. T. L. Croteau, Portland, Me., is President of the 
company, and George S. Soule, South Portland, is Treasurer. 

The Walter A. Zelnicker Supply Co., St. Louis, Mo., an- 
nounces that it has purchased the good will and stock of the 
Bintliff Supply Co., successors to Bintliff & Herb. This con- 
cern did a general business in railroad, mill and factory sup- 
plies and specialized in railroad track tools. According to the 
announcement, the Zelnicker Co. is at present disposing of 
this stock. 



NEWS NOTES 



Thr Krrrnt l>2,.'MM>.000 lasue or Callfornln Hlichn-ay Bond* has 

been awarded to 32 counties of the state. 



C'ommluloner Goas of St. Paul, Minn., has asked for $671,500 
for the maintenance of streets during 1916. 



The Vetera of Dallaa City and County, Tex., have ratifled a 
bond issue of $135,000 for bridge construction. 



The City Conncll of Hastinea, Neb., Is preparing to spend 
over $300,000 for paving in 21 new paving districts. 



Comniliialouer of HlKhnaya G, J, Cormier o( Brown County, 
\%'iH., has Inaugurated the patrol method of highway main- 
tenance. 



The City ConiniUalonera of San Antonio, Tex., recently 
awarded 13 paving contracts Involving the expenditure of 
$361,924. 



The Special R<»ad Commlaaion of Knox County, Tenn,, re- 
cently awarded contracts for 73.76 miles of road work to cost 
nearly $245,000. 



The County Court of Grainger County, Tenn,, has called elec- 
tion for September 9 on the question of Issuing $200,000 worth 
of road bonds. 



Hamilton County, Tenn., will have completed or under way 
by the end of the present fiscal year $1,024,500 worth of road 
and bridge work. 



The City Council of Jefferaon, la., has authorized the paving 
of 28 blocks of city streets. Including the main business section 
of the city. 



The MInneaota State HlKhnay Commlaaion has ordered the 
improvement of approximately 50 miles of highway at an 
aggregate cost of about $131,000. 



The Voters of Jefferaon Davis Pariah, La., have voted against 
a proposition to issue $400,000 worth of bonds for the construc- 
tion of a system of good roads. 



The Good Roada Aaaoelatlon of Crittenden County, Ark., is 

arranging for a good roads rally and barbecue to be held at 
Marion, Ark., on August 26. 



The Good Roada Aaaoelatlon of Sacramento County, Cat., the 

organization of which was recently noted In "Good Roads," 
already has a membership of over 2,000. 



A Good Roada Aaaoelatlon Waa Organlxed recently at Rock- 
port, Tex., where a meeting was addressed by Thomas A. 
Williams, Field Secretary of the National Highways Associa- 
tion. 



Road DIstricta Noa. 1 and 2 of San Jacinto County, Tex., have 
voted to issue $100,000 in bonds for the construction of a link 
in the proposed highway connecting Houston, Livingston and 
Lufkin, Tex. 



!Vew York City ORIclala and representatives of the Long 
Island Railroad have reached an agreement for the elimina- 
tion of grade crossings in the Far Rockaway district. The 
cost will be $1,000,000, according to present estimates. 



.AuKiiat 25 Will He Good Roada Day at Belleville, III., accord- 
ing to the plans of the St. Clair County, 111., Good Roads Asso- 
ciation. A picnic will be held at the Belleville Fair Grounds 
and the proceeds will be used in improving the road between 
Belleville and Freeburg, 111. 



County Sufterlntendent of IliBhwaya I>. I,. Royer of Adams 
County, 111,, is planning for a "good roads week" in the county, 
when every man will be asked to give at least one day's work 
on the roads with a team. It is probable that prizes will be 
awarded to the three townships making the best showing and 
to Individuals in each township making the greatest improve- 
ment In the road running past their property. 



(-f 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Ck>ntracting 



Old Series, Vol. XLVIII. 
New Series, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, AUGUST 21, 1915 



Number 

- 8 



Founded January, 1892 

published weekly by 
The E. L. Po'wees Company 



E. L. Powers. Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NA.SSA.TJ STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address: Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price: Fifty-two numbers, $2.00 a year in the United States, 
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Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 



Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to adver- 
tisers should reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the 
first issue of the month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other 
issues, by noon on Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted— in- 
cluding "Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertise- 
ments—will be accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 

Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co. 
Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Matter 



Bids Received on $800,000 Worth of 
Road Work in Ohio 

Bids were received recently by the State Highway Com- 
mission of Ohio for road work aggregating approximately 
$800,000, which was noted in the issue of "Good Roads" for 
July 31. 

In some instances the bids were upon alternative ptans, 
so all of the contracts were not awarded at the time the 
bids were opened, owing to the necessity of ascertaining the 
wishes of local authorities. 

The lowest bidders for the various pieces of construc- 
tion, were as follows: 

Muskingum County, National Road, Union Township, 309 
ft: Paris & Bayles, Dayton, $960; Section F, of National 
Road, 254 ft.: Parrish & Bales, Dayton, $812. 

Fairfield County, Section M, bridges and culverts, 14 miles: 
G. L. Heppy & Sons, Pickerington, $3,495. 

Hocking County, Section I, Logan-Athens Road, quarter 
inile, brick: E. C. Lewis & Co., Rockford, $22,937. 

Licking County, .Section O, Columbus-Millersburg Road, 
2.7 miles, macadam: Lamb & Neal, Thornville, $24,800; Section 
E, Columbus-Newark Road, macadam, 5,187 ft., repair: Charles 
Vogelmeyer, Newark, $6,767. 

Lorain County, Section D, Milan-Elyria Road, 4.4 miles, 
macadam: Knepper, Burr & Jacobs, Tiffin, $28,500. 

Shelby County, Section B, Sidney-Wapakoneta Road, 2.7 
miles, macadam: John F. Hipskind, Richmond, Ind., $26,800. 

Trumbull County, Section P, Youngstown-Sharon Road, 3.8 
miles, macadam: Evans & Walters, Hubbard, $27,973 

Lawrence County, Section A, Ironton-Miller Road, tunnel 
repair: M. E. Murphy Co., Columbus, $2,338. 



Several bidders sought the contract for building two pieces 
of the National Road east of Columbus in Franklin County, 
which will complete the improved highway between Zanes- 
ville and Columbus. Since those were on alternative materials, 
the results were not announced at the time. Alternative 
bids were received also on Section C, Toledo-Perrysburg 
Road, Wood County. 



Roads Damaged by Floods in Vicinity of Erie, 
Pennsylvania 

The damage to state highways in the vicinity of Erie, Pa., 
by the recent floods will amount to approximately $75,000, 
according to a statement by Chief Engineer William D. Uhler 
of the Pennsylvania State Highway Department, who made 
an inspection recently with Assistant Engineer Frame of the 
Erie district. 

Reconstruction and repair of the damaged roads will begin 
at once under the immediate direction of County Superintend- 
ent of Roads Van Vleck of Erie County. 



Roads in Crater Lake Park to be Hard- 
Surfaced Next Year 

It has been authoritatively stated that an appropriation 
of $100,000 will be requested for the purpose of hard-surfacing 
the roads in the Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, during 
the coming year. Warrenite will be the material used, 
according to present plans. 

By the end of the present year, the government will have 
completed the grading of 40 miles of the roads, leaving 
approximately 25 miles still to be graded. As only $50,000 
was secured for the work this year, it was found to be im- 
possible to complete the grading during the present season. 



State Commissioner of Highways Duffey 
Opposes Consolidation 

One of the amendments considered by the Constitutional 
Convention of New York State, in session at present at 
Albany, N. Y., provides for the consolidation of the State 
Departments of Public Works, Engineering and Highways 
under one head. 

The plan is opposed by State Commissioner of Highways 
Edwin Duffey in a statement to the committee having the 
matter under consideration, the Commissioner holding that 
the work of the Department of Highways is such that it 
should be entirely separate and distinct and should not be 
made a mere bureau of another department. 

Commissioner Duffey called attention to the fact that the 
amount to be expended for new highway construction in the 
state is approximately $40,000,000, the wise expenditure of 
which should take at least four years and possibly longer. 
At the same time, the departinent has charge of the main- 
tenance of existing roads on which approximately $4,000,000 



no 



GOOD ROADS 



August 21, 1915 



» ytu is spent. He suted that when the present construc- 
tion money is expended, the state would have between 8,000 
and 9.000 miles of highway to maintain, on which, it is to be 
expected, the annual maintenance charges will approximate 

$s^ooo.ooa 

In view of the foregoing facts, the Commissioner gave u 
as his opinion that the Department of Highways, both during 
tke period of construction and afterward, when the problem 
will b* largely one of maintenance, is of such size as to 
warrant and require a separate organization. 

Commissioner Duffey pointed out that highway engineer- 
ing is distinctive and, if the public works of the state were 
consolidated under one head, or under one commission, there 
woold. of necessity, be separate departments or bureaus of 
which that dealing with highways would be one of the largest, 
one of the most important and, in all probability, the one 
with the greatest amount of detail. The general head or 
heads could, at best, exercise only supervisory authority, the 
highway engineering would be distinct from other kinds of 
public work and would require an engineering force of its 
own. 

Another consideration mentioned by the Commissioner 
was that of accounting. He pointed out that the depart- 
ment has charge of the expenditure of from $15,000,000 to 
$20,000,000 annually of state, county, citv. villaee and town 
money, all ot which is administered under specral laws pro- 
vided for this special purpose and not adapted to the use 
of any other department, and that the system of accountmg 
in use is one especially devised for the department and not 
suited to any other department. 

For all of these reasons, Commissioner Duflfey is of the 
opi.iion that the Highway Department must be separate from 
all other departments and served by men trained to and 
experienced in this class of work, in order to secure the 
maximum efficiency. 



Paving Aggregating $3,000,000 Contemplated 
in St. Louis, Missouri 

According to the Board of Public Service of St. Louis, Mo., 
owners of property lying west of Jefferson Avenue, will 
be required to expend at least $3,000,000 within the next 
few years in the reconstruction of from 150 to 200 miles of 
paved streets. 

The regulations provide that such matters may be taken 
up by the Board of Public Service of its own motion and 
need not necessarily be initiated by the property owners. 
The latter, however, may be heard when the ordinances 
come up for action by the Board of Aldermen. 

It is stated, however, that the condition of some of the 
streets is such that the Board of Public Service may recom- 
mend their reconstruction regardless of possible protests 
from owners of property. 

Director of Streets Talbert estimates that the city will 
hare to bear probably 50 per cent, of the cost of recon- 
structing approximately 2 per cent, of the streets in the 
section involved. TTie remaining cost will be a charge against 
abutting property. 



Road Work in Hamilton County, 
Tennessee 

At the close of the present fiscal year, Hamilton County, 
Tennessee, of which Chattanooga is the county seat, will 
have completed, or will have well under way toward com- 
pletion, highway work costing over $1,000,000. All of the 
work is in the immediate vicinity of Chattanooga and will 
tend to facilitate traffic to other towns and to the neighbor- 
ing farming territory. 

Up to the first of this month, work representing an expendi- 
ture of $128,000 had been completed and other work com- 



menced or about to be started amounted to $896,000. The 
work already completed at that date included three con- 
tracts on Main Ave., at a cost of ?45,000; repairs to the 
Walnut St. bridge, costing $70,000, and several smaller jobs. 
The work under construction included the following: Market 
St. bridge, $700,000; Wauhatchie Pike, $125,000; Riverside 
Drive, $25,000; Lauderbach to Glass St., $25,000, and McCal- 
lie Ave., $14,000. 



Reinforced Concrete Bridge over Arkansas 
River at Tulsa, Oklahoma 

A reinforced concrete bridge, 1,470 ft. 6 ins. long from end 
to end of abutments, is to be built across the Arkansas 
River, connecting the cities of Tulsa and West Tulsa, Okla., 
as noted briefly in "Good Roads" for -August 7. The County 
Commissioners of Tulsa County will open bids for the work 
on August 26. 

The bridge will be of the open spandrel type, with abut- 
ment approaches of 36 ft. each, and will consist of four spans 
of 80 ft., twelve spans of 77 ft. 6 ins., and two spans of 74 ft. 
3 ins. The work will include 9,800 cu. yds. of concrete and 
270 tons of reinforcing steel, according to the engineer's 
estimates. 

There will be a 30-ft. roadway paved with asphalt or 
creosoted wood blocks, and two 4-ft. sidewalks. The center 
of the roadway will be occupied by a street railway track. 



Paving Plans for Next Year in Baltimore, 
Maryland 

The last $500,000 to the credit of the $5,000,000 paving loan 
in Baltimore, Md., will be appropriated in 1916 and will be 
expended in the southeastern and southwestern sections of 
the city, according to plans announced by R. Keith Comp- 
ton, Chairman of the Baltimore Paving Commission. 

Work in the sections in question has been delayed owing 
to the extension of the city sewerage system. This work, 
it is expected, will be completed by the close of the present 
year, so that paving operations may follow in the spring. 

Surveys are now being made to determine which streets 
shall be put under contract during the winter and a tentative 
list has already been compiled by the Engineering Depart- 
ment of the Paving Commission. 

In addition to the $500,000 to be appropriated from the 
paving fund, it is expected that the paving tax will yield 
approximately $300,000. 



Pennsylvania Highway Commissioner Speaks 
on Toll Roads 

In an address at a meeting held recently at Colunihia, 
Pa., to discuss the freeing of toll roads, State Highway 
Commissioner Cunningham outlined the growth of the toll 
road system in Pennsylvania and told of the growth in senti- 
ment manifested throughout the state against this form of 
exacting money from travelers. He stamped the toll road 
as "an emblem of the dark ages," and asserted that he was 
in full sympathy with efforts being made to have all high- 
ways freed for the use of the traveling public. 

The Commissioner said that in 1911, when the present 
State Highway Department was created, there weTe 717 
miles of toll roads in the state, 521 miles of which were 
on state highway routes. He said that 89 miles had been 
taken over by the State Highway Department and made 
free for the use of the public, but called attention to the 
fact that Lancaster County still had 77 miles of toll roads 
on state highway routes. 

The Commissioner said that preliminary negotiations for 
the purchase of eleven turnpikes throughout the state had 
been begun by the Department. He concluded as follows: 



August 21, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



111 



"The Highway Department has received from the Legis- 
lature sufficient authority to take over all these toll roads 
but, unfortunately, the Legislature did not provide the De- 
partment with sufficient funds to do it as promptly as we 
would desire, and it is for this reason that we ask the co- 
operation in a financial way of all those who are interested 
in this most important matter so that our state may be 
speedily freed from the obnoxious toll road." 



San Antonio, Texas, Has More Than 33 Miles 
of Pavement Completed 

According to a report issued by Street Commissioner Clin- 
ton H. Kearney, of San Antonio, Tex., not quite half of the 
$3,450,000 paving bond issue was expended up to the end of 
July and the city has 33.11 miles of new pavement com- 
pleted. There are also 25.15 miles under contract, some of 
which is already under way. 

The following table shows the mileage completed and 
under contract and the type of paving used: 

Type. Finished. Contract. Total. 

Woodblock 3.87 2.54 6.41 

Brick 7.67 5.38 13.05 

Uvalde rock asphalt 1.94 2.63 4.57 

Bitulithic 5.06 .76 5.82 

Aspbaltic concrete 7.07 4.71 11.78 

Concrete 4.70 4.74 9.44 

Bituminous macadam 30 .34 .64 

Granitoid 2.50 4.05 6.55 

Total 33.11 25.15 58.26 



COMING MEETINGS 



September 13. — Tri-State Roads Association. — Third annual 
convention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. 
Boos, 1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17. — American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — Pan-American Road 
Congress, Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Road Build- 
ers' Association, E. L. Powers, 150 Nassau St., New York, 
N. Y. Executive Secretary, American Highway Associa- 
tion, L S. Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

September 16. — Pacific Highway Association. — Fifth annual 
meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. Bowlby, 
510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

October 4-7. — Northwestern Road Congress. — Annual 
meeting. Cedar Rapids, la. Secy-Treas., J. P. Keenan, 
Sentinel Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12. — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-13 — Alabama Good Roads Association. — 19th 
annual session. Birmingham, Ala. Secretary, J. A. Rountree, 
Birmingham, Ala. 

October 12-14. — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 

November 17-19. — National Municipal League. — Annual 
convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogers Wood- 
ruflF, 705 North American Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

February 15-18, 1916.— National Conference on Concrete 
Road Building. — Second National conference, Chicago, 111. 
Secretary of Advisory Committee, J. P. Beck, 208 South 
Le SoUe Si-, Clikago, III. 



Alabama Good Roads Association 

The Alabama Good Roads Association has accepted the 
invitation of the people of Birmingham, the Jefferson County 
Good Roads Association and the Birmingham Chamber of 
Commerce to hold the 19th annual session in that city on 
October 12 and 13. The meeting will be held during the 
State Fair when low rates will be offered to induce a large 
attendance at the convention. 

An effort will be made to secure some of the most dis- 
tinguished good roads advocates in the United States and 
those interested in national highways to attend the con- 
vention. It is expected that a most interesing program in 
every way will be carried out. 

There are over 50 county and twenty-odd town and dis- 
trict good roads associations in the state. Each association, 
chamber of commerce, farmers' union and other similar or- 
ganizations will be urged to send delegates to the con- 
vention. 



MEETINGS 



The second semi-annual session of the County Superin- 
tendents of Highways from the northern district of Illinois, 
was held recently at Rock Island, 111. Fourteen counties were 
represented. L. B. Neighbor, Superintendent of Lee County, 
President of the organization, addressed the meeting on 
"How to Make the Northwest Division the Leading Divi- 
sion of Illinois." Other addresses were as follows: Alex 
Anderson, Superintendent of Ogle County, "Causes of Ero- 
sion of Gravel and Macadam Roads and Remedy"; H. E. 
Surman, "Amendments of 1914 to the 1913 Road and Bridge 
Law, Their Meaning and Importance to a County Super- 
intendent"; O. G. Hively, Superintendent of Stephenson 
County, "Legal Tax Levies and Suggestions How to Make 
Them Stand in Court When the Railroad Attorney Objects 
for His Company." County Engineer Treichler and Divi- 
sion Engineer Surman led discussions on the subject "Trips 
of Inspection of the Various Types of Roads of Rock Island 
County." 



PERSONAL NOTES 



W. E. Dozier, formerly City Engineer of Temple, Tex., 
has been appointed engineer in charge of the paving at 
Taylor, Tex., where $300,000 is to be expended. 

J. H. Lendi, formerly assistant to A. G. Carlson, Mechanical 
Engineer of the Universal Portland Cement Co., has been 
given the title of Electrical Engineer in the Engineering De- 
partment of that company. 

John N. Carlisle, former State Highway Commissioner of 
New York State, who had been retained in an advisory ca- 
pacity under the administration of State Highway Commis- 
sioner Duffey, has resigned. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



The Tamante Corporation has been organized at Portland, 
Me., to do paving work and to deal in paving materials. The 
concern is capitalized at $10,000, all common stock. Officers 
are President and Treasurer, John H. Stone, Boston, Mass.; 
Clerk, Edward S. Anthonie, Portland, Me. 



112 



GOOD ROADS 



August 21, 191.S 



Th« W»y-CIean$e Co., Sandusky, O., manufacturers of suc- 
tion street cleaners, have issued a unique circular in the 
shape of a photographic print of their machine in action, with 
descriptive reading matter photographed in with the illus- 
trations. The machine is operated by gas-electric power 
and can be arranged as a sweeper, sprinkler or squeegee. 

The Tucker Brick Co. has been formed at Kissimmee, Fla., 
with a capital stock of $100,000 and a limited indebtedness 
of I250,00a The officers are J. Wade Tucker, President and 
Treasurer: E. L. Leslie and W. .\. McCool. Vice Presidents; 
C, A. Carson, Secretary. The concern will manufacture 
paring bricks out of cypress sawdust by a process invented 
by Mr. Tucker. It is said that the bricks are black and are 
made from cypress sawdust and hydroline under a pressure 
of from 50 to 100 tons. 



.4t ■ Hrornt Mrvtinic of <be Brndentotrn, Fla., Board o( Trade, 

Garner A. Blckctt, Division Engineer of the Association of 
American Portland Cement Manufacturers, made an address 
on the subject of concrete roads. 



The County Commlsaionera of WanhlOKton CouRty, O., have 
levied taxes of 0.70 mill for greneriil road purposes and 0.50 
mill for state highway and main market road work. A 114- 
mlll levy for Inter-county and main market road work will be 
submitted to the voters at the fall election. 



The County romnilaalanera of Reno County, Kan., have de- 
cided to levy a tax of 1 mill for county -road purposes during 
the coming year. This will be In addition to the special auto- 
mobile tax which is used for road draggln- and a special 
bridge levy for the construction of two bridges, one at Hutch- 
inson and one at Nlckerson. 



NEWS NOTES 



Tk» G aaJ RoatU CoBMnlaalan of Hnaaphreya County, Tenn,, 

aa awarded the contract for 200 miles of roads. 



T«t**a vf Cireeaw**4. s. C, recently voted In favor of a bond 
Isaue of tlOO.OOO for permanent street paving. 



Th» Baard af 9u|»ervlaora of Bntaiet County, Mich., is con- 
alderlHK a J-mlU asaessment for good roads during the coming 
yaar. 



Aulharitira of Huatavllle, Ala., have awarded a contract 
for the entire paring of city streets at an expenditure of 
tlM.OOO. 



Tha City af Car*aa Chrlatl. Tex,, recently awarded a contract 
for it.OOO sq. yda. of bitulithic paving at a cost of approxi- 
mately t!5S,000. 



Praaklla Cauaty, .tUk, Held aa Eleetton recently at which 
It waa voted to Issue $145,000 worth of bonds for the purpose 
of building pike roads. 



The C^aaty Court of Pranklla Connty, Tenn„ has called an 
election for September 17 for the purpose of voting on a bond 
Isaue of tlSO,000 for pike roads. 



Tfca Prarluce af Kambalea, P. I, Is preparing to open up a 
direct road t>etween Iba and Maslnoc, to replace the present 
coast road between these points. 



Au eieetlaa Will he Held In Tehama County. Cal., on Sep- 
tember X to vote on a proposed bond Issue of $140,000 for the 
construction of three bridges over sloughs east of Red Bluff. 



TW Cttr Cauuell af Lake Village. Ark„ has appointed a 
commission to take charge of the paving In District No. 1 in 
which la Included the main street of the city. M. P. Walker Is 
Chairman of the commission. 



The J(ew Mexlea Branch of the National HIghwaya Asao- 
clatlaa has elected the following officers: President, Col. R. E. 
Twitchell. I^B Vegas, reelected; Secretary. David R. Lane, Al- 
buquerque: Treasurer, John Becker, Jr., Helen. 



Tfce Mate <iaa4 Roada Aaaoclatloa of New Mexico at its re- 
cent session at Aubuquerque, N. M., recommended a bond Issue 
of tS.000.000 for the construction of good roads and for drain- 
ing the basins of the Pecos River and the Rio Grande. 

The KaaHaaka Cauaty Highway Aaaoriatlon was organized 
recently at Warsaw, Ind., with the following officers: Presi- 
dent. W. D. Frazer, Warsaw: Vice-Presidents, John Radcllff, 
Plercton: E. W. Orosso, Silver Lake; Secretary. Treasurer, C E 
Baker. Warsaw. 



Th« mata af Waaklagtam haa under construction over 217 
mllea of highways at a cost exceeding »»00,000, while the coun- 
tlea. under the permanent highways act, are building 207 mllea 
at a cost of tl.lS4.000. according to statistics compiled by State 
Ui«kw«jr eonmtaaloner "WUUam p. Roy 



The Good Roada Board of the Chamber of Commerce. Zaues- 
vUle, O., will ask manufacturers of paving materials to lay 
demonstration strips of pavement at the coming Muskingum 
County Pair. It is planned to make the good roads movement 
a feature of the fair and George F. liudislll, of the Ohio State 
Highway Department, will make several addresses on the sub- 
ject. 



The Gulf Coaat and MInhIhsIppI Hlshnay AMsorintlon has 

been formed in Hattie.sburg, Miss. The officers are as follows: 
President, J. Trigg Wood, Collins; Secretary, M. I^ytle, Gulf- 
port; Vice-Presidents, W. C. Batson, Wiggins; J. O. Rea, Hat- 
tlesburg; T. L. O'Donnell, Sanford; Dr. M. L. Flynt, Mount 
Olive; W. C. Smith, Magee; E. Barwick. Braxton; M. Kelly, 
Jackson; S. M. Jones, Laurel; Sam Abney, Heidelberg; C. S. 
Weems, Shubuta, and A. D. Simpson, Meridian. 



The Rattler Teat for Paving Brick has been omitted from 
the new specifications of the city of St. Louis, Mo., in which 
it Is specified that "all shipments to the work will be exam- 
ined by such method as may be deemed expedient and must be 
equal in quality, shape and dimensions to the specimen brick 
which have been considered satisfactory." The specimen bricks 
considered satisfactory are those selected by the city authori- 
ties from the 100 specimens which the contractor is obliged to 
submit at least a month before beginning work. 



A Concrete Paved Automobile Hacc Track has recently been 
completed at St. Paul, Minn. The track consists of two cir- 
cular arcs, each about 3,000 ft. in length, connected by 800-ft. 
easement spirals and two tangents of about 550 ft. each. The 
track Is 60 ft. wide, except in front of the grandstand where 
the width is increased by 20 ft. The inner edge of the track 
is level around the entire circle, but on the curves the track 
Is banked, the maximum elevation on the outside being 13 ft. 
The elevation Is secured by an earth fill, which was deposited 
In 2-ft. layers, each of which was rolled. The concrete pave- 
ment is 6 ins. In thickness and is reinforced on the outside 
half over the fills. Diagonal expansion joints are provided. 



That no State that has .\i1optpd the State .\ld Principle haa 
Permanently .\bandoncd it is cited as evidence of the efficiency 
of this plan by J. E. Pennybacker, Chief of Road Economics, 
Office of Public Roads and Rural Engineering, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, In a reprint from the Yearbook of the 
Department of Agriculture, which is noted on another page of 
this Issue. After discussing state aid and its application, Mr. 
Pennybacker states in his conclusion: "State road man9,ge- 
ment is a concrete manifestation of the universal demand of 
the age for efficiency and equity in the management of pub- 
lic affairs. Its advocates contend that only by state appropria- 
tions can the burdens of constructing roads of more than 
neighborhood Importance be equitably apportioned; that only 
by reachlnir such adequate sources of revenue as are possessed 
by the state can sufficient funds be obtained to improve the 
roads commensurate with their importance; that only tlirough 
the establishment of a state highway department can the best 
engineering and practical ability be obtained for the benefit 
of the entire state, as by any other plan only the wealthier 
counties could afford to obtain such assistance; that through 
this centralized management correlation of road work through- 
out the state may be obtained and the influence of local poli- 
tics in some degree eliminated or modified; and that standard- 
ization as to methods, cost and administration may t)e greatly 
promoted by such centralized control." 



)13 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Contracting 



Old Series, Vol. XLVIII. 
Kew S«rie«, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, AUGUST 28, 1915 



Number 
9 



Founded January, 1892 

published weekly by 
The is. L. Po^svers Company 



E. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NASSAU STREET 
NEW "ifORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address : Gudrodes, New York. 

Subscription price: I'ifty-two numbers, $2.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
numbers (the tirst issue in each month), $1.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 

Copy tor advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to adver- 
tisers should reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the 
first issue of the month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other 
issues, by noon on Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted— in- 
cluding "Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertise- 
ments — will be accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 

Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co, 
Entered in New York Post Office as .Second Class Matter 



More Street Improvements Planned in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Bids for additional street improvements, to be opened 
on August 31, have been called for by William H. Connell, 
Chief of the Bureau of Highways, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The contemplated improvements will cost about $452,000, 
according to estimates, the largest item being $130,000 for 
asphalt paving. 

The various items on which bids are desired and the esti- 
mated costs are as follows: 

Improvement of Passyunk Avenue, $60,000; asphalt pav- 
ing, $130,000; grading, $43,400; repaving with asphalt, $54,- 
000; repaving with granite block, $52,300; repaving with 
wood block, $31,300; surfacing with water bound macadam, 
$52,800; surfacing with bituminous inacadam, $15,000; resur- 
facing with water bound macadam, $5,000; resurfacing with 
bituminous macadam, penetration, $8,200. 



Movement to Issue $5,000,000 Road Bonds in 
Louisiana 

The Louisiana Good Roads Association is conducting an 
energetic campaign for the construction of a continuous sys- 
tem of highways and will ask the Louisiana Constitutional 
Convention to authorize a bond issue of $5,000,000 for the 
purpose. 

Present plans contemplate the utilization of these funds 
for the construction of three main highways covering the 
following routes: New Orleans to Shreveport, New Orleans 
to Lake Charles and Shreveport to. the Mississippi line at 



Vicksburg, connecting all the important cities and centers 
with the exception of Opelousas and the Florida parishes. 

According to Col. William Polk, of Alexandria, La., Sec- 
retary of the Louisiana Good Roads Association, the de- 
velopment of Louisiana highways will not only enable farm- 
ers to inaugurate a system of diversified agriculture, impos- 
sible under present conditions, but will be of great value in 
aiding the settlement of 21,000,000 acres of vacant land in the 
state. 

Reports from various parts of the state are to the effect 
that the plan of the association has the support of commercial 
organizations and officials in all of the parishes directly af- 
fected. 



Bridgeport, Connecticut, Will Receive New 
Bids for Concrete Bridge 

.\11 bids for the construction of a reinforced concrete 
bridge at Bridgeport, Conn., have been rejected by the 
Stratford Avenue Bridge Commission, which has the mat- 
ter in charge, owing to the fact that they exceeded the engi- 
neer's estimate of $400,000. New bids will be received Sep- 
tember 4. 

Mayor Wilson has announced that the city will confine 
its attention to a bridge of the type designated locally as 
"Plan A," which provides for an operator's house, comfort 
stations and a landing float. Contractors may bid separate- 
ly on the movable span and on the superstructure and ap- 
proaches. 



Plans for a Large Amount of Paving in 
Berkeley, California 

The City Council of Berkeley, Cal., recently passed a reso- 
lution introduced by Councilman Robson, which contem- 
plates permanent street improvements at a cost of approx- 
imately $750,000. 

The chief features of the program are the paving of San 
Pablo Ave., from the Oakland to the Albany line, a dis- 
tance of about 13,000 ft., and the paving of all unpaved 
streets in the large district bounded by College Ave., Shat- 
tuck St., Dwight Way and AUston Way. 

None of the proposed work will be started until after 
the winter rains, but it is understood that the present pro- 
.gram is only a part of a comprehensive plan for permanent 
street improvement covering the entire city. 

In order to minimize damage to existing and future pave- 
ments, the City Council is considering an ordinance pro- 
hibiting the use of streets to vehicles with tires having metal 
protuberances of more than, one-quarter inch, limiting the 
weight of loads which may be carried over streets paved 
with various designated materials and prohibiting the mov- 
ing of loads ih excess of IS tons, including the weight of the 
vehicle, except under special permit from the Superintendent 
of Streets, who is given authority to exact a cash bond to 
defray the expense of possible repairs to pavements. 



114 



GOOD ROADS 



August 28, 1915 



* The Governor of Iowa Appoints Board to 
Investigate Road Matters 

Governor Clarke of Iowa has appointed a commission of 
•even members to make a complete investigation of road 
outters in the state and to work out a plan whereby the 
•Ute may linancc and build a complete system of roads. 

The commission, which will prepare its report for sub- 
mission to the Legislature of 1917, consists of the following 
members: D. \V. Norris, Marshalltown, Chairman; John 
W. Foster, Guthrie Center; E, T. Meredith, Des Moines; 
James M. Brockway, Letts: J. C. Davis, Des Moines; Charles 
E. Cameron, Albia. and Edward F. Rose, Shenandoah. 

A movement is also on foot to call a special session of 
the Legislature for the purpose of providing a bond issue 
for the construction of about 2,000 miles of roads at an 
average estimated cost of approximately $10,000 a mile. 

This movement has the backing of the Greater Iowa 
Association, of which Woodworth Clum, of Clinton, la., is 
Secretary. The association, according to reports, is anxious 
that actual work on the new roads shall begin not later 
than May. 1916. 



An Inspection of New York State Roads 
by Canadian Officials 

A party of about 50 persons, among them a member of 
the Ontario, Canada, Parliament, the Mayor of Ottawa, 
Canada, and a number of members of the Ottawa City Coun- 
cil, recently made a tour of inspection of portions of the 
New York State highways, under the auspices of the Pres- 
cott-Ottawa Highway League and the Ottawa Valley Motor 
Association. 

The party traveled by automobile and ferry to Ogdensburg, 
N. Y., where the members were met by a reception com- 
mittee and, after an inspection of the Morristown state road, 
were entertained at luncheon. 

On the following day an inspection was made of the roads 
in the vicinity of Malone, N. Y., the party traveling from 
Ogdensburg by way of Canton and Potsdam, N. Y., and re- 
turning home the day after. 

As a result of the trip, the opposition to a proposed road 
from Prescott to Ottawa is said to have been practically 
removed. It is proposed to build a modern highway and 
divide the cost between the Ontario government, the City 
of Ottawa and the municipalities through which the road 
would pass. 



Changes in Virginia Road Laws to be Asked 
of Next Legislature 

State Highway Commissioner Coleman, of Virginia, is 
preparing to ask the next General Assembly to make several 
changes in the existing sUte highway laws, and a bill is 
being prepared with that end in view. 

The recommendations of the State Highway Commissioner, 
on which the bill is being based, involve the creation of a 
fund to be used solely for the maintenance of roads already 
constructed and the establishment of a division of the State 
Highway Commission, the entire attention of which shall be 
devoted to the proper expenditure of this fund. 

It is sugested that the fund be created by transferring to 
the Sute Highway Commission exclusively, the state auto- 
mobile tax. It is estimated that this tax will amount to 
1140.000 this year and it is believed that the increase in the 
tax will keep pace with the construction of new roads by 
convicts. 

The present Uw provides that counties receiving a share 
of the automobile funds shall pay an amount equal to that 



expended by the state for road and bridge construction, but 
no provision is made for maintenance. 

The appropriations made by the Legislature for road pur- 
poses for 1915-1916 were as follows: For maintenance of 
convict road forces, $145,000; state money aid, direct ap- 
propriation, $185,000; automobile tax for 1914, $116,000; for 
engineering supervision and office expenses, $26,500; total 
from all sources, $472,500. 



Analysis of the Rock Asphalt in the 
Philippine Islands 

Chemical analysis of the deposit of rock asphalt discovered 
by the Division of Mines, Bureau of Science, in Leyte Prov- 
ince, P. I., mention of which has been made in previous issues 
of "Good Roads," has justified the hope that the material 
would prove suitable for paving purposes, according to a 
correspondent of the Department of Commerce. 

Samples of the poorer rock, according to the analysis, con- 
tain 6 per cent, of bitumen, while the average rock contains 
from 7 to 9 per cent, and the rich portions near the base of 
the deposit contain as much as 62 per cent. The analysis 
shows further, that the bitumen consists largely of asphaltene 
and that the proportion of paraffin, an undesirable constituent 
in asphalt for paving, is less than one-half of 1 per cent, of 
the total bitumen. 

It is probable that an experimental stretch of road will be 
paved with the Leyte rock asphalt upon which observations 
can be made to determine absolutely the suitability of the 
material for paving purposes. The material appears, ac- 
cording to the analysis, to be very similar in character to 
rock asphalts which have been used in the United States and 
Europe. 



Convicts Doing Road Work Under New Law 
in California 

Under the new California law, which went into effect 
August 7, permitting the employment of convicts on state 
road work, 180 men were recently sent from San Quentin 
Prison to Mendocino County. 

These men will build sections of the new state highway 
and, by their selection for the work, become members of the 
so-called "honor system gang," which entitles them to cer- 
tain privileges. 

In addition to other localities which are utilizing convict 
labor on roads, as noted in "Good Roads" from time to 
time, Richland County, S. C, has a force of 100 prisoners 
at work. These men are divided into four large squads and 
one small emergency gang. The large squads are quartered 
at definite locations, while the small gang is used in making 
repairs and is transferred from place to place as occasion 
requires. 

In this connection it may be stated that A. H. Votaw, Sec- 
retary of the Pennsylvania Prison Society, has suggested 
that convicts be employed on road work in that state, there 
being a law permitting the State Highway Department, or 
county, township or municipal officers to request the warden 
of any jail to detail for work on the public roads such con- 
victs as may volunteer for the work. 



The County CommlHHionem of Thomaw County, Ga., have 
decided to secure the services of an experienced road en- 
gineer. 



The State HlKhway Department of MiohiKan Is planning to 
expend about $800,000 for the construction of a number of 
bridges. 



The Attorney General of Texas has approved the bond is- 
sue of 1200,000 recently voted in Road District No. 6 of Col- 
lins County, Tex. 



August 28, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



115 




September 13. — Tri-State Roads Association. — Third annual 
convention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. 
Boos, 1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17. — American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — Pan-American Road 
Congress. Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Road Build- 
ers' Association, E. L. Powers, ISO Nassau St., New York, 
N. Y. Executive Secretary, American Highway Associa- 
tion, I. S. Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

September 16. — Pacific Highway Association. — Fifth annual 
meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. Bowlby, 
510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

October 4-7. — Northwestern Road Congress. — Annual 
meeting, Cedar Rapids, la. Secy-Treas., J. P. Keenan, 
Sentinel Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12. — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-13 — Alabama Good Roads Association. — 19th 
annual session. Birmingham, Ala. Secretary, J. A. Rountree, 
Birmingham, Ala. 

October 12-14. — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 

October 14-16 — Southern Appalachian Good Roads Asso- 
ciation — Annual convention, Bluefield, W. Va. Secretary, 
Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Raleigh, N. C. 

November 17-19. — National Municipal League. — Annual 
convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogers Wood- 
ruff, 70S North American Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

February 15-18, 1916. — National Conference on Concrete 
Road Building. — Second National conference, Chicago, 111. 
Secretary of Advisory Committee, J. P. Beck, 208 South 
La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 



Pan-American Road Congress 

As has been announced, the special train, bearing delegates 
to the Pan-American Road Congress, which will be held at 
Oakland, Cal., September 13 to 17, will leave Chicago Sep- 
tember 2, arriving at Oakland September 12. Several cities 
on or near the route of the train, but which are not scheduled 
for sight-seeing stops, have sent invitations and requests to 
be included in the itinerary and promising a most cordial 
welcome. At most of the points where stops will be made, 
committees of leading citizens are being organized to arrange 
for the entertainment of visitors. 

Following is a list of the delegates appointed up to the 
present time, by the Governors of the various states: 

ARIZONA— T. G. Norris, Prescott; Col. Dell M. Potter, 
Clifton; L. L. Henry, Globe; O. O. Hammell, Douglas; Gus- 
tave Becker, Springerville. 

ARKANSAS— Hon. W. B. Owen, Little Rock; Hon. A. S. 
Kilgorc, Little Rock; Hon. Thos. Burress, Little Rock. 

IDAHO— E. A. Van Sicklin, Weiser; W. A. Brodhead, 
Hailey; George R. Barker, Boise; Chas. P. Murphy, Sagle; 
R. S. Frazer, Jerome; S. E. Burnham, Boise; A. E. Frost, 
Star; J. W. Edgerton, Soldier; Walter Guile, St. Marys; A. 
Largilliere, Soda Springs. 



KANSAS— J. I. Wolfe, Burlington; J. Frank Smith, Pieas- 
anton; P. H. Albright, Winfield; C. F. Osborn, Howard; G. 
J. Hinshaw, Kansas City; A. Q. Miller, Belleville; T. W. 
Whiting, Council Grove; J. H. Edwards, Sedan; Jasper T. 
Kincaid, Olathe; T. H. McManus, Newton; E. R. Moses, 
Great Bend; J. M. Thralls, Wellington; E. E. Frizell, Larned; 
W. J. Krehbiel, McPherson; E. R. Thorpe, Lakin; Prof. W. 
S. Gearhart, Manhattan; H. W. McAfee, Topeka; J. Q. Adams, 
Stockton; A. W. Shulthis, Independence; Geo. W. Stans- 
field, Topeka. 

KENTUCKY— Robert C. Terrell, Frankfort; M. C. Swin- 
ford, Cynthiana; Judge John H. Wade, Ashland; Judge S. 

A. Young, Henderson; Harry Sommers, Elizabethtown; Judge 
James M. Lang, Paducah; Judge W. R. Shackelford, Rich- 
mond; June Baxter, Richmond; John M. Stevenson, Winches- 
ter; Judge Walter Cleary, Covington. 

LOUISIANA— Dr. N. P. Moss, Lafayette; Hon. J. P. 
Colomb, Lafayette; Hon. B. J. Domergue, Covington; Hon. 
Sebastian Roy, Poydras; Hon. O. S. Livaudais, New Orleans; 
Hon. P. M. Milner, New Orleans; Hon. Jos. Schwartz, New 
Orleans; Hon. James Jumonville, Hammond; Hon. John To- 
. bin. New Orleans; Hon. W. H. Hodges, Elm Grove; Hon. 
T. M. McDade, McDade; Hon. T. S. Serpel, Homer; Hon. 
Irwin L. Bourgeois, New Orleans; Senator T. L. Dowling, 
Grand Cane; Hon. P. M. Atkins, Monroe; Hon. L. M. Wade, 
Alexandria; Hon. W. L. Maxwell, Mounds; Hon. A. D. Al- 
derson, Alexandria; Hon. N. C. Williamson, Milliken; Hon. 
S. J. Heard, Ruston; Hon. T. S. Shields, Baton Rouge; Hon. 
L. T. Gilmer, New Orleans. 

MASSACHUSETTS— Col. Wm. D. Sohier, Chairman, Mas- 
sachusetts Highway Commission, Boston; James W. Synan, 
Pittsfield. 

