Skip to main content

Full text of "The Gorgias of Plato"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 


r. / 

•■^'^d. R. 









Act apa, €t TLS fiiWtt iv roU woKitikois vpaKTiKbs etyai, t6 ^$oi 
elvai avovdaibv, — Auctob Magn. Moral, 





0-' h ■ tVa,j 7 







PREFACE ..,.,.... Vii 



Notes 127 


INDEX 1 261 

INDEX IL . . 270 




Op the more important changes adopted in the text of 
this edition, or suggested in the notes, the following is a 
list : — 

1. In p. 3 (448, b) ri for riva, 

2. In p. 14 (454, d) for yap av I give apa with 
Olympiodorus, and with Dr Badham corov for co-rtv. 

3. In p. 16 (456, b) cX^oVtc, at Dobree's suggestion, 
for IXBovra, 

4. p. 22 (460, o) for ovkoxv avdyicq tov prjropiKov 
SiKaiov cTvat, TOV Sc Sixaiov fiov\€<r6ai. BCkomi Trparrciv, 
I add act after fiovXeaSai, and with Woolsey and Hirschig 
omit the words prp-opiKov to tov 8c inclusive. 

5. p. 53 (478, b) I ought to have received into the 
text the emendation of Dobree recommended in the 
notes, o c^cov KaKiav for o l^cov aSixiav. 

6. p. 56 (481) for the solecistic avaXio-Ki/Tai in tran- 
sitive sense, which, strange to say, has stood in all 
editions hitherto, I give dvaXCa-Ky. 

7. p. 64 (487) for rpla apa, I venture to suggest the 
stereotyped Attic Tpt* aTTa. 

8. In pp. 69, 70 (490, o, and 491, a) the prep. ircp4 
bracketed by Hirschig, should be expelled from the text. 

9. p. 73 (492, e) Dr Badham's excellent emenda- 
tion <Sv for (US is adopted, and justified in the note. 

10. p. 73 (493, c) I ought to have mentioned the 
same critic's ingenious conjecture tout' dTc«.KaCTVLkv Vrfvv 


vtro Tt aroira for the received ctticiku)? ftev iamv viro 

Ti aroira. 

11. p. 79 (496, d) I omit with Badham koI iym 
before /jLavOdvu). 

12. p. 88 (501, c) the words rrjv aCn^v Bo^av should 
cease to stand in the text. 

13. p. 104 (512) for kol tovtov ovi/o-eiev, I now 
prefer onfo-ei. 

Of these changes some, it will be seen, rest on the 
authority of Olympiodorus, whose lemmata are perfectly 
distinguishable from his commentary. In no case have 
his readings been adopted without regard to their 
intrinsic merit, as compared with those of our surviving 
MSS., the oldest of which is more recent than that 
which he used by at least four centuries. The two 
emendations suggested by Dobree ("criticorum prin- 
ceps," as Cobet calls him) seem to need no recommenda- 
tion. Students of Plato can only regret that he did not 
bestow on their favourite author more of the time and 
pains spent on the minor orators. To the suggestions 
of the eminent Dutch scholar Cobet, and to those of 
his meritorious disciple M. Hirschig, I have always 
given careful attention, even when they have not 
commended themselves to my judgment. The latter 
scholar published in 1859 * an elaborate examination of 
the arguments contained in this dialogue and in the 
Philebus, with a view to removing the *' non sequiturs " 
introduced by unintelligent or officious copyists. This 
book reached my hands before I had finished my com- 
mentary. The following extract gives a fair idea of its 
scope and method : — 

"Non poenitet me investigationis et correctionis 
disputationum quas dixi, imprimis quod pro ineptiis 

^ Exploratio argumentationum Socraticaram in quibns scribae 
labefaotarunt medios Platonis dialogos, Gorgiam et Philebum. 
Trajeoti ad Bhennm ap. Eemink et fiL 


genuinam disserendi subtilitatem auctori reddere mihi 
contigit, sed etiam quod, cum omnes de hujus generis 
emendationibus judicare possint, eas omnibus me pro- 
baturum spero, tam philosophis et caeteris quam gram- 
maticis. Atque illos his lectis cautiores fore in lau- 
dandis Platonis scriptis confido, simulque in his lucu- 
lentissima exempla visuros, unde liquido discant, quid 
possit critica et quam late pateat ejus provincia. Verum 
erunt fortasse qui hujusmodi emendationes minus certas 
esse suspicentur. Sed certo scio omnes mihi assensuros 
nullas esse posse certiores. Habet enim Socratica dis- 
serendi ratio mathematicam fere subtilitatem, et tantam 
dvdyKtp^ logicam sive dialecticam (sit venia verbis) ut 
corrigenti ipsa quaeque disputatio certissima praebeat 
argumenta, et poetam emendans ne ex metro quidem 
evidentiora petere possit. Fieri enim potest ut metrum 
plures voces admittat, argumentationes autem illae par- 
tibus tam firmo et rationis et orationis vinculo connexis 
constant, lU una tantum vox qv^mque locv/m occupare 
possit, alia, vel idem signijicans, omnem ivdyicqv tollat" 

Of German editions more recent than Stallbaum's 
latest, I know nothing but what may be learnt from 
Cron's " Beitrage zur Erklarung des Platonischen Gor- 
' gias V' which reached me a few weeks ago, and which I 
have cursorily inspected, long however after this book 
was in print. Of the older editions of the Gorgias I 
must not omit to speak with respect of that (published 
in his early manhood) of the late venerable President of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, Dr Routh. Ast and Heindorf 
have of course been consulted, and I can also speak with 
praise of a very useful edition by Mr Woolsey, formerly 
Professor of Greek in Yale College, U.S.A. 

In the annotations, which in the main were written 
some ten years ago, I have endeavoured, as in those to 
the Phaedrus, to call the student's attention to the 

^ Leipzig, Teubner, IftlQ. 


substance as well as to the words of the dialogue. In 
doing this I have in many cases ventured to criticize my 
author's premisses. This^ I trust, has been done with 
candour, and with due allowance for the circumstances 
of the time and his own personal antecedents. It is 
certainly true that many of the arguments in this 
Dialogue are more logical than convincing; but it is 
also true that its purely ethical conclusions are as sound 
as they are noble and elevating. Of this, as of so many 
works of genius (if I may be allowed the quotation), it 
is the * spirit ' that * giveth life ' : nor is there one of the 
whole series of dialogues that may be more safely re- 
commended to beginners in the study of Plato and his 

The Introduction prefixed to the Dialogue aims only 
at conveying a clear and connected notion, from the 
Editor's standing-point, of its general drift and purpose. 
A much more elaborate analysis was of course possible ; 
but in such compositions there is always a danger of the 
details obstructing the student's view, and making it 
difficult for him "to see the wood for the trees." 

The fragments of Gorgias, printed in the Appendix, 
seemed necessary in order to enable the student to 
form an independent judgment of the character of his 
writings, and of the fairness of the treatment which 
the great rhetorician receives in this dialogue. The col- 
lection will be found slightly more complete than those 
of previous editors. 

Tbinity College, Cambridob, 
December, 1870, 


Op the genuine Platonic Dialogues, the majority are named 
after some one of the different persons who bear a part in the 
discussion. Sometimes this distinction is conferred on the 
interlocutor who contributes the greatest or next to Socrates 
the greatest share towards the elucidation of the subject 
debated, as Timaeus, Critias, Parmenides; sometimes again 
on the most resolute or most formidable of Socrates' oppo- 
nents, as in the Protagoras, Philebus, Hippias, Euthydemus. 
A third set of dialogues are named after persons whose part 
in the discussion is subordinate, but who appear to have been 
singled out in testimony of the respect and affection of the 
author. Such is the Phaedo, such the Charmides, and pro- 
bably the Lysis. It cannot be said that the Gorgias falls into 
any one of these three classes. The part which the great 
rhetorician bears in the dialogue is comparatively insignifi- 
cant. As the most distinguished of the assembled group he 
is naturally the first object of Socrates* curiosity, and for a 
while, notwithstanding the intimation given at the com- 
mencement that he is exhausted by a previous display, he 
seems the destined victim of the philosopher's dialectical 
prowess. But the encounter between Socrates and Gbrgias is 
but a preliminary skirmish. The triumph or the defeat of the 
master is prevented by the officious zeal of his disciple Polus ; 
whose retreat again is covered by the impetuous advance of 
their eloquent and reckless host. Not only is the larger half 
of the dialogue devoted to the single combat bet^^«cw^rf2ict^>iy^ 


and Callicles, but whether we regard the comparative im- 
portance of the subjects discussed, or the earnest tone as- 
sumed and maintained to the end, we are led to conclude 
that in this latter portion we are to look for the main scope 
and intended result of the entire discussion. 

Such is in effect the view adopted by the Neo-Platonist 
Olympiodorus*, in the introduction to his Scholia on the 
Oorgias, whose theory of the aKoirosy as he calls it, of the 
dialogue, though perhaps incomplete, is well worthy of at- 
tention. Some, says this philosopher, think that the purpose 
of the author is irepl prfropiKfjg duiXf;^^i/ai, — to discuss the 
Art of Rhetoric, — and they accordingly prefix to the dialogue 
the words still found in the MSS., Topylas rj ircpl pTjropiKfjs, 
But, he justly observes, this were to characterize the whole by 
a part, and that not the larger part, mI yap ovSe iroXKol elalv 
oi TotDVToi Xoyot. Others, he adds, conceive that Justice and 
Injustice form the subject of the dialogue : an accoimt truer 
perhaps than the former, but still, he thinks, inadequate and 
partial. Much less can he admit the absurd notion of a third 
class of expositors, who pretend that the contemplation of the 
Srjfuovpyos or Creator of the world, is the object to which 
Plato would conduct his readers. This notable explanation 
(a fair specimen, by the way, of the mystical interpretations 
of Proclus and some other later Platonists) is founded, says 
Olympiodorus, on the consideration that the drfpiovpySs (it 
may be presimied under his exoteric name Zeus) is introduced 
in the concluding mythus. His own account, it appears to 
me, is worthy of the reputation of Olympiodorus for com- 
parative^ good sense and insight into his master's meaning. 

1 Given by Bonth, p. 561 of his ed. The entire Commentary is 
printed in the Supplement _to_iraJto'ftJa£Jfcucherj^Bd_jtiv., from a 
hitherto miedited MS., a copy of what profess to be contemporary notes 
of the oral lectures of the master. 

3 I say "comparative" — ^for Olymp. is a Neo-Platonist, and repeats 
mnch of the nonsense of his predecessors. Bnt the Greeks, even in 
their decline, were excellent interpreters. The commentaries of Sim- 
plicins on Aristotle are, with the single exception of those of Alexander, 
the best ever written; and he was a member of the Neo-Platonic 
brotherhood, on whom Justinian planted his armed heel. Proclns was 


^afifp ToiwVjhQ observes^ on a-Konos avr^ wtpi r&v dpx^v reoif > 
rfBiKWP BidK€x6fivai r&v ff>tpov(T&v rjiia^ iir\ rrji/ nokiTiKriv €v^; 
BatfiovitufK The^.^BQ_o£jUie^rgias is to discuss the ethical| | ( 
j^rinfiiplgaJiKhich^Qaduct to poUfieal^ell-being. It exjplainsj ' 
at least to a considerable extent, the later as well as the 
earlier discussions ; whereas, if we assume that the main end 
of the dialogue is to bring the art of rhetoric and its pro- 
fessors into discredit, we can assign ho sufficient motive for 
the importance assigned to a character like Callicles, who 
heartily despises the profession of a Sophist, and hates the 
schools and their pedantry; and who, though he makes an 
exception in favour of a polished and brilliant man of the 
world like Gorgias^, would probably regard the frigid pedan- 
tries of his disciple Polus with a contempt as hearty as the 
author of the Phaedrus could himself have desired. Had 
Plato seriously harboured the intention of destroying the 
reputation of Gorgias, whether as a thinker or a speaker, it 
would have cost him little trouble to put words into his 
mouth which would have seemed to his readers sufficient for 
either purpose 5. Had he wished, for instance, to impair his 
dialectical reputation, what expedient more obvious than to 

by nature a * weak vessel' ; bat even in hun treasure may occasionally 
be found. 

^ P. 4, ed. Jahn. iroXtrtKos is often nsed by the later Platonists 
where other writers woald^avepfeferred tjOiKos. In snch passages it 
is nsed in a semi-mystical sense, to denote the relation of the Philoso- 
pher to his tme country) the iroXic iv ovpavto dvaKcifxevn of which 
Plato sablimely speaks in the ninth book of the Bepnblic (592 b). 

2 See Diod. § xii. 53, tco ^ci/tjovri t^s Xc^ccd* c^etrXij^e toAs 
*AQr\valov^ Sura^ €v<^uei9 Kai <f>iXo\6you9. Diodorns here refers to the 
first visit of Gorgias to Athens, b.o. 427, as one of the Leontine 
embassy, which is mentioned also by Thncydides, though he seems to 
have considered it beneath the dignity of history to mention the names 
of the persons who composed it. Olymp., who repeats the account of 
DiodoruB, adds, on what authority we know not, eixe ^^ f^er* airrou 
UiiXov, But the present interview is supposed to take place more than 
twenty years later. 

s An ethical dogma of Gk>rgia8, which is mentioned not without 
respect by Aristotle, is critically handled in the Menon (71 e seq.)« but 
in this dialogue no similar opinion is attributed to him, the moral 
heresies refuted being those of Polus and oi C«\!^c\«&. 


lead the veteran speculator into a discussion on the ftrj,ov or 
" non-existent," the title of a metaphysical work of Qorgias, 
of which Aristotle or his epitomator has given us a careful 
analysis ; fragments of which work, a good deal caricatured 
it is true, are paraded with much complacency by Qorgias' 
pupil Euthydemus in the dialogue which bears the name of 
this latter Sophist. Or if his rhetorical success had roused 
that spirit of envious emulation with which, according to 
Athenaeus and others, Plato was so strongly imbued, what 
was easier than to have put into his mouth an €md€i(ig or 
* panegyrical oration,' full of pointless antitheses and glittering 
with meretricious ornament, like that famous Funeral Oration 
which is condemned by the very Scholiast* who quotes it, as 
"enunciating superficial thoughts in pompous and stilted 
phrase^"] That Plato was not afraid to let his Sophists tell 
their own tale in their choicest manner, is clear from the 
instances of the cTrldci^is delivered by Protagoras in the 
dialogue so named (p. 320), and of the epistle, assuredly a 
genuine work of Lysias, which is read aloud in the Phaedrus. 
The discourse of Protagoras meets with the imqualified ap- 
probation of an eminent modem historian, and is quite as 
moral in its tendency, and at least as elegant in style, as any 
of the polished platitudes of "the estimable Isocrates." We 
hear, however, nothing of this kind from Gorgias, and as if to 
guard against possible disappointment, we are warned at the 
outset of the dialogue, that the orator has already perorated, 
and that we are to expect no second display from the ex-, 
hausted physical powers of the now elderly statesman^. And 

1 On Hermogenes. See Spengel, Artt. Scriptt. pp. 78, 79, 80. 

3 aefxvdi yap eirravOa <rvfi<f>opiiaa9 Xe^cis 6 Topyia9 ivvolav 
eirtiroXatoTcpas uire^ayyeWei, Tot« re irapitroK Kai 6fxoi<yTe\€vroi9 
Kal ofioiOKaTapicroi^ KaWunril^cav 6i* oXov irpovKOpwt t6» Xoyov. 
*' Sickening his readers with the lavish and continued use of ornamental 
figures of speech, with clauses of exactly the same length, and sentences 
which rhyme at the end or at the beginning." This speech, or what 
remains of it, will be fonnd in the Appendix. 

8 ndtj ynpdcKovrov, according to Philostratns, p. 498, in b.o. 427^ 
when he first came to Athens as ambassador from Leontini; and 
therefore a very old man at the period when the conversation is 
supposed to be held, viz. at or about b.c. 405; if we adopt the strict 


in truth, if we examine carefully that part of the dialogue in 
which Gorgias takes a part, and the few incidental remarks 
put into his mouth in the course of the conversation with 
Polus and Oallicles, we cannot but feel the justice of Mr 
Grote's observation that the treatment he receives in this 
dialogue is respectful rather than contiunelious. It is true he 
is forced into certain admissions not favourable to the art he 
professes ; true also that he shows himself no adept in the art 
of definition. This art, on which Greek philosophers lay so 
much stress, is mentioned as one of the two philosophical in- 
ventions of which Socrates was the undisputed author. It is 
not likely that Sophocles would have defined Poetry better 
than Gorgias defines Rhetoric^ : and we know from Xenophon 
how poor a figure Pericles made when his irreverent ward 
Alcibiades, firesh from a bMrpifirf with Socrates^) importimed 
him for a Socratic definition of Law. On the whole, if by 
any perverse fortune this dialogue had been lost, and the 
works of Gk)rgias had come down to us entire, there is reason 
to doubt whether his reputation would have stood so high as 
it does at present. However this may be, enough has been 
said to show that the Gorgias is not a direct attack upon the 
great Rhetor or his opinions : and it is still more evident that 
it is not, like the Phaedrus, a critical treatise on the Art of 
Rhetoric. Here, as in that dialogue, Plato recognizes, it 
must be granted, the distinction between a false rhetoric and 
a true: but his exposure of the former, instead of being 
reasoned out on sound sesthetic and psychological principles, 
as in the Phaedrus, is conducted in a spirit of mockery and 

view of the Platonic chronology advocated by Mr Cope in a note on 
p. 45 of his Translation. 

1 Compare Phaedr. 269 a, ov xp*i x*'^*'"'***'**'' *^ Tii/e^ /iri eirtora- 
fiepoi diaXeyevOai dSuvarot eyeuovro opicraaBai Tt itot* ecrri ptjTopticr/, 
K.r.\. This reads like a good-humoured apology for past severities; 
or like a caution to the reader not to exaggerate the intellectual 
deficiencies of the Sophists and Rhetoricians who succumb to the 
dialectical skill of Socrates, as he worries them with inquiries into the 
tI €<rrt of the matters on which they discourse or the arts and sciences 
they profess. 

a Hemorab. i. 2. 40. 


caricature, skilfully covered by a show of dialectical precision. 
He treats Rhetoric in the Gorgias much as he treats 'So- 
phistic * in the Sophist : and stoops, intentionally or not, to 
the artifice of putting the abuse of a thing for its use. But 
whatever its philosophical value, this part of the conversation 
has not only a high dramatic propriety, but leads, as we shall 
see, by an easy and natural sequence to the later and more 
important discussions. 

In the second Act^, so to speak, of the Gorgias, the part 
of respondent is undertaken by Polus. Of this Rhetor we 
have but few and scanty notices. What little we know leads 
us to think that he was no unfit subject for the exercise of 
Plato's comic powers : and if the remark attributed to Gor- 
gias by Athenaeus, <ag fcaXeor oldc nXdro)!/ layifil(€iv (what a 
master in the art of lampooning is Plato !), was ever made, it 
is certainly more characteristic of this second portion of the 
dialogue than of the first. Gorgias himself could not have 
desired a better foil to set off his talents and character, than 
that which is afforded by the presence of his faithful famulus. 
The juvenile ardour of Polus ^ appears to have attracted the 
notice of others beside Socrates ; for Aristotle 3, in enumerat- 
ing various punning accusations brought against persons who 
had the misfortune to bear names susceptible of this species 
of wit, condescends to mention one of which Polus was the 
subject. His " coltish " humour betrays him into many mis- 
adventures in the course of the discussion. At the outset 
his indiscreet zeal provokes a most disparaging description of 
the art in which he gloried. Rhetoric, he is informed, is no 
art, but the coimterfeit of an art. It seeks not Good but 
Pleasure: flattering the mental as the confectioner flatters 
the bodily palate. It recks no more of the health of the soul 
to which it serves up its highly flavoured compositions, than 
the cook is troubled by the vision of the dyspepsy or podagra 

1 P. 461 seq. 

2 Gorg. 463, IIcoXov Ue v€<n icrrl Kai 6^6^, "This colt Polus is 
yoang and hot." 

8 Rhetoric, b. ii. c. 23, § 29, del vb IIwXov cT, "Colt by name and 
colt by nature." 


which lurk beneath his covers. Both alike have attained 
their object, so long as the taste of the consumer is gratified. 

The sarcasm implied in this comparison was calculated to 
touch Polus in a tender part. He had himself composed a 
work on Rhetoric, and Socrates ^ had just read it. To that 
work he had prefixed the very word Tex^n ^7 ^^7 of title. 
This term, as every reader of the Phaedrus knows, was ap- 
propriated by the Rhetoricians to Rhetoric as the art Kar 
€^0x^9 ^^ KaXkiarrf tSp t€xvcov^ as Polus and Gk)rgias agree in 
calling it. So generally was this sense recognized, that i; 
IlcSikov — ij KopoKos — >J Tiaiov rix^i without the addition of 
Xoyo)!/, would have conveyed to a Greek the idea of a treatise 
on Rhetoric, by Polus, Corax, or Tisias, as the case might be. 
And as rixvri meant Rhetoric, so r€xvoypa!cl>os meant a rhetori- 
cal teacher. Of this Tcxvn of Polus, there can be little doubt, 
as indeed the Scholiast^ relates, that Plato has preserved a 
characteristic fragment (perhaps the initial sentence) in the 
opening scene of this Dialogue '\ 

This same treatise is the subject of a bantering notice in 
the Phaedrus, p. 267, where Polus is ridiculed for parading 
certain novel terms of art, diplasiology, gnomology, eiconology, 
and certain others not specified, which he borrowed from a 
brother rhetorician Licymnius " to help in the construction of 
an elegant style " {pvoyuaTcnv AiKVfiviiov a eVf /va> edKoptjaaro irpos 
noiTjaw cvtirelas), Polus* was by no means the earliest of the 

1 P. 462, iv TtS vvyy pa fjifiaT I 8 iyto ivayxot dveyvwv, where the 
Schol. observes, iK tovtov dijXov, on ovx o ij^ apxn^ IledXov \6y09 
auTocrxidio^ ifv dWd avyypanfia, 

3 <f>acrl fit] i^ avToaxBSiou t&v USakav Tovra tflireiv, 'irpoiTvyypa\\fd' 
pevov Se, 

^ P. 448, iroXXai Tex^ai iv dvOptoiroK elcriv iK twv kpireipiSav 
ep'irelpuii evpijfievat* ifkirtipia fihv ydp iroiel t6v aliava ijfxStv 
iropevtcrdai Kard Tex^fiv, direipla ik Kara tuxh^ ' iKdaroav 6h to6to»i/ 
peTuXafifidvovcrtv aXXot aXXttis dWtaVf tuv ii dpiaratv oi dpiaroi, 

* If, as seems not improbable, Polus handled rhetoric rather in an 
sesthetical than in a practical manner, the comparison of his Texvti 
with that of the fancy-cook will appear more pointed and appropriate. 
Plato, though he had deeply stndied, systematically depreciates the 
fine arts: poetry, painting, and mnsic (p. 502), as well as rhetoric, he 
reckons among the arts that minister to Pleasure rather than to Go(A. 

XVlll G0RQIA8, 

T€xvoypa(l>oi — he haxi been preceded by Corax and Tisias and 
probably by others. As Polus and his book have both 
perished, and as no plea in their favour has been entered by 
any ancient or modem apologist of departed charlatanism, no 
great injustice will probably be done to his memory if we 
accept as sufficiently faithful the certainly life-like portrait 
with which Plato has presented us, and, assuming that he 
was a Euphuist and a coxcomb, resign ourselves without 
misgiving to the amusement which his maladroit proceedings 
are intended to afford. We have indeed the less compunction 
on this head, as Polus himself is thoroughly imaware of 
Socrates' satire. Even when informed (p. 463) that Rhetoric 
is "the counterfeit of a branch of the art Politic," he asks 
with amusing naivete, "Very well then, is it a fine thing 
or the contrary?" as if Socrates had uttered a truism which 
he had heard a himdred times. Not so Gorgias, who is at 
once struck with the singularity of the remark which Polus, 
true to his name, " doth gambol from," and putting his dis- 
ciple aside with little ceremony, calls upon Socrates for a 
fuller explanation of his meaning^. A very delicate touch 

This is nndonbtedly one of the shallow places in his philosophy. We 
may trace in his way of treating snch subjects, a vestige of that 
Socratic ntilitarianism, which, in the hands of the Cynic school, 
degenerated into a worship of the physically and morally hideous. 
Plato is, however, inconsistent with himself in this disparagement of 
the line in comparison with the useful arts. In the Philebus he 
^. distinguishes between pure and impure pleasure, and censures those 
r who, like the coarse and really sensual Antisthenes, a£fect to condemn 
^ all pleasure as evil. [Compare Phileb. p. 44 c, where the speaker 
condemns the SuvxepdcrfiaTa of those who detest pleasure in all its 
forms, fcai vevofiiKOTwv ovd^v vytes, a passage generally allowed to 
refer to Antisthenes.] It is indeed not a little remarkable that Plato's 
own writings furnish the means of completely refuting those low views 
of the nature and object of the fine arts which alone could justify his 
disparaging treatment of them in this dialogue and in the Republic. 
At the same time it is impossible to deny the force of this portion of 
the Gorgias, considered as an argumentvm ad hominem in relation to 
Polus and his much-boasted Te^vri : for there is no reason to suppose 
that Polus was prepared with any sesthetical theory sounder or purer 
than that exemplified in the eueireia, of which he offers us a specimen 
in the passage (p. 448) quoted above. 

1 dWd TouTov fxiv ea, ifiol d* five ircos Xeyeii, 


this, showing what was Plato's estimate of the relative powers 
of master and scholar. 

The discussion, however, does not linger long over Rhetoric, 
but passes, by natural transition, into that Ethical specula- 
tion, which, as has been said, occupies the greater part of 
the Dialogue ; the third and last Act into which the col- 
loquial Drama resolves itself. The incautious rhet(^cian is 
speedily betrayed into a confession of his ethical faith, by the 
paradoxical statement of his opponent, that the public rhetors 
are not, as Polus thinks, the strongest, but the weakest 
members of the community, albeit they have the power 
which P. claims for them of "doing what seems them good," 
p. 468. " As if you yourself, Socrates," he exclaims, " would 
not rather have this power than be without it — as if you did 
not wish yourself in the rhetor's place, when you see him 
take the life or spoil the goods or imprison the person of any 
body he happens to dislike \" This, it may be conceded, is 
no theory characteristic of the Sophist. It is rather the 
voice of imsophisticated human nature, expressed with more 
than usual candour by the ingenuous Sicilian — being in eflTect 
none other than " That good old rule, that ancient plan. That 
those should take who have the power. And those should 
keep who can," of which our own philosophic poet sings. 
Socrates, however, promptly joins issue on this point, and 
proceeds to assert with equal boldness the two paradoxes 
"that no man wishes to do evil," and "that it is better to 
suffer than to inflict a wrong," inferring from both combined 
that the Rhetor is not only the weakest but the most miser- 
able of his species. 

The latter of these two propositions (Kpeirrov dbiKclaOai fj 
abiKftp) has excited the admiration of all ages, and its close 
approximation to the great principle of Christian Ethics is 
too obvious to need remark. Socrates, moreover, was soon to 
give his life in testimony of his sincere belief in its truth, 
and, paradox as it seems to his hearers, they fail to detect a 

1 MS iri <r6, ctf ^oiicparev, o(/k av de^aio e^eli/ai croi iroieiv b rt Sokci 
aot iv Ttj irSXet fidXkov fi fiij, oitSe ^t}Aoi$ brav Z^ps Tii/a i? dtroKTei- 
vavra ov edo^ev avTW, n d<l>e\6fi€Vov )(ptifAaTa, \\ ii^oav^a. 


flaw in the reasoning on which it is built. So much can 
hardly be said in favour of the paradox ovbcls ffovKerai 
KaKas iroieiv, or as it is sometimes worded, ovb€\s €k<op KaKos. 
The distinction between fiovXofiai and doiccT /xo*, between Will 
and Judgment, is sufficiently obvious ; but Socrates* reasoning 
is of that d priori type which alternately vexes and amuses 
us in the early dialogues ; and his conclusion that every sin 
is but an error of opinion is one against which the common 
sense of mankind rebels. The paradox is, however, too closely 
connected with the leading principles of the Socratical ethics, 
that Virtue and Knowledge are one, to allow us to doubt that 
it was seriously maintained by Socrates, even if we had not 
the independent testimonies of Xenophon and of Aristotle to 
appeal to^. 

Not indeed that Plato affirms this dogma, that Virtue is 
Knowledge, in the Gorgias. It was one of those Socratic 
prejudices from which he gradually emancipated himself, as 
his Ethical views matiu*ed ; and in the present dialogue he 
proposes a theory of Virtue substantially the same with that 
which is more fully developed in the Republic. The passage 
in the Gorgias which contains this newer theory occurs at a 
later stage of the dialogue, in that long and animated dis- 
cussion with Callicles in which the "exagitator omnium 
rhetorum" proves himself a consimimate master of the art 
which he has been disparaging. The Virtue or Excellence, he 
argues, of any thing which contains a multiplicity of parts, 
whether such parts be vitally or only mechanically con- 
nected, — whether the thing spoken of be characterized as a 
<rK€vos or a f^ov — consists in the Law, order, or arrangement 
proper to the organism in question 2, In living material 
organizations this order or harmony of parts is called Health ; 
in the case of the human Soul it is called Temperance, 
Justice or Righteousness, Goodness or Virtue ; and the regu- 
lating cause bears the name of Law or Right \ This descrip- 

i Aristotle, Ethics, b. iii. 6 [4]. Xen. Mem. iii. 9. 4. 
a P. 503 E— 507 c. 

8 504 D, ToI« ih T^s ^"X^* Ta^eat Te Kai Ko<rfif\<x€vi vofiifnov re Kal 
vofiotf bOev Kal vofitfioi yiyvovrat Kai Koarfiioi* Tavra d* l<m iiKatoavvti 


tion, if we compare it with those given in the purely Socratic 
dialogues, the Laches, for instance, the Charmides, or the 
Protagoras, will be seen to mark an epoch in Plato's mental 
growth, or, what is the same thing, in the History of Moral 
Science. Order or Harmony is the germinal idea of the 
Republic, as it gives unity and coherence to the parts, other- 
wise ill-connected, of the present dialogue. We shall illus- 
trate this new standing-point by a fuller comparison of the 
two works and with parts of other dialogues, early and late. 

First, then, every reader of the Republic knows that the 
Platonic diKaioaiJvrj represents not any single feeling or faculty 
of the soul, but the just proportion of the whole, as shown in 
the correlation of its constituent parts. The same concep- 
tion is expressed, as we have seen, though less completely, in 
the Gorgias K The readers of the Republic also know how 
nearly the descriptions there given of these two virtues diKato- 
ovvrj and <r<o<l>po<rvvr] coincide, and we should be at a loss to 
account for Plato's using the former rather than the latter 
word to designate the virtue which is to include all other 
virtues, did we not know that his choice was determined by 
his peculiar theory of the exact parallelism between the con- 
stituent elements of the State and of the individual Man, and 
by the consequent necessity of denoting the corresponding 
virtues of each and every part of each by one and the same 
word. Whatever objections may be raised against the pro- 
priety of this terminology, the fact is so, that in the Republic 
the description given of the particular virtue of Justice is in 
effect a description of Virtue in general. 'Apfn; in that 
dialogue is diKoioaiJinj, and bixaioa-vvrj is dpfrj. In the Gbrgias 
too, p. 506, we find the same thing predicated of d/jen; which 
was predicated in p. 604 of acii<f>po<rvvrj, that it consists in 
Koa-fios or rdjir, an order or constitution or right state of the 

re Kai cru)<f>po(ruvijl compared with 506 E, Koafno^ th dpa iyyevofievoi 
iv eKaoTw 6 CKdarTOV olKeloi dyaBdv vapexei eKafrrov tcSv SutcoVj 


1 This definition of Justice was preserved among the traditions of 
the Old Academy. Thus, in the so-called *'Opot ^irevariinrou, we read, 
AiKaiocruvrj* bfiovoia t^s ^^x^s -tt/o^? avT\]v, koi evra^ia tcov Ti\«i 

PL. GOR. Cr 

« /«• 


soul. As in the former passage 8iKato<Tvvrj, so here <ra>(l)po(rvvrj 
is made synonymous with dpenj K 

This, we repeat, is a proof that when Plato wrote the 
Gorgias his ethical theory had grown into something different 
from that of Socrates, who taught that dpenj and tniamifiri, 
virtue and science, are one : all special virtues being resolved 
into true theories of certain external relations ; courage, for 
instance, being but the exact knowledge of what was really 
to be dreaded, temperance the knowledge of what was truly 
pleasurable, and so on. And to this Socratic theory Plato 
adheres in his earlier dialogues; whereas in those of his 
maturity inumqiiri is dethroned from the exclusive supremacy 
which Socrates assigned to her. At the conclusion of that 
abstruse and closely reasoned dialogue, the Philebus (pp. 65, 
66), a passage occurs, containing in brief language a summary 
of the whole intricate argument, and assigning their relative 
precedence to three principles, fUrpovy cTrianj f^rj, and tjdovi], 
which had severally claimed to be considered the ayaOov or 
highest Good. The Philebus is indeed an ethico-metaphysical 
rather than, like the Gk)rgias, an ethico-political dialogue, and 
therefore the more abstract term fX€Tpop is preferred to Koafios 
orrd^is. The same associations, however, are suggested by 
all three terms : for if Measure or Law is the supreme prin- 
ciple of the Universe, co-ordinate with the Creative Reason, 
it must also be the ruling principle in the microcosm called 
man; cognate but superior to the human intellect 2, whose 
noblest employment is to trace out the Law or Idea in all its 
varied manifestations. This theory of virtue as an Order, 
Constitution, or, as it is called in a parallel passage of the 
Republic (b. iv. 443 d), a Harmony, was probably suggested 
to Plato by Pythagorean teaching ^ ; but as Plato handles it, 

1 t) dpa <rw4>pu>v i^vxn dyaOtj, A passage by the way illustrative of 
Aristotle's drift, when he censnres rovv Xlav kvoiaravTa^ n-riv dpenivy 
* those who nnified virtue oyermach.' 

^ I say the "human intellect" advisedly: for Plato in more than 
one passage seems to identify the Supreme Good with the divine 
intelligence. This side of a difficult Platonic question is well argued 
by Bonitz in a short treatise ' De Idea Boni,' Dresden, 1837. 

8 The passage in the Gorgias bearing on this subject is, however, 


the theory is neither extravagant nor unfruitful, for both here 
and in the Republic he carefully avoids confusing the sign 
with the thing signified, an error into which the Pythagoreans, 
like other "dreamers in the dawn of science,*' seem to have 
been betrayed. 

Enough has been said to show the substantial identity of 
the notions of Justice or Virtue which are briefly sketched in 
the Gorgias, and thoroughly worked out in the Eepublic. 
We shall now see that there is a corresponding congruity 
between the political ideas, and still more in the tone of 
political feeling and sentiment which pervades the larger and 
the smaller dialogue. 

Plato's contempt and dislike of the Athenian democracy 
are notorious. In the Republic^ he represents Democracy as 
but one degree better than absolute government or tyranny, 
and in a picture, evidently a grotesque likeness of Athens 
and Athenian society, he gives a description, half humorous, 
half contemptuous, of the results of unbridled liberty. This 
is followed by an equally vivid portrait of one whom he calls 
the drjfiOKpaTiKos dvijpy the man whose principles and dis- 
position are framed upon the democratic modeL Now of 
this 'democratic man,' allowing for the personal traits neces- 
sary for dramatic effect, the Callicles of the Gorgias ^ may be 
considered a fair specimen. He is a free and enlightened 
citizen of the freest state in the world ; one to whom his lusts 
are law, keen of wit and ready of speech, without prejudice 
and without principle, to whom virtue and its semblance are 
alike contemptible: he is one who "calls shame silliness, and 
temperance cowardice, and moderation and frugal living the 
attributes of hinds and mechanics^"; one who yields himself 

hardly sufficient to support Schleiermacher's inference that the dialogne 
cannot have been written nntil after its author's return from his 
sojourn in Magna Graecia, i.e. 388 b.g. 

1 B. viii. p. 557 seq. 

3 Compare p. 513 a, xal vvv ik apa Set <re coc bfioioraTov 
ytyvecrOat t& diificp tmv *AOtivaio)v, el fieWei^ Tovrta ir/>o<r<^tXt}c 
eli/at KoX (leya duvacrdai ev Ty ir6\ei, 

^ Tiju fxhv aliti i)\t0toTt)Ta ^vofia^ovTcc — €ru>4}po<r0vrtv Sk dvavBpiav 
KaKovvr€% — ikfrpionura dh kul Kovfxiav Sairdvriv cov dypoiKlav Kai 
dveXevdeptau oZcrav, Bep. 560 D. Gomp. QoT\^. A^Y. 


in turn to the instincts of his intellectual and his physical 
nature; whose life is spent in gratifying the desire that for 
the time is uppermost; giving one day to wine and music, 
another to idle pastime, a third it may be to literature and 
philosophy!. Frequently too he engages in politics, and rises 
on his feet in the assembly, speaking and acting with equal 
recklessness: koI ovt€ ng rd^is ovt€ avayicq CTrcartv avrov t^ 
/3t^, dXX* i)dvv re bfj leai ik€v$€piov kcli fuucdpiou kolK^v tov filop 
TovToVy XP^'''^^ avT^ but iravTosK 

This description and its impersonation in Callicles are 
equally happy specimens of Plato's talent for the higher 
comedy. His tragic powers also are exemplified in passages 
of both dialogues, remarkable for their excellence and for 
their resemblance. Those who have once read will not easily 
forget that opening passage of the second book of the Re- 
public, in which a comparison is instituted between the ideal 
Just Man and the ideal Unjust Man, for the purpose of 
ascertaining whether of the two is the happier^ The can- 
didates, like statues at an exhibition, are stripped and cleaned 
for the inspection of the judges * : the unjust man is denuded 
of all moral scruples, the just man of all worldly prudence 
and of all the outward advantages which a reputation for 
honesty confers on a man wise in his generation. Each is 
endued with the intellectual qualities which will make him 
perfect in his own business ; the unjust man with boundless 
cunning and perfect worldly wisdom, his rival with intelli- 
gence enough, and not more than enough, to render him 
perfectly just ; the unjust man will consequently, by the 
hypothesis, have established a character for perfect justice 
and fair dealing, while the just man, who is to know nothing 
of the art of seeming, will seem to the vulgar eye as great a 

1 Compare Gorg. 484 d. 

3 Compare Gtovg, 491 s, Tobv f}Xi6(ovs \eyei9 to^s aoitftpovan mox, 
del t6v dpdZi ^luxrofievov Tiii fikv ivtdufita^ rac auTOv idv tis 
fieyitrra^ elvai Koi fin KoXd^etv, k.t.X. 

8 Bep. ii. 361 d, kKarepov oiavep dvdpidvra eis ti]V Kpl<nv inKadai- 
ptii Toiv dvdpoiv, 

« Bep. ii. 360 E. 


scoundrel as his rival isK This being supposed, it is no 
longer difficult, says Glaucon in the dialogue, to foretell the 
fortunes of the two. The unjust naan is of course promised a 
career of uninterrupted enjoyment, victory over his enemies, 
wealth, popularity among men, and, if costly sacrifices avail 
with heaven, the favour of the gods. Of his opponent mar- 
tyrdom is the too certain doom: he will be scourged, tor- 
mented, cast into prison, and will end a life of misery upon 
the cross. Whether of the two, it is asked, is the happier 
man K 

This, it is clear, is but a statement in its most abstract 
form^ of the question discussed with Polus in the second, 
and with Callicles in the third act of the Gorgiaa, and the 
prophecy in the latter passage^ of the condemnation and 
death of Socrates completes the resemblance. Only, as 
Glaucon complains (Rep. p. 358 d), as if with reference to this 
dialogue, the case of the just man is not represented quite so 
unfavourably as it ought to be, in order to the final and 
irreversible decision of the suit between him and his rivaL 
From which it would seem as if Plato himself had been 
dissatisfied with the too hasty decision of the question at 
issue which Socrates in the Gorgias pronounces, and ac- 
cordingly it is much more elaborately discussed in the Repub- 
lic : the arbitrator declining to adjudicate until many previous 
questions are disposed of; in fact imtil the definition of 
Justice, moral and political, is satisfactorily made out, and 
the various stages and modifications of Injustice discriminated. 

1 firidkv ddiKutv do^av ixeru) Tifv fieylcrrriv ddiKla^, 361 C. 

3 This passage is perhaps glanced at by Arist. Eth. N. 1. 3: Taxa 
de Kai fiaWov av Tts TeXos tou iroXtriKOv ^iov TavTrjv uiroXdfioi. 
<paiveTat 6k virodeearTepa koI abrrj. ioKelydp ivSexetrdat Kal KuOevdetv 
exovTa rrjv dperi^v, ij dvpaKTeiv did fiiouj Kal wpd^ toutois KOKOtra' 
Oetu Kal dTvyeiv Ta fieyiarTa' Tdv 6' ovrto ^wi/tu oiiSei^ dv ei/Sai/AOvL- 
veiev, el fjni Becriv dia<^ vXaTTcov. 

8 P. 469 B, i| irov & ye dvoOviiaKwu dSlKoti iXeivdv Kal dOXto^, 
i)TToi/ ri 6 diroKTivvm, k.t.X. The case of Archelans follows, pp. 470, 
471 ; an instance of successful wickedness to which Polus points with 

* P. 521 B, c. 


In the tenth book, however, Socrates sums up, and delivers 
sentence according to the evidence. And even here there 
is this analogy between the Gorgias and the Republic, that 
both end with mythical descriptions of the doom which 
awaits the righteous and the unrighteous after the soul shall 
be parted from the body. The scenery of the myth in the 
Gorgias is far less elaborate than that in the Republic : but 
the inference intended to be drawn is evidently the same in 
both cases. 

To bring the points of resemblance between the two 
dialogues into yet clearer light, it may be well to quote in 
free translation, and with a few unimportant omissions, a 
passage of some length but great interest from the seventh 
of the thirteen Epistles attributed to Plato K In this docu- 
ment, professing to be written when its author had reached 
an advanced age, Plato (if Plato it is) prefaces a detailed 
history of his dealings with Syracuse and her successive 
rulers, by a brief simimary of his early political experiences 
in Athens 2. " While young," he says, " I, like so many others, 
resolved that as soon as I became my own master I would 
try my fortune in public life. This resolution of mine coin- 
cided with certain changes in the state of Athens, which I 
shall describe. The then much-abused constitution under- 
went a radical change; and the government in its altered 
form was entrusted to a body of fifty-one magistrates, of 
whom eleven administered affairs in the city, and ten in 
Peiraeus. Over these twenty-one was set a board of Thirty 
with absolute powers* Among the fifty-one were several of 
my own kindred and acquaintance, who soon invited me to 
take part in carrying out a policy which they thought would 

1 The case for the Platonic Epistles has of late gained greatly from 
Mr Grote's masterly historical analysis of their contents; whUe an 
eminent scholar of a totally different type, Gabriel Cobet, has pro- 
nounced in favour of their genuineness on grounds purely philological. 
This most fastidious of critics declares that no one but Plato could 
have written them. But however the question oV authorship is decided, 
the authority of the seventh Epistle, of which the eighth is properly a 
part, has never been impugned by any competent scholar. 

2 1/608 eyaJ oJi/, ic.t.\., p. 324 C to 326 B. 


suit me well. Young as I then was, who can wonder at the 
error into which I was betrayed ? For I fondly thought, 
that their administration would be directed to the great end 
of leading their coimtrymen from an unrighteous to a right- 
eous course of life and manners, and so thinking I began 
carefully to watch their proceedings. What was my surprise 
to find that faulty as was the old order of things, it was pure 
gold^ in comparison with the iron rule now set up in its 
stead. Among their worst acts of tyranny, was one they 
practised on my friend Socrates, now advanced in life, who, I 
make bold to say, was the most righteous man then living. 
Him they ordered to go with certain others to fetch from 
Salamis one Leon, whom they had doomed to death, evidently 
for the purpose of compromising Socrates, and making him 
an enforced accomplice in their crimes. This order, however, 
he refused to obey, being prepared to face the consequences 
of disobedience rather than assist in their unhallowed pro- 
ceedings. When I witnessed these and other equally in- 
famous doings, I was filled with disgust, and withdrew myself 
altogether from the horrors of that evil time 2. Ere long 
however the Thirty were unseated, and a counter-revolution 
took place ; whereupon my old passion revived, though slowly, 
and I was again fain to take an active part in politics. 
Under this new r^men, affairs being still in an unsettled 
state, many things occurred which might justly be objected 
to: though on the whole the restored fugitives acted with 
considerable moderation. It is not wonderful that reprisals 
should be inflicted by political opponents in times of revolu- 
tion, but it was a strange chance that led certain of the 
people then in power to arraign Socrates in a court of justice 
on an atrocious charge which fitted him less than any man. 
He was accused of impiety: and the judges had the in- 
gratitude to condemn and put to death one who, when they 
were in trouble, had refused to perpetrate an act of unhal- 
lowed violence against one of their exiled friends. When I 
reflected, I say, on proceedings like these, and on the charac- 

^ Xpvarov diredeiJQav Tfji/ etnrpoaQtv iroKiTeiap, 
' iirav^yayov ifiavrov dird twi/ tot€ KaKwv. 


ters of the principal public men, and the laws and customs 
prevalent at the time ; the longer I considered and the older 
I grew, the more difficult it appeared to me to govern Athens 
on right principles. In the first place it was impossible to 
act without a party; which the imiversal corruption rendered 
it difficult to find ready made, and which it was not easy to 
construct anew; in the next place both laws and manners 
were degenerating with fearful rapidity. The consequence 
was that, full as I had once been of political enthasiasm, the 
spectacle of the general disorder and confusion almost turned 
my brain: and though I would not desist &om looking out 
for some opportunity of mending the present state of things 
and was prepared to bide my time, I finally arrived at the 
clear conviction that all existing forms of government are 
radically wrong; and that their reformation will require a 
machinery of extraordinary power, working under imusually 
favourable circumstances. 

" Thus I was constrained to say, that it is true philosophy 
alone which can enlighten us to discern the principles of 
justice whether in the State or in the Individual; and that 
accordingly the crimes and misery of mankind will never 
have an end, until either the highest class of philosophic 
thinkers shall step into the seats of power, or the existing 
rulers shall by some miracle become imbued with philosophic 

In this passage there is scarcely an expression of which 
we do not hear the echo either in the Gorgias or in the 
Republic. The tone of political despair which pervades the 
former dialogue, and the equal scorn poured on the pro« 
fessions of the rhetor of the agora and the rhetor of the 
schools, as exemplified in Callicles and in Polus ; all the in- 
tolerance and all the exaggeration which mark its polemical 
passages, find, if not their complete apology, at least their 
explanation and paUiation in the sad tale of his political 
experiences which Plato unfolds to his correspondents in the 
letter just quoted. His hopes of serving his country had 
twice been blighted. The severity of the first disappointment 
may be inferred from the fact that among the Thirty and 


their subordinates were men endeared to him by literary 
sympathies as well as by near relationship. Critias and 
Charmides are names that figure in his earliest dialogues ; one 
was his uncle, the other his cousin by the mother's side ; and 
of Charmides he himself says that he was 0iXo<ro<^or kqI iraw 
iroirfTiKosy a description also applicable to Critias. Glaucon ^ 
too, his maternal grandfather, was one of the Piraeic Decem- 
virate. Add to this, that Plato was an Eupatrid both by 
father's and mother's side; and his aristocratical prejudices, 
derived from his ancestors, and fed by a naturally nice and 
fastidious temper, a bvaxiptia <l>v(re<o£ ovk dyiswovsy to use his 
own phrase^, would incline him to augur well of any attempt 
to reform and ren^el the state on Lacedaemonian principles, 
even had the enterprise been confided to persons less known 
and trusted than those friends and patrons of his youth, with 
whom he had spent many an hour in the society of the man 
who was to him the ideal of all that was wise and good in 
humanity. Disappointed in the hopes he had formed of the 
aristocratic party, he was the better prepared to take a favour- 
able view of the proceedings of the people's friends when their 
hour of triumph came : and for some time their conduct was 
such as to encourage his reviving hopes of operating a beneficial 
change in public and private morality by the methods (which 
Socrates himself by no means despised) of the rhetor and 
legislator. The extensive knowledge which the author of the 
Phaedrus displays of the writings of the leaders of both the 
great schools of oratory, the Attic and the Sicilian, may lead 
to the conjecture that he had at one period of his life studied 
rhetoric with a view to its public practice: and one can 
hardly doubt that under moderately fiavourable circumstances, 
his success as a speaker would have been brilliant. It is 
even probable that the interval which elapsed between the 
overthrow of the Thirty and the death of Socrates — an in- 
terval of from three to four years — was employed by Plato 
in studies preparatory to political life. That he ever ascended 
the bema during this period we do not indeed learn. He 

^ So Taylor, Life of Lysias, p. xly, note k. 
< lu PhUebus, 44 o. 


was not more than twenty-six years of age at its commence- 
ment, and we know that Demosthenes did not begin to speak 
in public until he had entered on his thirtieth year. Possibly, 
too, the unsettled state of parties to which he alludes in the 
Epistle above quoted, may have contributed to the delay. 
He himself says, fipabvrepov yAvy clXice de /bi€ o/uQ)f 17 TTfpi TO 
Trparrtiv Ta Koiva Koi noXiTiKa fniSviiia, 

But whatever degree of maturity Plato's purpose may 
have attained, it was checked at once and for ever by the 
imrighteous sentence passed upon his Master and Friend. 
It was this that forced upon him the conviction that oligarchs 
and democrats were alike unprincipled, and that the task of 
forming a third party, sufficiently honest and sufficiently 
powerful to eftect a radical reform of Athenian institutions, 
was a mere impossibility, and the hopes founded on such a 
contingency chimerical. We know from other authorities, 
that immediately after the perpetration of that great judicial 
crime, he retired from Athens, and took refuge in the neigh- 
bouring city of Megara, where Euclides, a native of that 
place, a friend and admiring disciple of Socrates, and the 
founder of the Megarian sect, is said to have received him 
under his roof. That residence, and his subsequent travels, 
may have contributed in more ways than one towards matur- 
ing and enlarging his philosophical views : but we have it on 
his own word, or the word at least of the author of that 
seventh Epistle, that the two most important practical con- 
victions of his life, — the hopelessness of any attempt to amend 
the existing laws and practice of the Greek communities by 
any of the ordinary and constitutional means, and the neces- 
sity, and under given circumstances the feasibility, of an 
entire re-construction of the political fabric on principles of 
pure reason and philosophy — that these two convictions date 
from the death of Socrates, and were the result of conclusions 
deliberately drawn from that and his former experiences in 
Athens. Of the first of these convictions, as it seems to me, 
the Gorgias is the public vindication: of the latter, the 
Republic. Of the time and place at which these dialogues 
were composed, we have no dijstinct testimony; but it is 


difficult to believe that the Gorgias could have been written 
anywhere but at Athens; and we cannot but incline to the 
conjecture that it was the first or one of the first written after 
his return, whicn according to more than one witness must 
have taken place about four years after the death of Socrates, 
that is to say not later than 395 B.c.^ Plato's deep and 
passionate disapproval of Athenian institutions does not seem 
to have deterred him from serving in his country's armies, 
and bearing his part in three distinct engagements, at 
Tani^a, at Corinth, and at Delium. His performance of the 
military duties of a citizen may have encouraged his friends 
in Athens to hope that his quarrel with the Athenian people 
was now made up, and that the disposition to public life of 
which he had twice before shown indications, would now 
ripen into act. Begard for his own safety may have been 
one of the considerations by which his friends would urge 
him to cultivate the power of public or judicial speaking : for, 
they may have plausibly urged, it was the want of this ac- 
complishment that sealed the doom of Socrates. 'An-oierefct 
(re CO nXarcoi/ o ^ovkofievosy ical elaax^ijcrei eiv diKaarripiov vno 
navv IcTfos fxoxBrfpov dvBpomov ical <f>avkov, by a vulgar leather- 
seller like Anytus, or a wretched scribbler for the stage such 
as Meletus, — may have been among the warnings given by 
some friendly Callicles^. Or, these considerations apart, what 
nobler end could be pursued by an Athenian of family, than 
the acquisition of influence and wealth and distinction in the 
State ; or what nobler art than that of bridling and taming 
the multitude, and riding into power on their backs? They 
too, his friends and well-wishers, had philosophized in their 

1 The fabulous extent and duration assigned to Plato's travels by 
his later biographers need not cause any embari-assment. The accounts 
are so discrepant and so ill-supported as to excite our wonder at the 
trouble which modern scholars have taken to manufacture them into 
history. As usual in such cases, the later the narrative, the better 
informed we find the narrator. The " doctrine of development " alone 
could give value to the discoveries of Lac tan tins and other Christian 
Apologists who have favoured us with Platonic Itineraries ; but the 
Pagan Apuleius, and, hi a less degree, the more accurate Cicero, have 
lent their names to very questionable statements. 

2 See Gorg. p. 521 b, o. 


time: for philosophy was doubtless an elegant amusement* 
for a young man of rank and leisure, and an excellent train- 
ing for the mind, as his fellow-pupil Isocrates, now making 
his fortune by his pen, had substantial reasons for acknow- 

The speech of Callicles is indeed throughout more ap- 
plicable to the circumstances of a comparatively yoimg man, 
who, like Plato on his first return to Athens, had his pro- 
fession to choose, than to an elderly and inveterate dialec- 
tician, such as Socrates must have seemed at the time when 
this conversation is supposed to take place. The readers of 
Plato will be at no loss for parallel instances of passages in 
which his contemporaries would recognize the author under 
the mask of his hero, or in which the opinions, the parties, 
and the personages of his own time are antedated by some 
twenty or thirty yeara 

But the best argument in favour of our hypothesis is, that 
it affords a point of view from which the various divisions 
and subdivisions of the dialogue group themselves into unity. 
The Gorgias is in effect an 'An-oXoym nXarcovor. It contains 
his reasons for preferring, imder existing circumstances, the 
contemplative to the active, the philosophic to the rhetorical 
life. The philosopher, as Socrates says*, is the only true 
master of the science of Politics. The end of that science 
and of the art founded upon it is not to pander to the in- 
clinations of a people, but to make them wiser, juster, and by 

^ tl)i\ocro<f>la ydp Tot i<mv w Scofc/sarev xapiev &v Tts avTov 
fitTplwi ai^t}Tat ev Ty tjXiKla' idu 6h trepaiTcpw tov teouTo^ 
€v6iaTpi\lfij, iia<pdopd twv dvOpoiiruyv. edv ydp koX irdvv eu0v)/« ff, 
Kai iro/^pco t^« tiXtK'/ac <pt\ocro4>^f dvdyKtj irdvrtov Sireipov yeyovivai 
itrrlvf wv "xpn efitreipov elvai tiv fieWoirra KaKdv KayaGov koI 
ei/doKifiop ecrecrdai Avdpa, Kal ydp Tutv voficav dirtipoi yiyvovrai twv 
KaTd T»iw iroXiVf Kal t&v Xoywv^ oTs iei \pwp.evo» ofjuXeiv iv toIv 
avfifidkaioK to7« dyOpeiiroK Kal liia Kal itifioaia, Kal tvjv i]6ou(vv tc 
Kai e'TTidvfiiwv tZv dvOptoiretwv, Kal ^vWi^^dfiv Ttov ijdwv iravTairaviv 
direipoi yiyvovrai. Gorg. 484 D. lb. 485 A, dW* oT/xat Td opdoraTov 
itrriv afi(f>oT€ptov fier^xeiv, <pi\oao^la9 fi4v, oaov iraideiav X^/"'''* 
Ka\6v txeTixeiv, Kal ovk alvyjpbv fieipaKltp Svri tpi\oao<l>eiv. 

3 oifiai fi€T* dXiywv *AOijvatooVf %va /ut| eliro) fiovo^, iirixeipelv t^ 
cov d\t}6ai« iroXiTiKti Texi^V* P* ^^^ ^* 


that means happier \ The only true rhetoric is that of the 
philosopher who is able to persuade his fellow-citizens to cul- 
tivate these virtues in themselves, and to embody them in 
their legislation. Consequently 2, the true rhetorician must 
be just himself, and acquainted with the principles of justice. 
How then is it possible that one who holds these principles 
can take part in the administration of a state like that of 
Athens, where the statesman is but the tool, the diaKovos, or 
upper servant, of the Demus^, hired for the purpose of sup- 
plying its outward needs, and gratifying its passions of vain- 
glory and ambition? As the, ends pxursued by the ablest of 
the only statesmen possible in a popular government, are 
such as no wise man can esteem ; so the means they are 
compelled to employ are such as no honest man can stoop to. 
The most approved of these means is Rhetoric, the Rhetoric 
taught by Gorgias and practised by Callicles, the iroXirtKrjg 
liopimj €i5a)Xoi/, or semblance of that true Rhetoric * which is 
auxiliary to the higher and only true art Politic, the art of 
producing justice in the souls of individual citizens, and in 
that aggregate of souls we call the State. 

To complete this statement, it was necessary to describe 
the true nature of Justice, which, as we have seen, Plato 
expresses in terms substantially, and as far as they go, literally 
the same as those which he employs in the Republic. 

With the same object in view, he seeks to establish the 
essential difference of Pleasure and Good, which is done 
briefly, but accurately enough for the purpose we assumed s. 

^ ol/TOi €fioiye doKel b aKOTrd^ elvai irpbt oy fiXeiroirra iel ^fjVy Kai 
TTo'vTa eis TovTo Kai Ta avrov vvin-elvoirra Kai tcc t^s irdXcws, ottcos 
SiKaioavvTi 'rrap€<rrai Kai a(a<f>po(rvyri rw paKapitv peXKovri ecreadai, 
p. 507 D. 

S Tdv piWoirra dpdio^ priTopiKdv icrecrdai 6iKaiov iei elvai Kai 
eiritmipova Ttav diKalutVf p. 508 B. 

8 P. 517 B. 

4 See Phaedrus, Introd. p. xvii. [in the Bibliotheca Classica]. 

** P. 500 E, elvai pev Tt tjiit elvat Se ti dyadov, exepoi; 61 Td t\6v rod 
dyadov. If we compare this with a passage in the Protagoras, we 
shall see that Plato's views on this subject had undergone an important 
change dnring the interval between the composition of that dialogue 
and the GK)rgias. cZ Trti exere a Wo rt </>ai;at eivai ro dyadov n xtvu 


The question is determined on its own merits in the Philebus, 
which contains, as it seems to me, the most satisfactory 
analysis of Pleasm^e and its ingredients that is to be fomid in 
any Greek writer, and in which the discussion is of a more 
searching and speculative kind than that in the Qorgias. In 
the Philebus, there is little doubt that the tenets of the 
Cyrenaic school are attacked; but I cannot, with Schleier- 
macher, detect any such polemical reference in the Gorgias ; 
where the "hedonistic" sentiments put into the mouth of 
Callicles are the expression of mere practical libertinism 
seeking arguments in defence of its own practice, and are 
totally imlike the scientific sensualism attributed to Aris- 

Throughout the whole dialogue there reigns a spirit of 
passionate vehemence, scarcely reconcilable with a scientific 
or speculative purpose, but thoroughly consistent with that 
more practical object of justifying abstinence from political 
action in a depraved commonwealth which I suppose Plato to 
have had in view when he wrote. Bitter indeed must have 
been his feelings on revisiting the guilty city for the first 
time after his master's death : deep his abhorrence of that 
art whose professors, represented by the rhetor Lycon, had 
mainly contributed to the perpetration of that crime : not 
over-friendly his feelings towards the poets who had con- 
spired with the rhetoricians in their attack upon the man 
whom both hated with nearly equal hatred. His dislike of 
public life, at least in Athens, never left him. It is expressed 
in the Theaetetus^, but with more of scorn than of anger: 
but there is not one of his dialogues in which the public men 
of the best times of the Athenian History, such men as 
Pericles and Miltiades and Cimon, are treated with such 
indiscriminating severity as in the Gorgias 2. 

itdovify, 1^ Td kukSv dWo ti tj t»|i; dvlav, ij dpKet Vfiiv t6 i/deaiv 
Kora^iStvat t6v fiiov dvev Xvtrcov; Protag. p. 354 E, compared with the 
context preceding and following. As the opinion in the Gorgias was 
certainly that of his later life, it seems irrational to doubt that the 
Protagoras was the earlier production of the two. 

1 P. 172 seq. 

2 Oompare e.g. Protagoras, 819 e, 822 a, and still more the 


After all, it may be said, the date here assigned to the 
Gorgias rests on mere hypothesis: for the dialogue itself 
contains no indication of the time at which it was written. 
This however is not exactly true. The prophecy of Socrates' 
death put into his own mouth (p. 621 d, ovdtp Sroirov d 
diro6avonu\ coupled with the warning of Callicles before 
alluded to, compel us to place the composition of *the dialogue 
after the year 399 : and its evident applicability to Athenian 
life and to nothing else, almost compel us to defer its com- 
position to the time of its author's return. It also expresses 
the very sentiments which, as we read in the seventh Epistle, 
were uppermost in the mind of Plato at that period. We 
are moreover told by Athenaeus, and there is no im- 
probability in the story, that this dialogue was read by the 
personage after whom it was named, who assured his friends, 
somewhat gratuitously, one would have thought, that he 
never said or heard any of the things contained in it. Now 
Gorgias is said to have been ^diy yrjpatrKav, already advanced 
in years, when he came as ambassador to Athens in the fifth 
year of the Peloponnesian war, b.c. 427, twenty-eight years 
before the death of Socrates. He is also said by Quintilian 
"ultra Socratem usque durasse," to have outlived Socrates; 
and the duration of his life is put at 105 and even 108 years, 
a longevity greater by ten or thirteen years than that attained 
by his celebrated pupil Isocrates. These and similar notices 
(which it would be tedious to eniunerate) have induced his 
biographer Foss to assign the year 496 as his approximate 
birth -year, on which supposition he must have died not later 
than 388, which is the date of Plato's second return to 
Athens. If therefore we accept as true the story in Athe- 
naeus, we must infer that the Gorgias was written before 
Plato's second departure from Athens, i.e. in the interval 
between 395 and 389. The date of the composition of the 
Kepublic, or at any rate of its commencement by Plato, is 
assigned by many scholars to the same period of time. This 
opinion seems a plausible inference from the concluding 

Phaedrus, 270 A, in which the eloquence of Pericles is spoken of in 
terms of the most exalted admiration. 


sentence of the passage quoted above from the seventh 
Epistle: Xeyfiv re TJvayKcurBrfVy iiraiv^v r^v opB^v ^iXoaro^iav, 
<os €K ravrris coti to, rt noXiriKa BUcua Koi ra r&v Ibuorav koT" 
ibtlv' KaK&v ovp ov Xi^^eiy rd avSpoiniva ycvrjy irpiv av tj to rav 
0tXo(ro^ovin-a>y opBas re xai dXrfdSg yevos fls apx^s cXdrj rag 
TTokirtKas, fj TO T&v dwaoTTevovTotv iv Tals iroK€(nv Zk tipos fioipas 
deias ovTfos 4iCkofro<i>riaji. These two sentiments are, as I have 
before observed, the texts on which the Gorgias and the 
Republic are respectively founded; and when Plato goes on 
to say, that these ideas had been formed in his mind before 
he first visited Sicily^ (b.c. 389), it is difficult to avoid the 
inference that the Gorgias was written and the Republic at 
least begun at the period last specified. 

It is also a general opinion that the idea of a female 
commonwealth exhibited by Aristophanes in the Ecclesia- 
zusae was written by the comic poet in ridicule of the 
Platonic commonwealth *. The Ecclesiazusae was represented 
In the year 392 ; it seems therefore possible that at this date 
some part at least of the Republic was written, and had been 
publicly read, if we may not say published, in Athens. 

1 TavTtiv Tijv didvoutv eh 'IraX/av re kuI 'EiKcXiav riKdov bre 

2 Meineke has even poiuted out two passages, one in this play, and 
one in the Plutns, in which, as he supposes, Plato himself is ridiculed 
under the name of Aristyllus, the diminutive of Plato's original name 
Aristodes, which, if he ever bore it, was inherited from his grandfather. 
Com. Gr. 1. p. 281. I confess, however, that such an allusion seems 
too far-fetched to have been intelligible to an Athenian or any other 
audience. The Aristyllus in question was probably some person 
notorious for low profligacy, and quite unconnected with Plato. 



ropriAS, noAos. 


St. p. 

447 I. TloXefjLov xal fidxv^ <l>(Krl ')(prjvaty e! S(;&- 
Kpare^, ovtco fieraXayxO'Veiv. 

2n. 'AW' 17, TO \€y6fJL€V0V, KOTOTTIV kopTTj^ 

iJKOfiev [teal va-repovfiev] ; ''\±p ^ 

KAA. Kal fioKa ye aareia^ ioprrj^' iroXSA 5 — 

yctp Kot KoXcL Topyia^ rjfilv oKlrfov wporepop eTre- 


So. TovTcov fiiirroi, c5 KaXXt^Xe^?, atrio^ Xat- 
B pe<f>&v oSe, iv ojyopa avarfiedaa<i '^fid^ Siarpiyjrai, 

XAI. OvSkv *irpdyfia, c! Sco/cpare?* €7^ yh,p 10 

Kol Idaofiai. <l>l\o^ yap fioi Topyla^, &a'T iirL- 

Sel^erat rjiuv, el fiev Soxel, inWy ictv 8e jSovX'p, 


KAA. Tt S', iS ^aipe<f>&v ; iTnOvfjuet %(OKpdTq^ 

aKovaai Topyiov ; 15 

XAI. 'Ett' avTo ye roi tovto Trdpea-fiep, 
KAA. OvKovv orav ^ovXrja-Oe irap i/ie ffKetv 

ot/caBc — Trap' ifiol yap Topyia^i KaraXvei, Koi hn- 

ZeL^erav vpZv. 

PL. QOR, A. 

tc-.. W rfu^.xC© 


Sfl. £2 X^6&9» c3 KaWt/c\6£9. a\V dpa 
eOeKrjO'eiev &v fifiiv hiaXe^OrivaL ; /SovXofiai yap O 
irvOiaOau trap avrov, rk rf Svpafii^ rrjf; ri^vrjf; 
Tov dvSpo^, leaX rl iarcv h iTra/yyiWeTaL re koX 
5 hiZd<TKei. TTjv he aXK7)v hrihet^iv elaavdc^, wairep 
aif X67649, irotrjadaOa), 

KAA. OvSev olov to avrov ipeorav, c5 XcoKpare^. 
Kal yap avT^ lj/ rovr ^ia t^9 iTrtSei^eo)^' ixiXeve 
yovp vvv Bfj ipcorav o rl TC<i fiovXoiro r&v evhov 
lo Xptcop, Kal irpo^ &iravTa l^rj diroKptpelaOai. 

Sflt. *H KaXw X&yei^. *X1 Xaip€<j>&p, ipov 

XAI. T/ epeofiat, ; 
2fi. ''Oa-Ti^ iarlp. 
15 XAI. IIw? Xeyet^ ; 

2fl. ^'XlcTTrep hp el eTvy'XP'Vep &v viroSajfiaTcnv 
Sf)fiiovpy6^, aTre/cplparo av 8i] ttov aoi ore aKvro- D 
TOfio^. ^ ov fiapOdpei^ w Xiyo) ; 

11. XAI. 'iAav6dp(o xal eprjaoixai, ^iire fioi, 
20 (S Vopyla, dX7)0rj Xeyei KaXXixXi]^ oSe, '6ti eVoy- 
7€We^ diroKplveadai o n ap rl^ ae epcora ; 

rOP. *A.Xri6rij I c! ^aip€<f>&p^ Kal yap pvp Stj 448 
avrd ravra eirrjyyeXXofirjp, Kal Xeyto on ovSei^ fjLe 
I toJot ItTTto rjpcoTTjKe Kaipop ovhep iroXK&p er&p. 
c^ K>« *2$^ XAI. ^ H irov dpa paSUo^ diroKpipel, «5 Topyia. 
rOP. HdpeaTL TOVTOv weipap, c5 li,aip€<j>&p, 

nilA. N^ At"' &p Si ye iSovXtfy c5 'Kaipe<f)a)p, 
ifjLOV, Topyia^ fiev yap Kal direLprjKevai, fioi Bokci' 
30 TToXXd ydp dprc hieXrjXvOep, 

XAI. Tt half w IloiXe ; oXet ah koKKlov &v 
Topylov diroKpCpoa-Oai ; 

ropriAS. 3 

nnA. T/ Se TOVTO, iav col ye iKav&^ ; 
B XAI. Ovhiv* aW* hreihrj aif jSovXei, diroKpi- 

nXlA. 'E/>(»Ta. 

XAI. 'EpcDTw hrf. el irvyxave Fopyla^ iirir- 5 
(TT'rifKov &v TTj^ Te'xyrj^ fjairep 6 dS€\<l}o^ avrov 
'UpoScKO^, Tt &p avTOp ODVOfid^Ofiep SiKauo^ ; ov^ 
iwep iKccvov ; 

nflA. Haw ye. 

XAI. ^larpov apa ^cuTKOvre^ avrov elvav Ka\&<; 10 
hv eK&^ofiev. 

nflA. Nat. 

XAI. Et Se 76 fjairep ^Apia-ro^&v 6 'A7Aao- 
<f>&vTo^ fj 6 dS€\<f>o^ avTov SfiTretpo^ 171/ re^i/i;?, riva 
&v avrov 6p0w^ €Ka\ov/Jb€v ; 15 

C nXlA. ^rfKov irv ^orypd^ov. 

XAI. Nvi/ S' iireiS'^ rlvo^ re^vv^ iinarriiJLtov 
itrrl, rlva &v /caXovvre^ avrov 6p0(o^ /caXocfiev ; 

IlftA. *fl 'Kacp€<]>iSv, TToXXal ri'xvai, ev dvdpco- 
7ro49 elalv ex rdov efiireipmv ifiireiptof; evprffiivaV 20 
ifiTreipia fiev yap irovei rov al&va '^fidSv iropeveaOat 
learh re^j/rjv, diretpia he Kord rvxv^' eKdtrrmv hk 
rovrtov fi€ra\afi^dpov(riv aWoi aWcov aX\a>9> roiv 
Be dpiarcDV oi apuaror &v xal Topyia^ earlv '6Se, 
Koi fieri'^ei, rrj^ xaWiarrjii r£v re)(y<Sv. 25 

D III. SA* KaXo)? ye, go Topyla, ^alverai, Hrnko^ 
irapetTKevdaOat eh \6yov^' dXXd yap 8 virea'xerp 
^aLpe<f}&vrL ov iroiel, 

rOP. Tt fidXiara, cJ XcoKpare^ ; 

Xil, To eptordfievov ov nrdvv fioi <f>aiveraL 30 

rOP. 'AX\a (TV, el fiovKec, epov avrov. 


So. Oax, el avr& ye aol fiovXofUvip eariw 
anotcplveaOa^, oKKa 7ro\if av ffiiov aL Sfjko^ yap 
fwi ncSXo9 ical i^ COP etfyrj/cev, ori rqp KoKovfUvfjp 
jnjTopiiCfjp fiSXKov fiefuXcTfjKep fj StaXeyea-dai, 
5 nflA. T/ Sj}, a Xa>icpaTe^ ; £ 

Sfi. "Ori^ & TiffKe^ ipop^ov X.aip€(fHSpTo^ ripo^ 
Topyia^ iirKTTijfuov reyprj^y iyK<ofiui^€&^ pikp aurov 
rrjp re'XPTfP Sairep ripo^ ^€yoi/T09, ^*9 Be iariv 
ovK anre/cpivo), 
lo nXlA. Oi; yap dnreKpipapn/jp orn eii] fj tcaX-' 
XloTf) ; 

Xil, Kal fidXa ye, oXX* otJSel? rjpiOTa iroia 
Tt9 elff rf Topyiov rix^V* aXXd rh, teal ipTiva Sioi 
J. tcaXecp TOP Topyiap. wa-irep rd SfiTrpoaOep aoi 
,^^^^l^f 15 virereiparo l^a4pe<l>&p koX avT& kclKw fcal \ hid 449 
^paykicv direKplvto, Kal pvp oirto^ ehre, rt? ^ tcx^ 
Kal rlpa Topyiap KaXecp yprj rjfid^, fiSXKop 84, co 
Topyia, avrb^ ripHv elire, riva ae XPV icdKeip fl5$ 
Tivo^ iirurTi^fiopa re^^i/iy?. 
20 rOP. T^9 prjTopiKTJ^, (S XwKpare^. 
Sll. 'P'^Topa dpa XPV ^^ KoKelp ; 
TOP. ^ Ay aO OP ye, c! XcoKpare^, el Srj o ye 
• eCxofiai elpai, w^ S(l>rj "Op/qpo^;, fiovKei fie Kokelp. 

SO. 'AXX^ l3ov\op,aL 
25 TOP. KdXec Sv. 

SO. OvKovp Kal a\\ov9 ce <f>o^fiep hvvarop 
elpai irovelv ; 

rOP. ^ETToyyeWofiai ye Sij ravra ov jxovov B 
ivOdhe dX\d Kal aWoOc, 
30 SO. *Ap' oip eOeXrjaaL^ av, <S Topyia, Scirep 
PVP SiaXeyofieOa, StareXiaat, to p,lp ipcorSp, to 8* 
aTroKptpofMepo^, to Se p^rJKOf; t&v Xoytop tovto, otov 


ropriAS. 5 

kclI IIc5\o9 rjp^aro, elaavdi^i diroOiaOac ; aXV iirep 
vvia-'xyet, firj y^eva-tf, aXX' iOiKrfa-ov Kara jSpaxv 
TO iptordfievov diroKpiveaOaL 
C POP, Elal fiiv, cS ^a>/epaT€^, eviav twv aTro- 
/cplaecDV cofayKoiav Scd p,aiep&v rot)? X&^ov^ iroielaOai,' 5 
ov /A^i' oKkd iretpdaofial ye co? 8ta fipaxvTdTcav, 
fcal yap ai Kal tovto €v ia-rip cuv ^7}p,l, firjBiva 
&v iv fipa^vripot^ ifiov ravrd elirelv, 

2fl. TovTov [irfv Bet, (3 Topyia' Kal fiot hrL- 
Sei^iv avTOV tovtov iroiriaaL^ Trj<; ^pa')(vKjoyia^, 10 
fiaxpoXoyla^ Sk eltravOt^, 

POP. 'AXXci iroiTja-io, Kal ovBevo^ ^ijcret? fipa- 
j(y\oy€OT€pov dKOva-di, 

IV. 2X1. ^€p€ 877* prfTopcKTJ^ ydp ^s ewt- 
arijfKov rix^V^ elvav Kal iroirjaai av koI aXKov 15 
D pvTopa* Tj pTfTopiKrj irepl rl t£v Xvtoop rvyxdvei 
ovaa ; Sxrirep ^ v<f>avTi,Krj irepl vqv rwv ifiarlav 
ipyaalav* rj ydp ; 

TOP. Na/. 

Sfi. OvKovv Kal 97 fiovavKi^ irepl rrjv r&v fieXdiv 20 
Trolrjciv ; 


2fl. iirj rrjv '^Hpav, c! Topyia, &Yafial yi <rov ' 
T^9 diroKpltrei^, in diroKpLvet 009 olov re Bid 
^paxvTarcop, 25 

rOP. Tldvv yctp olfiac, go 2(o/cpar€9, eTneiKm 
TOVTO 7roi€iv» 

SXl. EdX€7669. WiBifj fWidiroKpLvauovTO) Kalirepl 
£ T^9 pijTopiKTj^i, irepl tL t&v 8pt<ov ia-Tlv iiriaTrnii^ ; 

TOP. Ilepl X<}70i;9. 30 

2X1. IIo/oi;9 T0VT0V9, «J Topyia; dpa ot Brj\ov<ri 
T0^9 xdfivovTa^, (09 Ai/ BuiiTd>fjL€voc vyuilvoiev ; 


rop. Oft 

2X1. Ov/e apa wepl irdvra^ ye tov9 X070U9 1} 
fniropiKTi iariv. 

TOT. Oi Srjra. 
5 SO. 'A\Xa firjv X^eiv 76 Troiel hwarov^, 

TOT. Hai 

2n. Oiffcovp wepl oSmrep Xeyeiv, xal ^poveiv; 

TOT. 1169 yhp ov; 

2ft. ^Ap* oiv, fjv vvv H) ikiyofiev, tj larpitctf \ 
10 irepl r&v Kafiv6vT(Dv woi^l 8vvaTov<: elpcu ^povelv 450 
KoX Xeyeiv; 

TOT. "AvofYKfj. 

2ft. Kal 17 larpiKf) apa, w €oi/c€, irepl \oyois 
15 rOP. Nar. 

2ft. Tov? ye irepl ra poaijfiaTa; 

TOT. MdTuara. 

2ft. OvKovp Kal f) yvp^vaar^Krj irepl Xoyov^ 
iarl T0V9 irepl eve^iav re r&v (roi/xaro)!/ icaX 
20 Ka'xe^iav ; 

TOT. TLavv ye. 

2ft. Kal /x^i/ Kal ai aXKat rix^dh (J Topyla, 
o6t€o^ e'xpvo'iv eKaarr) avr&v irepl Xoyot^^ iarl B 
rovTov^, ot rvyyavovGiv Svre^ irepl to irp&yfia oi 
25 kKaarr} iarlp ij Tixvrj. 

TOT. ^aiverai. 

2ft. T^ oJfV hrj irore rd^ aWa^ re'xya^ ov 
prjropiKa^ KaXeh, ovaa^ irepl Xoyov^^ etirep ravTqv 
pTfTopiKfjv KoKeZ^, fj dv rj irepl Xoyov^; 
30 rOP. '^Ort, cJ X(OKpaT€^, rdiv fikv aWav rep^i/cSv 
irepl 'Xfiipovpylafi re Kal roiavra^ irpd^ei^, m eiro^ 
elireiv, iraad iarcv 17 iirtanj/J/rft rrj^ Se prjTopiKrj^ 

ropriAS. 7 

ovSev iart tocovtop j^eipovpyrjfia, dWd iraaa rf 
C irpa^L^ KoX fj Kvptoai,^ Sict Xoytov iarl. Sid ravr 
iyo} rifv prfTopiKfjv rex^V^ d^iw elvai irepl Xoyoi;?, 
opd&<; Xiyayv, (»9 iyoi (fyrjfiL 

V. 2fl. *Ap' oiv fjuavdavto oXav avrrjp jSovXei 5 
KoKelv; Td^O' S' ettro/iat aa^iarepov, aW* diro- 
lepivai, etalv ^fiiv riyycu. fj ydp; 

TOP. Nat'. 

SO. Uaa-oop Be, otfiaty r&v reyyAv t£v fikv 
ipycurla to ttoXv i<m koI \6yov jSpa^io^ Seovrai, 10 
iviat Sk ovSevo^, dWd to t^9 re^vv^ irepaLvoiro dp 
fcal Sid atp/rj^, olop ypa(f>tKrj koX dpSpiavroiroua fcal 
D oKXac iroKKaL' rd^ rouLvra^ fioc SokcI^ Xiyeip, 'irepl 
a? ov <^^9 Tfjp prjTopiKifp elpai,. fj ov ; 

rOP. Jldvv fiev oJfP KaX&^ vTroXafilSdpei^, (S 15 

2ft. '^Krepai Si y elal rSp re^i^eSi/ at Sid Xoyov 
irdv irepaLpovo'iy /cal Ipyov, ©9 l7ro9 elireiv, rj ovSepo^ 
TrpoaSeoprai rj ^pa^^o^; wdpu, olop dpiOfiriTiicrj koX 
Xoyiarc/erj teal yecofierpifcri koI irefrevTiKi] ye teal 20 
aXXat TToXXal Ti)(vai, cop epiai crxeSov ri laov^ 
£ T0V9 Xoyov^ expvai rai^ Trpd^ea-ip, al Se iroXXal 
TrXelov^ Kal to irapdirav iratra ri irpa^i^ koI to 
Kvp09 avToi^ Sid Xoyap iarL T(Sv toiovtwp Tivd 
/loi SoKCi^ Xeyeiv Ttjp pr)TopiKi]P, 25 

POP. "AXvffv X€7€t9. 

2ft. 'Aw' ovToi TovTtap ye ovSefiiap olfuii <^€ ^ ^^ ^ f-. 
l3ovXe<T0ai ptfTopiKrjp KaXeip, ov^ oti T<p p^/^^Tt t-^^^^ 
ot;TCii9 eZ7r€9, 6ti aJ Sid Xoyov t6 Kvpo^ exovtra 
pfjTopucf] eoTi, Koi viroXdfioi ap t«9, ei fiovXoiTo 30 
Svax^paipeip ip T049 X6yoi9, T171; dpidfiijriKrjp dpa 
pi]TopiKi]P, CO Topyia, \^€t9; dW' ovk olfiai ae 


oire rffv apcO/MjriK^v ovre Trjv yeafierpiav pfjTopifcrjp 

rOP. ^OpOA^ yap oUcf (2 ^coKpare^, teal ZlkclUo^ 451 
5 VI. 2ft. "10$ vw KoX aif Trjv diroxpunv tjv 
flp6p/qv Siairipavov, iirel yap fi fyrfropiicfj Tvyy^dv€$ 
fi€v oiaa rovrtov tk twv rexytSp t(Sv to 'jtoXv \6ytp 
')Q>wfi€vo>v, Tvyj(avoviTi, he koI aXKai roiavrai oiaat, 
ireipm eiirelvj fi wepl rl iv Xoyoi^ to Kvpo^ €')(pvaa 

lo prjTopiieri iariv Sairep &p et Tt9 fie epoiTo cJi/ vvv 
B^ iXeyov irepl ^(mpoaovv rdov Texy&v, *ft ^(OKpaTe^, 
tU ioTiv ri dpiOfifjTitcrj re^PV* etiroip^ &v aifT^, 
Sioirep aif apTi^ in t&v htd \6yov Tt9 to Kvpo^ B 
exovaoov. Kal et fie eiravepoiTo Twv wepl tI; etiroifi 

IS &P OTi T&p irepX TO dpTLOP T€ Kal TrepiTTOPy oa dp 
eieaTepa Tirfxapoi, oma, el S* ai ipoiTO, Trfp Se 
\oyum/crjp Tlpa KoKet^ Teypv^; etiroifi &p Zti xal 
avTfj iarl t(Sp \6yip to Trap KvpovfiepoDP, Kal el 
hropipoiTO 'H irepl tL; eliroifi &p ioairep oi ip T<p 
^^ 2o Srjfjktp a'vyypa<l>6fi€voi,y Sti Td fiep dWa KaOdirep 17 
dpiOfiffTCK^ 17 XoyLOTi/erj ^xet' irepl to avro ydp 
ioTi, TO Te dpTtop Kal to irepiTTOP* iia^epei Be 
ToaovTOP, iTi Kal 7rpo9 avTa Kal irpo^ dXKifKa irw 
iy(ei irKrjdov^ eiritTKoirel to irepiTTOp Kal to dpTtop 

25 7; XoyiOTiKT]. Kal el ti9 ttjp darpopofiiap dpepoiTO, 
ifiov XeyopTo^ Uti koI avTrj \6ytp KVpovTai to 
TrdpTa, 01 Be \6yot oi Trj^ doTpopofiia^, el if>ai'q^ 
irepl TV elai,p, (S ^oixpaTe^; eliroifi dp oTt irepl ttjp 
T&p doTptop <f>opdp Kal ^Xiov Kal aeXripri^, ird^ irfyo^ 

rOP, 'OpflcS? ye XSytop ov, cS 'SioixpaTe^, 

2ft. "10c Brj KaX av, eS Tof>yia^ Ttr^^dpec fiep D 

ropriAS. 9 

f^cLp Btf fi pffTOpiKrj oiaa t&v X07G) ra irdma 
SiairpaTTOfiepoiv t€ kov Kvpovfiivcov [t*?] ^ yap; 

rOP. "lEcTT* ravra. 

Sft. A€7€ S^ T&v w€pl tL; *t6* eoTt rovTo 
r&v ovTfov, wepl oi oirot oi Xoyot, €i<riv, 0I9 tj 5 
prjTOpiK^ XP^Tat; 

POP. Ta fieyiOTa r&v avdpwrremv irpar/fJidTtov, 
cS XdKpare^, koX dpitrra. 

VII. 211. 'AX\', c5 Topyla, dfKfxxr/SrjTijtrtfiov 
E ical TOVTO \e76t9 /cal ovSii/ 7ra> aa<f>e^. otofiat yap 10 
<r6 dxTj/eoivaL iv Tot? avfiTroaioi,^ diovrtov dvOpoiireov 

TOVTO TO CKoXiov, iv & KaTapL0flOVVTaL aSoj/T€9 OT* 

vyLaiveiv fikv dpiarov ioTL, to Be SevTCpov /caKov 
yeveadaiy TpiTOV Bi, &9 ifyrfatv 6 iroirfTrj^ tov ckoXiov, 
TO TrXovTeiv dSoXto^. 15 

POP. *Aiei]Koa yap* dXXd wpo^ tI tovto Xeyev^; 
462 211. ^Oti aot avTiK av \ 'rrapaoToiev ol Br)- 
ficovpyol TOVTcov <Sv iiryvea-ep 6 to (tkoXiov iroLtja-a^, 
laTpo^ T€ Kal iraiBoTpijSi]^ xal 'XP^ip^aTiarrj^, xal 
eliroi hv TTp&Tov fiev 6 laTpo^ Zrt *fl Scu^pare?, 26 
i^airara a€ Topyia^* ov yap icTtv 97 tovtov Te^vv 
Trepl TO fiiyitTTOv dyadov To?9 dvOpmrot^y aX\' 77 
ifirj. el oiv avTov iyo) ipoifirjv 2t) Be T/9 (ov TavTa 
Xeyec^; eliroi, hv taoD^ 2ta 'larpo?. T/ oiv Xeyei^; 
fj TO T^9 (Trj^ T^x^^ Ipyov fieytaTov e<mv dyaOSv; 25 
Um yitp oi, (fmirj &v tato^, c3 'ZofKpaTe^, vyieta; tL 
B S' cVtI fjuet^ov dyadov dvdpdiirot^ vyiela<s ; Et S* ai 
lierd TOVTOV 6 iraiioTpi^rj^ eltrot Btl &avfid^oifil y 
av, & 'Stci/cpaTe^, xal avTo^, el aoi e'xet Topyta^ 
fiel^ov dyadov iirvBel^ai tt}^ avTOV Tej(vv^ V ^^ 3<^ 
Tr}<; €fir)<:' ehroifi &v ai leal wpo^ tovtov 2i) Bk Brj 
Tw el, (S dvdptoire; koX tI to aov epyov; Ho*- 


SoTpl/3i]^, <f>airi avy to S' epyov fiov iari xaXov^ re 
KoX layvpov^ TTOLelv rov^ avdpdmov^ ra aoifiara, 
Mera Se rdv TraiSorpL^rjv ecTroi &v 6 'xprffiariarri^f 
©9 iywfiai, travv KaTa<l>povoov dirdvTcov, Xkottci Sfjra, 

5 (S ^dxpare^, idv troc irXovrov (f>avfj ti fiel^ov dryaOop 
hv fj irapd Topyia rj trap SXKtp oripovv, <f>alfi€v &v 
oiv irpo^ avrhv HI Se S^; ff <ri) rovrov Brjfiiovpyo^ ; 
^al/q dv, Ta9 ^v; l^prjfiarctTTij^, Tt odv; xpipei^ 
<rv fiiyiarop dvOpdiroi^ dyaOov elvav trXovrov; 

10 (f>ri<TO[iev. Yl£^ yap ovk ; ipei, Kal firjv dfi^ca^rf- 
Tel ye Vopyla^ ohe rrjv trap* avr^ ri'xyrjv fiei^ovo^ 
dfyaOov airiav elvai ^ rrjv aijv, <f)aifiev &v fffiel^, 
SijXov oiv on to iierd tovto epoiT &p Kal tI eaTC 
TOVTO TO ay ad op; diroKpipda-Oto Topyia^;. "16 l oip D 

Y5 pofilaa^:, w Topyia, ipoDTatrOat Kal vir exelptop xal 
VTT ifiov, d'rroKpipai tl iaTc tovto o (f>rj^ av fieyi,<TTOP 
drfadop elpai toU dpOpdirot^ koX ae Srjfiiovpyop elpai 

rOP. "Oirep ea-Tip, S 2ft)/cpaT€9, t§ dXffOeia 

20 fieycaTOP dyadop xal atTiop dfia fikp iXevOepia^ 
avTot^ T0t9 dpdpdnroi,^, afia Se tov aWcDi/ dp')(ebP 
ep TTj avTov iroXet exdaTip, 

2fl. Ti ovp Srj TOVTO Xeyei^; 

rOP. To ireiOeip Sy(»7' olop t elpai, toI<; Xoyot,^ £ 

25 Kal ep ZiKa<TTripi(p SiKacTct^ Kal ep ^ovXevTqpUp 
^ovXevTct^ Kal ep iKKXrja-ia eKKXrjo'uiaTct^ xal ep 
aXX^ ^vXX6y€p 'rrajrri, o<TTt^ dp iroXiTiKo^ ^vXXoyo^ 
yiypfjTaL KalToi ep TavTtj tj} Svpdfiet SovXop fiep 
e^et9 TOP laTpop, SovXop Se top waiSoTpljSrjp* 6 Se 

30 XP^/A^Tto-T^? ovTO^ dXXq> dpa^aprjaeTai 'X^prjfiaTi^o- 
fjLepo^ Kal ovj(^ avT^f dXXd aol tq) Svpafiept^ Xeyecp 
Kal ireideLP Td TrXijOrj. 

ropriAS. 11 

VIIL 2fl. Nw fiot hoKel^ Srj\w(rat, c3 Topyia, 
468 iyyirara rrjv prjTOpCKifv | Vjiniva T€'xyr)v ffyel elvat, 
Kol €L TL 67ft) avvlrjfii, \ey€i^ OTt ireidov^ Brffiiovpyo^ 
ianv rj pf}TopiKij, fcal 17 Trpa^fiarela avrfj^ airatra '^ «^*-i^- 
zeal TO K€<t>d'Kaiov ek Toyro Tpxpury. ^ e;^€t9 t* 5 /ji., 
Xeyeiv iirl irXeov r^v prjropCK'^v BvvaaOai, rj ireiOdo 
rol^ aKovovtrtv iv Tp yjtvxS 'TOielp; 

FOP. OvSafi&^y c3 Xoiiepare^y dWd iioi hoieeV; 
iKav£^ opi^etrOai' eari yap tovto to /c€<l>aKaiov 
avrrjf;. 10 

2fl. ''Akovo'ov Si], cS Topyia. iyo) ycLp eS tad* 
OTC, (09 ifiavTov ireidtOf elirep ti<; a\Xo9 aW<p 
SiaXiyeTac ^ovXofievo^ eihevai, avTo tovto ir€pX 
B 2toi; 6 X0709 eoTt, koX ifie elvat rovrtov epw d^iA '**-^ 
Sk Kal ae. 15 

rOP. Tt oiJ^ Sj7, eS XcitepaT€^; 

Sn. '£70) epft) i/Or. 67ft) T?7i/ aTTo T179 pTjTOpiKrj^ 
- Treiddy fj Tt9 vot' ecrrli/ ^j; crv \€76t9 ical Trepl 
SvTiP(ov trpayfiaTcav earl iretOo), aa^w^ fikv eS 
IcrS* oTi ovK olSa, ov /a^i/ aW' viroirrevoi ye fjv 20 
olfMLv ae Xeyeiy koX Trepl coV ovSev fiivTOL fJTTOv 
eprjaofial ae Tiva ttotc Xkyei^ Trjv tretd^ rffv diro 
C T^9 prjTopVKTJ^ KoX Trepl tIvcov avTrjv elvat, tov 
ovv evexa St) avTo^ vTroTrreumv ae ipijaofiaij oXV 
ouK avTOf; Xeyo) ; ov aov Svexa, dXXd tov Xoyov, 25 
iva ovT(o Trpotrf, €09 fidXcar &v fifilv Koraifiavk^ 
TToiol Trepl oTov XeyeTai, cKOTrei yap et aoi Sofc£ 
SiKaico^ dvepcoTav ae. &<nrep &v el eTvyyavov ae 
eptoTwv T69 iaTi t&v ^(oypdifxov Zev^tf;, el fioc elTre^ 
'6tl 6 Ta ^wa ypd<fxov, dp ovk dv ZiKalw^ ae 30 
rip6p/qv 6 Ta Trola twv ^(fxov ypdcfxop; [fcal ttoS;] 

POP. Udpv ye. 


SO. ^hpa Sia TovTo ori tcaX aXXoi eUrl ^{oypd- D 
il>oi ypd(l>ovT€^ aXXa woXka ^Sa; 

rOP. Na£ 

SO. EZ Se 76 fi/rihei^ aXko^ rj Zev^i^ eypa^, 
5 KoKm av aov_a7r€ic€/cpiro ; 

POP. IIc39 yap ov; 

2fl. 1^* 8^ Kol trepl t^9 ptfTopuef}^ elvi* 

TTorepov aov Soxei ireiOii iroielv 17 pfjropuc^ fiopff 

fj Kal SWai Texyai,; \4ym Be to rotovSe* oari^ 

10 SiSaateev otlovv irpa^fAO, irorepov b SiScuneei irelOei 

POP. , OiJ S^To, cJ S(0irpaT69, oKKa irdimov 
pAXurra ireiOeu 

]EI1. TiaKiv S* et hrl r&v avrwp re^voiv Xeyop^ev £ 
15 oomrep vvv Si], 17 apidp/rirud} ov S^da-fcei 17/^09 oo'a 
earl rh rov aptOp^v, /cal 6 dpi0p,rfTUc6^ dvOpmiro^ ; 
POP. Udw ye. 
Xn. OvKovv Kal ireldec; 
POP. Nat'. 
20 SO. HeiOov^ dpa StjfuovpyS^ iarv Koi ^ dpi0^ 


POP. ^alverai. 

SO. OvKovv edv TA9 iptora rip£^ iroia^ ireidov^ 
leal irepX rl, dnroKpi/vovp^dd trov avTw Sri rf}^ S*- 
25 SatricdKiKrj^ t^9 irepl to dpnov re koI t3 irepmrrov 
oaov earL \ kov rd^ dXKa^ a9 vvv hi} ekeyopsv 454 
reyya^ dirdaa^ e^opsv cmohei^ai, ireiOov^ STjp^tovp" 
yoif<; oUaa^ Kal fjarivo^ Kal irepl o ru fj oi; 

POP. Hal. 
3D Sn. OvK dpa priToptKf} fiovrj ireiBov^ earl 

POP. 'A7i/r)0v 7Uyei9. 

ropriAS, 18 

IX. 2n. *E7retS^ roivvp ov /lovff direpyd^erai 
TOVTO TO epyov, dWd icaX aXKaiy hiKaUo^ &o'7r€p 
irepl Tov ^G)ypd<l>ov fierd tovto inravepoifieff* &v rov 
Xeyovra, iroia^ Stf ireiOov^ teal T179 Trepl ri ireidov^ 
B 17 prjTopi/cff icrl rexyr) ; 17 ov SoKei <rot BUaiov 5 
elvat iiravepeadai ; 

TOP. "E/Aotye. 

Xil. * AiroKpivac Stj, oS Topyia, iweiSi] ye xal 
col SoK€2 o{!rci)9. 

POP. TavTi]^ Tolvvv T^9 weidov^ Xey®, cJ 10 
%(iKpareSi t^9 ,iv SiKaarrjpiot^ koX iv rol^ aWoi^ 
6y\oi^y wairep koX dpri, ^Xeyov, leal irepl tovtodv a 
iari Sixacd re xal dScxa, 

2ii. Kal iyd roc vTrcoTrrevov ravrrjv ae X^eiv 
rf)v iretdw koX irepX tovtodv, & Topyia* dW' — 2i/a 15 
firj Oavfid^Tjf;, idv oKuyov Sarepov tocovtov ri ae ^^ 
dveptofiat, h Soxel fikv SrjXov elvai, iya> S* i'lraveptoTGo 
C — OTTCp yhp Xeyo), rov €^^9 ^vexa TrepaiveaOat, tov 
\6yov ipoyrS, ov aov eveiea, dW' Lva firj iOi^oifieOa 
iirovoovvre^ jnrjpoa£7rd^eiv dWtjXcov rd Xeyofieva, 20 
d\\d aif Tct aavTov fcari, jrjv {nrodeaw oiraa^i &v 
fiovkrf 7r€paiv7)<:. 

POP. Kal 6pd<S^ yi fioi^ Sokci^ woielv, cS 

SXl. "Iffi Bff /cal ToSe iTTia-KeyltoifieOa, #ca\6t9 25 
Ti fi€/JUi0i]KivaL ; 

POP. Ka\(S. 

2fl. Tl Si; TremoTevicivac ; 

POP. ^E7®7€. 
D 2X2. Uorepov oiv ravrov BokcZ aot elvai fiefia- 30 
drjteivai, koI ireTncrevKevai,, Kal fJuiOfjai^ icai iriari^, 
^ aWo Tt; 


POP. Olofuu fjdv eyGK/6, gI Scu/cparev, aXKo, 
Sft. Ka\ct>9 70/9 ot6£* f^vdaei Be ivOivBe. el 
ydp tU ce ipoiro *A/»* eari ta9, cS Topyia, 7r«rr*9 

5 roR Na^; 

2ii. TiSi; ejnoTT/fjLT) ioTi ylrevStj^ teal a\r)0ij^; 

TOP. Oi5Sa/^9. 

2fl. A^Xoi/ apa Stiov ravrov iarov. 

TOP. *A\97^^ \eyet9. 
10 211. 'AWA firjv oX T€ 76 iiefiaOriKore^ ire- E 
ireuTfievoL elaX kclI oi 'irermoTevKore^. 

POP. TEoTt raOra. 

2ft. BovXc* o5i/ hvo e?&7 dwfiev irciOov^, to 
fjihf TTLOTiv 'irapexofievov avev rov elBivai, to S' 
15 iiriOTrip/qv ; 

FOP. Udw 76. 

2ft. UoTipav oiv ri prfTopCKtf ttciOoo iroiei iv 
SiKaarrjpLOi^ re xal toi^ dWoi^ 0^X0^9 irepl t&v 
SiKaloDv T€ Kol dSiKcov; i^ 179 TO Tncnreveiv ^irfverai 
20 dvev Tov eihivai fj i^ ^9 to elSivai ; 

rOP. /^tjXov hrprov, <S XoifcpaTe^:, '6ti ef ^9 
TO TTLOTeveiv. 

2ft. 'H pTjToptiefj dpa, C09 €ot/e€y ireidov^ \ 
Sr)piovpy6^ ioTi inaTevTLKTJ^, a\\' ov StSaaKaTuKrj^ 4*55 
25 irepl TO BUaiov t€ kol oBikop. 

TOP. ^al. 

2ft. OvB^ dpa BiBaaKaXtKo^ 6 p'qTwp iaTl 

BueaaTrjpifOP t€ koI t£v oKXtov S^Xoov BiKaicDV t€ 

iripi, KOL dBlfccov, dXXd 7reurTiK6<$ fiopov. ov yap 

30 BtfTTOV 6')(\jov 7' &v BvvaiTO ToaovTop ip oXlytp 

XPOP^ BiBd^ai oiTco fieydXa wpd/yfJUiTa, 

POP. Ov BrJTa. 

ropriAS. 15 

X. Sfl. <Pip€ SiJ, lBa)fi€v TL irore xal Xiyofjuev 
we pi rfj^ fyqropiKrjV iyd fiev yap roi ovS" avro^ 

B TTG) Svvafiav Karavorjaac 2 rt Xey®. irav irepl 
larpwv alpiaetos y Ty iroKec avWoyo^ rj irepX vav- 
^ 7rr)yoov rj irepl aXKov rivo^ SfjfiiovpyiKov eOvov^;, 5 

^ aWo ri, Tore 6 prfTopCKo^ ov (rvfi^ovXevaet ; hryKov 
yap . iTV ev eKaartf alpeaei rov rexviKooraTov Bet 
alpeiaOat* ovS" firav Tet^^cSi; irepl olKoBofiTjaeo)^ fj 
\ifiiva)V KaTaa/cevf}^ ff veaapitov, aXX' ol dp')(ireiC' 
rove^' ovS* av orav or partly Siv aLpiaeax; irepi ff 10 
Tafeo)? nvo^ irpo^ iroXefiiov^ fj j(^copLa>v KaTaXtj^eco^ 

C avfi/3ov\rf y, aW' ol (TTpaTrjytKol tot€ avfi^ovXev' 
aovaiVi oi prjTOpixol Bk ov. rj ttcS? \e76t9, <» ropyia, 
rd rovavra; iireiBrj yap airo^ re ^rj^ pijrtop elvai < 
Koi aXXov^ iroielv ptfropiteov^, ev e^e* rd t^9 a"fj^ 15^^^*^ 
Te^z/179 irapd aov irwddveaOai, fcal ip,€ vvv ySfiiaov f^^ 
/cat TO (r6v atrevBetv, ttreo^ yap Kal rvy^dvei ri^^^Y^^^^^-^^^^ 
r&v evBov ovroav fiaOrjri]^ <tov jSovXofievo^ 76i/^<r^at, 
(09 iyoi Tiva^ tr'xeBov Kal <Tvj(yox)^ alaOdvofiai, ot 

D t<rft)9 ala'xyvotvT dv ae dvepeadai, vir ifiov oZv 20 
dvepcoToifievo^ vofitaov Kal vir CKeivcov dpepayrdadai 
Ti fjpXVf & Topyia, etrrai, idp <toi avv&fiev ; irepl rivtov 
T§ TToXet avfi^ovXevecv otol re iaofieOa ; irore pov irepl 
BiKaiov fiovov Kal oBlkov fj Kal irepl (Sv vvv Bfj ScoKpa- 
T179 eXeye ; ireipH oiv avroU diroKplveadat, 25 

POP. 'AW' iyo) aoi iretpdaofiai, & X(x>Kpare^, 
aa^W diroKoXxn^ai rrjv rrj^ prjropiKtj^ Bvvaficv 
itratrav' avro^ ydp KaXtS^ v<fyqyria(o, olaOa ydp 

E BtjTTov ore rd veoopta ravra koI rd reLj(i] rd ^AOtj- 
vaUov Kal rj rdSv Xtfievtov KaracKevrf ex rrj^ %efiiaro' 30 
KXiov^i avfi^ovXtj^i yeyove, rd S* eK t^9 TLeptKXiov^, 

' dX)C ovK €K r<Sv Brjfiiovpywv, 


2ft. Aiyerai ravra, c3 Topyla, wepl 06/LU(rro- 
K\€ov<i' TlepCKXeov^ Se koI auT09 rj/covov Sre avve" 
/SovXevev fifuv rrrepl rod Sect fieaov Tei)(pv^. 

rOP, Kat orav yi rc^ aipetri^ ^ mv vvv Bt) \ 
5 <rv Skeye^, <S ^oiKpare^y opa^ on oi prjrope^ eUriv 466 
oi <rufiPov\€vovT€<: Ka\ oi vik(!jvt€<: ra^s yva>fia^ 
ire pi TovTfov, 

2ft. Tavra koI Oavfid^tov^ & Topyia, irdKai 

ipfOTci if rk Trore 17 hvvafii^ i<m t^9 prjropc/crjf;. 

10 haifiovla yap t£9 SfAovye Karaf^aLverai, to fieyedo^ 


XI. rOP. Et irdvTa ye eihelrj^;, w ^(oxpare^, 
oTt (09 €7ro9 elTretv airdaa^ rh^ Svvdfiei^ avWa- 
/Sovaa vif> avry ex^L fiiya Si aoc reKfiripiov ip& ' B 

15 'TToWaKL^ ycbp ijSr} eycoye fiercu rov dS€\4>ov xal 
fiercL T&v aXKxov larp&v elceXOcbv irapd riva r&v 
KafivovTtov oirxl iOekovra fj <f>dpfiaKOv ttcciv fj refieiv 
^ Kavaac irapaa"X!^lv t& larpo}, ov hvvafUvov rov 
larpov Treta-ac, iyco errreiaa, oxfK aXKri re'xyri rj rf} 

20 prjTOpc/erj, ifyrffil Se xal €t9 TroKtv oirov ffovKei 
ikdovre prjropiKov avhpa xal larpov, el Biot \6y^ 
StaycovL^eaOai iv eKicKqala fj iv aW^) Tivl avKKoytp^ 
oirorepov hel aipedrjvai larpov, ovSafiov dv if>avrivat C 
TO I' larpov, dyjC aipedijvac dv rov ehrelv hvvarov, 

25 el l3ovkotro. xal el rrrpo^ dWov ye Srjfiiovpyov 
ovrvvaovv dyiovi^oLro, rreiaeiev av avrov eXea-Oai 6 
^ropiKo^ fiaXXov ^ aWo9 oanaovV ov yctp eari 
irepX orov ovk dv iridavwrepov etirot 6 prjropLKO^i 
fj aXXo9 ooTLCovv r&v Srjfiiovpy&v iv irKrjdeL *H 

30 p^ev oiv Svvafit^ roaavrrj etrrX xal roiavrrj t^9 
ri'xvr)^, Bel fievroi, co '^(OKpare^, ry prjropc/cp 
'Xprjadai, Sairep r^ dWjj irdajj dycovic^ Kal ydp D 

ropriAS. 17 

T7J dW'ff ayaovia ov tovtov eveKa Bel irpo^ airavra^ 
j^prjaOai, avOpcoTrov^, on cfiaOi .T49 irvKreveiv re 
KOI TrayKpand^eiv koX iv 07r\ot9 iia')(e<rQaiy &<tt€ 
/cpeirreov elvai icaX ^i\(ov /cal ix^p^^' ov tovtov 
iveKa Toif^ </>6X,ov9 Bel tvittciv oifBk /c€vt€lv re xal 5 
airoKTLvvvvat, ovSi ye fia ^La idv t*9 et? rrraXai- 
(TTpav (jyoLT'^aa^y ei e^tov to aoofia fcal itv/ctiko^ 
yevofievo^, eireiTa tov iraTepa tvttti; koX Trjv firjTepa 
E rj aWov Tiva t&v oUeiav rj twv (jylXooVf ov tovtov 
eveKa Bel tov^ waiBoTpifia^ xal Toif^ iv toU oirXot^ lo 
BiBdaKovTWi fidx^o'dai, fiicelv re koI eKJSdWecv i/c 
t<Sv iroXetov, i/celvoi fikv yap TrapeBoaav cttI to) ^ 
Btxaia)^ Xprja-Oac tovtoc^ irpo^ tov9 7ro\€fiLOv<; xal T^ ^H*^'' 
Tov^ aoiKOvvTa^j afivvofievov^, firj virap^ovTa^* oi| ' 

457 Be fieTaaTpeylravTe^ XP^^'^^^ '^V ^^X^'^ ^^^ '^ '^^X^V ^5 
ovK 6pd(o<;, ovKovv oi BiBd^avTe<; Trovqpoi, ovBk rj 
Tex^V ovTe aiTia ovTe irovripd tovtov evexd eaTiv, 
dW' oi fifj xP^H'^^oi, olfiat, 6pd&^, 6 avTo^ Brj 
\0709 /cal irepX .T7J<; p7jTopiKrj<;. BvvaTO^ fiev yctp 
7rpo9 airavTdf; iaTiv 6 fyqTcop Kal irepX iravTo^ Xiyecv, 20 
&(rTe iriOavcoTepo^ elvai iv Toh 7rXi]0eaiv efi/Spaxv 

B Trepl OTOV dv jSovXffTaf dW' ovBev tv fiaXkov 
TOVTOV eveKa Bel ovTe tov9 laTpov^ t^i; Bo^av 
d(j)atpela0ac, Zrt BvvaiTO av tovto iroirjaai, oine 
T0t)9 dWov^ Br^fiLovpyov^y dWa BtKaico^ xal ttj 25 
pTjToptKj} j^pTyo-^at, &a"rrep Kal tt dyoavia. idv Se, 
olfiai, prjTOpLKO^ yevofievo^ Tt9 KqTa Tavrrj ttj 
Bvvdfiei Kal tiJ Texvy dBiKrj, ov tov BiBd^avTa Bel 
fjLLtrelv Te Kal ix^dWeiv ix t&v woXeeov. ixelvo^ fiev 
yap iirl BiKaLa XP^^^ 'irapeBcoKev, 6 S' ivavTi(0^ XPV'^^^ 3^ 

C TOV oiv OVK 6p0a><i XP^P'^^ov fitaelv Bixatov xal ix- 
jSdWecv Kal airoKTivvvvaiy dW* ov tov BtBd^avTa. 

PL. GOB. ^ 



XII. Xil, Olfiai, oS Topytaj /cat ae efiiretpov 
elvai TToXK&v \oy£ov xal KaOeopaxivai iv avroh to 
TOiovSe, OTA ov paSla>^ SvvavraL irepl &v hv 67r4- 
yeipriciOfTi StaXeyeo'dai Siopiadfievoi irpb^ aW'^Xov^ 

5 Koi fiadovre^ koX SiSd^avre^ iavrov^ oirro) SiaXve- 
ad<u tA? avvovaia^, aXX* ihv irepL rov dfi(f>i(rl3rjTi]' D 
ctoac /cal fiv) ^ 6 Srepo^ rov erepov 6p0&^ Xiyeip ^ 
fiif a'a<j>&i<;, 'xaXeiraivovo'l re koI xarh 4>0ovov oXovTat 
Tov iavT&v Xeyecv, if>CXovetKovvTa<; a\V ov ^rjTovv- 

lo TO? TO irpoKCLfievov iv ro) Xoytp, Kol evioL ye 
reXevT&vre^ aKT'^wra airaXXaTTovTat, XocSoprjOivTe^ 
T€ /cal elirovTC^ teal aKovtrairre^ irepX a'<f>&v avT&v 
ToiavTa, ola /cal roif^ irapovTa^ ax^^aOac iirep 
a(f>S}v avT&Vy oti tocovtcov dvOpdweov 7)^ia)(rav 

15 a/cpoaTal ycviaOai, Tov Brj evcKa XeyoD ravra ; E 
oTi vvv i/jLol Soxel^ av ov irdvv d/c6Xov6a Xeyetv 
ovBe avfKJxova oU to irp&Tov tXer^e^ irepl Ttjq 
p7jT0pi/crj^, <f>ol3ovfiai oiv SteXiyx^t'V a-e, firj fie 
v7roXdl3rj<; ov irpo^ to wpayfia <f>LXovei/covvTa Xiyeiv 

20 rov /cara<f>aP€<i yeveaOai, aXXa trpo^ ae. eyw oZv, 
el fikv /caX ai el r&v dvOpwirtov \ covirep Kal iyoo, 458 
rjii(o^ av ae hieptorci^v* el Se fjL^, ian)v dv, iya> Se 
riv(ov elfil ; r&v ^Seax; fiev av eXerixJ^evrtov, el n fiif 
dXrjdh Xeyo), '^Sifo^ 8' av iXey^dvrmv, el rl^ ri firj 

25 dXrjOe^ Xiyoi, ovk drjSearepov fievr av eXeyxOevToav fj 
iXey^dvrtov' fiel^ov yap avro dyaObv fjyovfiai, oacoirep 
fiel^ov dyadov eartv avrov diraXXayrjvat xaxov rov 
fieyltrrov ^ dXXov drraXXd^ai. ovSev yhp olfiai Toaov- 
rov tcaxov elvai dvOpwirtp, oaov So^a yjtevSr)^ irepl &v B 

30 rvyyavei vvv r\\iiv X0709 &v, el fiev oiv Kal av 
<f>)f^ Toiovro^ elvai, SiaXey&>fieda' el Se /cal SoxetxRV' 
vac idVf icofiev tjBtj ^J^ipeiv Kal SiaXvtofiev rov Xoyov, 

ropriAS. 19 

POP. 'A\Xa if>rifu /Jbkv 676)76, (S ^eoKpare^, 
teal avrb^ rot^ovro^ elvai olov aif v^rjyel' lato^ f . 

fiepToi XP^^ €woetv Kat to rodv irapovrtov, iraXai ' 

yap Toif irplv icaX vfia^ iXOeiv, eyo) roh rrrapovat , 
iroKhh iireSei^dfirjv, Kal vvv ta'(o<; Trop pto ^ g-org- 5 ^* ^ "^ 
Qvovfiep, fjv SiaXeydfieOa, GKOirelv oiv XPV ^^^ to^ /^ k;c 
TOVTcov, firi TLva^ avTcop /caT€j(^cofi€v ffovXofiivov^ T* 
Kal aXKo irpdrreiv, 

XIII. XAI. ToO fiev 0opvl3ov, cS Topyia re 
Kal ^(OKpare^, avrol oKovere rovrayv toop avhpwv^ 10 
^ovKofievtov (iKOveip idp tc Xiyrjre' ifiol S* oip Kal 
avT& fiff yipotro Toaavrtf dtr^oKlaf S<tt€ toiovt(op 
Xoytop Kal ovTCO Xeyofiepap d(f>efiip^ irpovpyiairepop 
Ti yeviadai, aXKo irpdrreip. 
D KAA. N^ Toif^ Oeov^y cS ^atpetjxiop, Kal fiep Srf 15 
Kal avTo<$ 7roWo49 rjSrf Xoyoc^ irapar/epofiepof; ovk oW 
el 7rft)7roT6 i^a-Orjp ovtco^ S<nrep pvpi, Sar efioiye, kolp 
Tr)p rifA,epap oXffp eOiXfjTe itaXeyeadai, ;^apt6to"^6. 

Sfi. 'AXXA firjp, (J Y^aKXLKXeL^, to y ip^p 
ovhep KcoXvet, etirep iOeXet Topyla^. 20 

rOP. Aia"Xpop Bff TO Xotrrrop, (S XcoKpaTe^, 
ylyp€TUL ip.e ye fitf iOiXeip, avTov iwayyeiXdp^epop 
E ipoDT&p i tL t^9 fiovXcTai. aW' ei SoKei TovTotal, 
StdXiyov T€ Kal eptOTa i tl fiovXei, 

Xil, "AKOve S77, (2 Topyla, & davfid^ay ip toU 25 
Xeyop^epot^ viro aov* taay^ ydp tol <rov 6p0oo<$ 
XeyopTO^ 67ft) OVK 6p0£^ vtroXap^fidpto, ffrjTopiKOP 
<l>fj^ rrroieip 616^ t elpat, idp T19 ^ouXtfTai iraph aov 
fiapOdpeip ; 

TOP. Na/. 30 

2fl. OvKOVP irepl TrdpTCOP &(tt ip o;^\« Tn- 
Oapop elpai, ov SiSdaKOvra dXTut ireiOovra ; ^ 


rOP. Udvv fi€v oSi/. 459 

2fl. ''E\e7€9 Toi vvv S^ in xal wepl tov 
vycetvov tov larpov indavdrepo^ earai 6 prjrwp, 
I tiLk SoLc^ soTO^, Kat_j^A£^eXe^i^ ev ye Sx^^' 

5 212. OvKOVV t6 €V &X^ TOVTO ioTlV, iv T0?9 

firj elBoaiv ; ov yhp irjirov ev y€ T0Z9 elhoat rod 
larpov iridavoirepo^ earai, 

rOP. 'A\V0V \€7€A9. 

Sfl. OvKOvv etirep tov larpov iriOavoirepo^ 
10 earai, rov elBoro^ iriOavcirepo^ yiyperai ; 
POP. VLdvv ye. 

21i. OvK larpov 76 cSi/* rj yap ; 

2ft. 'O Se firj larpov ye StJttov dveirtaTijfKOP 
15 cSi/ o larpov eiriarrifKOv. 
POP. ^rikov on. 

2ft. 'O OVK 6t£a)9 dpa rov elSoro^ iv ovk elSoac 
TTiOavdrepo^ earai, orav 6 ptfraap rov larpov iri* 
Oavdrepo^ y. rovro avfi^aivei rj aXXo n ; 
20 POP. TouTo ivravdd ye avfi/Saivei. 

2ft. Ov/covv Kal trepl rm aXKa^ airdaa^ re'^ya^ 
&aavr(o<i eyei 6 pi^reop icaX 17 prjTopifci] ; avrd fiev r^ 
irpdryfiara ovSkv Sei avrrjv elhivai oira)^ €X^*> A*^* 
^aw)i/ Se riva treiOov^ evprjKevai, Sare <f>aivea0ai 
25 T0A9 OVK elhoai fidWov elBevai rcov elSortop. 
^ ^^\t XIV. POP. OvKoy v ttoWt) paardvTf, oS 2<»- 

i^JLj: Kpare^, ^Lyverai, fjurj fiaOovra rh^ aXKa^ rexva^, 
dXKh filav ravTqv, firjSev ekarrovadai rwv Srjfjiiovp- 
ymv ; 
30 2ft. Efc fiev eKarrovrai fj firj ikarrovrai 
pr/rayp roov dWxov 8ia ro ovreaf; e^eiv, avriKa 
hriaKe'^oiieda, edv n ripZv irpo^ Xoyov ^* vvv Sk 

ropriAS. 21 

D ToSe irporepov aKeyfrwfieOa, apa Txrfxavei, Trepl to 
Blxaiov KoX TO aSiKOv xal to aia')(pov Kal to Kokov 
ical a^adov koL xatcov ovtod^ e^coj/ 6 prjTOpiKo^ C09 
Trepl TO vyieivov xal irepX Ta aXKa &v ai aTCKai, 
TC^xvcti, avTct fjbkv ovK €l8a><i, tL ayaOov rj tL teatcov 5 
iaTiv fj tL koKov rj tl aia"Xpov fj Sixaiov fj dSiicov, 
irecOo) Sk irepl avT&v liAp^ri^avr^fUvo^^ S<tt€ Soxetv 
€U>€vai OVK 6^00)9 €v OVK etooo't fiaWov tov €i.ooto^ ; 
E ^ dvdyKTj elSevai, koI Bet irpoeina-Tdfievov Tavra 
d<f>CKi(T6ai irapd ae tov fUWovTa fiaOrjaeadai Tifv 10 
prjTopiK'qv ; el Be firj, av 6 t^9 prjTopiKrj^ BiBdaKaXo^ 
TovTODv fiev ovBkv BiBd^ei^ tov d<l>iKvovfievov — ou 
yctp ahv ^pyov, — iroirjaei^ S* ev Tot<i ttoXKoI^ BoKetv 
elBevat avTov Ta ToiavTa ovk elBoTa koI BoKelv 
drfaObv etvai ovk SvTa ; fj to irapdirav ov;^ old? tc 15 
eaei BiBd^at avTov ttjv prjTopi^Krjv, idv firj TrpoeiBy 
Trepl TovTtov t^j; dXfjOei^av ; fj ttSv tA TOi,avTa lx€4, 
460 w Topyla ; \ Kal irpo^ Ato^, &<TTrep dpTL elTrev, aTro- 
KaXvyjta^ t^9 prfTopiKrj<i elire Tk Troff f) Bvvafii^ 
ioTCv. 20 

rOP. 'AXX' €ya> fiev olfiai^ eo XfOKpaTe^i, idv 
TVXV /^V €tSco9, Kal TavTa Trap" ifiov fiadfjaeTai, 

2f2. *'E;^€ Brf KokS)^ ydp Xeyei^. edvTrep 
prjTopiKOV (TV Tcva TTOC^a-rj^, dvdryKtf avTOv elBhai tA 
BiKaLa Kal tA aBiKa f^Toi iroTepov ye fj vaTepov 25 
fiadovra Trapd aov, 

TOP. Udvv ye. 
B 2f2. Tl oiv ; 6 Td TeKTOviKd fiefiaOrfKo^^ TeK- 

TOVlKO^y fj ov ; 

TOP. Nat. 30 

Sn. OvKOvv Kal 6 Ta fiovaiKa fiovaiKO^ ; 
TOP. Nat. 


Sfl. Kal 6 rk iarpiKh larpcico^ ; icaX raXXa 
ovTO) Kara rov avrov \6yov, 6 fi€fia0T)tcoi>^ Itcaara 
ToiovTO^ i(TTCv otov Tj iTTiaT^jfiT) etcaoTOV anrep^or 

5 rOP. Ildvv ye. 

2fi. OvKovv Kara tovtov tov \6yov teal 6 T(i 
hiieaia fi€fiad7jica>^ Slkcuo^ ; 
rOP. nairra)9 hrfirov. 
2fl. 'O Se BlKau)<i SCfcacd irov Trpdrreu 
10 POP. Nat. 

2fl. OvKovv dvdytCT) top [pvTopcKov Slicaiov Q 
elvcUy TOV he] hUaiov ^ovXeaOai * oei * Sixcua 
irpdrreiv ; 

POP. ^aiverai ye. 
15 2fl. OifBeTTOTe apa ffovXTjaerac o ye hlxaio^ 

POP. *Avdyfcrf. 

2fl. Tov Se prjTopi/eov dvdyiCTj ex rov \6you 
Sixaiov etvai. 
20 POP. Nat. 

2fl. OvSeirore dpa ffovXTjaerac 6 prjropLKd^ 

POP. Ov (^aiverai ye. 

XV. 2fl. Mefivrfaai ovv \eya)v oXLytp irpfne- 
25 pov OTL ov hel T0t9 TTaiZoTpi^ai^ eyxaXeiv ovS* D 
eic^dXKeLv ex t<Sv 7r6\ea)v, idv 6 ttv/cti]^ t^ irvfcriKy 
'XprJTal re xal dScKf} ; waavrto^ Se ovro) zeal idv 6 
pTjTcop Trj pTjToptxfj dSlxo)^ XPV*^^^* /^V T^ SiBd^am'C 
iyxoKeLV firjSe e^eXavveiv ex tt}^ TroXeo)?, dWd r^ 
30 dScxovvTL xal ovx 6p6<S<s 'XpcDfiivcp t§ prjTopcx^ ; 
eppr)ur) ravra r) ov ; 
POP. 'E^^T^^iy. 

ropriAS. 23 

Sil. NOi/ Be ye 6 avro^ o5to9 (f>aiveTai, 6 
"El pv^opiKo^j ov/e dv iroTe* dhiKria-a^, fj ov ; 

TOP. ^avverai, 

21i. Kal ev T0?9 Trpdroi^ ye, (3 Topyia, \6yot9 
ikiyero, otv 17 prjropiKff irepl \6yov^ etr) ov Tov<i rod 5 
apriov teal irepiTTOV, dWd rov^ tov Sixaiov teal 
dBl/eov. 7} yap ; 

TOP. Na/. 

2Xi. 'E/yo) Tolvvv <rov t6t6 ravra Xiyom'o^ 
vireKa^ov ©9 ovheiror av etrj fi prfTopiK^ aSi/cov 10 
irpdyfia, 6 y aeX irepl Siteauxrivrf^ toi)? X070V9 iroiei- 
rai' iireiSy Be 6\iyov varepov eXeye^ on 6 prjTtop rf) 
461 prjTopiKTJ icav dSiKQ)^ ')^Sto, I ovTO) 0avfid(ra<: Kal 
r^Tjaaixevo^ ov crvvq£ei,v tcL Xeyofieva iiceivov^ elirov 
T0V9 \6yov<;, on el fikv icepBo^ riyolo elvai rd ikiy- 15 
j(ea0ai Sairep iyd, d^iov etrj SiaXeyeadai, el Be /jltj, 
idv 'XP'ipeifV vcTepov Be r)fi&v eTTVO'/eoTrovfiiveov opa^ 
Brj Kal avTo^ on a3 ofioXoyetrai tov prjropLKov aSv- 
varov elvac dBiKO)^ ')(pr}a0aL Ty fnfTopcKjj Kal iOekeiv 
dBiKelv, ravra ovv oirtf irore ^^(et, fid rov Kvva^ c5 20 
B Topyia, ovk oXlyrj^i avvovaia^ i<Trlv Sare iKavfo^ 

XYI. nXlA. T^ Bal, cS ^oixpare^ ; ovno loal 
aif irepl rfj<; prjropcKt}^ Bo^d^ei,^ &<nrep vvv Xeye*? ; 
fj oUi on Topyia^ V^^^^V ^ot fi'^ TrpoaofioXoyrjaac 25 
TOV prjropiKhv dvBpa firf ovxl fcal rd BlKaca elBepav 
Kal rd KaXd koI rd dyadd, Kal idv firj eXOrj ravra 
elBcof; Trap avrov, avro^ BiBd^eiv ; eireira €K ravrtf^ 
t<ra)9 T?79 ofioXoyia^ evavriov n avvi^f) ev to?9 
X67049, rovO* h Bff drfaira^, avro^ dya/ywv eirl rovavra 30 
ipwnjfiara, ewel rlva otei dirapyqaeaOai, firj ovxl 
Kal avrov eirifrraadav rd BiKaia Kal aXXovf; BiSd- 


^€ip ; aX)C €t9 Ta rocavra ayeiv ttoWtj dypoiKia 

2fl. *f2 tedWiare HcSXe, dWd roi i^errirriBe^ 
fCToifieOa eraipov^ ical viel^;, iva iir^iZcLv avroX irpea- 

5 fivTcpoi yi/yvofiepoi (T(l>aW(6fi€0a, Trapoirre^ vfiel^ oi 
vedrepoi iiravopOolre rjfioov rov j3lov teal iv epyoc^ 
teal iv Xoyoi^. teal vvv el rt iya> teal Topyia^ iv 
T0t9 \6yoL^ a<f>aW6fi€da, av wapoov iiravopdoV D 
Bitcaco^: S* et. koI iya> iOekco rd^v dffioXoyrjfiivcov et 

lo tI aoi Soicei firj KoXm^ d)fioXoyrja0ai, dvadiaOai o ri 
av (TV fiovXrjy idv fioi ^v fiovov <f>v\dTTj)<i. 
nUA. T^ TOVTo Xiyei^ ; 

Sft. T^i; /MiKpoXoyiav, (3 Il(S\e, fjv icadep^rj^y ^ 
t6 irp&Tov ifrrex,€ipr)aa<i 'XpyaOai. 

1$ nflA. T/ BaC ; ovk i^iarat /jlol \eyeiv oiroaa 
&v l3ov\Q}fiac ; 

2ii. Aeiva fievT av 7rd0OL^, c5 ffeXTiare, ei E 
'A^^i/afe d<f>iK6fi€V0^, oi 7^9 'EX\aSo<? ifKeiarri 
iarlv i^ovala rov \67eti/, eireira crv ivravOa tovtov 

20 fwvo^ dTvj(^ijaai^, aW' dvriOe^ toi' <tov (xaKph 
\€yovTO<i Kal firj iOeKovro^ to ipa)Toi/i€vov diroKpir 
veaOaiy ov SeiV av ai iycb irdOoifit, el firj i^iarai 
fjLOi dnrtevai teal firj dieovetv aov ; \ a\V el tl KrjBet 462 
Tov Xoyov Tov elprjfievov ical iiravopOdoaaaOai avrov 

25 j3ovXei, wcTrep vvv 81) eXeyov, dvaOefievo^ o ri aoi 
BoKeL, iv Tw fiipet ipoDrdSv re teal epcDTco/iei/o?, (Hxrirep 
iyd re /eal Vopyia^, ekeyx^ '^^ ^^^ iXeyxov, <^?79 yap 
Biprov Kal av iirloTaaOaL &7rep Topyia<;, ^ oii ; 
nflA. *'E7a)7€. 

30 Sf2. OvKovv Kal av KeXeveifs aavrbv ipcordv 
eKoaTore 2 Tt av Tt9 ffovXrjrai, o)? eTnaTa/Mevo^ 
diroKpiveaOai ; 

ropriAS. 25 

nOA. Ildvv fi€v oJfv, 

2ii. Kal vvv hrj TovTtov oirorcpov fiovXei iroief 
B ipdra ^ airoKpivov. 

XVII. nflA. 'AXXa iroi^rjao) ravra. xal fioi 
aTTotcpivai, S 2cii#c/oaT€9* iTrecBrf Topyla^ diropetv 5 
aoL Boxel irepl rrj^ prfTopi/CTJ^, ax) avrifv riva <f>7jf; 
elvai ; 

2fi. *A/}a iptOT^f; f^vriva rc'xyvv <f>rffil elvai ; 

nilA. ''£70)76. 

SO. OvSe/jLia lfioiy€ Sofcei, ci TlSXe, &^ ye 7rpd<i 10 /} 
ah rdXTfdrj eiprfadai, ^ 

IlflA. 'AWa T4 (TOL Sofcet rj pfjropi/erf elvai ; ^^iXu^^ 

2f2. TLpa^fxa h <f>rjfi aif 7rocfj(rai rex^V^ ^v '''^^*V^*3 
(TvyypdfifiaTV h iyob eva/^'xp^ dveypo)v. iWUc^ -u^ 

nXlA. Tfr TOVTO Xiyei^ ; 15 

2ft. ^^fiwetpiap &YO)y€ rtva, 

nOA. ^TSifiireipla apa aoc SokcI 97 prfropiicrf elvai ; 

2ft. *'Etfioiy€, el fiTj TC crit aXKo Xeyei^. 

nftA. Tfri/09 ifiTreipLa; 

2ft. ^dpiT6<i Tivo^ Kal '^Soprj^ direpyaaia^, 20 

lift A. OvKOVv KcCkov (TOi Bo/eel rj pTjropLicrj elvat, 
j(apl^€a6at olov r elvav dvBpcoirot^ ; 

2ft. T/ Be, c5 U&Xe; rjBrj ireirvaai trap ifiov o 
D TA ifyrjfil avr^v elvaiy &aTe ro fiera rovro ipcora^ el ov 
koKt] fjLoi, Soxel elvat ; 25 

nftA. Ou yhp ireirvafiat on efiireiplav rivet 
avTtfv <f)r)^ elvau; 

2ft. BovXet oivi eiretBri TCfia<; to x^pi^etrOai, 
afiiKpov ri fioi x^piaaaOai ; 

nftA. ''E7G)76. 30 

2ft. 'EpoO vvv fi€, o'^froiroila ijTC^ fjLOi Soieel rexyr) 


nilA. *E/oci>Tc3 S^, Tt9 TC'XPfj o^frowoua; 
ISl. OvBefila, do TlwXe. 
nfiA. 'A\\A ri; <l>d0i. 
2fl. ^rjfil St;, ifiTreipLa ta9. 
5 nOA. Tti;o9; ^a^4. 

2ft. ^tffil St;, ;^a/(}tT09 ^al 17801^9 aTrepyatria^, E 

nnA. TauToi/ a/o' eo-rli^ oy^oiroUa ical pTjropt/c^; 
2fl. Ou8a/Ac39 76, aXX^ 7^9 avrrj*: fikv iTrtrr)- 
10 Sevo-eQ>9. fiopvov, 

2Xi. M^ aypoiKOTepov ^ to aX7;^€9 elirelv ofcvdi 
ycLp Topyiov eveiea Xeyeiv, firj otrjral fi€ huiKtOfitphelv 
TO lat/Toi) iwiT'^Sevfia, iya> Si, el p,€v tovto iariv rj 
1$ prfTopvKTf fjv I Topyia^ iirirrfievei, ovk olha* Koi yap 468 
apTL iic Tov \6yov ovBev rifuv Kara<f>av€^ iyivero ri 
TTore OVT09 i^yeiraL' h S* iyoD KaX£ rr^v pfjTopiK'^v, 
TrpdyfiaTO^ rivo^ iari fiopvov ovSevo^ t(Sv KoXmv, 
rOP. Tti;o9, cJ 2<»/c/oaT€9; elire, firjSev ifie aia-- 
20 ;^i;i/^et9. 

XVIII. 2fl. Ao/ceZ Tolwp fioL, cS Topyia, elval 

JCi^ Tc JTnT ijSev/ia T€;^i/*#coi/ fikv ov, '^u%»;9 Se QWj^acr- 

IP^ XU^^ ^^^ civSpela^ fcal <f>v(T€i Beipr}^: wpocofiiXelv 

T0Z9 avOpdotroi^' Ka\& Be avrov iycb to Ke(f>d\aLov 

25 KokaKeiav, Tavrri^ fioi Boicet rrj^ eTnrrjBeva-eco^i iroWa B 

fjbkv ical dXKa fiopuL elvaiy §1/ Be zeal fj o'^oirouKri* o 

BoKel iiev elvai Te%i/i;, ©9 S' €/xo9 X0709, ov/c eart 

ri'xyrf, aX\' ifjuweipla teal Tpt^rj, ravrrf^ fiopcov teal 

rrjp pr)TopiKT)v iya> koXw teal ttjv ye KOfifitOTcic^v xal 

30 Trjv ao(f>urTVKriv, rirrapa ravra fiopia eirl Tirraptn 

irpdyfiaaiv, el oiv ^oiiXerai nc3\o9 irvvOdveadaiy 

7rvv0av€<r0(o* ov yap ttod ireirvoTai oirolov ffyqfi eyi) 

ropriAS. 27 

T^9 KoKaKeia^ fiopcov elvac rrjv prfTopLKi]P, aXV avrov 
\i\7jda oiirw airoKeKpifiivo^, 6 Sk iiraveproTa el ov 
KciXov rffovfiai elvat. iya> S* avrtp ovk airoKpivovfiat 
irporepov eire koXov etre alaxpov '^ovfiac elvai rrjv 
prfToptKrjVy irplv &v irpoirov airoKplvfOfiaL 6 tl iariv, 5 
ov yap Bifcaiov, co H&Xe* aXX' eXirep ^ovXec irvOeaOav, 
ipcora ottoIop fiopiov t^9 icoXaKeia^ (fyij/jX elpav rrjv 

nilA. 'Epcoro) irii Kol diroicpivaif oirolov fi6ptop. 
D 2n. *Ap' oiv &v fidOoi^ diroKpitVafiivov ; 6<rr* lo 
yap rj prjTopiKrj fcar^ rov ifiov \6yov 7ro\iTLfcrj<i fiopiov 
ei»o(o\ov» u%cyc«lX vws^o^ 

niiA. Tt oiv ; /cd\6v fj aia")(p6v \ey€i^ avrfjv 
elvai ; 

211. Ala")(^p6v €y(oye* rd yap ica/ed a4a")(pct, i$ 
Ka\a>' CTretSi) Set aoL oTroKpivaaOai, co5 17S17 elSort 
& 670) \€y<o, 

rOP. Met TOP Ala, (3 Xoitcpare^;, d\X iyo) ovBe 
E avrd^ avvirj/jut o Tt Xeyei^, 

211. E^/c6tci)9 7€, cS Vopyla • ovhev yap ttq) a'a<f>€^ 20 
XerfdDy Ti&iKo^ Se oSe vio^ iarl xal of 1)9. 

rOP. 'A\\a TOVTOV fi€P ea, ifiol S' ewr^ 7rw9 
Xiyet^; TroXiriKrj^ fiopiov etScoXov elvai rrjv pr)TOpLtcijv. 

2fl. *AW' iya> 7r€ipd<rofiai <l>pdaav & ye fioi 
^aiveroA elvai 17 fnjropi/erj' el Be fiv rvyxdvev ov 2$ 
toOto, nSXo? oBe ikey^ei, a&fid ttov KaXeU ta teal 
yjtvxvv; \ 
464 POP. Um yctp ov; 

Sfl. Ov/eovv zeal tovtcov otei rivd elvai e/earipov 
eve ^iav ; ^trr^ ^r^^-^Al'^^^w 30 

FOP. ''Eyayye. 

211* Tl Be; BoKovaav pAv eve^lav, oiaav B' ov; 


olop TOtovSe XiyoD* iroWol BoKOvaiv ciJ €')(eiv tA 
adfjuzra, 01)9 ovk up paSUo^ aladoiro rt?, on ovk ei 
€Xov(TLV, aW' ^ iarpof; t€ koI tAv yvfivaa-TiKoiv T49. 
rOP. "A\r)07i Xiyei^. 

5 Sfl. To TOLOVTOV \iya) koI iv atofiarL elvai zeal 
iv '^v^fit iroifel fiev SoKeiv eS e^ctv rd awfia koX rrjv 
yjrvxv^f e;^€t Se ovSev fiaWov. 

TOP. ''EaTL Tavra. B 

XIX. 2il. 4>e/06 Bij (Tov, ikv Bvvtofiai, aa^ea- 

10 T€pop iiriBei^G) o \iya). Avoip optoip toIp Trpay- 

fjuaTOLP Bvo Xeyo) Texva^" ttjp /jl€p €*rrl ry '^vy^ 

iroXcTctcfjp /ea\&, ttjp S* iirl [tw] aa>/iaTL filap fjJep 

yC^^^ ovrmoPOfjbdaaL ov/e Ip^o) <rot, ftta? Be oiiarffi t7j<; tov 

a(Ofia/ro<i Oepawelaf; Bvo fiopia Xeyo), Trjp fiep yvfipao"' 

15 TLKrjP, rrjv Be larpiKi^p* rrj^ Be TroXiTCKrj^ dpTL(rTpo(f>ov 
fiep Tfi yvfipatm/e^ ttjp pjpfioOerifCTjp, apricrTpoif>ov Bk 
T'ff larpLKy t^p BvKaioavprip, iTrbKoipaypovav fiep Brj 
dWi}\aA9, are irepX to avro oiaaiy eKarepa^ rovrmp, 
Tj re iarpiicrj Tp yvfipaaritcf} koX fi Biteaioavprj rfj 

20 POfjLo0€Ti/C7)' o/ia>9 Be Biat^epovai ri dWr/Kayp, rer- 
raptop Bfj TOVTcop ovtrcoPy koL del 7r/oo9 to jSeXriarop 
depaTrevova&p t£p fiep to (roofia, t(Sp Be rrjp ylrirx^VV, 
rj icoXatcevTiKrj altrdofieprjf ov ypovtra Xeyco dXXa 
aTO'^aaafMepTf^ T€T/oaj^a eavrrjp Biapeipi,aaa^ viroBvaa 

25 vTTo exaarop t&p fiopicop, irpoairoielrcu elpai tovto 
oirep vTreBv, koX tov fiep fieXrio-rov oiBep <f>poPTi^ei, ^, 
T^ Be del '^Bio'Ttp Oijpeverai rrjp apoiap teal e^aTrar^, 
Sare Boxei TrXeloTov d^ia elpuL. viro fiep oip rrjv 
iarpiKrjp fi oyJroTroutci^ VTroBeBvxe, xal TrpoairoceiTaL 

30 Ta jSeXriaTa atria t^ a-oi/iOTi elBipai, &ar el Beoi 
€P Traial Bcar/copi^eaOai o'^^oiroLov re koX larpop ^ 
€P dpBpdaiP ovrao^ dporJTOv^ Strirep oi TralBe^, irorepo^ 

ropriAS. 29 

CTratei irepl r&v 'XpriaT&v (rvrltov koI irovrjp&v, o 
larpof; rj 6 oyjroTToio^, \cfi<p av diioOavelv tov larpSv. 
E KokaiceLav ^ev ovv avrd /caXtS, ical alaxpop (f>7)/JLi 
465 etvaL to toiovtov, \ cJ IleSXe — tovto yap irpof; <re 
Xeyo), — in tov lySeo? a-Toxfi^cTai avev tov /SeX- 5 
tIotov t€xvv^ ^^ avTTjv ov <l>7)fiL elvai, ol)OC ifi-oou^^ d^^*. 
irecpiav, oti ovk e^^t \oyov ovoeva c5v ''^poafpepeLy^i^^^^i^^^ 
OTToV oTTa Ttjv i^vatv itrrlv, SaT€ Ttjv alTiav iKaa-TOv^^/^'^r '} 
M'V ^x^tv CLireiv, €70) be Tcxvrjv ov kclKoo o av ri^(rC\io<^.^ 
&\oyov TTpS^fia, tovtcov Se Tripe el a fif^ to- ^rjTek,' 10^ J^ZH^ 
iOehjo viroax^lv \6yop. 

XX. T§ fikv oiv laTpitcy, &<rrr€p Xeyco, 17 
B o^oTrouierj KoXaiceia xnroKeirar t^ Se yvp,vaaTi/c^ 
teaTct Tbv avrov Tpoirov tovtov fi KOfifMOTC/ei], tca- 
Kovpyo^ T€ oiaa xal a7raTr)\if /eal ayevvr^^ KaX 15 ^y»*^^ 
avekevOepo^y aX'^fiaa- i, Kai. 'xpcofia^i xal XevoTTffn '^'*^^^ 
leaX itrOrjacv diraTWiTa, &aT€ irotelv dWoTpiov /caWo? 
i(f)€\fcofi€vov(; TOV olxeiov tov Sl^ t^9 yvfivaoTLKTjf; 
dfieXelv, %v oiv firj fiafcpoXoyWy iOeXco aoc eiirelv 
&<Tir€p oi yetofiirpac — rjSr) yap &v iaa><i dKoXovdija-ai^i 20 
— \oTc o KOfjufuoTHCTf TT/oo? yv/MvaaTiKijv, tovto oylro- 
C TTOUferj W/009 laTpiKTjV p,dWov Se c!Se,] Ztl h ko/jl- 
fJUOTifcrj irph^ yvfivaaTitcrjv, tovto ao<f>i,<mKrj irpo^ 
vofioOeriKriv, KaX \pTi\ S oy^oirouKrj irpo^ laTpiKi^v, 
TOVTO pf)TopiK7j TTpd^ Sv/co^oavvrjv, oTrep fiivToi XeyWy 25 ,' 'i 
Si€aTi]K€ fi€v ovTO) (f>V(T€i' &T€ S* iyyif^ 6vTwv (fyv- 

I \ 

povTai iv TO) ai/Tft) teal frepl Taind <To<f>taTa\ xal \ \ 
pTjTope^f Kol OVK e^ovaiv o ti 'x^pijo-ayvTai ovt€ avTol 1 I 
iavTok ovT€ oi aWoL dvOpanirot tovto i^:, Kai ykp \ 
aVy ei firj 7) '^vy(ri T<p trdfiaTC iireoTaTeiy aXV avTo 30 
D avTtp, Kai fiTj viro TavT7}<; KaTeOecopeiro Kai Sce- 
Kpivero ff re oy^oTrouKrj Kai 17 laTpiKij, aXX' avTo 



rd a&fia itcpive araOfjuifiepov rai^ 'x^dpiai rat? Trpi^ 
avTo, TOTw\^a^ar^o^QV av irdkv 'Pjv, c5 <l>L\e UaiKe 
— aif yap tovtodv epjireipo^y — ofiov &v iravTa XPV' 
fiara i<l>vp€70 ev tw avrw, dxpiToyv ovrtov t&v re 

5 iarpiK&v koX vyieivSv koX o'^ottoukAv, o fiev ovv 

iyoi ^fu rrjv prjropi/erjv elvai, dKi]icoa<$' airriaTpoifyov 

a^(yiroiia<; iv '^v^'p, w? ixelvo iv awpxiri, "lato^ 

' fiev ovv aroTTOP Trewoinjxa, on, ae ovk iHv fxaKpom E 

Xofyot;9 "XAyetv avro^ av^vov \6yop diroriraKCL 

lo a^iov fiev oiv ip>ol avyyvdp/qv €j(^€iv itrri' Xeyovro^ 
yap fiov fipa^ea ovk i/jLdv0av€^, ovSk 'x^prjaOai t§ 
dnroKpUrei, fjv aoc direiephvdp/qv ovhev oU^ r rjaOa, 
a\V iSiov Biffyqaeeo^;, idv fiep oiv koI iya> a-ov 
aTTO/epufOfiepov pbrj l^^o) o ti j(^pjja'a)fiaL, \ dnroTevpe 466 

15 teal aif \6yoPy iap Bi hc^> ^^ /^^ 'XP^frdaV BiKaiov 
yap. ical pvv ravrrj ry diroxpiaei et re €j(€i^ XPV' 
<70ai, XP^' 

XXL nXlA. Tl oip <f>ri<i; xo'X/uceia Bo/cec aoc 

eipai 71 jyqTopifKrj ; 

20 SXl. Ko\a#c€ta9 fiep oSp eytoye eVirop fioptop. 
d'XX ov fipr}fjLov€V€i^ rrfXiKovTo^ (Up, cS IlcSXe; tI 
rdx^i Bpaaei^:; 

nUA. *Ap' oip BoKOvai aot w tcoKaice^ iv to*? 
iroKeai, <l>avkoi pofil^eaOai oi dyaOol prjTopef;; 
25 2li. ^KpdTTjfia TOVT ipwTa^ fj \6yov tvp6<: B 
dpxv^ Xiyet?; 

no A. 'E/:)a)TCD eyco^e. 
Sn. OvBe vofil^eadav cfiotye BoKOvaiv. 
no A. 11(39 ov POfil^eaOai ; ov fi&yurTOP Su- 
30 pavrai, iv Tal<; irokeaip ; 

2fi. Ot}#c, el rh BvpcurdaL ye Xeyet^ d^aOop rt 
elpat TO) Bvpafieptp. 

ropnAS. 31 

nnA. 'AX\a fiev 8^ Xe^o) ye, 

2X1. 'E\aj^t<TToi/ Toivvv fiov Sofcovac t£v ev Tfi 
TToXei, SvvaaOac ol prjTop€<;, 
C nflA. Ti Se; oi5j^, &a'irep ol rvpavvoc, diro- 
KTivvvaaL T€ hv &v /SovXaovrac, teal d<f)aipovvTai 5 
'XpijfiaTa /cal iicpaXKov<nv etc r&v iroketov ov &v 
So/ey avTOi<; ; 

2ii. N?7 Tov Kvva, dfi(f>iyvo£ fiivrot, do IlcSXe, 
i<l> cKaoTov &v Xeye*?, Trorepov avr^f; ravra Xiyec^ 
zeal yv€0fi7)p aavrov d'rro<f)aiv€i, ^ ifii ipmra^, 10 

no A. 'Aw' eycoye ae ipcoroi. 

SO. EZei/, gS <I>1\€' eircLTa Svo afia fie epaara^; 

nflA. no)9 ivo; 

2fl. OiJ#c apTi, ovroD ttw? eXeye^, ori dwoKTip- 
vvaaiv ol fnjTope^ 0^9 hv ffovX&vrai, &a7rep ol 1$ 
D ripavvoi, koI Xp^ftar' d(f>aipovvTai koX i^eXavvovaiv 
esc Twu iroKeonv hv &v Sok^ avroU; 

nnA. "Eyayye. 

XXII. 2Xi. Aeyo) toLvvv aoi 2t4 hvo tuvt iarl 
rd epoorijfJUiTa, koX diroKpcvovfial yi aoi 7rpo9 dfi- 20 
<f>6Tepa, (fyrjfu yap, e5 IleSXe, iyo) zeal tov9 pr^ropa^ 
teal Toi)9 Tvpdwov^ SvpaaOai fiev ev Tal<; ir6\e(n 
(Tfii/eporaroVy &a"7rep vvv Srj ekeyov' ovSev yap trocelv 
E cSi/ fiovXoprai, (&9 l7ro9 eiirelv iroielv fievrot 2 ti 
&p avrol<; 86^ /SeXritTTov elvaL 25 

nOA. Oxficovv TovTo ioTL TO fieya hvvaadai; 

2 ft. 0^%> ®9 ye (fyqat H&Xof;. 

nilA. ^lSr/a> ov (fyrjfii; (fyrf/u fiev oiv eycoye. 

212. Ma TOV ov <rv ye, iirel to fieya hvvaaOai 
<f>ijf: d/yaOov elvai r^ Svva/iivtp, 30 

nUA. ^rjfil yhp oiv, 

211. *A.ya0ov ovv olec elvai, edv t*9 iroty TavTa 


a &v SoKji avTtp ^eKriara elvat, vovv firj €j((Op; xal 
rovTo KaXel^ fieya hvvacrdat; 

nnA. Oific €rfOi>ye, 

2fi. Oificovv airohei^ei^ roit^ jyrjTopa^ vovv 
5 e^ovra^ /cal ri'xyfjv rrfv pr)Topi/cffV aXXcb \ fit) Ko\a- 467 
/eeiav, ifie i^eXiy^af;. ei Si fie edaei^ avekey/crov, 
oi prfTope^ ol iroiovvre^ iv rak iroXeauf a hoKel 
avTol^ KoX ol Tvpavvoi ovSev dr/aOov tovto kckti]' 
(Tovrai, el Srj Svvafik io'Tiv, co9 crv ^t;?, arfaOoVy 
lo TO Se iroLelv avev vov a Sofcet Kal ah ofioXoyei^ 
tcafcov elvav. rj oH; 

nflA. "^(oye, 

Xil. IleS? &v ovv ol p7]Top€f; fi&ya hvvaivro fj 
oi Tvpavvoi iv ralfi iroXeaiv, ihv firj Xfo/epdrrff; 
IS i^cXeyxB'p vtto IIcoXoi; ore Trocovavv a ^ovXovrai; 

no A. 05to9 avrip — 

Sfl. Ov (fyqfJLi iroLelv avroh^ a j3ovXovTaL * dXXd B 
fi iXeyxe. 

nnA. OvK apTi a}/jLoX6y€ifi Troietv & Soxei 
2o auT0A9 l3iXTL(TTa €lvai\j TovTov 7rp6a0€v] ; 

So. Kal ykp vvv ofioXoyd, 

nilA. OvKovv TTotovdv & fiovXovTav. 

SXl. Ot; ^fii. 

nUA. Tloiovvre^ hk a Bo/eet avTol^; 

nOA. X')(^6TXid ye Xeyei,^ Koi v7rep<l>VYJ, c5 

SO. M^ Karriyopety c3 X^are W&Xe, Xva rrrpoa^ 
elirao ae Karh ai* aX>C ei fiev e^^t^ €/jl€ ipcarav, 
30 hrihei^ov on '^^evBofiaiy ei Bk fitf, avro^ diroKpivov. 

nOA. 'AXV edeXw diroKplveaOai, Xva Kal eihw 
6 ri Xeyeif;. 


ropriAS. 33 

XXIII. 2ft. TJoTcpov ovv aoi Zoicovaiv oi 
avOpcDiroL TOVTo fiovXeaOa t, o &v irpdrroDatv eKa- ^^Uu, 
aroTC, fj eKelvo ov evcKa irpdrTOvai rhvS* h irpdr- 
Tovdiv; olov oi rd <l>dpp,aKa frCvovre^ irapd r&v 
larpc^v TTorepov aoi hoKovai tovto ^ovKeaOat oirep 5 
iroiovaiy iriveiv to <f>dpfia/eov teal dXyelv, f eKelvo^ 
TO vycaiveiv, oi evexa irivovaiv; 

nil A. ArjXov oTt TO vyiaiv€iv[, ov eveica Tri- 
D 2X1. OvKOvv KaX oi TrXeopTe^ t€ fcal Tbv aXKov 10 
XPVH^'^^^H'^^ %/5i7/AaTifo//,€i/ot ov tovto iaTCv h 
l3ov\opTai, o TTotovaiv i/ed<rT0T€' tU ydp ffov\€Tair^\ 
Trkelv T€ KoX KivBvvevecv koX irpdrffiaT eyetv : aW iCm c^w^ f^ 
eKelvo, olfiai, oi eveica TrXeovai, TrXovTetv ttXovtov 
ydp eveKa Trkeovacv, 15 

nfiA. Udpv ye. 

2X1. "AWo Tt ovv ovTco KoX irepl trdvTwv; edv 
Tk Tt irpdTTff eve/ed tov, ov tovto fiovKerai, h 
irpdTTec, d\V eKelvo ov eveKa irpaTTei; 
E nXlA. Na/. 20 

2X1. *A/>' ovv eaTt ti twv Svtcov, 8 ov'xl rJTOi 
dyaBov y icTiv rj KaK^v ^ fxeTa^v tovtodv, oirre 
dr/aOov oiiTe KaKov; 

nXlA. II0W97 dvdyKT), cS 2a)#fpar69. 

2X1. OvKovv \iyec<i elvai d/yaOov fjukv (ro<l>iav 25 
T€ Kol vyieiav koI itXovtov koI ToXXa Ta ToiavTa, 
xaKa Be TavavTUi tovtcov; 

naA. ''£70)76. 

2X1. Ta Be /ir]T€ dr/aOd firjTe Kaxd dpa TovdBe 
468 X€7€*9, & ivioTe fiev /^ere^et tov dyadov, \ ivloTe Be 30 
Tov KaKov, ivloTe Be ovBerepoVy olov KaOrjaOat Kal 
j3aBi^eiv Kal Tpej(€i,v Kal irXelv, Kal olov av XiOov^ 

PL. GOR. '^ 


Kol ^\a fcal raWa ra roiavra; ov ravra \eyei<;; 
fj aXV arra icaXel^ ra firjre ar/aOa /jltJtc /caicd; 
nUA. OvKy aWa ravra. 

211. Jlorepov oiv ra fiera^v ravra eve/eep r&v 
5 dr/aOo^v TTpdrrovaiv, orav irpdrr<oaiv, fj rdyadd r&v 
fiera^v ; 

nilA. Ta fiera^v Sijwov rmv dr/aOoov. 
2Xi. To dyadov apa Sicofcovre^: xal fiaSi^ofieVy B 
orav ^aBl^cofiev, olofievoi fiiknov elvaiy xal ro 
lo evavrlov iaraiiev, orav iaroofxev, rov avrov ev^Ka^ 
rov ayauov, fj ov; 
nnA. Na^ 

2fl. OifKOVv Ka\ diro/crivvvfiev, et riva dTTOfcriv^ 
vvfi€V, Kal i/ej3dXKofi€v xal d<f>aipotfi€0a ^rj/juara, 
isoiofievoi cifieivov elvai ravra 7rot€lv fj /jltj ; 
nflA. Haw ye, 

2f2. '^Ev€K apa rov dr/adov airavra ravra 
TToiovaiv oi irotovvre^. 
nnA. ^fiL 
2o XXIV. 2ft. OvKOVv d}/jLo\oyriaa/JL€V, & evexd 
T€w *rroiovfi€v, p/fj iicelva ffovXeadai, aW' ifcelvo ov C 
€V€Ka ravra iroiovp^v; 
nftA. MaXwrra. 

2ft. OvK apa affydrreiv jSovXop^eOa ovS' CK^dX- 

25 Xecv eie r&v iroKewv ovSe '^ij/Aara difmipeiaOai 

► L.ia.^co'^Stj-XcS? Q VTcoy, oKTC idv fiiv i>(f>€\LpM f ravra, ^ovXo- 

•"^ p.€da TTpdrrecv avrd, /SXjafiepd Se Svra ov l3ov\6p,€da. 

rd yap dyaOd fiov\6fi€0a, ©9 (^179 av, ra Se p/qre 

dyadd p,rir€ Kaxd ov l3ovX6p.€0ay ovBe rd Kaxd, fj 

30 ydp ; dXrjdri troi Sok(3 Xiyeiv, cS IlcSXe, 17 ov ; T/ 

ovK diroKplvei; 

nftA. 'AXvOrj. 


ropriAS. 35 

D 2fl. OvKovp etwep ravra ofioXoyovfiev, e? Tt9 
d7roKT€LV€i TLvcL ff ifc/SdWei ck TToXeft)? rj d^aipetrat 
XpVM'dTa, €?T€ Tvpavvo^ eSj/ eXre prjrwp, olofievo^ 
afiecvov clvai avrS, rvyxdvet Bk ov kclklov, ovto9 
hrfirov iroiet & Soxei avr^, fj yap; 5 

nUA. Nat. 