MICHIGAN — Frank F. Rogers, State Highvvay Commis- 
sioner, Lansing; P. T. Colgrove, Hastings; Frank Hamilton, 
Traverse City; Wm. H. Anderson, Grand Ri-pids; Dallas 
Boudeman, Kalamazoo; N. P. Hull, Dimondale; A. A. Ander- 
son, Hastings; J. Edward Roe, Lansing; D. H. Day, Glen 
Haven; A. S. W^hite, Grand Rapids; E. R. Harris, Ellsworth; 

B. R. Hendel, Manistee; John I. Gibson, Grand Rapids; James 
R. Snody, Onaway; George Hartingh, Pinconning; Marius 
Hanson, Grayling; T. F. Marston, Bay City; Thornton A. 
Green, Ontonagon; Patrick Flanagan, Sagola; A. T. Roberts, 
Marquette; H. W. Reade, Escanaba; J. T. McNamara, Hough- 
ton; C. W. Mott, Menominee; C. W. Prescott, Tawas City; 
H. A. Chamberlain, Standish; C. C. Rosenbury, Bay City; 
H. K. Gustin, Alpena; Dr. William DeKleine, Grand Haven; 
Richard M. Hoffman, Manistee; Dr. C. P. Brown, Grand 
Haven; G. H. Haggerson, Menominee; James Couzens, De- 
troit; John C. Ketchum, Hastings. 

MINNESOTA— F. B. Lynch, St. Paul; C. I. McNair, Clo- 
quet; C. M. Babcock, Elk River; George W. Cooley, Engineer, 
State Highway Commission, St. Paul; R. C. Dunn, Princeton; 

C. W. Bouck, Royalton; John H. Hohmann, Mankato. 
NEBRASKA— Hon. D. S. Dalbey, Beatrice; Hon. Scott 

Reynolds, North Platte; Hon. Wm. G. J. Dau, Hooper; Hon. 
F. M. Broome, Alliance; Hon. A. M. Chambers, Walthill; Hon. 
Crist Anderson, Bristow; Hon. Thos. C. Hornby, Valentine; 
Hon. Henry Korff, Hartington; Hon. A. N. Dafoe, Tecum- 
seh; Hon. Walter Cattle, Seward; Hon. Fred Alexander, 
Scottsbluff; Hon. John Franklin, Barker; Hon. Henry M. Lan- 
caster, Lyons. 

NEW YORK— Henry A. Van Alstyne, Albany; W. Pierre- 
pont White, Utica; J. Y. McClintock, Rochester; George W. 
Tillson. Brooklyn; Edward A. Bond, Albany. 

SOUTH DAKOTA— E. C. Issenhuth, Redfield; Ben. M. 
Wood, Rapid City; N. O. Monserud, Sioux Falls; Frank M. 
Rood, Pierre. 

TEXAS — Senator Lon A. Smith, Henderson. 

The following delegates have been appointed by the Amer- 
ican Association of State Highway Officials: W. D. Sohier, 
Chairman, State Highway Commission, Boston, Mass.; G. P. 



116 



GOOD ROADS 



August 28, 1915 



Coieoum, Sute Highway Commission, Richmond, Va.; W. S. 
KcHer. State Highway Engineer, Montgomery, Ala.; Sidney 
Suggs, Commissioner. State Department of Highways, Okla- 
homa City. Okla.; A. R. Hirst, State Highway Engineer, 
Madison. Wis.; D. D. Price, State Highway Engineer, Lincoln, 
Neb.; W. R. Roy, State Highway Commissioner, Olympia, 
Wash.; \V. S. Gearhart, State Engineer, Manhattan, Kansas. 



Southern Appalachian Good Roads Association 

The annual convention of the Southern Appalachian Good 
Roads Association will be held at Bluefield, W. Va., on 
October 14. IS and 16. Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Secretary 
of the North Carolina State Highway Commission, Raleigh, 
N. C. is Secretary of the association. 

The following states are interested in the association: 
West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, AUbama, Tennessee and Kentucky. All are ex- 
pected to be represented at the convention. 



PERSONAL NOTES 



L. N. Hintgen has been appointed Acting Assistant City 
Engineer of Sionx City, la. 

G. E. Byars, former City Engineer of Waco, Tex., has 
been appointed Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds 
of the Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College. 

R. L. Sanders has been appointed Resident Engineer on 
the staff of the Illinois State Highway Commission. He 
was formerly associated with the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, assisting Prof. A. N. Talbot, of Champaign, 111., 
in the determination of railroad track stresses. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



C H. Martin, Springfield, Mass., has issued a booklet, de- 
scriptive of Martin's rocking fifth wheel for use with semi- 
trailers attached to motor-driven chasses. 

The Good Roads Construction Co. has been organized at 
Galveston, Tex., with a capital stock of $15,000. The in- 
corporators are Samuel Fridner, J. H. Hawley and David S. 
Fridncr. 

The Koehring Machine Co., Milwaukee, Wis., has just is- 
sued quite an elaborate folder which is devoted to descrip- 
tions of the various types of concrete mixers and pavers 
which are included in the company's line. The folder is 
printed in colors on fine paper and is illustrated with num- 
erous half-tone reproductions of the different machines. 

The Austin-Western Road Machinery Co., Chicago, was 
awarded the grand prize for its collective exhibit at the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition. In addition a medal of honor 
was awarded to the Austin and Western elevating graders, 
the Austin gyratory crushers, the Austin motor rollers, 
Austin street sprinklers and sweepers, Austin combined 
sprinkler and sweeper. The gold medal was awarded to 
the Austin dump cars, jaw crushers, ditching machines, road 
graders, plows, reversible horse rollers, street oilers and 
BOtor lawn mowers, making a total of 16 prizes. 



NEWS NOTES 



The County Court of Mnury County, Tenn., has decided to 
purchase the Sowell Mill and Culleoka Pikes for J5,000 and 
J4,000 respectively. 



Reports from Houaton, Tex., state that the paved roads of 
Harris County were damaged to the extent of about tlOO.OOO 
by heavy rains recently. 



The County CommlHslonera' Court o( Brazos County, Tex., 

recently sold $400,000 worth of bonds, the proceeds of which 
will be used for road construction. 



The Authorities of Hamilton, O., will receive bids Sept. 13 
for the proposed 730-ft. Columbia bridge. According to esti- 
mates the bridge will cost |120,000. 



The City Council of Sumter, S. C, has ordered an election 
for Sept. 7 on the question of issuing $225,000 in bonds for 
street improvements. 



The Pennsylvania State AVater Supply CommlSNion has ap- 
proved 90 applications for bridges over water courses in vari- 
ous parts of the state. 



Mayor Kiel of St. Louis, Mo., has approved an ordinance au- 
thorizing the construction of the Chouteau Ave. viaduct at an 
estimated cost of $200,000. 



County Superintendent of HiKhnrays G. A. Qnlnlan of Cooke 
County, III., will begin surveys this fall for 41 miles of new 
roads on which it Is planned to commence work next season. 



The County Commissioners of Putnam County, Fla., have 
designated Sept. 14 as the date for a special election in the 
Palatka District on the question of issuing $208,000 in bonds 
for brick paving. 



County Surveyor W. 1.. Bender of Stark County, 0„ stated, 
according to report, that road contractors at work in the 
county have lost between $35,000 and $40,000 this season on 
account of wet weather. 



A Committee Has Been Appointed, composed of residents of 
Princess Anne and Norfolk Counties and the City of Norfolk, 
Va., to agree upon an amount to be paid for such toll roads 
as lie within the Jurisdictions named. 



Miami County, Fla., Property Owners have petitioned the 
City Council for 391 blocks of new pavement. Permanent pave- 
ments are asked for, however, on only 54 blocks, the remain- 
der being sand and oil, according to present plans. 



The City Council of Paragould, Ark., has been asked to 
create a new paving district embracing about 10,000 sq. yds. 
of paving. The city has Just completed the laying of bitu- 
lithlc pavement on more than five miles of streets at a cost 
of $128,000. 



Road Building In Sullivan County, Tenn., which has been 
held up for a year or more, owing to litigation over a $100,- 
000 bond issue, will be resumed at once, according to reports, 
the contest having been abandoned under a new legislative 
enactment. 



The Board of Supervisors and County Road Commissioners of 
St. Clair County, Mich., will submit the question of Issuing 
bonds for $500,000 for the construction of roads to the voters 
of the county at an eltctlon to be held at a date yet to be 
decided upon. 



Governor Rye of Tennessee has sent Invitations to all coun- 
ty officials of the states through which the proposed Jackson 
Highway from Chicago to New Orleans is to run, to attend 
a Jackson Highway convention at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 23 
and 24, during the Tennessee State Fair. 



The City EnKlneer of Richmond, Va., Is preparing plans for 
a steel bridge to cost approximately $250,000, to span Grace 
St., from Taylor's Hill to the Memorial Hospital. The bridge 
will be for the accommodation of pedestrians and vehicles, 
not including trolley or steam cars. 



//; 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Contracting 



Old Series, Vol. XLVIII. 
New Series, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 4, 1915 



Number 

11) 



Pounded Januaiy, 1892. 

published weekly by 
The E. L. Povs^ers Company 



E. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NA.SSA.TJ STREET 
NEJW YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address: Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price: Fifty-two numbers, $2.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
numbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 ayear in the United States, Mexico, 
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Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to advertisers 
should reach the New York office as follows: Forinsertion in the first issue of the 
month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other issues, by noon on 
Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted — including 
"Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertisements — will be 
accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 

Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co. 
Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Matter 



CONTENTS 

EDITORIALS: Page 

The Pan-American Road Congress 117 

Provision for Through Routes In City and Village 

Street Plans 118 

An Unusual Opportunity to Study Highway Work.... 118 

LEADING ARTICLES: 

California State Highways. By A. B. Fletcher. (Illus- 
trated) 119 

The City of Oakland, California, and Its Street Work. 
By W. H. .Jordan. (Illustrated.) 127 

San Francisco, the Exposition City. (Illustrated.) 133 

The Pan-American Road Congress and the Organiza- 
tions Under the Auspices of Which It Will Be Held. 
(Illustrated.) 147 

The Road and Street Exhibits at the Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition. (Illustrated.) 154 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Relaying Street Railway Tracks in an Old Granite 
Block Pavement in Worcester, Massachusetts. (Il- 
lustrated.) 140 

Road Improvement in Multnomah County, Oregon. (Il- 
lustrated.) 141 

Road and Street Work in the City of Panama. By H. 

W. Durham. (Illustrated.) 144 

Resolutions Favoring the Employment of North Caro- 
lina Convicts on the Public Roads 153 

The Term of Bonds for Road and Street Improvement.. 153 

The Institute of Paving Brick Manufacturers 159 

The Puente Cabrillo at San Diego, California. (Illus- 
trated.) 159 

The Use of Hydrated Lime in Concrete Roads. By L. 

N. Whitcraft 160 

The Production of Natural Asphalt During 1914 161 

Increased Curb Radii at Street Intersections. (Illus- 
trated.) 161 

Bituminous Paving Brick. (Illustrated.) 162 

Route Map of Maryland 162 

A. R. B. A. PAGE 163 

NEW PUBLICATIONS 164 

REPORTS 164 

COMING MEETINGS 165 

MEETING 165 

NEWS OF THE TRADE 165 

RECENT PATENTS 166 



THE PAN AMERICAN ROAD CONGRESS 

Within a little more than a week after this issue of "Good 
Roads" is in the hands of its readers, there will assemble at 
Oakland, California, a road congress unique in the annals 
of such gatherings. For the first time in their histories the 
two road organizations ranking first in irnporlance on this 
continent, in their respective fields, will unite in the holding 
of a national meeting. The result will be remarked with 
more than passing interest by all who are identified with 
eitlier organization and by road builders in general in the 
United States and Canada. 

The aims and objects, the records, and, to some extent, 
the personnel, of the American Road Builders' Association 
and the American Highway Association are well known to 
many of our readers. Both organizations have for their 
ultimate object the betterment of the country's roads. The 
American Highway Association has exerted its influence 
largely in the spread of the good roads propaganda, so- 
called, the advocacy of better and more nearly uniform laws 
in the several states and the extension of the state aid 
principle. The American Road Builders' Association, on the 
other hand, has confined itself to the practical problems of 
road building, to the questions which must be answered 
by the road builder in his work, whether it be in the ad- 
ministration, financing, construction or maintenance of 
country roads or city streets. These lines of action are 
sufficiently divergent so that, if adhered to, there need be no 
conflict of interests between the two organizations, nor any 
cause for serious difference of opinion between those in 
charge of their affairs. 

Once before the A. R. B. A. and the A. H. A. made a 
serious attempt to hold a joint convention. That was three 
years ago, and the effort was not successful. Those who 
have followed events in the road building field during the 
past few years will recall the circumstances; the record can 
not be reviewed here. It will be remembered that when 
holding its first convention the A. H. A. so far departed 
from its avowed purposes as to devote a part of its time 
to the consideration of construction and maintenance prob- 
lems. It will also be remembered that after the failure of 
the negotiations looking toward a joint convention in 1912, 
the A. PI. A. made this feature still more prominent in its 
subsequent conventions and, in addition, held exhibitions of 
road building machinery and materials in conjunction with 
its meetings, a plan which was first put into effect on a large 
scale by the A. R. B. A. 

Readers of "Good Roads" will recall that following the 
abandonment of the joint convention plan three years ago 
we criticised adversely the attempt of the American High- 
way Association to combine in one meeting both the popular 
and the technical sides of the so-called "good roads move- 
ment." We held that this could not be done and at the 
same time do full justice to either side. While we are still 
of that opinion we are most willing to indorse the work of 
the Executive Committee of the Pan-American Road Con- 
gress in arranging a meeting under the joint auspices of 
the two organizations. 



118 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



Tkoogh this may seem inconsistent at first, a careful 
consideration of the conditions wilt dispel that idea. In the 
first place, the factors determining the place of meeting are 
nnasual. It was foreseen that the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Ejtposition would bring to the Pacific Coast thous- 
ands of people, among whom would necessarily be many 
interested in roads, either as builders or users. This prac- 
tically insured a large attendance. In addition, it was 
known that the International Engineering Congress would 
attract many engineers interested in road and paving work, 
and further, that the meetings of western road associations 
would also bring to San Francisco many road builders and 
others interested in roads. The likelihood of the two 
organizations meeting in or near the same city at about the 
same time naturally suggested the advisability of a joint 
meeting, for while either one alone could doubtless hold 
a successful convention, by combining forces they could 
reasonably hope for a larger success and a very material 
reduction of the expense each would have to bear. 

Another thing that impels us to express our approval of 
the plan is the character of the program which has been 
prepared. Although well balanced as regards the various 
different phases of the road question, it indicates that most 
of the time available for deliberation is to be devoted to the 
practical, technical questions that confront road builders — 
using that term in its broadest sense to include all those 
concerned with the construction and maintenance of roads 
and streets, as officials, engineers or contractors. This, it 
seems to us, is as it should be, for the consideration of how 
to finance and administer road work and of how to build 
and maintain roads and streets is of far greater importance 
at the present time than is the discussion of those matters 
which generally occupy the time of popular good roads 
meetings. 



PROVISION FOR THROUGH ROUTES IN CITY AND 
VILLAGE STREET PLANS 

Consideration of the problems thrust upon road builders 
and road officials by the growth of automobile traffic is 
generally confined to methods of constructing and main- 
Uining roadways to carry motor-driven traffic, to means 
for putting upon such traffic its just proportion of the cost 
of highway work, or to providing for the safety of automo- 
bilists and other users of the roads and streets. In con- 
nection with each one of these there are certain problems 
to the solution of which much careful study has been and 
must yet be devoted. Another matter which is closely 
related to the three mentioned, but at the same time is not 
wholly included in any of them, is the effect of motor vehicle 
traffic upon the layout of city and village street systems. 

When practically all traffic was horse-drawn, there was 
Tcry little travel passing through towns. Traffic— other than 
local traffic— was to a central point or points and out again, 
using various routes into and out of the central portion of the 
city or village. This traffic moved slowly and was not heavy 
except on certain days of the week and in certain seasons 
of the year. Present conditions are altogether diflferent. 
While considerable traffic still comes into a town from the 
tnrrounding area, there is, in many places, an additional 
large amount of travel through the town. This traffic .is 
very largely made up of motor-driven vehicles, many of 
which are operated at comparatively high speeds. Most of 
it uses one route, entering the city or village on one side 
and leaving it on the other. It is frequently the cause of 
congestion and sometimes a source of danger. 

The route ordinarily followed by traffic passing through a 
typical city passes first through a residential section not in- 
frequently one of the better of such districts, then through 
a district of relatively small business and then through the 
central business section of the place. Leaving the town, 
the route leads through similar sections, in reverse order. For 



some reasons such a route is objectionable. As pointed out 
in the preceding paragraph, it adds to the traffic congestion 
and is more or less dangerous to other vehicular traffic and 
to pedestrians. Its addition to the already heavy local traffic 
in the center of the city is not only undesirable, but gen- 
erally unnecessary and easily avoidable. Unless he is passing 
through the town for the first time, the motorist probably 
does not care to go through the shopping or business dis- 
trict; indeed, he would prefer a route avoiding the run through 
the crowded streets with the atendant retarding of his prog- 
ress and the more difficult driving. He takes the course 
he does, because, as a rule, it affords the better roads and 
the roads he knows best. 

In view of these facts, would not officials and engineers 
better serve their city and the automobilists by so planning 
and improving their street system as to provide a route form- 
ing a detour around the more congested districts? Such a 
route, carefully selected, improved with especial reference 
to the requirements of motor traffic and plainly and con- 
spicuously marked, would do much to improve traffic con- 
ditions in the city and facilitate the movement of through 
motor traffic. 



AN UNUSUAL OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY HIGHWAY 

WORK 

At various times in the past these pages have been used 
to point out the different ways in which engineers can profit 
by attending road conventions. 

What has previously been said of the annual gatherings 
of the American Road Builders' Association is, to a large 
extent, applicable to the coming congress under the joint 
auspices of that organization and the American Highway 
.Association. As at Chicago, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, 
Rochester and other meeting places of the A. R. B. A., the 
papers presented at the Oakland congress will cover thor- 
oughly the administration, construction and maintenance of 
country roads and city streets, and will be prepared by men 
who lead in their respective lines of work. The road builder 
will be able to meet and talk with men engaged in the same 
work that occupies his time just as he has been enabled to 
do at previous conventions. Perhaps the opportunities for 
this will be even greater, for there may be a larger at- 
tendance. 

Besides these opportunities — which have made previous 
conventions of such great value— most unusual opportunities 
for first-hand study of highway work will be afforded the 
road builders able to make the trip to the Coast. The first 
three articles in this issue indicate some of the interesting 
and instructive features of state road work in California 
and city work in Oakland and San Francisco. Anyone who 
goes to the congress can readily make more or less extensive 
observation on these. Moreover, the trip across the con- 
tinent will enable those who do desire to see a variety of 
road work probably very unlike that with which they are 
familiar. 

Another matter that should not be overlooked is the ex- 
cellent chance to acquire an understanding of the point of 
view of the people of the West. There may come a time 
when the problem of road betterment will have to be given 
serious consideration as a national question. When that 
time comes, if it does come, the solution of the problem 
will be facilitated by a thorough comprehension of how the 
matter is viewed by the people of different sections of the 
country. 



The OfflclnlH of WaKhlnston County, IHlKiilsDippi, are col- 
lecting data on which to base a proposition to issue bonds 
for the construction of 100 miles of permanent roads. 

The Anthoritlen of Clark Conntr, Kentneky. are conslder- 
Insr an Increase In the tax rate to provide for the amortiza- 
tion of road bonds and the payment of Interest on new Issues. 



California State Highways 

By AUSTIN B.FLETCHER 

Highway Engineer of the California Highway Commission 




A STATE HIGHWAY IN SAN DIEGO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA— BITUMINOUS WEARING SURFACE ON A CONCRETE FOUN 

DATION— PAVEMENT OVER FIVE YEARS OLD. 



It must be confessed that in the planning and building 
of the state highways of California many liberties have 
been taken with the climate. California has all the good 
varieties of climate and no bad, but because of the lofty 
heights reached in some parts of the state it is not possible 
to grow oranges everywhere; and neither will it be possible 
to build the thin road everywhere. It must be remembered, 
therefore, when the thin concrete roads of California are 
referred to, that they are mostly in the valleys and in no 
place at an elevation in excess of 5,000 feet above sea level. 
Frost action is practically a negligible factor in California 
so far as the roads are concerned until an elevation nearly 
a mile above the sea is reached. 

No rigid standard of pavement was adopted by those in 
charge of the work and an attempt has been made to have 
the pavement fit the traffic needs, both as to width and type. 
South of San Francisco, and at other places where the 
traffic is very heavy, the pavements have been laid to a width 
as great as 24 ft. and in such cases the concrete base is from 
S to 6 ins. thick with an asphaltic surface 1% ins. in thick- 
ness — practically a city pavement. In most localities, how- 
ever, where the traffic is moderate in volume — say not more 
than 500 vehicles per day, at least one-half the vehicles 
being business or pleasure motors with a fair sprinkling of 
wagons carrying from 5 to 8 tons of produce — the concrete 
base with the bituminous top from J4 to 5^ in. thick is being 
constructed, and this kind of pavement, with some reason, 
has been called the "standard type" of the California state 
highways. Under such conditions, the width of the concrete 
is usually 15 ft., gravel or stone shoulders being constructed 
to increase the width of the traveled way. In general, where 
the subgrade is firm and hard and likely to stay so, or where 
the subgrade can be made to conform to such requirements, 
the concrete base is little more than 4 ins. in thickness. This 
plan appears to be logical in that if the traffic increases in the 
future so as to require a more substantial surface, it will be 
easily possible to cover the base with sheet asphalt, Warren- 
ite, paving brick, wood blocks, or any other type of wearing 
surface which may be developed. 



After nearly three years' experience with the thin bitum- 
inous surface, which will be described at more length here- 
inafter, its severest critics must admit its success under Cal- 
ifornia conditions. It does not peel ofl when properly 
applied; it will last usually not less than four years with but 
small expense for minor repairs, and it can be applied orig- 
inally for less than 1 ct. per sq. ft. and renewed when worn 
so as to require renewal for less than 0.5 ct. per sq. ft. 

The reported lack of success with the thin coatings in the 
East is probably largely due to neglect in cleaning the con- 
crete, or perhaps a too early application of the oil and 
screenings before the "scum" or laitance has been allowed to 
wear off from the surface of the concrete. Perhaps the lack 
of an asphaltic oil of the excellent California variety has had 
something to do with the troubles there. 

The earliest work of this sort on the California state high- 
ways was done near Fresno about thirty-three months ago. 
There is hardly any wear appreciable at this time on this 
surfacing and there is every indication now that the bitumin- 
ous covering, in that locality at least, will fiave a life of more 
than four years with little or no expense for repairs. 

The California road work being different in many ways to 
that done in other localities, it may be well to describe some 
of the essential features briefly. 

Subgrade. — The minimum thickness of 4 ins. of concrete 
has been found ample wherever the subgrade is of soil that 
can be rolled into a hard, dense, firm foundation. The fol- 
lowing specifications cover the preparation of the subgrade: 

Before the pavement or shoulder material is placed the road- 
bed shall be graded to a true cross section conforming to the 
grades given by the Engineer and the section called for on 
the plan. 

It shall be thoroughly watered and rolled until the surface 
is smooth and unyielding. 

Depressions shall be filled with fresh material and the water- 
ing and rolling continued as before. 

Where a uniform and unyielding surface cannot be otherwise 
obtained, the surface shall be cultivated and again puddled 
with water and rolled until a true foundation is secured. 

No surfacing shall be applied until the subgrade Is In con- 
dition acceptable to the Engineer. 



120 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 




8ANTA CL^RA RIVKR BKIUGE. VENTURA COUNTY, CALIFOltNIA- 

STATE HIGHWAY. 



-TYPICAL CONCRETE STRUCTURE ON A 



The preparation of the subgrade is considered of the 
greatest importance and if it is found that the soil will not 
properly compact when wet and rolled, the thickness of the 
concrete is increased. 

Concrete Base. — The aggregate proposed for use in the 
concrete is tested prior to the beginning of the work and its 
value as a concrete material determined. A mixture, approxi- 



mately 1:2:4 is used generally. The coarse aggregate is 
sound gravel or broken stone having a specific gravity of not 
less than 2.6 and of uniformly hard material, well graded from 
14 in. up to 2^ ins. in diameter. On some work where there 
was a scarcity of good, coarse aggregate, crushed rock, which 
had a French coefficient of wear as low as 8 was allowed to 
be used. This rock was very uniform in composition and ha! 




A 8TATB HIOHWAT IN BAN DIBQO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA —BITUMINOUS WBARINQ SURFACE ON A CEMENT 

CONCRETE FOUNDATION. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



121 



given satisfactory results. Most of the crushed rock used 
has a coefticient of wear in excess of 10. Satisfactory coarse 
aggregate is expected to show a compressive strength in 
excess of 1,500 lbs. per sq. in. at the end of 28 days when 
tested in the laboratory, using a 1:2J/2:S mixture. 

Before a contract is let for a section of highway, the avail- 
able sands are tested for grading, percentage of silt and for 
tensile and compressive strength in a 1:3 mortar. The mortar 
strengths developed are compared with strengths shown by 
standard sand made up at the same time and of the same lot 

of cement. The 
sands satisfactory 
for fine aggregate 
show tensile 
strengths in excess 
of the standard sand 
mortar and in com- 




CHARLBS D. BLANEY, 
Chairman, Highway Commission. 



NEWELL D. DARLINGTON, 
Member, Highway Commission. 



the gasoline engine, requires two men to handle it, but it is 
said to make the work easier and to leave a surface requiring 
less effort to make smooth with the floats. 

Expansion Joints. — No so-called expansion joints have been 
inserted in the concrete bases and they have not been missed 
since all of the concrete has been, or is to be, covered with 
asphalt. This covering seems to fill such cracks as develop. 
Some cases of "buckling" — due apparently to high temper- 
ature — in the summer time, have been noted; but the bucRles 
have been so few and far between that no radical change in 
policy as to expan- 
sion joints is indi- 
cated. 

Curing. — As soon 
as the concrete be- 
comes hard, its sur- 
face is kept wet by 






GOVERNOR HIRAM W. JOHNSON. 

The Governor 
and Principal Highway Officials 
of California 



pression exceed 3,- 
000 lbs. per sq. in. at 
the end of 28 days. 

The concrete, as 
it pours from the 
mixer, should not be 
wet enough to allow 
the easy separation 
of the water; it 
should require con- 
siderable tamping 
before a thin film of 
water will flush to 
the surface. The 
tamping should make the surface smooth and no projecting 
rocks should show. The tamping of the concrete is done 
with a heavy templet which is built to be true to the crown 
of the road, when resting on the header boards. The surface 
of the concrete is then smoothed with wooden floats. On one 
section of the highway a small gasoline engine has been 
mounted on the heavy templet and imparts a quivering 
motion to the jelly-like concrete, proving very successful in 
rapidly bringing the material to a true surface and producing 
a good, dense concrete. This templet, like the ones without 



AUSTIN B. FLETCHER, 
Hig-hway Engineer. 




sprinkling for the 
first day. At the end 
of from 12 to 24 
hours, the surface is 
protected from dry- 
ing by a cover coat 
of dirt or sand, 
which is kept well 
watered for ten 
days. 

A novel method 
of curing the con- 
crete is used suc- 
cessfully in this 
work and has become almost a standard practice in 
the more level sections of California. The concrete, when 
it is one day old, is checked off by low earth dams in much 
the same way that land is checked of? for irrigation purposes 
in the arid regions of the West. This series of shallow reser- 
voirs is filled with water and kept filled for a period of ten 
days. In this way the concrete is cured under ideal con- 
ditions and at all times a glance at the road will tell to a cer- 
tainty whether the highest point of the road — and, there- 
fore, the entire surface — is covered. 



CHARLES F. STERN, 
Member, Highway Commission. 



122 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 





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Resident lOiiKinper's Portable Office. 








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Road Locat.d Th: 1> ;..ci,)il Forest. 



GiadiiiK with a Steam Shovel. 




ScarlfylnK Old Road Surface. 





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Preparing Subgrade for Foundation. 





Unloading Cru.hed aton« at Yard. Knb^r:,.!.. i>;,,iy r,„. o.nc-ete Foumlatlcn. 

VIEWS SHOWING THE LOCATION AND VARIOUS STEPS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CALIFORNIA HIGHWAYS. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



123 





MixinR the Concrete. 



Placing- Concrete Foundation. 




Fini-stiing- .Surfaci- >'( I'^mi 



.-Tr .i:ase. 





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Curing Concrete by Dike System. 



A Portable Drilling Outfit. 





Applying Oil in Building Wearing Surface. finished Road-Bituminous Surface. Concrete Base. 

VIEWS OF CALIFORNIA STATE HIGHWAY WORK AND OF A COMPLETED BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT. 



124 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



The contractors find that where the earth dams can be built 
of a clay or sandy clay there is little loss of water due to 
•ecpage and even in the hot, arid regions, the amount of water 
required for curing is less than would be used in properly 
wetting a 2-in. coat of sand or earth. One of the accompany- 
ing illustrations (page 123) shows the concrete highway 
checked oflf by earth dams just prior to the filling of the 
reservoirs with water. This method of curing has been used 
successfully on grades up to 4 per cent., but on such grades, 
the lateral dams have to be constructed at very short intervals 
and the soil of which the dams are composed must be dense 
enough to allow no seepage. 

The cost of curing concrete by the diking system is about 
125 cts. per lin. ft. of highway, or 6.7S cts. per cu. ft. of con- 
crete. This cost includes the building of the dikes and the 
cleaning of the concrete when cured. The cost of a dirt cov- 
ering is 2.5 cts. per lin. ft. of highway, or about 13.4 cts. per 
cu. ft of concrete. 



asphalt of 80 penetration. The fact that an oil does contain 
90 per cent, of 80 penetration asphalt does not insure the oil 
having the desired physical properties. 

The oil is bought in large quantities and kept stored in 
tanks of 5,000 bbls. capacity. While a tank is being filled, 
samples are taken at regular intervals by an inspector, and 
these samples tested at the laboratory. The tank is kept 
under seal until the tests show the oil to be satisfactory, and 
then shipments of the oil are made as ordered, the cars be- 
ing loaded under inspection. 

In the construction of the bituminous wearing coat, it has 
been found that two physical properties of the oil are of 
greatest importance. The road oil must be of such a viscosity 
that it can be easily applied to the road as a spray under not 
excessive heat, and that it will readily allow the penetration 
of the stone screenings. If the oil is "hard," the screenings 
are not absorbed easily and the bituminous surface does not 
build up properly. The road oil must also be sticky so that 



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MEMBEKS OK THE CAIJFORNIA HIGHWAY COMMISSION AND STAFF OF THE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT— PHOTO- 
GRAPH TAKEN MARCH, 1914. 
From left to right (standing): R. H. Stalnaker, Assistant Division Engineer, Division 2; C. C. Carleton, Attorney; S. V. 
Cortelyou. Assistant Division Engineer, Division 7; W. L. Clarlc, Division Engineer, Division 7: T. E. Stanton, Assistant 
Division Engineer, Division 6; R. K. West, Assistant Division Engineer, Division 4; W. F. McClure, State Engineer; A. B. 
Fletcher. Highway Engineer; F. G. Somner, Division Engineer, Division 1; C. F. Stern, Highway Commissioner; J. B. Wood- 
son, Division Engineer, Division 6; F. W. Hazelwood, Assistant Division Engineer, Division 1; C. B. Osborne, Geologist; 
N. D. Darlington, Highway Commissioner; S. 9. Stahl, Assistant Division Engineer, Division 3; C. D. Blaney, Highway Com- 
missioner; W. S. Caruthers. Division Engineer, Division 3; G. B. Harrison, Right of Way Department; A. B. Cleaveland, As- 
sistant Engineer; W. R. Ellis, Secretary; R. E. Dodge, Offlce Engineer; A. E. Loder, Division Engineer, Division 4; J. H. 
Small. Chief Accountant; Walter C. Howe. Division Engineer, Division 5; (sitting): G. R. Wlnslow, First Assistant High- 
way Enslneer: H. L. Warren, Purchasing Agent; T. A. Bedford, Division Engineer, Division 2; G. Mattis, Assistant Division 
Engineer, Division 5. 



When the concrete is about a month old, the dikes or dirt 
coverings are removed with a road grader, care being taken 
not to injure the concrete surface. The road is then thrown 
open to traffic for a month or two. The traffic on the bare 
concrete has been found to be of great benefit in removing 
any thin coating of clay or any laitance surfacing that may 
cover the concrete. 

Thin Bituminous Wearing Coat. — Just prior to the applica- 
tion of the asphaltic oil for the bituminous wearing coat, the 
concrete base is thoroughly cleaned by use of street brooms, 
and in some cases even cleaned by brushing by hand with 
steel brooms. It is imperative that the surface of the con- 
crete be free from any coat of dirt so that the oil surface 
will bind tight to the base. 

The road oil used in the building of the bituminous wear- 
ing coat is known by the trade name of a 90/80 road oil. This 
means that the oil contains approximately 90 per cent, of 



it will bind strongly to the concrete base and cement to its 
neighbor each of the little stone fragments that make up the 
mineral aggregate in the bituminous surface. 

The viscosity and stickiness of an oil are carefully deter- 
mined by physical tests in the laboratory and the oil required 
to meet the specified limits of these two tests. The oils are 
also tested for percentage of asphalt, percentage of foreign 
matter, flash point and burning point. In addition, the usual 
solubility tests for chemical purity are made. 

The road oil is applied under pressure and at a temperature 
between 250° and 350° F. The rate of application is 54 gal. 
per sq. yd. The oiled surface is now covered with crushed 
rock screenings or coarse sand. The crushed rock screenings 
used should be that portion of crusher run which passes a 
circular screen opening J/^ in. in diameter and from which 
substantially all fine dust has been removed. Coarse sand 
of a like grading appears to be equally satisfactory. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



125 





CONCRKTB MONUMENTS FOR MARKING CALIFORNIA 
STATE HIGHWAYS READY FOR PLACING. 

After the screenings have been sufficiently incorporated in 
the oil, the excess of screenings is broomed into piles along- 
side the road and the road is given a second application of 



VIEW 



>M A CALIFORNIA STATE HIGHWAY— MT. 
SHASTA IN THE BACKGROUND. 



light rolling before opening, though this is not necessary. 
The oiled surface may require more screenings if the sur- 
face shows a tendency to bleed. 




AUTOMOBILE MEETING ON A STATE HIGHWAY— SHOW- 
ING CLEARANCE ON A 15-FT. PAVEMENT. 

oil. This application is at the rate of J4 gal. per sq. yd., as 
was the first. The oiled surface is then again covered with 
screenings. Screenings carrying a small percentage of dust 
and fine material may be used in the second coat. 

The highway is now ready for traffic. It can be given a 




TYPICAL SHORT SPAN BRIDGE ON A CALIFORNIA STATE 
HIGHWAY— MENDOCINO COUNTY. 

There has been but little trouble with the bituminous sur- 
face due to its peeling off the concrete base. Some of the 
roads have been under heavy traffic for over two and a half 
years and the surface shows but little wear. The surface is 
dull black in color and is about J^ to J^ in. in thickness. After 





A GRAVEL SURFACED STATE HIGHWAY IN MENDOCINO 
COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. 



AN OILED MACADAM STATE HIGHWAY OVER 
YEARS OLD — MADERA COUNTY. 



THREE 



126 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



two years of exposure to weathering and traffic, the oil binder 
is found to be "live," readily mending itself if the surface is 
cut in any way. 

The thin bituminous wearing surface on the concrete base 
has not rolled or become wavy under traffic. It gives splen- 
did traction for the rubber tired traffic and cushions the hard 
unyielding concrete for the horses. 

The bituminous surface will doubtless require a slight 
amount of patching durin,? the first three years of its life. 
It gives promise of an average life exceeding four years 
before complete renewal will be necessary, but the state high- 
ways of California have not been built long enough to furnish 
sufficient data for estimating yearly maintenance costs. 

The accompanying table shows the mileages and types of 
the state highways under contract or completed. 





A CONCRETE BRIDGE ON A S r 
COUNTY, 



\'ri-: iilGiiw 
CAL. 



AY l.N .MADKHA 



manner. The Legislature, at its 1915 session, became con- 
vinced of this fact and provided for a bond issue election, to 
be held in November, 1916. At that time the people will 



MILEAGES AND TYPES OP CALIFORNIA STATE HIGH- 
WAYS COMPLETED OR UNDER CONTRACT. 
Tvne Mileage Cost per Mile 

Grading 305.9 $8,970 

Oiled concrete' 800.4 9,920 

Aspiialt on concretet 20.9 18,500 

Oil macadam 

Asphalt on macadam} 

Water bound macadam 



19.1 


6,850 


16.5 


14,900 


'2.9 


10,950 



•Concrete pavement with thin bituminous wearing surface, 
to the description of which the article is largely devoted. 

tTopeka specification wearing surface, 1% ins. thick, on Port- 
land cement concrete base. 

tTopeka specification wearing surface, about 1V4 ins. thick, 
on a foundation consisting of old water bound macadam road, 
sliaped up. ^^^ 

vote on a new issue, $15,000,000 in amount, to be used to 
complete the system outlined in the present State Highways 
Act and to round out the scheme by the construction of cer- 
tain connecting roads not contemplated in the present law. 



A STATE HIGHWAY NEAR PALO ALTO, CAL.— A 1%-IN. 
TOPEKA SURFACE ON A 4-IN. CEMENT 
CONCRETE FOUNDATION. 

The cost given in the table is the approximate cost per mile, 
exclusive of engineering and overhead expenses. 

The California state highway work has been in progress 
since the spring of 1912, the funds being provided by a bond 
issue of $18,000,000 voted by the people. The work is admin- 
istered by a committee of the Advisory Board of the Depart- 
ment of Engineering, composed of Charles D. Blaney, Chair- 
man, Newell D. Darlington and C. Frank Stern, known as the 
California Highway Commission. 

The Highways Act provides for the construction of ap- 
proximately 3,000 miles of state highway, about 1,800 miles 
of which may be called trunk lines and the remainder laterals. 
It seems necessary to pave the 1,800 miles of trunk lines more 
or less expensively, and as the work has progressed it has 
become more and more evident that the $18,000,000 will not 
suffice to complete the contemplated system in a satisfactory 



"The ^Vay to Have Good Roads In to Build Tbein," according 
to a statement made by Champ Clark In an address delivered 
recently at the Old Settlers' Reunion at New Florence, Mo. 
Bad wagon roads, according to Mr. Clark, constitute the most 
senseless extravagance known; thousands of dollars worth of 
wagons and buggies have been destroyed by the bad roads in 
Missouri and hundreds and thousands of dollars worth of 
horses, mules and oxen have been wasted in the same manner. 
The problem of improving the roads, according to Mr. Clark, is 
a practical problem and one that can be solved — moreover, one 
that ought to be solved. Good roads, Mr. Clark believes, mean 
Increased population, increased wealth, increased church and 
school attendance, Increased social activity and, in short, in- 
crease in the Joy of living. Continuing, he said: "When the 
question of resumption was becoming of intense interest in the 
land and various schemes were being debated, Horace Greeley, 
growing weary of the unending talk, tersely remarked; 'The 
way to resume is to resume.' " Mr. Clark expressed the belief 
that could Horace Greeley hear the present talk about good 
roads he would put the case In a nutshell in the words quoted 
at the beginning of this paragraph. 




STONY CREEK BRIDGE— A CONCRETE ARCH ON A STATE 
HIGHWAY IN GLENN COUNTY, CAL. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



127 



The City of Oakland, California, and Its Street Work 



By W. H. JORDAN 



Half a dozen years before the Liberty Bell proclaimed 
American independence, soldiers of Spain were exploring 
the region where now stands the City of Oakland and its 
sister municipalities of the San Francisco Bay section of 
California. It is recorded in the diaries and official reports 
of one, Lieutenant Pedro Pages, that with small commands 
of Spanish troops he made two explorations in this region, 
the first in 1770. Two years later he made a more extensive 
one. Both resulted in most favorable accounts of the coun- 
try observed. 



under the rule of Don Luis. Other Spanish families settled 
among the oaks and giant redwoods which grew in forests 
along the hillsides. Don Luis reared a large family, and at 
his death, his sons, Vicente, Ygnacio, Jose Domingo and 
Antonio Marie, were bequeathed sections of the original 
grant. 

The Americans did not appear in numbers until after the 
discovery of gold in 1849, though it is recorded that in 1826 
a party of pioneer settlers passed through the Peralta hold- 
ings. Twenty years later a Mormon caravan arrived, but 




VIEW SOUTH ON BROADWAY AT ITS INTERSECTION WITH TELEGRAPH AVE — TWO OP THE MAIN NORTH AND 
SOUTH STREETS OF OAKLAND, CAL. — BITUMINOUS ROCK PAVEMENT. 



In that day the present site of Oakland was covered with 
a dense growth of oaks, whence its name. This part of 
the Spanish-Mexican territory, out of which the State of 
California was carved after the Mexican War, finds its be- 
ginnings — for the purposes of this brief historical review — 
in the baronial land grants which the King of Spain made to 
favored subjects for services rendered the crown. Many of 
these grantees were Spanish soldiers and sons of soldiers. 

In 1820 Don Luis Peralta was given such a grant. It cov- 
ered the site of the City of Oakland, as well as those of the 
adjoining cities of Alameda, Berkeley, Piedmont, Emery- 
ville, and suburbs. Extending from San Leandro Creek on 
the east, to the Bay of San Francisco on the west, with its 
northern boundary a spur of foothills and its southern the 
estuary of San Leandro (now Oakland's splendid inner har- 
bor), this domain became an almost feudal sovereignty, 



went on to other settlements. In 1846 General John C. Fre- 
mont, the Pathfinder, marched through the hill passes east- 
ward, and, according to legend, viewed the scene from the 
East Oakland hills, near the home site of Joaquin Miller, the 
Poet of the Sierras. 

The winter of 1849-50 saw the first permanent American 
settlement. During the next summer three men followed. 
One of these, Horace W. Carpentier, was to play a most 
important part in the city's history. Under the assumption 
that the land was owned by the federal government and was 
subject to homesteading, Carpentier and his two associates 
squatted at a point which is now the foot of Broadway. 
The land was, in reality, a part of the Peralta grant, which, 
with many other Spanish grants in California, was confirmed 
by the United States after the acquisition of the territory 
following the war with Mexico. Carpentier and others con- 



128 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 




QRAND AVEKUE. OAKLAND. CAU, LOOKING EAST FROM LAKESIDE PARK— A MAIN THOROUGHFARE IN A RESI- 
DENTIAL SECTION— STANDARD ASPHALT PAVEMENT. 



eluded negotiations and accepted leases from the Peraltas, 
who ultimately bartered away their possessions for absurdly 
small sums. Then the town sprang into existence. Town 
incorporation took place in 1852 and city incorporation two 
years later. Carpentier secured exclusive leasing rights to 
waterfront wharfing, and subsequently a grant to the entire 
waterfront, in return for building a few wharves and a pub- 
lic school house. Fourteen years later these grants were 
taken over by the Oakland Waterfront Company, a sub- 
sidiary of the Central Pacific Railroad, which entered Oak- 
land in 1869. The City of Oakland now controls its entire 
waterfront, every occupant leasing from the city; but this 
wa« not accomplished until 1910. 

Oakland expanded by taking in Clinton and other settle- 
ments. A large "commuter" population developed, drawing 



heavily from San Francisco, and for years Oakland main- 
tained a high place as a "home" city. Business followed, but 
Oakland's greatest development has come during the last 
dozen years. 

The city is situated on the eastern or continental side of 
San Francisco Bay, in a natural amphitheater with the foot- 
hills of the coast range as a background. Reaching to the 
waters of San Francisco Bay on the west, and the estuary of 
San Antonio on the south, the main business, commercial, 
industrial and shipping centers, and a large part of the older 
residential section stand on practically level sites. The 
newer residential sections are further back toward the hills. 
The area of the city is 60.25 square miles, a gain of 44 square 
miles by annexation of contiguous territory since 1905. The 
average annual temperature is 55.87 degrees, with neither 




NINETEENTH ST., OAKL.AND, CAL.— A TYPICAL RESIDENCE STREET— STANDARD ASPHALT PAVEMENT. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



129 




JOHN L. DAVIE, 
Mayor of Oakland. 



severe cold nor prostrating heat. The city's population, 
estimated this year at 219,000, has increased more than 350 
per cent, since 1900. Oakland is the terminus of four trans- 
continental railroads and is gridironed with electric street 
railways, urban and suburban, which connect with several 
ferry systems on San Francisco Bay. From the outset, Oak- 
land has been noted for its homes, its churches and schools 
and its social life. 

Twenty-seven miles of waterfront, where ship and car 
are brought together, are nuclei of great industrial districts. 
Many millions of 
. dollars have been 
expended by the 
federal government, 
by the city govern- 
ment and by private 
and corporate in- 
vestors in the water- 
front development. 
Rolling mills, iron 
works, fruit can- 
neries, gas engine 
works, tractor fac- 
tories, sash and door 
factories and cotton 
mills, are among 
the fifteen hundred 
industries of the 
city, the annual out- 
put of which is esti- 
mated at $50,000,000. 
Crude oir, and elec- 
tric current have 
displaced coal for 
motive power. Oak- 
land is a central dis- 
tributing point for 
four of the great 
hydro-electric power 
companies of the 
state. The city is 
third largest in Cali- 
fornia and the seat 
of government of 
A 1 a m eda County, 
one of the richest 
agricultural and hor- 
ticultural sections in 
the state. Much re- 
tail and wholesale 
trade centers here on 
that account. 

Noteworthy points 
of interest easily 
reached by street 
car, automobile, or 
short walks, are 
Lake Merritt and PERRY F. BROWN, 

its contiguous Superintendent of Streets, 

parks; the Highland Drive; Piedmont Park; The Uni- 
versity of California and its famous Greek theater; the 
Claremont Country Club; the City Hall, built at a cost of 
$2,000,000; the Municipal Auditorium, a million-dollar gran- 
ite and steel edifice with arena and theater seating twelve 
thousand persons, where the Pan-American Road Congress 
will meet; Joaquin Miller's home, "The Heights," in the east- 
earn foothills; the Skyline Boulevard, along the crest of the 
Contra Costa hills; the Foothill Boulevard, leading into the 
rich fruit lands eastward of the city; the Sequoyah Country 
Club; the Mission San Jose, founded in 1797 by the Fran- 



WILLIAM J. BACCUS, 
Commissioner of Streets. 




ciscan friars; Redwood Canyon, and Summit Scenic Drive 
through the Contra Costa hills. 

The main section of Oakland in its street plan is rectangu- 
lar, the blocks or "squares" being 200 by 300 ft. The streets 
have an average width of 80 ft., except Broadway, the main 
central thoroughfare, which is 110 ft. wide. The first sur- 
vey was made in 1853. Main thoroughfares radiate from the 
retail district and connect with the outlying districts by 
streets from 80 to 100 ft. wide and with easy grades. The 
rectangular plan obtains in general, although much of the 

city is in irregular 
form, owing to the 
piecemeal methods 
that were followed 
in the earlier years 
of the city's growth 
in annexing sections 
and in subdividing 
tracts of land. The 
general trend of 
main highways in 
the eastern section is 
east and west; in 
the western portion, 
north and south. 
Grades are light, ex- 
cept in the hill sec- 
tions, which are 
strictly residential. 
More recent surveys 
of streets in resi- 
dence tracts con- 
form to topographi- 
cal contours, elimi- 
nating the old rec- 
tangular scheme and 
making for greatly 
improved condi- 
tions. Since 1907 
the Department of 
Streets has given 
greater attention to 
highway alignment, 
and during the past 
two years has se- 
cured quite thorough 
control of the situ- 
ation. 

The first street 
paving was done in 
1865 on Broadway, 
six blocks of mac- 
adam being laid at a 
cost of 8.5 cts. per 
sq. ft. In 1888 the 
first bituminous rock 
pavement was laid 
on one block in 
Ninth Street, be- 
tween Broadway and Washington Street. At that time 64 
miles of macadamized streets had been constructed. Two 
years later 1.33 miles of bituminous pavement were down. 
These were the only kinds of pavement used for many years. 
The City of Oakland has been under the commission 
form of government for four years. Five commissioners, 
including the Mayor; the auditor-assessor; and the Board 
of Education, of seven members, are the only elective offi- 
cials. Terms of office are four years. All municipal activi- 
ties are divided into departments, which are as follows: 
Department of Public Aflfairs, Department of Revenue and 



WALTER N. FRICKSTAD, 
Assistant Superintendent of Streets. 



130 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 







ROLUNQ A MACADAM STREET PREPARATORY TO SUR- 
FACE OILINQ. OAKLAND. CAU 

Finance, Department of Public Health and Safety, Depart- 
ment of Streets, and Department of Public Works. The 
Mayor is at the head of the Department of Public Affairs, 
and each of the other departments is headed by one of 
the commissioners. The four commissioners, with the 
Mayor as president, form the City Council. The Mayor has 
one vote in Council, without the veto power. All legisla- 
tion oriRinates in the Council. The Commissioner of Re- 
venue and Finance is ex-officio the seventh member of the 
Board of Education. 

The Department of Streets consists of the department, 
proper, and the Engineering Department, both under the 
control of the commissioner of streets through the super- 
intendent of streets, who is, ex-officio, city engineer. The 
Engineering Department is under the direct supervision of 
the deputy. city engineer and handles all the engineering 
work of the city, not only that of the Department of Streets 
but also that of all the other departments. The Depart- 
ment of Streets is divided into the clerical, construction 
and maintenance divisions. The department is under civil 
service regulations. 

The clerical division is in charge of the chief assessment 
clerk, and the chief clerk. The chief assessment clerk is 
responsible for all street proceedings in this department, 
the making of street assessments and the placing of all 
assessments on the books for collection. He is also respon- 
sible for all street opening proceedings and assessments, 
and acts as one of the street opening commissioners with- 
out additional compensation. The chief clerk controls the 
general affairs of the office, the collection of all fees and 




assessments and the clerical and bookkeeping activities of 
the department. 

The construction division is in charge of the assistant 
superintendent of streets who has supervision of all new 
street and sewer work. 

The maintenance division is under the direct charge of 
the deputy superintendent of streets and the assistant deputy 
superintendent of streets, who are responsible for all main- 
tenance and repair work and the equipment for carrying on 
the work. 

The maintenance division has the city divided into dis- 
tricts, in each of which there is a man responsible for the 
condition of the streets under his jurisdiction, and who 
reports to the head of the division. The department is 
doing with its own forces many of the things formerly 
hired. The street sprinkling is largely done with city teams 
and wagons. The department has three corporation yards 




BllOAUWAY, OAlvUAND, CAL.— LOOKING NORTH 
12TH ST.— BITUMINOUS ROCK PAVEMENT. 



FROM 



APPL.TUIO Oa> ON OLD MACADAM STREET 
OAKLAND, CAU 



SURFACE— 



on city owned property. In the central yard are the gar- 
age, the stables, the laboratory and separate shops for 
blacksmithing, horseshoeing, woodworking, painting and 
harness making, besides storerooms and workrooms for the 
carpenter and sewer crews. The department has its own 
1 ■luipment, which includes 4 steam rollers, 36 sprinklers, 2 
Ijavement flushers, 32 wagons and carts, a modern outfit for 
street oiling with three patching outfits, and 86 horses. 

Besides the general street work and closely related activi- 
ties, the Department of Streets handles the important matter 
of garbage disposal. By the method employed, scavengers 
collect the refuse, which is then deposited in large bins 
specially built on a steamship which carries the cargo at 
stated intervals 20 miles to sea, there dumping it. This 
work is done under contract with the steamship owners. 

The principal officials of the Department of Streets are 
as follows: Commissioner of Streets, William J. Baccus; 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



131 




BROADWAY, OAKLAND, CAL.— BASALT BLOCK TOOTHING 
IN STANDARD ASPHALT PAVEMENT. 

Superintendent of Streets and ex-officio City Engineer, Perry 
F. Brown; Assistant Superintendent of Streets, Walter N. 
Frickstad; Chief Assessment Cleric, Charles H. Frost; Chief 
Clerk, W. A. Quinlan. 

On January 1, 1915, the mileages and yardages of street 
paveiiients and unimproved roads were as follows: 

Sq. Yds. 

875,154 

1,116,700 

1,824,074 

351,944 

2,427,437 

403,404 

65,425 



Kind. Mileage 

Hard pavement (mainly sheet aspiialt) 39.27 

Oiled macadam 68.61 

Water bound macadam, surface oiled 96.42 

Water bound macadam, tar surface 19.02 

Water bound macadam, plain 135.61 

Turnpike (macadam) 47.24 

Macadam turnpike, surface oiled 7.66 

Unimproved streets and roads 116.01 

Street work for the year 1914 — which, including curbs, 

gutters, culverts and sidewalks, cost $1,097,861.66 — was as 

follows: 

Kind. Miles Sq. Yds. 

Asphalt 3.647 97,972 

Bituminous macadajn 18.342 

Single course 78,351 

Double course 222,035 

Surface oiling 34.500 594,685 

Most important to the city has been the surface oiling 

of macadam streets, for this work has not only preserved 

and appreciably extended the life of the streets, but has 

materially reduced the cost of repairs, eliminating costly 

street sprinkling, and made clean, dustless, mudless 

thoroughfares. The department has surface oiled nearly 

one hundred miles of streets at a cost of $111,000. This 

has saved the city in the last four year $92,021 in sprinkling 

alone, nearly the original cost of oiling. Saving in repairs 

is estimated at $39,000 and in cleaning at $10,000, to date. 




Sheet asphalt pavement is constructed on a 6-in. concrete 
base, with a 2-in. binder and a lj4-in. wearing surface. The 
cost, exclusive of grading, is about $1.80 per sq. yd. 

Single-course bituminous macadam paving is made 6 ins. 
deep at the gutter and 8 ins. at the crown, measured before 
rolling. After applying screenings, and rolling, two ap- 
plications of oil, each of ^ gal. per sq. yd., are made. The 
pavement is finished by applying more screenings, and 
rollings. The average cost last year, exclusive of grading, 
was 68 cts. per sq. yd. 

Double-course oiled macadam consists of a water bound 
macadam base 4 ins. in thickness at the gutter and 5 ins. 
at crown, on top of which is a second course laid as follows: 
After the completion of the base, 3 ins. of 2-in. broken stone 
is spread and alternately oiled, screened and rolled until 
compacted, using three coats of oil, each of }^ gal. per sq. 
yd. The cost, exclusive of grading, is 89 cts. per sq. yd. 




I I I 



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PRIDGE TYPICAL OF THOSE BUILT BY TFIE STREET DE- 
PARTMENT OF OAKI^ANP. 



NEW CITY HALL, OAKLAND, CAL. — WASH r Xi ITc )X STREET 
BETWEEN 14TH AND SAN PABLO AVE. 

Practically all oiled macadam put down in 1915 has been 
built by the double-course method. 

Water bound macadam specifications are similar to those 
for double-course oiled macadam, except, of course, as to 
the use of oil. 

Among the hard pavements in use are six miles of natural 
bituminous sandstone. The surface consists of 2 ins. of 
sandstone on concrete or macadam base. By mixing two 
grades of sandstone and adding sufficient sand and dust to 
make the product conform to the mesh composition speci- 
fied for sheet asphalt, excellent results are obtained both 
for medium and heavy traffic. It should be noted, however, 
that the unreliability of the product causes irregular re- 
sults. Other pavements include two blocks of vitrified 
brick, laid in 1910 in a heavy traffic district. In 1898 several 
thousand lineal feet of wood block pavement were put down 
on a main thoroughfare. The blocks were of redwood, 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 




FOOTHILi, BOULEVARD, OAKLAND. CAL.— A SURFACE OILED MACADAM 

HEAVY AUTOMOBILE TRAFFIC. 



PAVEMENT THAT CARRIES A VERY 



dipped in crude oil and asphalt. They were not satisfactory 
because of the treatment. Creosoted blocks should have 
been used. Nearly half of the pavement was replaced in 
1910 with asphalt, and the remainder maintained by a 
thorough covering of asphalt mastic. About 8,000 sq. yds, 
of basalt block pavement has recently been laid to carry 
heavy traffic, and there are also two city blocks on a S 
per cent grade paved with basalt blocks. The basalt block 
is considered by the street officials as too expensive for 
general use. In 1910 a stretch of 6,000 ft. of asphaltic con- 
crete was laid for light traffic. This is in good condition, 
though a flush coat is needed. 

As a guide to street pavement requirements and to the 
effect upon various kinds of pavement by traffic, a vehicular 
census has been taken each spring during the past three 
years. The results have more than justified the effort. One 
of the noteworthy phases disclosed was the increase of 
heavy motor truck traffic as well as the steady increase 



Comparative 



1914. 
41.7 per cent. 
58.3 per cent. 



of automobiles over horse-drawn vehicles, 
totals for two years follow: 

1913. 

Horse-drawn vehicles 46.4 per cent. 

Motor vehicles 53,6 per cent. 

The data collected have enabled the department to proceed 
on a much surer basis toward the solution of the manifold 
problems which modern conditions and demands have im- 
posed upon those in the public service. 



Commisfiloner of Public ImprovementM Lafnye, of New Or- 
leans, La., has stated that within two years the cobblestone 
pavements In the largre section of the city between Canal, 
Esplanade and Rampart Streets, are to be replaced by modern 
pavements. 

The CommisRloners of Pierce County, Washlinston, have 
authorized County Engineer L. H. White to proceed with the 
survey of 10.6 miles of mountain road which it is proposed to 
construct early In 1916. Estimates of the cost run from ?100,- 
000 to $140,000. 




PARK BOULEVARD, OAKLAND, CAL.— ASPHALTIC CONOR ETE PAVEMENT COMPLETED ON ONE SIDE OF THE. 

STREET. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



133 



San Francisco, the Exposition City, 

Its History and Development with Especial Reference to Its Street System* 



To the engineer who, for the first time, visits San Fran- 
cisco during the period of the Panama-Pacific Exposition, 
the experience will be not only enjoyable but exceedingly 
educational. The history of the city itself is replete with 
engineering interest. Unique topographical and geological 
conditions create problems which are presented in no other 
large American city. 

In 1769 Don Caspar de Portola, then Governor of Cali- 
fornia, and Sergeant Jose Ortega conducted a land expedi- 
tion from San Diego to Monterey. Being unfamiliar with 
the country they missed their destination, came farther north 
and found the Golden Gate and the land-locked harbor which 
had been visited by the pirate Drake in 1579 and charted 



the Comstock Lode, which has produced $350,000,000 in 
thirty years and contributed greatly to the prosperity of the 
entire Pacific coast. In 1900 this city had a population 
of 342,782, which rapidly increased until April 17, 1906. 
On that date San Francisco's bonded indebtedness was 
practically nothing as compared with cities of equal size in 
the United States. 

On the morning of April 18, 1906, a violent earthquake 
shook the coast of Central California. The shock broke 
the water mains leading into San Francisco from San 
Mateo County, and left the city defenceless against numer- 
ous fires started by wires which became crossed during the 
shock. For three days the fire raged, burned 497 city blocks 




THE INTEUSKCTION OF PUWELL AND GEARY STREETS IN THE BUSINESS SECTION OF SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.- 

ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. 



by Vizcaino in 1603. In 1776 the Mission of San Francisco 
de Assissi was founded by the Franciscans, the Presidio 
established by Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza and the Pueblo 
of Yerba Buena located, all within the area occupied by 
the present city. 

California was ceded to the United States by Mexico in 
1848. In the previous year the ayuntamiento, or town coun- 
cil, of Yerba Buena changed the name of that hamlet to 
San Francisco, which, at the time had a population of about 
800. The discovery of gold in California in 1848 brought to 
the port of San Francisco within the next two years several 
thousand vessels, and more than 80,000 people. Many of 
the vessels were abandoned by their officers and crews, who 
rushed to the gold fields, but about 20,000 remained in the 
rapidly growing town of San Francisco. A new impetus 
was given to its development in 1859 by the discovery of 



•Especially written for GOOD ROADS by a San Francisco 
engineer thoroughly acquainted with the city and its street 
work. 



or four square miles out of the very heart of the city, leav- 
ing thousands homeless and destroying property valued at 
approximately $325,000,000. Twenty-eight thousand build- 
ings were consumed and a general exodus resulted. Two 
hundred thousand people left San Francisco within a week. 
The "quitters" never returned. Those who did, and those 
who had refused to be driven out by earthquake, fire or 
martial law, immediately began the work of reconstruction. 
This has progressed steadily, until a metropolis with a 
present population of 550,000 has been rebuilt along lines 
architecturally more beautiful, structurally more permanent, 
than the one that was destroyed. 

San Francisco is located at the northern extremity of 
a peninsula 35 miles in length. On the west it terminates* 
at the shore of the Pacific Ocean and on the north and 
east is bounded by San Francisco Bay. Its topography is 
exceedingly uneven, a branch of the Coast Range dividing 
it practically in the center, while detached spurs extend 
in every direction, varying from sea level to elevations of 



1^4 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



80O feet. The city's entire area is 46.S square miles, and 
the length of protected waterfront available for docks is 
over 10 miles, with an average depth of water of 40 ft. at 
the pier line. 

Despite the tremendous expenditures necessitated by the 
fire of 1906, the city's financial condition is exceptionally 
good. Its percentage of bonded indebtedness to the as- 
sessed valnation is still lower than that of any .\merican 



and perseverance, San Francisco's characteristic spirit of 
optimism is amply justified and no foreseen contingency can 
hinder continued phenomenal advancement. 

The table on page 135 shows some of the expenditures for 
construction made since the great conflagration of nine 
years ago. 

Before devoting his time to the important work of the 
joint convention of the American Road Builders' Associa- 




VIEW OP SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., SHOWING CITY HALL AND CIVIC CENTER. 



city of equal size. Its bank clearings for 1914 amounted 
to $2,516,004,817, which is $150,000,000 greater than the com- 
bined clearings of Los Angeles, Seattle and Portland, the 
next three Pacific Coast cities in point of size. With its 
central location, its magnificent harbor, its rich trade with 
the Orient a* yet only in the beginning of development, its 
fertile tributary area consisting of the Sacramento, San 
Joaquin, Napa, Sonoma, and Santa Clara Valleys, its energy 



tion, and the American Highway Association ,the visiting 
engineer can see with profit many of San Francisco's places 
of interest as well as its street pavements and boulevard 
system. 

Golden Gate Park, an area of 1,103 acres, devoted to forest 
landscapes, scenic equestrian paths, drives and walks, boat- 
ing lakes, botanical gardens, conservatories, zoological ex- 
hibits, stadium, athletic fields, tennis courts and playgrounds, 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



135 




The structures are of Raymond granite, modifications of the 
Gothic styje of architecture, and may Ije seen to excellent 
advantage from the Civic Center Plaza, which occupies the 
center of the group. 



STEEP HILL. ON A RESIDENCE STREET IN SAN FRAN- 
CISCO—VITRIFIED BRICK PAVEMENT 

justly ranks as the finest park in the United States. At its 
western extremity is the Pacific Ocean, which may be seen 
to the best advantage from the Cliflf House or Sutro Gar- 
dens, which also overlook the Golden Gate, the entrance 
to San Francisco's harbor. Sutro Baths, located near the 
Cliflf House, are also of interest. The Presidio Military 
Reservation lies to the northeasf of the Cliflf House, and is 
the most effective fortification on the Pacific. An automo- 
bile trip from the hotel district, including all of the above 
features, may be made ivith comfort in about two and one- 
half hours. The remainder of a morning may be occupied 
in a most interesting manner by a visit to the United States 
Mint at Fifth and Mission streets. This is open to visitors 
daily,, except on Sundays and holidays, from 9 to 11:30 a. 
m., and from 12:30 to 2:30 p. m. More gold has been coined 
here than at any mint in the country— over $1,500,000,000 
worth since 1873. Another place of interest to the touris* 
is the Mission Dolores, founded in 1776, the year that th? 
Declaration of Independence was signed. This is located 
at Sixteenth and Dolores streets. 

San Francisco's civic center, opposite the intersection of 
Market and Eighth streets, should be seen by every en- 
gineer interested in city planning. It occupies 24 acres 
of land equally accessible from the manufacturing, business 
and residential districts. The City Hall, which covers an 
area of 116,480 sq. ft., has been practically completed at 
a cost of 13,500,000. A ?1,2S0,000 auditorium is also finished. 
Appropriations have been made for a $1,000,000 state build- 
ing and a public library, to cost the same amount. A public 
health building, police, and fire building will soon be erected. 





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TABLE OF EXPENDITURES FOR CONSTRUCTION MADE 

IN SAN FRANCISCO SINCE THE FIRE OF 1906 

Office buildings $400,000,000 

I'anama-Paciho Exposition 18,000,000 

New sewer system, nearly complete 6,150,000 

High pressure tire system 5,750,000 

Municipal street railways 5,500,000 

Asphalt plant 60,000 

Civic center 8,800,000 

Schools 7,500,000 

Hospitals 3,000,000 

Fire and police stations 510,000 

Public Library lands 740,000 

Hall of Justice and county Jail 1,350,000 

Hetch Hetchy water supply — lands and preliminary 

work 2 000,000 

Docks 9,000,000 

Streets and pavements 15,000,000 

-Mew parks and public playgrounds 1,360,000 

Traffic tunnels 4,600,000 

Total $489,320,000 



Chinatown, within a few blocks of the Fairmont Hotel, 
is worth seeing. Since the overthrow of the Manchu dy- 
nasty much progress has been noticeable in this quarter. 
Many of the quaint customs and silk costumes have been 



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HILL IN SAN FRANCISCO— COBBLE PAVEMENT LAID ON 
SAND — STEPPED CONCRETE SIDEWALK 



SAN FRANCISCO MUNICIPAL ASPHALT PLANT 

replaced by more modern substitutes, but- the district is still 
picturesque and interesting. It should be seen in company 
with a licensed guide. 

Across the bay in Marin County, Mount Tamalpais oflfers 
to the tourist a combination of marine, mountain and forest 
landscape seldom equalled. The State University in Berke- 
ley also attracts many visitors. 

The legislative and executive power of San Francisco is 
vested in a Board of Supervisors composed of eighteen 
members, elected at large for a term of four years and paid 
a monthly salary of $200 for that portion of their time 
that the city's business may require. The Mayor is the 
presiding ofificer of this board. There is also a Board of 
Public Works, under the management of three commis- 
sioners, who are appointed by the Mayor. The commis- 
sioners devote all of their time to the duties of their oflfice, 
and are paid a yearly salary of four thousand dollars. This 
board has control and superintendence, under the Board of 
Supervisors, of all public construction and maintenance. 
Its jurisdiction extends to streets, boulevards, sewers, public 
buildings, tunnels, fire protection system, garbage disposal, 
bridges, municipal railways, water supply investigations, 
asphalt plant, and surveys. 

To execute all of the engineering in connection with the 
above works the last named board appoints a city engineer 



136 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 




j.»jili,» UUL.fH, JR., 
.Mayor of San Francisco. 



who devotes his time exclusively to the business of the 
Board of Public Works, at whose pleasure he holds his 
office. On the constructive ability of the city engineer the 
progress of public improvements depends almost entirely, 
for his policies in both planning and executing civic pro- 
jects are adopted almost invariably. To the present mayor 
and city engineer San Francisco is indebted for a con- 
structive policy which has never been equalled in the city's 
history, as is shown by the statistical tabulation of the city's 
expenditures printed on the preceding page. 

It is necessary 
only to look at some 
of the steep hillside 
grades of San Fran- 
cisco to realize that 
no great amount of 
study was originally 
given to the proper 
planning of the city's 
street system. The 
engineer who laid 
out the city origin- 
ally, with entire dis- 
regard for topog- 
r a p h y , drew two 
straight lines at 
right angles, one 
supposedly north 
and south, and the 
other east and west. 
Parallel to these he 
penciled the street 
lines o f what was 
later to be the great 
metropolis of the 
Pacific Coast. A s 
t h e city expanded 
his idea was followed 
with few variations 
until recent years. 
San Francisco, there- 
f o r e, like nearly 
every other large 
American city, ex- 
panded along 
straight lines. While 
this might be toler- 
able or even desir- 
able in the level cit- 
ies of the East, or 
even the level busi- 
ness sections of San 
Francisco, i n many 
districts the profile 
of some of the 
streets is extremely 
steep. On many of 
the hills admirably 
adapted to impos- 
ing residence sites, property values are low because 
suitable approaching grades and contour streets were not 
provided. A few examples of many excessive grades fol- 
low: On Kearny Street from Vallejo to Broadway, a block 
paved with cobbles has a gradient of 29.8 per cent. 
On Fillmore Stret, where a double-track electric car line 
is operated, for about two-thirds of the distance between 
Vallejo and Green Streets, which is also paved with cobbles, 
the grade is 26.5 per cent. On Chestnut Street, between Polk 
and Larkin Streets, which has just been graded, the gradi- 
ent for part of the block is 55.5 per cent. There are many 
paved streets in the city whose gradients exceed 20 per cent. 



JAMES M. OWENS. 
Assistant City Engineer. 



In San Francisco, hills have for a quarter of a century 
proven a barrier to the expansion and development of both 
the business and residential districts. Due to the progres- 
sive policy recently adopted they will prove obstacles no 
longer, as tunnels have been designed to pierce them ana 
open ways for business and traffic. One of these tunnels 
has recently been constructed on Stockton Street to accom- 
modate stret car, ehicular and pedestrian traffic. 

Over 10,000 acres of some of the best residential terri- 
tory in San Francisco on easy, sunny, southwest slopes will 

be opened up for set- 
tlement on comple- 
t i o n of the Twin 
Peaks Tunnel, 2J4 
miles long on a 3 
per cent, grade, _and 
the operation o f a 
double-track rapid 
transit electric trac- 
tion line through it. 
In the districts that 
are Ijeing laid out 
on the sloping 
ground beyond the 
Twin Peaks, broad 
winding roads, easy 
grades and artistic 
parking spaces are 
finding favor, and 
add to the attrac- 
tiveness of the ad- 
joining p r o p e rty. 
Many fine houses 
are being erected in 
residential parks 
which are several 
miles distant from 
the congested dis- 
tricts, but will be 
easily accessible by 
reason of the tun- 
nel and boulevard 
system now under 
construction. 

Besides providing 
types of pavement 
adapted to hillsides 
of varying grades, 
another serious 
problem presents it- 
self in the extensive 
fi 1 1 e d-i n business 
sections of the city 
where property 
values are exceed- 
ingly high. Subsi- 
dence of pavements 
has, in the past, 
given much trouble 



M. M. O'SHAUGHNKSSY, 
city Engineer of San Francisco. 




ADOLPH JUDELU 
Member, Board of Public Works. 



in these districts. As it is impossible to eliminate entirely 
settlement of the ground beneath the pavement, the efforts 
of the city engineer have been directed chiefly toward pre- 
venting pavements throughout the filled-in districts from 
settling unevenly. This has been accomplished by exercising 
great care in laying concrete base, so that it will have suf- 
ficient strength to resist the unequal stresses induced by 
ground settlement. 

The pavements most commonly used in San Francisco are 
asphalt, bituminous rock, basalt block, vitrified brick and 
cobblestone. California is the largest oil, asphalt and bitu- 
minous rock producing state in the country, and naturally 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



137 




GRADING PREPARATORY TO LAYING CONCRETE BASE— 
ST^OAT BOULEVARD, SAN FRANCISCO. 

pavements surfaced with some one of these materials pre- 
dominate. 

Formerly the natural bituminous rock was reduced in 
closed kettles by steam to a plastic disintegrated mass, 
spread on the street, and rolled. The quality of the re- 
sulting street surface could never be predicted with safety. 
This type of pavement can be laid with the assurance of 
good results by properly grading the material and reducing 
it by the action of heated dry air. Sheet asphalt, however, 
is gradually replacing bituminous rock because it can be 
more accurately graded. A fully equipped testing laboratory 
is maintained under the direction of the city engineer, and 
C. L. Cook, the chemist in charge, has conducted an ex- 
haustive study of asphalt street surface mixtures. His in- 
vestigations have resulted in the securing of an asphalt 
surface unaffected by the local ranges of temperature, dur- 
able, and with little tendency to creep or roll. No patented 
surface mixtures are used on San Francisco streets. For 
ordinary traffic a 6-in. foundation of 1:3:7 concrete is cov- 




LAYING ASPHALT WEARING SURFACE ON THE CON- 
CRETE FOUNDATION — SLOAT BOULEVARD. 

ered with a 2-in. binder course and a 1^-in. wearing sur- 
face. For streets subjected to lighter traffic a 2-in. asphaltic 
wearing surface on a 6-in. concrete base has proven satis- 
factory. 

Vitrified bricks are gradually replacing basalt blocks on 
the steep hillsides, especially in residential districts. The 
city specifications provide that all paving brick must be 
thoroughly annealed, tough, durable, regular in size and 
shape, and evenly burned. When broken the brick must 
show a dense, stone-like body, free from lime, air pockets, 
cracks or marked laminations. The linear dimensions of 
paving brick conform to one of three standard sizes, unless 
the city engineer specifies that a particular size shall be 
used. The standard blocks are 8J4 ins. long and 4 ins. in 
depth. The three standard widths are ZYi, 2% and 3}/2 ins. 

The brick for any one contract on any one block or cross- 
ing must be all of the same kind and of the same standard 
size, and the individual bricks must not vary more than ^ 
in. in width or depth and Yi in. in length from the size 




COMPLETING SHEET ASPHALT PAVEMENT ON THE JUNIPERO SERRA BOULEVARD, SAN FRANCISCO. 



138 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



adopted as standard. Brick used on gradients exceeding 
6 per cent, conform, in general, to the above specifications, 
bnt must be of the kind commercially known as hillside 
brick, or must be made rough and irregular on the exposed 
surface, either by suitable molds or kiln marks. The depth 
of rough surface brick may vary from 3yi to 4J^ ins. The 
bricks are laid on a 6-in. concrete base. 

Basalt blocks are used for streets of the heaviest traffic. 
The blocks are of the best quality of basalt, not less than 
3^ nor more than 4 ins. wide; not less than 7 nor more 
than 9 ins. long, and not less than 7 nor more than 8 ins. 
deep. They must be so dressed as to have substantially 
rectangular plane surfaces, free from projections or de- 
pressions exceeding Vt in. and such that when two blocks 
are placed alongside of each other, or end to end, with no 
part of the space between blocks less than % in., the average 
width of the space between sides or ends will not exceed 
yi in. For heavy traffic these blocks are placed on a 2-in. 
sand cushion on a 6-in. concrete base. On hillsides, how- 
ever, the blocks are laid on sand without additional foun- 
dation. 

On some of the excessively steep hillsides of San Fran- 
cisco, cobblestones are still used. This type of pavement 
is laid between basalt block gutters on a base of clean 
sand. The cobbles are flat, stream-bed stones not less than 
7 nor more than 9 ins. long. Their thickness must be less 
than three-quarters of their width, and the stones are graded 
so as to g^ve the pavement uniformity of appearance. They 
are set with their greatest dimension upright, small ends 
down, and their second largest dimension at right angles 
to the axis of the street. Cobblestone street pavement will 
probably eventually be entirely replaced by vitrified hillside 
brick. 

The following table shows the yardage of each of the 
principal types of pavement in San Francisco: 

Kind "of Pavement. Area, Sq. Yds. 

Bituminous rock 3,900 000 

Baaalt block 2,260,000 

Asphalt 1,550,000 

Macadam 900,000 

Cobblestone 249,600 

Vltrlfled brick 16 300 

Creosoted wood block 10,000 

During the past year the following work has been accom- 
plished in street paving: 

Kind Area, sq. yds. Cost 

Asphalt 431,176.50 $839,609.67 

Bitumen 38,295.80 88,816.97 

Baaalt block on concrete strip 15,478.60 58,227.38 

Broken rock 36,953.10 27,607.93 

Baaalt block on sand 17,872.10 69,632.49 

Basalt block on concrete 8,257.50 31,481.59 

Basalt header block 370.60 286.14 

Vitrifled brick 7,896.20 28,263.98 

Cobbles 2,812.80 6,476.79 

Basalt base 991.80 227.36 

Total 660,104.00 Jl, 140,630.30 

Under the direction of t he city engineer a municipal 
asphalt plant was recently constructed and is now being 
operated to supply surface material for street maintenance. 
One of the greatest advantages of the city operated plant is 
that the ingredients of street surface mixtures can thus be 
more accurately controlled. On the correct composition of 
such mixtures depends their wearing qualities, and millions 
of dollars have been wasted by paving the city streets with 
untested wearing surfaces of unproved stability. 

Recently the plant has manufactured 3,000 cu. ft. of sur- 
face mixture per day. In order that its output may not be 
interfered with by delays in receipt of shipments of ma- 
terial, storage has been provided for 36 carloads of either 
sand or rock, 4 cars of lime dust, 4 cars of asphalt and 1 
car of fuel oil. Provision has been made for unloading 
material directly from car to plant without additional labor 
or teaming. Sand and rock can be elevated to the bunkers 
at the rate of two cars per hour. Asphalt is heated in thq 
car to a temperature of 225° F. by means of a portable 
■team coiL By heating to this temperature with no labor 



or attention a carload of asphalt can be transferred to the 
tank in less than three hours. 

All solid ingredients are raised to the mixer on belt con- 
veyors. Each batch is mixed dry for a period of one min- 
ute, after which the liquid asphalt is added and mixing con- 
tinued for at least a minute longer. The finished product 
is then released through a steam operated sliding gate to 
a chute that empties into wagons below. The ordinary size 
of the batch mixed is 12 cu. ft. 

Since 1913 three Lutz surfacing machines have been used 
with satisfactory results. The cost of resurfacing with these, 
including repairs and royalties, amounts to 5 1/3 cts. per sq, 
yd. The average force required for each machine comprises 
1 foreman at IS per day, 1 engineer at $6 per day, and 14 
laborers at $3 per day. An average of 1,150 sq. yds. of pave- 
ment is resurfaced daily. The leased price of each machine 
is $1,800, with the understanding that a minimum amount 
of repair work of 10,000 sq. yds. per year must be performed. 
This amounts to $500 yearly. The speed with which a street 
paved with asphalt can be resurfaced is of great importance 
in the business section of the city. 

A special bureau of the Board of Public Works has charge 
of street repair. D. J. McCoy is Superintendent and Pres- 
ton King is Chief Assistant. 




JUNIPERO SERRA BOULEVARD, SAN FRANCISCO CAL — 

VIEW SHOWING SHEET ASPHALT PAVEMENT, 

CONCRETE CURBS AND PARKING SPACES. 

The importance of good roads and boulevards for the 
development of suburban districts cannot be over-estimated. 
Only within the last few years has proper attention been 
paid to this important subject by San Francisco. Before 
1912 the roads leading into the city from the south were 
inadequate, rough and unsightly. San Francisco is at the 
northerly end of a peninsula six miles wide. Realizing the 
vital importance of an adequate boulevard system the pres- 
ent city officials are providing three suitable approaches 
to the city from the south. 

The most popular of these thoroughfares is the Junipero 
Serra Boulevard. Formerly this was a macadam roadway, 
25 ft. wide, with an exceedingly high crown, sides danger- 
ously depressed, and the whole more or less disintegrated. 
In reconstructing this main boulevard, which extends from 
Ingleside to the county line, a distance of 1.6 miles, the steep 
grades and sharp verticals were eliminated. A 25-ft. road- 
way in the center was paved with a 6-in. concrete base, 
topped by a Ij^-in. binder course and a 1-in. asphalt wear- 
ing surface. Concrete sides, 6 ins. thick, confine the binder 
course and asphalt surface. Macadam shoulders, 5 ft. wide, 
at the sides of the asphalt roadway are flanked by con- 
crete gutters, 5 ft. wide and 22 ins. deep. 

At the north the Junipero Serra Boulevard connects with 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



139 



the eastern terminus of the Sloat Boulevard. The latter 
thoroughfare has just been constructed and is an excellent 
example of the modern suburban road. When completed 
according to the original plans this boulevard will be 135 
ft. in width. A central strip, 35 ft. wide, will be reserved 
for the tracks of the United Railways, which will be suitably 
parked. On either side of the tracks will be a 3S-ft. road- 
way of the same type of construction as the Junipero Serra 
Boulevard. The sides of the roadway will be protected 
by cor.crete curbs, inside of which will be grass plots 5 ft. 
wide. Space beneath the grass plots is reserved for sewers 
and gas and water pipes. Artificial stone sidewalks will 
adjoin the property lines. For the present, only the south- 
erly half of this roadway will be completed, the remamdei 
being left until traffic materially increases. 

Another main artery of traffic down the peninsula is 
the Mission Road, which joins the Foothill Boulevard near 
the San Mateo County line. The construction is similar to 
the Junipero Serra thoroughfare, but not as massive and 
permanent. 

Along the Bay Shore the city engineer has undertaken 
the construction of the scenic roadway that will form the 
third approach from the south, thus amply providing fon 
the thousands of automobile tourists who daily enter and 
leave San Francisco. 

All of the roadways above mentioned have some suitable^ 
connection to the state highway system. California has ex- 
pended nearly $18,000,000 in road work within the last five 
years, and $15,000,000 additional will be made available. The 
benefit to the state and to San Francisco, its principal city, 
from this construction will be more than commensurate with 
the expenditure. California is the third state in the Union 
in the number of its automobiles. Most of these are pas- 
senger cars. This adequate boulevard system, with San 
Francisco as its focus, will not only greatly benefit the; 
smaller communities along the various routes by bringing 
them into closer touch with the city, but will also provide 
to residents of tlie cities an opportunity to see the natural 
advantages of the state and to impress upon visitors the 
wealth of its resources. 

In providing a comprehensive boulevard system no par- 
ticular section of the city has been shown undue favoritism. 
Besides the three thoroughfares leading southward from 
San Francisco another unit will be added by changing Nine- 
teenth avenue from a macadam to an asphalt paved thor- 
oughfare, 2% miles in length. This will form a link between 
Golden Gate Park and Sloat Boulevard. 

Two roadways will lead from the residential districts north 
and east of Twin Peaks to the Junipero Serra Boulevard. 
Market street will be extended along the east side ol the 
ridge to connect with Portola Drive, which winds through 
some of the finest residential parks in San Francisco. Along 
its line are Mount Davidson, St. Francis Wood, and Clare- 
mont Court. Its elevation varies from 260 to 586 ft. above 
city base, and along its course an excellent view of bay 
and city may be obtained. Higher up on the range a sec- 
ond boulevard will be built, from which all of the surround- 
ing cities, Golden Gate and Pacific Ocean can be seen and 
admired. 

With a spirit of prodigality which is the heritage of the 
golden days of '49, San Francisco has until recently neg- 
lected to notice some of its most valuable possessions. A 
panorama that equals in beauty the Bay of Naples or the 
Gulf of Constantinople may be enjoyed from the boulevard 
now in course of construction between Lincoln Park and 
the Presidio. Through the eflforts of the city engineer and 
ths cooperation of the United States government, the city 
government, the Panama-Pacific Exposition Co. and private 
property owners, a route following the summit of the cliflfs 
along the harbor entrance was selected and is now being 
improved by an excellent boulevard. This will connect 



the Exposition Grounds with the Ocean Beach, passing 
through the Presidio Reservation near Fort Winfield Scott, 
along Baker's Beach near West Clay street, to Lincoln Park, 
and through Lincoln Park by way of Fort Mil-.y to the CliflE 
House, where it will connect with the imposing esplanade 
now being designed by the city engineer. 