2ii. *A/}' oJfv Kal d ^ovXerai, eiirep rtrfXJ"-^^*' 
ravra /caKa ovra; Ti ov/e airoKpivet; 

nilA. 'Aw' ov fiot SoKcl iroulv & fiovKe- 
rat, lo 

2fl. "Eo-TAV oJfv 07r©9 o TotouTo? /^eya Svvarav 
"E iv rf TToXei ravrrj, eXirep iarl ro fieya hvvaaOai 
dyadov rv Kara rrjv arjv ofiokoyiav ; 

nilA. OvK iartv, 

2X1. *AKri0r) apa iya> €\eyov, Xeycov on eanv 15 
AvOpayirov TToiovvra iv iroXeL a Soxei avr^ firj fjuiya 
hiva^aOai fir^he Troielv a ^ovXerai, 

nOA. ^n? Srj <TV, (S X(i>Kpar€fi, ovk &v Si^aio 
i^elvai trot irov€%v o rt hoKel troi iv ry iroXei, fidXXov 
ff fii], ov8k fiyXo?? '6rap ?S?;9 rvvd fj aTroKreivavra 20 
hv ISofev ai/rcS fj d<l>eX6fi€Vov 'xpfjfiara fj B'^aavra, 

2X1. tiLKaUo^ Xeyei^ fj dBi/ea}<;; 
469 nXlA. ^Oirorep* \ &v iroiy, ovk dp.<l>orepa)<s fiy- 
Xoarov iartv; 

2X1. Etv<f)i]fi€t, CD IlcSXe. 25 

nXlA. Tt' Sfi; 

20. ^Ori, OV XPV ^^^ roif^ d^TjXdrovi ^rfXovv 
ovre TOi'9 dOXlov^, aXX' iXeecv, 

nXlA. Tt Sai; ovrco aoi BoKet ex^iv irepl <Sv 
iyo) Xeyo) r<Sv di/0p€O7ra)v ; 30 

2X1. 11(59 yap ov ; 

nXlA. "OcrTt9 oiv dTTOKrivvvaiv 81/ &p Bo^rj 

86 nAATllNOS 

ical ikeivo^; 

SO. Ovx efwtye, ovSe fiarroi ^fjXtaro^ 

IlfiA. Ovx iprri affXiov e^nitrda elvai; 
5 SO. Tiv ahiKW^ ye, S eralpe, dTroKreivavra, 
tcaX iKuvcv ye Trpo^* rov ie Bucaim^ d^fjXaTov. B 

nOA. ^¥L irov o ye anroOvrfaiubv dBuu&^ ikeipo^ 
re /col affXio^ iarip, 

SO. ^VLttov rj 6 airoKTiwv^, c3 HSKe, mai ^rrrov 
loffo iiKtUas dfiroOvTfO'KafV. 

nOA. II(S9 SfJTa, cS ^MKpares;; 

2fi. OvrnDS, »9 fieyurrov r&v xafcSv rvy^dvei 
hv t6 dBiKeiv, 

nOA. ^H yap rovTO pAyurrov; oif to ahiKeUrOfu 
1$ p^t^ov; 

2ft. "Ufcurrd ye. 

nftA. Sv apa fiovKoio &v dhiKeladcu paXKov 
fj dZiKelv; 

2ft. ^ovXolprjv pev dv eyai^e ovSerepa' el ^ G 
20 dvarf/caiov elrj dSifcelv rj dSixeiaOai, eKoLprfv av 
p£Wov dZiKetaOcu fj dSi/ceiv, 

IlftA. 2^ dpa Tvpawelv ovk &v Si^aio; 

2ft. OijKf ei TO TVpawelv ye "Keyei^ iirep iyco, 

IlftA. 'AXV lycoye tovto Xeyay Zirep dpri, 
2$ e^elvai iv rfj iroXei, 8 av Sokt avr^, iroielv tovto, 
Kol diroKTivvvvTi fcal ex^dWovTi xal irdvTa irpaT^ 
TOVTC KaTcL TTJv avTov Bo^av. 

XXV. 2ft. ^ft paxdpie, ipov S^ X&yovTo^ tw 

\6y^ iirCKafiov. el ydp iyco iv dyopa Trkrjffovaij D 

30 \a^a)v vird paKrj^ irfXJSLplhiov \iyoipi irpo^ a-e Zti 

*ft TloiXe, ipol Svvapk ti^ koI Tvpavvh Oavpa^La 

&pTL irpoayiyovev* idv ydp apa ipol So^y Tcvd 

ropriAS. 37 

TOVTcovl T&v dpOpciiroDP &v aif opas avriKa fiaka 
Selv reOvdvaty redvrj^ei, oiro^ Sv av So^rj* tcav rtva 
86^7) fioc rrjs K€<f>a\7}^ avrtov KaTea^evai Seiv, /carea- 
70)9 earai avrvKa fidXa^ kolv OotfidrLov SteaxlaOai, 
E Siea^f'O'f^i^ov earai* ovray fi&ya iy(o Svvafiai iv rfjSe 5 
T§ TToXec. el ovv dirLorovvri aot Sei^aifit to €7%eA- 
plSiop, (!(7o>9 dv etiroi^ IScbv in ^O Sco^pare?, ovtw 
fi€V irdvTC^ av fiiya SvvaiVTO, iirel xdv ip/jrp7)a0eLrj 
oIkUi TovTtp T^ rpoirq) rjvrtv av a-oi 80/cf}, koI rd 
y€ ^AOrjvalcov vedpia koX ai rpir/pei^ xal rd irXoia 10 
irdvra /cal rd Stj/JLoaia kol rd tSia. dXX ovk dpa 
TOVT eoTL TO fiiya Bvvaadai, t6 irocelv a So/cei 
avT&, fj SoKcl aoi; 

nilA. Oi5 hrjra ovtoo ye. \ 
470 2fl. "TE^et? ovv elirelv hi o re fi€fi<l>€i rrjv 15 
TOUivTrjv hvvafiLv; 

nnA. ''E7ft)7€. 

211. Tt trj; Xiye. 

nilA. '^Ori dvar/KOLOv rdv ovtco irpdrrovra 
^rjfuovaOat iariv. 20 

SI2. To Be ^rj/jLiova-Oai ov kukov ; 

nilA. Tldvv ye. 

2ft. OvKovVf ® 6avp,daie, [to /ieya SvvaaOat] 
iraKw ai aoi <j>alveTat, idv fiev irpdrrovri a hoKel 
eirrjrai to (i(f>e\ifjL(o^ irpdrreiv, dryaOov re elvaiy fcal 25 
toOto, 0)9 eoLKeVy ea-rl to fieya hvvaaOai' el he fiij, 
B Ka/cov Kal cfitxpov {hvvaadai]. X/ceylrdfieOa he Kal 
Tohe. aWo re ofioXoyovfiev eviore fiev afieivov elvai 
ravra iroielv & vvv hrj ekeyofiev, diroicnvvvvat re teal 
i^eXavveiv dvBpwirov^ xal d<l>acpela'0ai %/9^/^aTa^ 30 
evLore be ov ; 

nnA. Tldvv ye. 


2X1. TovTo fiev S?7, w? eoiKCy koI irapct aov /cal 
Trap ifiov ofioKoyelrai, 
UQA. Nat. 

2fl. TI6t€ oiv aif ^rj^ dfietvov etvai ravra 
5 TTOieXv ; elire riva opov opi^ec. 

IlflA. 2v fi€V ovv, <S ^wKpare^y airoKpcvai 

ravTo TOVTO. 

211. 'E70) fikv rolvvv (jyrjfii, ft) IleiSXe, et aoi 
Trap ifiov rjSiov iariv axoveiv, orav fiev hvKaito^ tvs 
10 ravra ttoitj, dfievvov elvai, orav Se obSC/cto^, kclklov, 

XXVI. nilA. XaXcTToi/ 76 ae ikiy^ai, c5 2©- 
Kpare^. aXX* o^X' fcav TraU ae iXiy^ecev on ovk 
aXrjOrj Xeyei^; 

211. TloWr)v dpa iyo) r^ TratSl xdpiv e^cD, 

15 tariv he xal aoi, idv fie e\Ar/^^ kol aTraWd^rj^ <f>\v- 

apia^. dWd p,rj Kdp,rf^ <f>i\ov dvSpa evepyeroSv, 

nil A. 'AXXa firjv, <S '^ciKpare^, ovSev ye ae Set 
TraXaiol^ Trpdyfiaatv ikeyxetv rh ydp iyjBh /cal D 
20 TTpc&rfp yeyovora ravra Ixavd ae i^eXiy^ac iarl Kal 
aTToSel^ac w ttoWoI dBixovvre^ dvOpcoTTOi evhalfiovi^ 

2fl. TA TTola ravra; 

IlflA. ^Kpxekaov hrjTrov rovrov rov JlepBiKKov 
25 6pa<: dpxovra MaxeSovia^ ; 

2n. E^ 8k fiTf, dW* aKovay ye. 

no A. lEvSaifKov oZv aoc So/cec elvav fj dffXio^; 

211. Ov/c olSa, ® HtSXe' ov yap ttg) avyyeyova 
r<p dvBpL { 

30 nUA. Tt Sat; avyy evofxevo^ dv yvoirf^, oKkto^ E 
hk avroOev ov yiyvdiGKei^ on evBaifjuovel ; 

2fi. Ma At' oi Srjra, 


ropriAS. 39 

nXlA. ArjXov S17, c3 Xd/cpare^, Sti ovSe top 
fieyav fiaaCKea r^Lf^vtoaKeiv ^rjaeL^ evSaifiova Svra. 

Sn. Kal oKrjdrj ye iptS' ov yap ol8a iraiheia^ 
^TTCt)? e'xei Kol SiKaioavvT)^. 

no A. Tl Sal; iv tovtc^ ri iraaa evSaifiovla 5 
ioTLv ; 

SXl. "II9 y€ €70) Xiyo), (3 IlcSXe' top fikv yhp 
KaXov Kayadov avBpa Kal yvval/ca evSaifiova elvai 
^fic, Tov he oZlkov Kal irovrjpov dOXiov. \ 
471 no A. **A6\to<; apa ovrof: iariv 6 *A.p')(eKao^ 10 
KaTCL TOV aov \6yov; 

Sfl. ISXirep ye, a> ^iXe, aScxo^. 

nOA. 'AWa fiev Sfj ttcS? ovk aScKO^, £ ye 
Trpoo'rJKe fiev t^9 cipXH^ ovSev ^v vvv e'Xjei, ovri €K 
yvvavKo^ fj fjv hovK/q *A\KeTov rod HepSUxov oBeX- 15 
(f>ov, Kal Kara fiev to iiKaiov hovko^ rjv *A\k€tov, 
Kal el ifiov7i£To ret hiKauL iroielv, iBovXevev &v 
*A\k€T7j Kal fjV evBalfiayv Karcb tov aov Xoyov' vvv 
Be davfiaaioa^ ©9 oKOlos yeyovevy iirel Tct fieyiaTa 
B rjBiKTfKev' 09 y€ irpwTov fiev tovtov avTov tov 20 
BeairoT'qv Kal delov fierairefi'y^dfievo^ co9 diroBddacDv ^ 
TTjv apyrfv fjv IlepBiKKas avTov d^eiXeTo, ^evura^ 
Kal KaTafieOvaa^ avTov re Kal tov vldv avTov 
^ AXe^avBpov, dve^jriov avTov, a')(eBbv rjXiKiwTrfv, ifi- 
^aXoDV 6*9 dfia^av vvKToop e^aryaymv d'irea-<l>a^e re 25 
Kal rj^dviaev dfi<l>oT€pov^, Kal Tavra dBiKijaa^ 
iXaOev eavTov d6Xi,(OTaTO<i yevofievos Kal ov fieTe- 
fieXrjaev avT&y aXX' oXuyov vaTepov tov dSeX^ov tov 
C yvT^cioVy TOV HepBiKKov vl6v, iralBa ©9 hrTenj, oi 
V ^PXV iyl'yveTo KaTa to BtKaioVy ovk e/SovXijOrf 30 
evBalfitov yeveadat BiKaUo^ €K0peylra<; Kal dftroBoif^ 
Tj)i/ dp'xrjv eKeiv^y aW' efe <l>piap ifi|9aXxuv air^yrc-uy^a^ 


7rpo9 Tfjv fir}T€pa avrov KXeoTrdrpav XV^^ ^^V ^*^" 
Kovra ifiireaelv fcal dTrodavelv. Tocydprov vvv, are 
fiiycoTa rfBcKrffccb^ r&v iv MaKcSovia, dBXidraro^ 
ear I irdvToov ^aKehovtav aXV ovk evSatfioviaTaTo^, 
5 Kol iao)^ ecFTLV oart^ ^AOrjvalcDv dwd aov dp^dfievof: 
Si^aiT &v aWo^ oaTtcrovv TAaKehovtov yevi<r6ai 
fjLoXXov fj ^Apx^Xao^. D 

XXVII. 2fl. Kal Kar dpxd<s t(Sp Xoycov, cS 
ITcSXe, eyooye ae iir'Qveaa on, fwi SofC€2<; eS 7rpo9 n^v 

lo prfTOpcfcrjv ireiraihevaOaiy rov Se SutXeyeaOaL rjfieXr)- 
K€vav' fcal vvv oKXo tv ovt6<: iarcv 6 Xoyo^ & fxe fc&v 
7ra?9 i^€X€y^€C€, teal iyo) viro aov vvv, (W9 <rv ofet, 
i^eXijXeyfjLac rovrtp t£ X6y<p, <l>axrK(ov rov dSi/covvra 
OVK Gvhaifiova elvai; irodev, w ^yaOe; fcal jjLrjv ovSiv 

IS 76 aoi TOVTcov 6/JioXoy£ aiv cv (f>7J<;, 

nnA. Oi5 yct,p iOiXei*;, iirel 8ok€C ye aot cw? E 
€70) Xey(o. 

2fl. 'li fiaxapiCf prfTOpifCW yap fie eVt^e^pet? 
iXeyx^iv, &airep oi iv toI^ hiKoar'qpioL^ riyoifxevov 

20 iXeyx^LV, koI yctp cKel oi erepoc toi)? irepovf; Sokov- 
aiv eXeyx^cv, iireiSdv t&v Xoyoov <Sv &v Xeycoai 
/jidpTVpa^ 7roXXov<; Trape^wi/rat Kal evhoKifwv^y 6 he 
rdvavTia Xeyoav Iva rivet irapexv^o,!, fj /jurfSeva. o5to9 
Se 6 eXeyxp^ ovSevo^ d^Lo^ eaTV irpo^ rfjv \ dX'qdeuLV 472 

25 iviore ycbp &v xal KarayltevSofiapTVprfOelr} Tt9 vtto 
TToXXSv Kol hoKOvvrcav elval ri. koI vvv irepl tSv ait 
XAyeL^ oXlyov aoi irdvre^ (rvfi<f>ija'ova'i ravrd 'A^i;- 
vaioL Kal oi ^evoi, edv fiovXrf Kar ifiov fidprvpa^ ira- 
pao'X^o'Oatt (»9 OVK dXrjOi] Xeyoo, fiaprvprjaovai aov, 

30 edv fiev ^ovXjj, T^iKca^ 6 NcKrjpdrov Kal oi dBeX^ol 
fier avrov, (Sv oi rpiiroSe^ oi €^€^9 earoore^; elaiv iv 
Tft) ^Lovvaitp, idv Be jSovXrj, ^ApiaroKpdrrj^ 6 XKeXXiov, 

ropriAS. 41 

ov ai ioTLV \ hp Tlvdol^ tovto to koXov dvddrjfia, 
B iav Se ^ovXt), rj HepifcXAov^ oX/rj olfcla ^ aXXtf a-vyye- 
veia rjvTLv &v ^ovXj) r&v ivOevSe eKXA^aadai. aXV 
eyo) aov els Av ovj(^ ofioXoyA' ov yap fie av dvcuyKo- 
fef?, dXKci ylrevSofjbdprvpas iroXKovs tear ifiov irapa- 5 
o")(pfi€vos iirt^eipeXs ifc^dXXeiv fie etc ttj^; ovaias icai 
rod dXriOovs, eyco Se &v firj ae avrov eva Svra 
fidpTvpa 7rapda")(^co/jLaL ofioXoyovvra irepl Sv Xiyw, 
ovBep olfiai d^Lov \6yov fiov ireirepdvOai irepX (Sp &p 
'^fuv o \6yo<s y' olfiav Se ovBe aoi, edv firj iyco aov lo 
fiapTVpa> els cov fiovos, roifs S' aXXovs iravras tovtovs 
XO'ipctv ids. eaTi fikv oiv ovtos tvs Tp&iros eXeyxov, 
(OS av re olei koX SXKol iroXKol' ecTt Se /cal dWos, 
ov iyo) ai olfiai, irapa^aXovres otru irap dXKrfKovs 
o'KeylrdfieOa, et tl Biourova-iv dW7]\a)v. fcal yap 15 
rvy\dveL irepX oov dfKJyia^TjTOVfiev ov irdw afic/cpd 
Svra, dXXd c'^^eSov ri ravra irepX &v elBevai re 
KaXKiarov firj elBevai re (ii(TyiaTov' rb yap K€(j>d' 
Xaiov avT&v iarlv fj yuyvdxTKeiv rj drpfoeiv 6<ms re 
D evSalfMOP iarl Kal oo-tls firf. avrifca irp&roVy irepl 20 
ov vvv 6 \6yos icTL, av rj^eZ olov re etvat fiaxapiov 
dvhpa dSifcovvrd re teal ahiKOV Svra, etirep ^ kp')(e\aov 
dSt/cov fiev Tf^el elvai, evSaifiova Se. dWo ri ws 
ovTQ) aov vofii^ovTos Siavodfieda; 

IlflA. Haw ye. 25 

XXVIII. 2fl. 'E^ft) Si (^yrffii dSvvarov, li/ fih/ 
tovtI dfi^ia^rjTOVfiei/, elev' dSiKtSv Sk Srj evSaificov 
earai dp* &v Tvyj(avr) SiKffS re Kal Tifiayplas; 

nil A. ^'HKiard ye, iirei oUto} y hv d&kKaTaros 
elf), 30 

E 2X1. 'AW' edv Spa firj rvy')(av'Q Sixrfs 6 dSiKeiv, 
Kara rbv aov \6yov evSaificov earat; 


211. KaTo Be ye Trjv ifirjv So^av, cS U£\e, 6 

diiKwv re koX 6 aBiKo^; iravrca^; fikv affkio^, ciffKid- 

T€po9 fjiivTOi, eav firj SiB^ Blktjv firjBe Tvyxfivri 

5 rtfifopia^ dBiKOdVy fjrrov Be affkco^, idp BcB£ Bl/crfv 

KoX Tvyxjavrf BUrf^ tnro OeAv re koX dvOptoircDV. \ 

nUA. "Kroird ye, w ^(OKpare^, eiri'XJ^tpev; 473 

Sfi. Ueipdaofjuac Be ye koI ae iroirjaai, c5 eratpe, 

10 ravrct ifiol XeyetV <f>L\ov yap <re riyovfiai, vvv fiev 

oiv a BLa(j>ep6fieda ravr eari* a/coirec Be koI <rv, 

ehrov iyd irov ev rok efiirpoadev to dBiKelv rod 

dBiKeladcu kukiov elvai, 

nOA. Tldvv ye, 
15 XOi, Si) Bk TO dBiKeladai, 

rniA. Nat. 

2X1. Kal TOi)? dBiKOvvra'^ d&Klovs e^rjv elvai 
iyd, KoX i^i]\€y)(0r)v vtto aov, 

nilA. Nal fid Awi. 
20 211. 'II9 av ye otec, (Z HcSXe. B 

IMA. ^AXrjdrj ye olofievof; ?0"(»9. 

2X1. 2i) Be ye evBai/iova^ ai toi)? dZiKovvra^, 
idv p»rj BcBwai BiKrjv. 

nXlA. Hdvv fiev ovv. 
25 2X1. 'Ei^ci Be avTov^ dBXicordrov^ <f>Vf^^> rod*; Bk 
BLB6vTa<$ BIktjv rjrrov, fiovkei koI tovto eXey^eti/; 

nXlA. 'Aw' It6 tovt ifcetvov ^^aXeTrcoTepdz/ 
iarcv, cS ^(OKpare^, e^eXey^ai, 

2X1. Ot3 Brjray 0! HSXe, aXX' dBvvarov' rd yap 
30 dXrfde^ ovBeirore iKeyx^erac. 

nXl A. 11(39 Xeyeis ; idv dBiK&v avOpcairo^ \ri<j>dfj 
rvpavvlBi, iiri^ovXeitoVy Kal Xi]<l>0eU arpe^XtSrac 

ropriAS. 43 

Kcu i/CT€fivr}Tac koI tov<s 6<f>0a\fjLoi)^ iKKafirai, Kal 
oKKa^ TToWci^ /cal fieyaXa^ Kal iravroSaira^ Xoi^a^ 
avT6<$ T€ Xay^TjffeU Kal tov^ avrov eircBcov TraJSa? 
T€ Kal yvvavKa to ea^O'Tov dvaoTavpeoOy fj Kara- 
TTLTTayOfj, ovTO<; €vSaifiov€OT€po^ ecrrat fj iav hia^v- 5 
yiav rvpavvo^ Karaary Kal dpy(a)v iv rfj iroKei 
Sta^Lw iroi&v Z Tt Ap /SovXrfTao, f?;\o)T09 cSi' Kal 
evBaifiovc^ofievo^ virb twv ttoXit&v koX t&v aXKa>v 
D ^iva>v; ravra \iy€i<: dBvvarov elvai i^ek&^'xeiv; 

XXIX. 2X1. M.opp.oXvTTei aJty 00 yevvale IlcSXe, 10 
Kal ovK iKeyx^^^' apri, hk ep^aprvpov, ofiayf; Se 
vTrop^vrjaov /^e afivKpov ictv dhiKGy^ iin^ovXevcov 
TvpavviBc, el7r€<: ; 

nxiA. "£70)76. 

2n. TSivBacp>op€(TT€po^ fi€v roivvv ovBerrore earai, 15 
ovBerepo^ avrSp, ovre 6 Karetpyaafiivof; rrjp rvpav- 
vlBa aBiKO)^ ovT€ 6 Blktjv BiBov<;' Bvocv yctp dffkioiv 
evBatfiovea-repo^ fikv ovk &v ettf* dffXtwrepo^ pAinoi 
E o hi,a<j>vya>v Kal Tvpavv€v<ra<s. Tt tovto, do UdoXe; 
yeka^ ; aXKo ai rovro elBo^ ikiyxov iariv, iireiBdv 20 
t/? Tt etiTTj, Kara^yeXav, iXeYX^iv Be fiTj ; 

nflA. OifK otec i^eXrjX&YxOaLy (S XayKpaTe^, 
orav Toiavra Xiyjj^ a ovBel*; dv f^rjaeiev dvOpdiroov ; 
iirel ipov rivd tovtoovL 

2n. *fl TldSiXe, OVK elpX t&v ttoXctikwv, Kal 25 
irepva-L fiovXevecp Xa')(a)p, iTrecBij 17 ^vXi) hrpvrdveve 
474 Kal iSet p>e i'jnyft7)<l>i^€ip, yiXcora irapelxop \ Kal ovk 
rJTna-TdfjLijp eTTt'^^tfeti'. firj oip firjBe pvp fie KeXeve 
i7nyln](f>i^€ip roif^ irapoPTa^^ aXX' el firj e^et? tovtcop 
^eXrico eXeyx^P, oirep pvp 81) eyoi> eXeyop, ifiol ip rw 30 
pApei irapaBo^y Kal ireipaaaL rod iXey)(pv otop iya> 
oJp^ai Becp elpac, iyo) ydp (Sp dp Xeyoi) lua \i.4.v 


'n'apaAT')(eadav fidprvpa eiriarafiaiy avrov irpo^ hv 
av fiOL 6 X0709 y, Tov^ Se 9roWov9 ecS 'xalpetv, kol 
eva iTn^ftrj^i^eiv hria^aiiaVy rol<i ie iroKKol^ ov8k 
SiaXiyofiai. Bpa oZv el eOeKrjaei,*; iv r^ fiipei B 
5 ScSovac eX€7%oi/ a7roKpiv6fi€vo<: ret iptorcofiepa. iy^ 
ryctp S^ olfiat Kal ifik /cal ae xal Toif<; aWov^ avSpd- 
TTOv^ TO aScKCLP Tov aBcKCcadai kclklov riyuaOat /cal 
TO firj iiiovav Slktjv tov hihovai, 

nilA. 'E7ft) Se ye ovt ifie ovt aWov avOpto- 
10 TTO)!/ ovSepa, iirel ai) Si^ai av fiaWov dBcKeiaOac 
rj aoLKecv; 

Sfl. Kal av y av Koi oi dXKoi irdvT€<;, 

nil A. IIoWoi) ye Set, aW' ovt iyo) oijTe <n) 
OVT aXKo^ ov8eL<:. 
15 2n. OvKOVP diroKpivet; 

nilA. Haw fiev oZv Ka\ yhp €7n0vfi£ etBivai 
o TL WOT epec^. 

2fl. A€7€ S^ fioL, %v elSy^, Siairep av el ef 
^PXV^ (76 ripcoTtov iroTepov BoKel (jot, cS IlcSXe, 
20 KCLKLOV elvai TO oBtKelv f] TO dBiKeurdai ; 

HQiA. To dBcfcelaOai Sfjuocye. 

20. Ti Be S^ ata"x^tov; irorepov to dBixetv rj 
TO dBixecadai; ^AiroKpivov. 

II HA. To d^LKeiv. 
25 XXX. 211. Oif/covv Kal xdKtoVf elirep aX<T')(^bov; 

nil A. "H/CA(7Ta 76. 

2fl. MavOdvG)' ov TavTov rf/el <n/, (»9 eoi/ea^, 
KoKov T€ Kal opfaOov Kal KaKov Kal ala'Xfiov. D 

nnA. Oi; BrjTa. 
30 2n. Ti Be ToBe; Tct Ka\a wdvTa, otov Kal 
adfiaTa xal ^oi/^ara Kal aj(i]fiaTa Kal (fxovd^ Kal 
€7nT7)BevfiaTay eh ovBev diro^eircov KoKel^ eKaaTOTe 

ropriAS. 45 

teaXa; olov irp&rov ra (roifiara rd /ca\d ou^i ijToi 
Kara rrjv 'xpelav Xeyei^ KoKd elvai, irpo^ o av exaarov 
XPV^^tJ^ov ij, 7r/3^9 TOVTO, 7} Kurd rjhovrjv riva, icbv iv 
T^ OecopeiaOai, ')(aipeiv iroi^ roi)? Oecopovvra^ ; e^cL^ 
E Ti ixTo^ rovrcov Xiyeiv irepX atofiaro^ koKKov^ ; 5 

nXlA. OvK exco. 

2fl. OvKovv teal riWa irdvS* ovrco koI 0-^17- 
fiara /col ')(p(o^ra fj Si rihovrjv riva fj hi a)<f>€\€iav 
^ 81 cfjjf>6r€pa KaXd irpoaayopevei^ ; 

nilA. "Eycoye. 10 

2X1. Oi5 KOI rd^ ^a)vd^ koI rd /card rrjv fiov- 
ciKrjv irdvff axravTG)^; 

IKIA. Nat. 

2X1. Kal fi'^v rd ye fcard rov^ vofiov^ koi rd 
iwiTrjSevfiara oi hrjirov Skto^ tovtcov iarl [ra] xaXd, 15 
Tov rj &<f>eKifJLa eivai rj i^Bia rj dfi<f>6Tepa, 

nXlA. OiflC €fJLOtrf€ 8oK€l. 

476 2X1. OvKOvv /cal \ rb r&v fiaOfffidrayv /caWo? 
cJo"ai)TG>9 ; 

nXlA. Haw y€' Kal xaXco^ ye vvv opi^ei, cS 20 
^oifcparef;, rfSovfj re xal ayaOA opi^ofievo^ to xdkov. 

2X1. Ov/covv TO ala'xpov T<p ivairritp, Xvirrj t€ 
Kal KaKo,; 

nXlA. ^AvdyKTj, 

2X1. ^OTav dpa Svoiv KaXoiv OaTepov KaXKiov 25 
^, rj T& eriptp tovtoiv ^ dfi^oTepoif; virepfiaXKov 
KdXKi6v itTTiv, ijToi rfhovfj fj i)^\eia fj dfi(f>OT€poi^. 

nXlA. Haw ye. 

2X1. Kal iTav Sk Srj Svotv ala'xpoiv Td h-epov 
" B aXa'X^LOV ^, rfTOi Xiirri fj Kax^ virepfidWov atc^iop 30 
eaTai, rj ovK dvdyKrj; 

nXlA. Na/. 


2fl. ^ipe Srj, TTcSv ikeyero vvv Si) irepl tov 
dBiKelv Kal oZiKeladaL ; ovk eXeye^ to fjuev dSi/celadai 
Ka/ctov elvai, rd Be dSiKclv aiaj(^iov; 

nXlA. "EXeyoi/. 
5 211. Ovfcovv €L7r€p aXayvov to c&iKeiv tov aS*- 
KclaOaCy ffroL Xxnr'qpoTepov iari Kal Xvrrrj virepfiaXKov 
aia^iov av eir) fj teaK^ fj dp^OTepoi^i ; ov /cat tovto 
dvojyKV) ; 

nilA, IIcSv yap ov; 
^o XXXI. 2ft. TlpooTOV fxev Si) aKe^lrdfieffa, dpa 
Xvirrj inrepffdXKei to dSiKclv tov dBcKetaOat, Kal 
oKyova-i fiaWov ol dScKOvvre^ rj oi dBiKovfievoi ; 

nUA. OvSafjLW^f CO XwKpaTe^, tovt6 ye. 

2fl. Ovk dpa Xvirrf ye inrepixec* 
15 nriA. Oi5 SrJTa. 

211. OvKOVv el firj Xvtttj, dfi<f>OTepot,^ fiev ovk 
dv €Tt vireppdXXoL, 

IlflA, Ov <l>aiveTaL ^ 

211. OvKovv ToJ eTeptp XeiireTau 

2o niiA. No*: 

211. TcS KaK&, 

nilA. "^oLKev. 

Sfl. OvKovv KaK^ virepfidXXov to dSiKelv KaKiov 
av elrj tov dScKeurOai, 
2$ no A. ^ijXov Srj 2t6. 

2fl. *'A\Xo TV oZv VTTO fiev T&v TToXXwv dvdpd' D 
irtov Kal VTTO aov (ofioXoyeiTO rffilv ev t^ efiirpoadev 
')(povtp aXa^^iov elvai to dBcKelv tov dSiKecadai; 

miA. Nat. 
30 2n. NOi/ Si ye kokiov i<j>dv7), 

nUA. ^EotKev. 

20. ^e^aC dv ovv aif fiaXXov rd KaKiov Koi 

ropriAS. 47 

rd aia')(jLOv dvrl rov fJTTOv ; TArj S/cvec aTroKpivaadac, 
CO IlcSXe — ovBev yap /SXafiija-ei, — aXXa yevvaia>^ tcS 
Xoy^ ^awep larp^ irapijaoDv airoKpivov, Koi fj <l>d0c 
7j firj a epooTO), 
E IlflA. 'AXV ovK av Se^aifiTfv, c5 %(6/cpar€<;. 5 

Sfi. "AXXof Se Tt9 dvOpdircov ; 

nilA. Oi' fioi Soxel Kara ye rovrov rov Xoyov. 

ZXl. *A\i]0fj dpa iyo) eXeyov, on oijr dv iycb 
ovT dv av ovT dWo^ ovSel^ dvOpdmoiv Se^aiT dv 
fjbdWov diiKelv fj dSifcelaOai* icaKtov yap rvy^ai/et 10 

nilA. ^aiverai. 

Sfi. 'Opa^ odv, CO USiKe, 6 e\€7^09 irapd rov 
ekeyxov TrapaffaWofievo^ iri ovBev eoiKev, dT^Xd aol 
fiev oi dWoL iravre^ ofjuoXoyova-c irXrjv ifwv, ifiol Se 15 
<rv i^apfC€L<; eh wv p,6vos fcal ofioXoycSv teal jjuaprv- 
476 p^v, I KoX 67ft) ae fiovov i7riyjn]<f>i^oi)v toi)9 dWov^ 
i£ ')(aip€Lv, Kal tovto fiev rjfuv ovtoo^ ex^rw fierd 
TovTO Sk irepl oi to Beiirepov rjfi^ea/SrjTijaafiev, 
a/C€ylr(Ofi€0a' to d^iKovvTa SiSovac SIktjv dpa fiiyiaTOv 20 
t£v /caicwv itTTiv, &<: av ^v, rj fiei^ov to p/fj BcBovac, 
cJv av €70) ^fiTfv. a/cowcifieda Se TrjSe* t6 BiBovai 
SUrfv xal TO fcokd^eaOai, Sifcaio)^ dScKovvTa dpa to 
avTo KaXei^ ; 

nXlA. ''E7a>7€. 25 

B So. *'E;^€69 oiv Xiyeiv cS? ov^xl Ta ye hiKaia 
irdvTa KaXd eaTV, KaS" oaov StKaia; fcal Btaafceyftd- 
fievos ehrL 

ITHA. ' AWa fioi BoKei, cS ^onKpaTe^, 

XXXII. 2fl. ^KOTret Bi) koI roBe* dp* et Tt9 30 
Ti TTOiet, avdr/KT) ta eh/at teal ird ayov vtto tovtov 

TOV TTOiOVVTO^; • ^ >- . i f 


nXlA. "TSifioiye Soxei, 

2fi. *A/)a TOVTO irda-'xpp o to irotovv iroiei, /cal 
ToiovTOP olov irotel rd iroLovv ; Xiyo) Sk to Toiovhe* 
et Ti<; TVTTTei, avdyKT) ti TVirTcaOat ; 
5 nilA. ^AvayKrf. 

SH. Kal el a^oSpa TwrTCt fj Ta'xy 6 TV7rTG)v, 
ovT<o Kal TO TVTTTOfievov TviTTeaOaL; C 

nilA. Nat. 

SO. ToioOroi/ apa irddos t& TVTrro/iivtp iariv, 

lO olov hv TO TVITTOV TTOL^ ," 

nXlA. ndvv ye, 

Sfi. OvKOvv Kal el Kdet Tt9, dvdrfKri ti Koeadai,; 
nilA. nci>9 7^/5 ov; 

2fl. Kat el a^oipa ye Kaei fj a\/yeivoo^, ovrto 
1$ KaeaOac to Kaofievov &^ hv to kclov Kdrj; 
nilA. Ildvv ye. 

2fl. OvKovv Kal el Te/ivei ti^, 6 ai5T09 X0709; 
Te/JLveTac ydp ti, 
nilA. Na/. 
20 SO. Kal el fi^a ye fj /SaOv to Tfirjfia fj oKfyei- 
vov, TocovTov TfiTffia TefAV€Tac TO TefivofievoVf'otov to D 
TCfivov Te/jLvei; 

nilA. ^aiveTai, 

SXl. XvWtj^Bvjv 8rj opa el ofioXoyeh S apTi 
Tr*^'*25 eXeyov irepl iravToov* olov &v iroi'ff to ttoiovv, tolovtov 
r*7 ** 1 TO irda^ov 7rda)(^etv, 

j(xj^2u niiA. 'A\X' ofioXoyS. 

j^ 2fl. TovTcov Srj SfioXoyovfiivcov, to hiKrjv hihovai 

J TTOTepov Trda'xetv tL iaTiv ^ Troielv ; 

30 nXlA. ^KvdrfKrjy ® Sa)/c/)aT€9, irdaxeiv, 


nilA. IIcS? 7^/) oi!; utto 76 toC #co\a^oi/T09. 

ropriAS. 49 

£ Sn. 'O Sk 6pO<5<: fcoXd^cov SiKalco^ KoXd^ei, 

nilA. NaA. 

Sn. Aitcaia ttoiwv rj ov; 

nOA. Aifcaia. 

Sfl. OvKOVP 6 KoXa^o^evo^ SUrfv SiSoi}^ SUaia 5 
m'da'x^L ; 

nUA. ^aCverai. 

Sn. T^ Se SUaid irov xaXd cSfioXoyrjrai, ; 

IlflA. Haw ye. 

2fl. TovTcov apa 6 fikv irocel KoXd, 6 he irda'^eL, 10 
6 KoXa^ofievo^, 

nOA. Na/. 
477 XXXIIL 2n. Ovfcovv elirep fcaXd, dyadd; \ fj 
yctp i^Sia rj (o(f)€\ifia. 

nUA. ^Avdr/Ki], 15 

2ft. *Aya0cb dpa irdaxei 6 hlicriv BtSov^; 

IlftA. "Eotxev. 

2ft. ^il^eXecrac dpa; 

nftA. NaL 

2ft. ^Apa rjmrep eyo) inroXafjuffdva) rfjv (i(f>eKeiav ; 20 
fieXrifov rijv '>^v^fjv yiyperai, elirep BiKaloo^ /coXd^erai ; 

IlftA. Wlko^ ye. 

2ft. Kaxla^ dpa yltv^rj^; diraWdTTerav 6 Sixrjv 
B1S0V9 ; 

nftA. Nat. 25 

2ft. *A/o' ovv Tov fieylarov aTraWdTrerav fca/cov ; 
B^ilSe Se o'Koirei. ev j(prffJLdTa)v Karatrxevy dvOpcoirov 
feaxiav dXKrjv riv evopq.^ rj ireviav ; 

nftA. OifK, dXKci ireviav. 

2ft. Tt S' ev adfuiTos xaraaKev^ ; /caKuiv &v 30 
ifufjaat^ daOevecav elvai Kal voaov koX aZcr^09 ical ra 
Tocavra ; 

PL. GOR. ^ 


nilA. "£70)76. 

2fl. OvKovv KoX ev '^vxv irovripiav '^yel rtvh 

elvat ; 

nfiA. Tim y^p ov; 
5 Xfi. TavTTfV oiv ovK ahiKiav KcCKel^ koI a/iaOiav 
Kal SecXUtv KoX ret rovavra; 
nilA. TLdw fi€v oJfv. 

2Xi. OvKovv 'XprjjxaTCiv koX adfiarof; xal "^vx^?, 
rpt&v ovTtoVt TpLTrh^ etprjKa^ 'irovrfpia^, ireviav, voaoi/, 
10 dBiKiav ; 

nnA. Nat. 

2fl. Tf? otfv TOVTfov r&v m-ovrfpmv alcxio-Tf) ; 
ovx V ciSiKia Koi avW'^^Srjv 17 rrj^ ylrvxv^ irovripLa; 
IlflA. TLoXv 7€. 
15 211. Wf, hrj ala")(ia'Tr)f Kal feaKLcrrr); 
nflA. Urn, w ^coKpare^, \€y€i^; 
211. 'US/, del rd ata-'yiarov rjroi Xvttvjv fie- 
ylarrfv 'jrape)(pv rj l3Xd^r)v rj dfi<f>6T€pa atax^o-TOP 
ioTcv eK T<Sv (ofioXoyrjfiivcov iv rS i/iirpoaOev, 
20 nilA. MaXurra. 

2n. Ai<rxt(TTOv Se dSixia Kal avfi'Traaa yjtvxv^ 
irovripia vvv 8rj (ofjLokoyqraL fjfuv; D 

nXlA. ^HfJLoKoyriTai yap, 

211. OvKOvv fj dvcaporarov iari Kal dvla virep^ 
25 j8aX\oi/ ato'xi'O'rov tovtodv iarlv rj pKa^y fj d/A(f>o^ 
repots ; 

nilA, ^AvdrfKT), 

211. *Ap' oiv dXyeivorepov iatt rov nreveaOav 
Kal Kdfiv€iv TO dSiKOv elpac Kal dKoKaoTov Kal 
30 SefXoi/ KoX dfiadfj; 

nilA. OvK efwcye SoKci, w 2(o^/)ar€9, dirb 
Tovjfov ye. 




ropriAS. 61 

2X1. *T7r€p<f)vet rivi dpa ©9 fieyaXt) j3\dj3rf /cal 
/ea/etp OavfiaaLtp vTrepjSdWova-a rdWa 17 rrj^ y^vxv^ 
E TTOvripla aX(T')(i(TT6v iari irdvrtovy iireiSri ov/e dX/yrfSovi 
ye, ©9 0-09 X0709. 

nXlA. ^alverat. 5 

2fl. 'AXXA fi'^v TTOV TO 76 fieyUrTtf ^Xd^j) 
vTTcpjSdXKov fiiyuTTOV &v kukov etrj rwv 8vt(ov. 

nOA. Nat. 

Sn. 'H diiKla apa icaX rj aKoXturla Kal 17 aWt) 
^v)(rj^ TTOvrjpla fAifyurrov r&v 8vra>v KaK6v itrnv ; 10 

nXlA. ^aiverai, 

XXXIV. Sli. T/9 oiv rix^V ^rrevla^ diraX' 
Xdrrei; ov %f>i7/AaTt<7Tt/ci7 ; 

nXlA. Nat. 

Sfl. Tt9 Be voaov; ov/e larpt/ei]; 15 

nXlA. *Avdy/c7f. 
478 Sfl. Tt9 Bk Trovrjpia^ zeal \ dSi/ela^ ; Et fifj 
ouTa)9 eviropel^, £Be aKOirei* wot ayofiev icaX irapd 
Tti/a9 Toif^ xafivopra^ Tci (roifiara; 

nXlA. Hap^ rov9 larpov^, w Xdfcpare^, 20 

ISl. Hot Se T0t)9 aSc/eovPTa^ xal toi)9 dxoXa- 
(TTaivovra^ ; 

nXlA. Jiapd Toi)9 iiKaa-rd^ Xeyei,^; 

2X1. OvKovv BLktjv hdaovra^; 

nXlA. ^iaL 25 

SXl. ^h,p oSv ov hifKavoavvQ nvl ^oifiepoi 
KoXd^ovcnv oi opdm KoXd^ovre^; 

nXlA. /irjXov Brj. 

2X1. 'Kpr)fiaTi(TTLKrj fikv apa irevLa^ aTraWarret, 
£ larpL/eij Bk voaov, hiKr) he aKoXaaia^ kgX dS^Kia^, 30 

nXlA. Waiver at, 

2X1. Ti oifv TovTODv KaXKLCTOv iaTtv ; 


nOA. UcXv Sio^epa, m ^^mxpare^, 17 Sijrtf. 
SA. OvKOVP av TDM ^SoyipF TXeumjw ro€^ 
5 fj ciif>€\e&ap ^ afuj>6T€pa, el'wep maXXMrrow eonjr; 

nUA. No*. C 

Sfi. *Ap* oh TO larpeueaOai ^v ecrriy jcai 
'XaipowTUf oi larpevofMevoi ; 
nXlA. OvK efiotye Soxel. 
10 Sfi* *AXX* oiHf>€Xifi6w ye, if yap; 
nnA. Na£ 

Sil. MeyaXoi; yap xamov oTrcLyXaTTerai, (Sore 
XtMr^reXe? inro/ietvai t^v aX/yrfSova xal vyut elvat, 
nXlA. Hw yitp ov; 
15 Sn. *Ap' ovv ovT€^ &v irepl a^fia etfSaifjLove- 
aroTo^ avOpanro^ elfj, larpevofAevo^, ^ f^V^ icdfiv€9v 


nnA. ^rjKov Sti fJUffBe Kafivtav, 

Xfl. Ot; yap rovr rjv evSaifiovia, (09 eouee, 
20 Koxov diraXKarfri, oKKa rrpf dp^ifv fiijBe Krrrjai^. 
nflA. ''^xm, ravTO, 

211. T/ Si; dOTucirepo^ irorepo^ ivolv ij^ovroiv D 
fca/cbv etr hf adfuvn eXr ev '^p'vj(^; 6 tarpevofievo^ 
Kai aTraWarrofievo^ rov xateov, fj o p,ri larpevofievo^, 
25 e%(»i/ Se; 

nflA. ^aiveral fioi 6 p/fj larpevop^evo^, 
Sfl. Ov/covv TO SUrjv SiSovai p^eyiarov xa/eov 
aTraWarfff ffv^ woprjpia^; 
nXlA. 'Hi/ yap. 
^0 Sfl. ^(o^povi^ei, yap irov koI Si/eaioripov^ woiel 
Kal larpi/c^ ylyverac irovrjpia^ 17 hiKfi^ 
IKIA. ' Nat. 

ropriAS. 53 

E Sn. 'EvBaLfJLovia-raTO^ fikv apa 6 firj ^x^^ 
Kaiciav ev '^vxS* €7re4&) toSto fUyta'TOV r&v kukSv 

nXlA. A^Xoi/ 8i]. 

2fi. Aevrepo^ Sijirov 6 airaXKarrofievo^. 5 

nXlA. "^LKev. 

2X1. OSt09 S' VIV 6 VOV0€TOV/JL€v6^ T€ tCol ilTt' 

IlilA, Nat. 

2fi. K-d/eurra apa f^ 6 6%ft)i/ "|*a8tiiftai/"|* ^al lo 
//-^ diraWaTTOfAevo^. 

nXlA. ^aiverai. 

2X1. Ou/coOi/ oiro^ Tvyxdv€L &v 89 Ai^ rd 
fi&yiara dStK&v Kal j(p(ifi€vo^ /jLcylarrf dSixia Sea- 
479 irpd^rjrai, Sore fir^re vovderelaOai \ /iijt€ KoXa^eadai 15 
fiTjTe Bl/erjv SiSovai, Sawep <rv (f>ff<; 'Ap^^^Xaoi/ irape- 
axevdaOai Kal tov<; aWov^ Tvpdvvov^ Kal pijTopa^ 
Kal hvvdara^; 

nXlA. "Eot/eej/. 

XXXV. 211. ^xj^iov ydp TTOv ovTot, c5 dpLore, 20 
t6 avri StaireTrpayfjbipoL elalv &aTrep av el tl<; to?9 
fieyioTOL^ voarffiaai, awiaxofievo^ Stawpd^airo /iff 
SbSovai SIktjv Tciv wepl to aoSfia dfiapTrjfidrcov T0Z9 
tarpol^ firjSk iarpeveadaVy (f>ol3ov/JL€VO^y &<rirepavel 
B TraZ?, TO KaeaOai, koX to TifiveaOai, '6ti d\y€Lv6v. rj 25 

OV SoK€t Kal col OVTOD^; 

nXlA. ''E/jLoiye: 

2X1. *Ayvo(Sv ye, ©9 eoiKev, olov icTtp 17 vyieia 
Kal dpeTTj adfiaTO^, KivSvpevovat ydp ex t&v vvv 
rifiiv <ofio\oyr)fjLev(ov TOtovTov Ti irqieiv Kal oi Trjv 30 
SIki]v <l>€vyovTe^, cS IlcSXe, to dXyetvov mvtov Kaff- 
opav, 7rpo9 Se t6 a>^6\(/xoy tv4>K&«5 ^T^vv K.a\. 


dypoeiv ia^ affKidrepov ioTi firj vyiov^ aoifiaTOf: firj 
vyiei yp'vxv o'vvoiKelv, dWd aaffpai teal dSl/ctp lau 
dvoaCtp. '60 ev Koi irdv iroiovatv &aTe SUr)v fir) C 
Sihovai firjS* diraWdrTeo'dac rov fieyiarov xa/eov, 
5 Kal %f>?7/LtaTa irapaaKeva^ofievoi Koi if>L\ov^ xal 
oiroD^ av OKTLV (09 wtdavoiraroi Xiyeiv. el Sk iQfJb€t<: 
dXrjOij dofioXoyi^Kafiev, (3 TlmXe, dp* alaOdvev rd 
avfjLJSaivovTa €k tov \6yov; fj fiovKei, avWoyiaoi/McOa 
avra ; ^ 

10 nXlA. Et fJLrj (Toi ye a\Xa)9 Soxei, 

Sfl. *Ap' oZv avfi^atvet fiiyLarov /ea/cov tj 
ahiKia KoX TO dhiKelv; 

nXlA. ^alveral ye, 

2X1. Kal firjv diraWayi] ye €(l>dv7f rovrov rov D 
15 /eaxov TO Sifcrjv 8i86vac; 

nXlA. KcvSvvevet, 

Xil, To Se ye firj SiBovat ififiovrj rov leaKovf 

nnA. Nat. 

SH. ^evTcpov dpa iarl t&v kukoSv fjueyeOei to 
20 dSi/eeip* to Bk dBiKovvTa firj BiSovai BlKtfP irdin(ov 
fieyia-Tov re koi irpwTov KaK&v ireifyvKev, 

nflA. "^oLKev. 

2X2. *A/>' ovv ov wepl tovtov, «3 (f)i\e, tjii^e-' 
a^rjTTja-afiev, av fiep tov ^XpyiKaov evSaifjLOpl^av tov 
25 Ta fiiytaT dSiKovvTa iiicqv ovSefiiav SiBovTay iya> E 
Be tovvuvtIov olofievo^, elT * ApyeKcLo^; eW a\\o9 
dvOpdirav oaTcaovv firj SiSfoai hUrjv dSt/ecip, TovT(p 
irpoarjKeiv d0\i<p elvav BcatpepovTao^ twv aXK(ov 
avdp(07ra)v, Kal del tov dBixovvTa tov dSixovfievov 
30 d0\LooT€pov elvai Kal tov iirj BiSovTa BIkijv toU 
SiB6vTo<;; ov TavT rjv Ta vir ifiov Xeyofieva; 

nXlA, NaL 


ropriAS. 65 

2fi. Ov/eovv dm'oSiSeiKTai on dXrjffr) iXeyero; 

480 XXXVL 2fl. Elei/. el ovv &) ravra d^v^'^y 
& IIcSXc, rl<; tf fieydXrf ypeia iarl t^9 pffTopi/cfj^; 
Bel fiev yap £i) iie twv vvv (Ofio\oyr)fJLiva)v avrov 5 
eavTov fidXi^ra <f>v\dTTeiv Sitod^ iirj dhcKfjaei, (09 
ixavov Kaxhv i^ovra. ov yap; 
IlflA. TLavv ye. 

2X1. 'Eai/ 84 ye dSc/cijay 17 avro^ f} aX\o9 ta9 
c5i/ au KTjSrjrai, avrdv i/covra levai, eicelae Hwov (W9 10 
rdxf'O'Ta Sa)0'6& Slterjv, irapa rdv BcKatmjv, Aawep 

B irapd top larpov, <rrrevSovTa ^ttw? firj iyxpovurOkv lvc«J*^ C 
TO uoarjfia rr}^ dStKca^; isrovXo v rrjv 'y^vyrjv '^^^^^'•fc ^jTj^fl 
^al dviarov ^ tt©? Xiyeofiev, cS HoSXe, €t7r«/> Taoc<u(ti ^ 
TTporepov fievei ijfuv o/JLoXoytjfiara; ovk dvdyicrj i5^«-«a^*^ 
ravra i/eeivoi^ oSt® /a^i; avfufxovetv, i\\o^9 Se /Lt?;; 
nXlA. T^ yap Bff ^&fiev, S Xoo/eparef; ; 
Sfl. 'EttI /a^i/ apa TO dirdkoyeladai vwep T179 
dSi*cla<: T^9 auToO ^ yoveoDv tj eraipwv rj iralSmv fj 
TrarpiSo^ dScKOvar)^ ov xpijaifio^ ovSev 17 fnjropi/etf 26 

'^fitv, c3 IlcSXe, el firf et rt,^ viroXafiot iirl rovvavrlov, 
KarTjyopetv Selv fidkiara fiev eavrov, hretra Sk /edi 
Twv OLKelcov /cal r&v aXKcov &9 dv del r&v ^Lkoav 
Tvyxdvrf dSb/cwv, Kal fir) dfrofepvirreaOac, aXX' eh 
TO <f>avepdv ayeLV rd dBi/er}fia, Xva h& BUrjv teal ZS 
vyii^^ yevrfTat, dvayxd^eiv Si Kal avrov Kal toi)9 
a\\ot;9 fi'^ aTroSeiXcav dXXd 'irapi')(etv fiiaav^a Kal 
dvhpei(o^y &a'7rep refipeiv Kal Kaeiv larp^, to dya06v 
Kal KaXov StooKovra, p/fj viroXoyc^ofiepov to d'Xr/eivov, 

D idv fiiv ye irXrjy&v a^ca i^SiKffKcbf; ff, rvirreiv irape- 30 
'Xppra, idv Be Bea-fiov, Betv, idv Be ^rjfiUt^, dirorivovTay 
idv Be <f>vyri^y (f>evyovTa, idv Bh ffavdrov^ diroOwX' 


a/covra, avrov irp&rov 6vra Karrjyopov Kal avrov 
zeal T&v aXKoDV ol/ceUop koI iirl rovrq) 'xpdp.epov 
rfj p7fTopi/e§, 27ra>9 ap KarairjXjcov r&v dSiKr)fidra)v 
ytyvofiepdov diraWarroyvTa^ rod fieyiarov Ka/eov^ 
sdBb/eia^, ^S/jl€v oirto^ fj firj <f>o^fi€v, & IIcSXc; 

IKIA. "Aroira fih/, © Xoifcpare^, Ifioiye Bokci, E 
T0i9 fievTot efiirpoaOev Xaoi^ aot ofioXoyelrcu, 

2ii. OvKovv fj KaKeiva Xyreov fj rdhe dpd/yKrj 
avfi/Salveiv ; 

10 nXlA. Nat, TouTo ye ovtco^ ^X^*" 

Sn. Tovvavriov Si ye av fAerajSaXovTa el dpa 
Set Twd KaKW TTOietv, eir ix^pov eire ovtlvovv, idv 
fi6vov fi'fj avTo^ dSi/crjrat vtto tov ex^pov* tovto 
fi€V yap €v\a^rfT€ov' idv Sk dWop dSt/c^ 6 exOp6<;, 

15 irainl rpofrtp irapaaKevatrreov koX irpdrrovra Ka\ 
Xiyovra, \ 2wc»9 fitf S^ Si/eijv p/rjSe SXdjj irapd rov 481 
SiKa<rTi]P' idv Sk l\0rf, p,r}')(avriTeov 27ra)9 dv Sta- 
if>vyU zeal iirj S^ SiKrjv 6 ix^P^^y dX)C idv re %puo-60i/ 
i^p7rasca><; y iroXii, fi/fj dwoSiS^ tovto dXX* ex^v 

20 dvaXiaKT) xal ek eairriv koI eh Toi>^ eavTOv oSIko)^ 
zeal d0€(o^, idv re davdTOv a^ui rjSiKTjKoi^ ^, Sttcd^ 
fifj diroOavelTai fidXiaTa fiev firjSeiroTef a\X' dOd- 
vuTO^ SoTai irovrfpo^ <Sv, el Sk fi'^, Zttcd? ©9 irXeicrTov B 
Xpovov ^loiaeTai ToiovTOf; Av. iir\ Td ToiavTa 

25 efiocye Soxet, & TLAXe^ rf priTopiKTj %f>'7o-t/Lto9 elvaLt 
irreX r^ ye firj /liXXovTi dSiKeiv ov /uueydXt) rtV ftot 
SoKet ^ XP^^^ avTr}^ elvai, el Sr} xal lari Tt9 X/^eta, 
©9 ev ye Tot9 irp6a0ev ovSafiy iifyavt) oiaa, 

XXXVII. KAA. "EtTri fioi, S ^aipe^&v, anrov- 

30 Sd^ei TavTa ^aaicpdTq^ fj trai^ei; 

XAI. 'E/i^l iikv SoKely w KaWt/c\6t9, v'n'€p(j>u&^ 
awovSd^€Lv* ovSev fievTOi olov to avTov ipcoTav. 

ropriAS. 57 

C BLA.A. N^ T0U9 0€oif^ dW* i7ri0vfi&, EiV^ fwi, 
c5 ^d/cpare^y irorepov ae <f>oofi€if vvvl airovSa^ovra ^ 
wai^ovra; el fiev yap airovSa^ei^ re xal Tvy)(av€i 
ravra dkrjOrj oura a Xiyei^, aWo ri [^] fnxSv 6 0io^ 
dvaT€Tpa/i^evo<: &v etv r&v avdpdymov icaX Travra rd s 
ivavria irpaTTonev, coy €Oik€v, 7f & Bet : 

^il, ^n JLaWixXei^, el iitj n ^v rok dv0pco7roi<i i j§t v.X^ * 
iraBo^t T0?9 tiev dKKo Tt, to?9 Se aXKo ri, to airroJ 
dWd T49 ^fWDV tSiop Ti eiraa'xe irdOo^ rj oi aWot, 

D ovK CLP rjv pahiov eviei^aaOai r^ eriptp to eavTov lo 
7rd0rffia. \eyoi) 8' ivvorjaa^ &n iyoi re zeal av vvv 
Ti;7%ai'o/ttei/ tuvtov Tt irerrovdoTe, ipwvTe Svo 8vt€ 
Bveiv e/eaTepo^, €7© fiev ^ AXkl^loBov re tov KXetPiov 
Koi ^L\oa'o<l)ia^, av Be tov Te *A0rjvala)v Brjfiov /cal 
TOV TUvpiKafiTrov^, aladdvofjMi oiv aov exdoTOTe, 15 /* 
(jur<^ Kalwep 01/T09 Betvov, Zti oirSa &v ^fj aov ra tt^lBlkAA '*^ r^^ 
Koi iwao^ &v <^f ^X^Ai/, ov Bvvafievov dvTtXeyecv, dW* 

E avco Koi KaTGD fA€Ta^a\\ofi€vov, hf Te [ydp"] ttj 
iKicXfjo-ia, idv Ti aov XiyovTo^ 6 Bfj/io^ 6 ^AOrfvalwv 
M ^V ovTcof: €')(€iVt fiera^aWop^vo^ Xeyet? a ixelvo^ 20 
^ovKeraL, koX irp6^ tov TlvpCKdfnrov^ veaviav t6v 
/caXiv TOVTOV Toiavff* frepa TriirovOa^. to?9 ydp t&v 
iraiBiK&v fiov\€Vfiaal Te Kal \6yoi^ ov^ 0I69 t' el 
evavTLovadaL, (Strre, eX Tt9 <tov XiyovTO^ e/cdaTOTe a 
Bid TOVTOV^ Xeyeif; davfid^oi, ©9 aToird e<mv, ?<ra)9 25 
6?7roA9 &v avT&y el /SovKot^ TdXrjOrj \eyeiv, oTt, el fiij 
482 T49 iravaev \ tq ad iratBc/cd toijtodv t&v XoycoVt ovBk 
av wavaei ttot^ TavTa Xiywi/. vSfu^e toIvvv /cal 
Trap* ifjMv XPV^^^ h-epa toulvt d/coiieiv, Kal firj 
ffav/jui^e 2t* iyoD TavTa Xeyto, dWd Ttfv <f>i\oa'o<l>lav, 30 
Ta/Jid TraiBixdy iravaov TavTa Xeyovaav. \eyet ydp, 
do 0t\6 cTaipey del & vvv ifiov dKovec^, Kai fiol eoTc 


T<3i; eripcDV iraiZiK&v iroXv ffrrov ifi'irKrj/cTO^' 6 fi€v 
yap KXetvUio^ oiro^ aWor aXkav iarl Xoycov, rj he 
^t\oaoif>ia del r&v avr&v, \ey6i Sk a av vuv 
davfid^ec^, iraprjada he icaX avro^ Xeyofievoi,^. fj oiv B 
5 eKelvrjv i^eXey^oVt Zirep apri eKeyov, ox? ov t6 dSi/eetp 
ia-TL Kol dSixovPTa Si/crjv p.rj StSovat dirdvTdDV 
ea^arov kukwv fj ei rovr idaei^ dvikeyxTov, fid 
Tov icbvay TOP AlyvTrrioDV deov, oii <roi ofioKoyrjaet 
KaWiKKrj^, 60 KaWUXei^, dWd SuKJxovijaei ev 
lo &7raim rtp ^Up. KalroL ^yoDye ol/nai, cS ^eKrurre, 
teal t)jv \vpav fioi Kpeurrov etvai dvapfioarelv re teal 
Bca(l)<ov€Lv, KOL %o/)oi/ ^ X^PVJ^^V^i ^^^ ttXcwttou? C 
dvOpdirov^ fifj ofioXoyeiv fioc a\X* ivavria \4yeiv 
fiaXKop fj eva Bvra ifie i/juavr^ dcrvfjL<f>a)pov elpai zeal 
15 epopTLa \eyeiv. 

XXXVIII. KAA. *X1 ^ooKpare^, Soxet^ pea- 

J^jj^^ pteveadac ip tol^ \6yoi^ o)9 dXrjOd)^ 8rffii]y6po<: Sp* 

KoX pvp ravra hrip/qyopel<i ravrop iraOopro^ TlwXov 

7rd0o<;, iirep Topyiov /earrjyopei 7rp^9 ae iradeip. 

20 €<fyr) yap irov Vopyiop ipcorcifiepop vird aov, edp 

d<f>lKrfTai irap avrop fiff eTna-rdfiepo^ rd hiKaia o 

TYJp fyqropiicqp fiovKofiePO^ fiaOelp, ei iiZa^ot avrop 

:^itJl/aM».<to Vopyla^y aia"xyp0r]paL avrop Ka\ <l>dpai BiSd^eiP D 

. k^ V^ t ^' B La TO €00 ^ 'TM^f /yii^^/^TTffljj j Zri dyapaKTOiep &p el 

i,^<<»-' 25 T49 fjLTj (fyalff* Scd St) ravrrfp ttjp ofioXoyiap dpay- 

Ka(T0rjpai ipapria avrhv avr^ eiirelp, ak Be avrd 

TOVTO dryaTrdp, Kai aov /eareyeXa, (89 7' ifwl Sokcip, 

6p0&<; Tore, pvp he irdXtp aiJro? ravrop tovto . 

^jti, ^ hra0e, koI eycoye /car avri tovt o ^ ovk &yafiat 

30 IlwXop, '6tl (tol avpe')((op7)a€ to dZiKelp ata^^op etpai 

TOV dSt/eeta0ai> • €K TaiiTrj^ yap ai rrj? ofioXoyia^ 

aino^; viro aov avfi7roSia0 €j^ ip Toh Xoyoi^ erre - E 


ropriAS. 59 



OTOfila'fffjf aia")(yv0el<; a ivoei elireiv. en) yap tc5 
6vTi, w Xd/epare^, eh roiavra ayei,^ <f>opTt/ect xal 
Sr)fiijyopLKd, (fxta/eoyv rrjv oKijOeiav Sici/eetv, & <f>va'€i 
fi€V ovK SoTi, /eaXdj v6fiq> Se. (09 rd iroWci Bk ' 
ravra ivavria dXKrfKoi,^ icTLVf ^ re if>vai^ koI b 5 
vofio^. idv oifv r69 ala"xvv7jTai xal /irj roXfia \ 
483 XeyeifV Sm-ep voel, dvayxd^erat ivavria Xiyetv. 8 
Srj Kal <rd rovro t6 a'0if>6v KaTav€vor)Kdi>^ xaKOVpyek 
iv Tot<; \070t9, idv fiev Tt9 fcard vSfiov Xiyrjj fcard 
^vaiv virepODToiv, idv Se rd ^rrj^ (f>va€(o<;, rd rov 10 
vojJLov, &<nrep avrixa iv roi^rot?, t^ dSi/eeiv re xal 
TO) dSi/eetaOat, TUtoXov t6 Kard vofiov ala'x^tov 
XiyovTo^ cri> rov vofiov ihmKa0e^_ Kard <l)va'tv. 
<f>v<r€c fikv yap wav at(T)(^t6v iariv Sirep xal xaKiov, 
TO dSi/cetaOat, v6fi<p Sk rh dhiKelv. ovSe ydp dv8pb<: 15 

B TovTo y iarl to irdOrjfiay to d^LKelo'dai, dXX* 
avSpairoSov tlvo^, ^ KpeiTTov iari T€0vdvai ^ ^rjv, 
8o-Tt9 dSc/eovfievo^ /cal 7rpo7rr)Xa/ei^6fi€Vo<; firj otoar 
icTiv avTO^ avT^ ^orjOeiv firjSe 3XXq> oi &v scijSr)TaL 
dXX^, olfjuai, 01 TiOifievot tov^ vofiov^ 01 daOevec^ ao 
avOpcoirol eiai, Kot ol iroXKoL wpo^ auroi)? oiv Kal 
to avTol^ avfi^ipov tov^ T6 vofiov^ Ttdemai zeal 
Toif^ iiralvov^ iiracvovat Kal toi)9 ^Iroyov^ ^Ireyovaiv, 
iK<f>o0ovvT€<: T€ T0V9 ippoDfieveoTepov^ t&v dvOpoiwav 

C Kal SvvaTOv^ 6vTa^ wXiov ^eiv, Xva firj avrSv irXeo v 25 
€')(0)<rt, Xeyova-tv, ©9 ai<rxphv Kal ahiKov t6 7r\6- 

OV€KT€LV, Kal TOVTO icTi TO oSlKetv, TO wXioV t£v 

dXXcov ^r}T€iv e')(€i,v* drfair&aL yap, otfiai, avTol &v 
to iaov e)(a)(Ti ipavXoTepoi 6vt€^, 

XXXIX. A^a TauTa Brf vofiip fikv tovto dStKov 30 
Kal alaxpov Xiyerac, rd irXeov ^rjTelv Sx^ip t&v 
iroXXiZv, KoX oBtKctv avrd KaXovatv* 17 Si ye, ot^iaiy 


(f)v<n^ airrj airo^aivei, ap in Slfcatov iari rov D 
dfjLelvco rod 'xelpovo^ ifKiov e^^eti/ koX top Svvard^ 
repov Tov dSwarcoripov, SrjXol Sk ravra iroWaxov 
'Stl ofiro)? ^x^h f^oX iv to?9 ctXXot^ ^tpoi^ Koi rtSv 
5 dvOpdirtop iv i\ai^ Tai<; iroKeai, Koi rol^ yiveatv, 
in ovTO) TO Si/caiov KiKpcrat, rbv fcpelrro) rov 
^TTOi/09 apx^tv Kol irXiov ex^ecv, iwel woitp Si,/eai<p 
XP^P'^vo^ Sep^rf^ iirl ti^p 'EWoSa ioTpdrevaev rj 
6 Trarrjp avTov iirl 2/ci5^a9 ; v dWa /juvpC av ri^ E 

10 exof' TOLavra Xeyetv. . dW\ otfuit, ovtol Kara (f>vatv 
[rffv TOV Stfealov] ravra tt parr ova c, zeal val fid Ata 
xard vofiop ye rdv rfj<; ^vaeoa^, ov fiiproi lcco^ xarct 
rovrop Sv '^fiel^ ridi/jied a irXarropre^ rov^ ySeXrt- 
arov^ /cal ippcop^epeardrov^ i^fi£p avrdSp, e/c picav 

1$ \ap>fidpopr€^, Hairep Xeopra^ t^areTrdhovri^ re zeal 
yornevopre^ KaraSov\ovp^6a \ Xiyopre^ co? rb taop 484 
XPV ^X^''^ ^^^ rovro eart rd xaXop xal ro SUatop, 
idp Se ye, olp^i, (jyvaip l/eai/^p yePTjrat ^©y dprip, 
irdpra ravra diroaeiadfjuepo^ xai hiappri^a^ Kal 

20 BiaKJyvydPy Karairarr/aa^ rd i^fiirepa ypdfifiara Kai 
p^a yyapevfiara xal iircpBd^ zeal p6p.ov^ rov^ irapd 
<f>vo'Lp airapra^, iirapaard^ dpe<l>dpr) SecTTTOTiy? 17- 
fierepo^ 6 Sov\o<;, Kal epravOa ef^Xa/x^e to t^9 
(f>va€(o^ Slxatov, So/eel Bi fiot teal IllvBapo^ direp B 

25 €70) \ey(o ipSeixpvadai ip r£ aa/juan ip o5 \iyec ort 
N($/i09 wdprcop /BacriXei^ dparwp re Ka\ 
dOapdrcDP' o5to9 Bk Brf, ^alv^ dyet Bcxaidip r6 
fiiatorarop vireprdra xep/' r€fcp.alpofiai ep- 
yotaip ^Hpa/cXeo^, iirel dirpidra^ — \€7€^ ovtco 

30 7ra)9' ro yap q^apta ovk eirla-rafiai, \iyei S* in 
oiire wpidfiepo^ ovre S61/T09 rov Trjpvopov i^\d<raro 
Ta9 y8oi)9, ci)9 toiJtoi; 3j/to9 toO Bixalov <f>va€i,, Kal 

ropriAS. 61 

/8oi}9 KoX raWa KTrj/iara elpai irdvra rov fieXriopo^ 
T€ Kal Kpelrrovo^ tcl t&v X'^^P^vodv re Kal '^ttovodv, 

XL. To fiev oJfP aX7)6h oSt®? €%€*, ypooaet Si, 
&p iirl ret fiel^ta tKOrf^ idaa<; rjSr) ipiXoa'o^Lap. 
(f>CKoao<f)ia yap rol iaTtv, <S ^d/epare^, x^P^^^» ^^ 5 
T49 avTOv fierplo)^ &>fn)Tai iv tq iJXt/cta* idp Se 
irepatrepo) rov Siopro^ ipStarpl'^rj, Bia<f>dopd roip q^^^^s^^"* 
dpOpdiroDP, idp yap Kal irdpv ev^vrj^ rj Kal iroppa) 
T^9 i^XtKla^ <l>i\oa'0(l)f), dpdrfKTf Trdprcop aireipop 

D yeyovepat iarip, cip XPV ^p^'Teipop elpai top fiiWopra lo 
KaXop Koyadop Kal eifSoKifiop etreaOai apSpa. Kal 
yap T&p POfKOP awecpot ylypoprat r&p Karh rtfp 
iroXtp, Kal tSp Xoyoup 61^ hel 'x^paifiepop o/jliXcIp ip 
T0?9 avuBokaloi^ rol^ dpOpdiroi,^ Kal ISla xal &/- 
fioaicL, Kal t&p r^hopAp re Kal eindvfii&p t&p 15 
dpOpcowelap, koI avWij^Srjp t&p fi6&p TraprdTraaiP 

E aireLpoi ylypoprat. iwecSap otrp eXOaxnp eh Tipa 

iSlap ^ woXiTtK7)p irpa^cp, KarayeXaaTot ylypoprat/ ^^ ^ At 

ioairep ye, ot/jiai, ol woXitikoC, iireiSdp ax> ek tA? fj^rJiJ^' 
vfjberipa^ SuiTpil3ct<; eXdcoai, Kal roif<; \070w9, Kara- 20 
yeXaoToi elai. av/jijSaLPet yctp to tov RvpiTrlSov 
XafiTrpo^ T iaTlp eicaaro^ ip tovto), 

Kairi TOVT tirciycraiy 
vcfiau TO nXciarov ^fiepas tovtc^ n€poSf 
w* avTos avTov Tvyxov€i fiikriaros au, | 25 

485 OTTOV 8' &p <l>avXo<: rj, ivrevdep (f>evy€i Kal XotSopel 
TovTO, TO S' irepop iwatpei, evpoLtf t^ eavrov, 
'^yovfjLepo<; ovto)^ avro^ eavrop iiratpelp, dXX\ olfjiat, 
TO opOoTarop iaTip d/xcfyoTipcop fieTaa')(e2p. <^t\o- 
ao<f>la^ flip, oaop waiSeia^ X^P''^* KaXop fjueTex^tPt 30 
Kal ovK alo'xpop fietpaKi^ 6ptc <f>iXoa'o^elp* iTretBctp 
Be rjBff irpea/SvTepo^ wp ap6pco7ro^ Stc ^CXoao^fj, 


/eararfeXcurrov, co Xoi/epare^, to XP^t^^ ylr/verai, koI B 
676)76 ofioiorarov irdayco irpo^ roif^ <f>tXoao<l)ovvTa^ 
&airep wpo^ tou? ^jreWi^ofiipov^ /cal irai^ovra^* ' 

irav fiev yctp wacSiov IBco ^ en irpoa^Kei Bui- 

5 Xeyeo'dai, otrra) yfreWv^ofievov xal irat^ov, xat/>(» re 
/cat xa/s/ei/ /loi <f>alverai, koX ekevOipiov koI irpeirov 
rfj Tov 'jraiSlov fiKiKiq* irav Se aa^oi^ BuiXeyofiipov 
iraiSaplov dKOvaoi), irvKpov rl fioi hoKel XPVH^ elvac 
zeal avta fiov rd (Sra Kal /lot Soxei SovKoTrpeire^ t& 

10 elvcu* irav Bk dvSpo^ aKova-ij Tt9 '^eWt^o/iivov 'fj 
iral^ovra opa, KarayeKaarov if>aiverai, koX avavhpov C 
Kal irkrjytSv a^tov. ravrov oiv e^mye rovro Trac;^© 
Kal irpo^ Toh^ <f>t\oa'o^ovvTa^, Trapd veq) fiev yctp 
fAeipaKitp op&v <f>L\oa'o<l)lap ayafjiai, Kal irpeiretv fiot 

15 ioKeli KoX '^yovfKU ikevOepov riva eXvai tovtov tov 
dvOpayrrovj tov he /x^ ifxXoao^ovvTa dveXevOepov xal 
ovSiwoTe ovSevo^ d^tciaovTa iavTov ovtc koKov ovtc 
yewalov irpdryfiaTO^* iTav Sc Sif irpea^vTepov tSeo D I 

€Tt if>i\oa'0(f>ovvTa xal fiff diraWaTTO/jbevov, TrKrfyc^v 

20 fAot Boteet ijBrj Beio'dai, cS XoixpaTe^, ovto^ 6 dvrjp. 

6 yctp vvv Bi) IXeyov, V7rdpx€t TOVT(p Ttp dvOpoiTrtp, 

K&v irdvv ev<f)vri^ ^, dvdvBpcp yeveaOat <f>€vyovTC tA 

fiiaa T^9 TrcJXco)? Kal Ta^ dyopd^, iv ah €(f)7j 6 

kTTOCffT^^ T0V9 dvBpa^ dpiirperreh yiyveadai, KaTa* 

25 BeBvKOTi Bk TOV Xoiirdv filov ^L&vai fierd fietpaKicov 
iv ycDvia TpiSv f) Terra/)®!/ y fttOvpll^ovTa. i kevOepov 
Be Kal fieya Kal iKavbv firjShroTe <l>0€y^aa'0aL E 

XLI. 'Eyo) Be, (S 'StWKpaTe^, irpd^ ae iirceiKm 
iyw ^CkiKW, KivBvveiim oiv ireirovOevOji vvv iirep 1 

30 6 ZijOo^ Trpov TOV *AfKf>iova 6 WfpiirlBov, oiwep 
ifiVTjaOrjv. Kal ydp i/iol toulvt aTTa iiripxerai 
TTpo^ ae Ai7€M/ oldirep enelvo^ wpo^ t6v dBeXijyov, 

J t<*>V»»»»%A«<i 

ropriAS. 63 

in dfjLeXel^y cS XoiKparef;, cSv Set ae iiriiieKeiadai^ 
Koi (f>vaiv '^vyrf^ Ahe yevvaiav /MCipa/cidSet rivl 
486 Bunrpiirei^ fiopifxi/jLari, \ /cal ovt &v SiKfj^ fiovkauri 
irpoOtV &v 6p0(3^ \6yoVf oUr elKO^ &v koI wcOavov 
Xd^ot^y oiiff virkp dWov veavvicov fiovXevfia /Sov- 5 
Xeva-ato. Kalroi, w <l>iXe Sa^AC/oare? — /cai fioi fi'qhkv 
d')(jS€a6^' evvoUi ydp ipw t§ a'p — ovk aia'xpov 
hoKel troL elvaL ovtod^ ex^tv d^ eyo) ae olfiat exetv 
Kol TOi)? dXXov^ Tov^ iroppm del ^iXoaoifyla^ eXav' 
vovra^; vvv ydp el ti^ <rov Xafiofievo^ tj dXXov 10 
OTOvovv T&v roiovTcov €49 TO SecfKOTijpLOv diroyd^oi, 

B ^daxoyv dZiKelv p/rjiev dSmovvra, olaff* in ovk &v yr^ 
€%049 2 Tc xprjaai^o <ravrm, aXX' tXiyyupr)^ &v xal 
Xpurp^ OVK e^J^v 2 rt etwoi^, Kal eh t6 Bifcaarijpiov 
dva^d<;, tcartfyopov rv^o^v irdvv (f>avXov xal p^X' ^5 
07fpov, diroOavoi^ dv, el ^ovXotTO Oavdrov aot 
rtpaadai. xalrot ttcS? ao<f>dv tovto icTLv, S Sw- 
xpare^, et ti<; eif<f)va Xa^ovaa re^w; <l)£Ta edrj/ee 
Xeipova, p^ijre avrov avr^ hwdpuevov jSoijOelv p,7)S 
ixawaai ix rwv peylarmv KivBvvoDV p^fjre eavrov 20 

C p^rfre SlKXov pnrfieva, inro Se t&v ix^p&v '/repurvXaaOai, ^^ (^ JJL^ 
irdaav rifv ovaiav, dreyyw Be driiiov ^rjv ev rfi ^JOot^C 
TToXe*; Tov Se roiovrov, eX ri koX drfpotKorepov 
elprjadai, e^eariv eirl Koppr)^ rjiirrovra p/fj Sihovai 
Si/crjv. dXX* m ^yaOi, ep^l weiffov, irava-ai, S' iXeyxc^v, 25 
TTpayp^TODV S' evfiovaiav d aicei, ical da-zcei oTrodev^^^^'^r^*' 
Bo^ei^ ^povelv^ dXXoi^ rd Kop/^d ravr a<^6t9, efre^*^**"^ 
XfjprjpMTa XPV <l>dvat elvai, elre <f)Xvapla^, e^ Sv 
Kevotaiv eyKaToi/ctjaet^ Sopoi^^ ^rfXSv ovk iXeyxovra^ 
dvhpa^ rd piKpd ravra, dXX^ ot<; San xal ^lo^ koX 30 

D ho^a Kal oKXa iroXXd arya0d, 

XLIL Sn. Eli XP^^V^ ex^v irvyxO'VOv rrjv 


ylrvxv^t cS KaWt#c\6t9, ov/e &p otei fie aafievov evpeiv 
rovTcov Ttvd r&v \i6wv ^ ^aaavl^ovai t6v ')(pva6v, 
Trjv dpla-Trfv, 7rpd<; ifjVTLva efieWov irpoaar/ar/a>v 
avrr/v, eX fjLOt oiioKoyfjaeiev i/eelvr) koXoo^ redepa- 
5 irevadai rrjv ^vxv^i ^i etaeadaL irt ixavS^ exfo 
itt^ikjL. Kol ovBep fiov Bei dWrj^ §a<rdvo v ; 

KAA. IIpo? ri hrj rovr ipcora^, do X(ifcpaT€<; ; E 
Sil. 'E7Q) aoi ipw vvv, olfiai iyo^ aol ivTC' 
Tvxv^<^^ ToiovTtp ipfiaito ivrervx^Kevau 
10 KAA. Ti ^; 
^ SXi. E5 o2S' 8t4 av fioL aif ofioKoyTjajj^ irepl 
(Sv 17 ifirj '^v^V Bo^d^ei, raOr' rjBrj iarlv avrd 
rdXrfdr}. ivvow yap 'Stl rbv fieKKovra \ jBaaavielv 487 
LKavw ^vxv^ iripi opOoi^ re ^dar)^ koX /jl^ rpla 
. , 15 dpa Bet €X€iv, a ci) irdvra ex^c^, iirLanjfirjv re koX 
I ' evvoiav koX irapprja-lav. iyd yap 7ro\\o?9 ivrvyxdv(o 
6i ifie ovx oloL re el<rl /Baa-avl^ecv 8td t6 fiff ao<f>ol 
elvai &<nr€p av* erepoi Sk (roifyol fiev elcnv, ovfc 
ideKovat he fioc Xiyeiv rrjv d\i]0€tav Btd to firj 
2Q KrjheaOai fiov Sairep av* t® Se ^evco rooSe, Vopyla^ 
T€ Kol IIcSXo?, ao^di fi€V Kal <f>L\a) iardv ifid, B 
ivSeeo-ripa) Se wappTja-ia^ Kal aicx^vrripoTepca p,dXKov 
Tov SiovTo^i' ir£<; yap ov; & ye €t9 roaovTOV 
alax^v7j<; ikrfKvOarov, Sere Sid to alcx^J^^aOai 
25 ToX/jua eKorepo^i avr&v airb^ avr^ evavrla Xeyetp 
tfc- . e vamiov^ TroXXfiSi/ dvOptoircDVt koX ravra irepl rdov 
-* «^'*' C fieyla-Tcov. <n) 8k ravra irdvra l;^€49 d ol aXKoi, 
ovK exova-f werraihevaai re ydp Uavdi^, C09 woXKol 
&v (fytfO-aLev ^AdrfvaUov, Kal ifiol et eSvovf;. rLvt 

2f> reKfiTipUp xP^I^^^* ^7^ ^^^ ^P^* ^^^^ vfJM^ iy(o,0 
(3 KaXXt^X6t9, rerrapa^ Svra^ KoivoDVodf; yeyovora^ 
ao<f>La^, 0*6 re Kal TLaavhpov rdv ^Ki^iZvalov Kal 

ropriAS. 65 

"AvSpmva rbv ^ Aviporicovo^ koX NavaLKvSrjv rhv — 
^oXapyea, /cal wore vfioiv €7© hrrjKovo'a ^ovXevo- " 
fUvtov ficxpi' i'rroi rrfv a'o<f>lav oaKrjriov eir), xal — 
oZS' ire eviica iv vfilv rotdSe t*9 Sofa, /Lti) irpoOv" 
fiecaOac eh ttjv aKpi^evav <l)c\o<ro<f>€lp, dWa euXo- 5 < 
D jSeLaffai irapeKeXeveade dWtj'Koi,^ ottco^ iitj iripa rov U. 