San Francisco was the last large city in the United States 
to realize the importance of the good roads movement. Not 
until late in 1912 was a definite policy of betterment adopted, 
but in the short time that has elapsed since, much has been 
accomplished. The improvements now in progress will in 
the immediate future show that whatever the city of the 
west undertakes, whether it be a world's exposition or a 
street and boulevard system, is accomplished with typical 
Western energy, with no criterion recognized but success. 

M. M. O'Shaughnessy is the present City Engineer, under 
whose direction the extensive developments described have 
been undertaken. L. E. Hunt is Chief Assistant City En- 
gineer and James M. Owens is Assistant City Engineer in 
charge of pavement design. 



A Concrete Viaduct of a Somewhat Unusual Character has 

recently been built at Canon City, Colo. The viaduct, which 
has a total length of 742 £t., carries a highway over four rail- 
way tracks, an old river bed, a canal, a road and an abandoned 
irrigation ditch, and connects at one end with a bridge over 
the Arkansas River. The grade of the bridge rises from both 
ends toward the center. The structure consists principally of 
concrete girder and slab spans varying from 27 to 44 ft. in 
length. In addition, there are two spans crossing railroad 
tracks, one of 60 ft. and the other of 65 ft. These are steel 
plate girders, covered with concrete on the outside only in 
order to conform to the rest of the structure in appearance. 
The viaduct carries a roadway about 24 ft. wide and one side- 
walk about 5 ft. wide, and was built at a cost of about $1.40 
per sq. ft. of roadway and walk. 



The Oiled Karth Koad Has Proven Generally Satisfactory 
In Kansas, according to W. S. Gearhart, State Engineer of that 
state. In the construction of these roads, the earth from a 
strip in the center of the roadway, from 16 to 18 ft. wide is 
thrown to one side and the subgrade carefully crowned and 
rolled. Oil at a temperature of 250° F. is then applied at the 
rate of from IV* to 1% gals, per sq. yd., and enough earth to 
absorb the oil (usually a layer about 4 ins. deep) is graded 
back on to the road. The roadway is then thoroughly sprinkled 
and the earth, oil and water mixed by means of a disk harrow 
and a drag. The roadway is then compacted by a tamping 
roller, after which a second application of hot oil is made at 
the rate of about 1% gals, per sq. yd. Another layer of about 
4 ins. of fine earth is graded on to the road and the mixing 
and tamping repeated. On completion the wearing surface is 
from 5 to 6 ins. thick. 



Unusually Complete Mechanical Equipment has recently 
been used on a road Job in Indiana. The work comprised the 
construction of about 11% miles of concrete road between 
South Bend and New Carlisle. The sand and gravel were ex- 
cavated by a steam shovel, which dumped the material into 
bottom dump cars which were hauled by a small locomotive 
to a trestle over a hopper. From the hopper the material was 
carried to a revolving screen, where the sand and gravel were 
separated from the large stones which were run through a 
gyratory crusher and again screened. The gravel was trans- 
ferred from the bin at the screen to a washing plant by a belt 
conveyor, where it was separated into sand and two grades 
of gravel and deposited In bins. From these the material was 
loaded into cars on the Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend 
Railway, which parallels the road under construction. The 
contractor's storage was situated at a siding about three miles 
from New .flarlisle. The railroad at this point being on a fill, 
the cars were dumped into a hopper under the track from 
which the material was carried by a bucket conveyor to the 
bins. From the bins the material was discharged through 
chutes to industrial cars in which it was carried to the work. 
The industrial railway also carried the cement from the con- 
tractor's storage yard to the work. The concrete was mixed 
in a special mixer with a skip so arranged that the cars 
dumped directly into it. In addition to handling the material 
entirely by mechanical means, a considerable portion of the 
grading was done by a steam shovel. 



140 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



Relaying Street Railway Tracks in an Old Granite Block Pave- 
ment in Worcester, Massachusetts 



There is nearing completion in Worcester, Mass., the re- 
newal of the street railway tracks in Main St., in which there 
is a granite block pavement laid fourteen years ago. In the 
accompanying illustrations are shown the street before the 





MAIN STREirr, W ■ lA.sy. GUAXITE BLOCK 

PAVEMENT, 14 yEAKS 01>U— BEFORE TRACK RELAYING. 

work of track renewal was commenced and several views 
showing the work in progress. The most noteworthy feat- 
ure of the work, from the road builder's point of view, is 
the excellent condition of the old pavement. 

The grouted granite block pavement on Main St. was laid 
14 years ago, and, it is claimed, was the first of the kind to 
be laid on a business street in any city in the country. The 
original cost was about $3.50 per sq. yd., and it is stated that 








OLD PAVEMENT PARTIALLY TORN UP— SHOWING CONDI- 
TION OF ULOCK.S AND GROUTING IN JOINTS. 

there has been no expenditure for maintenance except the 
cost of replacing the pavement where openings have been 
made. 

The present work of relaying the car tracks necessitates 
the removal of the pavement within the railway area and 
also for a short distance outside, to permit toothing the old 
pavement for connecting with the new granite blocks. After 
chiseling the joints in the old blocks, the sand cushion is 
removed from under the pavement and the overhanging 
blocks broken off by sledges. One of the accompanying il- 



lustrations shows the condition of the old pavement. The 
old blocks are in such condition that the majority of them 
could be used for repaving, and the 14-year old cement grout 
is in excellent condition. 




NEW PAVEMENT IN RAILWAY AREA— SHOWING TOOTH- 
ING AT JOINING OF OLD AND NEW PAVEMENT. 

The repaying is being done with new blocks, laid on a 1-in. 
sand cushion resting on the concrete which surrounds the 
ties and the base of the new 9-in., 12S-lb. girder rails. The 
blocks are laid with joints about 54-'n- wide and are grouted 
with a 1:2 mixture of cement and sand, this grout being 
brought to the top of the block. The grouting is then fin- 
ished with a ly^-.V/t mixture and a dressing of pea stone 
broomed in. 




NEW PAVEMENT IX UAILWAV A it lOA— SIIOWJ.VC, VI^A/T 
STRIP OUTSIDE OF BLOCKS ALONG OUTER RAIL. 

I-'or a short distance south from Lincoln Square a felt 
strip has been used to separate the pavement in the railroad 
area from that in the remainder of the street, the principal 
object being to reduce the noise made by the cars. This 
strip, which is 6 ins. wide and ^-in. in thickness, has been 
placed vertically between a row of blocks laid lengthwise 
along the outer rail of each track and the adjoining blocks 
in the portion of the new pavement, which is toothed into 
the old. This strip is shown in one of the accompanying il- 
lustrations. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



i4l 



Road Improvement in Multnomah County, Oregon 



Multnomah County, which derives its name from Multno- 
mah, the chief of the tribe of Indians which formerly popu- 
lated that part of the country, is situated in the northwestern 
part of Oregon and is the smallest county in the state. Its 
northern boundary, except for a few miles at the eastern 
end, where it adjoins Columbia County, is the Columbia 
River, which separates it from the state of Washington; 
on the east it adjoins Hood River County; on the south, 



transportation of the products of the Columbia River Basin, 
which has an area of over 240,000 sq. miles. Portland, which 
is situated in the western part of the county, near the 
junction of the Columbia and the Willamette — a navigable 
stream draining the fertile Willamette Valley, is a natural 
shipping point for the products of both the Willamette 
Valley and the Columbia River Basin. 

Much work has been done and large sums spent by the 





VIEW ON A .SECTION OF THE POWELL. "VALLEY ROAD, 
MULTNOMAH COUNTY, ORE. — WARRENITE PAVEMENT. 



VIEW ON A SECTION OF THE BASE LINE ROAD, MULT- 
NOMAH COUNTY, ORE. — WARRENITE PAVEMENT. 



Clackamas County, and on the west, Washington County. 
Portland, the largest city of the state, is its county seat. 

For the past fifty years, Multnomah County has been 
recognized as .occupying what is destined to be a center of 
great commercial and agricultural activity, and the county 
has taken an important part in the development of the 
Northwest. The Columbia River, which rises in the Sel- 
kirk Mountains in British Columbia, winds through Wash- 
ington and Oregon and provides a natural waterway for the 



government in the improvement of the Columbia. About 
twenty-five years ago, upwards of $5,000,000 was spent at 
what is now Cascade Locks, about 40 miles above Portland, 
and during the past decade the government has continued 
the work, within a year completing the Celilo Locks, which 
are 10 miles in length and cost over $8,000,000. The Colum- 
bia, being the only waterway cutting through the Cascade 
Mountains, provides a water grade for railways and a line 
on either bank follows the river through the range. 




VIEW FROM CROWN POINT ON THE COLUMBIA HIGHWAY IN MULTNOMAH COUNTY, OREGON— PORTIONS OF THIS 
ROAD ARE INCLUDED IN THE SURFACING CONTRACTS RECENTLY AWARDED. 



142 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 




BCARIFYIXa OLD MACADAM PREPARATORY TO 
NEW SURFACING — BASE IJNE ROAD. 

In the work of developing water and rail transportation 
from the Columbia Basin to the Coast, the people of Wash- 
ington and Oregon have been very active, and Multnomah 
County has taken a leading part in the work. During the 
past two years the county has also made great progress in 
the improvement of its facilities for primary transportation. 
In this work of highway improvement, S. Benson, John B. 
Veon and Samuel Hill have played leading parts, their ad- 
vocacy of better highways having done much to bring about 
the improvement of the highways of Multnomah County. 
These men have had the hearty support of the most promi- 
nent and substantial business men in Multnomah County 
and also the Portland Chamber of Commerce. 

Some time ago a bond issue of $1,250,000, to provide 
finds for improving the main arteries of transportation 
in Multnomah County, including the famous Columbia River 




Highway, was proposed by Messrs. Benson and Yeon. The 
Columbia River Highway, which traverses Multnomah 
County in an easterly and westerly direction, connects Port- 
land with the "Eastern Empire," and aside from its com- 
mercial value is one of the most wonderful of scenic high- 
ways. It follows the Columbia River and provides an easy 
grade for motor traffic. An energetic campaign was con- 
ducted in favor of the bond issue, and the issue finally 
carried by a 3 to 1 vote. 




ROLLING FOUNDATION FOR WARRENITE SURFACING— 
POWELL VALLEY ROAD— MULTNOMAH COUNTY, ORE. 




CRUMHINU PLANT OPERATED BY THE WARREN CON- 
STRUCTION CO. AT I^TOURELLE, MULTNOMAH 
COUNTT, ORB. 



SHEPPERDS DELL BRIDGE ON THE COLUMBIA HIGHWAY 
IN MULTNOMAH COUNTY, ORE. 

Specifications were drawn up for various types of pave- 
ments, and early in June bids were received on each road. 
Prior to the receipt of bids. President C. C. Colt of the 
Portland Chamber of Commerce appointed a special com- 
mittee of that body to investigate various types of paving 
and their availability for the proposed work and to advise 
with the county commissioners and Road Master Yeon as 
to the surfacing material to be used. This committee, con- 
sisting of Frederick W. Mulkey, Rodney L. Glisan and Frank 
McCrillis, submitted a lengthy report in which Warrenite 
pavement was recommended for a majority of the roads, 
with brick for the steeper grades and wood block, brick and 
concrete on a number of shorter sections. The report of 
Road Master Yeon also recommended Warrenite for the 
majority of the roads. 

Bids were received early in June and contracts awarded, 
as was noted in "Good Roads" for June 26. Work is now un- 
der way on all of the roads, which have a total length of 
about 74 miles. Of the total, Warrenite is being used on 
about SS miles and concrete on about 10 miles; brick is 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



143 



being used on sections where the grades exceed 10 per cent., 
and wood block is being used on two short stretches of 
500 ft. each. 

The roads to be surfaced with Warrenite included two 
sections of Sandy Road, awarded to the Warren Construc- 
tion Co., of Portland, Ore., at $198,690.90 and $16,159.17, re- 
spectively; four sections of the Columbia River Highway, 
three of which were awarded to the Warren Construction Co. 
at $121,077.52, $29,806.61 and $137,219.50, and the other to 




LAYING WARRENITE SURFACE ON THE COLUMBIA HIGH- 
WAY AT CORBETT, MULTNOMAH COUNTY, ORB. 




THE COLUMBIA HIGHWAY AT CROWN POINT, MULT- 
NOMAH COUNTY — ROAD AT LEFT. 

the Pacific Bridge Co., of Portland, Ore., at $155,332.78; one 
section of the Canyon Road, awarded to the Warren Con- 
struction Co. at $16,903.60; two sections of the Base Line 
Road, awarded to the Clark-Henry Construction Co., of 
Sacramento, Cal., at $132,493.20 and $15,886.20; a section of 
the Powell Valley Road, awarded to Oskar Huber, of Port- 
land, Ore., at $121,603.90, and several sections of St. Helen's 
Road, awarded to Oskar Huber at a total of $57,687.70. The 
contracts for concrete pavement were for portions of Foster 
Road and the Capitol Highway, and were awarded to 
Giebisch & Joplin at $70,976.95 and $89,988.74, respectively. 
The brick contracts, amounting to $22,352, were awarded 
to the Boyajohn-Arnold Co. and Hans Pederson. 

Of the Warrenite pavement, 20 miles will be new road, 
while the balance will consist of resurfacing the worn-out 
macadam. On the new work, a 4-in. crushed stone founda- 
tion, with a 2-in. Warrenite top will be used. The roads 
will be 18 ft. wide, with a 3-ft. shoulder on each side. The 
new roads will cost about $15,000 per mile, and the resurf^f- 
jng work about $13,000 per mile, 




ROLLING WARRENITE SURFACING ON THE COLUMBIA 
HIGHWAY AT CORBETT, MULTNOMAH COUNTY, ORE. 

The concrete roads are being constructed under specifi- 
cations patterned after those used in Wayne County, Michi- 
gan. The pavements will be 7 ins. in thickness, of a l:lj4:3 
mixture, and will be provided with armored expansion joints 
at frequent intervals. The roads will be 18 ft. wide, with a 
3-ft. crushed rock shoulder on each side, and will be pro- 
tected from trafific for about three weeks after completion. 
The average price will be about $13,000 per mile. 

The brick blocks being used are made by the Denny-Ren- 
ton Clay & Coal Co., of Seattle, Wash., and are special 
brick provided with a groove to insure better foothold. 
The brick will be laid on a 1-in. sand cushion resting on 
a 6-in. concrete foundation and will be grouted with a 1:1 
cement grout. The cost of the brick section will be about 
$25,000 per mile, the high price being due partly to the 
cost of the brick— about $20 per thousand at the kiln. 




AERJAL CONVEYoii i.-uK XKA.XriPUiMi.Nii .STuNE FROJJ 

CRUSHER TO PLANT OF THE WARP.E^f 

CONSTRUCTION CO. 



144 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



The wood block sections will be laid with 3-in. creosoted 
blocks on concrete bases. The cost will be about $25,000 
per mile. 

It is stated that the example set by Multnomah County 



will probably be followed by other counties in the state. 
A campaign has also been launched for a $10,000,000 bond 
issue for state roads, and the project, it is reported, is being 
received favorably in all sections. 



Road and Street Work in the City of Panama 



By HENRY WELLES DURHAM* 



Early in the history of the city of Panama, which was 
foonded on the Pacific coast in 1517, a road was laid out by 
royal decree of the Spanish government connecting it with 
the settlement of Nombre de Dios on the Caribbean shore. 
It was cut through a forest over the low range of hills 
separating the two oceans. The larger streams were bridged 
and the small ones forded, and the entire route paved with 
cobblestones, wide enough, according to some accounts, to 
permit two carts to pass. Portions of this pavement can 
still be found across the isthmus, though it was long ago 
abandoned and the jungle has covered it. Later another 
paved trail was constructed from Cruces, to Panama, a dis- 
Unce of about twelve miles. This is still in use by the 
nativev and portions of it have been recently improved by 
our government. 

The old city of Panama — which, until its destruction by 
British pirates in 1671. was the most important and richest 
American city — can still be traced by its ruins on the shore 
of Panama Bay at a distance of five miles from the present 
city. It was constructed on the rectangular plan, and, like 
all the older American towns, had streets paved with small 
cobbles very similar to those used on the trans-isthmian 
road. The good quality of such paving work is evidenced 
by the fact that some of it has endured 240 years after all 
maintenance or use of it has ceased. 

The city, as rebuilt in 1673, occupies a site on a peninsula 
fire miles to the westward. It was laid out on what was 
then a massive scale and was surrounded by a masonry 
walL The streets were laid out on a generally rectangular 
system, but were usually narrow, the width varying from 
20 to 60 ft. The blocks were solidly built up, after the 
usual Spanish system, having masonry buildings two or 
three stories in height with interior courts. The sidewalks 
were narrow — usually not over 3 ft. in width — and were 
adjacent to the buildings and overhung by balconies. Be- 
tween the curbs, the streets were, as usual, paved with small 



*Con«uItlnK Engineer, New York. N. Y.. formerly Resident 
Enclneer In Charire of Municipal Improvements at Panama. 
Isthmian Canal Commission. 




cobbles obtained from neighboring streams. As in all Span- 
ish-American cities, the sidewalk widths and heights were 
largely a matter of individual choice, so that travel was 
difficult. The stone pavements, while rough, were laid to a 
generally even surface and served fairly well for more than 
200 years to carry all the traffic that came on them, which 
largely consisted of two-wheeled carts and light carriages. 

The necessity for modern highway construction in Panama 
arose as an incident in the course of other work and was 
not part of the original plan. The act of Congress authoriz- 
ing an isthmian canal empowered the President to make 
necessary arrangements for the acquiring of the territory 
for the canal construction and "to make such police and 
sanitary rules as shall be necessary to preserve order and 
the public health thereon." The treaty between the United 
States and the Republic of Panama granted to the former 
the right to carry on "any works of sanitation, such as the 
collection and disposition of sewage and the distribution of 
water in the cities of Panama and Colon, which may be 
necessary for the construction, maintenance, operation, sani- 
tation and protection of the Canal." 

The conditions prevailing on the isthmus at the time the 
Canal Zone was acquired by the United States in 1904, and 
for many years previous, left no doubt as to the necessity 
for a proper water supply and sewerage system, and for an 
efficient health department in charge of quarantine, sanita- 
tion and hospitals. It soon developed that to aid in proper 
drainage, road construction was absolutely necessary. 

The city of Panama was the only settlement having any 
paved streets. The old cobblestone surface, while adequate 
under former conditions, and on a subfoundation of hard 
clay, proved to be impossible of restoration over back- 
filled trenches, and, with the additional traffic produced in 
the city and adjoining towns after the commencement of the 
canal construction, was entirely inadequate. With the ex- 
ception of a few poorly constructed macadam roads, all 
other public ways were simply dirt tracks, dusty in the dry 
season and almost impassable with mud in wet weather. 
The work of municipal engineering was, therefore, soon after 




CKNTIiAI. AVE.NUE, TilE MAIN STREET OF THE CITY OF 
PANAMA— COMPLETED BRICK PAVEMENT. 



tO.VCUETE PAVED STREET IN PANAMA CITY— SHOWING 
COMMENCEMENT OF SIDEWALK RECONSTRUCTION, 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



145 




HAND MIXING GANGS PREPARING CONCRETE EOU CURBS 
AND FOUNDATION — CITY OF PANAMA. 

the construction of water works and sewers had been in- 
augurated, extended to embrace the necessary surfacing of 
streets and roads. When all trenches had been properly 
backfilled and given time for settlement, the work of paving 
was commenced. 

The choice of material for the country roads was easily 
made. There was no rapid automobile traffic at that time, 
and a good quality of macadam construction was decided 
upon. In the narrow streets of the city of Panama, how- 
ever, this would not have been adequate. Vitrified brick 
was selected as most suitable for the climate and local con- 
ditions. For the principal street of the city — which has a 
length of about one mile between the railroad station and 
the central plaza and a width varying from about 40 to 80 
ft. and which carried the heaviest traffic — a S-in. concrete 
foundation was used, the bricks being laid on a 1-in. sand 
cushion. The question of joint filler was originally decided 
in favor of bituminous material, and a requisition sent in 
on this basis. Later, on account of climatic conditions, 
it was decided to use cement grout. On the other principal 
streets of the city 4-in. concrete foundations were thought 
to be adequate. On streets of minor importance, either brick 
was laid directly on a rolled macadam foundation, or, on 
some, the brick surface was omitted altogether and a 4-in. 
concrete roadway with a smooth surface was put down. 

Paving construction in the city proper was undertaken 
some time before the parties engaged on sewers and water- 
mains in the outlying portions of the city could be ma- 
terially reduced and, therefore, necessitated a considerable 




FINISHING SURFACE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT IN 
PANAMA— SHOWING CURB AND SIDEWALK WORK. 

increase of force and the appointment of additional super- 
visors competent to handle this work. A small gang had 
been employed from the start resurfacing the old macadam 
roads around Ancon and other districts outside of Panama, 
and this party was continued and its duties increased so 
as to take over all macadam construction outside the city, 
which amounted to about ten miles during the three years 
that the principal work was going on. 

The work under the Resident Engineer for Panama and 
outlying districts, which comprised about one-half of all the 
municipal engineering work done on the isthmus, was under 
two assistant engineers, one in charge of the work in the 
city and vicinity and the other directing construction on 
the main water supply line and in the outlying towns be- 
tween Panama and Culebra. The city division had three 
sections, one directly charged with the water works and 
sewers, another with the street paving, and a third with 
the macadam road construction outside the city limits. At 
the time of maximum activity during the second year over 
1,500 men were employed. 

It was necessary before commencing paving to hire a site 
and lay out a storage yard in the vicinity of the Panama 
Railroad freight yards for the receipt of material, there being 
no adequate room already available. Spur tracks were con- 
structed with sheds for the storage of several thousand bar- 
rels of cement (material coming in shipload lots); room 
was provided for storing at least 3,000,000 brick, and bins 
were arranged for sand and crushed stone. The latter it 
was planned to supply from a crusher plant operated on the 





COMPLETING CENTRAL AVE. BRICK PAVEMENT— MEET- 
ING OF GANGS WORKING TOWARD EACH OTHER, 



THE SABAK.\S l:iiA|. XIOAl; I'AXA.MA city — IMPROVED 
BY LAVING WATER BOUND MACADAM. 



146 GOOD ROADS September 4, 1915 

' line of the Panama Railroad and furnished with stone from in some cases were lower than $3.50. The concrete streets 

Culebra CuL ran between $1.75 and $2.00, these prices in all cases in- 

The use of machinery on the work was found in general eluding curb construction. The records of the Canal Com- 

impracticable. In the storage yard a hoisting engine was mission show that the Sabanas Road, leading out from the 

employed to assist the light switching engines in getting city of Panama, for a distance of over five miles, had an 

supply trains of crushed stone and sand on to the trestle extremely high cost; but the method of record keeping in 

track over the bins. Concrete mixers were ordered for use use by the main office of the Canal Commission at that time 

on the streets. They were supposed to be satisfactory, but was lamentably defective, no attention being paid to dc- 

on delivery, after the work was well under way, they proved tails, and at present there is nothing in the Isthmian Canal 

to be so large and clumsy as to require more labor than record keeping in use by the main office of the Canal Com- 

that necessary for hand mixing, and were never taken on mission's records to show — as was the case — that a large 

the streets. For consolidating the subgrade and rolling the part of the plant and other improper charges had been 

brick surfaces a small S-ton roller was employed, and this figured into the cost of this road. Records of some of the 

was occasionally also used in emergency work on tiiacadam later road construction showed a cost of about $8,000 per 

construction. mile for one of the main macadam highways, of an average 

The supply of crushed stone from the Panama Railroad width of 20 ft., leading out of the city. Some unit prices 

crusher soon proved inadequate and search in son;e of the were as follows: 

old French warehouses resulted in the finding of a number Hrifk faving 

of small portable jaw crushers that had been overgrown j.ahor: 

with Kees and jungle. One of these was set up in one of the Foremen $60 — $125 per mo. 

. . .^ J , , 1. iL ij uui Pavers 16 — 30 cts. per hr. 

pablic squares m the city and used to crush the old cobble- l>aborers 10 — 16 cts. per hr. 

stone pavement as fast as it was removed from the streets. ^s^rick'' $3000 per M 

.Mthough the bowlders were so hard as to frequently break Cement 2.09 per bbl. 

the jaws of the crusher, the experiment proved a success ^"""^ conrrete '"" "" "" ^^' 

and a large part of the foundation concrete was laid from Labor: 

the material taken up immediately in advance of paving. Foremen $60— 1125 per mo. 

_. . ... , J, , , Mixers 10 — 16 cts. per hr. 

The pavmg of the mam street was the most needed and Laborers 10 — 16 cts. per hr. 

most important part of the city paving work. It was com- Celnent $2.09 per bbl. 

menced in November in the midst of extremely rainy weath- Ji'"'' J?!? p'^'" <="• v^- 

,.,..-,,, , , % , Stone 1.50 per cii. yd. 

er and was finished m March, about one month before the Lumber 28.00 per m. ft. b.m. 

Chief Engineer had estimated that it would be possible. Karth Exravation 

For this he forfeited a bet to the Resident Engineer and ^'porimen $60— $125 per mo. 

1 bonus to the general foremen. With its completion there Carpenters 16 — 30 cts. per hr. 

, . ,.!..• J u- u .u 1 Laborers 10 — 16 cts. per hr. 

mras some relaxation of the tension under which the work Material: 

had been carried on, due to the criticism on all sides of the tJoi's'^''" *^*"" '^"'^ ^- "' ^'^ 

old street conditions. It was possible to carry on the ad- Picks 2R cts. each. 

..,. , 1 • .Li. -J » !l -.u r ..1, » • Shovels 32 to 40 cts. each. 

ditional work m the side streets with no further great in- 

, • . . .. Roi'k Bx4'avation 

terference with public convenience. Labor- 
In the city of Panama there was constructed about 65,000 Foremen jcn— «i25 per mo. 

, f.-i ^ < ■ »xii lurcc •''team drillers 16 — 30 cts. per hr. 

»q. yds. of brick pavement having a total length of 5.5 Hand drillers ifi cts. per hr. 

miles. About two-thirds of this was laid on concrete foun- vi"rf l^^^""^ I^— ^l*"" P^'' "o- 

b iremen 30 — per mo. 

dation, the remainder on macadam. There was also con- Blacksmith 16— 30 cts. per hr. 

structed about 19,000 sq. yds. (about two miles) of con- Material: "^ ^' ^^'^ 

Crete pavement. Concrete curbs were built on all these Drf/l steel *o'os ^'^^ i*h" 

streets. On account of the uniform temperature no difficulty Dynamite !.!'.! '!*i!r' "^ <^'> — S7.12 r^er case, 50 lbs 

, . . »• .L 1 ..^ .c 1 11- J Exploders 34.90 per M 

was experienced in constructing the latter to any length de- Fuse ! . . 1 0.004 per ft. 

sired. Though no provisions of any sort were made for Caps 5.25 per m. 

expansion in the concrete pavements or curbs, few cracks The total amount of paving brick first delivered was 

occurred. 3,082,500 at $30 per M., which laid 47,570 sq. yds. of street 

Outside the older walled city the town had grown and surface, or about 64 brick to the yard, including breakage. 
is still extending in a westerly direction towards Ancon Hill, Subsequently 1,463,000 more brick were bought at $27.30. 
which is the site of the American settlement and the head- With these the remainder of the Panama city area was corn- 
quarters of the Canal Zone. With the exception of the pleted as well as one brick street in Colon. 

main street leading towards the railroad station, most of 

the streets in this district were adequately surfaced with 

macadam between concrete curbs and brick or concrete ''•" O'"'""'"'*'^ "' H">inK the Servi.e, of Competent KnBl- 

_ , ... ... , neerd In the ConHtruction of Roads and Pavements is empha- 

gtiners. Two mam roads, one leading to the old port of sired in a recent treatise on "Vitrified Brick P.-wements for 

La Boca at the mouth of the canal, and the other running Country Roads," by Vernon M. Pierce, chief of Construction, 

in a northeasterly direction to a connection with the trails "•''*' Charles H. Moorefleld, Senior Highway Eng-ineer. of the 

k.-.ding northerly and easterly across the isthmus, were also °''"=f °f ^"blic Roads and Rural Engineering, u. s. Depart- 

* ../-., . ,., ,v,tco ^gj,j p, Agriculture. This treatise was printed as a bulletin 

reconstructed as first-class macadam highways. of the U. S. Department of Agriculture which was issued in 

In the city of Panama and vicinity there was expended July. According to the authors, many communities have ex- 

for municipal improvements of all classes over $1,000 000 Pended large sums in efforts to improve their highways with- 

Any comparison of unit costs with those for other work °'" ,'"''''"'^ ""' f ^"'•e'' the services of some one competent 
• I I-..1 t • u ,1- .. . , .to plan and direct the work, with results usually unsatisfac- 

is of little value. ina.smuch as the conditions frequently tory. One of the most common mistakes is the construction 

necessitated prompt results rather than much attention to of some expensive type of pavement on an Improperly located 

economy. The first brick pavements in Panama City cost '■"a'', with not infrequent sharp angles In alignment and 

between $4.00 and $5.00 per sq. yd. However, in those ^'"""P' changes in grade, which an experienced engineer could 

....... u. t. .1. 1- • 1- . remedy at very little expense. Even in building common 

itreets where, after the preliminary rush was over work earth roads, according to the authors, it Is doubtful economy 

could be laid out with some attention to economy, prices to dispense with the services of a competent engineer. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



147 



The Pan-American Road Congress and the Organizations 
Under the Auspices of Which it Will be Held 



The Pan-American Road Congress, the first national road 
meeting to be participated in jointly by the two leading road 
organizations of the United States, will be held at Oakland 
and San Francisco, Cal., September 13 to 17, inclusive. 

The congress will be held under the joint auspices of the 
American Road Builders' Association and the American 
Highway Association, with whom the Pacific Highway As- 
sociation and the Tri-State Good Roads Association will co- 
operate. All arrangements for the congress, as has p-'c- 
viously been noted, have been made by the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Pan-American Road Congress whicl: was 
appointed late last year. The committee consists of Itiajor 



Hartford, Conn., on Feb. 10 and 11, 1914, with an attendance 
of over eleven hundred delegates and guests. The third con- 
vention was held at Port Huron, Mich., Aug. 29, 30 and 31, 
1905. The next meeting was held at Pittsburgh, Penn., on 
March 12, 13 and 14, 1907. The attendance at that meeting 
was over twelve hundred. The fifth convention was held at 
Buflfalo, N. Y., on July 7 and 8, 1908, and the sixth at 
Columbus, Ohio, on Oct. 26, 27, 28 and 29, 1909. 

Two innovations were made at that meeting; first, the con- 
vention was lengthened to four days, and second, the ex- 
hibition feature was added. The latter feature composed 
nearly forty separate exhibits of the machinery and materials 




THE MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM, OAKLAND, CAL., WHERE MOST OP THE SESSIONS OF THE PAN-AMERICAN 

CONGRESS WILL BE HELD SEPT. 13-17. 



ROAD 



W. W. Crosby and E. L. Powers, Treasurer and Secretary, 
respectively, of the A. R. B. A., who represent that organiza- 
tion; James H. MacDonald and J. E. Pennybacker, repre- 
senting the A. H. A., and Gov. Charles W. Gates of Ver- 
mont, who was elected by the other four members as chair- 
man. In order to facilitate matters the committee has 
divided its work among four sub-committees, as follows: 
Finance, Mr. MacDonald; Program. Major Crosby; Publicity, 
Mr. Powers, and Arrangements, Mr. Pennyliacker. 

Of the two national organizations under whose joint 
auspices the congress will be held, the American Road 
Builders' Association is the older. It was organized thirteen 
years ago as the American Road Makers' Association, and 
held its first convention at Detroit, Mich., Feb. 13 and 14, 
1903. Its membership then consisted chiefly of the officials 
and members of the staflfs of such state highway departments 
as were in existence. 

The Detroit meeting was followed by a second rneeting at 



employed in building and maintaining roads and streets and, 
in addition, demonstrations of actual road construction were 
made on a road near the exhibition. The displays included 
construction and maintenance equipment, from small hand 
tools to heavy machinery, and a large variety of the materials 
for road building and paving. The attendance was over 
one thousand. 

During the following year, 1910, the name of the organiza- 
tion was changed from the American Road Makers' Asso- 
ciation to the American Road Builders' Association, and it 
was chartered, without capital, under the laws of New York. 

A very material change in conditions had been brought 
about by 1910. As public sentiment favoring the extension 
of road work had strengthened, the state aid principle had 
grown in favor, with the result that more states had estab- 
lished highway departments and road work, in general, had 
become better organized. With this change, the organiza- 
tion had undergone a considerable modification. Its member- 



148 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



ship had greatly increased and its scope had broadened. 
The seventh annual convention was held at Indianapolis, 
Ind.. on December 6, 7, 8 and 9, 1910. The attendance was 
over fourteen hundred, and the exhibition feature again con- 
tributed largely to the interest and value of the meeting. 
The next meeting, the eighth annual convention, was held 
at Rochester, N. Y., on November 14, 15, 16 and 17, 1911. 

Up to that year the plan usually followed in arranging road 
convention programs had been adhered to by the A. R. B. A. 
The proceedings had comprised the presentation of technical 

papers and the de- 
livery of non-tech- 
nical or popular ad- 
dresses, with little 
attempt at a logical 
grouping of the 
topics covered. A 




are the collection, collation and dissemination of information 
on road construction and maintenance; the stimulation of 
interest in road betterment, and the promotion of educa- 
tional, legislative and other measures for highway improve- 
ment. Its membership is divided into five classes — active, 
associate, honorary, contributing and life members. Active 
members are those who are actively engaged or interested 
in highway work; associate members are societies or other 
organizations interested in the association's objects; honorary 
members are those who have performed distinguished 
service in the cause 
of highway exten- 
sion and improve- 
ment; contributing 
members are com- 
mercial bodies con- 
tributing $100 per 



MAJ. W. W. CKOSBY, 
Representative of the A. R B. A. 






K. L. I'OVVlOltS, 
Representative of the A. U. B. 



CHARLKS W.. GATES, 

Governor of Vermont, 

Chairman. 

Executive Committee of the 
Pan-American Road Congress 



change was made 
in preparing the 
Rochester program. 
The papers were so 
arranged as to bring 
together related 
subjects and put be- 
fore the convention 
in a logical, orderly 
manner the 'entire 
list of topics consid- 
ered. Ample time 
was also provided 
for discussion, that 
following each formal paper being introduced by two especi- 
ally selected speakers, whose remarks were then followed by 
open discussion. Practically this same method has been 
followed at all subsequent meetings. 

The ninth annual convention was held at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
on December 3, 4, S and 6, 1912; the tenth at Philadelphia, 
Peon., on December 9, 10, 11 and 12, 1913, and the eleventh 
at Chicago, 111., on December 14, IS, 16, 17 and 18, 1914. Each 
of these meetings included an exhibition of road machinery 
and materials and each was an unqualified success. 
The objects of the American Road Builders' Association 




JAMKS H. MacDONAl.l). 
Kepresentattve of the A. H. A. 



year, and life mem- 
bers are active or 
associate members 
who make payment 
of $500 upon elec- 
tion to member- 
ship. Only active 
members are priv- 
ileged to vote or 
hold office. 

The general man- 
agement of the As- 
sociation's aflfairs is 
vested in a board of 

directors, consisting of the executive officers, the last five 
living past presidents, and eighteen elected members. The 
actual work of administration is delegated to the Executive 
Committee which consists of the Secretary, ex-officio, and 
two members of the Board of Directors. The executive 
officers are the President, First Vice President, Second Vice 
President, Third Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer. 

The annual meeting for the election of officers and the 
transaction of other business is held on the first Friday in 
February. Special meetings may be called by the Board of 
Directors or upon request gf thirty active members, 



J. E. PENNYBACKER. 
Representative of the A. H. 



A. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



149 



The dues of active members are $3 per year, of associate 
members $10 per year and of contributing members $100 
per year. The executive officers hold office for one year. 
The directors, six of whom are elected annually, hold office 
for three years. 

The present officers and members of the Board of Di- 
rectors of the association are as follows: 

Executive Officers: President, George W. Tillson, Con- 
sulting Engineer to the President of the Borough of Brook- 
lyn, New York City; First Vice President, A. W. Dean, 
Chief Engineer, Massachusetts Highway Commission; Sec- 
ond Vice President, Austin B. Fletcher, Highway Engineer 
of the California Highway Commission; Secretary, E. L. 
Powers, Editor, "Good Roads"; Treasurer, W. W. Crosby, 
Consulting Engineer. The office of Third Vice President 
was recently left vacant by the death of S. Percy Hooker, 
formerly State Superintendent of Highways of New Hamp- 
shire, who was elected last February. 

Past Presidents (Members of the Board): James H. Mac- 
Donald, ex-State Highway Commissioner of Connecticut; 
Harold Parker, ex-Chairman, Massachusetts Highway Com- 
mission; Nelson P. Lewis, Chief- En- 
gineer, Board of Estimate and Appor- 
tionment of New York City; Samuel 
Hill, President, Washington State Good 





man du Pont, President, E. I. du Pont de Nemours Powder 
Co.; C. A. Kenyon, President, Indiana Good Roads Asso- 
ciation; Walter G. Leininger, Superintendent of Streets of 
Chicago, 111.; R. A. Meeker, State Highway Engineer of 
New Jersey; Logan Waller Page, Director, Office of Public 
Roads and Rural Engineering, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. 

The present Executive Committee consists of Past Presi- 
dent Nelson P. Lewis, First Vice President A. W. Dean 
and Secretary E. L. Powers. 

The headquarters of the association are at ISO Nassau 
St., New York, N. Y. 

The American Highway Association was organized in No- 
vember, 1910, as the American Association for Highway 
Improvement. Its first convention was held at Richmond, 
Va., on November 20, 21, 22 and 23, 1911. The attendance 
was about seven hundred. 

The next year the organization joined forces with the 
American Automobile Association, holding a convention at 
Atlantic City, N. J., September 30 to October S, inclusive. 
The plan of uniting with the A. A. A. has been followed 
at all of the succeeding conventions of 
the association. The Atlantic City con- 
vention included an exhibition of road 
building machinery and materials, as 



A. w. DEAN, 
First Vice President. 



GEORGK \V. TILI^SON, 
President. 

President and Vice Presidents, 
American Road Builders' Association 




A. B. FLETCHER, 
Second Vice President. 



Roads Association; W. A. McLean, Chief Engineer of High- 
ways and Commissioner Ontario Public Roads and High- 
ways Commission. 

Directors, Term Expires 1918: E. A. Fisher, City Engi- 
neer of Rochester, N. Y.; A. R. Hirst, State Highway Engi- 
neer of Wisconsin; Joseph W. Hunter, First Deputy Com- 
missioner, Pennsylvania State Highway Department; Frank 
F. Rogers, State Highway Commissioner of Michigan; Wil- 
liam R. Smith, General Manager, Lane Construction Cor- 
poration; H. M. Waite, City Manager of Dayton, Ohio. 

Term Expires 1917: T. R. Agg, Professor of Highway 
Engineering, Iowa State College; W. E. Atkinson, State 
Highway Engineer of Louisiana; Arthur H. Blanchard, Pro- 
fessor of Highway Engineering, Columbia University; Fred 
E. Ellis, Manager, Essex Trap Rock & Construction Co.; 
R. H. Gillespie, Chief Engineer of Sewers and Highways, 
Borough of the Bronx, New York City; Paul D. Sargent, 
Chief Engineer, State Highway Commission of Maine. 

Term Expires 1916: Wm. H. Connell, Chief, Bureau of 
Highways and Street Cleaning of Philadelphia, Pa.; T. Cole- 



have the conventions held since that date. 

The third convention of the organization — the name of 
which had been changed, since the last convention, to the 
American Highway Association — was held at Detroit, Mich., 
Sept. 29 to Oct. 4, inclusive, 1913. The fourth convention 
was held at Atlanta, Ga., November 9 to 14, 1914. 

The object of the organization, as set forth in its consti- 
tution, is "to harmonize and correlate all efforts for the 
improvement of the public roads, to the end that adequate 
and efficient systems of road construction, administration 
and maintenance may be adopted in all of the states." 

There are four classes of members — -regular members, 
associate members, sustaining members and honorary mem- 
bers. Regular members are persons paying annual dues of 
$5; associate members are the members of such other or- 
ganizations for road improvement, cooperating with the 
American Highway Association, as shall file rosters of their 
membership with the Secretary of the A. H. A.; sustaining 
members are individuals or organizations paying dues of 
$100, and honorary members sre thos? duly elected as s^qh. 



ISO 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



Associate and honorary members pay no dues. Regular 
and sustaining members may vote. 

The officers of the association are the President, the Vice 
President, the Treasurer, the Board of Directors, and such 
other officers as may be appointed by the Executive Com- 
mittee. The Board of Directors consists of the President 
and Vice President, together with 23 other members. The 
constitution provides 




lAIKKAX HAHKISON, 
President. 

President and Vice President, 
American Highway Association 

three years, a group being elected 



Committre on Mem- 
bership and an Aud- 
iting Committee o f 
three members each. 
The Executive Com- 
mittee is selected by 
the Board of Direct- 
ors and acts for that 
board in the active 
work of directing the 
affairs of the asso- 
ciation. The Presi- 
dent, Vice Presiden: 
Treasurer and mem- 
bers of the Board of 
Directors must b e 
regular or sustaining 
members. The offi- 
cers hold office for 
one year. The Di- 
rectors hold office for 
annually. 

The present officers of the organization are as follows: 

President. Fairfax Harrison, President of the Southern 
Railway Company; Vice President, Lo- 
gan Waller Page, Director of the Office 
of Public Roads and Rural Engineering. 
U. S. Department of Agriculture; Treas- 
urer, John Burke, Treasurer of the Unit- 
er States. 