Seoj/To? (To^drepob y€v6/M€voi Xiycrere Sia<l)0apivT€^,^^Tf^ ''f^ 
iwetS^ oiv aov dKovao ravra ifiol avfijSovXevovTOf:, 
airep rol^ aeavrov iTaiporaTOi^, iKavov fioi reKfiijpiov 
iariv irt <»9 d\q6&^ fioi, €vvov<; el. Kal firjv iri 10 
ye oto<; irapfyqaid^eadai koX iirj ala"xvpea0ai, avro^ 
re ^179 Kal 6 X0709 ov oKlyov irporepov SXeye; -" 
OfioXoyec aoi. ^et, Srj ovroDal S^Xoi; ore tovtcov ^*^^^' 
E Trip I vvvi* edv n <n) iv to?9 X070A9 oiioKoyrjari^ 
fioiy ^e^aaavuTfievov rovr rjBrj earai, ixavA^ \m 15 
ep,ov re /cal o-oO, kclL ovtcirt avro herftrei, eir SXKriv 
^daavov dva^ipeiVt ov yap av wore avrd aw- 
exf^pTfo^a^ av ovre aoif>La^ evieiq ovr aiaxvvq^ 
ireptovaia' ovS* aS dirarSv ifik avyx^^p'^aai,^ av* 
if>i\o<; yap fioi eZ, (09 fcal ai/T09 ^9. r^ 6vTi oiv 20 ^ 
1; i/iT) Kal arj ofioXoyia riXo^ ijSrj e^ei rr}^ dXrj0ela^, 
irdvT(ov he KaXXiarr) iarlv 17 aKeyjri,^, cS KaXXiKXei^, 
irepl TOVTODv <Sv aif Bi] fwi iwerifjLrfa'a^, irolov Ttva 
488 XPV cZi/at Tov avSpa Kal ri eirimriheveiv Kal \ fiexpi' 
Tov, Kal TTpecfivrepov Kal vea>Tepov Bvra, eyco yhp 25 
el Ti fit) 6p0&^ TTpdrrca Karct rhv filov tov ifiavTov, 
ei Xa0L TovTO on ovx eKoSv e^afiaprdvco a\\' dp,a0ia 
rfi e/A^. aif oiv, &(nrep rfp^o) vovOerelv fjue, fii} 
dTToaTT}^, aW* UavH^ fioi evSei^at, ri eon tovto h 
iwLTTjBevTeov fiot, koI riva rpoirov KTi]aal/iT)v &v 30 
avTo. Kal edv fie XdjSrj^ vvv fiev aoi OfioXoyija'avTa, *^ 
iv 8k TO) v<rT€p<p XP^^V f^V '^ovra irpdrrovra ane^ 
PL. OOK ti 



&fi6Korpiaa, iravv fie '^yov pkaKa elvai koX fir)K€Tt B 
TTori fie vov0€Ti]a'jj^ iarepov, c»9 fir)S€vb^ d^iov Svra, 
ef afyxfj^ Si fioi eTravaXajSe, 7rc3? <^^9 t6 Bifcatov 
eyebv kclL aif xal TI ivSapo^ to Karct <f>va'cv; ayeiv 
5 ^la Tov KpeirTO) ra r&v fjTTovaav Koi apj(€iv top 
/3e\Tla> T&v ^€ip6v(0V xal nrXeov c'^ecv tov afieivay 
TOV ffnivKoTepov ; firf ri, aXKo Xiyee^ to iUaiov elvai, 

' *•* * ^ 6p0co9 fiifivrjfiai ; 

XLIIL KAAu 'AXX^i TavTa Skeyov koI totc, 
to /eal vvv Xiyto. 

2fl. TloTcpov Sk TOV avTOv /SeXTLO) KoXeh cif 
/eal KpelTTw ; ovhe yap tov t6t€ 0I09 t' tj fia^etv 
aov tI iroTe Xeyec^. iroTcpov Toif^ IcxypoTepov^ 
KpeiTTOV^ KcCKei^ KaX Se? aKpoaaOav tov lax^pOTipov 
15 T0V9 dfrOevearipov^y ol6v fiov So/c€t? Koi t6t6 ev- 
BeLKwaOai (09 al fieyaXat 7r6X€«9 €7rl Ta9 a-fiifcpd^ 
KarcL Th ^vaei Slxaiov epxovTai, otl KpeiTTOv^ elal 
Kal ia^ypoTepaiy 609 to /cpetTTov /eal UrxypOTepov 
/caX /SeX/riov Tairrdv 6v, ^ ^aTt ^cKtIc^ fiev elvaiy 
20 ijfTTtt) Sk /eai aaOeviarepoVy Koi /cpelTTCD fiev etvai, 
L Vjg^iiJU fJ^^VpoTepov Be* rj 6 avT09 Zpo9 earl tov ^eXriovo^ D 
KoX TOV KpelTTOvo^ ,* TovTo fiot avTO a'a<f>S^ Bi6pi(rov, 
TavTdv 17 h-epov iorv Td KpelTTOv Kal to j3e\Tiov 
/eal TQ laxypSTepov ; 
25 KAA. 'AW* €7© (rot aa^S^ Xiym i^ti TavTov 

211. Ov/COVV 01 TToWol ToO ei'09 KpelTTOV^ €tVl 

/eaTh <f>v(nv; ot Brj /eal tov9 vofiov^ TLOevTai, eirl 
T^ kvly Sawep teal av apTi, iXeye^* 
30 KAA. 110)9 yap oi; 

211. Ta T&v iroXXSv dpa vofiifia tcL t&v 
KpeiTTOveov iaTlv» 

ropriAS. 67 

KAA. Ildvv 76. 
£ 2i2. OvKOvv rd rmv /Sekriovfop ; oi yap tcpelr' 
T0V9 /SeXrfov? iroKb Kara rbv abv \6yov. 

KAA. Na/. 

%il, OvKOVP rd Toiirmv vo/nifia /card d>vaiv 5 
KoKd, KpeiTTovcov ye Svrtov; 

KAA, ^fiL 

2Xi. 'Ap' ovv ovx oi iroXKoX vofil^ovaiv oSrto^ 
(09 dpTi, ad <n) ^\€769, hUaidv elvai rd laov ex^iv 
489 KoX aXaxiov to oStKeiv rov dBt/eetadaL ; \ Strri ravra 10 
fj oi ; KoX oirw^ firj dXtoaei ivravOa aif al(rxw6fi€vo^, 
vofil^ovaiv, ^ oS, oi ttoXXoI rd Xaov ^x^^^ ^^^ ov 
TO irXeov Sixaiov elvai, zeal al<ry(^iov rd dBixeiv rov 
dBi/eeurOai; Mi) <f>06vei fiov dwoKplvaaOai tovto, 
KaWixXec^, Xv, idp fiot o/JLoXoyTjarj^, fi€/3aico(ra>fiai 15 
rjSi] wapd aov, are ixavov di/Spo^ BiayvtSvai dofio- 

KAA. 'AW' 01 76 'JToWol vofii^ovaiv ot/ro)?. 

SO. Oi) vofJLq) apa fiovov iarlv ataxiov t6 
dSixetv rov aSiKetadav, ovSk iiKaiov to laov ex^^v, 20 
B dXXd Kol <f>va-€f Sare KivSvvevei^ ovk OLKrjOri Xir/etv 
iv T0?9 trpoaOev oihe op0w ifiov Karriyopelv \iycov 
OTi ivavriov earlv 6 vo/jlo^ xal fi <l>v<n9, & Brf xal / *^ ^ 
€7© 71/01)9 KaKD upydS iv to?9 Xoyot^, idv /liv Tt9 \/Jj[j^m^ 
fcard if>iaiv Xeytf, iwl rov vo/xov aymp, idv Si Tt9 25 
Kara rov vofiov, hr\ rrjv <f>v(nv. 

XLIV. KAA. Ovroalv dvrjp ov irada-erai 
<l>\vapoov, EtTre fioc, oS ^dtepare^, ovk alo'X'^vev, 
rrfKcKOvro^ dv, ovofiara 0ffp€v(ov, kclL idv t^9 p^/JUirt 
C d/JLaprrf, Sp^acov tovto rroiovfievo^; ifjue ydp otev 30 
dWo ri \iy€iv rd Kpelrrov^ elvai, fj rd fieKriov^s; 
ov rroKav aoi Xiyo} ort ravrov (fy/f/JLV elvai ro fiiXriov 


Kal TO KpuTTov; rj otei /jl€ \ey€iv, ehv avptherbs 
avWeyp Sov\o)v koI iravroiair&v dpOpmircov /MrfSePo^ 
d^icov wX^v to*©? T^ a-d/jLart laxvpiaaaOat,, koI 
ovTOi (jyAciv, avTct ravra elvai, v6/jLifia; 

5 Sil. Eit€Vy(Sao(f>d>TaT€K.a\XlK\€c^' ovTO)\iy€i<i; J} 
KAA. Hdvv fikv oiv. 

Sfl. 'AXV eyo) fiiv, w hatfiovie, Kal avro^ 
\,;sAfSfS-^^ iraKai, roTra^a) tolovtov rl ae Xeyeiv to Kpelrrov, 
Kol dp€pci)T& y\vyofi€vqs (ra^A^ elBivav 8 rt \iyetq, 
lo ov fyctp &77roi; av ye tov^ Svo iSeXrlov^ f^yel rov 
evo^, ovSe tov^ <rov9 SovXov^ ^eXriov? aov, on 
laxvporepoL etaiv fj av, oXXA irdXiv i^ dp'^ij^ 
eliriy rl wore Xiyei,^ tov9 fieXriov^y eirecSrf ov roif^ 
laxvporepov^ ; Kal cJ Bavfidaie Trpaorepov fie irpp- 
IS SiSaa-fce, Xva fiff dTro^ocTrjaon irapa <rov»^*^^ ^j^r^ 
KAA. ^IpoDvevei^ © lifaKpare^, E 

2fl. M<i TO I' Zrjdov, (S K.aWiK\€c^f ^ o*i> XP^' 
fievo^ iroXKa vvv Si) elptovevov 7rp6<i fie* aW' Wi 
elire, riva^ Xiyei^ rov^ jSeXrlov^; etvai,; 
20 KAA. Tov9 dfieivov^ lycoye, 

SQ. 'Opa^ apa orb cv avro^ ovofiara Xiyev^, 
&7\ot9 Se ovSev. ovk ipet<;, toi)? /SeXTtbu? Kal 

(^^ c\cO'^'^/Cp€LTTOV<i TTOTCpOV TOl)? ^pOVlfKOTJpO V^ XiyCl^ fj 

aXXoi;9 Tivd^; 
25 KAA. 'AWa val fid ACa rovrov^ Xeyfo, Kal 

a^ohpa ye. 

SO. HoWaKi^ dpa eU <j)pov&v fivpicov | /if) 490 

^povovmoDV Kpeirrcov iarl Kara rov aov \6yov, Kal 

TovTov apx^^v Bet, rov^ S' apyeo'OaL, Kal irXeov e^eiv 
30 rov dpxovra r&v dp^ofievoDV. rovro yap fioi, hoKei^ 

PovKea-Oat Xeyeiv — Kal ov prf/iara dr)peva) — , el 6 

eh r&v fivpUav Kpelrrtov, 

ropriAS. 69 

KAA. *AX\a ravr Itrriv & Xeya), tovto ydp 
olfiai iyoi) to Blxaiov elvav ^vae^, to Pekrio) 6vTa 
B icaX <l>povtfuoT€pov koI ap')(€iv koI ttXcov ^€cv t&v 

XLV. 20w "Ejf 6 S^ avTov, tI ttotc ai vvv 5 
\€7€t9/ iav €v T^ avTip ^fi€v, SaTTCp vvv, iroWol 
dOpooc dvBptoirov, teal fifuv ^ iv kocv^ iroXKa ai,rla 
KoX TTOTci, iSfi€v Sk TTavToSawotf 01 fikv ia")(ypol, ol 
he daOevei^j el? ik fi^&v ^ <f>povifi(l>T€po^ Trepl TavTa 
laTpo^ oov, 17 Si, olov €1x6%, t&v fiev ia^vpoTepo^, 10 
T&v Sk dcdeveaTCpo^i, aXKo Tt ovto% ^povt/uoTcpo^ 
flfi&v wv fieXTitov Kal KpeiTTcov eaTai eh Taxna; 

KAA. Tldw 76. 
C 211. *H oiv TovTcov T&v aiTicDV ifKeov fip^&v 
ifCTeov avT^ oti /SeXTicov iaTiv, ^ t^ fJkkv dp')(eiv 15 
irdvTa ixeivov Bel vipbevv, iv Be r^ dvaXiaKevv re " 
avTa KoX KaTa'XprfO'Oai ei% to eaxnov aoifia ov 
7r\eove/eTr)TioVf el fii) fiiWet ^rfjuovcrOa^ dKKd t&v 
fiev TrXeov, t&v 8' SXaTTOv exTiov idv Se Tv')(rf 
irdvTwv daOevearaTo^ dv, TrdvTmv eXdy^ioTOV t^ 20 
fieXTLa-Tip, & KaXXUXec^f ov^ ovTm%, & ^yaOi; 

KAA. [Ilepl] XiTia \67et9 koI iroTa Koi larpov^ 
D kclI <f>Xvapia%' €70) Sk ov Tavra Xiyto, 

2ii. TloTepov oiv tov <f>povifJLa>Tepov jSeXTLw 
Xeyei^; ^dOt ^ p/^, 25 

KAA. "£70)76. 

2fl. 'AXX' ov TOV iSeXTlm irXeov helv l^eti/; 

KAA. Oi5 auTlcnv ye ovSk ttot&v. 

2n. MavOdvco, dXX^ ?<ra>9 tfiarmv^ koX hel tov 
i<f>avTiKonaTov pAytaTov ip,dTiov ?X^tv /cai TrXeiaTa 30 
/cat KdXXtaTa dp»*n'e')(pp,evov irepvvevau 

KAA. Tlolwv ipxLTUov; ^ ^\ ^^ ( 


, 2n. 'AW* e/9 virohrj^ara hrfKov ori, iei ifKeo- 
veicrelv top i^povi^rarov eh ravra xal fieKriarov. 
Tov (TKVTOTOfiov ?<7Ci>9 fii^ytOTa hel virohrffiara Koi E 
irkeioTa vwoSeBe/jiivov ireptTrarelv. 
5 * KAA. Uola vwohrffiara (fikvapei^ ^X^^* 

2fl. *A\X' el /JLTJ rd rotavra Xeyec^, f(ro)9 t^ 

TotdSe* olov yecofyyiKov avipa irepl yrjv (fipovtfiov 

T€ Kol Kdkbv Kal dya06p, tovtov Srj f<ra>9 SeJ 

7r\€ov€/CT€tv T&v owepfiaTcov Kol (09 TrXeloTtp airip^ 

10 fiari XPW^^^ ^*^ '^^ ainov yijv, 

KAA. 'il? del ravrd Xeyev^, cS Xoi/cpare^. 
Sn. Ot; fiovop ye, (S KaWlfckei^, dWct koX 
irepX T(Sv avT&v, n^b^^uu. 

KAA. N17 I Toxjs 0€ov2, are^^i/cS? ye del aKvrea^ 491 
15 T6 Kal kva^a^ koI fiayeipov^ Xeyoav Kal iarpov^ 
ovSev Ttaieiy &airep irepl rovrcov fifuv Svra rbv 

2n. OvKovp <n) ipei^ [Trepl] rlvcov 6 Kpelrrtov 
re Kal ^povt/JLoirepo^ irXeov ex'^v SiKaico^ irXeoveKrei ; 
20 ^ oUre ifiov viro^dXKovro^ dve^et oSt avrd^ ipec^ ; 
KAA. *A\X* lycoye xal wdXai Xiyo), irp&Tov 
fiev Toi)9 KpeiTTov^ oX elaiv, ov aKvroTOfiov^ X€7(» B 
ovSe fjLa/yeipov^, aXV ot &v efe jrA T?}y TToX gcjy 
wpdyfiara (f)p6vcfiotmriv, Zvriva &v rpoirov ei 
25 oIkoito, KaXprn^jA^vov (jypovifioi, dWd Kal dvSpelg i, 
Uavol 8vre^ & civ vorjacoaiv inri/reXelvy Kal firj 
diroKd/jLvcoo't Sid /jLaXaKiav rrj^ '^t'XV^* 

XLVI. 2fl. 'Opa9, <3 /3i\Tia'T€ KaWUXei^, 

C09 ov ravrd <rl) r e/Mov Kartfyopei^ Kal iyo) aov; 

30 (TV fikv ydp e/jik <f>rj^ del ravrd "XAyeiv^ Kal ^ifi^ev 

fjLOV iydi Be aov rovvavrlov in, ovSeirore ravrd 

Xiyet^ irepl r&v avrdov, dWd rore fiev rov^ l3e\rlov^ 

ropriAS. 71 

T€ ical Kpelrrov^ tov? laxvporipov^: &pU^0Vy aZ0i^ 
Be Tov^ <l>povifia)T€pov^, vvv 8* aC Srepov tv ^/cei^ 
Sx(ov' avSpeiOTcpol rive^ vird (rov Xiyovrac ol ^.^ 
KpeLrrov^ koX ol jSeXriov^. dW\ d ^yade, ehro^v k^^ h^^ 
diraWdyrfOt rlva^ irore X&yei^ rov^ ffeXrlov^ re ^^'^ 
Kal Kpeirrov^ koI eh i rb, 

KAA. 'A\V etprfted ye (Sytoye roi)? <f>povlfjiOi/^ 
eh Ttt T^9 7roX€0)9 irpdyfiara xal dvSpeiov^. tovtov^ 
D ydp wpoa-TjKei r&v iroXetov ap^evv, Kal t6 81/caiov 
TOVT iarij ifKeov e^e*v tovtov^ t&v aXKwVj rov^ lo 
dp')(pvTa^ t£v dp')(pfiivwv, 

2fl. T/ he; avT&Vj cS eracpe; 

KAA. IIcS? Xeyec^; 

2n. "Ej'a exaoTov Xeyo) avrov eavrov ap'^ovra. 
ff rovTo fJihf ovSev Set, avrov eavrov dp^ecv, rtSv 15 
Se dWoDP; 

KAA. IIo)? eavrov dpxovra Xiyet^; 

2n. OvSev rroiKikov, aX\* &airep ol woXKoly 
ad^pova Svra Kal eyKparrj avrhv eavrov, r&v 
E r)Sov&v Kal einOvfjLt&v dp')(pvra r&v ev eavrtp, 20 

KAA. *fl9 1781)9 et\ roifr rjkiOlov^ lyAyei,^ roi^ n 
adtppova^. I 

2fl. na)9 ydp; ovheh 2<rTe9 ovk &v yvolrj in 
ov rovro Xiyo). 

KAA. ndvv ye a'<f>6Spa, <S 'S,coKpare<i, cTrelas 
7r(i39 &v evhaifitov yevoiro &v0p€OTro^ SovXevcov 
or^ovv; oKkd rovr earl ro Kard ^vai,v Ka'Xhv koX 
SUatov, 8 eyd) aot vvv irap^aca^ofievo^ Xeyo), in 
Bel rov op6&s l3i(Da6fjLevov ra9 fi^v i'lrtdvfiia^ rd^ 
eatJrov iav €09 fieyiara^ elvai xal fiff KoXd^eiv, 3< 
492 ravrai^ Be €09 peylarat^ oiaai^ Ixavov \ elvai uth;- 
pereiv 8^* dvBpeiav Kal if>p6vfiatv Kal diroirifATrXdveu 


civ &v del ij einOvfiia ^l^vryrai. oKKA tovt, oifiat, 
TO 49 TToXXol^ ov Swarov* '60€V yltiyovat rov^ roir- 
ovTov<; Si ala"xyv7iv dwo/cpmrrofievoi rfiv avr&v 
dSvvafiiav, koX aiay^pov htj ^aaiv elvac ttjv d/eo' 
5 Xaaiav, iirep iv roi^ irpoaOev iyco eXeyov, Sovkov- 
fievoi, Toi)? ^eXriov^ Trjv <f>vavv dv0p(O7rov^y xal avrol 
ov Svvdfievoi i/cTTOpl^ecOac rat^ r/Soi/ai^ ifKrjptociv B 
crraivovai rrjv cto^poavvqv kclL ttjv Sixaioavvrjv 
Sid T^v avr&v dvavSpiav, iirei ye 0I9 ef ^PX^9 

10 virrjp^ev fj ^aaCKewv vliacv elvav ff avrov^ rfi (f>va€t 
l/cavov^ iiaroplaa aOai, dpyrfv riva ff rvpavvlBa rj 
Svvaarelav, ri rf oKrjOeia ata^t'Ov koI koklov etrf 
a-<o(l>poavvfj^ tovtol^ to?9 dvOpwiroi^; oh i^bv dnro- 
\avei,v T&v ojyaBSxv Koi fir)S€v6^ ifiTroSdv oj/to?, 

15 avTol eavTot^ Beairorrjv JTraydyoivro rov t£v ttoWcov 

I dvOpdiircDv vofiov re kclI \6yov koX yjtoyov; rj TrtS? 

ovK &v affKtoi yeyovore^ etrjaav viro rov koXov rod C 

T^9 SvKatoavvr)<; Kai rrj^ .aai^poavvr)^^ fir^hev irKeov 

vifiovre^ toI<; <f>i\ot^ toa9 avrcSv ^ to2^ i'xOpoh, koX 

20 ravra dp')(pvre^ iv t§ eavr&v irokei ; dXKd t§ 
dXffdeia, w Xd/cpare^^ fjv ^9 ab SioiKecVy oSS' l;;)^€e* 
Tpvff)^ KoX aKoKaaia koi iXevOepia, idv iTn/cgvplav 
^XOi '^ovr iarlv dperrj re koX eviatfiovia* ra hi 
SXKa ravT iarl rd KaWcoirlauLaTa^ rd irapd ^ixrvv 

25 avvdrj/jiara, dvOpdirtov <f>\vapLa teal ovSevo^ d^ia. 

XLVII. 2fl. OvK dyevvw^ 76, cS Ka\\(/cX6t9, D 
hre^ep'XJ^i, r^ Xoy^ Trapprja-ca^OfJievo^' a'a<f>&^ yap 
av vvv \ey€i^ & oi oKKoi, Biavoovvrai fiiv, \eyeiv 8k 
OVK iOiXovai, heofiav oiv iyci aov firjSevl rpoirtp 

30 dvelvavy Xva Ttp ovrt KardBrj/Kov yivrjrai 7r(3<s /Sicoreov, 
xal /JLOV Xeye* Ta9 fiev eTndvfiia^ <f>rj^ ov KoXaareov, 
ei fiiWei Tt9 otov Sei elvai, idvra Se avrdf; €09 

ropriAS./. 73 ^ 

fAeylara^ irkijpcoo'vv avral^ ofioOev yi iroOev eroir 
E fJba^etv, zeal tovto elvat rffv dpenjv; 

KAA. ^rjfjkl ravra iyoi. 

SXl. Ov/c apa opd&^ Xeyovrai oi p/qhevh^ Seo- 
lievoi €vSaifiov€^ elvaL 5 

KAA. Ol \l0ot yhp &p oSra) ye koI ol vexpol 
evSaiftoviararov elev, sY 

y^ J 2fl. 'AWA /Ji€v Sif K ol &v ye aif \ey€t<; Seivo^ 
6 ^to9. ov yap rot 0avfid^ot,fi av, el FivpCTriSrj^ 
a\rj07J ev rolaSe \eyei, Xeyoav lo 

tU d* oiiSev, ^2 TO {jjv fjJv i(m Kordavtlvf 
TO KarBavelu bt Cfjv; 

/cal '^fieU T^ SjfT^ f<7a)9 riOvafiev* oirep rjSi] rov \ 




eycoye /cal tj/covaa r&v tro^&v, c»9 vvv fifiel^ reOva/jiev, «- 
Kal TO piv a&fid iariv r)fuv arjfia, rtj^ Sk y^vyrf<; 15 ^^<i^ 
TOV TO ev ^ ein6vp,La v eia\ Tvyxdvei, ov olov ava- 
ireiOeadat leal fierairliTTetv dvco kotco. kol tovto 
apa Ti^ pv0o\oy&v Kop/^o^ avijp, 2f<ra>9 S^/ceXo? t«9 6y/-P^ * 
^ ^ItoKlko^, T rapdyoDv ry ov6p»a Tv hih to iriOavov ^^^""^ 
T€ zeal TTiaTiKov &v6p,aae wlOov, toi)? Se dvoi^ov^ 20 
dp,vijTov^' T&v S' dpiVqrtov tovto ttj^ -^1/5^^9 08 al **>«^-a*^^*^* 
iiriOvp^iai elal, to aKoKaa-Toy avTov teal ov ajeyavov, UvtCvJ^''" 
C&9 TeTpr}p,€V0^ etff 7rl6o<:, Sid Tijv dirXrjaTlav direir 
Kdaa^, Tovvamiov Srj o5to9 o-ol, c5 KaWlxXei^y ^^^^^ 
ivSeUvvrai ©9 t&v iv^AiSov — to deiSi ^ &) Xiycov — 25 
oiToi affXifOTaTO^ &v elev oi dp,vr)Toi, Kal <f>opoi€v 
6i9 TOi' TCTpmievov nridov v8<op ereptp TotovTtp 
TeTpr)p,evip KoaKtvcjf, to Sh Koc/eivov Apa Xiyec, W9 
e<^ 7rpo9 ifjik TsMywVy Trjv '^v')(jfjv elvau* Ttjv ik 
^Irvx^v Koa-Klvip direiKO^re ttjv t&v dvo^Tcov ®9 30 . . 
Ter pr)p,€vr)V, are ov Swafievrjv c t^hv Bi dinaT lav V^rt »^ . 
T€ teal X'/jdriv, Tavr iirieiKoi^ fiev iartv viro ti 


droira, irp^l firiv h iycb fiovkofiai aoi ivS€i^dfiev<K, 
idv TTft)? ol6<; re cS> ireiaai, fieraOeaOcu, dvrX rov 
dirX'^aroD^ koX dKoXdcrroD^ i')(pvTO^ filov rov KOfrfiUo^ 
KoX Toe9 de\ irapovavv i/cavw /cat i^apKovvTco^ 
5 ej(pvra j3lov iKia-Oai. dWct, worepov TreWfo rl ere 
teal fie rarL0e(Ta v evSaifiovearipov^ elvcu tov^ Koa- D 
fjLLOv^ Toov aKoXdarcov, rj ovSivy aXX* &v xal iroWib 
Toiavra f juvOoXoyS, ovBiv rv fiaWov fieradTjaev ; 
KAA. ToOTaki]0€<JT€pov elprjKO^f & 'S.toKpare^, 

10 XL VIII. SXi. ^ip€ &;, dWrju aot elxova Xeyco 
ix rov avTOv ryvfivaalov ry vvv. aKoirei yap el 
TovovBe Xeyet^ irepl rov fiiov i/earepov rov re 
ad>(f)povo^ teal rov dKoKdaroVt otov el Bvotv dvSpotv 
eKareptp irW ot troSXo l eleVf Kal r^ fiev eriptfi vycec^ 

15 Kal irkripei^t o fiev otvov, 6 8k fJkeKiro^, 6 Se ydXa/cro^ E 
Kal aWoL TToWol TroW&v, vdfxaTa Bh anrdvia koa 
')(aKeirh eKdarov rovrtav elij Kal fierd TrdXX&v irovtov 
Kal %a\67r(i5i^ eKiropL^ofieva* fikv oiv irepo^ ttXi?- 
pcoadfjbevo^ fi'^r iwo'xeTevot fujre rt <l>povTi^oi, oXX' 

20 €V€Ka TovTtop "^avx^lav ?%ot* t^ 8' ereptp rd fiev 
vdfjuaraj Sairep Kal €Keip<p, Bvvard fiep iropi^ecOat, 
)(a\£7rd Be, rd S* dyyeta rerpfffiiva Kal aaOpd, koI 
dpoyKd^ovTO del Kal PVKra Koi ^fiepap TTifJLirXdpac \ 
avrd, ij Ta9 €aj(dTa9 Xirn'otro Xvwa^' dpa roiovrov 494 

25 exarepov 6pto^ rov fiiov, Xiyet^ rop rov axoXda-rov 
evBat^fiopearepop elpac tj rop rov Kocrfiiov; ireiOco rl 
<re ravra Xeytop avyx^pV^o,^ top xSafiiop fiiop rov 
aKoXdcrrov dfieliHO ehaiy ^ ov TreiOo); 

KAA. Ov rreldevit cJ Xo>Kpare^. r^ fikp yap 

^ irkffpc^a-afiep^ eKevptp ovk€T Sotip 'qBoptf ovBefila, 
dWd rovr ixrrtp 8 pvp Brj iyd^ eXeyop, ri Sairep 
\l0op ^r]P, iiretSdp wXffpcoa-'p, fMjre yalpopra ert 

ropriAS. 76 

B/t?fT€ Xxrrrovfievov, aW* iv radrtp ifrri rh i^BioD^ 
^rjVy iv r^ ©9 wXetorov iirippelv, 

Sfl.^ OvK<njv dvdyKff y, hv iroXif iTTippiy, iroXif 
zeal rd dwiiv elvcu KaX fieydX^ arra rd rpi^fiara 
elvac rah hc£oa^; 5 

KAA. TLdw fikv oiv, 

2fl. THapaipiov tlv ai ah fiiov Xeyet^, dXK* 
ov veKpov ovSh \l0ov. kcU ^01, Xiye, to rotovSe 
\€y€i<; olov Treiv^v Kal iretv&vra itrOUtv ; 

KAA. ^^ytoye. 10 

C 2fl. Kal Svyfrrjv ye Kal Scylr&vTa irivetv; 

KAA. Aiyco, Kal tA? aWa^ hnOvfiia^ dwda-a^ 
e^ovra Kal hvvdfievov irXrjpovvra j(^alpovra evSai- 
fi6v(o^ ^v, 

XUX. 2fl. ES76, cS ^iXriare* SiariKet yhp 15 
Sairep '^p^co, Kal Swm^ fir/ airaKT'xyveL hel Si, c&9 
SoiKe, /jurjS' ifi€ dwat,a")(yv0rjvai. Kal irp&rov fiev 
eiire el koI '^atp&vra Kal Kin/aicovra, d(f>06v<o^ i'xpvra 
Tov Kinjaffav, Kv^ofievov hiarekovvra rov fiiov evhai," 
fiovco^ larv ^rjv, 20 

D KAA. 'fl9 aroTTo^ el, (S 'XmKpare^, Kal dTej(y&9 

SO. TotydpTOt, (S KaWUXei^, HdSXov /liv Kal 
VopyLav Kal i^iirXrj^a Kal aifT')(yve<T0ai iirolriaa, 
trif Se oi fitf iKirXar/fj^ ovSk fi/fj aia')(yv0f(i* dvBpelo^ 25 
yctp et, aXX diroKplvov fiovov. 

KAA, ^rjpX roivvv Kal rhv Kvdfievov '^Si(o^ &p 

211. OvKovp eiirep '^hiw^^ Kal evhaifiovto^ ; 

KAA. Tldvv ye, 30 

E SXl. Tlorepov el rffv Ke^aXi/v fiovov kw/ci^, fj 
erv Ti ae epwrw; '6pa, co Y^aXXUXei^i, ri diroKpivei, 


idv t/9 (T€ ret ixo^^va tovtow i<j)€^^ airavra ipcora. 

Kol TOVrtOV TOlOVTOyV SvTODV K€<f>d\aiOV, 6 T&V KVVal' 

Scov /3lo^, oSto? ov Beivo^ teal aia'xpo^ fcal a&Kco^; 
^ Tovrov^ rdkfiijaei^ Xiyeiv evBalfiova^ etvai, idp 
5 d^06v(o<; ix^aiv (Sv SiovTav; 

KAA. OvK ala''xvv€b efc roiavra aycov, cS 2®- 
KpaT€^, T0V9 X070V9; 

2fl. 'H yctp 670) &ya> ivTav0a, cS yevvate, fj 
ixetvo^ 89 &v <f>f/ dviSrjp ovtco tov<s 'XP'ipovra^y oiron^ 
10 ttv ^^a/poxrti', evBalfiova^ elvai, \ koX fiff Siopi^rjTai 495 
TCt)!/ rihov&v oTTolai dyaOcu kcli KaKal; oXV €ti koX 
vvv \iy€, TTorepov <^^9 etvai ro avro iJSv koI d/ya06v, 
fj etvai TV T&V fjjikfov h ovk iariv drfad6v; 

KAA. ^Iva htj ijLOi fii) dvofJLoXoyovfievo^ i 6 
15 \0709, iitv irepov <f>i](rco etvat, to avro if>rjiiii etvav. 
Sn. Aia(l>0elp€i<:, d KaWl/ekei^, toi)9 Trpdrov^ 
Xoyov^, Kal ovk &v Stc fjber ifiov iKavS^ rit Svya 
i^erd^oi^, elirep iraph to, Bo/eovvra aavr^ ipel^. 
KAA. Kal yap av, cS 'Sd/cpare^* 
20 2X1. Oi3 Tolvvv opOS^ 7roi£ oir iyd, elirep 
'iroL& TovTO, ovre aii, dXX*, (3 fiaxdpve, adpei fiff ov B 
TovTO ^ TO dr/aOov, t6 nrdvroa^ 'xaipevv* ravrd re 
yap rd vvv Bfi atV«;^d6i/ra iroWd Kal aiaypd ^alr 
verai avfi/Salvovra, el tovto ovtco^ ^X^^» ^^^ aXKa 
25 TToXKd, 

KAA. 'fl9 (T-O ye otev, eS XooKpare^, 
2fl. 2^^ Se T^ SvTv, w K.aWlK\ei% ravra 
laxvpl^ei ; 

KAA. TE7G)7€. 
30 L. 2X2. ^Eirtx^ip^M'^ ^P^ '^^ yJrftp (09 <tovG 
awovBd^ovTo^ ; 

KAA« Udvv ye a<f>6Bpa* 

ropriAS. 77 

Sfl. *'I6i, 8ij fioi, eTrevSif ovto) Soxel, SieKov 
rdhe. hn<m]/j/r)V irov Ka\€i^ ri,; 

KAA. "EYw^e. 

Sfl. Ov KoX dpSpeiav vvv Bt) eXeye^ rtva elvai 
fierd iiri^arrifiri^ ; 5 

KAA. *'E\€70J/ ryap. 

2fl. "AXXo Tt oJtv C&9 h-epov r^v dvSpeiay rrj^ 
iiriarrifiTi^ ivo ravra eXe/e?; 

KAA. X<l>6Spa ye. 

2fl. T/ Se; rjhov7)v Koi hrKrTqfiffV ravrov fj 10 
irepov ; 
D KAA. "lErepov Bfjwov, <3 a-o<f><iiTaT€ trv. 

Sfl. *H /cal dvSpelav irepav ^Bovrj^; 

KAA. XIcS? 7ap oiJ; 

2il. ^€/oe 8^ {(TTft)? fiefivfjaSfieOa ravra, irt 15 
KaW£/cX^9 ^^ o 'A^^apj^ev? ^St) /tiei^ Kal dyaOov 
ravrov elvai,, iTrioTrj/Mrjv 8e teal dvSpelav Kal dWij- 
Xcov Kal rod dyaOov Srepov, 

KAA. ^a>Kpdrrj<; Bi y rjfilv 6 * AXtoireKijOev ov'^ 
ofioXoyel ravra, fj ofioKoyel; 20 

E 2X1. Ot;;^ ofioKoyei' olfiai 84 y ovhk KaXX^ 
/cX^9, irav avro^ avrov dedarfrai 6p6&^^ ehrk ydp 
fiot, T0U9 eS irpdrrovra^ roh KaKw^ wpdrrovaiv ov 
rovvavriov fiyel irdOo^ ireirovdevai ; 

KAA. "^oaye. 25 

2il. *Ap' oiv, elnrep ivavria iarl ravra aXXiy- 
Xot9, dvdyKTf irepl avrcSv ^xeiv Hairep wepl vyiela^; 
IX€* Kal voaov ; ov ydp a/jua Sijttov vyiaivei re koi 
voael 6 dvOponTTO^, ovSe &fia diraWdTrerav vyieia^ 
re Kal voaov. 30 

KAA. IleS? X^7€t9; 

2fl. Olov irepl irov jSovXei, rov cdfiaro^ diro- 


\afioi>v a/eSirei, voael \ ttov dvOpamo^ 6<f>6aKfioi^y 496 
^ 6pofia 6<l>0a\fiUi; 

KAA, 11(09 yctp oi; 

2fl. OiJ hffirov KoX vyialvei ye Hfia toj)? avrov^; 
5 KAA, Ot^S* oTTtoariovv. 

2X1. T^ hi; irav t^9 o<f>0aXfila<; diroKKdrrvfrab, 
ipa Tore koI t^9 iyiela^ diraWdrTerac t&v 6<f>6a'\r 
p,&v KoX reKevT&v afia dfn^oripfov aTnjWatcrai; 

KAA. ''HKurrd ye, 
10 2A, &avfid(Ttop ydp, olfiat, koI dXoy'ov ylr/ve-' 
rai, ij ydp; 

KAA. '%<f>6hpa ye, 

Xil, *A\\* iv fiipei^, olfiat, i/cdrepov zeal Xap,- B 
fidvev Koi aTToXKvec; 
15 KAA. ^fiL 

SO. OvKovv Kal iaypv icaX daOeveiav axravrto^; 

KAA. Na/. 

2X1. Kal rd'X^o^ koi /Spa^irrrjra ; 

KAA. Udvv ye, 
20 2X1. *H Kal rdyada koX t^v evSai^fiovlav zeal 
T&vavrla rovrmv, Ktucd re zeal d0\i6r7)ra, iv fxipei 
\a/jifidvei zeal ip pApev diroKKdrrerav izcaripov; 

KAA. Hdvrm^ Bijirov. 

2X1. ^^ctv eipcd/j^v &p* &na £v afia re czTraV 
25 \drreTai avBpcoiro^ xal afia e)(€i, SrjXov ori ravrd 
ye ovK &v etrf to re dyaOov zeal to xazcop, o/jloKo" 
yovfiev ravra; Kal ei fidXa aKe'^dfievo^ diro' 

KAA. *AXX* iirep^vS^ c&9 ofioXoydS. 
30 U. 2X1. *'10c 81) iirl rd Sfiirpoadev mfioXoyTi" 
fiiva. TO Treivijv ^\eye9 worepov 17S1) ^ dvcapop 
elvai,; aino Xiyoa to irevvijp. 

ropriAS. 79 

KAA. ^Aviapdv ^o>y€' ri fiivrov Treivcovra 
eaOietv iJSv. 
D 2X1. MavOdvo)' aXX* oSv. to ye weip^p avrd 
dviapov. ^ ovxL; 

KAA. ^^lL 5 

2n. OtJ/ro0i/ Acal TO Siyfnjp; 

KAA. X<f>6Bpa ye. 

2A. IIoTe/Doi/ oip €Ti TrXelto ipcarS, fj ofio- 
\oyei^ dwaaav evSeiap teal eTnOvfjkiav avuLpov 
elvat ; lo 

KAA. 'OfjLoXoyoi, dWd fitf ip<i)Ta, 

iSXl. EZei'. hv^wvra Se S^ wiveiv aXXo n fj 
'^hv ^9 elvai; 

KAA. ^^^yoaye. 

2n. OvKovv TOVTOv ov \iy€i^ TO fikv Bt/yjrcopTa 15 
Xvirovfievop irjirov ia-Tip; 
E KAA. Na/. 

2fl. T<J ik irlpe^v irX'^ptoak re ttj^ ipSela^ koI 
ijBopi] ; 

KAA. Na/. 20 

Sn. Ov/coOi/ ATara to itlpup 'Xflipeuf Xiyei^; 

KAA. MdXiara. 

Sfi. Ai^cSjATa 76; 

KAA. ^fiL 

Sfi. AvTTOVfiepop ; 25 

KAA. Na/: 

20. AicrOipei oip to avfifiaiPOPf ^ti Xviroi" 
fjkepop 'xaipeip Xh^et^ ifia^ Stup Sty^£pTa irlpeip 
X^yV^f V ^X ^/*^ TOVTO ylrfperai, KaTa top axnbp 
TOTTOP KoX ypopop e?T€ '^^vyri^ elTe a^puTO^ fiovXec; 30 
ovSep yap, olp^ai, Bui4>ip€L HaTi, Tavra 97 ov; 

KAA. ''EoTip. 


2X1. *A\X^ firjv 65 76 irpaTTOvra KaK&9 irpdr- 
T€t.v afjua aivvoTOv 1*6^9 1" elvav. 

KAA. ^TJ^ll rfdp, I 

2X2. ^Apmfievov Si ye j(alpetv Svvarov mfio- 497 
5 \6yrj/ca<;, 

KAA. ^alp€Ta$. 

211. OvK dpa t6 )(aip€tv iarlv ei irpdrretv 
ovSk TO dviaa-Oai KaKm, ware Irepov yiryverat rd 
1781) rov dyaOov. 
10 KAA. OvK olS* drra ao^i^et, cS ^oo/cpare^. 

211. OlaOa, aXV d/cKl^ei, to K.aWiK\€V<i. fcai 
irpSiOt y h-t eh rd ip/rrpoadev, [Zrt ej^coi; X^ype??,] 
Xv eihfj^ C&9 <ro<f>o^ oSv fie vovOerel^, ovx yia ht'^&v 
T€ eKOOTO^ fjfi&v ir^TMLVTav Kol dfia rihofievo^ hid B 
15 Tov nrlveiv; 

KAA. OvK olia 6 tv Xiyei^, 

rOP. MrfSafJLW, cS KaWiK\€i<i, aXV diroKpLvov 
KoX fifiwv eve/ca, Xva irepavOtStTiv oi \6yoi. 

KAA. 'AXV del roiovro^ ioTt, X&fcpdTrjfs, cS 
20 Topyia* afiiKpd koI oklyov d^ia dvepcoTa Kal 

rOP. *AXX^ tL (toX Sta<f>ip€i; Trdvra)^ ov c^ 
aiTT) 71 TifjLijy d KaXX//cX6£9* aXX' viroa^e^ XoDKpdrei 
e^eKey^ai Sttcd^ &v fiovXrjrai, 
25 KAA. 'EpcSra Sij (rv rd afiiKpd re Kal arevd C 
Tavra, eirehrep Topyia Soxel ovto)?. 

UI. 2X1. JS,vSaLfjLODv el, cS KaXX//cX6t?, . ot£ t^ 

fieydXa fiefivrjaai Trplv rd afiiKpd* iyo) S* ovte 

(ifji/qv Oefinov elvai. 86ev oiv dirikvire^, diroKplvov^ 

30 el ov% afia wavertu B^y^oSv SxaoTo^ '^ficSv xal 


KAA. ^rtfiL 

ropriAS. 81 

Sfl. Ov/COVV KOi Tr€LV&V KoX T&V oSXfov hn," 

Ovfimv /cal rihov&v afia iraverat; 

KAA, "EcT^ ravra. 
D 2fi. OvKOVp teal T&v XuTTcSi/ KaX rdSv ^Sovdv 
afui Traverai; 5 

KAA, Nat'. 

2ft. 'AWrx [iriv T&v a^aOSiv KaX KaK&v ovx 
afia iraverat, co? av thfioXoyei^' vvv he ovx ofidXo- 

KAA. "^yayye, rl oiv Sij; 10 

2ft. ''On ov ravTCL ylpfverai, Ji 0£\6, rar^aOh 
Tol<; fjheaiv ovSk rd Kaxd Tot9 aviapol^, t&v fiev 
yap a/jLa Traverai, rtSv Be ou, cb? erepoyv Svtcov, ttcS? 
oiv ravrd &v etrj rd rjhea Tot9 d^adol^ fj rd dvvapd 
Tol^ KaKOi^; 'Eai; Se /3ov\7j, Kal t^S* eirUrKe^ai' 15 
E ol^ai yap aoc ovBk ravrr) ofiokoyeladav. ad pet Si' 
T0i)9 dyaOoif^ ovx} dyaOcSv irapovala drfa0ov<: tcdket^, 
wairep rov^ xaXov^ oh dv /caWo9 irapfj; 

KAA. "£76)76. 

2ft. Tt he ; dyaOoi)^ avhpa<i Ka7^l<; toi)9 a- 20 
(f>pova<; teal heiXov<;; ov ydp dpn ye, dWd Toi<; 
dvhpeiov<; Kal <f>povip,ov^ ekeye^. tj ov tovtov^ drfa- 
6ov<i Ka\eU; 

KAA. Udvv fiev oiv. 

2ft. Tihe; iralha dv6i]rov x^^P^^*^^ V^V ^^^^^ ! 25 
KAA. ^'Efycoye. 

2ft. ^Kvhpa he ovTTca elhe^ dvorjrov ;)^at/>oi/Ta ; 
KAA. Olfiai. eyoDye. dWd ri tovto; 
2ft. Ovhev* aW' diroKpivov, 
KAA. Eilhov, I 30 

498 2ft. Tt he; vovv exovra Xwrovfievov Kal x^^" 
povra ; 

PL. GOR. ^ 


KAA. ^rifiL 

211. TloTepoL Sk fiaXKov 'x^aipovtri koI Xirrrovv^ 
rai, oi <l)p6vtfioi, ^ ol a<f>pove^; 

KAA. Olfiai, ^(oye oi) iroKv ri iia(f>epeLv. 
S 2fl. 'Aw' apKet Kal tovto, iv TroXifi^ Bk ^Bf^ 
€7869 avSpa SeiXov; 

KAA. Tim yctp ov; 

2Xi. Ti oifv; airiovTwv t&v iroXefiioyv irorepoi 
cot iBoKOVP fiaXKov 'X^aipeiv, ol SecXol rj oi dv* 
10 BpeloL ; 

KAA. *Afi(f>6T€poi €fioirf€ fiaXKov* el Bk fJLij, B 
wapaTrXffO'lat^ ye. 

SfZ. OvBev Bia<l)ipeu %a6pot/(rt S* ovv Kal ol 
15 KAA. ^,(f>6Bpa 76. 

2A. Kal 01 a<l>pov€^, (09 iotfcev. 
KAA. Nat: 

212. npoaiovTcov Be ol BeiXol fiovov Xinrovvrai 
^ Kal ol dvBpeioc; 

20 KAA. ^AfiipoTepou 
212. ^Apa ofjLoicD^; 
KAA. MaXXoj/ Xa-(o^ ol BeCKoL 
2fi. *Airi,6vTa>v S' ov fidWov 'xaipovo'iv; 
KAA. "lo-G)?. 
35 212. OvKovv Xxnrovvrai, fiev Kal 'xalpovai Kal 
ol a<f>pove^ Kal ol (f>p6vifioi> Kal ol BeiXol Kal ol 
dvhpelov wapa'jrXrja'uo^, co9 cv ^i;9, fiaXXov Be ol 
BclXoI TtSv dvBpeioDv; 
KAA. ^^tjplL 
30 212. *A\A.a iirfv 0% rye <f>p6vcfiot Kal dvBpelot 
dyaOoL, ol Be BeiXol Kal a^poves Kaxoi; 
KAA. Nat. 

ropriAS. . 83 

2X1. UapairXfja-leo^ Apa ^aipovai KaX Xxfirovv- 
rai, oi a^aOol KaX oi xatcol; 

KAA. ^fiL 

XCl, *Ap ovv TrapairXfja-uo^ ekrlv dyaOol koX 
/ea/col ol a^adol r€ koX oi Koreoi; fj /cal irt fiaWov 5 
dyadol teal /ca/col elatv ol teaKoi; 
V MIL KAA, 'AXXa fiA Af om oZS' 8 rv Xi- 

2ft. OvK oXaff ore roif^ dyaOod^ drfaO&v ip^ 
irapovalq, elvav dyadov^, Ka/cov^ Sk fCUKOov; rd Bk 10 
dyaOd elvav rd^ '^Sovd^, xa/cd Se rd^ dvia^; 

KAA. ^£70)76. 

2ft. OifKovv Tot9 xaipova^ irdpeart rdyaOd, al 
ffiovalf etirep 'xaipovai,; 

KAA. Hm ydp ov; 15 

2ft. Ov/covp d/ya0£v 7rap6vr<ov dyaOoL etaiv ol 
XO'lpovre^ ; 

KAA. Nat. 

2ft. Tl 84; T0t9 dvcm/jbivot^ ov irdpearv rd 
Kaxdy al XvTrav; 20 

KAA. Udpea-Ti, 
£ 2ft. JLa/cSv Se ye irapovo'la <l)fj^ av elvai Ka- 

#C0l)9 T0l)9 tCa/COV^. fj OVK€Tl ^Tf^ » 

KAA. "£70)76. 

2ft. ^Ayadol dpa ot &v ')(aip(oa'Vy KaKoX Be ot2S 
iip dvioovrai; 

KAA. Udvv ye, 

2ft. Of fjbiv ye fiaXKov fiaXKoVy ot S* rjrrov jj 
rJTTov, ot Bk irapairkqcUa^ TrapairkirifTUo^ ; 7 

KAA. Naf. 30 

2ft. OifKOvv ^9 7rapa7r\7ja'io)<; yaipeiv KaX 
Xxmeladai roi^^ <l>povifiov^ koI tov^ a^pova^ KaX 


84. HAATfiNOS 

Tov^ BetXov^ Kal rov^ dvipeLov^t fj koX fiaWov eri 
rov<; BeiXovf; ; 

KAA. "£76)76. 

%[l, ^vWoycaav Sff Kovvfj fier ifiov, rl fifiiv 
Sa-Vfi^alvev iic r&v ayfioXoyrffiivajv xal St9 yap tol 
KoX rpk <f>aav koKjov elvav ret /caXa TUyeiv re /cal \ 
iirurKoirelaBav. ^AyaObv fiev etvai rbv <f>p6vi,p,ov koX 499 
avSpelov ipafiev. rj yap; 
KAA. No/. 
10 Sll. KuKOv Sk rbv a(f>pova koI SeiXov; 
KAA. Tldvv ye, 

Sfi. ^Ayadbv Se aZ rbv ')(aLpovTa; 
KAA. Nai. 

SH. Ka/coi/ he Tov dvKOfievov ; 
15 KAA. ^Avdrf/ci], 

^Qi, ^AvLoadav 8k xal ')(aipeiv tov dryaOdv /cal 
KaKov ofiouo^, tao)^ Be Kal fiaXXov tov KaKov; 
KAA. Naf. 

SXl. OvKovv Ofiolco^ yiyveTav Kaxb^ Kal dyaBb^ 
20T<S dya0a) rj Kal fiaXKov dyadh^ 6 KaKO^; ov raOra B 
avfi0alv€t Kal Ta irpoTepa e/ceti/a, edv Tfc9 TavTk <f>fj 
flBea T€ Kal dyadh elvai; oif tuvt dvdyKrj, <S Ka\- 
XUXeL^ ; 

JAY, KAA. TlaKat, tol aov aKpoo^fiac, w So)- 
25 KpaTC^, Ka0o/jLo7^y(oVy iv0vfiov/Ji€vo<; oti, kcLv iral^fov 
Tt? aoL evB(p OTLOvv, tovtov dafievo^ €')(ev &air€p Ta 
fie^paKia, (09 B^ cv olei ifie ^ Kal aWov ovtvvovv 
dvOptoircDV ovj^ fiyelaOai Ta9 fiev ySe\Ttov9 17801/649, 
Ta9 Bk X€t/)oi;9. ^(^^ 

30 2fi. '1 01) iov, (S KaXXtic\€^9, C&9 *rravovpyo^ 64, 
/cat fioi Sa'rrep iraiBl XPV> "^otc fiev Tavra <f>daK(»>v C 
oi!t«»9 ^€iv, TOT€ Be 6Te/5Q)9, i^aiTaTtSv fie. Kairot 

ropriAS. 85 

ovK ^fjLTjv ye Kar dp^cis xfiro aov e/eoirro^ elvai, 
i^airaTTiOrjaea-OaVy C09 6vto^ <l>tKov vvv Ze i^jreva-Orjv, 
Kal (09 loiKcv dvdrficrj fioL Kara rov irdXathv \6yov 
rd irapov ei iroielv koI tovto Bi^eaOai to Bt,S6fi€vov 
wapa croS. iari Bh &;, C09 ^ov/cev, h vvv Xiyec^, '6tv 5 
fihovaL TLvi^ elaiv ai fi€V dyaOai, at hk KaxaL fj 
ydp ; 

KAA. Na^ 

2X1. ^Kp oiv dyaOal fikv ai a>^€\tfioc, /caxal 
Sk ai ^\a^€pai; 10 

D KAA. Udvv ye. 

%il. ^Cl<l>i\i^fiov Bi ye at d^aOov n Trotovaav, 
KaKol Be ai xaxov rv; 

KAA. ^rifiL 

2li. *A/5' oiv Ta9 TotdaBe Xiyev^, olov KarcL to 15 
€r&/ia £9 vvv B^ iXeyofiev iv r^ iaOietv /cal iriveiv 
17801/09* el dpa TOVTwv ai fikv vyieiav irotovavv ev 
T^ awfULTv fj iaypv fj aXKriv rivd dpeT^v tov 
cdfiaTo^iy avTav fiev dya0al, ai Bi rdvavrla tovtoov 
KaKai; 20 

KAA. Udvv ye. 
E SH. Ov/covv Kal Xvirav waavTcas cbi p^ev XPV^ 
oral eiavVy ai Be irovripai} 

KAA. n<39 yhp ov; 

SXl. OvKovv T^9 p^v ypfiaTa^ koL fjBovd^ Kal 2$ 
Tofrra^ Kal aipereov ioTl Kal irpaKreov; 

KAA. Udvv ye. 

SA. T^9 Be irovrfpibs ov; 

KAA. A97X01/ Brj, 

SA. ''^veKa yap irov twv drfaB&v &iravTa fipiv 30 
eBo^e wpaKTiov elvai, el fiv7fp,ovevei^y ip^l re Kal 
IIcoX^. dpa Kal aol avvBoKel ovT(a, reko^ elvat 


airaa&v r&v irpd^ecDv to a^^aOoVy teal i/eelvov Ivexev 
Beiv iravra raXka Trpdrreo'dai, dX\' oifx ixetvo \ rwv 600 
SKKodv; {rv/Ayjtrjipo^ r)fiiv el ical av JK rpircov; 
KAA. •'£70)76. 
5 Xli. T£v ayaOwv dpa ive/ca Set teal raWa tcai 
T€t ffiea Trpdrreiv, aW' ov rayadci rwv '^Secov. 
KAA. Udvv ye, 

2X1. *Ap' oiv iravT09 dvhp6<; eanv ifcKe^aaOai, 
J *rroia dyaOd t<Sv fiieaav i<rrl koX oiroia xaxd, fj 
"^iV w^io T€j(viKov B ei ek e/caarov; 

KAA. Texi^iKov, 

LV. 2il. ^ Avafivr}a0&fJL€v S^ &v ai iya> Trpo^ 

TIwXov Kol Topylav irvyxavov \ey(ov, iXeyov ydp, 

el fivfjfiov€V€i<:, OTV elev irapaatcevaX at fxev fic'^pi B 

15 '^Sovrj^y avTo rovro fiovov irapaa-Kevd^ovaaLy dyvo- 

ovaaL hi TO pikTLOv KaX to 'xelpov^ al he yvyvdaKOv- 

aai o Ti T€ dyadov teal Z rt KaKov* koX eTidriP t&v 

fikv irepl TCL^ '^hovd^ ttjv fiayeipi/crfv ifiTreiplav, aXX' 

ov Te'xvTjv, T&v he irepX to dr/adhv Ttjv laTpifCtjv 

20 Te')(yr)v. xal frpb^ (f>iXioVy <S KaX\6/cX€t9, fiTjte avTo<; 

ocov heiv TT/oo? ifik Trai^eiv firjh^ 8 Tt &v tvxv^ .irapct 

Ta hoKOvma diroKplvov, firjT ai Tct Trap* ifiov outo)? 

aTTohexpv <»9 irai^ovTO^* 6pa<; yap oTt nrepX tovtov 

elalv fifiiv oi \6yoL, oi tI &v fiaWov (rrrovhdaeU T£9 

25 Kal afiiKpdv vovv e^cai/ dvOptowo^, ^ tovto, Svriva 

Xpff Tpoirov ^rjv, iroTepov enrl hv av irapaxoKeU ifie, 

to tov dvhpd^ h^ TavTa irpdTTovTa, \eyovTd re ep 

.«. V. ij-^ hi^fitp Kal p7}T0pi,Kr)v dcKOvma Kal TToXiTevofievov 

TOVTOV t6p Tpoirop hp vfiei^ pvp nroXirreveaOe, fj [cttI] 

30 Tovhe t6p filop TOP ep <l>ikoao^la, Kal tI ttot icrrlp 

oSto9 CKeivov hia(f>ip<op, f<ra)9 oip /SekTia-TOP eaTtp, 

®9 dpTi iyo) €7rexelpr}a'a, hiaipelaOav, hieXo/iepov<i D 


ropriAS. 87 

8^ KaX ofioXoyijcravTa^ dWrjXot^, el larc toutg) 8tTrii> 
rib 131(0, CKi'^curdav rl re hta^eperov oKKrfKoLV koX 
OTTorepov ^uoreov avrolv, taw^ oSv ovvw olaOa ri 

KAA. Oi5 Srjra. S 

2X1. 'AXX' iyd aoi aa^icrrepov ip<S» iTreiSrj 
AftoXoyij/cafiev iyoi re koI av elvai fiev rt dryaOov, 
elvai Bi rt 1781;, Srepop 8k rd 1JS1) rov ayaffov, i/ca" 
repov he avrolv /leXirrfv rwa elvai teal nrapao'Kevfjv 
T^9 KTrfaeay^, Tfjv fiev rod '^Sio^ Orjpav, rrjv Be rod 10 
E dyadov — avro Be fioi rovro irp&Tov rj avfi^adi fj fii] • 
avpxfyrf^ ; 

KAA. OvTCO (fyqiiL 

LVI. SO. "W* &7, A KoX nrph^ rovtrBe €70) 
S\€yov Bio/noXoyrjo'ai fiov, el &pa aoi, iBo^a Tore 15 
akrjdrj Xiyevv. iKeyov Be wov irt ij fikv o^jrotroutcrj 
ov fiOL Boxei T€j(vrf elvai dlOC ifiireipia, 17 S' larpiKij, 
601 \ey(ov on \ 17 fjAv rotirov o5 Oepairevev Kal rrjv 
(ftvaiv eaKeirrat Kal rfjv alriav &v irpdrrev, Kal \oyov 
€X€^ TovTODv iKaoTov Bovvai, fj larpiKTi' 17 S' hripa 20 
T^9 ^Bovrj^, TTpo^ fjv fi Bepaireia avr^ iarlv Aira^ra, 
jcofxioy dTej(yG)^ iir* avrqv Ipx^raif oiire rt rrjv (fyvaiv 
^jjy^Keyjra/Aevrf rrj^ '^Bovrj^ ovre rrjv alriav, d\oy(o<: re 
^ J^^ iravrdiraaiv, 0)9 ^09 elirelv, ovBhf BuLpidp/rfa-afiivrf, 
-y^ Yy*^ Tgt^^_jcgi_.j£/iiac£££wt, fivr/p/qv fiovov a-to^ofievrf rov 25 
'y^ elcoOoro^ yiyvea-dat/^ B^ Kal iropl^erai Ta9 ^Bovd^, 
B ravr oiv irp&rov aKowev el BoKel aot iKavcS^ Xey6- 
(T0ai, Kal elvai rive^ Kal irepl '^v^ffv roiavrav aXKai ^^ ^.^ 
T Tpayfiaretai , at p,hf rexyiKaiy irpofiijdevdv rtva Ip^ov- 
aai rov fieXrlarov irepl rrjv '^vyriv, al Bk rovrov 30 
fikv oXuytDpovaai, eaKeiifiivai, ^ ai, &(Tnrep ixet, r^v 
'^Sovrjv fiovov rrj^ '^i'X^9, riva &v avrp rpdirov yiy* 

88 nAATfiNOS 

voiTO, ^T^9 &€ 7j pekrUdv fj ')(elp(ov r&v rjSovwVy ovre 
a/coTTOvfievaLy ovre fiiKov avTaX<; aXKo ^ 'yjiipil^ea-Oai 
fjLOvov, efre ^eXriov etre '^elpov. ifiol fiev yap, c5 C 
KaWixkei^y Sotcovo'l re elvai, xal eycoyi (f>r)fiv r6 
5 roiovrov KokaKeiav elvat kclI irepi a&iia koX irepX 
'^xyXJfjv Kai irepl aXKo 2tov av T69 r'^v '^Bovrjv Oepa- 
irevrf aaKeirro)^ ^(ov rov dfieivov6<; re /cal rov yelr 
>iVc-^^ povo^* aif Be Brj irorepov avyKararldeaaL fipXv irepl 
rovrcDv \rriv avrrjv h6^av\ fj avri^rj^; 
10 KAA. OvK eytaye, dWd cvyxwpoo, Xva aot koI 
irepavBfj o \6yo^ Kai Topyla r^Se 'x/iplatoiJLaL. 

2X1. Jlorepov Be irepl fiev fjiiav '^v')(7jv earv D 
rovrOy irepl Be Brio teal TroXXa? ov/e ^ariv; 

KAA. OvK, dWd xal irepl Bvo xal irepl ttoWo^, 
- 15 XQ,, OvKOvv teal ddpoai,^ &fia 'xapi^eadat eart 
/ATjBev a/coTTOVfievov ro ^ikriarov^ 
KAA. Olfiai lyo)76. 

LVII. 2X1. *'E;^€t9 o5z/ elirelv aXrivh eWiv ai 
hnr'qBeva'eK ai rovro iroiovaai; 'bJLaXKov Se, ei 
20 ^ovXeiy ifiov ipcoro^vro^, ^ fiev dv aot Bokj} rovrcov 
elpai, (f>d0if ^ S' &u /A»7, fi^ ^ddv. irpairrov Be (rKeyjrd' 
fieda rrjv avkrjrvKtjp. ov SoKel crot rocavrrf ri<; elvai, E 
cS KaXXt/c\6t9i rriv rjBovfjv fjfi&v fiovov BidxecPf dWo 
S* ovBev <f>povri^eiv ; 
25 KAA. "Eifioiye Boxel, 

2X1. OvKovv /cal ai roiaiBe airaaai, olov fj 
KiOaptarvKYj rj ev rov; dr^maiv; 
KAA. Naf. 

2X1. Tt Be fi r&v %o/5c3i/ BiBaaicaXia koI 17 rcov 

30 BiOvpdfi^oDV irolrjai^ ov roiavrri ris aot xaraipal" 

verav; fj fjf^el ri <f>povri^ei,v KLvrja-lav r6v MeXiyro?, 

27ra)9 ipei ri, roiovrov odev &p oi aKOvovre^ ^ekriov^ 

ropriAS. 89 

602 yiyvotvro, \ rj i ri fieWet x^pmaOtu rip ^x^V '^^^ 

KAA. l^rfKov hrj rovro ye, cJ 2co/c/oaT€9, Kti/97- 
cr/ov y€ irepL 

2Xi. Tt Be 6 irarrfp avrov MiKrj^ ; fj irpd<; to 5 
fiikTioTOv pkiircDv ihoKev aoi Kvdap^phelv; fj eKclvo^ 
fxhf ovSe TT/oo? TO iiBiOTOv; rjvia yap aBcop tov^ 
OeaTCL^. aSXa 8^ (TKOiref ov')(i ff re ictOaptphiicfj 
Be/cet aov iraaa koI ^ t&v Bi6vpa/ifi(OP wolrjai^ 
17801/^9 X^P^^ evprjaOai; 10 

KAA. "Efioiye. 
B 2li. Tt Be Bi^ ri aefivrj ajjTrj koI davficto'Tij, 17 
T^9 TpaytpBia^ Troirjai^, 6<^' ^ eairovBaKe; TroTepSv 
iaTiv ainrj^ to iTrcxeipvfJ^ ^cal 17 airovBrj, ©9 crol 
£o/c64, Xapi^^aOav Toh Oearal^ /aovov, v "cai Biafidr- 15 * 
X€<r0at, edv re avT0L<i 1781) /tei/ ^ /cai KexO'Pto'iievov, 
irovripov Be, 87rci)9 roSro /Aev /Lt^ €/>€?, el Be tv rvy- i^^ **^* 
^fii/et 017869 /CO* d)(f>e\cfiov, tovto 8k xal Xe^i /cal v[. 
aaerac, edv re xatpaxr^i; eai; re /A17; iroTepca^ aot 
BoKel irapea'Kevdo'dav 1} tcSi/ TpaytpBcwv irolfjai^; 20 

KAA, A^Xoi; 81) rovrd 76, (3 Sa)#c/oaT69> 2x6 
C 7r/)09 T?;j/ 17801/771/ /taWoi/ &pp/qTav kclI t6 X'^P^^^adai 
Tot9 OeaTaU. 

2fi. Ov/coOi/ TO TOfcoiJTOi/, cS KoXXlfcXei^, l^afiev 
vvv Brj KoXaKeiav elvai, 25 

KAA. Hdvy ye. 

2X1. <I>€pe 8»7, 6? T69 irepveKovTO t^9 iroirjaeta)^ 
Trdar)^ to re ffc€\o9 /cat roi/ pvOp^hv koX t6 fierpov, 
dXKo TL \oyoi, yl/fVovTtu t6 Xevirofievov ; 

KAA. *Avdr/Kri, 30 

Sfl. OvKOVV 7r/509 TToXvv ox^ov Koi Brjfiov oifTOt 
XeyovTai, oi \6yoi. 


KAA. ^fiiiL 

211. ^rj/jbfjyopla apa rU iariv ^ Tronjrifci]. 
KAA. ^alverav. 

2fi. OvKOVv prjTOptfc^ SrjfJLrjyopca av eir), rj ov J) 
5 pr)TOp€V€iv Bo/eoval aoi oi iroiffral iv to2<; Oedrpoif; ; 
KAA. "Efiovye, 

2fi. NOi/ apa ffjieh evprjKafiev prjropi/crjv riva 
irpo^; Srjfiov rotovrov olov TraiBcov re ofiov kuI yvvair 
tc&v /cal avhp&v, /cat SovXwv Koi iXevOiptov, fjv ov 
10 Trdvv ayd/jL€0a' KoXaKLKfjv yhp airr'qp <f>afjkev etvai. 
KAA. Tldvv ry€. 

LVIII. 2fi. Elei^. ri Be ij tt/jo? top ^AOrjvaloDv 

Brjfiov prjTopiKff Kol rov'i aWot;? tov^ iv Tal^ irokeai E 

Br/fiov^ roif^ t&v ikevOiptov dvBp&v, rl irore fipfiv 

15 axfTq earL; irorepov aoi BoKovai 7rpo9 ro fiiXTtarov 

del Xiyevv oi pijTope^, rovrov (rroy^al^ofievoi, ott©? oi 

iroXlrav &^ ^ikrcoTOc ecovrai Bid tov9 avr&v Xi- 

70V9, ff KoX oiroi wpo^ rd 'Xfipi^eadat rolf; TroXlrai^ 

>^jct*^ a)pp,7ffiivot, Kcu ip€Ka rov IBiov rov avrtov oXt^yo)" 

I »P^ 20 povvT€ ^ rov KoivoVy Sairep iratcl irpq ao/uKo vo'i roi^ 

^^ Bi^fiov^y 'Xapl^eo'daL avToi^ ireipa>iievoi fiovov, ei Bi 

ye ^eXriov^ eo'ovrai fj 'X^lpovs BicL ravr, ovBev 

<l>povTi^ovaiv ; \ 

KAA. Ovx d'jrXovv Iri tovto ipayra^* elal 508 
25 fiev yap ot xriBofievov r&v ttoXito^v X^ovacv a XA- 
yovaiv, elal Be teal otbt;? av Xiyei^. 

Xil. 'Efap/ce?. ei yap kclI tovto eari BlttXovv^ 
TO fJL€v erepov irov to^tov /eoXateela av eiri koI 
ala"x^pd Brjfiriyopla, t6 B* Erepov icaXov, ro Trapo- 
30 a/cevd^eiv otto)? <»9 iSiXriaTai laotn'ai, r&v iroXtT&v 
ai ylrvxal, Kal del Biafid'xeo'dat Xeyovra rd /SeXTicrra, 
elre i^Bio) etre drjBearepa earat toU dKovovaw, aXV B 

ropriAS. 91 

ov Trdirore av ravrrjv elSe^ t^v (yqropvKrjv* fj et 
Tiva l%€A9 T&v prjropoDV roiovTov elirelv, ri oi5%l Kal 
ifiol avrop eif>paaa^ ri^ i<mv; 

KAA. 'AXXa fia AC ovk l^a> eycoyi troc eliretv 
Twv ye vvv prjTopoyv ovSiva, 5 

211. Tt Si; T&v iraXaiwv e^ci? riva elireiv S^' 
ivTiva airiav exovtriv ^Adrjvatoi ^eKriov^ yeyovivaiy 
iireiSrj iKetvo^ fjp^aTO Srj/j/rfyopeiv, iv r^ wpoaOev 
Xpovtp 'xeipov^ 8vT€^; iya> fiev yctp ovk oiBa rh 
ioTiv ovTO^, 10 

C KAA. Ti Bi; %ep,iaToicKea ovk aKovei^ dvhpa 
dr/aOov yeyovora Kal KifKova koI MiXTcdBrjv Kal JU'JtL- 40$". 
UepiKXea roxrrovl rdv veaxrrl TeTcXeirny/ccJra, o5 Kal'^-^^^^^ 
av aKTjKoa^;; 

2X1. Et &"T4 ye, c3 KaWiKXec^f rjv irporepov av 15 
IX.€7€9 dperriv, aKrj07J(;/T6 Ta9 iiridvfila^ airoinpr- 
irKavai, Kal ra^avrov Kal ra^ t(ov aXXoyv* el Se 
fiTj TOVTO, aX\' oirep ev T<p varip^ Xoyqt rjvayKdaOTj- 
fiev '^fjuel^ ofioXoyeiv, '6tv a£ fiev rwv hndvjimv ttX^- 
D povfievai iSeXrloD irotovat rov dvOpcoirov, ravra^ fiev 20 
aTTOTeXeiv, at Bk x^tpo), fiij* rovro Bk Tij(yfj ti^ ecvai* 
TOiovTov dvBpa TovTODV Tivci yeyovevai l%€49 elirelv; 

KAA. Ovk I^g) l^ayye ttco? etTro). 

LIX. 2X1. 'AW' icLv ^rjT^^ KaXw^, evptjaei^' 
tBeofiev B^ ovT(oalv drpi/na CKOirovfievoi el ti<; tov- 25 
T<ov TOIOVTOV yeyove. <f>€p€ yap, 6 ay ad 6^ dvrjp Kal 
eirl TO ^iXriarov Xiyo)v & av Xeyr}, ctXXo rv ovk eUy 
E ipei, aXX' dirofiXiirav irpo^ tl ; S<nrep Kal oi aXXoL 
Trdvre^ Brjfiiovpyol iSXeirovre^ irpo^ to avrtSv ?pyov 
iKaoTo^ OVK evK^ €KX€y6p>€V0^ 7rpoa'<l)€pet a Trpoaffii- 3° 
pel 7rpo9 rd ipyov to avTOv, aXX' 07ra>9 av elBo^ tl 
avT^ cyjj TOVTO ipyd^eTou otov el fiovXet, ISetv 



Tov^ ^<ii>rypa(f>ovf;i Toi)? ol/coB6fjLov^, TOv<; vatrrrr)yov^, 

Toif^ aWov9 irdina/; SfffiLovfyyov^, ivriva ^ovXe^ 

avT&v, ©9 eh rd^iv rtvct IxaaTO^ eicaoTov xidTjavv 

h av Tv0^, Kol irpotravay/cd^ec to h-epov r^ eriptp 

5 TTpewov re etvai koI apfioTrevv, eG>9 | av ro ^irav 504 

avarrjoTjrai rerayfiAvov re xal Ke/coa/nrjiiivov irpaj' 

fjLa, /cal ol re hri S>Xoi Btffiiovpyol koI 0&9 i/di/ S^ 

. i\€rfOfi€v, ol irepX rd aS/ia iraiZorpi^av re koI tarpol, 

t^^^^ Ktfb'/jLova'i TTOV rb g - oifJLa /cal avvrdrTovaiv, ofioXo' 

, (t^hLi' 10 yovfiev ovro) rovr e^ei'V fj ov ; 

KAA. "EoTO) rovro ovtco^. 
2X2. Ta^€a>9 ^pa /cal koc/mov rvYovaa ol/cia 
XpV^'^V ^^ €?i7, dra^la^ Be fiO'^^Orjpd ; 
KAA. <Pr}fiL 
15 211. Ov/covv /cal TrKotov axravro)^; B 

KAA. Nae'. 

SA. Kal fifjv Kal r^ ao^fiard <}>a/Mev rei fifik" 
repa ; 

KAA. Hdvv ye. 
20 2ft. Tt 8' ij '^vxv » dra^ia^ rvxovara ecrrai 
XPV<^'^V> V Ta^eft>9 re Kal KOfr/jbov rtvo^ ; 

KAA. *Avdrf/c7) i/c r&p irpoadev Kal rovro trvvo^ 

2ft. T/ oiv Svofid icrtv iv ra> adfiari r& i/c 
25 T^9 raf €(09 re Kal rod koc/jlov yiyvofievqt ; 
KAA. ^Tyleuiv Kal Urx^fv Xato^ Xeyei^* 
2ft. "^Er/coye, rl Be ai r^ iv ry "^yxo ^' 
yi/yvofiev(^ ex rrj^ rd^eoD^ Kal rod Koa/iov ; ireipA 
evpelv KCbi, ehrelv Aairep ixeivq^ ro 6vo/iicu 
30 KAA. Ti Be ovk avro^ Xeyei*;, cS ^a)Kpare<; ; 
2ft. 'AXV el aov rjBtov iariv, eyo) ip&. arv 
Be, &v fiev aov Bok& iyco Ka\&9 \eyeiv, <f>d0i' el Bi 

ropriAS. 93 

[irjf €\€y^€ Koi fjL^ iirlrpeTre. ifiol yctp SoKet raU 
fiev Tov a(!>fjLaTo<i rd^eaiv Xvofia elvat, vyiecvoVy i^ 
o5 iv avT^ 17 vyUui ylyverav xal tj aWrj dperff 
TOV adfiaro^, earv ravra ^ oifK ecrnv ; 

KAA. "'EfTTiv. inxp^<^ 

2fl. Tat9 Sk T^9 '^vxv^ Ta£€ai/cal^jco<r^i]<r€a'i€^^iKA^o 
D pofiifiov T€ fcal pofio^f 80€v fcal vofiifMov yiyvovrav koX 
Koo-fiLov* ravra S* ecrt BtKatoavvrj re teal a-wcftpoavvrf, 
(f>if^ fj ov ; 

KAA. *'E(jTG), 10 

LX. Sli. OvKovv irpo^ ravra ^iir.cov 6 prfrayp 
ixecvo^, 6 re'xyiKo^; re Kal dyaOo^, /cal tov9 Xoyov^ 
irpoaolaei rai^ '^vp^a?? 0&9 &v ^-€717 Kal rcL^ irpa^et^ 
iirdaa^, Kal B&pov edv ri BcS^y Sdaec, Kal idv re 
d^aiprjrac, d^aipijarerat, Trpo^ rovro del rov vovv 15 
E e'XjoDVy 07ra)9 &v avrov to?9 iroKirat^ SiKaioavvrj fikv 
iv rah '^i;%at9 ylyvr^roL, aScKla Sk diraWdrrrjrai, 
Kal (TCD^poavvrj fiev iyytyvrjrai,, aKoXaala he diraX- 
\drrr)rai, Kal ij aWr) dperi) iyyiyvrjrat, KaKta Sk 
dirlr), avy^aypel^ rj ov ; 20 

KAA. %vyx(i>p&* 

2fi. Tt ydp o<l)€\o^f <S KaWiKXei^, aoifiari ye 
Ka/jLvovri Kal fiO'^Ovp^^ BiaK€ifi€vq> airia iroWct 
hi,S6vav Kal rd ijStara rj irord rj a\X' ortovVy h firj 
6vi]aei avrb eaff ore ifKeov fj rovvavriov Kara ye 25 
rov SiKatov \6yov Kal Skarrov ; Ian ravra ; \ 
605 KAA. "Ecrr©. m-ox^"*^ 

2fi. Ov ydpy olfiaiy Xva-LreT^^l fjLerd fMo xdripi a^ 
a'a)fiaro<: l^rjv dvOpooTrtp' dvdyKrj yap ovro) Kal ^rjv 
lioxOrjpm, 7] ovx ovroi)<; ; 30 

KAA. Nat'. 