Other officers are: Chairman of the 
Board of Directors, James S. Harlan, 
Chairman of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission; Chairman of the Executive 
Committee, Leonard Tufts; Executive 
Secretary, I. S. Penny backer; Field Sec- 
retary, Charles P. Light. 

The members of the Boird of Direct- 
ors are as follows: 

Terms expire 1917: A. G. Batchelder, 
American Automobile Association; 
Charles D. Blaney, Chairman, California 
Highway Commission; S. E. Bradt, Sec- 
retary, Illinois Highway Commission; 
Richard H. Edmonds, Editor, "Manu- 
facturers Record"; Bryan Lathrop. 
Member, Lincoln Park Commission; 
Leonard Tufts, President, Capital High- 
way Association; William D. Sohier, 
Chairman, Massachusetts Highway Com- 
mission; W. Tom Winn, County Commissioner of Fulton 
County, Georgia. 

Terms expire 1916: Charles Whiting Baker, Editor, "Engi- 
neering News"; Roy D. Chapin, Detroit, Mich.; Austin B. 
Fletcher. Highway Engineer, California Highway Commis- 
»ion; James .S. Harlan, Chairman, Interstate Commerce 
Commission; L. E. Johnson, President, Norfolk & Western 



LO(i.\N WALLtlR PAGE, 
Vice President. 




SA.MITKl. IIIIJ,, 

President, 

Pacific Highway Association 



Railway Co.; Joseph W. Jones, New York City; A. N. John- 
son, Road Engineer, Bureau of Municipal Research, New 
York City; Thomas G. Norris, President, Arizona Good 
Roads .Association. 

Terms expire 1915; W. T. Beatty, Chicago, 111.; George 
W. Coolcy, State Engineer of Minnesota; George C. Diehl, 
Chairman, Good Roads Board, A. A. A.; Clarence A. Ken- 
yon, President, I n - 
diana Good Roads 
Roads Association; 
James H. MacDon- 
ald, former State 
Highway Commis- 
sioner of Connecti- 
cut; E J. Mehren, 
I-'ditor, "Engineer- 
i n g Record"; D r . 
Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
State Geologist o f 
North Carolina. 

The association's 
headquarters are a t 
the Colorado Bldg., 
Washington, D. C. 
The Pacific High- 
way Assoc! ation, 
which has been i n 
existence for several 
years and was incor- 
porated during the 
present year, held 
its first annual con- 
vention i n Seattle, 
Wash., in 1910. Suc- 
ceding conventions have been held at Portland, Ore., in 1911, 
at San Francisco, Cal., in 1912, and at Vancouver, B. C. in 
1913. 
The main object of the association is "to promote the 
construction, completion and keeping in 
repair of a public highway extending 
continuously from Alaska, through Brit- 
ish Columbia and the states of Washing- 
ton, Oregon and California, to Mexico, 
with alternate routes which may be 
preferable in different seasons or in dif- 
ferent conditions of weather, and to 
keep said highway marked by sign 
l)oards in form and superscription to be 
registered by this society in conformity 
to the laws of the United States and of 
British Columbia relating to the regis- 
tration of signs and the exclusive right 
to use registered signs." 

The members of the association are 
divided into charter members, elected 
members, life members and honorary 
members. Charter and elected mem- 
Iiers pay an initiation fee of $5 and an- 
nual dues of $5. The officers consi.st of 
the President; nine Vice Presidents; the 
Secretary, who is also the Executive 
Officer; the Treasurer, and three Trus- 
tees. All of these officials constitute the 
Board of Trustees. The Executive 
Committee consists of the President, senior Vice Presidents, 
the Secretary, the Treasurer and the senior Trustee. The 
President, Secretary and Treasurer hold office for one year; 
the Vice Presidents for five years, and the Trustees for three 
years. The Board of Trustees is the governing body of the 
association, the active work being delegated to the ExecOtive 
Officer. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



151 



The present officers of the organization are as follows; 

President, Samuel Hill, Maryhill, Wash.; Executive Officer, 
Henry L. Bowlby, Portland, Ore.; Vice President; Wash- 
ington, Norman B. Abrams, Seattle; Oregon, Frank B. Riley, 
Portland; California, Mrs. A. B. Spreckels, San Francisco, 
and F. W. Jackson, San Diego; British Columbia, A. E. 
Todd, Victoria, and F. R. McD. Russell, Vancouver; Alaska, 
Falcon Joslyn, Fairbanks; Yukon Territory, Alfred Thomp- 
son, Dawson; Arizona, Dr. J. A. Ketcherside, Yuma; Treas- 
urer, Henry L. Bowlby; Trustees: C. H. Hanford (for one 
year), Frank Terrace (for two years), and Geo. F. Rodgers 
(for three years). 

The headquarters of the association are at the Chamber 
of Commerce Building, Portland, Ore. 

The Tri-State Good Roads Association was organized at 
a meeting of delegates from the states of Oregon, Washing- 
ton and California, held at Eureka, Cal., on Aug. 21. 1913. 
The association now has nearly four thousand members, it 
is stated, in the three states mentioned. It is a popular or 
propaganda organization, having for its object the stimula- 
tion of sentiment favoring the extension of road improve- 
ment work. The meeting which will be merged with the 
Pan-American Road Congress will be the third annual gath- 
ering held under the association's auspices. 

The officers of the Tri-State Good Roads Association are 
as follows: President, Capt. Walter Coggeshall, Eureka, 
Cal.; Treasurer, Judge W. S. Worden, Klamath Falls, Ore.; 
Directors, GeofTry Winslow, Tacoma, Wash., and J. H. 
Albert, Salem, Ore.; Executive Secretary, Geo. E. Boos, 
1220 Flood Building, San Francisco, Cal. 

The Pan-American Road Congress will be held in the 
Municipal Auditorium Bldg., Oakland, Cal., on Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, September 13, 
14, IS, 16 and 17. The formal opening of the congress will 
take place on the forenoon of Monday, September 13. The 
first session of the congress will be held on Monday after- 
noon, and will be followed by other sessions on Tuesday 
forenoon and afternoon, Wednesday forenoon and after- 
noon, Thursday forenoon and afternoon, and Friday fore- 
noon; the closing session will be held on Friday afternoon. 
In addition to these sessions there will be special meetings 
of the organizations cooperating in the holding of the con- 
gress, entertainments and excursions. 

Membership in the congress is divided into two classes — 
donor membership and temporary membership. Donor 
members are those firms or indviduals contributing $50 or 
more toward the necessary expenses of the congress, while 
temporary members are individuals registering and paying a 
fee of $2. Members of either the American Road Builders' 
Association or the American Hiighvvay Association, in good 
standing on June 1, are exempt from payment of this fee. 
All registered members of the congress will receive, free, 
one copy of the "Proceedings" when printed. 

The first of the entertainment features scheduled is a 
srnoker on Monday evening, Sept. 13. The smoker will be 
given by the Commercial Club of Oakland and will be held 
at the Hotel Oakland. On Tuesday evening the Pan-Amer- 
ican Road Congress Banquet will be held, in honor of the 
distinguished guests of the congress. On Wednesday the 
afternoon, session of the congress will be held in Festival 
Hall in the Exposition Grounds, San Francisco, and the 
present plans are to arrange an official tour of the road 
machinery and material exhibits in the various buildings 
during the evening. On Thursday evening there will be a 
special session of the congress at which moving pictures and 
illustrated lectures will be the prominent features. Arrange- 
ments will also be made for a SO-mile automobile inspection 
tour over the State Highway, on Saturday, Sept. 18, start- 
ing from Oakland and ending at San Francisco. In addition, 
there will be an excursion to Yosemite National Park, a spe- 
cial train leaving San Francisco on Saturday evening and 



returning Sunday night. This will give those who take it 
an opportunity to have all day Sunday in the park. 

The tentative program, with such corrections as had been 
received up to the time of going to press, follows. Unless 
otherwise noted, all sessions will be held in the Municipal Au- 
ditorium Building at Oakland. 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 
Formal Opening, 10:30 A.M. 

Invocation. 
Opening Address, 

Hon. Charles W. Gates, Governor of Vermont. 
Address, 

Hon. Hiram W. Johnson, Governor of California. 
Address, 

Hon. Ernest Lister, Governor of Washington. 
Address, 

Hon. James Withycombe, Governor of Oregon. 
.Address, 

Hon. John L. Davie, Mayor of Oakland. 
Address, 

Hon. James A. Barr, Director of Congresses, Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition. 
Address, 

George W. Tillson, President, American Road Builders' 
Association. 
Address, 

Fairfax Harrison, President, American Highway Associa- 
tion. 

.A.ppointment of Committees. 

First Sesiion, 2:00 P.M. 

Chairman, Fairfax Harrison, President, American Highway 

Association. 
"The History and Future of Highway Improvement," 
Logan Waller Page, Director, Office of Public Roads and 
Rural Engineering, United States Department of Agri- 
culture. 

"The Relation of the Road to Rail and Water Transporta- 
tion," 
C. J. Tilden, Professor of Civil Engineering, Johns Hop- 
kins University. 
"The Benefits and Burdens of Better Roads," 

S. E. Bradt, Secretary, Illinois State Highway Commis- 
sion. 

"Roadside Improvement," 

Henry S. Graves, Chief, Bureau of Forestry, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

"The Essentials of Proper Laws for Highway Work," 

Col. E. A. Stevens, State Highway Commissioner of New 

Jersey. 
A. N. Johnson, Highway Engineer, Bureau of Municipal 
Research, New York, N. Y. 
"National, State and Local Responsibility for Road Condi- 
tions and Ways of Securing Improvements," 
Judge J. T. Ronald, Seattle, Wash. 
O. E. Hotle, Oakland, Cal. 
Hon. Arthur Langath, Portland, Ore. 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 
Second Session, 10:00 A.M. 

Chairman, George W. Tillson, President, American Road 
Builders' Association. 

"Proper Road Location: Its Importance and Eflfects," 
Paper by William R. Roy, State Highway Commissioner 
of Washington. 

Discussion opened by Paul D. Sargent, Chief Engineer, 
Maine State Highway Commission. 



152 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



"Road Drainage and Foundation," 
Pap«r by George W. Cooley, State Engineer of Minnesota. 
Discussion opened by R. K. Compton, Chairman, Pav- 
ing Commission, Baltimore, Md. 

"Highway Bridges and Structures," 
Paper by W. S. Gearhart, State Engineer of Kansas. 
Discussion opened by Clifford Older, Bridge Engineer, 
Illinois State Highway Department. 

Third Session, 2:00 P. M. 

Chairmen, Capt Walter Coggcshall. President, Tri-State 

Good Roads Association, and Hon. J. H. Albert, 

Salem, Ore. 

"Highway Indebtedness: Its Limitation and Regulation," 
Paper by Nelson P. Lewis, Chief Engineer, Board of Es- 
timate and ^portionment. New York City. 

Discussion opened by J. F. Witt, Dallas, Tex.; W. I. 
Vawter, Medford, Ore., and B. A. Towoe, Lodi, Cal. 

"Organization and System in Highway Work," 

Paper by A. B. Fletcher, Highway Engineer, California 
State Highway Commission. 

Discussion opened by H. R. Carter, State Highway En- 
gineer of Arkansas, and by C. D. Blaney, Chairman 
of the California State Highway Commission. 

"The Educational Field for Highway Departments," 

Paper by Prof. L. S. Smith, Department of Highway En- 
gineering, University of Wisconsin. 

Discussion opened by A. D. Williams, Chief Road En- 
gineer, West Virginia State Road Bureau. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15. 

("PaB-American Road Congress Day*') 
Fourth Session, 10:00 A. M. 
Chairmen, W. A. McLean, Chief Engineer of Highways, 
and Commissioner Ontario Public Roads and High- 
ways Commission. 

"Roadway Surfacings," 

Paper by F. F. Rogers, State Highway Commissioner of 
Michigan. 

Discussion opened by E. R. Morgan, State Road Engi- 
neer and Secretary, Utah State Road Commission. 

"Resurfacing Old Roads," 

Paper by William D. Uhler, Chief Engineer, Pennsylvania 
State Highway Department. 

Discussion opened by J. C. Travilla, Fort Worth, Tex., 
and J. C. Little, Chief Engineer, Roland Park Co., Balti- 
more, Md. 

"Street Pavements," 

Paper by Curtis Hill, City Engineer, Kansas City, Mo. 
Discussion opened by M. M. O'Shaughnessy, City Engi- 
neer, San Francisco, Cal. 

Fifth Session, 2:30 P. M. 
(Fasti**! Hall, Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco) 

Chairmen, Judge W. S. Worden, Treasurer, Tri-State Good 

Roads Association, C. L. Mackenzie, Colfax, Wash., and 

GeoflFry Winslow, Tacoma, Wash. 

"System in Highway Accounting," 

Paper by S. D. Gilbert, Auditor, New York State High- 
way Commission. 

Discussion opened by A. R. Hirst, State Highway En- 
gineer of Wisconsin. 
"Uniformity for Highway Statistics and Data," 

Paper by H. E. Breed, First Deputy Commissioner, New 
York State Highway Commission. 



Discussion opened by W. W. Marr, Chief State High- 
way Engineer, Illinois State Highway Commission. 

"Engineering Supervision for Highway Work," 

Paper by T. H. MacDonald, State Highway Engineer of 
Iowa. 

Discussion opened by Lamar Cobb, State Engineer of 
Arizona, and Prevost Hubbard, Chief Division of Road 
Material Tests and Research, Office of Public Roads 
and Rural Engineering, U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

("Pacific Highway Day") 
Sixth Session, 10:00 A. M. 

Chairman, James H. MacDonald, Former State Highway 

Commissioner of Connecticut. 
"The Merit System in Highway Work," 
Paper by Richard Henry Dana, President, U. S. Civil 
Service Reform League. 

Discussion opened by Dr. Jos. Hyde Pratt, Secretary, 
North Carolina State Highway Commission. 
"The Determination of the Justifiable Outlay for Specific 
Cases of Highway Improvement," 
Paper by Clifford Richardson, Consulting Engineer, New 
York, N. Y. 

Discussion opened by Henry Welles Durham, formerly 
Chief Engineer in Charge of Highways, Board of Pub- 
lic Works, Borough of Manhattan, New York, N. Y. 
"Convict Labor for Highway Work," 

Paper by G. P. Coleman, State Highway Commissioner of 
Virginia. 

Discussion opened by J. E. Maloney, Secretary-Engineer 
Colorado State Highway Commission. 
Report of Committee on Resolutions. 

Seventh Session, 2:00 P. M. 

Chairman, John A. Wilson, President, American Automobile 

Association. 
"Motor Traffic: Its Development, Trend and Effects," 

Paper by Elmer Thompson, Secretary, Automobile Club 
of America. 

Discussion opened by Warren Gould, Chairman, Auto- 
mobile Club, Seattle, Wash., and W. G. Chanslor, San 
Francisco, Cal. 
"Equipment for Highway Work," 

Paper by A. H. Blanchard, Professor of Highway Engi- 
neering, Columbia University. 

Discussion opened by H. J. Kuelling, County Highway 
Commissioner of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. 

"Load and Tire Effect and Regulation," 

Paper by F. H. Joyner, Road Commissioner of Los An- 
geles County, California. 

Discussion opened by Prof. T. R. Agg, Iowa State Col- 
lege, and C. F. Clarkson, Secretary and General Man- 
ager, Society of Automobile Engineers. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 
Eighth Session, 10:00 A. M. 

Chairman, Col. W. D. Sohier, Chairman, Massachusetts 

Highway Commission. 
"Comparisons of Traffic and Their Economic Value," 

Paper by Linn White, Chief Engineer, Board of South 
Park Commissioners, Chicago, 111. 

Discussion opened by H. K. Bishop, Consulting Engi- 
neer, New York, N. Y. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



153 



"Maintenance, Materials and Methods," 

Paper by A. W. Dean, Chief Engineer, Massachusetts 
■Highway Commission. 

Discussion opened by George A. Quinlan, Superintend- 
ent of Highways of Cook County, Illinois. 
•'Dust Suppression and' Street Cleaning," 

Paper by W. H. Connell, Chief, Bureau of Highways and 
Street Cleaning, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Discussion opened by Perry F. Brown, City Engineer, 
Oakland, Cal. 

Closing Session, 2:00 P. M. 

Chairman, Governor Charles W. Gates of Vermont. 
"Lessons of the Congress," 

Charles F. Stern, Member of the California State High- 
way Commission. 
Unfinished Business. 
Reports of Committees. 
Adjournment. 



Resolutions Favoring the Employment of 

North Carolina Convicts on the 

Public Roads 

The Board of Trade of Asheville, N. C, has recently 
passed resolutions urging the employment of state convicts 
on the public roads of North Carolina. 

The resolutions, which were passed unanimously, were as 
follows: 

"Recognizing that substantial growth and prosperity 
follow the construction of good roads, and the growing 
interest in their value as exemplified in the 'Land of the 
Sky,' the state of North Carolina and the entire country, to- 
gether with the increasing demands of the people for better 
roads, and 

"Believing that this great question has become one not 
only of state-wide, but of nation-wide, importance, 

"We, the Directors of the Asheville Board of Trade, repre- 
senting nearly six hundred business and professional men 
of Asheville, Western North Carolina, do most earnestly 
request and urge the people of North Carolina to demand 
the working of all able-bodied male state convicts on the 
public roads throughout the state under the general super- 
vision of the State Highway Commission and such rules and 
regulations as may be necessary to secure the greatest 
efficiency therefrom. 

"That a copy of the above be sent to the Governor and 
other state officials, to the editors of newspapers through- 
out the state, and to the various civic organizations, with 
the request that every effort be used to arouse public senti- 
ment to the enormous value of the above policy." 



The Term of Bonds for Road and Street 
Improvement 

At the recent Sixth Annual Conference of Mayors and 
Other City Officials of the State of New York, held at Troy, 
Chief Engineer Nelson P. Lewis of the Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment of New York City presented a paper on 
"City Streets and How to Pay for Them." During the 
course of the paper, Mr. Lewis discussed the matter of bond 
issues at some length. A part of that discussion follows: 

"In all cities the burden of creating and caring for the 
public streets is assumed by the city at large and a question 
worthy of serious consideration is that of the manner in 
which the funds for this purpose are to be raised. The cities 
must either pay cash and include the expense in the annual 
tax budget or must use their credit by issuing their obliga- 
tions, and the obligations so issued may run for short or 
long periods. 

As already pointed out most communities prefer bor- 
rowing to paying cash ' and there has been some very 



reckless borrowing in the past, but it is gratifying to note 
that the term of the bonds issued by the cities of this 
state to meet the cost of street improvements, while varying 
from 10 to 35 years, rarely exceeds 20 years. In Great Britain 
any city or town desiring to issue its obligations for any 
public purpose is required to submit a full statement of the 
need of the improvement to be carried out, with detailed 
estimates of the probable life of the different parts of which 
it is constituted, to the Local Government Board which is 
a cabinet office. That board, after thorough investigation by 
its experts, will advise the municipal or other authorities tc 
what amounts they ca nissue their obligations and for what 
periods, the period in every case being within the estimated 
life of the improvement. In this country states and cities 
have borrowed enormous sums to build roads and to lay 
pavements and have issued their bonds for periods two, 
three and even five times the probable life of the roads or 
pavements for which their proceeds are to pay. 

"The issuance of long term bonds for short lived im- 
provements can not be justified and a few figures will show 
the extravagance of this policy. If a city were to provide 
$200,000 a year for street improvements and if 50-year bonds 
were issued for the purpose, there would at the end of 50 
years be $10,000,000 of these bonds outstanding and during 
this time the annual interest and amortization charges would 
gradually increase until th#y reached ?489,000 when they 
would remain constant. If, however, the funds were raised 
by the issue of 10-year bonds, there would be $2,000,000 
outstanding at the end of 10 years during which time the 
annual interest and sinking fund charges would increase 
until at the tenth year they reached $264,400 when they too 
would remain constant. Under the latter policy there would 
at the end of 50 years be an annual saving to the taxpayers 
of $224,600 a year. 

"It may be said that these periods are so long that such 
a discussion is academic, but street and road improvements 
are going to continue for an indefinite time. Our states 
and cities hope to remain solvent and must meet their 
financial obligations; and debts of this kind must be paid 
in full, so that the actual fact should be squarely faced." 



A Special Blection Will be Held at Dobbs Perry, N. T., Sept. 
8, for the purpose of voting- on an appropriation of $150,000 
for paving two miles of Broadway. If this work is completed, 
Broadway will be paved from the Battery, New York City, 
to the north boundary of Dobbs Ferry, a distance of about 
27 miles. 



The Total Mileage of Government Experimental Road at 

present under construction is 465 miles, according to a recent 
statement from the U. S. Department of Agriculture. These 
roads are situated in 28 counties of 13 states and are being 
built under the supervision of the department under author- 
ization of the 1912 law which appropriated for the Post Office 
Department $500,000 to be expended in an experiment to test 
the value of improved rural carrier routes. The government 
pays one-third of the cost and the state or county benefited 
two-thirds. After the roads are constructed, the department 
endeavors to interest local authorities in providing systematic 
maintenance. The work undertaken so far is listed by the 
department as follows: Lauderdale County, Alabama, 30 muei. 
of earth road; Boone and Story Counties, Iowa, 51 miles of 
earth road; Dubuque County, Iowa, 20 miles of gravel road; 
Bath and Montgomery Counties, Kentucky, 11 miles of maca- 
dam road; Montgomery County, Maryland, 5.4 miles of ma- 
cadam road; Cumberland County, Maine, 21 miles of bitumi- 
nous macadam road; Leflore County, Mississippi, 24 miles of 
gravel road; McDowell County, North Carolina, 16 miles of 
earth road; Davie, Forsyth and Iredell Counties, North Caro- 
lina, 48 miles of sand-clay and top-soil road; Licking and 
Muskingum Counties, Ohio, 24 miles of concr-ete road; Jack- 
son County, Oregon, 51.4 miles of earth road; Aiken County, 
South Carolina, 27.3 miles of sand-clay and top-soil road; 
Loudon County, Tennessee, 6.4 miles of macadam road; Mont- 
gomery County, Tennessee, 7.8 miles of macadam road; Bexar, 
Comal, Travis, Hays and Guadalupe Counties, Texas, 71.6 miles 
of gravel road; Fairfax County, Virginia, 12.3 miles of gravel 
road; Spotsylvania, Caroline and Hanover Counties, Virginia, 
38.2 miles of sand-clay and top-soil road. 



1S4 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



The Road and Street Exhibits at the 




VIKW uK THK UKOUNDS AND Hl'lLl )INliS OF THK I'ANAMA-PACIFIC: INTERNATIONAL KX 1 '(ISITION AT SAN 



Even the briefest outline of the reasons for the Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition and its many and varied 
attractions is doubtless unnecessary. Almost every one 
knows that the exposition commemorates the completion of 
the Panama Canal, that it is being held in San Francisco, 
Cal., and that in its outstanding features it is like the great 
fairs or expositions that have been held in the United States 
in previous years. At the same time, a somewhat detailed 
description of the main physical features of the exposition 
is appropriate here, especially since an idea of the plan of 
the grounds and the arrangement of the buildings is a de- 
sirable, if not a necessary preliminary to a description of 
the road and street exhibits. 

The exposition site is about 625 acres in area and is 
situated in the northern part of San Francisco, facing north 
on San Francisco Bay just within the Golden Gate. Its 
eastern boundaries are Fort Mason and Van Ness Avenue, 
the latter one of the principal streets of the city. From 
Van Ness .\venue it extends about two and one-half miles 
to and into the Presidio, the military reservation maintained 
by the United States on the southern shore of the Golden 



Gate. Its average depth is apyroximately one-half mile. An 
excellent idea of the natural beauty of the site can be had 
from the general view of the exposition shown in the illus- 
tration at the top of this and the opposite page, in which 
the bay and the opposite shores can be seen. 





KXHIHIT OK THK CHAIN iJKI/f CO. 



KXIIIBIT OF THE STANDARD OIL CO. 



The exposition grounds are divided into three sections. 
The eastern portion, designated as the "Zone," is occupied 
chiefly by amusement enterprises operated by private in- 
dividuals and companies under concessions from the man- 
agement of the Exposition. The central or main portion of 
the site is utilized for the buildings accommodating the ex- 
hibits and is known as the Division of Exhibits. To the 
west of this is the third of the principal divisions which is 
utilized for the buildings of various states and nations. In 
addition to these main divisions of the grounds there is a 
special area devoted to the live stock exhibits. This is situ- 
ated west of the national and state buildings and is within 
the boundaries of the Presidio. Beyond the live stock ex- 
hibits and at the extreme west of the Exposition grounds is 
a one-mile trotting track, within which are drill grounds 
and aviation field and a polo field. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



155 



Panama-Pacific InternationalExposition 




FRANCISCO. CAL.- 



-LOOKING NORTH ACROSS THE BAY— TOWER OF JEWELS NEAR CENTER OF THIS PAGE— SEE TEXT. 



The majority of the exhibits— at least those of special in- 
terest to road builders— are housed in the buildings in the 
Division of Exhibits. These buildings, or "palaces" as they 
are termed, are eleven in number. Eight of these palaces 
form a quadrangle which is bisected by an avenue running 




the eastern boundary of the quadrangle. From the Court 
of the Universe, the Venetian Court extends west to the 
Court of the Four Seasons, passing between the Palaces 
of Agriculture and of Liberal Arts. Sunset Court, extend- 
ing west from the Court of the Four Seasons, separates 
the Palace of Food Products from the Palace of Education 
and Social Economy and completes the series of seven courts 
bisecting the quadrangle. South of the Court of Abundance 
and between the Palace of Varied Industries and the Palace 
of Manufactures is the Court of Flowers. Extending south- 
erly from the Court of the Four Seasons and separating 
the Palace of Liberal Arts from the Palace of Education 
and Social Economy is the Court of Palms. A court ex- 
tends south from the Court of the Universe to the main 
entrance to the Division of Exhibits, which is at Chestnut 
and Scott Streets. In this Court at the center of the south 
side of the quadrangle is the Tower of Jewels, flanked on 
the east by the Palace of Manufactures and on the west by 
the Palace of Liberal Arts. This tower, which architec- 
turally is the dominating feature of the Exposition, can be 
distinguished in the large illustration on this page. 



l-..vtlllJir OF THE BAiUtETT .MA.M.l' AC IL RllNO CO. 

east and west and divided also by three north and south 
avenues. From east to west the buildings in the northerly 
row are as follows: Palace of Mines and Metallurgy; Palace 
of Transportation; Palace of Agriculture and Palace of 
Food Products. Those in the southern row, from east to 
west, are as follows: Palace of Varied Industries; Palace of 
Manufactures: Palace of Liberal Arts and Palace of Educa- 
tion and Social Economy. In the center of the quadrangle, 
flanked by the Palaces of Transportation, Agriculture, Lib- 
eral Arts, and Manufactures, is the Court of the Universe— 
the principal court in the quadrangle. Extending east from 
this between the Palace of Transportation and the Palace 
of Manufactures is the Florentine Court which leads into 
the Court of Abundance. From this the Court of Mines 
leads east between the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy and 
the Palace of Varied Industries to the Avenue of Progress, 




MUNICIl'AL. ENGlNEl.Ki.\ 



EXHIBIT 



156 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 




KXHIBIT OF THE A. U. YOUNG MACHINERY CO.— INCLUD ING THE CHAIN BELT CO., CHAS. HVASS & CO., THE 
KELLY-SPRINGFIELD ROAD ROLLER CO., THE WATERLOO CEMENT MACHINERY CO., AND THE WATSON WAGON CO. 

The Palace of Machinery is situated just east of the Palace 
of Mines and Metallurgy, and the Palace of Varied Indus- 
tries, from which it is separated by the Avenue of Progress. 
The PaUce of Fine Arts occupies a corresponding site op- 



the Palace of Transportation, most of them being in the 
Palace of Machinery. In the following paragraphs are listed 
the manufacturers and dealers who have exhibits. In most 
cases, brief descriptions of the exhibits are included, and 




EXHIBIT OF THE KEUFFEL & ESSER CO. 

posite the west end of the quadrangle. The Palace of Horti- 
culture is situated south of the quadrangle at its western end. 
The majority of the exhibits of road machinery and ma- 
terials are situated in the Palace of Machinery, the Palace 
of Mines and Metallurgy, the Palace of Liberal Arts and 




EXHIBIT OF W 



many of the exhibits are shown in the accompanying illus- 
trations. 

Austin-Western Road Machinery Co., Chicago, 111., Palace 
of Machinery. — Road machines, rock crushers, scrapers, 
plows, drags, scarifiers and a general line of road machinery. 




Ji J '^"^ EDWARD R. BACON CO.— INCLUDING THE BAKER MFG. CO., THE J. C. BIEGERT MACHINE WORKS 

^^^ MACHINE SHOPS, THE FOOTE MFG. CO., THE GALION IRON WORKS & MFG CO M HAYNES 

THB JAEOBR MACHINE CO.. THE ORENSTEIN-ARTHUR KOPPEL CO., THE PAWLING & HARNISHFEGER ' 
CO., THE TROT WAGON WORKS CO., THE UNIVERSAL CRUSHER CO., AND THE 

C. J. YOUNG IRON WORKS. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



157 



Edward R. Bacon Co., San Francisco, Cal., Palace of 
Machinery. Representative of the following concerns: Baker 
Mfg. Co., Springfield, 111.; J. C. Biegert Machine Works; Erie 
Machine Shops, Erie, Pa.; Foote Mfg. Co., Nunda, N. Y.; 
Gallon Iron Works & Mfg. Co., Gallon, Ohio; M. Haynes; 
Jaeger Machine Co., Columbus, Ohio; Orenstein-Arthur 
Koppel Co., Koppel, Pa.; Pawling & Harnischfeger Co., Mil- 
waukee, Wis.; Troy Wagon Works Co., Troy, Ohio; Uni- 
versal Crusher Co., and C. J. Young Iron Works. (For 
description of exhibits see each company.) 

Baker Mfg. Co., Springfield, 111., Palace of Machinery (rep- 
resented by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San Francisco, Cal.). 
—20th Century graders, Maney 4-wheeled scraper, Baker 
"dustless pick-up" street sweeper. 

Barber Asphalt Paving Co., Philadelphia, Pa., Palace of 
Education and Palace of Agriculture.— Moving pictures show- 
ing the production and use of Trinidad and Bermudez asphalt. 
Barrett Mfg. Co., New York, N. Y., Palace of Mines and 
Metallurgy.— Tarvia, paving pitch, oils for treating wood 
blocks, models showing methods of using the company's 
products in road and street work, photographs. 




EXHIBIT OF THE UNIVERSAL, PORTLAND CEMENT CO. 



Y., Palace of 
tachymeters, 




EXHIBIT OP THE BAUSCIi 



Columbia River Highway Chamber of Commerce, Port- 
land, Ore., Palace of Transportation.— Painting of the Co- 
lumbia River Highway. 




Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, N 
Liberal Arts.— Transits, levels, theodolites, 
alidades and other optical instruments. 

J. C. Biegert Machine Works, Palace of Machinery (repre- 
sented by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San Francisco, Cal.).— 
Biegert drum hoist and Wallace concrete bucket hoist and 
concrete distributing system. 

Bremen Mfg. Co., Bremen, Ohio, Palace of Machmery 
(represented by the Graves-Spears Road Machinery Co., Oak- 
land, Cal.). 

Buffalo Steam Roller Co., Buffalo, N. Y., Palace of Ma- 
chinery (represented by the Graves-Spears Road Machinery 
Co.).— Three-wheeled and tandem road rollers. 

Chain Belt Co., Milwaukee, Wis., Palace of Machinery 
(represented by A. L. Young Machinery Co., San Francisco, 
Cal.).— No. 12 Chain Belt paver, equipped with gasoline en- 
gine with 20-ft. delivery boom and bucket, and a No. 6 
Rex mixer. 

C. H. & E. Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis., Palace of Machm- 
ery.— General line of contractors' and road making equip- 
ment. 



EXHIBIT OF THE GRAVES-SPEARS ROAD MACHINERY CO., 

INCLUDING THE BREMEN MFG. CO., THE BUFFALO 

STEAM ROLLER CO., THE INDESTRUCTIBLE SIGN 

CO., THE OHIO ROAD MACHINERY CO., THE 

POWER & MINING MACHINERY CO., SMITH 

& SONS, AND THE F. B. ZIEG MFG. CO. 

Concrete Appliance Co., Los Angeles, Cal., Palace of Ma- 
chinery. — Concrete mixers. 

Erie Machine Shops, Erie, Pa., Palace of Machinery (rep- 




EXHIBIT OF THE U. S. OFFICE OP PUBLIC ROADS. 



158 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



'resented by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San Francisco, Cal). 
— S-ton tandem asphalt roller. 

Foote Mfg. Ca. Nunda. N. Y., Palace of Machinery (rep- 
resented by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San Francisco, Cal.). 
— Foote paving mixer. 

Galion Iron Works & Mfg. Co., Galion, Ohio, Palace of 
Machinery (represented by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San 
Francisco. Cal.). — Scarifiers and various sizes of Premier and 
Ideal road grading machines, cast iron and corrugated iron 
culvert pipe. 

Graves-Spears Road Machinery Co., Oakland, Cal., Palace 
of Machinery. — .\ general line of road machinery (also street 
signs). Representatives of Bremen Mfg. Co., Bremen, Ohio; 
Buffalo Steam Roller Co., Buffalo, N. Y.; Indestructible 
Sign Co., Columbus, Ohio; Ohio Road Machinery Co., Ober- 
lin. Ohio; Power & Mining Machinery Co., Cudahy, Wis.; 
Smith & Sons, Kansas City, Mo.; the F. B. Zieg Mfg. Co., 
Fredericktown, Ohio. 

W. & L. E. Gurley, Troy. N. Y., Palace of Liberal Arts.— 
Engineering and surveying instruments, balances, weights. 
measures, thermometers and similar goods. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone, San Francisco, Cal., Palace 
of Machinery. — Concrete mixers and road making equipment. 
Representing the Koehring Machine Co.. Milwaukee, Wis. 




• ■■■ J'HI-; KuKHKlNG MACHINK CO. (IN THE 

EXHIBIT OP HARRON. RICKARD & McCONE). 

M. Haynes, Palace of Machinery (represented by the Ed- 
ward R. Bacon Co., San Francisco, Cal.).— Haynes "Univer- 
tal" road building machine. 

Headley Good Roads Co., Philadelphia, Pa., Palace of Ma- 
chinery. — Road making appliances. 

Chas. Hvass & Co.. New York, N. Y., Palace of Machin- 
ery (represented by A. L. Young Machinery Co., San Fran- 
cisco. Cal.). — Street cleaning machinery, asphalt distributor. 

Indestructible Sign Co., Columbus, Ohio, Palace of Ma- 
chinery (represented by the Graves-Spears Road Machinery 
Co., Oakland, Cal.).— Street signs. 

Iroquois Iron Works, (Barber Asphalt Paving Co.), 
Buffalo, N. Y., Palace of Machinery (represented by Par- 
rot t & Co., San Francisco, Cal.).— Iroquois roller, Iroquois 
melting kettle, Iroquois paving tools. 

Jaeger Machine Co., Columbus, Ohio, Palace of Machin- 
ery (represented by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San Fran- 
cisco. CaL).— "Big-an-Little" concrete mixers of various sizes. 

Kelly-Springfield Road Roller Co., Springfield, Ohio, Palace 
of Machinery (represented by the A. L. Young Machinery 
Co., San Francisco, Cal.).— Steam and gasoline road rollers. 

Kenffel & Esser Co.. Hoboken, N. J.. Palace of Liberal 
Arts.— Engineering and surveying instruments, drawing in- 
struments and materials. 

Koehring Machine Co.. Milwaukee, Wis., Palace of Ma- 



chinery (represented by Harron, Rickard & McCone).^Con- 
crete mixers. 

The .\. Lietz Co., Palace of Liberal Arts. — Surveying in- 
struments. 

Meese & Gottfried Co., San Francisco, Cal., Palace of Ma- 
chinery. — .\sphalt mixers. 

Municipal Engineering & Contracting Co., Chicago, 111., 
Palace of Machinery. — Street paving mixers. 

Ohio Road Machinery Co., Oberlin, Ohio, Palace of Ma- 
chinery (represented by the Graves-Spears Road Machinery 
Co., Oakland, Cal.). — Road machinery. 

A. S. Olney, Oakland, Cal., Palace of Machinery. — Con- 
crete mixer. 

Orenstein-.^rthur Koppel Co., Koppel, Pa., Palace of Ma- 
chinery (represented by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal.). — Side dump car and portable track. 

Pacific Coast Highway Association, Palace of Transporta- 
tion. — Bas relief, about 400 ft. long, showing road from Can- 
ada to Mexico. 

Parrott & Co., San Francisco, Cal.. Palace of Machinery. — 
Graders, rollers, mixers, engines, etc. 

Pawling & Harnischfeger Co., Milwaukee, Wis., Palace of 
Machinery (represented by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San 
Francisco, Cal.). — Trench excavating machinery and traction 
tamping, asphalt cutting and concrete breaking machine. 

Power & Mining Machinery Co., Cudahy, Wis., Palace of 
Machinery (represented by the Graves-Spears Road Ma- 
chinery Co., Oakland, Cal.). 

Russell Grader Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, Minn., Palace of 
Machinery. — Graders and other earth handling machinery. 

Smith & Sons, Kansas City, Mo., Palace of Machinery 
(represented by the Graves-Spears Road Machinery Co., Oak- 
land, Cal.). — Dump wagon and road grader. 

Standard Oil Co., San Francisco, Cal., Palace of Mines and 
Metallurgy. — Samples of road oils and other materials, with 
sections and cross sections of pavements in which these ma- 
terials are used. 

Troy Wagon Works Co., Troy, Ohio, Palace of Machinery 
(represented by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San Francisco, 
Cal.). — Ajax dump wagon. 

Office of Public Roads and Rural Engineering, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, Palace of Ma- 
chinery. — Models of roads and road machinery, and photo- 
graphs. 

United States Steel Corporation, New York, N. Y., Palace 
of Mines and Metallurgy. — Corrugated culverts. 

Universal Crusher Co., Palace of Machinery (represented 
by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San Francisco, Cal.).— Rock 
crusher. 

Universal Portland Cement Co., Chicago, 111., Palace of 
Mines and Metallurgy (in exhibit of the United States Steel 
Corporation). — A series of five arches, one of which is de- 
voted to a painting showing the application of concrete to 
roads. 

Washington State Highway Department, Olympia, Wash., 
Palace of Transportation.— Bas relief, 1.000 ft. long. 

Waterloo Cement Machinery Co., Waterloo, la.. Palace of 
Machinery (represented by the A. L. Young Machinery Co., 
San Francisco, Cal.). — Concrete mixers. 

The Watson Wagon Co., Canastota, N. Y., Palace of Ma- 
chinery (represented by the A. L. Young Machinery Co.).— 
Dump wagon. 

A. L. Young Machinery Co., San Francisco, Cal., Palace of 
Machinery.— General line of road machinery. Representa- 
tives of the Chain Belt Co., Milwaukee, Wis.; Chas. Hvass & 
Co., New York. N. Y.; Kelly-Springfield Road Roller Co., 
Springfield, Ohio; Waterloo Cement Machinery Co., Water- 
loo, la.; Watson Wagon Co., Canastota, N. Y. 

C. J. Young Iron Works, Palace of Machinery (represent- 
ed by the Edward R. Bacon Co., San Francisco, Cal.).— Ij/^- 
cu. yd. clam shell bucket and 1-cu. yd. drag scraper. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



159 




EXHIBIT OP THE HUSSELL GRADER MFG. CO. 

The F. B. Zieg Mfg. Co., Fredericktown, Ohio, Palace of 
Machinery (represented by the Graves-Spears Road Machin- 
ery Co.). — Levelers and Scrapers. 

In addition to the exhibits listed, there are several ex- 
hibits by state highway departments which are shown in 
connection with other state exhibits. There is also a large 
painting of El Camino Real and a large topographical map of 
the United States showing the Lincoln Highway. Both of 
these are exhibited in the Palace of Transportation. 



The Institute of Paving Brick Manufacturers 

An organization of paving brick makers known as the 
Institute of Paving Brick Manufacturers has recently been 
formed. 

The new organization, it is stated, was formed for the pur- 
pose of facilitating a "more intensive, practical study into 
brick making problems." Conferences held during the De- 
troit meeting of the National Brick Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion in February of this year led to a meeting at Youngs- 
town, Ohio, on May 25. At that time officers were elected 
and a committee was appointed to draw up a constitution 
and by-laws. These were adopted at a meeting held at Can- 
ton, Ohio, on June 29. The preamble to the constitution is, 
in part, as follows: 

"Whereas, there are now manufactured in the United 
States of America, from certain shales and clays, brick and 
block especially made for use in building and constructing 
streets and roadways, and, as it is desirable that such brick 



and block be manufactured in a manner best suited and 
adapted. for said purpose, therefore, the subscribers hereto 
shall and do constitute a society to be known as the Insti- 
tute of Paving Brick Manufacturers." 

The institute is wholly for brick manufacturers, and all 
active members must l)e actively connected with reputable 
companies manufacturing paving bricks. Men who are not 
brick makers but who are engaged in furthering the interests 
of the paving brick industry may be admitted as associate 
members. The dues of active members are $20 per year, 
while associate members pay $5 for each meeting attended. 
The officers must be active members, and no two of them 
may be identified with the same concern. Provisions have 
been made for committees on membership and on programs, 
and it is the plan of the organization to hold regular quar- 
terly meetings. It is also announced that the institute will 
devote a considerable portion of its time during meetings 
to plant inspection. 

The present officers of the institute are: President, F. R. 
Kanengeiser; Vice President, D. E. Humphrey; Secretary, 
Robert Keplinger, and Treasurer, Spencer M. Duty. 

The next meeting of the organization will be held at Al- 
ton, III., on Sept. 22. It is announced that all paving brick 
manufacturers are invited to attend this meeting and that 
full particulars may be obtained from the Secretary, who 
may be addressed in care of the Metropolitan Paving Brick 
Co., Canton, Ohio. 



The Puente Cabrillo at San Diego, California 

In the accompanying illustration is shown the Puente 
Cabrillo at San Diego, Cal., a concrete highway bridge 
which, from an engineering point of view, is by no means 
the least interesting structure to be seen at the San Diego- 
Panama-California Exposition. 

The structure has a total length of 1,010 ft., with long 
approaches from the outer gate at the foot of Laurel St. 
and from the Plaza de California, which constitutes the real 
entrance to the exposition proper. It spans a canyon 135 
ft. deep and consists of a series of semi-circular arches of 
comparatively short span. Each pier consists of two piers 
joined near the top by a semi-circular arch. Each arch 
span is cut completely through at the crown. The cost of 
the bridge was approximately $200,000. 

The bridge carries an asphalt pavement with a sidewalk 
on each side. 

The structure follows the general lines of Spanish arqhi- 
tecture, this scheme being carried out by the electric lamps 
on the parapets, which are designed to imitate old Spanish 
oil lamps. 





EXHIBIT OK THE A. I^IKTZ (JO. 



THE PUENTE CABRILLO, SAN DIEGO, CAL. 



160 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



The Use of Hydrated Lime in Concrete Roads 

By L. N. WHITCRAFT* 



The problem to be solved in building permanent roads 
seems, at first thought, to be an easy one. But when one 
•tops to consider the change which has taken place in traf- 
fic conditions during the past generation it makes one wonder 
what kind of treatment the roads which are now being built 
will be called apon to withstand. 

A road should properly be built for the future as well as 
for the present. The highway engineer is, therefore, called 
upon to design roads which not only may justly be called 
permanent under present conditions, but must also be ser- 
viceable for the heavier traffic which is bound to come. 

No road surface is "permanent" in the strict sense of the 
word, for all require repairs from time to time to keep them 
continuously in good condition. Concrete probably ap- 
proaches more closely to the ideal standard of permanency 
than any other present day type of road. As is the case 
with everything else into which the human equation enters, 
there are some good concrete roads and some which are 
not so good. The addition of hydrated lime to concrete 
will not overcome serious defects in workmanship, but it 
will materially decrease the danger of building a poor road. 

Such defects as cracking and stone pockets, or "soft 
spots," in the concrete slab are probably the most com- 
mon causes of concrete road failures, and it must be admit- 
ted that any treatment or precaution that will eliminate or 
reduce to a great extent the liability to these defects in the 
slab will be of marked advantage, as well as of great aid 
in placing concrete roads in the "permanent" class. 

The successful future of concrete roads depends upon firm 
adherence to superior quality concrete. Subgrading and 
drainage may be good and, of course, are necessary for any 
road that is to endure, but the final criterion of a concrete 
road as distinguished from other constructions is the in- 
tegrity and durability of the material itself— the quality of 
the concrete. The service to be rendered by concrete in no 
other structure calls for such perfect quality of material 
as is demanded in a road. 

From tests and experiments, both in laboratory and in 
actual practice, we are led to believe that the fundamental 
causes of cracking and stone pockets in concrete roads are 
as follows: 

First, lack of plasticity and homogeneity of the concrete, 
which are prime requisites in all concrete. 

Second, segregation of the aggregates while mixing and 
placing. 

Third, shrinkage during the preliminary hardening period, 
or between the time the concrete is placed and the time it 
begins its initial set. During this period, the concrete has 
no strength to resist shrinkage strains, so that incipient frac- 
tures may develop, which later become cracks and lines of 
weakness. 

Fourth, porosity of the slab, permitting of the alternate 
absorption and expulsion of moisture. This variation in 
moisture content, more than changes in temperature, affects 
the volume and produces expansion and contraction. 

Fifth, lack of uniformity in the finished concrete, resulting 
in pockets of material of unequal ability to resist wear, with 
the resultant production of holes and ruts so difficult ot 
repair. 

Recent investigations and experiments by prominent engi- 
neers looking to the elimination of these defects— which con- 
stitute road failures— and for a more nearly permanent road, 
have led them to recognize in hydrated lime an effective! 
safe and suitable material which may be used as an admix- 
ture with concrete to overcome, or at least to neutralize, 

if:^Mr°.*r';'si.s/;is,'s.'' ""• ^""*" ■" '"• '"'"°"^' ""■« 



these defects, thereby obtaining a degree of permanency in 
concrete road construction not heretofore realized. The 
results also show that the addition of hydrated lime facili- 
tates the handling and placing of the concrete, and is pro- 
ductive of the following results: 

1. It increases the plasticity and homogeneity of the 
mass, causing the concrete to flow more readily into place 
and increasing the covering capacity and spreading qualities 
of the cement. 

2. It reduces to a minimum the tendency to segregation. 

3. It causes the retention of a sufficient amount of mois- 
ture in the concrete while setting to aid further hydration 
of the cement and to reduce the risk of shrinkage cracking. 

4. Being a void preventive, it renders the slab less porous 
and more impermeable, largely reducing the alternate ab- 
sorption and expulsion of moisture, thereby minimizing ex- 
pansion, contraction, internal .stresses, and cracking, which 
arise mostly from changes in moisture content. 

5. It produces density and uniformity in the finished con- 
crete, thereby adding to the life and efficiency of the road 
by elimination of stone pockets and other sources of irregu- 
larity in strength. 

Cement mortars and concretes are naturally harsh and 
coarse working, and unless they are wet and sloppy they 
are very difficult to handle. It is in endeavoring to over- 
come this lack of plasticity that an excess of water is added 
to the extent of causing segregation, and in addition to 
aggravating this condition it prevents the uniform distribu- 
tion of the cement throughout the mass, upon which factor 
the durability of the concrete is more dependent than it is 
upon the proportion of cement used. 

The direct effect of the addition of hydrated lime to cement 
mortars and concretes is to make a fat, viscous mortar of 
great plasticity, which is more easily mixed, thus producing 
a smooth flowing mass without the marked tendency towards 
segregation. This lack of plasticity in cement mortars and 
concretes is largely due to the slow solubility of the cement, 
for when first mixed they contain practically no colloids, in 
consequence of which such mortars are short and non- 
plastic and offer but little resistance to the loss of water, 
either by gravity or by evaporation. The addition of hy- 
drated lime provides the necessary colloid, which, besides 
retaining the water, makes the mortar or concrete more 
plastic and easier working, and reduces to a minimum the 
segregation of the aggregates while mixing and placing, re- 
sulting in a homogeneous, dense and uniform mass. The 
affinity of hydrated lime for water enables the mass, when 
placed, to retain an excess amount of moisture. When no 
hydrated lime is present, this is usually lost through seepage 
or evaporation. The excess water enables the concrete to 
reach its initial set without the development of shrinkage 
cracks, and aids further hydration of the cement. 

It is not now believed that cracking in concrete surfaces 
is due wholly to temperature changes, or to subgrade con- 
ditions, for it has been clearly demonstrated, and is now 
generally accepted, that variations in moisture content 
have a greater effect than changes in temperature in pro- 
ducing expansion and contraction. 

With cracks in the slab reduced to a minimum, the ques- 
tion naturally arises as to the spacing of transverse joints, 
or even the necessity for joints. The occurrence of trans- 
verse cracking has proven just as erratic in slabs with the 
joints spaced 30 ft. apart, as in those spaced from 60 to 100 
ft. apart, so that with volume change minimized by preclud- 
ing the changes of moisture content it would seem advisable 
to build concrete roads without joints, except at the end of a 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



161 



day's work. It is not to be expected, however, that a slab 
of the average thickness and high content of cement, as is 
now generally specified, can undergo the process of setting 
without yielding to the shrinkage stresses, yet it is possible 
to eliminate to a great extent such forces of rupture by 
using a leaner mixture, which is less subject to volume 
change, and by the addition of hydrated lime, which prevents 
voids and porosity in the slab. 

Laboratory tests to determine volumetric changes have 
demonstrated that when hydrated lime is added, the test 
pieces remain practically constant in volume up to the 48- 
hour period. This fact explains the absence, or reduction 
of, the tendency to crack, noted in practical work, as during 
the preliminary hardening period they remain practically 
without change of volume, and there is opportunity for the 
cement to obtain greater strength and sufficient coherence 
to resist the stress due to shrinkage. 

The rendering of the mass highly plastic and homogeneous 
produces density, uniformity and greater strength in the 
finished concrete, thereby adding much to the life and 
efficiency of the road, because of uniform resistance to wear. 

It is not to be expected that the use of hydrated lime will 
preclude or overcome the possibility of defects in concrete 
roads built under unfavorable, conditions, but it has been 
actually demonstrated that the addition of hydrated lime will, 
to a very great extent, overcome such defects as cracking 
and soft spots and generally improve the durability and 
wearing qualities of any properly constructed concrete road 
where conditions and workmanship are such as would 
ordinarily be expected to result in a satisfactory road with- 
out the use of hydrated lime. 

The practical development of the use of hydrated lime in 
concrete road construction is most important, for conclusions 
drawn from extensive work indicate that much better and 
more permanent concrete results from the judicious addition 
of hydrated lime. 



The Production of Natural Asphalts 
During 1914 

A recent bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, 
as was noted in the issue of August 14, stated that the output 
of natural asphalt in 1914 amounted to 77,588 short tons, 
valued at $630,623. The possibility of misunderstanding 
these figures has lately been pointed out by the producers 
of lake asphalts. 

The statement to which reference has been made, is, in 
part, as follows: 

"As the term 'natural asphalt' is, in the language of the 
industry, exclusively applied to native bitumens such as 
Trinidad Lake asphalt and Bermudez Lake asphalt, it seems 
desirable to explain that as used by the Geological Survey 
natural asphalt includes only gilsonite, elaterite, grahamite, 
bituminous limestone and bituminous sandstone. In other 
words, the total of 77,588 tons of 'natural asphalt' does not 
include the production of Trinidad and Bermudez, or any 
other natural asphalt, as this phrase is understood in the 
industry." 



Increased Curb Radii at Street Intersections 

The improvement that can be effected at a street corner 
by increasing the radius of the curve at the curb line is 
shown by the accompanying illustrations, one of which 
shows the usual short radius curve and the other a concrete 
curb at a corner where the radius of the curve connecting 
the two tangents has been lengthened. 

It is impossible to drive an automobile around a corner 
where the curb is of the usual construction, at a moderate 




TYPICAL CORNER AT A STREET INTERSECTION— TWH: 

CURBS ON THE TWO INTERSECTING STREETS 

CONNECTED BY A CURVE OF SHORT RADIUS. 

rate of speed, and still keep the machine on the proper side 
of the pavement immediately after making the turn. The 
radius of the usual quarter circle in the curb is often not 
more than one or two feet, and the driver can not commence 
to turn until the car has practically passed the corner. In 
such cases, a driver approaching an intersecting street into 
which he desires to turn has either to cross to the left-hand 
side of the street in which he is driving before reaching the 
corner or else has to cross the center line of the intersecting 
street. In either case, the way in which he has to handle his 
car is both awkward and a possible source of danger to 
himself and to others. 

Increasing the radius of the curve at the intersection will 
permit driving most cars around the corner at about the 
same distance from the curb as the driver has kept on the 
approaching street and makes is unnecessary to drive the 
car across the center line of the street into which the turn 
is made. The second illustration shows such a construction 
at the corner of Lincoln Parkway and Diversey Boulevard in 
Chicago. 

The increased radius is especially advantageous at boule- 
vard intersections or at intersections where either one of 
the streets is a boulevard or other thoroughfare carrying 
considerable traffic. The increased radius makes for both 
convenience and safety and, in addition, often enhances the 
appearance of the intersection. 





! 'i.Jt^M 






1 


f «i^^*'5J 


^ 



STREET INTERSECTION WITH CURB LAID ON A LONG- 
RADIUS CURVE — CORNER OP LINCOLN DRIVEWAY 
AND DIVERSEY BOULEVARD, CHICAGO, ILL. 



162 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



Bituminous Paving Brick 

Tfcere bu recently been brought out a new paving block 
which has been designated by the inventor as a bituminous 
paving brick. The block is essentially a brick treated with 
bitumen in much the same manner as a wood paving block 
is treated with the preservative. It is the invention of Claud 
E, Fuller, of Oakland, Cal., who introduced the vertical fibre 
paving brick. 

The blocks are made from ordinary, side wire-cut brick 
which absorb not over 12 per cent, of moisture after being 
immersed for 48 hours and have a crushing strength of not 
less than 3,500 lbs. per sq. in. Upon their receipt at the 
plant they are piled on especially constructed steel pal- 
lets, designed to fit upon steel trucks which run. on tracks 
in the plant, as shown in the accompanying illustration. 
Each pallet holds 1,100 bricks. The loaded trucks are placed 
in a pre-heating chamber, the interior of which is maintained 
at a temperature of 400* F. until the bricks have been freed 
from moisture and have expanded. This operation takes 
from two to four hours, depending upon the amount of 
moisture in the bricks. 

.After this treatment the bricks are taken in batches of nine 
truck loads to the treating chamber. This is an especial- 
ly constructed steel tube, 6 ft. in diameter, inside, and 36 ft. 
long, built to withstand a working pressure of 200 lbs. per 
sq. in. This tube is enclosed in a brick furnace, so arranged 
as to distribute the heat as nearly uniformly as possible to 
all parts of the tube. After the bricks are placed in the 
chamber, which is shown in the illustration previously re- 
ferred to, the door is closed tightly and the temperature 
raised to 350° F. The air is then extracted from the cham- 
ber by means of a special combination pressure and vacuum 
pump, which is capable of handling 1,000 cu. ft. of free air 
per minute. A 25-in. vacuum is produced in the treating 
chamber in from 10 to 20 minutes. The treatment is con- 
tinued for one hour in order to insure the extraction of all 
the air in the bricks and also to produce uniform expansion 
of the bricks. 

An asphalt melting tank, having a capacity of 25 tons 
of melted asphalt, is situated directly over the treating 
chamber. The tank is heated by a special furnace and 
also receives the heat from the fire of the furnace sur- 
rounding the treating chamber. In addition, heat is sup- 
plied by steam coils, placed horizontally within the tank. 
These coils have a heating surface of 1,200 sq. ft. and are 
operated under a pressure of 100 lbs. per sq. in. 

After the completion of the vacuum treatment, the melted 
asphalt, which has been brought to a temperature of 350° F., 
i* admitted to the treating chamber. During this operation 
care is taken that the vacuum does not diminish until all 
of the bricks have been covered. When this has been ac- 
complished, the pump connections are reversed and the con- 
tents of the treating chamber are submitted to a pressure of 
160 lbs. per sq. in. for a period of 2 hours, the temperature 
being maintained at 350° F. The asphalt is then forced 
back into the melting tank, care being taken not to let the 
pressure in the treating chamber fall below 160 lbs. per 
sq. in. while the asphalt is being returned. The heat is 
then gradually withdrawn from both the exterior and in- 
terior of the heating chamber until the asphalt solidifies, the 
pressure upon the brick being maintained at 160 lbs. This 
operation takes about 40 minutes. 

Upon the completion of this part of the process, the treat- 
ing chamber is opened and the bricks taken out and placed 
in an annealing chamber^ where the temperature is further 
reduced. The finished product is then removed from the 
annealing chamber and the pallets removed from the truck 
by special apparatus and placed upon a carrying rack ready 
for shipment. The operation is repeated every four hours. 

The rejults of a test on the blocks conducted at the labors- 



tory of the University of California are shown in the fol- 
lowing report: 

Rattler Test 

The rattler used was the standard of the National Paving 
Brick Manufacturers' Association and specifications followed 
were issued by the association In 1911. 

Average size of brick 8%"x4"x2^" 

Initial weight of 10 brick 66.5 lbs. 

Final weight of same 61.0 lbs. 

Loss of weight 5.5 lbs. 

Percentage of loss 8.3 per cent. 

.Absorption Test 

In this test a whole brick as it came from the rattler and 
also a piece broken from one of the rattled brick were used. 

Dry wt. Weight after submerging Percent, of absorption 

gms. V4 hr. 2 hrs. 24 hrs. ^4 hr. 2 hrs. 24 hrs. 

2,795.0 2,795.0 2,795.5 2,806.0 0.0 0.0 0..^ 

1,292.0 1,293.0 1,296.0 1,296.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 

liOSM on HeBtlng^ Test 

Two specimens from the rattler, a whole brick and a half 
brick, were lieated 48 hours at a constant temperature of 225°F. 
There was no loss in weight. 

Percf^ntnure of Bitumen Determination 

An average sample of the pulverized brick was found to 
contain 11.2 per cent, of bitumen by using bisulphide in con- 
Junction with a Dulin Rotarex. 

The special claim made for the material is that it can be 
produced wherever asphalt and good, uniform, coniiiion 




TREATING CYLINDER AND FURNACE USED IN THE 
MANUFACTURE OF BITUMINOUS PAVING BRICK. 

brick can be secured. The cost of production at the plant 
which has been established at Oakland is stated to be $10.20 
per thousand. This included the cost of the brick, the cost 
of the asphalt and the cost of the treatment. 



Route Map of Maryland 

A route map of Maryland showing the principal through 
roads of the state and connections to points outside has 
recently been issued by the State Roads Commission. 

The map is printed on a sheet 28 by 22 ins., folded and 
enclosed in covers 4 by 6^ ins. — a convenient pocket size. 
The map shows the state in outline, with the principal cities 
and towns marked in and with the roads shown in heavy 
and light black lines, the former indicating improved roadi 
and the latter unimproved roads. The upper part of the 
sheet carries a map showing the automobile route from 
Philadelphia to Augusta, Waterville and Rockland, Maine, 
through New York, N. Y., Bridgeport, Stratford, New Haven 
and New London, Conn., Providence, R. I., Boston, Mass., 
Portsmouth, N. H., and Portland, Me. There are also shown 
alternate routes through Connecticut and Massachusetts, one 
leaving the main route at Stratford and joining it at Nor- 
wich, Conn., and the other leaving the first alternate route 
at Plantsville, Conn., and joining the main route at Boston. 



September 4, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



163 



AMERICAN ROAD BUILDERS' 


ASSOCIATION 




150 


NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 




President 
GEO. W. TILLSON, Brooklyn. N. Y. 




^^^ 


Third Vice President 
(Office to be filled.) ' 


First Vice President 




lirfl 1 W^r^ ■'n 


Secretary 


A. W. DEAN, Boston, Mass. 




V^^I^VVt 


E. L. POWERS, New York. N. Y. 


Second Vice President 




^^UP^P!^ 


Treasurer 


A. B. FLETCHER. Sacramento, Cal. 




^"^SJS^ 


W. W. CROSBY. Baltimore. Md 



Through the courtesy of the publisher of "Good Roads,'' 
this page, each month, is devoted to the use of the American 
lipad Builders' Association. It is solely in the interests of the 
Association, and it is the desire of the Executive Committeethat 
all members feel that this space is their own, and that they 
contribute freely to it, not only as regards anything concerning 
the Association itself, hut also that which will further the good 
roads movement. Besides the official announcements of the 
Association, there will appear on the page contributions by 
members, items of news concerning the Association activities 
and personal notes about its members. All contributions should 
be sent to the headquarters of the Association at 150 Nassau 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

Executive Committee: 
Nelson P. Lewis 
A. W. T>ean 
E. L. Powers 

A. R. B. A. Members Appointed State Delegates 
to the Pan-American Road Congress 

Among the A. R. B. A. members who have been appointed 
by the governors of various states as delegates to the Pan- 
American Road Congress are the following: 

Kansas.— W. S. Gearhart, State Engineer. 

Kentucky. — Robert C. Terrell, Commissioner of Public 
Roads, State Department of Public Roads. 

Massachusetts. — Chairman Wm. D. Sohier and James W. 
Synan of the Highway Commission. 

Michigan. — Frank F. Rogers, State Highway Commis- 
sioner. 

Minnesota. — George W. Cooley, State Engineer. 

Mississippi. — X. A. Kramer, Consulting Engineer, Mag- 
nolia. 

New York. — J. Y. McClintock, County Superintendent of 
Highways of Monroe County, and George W. Tillson, Con- 
sulting Engineer to the President of the Borough of Brook- 
lyn, New York. 



The Business Meeting of the A. R. B. A. 

The attention of members of the American Road Builders' 
Association is called to the business meeting of the Asso- 
ciation, which will be held at Oakland during the Pan- 
American Road Congress. 
As was noted on this page last month, the Pan-American 
Road Congress this year takes the place of the A. R. B. A. 
convention, and for this reason it is necessary that a busi- 
ness meeting of the Association for the transaction of busi- 
ness coming up at the annual convention be held during the 
congress. This meeting has, therefore, been called for 5 
p. m. Thursday, September 16, in the Municipal Auditorium 
at Oakland. 

The principal business to come up at this meeting is the 
election of a nominating committee. The section of the by- 
laws specifying the method of electing officers is as follows: 

"At the fall convention a nominating committee of five 
(5) shall be chosen by the Association, and tjfis committee 



shall submit to the Secretary within three weeks the names of 
three candidates for each office to be filled. Letter ballots 
shall be then sent by the Secretary to each active member- 
at least thirty (30) days before the date of the annual meet- 
ing, stating the hour at which the polls will close. The bal- 
lots shall be returned to the Secretary enclosed in two en- 
velopes, the inner one to be blank and the outer one en- 
dorsed with the signature of the active member voting. Two 
tellers shall be appointed by the President, and the result 
of the ballots shall be announced at the annual meeting. 
The candidate having the largest number of legal votes by 
letter ballot shall be declared elected. In case of failure to 
elect an officer on account of a tie vote, the meeting shall 
proceed to ballot for such office, the choice of candidates 
being limited to the persons so tied. Vacancies occurring 
in any office may be filled by ballot at first meeting after 
notice of same has been sent to each member. A majority 
of the votes cast shall be necessary to elect." 



A. R. B. A. Notes 

E. M. Terwilliger has been placed in charge of the office 
recently established by the Austin-Western Road Machin- 
ery Co., of Chicago, at Philadelphia, Pa. 

H. W. Cregier, County Highway Superintendent of 
Schenectady County, New York, is among the delegates to 
the Pan-American Road Congress appointed by the Board of 
Trade of Schenectady, N. Y. 

Lamar Cobb, State Engineer of Arizona, was elected 
President of the Arizona Association of Highway Engineers, 
which was organized a few weeks ago at a conference of the 
county engineers of Arizona held at FlagstafiE. 

J. P. Nash, of the Bureau of Economic Geology, Uni- 
versity of Texas, was a speaker at the recent midsummer 
convention of the Texas Good Roads Association held at 
College Station, Tex. Mr. Nash's address was devoted to 
the road materials found in the state of Texas. 

W. D. Sohier, Chairman of the Massachusetts Highway 
Commission; W. S. Keller, State Highway Engineer of 
Alabama; A. R. Hirst, State Highway Engineer of Wiscon- 
sin, and W. S. Gearhart, State Engineer of Kansas, are 
among the delegates to the Pan-American Road Congress 
appointed by the American Association of State Highway 
Officials. 

A. N. Johnson, Road Engineer in the Bureau of Munici- 
pal Research, New York, N. Y., made an address at the 
midsummer convention of the Texas Good Roads Associa- 
tion held in conjunction with the convention of the State 
County Judges' and Commissioners' Association, August 
5-7, at the Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College. In 
his address, Mr. Johnson explained the functions pf the bu- 
reau with which he is connected. 



164 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 



REPORTS 



STATK MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC ROADS: ITS DEVELOP- 
MENT AND TREND. By J. E. Pennybacker, Chief of Road 
Economlrs. Office of Public Roads and Rural Engrineerlng, 
17 a D«partin»nt of Agriculture; Reprint from Tear Book 
of the Qepartment of Agriculture for 1914. — Paper; 6x9 
Ins.. 18 pp.: illustrated. 
This consists of a brief treatise on the history and develop- 
ment of the state aid principle in road building, with sta- 
tistics on the expenditures made in the various states which 
have adopted that plan, and a brief discussion of the subject. 
The illustrations consist of views of state aid roads in vari- 
ous parts of the country and two maps and a chart showing 
the progress of the state aid idea. 

PORTIJ^ND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS FOR COUN- 
TRY ROADS. Bv Charles A. Moorefleld and James T. 
Vosheli. Senior HlKhway Engineers, Office of Public Roads 
and Rural Engineering. U. S. Department of Agriculture; 
Bulletin No. JI9. U. S. Department of Agriculture, dated 
July J6. 1»1S. — Paper; «x9 Ins.. 34 pp.; Illustrated. 

The subject matter of this bulletin consists of an intro- 
duction, a section on materials and construction, one on 
methods of organization and equipment, one on the cost 
of concrete pavements, one on maintenance, one devoted to 
conclusions, and an appendix. The illustrations consist of 
reproductions of photographs showing concrete roads under 
construction and completed, diagrams, cross sections, plans 
and drawings. 

THROUGH NEW MEXICO ON THE CAMINO REAL; Issued by 
the State Highwav Commission of New Mexico. — Paper; 
1Ix» Ins.. 5» pp. and cover; Illustrated. 

This publication consists principally of full-page illustra- 
tions showing views along the Camino Real in various parts 
of New Mexico. There are about fifty of these illustrations 
and, in addition, five pages of maps, one page, in the front 
of the book, showing the New Mexico highway system and 
the last four pages being devoted to sectional maps of the 
Camino Real. The booklet is printed on paper of excellent 
quality in brown ink, the covers being heavy brown paper 
printed in yellow. The booklet is a very attractive and in- 
teresting publication. 

GENERAL SPKCIFICATIONS FOR STATE AID BRIDGE 
WORK. Uiipnls State Highway Denartment: Edition of 
July. 1915. — Paper: 814x10^ Ins., 32 pp. and covers. 

This, as indicated by the title, comprises the standard 
specifications of the Illinois State Highway Department for 
the construction of state aid bridges. It is similar in form 
and contents to the "Contract Form and General Specifica- 
tions for Bridge Work" issued by the department and noted 
in these pages in the issue of August 7. This pamphlet has 
recently been sent out by the State Highway Commission 
with a notice that the specifications would be used on all 
state aid work, except where special specifications are pro- 
vided, beginning August 25. 

VITRIFIED BRICK PAVEMENTS FOR COUNTRY ROADS. Bv 
Vernon M. Pelrre. Chlof of Construction, and Charlen H. 
Moorefleld. Senior Hlehwav Engineer. Office of Public Roads 
unii R>ir»l Engineering. U. S. Denartment of Agriculture: 
Bulletin No 24<« of the Department of Agriculture, dated 
July 24. 19111. — Paper; 6x9 ins. 38 pp.; illustrated. 

This bulletin is a somewhat elaborate discussion of the 
use of vitrified brick for paving country roads. Various 
phases of the question taken up are the occurrence of the 
raw materials used for brick, the manufacture of brick pav- 
ing Mocks, the physical characteristics of brick and the tests 
used, the construction of brick pavements, the cost of brick 
pavements and the maintenance of brick pavements. There 
are two appendices, the first consisting of typical specifica- 
tions for the construction of brick roads and the second a 
description of the method of inspecting paving brick. The 
illustrations consist of views showing brick roads under 
construction and completed, cross sections of brick paved 
roads and plans of a grout bgjf and a brick rattler. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SERVICE; 
Annual Report of the Street and Sewer Cleaning Depart- 
ment for the year 1914. — Paper; 6x9 Ins., 28 pp.; insets. 

This report consists largely o£ tables, some of them print- 
ed as insets, showing cost and other data on street and 
sewer cleaning work in Cincinnati. The data are given in 
considerable detail and are well arranged. 

CONFERENCE OF MAYORS AND OTHER CITY OFFICIALS 
OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK; Proceedings of the Sixth 
Annual Conference, entitled "Efticiency First." — Paper; 
6x9 Ins., 148 pp. and covers. 

This report includes the papers and discussions at the 
Sixth Annual Conference of Mayors and Other City Officials 
of the State of New York, held at Troy, N. Y., June 1-3, 
1915, and also reports of the business meetings of the or- 
ganization. Among the papers are "City Planning in New 
York State," by Arnold W. Brunner, and "Public Streets and 
How to Pay for Them," by Nelson P. Lewis. 

ONTARIO GOOD ROADS ASSOCIATION; Proceedings of the 
Thirteenth Annual Meeting and of the Second Canadian anfl 
International Good Roads Congress and Exhibition. — Paper; 
6%x9>4 Ins., 201 pp.; illustrated. 

This report consists of the papers and discussions at the 
thirteenth annual meeting of the Ontario Good Roads Asso- 
ciation, with which was combined the second annual meet- 
ing of the Dominion Good Roads Association and an exhibi- 
tion of road machinery and materials. These meetings were 
held at Convocation Hall, Toronto, Ont., March 22-26, 1915, 
and were designated as the Second Canadian and Inter- 
national Good Roads Congress and Exhibition. The illus- 
trations consist of two full-page halftones, one showing the 
congress in session and the other a view of the exhibition. 

DENVER. COLORADO, DEPARTMENT OF IMPROVEMENTS; 
Annual Report for the year ending Dpcember 31, 1914. — 
Paper; 6x9 ins., 113 pp. 

The contents of this report are divided into eight chap- 
ters, of which the first six are on the following subjects: 
The construction of sewers; the construction of street im- 
provements; the construction of pavements in streets and 
alleys; sidewalk construction; the Cherry Creek improve- 
ments; bridges, viaducts and subways. The seventh chapter 
consists of tabular statements of expenditures, and the eighth 
is a review of the work done by the various bureaus and 
divisions of the department, together with financial state- 
ments of each. The report contains many tables showing 
the details of work done and the cost. Among these are 
very complete tables on paving work. 

PHILADELPHIA. PENNSYLVANIA. BUREAU OF HIGHWAYS 
AND STREET CLEANING; "Highways — A Problem in Mu- 
nicipal Housekeeping"; Report of the Burenu for 1914. — 
Paper: 6x9 Ins., 174 pp. and covers; illustrated; insets. 

The subject-matter of this report was reviewed at some 
length in "The 1914 Operations of the Philadelphia Bureau 
of Highways and Street Cleaning," printed in "Good Roads" 
for April 3, 1915. The report covers the various phases of 
the work of the bureau for the year and is well arranged, well 
printed and profusely illustrated. Included in the illustra- 
tions are views on Philadelphia streets, reproductions of pho- 
tographs taken during "clean-up week," reproductions of the 
posters issued in the campaign preceding "clean-up week" 
and a large number of charts and drawings. Among the 
latter are typical cross sections of roads and streets of vari- 
ous kinds, organization charts and charts showing graphical- 
ly the work of the bureau. The front cover of the report 
carries, besides the title given above, a brief summary show- 
ing the extent of the work of various kinds under the supei-T 
yisjon of thp bureau. 



September 4, 191S. 



GOOD ROADS 



165 



COMING MEETINGS 



September 13. — Tri-State Roads Association. — Third annual 
convention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. 
Boos, 1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting tc be 
merged vi^ith the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17. — American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — Pan-American Road 
Congress, Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Roaa Build- 
ers' Association, E. L. Powers, ISO Nassau St., New York, 
N. Y. Executive Secretary, American Highway Associa- 
tion, I. S. Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

September 16. — Pacific Highway Association. — Fifth annual 
meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. Bowlby, 
510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

October 4-7. — Northwestern Road Congress. — ..\nnual 
meeting, Cedar Rapids, la. Secy-Treas., J. P. Keenan, 
Sentinel Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12. — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-13 — Alabama Good Roads Association. — 19th 
annual session. Birmingham, Ala. Secretary, J. A. Rountree, 
Birmingham, Ala. 

October 12-14. — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 

October 14-16 — Southern Appalachian Good Roads Asso- 
ciation — Annual convention, Bluefield, W. Va. Secretary, 
Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Raleigh, N. C. 

November 17-19. — National Municipal League. — Annual 
convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogers Wood- 
ruff, 70S North American Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

February 15-18, 1916. — National Conference on Concrete 
Road Building. — Second National conference, Chicago, 111. 
Secretary of Advisory Committee, J. P. Beck, 208 South 
La SaJte St., Qiicago, III. 



Northwestern Good Roads Congress 

The program of the Northwestern Good Roads Congress, 
which will be held at Cedar Rapids, la., October 4 to 7, has 
recently been made public. 

Among the papers to be read are the following: "The 
Value of Good Roads to a Community," B. W. Williams, 
Madison, Wis.; "Development of a Road System for Western 
States," George W. Cooley, State Engineer, Minnesota; 
"Financing Road Improvements," D. W. Norris, Jr., Chair- 
man, Iowa Better Roads Committee; "The Proper Distribu- 
tion of Money in Road Building," A. D. Gash, President, 
Illinois State Highway Commission; "Convict Labor on 
Roads," Frank W. Buflfum, State Highway Commissioner, 
Missouri; "State Reward: Its Eflfect in Stimulating Local 
Activity," F. F. Rogers, State Highway Commissioner, Michi- 
gan; "The Highway Engineer: His Present and Future 
Field," A. Marston, Chairman, State Highway Commission, 
Iowa; "Needed Legislation," John A. Hazlewood, President, 
Wisconsin State Highway Commission; "State Aid and State 
Supervision," A. R. Hirst, State Engineer, Wisconsin; 
"Earth Roads: Their Possibilities and Limitations," T. H. 
MacDonald, Highway Engineer of Iowa; "Gravel Roads," 
J. H. Mullen, Deputy Engineer of Roads, Minnesota; "Brick 



Roads of Florida," W. K. Tavel, C. E., St. Augustine, Fla.; 
"Concrete Roads," H. J. Kuelling, Milwaukee County High- 
way Commissioner, Wis.; "The Value of a Traffic Census in 
Determining the Type of Road to be Constructed," W. W. 
Marr, State Highway Engineer, Illinois; "Brick Monolithic 
Construction of County Highways," R. L. Bell, Division 
Engineer, Illinois State Highway Commission; "Concrete 
Highway Bridges," Clififord Older, Bridge Engineer, Illinois 
State Highway Commission; "Steel Bridges," J. H. Ames, 
Bridge Engineer, Iowa State Highway Commission; "Rein- 
forced Concrete," C. C. Nagel, Bridge Engineer, Minnesota 
State Highway Commission. 



MEETING 



Montana Good Roads Congress 

A joint convention of the Montana Good Roads Congress 
and the Montana Automobile Association was held at Boze- 
man, Mont., commencing August 19. 

One of the most important occurrences at the meeting was 
the merging of the two associations into a new organization 
known as the Montana State Automobile and Good Roads 
Association. The object of the new organization as stated 
in the constitution, is the promotion of good roads through- 
out the state and the securing of legislation favorable thereto. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, E. P. Mathew- 
son. Anaconda; First Vice President, Nelson Story, Jr., 
Bozeman; Second Vice President, Lewis Newman, Great 
Falls; Secretary and Treasurer, Martin Martin, Anaconda; 
Trustees, Victor L. Himsl, Plevna; Frank Stoop, Kalispell, 
and William Biggs, Helena. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



H. V. Jamison, Advertising Manager of the American 
Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., has been awarded 
a gold rnetal by the Panama-Pacific International Exposition 
for services rendered in installing the large exhibits of the 
United States Steel Corporation and its subsidiary companies. 

The United States Asphalt Refining Co., New York City, 
has issued a booklet illustrated with views of sections of 
roads paved with the company's Aztec asphalt and contain- 
ing matter descriptive of the company's product. The booklet 
is unique in that it is circular in shape and the front cover 
is an embossed replica of the company's trade mark. 

The Blaw Steel Construction Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., has 
just issued a new folder, printed in colors and containing 
matter descriptive of the Blaw steel forms for various kinds 
of concrete construction, including roads, sidewalks, curbs, 
gutters and combined bases and curbs. The folder is illus- 
trated with half-tone reproductions of various types of forms 
in use. 

The E. I. du Pont de Nemours Powder Co., Wilmington, 
Del., has issued a book entitled "Road Construction and 
Maintenance," which is out of the ordinary run of trade 
publications. Although dealing to some extent with the use 
of dynamite and other of the company's products, the book 
is really a valuable treatise on the subjects suggested by 
its title. It is fully illustrated with half-tone and line en- 
gravings and its 126 pages contain, among other matter, a 
dictionary of the terms used in road building as published 
in "Good Roads" for March, 1914. The book is intended for 
free distribution. 



166 



GOOD ROADS 



September 4, 1915 



RECENT PATENTS 



The following list contains the numbers of the principal 
patents relating to roads and pavements and to machinery 
nacd in their construction or maintenance which have 
recently been issued, together with the names and addresses 
of the patentees, dates of filing, serial numbers, etc. In some 
cases the principal drawing has also been reproduced. Printed 
copies of patents listed may be obtained for 5 cts. each by 
application to the Commissioner of Patents, Patent Office, 
Washington, D. C: 

1.14S.SS*. MACHINE FOR MANUFACTURING RIBBED PAV- 
ING BLOCKS. Joseph B. Nicholson, Steubenvllle, Ohio. Filed 
Jun« 2S. 1»14. Serial No. 847,304. (CI. 3S-1.) 



X->v." 




1.14S,S>». STREET SWEEPING MACHINE. Albert E. Davis. 
Troy, and Charles H. Peddrlck, Jr., Green Island, N. Y. Filed 
Mar. 17. 191S. Serial No. 7(4,823. (CI. 16-17.) 




1.14*,1(7. PERMANENT WAY FOR TRAMWAYS IN AS- 
PHALT PAVING AND THE LIKE. Hugo Schmidt, Charlotten- 
burtf. Germany, assignor to the firm of "Esto" Blastischer 
Strassenbahn-Oberbau G. M. B. H., Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Ger- 
many. Filed Mar. 6, 1914. Serial No. 822,991. (CI. 238-5.) 

l,14>,70t. CULVERT. Thomas Lentngton Curtis Vail, Gads- 
den, Ala. Filed Oct. 31, 1913. Serial No. 798,466. (CI. 61-9.) 

' 'I 
1.14».7Sr CULVERT. Ashel W. Crotsly and Will M. Sawyer, 
Cbicago, 111. Filed Feb. 21, 1914. Serial No. 820,339. (CI. 61-9.) 

1.14>,81S. DUMP WAGON. Floyd E. Ertsman, Chicago, lU. 
Filed Apr. i, 1916. Serial No. 18,796. (CI. 21-20.) 





Sj^ 



1,150,558. PREFORMED ROADWAY BLOCK. John A. Top- 
ping, Chicago, 111. Filed Oct. 5, 1914. Serial No. 865,098. (CI. 
94-1.) ^ 

1,150,588. GRADING MACHINE. Clark B. Pell, Northfleld 
Ohio. Filed Feb. 7, 1914. Serial No. 817,268. (CI. 37-48.) 




1,160,643. BASCULE BRIDGE. Joseph B. Strauss, Chicago, 
111. Filed Mar. 9, 1908. Serial No. 419,983. (CI. 14-38.) 

1.150,828. CONCRETE PIPE MOLD. Frederick H. Souder, 
Lansdale, Pa. Filed Nov. 10, 1914. Serial No. 871,293. (CI. 25- 
127.) 

1,150,896. CONCRETE MIXER DRUM. Thomas L. Smith, 
Milwaukee, Wis., assignor to the T. L. Smith Co., Milwaukee, 
Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin. Filed Jan. 23, 1913. Serial 
No. 743,868. (CI. 83-73.) 

1,150,936. STREET SWEEPER. Robert W. Furnas, Indianap- 
olis, Ind. Filed July 23, 1912. Serial No. 711,146. (CI. 37-7. 




1,151 408. STREET SWEEPING MACHINE. Fred S. Shaffer. 
Sines, Md. Filed Jan. 27, 1914. Serial No. 814,751. (CI. 15-lY.j 



r.!-}}?;!?-?- = P^.y^9?.^'^5 SEPARATING, WASHING AND 
ORADINO SAND AND GRAVEL. William Clay Thompson, 
Slcllacoom. Wash. Filed Sept. 11, 1914. Serial No. 861,266. (Cl! 

1.160,4S» EARTH WORKING AND HANDLING MACHINE. 
No*Ml7l °' (Cl'^T-Vs'') **'■' ^"'- ^"®"' "*■■• *• 181*- Serial 

t>rUi»'*Ati J^F^S"' S?" "-^K"*.? CONTINUOUS CONCRETE 
PIPES OR TILES. Thomas p. Berry. Coahoma, Tex. Filed 
8«pt. t, 1»1«. Serial No. 860,386. (Cl. 25-32.) 



The Voters of Plnellati County. Fin., recently voted In favor 
of Issuing bonds to the amount of $715,000 for the purpose 
of constructing 78 miles of brick highways. The contracts 
for the work have already been awarded. 



The Board o» SupervlHors of Hinds County, Miss., has ap- 
pointed J. L. Redfleld, A. J. Lewis. Jr., and W. M. Robb high- 
way commissioners to expend the proceeds of the recently 
authorized bond issue for a gravel road from Bolton to Ed- 
wards, Miss. 



in 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street En^eerlng and Ckmtracting 



Old BeriM, Vol. XLVIII. 
NewStriM, Vot. X. 



NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 11, 1915 



Number 

11 



I-\>un(Ied January, 1892 

published weekly by 
The E.L. Powers Company 



E. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Cable Address : Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price; Fitty-two numbers, $2.00 a year in the United States, 
ilexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
numbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canatla, and $2.00 elsewhere. 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the Xew York office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to adver- 
tisers should reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the 
first issue of the month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other 
issues, by noon on Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted — in- 
cluding "Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertise- 
ments — will be accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 

Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co, 
Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Matter 



Entries for New York City's Exhibition of 
Street Cleaning Appliances 

Entries closed yesterday for the Second Annual Exhibition 
of Street Cleaning Apparatus and Appliances to be held in 
New York City during the week beginning CJctober 11, and 
indicate that the exhibition will be much larger and more 
comprehensive than that held last year. 

As announced in "Good Roads" for June 26, the exhibition 
will be held in the armory of the First Regiment of Field 
Artillery, under the auspices of the Department of Street 
Cleaning of New York City, and Commissioner J. T. Feth- 
erston, head of the department, is taking an active personal 
interest in the arrangements. 