2A. OvKovv Kal rd^ iiriOvfiia^ diroiripurXdvat, 


otov ireivwvra <l>arf€iv oaov ^ovXerat ff Bvylrwvra 
'metv, xrfLalvovra flip iwaiv ol larpol &<; r^ iroXKa^ 
tedfivovra Bi, co9 eiro^ elireiv, ovhiiroT ioia-iv ifiiri' 
irKaaOac &v emOvfiet ; avyx'^P^^^ tovto ye xal <rv ; 
5 KAA. "£70)76. 

20. JlepX hk '^vxvv, c5 apicrre, ovx o avTo^ B 
TpSiro^ ; &)9 fiev &v irovqpib fj, avorjro^ re oiaa xal 
axoKaaro^ xai aSvKo^ xal avoato^;, etpyeiv avrrfv Sel 
T&v iindvfu&v K(u fit) iwcrpiireiv aW' drra iroveiv 
10 fj a<f> &v ^eXrloiv iarat ; <^^9 'H oi ; 

KAA. ^^iiL 

2X1. OuTO) yap irov avrf) dfieivov rfj '^vxv > 

KAA. Tldvv 76. 

2n. OvKovv rh etpyetv iarlv a^ <Sv iiriOvfiel 
15 KoXA^eof ; 

KAA. Nat. / 

2X1. To KoKd^etrOai dpa rfj '^vxv dfievvov icTiv C 
fj 17 aKoXaaia, wairep av vvv Srf <pov, 

KAA. OvK olB* arra \ey€L<:, cJ SdKpare^f aXX 
2DaKKov Twib ipdra. 

SXl. OvT09 dvifp ovx v'rrofMevei <o<f>€\ovfi€vo^ koI 
avT09 TOVTO irdc'XJ^v irepl o5 6 \0709 icTL, KoXa^o^ 


KAA OvBe yi fioi fiikev ovBkv Sv cif Xiyec^, 
25 /cal Taxnd coi Topylov %aptv direKptvdfiTjv, 

2X1. KUv. TV oiv Bri TTOiTJaofieu ; fieTo^if tov 
Xoyov KUTakvofiev ; 

KAA* AvT09 yvdaei. 

2X1. 'A\V ovBk Toif^ fivOov^ ^aaX fiera^if difii^ D 
30 elpac KaToKelireiv, aW' i irhBevra^ K€4>a\vP, ipa fifj 
av€V K€<l>a\ij^ TrepUrj. airoKpivav oip xal r^ Xocird, 
%pa fifup X0709 Kejuik^p Xd^rj, 

ropriAS. 95 

LXI. KAA. ^n? fiiaio^ el, cS Xoifcpare^. ehv 
Si ifkoX ir€i07f, idaev^ 'xalpuv tovtov rov \6yov rj 

2fl. T/9 oiv tt\\o9 iOiKet ; fir) yap roi areXij 
ye Tov \6yov KaraXi'irfOfiev, 5 

KAA. AvT09 ^6 ovK Sv Svvaio BieXOelv rov 
Xoyov, ^ XiyoDV Kark aavrov rj airoKpi>v6fi€vo<; 
<ravT£ ; 
E 2fi. ^Iva fioi TO rov ^TStircxapfiov yevrjrai, a 
irpo TOV Svo avSpe^ Skeyov, eh cSv iteavb^ yivoDfiai. 10 
drctp KLvivvevei, ava/^Kaiirrarov elvav o{!t(09. el ftev- 
rot TToi'^aofiev, otfiac l^toye yftrivav irdvra^ fiptd^ 
^CKovelicfo^ e')(eiv irpo^ to elSivai rh dXtfde^ rl iari 
irepX (Sv Xeyofiev xal rl y^evSo^* koivov yap ar/aOov 
diraai ^avepov yeveaOat avTO. Bletfic fiev oiv r^ 15 
506 Xoy(p eya> cb? av fiov So/ef) e^etv • | ictv Bi T<p vfiwv 
fiif TCL 6vra SokS o/ioXoyeiv ifiavr^, xph dvrCKap,- 
fidveaOai Kal eXiyx^iv. ovSi ydp rov eyorye 6tSa>9 
XeyoD & Xiya, dXXd fjyr© /coi,v^ fieff v/ioiv, Sere, 
dv Tt <l>alinirai, Xey<av 6 dfKJyicffrjroiv ifiOL, iyo) 20 
irpwro^ a'vyx'0i>pi]a'OfMai, Xiy<o fievroi ravra, el So/cei 
XPV^o,i Bvairepavdrjvai rov Xoyov el Be jirj /SovXeaOe, 
ewfiev Brj ya'^P^''^ ^^^ dnrUnfAev, 

rOP, 'A\V ifiol fiev oi BoKeif c5 XcoKparef;, 
B ')(pfjvai irm dirievat, dXXd Bce^eXffetv ae rhv Xoyov* 25 
(fialverav Be /mi fcal roi^ aXXoi^ BoKeiv, fiovXofJbai 
ydp erfcaye koI avrb^ d/eovaai aov avrov Buovro^ rd 
• iirtXonra. 

SXl. 'AWa fikv Bi], c3 Fopyia, Kal avr6<: i^Bio)^ 
fiev dv K,aXXiKXei rovrtp irv BieXeyo/irfv, &>9 avrtS 30 
rtjv rov ^Ai2<l)lovo^ ' aTriBm/ca furjtnv dvrl rrj^ rov 
ZtjOoV iweiBff Bk av, d KaXXUXev^f oifK idiXet^ 


awhtairepavat rdv Xoyov, oXV oiv ifiov ye aKoHoov 
^JifjtjJ^ hnXaiiBdvov * idv rl aot Bo/eoi fiif #ca\(09 \676^i^. 
fcai fie idv i^eXey^rj^, ovfc d'xdicrofial crot &(nrep aif C 
ifwl, dK\d fieyiaro^ evepyin^^ trap eyuoi dvcuye- 


5 ypdylrcL 

KAA« A€7e, © 'yaOi, avTd<: xal iripa^ve, 
LXII. Sft. "Aicoi/e S^ ef apx^9 ifiou dvaka^ 
j^,^^Av^ 06vTO^ r bv \6yov, *Apa to iJSv koI to dr/aOdv to 
avTO ioTiv ; Ov TavTov, ©9 iyo) xal KaWt/eXr]^ 

10 dy/jLoXoyi^crafiev. TJorepov Se Td iJSv ivexa tov d/yadov 
irpa/CTeov, rj to dyadbv Ivexa tov 178609 ; To ^Su 
evexa tov dr/aOov* *HSu Si iarTi, tovto oi irapa- 
yevofiivov '/jSofieOaf dyadbv Sk ov irapovTO^ dyadoi'D 
icTfiev; Udvv ye, 'AWa fitfv dyaOoi yi iafiev ical 

15 '^fiel^ icaX ToXKa irdvra oaa dyaOd iaTiv, dperrj^ 
TLvb^ irapar/evofiiivff^ ; ^Kfioiye Soxel dvayKoiov elvai^ 
cS KaWtVX6£9. 'AWa fiev Srj fj ye dpertf eKaaTOV, 
Kal (TKevov^ Kal troifiaTO^ xal '^i;;^^9 ai Kal ^tpov 
iravTO^, ovx ovto)9 elxy xdWuTTa irapcuyuyveraiy 

20 dXkd Ta^ei Kol bpOoTr^Tt teal Te'xyrf, ^Tt9 eKatrrtp 
diroSiSoTai avT&v, Spa eaTb Tavra ; 'E70) fiiv yap 
<f>r}fii, Td^CL apa TCTayfievov teal iceKoarp/qfievov iaTlv 
fl dpeTTf eKoa-TOV ; ^airfv &v 670)76. KocrjiM?? Tt9 £ 
dpa iyyevofievo^ iv eKaarrtp 6 i/cdaTOV olxeio^ dyadb v 

25 wapiyev JKaaTOv t(Sv Svtcov : ^Efiouye Sokcl Kal 
^Irvxv ^P^ fcocTfiov expvaa tov kavTTj^ dfieiv(ov t^9 
dKoafirjTOV ; ^AvdyKT), 'AWa fitfv ff ye Koafiov 
exovaa Koarfila ; ncS9 ydp ov fiiWei ; 'H Se 76 • 
Koafila cr(i<f>pa)v ; \ HoWrj avdr/xij. 'H dpa a-<i<f>po)v 507 

30 ^Irvxv dr/aO'^. '£70) fiev ov/c ex^ Trapd TavTa aXKa 
<l>dvai, ci ^i\e Ka\\£«X€t9* cv &' ei ex^i^, BiBaa/ee* 
KAA. Ae7', cS *yadi. 

ropriAS. 97 

2n. A^Q) hrj oTi, el ff adi^ptov dyOfOi] iariv, rf 
rovvavTiov rfj a-(6<^povt ireirovBvla Kaicq eariv, rjv t^-i-eva*-** 
Se avTfj fi aff>p<ov re teal aKokaoTO^; Jldvv ye, Kai. d^^^^^"^ 
firjv ye aoo^payv rd irpoarrjKOvra irpdrroi &v /cal 
irepl deov^ teal irepl dvBpmrov^ ; ov yap &v o*ei>^po- s 
voiff rd firj irpoanfiKovra TrpaTTcov ; ^Avdy/crj ravr 

B eipai ouTft)?. Kai fjurjv irepl fiev dvdpdirov^ rd irpoa^. 
rjKovra TrpdrrcDv Si/cat &v TrpaTToc, irepX hi Oeov^ 
oar La' rbv he rd SiKata kcu oaria irpdrrovra dvdy/crf 
Sifcacou Kal o<nov elvat ; *'EcrTt ravra, Kal fiev Ztf lo 
ical dvhpetov ye dvdyicirj ; ov ydp S17 cr(i<f>povo^ dvSpo^ 
iariv ovre Sifoxeiv ovre <f>evyeiv & p^ 7rpo<ri]feei, dW* fh 
a Bel teal irpdyfiaTa kcu dvdpdiirov^ Kal rihovd^ ^**^^lJ^*^ 
\u7ra9 ^evyeLV Kal SiooKeiv, xal viropAvovra icapre* # Jr^^.^ 

C peiv oTTov Set. &aTe TroWi) avdr/Kt), cS JS^aWiKXei^, ^V^^ 
Tov aw^pova^ &<nrep ScqXOofiev, BUaLOv ovra Kal 
dvipelov Kal oariov dyadov avBpa elvao reXeo)^, rbv 
Be dryaOop ev re Kal icaXcS? irpdrrew d av irpdrTtj, 
TOV £' ei TrpaTTovra p^aKaptov re Kal evBalp,ova 
ehaiy TOV Be irovrfpov Kal KaK&^ irpaTTOvra affXtov, 20 
oSto9 B* &v eiTf 6 evavrUo^ l^coi^ rcS <r(fi(l>povi, 6 
dKoTuLaro^;, ov av iir^vei^. ^ 

LXIII. '£70) p,€V oiv ravTa ovtod rlOepMi Ka(, 
(fyqp^i ravra dXridrj elvai. el Be eariv oKrjOrjy rbv 

D ^ovXapsvoVy (09 eoLKev, evBaifiova elvai (ra)<l>poavvi]v^2$ ^ ^ ■ 
p>ev BitoKreov Kal daKTfreoVf dKoXa^iav Be 4^€vkt€ov^T'*\jj^^ 
ft)9 €X€V iroB& v ^Kaarof; rjp*&v, Kal Trapaa-Keva^reqv^^^^ 
p.aKiaTa piv p/qBev BeurOai rov KoXd^eadcu, idv Be 
oerjUT) 7] avro^ rj aWo^ ro^ rtov oiKeLcov, rj totwriy? 
f) 7ro\t9, iiriOereov BIktjv koI KoXa^reov, el p^eXKec ^o 
evBaip,a)V elvai. 0VT09 ep^oiye BoKec 6 aKoirb^ elvai,, 
77/309 ov ^Xetrovra Bel ^rjv, Kal irdvra eh rovro Kal L . 

PL. GOB. ^ 

\ ra avrov avvrelpovra xal ret rfj^ ir6\€€o<;, otto}^ 

SiKaioa^Vf) irapia-rai koI a-axppoavvff T<p fiateapi^ 
fUWovTi iaeaOai, o Sro) Trpdrreiy , ovk iTrtOvfiia^ E 
iwvra oKoKdoTOv^ elvai, /cal ravra^ iirixccpovvra 
5 TrXrfpovv, avrivvrov icaicov, \rf<rTov filov ^wvra. ovt€ 
^yhp &v aXKq> dv0pd)7np irpotr^CKr)^ &v eirf 6 toiovto^ 
oiire Oe^' KOivooveiv yap dSvparo^* orq) Se firj evi, 
Kotvcopia, (fxXia ov/e &v etrj. ^aa\ 8' oi ao^oi, do 
KaWiKXei^, koI ovpavov koX yrjv Koi ffeoi^ Kal 
10 dvOpoiirov^ rrjv Kotv(oviav \ avvexetv koX <f)i\iav /cat 508 
/eoa-fAi,6rf)Ta Kcu €r(o<f>po<rvvi]v Kal SiKaioT'^Ta, Kal to 
i\ov TovTO Sih ravTd Koafiov KaXovacv, (S iralpe, 
OVK aKOCTfilav ovBe aKokaaiav. ah Si fioi SoKei^ ov 

irpoa^x^^^ '"'^^ ^^^^ tovTot?, Kal ravra a-o(l)6<; wu, 

1 5 dWci XiXrjde ere iri 17 laorrf^ rj yecofieTptK^ Kal iv 
0€ok Kal iv dvOpdiroi^ fiiya hvvarai, av Si irXeo- 
ve^lav otei Seip dffKAv* yetofierpia^ yhp d/jLe\€c<;, 
EZei/* 17 i^eXeyKrio^ Stj oiro^ 6 X0709 '^fui^ iariv, 
(09 ov SiKaLoavinf^ Kal aaxfipoavvr)^ KTrforei, evSai- B 

20 fJi'Ove^ oi evSaifiove^, Kaxla^ Si adXioi oi affkioc rj el 
o5to9 d\f)0ii^ ia-Ti, o-KeTrriov ri rd a-vfifialvoin-a. 
rd wpoadev iK€tva, <S KaWt/cX€49, avfJifiaivet, irdina, 
i<f> oh <TV fie 7]pov el aTrovSd^ayv Xiyoifii, Xeyovra 
in Karrfyopfiriov etrj Kal avrov Kal vieo^ Kal iralpov, 

25 idv Tb dSiK^, Kal T^ pr)ToptK^ iwl rovro XPV^'^^^^' 
Kal a JIwKov alaxvvrj ^ov avyx'^p^tv, dXi]07j apa 
Tjv^ TO elvai rb dSiKelv rov dSiKeia-Oai, iatpirep 
aXa'xi'OV, roaovrtp KaKiov* Koi rov /jbiXXovra 6pd£<; 
prjTopiKOV eaeaOat SlKaiov apa Set elvat Kal eTna-Tr)" 

30 fiova T&v SiKaltoVi h ai Vopyiav e^ri Ti&iXo^ St 
ala")(vvffv ofAoXoyfja-at. 

LXIV. 1lovt(op Si o&rcD^ ixovrcov, a-KeyfroofieOa 

ropriAS. 99 

tI troT iarlv & cd ifiol oveiSi^ei^, apa xaXw \iyeTai, 
^ oi, ©9 apa iyo) ov'x^ 0I09 t' elpX 0O7}drja-ai ovre 
ifiavr^ 0V76 rdSv <f>tX(ov ovZ^vX ovSk r£v oUeitov, 
ovS" iKcrScrat ifc rtSv fieyCa-rcDV ici^vSvimv, elfil Si iirl 
T^ fiovXofievtp &<nr€p ol arifiot rov iOeXovro^, av re $%Qujt(i.^ 

D Tvirretv fiovXrjTai, rd veavc/eov &) tovto tov o-qv^Ia ^'^^^v 
Xoyov, j ttI Koppr)^, idv re xpVf^o/^^ afpaipeurOai, idv ^ i'^*^ 
T€ iK^aXKeiv €K rr}^ 7roXe®9, idv re, to la^arov, 
diroKrelvai* xal oSt€o Sia/eelaOai irdvrcov Srj oLcryic- 
rov iariv, ©9 0-09 \0709. Se Srj ifio^, iari^ 10 
TToWd/ei^ fikv ^Si; etpTfrav, ovBiv Si fctoXve^ xal ery 
Xerfetrdat' ov <lyr)fic, (S K-aXXlxXetf;, to TVirrea-Oai, 
€7rl KoppYf^ dSlfeoD^ ala")(^LGTOv elvai,, ovSi ye rd refi- 
veaOat ovre to a£fia to ifiov oire rd fiaXXdvrioP, 

E dXXd TO TVTTTeiv fcal ifii xal rd ifid oSlko}^ xal 1$ 
rifiveiv KoX ataxtov Kot Kdxvov, xal KXetrreiv ye dfjui 
/cal dvSpairoSi^eadai xal Toi'Xfopxrxelv Koi avXXij^Srfv 
6tu)vv dSiKelv Koi ip^ koI rd epA T<p dSixovvTi xal 
/cdjcLOv Kal al<T')(iov elvai fj ep,ol r^ dSircovp^evtp, 
Tavra ripfiv avco i/ceX iv T0t9 irpoarde Xoyoi,^ oiro) 20 
509 (f>avivra, (09 eyo) Xeyto, xaTexerai Kal SeSerai, \ koI 
el drfpoiKorepov tl ehrelv iari, aiSrjpoi^ koX dSap^av- 
TLvoi^ XoyoL^, c»9 yovv &v So^etev ovTcoaiv, 069 ov el 
p,rj Xvaet^i fj aov ta9 veavixdrepo^, ov^ olov re dXXa>^ 
XSyovra fj <»9 eyo) vvv Xiym KaX£^ Xiyetv' errel 25 
ep^ovye 6 avro^ X0709 icrrlv del, in iyw ratha ov/e 
olSa o7ro>9 €^€1, 2ti fiivTot cSi; eyo) ivTeruxv^a, warirep 
vvv, ovSeh ot6^ t earlv a\\Q>9 X&ycav p,fj ov Kara" 
yeXa^TO^ elvay, ey(6 p,ev oiv ai Tidffp,c ravra o&Tta^ 

B exef*v. el Si ovt(o^ e^et icai p,iyiaTov t(Sv KaxoSv 30 
iarrlv fj dStKia t^ dStKOvvrt Kal Sri tovtov p,el^ov 
p^eyicTTOv Svto^, el otov re, to aSi/eoOvra /ai) SiSovai, 

100 HAATflNOS 

Si/efTfv, rlva &v fiorideiav firj Svva/x€vo<; avdpoyjro^ 
fioijOelv iavT^ KaTa^iKaa-ro^ &v rf aXriOeiq ett) ; 
ip ov ravrriv ^Tt9 dirorpiyfrei rrjv /jLeyio'Trfv fifi£v 
fikdfifjv ; aXKa iroXKrj avayicq ravrriv elvat rrjv 
5 ala"x^larr)v ^oTjOetav firj Svvaadai fiorfdetv /Mijre avr^ 
firire roi^ avrov <f>(Xot^ re Kot ol/eeioi^, Bevrepav Se 
rrjv rov hevrepov /ea/cov koX rpvrrfv rrjv rod rpLrov 
Kal roLKKa ot^ro)?, co9 ixdarov Ka/cov fiiyeOo^ ir€<t>vfe€v, 
oUro) Kal KaXXo^ rou Svvarov elvat 6<^' eicatrra 

10 ^orfdeiv Kal ala'xyvrf rov fii], dpa aWct)9 ^ oSt©? 
€X€(', (3 Ka\\//cX669 ; 
KAA. OvK a\Xa)9. 

LXV. 2fl. Avolv ovv ovroiv, rov dSiKetv re 
Kol dBiKeiaffac, fiel^ov fiiv <f>afiev KaKov ro dZiKelv^ 

15 ekarrov Zk r6 dSiKela-Oai, rl ovv &v irapaaKevaad' 

fievo^ avdpoairo^ fiorjOtjaeiev avr^, &are dfi^oripa^ 

Ta9 ttx^eXeta? ravra^ e^^ew^, rrfv re diri rov firj D 

dScKelv Kal rrjv dnro rov firj aSiKctadai ; irorepa 

kjJS^ Bvvafiiv rj ^ovKrjavvj cSSe Ze Xeyco' irorepov edv firj 

20 ^ovXrjrai dSiKeia-dat, ovk dBiKijaerai,, fj edv Svvafiiv 

Trapaa-Kevdarjrai rov firj dSiKeca-dai, ovk dSiKfjcrerai ; 

KAA, ArjXov S^ rovro ye, on edv Svvaficv. 

SXl. Tl Se Bfj rov dSixelv; irorepov edv fifj 

fiovXrfrat dZiKeiv, iKavov rovr ecriv — ov yap dSi- 

25 Krjaei, — ^ Kal iirl rovro Bel hvvafiiv rcva Kal re')(yr)v E 
TrapaaKevdaaadai, (09, edv firf fiddy avrd Kal 
daKijarrj, dSiKfjaeL; Tt ovk avro ye fioi rovro dire" 
Kpiv(o, (S KaWUXei^, 'jrorepSv aoi SoKOVfiev 6p6&^ 
dvayKacrdrjvai ofioXoyelv ev rol^ efirrpoardev X07049 

30 e/o) re Kal Tl&Xo^ fj oVy fjviKa wfioXoyrftrafiev firfheva 
fiovXofievov dScKelv, dXX* aKOvra^ rov^ dSiKovvra^ 
irdvra^ dZiKelv; 

ropriAS. 101 

KAA. 'TEjO'to) crot toOto, cS XcoKpare^, ovt€o<;, | 
510 tW SuiTrepdvrj top \6yov. 

Xil. Kal eTrl rodro a/^a, C09 €oi,k€, irapaaKev^ 
aareov iarl ivvafiiv rtva koI T€')(vr)v, .07rci>9 fi^ 

KAA. Ilai'v 76. 

2fi. T/9 oSi/ TTOT ia-rl T^i/17 t^9 irapaa-Kevfj^ 
Tov fif)Skv aSi/celaOai rj C09 oKtryccrTa; ateiyfrai el 
crol SoKet fiirep ifioL ifiol jiJkv yetp SoKci ijSe* ij 
avTov &p'X€iv Selv iv t^ iroKei, rj koX rvpawelv^ ff ttj^ 10 
virap'xpvari^ iroXcrela^ iralpov elvai, 
B KAA. 'Opa<;, <S X(!>KpaT€^, ©9 iyct> iroi^fw^ elfii 
iiraiveiVf av ri k(iK&<; \e7279 ; tovto fioi Soxet^ irdw 
KoXw elprfKCvai, ^ ^w^e-t 

LXVI. 212. SicoTre^ Brj kol roBe idv croi SoK&'^isO^f*'^ ^ 
€v Xiyeiv. ^&Xo9 /jlol Bokci Skcutto^ eKaarcp elvai ^yJ^J^^-h*! 
olov T€ fwXia-ra, Svirep ol iraKatoL re Kal a'0<f>oUM^- 
Xiyovatv, 6 Ofioio^ r^ ofioitp, ov koX arol; 

KAA. *'E/L6ot7e. 

Sft. OvKOvv OTTOV Tvpavvo^ ioTiv apxo>v aypto<; 20 
Kal diraiBevTo^, et rt^ tovto v iv Tp TroXei. 7ro\i> 
/ScXtCcdv etfj, <f>ofiolTO hrfirov &v avTov Tvpavvo^ Kal 
TOVT(p ef SnravTO^ tov vov ovk av iroTe SvvatTO ^lXo^ 
yeveaOai, ; 

KAA. "EcTT* TavTa, 25 

SXl. OvS^ 76 e? T^9 iroXv i^avXoTepo^ etr), ovS" 
hv oSto9* KaTa<f>povol yctp &v avTov 6 Tvpawo^ Kal 
OVK dv TTore c»9 irpo^ ^IXov (nrovBdaetev, 

KAA. Kal Tain dXi^Orj, 

Sn. KeiireTai Brj iKetvo^ fwvo^ d^ios Xoyov 30 
<f>LXo^ T^ ToifOVTtp, S9 dv ofiOT^drf^ £v, TavTa '^iytov 
Kal iiraiv&v, idiXrj apx^a-Oai Kal viroKeiadai, rcS 


dp'xpvri. 0UT09 fii^a iv ravrrj rfj iroKet Svpija-e" 
rat, TovTOV ovhei^ ')(aip(ov aScKi^<r€i» ovj^ out®? D 

KAA, Na/. 
5 2f2. Et dpa Tt9 ivvoTjo'eiev iv ravrr) rfj TroXec 
T&v vicov, Tlpa &v rpoirou iyco pAya Svvalp^rfv xal 
p^rjSei^ p.€ dSiKOLTf, avrrj, (L^ eoiKev, avr^ 6i6<i iariVt 
eif0if<; eK viov iOi^eiv avrbv toI<!: avrol^ ')(alp€iv koI 
a'xjSeadai r^ Secnrorrj, /cat irapa<rK€vd^€iv otto)? o rv 
10 p^aXioTTa 8p^io<; earai cKelptp. ov^ otfTO)^; 
KAA. Nal. 

ISO. Ovfcovv TOVT(p rh piv p.^ aScK€c<r0at xal E 
piya SvpaaOai, ©9 o vperepo^ \0709, iv t§ iroket 
15 KAA. Haw ye. 

2fi. *Ap' oiv Ka\ TO p,r) dhiKeiv; fj iroKKov Set, 
elirep Spoio^ earat, rd) dp')(ppTi optc diiic(p xal irapd 
TovT(p p.kya SvpTjaerat ; aW' o2p,at 670)76, irav tov- 
vavriov ovT(oal f} irapaaKevrj earat, avr^ iirl to ottp 
20 T€ elvai €09 TrXecara dSi/celp /cal dSucovvTa p,fj BiBovai 
StKTfv, ^ ydp ; 

KAA. ^aiv€Tai. \ 

211. OvKOVv TO pLeyioTOv avTot Kaicov virdp^etj 511 
ikxt^cl' p^X^'^P^ ^^'^^ '^V^ '^vxh^ 1^^ \e\fo^'qpiv(p Sid Tr)v 
25 pLipbrfatv Tov SeairoTov Kal hvvapLtv. 

KAA. OvK olS* oTry arpi^ei^; ixdaTOTe Toif^ 
Xoyov^ dv(o Kal xdTO), c3 %d>KpaT€^. rj ovk olada 
Sti 0VT09 pLip>ovpb€vo^ TOV pLt) p.ip,ovp^vov ixetvov 
diroKTCpel, idv $ov\r)Tai, xal d^aiprja-^Tai, Td ovra; 
30 SO. OlSa, (S ^yaOk KaXklicKet,^, el p,^ kco^o^ B 
7* elpbi, Kal (TOV aKovcov Kal HdXov dpTi iroWdKi^ 
Kal tSv dWcov 6\lr/ov irdvTtov t&v iv ttj irokei* 

ropriAS. 103 

d\\it /cal (TV ifiov aKOve, 8ti diroKTevet fiiv, &if 
fiov\'r)Tai, dWd irovrfpo^ atv iccCXjbv Kor/aOop ovra* t^ ^^^ S * 
KAA. Ov/eovv TOVT0 Brj koX rd ayava/cTfjrov ; -^^^^Jl/^a^^X. 
211. Ov vovv ye exovri, w 6 \6yo^ trfffiaivek. 
7J olei, Seiv TOVTO TrapaaKevd^eaOai dvOpayirov, <o^ $ 
irXecoTov y^ovov ^rjv, koX fieKerav rh^ Texva^ ravra^ 
C at 'fiim^ del iic r&v kvvSuvcov ad^ovaiv, &crirep iccA 
fjv av KeKeiei^ ifik fieXerav rifv ^tfrop^fc^v rffv iv 
Tol<i ScKaa-Tfjpioi^ Siaad^ovaav ; 

KAA. Nal fid AC 6p0&<: yi coi a-VfifiovTi^vtov. lo 
LXVII. SO. T^ Bi, (S fiiXriare; i) Kal ri rod 
vetv iiriarTTifir} cefipij tw (toi Soteei elvai; 
KAA. Md AC ovK e/jLOiye. .^ 

Sfl. Kal pJiyv o-(o^€i ye xal airr) ix Oavdrov 
Tov^ dvdpdirov^f orav eh roiovrov ip,irea(ociv oi hel 15 
TavT7)<; T179 i'jna-Trjfir}^, ei S' atrrf croi SoKci a-fit/cpd 
D etvai, iyto cot fiel^ova ravrrj^ iptS, r^v /cv$eptn)TiKi]v, 
^ oif fwvov Ta? yjnjxd<: ad^ei dWd ical rd a-dfiara 
Kal rd j(priiJMTa ix r&v iaxdroov tetvSvvmv, &<nrep fi 
prjTopiKi]. Kal avTTf fiev TTpoa-ecTaXfievff iarl Kal 20 
Koa/jLia, Kal ov ae/MVvverat €0'%^/iaTec/Liei^ w vireprf* 
<f>av6v Tt BiaTTpaTTOfAevrjf dWd ravrd Stairpa^afiivrj 
rfj ScKavvK'ff, idv fikv i^ AiyivTi^ Sevpo crcScrj;, olfiat 
Sv o^SoXot)? itrpd^arOy idv Se i^ AlyvTrrov t) €k tov 
TlovTov, idv TrdfiiroXv Taiiny^ t^9 fieydXr)^ evepyeaia^, 2$ 
£ craxra^^ d vvv iff SXeyov, Kal avrbv Kal iraiha^ Ka\ 
Xfi'rjfiara koX ywdiKa^, dnrofitfidp-aa eh rov Xifiiva 
Svo Spaxfid^ iirpd^arOf Kal avrb^ 6 ejfft)i/ r7)v rexyrfv 
Kal ravra Stairpa^dfievo^ iK^d^: irapd rrjv OaKarrav 
Kal rtfv vavu irepiTraret iv iierpltp (txvm^t^ XoyU 30 
^eaOai ydpy olfuii, ivla-Tarai in dhrfKov iartv 
ovartvd^ re i><l>iXriKe rcov avfiirXeovrfov ovk idaai^ 

104 HAATflNOS 

KaraTTOVTcodrjvat xal ovatipa^ ^/8\ai/rei;, elBdt)^ ori, 
ovBev avTod^ ^eXriov^ i^e^L^aa-ev fj oloi, \ ive^rja-av, 512 
oire Tct aoofiara oire TCL<i yjrxj^d^, Xoyi^erai oiv Sri 
ovK, el fjbiv T£9 fieydXoc^ xal dviaroi,^ voc'^fiaa-i xarct 
5 TO <r&fia avvexofievo^ firj direirviyqy ovro^ fikv aff\c6^ 
icTTtv oTi^ OVK diriOave^ koX ovSev vir avTov ox^e- 
\r}Tai* el Si ri^ apa iv T<p rov awfiaro^ TCfiia)Tipq>, 
rp '^V'X^, TToWd voarrjfiara c'xei Kal dviara, rovrcp 
hk ^icoriov iarl xal tovtov ovrjaeiev, av re bk daXdr- 

10 T^9 av T€ ix hiKaarripiov av re aXkodev oiroOevovv 
(raxrt), a\X* olSev on ovfc ap,€iv6v ia-rc ^rjv r^ P'OX^V' 
p(p dvOpdyvq) • Kaxw^ yctp dvdyKTf iarl ^ijv. B 

LXYIII. Aid ravra ov vofio^ iarX acfAvvveaOaL 
Tov KvpepvrjTffv, /ealirep ad^oma rifia^. ovSe ye, c5 

15 0avfid<ri€y TOV fi/rfx^voiroiov, S9 ovre aTpaT7)yov, firj 
OTi fev^epvrjTov, ovt€ aWov ovSevo^ ikaTro) ivioTc 
SvvaTai C(o^€tv* 7r6\€L^ ydp Sotlv otc 2\a9 ara>^€i. 
fiTj aroi SoKel KttTd TOV Stteavi/cov elvac; xaiToi el 
fiovXoLTo Xiyeiv, c3 KaWl/eXei^, airep vfiel^, acfivv- 

20 voDv TO irpayfia, KaTa^da-eiev dv vfxa^ tol^ \070t9, 
Xeycov xal irapa/ca\&p iirl to Seiv yiyveaOai firj- 
'XCLVOTToiov^t ©9 ovhev TaXKd iaTLV' Ixavb^ ydp avrS 
6 \6yo^, dWd crv ovBev rjTTOv avTov KaTa<f>pov€L<; 
Kal T^9 Tix^V^ T^9 i/ceivov, xal ©9 iv oveiBet diroKa- 

25 X€C7ai9 dv fir}y(avovoi6v, teal t& vlel avTov ovt dv 
Bovvai Ovyarepa iOikoi^, ovt dv avTo^ to5 a-avTou 
Xafielv Trfv ixeivov. Kairot i^ (Sv Ta aavTov iirawel^^ 
tLvi Bucal(p \dy(p tov p/qxP'VOTroiov icara^poveh Koi 
T&v dWoyv <Sv vvv Brj IXeyov ; oW Srt (l>aLfj9 dv D 

30 fieXTLCdv elvat xal ix fieXTiovtov, to Be ^eXTiov el 
firj e<TTVv o €70) A,€7ft), oKK avTO tovt eaTlv apeTt), to 
C(o^ei,v avTov Kal Td iavTov ovTa otrolo^ T£9 €Tt^€, 

ropriAS. 106 

KararfiTutoTO^ a-oi 6 -^0709 yiyverat koI fxri')(avoiroiov 
KoX larpov Kot r&v aWoov Te)(v&v, iaai rov a-oi^evp 
€i/€Ka ireirolrfvrau d\X, (S fAa/capiCf ipa firf aXXo ri 
TO yewaiov kol to d^aOov y rov ato^civ re koL 
aoo^eadoL fi'q y^p tovto fiiv, to ^rjv oirocrovBrj 5 
Xpovov, Tov y€ (09 d\7f0&^ dvBpa iariov icrl koI ov 

E ^CKo^vxqriov, aXX^ iiriTpiyjravTa irepl tovtodv r^ 
0€^ teal irMTTevaavra ral^ yvvai^lv 8t* rrjv eifutp^ 
fihnjv oi5S' av eh ifc^vyoi, rd iirl roiirtp cKeirreov 
riv &v Tpoirov tovtov ov fieKKot j(p6vov fii&vat 0)9 10 
apurra I3l^, dpa i^ofioL&v avrov t§ TroXvreia 
513 ravrrf \ ^"^^ V ^^ oIk^, koI vvv he apa Zel ae C09 
ofioiQTarov yiyvea-Oav r^ SijfKp r^ *A0r)valcov, el 
fiiWei^ Tovrtp irpoa^CKrj^ elvai Kal fiiya ivvaa-dai iv 
ry TToXet; tov0* ipa el aol XvaireXel koI ifioi, otto)^ 15 
/LtiJ, (S Bacfiovie, ireta-ofieda oirep ^aal rd^ rrjv ae- 
XtjvTjv KoOaipovaa^t tcl^ 0€TTa\/Sa9' avv to?9 ^^X- 
TaT049 ^7 aipea-i^ fifilv iarai ravrrf^ rf}^ Bwdfieo)^ t^9 
iv rfj TToXe*. el Se cot, otet ovrivovv dvdpwircjv 
TrapcLSdaeiv ri^vrfv rivd rotavrrfv, ^rt? ere irotijcrei 20 

B fiiya Svvaa-ffat iv rfj iroXeu r^Se dvofioiov Svra r^ 
iroXiTeicf etr iirl to fieXTtov elT iirX Td ')(elpov, ©9 
ifiol hoKeli ovK opd&^ fiovXeiiet, c3 KaXX/#cX6t9* ov 
yap fiifir)Trjv Set elvai aXX' avTO(l>v&^ ifioiov tovtoi^, 
el fiiXXei,^ tl yvrjcrtov direpyd^eaOai eh <f>iXUiv to5 25 
^AOrfvauov Stjfiq^ teal val fid Ala r^ TlvpiXdfi'jrov^ ye 
irp6<;, ooTt9 oiv tre tovtoi^ OfioiOTaTov dTrepydacTai, 
o5to9 (re iroLrforeiy c»9 inridvfieh ttoXctvko^ elvai, iroXi' 

C TiKov zeal fyqTOpiKOv* t& ovt&v ydp '^det XeyofievcDV 
T&v Xdycov IxaoTOV 'xalpovai, t^ 8k dXXoTplip< ayjBov- 30 
Tai, el iiri ti av oKXo Xeyei^, eS <f>LXrf Ke^aXij. 
Aeyofiiv ti irph^ TavTa, cS "KaXTuxXei^; 

106 HAATflNOS 

LXIX. KAA« Oi3ic els' ovriva fiot rpoirov 
BokeU ei Xeyecv, (S XooKpare^. iriirovda hk to t&v 
iroW&v irdOo^' ov irdvv aot ireiOofiai,. 

SO. *0 hrifiov yctp 1/90)9, (S Ka\\&/c\€£9, ivibv iv 
5 t5 '^^V '^ ^ dvTtoTarei fiov dXX* idp iroWd/ei^ D 
tcr<09 Koi $i\Tiov ravrd ravra SiatrKOTrdfAeOaf Tret- 
adrjaeL dvafivijaOrjri S* oiv, Zri, &vo €<f>afi€v elvai rd^ 
irapaa-feevd^ iTrl to CKaarov depaireveiv /cat a&fui 
/cat '^vxv^i fiiav fikv Trpo^ rfhovrjv ofiiXetv, Ttjv erepav 
10 Se 7r/309 TO fieXTiaTOVf firj KaTa)(api^6fi€vov dXXd 
Siafiaxofievov. ov TavTa f^v a t6t€ Spv^ofieOa; 
KAA. Hdvv ye. 

2Xi. OvKOVP 'q fiev €Tipa, fi^irpo^ ^^Sovi^v, d^cv- 
1/9)9 ical ovSev dXXo rj teoXa/eeUi Tvrf)(dv€t, oiaa, ^ 
IS yap; 

KAA. "EoT®, el ^ovXei, aol ovtco^. 
SO. 'H $€76 €T€pa, iwox; (»9 fieXTiaTOv IcTai E 
TovTOf e?T€ a&fia Tvyxdvec op efre ^i^y, h Oepa- 
Trevofiev ; 
20 KAA. Haw ye, 

2X1. *A/t)' oiv ovTO)^ eirixeiprjriov rifilv ia-Tl Tff > 
TToXet Kal T0?9 iroXiTac^ Oepaweveiv, ©9 /SeXTia-TOV^ 
avTov^ Toi)9 iroXiTa^ TrocovvTaf; ; dvev yap Srj tovtov, 
0)9 iv roi9 efiTTpoadev evpiaKOfiev, ovSkv 8<l>eXo^ 
25 aXX'qv evepyea-iav ovSefiiav 7rpoa'<l>€peiv, idp \ firj 514« 
/eaX'^ Ko^aOrj ri hidvoia y r&v jieXXopTcov ^ ^/99;/iiaTa 
TToXXd Xafi^dveiv fj dp^vv Tivtov fj dXXrjv hvvafiiv 

I^VTIVOVV. 0&fl€V 0UTtt)9 e)(€iv ; 

KAA. IXai/v ye, et aoi ^^ivv. 
30 SO. E^ oiv irapeKoXoviiev dXX'qXov^, w KaX- 
XlKXet<;, Srjfio<ria irpd^vTa^ T(Sv itoXitiic&v irpayfid* 
T(ov iirl Td olKoBo^iicd, rj Teiy&v fj vetopLfov rj lep&v 

ropriAS. 107 

iirl Tct fieyKxra olKohofnfuJMTa^ nrorepov eBec &v r^fia^ 

B (TKi^ltaa-dai i^fia^ aurov^ koI i^erdcrai, wp&rov p,iv 
el emarafieOa rr/v rix^"^ V ^^f^ iTrKTrdfieda, rrjv 
olfcoSofitKffv, Koi irapd rov ifiddo/j,€V ; ISec &v rj ou ; 
KAA. Hdvv ye, 5 

2Xi. Ov/covv hevrepov ai roSe, et rt irdirore 
olKohofirifia ^/eoSop/jxafiev IBlcf 17 rwv ^iXcDv tlvI ^ 
riixerepov avr£v, koX tovto to olxoSofirjfia xaXov fj 
aUr'xpov iart. Koi el fikv evpia/cofiev CKOTrovfievot 
S^ScuTKoKov^ re fjfi&v d/yaOov^ Koi iWoylfiov^ yeyo^ 10 
vora^ fcal olKoSo/JLTjfiara ttoWcL fiev koX KoXd fierd 

C T&v iiZaaKoKoiv (jpKoSofArffiiva riiilv, iroKKd hi koX 
Ihva Tifi&Vy eireiZri r&v itiatrKoktov awfjWdyfjfiev, 
oUto) fiev StaKet/JbivoDv, vovv ix^vTcav 'fjv &v Uvai iifi 
Tct Srj/j,6(Tia epya' el Sk fn]Te SiSda-KoXov el'xpiiev 15 
flfi&v avT&v iirtSel^ai olKoSofiTj/juard re ff firjBkv ^ 
TToWa Koi pnjSevo^ a^ta^ ovrta hif dvorjrov fjv hrjirov 
iinx^f'pciv Tol^ Brjfiocrlot^ ipyoi^ koX irqpatcaKelu 
oKKtjkov^ eir avrd, (fxiop^v ravra 6p6&^ Xeyeadai 
fj oi ; 20 

D KAA. Udvv ye. 

LXX. SXl. OifKovv ovrco irdirra, rd re dWa, 
K&v el €*mx'^ipi]aavre9 SrffAoa-ievecp TrapeKoKovfiev 
dWijkov^ C&9 l/cavol larpol ovre^, iirea-feeyltdfieda 
Sijirov &v iyci re ak ical trd ifie, <Pepe tt/oo? ffewv, 25 
avrb^ Bi 6 Xo)/cpdTr]<; TrtS? I^^fr ro a£fJLa irpb^ vyieuLv; 
fj rjBr) Tt9 aX\09 Bid %(OKpdr'qv dfri^XXdyi] voaov, 
17 BovXo^ fj iXevOepo^f K&v iyd, olfiai, Trepl a-ov 
Ire pa roiavra eafco'rrovv. koI el fifj rfvplcTKOfiev Bi 

E ^fia^ firjBeva fieXrito yeyopora r6 croo/jLa, fiijre r&v 30 
^evcov fifjre rSv daroov, fiijre avBpa firire ywcufca, 
Trpo^ Ato9, <» KaXXi/cXeL^, ov /caTorfiXaarav Av i\v t^ 


oKrideta eh roaovrov avoLa% ikdeiv dpOpdirotf^, ware, 

irplv lBi(OT€vovra<: iroWh fikv Stto)? irvxofiev irotrj' 

aav, iroXXA Se Karopd&arai kol yv/JLvd<r((urdai iKavS^ 

T^v Ti'xyif)Vf rh Xeyofievov S?) tovto, iv t^S iriO^p rrjv 

5 Kcpafieiav iinx^ipelv fiavOdveiv, xal avrov^ re 817- 

fAO€ri€V€iv iirt/xet^pelv Kal a\\ov<i rotovrov^ irapaKOr 

Xelv; ovK dvor/Tov cot So/cei &v elvai ovtco irpdrreiv; 

KAA. TE/Aot7€. 

SXl. NOj/ Si, I w ffikriare dvSp£v, iTretSrj crt) 516 

10 fi€v avrb^ apri ap')(€i Trpdrretv rd rrj^ iroXecD^ wpdy- 
fiara, ifjbk Se irapaKaXei^; koX oveiSi^ei^ on, ov irpdrrfo, 
OVK hnaKe^^ofieda dXKrjXov^y ^ep€, KaWi,/ekrj^ i]hrf 
rivd iSeXrCo) ireiroiriKe r&v woXirwv; ea-riv Hcrrt^ 
irporepov iroprfpo^ Sv, dSvKo^ re koX a#coXaoT09 ical 

i^ d(l>pa}v, Bed KaWiKkia teaXo^ re /cdrfa0o9 yiyovev, 
f) l^evo^ rj daro^, rj BovXo^ ^ i\ev0epo<;; A67e /Aot, B 
edu rh ere ravra i^erd^^, (3 KaWt^Xcf?, ri ipeU; 
riva <f>i]aei^ /SeXrlta ireTroirjKevai avdpfoirov t§ o-vv- 
ovaia ry afj; ^O/cveh diroKpLvaadaUt etirep eari rv 

20 epyov arov en iZuorevovro^, irpXv Sijfjboa-ievecv eiri" 
Xecpetv ; 

KAA. ^ikovetKo^ el, cS 'SidKpare^* 
LXXI. Sn. 'AXX' ov <f>tXov€iKLa ye epcor&y 
dTOC (09 aLKr)6&^ fiov\6fievo9 elBivac ivrivd irore 

25 TpoTTOP otev Belv iroXtreieadai, ev fipZv, ei aXKov rov 
dpa iTTifieXTjaei rjfuv i\0a>v iirl rd rrj^ irdXea)^ rrpdy^ 
fiara ^ Hirco^ 2 rt fiiXriaroi ol rroXircu wfiev. rj ov 
TToXXdKt^ rjSr) wfioXoyijKafiev rovro Selv irpdrretv 
rov TToXiriKov dvSpa ; 'ilfioXoyijfcafiev ^ ov ; diroKpC' 

30 vov, ^HiMoXoyrjKa^v* eyw virep aov diroKpivovfAau 
Et rolvvv rovro Bel rov dyaOov dvBpa irapaaKevd^etv 
T^ eavrov iroXei, vvv fiov dvafivijaOeU eirre irepl 

ropriAS. 109 

ifcelvoiv T&v dvBpwv wv o\iyq> irporepov IXeye?, €6 
D (hi <roc SoKovaiv arfoBoX iroKlrai yeyovivai, Hepi/cKrj^ 
Kol JS.ifi€ov Kal MikridSi]^ koI &€fuaTOK\rj^, 

KAA. *'E/Aot7€. 

211. OvKovv etirep cvyaOoi, St}\oi/ Zti Ixaaro^ 5 

avT(Sv fieXriov^; hroiei rov^ iroXiTa^ dvrl ^etpopcov, 

1 f ^ if 
€7roL€i Tj ov; 

KAA. 'ETTotet. 

2X1. OifKOVV ire TlepiicKri^ VRX^"^^ Xeyeiv iv 
T^ hrjfKpy ^eCpov^ fjaav oi ^AOrfvaioc fj ire rd reXev- 10 
rata eXeyev; 

KAA. 1c70)9. 

2X1. OvK iaco^ Brj, a> fiekTurre, aXX* dvdr//ei] 
E i/c r&v d>/io\oyi]fjLev(M)v, etirep dyaOo^ y* tjv i/eeivo^ 

KAA. Tv oiv iifi ; 

2X1. OvSip. dWd ToSe fioi elirk iirl rovrtp, el 
XiyovTui *A0i]vaioi Sict JlepneKea jScXr/ou? yeyovevai, 
7f Tray rovvavriov Sta(f>0aprjvai vir iKeivov. ravrl 
yap eyorye d/covco, TleptKXia ireiroirf/eivai ^Adrivaiov^ 20 
dpyoif^ KoL ietXov^ teal \d\ov^ xal ^tXapyvpov^, el^ 
fiiaffo^opiav irp&rov tcarao'TriaavTa, 

KAA. TSv rd oira KareayoTtov axovei^ ravra, 
w X(otepaT€^, 

2X1. 'AWA TaSe ovxeri dteovo), d\\d ol8a <ra- 25 
<!>&<; Kal iyo) Kal av, ort to fikv nrp&Tov rjiSoKCfiei 
TlepiKXrj^ Kal ovSefiiav al<rxpdv 81ki]v KaT€'^lnj(l)l- 
aavro avrov *A0i]valoi, fiviKa 'yeLpov^ fjaav* hreiSif 
516 S^ KaXol KoyaOol iyeyoveaav \ vir avTov, iir) re- 
XevTjj rod ^iov rov TlepcKXeov^, KXairrfv avrov 30 
Kare^<l>ia-avro, 6\lyov Be Kal Oavdrov irlfutia-ap, 
Srj7iX)V on ©9 Trovrjpov 01/T09. 

110 HAATflNOS 

LXXII. KAA. Ti ovv; rovrov iveKa Kateo^ 

2il. "Ovdov yovp &v iiri/jLekrfTff^ koI Xwirtov koX 
fio&v TotovTo^ wv KaKo'i &v iBoKei elvatf ei irapor 
5 Xafimv fii) Xa/cri^ovra^ [iatrrbv] fir)Se Kvpirrovra^ 
/j/yfSe Sd/cpovT(K cnriBei^e ravra airavra iroi^ovvra^ 
hi ar/pLOTffTa. r) ov So/eel croi xaKo^ elvat em- B 
fieKrfT^^ oaTKTOvv orovovv ^^oVf S9 &v irapd\afia>v 
"/jfiepdrepa airoBei^ aypia>T€pa fj irapika^e ; ^oxei 
10 17 OV ; 

KAA. Tldvv ye, iva a-oi, x^plaoD/j^ai, 
So. Kal ToSe rolvvv fioc 'xapiaav anoKpivdfievo^f 
TTorepop Koi 6 ap0ponro<; ^v r&v ^(pcav iarlv fj ov ; 
KAA. IIcS^ ykp ov ; 
15 Sfi. OvKOvv dvdpdirayv TlepiKKf]^ iwefieXeTo ; 

2X1. T^ oiv ; ovK Hei avrov^t ©9 apri d>/j,o\o' 
yovfi€v, SiKaiorepov^ yeyovivai avrl aSi/ccoripcov vir 
ixelvov, etirep ixetvo^ iirefieXeiro avrwv dyaOb^ a>v 
20 rh iroTuTMa ; 

KAA. Ilai^v 76. 

211. OvKOVV oX y€ SuKatot i^fiepoc ©9 ef^'q^Ofir)- 
po%, aif tk tL (I>'^9 ; ov^ ovrcog ; 
KAA. Na^ 
25 211. 'AWA pi^iiv drfpctoripov^ ye avroif^ diretfyrf^ 
vev j; 0M)V9 TrapiKafie, koX ravr €& avTov, bv i^Kiar 
&v ifiovKero. 

KAA. BouXet aoi ofidXoytjaa ; 
2n. E/ SoKo^ yi aov aXijOrj \iyecv. 
30 ELAA. *'EcrTtt) Si) ravra. 

2fl. OvKOvv eXirep aypKoripov^, dSifccoTepov^ re 
/cal %€//9ov9; 

ropriAS. Ill 

D KAA. "E^rro). 

2n. Ov/e &p* ofyaOo^ ret iroKtriKa TlepiKkri^ fjv 
i/c rovrov rov \6yov. 

KAA. Ov (TV y€ (f)i^^» 

SX2. Ma A/' ovSi ye av e^ £v <ofio\6y€i^» TLaXiv 5 
Be Xeye fioi irepl Kifiaovo^* ov/c i^toarpaKicav avrov 
oifTOi 0&9 iOepdirevev, Xva avrov Sixa irwv fJbff clkov- 
aeiav rrj9 <l)(iovrj^ ; xal QefiKTroxXia ravrd ravra 
irroifjaav /cal ^vy^ Trpoa-e^fjfiLCDO'av ; M(\r^a&7j/ he 
rov \ev\ MapaOwvi ek ro fiapaOpov ifi0a\€tv i'^^l- lo 
E cravroy kou el fjLf) Sva rov irpvravtv, iviireaev av ; 
Kairov oifroc, el rjaav avhpe^ a^aOoi, (09 crv (fyij^, ovk 
av TTore ravra hraaxov. ovkow oX ye cuyadol 
fivicxpt Kor dpxa^ fiev ov/c itcirlirrovaiv i/c r£v 
^€vy£vf iTreiSdv Se OepairevaaxTL tou9 imrov^ xal 15 
avrol dfieivov^ yevcovrai '^vioxov, ror ifCTrivrovarcv. 
OVK icrn ravr ovr iv '^vio'^^eia oiir ev aWtp epy^ 
ovSevL ^ SoKei act ; 

KAA* OvK ^fiotye» 

SO. ^AXfjOel^ apa, o)? Soi/cev, oi ifirrpoaOev 20 
517 Xofyo^ fjaav^ on ovSeva 17/^6^9 | tcrfiev avSpa dyaffov 
yeyovora rd TroXcriKa iv rySe rp ttoKcl av ik 
oDfioXoyet^ r&v ye vvif ovSiva, rdSv fiivroi efiTrpoarOev, 
/cal irpoeiKov rovrov^ rov^ avBpa^. oirot Se dve* 
<l)dvi]arav ef laov roi^ vvv Svre^, marre, el oiroi 25 
piyrope^ fjaav^ oire t§ dXrjdiv^ pvropiKfj ixpd^vro — 
ov ydp &v e^eireaov — ovre r^ Ko\aKt/e^. 

LXXIII. KAA. 'AX\a fiivroi ttoXKov ye Bet, 
B <S Xdxpare^, ptj rrore rt^ rdov vvv ipya rotavra 
ipydarfjrai ota rovrtov S9 fiovKei eXpyaarai. 30 

Sfl. *fl BatpLovie, ovS^ eyo) '^eyto rovrov^ (89 ye 
ButKovov9 etvat iroXew^, dXXd fjuoi BoKovat r&v ye 

112 HAATllNOS 

vvv SiaKovtK(OT€poi ycyovevav xal fmWov otoi re 
iKTTOpl^eiv T§ TToket wv ifredufiet. dWd yap fjLera- 
l3L^d^€iv Ta9 iiridvfiia*; koX firj iirLTpeitevv, ireiOovre^ 
KaX ^ia^6fi€vot cttI tovto o0€V SfMcWov dfieivov^ 

5 eaeadav oi TroXiTat, w? ?7ro9 elirelv, ovSev tovtcov 
hU(f)Bpov CKeivoi* oirep fiovov epyov iarrlv dryaOov 
wdklrov. vav^ he koX relj^rj xal vempta xal aXkaQ 
TToWd TotavTa koL iy<o aoi 6fio\oy£ Seivoripov^: 
elvat ixelvov^ rovrtov ixfropi^eiv. Upayfia oiv. 

loyeXoiov iroiovfiev iy(o re xal <ri) iv to?9 Xoyoi^. iv 
iravri yap r<p XP^^^ ^^ BiaXeyofieda ovBep iravofieOa 
€19 TO avTO aeX 7r€piif>€p6fi€VOt teal dyvoovme^ dXKrj' 
\(ov o TV X^ofiev, iyo) yovv ae iroWdtci^ olfiai D 
a)fj,oXoyrjK€vaL kolL iyvtOKivai &<; apa Sltt^ avTff rts 

15 17 7rpayp>ar€La iarl xal irepl to ado/jua KaX irepl rrjv 
'^vxv^, fcaX fi fjbkv iripa StaxovtKi] iariv, y Svvarov 
elvat i/cTTopi^etv, idv fiev ireivy rd aoiiiara ^fidivy 
aiTut, idv Sk Siyfrfj, irord, idv Se pcy^, Ifidria, 
arpdfiaTa, viroBTJ/iaTa, dkX &v ep^x^erat atofiara el^ 

20 hrvOvp^iav, KaX i^eirirr^he^ cot Btd t<Sv avrdov el/cO' 
1/0)1/ Xeyo), Xva paov Karafiddrj^, rovrtDV yap iropia-' E 
TtKov elvat fj KowrfKov 6vTa rj efiiropov fj Bij/jutovpyov 
Tov avT&v TOvrcdVf (TtTOTTotov ^ ^oyltOTTotov fj v^dvrriv 
fj aKVTOTOfiov fj aKVToBeylrov, ovBev Oavfiaarov iariv, 

25 ovra TotovTOv Bo^at KaX avrS Kal T0Z9 dXXoL^ 
Oepairevrfjv elvat aoifjLaTO<;, iravrX t& firj elBort ort 
eoTt Tt9 Trapd ravra^ dirdo'a^ Texv) yvfiva^artK'^ re 
KaX larptKri, fj Bfj r& 6vTt iarrX adfiaro^ OepaireLa, 
fivirep KaX irpoa'^Kei tovtodv dp^etv iraa&v t(Sv 

30 rex^oov KaX xPV^^o»t toI^ tovtcov epyot^ Btd ro 
elBevat 6 rt XPV^^'^^^ 'f^* frovrjpov rdov airmv fj 
iroT&v iarXv eh dperrjv \ adfiaTO^:, Ta9 S' aXXa9 518 

ropriAS. . 113 

irdaa^ ravra^ arfvoelv* Zio hrj xal ravra^ fikv 
Bov\o7rpe7r€t<: re xal Biaxovixa^ kol dveXevOipov^ 
elvai TTcpl aoifjuiTO^ Trpayfiarelav, to? a\\a<: ri'xya^:* 
rrjv Be yvfivaariKrjv koX larptx^v Kara t6 BvKaiop 
Be(nroiva<; elvat rovrmv. ravrd oJfv ravra 8rt eart 5 
/cal irepX '^vyrjv. Tore fiiv fioi Boxei^ fiapffdvetVy ore 
Xeyo), xal ofiokoyetf: ©9 etSo)? o rt €70) Xeyo)* i^xei^ 
Be oXiyov varepop Xeycop in upffpayirot Ka\ol Kdya$ol 
yeyopaac froXlrai ip rfj iroKei, koX hreiBdp iyo) 

B ip(or& ocTipe^, Boxel^; ^ol ofwiordTov^ irpOTeiPeaBai 10 
dpdpcoTTov^ irepl rd TroXiri/cd, ZcTrep &p el irepX rd 
yvfipaari/ed ifiov iptoroopro^ o?Tfz/€? dr/adol yeyopaaiv 
fj elal acjfMdrfDP Oepairetnai, eXeyi^ fioi irdpv OTrov- 
Bd^ayp, ®eapi<op 6 dproKoiro^ Kal MidatKO^ 6 rfjv 
oi^OTTodap avyyey paxf>a}^ rrjp XiKeXiKtjv Kal Xdpafio^ 15 
KdirrfSjo<i, Xrt ovroi $avfidatoi yeyopcurc acofidrmp 
Oepairevrai, 6 fikp dprov^ davfAaarov^ irapao'/cevd^oDv, 

C 6 Be S-y^op, 6 Be oIpop. 

LXXIV. ''I(ra)9 Az/ oip '^yapdxrei^, ei cot eXeyop 
€ya> irt ''Apdpayrre, iiratei^ ovBep irepX yvfipacrTtxtj*;' 20 
Biaxopov^ fiOL Xeyei^ Kal eindvfiLWP irapcurKevaa-Td^ 
dvdpd'rrov^, ovk iiratopra^ xaXop Kayadhp ovBep irepl 
avrdSp, ol, &p ovroa TiJ^axrtz/, ififrXijaaPTe^ Kal 7raj(y- 
papre^ rd adfiara toop dpOpdirtop, eiraipovfiepoi, vir 

D avrdop, irpoaairoXovaip avrcip Kal rd^ apyala^ 25 
adpKa^, ol S' ai Bt* dm'etpLap ov rov^ eari&pra^ 
aindcropTaL rwp p6(T(op atrlov^ elpac xal ri79 drro- 
^oXrj^ T(OP dp')(aUov aapK&p, aSX ot Ap avrot^ 
Ti5%ftwrA Tore irapopre^ Kal avfi^ovXevopri^ ri, irap 
Bfj avTol^ fJKT) rf Tore TrXfja/juoprj voaop if^epovaa 30 
avypw vcrrepop 'xpopqt, are aP€V rov vyteipov ye- 
yopvuif TOVTOXf^ alruiaropTai Kal '^e^ovarc Kal KaKOP 

PL. GOR. "^ 


Tt iroLrjaovaLv, &v olol r wai, rov^ Se irporkpov^ 
ixelvov^ xal airiov^ r&v xaxcov iyK(ofitaarovari» Kal £ 
<n) vvv, dJ KaWl/cXei^, ofiocorarov rovrtp ipyd^et* 
€yK€OfjLia^€i^ dvOpdnrov^ ot tovtov^ ^iaridKaatv ezJo)- 

5 Xoi;i/T€9 &v iiredv/jbovv. xai ^axri fieydXrjv rrjv 
iroKiv ireirovqKivai avroi^' otl Sk olSel /cal UttovXo^ 
itm iC GKeivov^ rov^ iraXatov^, ovte ala0dvovTat.\ 
apev yap aw^poavvq^ koX StKaioa-vPT]^ Xifievcov kuI 519 
V€(opi(M)v KoX Tevx&v xal <f}6p(ov xal roiovrcov <f}\vcb' 

10 pmv ifiTreTrXrjKaa't rrjv iroXtv* iirav ovv eXdrj fi 
/cara^oXrj avrrj rr}^ daOeveia^, rov^ rore irapovra^; 
alruurovrat avfi/SoiiXov^, SefiiaTOKXia Sk xal Kl- 
fi(»va xal UeptxXia iyxcop.ido'ova'i, rov^ alrlov^ r&v 
xax&v* aov Se tcm^ CTnX'qylrovTai, idv firj evXa^f), 

15 xal Tov i/Aov iralpov ^AXxt/SuiSov, irav xal rd 
dpyala TrpoaairoXXvaxrt Trpd^ ol? ixTricavro, ovx B 
airUov Svrcov toov xaxdSv dXX* la(0^ arvvairUov, 
xairot eycoye dvorjrov irpdyfia xal vvv opdo yiyvo- 
fievov xal dxova> t&v iraTsjat&v dvhp&v iripi, aJxT' 

20 ddvofia^i ydp, Zrav 17 7r6\*9 rcvd t£v itoXltlkwv 
dvBpwv fJL€Taj(et>pi^r]Tai w dStxovvray dyavaxrovvrtov 
xal ayerXLa^omtov co? heivd irda^ovo't* iroXXd xal 
ay add rrjv iroXiv 'jreTToirjxore^ apa dZLxto^ vir avrrjs 
dnroXKvma^^ ©9 o rovrcov \0709. to Se iXov yjrevSo^ 

25 ecTTt. irpoardTfj^ ydp 7r6\€G)9 ovS* Stv el^ it ore C 
dSixoD^ diroXotro vir ai;T^9 t^9 iroXeo)^ ^9 irpoa* 
raret xtvSvvevet ydp ravrov elvac, iaoi re iroXi* 
Tixol TrpocTrotovvrai elvai xal iaot ao(f)UJTaL xal 
ydp 01 .ao<f>ca-Tait rdXXa ao^ol Svre^, rovro droirov 

210 ipyd^ovTaL irpS/yfui* ^daxovre^ ydp dperrj^ S^acr- 
xaXot elvav iroKXaxt^ xaTf)yopov(ri r&v fuidrfTciv Gtf9 
dStxavai a^a^ [ai5Toi59,] rov^ re /ita-dov^ diroare' 

ropriAS. 115 

povvre^ zeal *aX\r)v yj^aptv ovk diroBiSovTe^, €v tra- 
D Oovre^ vir ain&v, koX rovrov rov \6yov ri &v 
dXoydrepov eirj irpayfia, avOpdirov^ dyaOoif^ xai 
SvxaLov^ yepojiiivov^, i^acpeOivra^ fiev dSiKlav virb 
rov SiScuTKaXov, G'^inna^ Sk SiKatoarvjnjv, dStKclv 5 
Tovrqi ^ OVK e^ovo'tv ; ov Soxet aoi rovro Atottov 
elvai, w fralpe ; '12$ aXi/dcS? SrjpLijyopetv fie '^vdyxa- 
aa^y c3 KaWlxket^, ovk iOektov diroKpLveaOai, 

LXXV. KAA. 2i) S' ovk &v 0I69 r etrj<; Xiyeiv, 
el firj rk cot dtroKplvotTo ; 10 

E Sfl. *'Eoi/ca ye* vvv yovv av')(yov^ reivao ra>v 
\6ya)v, iireiSfj fiot ovk iOeXei^ diroKptveadai,, a\X' 
cS ^yaOe, eiirk irpo^ <f)i\iov, ov SoKet ctol SXoyov 
elvai drfadbv <^daKovra freTrotrjKepac rivd p,ifiif>eadaL 
TovTtp in vff)^ eavTov d/yado^ yeyovoo^i re koX c5z/ 15 
hreira frovijpo^ iartv ; 
KAA. ^'Efiot/ye BoKet. 

Sfl. OvKovv dKovet^ TObavra Xeyovrav r&v 
(fyaaKovrmv waiBevecv dvdpmrov^ el^ dpenjv ; \ 
520 KAA. "£76)76. dWd rl &v \€yoc<: dvOpdmayu 20 
iripi ovBevb^ d^ioov ; 

SXi. Ta S' hv irepl iKeivoov \i70t? oi ^da-Kovre^ 
TTpoeardvat T^9 TroXeo)? koI iirtfieXela-dat Ztto)? ©9 
fieXrlarrj earac frdXiv avrrj^ KaTrjyopovcriv, orav 
rxfxaxTLVy cS? iroirqpordTi)^ ; otet Tt Bca(f>€p€LV rovTov<; 25 
eKecvtov ; ravrov, w fjLaKdpt\ iarl ao<f>caT7J^ koX 
pijrcop, ^ iyyv<i ri, Ka\ irapaTrXtjo'iov, S&Trep iyo) 
B iXeyov *rrp6^ HSkov, <ri> Be St' ayvoiav to fxev 
irdyKcCKov rt olev elvai, rrjv prfropiKTjv, tov i^ Kara- 
(f>povei^'' rjj Bk dXrjOeia Kd^kXiov ia-ri (TO(f>L<TTLKrj 30 
{ifjropiKrj^ iatpirep vofiodertKr} BLKaariKrj^ koI yvfi- 
vaoTLKTJ laTpiKTJ^. fiovot^ S' lycoye koI co^Ayu «Tii\.^ 

116 HAATflNOS 

&r)/jirjy6poi^ re kol (ro<f>caTat^ ov/c iy^ayp^lv /jL€fi<f)€a'0at 
rovTtp Tft) Trpdrf/juari h avTol Trat^evoviriv, <W9 irovrj- 
pov iariv 6*9 <7^a9, rj rtp avT& \o7^ rovrtp afia ical 
eavTcSv KaTrjyopeiv on ovBev a}(f>e\i]Kaa'iv 01/9 (fxictv 
5 (o<f)eX€tp. ovx 08x0)9 ex€t> ; 

KAA. Ilai'i; ye, 

2fi« Kal irpoeo'dai ye SrfTTOV rrjv evepyea-iav 
avev /iL<r0ov, (09 to et/co9, fwvoi^ tovtol^ eve^fopei, 
elirep aXrjdr} eXeyov. aXXrjv fievyap evepyealav Tt9 
10 evepyerrjOei^, olov ra^v^ y€p6fj,€vo<; Bed TratBorpl^rjv, 
?<rG)9 dv diroaTepriaeue rrjv yapiv, el trpooiTO avr&i 6 
iraiBorpl^rjf; xal ptfj avvdiixevo^ avr^ fiurdov rv 
fidKiara ap,a fieraBiBoi}^ rov ra;^ov9 XafA/Sdvot to 
dpyvpiov' ov yap T^^paBvriJTt, olfiat, dBiKOva-Lv oiT> 
15 avffpcoiroL, aXX' dBixia, fj yap ; 
KAA. Na6. 

Sfl. OvKOvv et r49 avro tovto d<f}aLp€l, rrjv 

dBiKLav, ovBev Beivov avrtp fitjirore dBiKfjO^^ dWh 

fi6vq> da<f>a\k^ ravTr}v rrjv evepyealav wpoeaOat, 

20 eiTTcp T^ ovrt Bvvairo Tt9 dyadov^ irotetv, ov^ 

015x0)9 ; 

KAA. ^rjfiL 

LXXVL 2fl. A^a ravT apa, c&9 €oik€, rd^ 
fi€v aX\a9 avfi^ovXd^ av^fiovkevetv Xa/i/Sdvovra 
25 dpyvptov, olov olKoBo/Juia^ iripi fj t&v oKXodv rex^^v, 
ovBev alarxpov, 

KAA. *'EoiK€ ye. E 

2fl. Ilepl Be ye ravrrj^ t^9 Trpaf €0)9, iirnv dv 

TA9 rpoirov <B9 y8e\TA<rro9 elrj Kal dpiara r'fjv avrov 

30 OLKLav BcoL/coi rj ttoXlv^ alaxp^v vevo/jLLarai firj if>dvat 

avfifiovXeveiv, edv ^tj Tt9 avr^ dpyupiov BiBtp. fj 


ropriAS. 117 

KAA. ^aL 

2fl. A'fjXov yap in, tovto aXrtov iartVj '6ri 
fiovrj a^Tf} Twv evepyea-ioiv tov ei iraOoma einOvfielv 
irotel dvT ei iroietv, &aTe koKov SokcI to arjfielov 
elvat, el ei iroirjaa^ ravrriv rrjv evepyealav dvr ei 5 
Treia-erai' el Se /at?, oi, ecTi ravra outo)? eypvra; \ 
621 KAA. "E&Ttv. 

2n. 'EiTrl irorepav oiv fie irapaKcCKel^ t^v 
OepaireLav ttj^ TroXe©?; htopiaov fiot' rrjv tov Sia- 
fid'X^ea'dai *A0ijvaioi^ ottco? ©9 jSeXTia-TOi ea-ovrai, co? lo 
larpSvf ^ {09 Sia/comjaovTa /cal tt/oo? %a/3ti/ ofiiXij- 
aovra; TdXrjOrj fjLOt elire, cS KaWMc\eA9* Blxaio^ yap 
el, wairep ^pf ft) frapprjatdi^ea-Oac 7rpo9 ifii, StareXeiv 
a 2/0€?9 Xeyav. xal vvv ei Ka\ yevvaito^ elirL 
£ KAA, Aiyto rolwv ort (»9 hiaKovrjaovra. 15 

Sn. 'KoXaKevaovra apa fie, 00 yevvatorare, 

KAA. E? aoL Mvaov ye tjSlov KaXelv, cS SoJ- 
Kpare^* ©9 el firj ravra ye rroirjaei^ — 

2n. M17 €?7r2;9 S 7roX\a^49 etpfjKa^, '6ri diro- 20 
/crevei fie 6 8ov\6fievo^, Xva firj av Kal €70) etiroa, Srt 
TTovrjpo^ ye cov drfadov ovra' firjS* irt dxf>aip'qa'erai 
edv ri ^0), iva firj a\) iyoo elfro) ort 'AW' d<f>e\6fievo^ 
C ov'x^ e^ev 2 ri 'xptfaerat avroht aXV &<nrep fie dBiKco^ 
d<f>etXero, oira) xal Xa^cdv aS^/ca)9 XPV^^*^^^' ^^ ^^ 25 
aSt/ca)9, alaxpw' el 8e alaxp^^i KaKtZ^, 

LXXVII. KAA. ''fl9 fiot Bo/cei^, cS XooKpare^, 
friarevetv firjS' &v ^v rovrcov iradelv, ©9 ol/cdop ite- 
TToSoDv Kal ovK &v elaa^Oel^ eh ScKa^njptov viro 
irdvv £0-0)9 fio^^rfpov dvOpdirov Koi ^avKov\ 30 

2X1. ^AvoTfTO^ apa elfii, (S KdWiKKeif;, C09 
d\i]0(5^, el firj oiofiat ev TrJSe tiJ ttoK^i. (iV'TV»^>yv) 


av, Ti Tvypt^ TOvTo wadeip. tSSc fievroi ei 018* 
irtf edvirep elaito €A9 hucacrrrjpLov irepl tovtcov tivo^ 
KtvZvvevwv civ av Xeyet?, irovrjpo^ rh fie earac 6 D 
el&dyoop' ovSel^ yap &v 'xprjaros firj aScKOvvr* avOpa)- 

5 'jrop elaaydyoi. xal ovBep ye aroirop el dirodavoLfiL. 
/3ov\et cot, eliroD St' 8 rt ravra 7rpo<rSo/coo ; 
KAA. Jldpv ye. 

2ft. Otfiat fi€T oXlycov *A0r)val(op, ipa firj eXirto 
/ii6vo<;, hrixeipelv rrj o)? dXrjOiS^ iroKiTLKfi re^z/i/ koX 

10 irpdrTecv rd TroKiTtKa fwvo^ rcSv vvv, dre ovp ov 
7r/309 X^P^^ Xeyayp toi)? Xoyov^ ofi? Xeyo) eKna-rore, 
dXXd irpb^ to ^iXriarop, ov irpo^ to yScorop, xal E 
ovK edeXfov iroielv a av irapatvel^y rd KOfiyfrd ravra, 
ovx e^o> rt Xeyo) ev r<p hiKaarrfpicp, 6 avrb^ Se 

15 /not 7^/cei X6709 ivwep irpo^ Tl£Xov eXeyov Kptvovfiai 
ydp C&9 ev 7raLBL0c<; larpb^ &p xplvovro Karrjyopovvro^ 
oyjroiroiov, axoiret ydp, rl &p diroXoyoiro 6 rotovro^ 
dpdptOTTo^ iv rovroi<; Xr}^0ei^, el avrov Karrjyopot ta9 
Xiycop on *X1 7ratSe9, iroXXd. vfMa<: xal Kaxd ohe 

20 eipyacrrac dvrjp xal avrov<;, /cat rov^ vea)rdrov<> vfitSv 
Sta(j>Oeipet rifjuvayp re xal xdotp, xal laypatvav \ /cat 522 
TTPirytop diropelv irotet, irtKporara iroifxara StBov^ koI 
Tretvrjp xal Bt^lrrjp dpayKd^top, ov^ Sairep iyoD iroXXd 
Kal riBea /cat Travrohaird evdyxpvv vfia^. rl av otet 

25 iv rovr(p r£ KaK<p d'TroXr}<f>6evra larpov ?%€ti^ eliretv ; 
fj el eiirot rrjv dXrjdetav, '6rt Tavra trdvra eyoD 
eiroiovv, co iratSe^, vytetvoo^y ttoctop otet av dpajSorjaat 
tot) 9 toao1;tov9 Btxaard^; ov fjuiya; 
KAA. "10-0)9 • oteadai ye XPV- 

30 2n. OvKovv olet iv . Trdat) diropia av avrdv 
ixeadai rt xPV ehrelv; ^ 

KAA. Tldvv ye. 

ropriAS. 119 

LXXVIII. 2n. ToiovTov fiipTot, fcal iyo} els' 
in nrddo^ TrdOotfit av eiaeKdoiv eU hiKaa-rrjpiov. 
ovT€ yctp i7Soj/a9 d^ eKTTCTropVKa If© avTok Xiyetv, 
&9 ovTOc evepyecla^ /cat d)<l)€\eUi^ vofii^ovaiVf eya> Si 
ovT€ T0V9 iropi^ovra^ fyjkw ovre 0I9 iropi^eraf idv $ 
re TL9 fie fj vetoripov^ <f>fj Sui^Oeipeiv diropelv 
TTocovpra, ^ roif^ irpea^vripov^ KaKr^yopelv \eyovra 
TTLxpov^ \6yov<; ^ Ihia fj Srjp.oo'ia, ovre ro d\i]0h lif ft) 

C eirrelv) ore ^tKam^ irdvra ravra eyo) Xeyto^ koX rrpdrro) 
ro vpiirepov hrj rovro, «o avSpe^ Sixaarai, ovre dWo 10 
oifSiv, mare to*©?, 2 T^ dv rv^ft), rovro Treicrofiai, 

KAA. ^OKel ovv aoi, do Soi/cpare?, /eaXat^ ^eiv 
avOpeoTTo^ ev iroXei ovr(o StaKeLp,epo^ xal dBvparo^ 
Av eavr^ ^oriOelv; 

2n. Et eicelvo ye [ei;] avrm virdpypiy do Ka\- 15 
XixXei^, h aif iroKKaKt^ d>fio\6yij(ra^' el ^e^orid'qKW^ 

D el'q avr^, firjre irepl dvOpdirov^ firjre irepl deov^ 
dSi/cov firjBev fiijre elpijKoo^ firjre elpyacfiivo^, avTij 
ydp Tt9 ^OTjOeia eavrt^ TroWdxt^ fffiiP oofioXoyqrai 
Kparlarrj elvat, el fiep oiv ifie ta9 e^eXeyxpi ravrrjp 20 
rijp fiorideiav dZvvarop ovra ifiavrm koX SXktp 
jSorfdetv, ala")(vvoLfirjp dv Kal ev ttoXXoi? /cal ev 
oXiyoL^ i^eXeyxofiepo^ Kal fiovo^ iiro fiovov, teal el 
Sid ravrrfv rrjv dSvvafilotV dirodprjcTKoifii, dyavaKToi- 
7)v dv. el Sk KoXaKiKtj^ pr}ropi/ci]^ epSeia rekevrtp- 25 
rjv eytoyCy ev olSa in pqSuo^ ISoi^ dv fie ^epovra 

E rov Odvarop. avro fiev ydp ro diroOpTfaKetv ovSeX^ 
(pofieirat, oan^ firj iravrdiraavv aXoyiaro^ re xal 
dvavSpo^ early ro Se dSixelv ^o^elrai,' iroXKmv ydp 
dSt/cfffidrcop yifMOvra rrjv ^vx^i' el^"AiSov d<f>iKea0ac 30 
irdvraov ia')(a,rov tcaKoov earlv. el Se /SovXei, aol 
iydo, (i? rovro oiKto)? e;^€t, eOekoo \6yov'\i^a^. 