The exhibition will be preceded on October 9 by a parade 
of uniformed einployes of the Department of Street Clean- 
ing and various pieces of the department's apparatus, includ- 
ing that recently installed in the "model district," compris- 
ing the latest type of apparatus suited to the requirements 
of a large city. Those exhibitors who so desire will be as- 
signed positions in the parade. 



New Method of Levying Road Taxes in Effect 
in Michigan 

A new law prescribing the method of levying taxes for 
road construction, which has recently become effective in 
Michigan, provides for the taxation for road purposes not 
only of abutting property, but of tributary property as well. 

Under the new law, a majority of property owners may 
petition their township highway commissioner to build not 
less than two miles of road. Opportunity is given for the 



minority to present objcctiojis, followed by the usual order- 
ing of an assessment roll and the levying of taxes to cover 
the expense. 

Property owners benefited by the proposed road pay not 
less than 25 per cent, nor more than 50 per cent, of the cost, 
the remainder being a charge against the county at large. 
Abutting property naturally pays the greater part of the tax, 
but tributary property within a mile on either side of the 
proposed road is subject to assessment. 



Recent Discovery of Asphalt Deposit on West 
Coast of Honduras 

According to the report of a special agent of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce, a deposit of remarkably pure bitumen 
has recently been discovered on the west coast of Honduras, 
in the vicinity of Juticalpa. 

Prospects uncovered for over 150 yards show the bed to 
be of great purity and there are outcroppings for several 
miles. The discovery was made by an American whose 
name and address are in possession of the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce of the Department of Commerce, 
and who controls a tract of over 15,000 acres in which the 
deposit is located. 

The Department's informant states that the deposit is at a 
considerable distance from the Pacific port of Amapala, from 
which shipments will have to be made. It is, however, on the 
line of a new model road which the Government of Hon- 
duras is preparing to construct and, therefore, motor trans- 
portation will be available within a reasonable time. It is 
also not distant from the logical line of a contemplated rail- 
road from Amapala to the interior. 



Pennsylvania Highway Department Explains 
the Tractor Law 

In order to prevent misunderstanding, State Highway Com- 
missioner Cunningham of Pennsylvania has issued a cir- 
cular letter to employes of the State Highway Department 
explaining the recently enacted law governing the registra- 
tion of traction engines and tractors and the use of the state 
highways by such vehicles. 

Under the provisions of the law, traction engines and 
tractors are divided into two classes: First, those used ex- 
clusively for agricultural purposes, road-grading and the 
transportation of machinery and appliances used for such 
purposes; second, those used for freighting and hauling. 

Those coming under the second classification are required 
to obtain a permit in addition to the regular license tag, but 
the State Highway Department has interpreted freighting 
and hauling, as used in the act, to mean that a regularly es- 
tablished route is being maintained by the operator of the 
vehicle 

This interpretation, it is believed, gives the State Highway 
Department power to prevent the destruction of highways by 
the continued use of traction engines and tractors. 



168 



GOOD ROADS 



September 11. 1915 



Planning Boards Installed in the Bureau of 

Highways and Street Cleaning, 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

By WM. H. CONNELL* 

In order to iacilitate the carrying on ol" the work in an 
orderly and systematic manner, planning boards have been 
installed in the office of the chief engineer, in the offices 
of each ot the division engineers and in the seven district 
engineers' offices, in the Philadelphia Bureau of Highways 
and Street Cleaning. The information contained on the 
boards indicates the proposed work and presents a picture 
of the operations coming under their jurisdiction. 

The planning board consists of a map indicating, in dif- 
ferent colors, the character of all the pavements and unim- 
proved streets throughout the city, mounted on a board and 
incased in a frame. The scale of the map is such as is 
necessao' to contain the information desired in each specific 
case; for example, the scale of the district engineer's map, 
which contains the locations of holes in the pavements, etc., 
is necessarily greater than that of the chief engineer's map, 
which does not show such detail. 

The scheme is a very simple one, and is not difficult to 
operate. The status of contract and municipal repair work, 
bituminous surface treatments, etc., and the location of the 
repair gangs and all other information contained on the 
boards are indicated by pins of different colors, shapes and 
sizes. For example, the status of the contract work may be 
followed by noting the appearance and disappearance of the 
pins. When any paving, grading, repaying, resurfacing, etc., 
is completed, the limits of the work are colored with the 
coloring used on the standard map of the Bureau of High- 
ways indicating the different characters of pavements and 
unimproved streets and roads. In the case of repair work, 
when the repairs are made the pins are removed; and the 
status of bituminous surface treatment and all other work 
(except that which is done in accordance with a fixed sched- 
ule, such as street cleaning) coming under the jurisdiction 
of the bureau is indicated in a similar fashion. 

The principal functions of these planning boards are first 
to enable the chief engineer to get a general idea of the 
status of the contract work (of which there are possibly 750 
contracts a year) at any time, and also the work of the 
municipal forces, including repair work, bituminous surface 
treatments, etc., without being forced to consult the contract 
and municipal force record files, or without making it neces- 
sary to have a general conference with the division heads. 
In other words, the planning board in the office of the chief 
engineer will enable him at any time to get a general idea 
of the progress being made in the performance of all physical 
work coming under the jurisdiction of the bureau, and thus 
assist him in planning the operations to the best advantage. 
The planning boards have been designed to contain the in- 
formation that it would be desirable to picture in ready 
reference fashion for the chief engineer in charge of the 
organization, and the respective heads of the different func- 
tions of the organization. This means that only such in- 
formation as is necessary to control the work is plotted on 
the respective boards; that contained on the division engi- 
neers' necessarily going into more detail than the chief engi- 
neer's, and likewise the district engineers' going into more 
detail than the division engineers'. 

On the planning boards of the district engineers the loca- 
tion of each street requiring general repairs, and the loca- 
tion of each hole or depression in the pavements on other 
streets, are indicated, as is also the location and progress 
of the repair gangs as well as the location and progress of 
the contract work, and from the information contained on 
these planning boards the foremen's route sheets, routing the 
order in which the repair work shall be done, originate. 

•Chirf, Barcau of Higbwajri and Street Qeaning, Philadelphia, Pa. 



The planning boards of the division engineers contain 
sufficient information for them to control the work of the 
district engineers without going through the files contain- 
ing the contract record and municipal repair record cards. 
Those used in the district engineers' offices enable the engi- 
neers in charge, by spending a few minutes every morning 
consulting their planning boards, to keep in touch with and 
thoroughly control all the operations coming under their 
jurisdiction, down to patching less than a yard of pavement 
in an isolated locality. 

These planning boards may be likened to a moving picture 
of the operation of the entire bureau, going into sufficient 
detail in the respective offices of the chief, division and dis- 
trict engineers to insure the carrying on of the work with 
a maximum of efficiency and the least possible friction and 
loss of time. No matter how thoroughly the operations of 
a highway department may be systematized, where the heads 
of the different units of the organization are dependent upon 
daily consultations and studies of the records on file to 
enable them to picture in their minds the progress of the 
work under their jurisdiction, there is always a certain 
amount of lost motion which this new scheme for control- 
ing highway work reduces to a minimum. 



North Carolina Counties Active in the 
Construction of Roads 

Reports from various counties of North Carolina indicate 
considerable activity in the construction of roads and bridges. 
The work in progress involves the expenditure of large sums 
of money and further important work is under consideration. 

Those counties from which information has been received., 
reported as follows: 

Alexander: Proposed road construction, $150,000, for which 
bonds have been issued but not yet sold. 

Chatham: Roads under construction, 125 miles, costing, 
according to estimates, $125,000. 

Craven: Roads under construction, 25 miles at a cost of 
110,000; three bridges, 15,000. 

Harnett: Roads under construction, 50 miles, $50,000; pro- 
posed roads, 25 miles, $25,000. 

Lenoir: Roads under construction, 8 miles, $8,000; pro- 
posed roads include a complete system of 150 miles at an 
estimated cost of $150,000. 

Macon: Roads under construction, 25 miles, $90,000, for 
which bonds have been issued. 

Mitchell: Roads under construction, 14 miles, $22,500: 
proposed roads, 3 miles, $2,000; road bonds for $30,000 have 
been issued. 

Yadkin: Roads under construction, 14 miles, $24,000; 
road bonds sold. $40,000; road bonds voted, but not yet sold, 
$20,000. 



The Tennessee Highway Commission Starts 
Good Roads Movement 

The Tennessee State Highway Commission, which was cre- 
ated by act of the last Legislature, is inaugurating a vigorous 
campaign for good roads and its efforts are meeting with 
gratifying response from all sections of the state, according 
to recent reports. 

One of the features of the work of the commission is the 
formulation of a plan of cooperation in road construction 
between Tennessee and the eight states whose boundaries 
lie along the Tennessee line at some point. 

It is proposed to plan a definite system of public roads 
covering the entire state after thorough surveys have been 
made, and in this work the commission will have the assis- 
tance of the Engineering Department of the University of 
Tennessee. Prof. Charles E. Ferris, Dean of the Engineering 



September 11, 1915 



GOOiJ ROADS 



169 



Department, is a member of the commission by virtue of his 
office. 

In order to acquaint the various county officials and road 
supervisors with the plans of the commission, Secretary J. J. 
Murray has sent letters to each, explaining the law, detailing 
the aims of the commission and urging the fullest co- 
operation. 




September 13.— Tri-State Roads Association. — Third annual 
convention, San Francisco, Cal. Executive Secy., Geo. E. 
Boos, 1220 Flood Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. (Meeting to be 
merged with the Pan-American Road Congress.) 

September 13-17. — American Road Builders' Association 
and American Highway Association. — Pan-American Road 
Congress, Oakland, Cal. Secretary, American Road Build- 
ers' Association, E. L. Powers, 150 Nassau St., New York, 
N. Y. Executive Secretary, American Highway Associi- 
tion, I. S. Pennybacker, Colorado Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

September 16. — Pacific Highway Association. — Fifth annual 
meeting, San Francisco, Cal. Secretary, Henry L. Bowlby, 
510 Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

October 4-7. — Northwestern Road Congress. — Annual 
meeting. Cedar Rapids, la. Secy-Treas., J. P. Keenan, 
Sentinel Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12. — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-13 — Alabama Good Roads Association. — 19th 
annual session. Birmingham, Ala. Secretary, J. A. Rountree, 
Birmingham, Ala. ' 

October 12-14. — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 

October 14-16 — Southern Appalachian Good Roads Associa- 
tion — Annual convention, Bluefield, W. \'a. Secretary, C. B. 
Scott, Richmond, Va. 

November 17-19. — National Municipal League. — Annual 
convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogers Wood- 
ruflf, 70S North American Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

February 15-18, 1916. — National Conference on Concrete 
Road Building. — Second National conference, Chicago, 111. 
Secretary of Advisory Committee, J. P. Beck, 208 South 
La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 



Pan-American Road Congress 

The Pan-American Road Congress, the most important 
conference of those interested in road building to be held 
this year, opens on Monday at Oakland, Cal., as has already 
been announced in "Good Roads." 

In addition to the list of delegates published in the August 
28 issue of "Good Roads," the following have been ap- 
pointed by the Governors of the several states mentioned: 

Colorado — R. H. Higgins, Pueblo; W. L. Anderson, 
Pueblo; John Vail, Pueblo; William Dozier, Canon City; V. 
C. Davenport, Salida; Ernest Wilbur, Buena Vista; M. A. 
Nicholson, Leadville; Dr. F. L. Bartlett, Denver; E. E. 
Sommcrs,. Denver; Carl Phil Schwalb, Denver; Leonard E. 
Curtis, Colorado Springs; Dr. W. P. Harlow, Boulder; W. T. 
Barnard, Rocky Ford; William Williams, Golden; George 
W. Parfet, Golden; h. Boyd Walbridge, Meeker; J, M- Kuy- 



kendall, Denver; Charles R. McLean, Canon City; Charles 

E. Herr, Durango; Thomas J. Ehrhart, Denver. 
Connecticut — James H. MacDonald, New Haven. 
Mississippi — H. H. Roof, Biloxi; Rufus Jones, Clarksdale; 

Clopton Thomas, Corinth; W. H. Hays, Greenwood; J. T. 
Lowther, Gulfport; G. Houenstein, Hattiesburg; R. M. Strip- 
lin. Meridian; Col. R. M. Levy,- West Point; R. H. Douthat, 
Yazoo City; R. L. Simpson, Gulfport; Henderson Baird, 
Greenwood; W. H. Carter, Columbus; W. B. Potts, Kosci- 
usko; Thomas Owen, Cleveland; Lee Richardson, Vicksburg; 

F. F. Rankin, Columbia; X. A. Kramer, Magnolia; J. M. Mc- 
Grath, Brookhaven; J. T. Thomas, Grenada; C. P. Hannah, 
Hattiesburg; George Grayson, Biloxi; J. A. Leggett, Waynes- 
l)oro; Douglas Latimer, Ways; W. A. Duke, Jackson; E. R. 
Holmes, Yazoo City; F. J. Duflfy, Natchez; J. W. Provine, 
Clinton; C. A. Gleason, Brookhaven; T. E. Batson, Hatties- 
burg; J. L. Gaddis, Bolton; W. T. Stewart, Gulfport; J. F. 
Flournoy, Jr., Canton. 

North Carolina — Hon. H. B. Varner, Lexington; Hon. 
Benehan Cameron, Stagville; Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Chapel 
Hill; Hon. E. C. Chambers, Asheville; Hon. E. C. Duncan, 
Raleigh. 

South Carolina — Reid Whitford, Charleston; F. H. Hyatt, 
Columbia; La Coste Evans, Cheraw; W. H. Wharton, Union; 
D. A. Spivey, Conway; William Coleman, Whitmire; John T. 
Stevens, Kershaw; F. Horton Colcock, Columbia; Arch B. 
Calvert, Spartanburg; W. G. Sirrine, Greenville; W. D. Mor- 
gan, Georgetown; J. D. McBride, Florence; D. M. Crosson, 
Lexington; W. C. Farber, Batesburg; W. M. Otis, Columbia; 
George L. Haker, Columbia; H. L. Watson, Greenwood; F. 
H. Shirley, Westminster. 

Virginia — G. Smith Walters, Onancock; Dr. William M. 
Thornton, University; Edward Duncan, Alexandria; E. M. 
Ncttleton, Covington; C. N. Stacy, Amelia; O. L. Evans, 
Amherst; J. R. Horsley, Appomattox; J. F. Harper, Waynes- 
boro; H. H. Byrd, Warm Springs; J. J. Scott, Bedford City; 
Frank L. Dunn, Bland; Edgar Nininger, Daleville; Col. A. S. 
Buford, Lawrenceville; W. L. Dennis, Grundy; Hon. Sands 
Gayle, Gold Hill; O. L. McCraw, Lynchburg; C. C. Chew- 
ning, Chilesburg; S. Floyd Landroth, Galax; John M. Gill, 
Malvern Hill; Hon. B. D. Adams, Red Oak; George B. Rus- 
sell, Drake's Branch; W. A. Horner, South Richmond; J. L. 
Hunston, Berryville; N. E. Spossard, New Castle; E. H. 
Gibson, Culpepper; C. R. Sanderson, Cartersville; Columbus 
Phipps, Clintwood; W. M. Martin, Petersburg; H. H. Holt, 
Hampton; Richard Armstrong, Hampton; G. W. Ellis, 
Lloyds; Joseph Berry, Vienna; E. W. Allen, Warrenton; D. 
W. Link, Simpson; C. E. Jones, Carysbrook; J. H. Ferguson, 
Taylor's Store; C. H. Schenck, Winchester; W. E. C. Merri- 
man, Narrows; C. E. Smith, Jr., Gloucester; L. A. Ransone, 
Elk Hill; H. Graybeal, Spring Valley; G. B. Parrott, Stan- 
ardsville; W. R. Cato, North Emporia; J. S. Newbill, Scotts- 
burg; C. S. Luck, Ashland; H. C. Beattie, Richmond; D. S. 
Davis, Martinsville; Willis Gibson, Vanderpool; Parke P. 
Deans, Windsor; J. B. Vaiden, Williamsburg; F. C. S. Hunter, 
King George; J. W. Fleet, Biscoe; W. T. Mooklar, Mango- 
hick; F. W. Lewis, Morattico; E. E. Skaggs, Jonesville; 
Harry Pancoast, Purcellville; Hon. F. W. Sims, Louisa; R. 
S. Weaver, Victoria; Frank Walker, Locust Dale; Col. Lucius 
Gregory, Chase City; R. H. Stubbs, Saluda; Prof. R. B. H. 
Begg, Blacksburg; G. E. Bunting, Suffolk; Major W. M. 
Boyd, Roseland; W. P. Tunstall, Roxbury; Maurice G. Long, 
Norfolk; R. D. Stevenson, Cobb; C. A. Coppedge, Lillian; 
Capt. E. F. Lockett, Crewe; Henry Holliday, Rapidan; Floyd 
W. Weaver, Luray; Dr. R. S. Martin, Stuart; G. W. East, 
Chatham; Dr. R. D. Tucker, Powhatan; N. B. Davidson, 
Farmville; W. D. Temple, Prince George; C. B. Ryan, Nor- 
folk; C. C. Leachman, Manassas; A. L. Jordan, Dublin; W. 
H. Massie, Washington; R. Carter Wellford, Warsaw; J. H. 
Marstcller, Roanoke; Col, T. A. Jones, Lexington; M. H. 



170 



GOOD ROADS 



September 11, 1915 



Harrison, Ishnd Ford; C. T. Smith, Gardner; B. T. Culbert- 
son, Dungannon; R. L. Campbell, Capon Road; B. E. 
Copenhaver. Marion: L. H. Brantley, Ivor; L. P. Chown- 
ing. Tartlows; Gus Wallace. Fredericksburg; G. A. Savage, 

■■ : ce; G, H. Blood, Homeville; George Hurt, Pounding 
\V. H. Turner, Front Royal; William Mayo, Coles 
IV'iai; E. J. Prescott, Big Stone Gap; M. H. Jackson, Fosters 
Falls; C H. Shields, Yorktown. 

Washington — Hon. Edward Meath, State Treasurer, 
Olympia. 



Bulletin K-C-R has been issued by the Good Roads Ma- 
chinery Co., Inc., Kennett Square, Pa. It describes the Yuba 
Champion ball tread tractor and is illustrated with halftone 
reproductions of the tractor and its various parts. 

A 40-page catalogue, descriptive of the Detroit trailer for 
use with motor trucks, has been issued by the Detroit Trailer 
Co., Inc., Detroit, Mich. It contains halftone illustrations 
of the various types of trailers manufactured by the com- 
pany and testimonials from a number of those who have 
used the vehicles. 



MEETINGS 



Massachusetts Highway Association 

The August meeting of the Massachusetts Highway Asso- 
ciation was held in Worcester, Mass., recently and was the 
occasion of an inspection of the streets and roads of Wor- 
cester and the northern part of Worcester County. 

At a banquet held in the Hotel Bancroft speeches were 
made by Mayor Wright and Alderman P. G. Holmes, of 
Worcester, the latter being Chairman of the General Com- 
mittee on Arrangements, and Frederick H. Clark, President 
of the association. A musical program followed the banquet 
and souvenir books, prepared for the occasion by John W. 
Odiin, Secretary to the Mayor, were distributed. 



PERSONAL NOTES 



P. A. Gorman, former Street Commissioner of Waco, Tex., 
died recently at his home in that city, aged 63 years. 

C. E. Hicks has been appointed City Engineer of Mechan- 
icsville, N. Y., under the new commission administration. 

L. G. Quigley has been appointed representative of the 
Barrett Manufacturing Co., with headquarters at Menominee, 
Mich. 

C. D. Mc.^rthur, after more than a year's absence, has 
again assumed office as Chief Engineer of the Blaw Steel 
Construction Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

E. E. East, formerly an inspector on the forces of the Cali- 
fornia State Highway Department, has been promoted to the 
position of Assistant Division Engineer. 

J. H. Hoskins, former Chief Engineer of the County High- 
way Commission of Dickson County, Tenn., has been ap- 
pointed Chief Engineer of the Rhea County Highway Com- 
mission with headquarters at Dayton, Tenn. 

Albert J. Himcs has been appointed Engineer in charge of 
grade crossing elimination with headquarters at Cleveland, O. 
He was formerly \aluation Engineer at Cleveland for the 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad. 

A. S. Huntsman, who has been an Assistant Engineer on 
the primary roads of the State of Washington, has been 
placed m charge of that part of the Pacific Highway known 
as the \ancouver North Link, with headquarters at Ridge- 
field. W a<(h. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



A catalogue recently issued by the Stockland Road Ma- 
chinery Co.. Mmneapolis, Minn., covers the company's entire- 
hne, mcluding road machines, scrapers, planers, drags, plows 
and stump-pullers. 



NEWS NOTES 



Bomls to <he Amount of 81.000,000 have been voted in Ven- 
tura County, Cal. The proceeds are to be used for road con- 
struction. 



Cumberlnnd, Mil., AVlll Have Spent $200,000 on street improve- 
ments by the end of the current year, according to a statement 
by City Engineer James P. Gaffney. 



The City Commission of Dayton, O., is considering an ordi- 
nance for an issue of $338,000 worth of flood emergency bonds 
for the construction of bridges at Fifth and Webster Streets. 



The State Road Commission of Delaware estimates that it 
will cost $1,000,000 to replace old bridges with new structures 
on the new state road system. The next Legislature is ex- 
pected to appropriate the money. 



The City Council of Lebanon, Pn., has directed that permits 
for the laying of sidewalks and curbs in the street paving dis- 
trict be issued this year without the customary fee of $1 and 
that, in cases of permits already issued, the fee be refunded. 



The City Ofllelnls of Pittsburgh, Pa., arc planning to submit 
a proposition to issue bonds for $2,17!i',000 to a vote of the 
people at the November election. It is proposed to use ap- 
proximately $1,. 568, 000 of the amount for street and bridge 
-.vorR. 



The Constitutional Convention of Neiv York State has under 
consideration an amendment by which $2,203,000 surplus in the 
highway fund may be apportioned among counties where the 
construction of connecting links on tho state highway is nec- 
essary. 



The State of West Virginia has paid to Kanawha County, 
W. Va.. $187,500 on a recent issue of $650,000 road improve- 
ment bonds. This is in accordance with the state plan of in- 
vesting monies from the workmen's compensation fund in de- 
sirable county road bonds. 



Stockholders of the Hnrrlsbnre. Carlisle & Chnmbersburs 
Turnpilic Kond Co., met in Chambersburg recently and gave 
favorable consideration to an offer of the Pennsylvania State 
Highway Department to purchase the turnpike between Ship- 
pensburg and Chambersburg, Pa. It is understood that the 
amount offered was $25,000. 



The Ilureau of Forelicn and Domestic Commerce, Department 
of Commerce, suggests that American manufacturers having 
agents or representatives in Australia and New Zealand, com- 
municate with the office of the United States Commercial At- 
tache at Melbourne, Australia, giving the names and addresses 
of these agents or representatives and any other information 
that may be necessary regarding the extent of territory over 
which they have control and the character of the goods man- 
ufactured. It Is believed that from this information a direc- 
tory could be complied which would greatly facilitate Amer- 
ican trade. 



DurlDK the Month of August 53 Persons were Killed In New 
York City in accidents due to vehicular traffic, according to the 
report of tho National Highways Protective Society. Of these 
deaths 36 were caused by automobiles, 18 being of children 
under 16 years of age. Trolley cars killed 11 persons and 
wagons killed 6. During August, 1914, 29 persons were killed 
by automobiles. 11 by trolley cars and 13 by wagons. In the 
.State of New York, outside of New York City, automobiles 
caused the death of 39 persons, trolley cars of 3 and wagons 
of 2 during August. In New Jersey, 28 persons were killed by 
automobiles and 6 by trolley cars. 



Ill 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Contracting 



Old Series, Vol. XLVIII. 
New Series, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 18, 1915 



Ntunbsr 

12 



Founded January, 1892. 

published weekly by 
The E.L. Powers Company 



B. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NA.SSA.tJ STREET 
NEW^ YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address : Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price: Fifty-two numbers, ¥2.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
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Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York oflBce. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to advertisers 
should reach the New York oiHce as follows: For insertion in the first issue of the 
month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other issues, by noon on 
Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted — including 
"Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertisements — will be 
accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 

Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co. 
Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Matter 



The Pan-American Road Congress Held 
at Oakland, California 

The Pan-American Road Congress, the first road meeting 
to be held under the joint auspices of the American Road 
Builders' Association and the American Highway Associa- 
tion — the leading road organizations of the country in their 
respective fields — was held at Oakland, Cal., on the four days 
beginning Monday of this week. 

The formal opening took place on Monday forenoon, Sep- 
tember 13. In the absence of Governor Charles W. Gates of 
Vermont, who was compelled to return East, the opening 
address was made by James H. MacDonald, former State 
Highway Commissioner of Connecticut. This was followed 
by welcoming addresses by state and city officials and by 
a response on behalf of the .American Road Builders' Asso- 
ciation by President George W. Tillson, Consulting Engineer 
to the President of the Borough of Brooklyn, New York, 
N. Y. The response on behalf of the American Highway 
Association was made by Field Secretary Charles P. Light, 
neither President Fairfax Harrison nor Vice President Logan 
Waller Page of the latter organization being present. 

Tlie technical papers and discussions followed very closely 
the program which was printed in full in "Good Roads" for 
September 4. 

On Monday evening a smoker was given by the Commercial 
Club of Oakland at the Hotel Oakland, and on Tuesday 
evening the Pan-American Road Congress Banquet was held 
in honor of distinguished guests at the congress. 

On Wednesday bronze medals were presented by the 
Exposition officials to each of the four associations par- 
ticipating in the congress — the American Road Builders' Asso- 



ciation, the American Highway Association, the Tri-State 
Good Roads Association and the Pacific Highway Associa- 
tion. 

Aside from the presentation of technical papers, the prin- 
cipal business of the congress on Thursday comprised the 
action on the report submitted by the Committee on Resolu- 
tions. One of these, to the effect that the Pan-American 
Road Congress recommend to the Congress of the United 
States the advisability of investigating the necessity for build- 
ing a hard surfaced highway along the Pacific Coast from 
Mexico to British Columbia and also other highways to be 
used for military and other purposes, was adopted after a 
spirited discussion. 

Meetings of the American Road Builders' Association and 
the -American Highway Association were also held on Thurs- 
day. 

At the A. R. B. A. meeting the Nominating Committee 
was selected, in accordance with the provisions of the by- 
laws, which were explained on the Road Builders' Page in 
"Good Roads" for September 4. The committee selected 
consisted of Richard H. Gillespie, Chief Engineer of Sewers 
and Highways, Borough of the Bronx, New York, N. Y.; 
James H. MacDonald, former State Highway Commissioner 
of Connecticut; George W. Cooley, State Engineer of Min- 
nesota, and Secretary of the Minnesota State Highway Com- 
mission; Samuel Hill, Honorary Life President, Washington 
State Good Roads Association; William D. Uhler, Chief En- 
gineer, Pennsylvania State Highway Department; W. E. At- 
kinson, State Highway Engineer of Louisiana, and S. E. 
Bradt, Secretary of the Illinois State Highway Commission. 

.'Vt the meeting of the American Highway Association, 
Fairfax Harrison, President of the Southern Railway, and 
Logan Waller Page, Director of the Office of Public Roads 
and Rural Engineering, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
were reelected President and Vice President, respectively. 
In addition, the following were elected Directors: James H. 
MacDonald, former State Highway Commissioner of Con- 
necticut; E. J. Mehren, Editor-in-Chief, "Engineering Rec- 
ord"; George W. Cooley, State Engineer and Secretary of 
the Minnesota State Highway Commission; Dr. Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, State Geologist and Secretary of the North Carolina 
State Highway Commission; H. G. Shirley, Chief Engineer, 
Maryland State Roads Commission, and C. A. Kenyon, Presi- 
dent, Indiana Good Roads Association. 

A complete account of the congress will be printed in "Good 
Roads" for October 2. 



Governor Brumbaugh of Pennsylvania 
to Inspect State Highways 

Governor Brumbaugh of Pennsylvania will make an auto- 
mobile tour of inspection of the Pennsylvania state highways 
during the first week in October. He will be accompanied by 
officials of the State Highway Department and a number of 
other persons. The tour will cover 960 miles. 



172 



GOOD ROADS 



September 18, 1915 



Specifications Covering the Rolling of Road 
Crusts of Various Types* 

By M«ier W. W. Cnxbyt 

Before proceeding to details, it seems necessary, for the 
sake of clearness, to state certain general principles in re- 
gard to specifications. Recognition of them may be more 
general than the speaker is aware, but it seems to him their 
emphasis at the expense of reiteration is demanded by the 
apparent frequency of their neglect. 

In the first place, while it may be necessary sometimes 
to restrict in details the methods to be followed, generally 
it will be found more satisfactory to specify the results to 
be obtained rather than one exact method for reaching the 
result. Elasticity for meeting variations in conditions en- 
countered will then not be wanting. This is especially true 
as regards rolling. 

Secondly, where necessary the methods of producing the 
result may be limited by specific description, but this should 
be done only when unavoidable for the insurance of proper 
results and for preventing the production of a result which 
will be oflFered for acceptance as "just as good." 

Thirdly, for economic reasons, as much elasticity in the 
provisions for limits, in the descriptions of the machinery 
or tools allowed for use, should be given as is practicable. 

Fourthly, the specification of the result to be secured should 
be absolutely definite, clear and as brief as may be con- 
sistent. The specification should so describe the product 
that no more room for argument as to the fulfillment of 
the specification will exist than will be occupied by a few 
questions whose ans-wers can and must be determined by 
scientific methods, such as physical or chemical analyses 
and arithmetical calculations or measurements. 

With specifications drawn on the basis of the foregoing, 
most of the difficulties complained of in many contracts 
would be obviated. The ever-recurrent question of the in- 
terpretation of the clauses would have eliminated from it 
such extremely annoying and indefinite factors as the mean- 
ing of many phrases, the permitting of substitute methods, 
the personal equation in interpretations under varied condi- 
tions, and be resolved into one simple one — that of what 
will be the maximum allowance of variation from the speci- 
fied results for the actual result secured to be acceptable. 

Assuming now that the specifications in regard to the road 
crust have been drawn in all other points on the basis out- 
lined, the clauses regarding the rolling will be considered. 

As an example of what not to do, the following may be 
cited: 

Immediately after the application of the refined tar, a layer 
of dry No. 1 broken atone, not to exceed three eighths (.%) of 
an Inch In thlcknesi, shall be spread and broomed, as directed 
br the Engineer, over the surface of the refined tar, and shall 
b« at once rolled as directed by the Engineer with a roller 
welching between eight (8) and fifteen (IS) tons. 

To the speaker this is indeed a "monstrum horrendum, in- 
forme, ingens, cui lumen ademptum!" And yet it is not a 
"creature of the imagination" of the speaker, but really a 
verbatim extract from a set of specifications recently adopted 
as "standard" (save the mark I) by a national society of con- 
siderable pretensions. It is not the intention of the speaker 
to digress into a discussion of either the syntax of the 
clause or the propriety of the expression "as directed by 
the Engineer." Familiarity of his audience with the dis- 
cussion on the latter will be assumed. He merely wishes 
to illustrate by the quotations his remarks here. Take the 
foregoing as the "before" picture. Let us see how an "after" 
looks. 



•Pap«r praMnted bafore Section D of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, at the Phlladelohla meet- 
ing. December. I»t4. 

tConsultlng Engineer. Baltimore, Hd. 



Immediately after the application of the refined tar, dry No. 
1 broken stone shall be spread and broomed into an even layer 
that will not be over three-eighths (%) of an inch in thickness 
over the surface of the refined tar, and this layer shall be at 
once rolled with a roller of not less than eight (8) nor more 
than fifteen (15) tons In weight. The rolling shall be con- 
tinued until the surface shall be compact and even. 

Which form of the clause is more definitely interpreted? 
Under which are opportunities for the display of idiosyncra- 
sies by engineer and contractor greater? Under which form 
is it more easily possible to estimate the cost of doing the 
work and there to name a definite price for it? 

For further illustration of the theme, let us consider for 
a moment a clause from the printed specifications for mac- 
adam used by a large English city; 

The second coat (of metal) shall then be uniformly applied 
and the whole surface shall receive a thin coating of fine 
granite chippings or other binding material, approved by the 
City Surveyor, not exceeding one inch in size, which shall be 
well rolled again three times. 

Now, regardless of whether this city surveyor, who it may 
be supposed is at least not expected to be of extraordinarily 
small size in any particular, would lose his job and be sup- 
planted (by what?) if the commas were lost, is not the in- 
elasticity or unnecessary and inconvenient rigidity of the 
clause as it stands apparent? 

Again, from a large city's (in this country) specifications: 

When the grading has been completed, the entire surface 
■hall be rolled not leas tlian three times with a steam roller 
weighing not less than 350 pounds per lineal inch of roller; 
or, if In the opinion of the Engineer, the use of a steam roller 
Is impracticable, he may permit the use of a horse-roller 
weighing not less than 250 pounds per Inch. 

Will any two contractors estimate the cost of the rolling 
under this clause at the same figures? 

One more illustration, this time from specifications of 
one of the so-called progressive cities of the country. (It 
now has a city manager who seems to be doing good work 
and perhaps it should be presumed that the city's specifica- 
tions have since been brought beyond criticism. Neverthe- 
less, the counterpart of the clause may also be found else- 
where.) 

The surface must be made perfectly even by heated smoothers 
and be rolled with a steam roller weighing not less than 250 
lbs. to the inch run; the rolling must be continued for not less 
than five (5) hours for each 1,000 square yards of surface. 

Does this mean that the roller must be constantly mov- 
ing, and, if so, at what rate of speed? Will rolling part 
of the 1,000 sq. yds. of surface once and the rest of it as 
many more times as may be necessary to occupy the period 
fulfill the specifications? 

Various other questions are easily framed, and it is neces- 
sary to consider the possibilities for all such questions as 
have been suggested, because of the conditions usually pres- 
ent in connection with public work — the great bulk of high- 
way work. It is futile to argue that the clauses as they 
stand should be readily understood to mean this or that 
by all competent highway engineers and contractors, and 
that the questions above suggested are merely captious criti- 
cisms. Contractors for public work of this character are 
not yet usually selected and invited to bid. The bidding is 
open to all — experienced or inexperienced, intelligent or 
stupid, straight or crooked, who can fulfill certain (general- 
ly financial) requirements, and the difficulties in the way of 
rejecting the low bid are well known. Many green con- 
tractors have to be educated; many would-be sharp ones 
held in the narrow path, and competition in bidding must be 
encouraged. Again, the supply of inspectors, as well as of 
contractors, must be examined through the same glasses, 
and provisions be made for using that material also to the 
best advantage, considering its likely qualities. Friction, 
as well as lawsuits, must be avoided. 

As far as possible, there should be left no opportunity 
for such questions as are indicated above, and the specifica- 



September 18, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



173 



tions may, to this end, even express, to a certain extent and 
as before suggested, definite methods to be followed in the 
production of results, as well as describe exactly the results 
themselves. 

Having criticised what has been done, it is but fair that 
the speaker should specifically propose something to be done 
in this line and illustrate his proposition also. To attempt 
to cover here every case of rolling the road crust would be 
probably as unnecessary as it would be uninteresting to the 
audience. Hence the speaker will limit his suggestions to 
what he considers a few, but perhaps typical, exhibits. 

He thinks the "rolling" clauses should be as follows: 

For Water Bound Macadam 

Subgrade 

The portion of the roadbed prepared for the crust shall be 
-ft. wide, be brought to the grades and cross sections 



shown on the plans, and be rolled with a self-propelled roller 
until firm and solid. All depressions that may appear during 
the rolling shall be filled with approved earth and reroltcd 
until a firm, even surface with a proper grade and cross section 
shall be obtained. 

First Course 

After the layer of broken stone, slag, gravel, shells, or othei 
metal for the first course shall have been spread uniformly 
to the proper cross section, it shall be rolled with a three- 
wheeled, self-propelled roller, weighing not less than 10 tons, 
until the layer shall be compacted to form a firm, even surface. 
Should any serious difficulty in compacting such metal as 
certain granitic rocks be experienced while rolling, lightly 
spreading the layer with sand or other material or sprinkling 
it with water, all as may be approved by the Engineer, shall 
be employed. The rolling shall begin at the sides and work 
toward the center of the roadway thoroughly covering the 
space with the rear wheels of the roller. The rolling shall 
be discontinued before the pieces of metal lose their angular 
character. 

Should any uneven nesses or depressions appear during or 
after the rolling of the first course, they shall be remedied with 
fresh metal of the same kind as previously used and the 
rolling shall thereupon be resumed and continued until a firm, 
uniform and even surface shall be obtained. Should subgrade 
material appear at any time to have churned up into or mixed 
with the metal of the first course, the contractor shall, at his 
own expense and without extra compensation, dig out and 
remove the mixture of subgrade material and metal and re- 
place the same with clean, fresh metal of the same kind as 
previously used in this course, thoroughly rerolling and com- 
pacting the fresh metal so that the first course shall finally be 
firm, uniform and even on its surface with the latter at the 
proper grade and cross sections. 

Second Coarae 

After the metal for the second course shall have been spread 
to the proper thickness and cross sections, it shall be rolled 
as hereinbefore provided under the head of "First Course," 
except that water, in connection with the roling, shall be used 
as follows: When the rolling shall have been carried on to 
the point where the metal of the second course will not push 
or "weave" ahead of the roller and any depressions or uneven- 
nesses have been properly remedied as provided, the rolling shall 
be interrupted and a thin layer of sand, screenings, or other 
approved binding material, shall be evenly spread over the 
surface of the second course metal with as little disturbance 
of the latter as possible. The quantity of fine material so ap- 
plied shall be just sufficient to cover the metal and care shall 
be exercised to avoid its use in excess. Water shall then be 
sprinkled on the roadway surface and the rolling at the same 
time resumed, the quantity of water used being such as will 
prevent the fine material from sticking to the wheels of the 
roller. The combined watering and rolling shall be continued 
until the voids of the metal shall become so filled with the 
finer particles as to result In a wave of water being pushed 
along the roadway surface ahead of the roller wheel. The 
watering and rolling shall then be discontinued until the 
macadam shall have dried out. If then the metal shall begin 
to loosen and to appear on the roadway surface, or it the 
voids In the metal shall appear to be not properly filled, the 
watering and rolling shall be resumed with the application 
of only as much additional fine material as may be necessary. 
Any depressions or unevennesses appearing during the above 
operation shall be remedied by the contractor as hereinbefore 
provided and when completed, the macadam shall be uniform, 
firm, compact and of at least the thickness required and 
•hall have an even iurfaoe nowhere deparflngr by more than 



one inch from the grades and cross S';ctions shown on the 
plans. 

For Brick Pavementa 

Tlie portion of the roadbed prepared for the crust shall be 

ft. wide, be brought to the grades and cross sections 

shown on the plans, and be rolled with a self-propelled roller 
until firm and solid. All depressions that may appear during 
the rolling shall be filled with approved earth and rerolled 
until a firm, even surface with a proper grade and cross section 
shall be obtained. 

Cushion 

After the material for the cushion shall have been evenly 
distributed to the proper thickness and spread to the proper 
grades and cross section It shall be thoroughly, firmly and 
evenly compacted by rolling. The roller shall weigh not less 
than ten (10) pounds per inch in length, should approximate 
twenty-four (24) inches in diameter, and shall not be more 
than thirty (30) inches in length. After rolling until the 
cushion shall be properly compacted as above prescribed, the 
template shall be applied, and if the surface of the cushion 
shall be found to be not uniformly parallel to the surface 
required for the finished pavement nor at the proper grades, 
the defects shall be remedied and the rolling shall then be 
repeated. 

Rollins tbe Brlclc 

After the bricks for the pavement shall have been laid as 
provided and the surface of the roadway swept clean, the 
brick shall be rolled with a self-propelled tandem roller, having 
a weight of not less than three (3) nor of more than five (5) 
tons. The first passage of the roller over the brick shall be at 
a slow pace, shall be begun at the curb, and the rolling shall, 
by means of overlapping passages parallel to the curb, proceed 
to the center of the street. The rolling shall then proceed 
from the other curb to the center in the same manner. The 
roadway shall thereafter be rolled transversely by parallel 
overlapping passages from curb to curb, at each angle 
of forty-five (45) degrees, with the curbs, and finally 
by passages of the roller parallel to the curbs as 
at first above described. When the rolling shall have 
been completed, as above described, the surface shall 
be even at the proper grades and cross sections. Any 
depression exceeding one-quarter CA) of an Inch in depth 
under a ten (10) foot straightedge laid on the surface of the 
brick parallel with the curb shall be properly remedied by the 
contractor, at his own expense and without extra compensa- 
tin. 



Ohio Contracts Practically Complete Road 
Program for 1915 

State Highway Commissioner Clinton Cowen of Ohio re- 
cently received bids for approximately $211,000 worth of road 
construction and repair work in various counties of the state. 
These contracts practically complete the 1915 program of 
(he Ohio State Highway Department. 

The low bidders for tlie various contracts, together with 
the character of the work to be done, are as follows: 

Allen County — Lima-Delphos Road, Marion Township; 
macadam; 2.1 miles; J. A. Westrick, Holgate, $25,900. 

Butler County — Cincinnati-Hamilton Road, Fairfield Town- 
ship; constructing steel bridge; Carver & Wirtz, Hamilton, 
$1,298.99. 

Champaign County — Urbana-Sidney Road, Concord Town- 
ship; macadam; 1 mile; Korah F,. Kunkle, Dayton, $7,943. 

Delaware County— Columbus-Sandusky Road. Delaware 
and Liberty Townships; bituminous macadam; 1 mile; Ed- 
wards Brothers, Sunbury, $12,500; water bound macadam, 
$13,050. 