120 HAATftNOS 

KAA. *AW' iireLirep ye xal rdXXa hripava^^ 
KOL TovTO irepavov, \ 

LXXIX. 2Xi. "^Kove hrfy <^aai, fid\a xaXov 523 
\6yov, hv (TV fiiv "qy^trei fivOov, C09 iy^fiai, €70) Se 

5 \6yov' <B9 oKrjSrj yap ovra aot Xefo) a fjUWto Xeyei^v, 

^Slawep yap ''Ofiijpo<; Xiyei, hteveifjbavro rrjv apyrjv 6 

Zeu? KoX 6 TlocreiZ&v koI 6 JI\ovto)v, iireiZri irapa 

rov irarpo^ irapeKafiov, ffv odif v6fjL0<; oSe irepX 

dvOpoiircov iirl Kpovov, koI del xat iwv eri ecrriv iv 

10 OeoUy rwv dvdpdiroav top fiev Si/daico^ rov iSlov 
BieXOovra koI 6ai(o^, iweLidv TeKevTijarj, €t9 fiaxd- B 
pav vfjaov^ dinovTa oiKetv iv irdarj evSaifiovia ckto*; 
KOK&v, rov Se dSlKOD^ koL ddeo)^ eh ro rr}^ riaeoi^ re 
teal SliCTj^ hea-fiojrrjpLOVf h Srj rdprapov KaXovaiv, 

15 ievai, Tovrcjv Sk SiKcurral 67rl Kpovov xal ere vecoarl 
rov At09 rrjv dp^rfv eyovro^i ^(Spre<: fjaav ^dvroDv, 
eKeivt) ry rfp^pa Sc/cd^ovre^ y fUWotev reXevrdv. 
KaK&^ ovv at Si/cai ixpivovro, Z re ovv IlXovrcov 
KoX ol iTTifieXrjral oi iic fuiKaptov vrjaoDv I6vre<; ekeyov 

20 7r/oo9 rov Aia ort ^otr^ev a'<\>i,v avOpayirot eKarepfoae 
dvd^LOL elirev oJw 6 Zev^, 'AW' eycJ, €<l>rf, Travcto C 
rovro yufvofievov, vvv fiev yctp /eaK(5<; ai hiKai hiKd' 
^ovrac, dfiwexofJi^evot ydp, €<lyijf ol Kptvofievoi Kpivov- 
rat' fc3in-€9 yctp Kpivovrai» iroXKol ovv, fj 8' 09, 

25 '^v'xj^^ TTOvrjpd^ e'xpvre^ fjfi^Leap^evoL elal adfiard 
re KoXd teal yevrj xal 7r\ovrov<;, xai, iireiBdv 17 Kpict^ 
V> ^pxoi/rafc avrot^ iroWol fidpTvpe^, fiaprvpiijaovre^ 
a>9 hbKam^ ^e^Ldxaa-iv. ol ovv BvKacral vrro re 
rovroDv i/cirXijrroirrai, /edi afjua /cdi avrol a/iTre^o- D 

30 fievoi Sited^ovat, rrpo rr}^ yfrvxv'^ t^9 avr&v 6<f>0aX' 
/L60V9 ical dor a koI oXov ro awfia TrpoKefcaXvfifjLevou 
ravTa S^ avrok irdvra eiriirpoadev yiyverai, xal rd 

ropriAS. 121 

avT&v d/Ji<f>i4afJbaTa kol rd t£v KpivofMcvtop, irpwrov 
fikv oivt €<t>ij, irava-Teov ia-ri irpoeiSoTa^ auroi)? tov 
ddvarov* vvv yctp irpotaao'i, tovto fi€v oiv xal 
Bt) eiprjTat tc3 Jlpop/qdel Zttq)? dv wava-jf avr&v, 

E eireira yvfivov^ Kpiriov diravroav rovrtov^ reffvetora^ 5 
yap SeZ Kpcvea-Oai. xal tov /cpirrjv Set yvp,v6v elvav, 
r€0P€MTa, avTTJ rfj '^vxv avrvv Tr)v '^vyriv Oeaypovvra 
i^ai<f)Vfj^ dirodavovTO^ CKao'TOV, eprffiov iravrcDV r<Sv 
avyyevoiv xal KaTaXL-rrovra hrl t§9 7^9 irdvra eKel" 
vov TOV Koa-fiov, Xva hiKaia fj Kplari^ rj, iycb fiiv odv lo 
ravra iyveoKco^ irpirepo^ tj vfiel^ eirovriadfirjv Bv- 
/ca<rTa<; vUt^ ifiavrov, Bvo fjukv i/c rfj^ *Aala^, Mij/a> 
524 T€ Kol ^PaSdfjbavdvv, \ eva Sk i/c t^? Ei5pft)7r^9, 
AlaKOv* oiroL ovv iireiSdv reKevrriatoaL, StKaa-ova-cv 
iv T& \€ifioovv, iv rfj Tpiohtp ef ^9 ^eperov t© oScJ, is 
17 iiev 669 fiaKdpoDv vr}aov<:, 17 S* 669 Tdprapov^ xal 
Toif^ pel' i/c T^9 'A<r^a9 'PaSdfiavOv^ Kpvvet, rov^ 
Be ifc T^9 Ei5pa)7n79 AtaKO^' Mivq> Be irpea-^ela 
Bda-oDy iinBtaKplvetVy idv aTTopiJTOv tc to) kripoa, iva 
€09 BtKatordrrj 97 fcpL<ri^ y irepl rrj^ wopela^ toI^ 20 

LXXX. TavT eariv, cS KaW//c\6t9, & iyo> 

B df€i]Koa}<: Tnarevco akridi] elvac* kol ix rovrcov rdSv 
\6y(ov TOiopBe Tt Xoyi^ofiac avfi^aiveiv, 'O ddvaro^; 
rvyx^avet <Sv, €09 ifiol Boxet, ovBev dWo ^ Svolv 25 
irpayfidroiv BidXyai^y rfj^ ylruxv^ fcal tov oroofMaTO^, 
dir d\\i]\otv, ifreiBdv Bk StaXvdrjrov apa air aX- 
XtjXoiv, ov ttoXv Tfrrov ixdrepov avrolv i'xei rfjv 
l^Lv rrjp avTOv Vjinrep kolL ore e^rj 6 dvOpoDTTo^, to re 
a&fia TrjV if>va-iv rrjv avrov kcll rd depairev fiara Kal 30 
rd Tradjjfiara, ivBrjka irdma. olov 6? T6I/09 /ieya ffv 

C TO arSfia ^vaet ^ Tpo<f>^ rj dfK^oTepa §c3vTO<i^ ^xwS'twi 

122 HAATflNOS 

Koi iweiSdv diroddvri 6 veKpo^ /ieya?' KoiX el fra'xy^, 
Traj^i)? Kal dirodavovro^, koX rdXKa ovraa^, teal el 
av iTrerrjSeve KOfmv, icofiiJTrj<: rovrov Kal o vetepo^, 
fia(mr/La<: av el ri^ ffv koX tyyt) elye tcSi/ 'rrXrfy&v 

5 ov\d^ iv Tc5 ad^ari rj viro f/UKTriyeiyv ^ aXKmv 
TpavfiaTtov fc3i/, xal T€0ve(OTO^ t6 <T&fia eariv Ihelv 
ravra e')(ov. KorearfOTa re el tov fjv fieXr) ^ 
Stearpa/JL/Jiiva ^dovTO^^ xal reOve&ro^ ravrd ravra 
Si'SrjXa. ivl Se \6y(pt otof; elvat TrapetrKeva^ro rb D 

10 (TWfia fc3v, evBrjXa ravra koI r€\€vri]aavro^ ^ irdvra 
fj rd TToWa iiri riva 'xpovov, ravrdv Bff fioi Soxei 
rovr dpa Kal irepX rrjv '>^vyrjv elvai, e5 Ka\Xt/c\e^9' 
evBrj\a irdvra iarlv iv rf} '^V'x^y iirethdv yvfjuvcoffy 
rov aoifiaro^j rd re rf}^ <f}vare(»>^ xal rd iradrifiara a 

IS Bid rrjv iTTirijBevaiv exdarov irpdyfiaro^ ea'yev iv 
rfj ylrvx^ 6 dvOpmiro^, 'ETreiSai/ ovv d(f>LKa}vraL 
irapd rov Bi/caarr/v, oi fiev ix t^9 'A<ria9 irapd rov 
*Pa8dfiav6vv, 6 ^PaBdfiavOv^ i/ceivov^ hrvar'qaa^ E 
Bedrai etcdarov rrjv '^v^vv, ovk elBco^ '6rov iariv, 

2o dWd TToXXaAct? rov fieydXov iSaaiXea)^ iinXa^ofievo^ 
rj dXKov brovovv fiaat\€Q)<; ^ Bvvdarov KarelBev 
ovBkv vyte^ ov rrjf; "^v^^?, dWd Btafiefiaa-riytofiivrjv 
Kal ov\£v fMecrrjv viro iiriopKi&v koX dBifcia<;, 
a I CKaartp rj irpd^L^ avrov i^eofiop^aro el^ rrjv 525 

25 '^vxvv, fcal irdvra axoXid viro yjrevBov^ leal d\a- 
^oveia^ xal ovBev evd\> Bid ro dvev dXrjffeia^ 
re0pd(f>6ai' Kal vrrh e^ovala^ Kal rpv(fni<i Kal vffpeo)^ 
KoX dKparia<; r£v irpd^ecov dcrvfuierpLa^ re Kal 
aiarxpbrfjro^ yifiovaav rijv "^vxjq^ elBev, IBodv Be 

30 dri/jL(o^ ravrrjv dTriirefiyltev ev9v t^9 <f>povpd^, ol 
pikXKei, ikOovaa dvarXrjvat rd TrpoarfKOvra irdOr}. 
LXXXI. JipoarjKei Bk iravrl r^ iv rt^aypla 

ropriAS. 123 

B Svri, VTT AWov 6p6iS^ rtfJLcopovfieptp, rj /SeXrlopt 
ylyveaOat koX ovlvaadai fj irapaSelrffiari toi^ dXXoi^ 
ylyvea-Oac, Xva iXKot optSvre^ irda'XpvTa & av irdtrxv 
<l>ol3ovfi€POt ^eXrlov^ yiryvfovTat, elal Sk ol fiev 
d}({)€\ovfi€vol T€ Kal SUfjv 8iS6vT€^ vfri 6e&v re kclI 5 
dvdpcjTTODV otrot ot &v Ida-vfia afMapnjfiara a/judp- 
Tooatv o/MO? Se Bt dXyrjSovaov Kal oSvvSv ylyvercu 
avTot^ 17 d^eXeia Kal ivOdSe Kal iv^AtSov' ov yap otov 

T€ a\Xo)9 dScKia^ diraXKaTreaOat, otS' &v rd ia')(ara 
dStKi]a€0<rt Kal Sid, roiavra dSvKi^fiara dvlaroi yevtov- 10 
raiy eK rovraov rd TrapaSelyfiara yiyveraif Kal ouroi 
avTol fikv ovkSti ovlvavrai ovBev, are dviaroi ovre^, 
dWoi Be ovivavrat oi tovtov^ op&vre^ BiA rd^ dfiap- 
rla^ rd ^erftara Kal oBwr^porara Kal ^oftepdrara 
irdOr) irdaxovra^ top del 'xpopop, dre'xjp^^ irapaBeCy- 15 
fjMTa dpfjpTrjfiepov^ iKel ip'^AcBov €P t^ BecfKorffplq), 
Toi^ del T&p dBiKCdP d<l)tKPovpApoi^ OedfjuaTa Kal pov- 

D deTtj/jbara, &p iya> (fyrffMi epa Kal ^Ap)(^e\aop Saecr$ai, 
el dXrjdrj \&yec IIcSXo?, Kal aWop 2<rTt? dp toiovto^ 
Tupappo^ ^. olfjun Be Kal rov^ ttoWov^ elpat rovreop 20 
T&p irapaBeiyfidroip eK rvpdppcov Kal fia^CKetop koX 
Bvpaar&p Kal rd to5p 7r6\ea>p irpa^dpTtop yeyopora^' 
oiroL yap Bid rrjp e^ovalap fiiyLara Kal dpofrtoorara 
dfjLapTTJ^ra dfiaprdpovo't. /laprvpei Bi tovtoc^ Kal 
^Ofir)po^' fiaariXea^ yap Kal Bwdara^ eicelpo^ Tre- 25 

E 7roL7)Ke Toiff; ip'^AiBov top del 'xpopop rtfiaopovfiivov^t 
TdpTaXop Kal %L<tv^op Kal Tirvop, ^epalTqp Be, 
Kal eX Tt9 oKKo^ iroprjpo^ ifp IBidrrj^, ovBeU fre'rroifjKe 
fieydXai^ rifMOpiai^ avpexo^epop (09 dplarov ov 
ydp,. ol/j^ai, i^p avT^' B16 Kal evBatfiopiarepo^ ^p 30 
rj 0I9 e^p, dWd ydp, e5 KaWwc\6t9, iK r&p Bvpa- 
526 fiipcov elarl koI oi a^oBpa Troprjpol [ ytf)(v6{Lev<ii^ 


AvOpcoirof ovBev firjp /ceciKvei xal ev rovroi^ dyadoi^^ 
avhpa^ iyyiyveaOai, Kal ar<f>6Spa ye d^vov ayaaOav 
T&v yiyvofieveov ;^aXe7rov yap, (S KaWt/c\et9, xal 
TToWov hralvov a^tov iv fieydXjj i^ovaia rov dBiKelv 

5 y€v6fj,€vov StKalo)^ Sia^iwvai. okuyov 8k ylr/vovrai 
ol TOLOVToi' iirel Kal evddhe Ka\ dWo$c yey ovaaiv, 
olfMat Se Kal ecovrai Ka\ol Kdyadol ravrrjv rrjv 
dperffv T^v rov hiKaLo)^ Scax^cpC^etv & av tls hrt- 
Tpiirtj* eh Se Kal irdvv iWoyifio^ yiyove Kal ek B 

10 Toi)? dWov^ '^EWiyva?, ^ Kpia-relZr)^ 6 Av<rA/xa;^oi;. 
oi 8e TToWot, ft) dpca-re, KaKol yiyvovrai twv Su- 

LXXXII. '^Owep oiv e^eyov, iireihdv 6 'PaSa- 
fjLavdv^ ixeivof: tolovtov riva XajSr), aWo fikv irepl 

15 avTov ovK olhev ovBiv, ov0* 6<tti^ ovff' covrtveov, oti 
he TTOvrjpo^ Tt9' Kal tovto KaTihtbv dfrefrefiyltev eh 
rdprapov, iina-rjfMrjvdfievo^, edv re Idaifio^ edv re 
dviaro^ SoK'p elvav' 6 Se eKelcre dtpLKOfievo^ rd Trpoa- 
rjKovra '!rda")(ei, eviore 8' clKKtiv elaihwv oalco^ 

20 /SefitcoKvlav Kal /jlct dXrjdela^, dvBpo^ iSidrov rj 
dWov rivo^, fidXtara fiev, ^70)76 (fyrjf^i, tw KaWt/c\e49| 
<l)c\oa6<f>ov rd avrov irpd^avro^ koI ov iroXvirpa/^' 
fiovqaavro^ ev Tfp fiitp^ tiydadr} re Kal €9 puKapcav 
vrjcov^ direirefi'y^e. ravrd ravra Kal 6 AlaKO^, 

25 eKarepo^ Be tovtcop pd^iov excov StKa^et, Be 
M.LV€0^ eTTLaKOirwv Kd6r)Tat fiovo^ e^^v ^^vcroOi/ 
aKTjTTTpov, w <f>i]aiv ^OSvaaeif^ 6 ^OfMijpov IBeiv D 

Xpvo'€ov vKfjirrpov txovra^ Oefiiarevovra v^kvcciv, 

30 '£70) fiev oivf CO KaWUXev^, vtto tovt^ov r&v 

\6ycov irewetafiat, Kal ckottoo ottcj^ d'n'o<f>avovfiaL tc3 

^piT0 {09 vyiea-rdrfjv Tf)V ^^ux^^' yaipeiv oiv edaa^ 

ropriAS. 125 

rd,^ Tifict^ rd^ r&v ttoWcSi/ dvOpaoTrcoVf rrjp dXrjdeiav 
aKOTTo^v iretpdaofiat, tc3 ovtc o)^ hv Svvtofiat ^iXriaTO^ 
mv KoX 5571/ KoX iiretZhv diroOvqaKCi) diroOvi^a'/cetv. 

E irapaKoKci) Sk /cal toi)? a\\ov<; Traz/ra? dvOpdirov^, 
Kad^ oaov ivvafiat, xal Bi) koI ak dvTLTrapaicaX& iir\ 5 
TovTOV Tov piov Kol TOP dy£va tovtov, hv iyto <f>rjfiL 
dvrl TrdvTODv t&v ivOdSe dryoivcov elvai, koX ovetSi^a) (toc 
OTA oi5% oto^ T iaei aavr^ ^or)0rjaaL, orav 17 Blkt} croi 
^ /cal 7j KpiaL^ Tjv vvv S^ iyin ^Keyov, dWd ikda}v 
irapd TOV SiKaarrjv tov t^9 Alyivrj^: vlov, iireiiav 10 
527 (TOV I i7nXafi6/JL€VO^ dyrj, X'^^f^V^^^ ^^* IXiyyidcreL^ 
ovSev fJTTOV fj iyo) ivOdhe ax> CKet, xai ae fcro)? 
TXJTTTija-et Tt9 fcal iirl KoppT}^ aTifia)^ kol irdvTO)^ 

Td^a S' oiv Tavra fiv06^ aot SokcI \4yea-0at, 15 
ioairep ypao^, /cai KaTa^povei^ avTwv. Kal ovSiv 
y &v rjv davfiaaTov icaTa<f>povetv tovtodv, el ttjj 
fiyTo5z/T€9 elxofiev avro^v ^SeXrtG) /cal dXrjOiaTcpa 
evpetv' vvv Si opa^ ^Tt Tpei^ 6vt€^ vfji^U, oXirep 
ao<l>(iTaToi iaTC t&v vvv ^lSkSXr)v(ov, av re Kal nc3X.09 20 

B Koi Topyia^y ovk e^^Te diroSei^ai ew9 Set dWov 
TLvd ^lov ^rjv f) TOVTOV iairep Kal iKelae <f}alv€Tac 
avfi^eptovy aXV ev too-ovtol^ \070i9 t&v aXKcov 
iXeyxPfiivoDv fi6vo^ o5to9 rjpe^el 6 \0709, W9 ei/Xa- 
/SrfTCov co-tI to dStKCtv fiaWov rj to ditKeladaLt Kal 25 
iravTh^ pidXKov dvSpl fieXcTrjTeov ov to BokcIv elvai 
drfadov dXKa to elvat, Kal IB la Kal Brj/noaL^' idv Be 
Tt9 KaTa Tt KaKo^ ylyvTjTai, KoXaa-Tco^ iarl, Kal 

Q TOVTO BevTepov dyadhv /Jberd ri elvat BUaiov, to 
ylrfvecdat Kal KoXa^ofievov BtBovat Bi/cfjv' Kal iraaav 30 
KoXaKeiav Kal ttjv Trepl eavTov Kal Ttjv irepl tov^ 
flf\Xov9, Kal TTepl oKiyov^ Kal vepl ttoWov^, <f}€VKTiov' 

126 ropriAS. 

Kol rg pffTopcKr} ovrm XRV^'^'^^^t €7rl rd Blicacov ae£, 

LXXXIII. 'E/iol oip ir€i06fM€vo^ dfco\ov0f)(rov 
ivravda, ot a^iKOfievo^ €vSaifiovi]a'€i<; teal ^Sv teal 

5 T€\€VTi]<ra9, 609 o X0709 arffiaivei. /cal SaaSv rivd 
<rov KaTaxf>pop7]0'ai w dvorjrov koL irpoirrfXaKicrai, 
idv ^ovXrjraif fcal vol fid l^ia <rv ye 6app&v irard^ai D 
T^v drcfJLOV ravrrjv ifK/qyriv' ovhkv yap Beivov weicei,, 
idif t£ SiTTL 7)9 #caX^9 /cdyado^, daxtSv dpenjv. 

10 fcdireira qvrw Koivfj da/djaame^, rore rfSr), idv Bo/cy 
'XP^vai,, iiriOrjaofieda T0I9 irdkiTLKot^f f) owoiov dv t* 
r)iuv SoKf), Tore ^ovXevcrofieOa, jSekriov^; Svre^ fiov^ 
Xevetrdai ^ vvv. ata")^p6v ydp e^ovrd^ ye co^ vvv 
<f>aLv6fi€0a ?;^€6i/, hrei,ra veavceveadai (89 rt 8vTa<;f 

15 0I9 ouSeTTore ravrd Soxei irepl twv avrwv, KaX ravra 
irepl T&v fieyioTfunf eU tocovtov rJKOfiev diracBevcriaf;. E 
&<nr€p ovv rjyefMVt tc5 Xoytjp 'xprja'oifieda tc5 vvv 
irapa<f>av€jm, S9 'fffitv crrjfiaivei in o5to9 o Tp67ro<; 
dpiOTO^ Tov fiuov, Koi rrjv SiKatoavvTfv xal ttjv aXKriv 

20 dperfjv da/covvTiK /cal ^rjv Kal redvdvai, rovro) ovv 
iirwfiedai /cal rov^ aWov^ wapaKaXcofxev, fir} ixeivip 
(^ aif irKTrevcov ifie irapa/caXel^* earL ydp ovSevo^ 
d^co^y w KaXXiKXcL^, 


Page 1. 1 UoUfJuni] *< First at a feast, last at a fray/' is 
the corresponding English saw. 8 Kardxtv iofrriji] Olymp., rds 

ijfidpas iv.aU iredelicvvTo 6 Topylas iopriis iKd\ow. Moeris, irar6- 
TiP *AmKolj BTiffOep'EXKrjpes, 'Are we come the day after the 
feast?' 4 Kol iffT€poO/i€p] These words are apparently a mere 

interpretation of the foregoing proverb, the point of which is 
blunted by their retention. Olympiodoms qnotes only as far as 
iJKOfiep. I have bracketed the words, thinking with Oobet (De 
Arte Interpret, p. 141) that they ought to be ejected from the text. 
A similar interpolation is detected by Cob. in the Azioohus, 
p. 866 c, 8td Tarrdf di l^dos iffrlv adrtfi ^on^etr rd *ETixi>pfitioP' a dl 
Xeip rdy x^^P^ pii^€i [d6s rt Kai Xa^ rt], where it is impossible to 
adapt the words in brackets to the trochaic metre. 8 fUpTOi] ^'^ 

The force of the particle is this : ' You may think it my fault ; you 
aure mistaken, however; Ghaerephon is the person to be blamed.' 
lO eyw 7&P Koi M(rp/fcu] 'for I who have done the mischief will -^ 
repair it.' Such is the force of mlIj SchoL, dard Ti/X^^ou koI rod 
rpc^crorros 'Ax(XX^<^» i^cl^ foG xp^<f'^P^^^ &P€\fiiPTOi 8ti 6 rptb a as Kal 

Idfferai. Observe the special use of iirid€L$€Tait=h'l5€i^tp rot- 

i^erat, Le. after the manner of the Sophists. Such an irlSei^t, . 
or exhibition of literary skill, according to Xenophon, was the 
celebrated apologue of Prodicus, called the Judgment of Hercules 
(Mem. ii. 1. 21). 6v€p 8^ (TlpddiKOsd <ro06s) koI TrXclarois iindelK' 
pvrai. So after the long speech of Protagoras in the dialogue 
bearing his name, Socr. observes, npwraydpas fikv roaavra kqX 
rotaDra ivi8€i^d,iJitvo% dveraOaaro tov \ifyov (p. 828 d). Tha 
active form of the verb has the sense *indicai^,' * demonstrare,' 
as below, p. 464 b, <ra<l>4<rTepop indel^u d \iyw. 14 Tl d"\ 

So Olymp.; vulg. rl 54; Zttr. rl 8al; 17 O^koOp Btop^ 

Poji\7jff0€] Supply dKo^aeaQe from the fore^oln^ dji^^via^. ''^^xil 

128 QORGIAS. [447 b— 

shall hear him then, when yon thmk proper to pay me a visit at 
my house; for Gorgias is my guest, and will exhibit to yon.' 
Bohleiermacher infers from this, that the scene of the conversation 
is not the house of Gallicles, as commonly supposed, but a 
gymnasium or other place of public resort. The Sravy which 
t* marvellously offends'* StaUbaum, may thus be defended, and 
the elaavdts uavep oi> "Kiyeis roniciffdut of Socr. explained. I 
cannot believe with Ast that ijKeiv is here used imperatively, or 
with Schleierm. that the Koi before ividel^erat is in apodoH, 
Hemsterhuis conjectured (3 ray for Uravt retaining the vulg. 
potfXeaBe, but has found no follower among the edd. 

Page 2. 2 diaXexOrj^ai] Besigning himself to the loss of the 
formal ^/dei^ts, Socr. hopes that Gorgias will not at any rate be 
indisposed for a conversation. The words t^v &\\fjp irldei^ip are 
equivalent to tV ivldei^Wt dWriv oif<rcLP, This use of dXKos is 
familiar to readers of Plato, and will be found illustrated in the 
note on p. 473 o. 7 OiSiv clov] *' Nothing like inquiring at 

head-quarters.** "Best go to the fountain-head." "II n*y a 
rien tel que de parler k lui mesme " (Steph.). "Nichts besser als 
ihn selbst fragen" (Schl). In Demosth. Mid. 529, we find, oddh 
olov dKodeiif a&roO rod vbtxov^ the art. before the infin. being omitted; 
as it is likewise in Aristoph. Aves 966, dXX' Mkv otbv i<rr dKoi€iv 
Twv ivCjp, On the other hand t6 is inserted both here and below, 
p. 481b, as well as in Xen. Oeo. 8. 14 adduced by Matth. (Gr. 
Gr. § 541, q.v.). In Lysistr. 135, oi)8^ ydp dtw u ^\ri Avo-urrpdn;, 
the inf., or word answering to the inf., is suppressed. The Schol. 
on the last passage erroneously explains the phrase by o^S^v 
KuXiiei, 8 iKiXwe youir] Comp. Philostratus, Vitt. Soph. p. 487, ' 
0'X^^^v X670V Tofyylas rjf^cv . . . iraftekOCjv ydp is t6 * kOtpftduv 
diarpov iBd/i^if<rep e/T6<y, TpofidWerc . . . iyieiKvdfieyos di^ov irdtrra 
lAkv eldivcut ire pi raprds d* Bm tlveiv iiptelt T(p /catp^. 17 dracpL- 

varo] One MS. has dTeicpLOif, an aorist inadmissible in this sense, 
in an Attic writer. dvoKpiBijvai occurs in the sense of 'answering' 
in the 2nd Alcib. 149 b, and is one among many indications of the 
spuriousness of that dialogue. 26 dvoKptvei] So the BodL ' 

The other MSS. and edd. except Hermann's have dTOKplvei. 
Chaerephon means to say, ' If such has been your past success, 
you will have no difficulty in answering any question I may 

Page 3. 7 *Bp6diKos] The Schol. cautions us against confound- 
Ing^ tbia HerodiouB with Herodicus the Belymbrian, also a phy- 

448 E] NOTES. 129 

sioian, of whom see an amasing notice in Bepnbl. iii. 406. The 
brother of Aristophon presently mentioned was no less a person 
than the famons Polygnotus, who painted the Lesohe at Delphi. 
This is proved by an epigram quoted by the Sohol. :— 

ypdype noXiJYvwTos, Qdaios yivos, *Ay\ao^irros 
vl6s, TrepOofiivriv *l\lov dKp6iro\iv, 
Also by a passage in the Ion, p. 632 b. rl hv aifT(x^'] The MSS, 

have Hva, Olymp. reads W, which had been conjectured by 
Buttmann, in consideration of the following 5Tep. 19 ''O Xat- 

pe0u)v] This speech of Polus was a part of his rix^t or treatise on 
Bhetoric, of which we hear belo w, p. 462 o. So the Sohol. on 
Hermogenes, p. 18 (Bhetores Graeoi Walz. iv. 44), Bdev koL IIwXos 
b Topylov fmOriHis iv r j rix^V <H^^^' ifoWal r^x>»oi ^v dp- 
$p(birois €l<rlv iK tQv ifjL-iretpiUP ifiireiplas (L. ifiirelpwi) 
eifprffi^ vat. Gomp. Arist. Metaph. i. 1, ^ fxh ydp ifiveipla rix^^ 

iirolrj<r€Vf ws iprjai IIcDXos, dpOQs X^wv, K.r.X. ^_ ^A t^j KaWiarris 

tQv rexvCbv] Compare Philebus, p. 68, iJKovop fUv fywyc, (3 
^(jjKparei, iKdarore Vopylov \kyoPTOs xoXXdiccs, w$ ^ tov irelBetP ToXi> 
dia<f>4poi iraawp T€XvG>p' trdpra ydp {/<p* a&ry dov\a di* ^kAptup dXX* 
0^ did pias irototro, xal jUMKpif vraaQp dplffrri ^rj tCjp rexi'tDv. 

Page 4. 1 aol fiovXopUptp iarlv] This sufficiently common 
idiom is illustrated in all the Grammars, as in Donaldson, § 458 gg. 
It is imitated in Latin by Sallust and Tacitus. 2 8rj\os ydp 

fioi\ This construction (for dijXdp fioTi aTiP Sri IIwXos), which is 
illustrated by Stallb., is especially frequent m the case of the 
words dijXos and dUaioit^ Soph. Ant 400, dUcu&s dfu rOpd* 
dwwXXdyiyg r KaKo jp, dijXoSj and St^XoOp in its intrans. sense, axe 
more frequently used with participles, as ib. v. 20, StjXois ydp ri 
KoKxaipovff* iiros. Stallb. qnotes three instances from Plato in 
which dpayKouos is similarly used, among these the passage below, 
419 c. 14 wavep rd (inrpocBip <roi inr^TctpaTo] " Ch6r6phon 

t'a mis Bur la vole par des ezemples'* (Cousin), ^xox, is used 
similarly in Theaet. 179 n, aKevriov ^ dpxns, tSffirep airol 
{fvorelpwrai. The active is found in like sense in Clitoph. 408 d. 
It is nearly equivalent to {npriyeurOat. {praeirci praemonstrare), aa 
Heindorf remarks. Comp. 466 d, adr^ ydp koKus ^^ttt^w, *have 
shown me the way.' The allusion here is to the examples of the 
physician and painter above proposed by Chaerephon. Observe 
the hendiadys, for c5<r9rep,...6a-OTetyaM^ou Xatge^ cSyroy, aiT<p KoXGis,,, 
dweKplput, Kol pOp ofh-cn eliri, Comp. vweypdyf/ofUPt Theaet. 171 b. 
The 0^ which used to stand after pxtvy ikLQiV)L<^ ^«^i£Q>TL\T»^ \s^ 

PL. QOR. ^ 

130 G0RGIA8. [448 e— 

Heind., is now properly omitted by the edd. It is absent from 
the Bodl. 26 O^Kovv Kcd tfXXovf] Olymp. in 1., ft/ ian rOtv /^ 

Xa.fKucn\piXhvriM rhv irrurHiiMva rh khX aXXous dl^acr^ai irouiv 
ivurr^fiOPaSi &s xal iv rt} 'AKKifiiddxi elprfrax. " Ad v. (SXXovs int. 
(iifropas, Plene infra c, frtiropiK^ yhp <pi}% iTia-r^fi(aif r^viys clj/at, 
xal iroirjaai &v Kal aXXov frffropa. Conviy. 196 E» jronp-^i 6 Oeos 
<ro<p6s o0r (i7s wtrre ical &Wov ircijjffai" (Ast). 82 oIop Kal HQXos 

Ijf^aro] * such as was the exordium of Polus,' as if he had said 
€ll€w ipx^P ^p^ATo, as in Soph. 242 b, rlya dpx'fiv ris hv Ap^airo 
Xiyov; Tim. 86 e, Oelav &px^y iip^aro. 

Page 5. 1 dXX* Sircp iiviaxvei] Sup. 447 n, elvi fioi, <S Topyia, 
6X7/67} \4yei KoXXikX^ dSc, 8r» ^ayy^XXet diroKplveffBai 8 ri dp rls 
<r€ ipwrf; 'AXiy^^, ta Xaip&pQp, Kal ydp vvv d^ aifrd raura imjyycK- 
\6fi7pf* After diro$4(j6ai some few oodd. give val, Buttmann 
would receive this into the text, as the answer of Gorgias to the 
request made by Soor. He urges that the general iirdYYcXfia of 
Gorgias did not imply all that Socr. here requires of him. To 
evade the difficulty Ast proposes efrep for Sirep. It is, I think, 
conceivable that Socr. refers to a boast which he regards as 
notorious, and which Gk>rgias presently repeats, fXTibiva &y iv 
ppaxvripois, k,t,\, i^irttrxvet will thus have its natural meaning — 
r*ihe profession you habitually make.' I hesitate between this 
view and the expedient proposed by Buttm. Sext. Empir. (adv. 
Matth. ii. 7) gives a well-known anecdote in illustration of the 
contrast between dialectical brexity and rhetoric§kLJLiJSuseness : 
Zi^vuv 6 Kimeds ip<ar7id€ls 8T(fi dia4>4p€i diaXtKTiK^ j^opiKTJs^ 
avoTpirpas lijv X^^P^ i^^ irdXiP i^airXibffas itpri "roiJrv," xard iikv t^v 
ffVffTpOfffTiv fb iTTp&yyvKov xal ppaxi> ttjs dtaXeicrur^s rdrrwy Idlufia, 
^d W TTJs €faTX(6<rf««« Kal ixTdaeias tQv daKT^XwP r6 irXari) ttjs 
j^opucits dwdfieuji cJ»irr6fuvos. 4 EZ<ri pjh^ (S 2!(6icpares] Oljnnp., ^ 
irdpxovffi /lip TiP€S tup ipuTTiaitav Kal fiaKpoO \6yov xPV^o^<^^'" 
Bightly as regards the sense. For the use of dpayKaiai comp. 
Legg. i. 643 0; Soph. 242 b, and the note on 448 d above. Tr., 
* There are answers, Socr., which cannot choose but be diffuse, j 
Not but what I will try to be as brief as possible.' 7 Kal ydp 

a9J This boast was common to Gorgias and his master Tisias. 
See Phaedr. 267 b. 9 To&rov fi'/jv] Olymp. reads ro&rov fihroi, 

which is perhaps better. 23 dya/iai y4 aov] So Heind. Some 
MSS. have ye only, some <rov duly, but both are required by usage. 
Hirschig In a recent tract insists on expelling rdt diroKplaeif, 
Heading dya/uU yi trov 8n ajroKplpei, icr.X. So Hipp. Maj. 291 e, « 

450 d] notes. 131 

&yafJMl (Tov 8ti fun doKcts K.r.X. 82 Li)s &y buuTihfuvoi ^ta/votev] 

'how they must live in order to get well': or more literally, 'by 
observing what roles of diet they will get well.' 

Pa^e 6. lO Tcpi rwv ica/if 6vrwir Totet] irota, which some of 
the best MSS. omit, seems to me indispensable. 18 ^ 

yvp^furrucfj^ Olympiodoms makes a carious remark on this 
passage. He says, "Socr. is not speaking of the traineis 
{vaxborrfA^wf) of the present day, but of ancient^ times, when 
it was the task of the physician t o_restore health, and of the 
trainer to preserv e it" {^ dk yv/jafaariKT) iipi^Xarre). "In our 
day, "he says, "the two functions are confounded" — avyKixwrw. 

Page 7. 1 x^po^PVIM'O'] ThiB word and the following icOpitnTK 
are pronounced Sicelisms by the Schol. K^pbxris is found in 
Thucyd. vi. 108, and perhaps may be set down as~an instance of 
the Gorgiasm of which the ancient rhetoricians accuse him. 
Kupos is presently used by Socr. in the same sense. Later writers 
do not scruple to employ both the words^objected to. Olymp. 
quotes the Boeotism trrta Zcj^s put into the mouth of the Theban 
Gebes in Phaedo 62 a as a proof that Plato sometimes indulges his 
characters in the use of their native provincialisms. 6 *Ap* 

otw /xav0difia] * I am not sure that I understand what art you mean 
to call it : but I shall presently' &c, apa is frequently used when 
the speaker questions himself. See below, 468 n, dp* o^p w 
ItdOois dvoKpipafUvov; 'I should like to know whether you will 
understand my answer when I have given it.' Tdxo-=aMKa, as 
freq. in Plato and Xenophon. Below, 466 a, tI rdxa Spdaeis; 
where the gloss Tpeafi&nis yevbfievot used to stand in the text but 
is now ejected. In Phaedr. 228 c rdx iir€iddv=iv€tddif rdxiffra. 
With ttffofKu, rdxa has nearly always this sense, but there is a 
seeming exception in the Minos, p. 314 o, koX tam pJkv koKms 
X^ets, rdxo- ^ ^^^ olfxipw elad/AcBa, 9 TLaawp di, oXfuu, tuv 

rcxi'cDi'] ' of the various arts there are some in which work is the 
principal ingredient, and they require little or perhaps no dis- \ 
course.' 18 ci^s (hros e/ireu'] *paene dixerim,' opposed to 

dKpipet \^(p in Bep. i. 841 b, and to Svrun in Legg. ii. 656 b, in 
which passages tr. *in popular language,' <in vulgar parlance,' or 
the like. 21 <rxed6y rt tffovt] Schol., Cjs ^ vcttcvtik^ koX v~ 

Kt0ap<pdia, It is hard to see how the game of draughts should 
require speech and action in equal proportion. Olympiodorus's 
explanation, which is somewhat obscure, aho^«^ Id^^^^^T^'QcAi^ ^ 

132 QORGIAS. [450 D— 

mixed game of chance and skill, like oar backgammon, is to be 
understood by irerrevrun}. The 'speech* consisted in calling out 
the number of each throw of the dice; the action in moving the 
pieces to the best advantage nnder the cir^cjiznstances. i^ taov 
^« t6 re ipyov Kal rbv \biyov' a/Mt 7A/) rf jtlirreiv tAj \f/T^<povs Kal 
iviKiyoval rtva' oXov 5"' e d' ij rpleicra (sc. rpls ?^, Aesoh. Ag. init.) 
ij re roiovTov, Bv^^^vr I imagine that he means ygfry s, for the 
draughtmen can hardly have been made to serve a ctouble purpose 
even though they were, as he says, like a split die (SteffrriKibs icd^os 
^K TfHwv rpiywvup T€piex6/i€P0i). 28 oi5x ^T'^^ *not but what, 

taken at your word, you did say as much as that' &o, Protag. 
336 D, o^x ^^ iral^ei koI (prfffiv iviMia'/uop eZvcu, 'though he does 
make believe and protest that he has no memory.' 80 koX 

iiroXd^oi &v ris] * and a captious opponent, if so disposed, might 
reply, *' Oh, so it is arithmetic you mean when you say rhetoric."' 
iv<TX^€i.Vy tpiXoveiKtiv (Olymp.). 

Page 8. 6 ''I^c vvp] Most MSS. have pGp. Bekker reads 
ovv on the authority of one or two. I have restored the enclitic, 
which Dindorf replaces likewise in Sophist, p. 224 c, "I^t di// vw 
avvaydyiafuif airrb for the vulg. b^ vvv (Ad Steph. Thes. ii. p. 1049). 
So in Xen. Hell. v. 1. 82, fre vvv koX ipwdLre. " Non est enim cur 
poeticum putetur vw encliticum, quod prosae quoque tribuere 
videtur Schol. ad Eur. Hec. 975 Matth." (Bind. ibid. tom. v. 
p. 1613). The temporal adverb is out of place here, and the 
reading 0^ was probably a gloss on the original vw or vvv. The 
same account may be given of Si^, which is found in another MS. 
On the quantity of the enclitic vw see the accurate remarks of 
Mr J. Wordsworth in the Philological Museum, i. p. 226. 
16 repiTTdv] After this word yvCjais stands in the MSS. Bekker 
and all subsequent edd. have bracketed it. It is so palpably a 
gloss that it is better removed. 60*' B,v ixdrepa rvyxdvoi Svra] 

6(ra here and in 453 b is used for vd^a or dirdo-a. Soph. Oed. B. 
1271, bdo(nf€K oiK orl/otvrb vtv OHO* oV Ihrairxcv oW 6irot' ibpa Kaxd, 
Xen. Cyr. v. 29, TJyayov ffvfifidxovs o^x 6(rovs ai^ hreiffai dXX* 
dir6<rovs iyd TXeiarovs idwdfxrjv. For rvyxdvoi the BodL and 
others give rvyxdvy, and so the Ztir. edd. But this could only 
mean, * as many as there may be of either sort,* whereas the 
meaning required is, *how many either may be*; i.e. how many 
units there are, or *may be,* in any particular odd or even 
number. The potential 6.v rvyxdvoi will give this sense, but we 
should have expected to find lha...rvyxdv€L, as in the passage of 

451b] notes. 133 

this dial, just referred to we have Sffa iirrlv and Hffw iffrlv, and in 
Theaet. 198 o ffKoweurOfu r6<ros tis dpiOfAbs rvyx^f^fi &v. One 
MS. has Tvyxdveif though apparently retaining dv. — Arithmetic, 
in its popular acceptation among the Gbreeks, was limited to 
Notation or Numeration : speculative or scientific Arithmetic took 
a much wider range, including the science of the forms and 
properties of numbers, as developed for instance in the four books 
of Euclid succeeding the sixth. Logistic in like manner was both 
popular and philosophical, the former being confined to the " four 
rules" and their applications. It is evident that Socr. is here 
speaking only of the popular Arithmetic and Logistic : Olympio- 
dorus is therefore wide of the mark when he says, ^ fih dpiff- 
firiTiK^ TTepi rh etSoi a^rwi' (sc. rot) dprlou Kal too irepiTTov) ij dk 
Xo7«rriK^ vepil Hiv CKriy — for his statement, if true, is inapplicable 
to the passage before us. Those who are interested in the 
histoiy of Greek mathematics may consult upon this point 
Eliigel's Mathematisches Worterbuch, i. 174 fol., comparing Plat. 
Politic. 299 E, and Phileb. 56 c fol. The theorem given in Theaet. 
147 D is an elegant specimen of the higher Arithmetic. 18 ict;- 
povfjihKap] 'which accomplish' or 'achieve': nearly =$tairparro- 
fUvtay, with which it is coupled below (n). Kvpodp =to give 
validity to the will or act of another. 19 ol iv rf ^fup j 

airyypaipSfieyoi] 'those who frame amendments in the assembly,' f 
i.e. upon iihe probouleumata brought down from the Council. The 
force of the following words will be at once evident from an 
inscription in Boeckh (No. 84) : rd /a^v £X\a xaBdvcp rf jSovX^, 
djfaypdiffcu Bi ^avbKpirov rhv UapUwov Tp6^€vov Kal edepyiniv airbv 
Kol Toi>i iKy6ifov$ h ar^Xji Xidlvg, The honours de<seed by the 
Council to this Phanocritus had been more limited, and the 
orator Cephalus adds this 'rider.' In Aesch. c. Ctes. p. 71f 
§ 127, we find ff&yypafxiJM used in the corresponding sense of a 
clause in a bill: koI vdXtv h t^ cl^ti} \fnj<f>l<r/iaTi iroXd xal 
ooup^arepoy koI Tn.KpbT€pw a&/ypafifta ypdtpeit 'he inserts a much 
harsher provision.' 82 rvyxdvei — [rt$] For this t« the £odl. 

and some other MSS. have TivG)v, possibly, as Herm. thinks, a 
relic of TtxpCov^ which may have been itself a gloss. I have 
followed his example in bracketing rtf, which though harmless is 

Page 9. 4 *ri*] This second ri was introduced by Heind. 
Some MSS. omit rwv wepL^ which Ast inclines to do* 12 to(it<^ 
t6 cko\l6v'\ This ran thus, as edited, "b^ "Bet^ \ — 

134 GORGIAS. [461 k— 

dejLfTcpop W <f>vdLjf KoKbp yeviaBaii 

rb Tf^Tov W t\ovt€ip iMXwSi 

Kal rb riraprov ^/3ai» fterA tQv if^uy. 

Anth. Lyr. p. 408. 
" These Scolia were a kind of lyric oomposition sung either in 
concert or successively, by all the guests after a banquet : the 
subjects of them were either the praises of some Attic Divinity, or 
moral precepts, or reflections on life, or gay exhortations to mirth 
or wine, or to love. There were some scolia of great antiquity; 
the most esteemed were those of Aloaeus, of Praxilla, and of 
Anacreon*' (T. Gray). Olympiodorus says that the aKoXid were so 
called because the myrtle-branch held by the singer inter can- 
I tandum was not handed to his next neighbour, but to the person 
, opposite him on the other side of the table : xal aKoXib, ij furdSoa-ts 
i iyivero. This particular scolium is quoted by Athen. (xv. p. 694) 
and attributed by Clemens Alex, to Simonides. 19 Kal efn-ot 

dv] I have followed Hirschig in inserting dp, Trapatrraiep &p...Kal 
€tiroi€P would have been agreeable to usage, but the change in the 
subject of the verb requires the repetition of the particle. 

Page 10. 16 d <p^i <rb — Koi ffi] The same kind of anacoluthia 
occurs inf. 454 b, 6 doKti ftip dijXop elpat iyCi) $' hrapeptjjrCa, 
28 h Ta&T'g r^ dvpdfiei] ' armed with this power you will hold in 
thraldom both physician and gymnast, while your great capitalist 
will be seen to be heaping up riches for another rather than 
himself, even for you who are able to move the masses by your 
eloquence.' For the use of ip comp. Xen. Cyr. viii. 6. 20, Tadrqp 
rijp (rrpaTidp Ixwv ip i Xiyerai Karatrrphl/aaBai, wdpra rd idpr]. 
For that of d\Kd see below, 454 c. 

Page 11. 8 T€i$ovs druuLiovpybs — ij ^ip-o/winJ] This definition 
was not invented by Plato for the occasion. It appears to have 
been an heirloom in the schools of rhetoric, originating, according 
to the author of the Prolegomena to Hermogenes (p. 8), with 
Gorax and Tisias, or, according to Quintilian, with Isocrates 
(Inst. Or. ii. c. 15, § 4) : '* Haec opinio originem ab Isocrate, si 
tamen revera ars quae ciroumfertur ejus est, duxit, qui cum longe 
sit a voluntate infamantium oratoris officia, finem artis temere 
comprehendit, dicens esse rhetoricen perstuidendi opiflcem, id est, 
ireidovs drifuovpybp" The circumstance that it proceeds from the 
moutin of Socr. rather than of Gorgias, is an intimation that the 
de£nItJon waa current in Athena when ihia di»io^\ie was written. 

463 0] NOTES. 135 

An amended definition is given by Soor. in Phaedr, 271 a: ij 
^rjTopiK^ &v etfi t4xvv ^vxaycryla rts $(d \6yunf, II iy^ yhp e5 

tffd* &ri — elvax ro&rwp iva] An anacolathon. Tke regular oonstr. 
would have been ical iytb elfu ro&ruv els, both eS ttr$' 6ti and a;t 
ifiavrbv vcWoi being parenthetical. The phrase eS t^O* &n is 
sometimes in oonstruotion and sometimes independent, as ^Tsov 
6rt. In B, (ra0fa}s ijij^v ed tff0* Sn aiiK oX^a^ its use is ambiguoQCL 
Socr. alludes in this passage to his invariable praotioe of seeking a 
definition of the terms of an argument — ^the rl (trrw, in the 
language of Greek dialeotio. 11 'Eyd) ipQ. v\hf, iy(i>'\ The 

first iy(b is absent from the older edd. but is found in the BodL 
and elsewhere. The repetition is, however, harsh, and one would 
gladly dispense with the second iy^^ which is omitted in one of 
the less important Paris MSS. 20 oit fi^v dXX'] * not but what 
I have my suspicions as to its nature and its province.* 26 dn 
fid\L<rr div — TMOi] In this clause (bs is relative. Tr., *so as it 
shall leave no doubt in our minds what we are talking about.' 
Lat., *quo maxime modo.' 81 [col voO] These two little words 
have greatly embarrassed the interpreters. It is, however, clear 
from the next speech of Socr. (3pa..,d\Ka ToXXd i^a;) that the 
sentence closed with ypdtpatjf, for otherwise koI &\\o6i ToWaxov or 
something equivalent must have occurred after ^^a. This con- 
sideration may relieve us from the trouble of discussing the 
merits, or rather perhaps demerits, of the various conjectures (to;;, 
irdirov &o,) which have been made or adopted by various inter- 
preters from Eicinus downwards. How the words forced their 
way into the text it is hard to understand. They were read by 
one Scholiast, who adds the gloss, iv ry roiKdKy (rro$, which 
besides being irrelevant, is untrue, for the portico in question was 
painted by Polygnotus, not by Zeuxis. Ast defends the vulgate, 
translating thus : "welche Thiere malt er, und von welcher Seite 
malt er sie, d.h. was stellt er an ihnen dar?*' Another interpre- 
tation is * whether he painted on walls (in fresco) or on panel' Ac; 
but if Plato had meant this, he would certainly have expressed it 
differently. The clause, it seems to me, can have no relevant 
meaning, nor is any other clause needed in its stead. Hirschig 
leaves the text untouched, retaining the old interpretation of 
Ficinus, **quo pacto," as if he had read K<d vGa; Olympiodorus 
quotes only as far as ypd</><ap, and ignores the Kal iroO in his 
paiaphrase, which he could hardly have done had he found the 
words in his copy. 

136 GORGIAS. [453 »— 

Page 12. 7 l^i Sifi] Socr. objects to the definition that its 
terms are atnbignous. For there are two kinds of TeiOtJI), that 
which imparts knowledge with belief, and that which creates belief 
only. Below, p. 455 a. 12 0^ drjrd] Not the negative of 

velOet, but of oi TeiBei. * Nay, he persuades unquestionably.' So 
inf. 501 0, ir&Tepov ffvyKaTarlSeaai ^fM»...yi dvTL<prjs; E. Oi^ic (lyatyet 
dXXd (TVTXwpci). 

Page 13. 12 Tcpl ro{rr(av & iari dUaid re koI ddiKo] This 
definition applies in strictness only to dtKaviKol \6yoi. The pro- 
vince of deliberative oratory {(rvfipovXevrucff) is rd d7a^d iced jcajcd. 
See Phaedr. 261 o d, and the notes. 16 dXX* — tva fi^ — Sirep 

ydp \iyui] "Sed ut ne mirere scito me interrogare" &q, 

(Heind.) The particle ydp is here in apodosi, as frequently after 
a parenthesis. See by aU means Demosth. de F. L. § 107, and 
Mr Shilleto's accurate remarks in the Vv. LI. The idiom has 
escaped Stallb. Svep \4y<a is explained by 453 c, od aov hcKUy /c.r.X. 
18 Tov i^s] The order is, ipwrQ hcKa rod i^rp vepalvcaOai rhv 
\l)yov, *I ask in order that the argument may move towards its 
completion in regular order, by due steps.' ircpabfeffdai is passive, 
as below, 497 d, tva trepavOCjaiv ol Xityot, Stallb. translates as if it 
were transitive and governed \&yoPf which can hardly be the case, 
though the comp. diaTrepaiveffOai is not unfrequently used in the 
middle, as Phaedr. 263 e, X6701' Sietrepdvaro. 19 dXX' tva fiTj 

iBi^ibyLcOa] *that we may not contract a habit of forestalling or 
taking for granted each other's statements from vague suspicions 
of what they are likely to be; but that you may rather develop 
your own views in your own way in accordance with the premisses 

Page 14. 8 A^Xoy dpa — iarov] Vulg. hrjXov ydp a^...iaTaf, 
An illative particle being evidently needed here, I have not 
scrupled to adopt the excellent reading of Olympiodorus, dpa. 
The iirrbv was suggested by Dr Badham, who had also acutely 
conjectured y dpa for 7dp at. Olymp. reads rairrd elaiv^ but 
rairrltVi Hhe same thing,' is commonly used in such cases, as in 
4G2 B. The received 7dp ad converts an inference into a reason. 
icrbv is frequently replaced by iaHv^ as in Politicus 263 a, where 
the vulg. has iarlv for the iarbv of the Bodl. and other MSS. 
20 7rei0-r(K6s] irurTiKds is the reading of the Bodl. and the majority 
of MSS., the rest giving v€i<rTiK6i. Sext. Emp. (adv. Math. ii. 
§§ 2» 75) seems to have read reiariK^ here and ir&ffTiKijs for 
irurrevTiK^i paul. sup. In the latter case he is doubtless wrong. 

465 b] notes. 137 

but both Buttm. and Heind. seem with reason to question the 
legitimacy of the form tkttc/c^s. There is the same confusion in 
the readings of Aristot. Bhet. i. 2. 1, where veiirrucij is now 
accepted by the edd. instead of the old vio'tik'^. 

Page 16. 8 Brouf vepl larpQp cdp4ff€U)s] "There were public 
physicians elected in most of the Greek cities, who received a 
salary from the commonwealth, and seem to have taken no fees of 
particular people. Those physicians who exercised this office 
were said drffxoaiedew. See Aristoph. in Avibus 584, El$^ 6 y 
*Air6XKwu larp6i y (Sy IdirBu^ nur6o<f>op€i d4: Acham. 994, 'TirdXetrl/op 
elp^H fie Tdixf^OaKfJui) ra.yfi, AI. *AXX' w TTOv/ip od drjfJLOffiej^uv rvy- 
xdv<>f' But this custom seems to have been laid aside before 01. 
97. 4. Arist. Plut. 407, Tf$ diJT' larpbs i<m vvv ip rg ir6X«; Oi^e 7A/9 
6 fuffdos oifZh i(rr* oCB' ^ r^x»"7- Gorg. 614. Politic. 259, et -n} ris 
T&v S7jfioffi€v6vT(a» larpufv Ucavbs ^v/j^ovKe^ew Iditarej^uv adrds, op o^k 
ivayKoiov airrtp irpocayopei^eadai roHvofia t^s T^vip raiirhv Sirep ^ 
(vju/3oi;Xei$€i ; *' (T. Gray). Hesych., StifAoaie^etp rd drffioalg. inrnpe- 
T€i» iitl fiurB^, Suid. v. drffKxriedfa. ol dri/Kxrlq, xeiporovoT&iievw. 
larpol Kcd Srifiofflg. irpolKa idepdvevov, Comp. Hom. Od. xviL 382, 
TLs ybi.p di) ^tfov icaXet &\Ko0ey AXKos iirtXOtbv, "AXXoi' 7' e/ fii) tup ol 
drjfiioepyol laert; Mdi'Ttv rj IriTijpa KaK&p, 1^ riKTOPa doj^puPf 
*H Kol O^ffTtp doid6p, 6 kcp ripirmeip deiScap. These passages explain 
the origin of the oft-recurring distinction of drifuovpyds and Idubrrfs, 
equivalent in the time of Plato to that between professional and 
unprofessional, clerk and layman, the learned and the vulgar. 
4 17 Tepl pavmiy&p tj irepL] Understand odp4<r€taSi unless with 
Hirsohig we suppose tiie prepositions to have been imported into 
the text, ^ovs is used as the Lat. natio in Oio. pro Murena 38, 
** tota natio candidatorum." So Ast, who refers to Bep. i. 351 c, 
&e. 6 SXKo Ti t6t€} So Bekk. after a few MSS. Vulg. AXXo n 17 
t6t€. Here AXXo rt is equiv. to 2p* od, nonne ; as inf. 495 c. It 
corresponds to the Germ, nicht wahr^ as Ast observes. I do not 
deny that there are cases in which ^ is to be retained, as in 
Phaedo 79, 4XXo n ijfuap ain-Qp rj to fihf awfid icTi Tb d^ ^vxh » 
to which the answer is, OitUp aXXo. 

Page 16. 2 UepucKiovi — Telxovt\ *'The /iAKpd TcLxn which 
joined Athens to the Piraeus were begun on the motion of Pericles, 
01. 80. 4, B.o. 467. Socr. at that time was about twelve years old. 
See Plutarch in Vitt. Perid. et Cimon. Harpocration tells us that 
of the two walls which extended from the city to Piraeus^ tb& 
southern only, or the innermost, waa oaW^^ Tb ^v.a \>.4«Qra^ ^^\fa^^i» 

138 GO^GIAS, [456 e— 

between the innermost, rb pSpeiov, and rb ^oKripiKbp, which was a 
third wall drawn from Athens to the Port Phalerom, and he cites 
this very passage'* (T. Gray). This statement is substantially 
correct, but Gray is mistaken in supposing that the intermediate 
or southern Peiraic wall was projected at the same time with the 
twp mentioned in Thuc. i. 107, 108. It was not built until a later 
period, when the northern Peiraic and the Phalerio wall were 
finished, i.e. after b.o. 456. We thus get rid of the difficulty, such 
as it is, of supposing Socr. a hearer of Pericles at the early age of 
twelve. The two Peiraic Long Walls ran parallel to each other, 
enclosing an oblong space of four or five miles in length (40 stades) 
and 550 feet in width. That to Phalerum was built at an angle to 
the other two. Since the appearance of the work of Ulrichs on 
the subject, most topographers have agreed to place Phalerum on 
the spot called Trispyrgi, rather than on that now appropriated as 
the site of Munychia, and distant from the former by the whole 
extent of the Phaleric bay. See Leake (Topog. Ath. i. 422), who 
differs however in regard of the situation of Phalerum. This 
latter question is probably not yet definitively settled. 4 (Sv 

9VV ^\ One MS. has vvv a8. The rest omit vw, Heind. properly 
insists on retaining it. See note to p. 462. 12 E/ rdyra ye 

e/$e£i;$] * well it might, Socr., if you knew all— if you were aware 
that lUietoric includes in her domain — I may say all the faculties:* 
21 tKdbvrel Vulg. iKBbvrOj corr. Dobree. 28 odda/toC w 

4>aif9ivwi\ Tr., * would be entirely distanced,* as we say of a beaten 
horse, *he is nowhere.* Soph. Ant 188, roirrov oibafAoO \4y(a. For 
biroTepov dei alpedrjmii larpbv, which is the reading of the Bodl. and 
several codd., the edd. retain the inferior, btrbrepov del alpeOifvat, 
l^ilTopa 7J larpbv, which destroys the point of the example. The 
rhetor will persuade the people to elect him state-physician in 
preference to a regularly trained practitioner. See above, 455 b, 
brav T€pl larpQy odpiffeutt i ry irbXei <rii\\oyo5. 

Page 17. 2 (fia0i r»] The £odL omits ns. So the Aid., 
which Heind. was disposed to follow. I retain it, with Bekk. and 
the majority of MSS. 16 fAera<rrp4yl/apres] ** Vern. es umkehrend, 
h.e. umgekehrtf i.q. ivavrlus (ut o) Latinor. ex contraries Polit. 
ix. 587 D, idy ris fi€TdaTp€\f/as...\4Yo, ic.r.X.** (Ast). Participles 
are frequently used thus adverbially, of which usage rcXein-wv, 
'tandem,' is a familiar instance. See not. on Phaedr. 228. 
21 ifippaxv ir€pl orov dv PoiSKrfTai] ''Vox ififipaxvt quam veteres 
avifTS/uas vel airXus explicant, eodem fere modo, quo formula ilia 

457 E] NOTES. 139 

C)i (iros elweiVf orationi modeste restringendae inservit, nisi qaod 
ilia fere ante odd^v et irdyres inferri sdlent, hoc ante Hffrts (Lvy S<ms 
podXetf Srovirep et talia. V. Tim. Lex. y. (/jkPpaxv ibiqae Bohnk. 
imprimisque Schol. Plat, ad Theagem, p. 88'* (Heind.). The 
Schol. in question quotes a line of Oratinns thas : Ifdei vapix^w 5 n 
tts eC^iuT ifjifipaxvy where read, with CJobet, idei irapaax*"^' The 
use of the formula is restricted, in good authors, to thd cases 
noted by Heind., though later writers do not scruple to use it 
generally in the sense of &v\Qs, (rvvrbfjAJi^ as Dion Ghrys. (p. 446 c), 
b Sk Xiyot o&ros ift^paxv i<riro6daK€ ^wapfj/xrai rtp Oetp rb i^BpunreXov 
yivos, I quote this from Gobet's Varr. Lectt., p. 208, where 
ffxppaxv is shown to be frequently altered by copyists into ip 
Ppax€h as in Plat. Sympos. 217 a, wrre woiriHov elvau ev jS/Mxxet 5 n 
Ke\e6oi ZvKpdrris, Cobet adds, "Apparebit nunc quam infeliciter 
StaUbaum in Platonis Hippia minore, 365 d, pro ipt&ra ifippaxv 6 
Tk §oi6\€i ex deterioribus receperit hf Ppax^V Cobet justly ob- 
serves that iy fipax^'t is not synonymous with §/jippaxvi but means 
rather 'briefly' (as in Soph. £1. 637, iy ppax^i (rwBels Xiyw). Ast 
in his Lexicon correctly renders ipi^paxv by the Latin 'cunque* 
(Germ, was nw immer). The form of the word is illustrated by 
ifixast ^fixauj ifxira. 27 fc^ra] Kqra and icdirecra not unfre- 

quently occur after participles, where we should have expected 
etra and (hreira. Of this usage Heind. quotes two instances from 
Aristophanes: Equit. 391, dXX' Sfuas ouroi rotoirros &v ajrama rbv 
^ov Kq.T (bV ^^oiiev ctvou: Nub. 623, di^^' Civ \ax(^v 'TWpjSoXos 
TrJTes UpofJtvrffAOveiP K&ireid* if<f> i>fuav tQv dewp Tbv {rritpcwov d^p4d7i» 
Add Xen. Mem. i. 1. 5, e^ trpoayope^iav (bs iirb Oeov ff>aip6fi€»a Kg.Ta 
\J/€vb6fjLeyos iipalprro : and the reff. in Kiihner's note. 

Page 18. 16 0^ Tdvv &K6\ov$a] Olymp., 6pa ri$os delov rod 
XijjKpdTOVS* o^K etire yb.p 5rt dvoucbKovBa i^ i/fcvdrj X^ets, dXX' oi 
Tdvv d/c6Xou^a, T<p fuerpltp KoXdl^v rb dpifid tijs ^kXiJctcwj. 
This use of oi) irdvv as a qualified negative is common, if not 
universal, in the Atticists of the Empire, as in Lucian according to 
Gobet (Vv. LI. p. 222), who at the same time denies that this sense 
was known to the Attics themselves. Mr Gope, in a carefully- 
written and candid Excursus to his Translation of this dialogue, 
strenuously maintains the view expressed by Olympiodorus, and 
I observe that the late Mr Biddell, in the *' Digest of Idioms," 
attached to his edition of the Apology, held the same opinion. On 
the other hand, see among Greek authorities, the SoholioM qv^ 
Phaedo 67 a (otJdcis irdvu ti iTrixwp«.<3tt««' .'^^'^Vi^ ^rvJws^ ^t\t«v» 

140 G0RGIA8. [467 

otdafi&f ifrrl yhp rh i^rjs oih-tas* tclvv oddels ivvxi^P^^^^*-* It 
seems also difficnlt to explain Lysis 204 e, oi) ykp Taw n abrod 
ToUvofiM \4yovaiVt dXX* in TarpdBep ivovofia^erai — except as an 
unqualified negation. The same remark applies to Legg. iv. 704 o, 
yehuv dk airrrjs t6\is ap l^rat ris vMiffwv; K. Oi5 vdvv' dib Koi 
icaroijc^^at, to Aristot. Eth. N. x. 6. 4, xaJ^vrei 6r(fiovp (rff>6dpa ot 
Tdvv dpQfjLCP h-epov, to Menander, frag. 198, ot irdvv Etud" d\ri$h 
obd^ iv y^pv X^6(v— and, as Mr Cope seems to admit, to o^fSh irdvv 
wheresoever it occurs. In Plat. Bep. 549 n, ^avr^y d^ fi-^re irdw 
TtpJavra ft-fyre dripA^ra — we should perhaps adopt the variant of 
God. D and two others, lu-fyre rdfrrj dripjoJ^ovra* If rofv be 
retained, the passage makes unequivocally in favour of Mr Cope's 
view, and we shall have to admit that the same negative is some- 
times used in the qualified, and sometimes in the unqualified sense 
by the same authors. 

Page 19. II ipAl d' odv] yovp Olymp., and for roo-ai^ri?, 
ToiaHrj, * And for my own part, God forbid that my hands should 
ever be so full, that I must abandon a discussion so interesting and 
so ably conducted, in favour of any other employment however 
profitable.* 21 AUrxpbp Sij—^jSKercu] 'After my voluntary chal- 
lenge to all questioners I cannot for very shame refuse henceforth.' 
a'lrrdv = ' ultra ' After iOiXew formerly stood Kal ravrat now omitted 
by the edd. in conformity with the Bodl. and some other MSS. 

Page 20. 22 airrd fih rd vpdyfMTa] This was distinctly 
maintained by Tisias, according to Phaedr. 272 d, 8ti o{>dh 

dXrjOelas fierix^o' ^^o' '''^^ puiKKovra Ikopios jnp'opiKhv tlvax. 

Presently in p. 460, Gorgias seems disposed to qualify this broad 
statement of his master. His disciple Polus is less scrupulous, as 
we shall find below, 461 b. 26 OtKow voW^ />^(rT(bpiii] *And 

is it not a great comfort, Socr., to find yourself fully a match for 
the professors of any other art, without having had the trouble of 
learning any but this one?* 82 irpbs \ityov] C. F. Herm. pro- 

poses irpds \6yop, on the ground that irpos \6yov is found nowhere 
else. Phileb. 33 c, Hlp irpof \&yov ri y. So irpbs (vos, ibid. 18 d. 
But Tpbs \6yov is supported by irp6s rpdvov, Phaedr. 252 D, and 
Theophr. Char, xxx., to which the antitheton is dirb rpdrov, 
Comp. otK dirb aKoirov etpiiKep, Theaet. 179 0. Olymp. gives vpb 
\6yovt which, if not a copyist's error, has the analogy of vpb odod 
and TpoHpyov in its favour. Tr., * If it should answer our purpose'; 
'if it be in the interest of our discussion to do so.' After rvyxdvei. 
In ibe next line Olymp, inserts Ka(. 

460 c] NOTES, 141 

Page 21. 18 cMTirep dprt elires, diroicaXt^^as] Above, 455 D, 
dW fyc6 aot ireipdurofim, (T 2(6irpaTes, (ra^cDs dvoKa\i)\f/at, r^v r^t 
ftrjropiKrjs Si^afup, 21 *AXK* iyia fikv — /ta^i^o-ereu] Perhaps the 

cloud of quotations collected by Stallb. may be sufficient to protect 
this reading of the MSS. against Stephen, who alters /la^i^erai 
into fjM$i/i<r€(r0tu, I confess that the position of iyCi) fth olfmi in 
the sentence seems to me to distinguish it from cases in which 
o7fca( ^, SokQ 54 j Soku fjuh^ doxei 64 /uot, and the like are placed in 
parenthesL Heind. reads ^lad'fyreadai. with Steph. Stallb/s argu- 
ment, **quod indioativus longe aooommodatior est Sophistae 
confidentiae quam oratio aliunde suspensa," is characteristic. 
28 "Exe ^'\ This phrase occurs again 490 b, ^e 6^ airrod, evidently 
in the sense of ^fo-xcs, 'hold,' a meaning however which it will 
not always bear. The grammarians explain it by ir/>6<r6xe, (Lye 5-^, 
6pa di/i, and the like: but the parallel passage in this dialogue 
justifies Heind.'s version, **subsiste," with which Stallb. quarrels. 
Compare Protag. 349 d, and Heind.*s note. The argument which 
follows is to our notions sophistical enough. Not so, however, 
from the Socratic point of view, according to which every virtue is 
a form of knowledge, and every vice the result of ignorance. 
Gomp. Xen. Mem. iii. 9. 4, 5. It may seem that Oorgias might 
have turned the tables upon Socr. by simply substituting ddiKos for 
diKcuos in the premisses, as indeed Olymp. remarks (p. 49), Urriop 
5k 6ti dwarbv Kal iK rod havrlov (rvfirefKivai Kal elirecy* '0 fr^rtap 
iTLariiiuav rod dSiKOV 6 iin<rH)fi(av rod ddlKOv dSixa po^Xerai' 6 AHika 
PovXdfj^yos dduca SiavpdTT€T<u' 6 diairpaTT6iJi€vos dduca oOk icri irori 
SIkouos' 6 dpa jHfnap oii54iroT€ iLK(u6s iffrw. 'AXXd <t>afjijhj he adds, 
5ri diiyarou 6 fHjfrwp elS^vat rb dUaiov oix ^* XP^^^V^^ ^^^ ^"o- fp^V 
aM KoU fjuh dyvoCop vepiiriafj. The objection however is fallacious, 
for, according to the doctrine of Socr., the dbixos is not 6 rd dBixa 
tldusy but 6 rd SUaia, and (as a consequence) rd dSixa /lij el5(bs. 

Page 22. ll O^koOv dvdyKTj] Quintilian adverts to this pas- 
sage in terms which prove that he read it nearly as it now stands, 
but in a different position, at the end, namely, of the argument, 
after (fxdveral ye. **Disputatio ilia contra Gorgiam ita clauditur: 
oiKOvv d»dyK7i tov InjTopiKbp dUaiov eZveu, rbv 8k dUaiov poi^XeffOou dUaia 
frpdrreLv" (Inst. ii. 15. 27). From this it is pretty evident that 
the text had been disturbed before his time, and the sequence of 
the reasoning interrupted. The mention of ^opiKbs in the 
sentence as it stands in our copies is clearly premature, his turn 
coming after the SUouoi has been disposed of. Anothfti t^!;^^^!^^ 

142 Q0RGIA8. [460 0— 

that the proposition o^diiroTe fiovkfyrerfu h dlKaios dliiKe7p is more 
than the premiss, as it stands, can support. If we insert de^, 
which may easily have been absorbed by the last syllable of 
fia6\€a6ai, the reasoning becomes consequent, as, by expelling the 
clause I have bracketed, it is made regular in its form. 'The jnst 
man performs just actions, does he not? * 'He does.' *In fact he 
wills to do just actions always.* * Apparently.' 'If so, the just 
man will never will to act unjustly.' 'That follows of necessity.' 
'But &om the premisses it follows of necessity that the rhetorical 
man is just' (se. 6ti rd SUcaia fu/iddrfKev, sup. a and b). 'Tee.' 
'If so, the rhetorical man will be incapable of willing to act 
unjustly.' [Of these alterations the first was anticipated by 
Professor Woolsey of Boston, U.S., in his edition, p. 147. The 
second (the insertion of del) occurred to me some years ago. All 
three have, I now see, occurred independently to M. Hirschig 
(Exploratio Argumentationum Socraticarum, <fec., 1859). I men- 
tion this by way of external evidence in favour of the emendations 
proposed, which, however, need no recommendation beyond their 
intrinsic necessity. In defence of del, which Hirschig places before 
po6\&r$<Uf he justly appeals to 460 b, oddiTor w efi; ^ prfTopuc^ 
ddiKOv wpayfM, 6 y* del wepl ^xatoo-dviys to^s X&yovs iroteirac] 
27 ^€u&T<its di odTio] So Protag. 351 C, rd dviapd CaraiTtas oUnai 
c6 Ka$* 6cov djfiapd KaKa. 

Page 28. 20 Aid rbp k^vo] A choice specimen of Neoplatonio 
trifling is the following scholium of Olympiodorus : fidrhv Kvva. 
avfufio^Qs toOto* 6 ydp Kv<av avfiPoX^f i<rri rijs Xoyucijs iiorjs, (hs 
etprpui iv rats iroKirelcus* ^et n 6,KV(ay <f>iX6ao4»op, rb 8iaKpiTiK6Pf 
K,T.\, He alludes to Bep. ii. 376 a. The Socratic oaths, not 
however peculiar to Socr., H) or fid rhv levva, or rbv xTl^a, find an 
odd counterpart in the old Engl. *'by cook and pye." 25 ij 

ctei dri] Stallb. stops before and after ofet, and interprets Sri by 
"propterea quod," quoting Theaet. 147 a, if, otei, rls n <rvplrfffl 
Tipos ivofUL, jT.r.X. The 2nd Zttrich ed. agrees with him and with 
Hirschig in placing the interrog. after X^ots. I am not sure that 
this is any improvement on the punctuation of the first ed., which 
I have retained. Professor Woolsey conceives that the sentence 
ends abruptly at d(5d|6(y, and that Polus meant to have added 
* that therefore his inconsistency is to be charged to rhetoric,' or 
something to that effect. And certainly the dause f^ireira k,t*\» 
would be no just apodosis to the causal clause dri Vopylas k,t.\, 
ThepaBBBge however seems to me to make sense without resorting 

461 D] NOTES. 143 

to either aupposition. 'Do yon who maintain these paradoxes 
yourself believe them ? or do yon think (with me) that Gorgias 
was ashamed, &c. ? And then, in consequence of this unlucky 
admission of his, I dare say a contradiction did occur in the 
reasoning — the thing we know you dearly love — for it was you, 
not he, who gave the conversation this interrogative turn.' In 
oUtw Kol ir6 the Kal does not belong to do^d^etf, as Ast strangely 
supposes, but to <r6: *Do even you think as you say — ^to s&y 
nothing of your audience ? ' 

Page 24. 8 *n KoKKtffTe UuiKe] It is possible that this homoso- 
teleuton was intentional, and by way of parody of the Sicilian 
practice. In sense it is much the same as (S X^ore UulXcj inf. 
467 B. See note to Phaedr. 278 e. &\\d roi] A Paris MS. 

(G) gives Ti, perhaps a relic of an old reading &\\o n. But rot and 
rl are perpetually confounded in the MSS. irayopdoiTe] 

Heind. reads, with one MS., iiravopdOref adding, '* Vulgo ivavop- 
$cSt€, quod soloeoe infertur post praegressum praesens tempus 
KTi&fieda, V. Dawes, Misc. Cr. p. 85." See however Person on 
Eur. Ph. 1. 68, "Hanc regnlam (sc. Dawesianam) non videntur 
per omnia servasse Tragici : of. Hec. 1121, 1131 " ; and Gram. 
Meerm. ap. Schaef. Greg. Cor. p. 647, rd e^irrurd itfrl {nroTaKTiKQv 
\afApdvowrt» {ol 'AttucoI), Comp. also Bep. iii. 410 c. ** Hoc dicit, 
ut no8j id quod optamus, sustentetis et erigatis ** (Stallb.). 7 Kal 
vvv] Tr., * and if in the present discussion Gorgias and I are in 
danger of breaking down, pray come and help us up again, as it is 
but fair you should. On my part too I am prepared to cancel any 
of the premisses you may disapprove of, if you will oblige me by 
observing one condition.* &pa$4ff$<u is properly to revoke a move 
in a game of draughts. Hipparch. 229 e, dWd mV Kal wnrep 
irerre^biv iOikw <rot dvaOiadai 6 n /Soi^Xet rCjy elp7jfi4y<av. 
18 KaOip^fts] Vulg. KaOelp^jp : St. KaO^^Tus with one MS., an im- 
possible tense. The older lorm Kadip^ys is preserved by Olymp. 
and the Bodl. and seven other MSS. Baiter, who has changed the 
KoSclp^s of the first into xadip^jp in the second ed. 6f the Zurich, 
gives the following passages in justification : Bep. v. 461 b, ^vp4p- 
^avTOS : Tim. 34 c, ^wif^as : Polit. 285 B, fy^as : Tim. 18 d, <ri6v€p- 
^iv : Bep. V. 460 a, cwip^em : Thua v. 11, wepUp^res : Soph. Aj. 
593, ^wip^ere : Oed. T. 890, 894, tp^erai. He might have added 
KaOipyvvrai in Gratin. ap. Pollnc. 10. 160. As the tendency of the 
scribes would be to alter the older form into the more modem, 
I have adopted Kadipiys, which, as Baiter ob&«t^«i&^ \% Vqs^Cc^ssl 

144 Q0RGIA8. [461 D— 

confirmed by the cormpt reading Ka04^'j3S, 20 drvx^erais] 

Bas. 2 dirorvx^trcus : ** bene " (Findeisen). Bather male, for Plato 
would have written dwor^ois, an objection which seems to have 
escaped Ast.. drvxQ occurs with the gen, in Isocr. Nicocl. p. 20, 

St., iduf fiTidevbs roirtav drvxv^' dXX* dvHOes rot] This 

reading of the Bodl. and many other MSS. was restored by Bekk. 
in place of the vulg. t6 or H, Gomp. Soph. El. •298, dXV tadi roi 
rUrovffd y d^lap dtxriF, as one instance among many of the separa- 
tion of dWd and toi, The meaning is, * as a set-off to this, think 
what a hard case mine will be, if you are to hold forth without 
deigning to answer my questions, while I am not to be at liberty 
to leave the room, and get out of hearing.' 

Page 25. 2 Kal vvv bij] vdv ^, it is scarcely necessary to 
observe, has usually the sense of < modo,' < but now,' * a short time 
ago ' (6}dyov ifjurpoaSeyj as the grammarians explain it), and takes 
an imperf. and sometimes an aorist. It is so used a few lines 
above, (Sffvep vvv ^ (\eyov, and in this sense is occasionally 
opposed to vvv, as in a passage of the Laws (iii. 683 e), rivvv dij fUv 
[6X^701' e/MTpwrOev] tovtois irepirvxovres rots \6yois oUtu ravT* krldeyxv, 
vvv S iirt\e\'fyriM€6a, whence Ck)bet ejects the palpable gloss dXlyov 
ifivpoaOev. Magnes Comicus (ap. Meineke ii. p. 10), elir4 /uot, vvp 
8^ ixkv (JS/xvus fiif yeyov^vou, vvv Si ipi/is, where, as well as in Eurip. 
Hipp. 233, Oobet reads vwS^ (following the analogy of eireeSi), 
hjXabT/j, (fee). Compare by all means his Vv. Lectt. p. 233, 
*' Confirmat banc observationem et veram esse demonstrat quod 
vw&^ non dirimitur interposita particula, et dicitur vwdii fUv, non 
vvv fikv Siff, quod sicubi legitur videbis ad vvv 8t/j referendum, et cum 
praesenti tempore et futuro oonjungi." In the passage before us, 
however, vvv ^ is used as rdre 8i/i, airrUa &fi, (fee, each adverb and 
particle retaining its ordinary sense. Stallb. has collected in- 
stances in his note: which perhaps are hardly called for. 
18 UpoiyfM d tfnjs <n> iroi^aai rix^f'^ ' & thing which you say 
created Art.' See the quotation from his own book given by Polus, 
sup. 448 C,ifi1tcip[a fikv yap woiet rhv alQva ijfiuv wope^eaSou Kard 

Page 26. la Mi/ dypouc&repov f] ' I fear it may be somewhat 
uncivil to say the truth ; for I shrink from speaking, out of defer- 
ence to Gorgias, lest he should think that I am caricaturing his 
special pursuit.' 21 Aom rolvw] This entire passage, as far as 
duccuwrifVTjv, 466 o, is quoted by Aristides Bhetor in his spirited but 
rerboae tareatise De Bhetorica (p. 6, Dind.). I have noted many 

463 b] notes. 145 

and adopted some of his varions readings. 22 rt] Om. A. Bh. 
ypvxv^ S^ (TToxcurrtic^j] Isocr. o. Soph. 294, ravra d^ iroXX^f irifieKela^ 
Seiffdait Kal rpvxv^ aydptKTJis Kal df^offTiKTis (f. ffTOXCUFTiKrjiy Hirschig) 
ipyov etucu, — as here, an enumeration of the qualities required in 
a rhetor. The coincidence between this passage and that in the 
text cannot be thought fortuitous ; and as Isocrates wrote the 
speech against the Sophists at an early period (see Antid. § 7, 
p. 280, Ztir.), it is probably Plato who is the borrower. There is 
some malice in the substitution of ffToxa^riKijs, * shrewd/ for the 
do^cLoriK^s of Isocr., who meant to describe a person, do^ai repi 
ixoffTOV riiv ^KificLav /uoXXop Svydfievov rOv elSiptu <paaK6»T(ap, which 
he boasts to have been his own case (Panath. 234 d). These 
considerations should, I think, prevent the acceptance of Hirsohig*s 
plausible conjecture noted above. 20 ii 6^oirouici^] A qualita- 

tive adj. derived directly from d^f/owoi^s. The art of the fancy-cook 
or cuisinier, Stephen injudiciously adopts 6\l/oToiriTiKij on inferior 
MS. authority. In A. Bh. the article if is omitted. 21 <bs d* 

6] So A. Bh. ; vulg. d>s d^ d. 82 ifrnfi iyu] So A. Bh. ; vulg. 

Page 27. 8 iya a*] A. Bh. ; vulg. iytb 64. 4 efre kuMv 

ctre aUrxpo^] ^» ^^* ^^^ olffXfi^^ ^^"^^ KoKbv, 6 5 ri iarh] A. Bh. 
6 i<mp. 6 xvSiffdai] A. Bh. wvvSdveaSai, 9 dTdxpiMcu] 

A. Bh. dvdKp. fiUH, With the entire passage which follows, and its 
tabulation of sciences and pseudo-sciences, the reader may compare 
a passage in the Antidosis of Isocrates, possibly suggested by the 
present, fio^o/xai dk wepl r^s tQp \6y<av woAdelas &<rir€p olyevea- 
\oyovvT9S Tp&Tov dieXdcip . . .bfioXoryeiTai fiiv ydp t^v tpdffiv ^fiQv 
Hk T€ tov atbfJMTos avyKeiffdai Kal Tijs rfnrxih-"0^^ W rodrtav 
^6vTwv i^pGfpris rives wefA fih tQp AXKtap iroXXds r^yas aw€(mfKvlait 
irepl Si TO aufM koX rifp \K'uxV o^^^ toiovtop (rvprtrayiUpop, e&p6pT€S 
Sirrds iirifAekeias KariKiww ijfUPj irepl fih tA ff(i>fMTa -Hjp wcuSorpipiK'np 
i5s ii yvfjjfaaTiKij /ji^pos iffrlt wcpl dk rds xf/vx^s Tijp <f>t\oiro^0LP wepl rjs 
iyw /jjfSXu iroieTffOai, toi>s \6yovi, dpriarpdipovt Kal a^i'vyas Kal 
fffplffip airrats dfioXoyovfi/ipaSf /c.r.X. Antid. § 193, Bekk. Observe the 
expressions c5<nr6/> oi yepettKoyovprcs and (n^^Vyas, as illustrative of 
those tabular arrangements of which Plato is so fond; and of 
which we have elaborate specimens in the Sophistes and Politious. 
21 Ilii^Xos Si Sde] Of course a play upon the name Polus. See 
Introd. and the passage there quoted from Aristotle's Bhet. The 
6^1^777; of Polus arose from his failing to perceive the importance of 
knowing the H iari of the thing discoursed oC. Ha \ss^«tNs^ '^'^^ 

PL. QOR. ^^ 

146 OORGIAS. [463 b— 

natural order by asking for the iroidv before he knows the ri In 
fact he was ignorant of the first elements of the dialectic art. 
Gorgias is better instrncted, and exclaims, with something of 
impatience, <OhI never mind him. Tell me what you mean by 
saying that Rhetoric is the image or counterfeit of a branch of the 
art Politic' 

Page 28. 8 dXV 1j] So A. Bh. ; vulg. dXKot if. 6 d xotet] 

So A. Bh. ; vulg. Stu II rV /^] A. Bh. r^v /ih otv, Bekk. koI 
T^p fUvi with one MS. r^ before atifMri omitted in Bodl. 18 fdw 
I fjL^p oOrwi] Of this idiomatic use of oUrtas sea ezx. Phaedr. 285 o, 
i * I cannot invent a single name on the instant.' 15 ijrrl(rrpo<f>o» 
ftkv rj yvtumffTLK^'] So A. Bh. ; vulg. dwi nkv lijt yvtunumKrji. The 
repetition of dvrUrrpo^ov seems to me more forcible. The word is 
used with a dative Bep. x. 616 b ; with a gen. Phileb. 40 d and 
elsewhere, as below, 465 d. It denotes a relation like that of 
* strophe' and ' antistrophe ' in poetry ; or between the two wings 
of a regular facade in architecture, or a picture and its < pendant,' 
Ae, 17 diKeuo<r^fpf'\ I have retained 8iKaAO(r6vw in preference 

to the rival reading diKoariK'fiv, which has the support of two 
inferior MSS., and is confirmed by the aathors of the Prolegomena 
to Hermogenes, p. 9 (Bhett. Graeci, p. 22. 15, ed. Walz). But 
Qnintilian certainly read SiKcuoa^yriv (Inst. Or. ii. a 15, "duas 
partes civilitati8...animo assignet, legalem atque justitiam"), 
which is also found in Aristides Bh., in the Schol. on this passage, 
and in Olympiodorus, who has the gloss, wphs StKaioo'^v'nv dml 
Tov Tpbs StKaffTiK'^p. Socr. is entitled to assume the identity of 
justice and dicastio, for he has just proved Sri 6 fA€fia&rfKu)s rd 
SlKaia diKoios. He < who has learnt all about justice ' is the ideal 
dicast, and it is of his art that Socr. now speaks under the name 
of justice. A passage in the Politious is illustrative of the present : 
\etwea0eu 9i rh, rifua Kal ^vyycvrj (iroXtTt#c^f iwiaT^fifis), roOrtav 5* 
iirri tov ffrpanryla koI dtKuaTiKi^ (303 b). So inf. 520b, we read, 
KdXKidv iffTi (TOifHirrtK'n jn^ropucTfi (Sffirep vofioderiK^ ScKaffTiKris, where 
however we find in the text quoted by Arist. Bh., as here, diKouo- 
a^vrfs. The passage of Bep. i. 332 d, where biKfuwrivn is for the 
sake of the argument virtually identified with dticaanKi^, is not really 
in point, as the opinion is only advanced for the purpose of being 
refuted: nor is it safe to build upon a passage in a doubtful 
dialogue like the Clitophon (408 b), where ZiKauarinfq is identified 
with both ToSiTiicn and hucoffrucii. But the passage from the Politicus 
proves that Plato could use SiKcurruci^ in a good sense, as the art of 

466 b] notes. 147 

the model diKoan/js, who, as we have seen, has been shown to be 
dlKOtos. aa 17 iroXaicevrt^] Olymp. p. 62, Iffriop 8ti toctovtov 

dicup^peif dtt <fnjai» * ApurroriXTft, <f>l\ot K6\aKos Haov to dyaOov toi 
nS4oi, alluding perhaps to Etb. N. ii. 7. 18. 24 Wrpaxa— 

SuLveluoura] The following scheme will assist the reader >— 


vofM^CTunr ^ucauKnfyrf or SiK^Lmtetf 

11 rov <rw/Miro( 9cpaireMi 

I , I 

(xo^fMtTuei}) (&4r(Mro(uc^X 

90 i>ir^dv] Arist. Met. iii. 2. 19, ol dmXeicTMrot KolaoipurrdlTaiT^ ^to- 
^t^oyrai axw**- f^ ^tXo<r60<^. Id. Bhet. L 2. 7, did ica2 ^irodi^erai 
4^ird rb trxrifM rh rrfi iroXtrtK^ 17 ^opiic^. The metaphor seems taken 
from the stage : Luc. Pise. c. 83, i>irod{$e<r ^ai rdy Afa, * to personate 
Jupiter ' ; Tim. Lex., KOfi\f/bs \6yos, Kal 6 dya$6s di koI 6 triBavb- 
T/fn iiro8v6fievos r^v dX-ffBeiav, (In Xen. Oec. 14. 8, ^ Kal t^v 
SiKaioffvvTfv iwodvei didcuTKeiv, used for iirod^ei,) 28 ware 

ioKcl—d^la] Ar. Bh. has SoKeitf and d^Uuf, 

Page 29. 10 \ei&njin koI iffOrjaw] Vnlg. Xei&nfri Kcd cdtrd-fiaet,. 
Ax. Kh. has iaOi^it which confirms the (as it seems to me) certain 
emendation adopted by Bekker firom three MSS., two of which 
give Xcibrrfffi and the other ^Oij^w,, which is also recommended by 
Heind. Tim. 65 0, Tpaxvrrifft re koI XttArrfffi, Hirschig gives 
iaO-flffeh a word of doubtful note, to say nothing of the inelegance 
of the change from a significant plural to singular. 21 [dri 

d KOfifiwuc:/!] The brackets in the text include the words omitted by 
Ar. Bh. fiaWov Sk aSe sound to me like a gloss, introducing a 
•duplicate reading. Certainly the terms of the proportion which 
Aristides retains are all that are necessary for Socr.'s purpose. 
The word KOfi/jLovv is of somewhat uncertain lineage. A scholiast 
derives it from Kb/ifu, gummU which can hardly be true. Modern 
lexicographers connect it with KOfieiVt comere, or, still better, with 
jcbcfMSf KOfu^hs, The arts of the KOfifuimfs or KOfifttarpta are vividly 
described in a passage of the comic poet Alexis, quoted by Athen. 
xiii. p. 568 (Meineke iii. p. 422, *Iaoard(riov), and more briefly by 
Philostratus, Ep. 39, as 6if>$a\fjuaif iiroypwpai^ kolI ko\i.C»» •Kv^%k«%v\ 

148 00RGIA8. [466 

Kttl ^iaypa<t>toLi wapeiQp koI %6iX^(t;i' patpcU. The oorresponding Latin 
terms are mango, mangonizare, as in Plin. N. H. zxiii. 1, " Succas 
radicis vitis nigrae cum ervo laetiore qaodam colore et cutis 
teneritate mangonizat corpora," a passage which illustrates Xei6- 
Tfjffi in the text. KOfiiav irpoadiaeit would come under the head of 
(TXijAtoai, which would not include iffSijffi. Other oxfitMra were the 
paddings with which lean persons eked out their figures, and the 
thick soles with which the dwarfish supplied their lack of stature, 
as set forth by Alexis in the edifying passage referred to. This use 
of ax^/MiTa is analogous to its rhetorical sense. Illustrative of 
this analogy of the decorative and rhetorical art is likewise the 
following passage of Photius quoted by Jacobs (ap. Steph. Lex. ed. 
Dind.) : iiroafOeT toTs \6yoii {tov 'laoKparovs) oi> fi6vw ffi4>VT0Vt dXXd 
Kol KOfifitariKbif xdWos* 25 Sirep — ^opes] This passage 

seems to be correctly explained by Stallb., who understands ravra 
after bUtrrtiKt^ and retains ao^^taral xal jyffropei as absolutely 
necessary to the sense, though omitted in one MS. and by Bekker 
at Schleiermacher's instigation, ivrtav refers apparently to rhe- 
toric and sophistic. Tr., * However, though as I say, there is this 
essential difference between the arts in question, yet as they are 
near neighbours, their professors, the sophist and the rhetor, are 
apt to be confounded as occupying common ground and employed 
upon the same subject-matter, insomuch that they know not what 
to make of each other {ain-dis for dXXi^Xoit as freq.), nor indeed 
does the rest of the world know what to make of them.' Livectives 
against * Sophists,' it may be observed, are as frequent in some of 
Isocrates's orations as in the Platonic dialogues (see esp. Isocr. c 
Sophistas, Busiris, Helenes Encomium), and the Eristics enter- 
tained doubtless an equal contempt for the more popular accom- 
plishments of the professed rhetor, while both were in disrepute 
with the simple citizens, the Iditarai of the day. 

Page 30. a rb tov 'Apo^aydpov w iroKif ^] ** Late pateret ao 
frequens esset illud Anaxagorae dictum '* (Stallb.). The "dictum" 
occurred at the commencement of his celebrated treatise. See the 
authorities in Bitt. and Preller, Hist. Ph. § 61. Anaxagoras was 
the first to give to voZi or ^vx^ ^^^ pre-eminence of which Socr. 
has just spoken. 7 (ur Ueivo iv ffttifmn] i.e. cus ii dyporoUa 

dvTlaTpo<f>6y iari rff ftfiropiK-j iv (rt^/xari. Bhetorio is a spiritual 
cookery, as cookery is a corporeal rhetoric. Each is the pendant 
or counterpart of the other. ao KoXaicclas fiiv ovv — dpdo-eis] 

' No J I called it a branch of Flattery. Is your memory failing, 

466 b] notes. 149 

Polus, and you so young ? What will you do presently ? ' He had 
understood Socr. to identify Bhetorio with Flattery, as if they had 
been oo-extensive terms, rrpea-purris yeudfievoi formerly stood in 
the edd. after SpdceiSt but some of the best MSS., including the 
Bodl., omit the words. That they are a gloss appears from 
another v. 1., p4os (j^ irpfffp^rris yeySfievoi — an interpretation of 
rriXtKovTos as well as rdxa^ There is certainly some difficalty 
about the use of rdxa, but perhaps Stallb.'s defence is satisfactory, 
"rdxa nunc facete et jocose de longiore temporis spatio dicitur." 
Comp. Ar. Kan. 528, oi rdx d\X ifStf irotw. 

Page 81 . 8 N^ rbv Kuva] * I swear to you, Polus, that I am 
really in doubt, each time you speak, whether you are stating your 
own views, or asking my opinion.' lO dwwfKiivei] So Protag. 

336 p, TTfp ktVToO yvdl)fniv dwotpaiveaOai : ib. 340 b. Stallb., following 
Bekk. , places a colon after yii rbp Kvva, thus making Socr. answer 
Polus's question in the affirmative, though he immediately after- 
wards declines to reply to it, as involving two qaestions instead of 
one. It seems to me that the position of fiivroi in the sentence is 
sufficiently justified by the passages adduced by Ast, viz. Gorg. 
481b, P7i Toifs deoifs dXX' iirievfuo: Arist. Nub. 652, y^ rbv A/'dXV 
otSa, Clearly fUin-oi could not precede dfJupLyvodif as dXKd could not 
have followed it. I do not therefore perceive the force of Stallb. 's 
objection. 20 O^koOv tovt6 iari rb fxiya di^a<rdai] In illustra- 

tion of this use of the article in the predicate, compare Mr 
Shilleto's note on Dem. F. L. § 130, tovto yap i(m rb >ja.fnrp6v^ 
where he refers to the expression of Callicles (492 c), rd bk dXXa 
ravT iarl rd KaWdnrla-fuiTa, rd vapd <t>wnv ffwOi^fiaTO, Tr., * Is not 
this what I called ' (above, b) * having great power ? ' 28 'Eycb 
o6 0i7Att] *I say no? I tell you I say yes!' 29 Md t6v] 

Olymp., diddffKci ijfi&i d)S dei iOi^vBai Kparelv rdv BpK(av, A similar 
pious motive is assigned by the Greek interpreters for Socr.*s habit 
of swearing * by the dog * and *■ by the goose.' This however, it is 
to be feared, arose as much from whim as from piety, for in this 
dialogue (449 d) we find him swearing v^ r^''Rpav, and adjuring 
irpds A(6s, in cases which hardly require the interposition of a 
deity. As to the fid t6vj we find a like aposiopesis in Arist. Ban. 
1374, fid rbvt iyCa flip oitS* d» eXs^ /c.r.X., where no such motive can 
be assigned. See however the Schol. on that passage and Bouth'a 
learned note on this place. Compare also the sixth Platonic 
Epistle, adfin.f where the writer's friends are bid to swear ** at once 
with scholarly seriousness, and with that 8portiv«nfi»;^^ ^1 ^\^^<^ 

150 QOBOIAS. [466 

geriousness is twin-siflter** — no inapt description, by the way, of 
the true Sooratio temperament. ao tpiffs] Volg. i^, corr. 


Page 32. 8 ice«cn^opTai] ' will have herein no advantage — 
nothing to congratulate themselves on*: a future distinguished 
from KTififfofiou. as Kiicrrfixai *to have' from KTuptw. *to acquire.' 
10 OCtoj iir/fp — ] Schol., d»ra»el fXeyep, 6 AvOpunros odros rl ird<rx€i; 
Socr. finishes the sentence for him. Comp. Bep. 506 b, odros, rjv 
$' iyd}^ dv^p KoMs. 20 [rovrav wpdadep] There can be no 

doubt that these words are a mere interpretation of dprt, as Bekk. 
perceived. Stallb. defends them on the remarkable ground that 
they are ** agreeable to the genius of the man/' namely of Polus. 
See the note on pvv S'^, 462 a, and the passage there quoted from 
the Laws. 20 Zx^^^<^ 7< X^ees] Vnlg. ffxirXta X^ees. The 

7^ is added from Olymp., as freq. in quasi exclamatory passages 
like the present. So, from Stobaeus, Heind. also ; who refers to 
p. 473, Arord y€.,.iinx€ip€is \4yet», 28 u X^trre IlwXe] ** A 

jingle of sounds, such as Polus had prescribed in his art of 
Bhetoric. So in the Symp. (p. 185), Havaavlov 8i vawmidpov 
{bibdffKovai ydp fu t<ra \iyeLV 61 ffo^xtl), and Hipparch. p. 225, xal 
Xf^/o? Kal wpq, " (T. Gray). So also Olymp. p. 70, and Philostr. 
Vitt. Soph. § 13, who observe the same jingle in the folL tva 
wpo<T€lvu) ff€ /card a4. Here again possibly Plato casts a side 
glance at Isocrates, who, as a pupil of Gorgias, frequently sins in 
this way. 

Page 33. l U&rcpov odv — irpdrrovaiv] "He is proving that 
[fundamental principle of his doctrine, viz. that the wicked man is 
doing he knows not what, and sins only through ignorance : and 
that the end of his actions, like that of all other men, is good, but 
he mistakes the nature of it, and uses wrong means to attain it " 
(T. Gray). Compare Arist. Eth. Nic. iii. 6, ^ 8k povXriais 8ti fUv 
Tov riXovs itrrUft etprjreu, SoKei Sk rots iiUy dyaOov eZvat, rdis dk toO 
ifHuvofUvov dyaOov. avfipaivei dk roU /liv rh povXrirbv rdyadhv 
X/hfOV<n fiii ehfai ^ovXifrbv d ^oiXtrai 6 fi^ dpdus alpovfievos {el ydp 
iarox fiovXriT^Uf Kal dyaObv^ ^v d\ el oihtas ^trv/fi^ KaKbv)^ rdti d* ad t6 
<f>aiv6fUV0P dyaObv rb ^vXrirbp Xiyovai fi^ ehfOA <f>6ffei povXriroPt dXX' 
iKdartp rb doKOvp' &XXo d* &XX(p ipaiferai, koI el oCrtas frvx't fdpapTla^ 
k,tJ^. Also Meno, pp. 77, 78 ; Protag. 357 o. Gray refers his readers 
also to Locke's celebrated chapter on Power (Essay on Human 
Understanding, b. ii. c. zzi. §§ 41, 42), which is interesting from 
its coincidence with the Socratic view. 8 AijXop (hri — [wlpowrip] 

469 D] NOTES. 151 

This second od hexa wlvovtrof is omitted in two MSS., and in 
Stobaens, as it seems to me, rightly. 21 ''Ap otv ian n] This 
theory of ddidtpopa is pnt forward more hesitatingly in the Lysis, 
p. 216 D : doK€i /Ml (bawepel rpl* Arra etvai y4vr]f t6 /xh' dya$6iff rh 6k 
Koxhv, rh d' oUt dya$bv oUre KaK6v. rl W trol; — Kai ^/*of, i^. The 
terms of Polus*8 reply are to be understood /card rh ffri/Mip6fiafov. 
**Neee88e est omniTio, so. omne quod sit unum ex his trihus esse" 
(Bnttm.). In the Lysis the theory is worked oat in considerable 
detail, not, as here, assumed as self-evident : which we may take, 
with Schleierm., as an indication of the later date of the Gorgias. 
For Plato will often be found to take for granted in a later what 
he has been at great pains to prove in some earlier dialogue. In 
the Philebus (p. 48) we find an analogous distribution of ^^a, / 
\virripd and firiSirepa, which Plato employs in refutation of a well- / 
known Cynical paradox. 

Page 34. 20 dirXi^ ofh-tas] In the abstract ; out of mere 
wantonness and without any ulterior view. Or, as we should say, 
' we do not will murder for murder's sake,' Ae, 

Page 86. a i\etv6s] Vulg. ikteipos. See Person's Pref. ad 
Hec. p. vi: "Atticae linguae analogia hanc scripturam flag^tat. 
Ut enim a dios formatur Seu^v, ut a k\4os k\€ip6s, sic ab iXeos 
formatur Aecy^t." The circumstance that the form i\e€iv6s is 
almost universally found in the tragedians, where the metre 
requires iXewos, is a proof that the authority of the MSS. may be 
safely set aside in prose writers «lso. The Attic form is preserved 
in the case of the derivative adverb in Arist. Thesm. 1063, Kkdeiv 
€\€i»(as, and by one MS. in Soph. Phil. 870. 28 rt} X&ytp 

ixiXa^v] Inf. 506 B, ifxov ye djco^tav ixiKa/Mpdvov, idjf rl (rot doxQ fii) 
KoXus X^€tp. 29 iv dyopi w\Tf$o6ffiji] h< c. in the forenoon. 

Herod, ii. 173; Athen. p. 279. 2. Xenophon says of Soor., 
vpbit els roi>s 'irepurdrovs koI rd yvfurdtria $ei, koI vXriBoilfffrfs 
dy op at ixeX ^^vepbs TjVf koX rb "Konrbn^ del rijs iffjbipas ^v Srov 
ir\el(rroii jutiWoi <rvp4<re(r0ai, 80 i)ir6 fAdXrp] Schol., hrl rod 

Kpv^Uas ri, irpdrreiPf dn A7ifJtoar$4p7ii i» *A<p6^ (p. 948. 12), ' dXXd 
/A^v oj)5' 1^6 fxdKrp if irp6K\viiris yiyoveVf dXX' iv rj dyop}.* wXrjdw- 
riKws di <iif /udXaf \iyowruff dXXd /tacrxdXas. Kvalai — ' koX r^ fiiu 
Kbfiypf ^cXV ^X^^'i "^^^ ^^ jCAacrxdXaf ^oo-efas.' As synonymous 
phrases he mentions {>irb KdXirov pr 6rb iciXr ov. Gomp. Aesch. 
Choeph. 73, JkmpOfa S* iMf> eifjtdrwVi and the vern. * in the sleeve * ; 
Fr., sous cape. Olymp. seems to have read, ^wb /jidXrit iyxeiplSiop 
Kal Xi^xi'oi', and below, e^ oOif.„det^aifu rb iyxeiplSiov kal rbv 

152 QORGIAS. [469 

X^Xf^ov. The Xi^xi^os may have been a bright thought of his own, 
to account for the boming of the arsenal, for which purpose a 
dagger would be an unsuitable implement. Or he may have 
really found the words in his copy. That inrb f/AXrjs needs not to 
be interpreted literally here, we see from the following passage of 
the Laws (yii. 789 c), where, speaking of the mania for cock or 
quail fighting prevalent in Athens, Plato says, irpds tot^tois Xa/36yr6s 
6irb fidX^is ^icaoros, rodf fUp iXdrroyai clt rdt %er/>a$, /cte^^vs 5' 
6v6 rijv dyKdXrfv ivrbt„ wopi^WTOx vepiwarowTes ffradlovs wafivdWovs 
iv€Ka T7JS cie^lai 00 rt r^v tQv airOv ffbifidrtav dXXd r^s ro&rwp tQv 
$peft/jidT(aif, where Ast observes justly, **inr6 fidXiis Xafibwes generale 
est — de omnibus usurpatur quae occultantur et onmino teguntur, 
ne cadant vel efifugiant, vel omnino oonspiciantur." Arist. Lys. 
985, K&TeiTa d6pv bijff ixo /tdXi^s ^iccif ^u)y, where the literal sense 
is equally excluded. 

Page 37. . 8 rijis K€<l)aX7jii — ^«raT6a7^i'a(] A sufficiently familiar 
use of the gen. of the part or place. Arist. Acham. 1180, rTjt 
iC60aX^s jcar/aye w^pl XlBov ir€(r(bif : ib. Vesp. 1428. Herodian ap. 
Dind. ad Steph. Lex., KaT€ayCi)s riji ice0aX^s, o6 fi^v iraffav r^v 
KeipaXijv, dXXd fiipos rt airTJs. "EihroXii, Oi yap Kard^eis rrjs 
K€<f>aXiit rd ^dfifiara. But Kareayivai rijy Kc^aX'^v is equally good 
Attic : Lysias, p. 99. 48. So rd cSra KaTeaydTcuft inf. 515 e. Here 
tr., 'If I resolve that any one of them should have his head 
broken, broken it shall be,' Ac, 28 O^kovp, ia Oavfidtrie] The 

frequent repetition of d^poaScu is at least unpleasing. In Olympio- 
dorus*8 copy, the sentence plainly ended with afuKpop (Comm. p. 78, 
Jahn), and I cannot but think that the first t6 fi4ya bivaaddi 
was added in the margin by an interpreter who did not perceive 
that the subject of cXvai, is the clause ibM pJkv irpdTTovTi...(b<f>€Xifi(as 
irpdrreip. The student will observe that idv pjh is followed in 
apodosi by el S^ fi'^, not by idp di /uff. This usage is universal, 
where no second verb follows, el Se fn/j having the force of dXXtas di^ 
alioqui. See Sympos. 185 n, idp fiiv <r<M i$4Xii wa^effOou, 17 X\jy^,.., 
el di fi'^, ddari dvaKorfxvXlaffov (for idv bk fi^ iSiXy), 

Page 88. 19 rd ydp ix^h Kal irpdyrip] * yesterday or the day 
before — the other day.' Hom., x^^i*"^ tc koI irput^ : Thuc. iii. 113, 
oibhi ifMxS/JieSa x^^f dXXd irpiJ^p, *' As the time of this dialogue 
plainly appears (from that passage in p. 478, koX wipv<ri povXetietv 
XaxiS>Pt which is taken notice of by Athenaeus, v. 217) to be 01. 93. 
4 (B.C. 405), the year after the sea-fight at Arginusae, these words 
must be taken in a larger sense, as we say of a thing long past, * It 

470 b] notes. 153 

happened but the other day/ when we compare it with more 
ancient times : for Arohelans had now reigned at least nine years** 
(say eight years — see Clinton, F. H. ii. an. 414. 2, ib. p. 223), 
** and continued on the throne about six years longer. So in p. 
503 in these words, HepiKXia tovtovI t6v veiatrrl TereKevT^KSraf we 
must understand peiM'Tt in the same manner, for Pericles had been 
dead twenty-three years, but the time is there compared with that 
of Cimon, Themistocles, (fee, who died many years before. Socr. 
indeed might have seen and remembered Gimon, the other two he 
could not. These particulars of Archelaus*s~Iustory are curious 
and not to be met with elsewhere. Athenaeus (zi. 506) is absurd 
enough to question the truth of these particulars, or, supposing 
them to be true, he says that they are instances of Plato's ingrati- 
tude, who was much in favour with Archelaus. The passage 
which l;e cites immediately after from Carystius of Pergamus 
disproves all this, for it shows Plato's connexion to have been 
with Perdiccas the Third, who began to reign thirty-five years 
after Archelaus's death, and was elder brother to the famous 
Philip of Macedon. We have an epistle of Plato to that prince 
still remaining. At the time of Archelaus's death, Plato was 
under thirty years of age ** (T. Gray). The blunder of Athenaeus 
is almost incredible. It may serve as a criterion of the value of 
other malignant accusations of Plato and his school which we 
have no direct means of refuting. Archelaus is the king who 
entertained Euripides, and at whose court the poet died. His 
talent as a ruler is highly extolled by Thuqydidgs (ii. 100). 
Aecording to Aelian (V. H. xii. 43), dovXTjt vlos rjv rijs ^ifiixrjs. 
The author of the Second Alcib. alludes to his death and its circum- 
stances as x^^t^ 7« '^^2 TTpmj^it. ycycvii^a (141 d). This anachron- 
ism hardly needs the elaborate apology of Mr Clinton (1.1. p. 224, 
not. k), for the dialogue in which it occurs is the work of a later 
and probably an ignorant imitator. Anachronisms differ in kind 
and degree, and it is hardly possible to conceive that Plato or 
Xenophon (to whom the Alcib. ii. 'is by some attributed) would 
have represented Alcibiades, who died at a mature age in 404, as 
still young in b.c. 399 ; still less would either of these authors 
have introduced Socr. conversing with his young friend at least two 
years after his own death. Ibid, b, and Buttmann's note. The hand 
of an imitator is betrayed by the x^^l^^ '''< '^^2 vprnj^dt as compared 
with the ix^is koX rrptiniv of the passage before us. 91 aMdev 

eb yiyv(i)(TK€ki\ * don't you know already,* i. e. from the factcL \s^^\:l- 

154 00RQIA8. [470 k— 

tioned ; as if he had said i^ ai>roD toG Apx^tv adrbp Maredof^as. 
Arist. Eq. 330, 9rj\6s iffriy aM$€P, The passage from odx oTSa to 
ddiKos is thus rendered by Cicero: ''Hand ado, nnnqnam enim 
cum eo coUooutus sum. — Ain' tn? an aliter id scire non potes? — 
Nullo modo. — ^Tu igitor ne de Persarum qnidem rege magno potes 
dicere, beatusne sit? — ^An ego possim, qunm ignorem, qnam sit 
dootns, quam vir bonus ?-i-Quidf tn in eo sitam vitam beatam 
ptitas ? — Ita prorsns ezistimo : bonos beatos, improbos miseros. — 
Miser ergo Archelaus? — Certe, si injustns" (Tnso. Quaest. v. 12 
[35]). The object of the chapter is to claim for Plato the credit of 
a sentiment afterwards maintained by Zeno of Gitinm, who is 
called '*advena quidam et ignobilis verbormn artifex." Cicero 
proceeds to translate a kindred passage from the Menexenus, 
p. 248, Srq) yiip dvSpl, /c.r.X. 

Page 89. 29 iiTTinj] Vulg. ixTaerrj, I have restored the 
undoubtedly Attic form. Comp. Arist. Ban. 421, ds im-init C^ o^k 
iipvffc 4)pdTopai. So i^irei in Nub. 862; ixT&rty, Thesm. 480. 
The genuine form is preserved by the transcribers in Alcib. i. 
p. 121 E, ixeidiiv iiTT^cis yivtopTOLi ol vaides, and in dexinis wherever 
it occurs in the text of Plato. On the other hand the vicious form 
d€K(UTripoi occurs Legg. 772 b, where deKen/jpifis is found in one MS. 
and is probably the true reading. See Lobeck on Phrynichus, 
p. 406 foil., whose authority, supported by the unvarying practice 
of the Attic poets as weU as by the testimony of the grammarians, 
outweighs that of "Bremius on Aeschines," to which Stallb. 
appeals in defence of the vulgate reading. 

Page 40. 5 dird aov dp^fievos] *'neo te excepto" (Ast); 
"tuque imprimis s. interque eos tu primus*' (Heind., who 
compares Bep. ii. 336 d ; ib. vi. 498c, <frc.). Tr., 'And I dare say 
there are those in Athens who, with you at their head (following 
your lead), would rather change places with any Macedonian you 
could name than with King Archelaus.' 9 doKeii] We should 

rather have expected iB6K€ts, which at any rate is better than 
Heind.'s conj. doKots, He alludes to p. 448 n, dij\os ydp fUK 
nwXoy...6rt rijif KoKovfihiiv ^optK^v fiSXKov fUfieXirriKaf rj 5ta- 
X^76<r^at, a remark here ironically called a compliment. 28 iva 
Tipd — Tj finiSiva] Xen. Cyr. v. 6. 45, ro^n-tav de r(av irepieffTTiK&rtav ij 
\ rwa ri oiUva oUa, Pers. Sat. i. init., **vel duo vel nemo.** 
20 doKoi^vTtav etyal rt] Equivalent of course to e^doKlfittnf, So 
Euthyd. 303 c, rCMf aefipwv xal Soko^^ptup ri elpau Sometimes the 
ehai ri is omitted, as in Eur. Heo. 294, \6yos ydp (k t ddo^o6pT(i)p 

472 a] notes. 165 

ICjv KdK rStv doKodmav iirbs oil Toitrbv adivet : and by St Paal in 
his Epistle to the Galatians (ii. 2), icar' Idlw di rdis doxowrip, where 
he allades to his fellow-apostles "James, Peter, and John," the 
ffTvKoi of the ohnrch, as they are presently called (ib. ver. 9). 
27 Taird] Van Heusde's emendation, accepted by Stallb. for the 
vnlg. raOra, which Ast defends. But the passage from Bep. iv, 
482 A, wapexofihrf ^vvq-Som-as rairrhv Koi Urxypvrdrom koI robs 
fUffovSf makes in favonr of the change, or at any rate justifies the 
pleonasm, which is idiomatic. The Zilrich punctuation of the 
sentence — a full stop after \iy<a — is evidently right. There is 
great force in the asyndeton with which the following sentence 
commences. 80 Nt«(<ar 6 Ncinj/Miroi;] The famous Nicias. "The 
tripods mentioned here as dedicated in the temple of Bacchus, 
must be the prizes which he and his family must have gained in 
their frequent x<*PVYt^t',...The brother of Nicias was named 
Eucrates: he outlived his brother, and was this very year 
Trierarch at Aegos Potami (Lysias, Orat. contra Poliorchum, 
p. 320 [149]) ; and soon after was put to death withj^iceratus his 
nephe\y^J2y_prder of the Thirty Tyrants, in t he number < j which I 
^a-iefosed to be" (T. Gray). Plut. Vit. Nic. o. 3, rovs 'ABrivalovt 
XopTY^df'S di^€\dfipape...(tw€ppaW6/i€¥os woXvreXei^ Kal x*^/^^' '^o^ 
wpb airroO koI Ka$* iavrbp airovraf . iorHJKei 8^ Kal r&if dyaOrffidrwu 
abrov Kad* ijfMS r6 re IlaXXdSioy iv dxpowdXei, r^v xp^^*'^''^ 
droPe^TfKSSf koX 6 rots xopvjyiKois rplwoffip ixoKelfiepos iv Aiop^aov 
pcu)s. ivlicriffe ydp woWdKts x<>PVT^^^t iXeUpOri 8* oitdhrore. It 
appears from this passage, as GoL Leake observes, that Nicias 
built a temple to support his tripods : larger, no doubt, than the 
surviving ohoragic monuments of Lysicrates and Thrasyllus, but, 
like them, situated within the peribolus of Bacchus (for so we 
must interpret ip n} Aiopv(rUp)f not in the theatre itself, T(fi h 
^opi6(rov dedrptfi (Athens and Attica, i. p. 185, note 3). 82 'Apwr- 
TOKpdrrfi 6 Z/ceXXfov] "A principal man in the oligarchy of Four 
Hundred (01. 92. 1), and of the same party with Theramenes. 
See Thucyd. L. viii. (c. 89) and Lysias contra Eratosth. (§ 66), 
Aristoph. in Av. 125 et Schol." (T. Gray). "This is the person 
mentioned by Xenophon, Hellen. i. 4. 21 ; 5. 16 ; 7. 2. He 
perished with five others of the generals, by the result of the 
famous trial which followed the battle of Arginusae" (Arnold on 
Thuc. l.L). The same Aristocrates is extolled by the author of the 
speech against Theocrines attributed to Demosthenes, for the 
part he took in destroying the fort of Eetlonoa^ (>.<^« ^^^^^ ^s^^ 

156 GORGIAS, [472 a— 

restoring the popular party to power : a passage in which the 
orator commits the singular blunder of identifying the destruction 
of the power of the Four Hundred with that of the Thirty Tyrants. 
See Grote, H. G. viiL p. 93, note 2. 

Page 41. 1 fip nvdoi t] One MS. gives iv ^vBiov, i.e. lepif, 
I meaning the sanct^aary of Apollo Pythius, called t6 Uiiidiouy which 
was adjacent to the celebrated Olympicum, in the southern 
quarter of Athens. This, I confess, appears to me the more 
probable reading, for several reasons. In the first place it is 
more probable that Aristocrates should have made the dedication 
in question at home, and in a place which we know from Suidas 
(v. IliOdiov) was appropriated to the reception of the tripods 
consecrated by ol rf icvKXiip x^PV vt'K^<f(UfT€% rd Qapy^Xta, than that 
he should have presented at Delphi an offering so distinguished 
among the splendours of that sanctuary, as to have won for him 
a Hellenic reputation {rovro rh KoKhv dfdd,, "pulcrum illud 
donarium quod satis notum et celebratum est " [Stallb. ]). Secondly, 
IIv^o? rather than iv Uvdoi is the stereotyped form in such cases. 
Plat. Lys. 205 o, Ilvedi xal *l<r0tju}i koX NefUig, : Axioch. 367 c, to 
Hv$oi Tijievoti Arist. Lys. 1131, *0\vii.Triaffi.Vy iy Jli/Xats, UvOdif 
vdffovs, ic.r.X.: Lysias de Bonis Arist. § 63, ivlKiftrep *I(r0fioi kcA 
"Sefji^q,. Thirdly, as Pytho was a shrine better known than the 
Pythiom, UvBot is more likely to have been substituted for Uvdlov 
than vice versa, not to mention the elliptical const^ruction iv 
nv0iov, which might puzzle an ignorant scribe. 4 oif ydp fie 

<rit dya7inl^6(s] * I am not compelled by any argument of yours,' a^ 
being emphatic. Olymp., Idoif dpdyicriv KdXcT Hiv dvodeiKTudiv 
vUrnv, 6 iK Tfjs oifflas Kctl Tw dXTfOovsl *fj:pm f^Y pfttn'TTirmy^ 

tl^ejtruth.' If KcU is to be retained it must be understood as 
epexepetio . I much doubt the double reference in oialas which 
Stallb. suggests : " Ludit in ambiguitate voois oOalas quae et de 
bonis ac facultatibus dicitur, et de eo quod re vera est.*' Compare 
the boast of Polus, p. 466 c, dvoKTi»v6affi 6' tv Ay poiSXtaprai koX 
difHUpoOvrai xp^M^'^* ^^^ iK^dWowrtP ix tQv ttdXeofp 6p hp do/cj. 
O oif^p otftMl Between these two words Hirschig inserts dp^ ex 
conj.t so that the sense shall be, *I conceive nothing will have 
been accomplished, unless I can secure yoor testimony and your 
assent in the course of our subsequent discussion.' I doubt, 
however, the admissibility of this construction here. The 
irregularity is in the use of 6t/juu, for which we should expect 
^ytfa-ff/uai, * I shall not think that any thing has been done. ' But 

473 c] NOTES. 157 

the text as it stands is defensible. An analogous case is Isocr. 
Evag. § 36| j jyovfMi fxkv o vvt %l Kal fAijdevbs SWov fA V'mrOei'nv , dXX' 
ivravBa /caraXe/^ot/Ai rbv \6yop, j^Stov ix ro&rujy elvai yvQvai ttjp 
dper^v T^v ^iay6pov, for i]y7j<raL/Ji.rjv &p» 14 dp iyCj at dt/Jtai] 

Supply SetVt as below, p. 474, roO iXiyxov oXov iyCj oXpuu deip €tpai, 
deip is not unfrequently omitted after olfiai, as in Xen. Hell. Iv. 7. 

4, (fioPTo &7rtipaiy and after iiy/jtraTo in Protag. 346 B. ao adrUcal \ 
* for instanc e.* See Buhnk. in Tim. Lex. Plat. v. adWica. Hirschig 
brackets vpCjTOP, as an ** interpretamentum." But see inf. 474 d, 
olop wpuTOP^ a phrase exactly equivalent. 27 iducwp — ifuf^] 

' You say that a wrongdoer may be happy : good — ^but I want to 
know whether he will be so if he obtains his deserts and is 
punished.' Something like this is implied by the position of apa 
in the i ^ddl e of the sentence. It occurs in a similar position^ 
p. 476 ▲, Td ddiKovPTa 8i56pai SIktip o/mi fi^nrrop rtav xaKup iarlp ; 
And so perhaps we ought to read Hipp. ii. 366 b, bvpar^ 8' iarip 
iKdffTOT &p* ds &iP rroii rdre 8 Av poi&kqTai.y Srap ^oW^niTax; for the 
Yulg. iKaaros &pa. 

Page 42. 8 vdprus — fiiPTot] These two words are supplied 
from Stobaeus in place of the old readings of the MSS., aTdpTUP.,. 
ptip TOLPVP (ed. Gaisf. vol. iii. p. 352). fUpToi in apodosi to /Up is 
noted by. the grammarians as a peculiarly Attic usage. The 
emendation irdPTUs had been anticipated by Stephen. 

Page 43. 1 iKT^fiprfrai] " iicrifAveip, absolute positum, est 
Latinorum exsecare, h. e. castrare. Euthyphr. 6 ▲, KdK€ip6p ye rbp 
ainov varipa iKTCfieip 5t* irepa rocaCra. Xen. Cyrop. v. 2. 28 ; vii. 

5. 62 al. Unde iKTOfmi Conviv. 195 c" (Ast, who quotes in 
illustration of iKKdryrcu Herod, vii. 18, depfioLffi (ridfiploun iKKaieut 
ToOs 6<f>6a\fio^s). 8 iridJjp] * having hved to s ee.* Soused, 
whether the spectacle is gratifying, or, as here, distressing. Hom. 
B. xxii. 61, KaKd rrdTOC iTriddpra, Tlds r* 6XKvfUpovs iXKYfOetads re 
O&^arpas, But Xen. ^yr. viii. 7. 7, roifs tpCKovs iTrelSop 5i' iixoD 
eifSaifiopas ycpofUpovi, where the dying Cyrus speaks : Thuc. vii. 
77, r€v^6fX€Poi cop iindvfiiir^ tov ividelpi Aristoph. Acharn. 1166, 
6p ir ividoifjit T€v$ldos 8€6fjk€POP: Soph. Trach. 1027, rdp loS* 
i TT 18 01 fjLi Tr€<rov<rap, After Tcudds re Kal yvpaiKa we may understand 
TaifTd TrdaxovraSy which however is elegantly omitted. 4 Kara- 
mTT(i}6i] The usual euphemism for burning alive, as appears 
from a passage of Heraclides Ponticus (ap. Athen. xii. 524) quoted 
by Gray: Tolyaproi vdXip oi T\o6atoi Kpan/jirapTes [rod 8i^fiov} 
airaPTas up Ki^pioi KariffTrjcrap fierd tQ>p t^kpcdp lfaT€1^£TT<u<^av^<SM 

158 Q0RQIA8. [473 o— 

Kaio/xipiap ipafflp AWa re voWh y^viffOat. ripara Koi iXalav Uph.p 

airrofidrrfp dpou^ijptu,. Every one remembers the lines of Juvenal, 

"tae da Inoebis in ilia, Qua stantes ardent ," <fec. (Sat. i. 165). 

Many other parallel passages are accumulated by the comm. 

8 ^Trb TUP voKitQp koI tQp dWup ^ipujp] * by citizens : and 

foreigners as well/ a well-known idiom: 480 o, ah-ov xal tup 

dWiap oIkcLup : Isocr. de Permut. § 103, (k re tQp iwirrfSevfjLdTujv 

Kal tQv AWup ffvpowriwp SiafiefiXi^fiipois, lO MopfAoKOrrei av] 

' ^0117 you are trying to frighten, instead of refuting me.' Ol3nnp., 

optI toO (tfs Taidlop tpopeU. Crit. 46 O, 9ip...(iS<nr€p iraida^ Tj/ias 

fxopfwXdrrrjTai, /JLop/juij or ftopfioXvKetw answers to our * bugbear ' or 

* hobgoblin.' 24 jrel io&C] *Jf you doubt me, ask one of the 

company present,' or * you have only to ask,' &c. This rhetorical 

use of iirel with the imperative or with an interrogation is 

common. Soph. El. 352, ixei dlSa^op rj iiA.d* i^ ifioO, H /xoi K^pdos 

yivoLT dy, tQpB€ Xi;|d<r]7 ybup; cf. Aristoph. Vesp. 619. "Elliptice 

^^e{ ponitur cum Imperative cum res videtur certa et minime 

dubia, adeo ut tuto adversarius ad objiciendum provocari possit " 

(G. Hermann). 26 vipvct. /3ovXct?6(i' Xaxc6i^] *Last year when I 

was drawn for the Council, and when my tribe succeeded to the 

Prytany and it became my duty (as their ^tdrdnyy or chairman — 

Xen. Mem. iv. 4. 2) to take the votes of the assembly, I exposed 

myself to ridicule, because I knew not how to collect the 

sufitrages ' — an ironical description, more stto, of one of the noblest 

acts of his life, his refusing to put to the vote the illegal 

proposition of Callixenus against the generals who had fought at 

Arginusae. Compare Xen. Hellen. i. 7. 14, 15 with Memor. i. 1. 

18 {iTTKTTdTrjt iv T(fi d-^/JL(fi y€p6iJ.€P0Sf iviOvfA-fyraPTOt tov Si^/mv vaph, 

Toi>$ vofiovs ippia ffTparriyoits luq. \l/-}^<f><p...d7roKTeiPai TdpTas, odK 

ifOiXrjffep ivt\f/ri<f>lffaii «r.r.X.; and both passages with Plat. Apol. 

p. 32, iyd) ydpy (a 'A6rjp<uoii &\\rjp /Abf d/)xV o^BepUap Tc&Tore ^p^ 

hf T-ff rroXeif i^o^Xevira Si' Kal (tvx^p ij/Mjp ij </>vXij 'Avrtoxij 

wpvTOPeifovffa, 6t€ if/icts tous Sixa <rrpaTriyo{>s Toi^ oiK dpcXo/iipovs 

Toifs ix TTJs pavfJMxicLS ipo^iXeffde ddpoom Kfdpeip, irapapSfuaSt us ip T<fi 

{xTTipip "Xfi^Pf^ Traaip i/up ido^t, t6t iyCi) fiopos tup irpvrdpeup 

iffavTuS>Orfp i/fup fjLrjSip voieip vapd to^ p6fiow, koX epaPTla i^<pi<rdfiriPf 

K.T.X. The author of the Aziochus (368 d) tells the tale differently, 

and with embellishments. Mr Grote, in the course of his able 

and searching discussion of this event and its circumstances, 

takes occasion (H. G. viii. p. 271, note) to question the accuracy 

of Xenophon's statement in the first book of the Memorabilia, 

474 d] notes. 159 

that Soor. was jxtgrrdTrii on the day referred to : but it seems to 
me diffioolt to understand the language of Plato in the text, 
Tvithout supposing that Socr. was individually responsible in the 
matter of taking the suffrages, and not merely entitled to a vote 
as one of ten Proedri upon the question whether the suffrages 
were to be taken or not. How could he else have betrayed his 
'ignorance' of the proper mode of proceeding — ^in other words, his 
invincible repugnance to the act required of him? If this view be 
correct, it is not a little bold to call in question a statement 
resting on the consilient testimony of two such authors as 
Xenophon and Plato, ^e passage in the Apology does not 
confirm, but surely does not contradict it. 82 ha yihf — 

hrlffraiMt\ Olymp. has the following interesting scholium on this 
passage: ofk(a koL b 'HpciicXetro; kKey€v, cTt ipol &vrl iroXXwy, 
Kal \4yuj Tovro Kal irapa Hepceipov-Q €ibv, a fragment which, 
so far as I know, exists nowhere else, and is highly characteristic 
of its author. 

Page 44. 27 ot) ravrbv ify^l (t(>\ Cic. de Off. iii. 3. 11, 
" Socratem accepimus exsecrari solitum eos qui primnm honestum 
et utile, natura cohaerentia, opinione distraxissent." Throughout 
the whole of this reasoning the i.'^aebv is assumed to be synony- 
mous with the dxpiXi/iov and the Kwcbp with the fiXafiepbp, But 
this utilitarianism is, it must be confessed, of a very transcendental 
order. 80 rh KoXb, TrdvTa] This little ** theory of the beautiful " 
is an improvement, upon that of Xenophon's Socrates, Mem. iii« 
8. 4, and Conv. c. 5, where utility is represented as the sole test of 
beauty. At the same time we must conceive Socr. in the passage 
before us to be arguing * ad hominem,' and it would be unsafe to 
infer that Plato really regarded Pleasure apart from Good, as I 
sufficient to constitute an object beautiful. Compare esp. Phile- I 
bus, p. 64 fol. The steps in the present argument are these :— 
t6 KaX6i' implies either utility or pleasure, or both. 
rb oXiTxpbv either hurtfolness or pain, or both. 

But Polus had said 5n rb dSiKeTv at<rxtov tw dSiKeiadai. 

rb dbiKeitf is therefore either more painful or more hurtful than 
TO ddiK€i<r6€U. 

But it is not more painful, by Polus's admission. 

Nor, consequently, is it more painful and more hurtful. 

Therefore it is- more hurtful, or, in other words, worse than rb 
A similar disjunctive syllogism occurs inf. 477 c. TV^^ \% ^ 

160 G0RGIA8. [474 d— 

locus classictts conoeming the relation of Ka\6v and (170^61^, KaxSu 
and alaxp^v, in the Fifth Book of the Bepnblic, p. 452. In the 
last danse of the passage referred to, an obvious but necessary 
emendation has escaped the edd. : fidraios 6s yeXoiou &\\o tl 
ijyeiTai ^ t6 kukSv, koI 6 yeXforovouTv iirixetpQv irpbs £K\rjp tip* 6\ffip 
diropX^iTdjp ujs yeXoiou rj r^v rod &<f>f>op6s re Kal kukov, Kal koKov al 
<nrovid^€i Tpbs AWov rivd, CKOTrbv ffTrjffdfAevos ^ top tov iyaSov 
(ib. d). "Who ever said rrpos aKOTrbv (n^traodai? or how can 
anfiaaadcu mean ** se convertere," as Ast renders it? Dele vpdsy 
and compare Gritias, Eleg. i. 2 (ap. Athen.), dv vKotrov tls Xard- 
ytiju rd^a KaSiardfieOa. The sense will thus be, * He is a fool 
who in his serious compositions proposes to himself any oth^ 
standard of beauty than that of Good/ The ^p6s is a mere 
repetition of the vp6s which stands before dWriu in the clause 

Page 45. 15 0^ difivou — KoKd] The rd before KOiKd is omitted 
in one MS. Though defensible, it seems better absent. *Laws 
and Institutions surely are not beautiful irrespectively of their 
utility, or pleasantness, or both ' ; or, if we retain rdy * The beauty 
which resides in laws, <fec., is not independent of utility,' <feo. ; or, 
more literally, *The instances in laws and institutions — of 
beauty, I mean,' so that rd KoXd shall be explanatory of rd Kard 
Toifi p6/iovs, k.t.X. 29 Kal Srav — ^(rrac] This proposition 

ought evidently to correspond to the foregoing, substituting 
aUrxfifof, Xt^in;, and Kaxtfi for their antitheta. Hence it seems 
impossible to dispense with ^ dfi^or^poiSt which Hirschig accor- 
dingly would insert after KaK<}, SO X&K-y inrep^dWop] The 
participle is of course causal. * If the doing injustice is more ugly 
or offensive than the suffering it, either it is more painful, and it 
is because it exceeds in pain that it is more ugly, or (because it 
exceeds) in evil, or in both,' i.e. it owes its greater ugliness either 
to its exceeding in pain or to its exceeding in evil, <fec. 

Page 47. 2 rf \6y(fi ufftrep Idrpip rapix*^] 'submitting to 
the argument as a patient to the surgeon.' ^a/D^eifs'copiam 
facere.' See above, 456 b, rcfietp rj KaOcai irapaax^"' "^^ iarpi} : and 
480 c. If any thing is to be ** understood " it is probably rb trufmy 
which is expressed in Arist. Nub. 440, tovtI t6 y ipi/bv c&fi ainroiinv 
vap^(a renrrew vttviju Sixfnju, ir.r.X. Similarly Aesoh. Pers. 210, 
T-Hi^as SifMs rrapeixct and with ^^^)^ Protag. S12o. On the 
other hand we have ifAavrbv rr. in Phaedr. 228 b, a combination 
very freguently followed by an adjective as secondary predicate, as 

477 c] NOTES. 161 

Euthyph. 3d, Sokcis trirdvLov trcavrbv Tap^eiy, ''rarissime tni 
copiam facia " ; and by an adverb, as here and in Arist. Lys. 162, 
227. Similar is the use of vapaBovpoi in Phaedr. 250 b, ii^ov^i 
vapadoi^s. 8 if (pdOi ij fi^ a ip(tyrui] * Say yes or no {ifnifjii or oH 

ipV/J^t) to my questions.' 14 oidiv Hoikci^] " Intell., 6 iXeyxos 

T(} iXiyxv" (Ast). The context proves that this is the right 
interpretation, and that Heind. is mistaken in supplying e&oi as 
if oC)84v meant "res nihili.'' 10 'fi/JLtpea^Trri/iffafAcv] This form 

alternates in the MSS. with iiii.<t>ic^. The second augment is in 
principle indefensible, implying as it does that the word ia 
compounded of i.uj(f>i and cPtjtG), " Augmentum mire interpositnm, 
quod cadentis jam linguae vitio similius et reoentioribus, quorum 
in libris apparet relinquendum " (L. Dindorf). In this passage 
the Bodl. and all the best codd. seem to have ^/x^eo-/?. 80 Z/c6- 
iret] The tenses of this verb used by Attic writers sentu transitivo 
are the following: aKovwt <rJcoTo8fiou, iffKbvow, i<rKoiroi6firiif, ffKi* 
xpoficUi iffKcxpd/jLTiv, (ffK€fifiai, They never say vKixrofMu (far less 
ffKiiTTU)), ffKotHiffofjMA OX iffKorrfffdfirjv (ElmsL on Eur. Heracl. 148, 
who adds, *' vpoiiffKeirro pro Trpo^a-K^Trrero restituendum Thucydidi 
viii. 66 "). One exception is found in a genuine dialogue of Plato, 
the Laches, 185 b, j3ovX6v6/xe9a koX ffK€irr6fie0a, and another in the 
spurious Second Alcib. 140 a, aKeirrofUvfa, In the former passage 
the last two words, xal <rK€irT6fA€$at are unnecessary and inelegant 
(comp. ib. 185 a), and have the air of a gloss. With the latter 
dial, it is not necessary to take any trouble, as this is not the only 
Instance of vicious phraseology which it contains. See note 447 o. 
Page 49. 27 ev x/ny/Atirwi' KoraffKevi AvOpdnrov] In the frame 
or fabric of a man's fortune . So iv o'c^/taros KaraaKevy presently — 
* in his bodily frame or constitution.' 

Page 60. 17 del Tb at<rxt<rro»] The steps of the argument are 
the following : — 

1. That which exceeds in ugliness always does so, because it 
is either the most painful or the most hurtful or both (by 
the 6tJLoK6yrjfM 475 b). 

2. But Injustice exceeds in ugliness {ex concessis). 
Therefore Injustice is either the most painful or the most 

hurtful, or both. 
del means, in any list of uglinesses, whatever th^ may be : the major 
proposition is universal, the minor and conclusion particular. In 
comparing any set of ugly things, if there be one uglier than the 
rest, it is always because it is either the moat ^aixvfnl ^t \s\s2f^ 

PL. GOR, ^^ 

162 QOROIAS. [477 c— 

hannfal of the set, or both. But Injustice is ugUest of a certain 
set of ugly things. Therefore, it is so because of that set it is 
either most painful or most harmful. From this, I think, it will 
appear that Hirschig is mistaken in proposing the expulsion of 
roihwp in the last p/ijais. It had also offended Heind., who 
proposed vdm-tay instead. But this would make the conclusion 
a * non*sequitur.' It has only been granted that dSi«c£a is 
uglier than trevla and y6<ros {jo^nav t(Sp iro^TipiQp, paul. sup.). 
24 O^Kow ri AptapSrarov i<rri — dju^or^pots] This sentence is framed 
on the same model as that in 475 b, oifKo\)p...rb ddtK€tP...iiToi 
XvTrrjporepoP iffri koI \i5ir'g iireppdWop at<rx,iOP dp ctrj rj KaK<fi ^ 
dfi4><yripou; In the present passage &fi<l>&r€pa stands in the MSS., 
though ifiuporipois inreppdWeip is the unvarying construction 
elsewhere, as 1.1. and ib. ▲. I believe that the dfuporepa (irapixop) 
of the last proposition but one misled the scribe, and therefore do 
not hesitate to accept Hirschig's emendation, though the quasi- 
adverbial dfjuporepa is common enough elsewhere. 

Page 61. 1 *Tir€ptf>v€i — \6yos] If, as you say, it is not pain 
which causes the vice or badness of the soul to be of all things 
foulest, how extraordinarily great must be the hurtfulness, how 
astonishing the evil effects — far beyond those of aught besides — 
which entitle it to this bad eminence. Such is the meaning of 
this very closely packed sentence, which without some such 
dilution would perhaps be scarcely intelligible in English. It is a 
necessary conclusion from the alternatives accepted by Polus, rj 
dpl^ rj /3Xd/3t7 tj dfi<l>OT4pois. 

Page 52. 15 eidtufJLOPiararos] *Is this then the highest 
physical happiness of which a man is capable, to be under medical 
treatment, or never to have been sick at all ? * The reason of the 
preference of firfd4 to oddi here is evident, if we resolve the 
participles into their equivalents, el larpevoiro, -fj cl fitjd' dpxhp 
KdfjLPot, A few lines farther on we have rijp dpxvp m^^^ /n^o-ts, 
which may be similarly analysed. As regards the latter, observe 
the absence of the article, which is usually prefixed in such cases : 
Ar. Eccles. 115, 5€lp6p d' itnlp ij fi^ */j.7r€ipla : but omitted in Eur^ 
Bacch. 455, rrXoKafios re ydp aov rapobs o(f vdXris 0iro, a line which 
Person was the first to explain (o^ vdXrjs Vvo^ifir dyvptvaalas). In 
the present passage symmetry requires its omission. Tr., *For 
this was not happiness — the getting rid of a malady — but the not 
having caught it originally.* ijp^^in the case supposed above.' 
T^p dpxh^ or dpxhp are used indiscriminately in the sense, * from 

480 b] notes. 163 

the first/ *m the first instance/ and with neg. *not at all.' 
Theaet. 185 n, rif^ o^yxjhv oid' etvtu toioOtou, SO 'Lia<f>povi^€i — 

Ziini\ *For justice, I conceive, sobers men and makes them more 
honest, and thus acts upon crime medicinally ' : or < as a moral 

Page 53. lO 6 Hx^^^ faddc^oyf] "Lege 6 ixtav KaKtav, Alias 
xpoafnra.^€i. rbv \Syov Socrates " (Dobree). The emendation seems 
to me certain. Compare the context, cdd(ufu>v4<rTaTos fjikv &pa 6 

ji^ Itxyiv KaKlav iu yj^vxi S&^repos di^irov 6 airaXXarrc^fieyos (sc. 

rijs KaKlas). As the text stands, the conclusion is a non-sequitur. 
The identity of Koucla with ddiKia is first acknowledged in the 
question and answer which follow. 

Page 64. 90 t6v dSucovvTOL tov dSiKovfUvov oi0\i(aT€pov] Also a 
Stoical doctrine. Seneca Ep. Mor. zy. 3. 52, <*Ez illius (sc. 
Naturae) constitutione miserius est nocere quam laedi " ; surely a 
4eep moral truth, though in the guise of a paradox. But another 
passage in Seneca goes beyond the modesty of nature and the 
Academy: ''Brevem tibi formulam dabo, qua te metiaris, qua 
perfeotum esse jam sentias: tunc habebis tuum, cum intelleges 
infelioissimos esse felices." Ibid. zz. 7. 24. 

Page 66. 12 6ir(as fjiii iyxpoviffOh — d»larop'i 'lest the disease 
-of injustice become chronic, and render his soul gangrenous and 
past cure.' ihrovKos is said of a sloughing sore. Comp. Plut. Qu. 
Plat. 1000 0, od ydp ffibfiaTOS ij Zw/cpaVovs /arpe^a, rpvxv^ Si r^v 
hiroi\ov KaOapfMS. 14 etxep—dfioKoyiiiMLTa] 'if our premisses 

still hold good.' 18 'Eir2 /Up &pa—aky€iv6v'\ ' It follows that 

as a means of defending our own misdeeds or those of parent or 
Mend, child or country, rhetoric is of no real value to us : unless 
indeed we adopt the contrary view — that it is our duty to denounce 
first ourselves, then our kindred, and finally any one of our 
friends who may be guilty of injustice — not, I say, to screen the 
delinquent, but rather to drag his offence to the light, that he may 
be punished and made whole. We should even force ourselves and 
our neighbours not to shrink from the ordeal, but like brave men, 
with dosed eyes, to invite the physician to operate upon us with 
knife or searing-iron, pursuing an end which is good and noble 
without weighing the attendant pain.' After cwl Toivam-lw Heind. 
understands xPVff^M'V^ elpcut but it seems rather equivalent to els 
Toitvwriov in Soph. 221, or icard roifvavriovy Tim. 36 o, or to ii 
it/cwrias, which is the most common. avoKpuvTeffOaL is frequently 
transitive, as inf. 492, dwoKpvTTTSfji^voi rijv airrtop dSwaidajf* It 

164 QORGIAS. [480 b— 

seems indifferent whether rby a^oO <f>C\o¥ or rb dSlKrifia rod ain-ov 
iplXov be regarded as the object of the action here, as the middle 
form is applicable in either case. For /jLvtropra Olymp. reads 
fiCffavras^ but the vulg. is preferable. He adds the explanation, 
iva fi^ dpufft ttQs Ti/iPOPToi — as patients are now blindfolded on the 
operating-table. For rv^x^V odi^*i^v the Bodl. gives rvyxau^ot, 
which Heind. (*qiiod mireris') endeavours to defend. The 
formula el fi^ €t rts p. supr., of which there are many instances, 
may support the Bodl. reading of Phaedrus 279, etre el ain-if fiij 
dirorxjyfiaat. raOra, where perhaps I ought not to have bracketed the 
following b4. 

Page 66. 11 Hoifvavriov, ic.T.X.] "This," says Gray, "is 
a conclusion so extravagant, that it seems to be only a way of 
triumphing over Polus after his defeat, or perhaps in order to 
irritate Callicles, who had heard with great impatience the 
concessions which Polus had been forced to make, and now breaks 
out with warmth, and enters into the dispute." The dramatic 
intention is not to be mistaken, still the extravagance is not so 
great as Gray supposed. He did not sufficiently attend to the 
important condition, el ApadeT rtvd KaKus iroieip. If it is our duty 
* to do evil to our enemy,' as written in the popular Greek code, 
Socr.'s conclusion is perfectly sound. We cannot really hurt a 
man more than by promoting his growth in wickedness. If 
revenge is lawful, this is its most perfect form. But in assuming 
that * it is our duty to do harm to any body, so long as we can do 
it without being injured ourselves,' Socr. is obviously ironical, as 
one wonders that so acute a critic as Gray did not perceive. Socr. 
is assuming the premisses of his opponents in order to lead them 
to a conclusion from which their common sense will revolt. 
20 dMoKUnqi] Codd. and edd. woKlffKirrcu, A similar solecism of 
the kind known to granmiarians by the word *Datismus,' has 
hitherto held its ground in Bep. viii. 563 n, k&v drtovp dovXelas ns 
7rpoff4>ipi^Tai (sc. toU ^oX/rats), where read of course Tpwrtpipig. 
22 ddctMaros itrrcu trwrjpbs <Sp] Live through an immortality of 
wickedness. Hyperides pro Lycoph. c. 3, Swus av J a^dvaros 
cvKotf}^!^^'. Shaksp. Othello, iv. 2, <<I will be hanged if some 
eternal villain,'* <feo. Observe the variety in the constructions 

with fiirwy — 5irwj ftr; 5y — &inai 9lp $ta<f>&Y(l 'f*^ A*^ ^V O^* ^VV* ^^ ^' 
admissible form for 8oLrj: v. Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 345) — /x^ 
airoHSifi d\X — dvaXLirKxi — 5irwj fiij oLTroBopetTai — oXX' — iarai — dwws 
jBiuxrertu, 82 o^8ip — iptaraLp] See note on p. 447 o. 

481 D] NOTES. 165 

Page 67. 4 &\\o Tt [^ Bekk. omits the ^, though found in 
all the MSS. I think rightly, if only on the ground of euphony. 
SWo n, as a formula of interrogation, needs no defence. 1 el 

fvfl Tt] * Were it not that mankind had feelings in oommon/ some 
being the subjects of one kind of emotion, others of another, i.e. 
some sharing the passion of love, others that of ambition, <fec. el 
/ii/l Ti ^I's'nisi forte accidisset ut': el fiii ri being taken together, 
as one particle, like el firj irov, or as ef rt m^ is sometimes used. 
Rep. vi. 609 O, koL /xijdafiQs 7', (4*^* vaj^-g • el fiifj ti, dXXA t^v irepl 
rbp rjkiop hfioLbrnfr ad die^n&p. So inf. 613 c, el /ttij ti <rv AXXo X^6tf, 
* nisi forte,' <feo. In the sequel tSiop is constructed with if as if 
h-epov had been used. So paulo sup. havrlov,..ri Set. * Were one 
or other of us capable of any feeling in which the rest of mankind 
had no part, it would in that case have been difficult to make our 
own experiences intelligible to our neighbours.' Bouth thinks 
that Socr. alludes to the Frotagorean doctrine (&f th<u aiaOiiaeii 
iKd<TT(p ii/jiQu yiyvovrai (Theaet. 166 o) ; but this seems questionable, 
though the suggestion is ingenious. Before t6 a^6 all the codd. 
without exception interpolate ^, thus inverting the meaning. 
14 Kal Tov UvpiXdfivovs] So. A^/u>v, the son of Pynlampes being 
BO called. " It is possible too that there may be a secret allusion 
to the Equites of Aristophanes, where the Athenian people is 
introduced as a person, under the name of Demus," &o, (T. Gray). 
This seems a needless refinement. Demus was in his bloom when 
the Vespae was acted (b.o. 422): Ea2 vij At' tjv tdrf yi rrov 
yey pa fifUpov Tdv JlvpiXdfJLTovi 4v Ovpq,, AijfAOV Ka\6v (v. 98), where 
the Sdiol. remarks, ^ d^ koX eiifiop<f>os b Aiffios* iiriypa<f>ov 8^ ol 
*A$rjv(uoi Td Tuv KoKQy dvofmra oih-us' A^fws koKos. Demus was 
also mentioned by Eupolis in his play named n<$X6(t: koL T<f 
HvpiXd/jutrovs S.p h ioal Kwj/iXrjf as Meineke corrects the line quoted 
by the SchoL 1.1. Kv\f/i\ri iv dxrl, * sordes in auribus,' was a figu- 
rative expression for dulness (compare the "purgatas aures" of 
Persius v. 63, and Bekk. Aneod. p. 426) which agrees well enough 
with the description of the character of Demus in the text He 
is also noted as effeminate ($7j\v8plas) by Libanius (Pro Salt. xix. 
p. 500 n), and by Athen. (iz. 397 c) he is said to have kept 
peacocks, inheriting this taste from his father Pyrilampes, 
according to Plutarch (Per. c. 13), who speaks of the dpyiOoTpoiplai 
TOV UvpiKd/xrovs 65 iralpos rjp Jlepuc\4ovs. Gray adds, "Demus is 
mentioned as a Trierarch in the expedition to Cyprus (as I 
imagine) about 01. 98. 1, under OhibxidA ^^-^^^is^ ^^ ^<stci^ 

1 66 GORGIA 8. [481 d— 

Aristoph. p. 840 [154])." If we assume 405 as the date of this 
dialogue, Demus is too old to be the vaiSucd of Callioles. Gomp. 
Protag. init. It is curious that the clauses relating to Demus and 
Alcibiades are entirely passed over in the version of Ficinus, which 
in other points also disagrees with the received text. In 513 b 
the clause, koX vcd fid, ALa t(} UvpiXdfiirovs ye ^pos, is translated 
thus: "ac per Jovem insuper Pyrilampi," this being the only 
passage in which the name of Pyrilampes occurs in this version. 
15 al<r0di^o/iai — aov — &n — o^ dwafUpov"] The blending of two con- 
structions — (1) aladdvofJMi irou oi dvPUfxivoVi (2) aiaOdpofJMA Uri o^ 
Siiuaffoi — is sufficiently justified by the passage quoted by Heind. 
from Thuc. iv. 37, yyoi>s di 6 KX^«»'...5r4, el Kal bTrwrovovv fxaXKop 
ivdiJIxrova'it dia4>0aprj(rofi4»ovs a^roi/s. 16 Hn drrSa &y 4>y] 

Some MSS. give Birusi others dmnprj. Here 6^50-a refers to the 
number, lirus ^ety to the nature of his assertions. * Let him say 
a thousand things in a day and all different.' I once suspected 
that the original reading was dxcjs Slv ^ cov rd vaiZiKa, koL otcus da^ 
M^ 0f ^X^tv, comparing e, idv 6 hrjiMi...fir) tpy oUtus ix^w. In the 
next sentence l^v re yd/), /c.r.X., ydp is not found in the Bodl. nor 
in many other codd. The asyndeton might, I think, be tolerated. 
as /3ouX6i$/Lia(ri] ^vkfuMtri is also found, and agrees better with the 
foregoing a ixeivos ^oOXeTou, It is in Aid. and Steph. and perhaps 
ought not to have been altered, even in deference to overwhelming 
MS. authority. The words in question are perpetually inter- 
changed in the codd., as few can fail to have observed. 

Page 58. 1 TToXif rJTTov ^fivXriKTos] * she is far less flighty and 
fickle than her rival in my affections.* fKpXTfroSt mentioned as a 
V. 1. by Olymp., is possibly a corruption of ^kttXijktos, with which 
(fjLirXriKTos is perpetually confounded. Comp. Hesych. fifXTXi^KTovt 
/le/xiiPOTaSt eCffieraOiTOvs: Soph. Aj. 1358, roioide fiipTOi ifnaret 
ffiirXfiKToi ppoTuPj where the Schol. int. kov4>oi: Eur. Tro. 1205, at 
ri5x«t» "l^M-TrXijKTos us dpSpuvoSf AXXor* dXXwre UrjdQfftj Koddels 
dtrrbs eirrvxei Tore: Plat. Lys. 214 n, ^j^irXi} ictovs tc koI 
daTadfjLTiTovs (speaking of fickleness in friendship) : Thuc. iii. 82 
has t6 ifiTrXriKTus 6^^, where see Arnold, who compares Aeschines, 
F. L. p. 327 B. (§ 164), where voXtreLai ifiirXrj^la means little more 
than Apolitical inconsistency.' In Hom. Od. zx. 132, ifjLTrXrjySrjp, 
which is commonly interpreted * insanely,' will better bear the 
meaning * capriciously. ' Later writers use these compounds to 
denote madness or folly in general, except in a few passages 
written in imitation of Attic modela. 6 — KXeiyleios] *♦ Aid- 

482 e] notes. 167 

blades had now left Athens, and taken refage in Thrace, and the 
year after he was murdered " (T. Gtray). The irrt seems to imply 
that Plato had forgotten this cironmstanoe, or at any rate dis* 
regarded, it. 12 xopdi^ ^ x^pvyoiv^l ^o' V '^^ XopTY^t &n 

irregnlar use of the optative after a leading verb in the indie, pres. 
Gomp. Soph. Oed. R. 979, elKy Kpartffrov ^ijv ovus Si^airo r«s. 
In this passage ot/xai — elvai is equivalent to oXfiai ori — efi} (b^, the 
case supposed being an imaginary one. The reading dpapfMaretp 
was first proposed by Van Heusde for the vulg. dpdpfxoirrov. The 
Terb is found Soph. 253 a, and'^sewhere in Plato. Tr., * I cannot 
but think it better that my lyre should be out of order and give 
discordant notes, or that any chorus I had to lead should sing out 
of tune, or that great masses of men should disagree with and 
contradict me, — than that I, who am but one, should be out of 
harmony with myself and contradict my own assertions. ' 16 *0 
ZibKpareSt SokcU veavieitfeadai] 'you seem to me, Socr., to be 
reckless in your talk, like an arrant deolaimer, as you are.' The 
word dvfivyopos is equally applicable to a * stump-orator' and a 
fashion able preacher, to one who rants and to one who can ts. 
Compare Theaet. 162 d, ia yevpouoi Trcudh re koI yipovre^^ Brifirj- 
yopeiTc ^vyKad€^6fJL€P0i...Kal a ol voWol op diroS^oipro dK0^0PT€St 
'Kiyere raOra, where the latter clause explains SrifiriyopelTe. In 
Demosth. Olynth. iii. § 3, vp6s x^P*'' Srj/ji.rjyop€lp=* to speak ad 
captandum.' 18 Kal pvp, <c.r.X.] * and if you now hold forth in 

this strain, it is because Polus has made the very mistake for 
which he blamed Gorgias' — the mistake of giving way to false 
shame. Presently el 8i8d^ot depends on ipioTfbfAepop, according to 
the strict use of the fut. optat. in the obliqua oratio after a past 
tense. The MSS., as usual in this case, vacillate between didd^ei 
and dLda^oi. 26 ffk Si ouirb toOto dyardp] Supr. 461 0, tov6* 6 

Si] dyairq.%^ a&rbs dyayCjp iirl rotoOra iputrrifiaTa. 27 <3$ 7* i/xol 

doK€tv] Meno 81, dXrjBrjf Hfioiye boKciPt Kal koKop. Soph. El. 410, iK 
delfiaros tov pvKT^poVf doKCLP ifiol. Herod, ii. 124, cSf y' ifuA 
doKieiP, 82 itreffTOfiiffdrji] 'gagged,' i.e. silenced and put 


Page 59. 1 <Ti> yap rip 6prt] *For it is you, in point of faet, 
Socr., who, under pretence of pursuing the truth, lead your 
hearers to adopt (pass off upon your audience) a set of stale 
popular fallacies, grounded on legal (conventional) notions of the 
fair and comely, which have no foundation in nature.* Schol., 
(ftopTiKd rd pdpos ifivotovPTa (moZesta, ^tid^, ^twuin^V^*^ "^ -^^^^ 

168 GORQIAS. [482 E— 

riju Twv iroWQv ^Xivoma d6^av. 1 t dij koL (ri> tovto] ** Verba 

TovTo TO <rotf>6v epezegeseos .instar praegressi 8 interposita sunt usu 
satis trito...Soph. Ant. 404, TaJLfTTjv 7' ISdw divTovaav, tv aif rbv 
»€Kpbtf *A^6tiras: obi Schol., rov vcKpdv 6v <r{f drreLiras Odvrcip' 
oUtcds di xpGivrai. ol Tra\aLoi...l^parLvoiy "Ovirep ^iKoK\4rji rbv 
\6yov di44>6op€P^^ (Heind.). To the numerous examples he gives 
from Bep. 579 0, 583 s, &o., may be added Hyperides pro 
Euxenippo, Col. 19, <av q^defxla di^rrov rOtv alri&v To&r<ap oidiu 
Koipupci T(fi €l<rayy€\Tuc<fi pbfup. For KaKovpy^h i. r. \6yois compare 
inf. 489 B, a S^ nal iyd) ypoits KUKovpyQ ip rots \6yois» Bouth has 
seized the point of the clause, tovto rb <rotf>bp KarapeporiKtbs, which 
contains an allusion to Socr.'s early training under the Ionic 
philosopher Archelaus, to whom was assigned the credit of 
haying invented the antithesis between rd pdfitp KoKd and rd 
4>jiff€i, The passage Bouth quotes from Aristotle is highly 
illustrative of this portion of the dialogue : TrXeurros 8i r&n-os icrl 
Tov iroteip irapddo^a \4yeiP, uffvep xal 6 KaXKucX^ ip rtp Topyl^ 
y4ypairrai X^top, Kal ol dpxo-ioL ye irdPTes <poPTO avfi^aipetp, irapd rb 
Kard <f>ii/(np Kal Kard top pbjxop, ipovrLa yap etpai <f>iLi<ruf Kal pb/xop, 
Kal Hjp ducatoffT^pijp Kard pbpMP fxcp ehai, KoKbp Kard <f>i<Ti.p S* od 
Ka\6p. detp odp irpds flip rbp elvbpra Kara <f>(f<Ti,p Kard pbjxop dvopraPf 
vpbs 8k rbp Kard pbfiop ivl t^p 4>tlf<np ayeip* dfitporipun ydp elpai 
X^eiP irapdSo^a, ^p Sk rb fUp Kard <f>{><np a^oTs rb d\ri04s, rb 8k 
Kard vbiiop rb rots troWoTs Sokovp ' ware 8riKop 8n KdKetPoi, KaOdircp 
KoX ol PUP, ^ A^^ai rj 7rapd8o^a \kyeip top dvoKptpbfiepop ivexelpoup 
TToieip (Soph. Elench. c. 12, § 6). Comp. Diog. Laert. ii. 4, 
'ApxAooff, fui0rjH}S 'Ava^aybpov, 8i8d(rKa\os X(aKpdTovs.,JotK€ 8€ Kal 
ovTos ayj/affdai tt^ ii$iKiis, Kal ydp irepH pbfJLUP 'ir€<fH\o(rb(f>ijK€ Kal 
KoXQp Kol 8^Koitap' Trap* 0$ Xa^CiP ^taKpdrrit t<} ai^ijcrai airrbs cifpeip 
iTre\'^4>07i, (\ey€ 8k... rb 8iKaiop elpat koX rb alaxpop oi 0t^6i, dWd 
pbfup. In the sequel {firepwwp is explained by Ast, " interrogans 
ita nt aliud quid subjiciat" ; but probably ifirb has the same force 
as in {fTToKapeip, so that inr€p(tn(a shall be equivalent to hroKa^iap 
ipoDTij. The sense will thus be : * meeting your opponent with a 
question framed in accordance with the natural sense of the terms 
employed,* he having employed the same or similar terms, rb 
alffxp^p, rb KaXoPt rb SUaioPt in their conventional sense. The 
word iTrepcarQp is not found in any other classical writer. 
18 i8u&Ka6€s] "urgebas** (Ast in Lex. v. SiUKdOia), But k8id}Ka6€t 
is an aorist, not an imperfect, nor is there such a word as 8i<>)Kd6(a, 
This point seems to be proved by Elmsley (Annot. in Eurip. Med. 