Geauga County — Burton-Bloomfield Road; concrete; 3 
miles; Yount & Jackson Co., Dayton, $29,000. 

Montgomery County — Dayton-Troy Road, Madriver Town- 
ship; brick; 1.3 miles; Yount & Jackson Co., Dayton, $24,900; 
Dayton-Indianapolis Road, Madison and Jefferson Town- 
ships; brick, and constructing bridges and culverts; 2 miles; 
Yount & Jackson Co., Dayton, $34,940. 

Vanwert County — Vanwert-Delphos Road, Ridge Town- 
ship; macadam; 1 mile; McArthur & Fox, Belle Center, $9,100. 



174 



GOOD ROADb 



September 18, 1915 



Wyandot County— Bucyrus-Upper Sandusky Road, Crane 
I\n\nship; brick; 1 mile; Modern Construction Company, 
Kriiiiont, $16,700; Upper Sandusky-Bellevue Road, Crane 
Township; brick: 1 mile; Modern Construction Company, 
Fremont. $!5,70a 

Jefferson County— Steubenville-Cambridge Road, Cross 
t."reek. Island Creek and Steubenville Townships; macadam 
resurfacinc ; 4 miles: J. V. Warnick, Cadiz, $32,775. 



COMING MEETINGS 



October 4-7.— Northwestern Road Congress. — .\nnual 
meeting. Cedar Rapids, la. Secy-Treas . J. P. Keenan, 
Sentinel BIdg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12.— National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation. — .Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-13 — Alabama Good Roads Association.— 19th 
annual session. Birinint;Iiani. Ala. Secretary, J. A. Rountree, 
Birmingham, Ala. 

October 12-14. — American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments. — .Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 

October 14-16 — Southern Appalachian Good Roads Associa- 
tioa — .\nnual convention, Blucficld, W. \"a. Secretary, C. B. 
Scott. Richmond, \'a. 

November 17-19. — National Municipal League. — Annual 
convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogers Wood- 
ruff, 70S North American Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

February 15-18, 1916. — National Conference on Concrete 
Road Building. — Second National conference, Chicago, 111. 
Secretary of Advisory Committee, J. P. Beck, 208 South 
La Salle St., Chicago, III. 



Institute of Paving Brick Manufacturers 

In an article on page 159 of "Good Roads" for September 
4, in which was noted the organization of the Institute of 
Paving Brick Manufacturers, it was stated that the next 
meeting would occur at Alton, 111., on September 22. It 
is now announced that the place of meeting has been changed 
to the Purtngton Paving Brick Plant at Galesburg, 111., the 
date remaining the same. 

.\» previously noted, all paving brick manufacturers are 
invited to attend this meeting, full particulars in regard to 
which can be obtained from the Secretary of the organiza- 
tion. Robert Kcplingcr. who may be addressed in care of 
the Metropolitan Paving Brick Co., Canton, Ohio. 



.\ meeting will be held at New Orleans, La., oii Novem- 
ber IS and 16 for the purpose of organizing the .Teflferson 
Highway .Association, the object of which is the promotion 
of a highway fron> Winnipeg, Manitoba, to New Orleans. 
The New Orleans .Association of Commerce is sending out 
invitations to the meeting and has appointed a special com- 
mittee, of which P. M. Milner is Chairman, to take charge 
<>f the arr.'iiiL'tnirnts. 



A meeting for the purpose of completing the organization 
of the Jackson Highway Association will be held at Nash- 
ville. Tcnn.. September 23 and 24, under the auspices of the 
Nashville Commercial Club. The association was formed 
for the purpose of promoting a highway from the Great 
r.aVe^ to the Gtilf of Mexico. 



PERSONAL NOTES 



O. H. Lang has been appointed Highway Engineer of 
Thomas County, Ga., with headquarters at Thomasville, Ga. 

James \V. Cain, former Superintendent of Highways of 
the Borough of Queens, New York City, died recently at 
Bayside, L. I., aged 70 years. 

Thomas B. Twaddle, Supervisor of Tulare County, Cal., 
for a number of years, and known throughout that part of 
the country as a good roads advocate, died recently in Santa 
Cruz, Cal. 

B. H. Tong, former Assistant City Engineer of Muscatine, 
la., is now Engineer for E. L. Gochanous, a general con- 
tractor of Grandview, la., and is engaged on concrete pav- 
ing contracts in Burlington, la. 

Charles W. Petit, County Surveyor of Ventura County, 
Cal., has been appointed Chief Engineer of the Ventura 
County Highway Commission. He will have charge of the 
construction of a system of roads to be built under the 
$1,000,000 bond issue which was voted recently. 

John H. Lewis, State Engineer of Oregon, has, at his own 
request, been relieved of all duties and responsibilities in 
connection with highway work done by the State Highway 
Commission, thus ending the controversy as to whether Mr. 
Lewis or E. I. Cantine, Chief Deputy State Engineer, is in 
actual charge of highway engineering. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



The Barr Clay Co., Streator, 111., is the latest of the Dunn 
Wire-Cut Lug Brick Co.'s licensees. 

The Interstate Wood Fibre Asphalt Co., Port Washing- 
ton, N. Y., has been incorporated under the laws of New 
York with a capital stock of $100,000. The company will 
engage in the preparation of paving material, quarrying and 
contracting. The incorporators are George V. A. McCIoskey, 
John R. Hennis and James H. Cullen, Jr. 

The Philip Carey Co., Cincinnati, O., has issued a folder, 
the' principal feature of which is a letter from H. Heim- 
buecher. City Engineer, University City, St. Louis, Mo., 
regarding the advisability of using the Carey Elastite expan- 
sion joint in sidewalk construction. There is also a concise 
statement of the merits of the product, the whole being illus- 
trated with half-tones showing methods of applying the 
expansion joint. 



NEWS NOTES 



A rropoHeil Ilnnd I«mie of !fl(M»,0'l<> failed of adoption at a 
recent special election in Road District No. 1 of Tyler County, 
Tex. 



The Good RohiIr Aiisoclntlonii of Ohio and Muiilenbei'g Coun- 
ties, Ky.. have completed arrangements to devote September 27 
and 28 to building the du Pont Highway from Beaver Dam to 
Central City, a distance of about 18 miles. 



At a Recent F.Ieetlon nt DobltH Ferry, ?r. Y., $150,000 was voted 
for the purpose of paving Broadway with brick through the 
village, a distance of about two miles. As stated in "Good 
Roads" for September 4, on completion of this work, Broadway 
will be paved for a distance of about 27 miles, from the Battery 
In New TprK City to the northern boundary of Dobbs Ferry. 



/7S 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road smd Street £n^ineeriiijt and Ck>ntracting 



OM Seriei, Vol. XLVIII. 
K«w Series, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 25, 1915 



Number 
13 



Founded January, 1892 

published weekly by 
The B. L. Powers Company 



E. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address: Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price: Fifty-two numbers, $2.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
numbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York office. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to adver- 
tisers should reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the 
first issue of the month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other 
issues, by noon on Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted — in- 
cluding "Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertise- 
ments — will be accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 

Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co, 
Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Matter 



Prospective Highway Legislation in 
New Jersey 

At a recent meeting of the New Jersey State Association 
of Boards of Chosen Freeholders, it was decided to prepare 
a bill amending the present highway laws of the state, for 
presentation at the next session of the Legislature. 

In addition to remedying several so-called defects in the 
present road laws, it is planned to secure legislation regard- 
ing the distribution of state appropriations for road con- 
struction and also of the motor vehicle fund for road main- 
tenance. 

A meeting will be held shortly at which representatives 
of the various counties will discuss the matter in detail and 
frame the desired legislation. 



Alabama Legislature Fixes Dates for "Good 
Roads Days" 

At the last session of the Alabama Legislature a law was 
passed establishing August 14 and 15 of each year as "Good 
Roads Days." 

The observance of these days is enjoined upon public offi- 
cials, all educational and public institutions and patriotic 
citizens of the state. The Governor is directed to issue a 
proclamation sixty days in advance, calling upon the probate 
judges, county commissioners, mayors and city officials to 
call out the people within their jurisdictions to work on the 
roads on the days designated. The State Superintendent of 
Education, county superintendents and other educational offi- 
cials are directed to hold suitable exercises in their respective 
institutions, and the State Highway Commission is directed 



to prepare every year a booklet containing a suitable pro- 
gram and instructions for the work on the roads. The bill 
has been signed by Governor Henderson and is now a law. 

It was stated that the legislation was enacted at the re- 
quest of the Alabama Good Roads Association, which claims 
the honor of being the originator of the "Good Roads Day." 



Florida Counties Have Voted Large Sums for 
Road Work 

Several counties of Florida have voted bonds aggregating 
nearly $7,000,000 for road improvements, and elections are 
pending on proposed bond issues for several millions addi- 
tional. 

Seminole County recently voted an issue of $450,000 bonds 
for brick highways. The situation in other counties is as 
follows: 

In Hillsborough County, an issue of $1,000,000 has been 
voted for brick roads, to be completed by January 1, and 
an election is to be held shortly on a proposition to issue 
$500,000 more for the purpose of completing the system. 

Orange County has voted $600,000 for the purpose of 
paving SO miles of roads with brick, the work to be com- 
pleted not later than December 1. 

Duval County will hold an election on a proposed issue 
of $1,300,000 bonds for the purpose of completing a system 
of brick roads. An issue of $1,000,000 has already been voted 
for the construction of 60 miles. 

St. Johns County is working on a 60-mile stretch of brick 
roads, to be completed by November 1, under a $650,000 
bond issue. 

Palm Beach County recently voted $850,000 for hard sur- 
faced roads and a bridge over the St. Lucie River. 

Dade County has already completed 400 miles of roads 
and recently voted an additional $100,000 to complete the 
system. The County Commissioners have called an election 
for October 19 on the question of issuing $275,000 for road 
and bridge construction. 

Two districts of Volusia County have voted $750,000 and 
ihree more districts will vote shortly on issues aggregating 
$1,500,000. 

De Soto County has just awarded contracts for the con- 
struction of 15 miles of brick highway under a $250,000 bond 
issue. 

The Palatka District of Putnam County recently voted to 
issue bonds to the amount of $208,000, the proceeds of which 
are to be used for the construction of brick roads and con- 
crete bridges. 

An election will be held soon in Polk County on a bond 
issue of $2,000,000 for 194 miles of brick roads. Pinellas 
County has voted $715,000; Manatee County, $360,000; Lake 
County, $515,000, and Columbia County, $250,000. 

In addition to bonds issued and proposed by the counties, 
several of the cities of Florida have voted large issues. Jack- 
sonville recently voted $500,000 to be issued in installments of 
$250,000 in 1916 and 1917. Half of the total issue willbe 
used for street improvements. 



176 



GOOD ROADS 



September 25, 1915 



Wisconsin Legislature Makes Changes in 
State Highway Laws 

Governor E. L. Philipp of Wisconsin has signed a bill 
puscd by the 1915 Legislature, amending the state aid high- 
way laws in a number of important features. 

Taken in connection with portions of the old law left 
unchanged and the provisions of it modified by the new 
law, a system of state aid with state supervision, much as 
in the past, remains in eflFect. The State Highway Com- 
mission is given power to approve plans and contracts and 
to generally control construction about as formerly; the 
county highway commissioner has charge of the actual con- 
•tniciion, but both the State Highway Commission and 
county highway commissioner must act with and cooperate 
with a state aid road and bridge committee elected by each 
county board, which has supervisory control as to the gen- 
eral policy and conduct of the work in each county. 

Following are the principal changes and additions to the 
state aid law: 

1. The percentage of state aid paid on bridges over 6 ft. 
in span was increased from 20 per cent, to 33'/i per cent., 
the same as for roads. 

2. State and county aid for road and bridge construction 
in cities of the fourth class, having a population of 5,000 
or less is discontinued. 

3. The power of a village board to vote taxes is dis- 
continued, and the right to vote taxes is placed upon the 
electors of villages, just as electors of towns vote taxes for 
state aid purposes at the regular or a special meeting. 

4. Previously a town or village could vote a tax of 3 
mills for state aid roads and bridges. This might be raised 
to 5 mills by a three-fourths vote. This was changed so 
that towns or villages with valuations under $600,000 may 
TOte 2 mills; between $600,000 and $1,000,000, 1% mills; 
more than $1,000,000, 1 mill. Twice these amounts may be 
TOted by a three-fourths vote. 

5. Applications by towns and villages for state and county 
aid may now be filed with the county clerk at any time 
before the first day of the annual meeting of the county 
board, instead of September 1. Accordingly towns and 
villages may vote taxes this year up to November 9, instead 
of up to September 1, as formerly. 

d. The powers of the counties to make road improvements 
by a county board action, disregarding the towns, is made 
more specific, and it is provided that if this work is done 
in amounts of $3,000 or over, the state will pay 40 per cent. 
and the county 60 per cent. 

7. Specific power is given the county boards to do county 
and sute construction, and to make friendly arrangements 
with towns, subscribers, individuals, and abutting property 
owners to help pay the cost. 

8. County boards are given power to reduce the application 
for state and county aid from any town or village, regard- 
less of any valuation, to $2,000, if the board should so vote. 
Within the limitations on town and county taxes and this 
cutting provision, the counties must meet all applications 
from towns and villages in full and pro-rate the state aid 
between thera. 

9. County fax limit for all state aid purposes is reduced 
from 3 mills to 2 mills. 

10. A county state aid road and bridge committee is 
created to be elected by the county boards to have general 
administrative control of state road and bridge construction 
in each county. This committee may be three or five in 
number and may or may not be from the membership of 
the board. The limit of their per diem and expenses is 
•et at $200 each per year, unless a different maximum is 



fixed by the county board. Their powers and duties are: — 

(a) To purchase and sell road machinery. 

(b) To determine whether work in the county shall be 
done by contract or day labor. 

(c) To make all contracts for state aid road and bridge 
construction with the approval of the State Highway Com- 
mission. 

(d) To direct the expenditure of maintenance funds. 

(e) To audit pay rolls and material claims. 

(f) To help let and approve contracts for county aid 
bridges costing over $500. 

It is provided that the town chairman of each town shall 
be an ex officio member of the county committee as far 
as work in his town is concerned. 

The present committee customarily dealing with state aid 
matters serves until the new committee is elected or ap- 
pointed in each county. 

11. Examinations of candidates for the position of county 
highway commissioners by the State Highway Commission 
is done away with. The county board elects the county 
highway commissioner as it sees fit, and is not held to any 
eligible list, as has been the case for the last two years. 

12. Upon first election the county highway commissioner 
shall serve one year. Upon second and succeeding elections 
he shall serve two years, instead of permanently, as at pres-' 
ent. Terms of county highway commissioners previously 
re-elected permanently will expire two years from the time 
of their taking offica the last time. 

13. The county highway commissioner in general does all 
construction and maintenance work, as at present, except 
that the road and bridge committee will act as a board of 
directors acting jointly with the State Highway Commis- 
sion in controling the general conduct of the work. County 
highway commissioners can no longer make contracts in 
the name of the county. 

14. Payments on contracts and for day labor are covered 
very specifically in the new law. In general it provides for the 
system of accounts used at present as a record of the cost 
of the work, but a fixed statutory method is given for all 
payments out of the county road and bridge fund, instead of 
leaving it to be fixed by the county board, as at present. 

15. In the future counties will maintain all roads built 
under the provisions of the state highway law, whether 
surfaced or only graded, instead of maintaining only the 
surfaced roads, as at present. This applies to earth roads 
already built as well as to be built. 

16. No road or bridge fund available for any piece of 
construction can be over-drawn by a county highway com- 
missioner except with the written consent of the county 
board or county road and bridge committee. 

17. The method of distribution of the state highway fund 
IS entirely changed. At its November session each county 
board IS in the future to be notified by the State Highway 
Conimiss.on of its share of this state highway fund, which 
IS the proportion of the state highway fund that its valu- 
ation IS of the total valuation of the state. The county 
board sets aside the state highway money either for its 
own work or for work in the towns or villages, or both as 
It sees fit, and if the fund is not entirely exhausted by 
calls made on it at the November session, it remains to 
the credit of the county until the first day of the following 
July to be called for by the county board at any time up 
to that date. If not used in the county, the balance does 

not go to any other county, but reverts to the state treasury 
to be used m making up the state highway fund the succeed- 
ing year. 

18. Town chairmen are allowed to make any repairs to 
state highways which may be immediately necessary, and 
provides that the county shall pay for such repairs. 



September 25, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



177 



19. Another new provision prohibits throwing rubbish on 
a state highway, or painting, printing or pasting any adver- 
tisement, poster, or device on any culvert, bridge or guard 
rail, and a fine therefor is provided to go into the county 
road and bridge fund. 

20. No franchise shall hereafter be granted on or along 
any improved state highway unless the same is approved 
by the county board of the county in which such highway 
lies. 

21. County boards are given authority to erect guide 
boards on the state highway system in each county, and 
are also authorized to replace section corners lost or mis- 
placed in state highway construction. 

A supplementary bill covers the state financial features 
of the state highway law. The bill as finally passed pro- 
vides $785,000 annually as state aid for highways and $65,000 
annually for the support of the State Highway Commission. 
These sums are in place of $1,200,000 and $100,000, respec- 
tively, per year previously appropriated. 



Council Votes Street Improvements for 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

The City Council of Pittsburgh, Pa., has approved munici- 
pal improvements which will entail an expenditure of ap- 
proximately $4,277,000, which will be provided for by bond 
issues. 

Of this amount it is intended to devote $3,652,000 to street 
and bridge work, the improvements scheduled being as 
follows: 

Monongahela Blvd., from the Court House to Schenley 
Park, $1,000,000; extension to 10th St., bridge, $800,000; 
widening East Ohio St., $360,000; Mt. Washington Blvd., 
$416,000; Grand Blvd., $300,000; Federal St., to Manchester 
Bridge, $300,000; West Carson St., $200,000; Warrington 
Ave., $150,000; East Carson St., $75,000; Chartiers Ave., 
$51,000. 



COMING MEETINGS 



October 4-7. — Northwestern Road Congress. — Annual 
meeting. Cedar Rapids, la. Secy-Treas., J. P. Keenan, 
Sentinel Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

October 11-12. — National Paving Brick Manufacturers' As- 
sociation. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Will 
P. Blair, B. of L. E. Bldg., Cleveland, O. 

October 12-13 — Alabama Good Roads Association. — 19th 
annual session. Birmingham, Ala. Secretary, J. A. Rountree, 
Birmingham, Ala. 

October 12-14. — American Society of Municipjil Improve- 
ments. — Annual convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Charles 
Carroll Brown, 702 Wulsin Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 

October 14-16 — Southern Appalachian Good Roads Associa- 
tion — Annual convention, Bluefield, W. Va. Secretary, C. B. 
Scott, Richmond, Va. 

November 17-19. — National Municipal League. — Annual 
convention, Dayton, O. Secretary, Clinton Rogers Wood- 
ruff, 705 North American Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

February 15-18, 1916. — National Conference on Concrete 
Road Building. — Second National conference, Chicago, III. 
Secretary of Advisory Committee, J. P. Beck, 208 South 
La Salle St., Chioaigo, IH. 



American Society of Municipal Improvement 

The 22nd annual convention of the American Society of 
Municipal Improvement will be held at the Hotel Miami, 
Dayton, C, October 12, 13, 14 and 15. The program is in 
course of preparation and will be issued at an early date. 
A feature of the convention will be a banquet tendered 
by the National Paving Brick Manufacturers' Association 
on October 12, the date of the closing of its own convention 
at Dayton. Arrangements for the entertainment of ladies 
accompanying members are being made by the Dayton 
Engineers' Club. 



PERSONAL NOTES 



W. H. Rights has been appointed City Engineer of Sey- 
mour, Ind. 

Charles L. Wood has been appointed Highway and Bridge 
Engineer of Lowndes County, Miss. 

C. A. Young has resigned as President of the Eastern 
Paving Brick Manufacturers' Association. 

H. N. Legreid, County Highway Engineer of Hurnboldt 
County, la., has been admitted to associate membership in 
the Western Society of Engineers. 

G. W. Greenwood has been elected President of the East- 
ern Paving Brick Manufacturers' Association, vice C. A 
Young, whose resignation is noted elsewhere in this column. 

W. P. Danford, former City Engineer of Durant, Okla., 
has been appointed Assistant State Engineer of the State 
Highway Commission, with headquarters at Oklahoma City, 
Okla. 



NEWS OF THE TRADE 



A 32-page booklet recently issued by the Trussed Concrete 
Steel Co., Youngstown, O., describes Kahn Mesh, one of 
the company's products for reinforcing concrete, especially 
in road, bridge and culvert construction. 



The Troy Wagon Works Co., Troy, O., has issued a folder, 
printed in two colors, describing the Troy-Ajax dump wagon, 
which was awarded the grand prize at both the San Fran- 
cisco and San Diego Expositions. The folder contains sev- 
eral half-tone reproductions of the wagon in use. 



Recent publications by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
Philadelphia, Pa., include Records Nos. 74 and 78. The 
former is a catalogue of gasoline locomotives and the latter 
contains matter descriptive of several types of locomotives 
for industrial and contractors' service. Both catalogues are 
profusely illustrated. 



The American Rolling Mill Co., Middletown, O., has re- 
cently issued a new edition of the booklet entitled "De- 
feating Rust," which was first issued about a year ago and 
has since been extensively revised. The company has also 
issued an entirely new booklet entitled "Armco Iron Rust 
Resisting Products" which, as its name indicates, describes 
many of the Armco iron products. 



178 



GOOD ROADS 



September 25, 1915 



The Dunn Wire-Cut Lug Brick Company 
Entertains Its Licensees 

Th« licensees of the Dunn Wire-Cut Lug Brick Co., Con- 
neaut. O., were entertained recently by F. B. Dunn, Presi- 
dent of the company, at his summer home at Willow B«ach, 
Conneaut, where they enjoyed a two days' outing. The 
entertainment consisted of launch parties, bathing, games of 
Tuious sorts and concerts. 

One afternoon was devoted to a business conference at 
the offices of the company at Conneaut. Owing to the suc- 
cess of the conference and the enjoyment of the outing, it 
is believed that a similar affair will take place annually 
hereafter. 

The licensed manufacturers of the Dunn Wire-Cut Lug 
brick and others who were guests at the outing were as 
follows: 

Spencer M. Duty, President of the Deckman-Duty Paving 
Brick Co., Geveland, O., and Mrs. Duty; C. C. Blair, Secre- 
tary and General Manager of the Bessemer Limestone Co., 
Yonngstown, O., and Mrs. Blair; F. R. Kanengeiser, General 
Superintendent of the Bessemer Limestone Co., and Mrs. 
Kanengeiser; J. G. Barbour, Secretary of the Metropolitan 
Paving Brick Co., Canton, O., and Mrs. Barbour; H. S. Ren- 
kert. Treasurer and General Manager of the Metropolitan 
Paving Brick Co., and Mrs. Renkcrt; O. H. Renkert, Gen- 
eral Superintendent of the Metropolitan Paving Brick Co., 
and Mrs, Renkert; Charles J. Deckman, Vice President of 
the Deckman-Duty Paving Brick Co., and President of the 
National Paving Brick Manufacturers' Association; H. M, 
Moatz, Treasurer of the Deckman-Duty Paving Brick Co., 
and Mrs. Moatz; J. L. Murphy, President of the Hocking 
Valley Paving Brick Co., Columbus, O., and Mrs. Murphy; 
J. B. Wilcox, Alliance .Clay Products Co., Alliance, O., and 
Mrs. Wilcox; F. L. Manning, General Sales Manager of the 
Peebles Paving Brick Co., Portsmouth, O., and Mrs. Man- 
ning; J. C. Carlyle, General Superintendent of the Albion 
Vitrified Paving Brick Co., .A^lbion, 111.; B. J. Gallagher, Gen- 
eral Superintendent of the Veedersburg Paver Co., Veeders- 
burg, Ind.; Ralph Simpkins, Vice President of the Hydraulic 
Press Brick Co., St. Louis,- Mo.; G. H. Francis, Secretary 
and General Manager of the United Brick Co., Greensburg, 
Pa.; W. H. Hill, President of the Murphysboro Paving Brick 
Co., Murphysboro, 111.; W. C. Brown, Secretary and Treas- 
urer of the Southern Clay Manufacturing Co., Chattanooga, 
Tenn.; J. M. Hoskins, Vice President and Treasurer of the 
Terre Haute Vitrified Brick Co., Terre Haute, Ind.; W. T. 
Blackburn, Paris, III., Consulting Engineer of the Dunn 
Wire-Cut Lug Brick Co.; H. H. Smith, Superintendent of 
the Deckman-Duty Paving Brick Co., and Mrs. Smith. 



NEWS NOTES 



<i>»»»««» C««»ty, TeaBcaaee. has voted a bond Issue of $200,- 
►• for road construction. 



Tfc* Taxparen t DIatrlet Jfe. 4 of Lowndea Coanty, HIas., 

have voted to upend tlOO.OOO on road Improvements. 



A State Ai»»rarriatlea af SIO.OOCOOO for road construction 
is iMinK ursed bjr commercial clubs In Southern Illinois. 



* ■•■* •■•«» 'f 9>»»/>Q» for a viaduct will be submitted to 
U>« Totars of Harrisburir, Pa., at the November election. 



''*• Baar« or Caaalj- Caaualaaloaera of Wromlac County, 

^' *■- *"" receive bids until November 1 on an Issue of 
WM.MO road bond*. 



TW CHt CaiwHI af Caralcaaa. T«, has ordered an election 
for October 10 on the question of IsaiUng $80,000 worth of 
■»r««t improvement bonds. 



The Koad Between Lost Hills and Coallnga. Cal., 65 miles 
long, Is to be improved by joint action of Kings, Fresno and 
Kern Counties. 



Of the fl,000.000 Road Progrram In the State of Washington, 

work aKgregrating approximately $700,000 has already been 
completed, according to a recent report. 



A Special Election nill be held on October 12 In District No. 
5 of Volusia County, Pla., on the question of issuing J250,000 
in bonds for road construction and repair. 



The Provincial Engrinerr of HiKhnays of the Province of On- 
tario, Canada, estimates that $640,000 will be needed for road 
construction in the province during 1916. 



The Police Jury of JelTeraon Davis Parish, Loalalana, has set 

October 19 as the date of an election on the question of Issuing 
$125,000 In bonds for gravel roads In Ward 2. 



The California State Hifchivay Commission has moved its Los 
Angeles offices to the Union League Building, Second and Hill 
Streets. Highway Commissioner Darlington is located in room 
No. 312. 



The County Court of Rutherford County, Tenn., has called 
an election for the first week in November on the question of 
Issuing $175,000 in bonds for the purchase and maintenance of 
turnpikes. 



Vetera of Santa Barbara County, California, have approved 
a bond issue of $350,000 for bridges along the state highways. 
The proposition to Issue $988,000 worth of bonds for road con- 
struction was defeated. 



The Committee on Hishways of the Board of Trade of West 
Palm Beach, Fla., has started a movement to have the main 
highway of Palm Beach County built to a uniform width of 40 
ft., for Its entire length. 



State Hig:hway Comntlasloner Cunnini;ham, of Pennsylvania, 

is scheduled to speak at a meeting in Meadville, Pa., on Octo- 
ber 14, when the matter of the proposed Pittsburgh-Erie state 
highway will be discussed. 



The Citiaens' Northvreat Suburban Association of IVashinK- 
ton, D. C, has submitted estimates of the needs of the north- 
west section during 1916 to the District Commission. The esti- 
mates include 25 Items of street improvements at an aggre- 
gate cost of $236,000. 



Dniutli, Minn., -will Spend Approximately $500,000 for new 

pavements and street improvements during 1916, according to 
the estimate of Commissioner Parrell of the Public Works 
Division. The city spent $400,000 on work of this character 
during the current year. 



The Bond Budget of Dayton, O., which will be submitted for 
the approval of voters at the fall election, aggregates $1,503,- 
000. Of this amount, $457,000 is for the city's share of the cost 
of street paving and repairs and $115,000 Is for a concrete arch 
bridge over Mad River at Keowce Street. 



Vyael Street, Amsterdam, Netherlands, one of the busiest 
streets of the city, is being widened to 72 ft., for about 600 ft. 
of Its length. The present width of this section Is 23 ft. The 
remainder, about 1,500 ft., Which Is 30 ft. wide, will not be 
altered at present. In order to make way for the Improvement, 
the buildings on one side of the street are being torn down. 
The work will require about two years to complete. 



The County Commtaaionera of Staric County, O., have asked 
for $125,000 for road purposes in their 1916 budget, recently 
filed with the County Auditor. The county pays not more than 
half of the cost of any roads and less than half on roads on 
which state aid Is provided. Property owners have filed peti- 
tions for 150 miles of brick roads, but the county officials state 
that not more than 10 per cent, of this mileage can be Im- 
proved during 1916. 



'■z? 



GOOD ROADS 

A Weekly Journal of Road and Street Engineering and Contracting 



Old Series, Vol. XLVIII. 
New Series, Vol. X. 



NEW YORK, OCTOBER 2, 1915 



Number 

14 



Founded January, 1892. 

published weekly by 
The E. L. Po^vers Company 



E. L. Powers, Pres. and Treas. 



H. L. Powell, Sec'y. 



150 NASSAU STREET 
NEIW YORK, N. Y. 



Cable Address: Gudrodes, New York. 



Subscription price: Fifty-two numbers, S2.00 a year in the United States, 
Mexico, Cuba and Porto Rico; $3.00 in Canada, and $3.50 elsewhere. Twelve 
numbers (the first issue in each month), $1.00 ayear in the United States, Mexico, 
Cuba and Porto Rico; $1.50 in Canada, and $2.00 elsewhere. 

Notice to discontinue subscription should be sent to the New York of&ce. 

Copy for advertisements of which proofs are to be submitted to advertisers 
should reach the New York office as follows: For insertion in the first issue of the 
month, by the fifteenth of the preceding month; for other issues, by noon on 
Thursday of the week before date of issue. 

. Copy for all advertisements of which proofs need not be submitted — including 
"Proposal," "For Sale," "Want" and other classified advertisements — will be 
accepted until noon on Thursday of the week of issue. 

Copyright 1915 by the E. L. Powers Co. 
Entered in New York Post Office as Second Class Matter 



CONTENTS 

EDITORIAL: 

Highway Law.s 179 

Financing Highway Work 180 

Road Improvement for National Defense 180 

LEADING ARTICLES: 

Papers Presented at the Pan-American Road Congress: 
The Hl-story and Future of Highway Improvement. By 

L. W. Page 189 

The Essentials of Proper Laws for Highway Work. 

By E. A. Stevens 191 

The Essentials of Proper Laws for Highway Work. 

By A. N. Johnson 193 

Highway Indebtedness: Its Limitation and Regula- 
tion. By N. P. Lewis 194 

The Determination of the Justifiable Outlay for Spe- 
cific Cases of Highway Improvement. By Clifford 

Richardson 196 

Organization and System in Highway Work. By A. 

B. Fletcher 197 

System in Highway Accounting. By S. D. Gilbert... 199 
Proper Road Location: Its Importance and Effect. 

By W. R. Roy 200 

Road Drainage and Foundation. By G. W. Cooley. . . . 202 

Roadway Surfacings. By F. F. Rogers 203 

Street Pavements. By Curtis Hill 205 

Maintenance: Materials and Methods. By A. W. Dean 206 
Convict Labor for Highway Work. By G. P. Coleman 208 

Resurfacing Old Roads. By Wm. D. Uhler 210 

The Benefits and Burdens of Better Roads. By S. E. 
Bradt 212 

MISCELLANEOUS: 

The Operations of the British Road Board During 1914. . 187 

Notes on British Road Work 187 

Durax Paving in Louisville, Kentucky, (Illustrated).. 188 
Operation of the Scranton Municipal Asphalt Repair 
Plant. (Illustrated) 216 

A. R. B. A. PAGE 217 

■ COMING MEETINGS 218 

NEW PUBLICATIONS 219 

REPORTS 219 

NEW MACHINERY AND APPLIANCES 220 

NEWS OF THE TRADE 221 

recent' PATENTS 22? 



HIGH\yAY LAWS 

Few of the subjects considered at the recent road con- 
gress at Oakland are more vital to the betterment of the 
country's roads than that of proper laws for highway work. 
Were it possible to sweep away the present inconsistent, ill- 
advised, and in some cases vicious, laws that encumber the 
statutes of most of the states and substitute simple, explicit 
enactments providing for the businesslike administration of 
road building as an engineering project, the good roads 
problem, so-called, could soon be solved. 

Community jealousy, partisan politics, the fear of a too 
centralized authority and the desire to provide opportunities 
for private gain at public expense have been large factors 
in framing the mass of general and special legislation which 
now governs road work. As has been the case with other 
public work, the building of roads has been regarded as 
anything except what it really is — a work to be accomplished 
in accordance with engineering principles and in a business- 
like manner. 

While much good work has been done under these adverse 
conditions, the results obtained from far too large a propor- 
tion of the expenditures for road work have been only what 
naturally might have been expected. Some roads that have 
long needed improvement are still almost impassable, while 
others, much less important, have been made good roads. 
Certain roads carrying traffic justifying only a small outlay 
have been paved at considerable expense, while others carry- 
ing heavy traffic of comparatively great economic importance 
have been left almost uncared for. Money has been wasted 
in original construction; maintenance has been neglected; 
unsound financing has been common; the "good roads propa- 
ganda" has been used as a cloak for personal advertisement 
and the promotion of private enterprise, and not infrequent- 
ly road work has furnished the opportunity for extensive 
grafting. 

It is not claimed that the mere enactment of proper laws 
would do away with all these abuses and in itself insure 
. the improvement of the right roads in the right manner 
at the least cost. Wisdom and honesty cannot be legislated 
into the heads and hearts of men. On the other hand, the 
right kind of laws can put road 'work under men who pos- 
sess the requisite knowledge to do it, and can make difficult 
the misappropriation of public funds. 

The greatest fault of the present road laws is that they 
put too much of the work into the hands of incompetents — 
usually mere officeholders who know nothing of road con- 
struction and maintenance and cannot be expected to have 
such knowledge. The majority of the road mileage in this 
country is under the jurisdiction of small units whose road 
aflfairs are administered by small politicians. The remedy 
for this particular fault lies in placing skillful road builders 
in charge of local road work as well as the highway projects 
of greater magnitude, combining several units into one when 
necessary. 

Much progress has been made during the past few years 
in the betterment of the road laws in some of the states. 
But almost everywhere there is need for the most thorough 



180 



GOOD ROADS 



October 2, 1915 



revision, the repemi of useless legislation, the passage of 
•ome new Uws, and careful codification. Before highway 
improvement can be carried forward as it should be, the 
engineer must be given a much larger part of the work than 
he now has; safe and sane methods of finapcing must be 
provided for, and those in charge of all branches of the work 
must be left free to perform it in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of good business and good engineering. 



tion could be directed to no better end than seeking to bring 
home to the taxpayers the difference between recklessly 
puttmg on posterity the burden of paying for benefits it 
will never receive and the legitimate use of credit in pro- 
viding that for which cash is not immediately available. 



FINANCING HIGHWAY WORK 

As the traffic which the roads have to bear has increased 
in quantity and changed in character, the cost of both con- 
struction and maintenance has naturally risen, until at pres- 
ent the financing of highway work has become a most seri- 
ous problem. Moreover, it is the one phase of road improve- 
ment in which the general public is most directly concerned, 
and for this reason it is desirable, if not imperative, that 
erery effort be put forth to bring the matter before the tax- 
payers — from whom the necessary funds must come. 

The fundamental principles of sound financing — as applied 
to road work — are relatively simple, and few clearer exposi- 
tions of them have been made than that in the paper on 
"Highway Indebtedness: Its Limitation and Regulation," 
presented at the recent Pan-American Road Congress by 
Chief Engineer Nelson P. Lewis of the New York City Board 
of Estimate and Apportionment. The careful study Mr. 
Lewis has made of this problem and his close connection 
with the financial questions incident to his ofhcial duties 
make his words authoritative. 

The paper was the basis of one of the most spirited dis- 
cussions of the congress, and elicited a diversity of opinions 
on details. In general, however, the views expressed agreed 
with those of Mr. Lewis and a careful analysis of the dis- 
cnssion would probably show that the consensus of opinion 
favored the properly safeguarded bond issue as a means 
for raising the large sums necessary for the prosecution 
of extensive highway work. 

While undoubtedly there is a marked tendency in most 
communities toward better methods of financing highway 
work, there are still too many instances of careless bond- 
ing. Large bond issues are voted without adequate provi- 
sions for repayment; bonds are issued for terms four or 
five times the life of the improvements they are to pay for, 
and money obtained from the sale of bonds is used for work 
which should be paid for in other ways. 

The annual expenditure for road work in the United States 
has been estimated at upwards of a quarter of a billion dol- 
lars and it is probable that this is conservative. It is reason- 
able to suppose that this will increase rather than decrease, 
as traffic develops and as the roads that have been improved 
stimulate public sentiment favoring more good roads. No 
small portion of the present expenditure is derived from 
bond issues and as the amount of money required becomes 
greater and greater we may reasonably expect to see more 
and more of it secured by the issue of bonds. Under these 
conditions it is essential that bonds be issued only for work 
that should properly be financed in that way and that the 
issues be made only in accordance with those principles of 
finance that have been proven sound. 

There is much agitation in certain quarters for "campaigns 
of education" in connection with the so-called good roads 
propaganda. Too often these campaigns have as their object 
nothing more than the molding of public opinion in favor 
of large outlays for road improvement, or the dissemination 
o' * •'"ow'fdKe of the most elementary principles of road 
building. The average man need know nothing of the tech- 
nical phases of road construction and maintenance, except 
that they are matters that should be intrusted to experts. 
On the other hand, the public is vitally mterestcd in the 
manner in which its money is spent, and in knowinng, in a 
general way, how it should be used. Campaigns of educa- 



ROAD IMPROVEMENT FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE 

One formerly high in the councils of the nation has re- 
cently proposed the construction of a number of interstate 
highways to facilitate the defense of the country in case of 
invasion. The scheme itself is too puerile for notice, but 
it has served to suggest the advisability of a certain amount 
of road improvement in connection with other preparations 
for the defense of the coasts and boundaries of the country. 
It has an added interest because of the passage by the Pan- 
American Road Congress of a resolution recommending to 
Congress the advisability of looking into the matter of con- 
structing roads for military purposes. 

The European War has shown the value of good roads in 
the conduct of military operations, for the presence of an 
adequate system of highways in the territory where much of 
the fighting has taken place has, in a large measure, made 
possible a very, extensive use of motor-driven vehicles. In 
this country, however, the conditions are vastly different 
from those in France or Germany. Those countries are 
comparatively small in area and in none of them do we find 
the enormous distances common in the United States. For 
instance, the distance trom Paris to Berlin is considerably 
less than that from New York to Chicago, and the distances 
between points on the battle line in the western theater of 
war are short — as Americans are accustomed to think of 
distances. 

In the event of an attack directed against any part of 
this country, it is certain that the railroads would have to 
be depended upon to move most of the troops and practically 
all of the equipment and supplies, where any considerable 
distance was involved in the operations. In war, as in peace, 
the highways would have their greatest use as auxiliaries 
of rail and water transportation, and it is very likely that 
the condition of certain roads, which now may or may not 
need improvement for commercial purposes, would then be 
a large factor in the success or failure of our forces. Just 
what roads should be improved is a question for those engi- 
neers of the army who are familiar with the whole problem 
of defense and to whom such measures as are taken will be 
intrusted. 

At present, the federal government has jurisdiction over 
roads along the coast or along the borders only in some 
special cases, and before actual work could be commenced 
certain legislation, both federal and state, would have to 
be enacted. Whether the improvements could best be made 
by the states or counties, working under government super- 
vision, or by the government itself is a matter that would 
require some study. In either case, the federal government 
might reasonably be expected to bear a portion of the cost, 
and at the present time this seems to be the most logical 
channel into which to divert any national funds that may be 
available for road work. 

The whole subject is one which has received little if any 
attention and is one of the phases of the problem of national 
defense which should be investigated when that matter is 
seriously taken up. 



The Rxpvndltnre for Street Clennlniir tn Portlnml, IWe.. dvir- 
Inp the fiscal year enfllnp: Dec. 31, 1914, amounted to $41,339.1 K, 
nrcordinir to the annual report of Commissioner of Public 
Works nion TSratlbury, Jr. Of the total amount. $32,423.48 was 
expendetl for cleaninqr 434,668 sq. yds. of paved streets: $5,- 
426.20 was expended for cleaning earth and macadam streets, 
and the balance, ^3,489,50, was expended for cleaning crop;;. 
wal|ce, 



October 2, 1915 



GOOD ROADS 



181 



The Pan-American Road Congress 



The Pan-American Road Congress was held, under the 
joint auspices of the American Road Builders' Association 
and the American Highway Association and with the co- 
operation of the Tri-State Good Roads Association and the 
Pacific Highway Association, at Oakland, Cal., on September 
13, 14, 15, 16 and- 17. The sessions, with the exception of 
that on the afternoon of Wednesday, September IS, were 
held in the Municipal Auditorium at Oakland. The session 
on Wednesday afternoon was held in Festival Hall at the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition, Wednesday having 
been designated as "Pan-American Road Congress Day" 
at tlie exposition. 

Besides the technical and business sessions, there were 
several entertainments and excursions held in conjunction 
with the congress, and most of the delegates took advantage 
of the opportunities to visit the exhibits of road machinery 
and materials at the exposition and to inspect road work in 
the neighborhood of San Francisco and Oakland. 

A full account of the congress is printed on the following 
pages, in which is also included the address of President 
Tillson of the American Road Builders' Association. In 
addition, there are printed in this issue of "Good Roads" as 
many of the papers as space permits. Others will appear 
later. The verbatim report of the sessions and the formal 
papers and discussions will be printed in the official pro- 
ceedings, wliich will be distributed free, in accordance with 
the plan announced in "Good Roads" for September 4. 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 13