483 d] ' NOTES. 169 

p. 113, not. y) : " Eectius d/iwo^cti', diuKaOeLV, eUade^v, elpyaSciv, 
nt dyayetv": cet. Dind. assents (H. Steph. Lex« Or. in v. 
8i(aKa0eTp). Tr., 'when Polos meant that which was legally or] 
conventionally fouler, you dealt with his conventionalism as if hej 
had been speaking the language of nature,' i.e. you made hie 
conventional to include a natural deformity. 14 ^i/o-ec fxh 

yd,p—T6 iduceto'dai] Dobree proposes the ejection of rd ddiKeiffdcu. 
p6fi(fi d^ rb &81KCW. As a milder remedy Stallb. suggests iraaiv for 
irctp, Steph. would have read oTov t6 d^iKeurOait which does not 
much mend the matter. I had bracketed the dause, but am now 
disposed to leave it untouched, not because I think Dobree's 
conjecture '* inane," but because the context seems to require 
either these or other equivalent words. Olympiodorus remarks on 
this passage, el d^ ddiKeiTai tis rrepl rd iicrbs ^ rd ffwfui, oiK ((tti 
KaKoy, otfW ydp ffvyeyevv^SrjfJLcv To&rots, ware tA fiii i<f>* ijfup 
&To\MtfT€s oitK 64>€L\ofjL€P dx^iffOui' el 5^ ddtKoiro if ^ux^j kAkuttov 
Koi Sei Tore ffve^fdeiv ra&nis dirdWayijpal r^s dSiKlas. ippom-lffdjfiep 
oZv rod ffud^poi Hjp ^pvx^t eldores tbj tA j^fiara, Kal t6 ff&fia o'^Sh 
avfJL^dWoPTCu, TToiT^tafAep oZp d eTn-ev iKeiPOi, Atrbp /x4v /a 
iffdaaa' ri fioi fiiXei; dtrvls iKelprj 'E/5j&^ra;. The words 
quoted are from Archiloohus, and are generally cited thus : a^bs 
5' i^44>vyop dap&TOv tAos* davli iK€lP7i*Elij^(a' i^aOris KvfiffOfiai od 
Kadta. But in Aristoph. Pao. 1267, the former line begins, \//vxhp 
d' i^eaduffa. It would therefore seem that there were several 
readings of this celebrated Elegy. Possibly the Aristophanic 
included the rlfioi fiiXet; of Olymp. 

Page 60. 1 dvoipatpei aO] Bestored by Bekk. from one MS. 
in place of aM, which StaUb.' defends. Vulg. dp dvoipalpoi Ap^ 
which he rejects as "lenius ac modestius quam pro Calliclis 
superbia et confidentia.*' 8 briXot] This verb may be in con- 

struction with 4>i6ats, but it is better to regard it as intransitive, 
either in construction with raOra, or, better still, as impersonal; I 
* That such is the case may be seen in a variety of instances ; both I 
among the inferior animals, and in the great civic communities of I 
the human race, as well as in whole families.' The sentiments of* 
Gallicles, though differing somewhat in terms, are substantially 
the same with the doctrine attributed to Thrasymachus in the 
first book of the Bepublic, p. 338 c fol., rb SIkouop o^k dXXo rt elpai 
ij rb Tov KpeiTTOPOs ^ufiipipop, 1 iTreC\ * what right for instance 

had Xerxes to invade Greece? ' ^ei is frequently thus used with 
the imp. or an interrog. Gomp. Piota%. ^\^ -^^ ^ic%\ Wi^^xK^vati, 

170 QORGIAS. • [483 d— 

jc.T.X. : sup. 473 e, ivel ipov tivA rovTutpit where Bee the note. 
9 Tj &\\a fivpl' &v] Bouth quotes Apol. 41 b, ^ dtXXovs fivplovs &v ret 
efirot Kal AvSpas Kcd ywaiKas. 11 [rV tov dixaUov] Sohleienn. 

first cast suspicion on these words, which have evidently crept in 
from the margin. 18 ndiiJueOai, ^Xdrroi^es] Explained as eqoiv. 

to riOifievoi irXdrrofiev, 'the laws we model in our legislation.' 
v\dTT€iv is joined with v6fxos. Also in Legg. 712 b, iretfHbfieOoj 
Kaddirep trcuSa irpcfffivTou, rrXdrretv rifi \6y<p rodj vdjMVi, So with 
7r6\iVj Bep. 374, in the sense of shaping an ideal commonwealth. 
The word, of course, originally meant to mould in wax or clay, as 
the sculptor his models, hut in its metaphorical sense it is far 
more frequently applied to persons or parts of persons, as aQfui 
or ypvx^v, than to inanimate things, as indeed appears from the 
passage quoted from the Laws. On this account, I know not 
whether Ast's punctuation is not hetter than that in the text : 
rtBificBa, ir\dTT0VTes toi)s peXrlffTovs Kot ifij^wfievcffrdrovs ijfxQv 
airrCiv, ix vitav Xafi^dvovres (i.e. oHinrep ix p4up \a/jLpdpofiep)i iC.r.X. 
The asyndeton may be compared with that in Protag. 325 c, ^<c 
traXSurp ff/MKpQp dp^dfACPOt, xr.r.X., and the passage may be thus 
translated: <in bringing into shape (educating) the best and most 
vigorous of our youth, we take them in hand at an early age, and 
tame them as men tame lions, plying them with spells and 
sorceries, and telling them,' &o. The art of beast-taming was 
brought to great perfection at Athens, according to Isocrates, 
Antid. § 228 : kolO* ^kouttop rhp ipiavrop detapoOpTes bf rats da6tia<n 
roiti fikv \4oPTas vp^f&repop diaK€ifJL4povi irp6s toi>s OeparreOoprai ^ tQv 
dp0p(avutp hioi rrpbs Toi>s eS rroiovPTat, rds 5' dpxrovs xaXtpdovfxipas 


Ktd TToKouoiiffas xal fiifiovfUpas rds ijfieripas ivianfifms, Juvenal too 
speaks of a tame lion as one of the domestic pets of a Boman 
gentleman (vii. 75). Aesch. Ag. 696, (dpe\f/€P di \4ovTOi *lptp 96fAois 
d/ydXaicTOPf «r.r.X. 18 iiw 84 76] * Ay, but if there come a 

thoroughly strong-minded man, he, methinks, will shake off from 
him and tear asunder and escape from these trammels ; he will 
tread under foot our prescriptions, our witcheries and spells, in a 
word, every ordinance that is at variance with nature; until, 
rising in open rebellion, he, the sometime slave, appears in a new 
character as our master ; and herein does Nature's Justice shine 
forth in full lustre.' ai fMyyavet^/JLara] Legg. 933 o, piay- 

yapei^fAaffi Kol 4>f^Tpois: Arist. Pint. 309, o^kovp ae t^p KlpKjfP ye 
rifP rd <pdpfxaK dpaicvKQffav Kcd fiayyaP€i!;ov<rap fMKOpovadp re 
ro^iralpovs. Hesyoh., ^dyyQ,P9,y ^pftaxa, dkrva, ywixrebiuk-ru. 

484 b] notes. 171 

The form ;ia77ai^6fa is found twice in the Laws — ^908 d, and 938 a — 
coupled in the latter passage with ^apfMKeia, iv(pdcU, and 
KaraSiffeis, The alleged etymology is fiiffffta^ whence fmy-ls, 
fidy-€ipoi. Sansor. Masg, to soak— /duc^tmoc/ien (Benfey, Wtirz. 
Lex. i. p. 515). Others derive the word from ftdyos directly: 
ao N6fios 6 v&vTbtv ^affCKs6s\ This remarkable fragment is thus 
restored and interpreted by Boeckh, Frag. Find. 151 :...irard 
0i5<rti'...N6/AOS 6 vdmutv pcurtXeds QvarQv re Kal dOavdruv "kyei 
dtKMwv TO ^Laidrrarov ^TirepTdTi^x^pl' r€K/JMlpofJUu''Epyouriv *H/DaicX^o;, 
iwel Tifipvdva fi&as KvKXwvlufv ivl irpoddpcav WtpwrBioi 'Ayatr'fyrai re 
Kol drpidras ifXaffcv: *< Secundum rerum naturam...Lex omnium 
dominus mortalium et immortalium affert yim mazimam, justam 
eam effioiens, potentissima manu. Id assero ex Herculis 
facinoribus : quippe Geryonae boyes ad Cyclopia Eurysthei vesti- 
bula neque prece nee pretio adeptus egit." Of the words not 
found in the text Kard <t>{f<riv are restored by comparison of p. 488 b 
of this dial, with Legg. 690 b, with a gloss in Hesych. (N6aio;. 
rdvrwp 6 ^offtXedi Kard Hju ^t^crip), and some other passages ; 
T7ipv6va.,.KaL and ifXaaevj &om a Scholion on Aristides Bhet. ii. 52, 
to which Boeckh was the first to call attention. dvcuHfrasi 
* unbegged/ though a aira^ Xeyofjcevovj is a probable emendation of 
the unmeaning dpaipeirop of the Schol. referred to. For diKouwtf in 
the text of Plato h. 1. the MSS. give ^lalioy and /Sieucdv, whence the 
vulg. ^laloas. But diKaiQv is found both in the text of Aristides, 
1.1., and in the Schol. to Find. Nem. ix. 35; also in Plat. Legg. 
iv. 714 B. On the whole, the restoration may be considered 
satisfactory, as it is certainly most skilful. But to Boeckh's 
interpretation of Ayei Ast demurs, and with apparent reason, for 
§lap or t6 puuSraTov Ayew can hardly mean '*vim" or "vim 
maximam afferre,'* His own interpretation is better: *' Abigit (ut 
Hercules boves) s, rapit. Sic 488 b, Ayeip ^^ rbv KpeWroa rd tCw 
ip-Tovcjv/' At the same time it is not impossible that the 
dependent noun to Ayci is lost with the context. Provisionally 
the words may be rendered, 'carries all with a high hand, 
justifying the extreme of violence' ; i.e. turning might into right ; 
and the entire fragment may be thus paraphrased : * There is a 
law of nature, the law of the stronger, to which all in heaven and 
earth must submit, and which overrides at times all positive 
enactments, justifying deeds of violence which are condemned by 
human codes. This law sanctioned many of the ex^loitck <^1 
Hercules, otherwise indefensible: eA m ^«x\>\fira\'Q»T^ A^i^\s^^^<as^c^ 

172 Q0RQIA8. [484 b— 

he seized without money paid or leave asked, the cows of 
Geryones, and drove them from the far-west away to the palace of 
Eurysthens, at Argos/ The same thought is expressed in 
homelier language by Wordsworth, in his poem on Bob Boy's 
Grave j — 

"For why? because the good old rule, 

Sufficeth them; the simple plan, 
That they should take who have the power, 

And they should keep who can.'* 
The phrase v6fu)s ravruu jSao-iXei^s, detached from the context, very 
soon became proverbial ; and was used by Herodotus and many 
after him, to signify the * tyranny of custom,' a sense nearly the 
reverse of that in which Pindar uses it. See Herod, iii. 38, jcai 
dpOQs fAOL doK^ei lilpSapos voirjcai, vd/iov iravrtav /SacrtX^a (p-^ffas 
€&cu. When Boeckh speaks of a law of fate, **fatalis lex," he 
introduces an idea equally foreign to 'Pindar's drift. The Law 
spoken of is that which the Greeks understood by x^^P^^ vofxot 
(Aeschines o. Tim. § 5), the Germans by * Faust-recht,' and we by 
* Club-law,' or the * law of the stronger,' as I have paraphrased it. 
This sense alone agrees with the context in l^lato, who in the 
Legg. (690 c) contrasts, with a reference to this passage, r^v rod 
wofiov iKdpTwv i'pxh^ with ^iaLov. Ast takes t6 ^laiorarop ad- 
verbially, translating £761 ducaiQy "rapit ex suo jure agens" ; but 
I cannot agree with him. The Schol. on Aristides has by way of 
interpretation rb dlKouou kv lax^pordT'd x^P^ dvi^ei. Did he read dvei 
for Ayei in Pindar's text ? 80 iviffrafjim] This verb is frequently 
used in the sense of knowing by rote, as in Phaedo 61 b, oOs 
vpoxclpovi etxov koI '^wiffTafiriv iiOdovs roirs AladyiroVf and other 
passages quoted by Ast. It is also used to denote personal 
acquaintance : as by Aristoph. Equit. 1278, vOp d* 'ApLyvurw ydp 
oidels 6<ms oiK iirLffTaTai. 

Page 61. 5 ^i\o<ro4»La ydp toi] This view of the use and 
abuse of philosophy was doubtless very generally adopted by men 
of quality and education, in Athens as elsewhere, and it is a proof 
of Plato's dramatic impartiality, distinguishing him favourably 
from most writers of dialogues, that he should have put words 
into the mouth of Callicles which to the majority of his con- 
temporaries would seem the perfection of good sense and political 
wisdom. Isocrates, a much more decorous character than 
Gallidles, indeed a model of conventional propriety, speaks 
precJseiy to the same effect in more than one of hia orations. 

484 c] NOTES. 173 

For instance, in the Panathenaicns (p. 238 b) be observes, rijs fikv 
oZv TcudeLas r^s ifvb r&v vpoy6vtap KaraXeiipdeiffris roao&rov d4<a 
KaraippoveTvj wffre Kal t^v i^* ii/jtwu KaToaraBeuTav iiraivQ, \4y(a 8i 
rfyf re yeia/jLcrplau koI riiv dffTpoXoyiav kolL rods did\6yovs roi>t 
ipnTTiKodi KoKovfUvovs, ots ol fjikv v€(£rr€pot. fiSXKov xo^povf^i rod biovro^, 
tQp 5i vpetr^vriptav odSels iartp 6a'ris &v dveicrods a&ro^s etvcu 
^-i^aetev, dXk* Sfuas ^(b rwi thpfiiffUvois irl ravra vapoKekehofMi 
TTOveiP Kal vpoff^x^"' ^^ ^^^^ aircurc rovrois, \4y<av (bs el koX ftridev 
£S\o S^varau rd pua.O'fip.a.ra raOra voieaf dyaOov, dXX* ovv dirorpiirei 
ye roi>s veurripovi voKKQy AXKwy dpLaprrifuircnf, rots pkh odv 
rrfTuKovroK oidhror hv ehpeOifiKU vofdj^ Siarpt^ds ^<pe\ifA<ar4pas 
Tovroav oM fmWou irpeirovffas, roTs Si irpeffpvripois Kal rocs els 
&ydpas dedoKifiafffi^vots oitKin ^/d rds fj^Xiras ravras ApfMrreiu, 
bpCa yd.p ivlovs r(av ivl rois fiaOi^/jLaffL rovrou oGrtas dmjKptpca/jihiifV 
(Sore Kal rot>s dXXovs diddaKeaf, oUr* eiKalpuiS rati hrurr^fiati ats 
ixovffi xP^f^^^^^i ^ "^^ ''■'*** irpayfjiarelais rais vepl rbv filov 
d^povearepovs Svras rwv fia07ir<2Pi dKvQ ydp elireiv rCtv olKerQv, Tbe 
appositeness of tbis quotation must excuse its lengtb. More to 
tbe same effect will be found in Antid. § 280 fol. (Bekker), in tbe 
Helenes Encom. init. and otber speecbes : some of wbich contain 
obyious polemical insinuations aimed at Plato and bis scbooL 
Tbe Xenopbontic Socrates will be found also to agree with 
Callicles in bis sentiments on tbis subject, better at least than 
with bis Platonic self. Comp. Mem. iy. 7. 2 fol.--Socr., as a 
philosopher, argues Callicles, might naturally doubt tbe truth of 
these doctrines : but let him take part in the serious affairs of life, 
and his doubts will disappear. *For Philosophy is doubtless a 
pretty thing — a nice amusement — ^if studied in youth, and within 
reasonable bounds : but it is absolute ruin to those who remain at 
their studies too long : in fact, let a man be ever so highly gifted, 
if he philosophize to an advanced period of life, it is impossible 
he can be versed in those accomplishments which every gentleman, 
every man of consideration, should possess.' iv ijXiKl^ means, 
strictly speaking, *at the proper age,' according to the original 
sense of the word ijXlKot, It may therefore denote youth, or 
manhood, or mature life, according to circumstances. In Charm. 
154 B, iy ri ijXiKl^ is appUed to boys who are old enough and not 
too old to have lovers, and so means ' in early youth,' as it does 
here. But ir6^w r^s iiXuclas does not necessarily mean "ultra 
juventutem," as Stallb. translates : but rather * far into life, ' as in 
such phrases as irdp^w aortas iXadvetv (inf. 486 a), ir6 j^oi A^tv i<nV. 

174 00R0IA8. [484 0— 

ToG piov (Apol. 38 o), which is in fact the more idiomatic use of 
ir6/}^ with the genitive. Comp. Xen. Apol. See. 30, irpoj9i^6o-^eu 
irbj^ta /JLOxOrjplas: Arist. Yesp. 192, rrovripds et trb^ftw r^vift, 
11 Kal ydp Twp vdfKav] The ignorance of pedants like these extends 
not merely to the laws of their country, and to those principles 
which enter into all covenants hetween man and man, or between 
one country and another; they are equally ignorant of human 
pleasures and passions; in short, of human character in the 
aggregate. tQp \oybjv, *the arguments and considerations. 
bfuKeiv is to be constructed with rois dvOpdlnroiSt as if he had said, 
ots dcT -xfTjcdai h Tif dfiCKeip rots dp0p, <rvfifi6\ata is explained by 
the Schol., aX dtr^dXeteu Kal ffvyypa^xd xal avvB^Kai voKewv, KaO* af 
rb dlKoiw dWifiXais ^c/mv. 10 wnrep ye, otfiai] * as I suppose 

men of the world are when they are admitted to your reunions 
and the discussions that take place there.' diarpi^i/i is either the 
place in which, or the matter about which diarpl^ei ns. Of the 
former we have an example in Charm. 153 a, ya iirl rd; ^wj/iden 
diarpi^ds, 'I was proceeding to my accustomed haunts*: of the 
latter passim, liaTpL^aX koX Xoyoc are found together Apol. 37 c. 
Siarpip'^ is used for * Indus,' a scJiool of rhetoric or philosophy, by 
isocr. i'anath. ^37 a, toj>s itrxn^oras ttjs i/xiji Ziarpi^ifi. So by later 
writers in such phrases as ^ IlXdrcui^os, ij Z-^tapos diarpi^"^. A. 
Gell. xviii. 13, "Sophisma a quodam dialectico ex Platonis 
diatriba propositum." Ibid. xvii. 20 al. 21 rb tov EirpiviSov] 

These lines, and those which follow presently, are quoted from the 
Antiopa of Euripides, a drama, which, if we may judge from the 
number of fragments preserved by Clemens, Stobaeus, and others, 
was a favourite in the schools. Zethus and Amphion were twins, 
bom to Zeus by the beautiful Antiopa, and whom she was con- 
strained to leave on Mount Githaeron, under the care of a faithful 
shepherd. In this seclusion Amphion, to whom Hermes had 
given the lyre, devoted himself to music and other liberal pursuits, 
while the ruder Zethus led the life of a shepherd and huntsman. 
In the animated dialogue, of which these lines form a part, and of 
which some eighty or ninety survive, each brother extols his own 
pursuits; Zethus twitting his brother with effeminacy, unbusiness- 
like habits, <&c., while Amphion dilates on the superiority of 
intelligence to brute force, and similar topics. The three verses 
in the text are said by the Scholiast to have formed part of the 
/njffis of Zethus : but from their tenour they seem more appro- 
priate to the character of the gentler and more reasonable 

486 A] NOTES. 176 

Amphion, and to him accordingly Hartung giyes them (Enripides 
Bestitntus ii. p. 420). However this be, Hartnng is probably 
right in regarding the words Xafitrpos and fKaaroi as belonging to 
the text of Euripides: Xafiirpos 0* {d* Hart.) fKaaros irdiri tovt 
ivclyeTM, The second verse is quoted twice by Aristotle, once 
with a slight variation, unimportant as regards the sense (Bhet. 
i. 11. 28) ; the third by Plutarch (Mor. pp. 614 a, and 680 b), 
whose MSS. in the latter passage give rvyx^* ^ the former 
TUTxdi'et. The reading rvyxdvy is also that of the MSS. of Plato 
here and Ale. ii. 146 a, where only one codex gives rv7x<^^^i> ^^^ 
latter is however more legitimate with &a in the sense of Srrov or 
iy (}j and Buttm., Bekk., and the Ztir. Edd. adopt it. Stallb. 
defends the vulg. rvyx^vo on the ground that vplv, Sirov, BOcv, and 
similar adverbs of time or place, are by the tragic poets frequently 
constructed with the conjunctive alone, in cases where a prose 
author would have added Ai^. He appeals to two well-known 
notes of Porson, on Med. 222 and Orest. 141, where however there 
is no mention of Iva, Some colour is lent to his opinion by the 
succeeding Sxou d' &v^ and Ast accordingly approves, though he 
had given rvyx'i-vu in his text. I have never seen an instance of 
Ivo. in its local sense with the conj., and the ambiguity which 
would arise from such use, between the final and topical use of the 
particle, may have caused it to be exempted from the licence 
taken in the case of dirov, <&c. Probably, for a similar reason, &! 
&p is never used in a final sense, as (us Hv and 5irws &if frequently 
are. I have therefore not hesitated to retain Bekker's TvyxjiveL, 
and the less so as the confusion of et and 17 or ijt is of perpetual 
occurrence in ordinary MSS. In the degenerate pronunciation of 
later times, 97, «, m, i, v had all precisely the same sound, as they 
have in modem Greece at the present day, the sound namely of 
our long e or of the Italian %. This confusion is well known to 
m scholars by the term * itaoism ,* and has naturally been the cause 
of much vicious orthography in the MSS. The general sense of 
the passage is this : ' every man will most distinguish himself in 
those pursuits for which he has a natural turn : to these he will 
apply himself with the greatest zeal and assiduity.*^ 22 \afnrp6i\ 
* eminent,' ' shining,' as Eur. Supp. 902, oi^jc iv \6yois rjv \afiirp6s, 
dXX' iv iavldi Aeivbs (ro0t<rTi}s. 25 tv' — piXriffros (Sv] * in which 

he is at his best,' or, *in which his forte lies.' The idiom is 
sufficiently common, and is illustrated in all the grammars. 
20 ^\<Hro4>tai fi4y] * It is good, I know, to b»:<9^ \^^ ^s^^;^ ^ 

176 00RQIA8. [485 a— 

tincture of philosophy as may serve the ends of a liberal training, 
and it is therefore no discredit to a mere lad to philosophize.' 
This comparative liberality is more in harmony with the notions 
prevalent in the fourth than in the fifth century, b.c. Aristophanes 
at least makes no such concessions. Isocrates, on the other hand, 
though he had no head for abstruse philosophy, and indeed 
thoroughly hated it, acknowledges veiy freely its educational uses. 
After informing us that mathematics and such-like sciences are of 
no value whatever to those who profess them, except as a meana 
of getting their bread, he admits that they are exceedingly 
valuable to the pupils of such persons : to^s d^ fAcufOdvovras dvUftfaf 
vepl yd,p Hiv wepiTroKoyiaM koX rrjif dxpl^eiay rijs darpoXoylai koI 
yeojfjLtTplai dtarplpovTes, koI bvffKoraiiaO'fyrois irpdyiuunv &payKa^6- 
fupw. Trpoffix^iv rbp vodv^ (hi Sk ffvve0ii/&fiepoi X^6(v Kal top€i» iirl 
ToU XeyofUyoii Kal SeiKW/x^voiSt koI fi^ vevKavtuJLiiftiv ^cty r^v 
didpoMPf ip roiJrots yvfipaffO^prei xal Tap<^up64pTes (tqap Kal Bdrrop 
rd (TTTovdaioTepa xal irXiopos d^ta r&p Tpayixdrtop dvob^&rBai koX 
/mpOdpety S^fpoprai, (Antid. 8, § 283, Bkk.). We seem to hear some 
modem apologist for *' University studies." 

Page 63. 1 dfuiKeUj <? ^ibxpares] Critics cannot be said to 
have succeeded in integrating the text of Euripides satisfactorily, 
^auck gives the following : — 

dfJLcKets wp [<re ippoprij^cip ixpV^l 

^vx^s [^cjp ydp] ude yeppaUuf ipi6<rip 

[yvpaiKOfd/JUf] diairpiveii puop^iiipMri 

koUt bv dffirLdos K&rei 

[dpOQs] 6/u\T)<r€las, oUt AXKujp ihrep 

peapiKbp ^oCXevfia ^ovXedtraid [n]. (Frag. Eur. 185.) 

Of these the second line is poor, though not unmetrical, aa 
Yalckenaer's : Aicxp^^ '''« ^^'X^s «5c yeppola <t>v<m. The first may 
probably have begun with the voo. ''Afi<t>iop. Nauok*s ifpopHj^eip is 
perhaps better than the more prosaic lop hrLfieXeurdal ae del of 
other edd., nor is it unlike Plato to change a word in a quotation. 
For yvpaiKofjUfiip we have the authority of Philostratus : yvpoiKo/jUpuf} 
d^ fiopiptbfJMTi Kard rbp ^ipiiri^p aUrxfiQ^ iiaicphrop (Vit. Apoll. iv. 
160). Olymp. by a slip of memory, aided by ignorance of metre, 
says that Euripides wrote ywaxKdihei, He adds, Kal otr op dUais 
(sic) povXatffiz 6 Edpcir. etire *Kai o6r dp d<nrldoi K&rei Tpcxro/uX^- 
acLs,* We are not therefore to force the former words into the text, 
as Hartung and former critics have done; reading, oih-* ip BIktis 
^vXaurw dpOws dp Xbiyop UfH^eio widapop* The vicious pause con* 

486 c] NOTES. 177 

demns the former line : we must therefore presume that Callicles 
paraphrases Euripides here, as subsequently he puts vpayfidTcav 
for iro\€filwp. It is difficult to account for the apparent construction 
of 4>T6<TUf with iiwtrpiv€Lv in Plato's text, but it appears from the 
passage of Philostr. that Euripides did not intend his words to be 
so taken, and that 4>v<nv depends on some participle, ^wi', Tp4<f)<aif, 
fi\a<rT(i)v or the like, which Callicles or the copyists have omitted. 
O ir6^/>ijj del — iXavpovTas] The phrase recurs in Crat. 410 b; 
Euthyph. 4 ; Plut. de Invid. 638 a {els Haxo-Top irovripias AijXa- 
K&ras). Comp. Euthyd. 294 e, rr6fi^aj <ro<plas ijKeis, and tr., 'who 
are never satisfied with the progress they have made in philosophy,* 
but wade deeper and deeper into its mysteries. 15 KaTrjybpov 

rvx^v vdpu ipajLfXov] Alluding probably to Melitus. See Apol. 36 a b. 
Anytus, though fjLoxBrip6s, would not have been called ^v\os, 
16 Oavdrov — TifAa<r0ai\ Apol. 36 B, rifmrai 8' o^ fioi 6 dv^p Bo^drov. 
The formula is well known. 17 Kairoi irQs ffo<p6u] We have 

here at least two lines from the drama : kolL vQs co<l>bv tovt itrnvy 
tt rts d>4>va Aafiovcra t^x^V 0^' ^^BrfKe X€('Pova, Some add a third : 
/Ai^' airbp airrif dvpdfiepop [irpoaapK^ffou}, With Bekk. I have given 
€6<pva, as the Attic form, for edipvij, which is found in the Bodl. 
and several other MSS. 22 drexpdoi dk drifiop] In a state of n 

virtual drifda or disfranchisement : * to all intents and purposes anfi 
outcast.' 24 ivl Kdffufjs] The blow upon the face with the 

open hand, opposed to kov8v\ois, Dem. Mid. p. 587. See infra on 
p. 527, note. 25 dXV J V^^^* ^f^ol velBov] Here Stob. and 

Olymp. together enable us to restore the text of Euripides with 
tolerable confidence. Bead with Nauck — 

dXX* ifiol ttlOov' 

iraOaai [fxeXtfidQp?] roXefdiap d* eiiiwwiap 

dcKci ' TOiavT Aeide xal dd^eu ^popeip ' 

ffKdvTWPf dpQp yijPt voifipiou [-civ, Stob.] ewiffrarCoPf 

dXXots rd KOfirf^d ravr* dtpels ao<pl(rfiaTaf 

e^ (OP Kepoiaw iyKarotKi^eis 86fiois. 
Nauck gets his pxKifiSQPf whether fairly or not, from Arist. Av. 
1382, and Com. inc. ap. Mein. iv. p. 659. Olymp. tells us that 
vo\4fi(ap, not irpayixdTWP, was in the original, meaning evidently 
voXefdwf (Hesych. iroXe/xlup' iroXefUKQp), For roiaOr Aeide koI 
Hartung proposes TOiavr deiS' SOep 5. <f>p, as nearer to Plato's text 
But Koi is found in Stob., who quotes from roiavr to ffo^pUr /lara 
(Anthol. 56. 13). Those who would know all that is to be learnt 
of the Antiope, and a little more, are referred to HA:f\\ins«^^ 

PL. QOR. V^ 

178 GORGIAS. [486 c— 

Euripides Bestitntas ii. 415. sa E^ xpvffTjv ^<>fv] Arist. Bhet. 

Quatuorv. 174. 16, el xp^<^W ^vyxoLvev Hx^^ Ttjv ^vx'fiv^ o^k Sv airri} 
KoKKUa pdffavov vpoffi^eyKcu : where the Schol., dvrtipiXoTi/JLeiTai rots 
irapaSelyfiaffi rod HXdrtavos' 6 yhp JWirtav Toin dya6oi>s xpwr^' 
fX^ty \^€i rAs tl/vxds. The koKKIw of Arist. illustrates t^v dpiaTriv 
in the text. 

Page 64. 11 Eu o7$' drt] *Sure I am that if I get you to 
assent to any opinions of which my judgment approves, such 
opinions may pass henceforth as absolutely true. For I remark 
that before any one can adequately try a human soul as to its 
right or wrong living, he requires some three qualifications, all of 
which exist in you — knowledge, goodwill, and moral courage.' 
For rpla dpa I should propose rpl* drra. "Arra is very commonly 
used with numerals, and the force of &pa is but slight in the 
present context. The interpreters give "tria potissimum,'' a 
rendering which answers to drrat but not to dpa. Bep. iv. 445 c, 
T^rrapa 5* h airots drra iav koI d^tov hrifivrjaOrivau ; ib. iii. 400 A, 

&ri pukv ydp TpC drra iffrlv etSif reOeafiivos du etirotfu. So in 

Arist. Eth. N. x. 10. 9, for the unmeaning avrd the context 
suggests drra. 22 aUrxwrrjpoT^pu} fidWov toO diovTos] So 

presently (d), rripa tov d^ovros ffOi/xbrepoi, 

Page 65. 1 "Ajf 9p<ava rbv 'AvdpoTlcwos] He is named among 
the (Twpol assembled in the house of Callias, Protag. 315 c. Of 
Tisander nothing seems to be known. The deme of Nausicjdes 
was not XoXap^ei^s, as the Schol. gives it, but XoXap76<s. He may 
have been the same person as the Nausicydes mentioned Xen. 
Mem. ii. 7. 6, and Aristoph. Eccles. 426, as a wealthy meal- 
merchant (d\<f>iTa/jL0L^6Sf d\<f>LTOfroi6s). 2 iir-^KOvaa] So the 
Bodl. and Bekk. Vulg. {tiri/iKovaai which Heind., strange to say, 
prefers. The confusion is of common occurrence in MSS. Thus 
in Arist. Nub. 263, eiKfyrj/xtTv xp^ ^^^ irpeff^&niv koX ttjs euxv^ iira- 
KoveiVf the old reading, corrected from the Bavenna, was ^uKoveiv. 
Ib. Yesp. 318, (pCKoi, n^KOfMi fih irdXcu, Hid r^s dirTjs'Tfxwv viraKovtov 
f (Meineke, ivakovuv). ivaKoveiv is * t o lend a n ear,* *to ligjten,' 
* to attend to,* {nroKoueiPj * to a nswer to a caJi/ * to obey * : the 
former always takes the genitive, the latter generally the dative. 
In Theaet. 162 d, we have, ttjs 8rffi,rjyopias 6^4(as i;iraKo^€ii Kal veiBeif 
no MS. giving ^iraicoueis, which seems however preferable, if only 
to avoid tautology. Ib. 256, "ABpei d^ vepiffKoruvt tva fv// ns rwu 
dfitr/JTiay iiraKovxii the MSS. are unanimous, yet Heind. says, 
'*MaIn2 CfTUKouiff*' adducing the present passage. Comp. however 

488 b] notes. ' 179 

Arist. Thesm. 627, <ri) d* d.'tr6<rrriOi /aw, Iva fiTi 'iraKOJ^Jxi^ (sc. iira- 
Kovcr-Qs) iav dtn/jp, where, as in Theaet. 1.1., the word implies 'to 
hear as a bystander who has no right there — to overhear ' (nearly 

as vapaKoi&fiv, Euthyd. 300 d, 6 5^, arc iropovpyos wi', adrA ravra 

vapaKTjKdei). Add to these exz. Xen. Anab. vii. 1. 14, iiraKoviravTes 
di Tiv€s tQv ffTpaTLurrup ravra, i.e. from Anaxibius, whose words 
were intended for the officers. • f^'^^XP'- fiffoi] So Xen. H. G. 

iv. 7. 6, Ai^xpi fih wot irpbi rb reixos Ifyayep 6 'Ayrj<rl\aoSi p^Xfi'- ^^ 
iro? T^ x^P^ idyuxrev. Hirschig gives the commoner /a^( 5tov, 
on no MSS. authority. 5 evXapeurdai — Sia(f>0ap4vT€s] * to take 

heed lest if yon become wise overmuch (over-educated) you be 
spoilt ere you are aware,' i. e., as we should say, * lest you find, 
when too late, that you are quite unfitted for practical life.* So 
484 c, ih,v bk irepairipu) ivZLaTplyl/% bio.<f>Oopb. rCtv wdpiUnruv, It was 
in this sense that Socr. was said by his accusers dia^pOelpeiv roifs 
viovs, 18 #x^( 8tj oirr<t)ffl dijXov 6ti] * The case then evidently 

stands for the present thus': dijXop 2(t( being adverbial, as inf. 
490 B, oXX* di ifVod'ifMTa SrjXw 6ti det TrXeoveicreip, 20 rtp Bvtl 

o9v] * Thus, without exaggeration, our agreement will result in the 
pei^eot truth ' : i. e. any proposition upon which you and I shall 
agree, is sure to be thoroughly true, rtp ovrit like drcxJ^ws, is 
used by way of apology for a seemingly hyperbolical statement. 
81 idv fie Xa^27s] If you gain my assent now, and then in time to 
come find that I faU to practise what I have agreed to, account me 
a very dolt, an imbecile, and never waste advice upon me again. 
fiXd^ implies feebleness both of mind and character. Thus in 
Xen. Eq. 9. 12, /3Xd^ twos is opposed to OvfAoetdi^, Olympiod. in 
1., t6 /SXd^ opofia yiyovev ctTro t<w fiaXaKov. For the interchange of 
fi and /3 compare Buttm. Lexil. No. 108; Donaldson, N. Crat. 
§ 218. Also Curtius, Gr. Etym. pp. 292, 297, 471. 

Pfilge 66. • i^ 0Lpxf}s 64 p.oi ^raf'dXa^e] After a long rhetorical 
interlude, Socr. resumes his dialectical weapons, and makes a 
formal attack upon the position taken up by Callicles, sup. 
p. 484 a. The elenchus is thus managed. The mote powerful, the i 
better, and the stronger, mean, according to Callicles, all the same 
thing. But the Many are more powerful than the One. Hence 
the laws and maxims of the Many are those of the more powerful, 
and therefore of the better. By the premisses, therefore, these 
maxims are by nature beautiful. But it is the opinion of the 
Many, as indeed Callicles had himself insisted, that equality is 
just, and also that to do injustice is * u^U^t ' tVi^xi \>q ^^^.^<SL \s* 

180 OOROIAS. [488 b— 

> These maxims are therefore ' beautiful by nature,' and not by law 
or convention only, and law and nature are not contrary the one 
to the other, as Callicles had maintained ; nor had Socr. been 
guilty of sophistry in ignoring the distinction. A similar dialectical 
artifice is in the Theaetetus employed against a paradox of Prota- 
goras (Theaet. p. 170). 4 Koi ad xal Ulvdapos] Above, 484 b. 
14 aKpoacrOai] Used, as more frequently cucoi^eu', in the sense of 
inraKoi&eLVf obedire. 28 iirl rf ivC] As a check upon the one. 

So Legg. 853 c, quoted by Heind., tovtw drorpovris re &eica xal 
yepo/Jiivutf KoXa<re(as ridivai iir* aurois v6fiovs. 

Page 67. 8 *Ap othf ovx] Bekk. retains this old reading. But 
the ovx ^s ^0^ found in the Bodl. nor in the majority of MSS., and is 
omitted by the Ziir. and Stallb. With Hirschig I prefer to retain it. 
* Is it not true — as in fact you yourself recently maintained — that 
the majority hold the opinion,' &o, 15 ^epaitijawfjuu iidri rrapd^ 

ffov] * that I may henceforth make sure of it on your authority,' 
a(fT6t understood from tovto, being the object of the verb, pepaub- 
aaffOai is a middle transitive, as Heind. remarks, and='mihi 
confirmare.' Compare Rep. 461 b, ws 5^ hroixivn re rj AWij 
voXiTcLif. Kal fMKpi} PeKrlffTTit dci 5^ rb fierdi tovto /36/3at(6<ra(rdat 
irapA Tov \6yov, 20 dvdfiara Brjpevujv] The '*aucupari verba" 

of Cicero. To give chase to words — to lie in wait for verbal in- 
accuracies, as a fowler for game. Socr., says Callicles, reckoned a 
slip of the tongue a very god-send, and of this, at his time of life, 
he ought to be ashamed. 

Page 68. 1 17 otet, fA€ Xiyciv — vofufia] * Or think you I mean 
that if a rabble be got together, — of slaves and all sorts of wretches, 
good for nothing unless, perhaps, for feats of physical strength, 
and these people say this or that, — that these their mere dicta are 
to have the force of law? ' The interpp. differ in the sense they 
attach to ^<rxvpf(rao"^ai. Heind., "corporis viribus fidere"; Ast, 
"corporis viribus pollere." The verb has both senses, but the 
latter suits the context better. Prof. Woolsey quotes Dio Cass. 
p. 406 (Keimar.), xa^cir^i' lax^P^i^M^^^ ti ry Cibpari, 4>poyifu!fTarov 
iKpijvai, The same sense is evident in Arist. Eth. N, iv. 8. 26, els 
Toifs dffdeveU /<rxv/)ff€<r^at tpoprrtKbv. The article evidently belongs 
to <r<jl)fMTtf not, as Ast supposes, to l<rxvpi<Taad(u, which depends on 
dwarolj or some equivalent antitheton to oidevbi A^ioij — a very 
common form of the (tx^/mi Karit, to (rrjfiouvdfjLcvov, tpSxrw standing 
without a case has scandalized many of the comm., but the 
remedies proposed are not happy. The best, perhaps, is d ay 

490 a] notes. 181 

ovToi <f>S>iri»t dirbk ravr elvajL vSfitfjM. Ficinns, " hos, praeterqaam 
fortasse corporis viribus, esse potentiores: et quae hi statuant, 
esse jura." From this Van Heusde extracts the following: 
laxvpiffaffOati ro&rovs etpcu roi)s KpeLrrovSt Kal a Sm <f>(a<n.v^ airri^ 
k.tX, But probably Fie. was merely translating his own con- 
jectural text, as we frequently find him doing. Ast in his larger 
comm. approves the conj. of Heind., koX ovtm tpQiruf drro, rairr* 
ttvat v6fufMf to which, neat as it is, I prefer the received text. 
14 rpa&repdy fu vpoSLSoffKe — <rou] * Instruct me with more gentle- 
ness, lest I leave your school* and seek another master. vpoSidd- 
axeip is said by the Schol. to be equiv. to the simple diSdaKciVy 
vepiTTCJiei ii irp60€<ris 'ArrticcDs. Soph. Phil 1015, ed irpovSiSa^ev ey 
KaKoTs ehou, cwftbif : where Ellendt observes, ''Praepositio non alii 
rei constituta est, nisi ut monita tempore priora esse quam quod 
inde redundet indicet." But irpo5idd<rK€iv and vpofuipOdifeiy are 
correlative terms, denoting the relation between master and pupil. 
Arist. Nub. 966, etr aS irpofiaOeiv qiafi iSl5aaKev: Legg. 643 c, 
del iK iraUdufP . . .riap fAadrjfxdTuv 6<ra dvayKcua irpofA€fia6r}K4vai, 
vpofiavddpeip, 17 Md rbp ZijOop] ot is absent in all the codd., 
but is added from Hermogenes and the margin of a Florentine 
cod. by Stallb., who remarks, "aut diserte addenda est negandi 
partioula, aut, si ea omittitur, formula referri debet vel ad 
praecedentem aliquam interrogationem cum negatione conjunctam, 
vel ad sententiam subsequentem, quae aut particulam adversantem 
habeat, aut negandi vi praedita sit." But the usage in Aldb. i. 
109 D is exactly in point : (nci^irreis, w "ZdiiKpaTei — Md rbp tplKiOP rbp 
ifibp re koX <r6Pf dp iyCl) i/JKiffr* hp iiriopxi^ffai/w dXX' ctvep ^ct$, elir^, 
tIs iffTi; The following passage would fall under Stallb.'s rule: 
Phileb. 36 A, ir&rcpop d\yovp6* 5X«$ tj xo^P^^^o-i — Md Af, dXXd 
diirX^ ripi Xj^xi \\nroi6pLafOP, But that in the Alcibiades would need 
alteration as well as the present. It is to be observed that 
Hermogenes quotes from memory, as appears from his substituting 
TOP Zifpa for rbp ZtjOop (Rhet. Gr. ed. Walz. iii. p. 426 ; Aldus, 
p. 165). 

Page 69. 1 'AXXd ravr* i<mp a Xiyw] Gallioles, seeing the 
absurdity of making physical strength the criterion of justice, 
declares tfa a^e meant by * the stronger' the bet tflr fl^d wiP^"— It 
is these who, according to natural justice, ought to govern and 
'have more' than their inferiors. The analogies which Soor. 
suggests, go to prove that the wise man is entitled to more power, 
but not to a larger share of property thwi Yiia Vxiienxxt^. QrcL'siK\.% 

182 00RQIA8. [490 a— 

principle the ruling body in the Kepublic is constituted. The 
instances adduced are taken as usual from common life, and are 
not the less apposite for their studied grotesqueness. 11 &\\o 

Ti ovTos] I* have followed Bekk. in omitting ^, which the codd. 
insert after rL 22 [TLepi] ZitUl \4yeis] The preposition is 

interpolated. Plato would have written vepl airliav X^76(s. I have 
therefore followed Hirschig in bracketing it. So 491 a, for vepl 
tIvojv 6 KpeiTTUv re xal (ppovifMitrepos ir\4ov ^wi» Sixaltas TrXeoueKTci; 
it is dear that Plato wrote Tiv(\iov ix*^* ^'O* ^ i^ot IfmrLuu 
or {nro87ifjuiT(ap, In this latter instance we must have had wepl 
Hva, * in regard of what?' In one cod. a is written over oiv, and 
Heind. remarks, "Karius loquendi hoc genus vkeoveKTetv irepl 
Tipos pro Trepl ri; cujus ezemplum non est in promptu." In both 
cases the preposition mars the idiom of the language; and in 
the second instance it seems to have come down from the 
preceding line. Of an interpolated irepl I see an instance also in 
Theaet. 179 b, koI ydp^ « Zt^fcpares, [irepl] Todrtav TQu'^paKXeiTeluiVf 
rj wnrep tn) X^cts 'OfirfpeluVf Kal iri iraXaioriputVy airroiz fih roTs vepl 
riju "E^etrov, 6<roi trpoffiroioOvTai ^fiveipoi etvai, oi8iv fmWotf ol6v re 
dtaXexOijvat, rj rots olarpQaip : " Of these Heracleiteans, <&c., those 
at head-quarters {aCrdis) who live at or near Ephesus," as dis- 
tinguished, for example, from the Heraoleiteans at Athens. This 
seems better than the awkward rendering, '*quod attinet ad," or 
even, as it seems to me, than the more ingenious supposition that 
'Hpa/cXetre/cuv is the epithet of doypArbfu understood, not of dvdpQv, 
as the words *HpourXe£rov iToipoi occurring a few lines before would 
lead us to suppose. A clear instance, noted by the comm., occurs 
ibid. 181 D : t^p pAv AXKoiiadiv, r^v 8i [irepl] ff>op6». 

Page 70. 5 Ilota hro^pjATa. <f)\vap€is ^ufy] * What shoes are 
you prating about?* Comp. Phaedr. 236 e, ri Siyra ix<^p <TTp4</>€i; 
At. Eccl. 1151, tL drp-a 5tarp//8ets ^wj'/ Such phrases as XrjpeTs 
l^X^i <pXvap€Ts ^(cav are common in Plato and Aristophanes. The 
force of irotos in such oases is familiar. 12 dXXd koX rrepl tCsv 

a.irQiv\ See a similar retort in Xen. Mem. iv. 4. 6, /cal d 'Iinr/as 
dKoi/o-as roOra, ujwep iTurKtbirrup airrhvy "Ert ydp ciJ, #^, w 
2Sc6^/>are;, iKeiva rd. a&rd Xiycis, d iy(b irdXaL irori <rov -ffKovtra ; Kal 
6 ^u)KpdT7js, *0 5i ye to^tov bnv&repovy St 'Imr/a, oO pJivov del rd, 
a&rd X^«, dXXd koX vepl twp abrCov' crv 8* taus dta t6 iroXvp.aOiis 
etvai. irepl tGjv abrCav Miirore rd airrd X^eis. Callicles here affects 
not to see the point of the remark, which is really lost upon 
Hippi&a (Lc), who answers in apparent good faith, 'A/i^Xet, 

491b] notes. 183 

veLpwfjLai. Koufov rt X^eo' isL Alcibiades shows greater intelligenoe : 
Symp. 221 e, ovom KapBrjkiovs X^76( Kcd x"^^^^ rcyds koX tncvro- 
rdfiovs Kal pvp<rod4\f/asi Kol del did rCov airrlav reu/rd ^oUverai \4y€w^ 
(Oirre Aireipos Kal du^riTos &p0pt»nros vas av tQ>v \&yufp KorayeXdaetef 
ir.r.X. 14 drexi^ius ye del] *Toa literally never oease from 

talking/ <&o.,=it is no exaggeration to say that these topics are 
always in your month, to the exclusion of others. It is difficult 
to understand Schleierm.'s preference for the dr^ois of the BodL 
The idiomatic use of drext^Qsi * actually/ < literally/ 'without 
metaphor' or * exaggeration,' is familiar to all readers of Plato 
and Aristophanes. 21 'AXX' ^y'a^y6 kuI rrdXau X^w] *■ why, I 

have told you long ago/ On this Stallb. remarks, "Callide se 
simtilat Callicles ea, quae nunc dioturus est, jam antea dixisse, 
quum tandem longe alia proposuerit/' This is unjust to Callicles, 
who had eloquently maintained the superiority of practical talent 
over the wisdom of the schools, and had stood up for the right of 
the abler man {<f>jiffiv bcciy^v Hx^^ ^"^Pt P* '^B4) to work his wUl 
upon the vulgar herd. The *' calliditas" is rather on the part of 
Socr., who had taken a dialectician's advantage of a rhetorical 

Page 71. la T/ 5^; ainQv, t5 h-aipe] * Tell me, do you mean \ 
rulers of themselves' when you speak of dpxovrai? To these 
words the codd. add variously ij n ApxovTas rj dpxo/i^ovs ; ri ij ti 
Apxovras 17 dpxofJi^ovs : Bodl. ij ti dpxo/J^vovs* All this was 
expelled from the text by Bekk., who is followed by the Ziir. and 
Hirschig. Some attempts have been made to explain or emend 
these additional words, which however, in all probability, represent 
an old gloss upon Socr.'s question. The ij ri, perhaps, is a 
corruption of iJTOij * vi delicet,' which, like ijyowt is found in this 
sense in scholiastic Greek. Socr. presently states his meaning to 
be such as I have represented it ; and indeed there is evidently no 
place for dpxofiipovs, Callicles is not familiar with the phrase 
airrov Apx^f-t'* which, nevertheless, Socr. declares to be * nothing 
subtle or recondite,' but identical with iyKpaiiis iavrovy a phrase of 
current use in general society. ^BUQsydp; oddels — Sri od 

Tovro \^(a] This is the reading of Ast and the Ziir. The majority 
of MSS. have wus ydp oH; words which, to avoid the contradiction, 
Bekk. gives to Callicles. The oH however may be accounted for by 
the following o^deisi an4 we obtain the following reasonably 
satisfactory sense : CalL * How droll you are ! by your temperate 
men you mean the weak and simple.' Socr. ^H.cii^ ^<^*l «?^«i£^ ^tv^ 

184 G0RGIA8. [491 e— 

miiBt know that that is not my meaning.* CaJJL * Oh ! but it is, 
8ocr. ; for how can a man poedbly be happy so long as he is in 
bondage? — I care not to whom or what'; i^e. whether to himself or 
to another. For an instance of this rather rare use of iravv ye 
<r^pa (which is commonly a strong affirmation, and not, as here, 
a contradiction), compare Demosth. de Falsa Legat. p. 395, § 191 
Bekk., o6 ydp fyuy oihws ijp affXtos fi(rr€...Tturr* oOk ipovXSfJojw 
yfyweadcu. koI a^pbipa ye, u Ai^dpes ^ABrfi^axoi. A different torn is 
given to the passage, by the reading found in the Bodl., and at 
least two others. ZO. TLCn ydp oH; oi/deU S<ms ovk or ypolri in, 
ofh-ia \iyu, KAA. UdMV ye cifMpQL, r.r.X. This is adopted by 
Stallb., who gets over the difficulty of making Socr. identify the 
temperate with the foolish by the remark, " Quod Socrates urbane 
concedit, ideoque respondet sic: Qmdm verof quilibet erdm 
inUUigat ita me sentire" This " urbanity " I cannot but think 
misplaced; and therefore, though not without reluctance, have 
preferred in this instance the vulgate to the Bodleian reading. 
For the sentiment expressed by Gallicles compare the conversation 
of Socr. with Thrasymachus, Bepubl. 348 c, o6kovp -Hjp fi^ 
9iKaio4r^niP iperrp^ [xaXas] Tijp d* dSiidav koxLv. Eiic6s y\ f^, ^ 
ijburre, iveid^ koI \iy<a dducLop fUv XtMTtreXeiy, diKaio(rlhnjv $' off, 
'AXX& tI yL-fyr ; ToivcurrioVf rj S* 5s. *H t^p ducauxrvrtjp KaKiop ; CW*, 
dXXd Tdvv yepptUeur eHfieiop. With which comp. Thuc. iii. 83, koX 
rb dhjOes, o5 rb yeppcuop 'wKuotop /ier^et, KarayeXaadb^ ^</>apUr07f. 
25 irel vtSs &p'\ Comp. Lysis 207 n, Soiree d^ aot eddcUfiup cTpai 
&pdp<awos dovXeOunf re, xal <} firjSh i^clri toiclp wp iriOvfuli; Ma AC 
oix ^fUHyCf i4"l, SchoL, iprd/Oep 6 vepl ttjs reXt/c^ alrlas nap 
ijOiKUP Xoyof. ((TTt di dpxh «*''A A*^** ^WKpdrrjp rdyaOd, xard. 8^ 
KoXXiJcX^a alirxfid ijdop^. 82 &iroTrifiir\dP(U up cLp del ij ixidvfjda 

ylyprrrai] 'to glut each successive appetite with its appropriate 
food.' Of this, says Gallicles, the vulgar are incapable: and 
hence they condemn the abler few, being ashamed of their own 
incapacity, and wishing to hide it : i.e. they divert attention from 
their own defects by abusing others. 

Pfiige 72. 9 iirel ye oh] * Suppose, for instance, a man is a 
king's son to begin with, or is able by his own natural genius to 
get himself appointed to a high office, or to make himself a tyrant 
or member of an absolute government, what were in truth more 
disgraceful or more injurious than temperance to persons like 
these? who, instead of taking their fill of good things without let 
or JiiDdrance, should voluntarily invite the \fii.'<9} to be lord over 

492 d] notes. 185 

them, with the idle talk and ill-natnred censure of thf Tnnltitndfti'' 
"Com verbis vo/mp, \oyovy \l/6yov: conf. Agathonis illud Conviy. 
197 D, iv v6v(p, iv <p6p<fij Iv vbBtfiy iv \6y<fi*' (Ast). 12 Tl—eti)] 

The omission of &p seems justified by Soph. Antig. 604, Wav, Zed, 
iivaffuf tLs dvdpQv inrep^aaUi Kwrdaxoi. ; Aesoh» Choeph. 314, iXK* 
{uriftTokfiJOv dvdpbs (f>p6vrifm rls \iyoi, ; yet the cases are not precisely 
in point — see Ellendt, Lex. Soph. p. 125; and "d(y may have 
dropt out here, as rl itself is wanting in ten MSS., both being 
absorbed, so to speak, by the two last syllables of 6wa<rr€ia,v" 
(Woolsey). 18 ofs i^hv diroKaOeaf] For otrwcf, i^hv aifrdii 

dvoKaOcw, Compare, for sense as well as construction, Bep. 465 b, 
oifK 618* Stov X670S iifup ivivXri^ep Sri roi>s <piS>\aKas o6k eUdalfiopaa 
woioifxev, ots i^bv vdvra Itx^iv ret rlav TroKvrCjif otbkv #xw^» Presently 
for el-qaav Hirschig gives etev, on no authority. The shorter form 
is preferred by Plato in eI/Aei», etnpf^ etre, 22 ihjf irrucovptav ^y] 
Schol., 7J Tijp iK itXojJtou Kal vepiovalas, rj t^p ck ttjs jrapd rf 
EoXXticXei KaXovfJt^PTjs <ppoPi^<r€<i)s re Kod dpdplai. The latter is 
perhaps the more correct view : sup. a, Ta&rcus S* &s fieylffrcus 
oihais iKapbp cXpcli {fTrtipereTp Si ivbpelap Kcd <f>pbprj(rip. The end is 
pleasure, to which valour and prudence are means. In other 
words, they are the auxiliary forces, the iirLKovpoi of luxury, &c. 
But he may have meant idv rots iicrbi dyaBois iKapias K^xoprrfqiiipop 
i (Arist. Ethic, i. 10. 15). 28 rd Bk &XKa ravr^—d^id] Most 

comm. understand rd KaWtaTrLfffMra to be the subject of iarl, * As 
for those other matters — the fopperies, the unnatural conven- 
tionalities—they are the mere cant of men, and nothing worth.* 
But I am disposed, with Mr Shilleto, to make rd icaXX. the 
predicate: *As for those other matters (justice and temperance 
and their like), they are the mere fopperies, the unnatural 
conventions of society, the prattle of men, ' &o. For the sentiment, 
compare Eur. Oycl. 817, — 

b irXoOros, dpOpunrUrKe, rocs cofpdit debt' \ 

rd d* dXXa Kbfiiroi xal Xbytap ebfiop^lai, * 

Ibid. 889,— 

ot d^ TOi^S POflOVS 

iOePTo, roiKLWoPTcs dpOpdnrup piop, 

kXcUcip Apujya, 

27 iire^^pxei t$ \6y(p] Legg. ii. 672 A, iire^^XOoi Xiytap * explicet 
oratione.' Socr. applauds the courageous frankness with which 
his opponent avows sentiments which the majority of mankind 
secretly entertain, but are loth to expie^ft. 


186 G0RGIA8. [492 d— 

Page 73. 1 ^fi60ep y4 irodev] *from Bome "^^1T^ ^^ nt\\ar^ 
Bestored by Bekk. for aXKoOdv yi irodof found in all the MSS. The 
confusion is very common, as the forms AfAoG, &fi60€v, d/c^, a/juos 
had ceased to exist in the later dialect. See Gobet, Vv. LI., p. 255. 
and Schol. in Plat. Sophist. 259 d. In the Attic dialect these 
words are aspirated. 4 O^k &pa 6p$m Xiyovrtu] Xen. Mem. 

i. 6. 10, "Eotjcas, J *ApTi<f>Q»t t^iv e^SoufiovtMv olofiiptp Tpwf>^p kcU 
ToKvriXeiav elvcu, iyCij 8k void^to rb /jUv firjdevbs SeiaBai $€iov etvcUf t6 
8' u>j ^Xax^<rTw»' ^77vt(£tw toO Oelov* koL rh fih deTaf Kpirunw, rh 
8k iyyvrdrM rov $elov iyyvrdrdf rov Kparlffrov, Hence correct 
Olymp. in Gorg. comm. p. 121 (358 Jahn), 6 otv vX-^pri ix^av 
(sc. rbv Tcidov) Oeov fiLop ^, for the corrupt OeoG d<^, by which the 
editor is baffled. 8 «i' ye aif X^7eti] Volg. ws ye ad Xiyeis, corr. 
Badh. This again is a frequent error of copyists. AesdL Prom. 
629, /JLifi fxov irpoK-fidov /idffaov u^s ifiol y\vKA, Hermann <av — which 
is much better than Elmsley's fMuradvui rj *fjLol yXvic6, In Lysias 
yii. § 31, irpoOvfidrepov u^s ijvayKa^byLTiVy read wv iivayKa^biirpf. The 
use of U7S for tj after a comparative is a barbarism, though intro- 
duced by Prof. Sauppe into the text of the Epitaphius of Hype- 
rides, Col. 14, 1. 22. Here cSv ye ad \4yeis is in antithesis to 
o2 \l0oi Kal ol veKpoi. 11 rli S* oTdeVf el rb ^vJi This passage 

appears to have come from the Polyidus ; and is thus completed 
by the Schol., — 

tIs 8' otdev el rb i^v jjj^v iffri Kardaveip^ 

rb Kordayeuf 5k ^v Kdrca vofdl^eTai; 
He is apparently in error when he says, ck rod ^pl^ov rod bpdfAaros 
EAptirldov. The lines in the Phrixus ran thus, according to 
Stobaeus (Anth. 120. 18):— 

rls 5' oldep el j^p roOd* 8 K^KXrjrai Bopeip, 

rb i^TJp 8k Op'fiffKeip k<nl; irK^p ofitas fiporuw 

voffovcrip ol pXkiroPTes, ol 5' dXaXbres 

oiSkp voaoxkrip oM KkKnjPTai Koucd. 
The sentiment is parodied by Aristoph. (Ban. 1477). T^s ot8ep, el 
rb l;^p fxiv k<TTi KarOapeiPf Td wpeiv 8k beiirpeTp rb 8k Kadeibeip Kihhop; 
From ib. 1082, koL fpacKo^aai od ^ijp rd i;^p, we may infer that 
a woman was the speaker in one at least of the Euripidean 
passages. The idea, though not the precise words, was borrowed 
from Heraolitus (Philo, AUeg. Leg. 1, fin.) : fMPOPob koX b *Rpd' 
Kkeiros Karb, rovro 'M.tavo'ktas dKoKbvO'fyTas r(fi 8&yixarl, <f>ri(n' ZCo/Aep 
rop iKeiptap (sc. deS>p) ddparop, reOp'^Kafiep 8k rop iKelpwp 
J3low u)5 pvv /ikp ore ipj^QfAep redprjKvlas rijs rfnjxv^t Kal us dp kv 

492 b] notes, 187 

ffi^fiaTi T(f ffi&fiari iprervfipevfJtiPTjSi el Si diroOdvoi/UP r^ ^vxv^ ^crris 
TOP tbiov piov. From which the editors of Heraclitus' fragments | 
infer that the well-known <rCjfia (rrifia was first said by him. The * 
Heraclitean fragm. is given at greater length by his namesake the 
author of the Homerio Allegories: wdpioiroi 6eol Ovrirol, deol r* 
dyOpdnrot Addparoiy l^topres top ixelpoip ddparop, Op-fyrKOPres t^v iKetviov 
j^ur^p (Ed. Gale, p. 442). A fragment quoted by Sext. Empir. 
comes nearer still to the words of Euripides: 6 S^ *UpdK\€iT6s 
^rjffip &ri, Kal to j^p Kal to dirodopeXv Kal ip ry ^ iifias icrrl koX Ip 
Tifi redpdPM' &r€ fxkp ydp ij/xets j^wfjiep rAs \f/vxds ijfiQp TeOvdvai Kal ip 
iliup T€0d<pdaif ire Hk ^ims droOp'^ffKOfiep tAs xj/vx^s dpapioup xal ^ : 
**HeraclituB says that both living and dying are in our life as well 
as in our death : when we live our souls are dead and are buried 
in us, when we die our souls revive and live" (Pyrrh. Hypot. 
iii. 230). But closer than all is the citation in Plutarch, Gonsol. 
ad Apoll. 106 E, 4>V<^^^ 'HpdxXetros, Tai^ro...^wi' xal T€$p7jk6s... 
Tdde ydp fieTairecrbPTa ixeipd iaTi KdKcTva irdXiv fiCTaire- 
ffbpra raOra. The meaning of this probably is, that life and 
death are part of one and the same process of continuous growth 
and decay, according to the principle implied in the formula 
5ia<p€p6fji^pop del ^vfi<pip€Tcu (Plat. Soph. 242 e). It is not however 
to be supposed that Plato in the present passage refers to Hera- 
ditus. The ao<f>6s whom Soor. affects to quote may have been 
some Orphic or Pythagorizing speculator of his own day, for we 
know that both Pythagoreans and Orphics held the notion of a 
penal incarceration of the soul in the body (Plat. Grat. p. 400 b c, 
compared with Phaedo, 62 b). On the other hand the words r^ 
i^vxv^ TovTo (sc. fUpos) ip $ od iviOvfdai elaiv point to the Platonic 
doctrine of the tripartition of the soul (see Phaedrus, App. i. 
p. 164), and it might seem that Plato had here committed a 
CQnsciouB anachronism, in attributing the doctrine to some 
earlier school. Even this would not be inconsistent with the only 
half-in-eamest tone of the entire passage; for we know how easily 
the Platonic Socrates could evoke imaginary vouchers for his own 
views (comp. Phaedr. 275 b, *0 ScS/cpares, />^di(os cit, k.t.X.). Still 
as the (ro06s in question appears in company with other un- 
doubtedly real personages, I incline to think that some particular 
speculatist is intended. The comm. give us no light, but content 
themselves with accumulating passages from Heraolitus and from 
Plato, as if the difficulty were not rather to account for the iuxta- 
position of the dogmas of aohoo\fi so ^ft\A3VCk\i \iO^ m >5a!aft «d^ 

188 QORGIAS. [492 E— 

character. In suggesting the name of P hilolaus, I rest upon the 
slender data that some rude '* partition of the soul is attributed 
to him on reasonable and good authority" (see Zeller, Phil, der 
Griechen, i. p. 325, 2te Ausg.). Clemens Alex, qnotes a fragment 
purporting to be his, but which may be only Plato in a Doric 
dress: ws 8id nvas dixaprlas & ^i^X^ '''V 0'c&/Aar( awi^evKrai, koX 
KaSdirep iv adfMTt, ridaTrrai (Strom, iii. 433 A, ap. Lobeck, Aglaoph. 
p. 795). A better critic than Clemens, Athenaeus, gives the 
following important notice, on the authority of Clearohus the 
Peripatetic: Ei^^lOeos 6 UvOaydpeiost (3 NLkiov, <5s ^triai KKiapxoi 6 
HepnraTriTiKos iv devriptfi Bluv, ^Xeyep ivdediffScu r^ ffibfuiTt Kal rf 
T^de ^itfi rdi dwdvrup \pvxds Tificapias x^P*^ ' * *^ dieiiroffOM top Oedv, 
cbs el fxij fiepoOffw hrl ro&rois, (us dp ixCup adros \i<ry, irXioai Kal 
fjuei^ociv ifXTreaovPTat rdre Xtz/iais* 8t6 vdpras etXafiovfthfovs rip^ tQp 
Kvpl(t)P dpdraaip <f>opu(fdai rou ^rjv iK&pras iK^rjpai, jjl6pop re top ip T<jJ 
y^pg. ddvarop dffiraaiias irpo<ri4<r6ai, ireTeiafiipovs t^p dirdXwriP riji 
\//vxn^ /*6tA TTJs tQp Kvplup yiypeffdai ypdfiriSi iv. p. 167 0. Compare 
Plat. Phaedo, 61 e, where ^ilolaus and 'certain others' are 
appealed to by Cebes as affirming t^e unlawfulness of suicide . 
This evidence in favour of the Pythagorean origin of the specu- 
lation in the text seems to me unexceptionable, and we can afford 
to give up the suspicious fragment of Clemens. Add Cicero de 
Senect. o. 20, *'Yetat Pythagoras injussu imperatoris, id est Dei, 
de praesidio et vitae statione discedere." 18 drep rjdrj rov 

iytaye] The Bodl. omits direp with several other MSS. The 
original reading may therefore have been f Si/i rov ^/cuye. 
17 Kal TovTo &pa rts p.vdoKoyCw'] * And it was this part of the soul, 
we may suppose, that an ingenious person, a Sicilian mayhap or 
Italian, allegorically styled a jar, in consideration of its per- 
suadable and credulous nature, by a change in the word ttiOopos, 
which he made into iriOos.* The SticeX gy ^T^p p^paiWy T^'^T Qpedocles^ 
as OlympiodoruB and the Schol. assert. To this Earsten, the 
editor of Empedodes, assents. "Probabile mihi videtur Empe- 
dodem, ut rehgiosum hominem et mysteriorum patronum, djjLv^- 
rovs vocasse dementes et miseros, eosque ut est in Danaidum 
fabula finxisse velut aquam fundentes in dolium perforatum {iriSov 
reTprjfihop) quod insatiabilem libidinum cupiditatem significat. 
Haec fictio ab ingenio poetae (qualis fuit Empedodes) fabulas 
allegorice interpretantis hand aliena, neque vero e vetemm judido 
abhorret a fabulae sensu. Similiter in celebri Polygnoti pictur& 
praeter multa alia pictae erant duae mulieres, <f>4pova'ai Ddwp iv 

493 b] notes, 189 

Kareaybffiv dtrrpdKoiSf qoibus erat inscriptio ehai <r<f>as rQ>v od 
fACfAvrifUpiav. PaoB. z. 0. 31. Caetemm qaam misera haberetur in 
inferis tQv dfiir/rrup sors, declarant nota Platonis dicta in Phaedon. 
p. 69" (Empedocl. ed. Karsten, p. 302). Here however we are 
not to suppose that Empedooles is seriously credited with the 
anthorship of the psychological doctrine implied in the words rrjs 
^vxv^ TovTo iv tfi al itrtOvfjiiai elaL The particle apa^ freqnently jt 
denotes an inference false but specious. Theaet. 171 o, eUds y* " 
dpa iKcTvop (sc. ILpo)Tayopdi.p) irpeap&repov 6vTa <ro</>d>T€pov iiixCov elvaix, 
Bep. 358 c, iroXi) yap dfielvuv dpa b rod d^Kov ^ 6 rod Sucalov ^los, 
C)S \iyov<riv. Inf. b, t6 8^ KbffKWov apa X^et, (bs f(f>ij 6 frpbs ifxi 
Tiiycap, rJ)i» rl^xh^ aMfP, 18 tatas StifeX6s ris] Why St«eX6j, 

rather than 2tic6X(K6s, which was read by Olymp. and Stobaeus, 
and is found in some codd.? The answer to this was given by 
Buttmann, who calls attention to a love-song of Timocreon 
Bhodius, beginning with the lines, ZiKeXds Kop.\//6i ip^p UotI rhv 
uardp* i<t>o.t ap. Hephaest. p. 40. gence St/ceXo? Kou\f/6s Ap^o | 
became proverbi al^ 19 5id to vtOapdp] Of iri$ap6s used pas- 

sively we have an instance in Aesch. Ag. 485, mdapos ayop 6 ^Xvs 
tfpos. 21 tQp 8* d/M^wp] Socrates makes d/Air^ovs synony- 

mous with oil (rreyapoj&s, 'the contrary of watertight/ deriving the 
word from fii6(a *claudo,' instead of /Aifiu * initio.' For this ety- 
mology his * learned friend' is made responsible. Tr. *But that 
portion of the uninitiate soul in which the appetites reside, its 
incontinent and irretentive part, he represented as a leaky jar, 
figuring thereby its insatiate nature,' — literally, * using that 
similitude in consequence of the impossibility of filling it.' 
22 od ffT€yap6p] Compare with this Kepub. iz. p. 686 b, are oixl 
roTi otffLP oifdi to op oMi to ffT^yop iavTWP irt/AirXdvref. 28 d)i 

TerpTjfUpos etrj vidos] Shakspeare, Cymb. i. Sc. 7, "The cloyed 
will. That satiate yet unsatisfied desire, That tub both filled and 
running." 24 to^poptIop S^ o^os <fo[] 'Thus does my friend 

set forth to us, in direct opposition to you, Gallicles, that of all 
the dwellers in Hades these, the uninitiated, must be the most 
wretched, being ever employed in lading water into the leaky jar 
with an equally leaky sieve.' 27 iT4p(fi Toio&rtp Terpri/Aiptfi] 

The repetition of T^TpripAptpy though suspicious, seems to be 
supported by Phaedo, 80 d, 17 y}/vxij dpa^ to deid^s, to els toiovtop 
T&irop irepop olx6fJL€POP, yeppaiop Kal Kadapop Kal deiBij, eWAiSov (hs 
d\ij$ios, a passage which also illustrates the foregoing ip "Aidov, Td 
deiSh Si) Xiyup. The image is also found in Shakspeare^ — 

190 GORGIAS. [493 b— 

''Tet in this captious and intenible sieve 
I still poor in the waters of my love, 
And lack not to lose still." 

AlVs Well that ends Well, I. iii. 193. 
81 di' dirKrrtav re Kal X'^Brfv] *by reason of its fickle and forgetful 
nature.' Legg. iv. 706 a, ijdrf jraKifxpoXa koX diriffra. lb. vi. 776 D, 
dptbfuiXa Kal dTuna. 32 i'iri€tK(as...if'ir6 ri drofra] 'Satis 

subabsurda/ the only rendering of which these words will admit, 
is more than ' somewhat absurd.' There seems to be no authority 
for the meaning of irieiKus, assumed by Ast and Stallb., *freilich,' 
Eng. 'it must be confessed,' which is rather the force of the 
particle fiiv, nor is. the rendering *sane' given in his Lexicon 
justified by the passage of the Phaedon there adduced. imeiKQf 
can here only mean 'satis/ 'admodum' — ^as we say, 'absurd 
enough': so supr. 485, jrpbi ffk imeiKQs ^u (ptKucQs, One might 
conjecture, hrieiKus (Up iarw rj i/iro ri drova, but this would 
perhaps be subfrigid. And yet few would consent, except in the 
last resort, to omit imciKias, as Hirsch. following Gobet has done. 
If either must be sacrificed, it is better to omit inrS rt, for which 
one MS. gives ehroyri, if I understand Bekker aright. If this was 
not originally intended to supplement iinciKufs, it may represent a 
different reading from the received. What Olympiodorus found 
is also doubtful, as his gloss hardly corresponds to the text as we 
have it. He says, roin Sk toioijtovs fi^dovs oi vdpv drSvovs KaXct c^s 
vpos Toi^ iroirjTiKoifs vafm^dWuv, iveiSij iKclvoi /a^p jSXdirrovo'i, 01. 
Schol. p. 120. Perhaps he only meant to paraphrase {/wo tl by 
od vdpv in the sense, 'not altogether,' 'not quite.' Meanwhile we 
may translate the passage thus: 'These details, it is true, are 
more or less absurd; yet there is no doubt as to the point, by 
proving which I mean, if possible, to induce you to retract your 
former preference, — in lien, that is, of the life of unsated in- 
dulgenoe, to elect that rival life which is characterized by modera- 
tion and contentment.' 5 depends upon ipdei^dfieposy 'what having 
proved, I wish,' and, as Stallb. observes, there is no necessity for 
admitting the inferior reading ipd€i^a<r$ai. It is nearly indifferent 
whether we take drjXol as impersonal ( 'patet,' ' liquet '), or construct 
it as a transitive with raOra. The ical, which in one MS. follows 
fi€Ta64<r$ai and is admitted by Bekk. and Hirsch., is not needed, as 
iXiffOtu is either epexegetic or may be onderstood to depend upon 
fieradiffdai, Stallb. prefers the latter view ; to me the former seems 
the simpler of the two, and in accordance with Plato's usage. 

494 b] notes. 191 

Page 74. 2 /JLeradiadai] Comp. Rep. 345 B, ^fifiepe roiJrots, if 
iiiP /AeraTiSy tpopepQs /j^TariSeffOi koX rifias fi^ i^airdra. The word, 
like d4<r$at, and dpa$4<r0ai, may have been transferred from the { 
game of drau ghts to verbal contests. 6 fieraTieeaai] Eqniv. 

to jneraO^fietfos ^i. *' Mntasne ita sententiam ut statuas feliciores 
esse modestoB libidinosis?'* Simili fipaxvXoylq. lurayvQvai ad- 
hibitam a Thacyd. i. 44, fieriyvuxrav KepKvpoUois ^vfijxaxiaLv (i^v /xrj 
voi'fiaaaOax^ k.tX. Heind. The Bodl. and several other MSS. have 
fjLerarldeadaif an evident blunder. 9 Tour* dXrid^arepov] 

ie. iKcipov. No number of such fables will Induce Gallicles to 
transfer his preference. 11 ix rod a^roD yvfivaalov tj vvp] 

' from the sam e school with the last,* qu. ry vvv 6iJ. The moral of 
tms iuttter allegory is much the same as that of the former, of 
which it seems to have been but another version — ^possibly by a 
different hand. The Schol. suggests, riv 8^ iKciPo /x^v tQv TLvda- 
yopeiwp oIkciop, tovto di 'SwKpdrovs, w$ <raipieT€p6v re Kcd v\rjKTiK(b- 
repov. Olymp., lar^ov &n <rx^86v to airo iari ro iTrtx^lprjfia tovto 
TfJ) Hvdayopeltp* di^ tovto yd.p elTrev 6 T^WKpdTTjs 8tl tov airrov 
yvfjLvaaiov, Empedocles, as an Eclectic, borrowed much from the 
Pythagoreans, with whom he is sometimes classed, as by Olymp. 
and the SchoL 16 vd/mTa 6^ (nr&via] * Suppose that the 

suppUes of these several liquids are scanty and hard to get; in 
fact, not to be procured without frequent and severe exertion. 
We will further suppose that one of the two persons mentioned, 
when he has once filled his jars, does not trouble himself to feed 
them with fresl) supplies, but lets well alone, so far as the vessels 
are concerned.' The different liquids denote of course the variety 
in the objects of human desire. All are represented as more or 
less agreeable to the taste. For the sense of vafM compare 
Phaedr. 235 d, "Kelverai Si^, o7/mu, i^ dWorpLtov iroOkv pafidrtav 
weirXrjpuo'dal /X6 SIktjp dyyeiov, 24 ij rAs iaxdTas Xvttoito 

Xt^Tras] 'or else be a prey to the most excruciating pains.' Be- 
ferring to the uneasiness with which impure pleasures are preceded 
and accompanied. See inf. 496 o — ^b. 

Page 76. 8 OiKovp dpdyKTf y] ' The more then you pom- in, 
the greater the waste — wide too must be the holes for the liquid 
to escape by.' 7 XapaSpioO] The Schol. favours us with an 

edifying description of this bird and its habits: x^P' ^P^^^ "^^^ ^^ 
dfia Ttp iff6leip iKKpipei (the peculiarity to which Socr. alludes). 
He adds : eU 6p dirop\4yf/aPTeSt (Sis X670S, oi UrepiCjPTei jtq-op dvaWdT- 

192 QOBGIAS. [494 b— 

TovTai ' 6d€v Kal iiroKplj'jrTovtny a&rou ol irfn-pdaKovreSy Xva /li} trpoiKa 

Kal fuy KdMirrei. /uSv x^pa^/MOi' irepvds; 
(OS <f>7iffiv linrwwt^. The x«/>a^pt^s is mentioned by Arist. Av. 1141, 
among the vordfua 6pv€a, m accordance with the apparent ety- 
mology of his name, vapd rb iv rais xapd^pats Siarpl^eiv, as the 
Sohol. on Aristoph. observes. With him Aristotle agrees, H. A. 
ix. c. 11, adding, iffn 8* 6 xapaS/Mos Ktd t^v xpbav Kal r^v ^uv^v 
0aCXos' (palverai 8i viicrtap, ij/iUpas S^ diroStdpdffKci, He is therefore 
not the * lapwing,' as Lidd. and Scott suggest: nor does the 
<pavX6Trj5 of his colour agree with the * curlew/ Nor is he the 
same as atdvia, as Timaeus in Lex. supposes, for the birds are 
mentioned as distinct by Arist. H. A. viii. 3. Some species of 
plover is probably meant; *charadriadae' being the name given by 
modern ornithologists to the plover-tribe. Many of these, e.g. the 
dotterels and golden plovers, are said to be night-feeders, as 
Aristotle reports of his ' charadrius.' According to Plut. Sympos. 
p. 681 c, the x^-P' cures the jaundice by catching it himself 
through the eyes: hence diro<rTpi<f>€Tai to^ iKTepiQprai, xal ra 
0/A/iara avyKKtiaas ^et, — from which we may conjecture that the 
experiment had never been fairly tried. The xa/>ad/>(^?« which is 
the subject of one of Babrius*s fables, is a crested bird, KopvddW<fi 
irpbs rbv 6p6pov dAfr^Zdav, tiv* av <ri6] You said the life I 

approved was no life, but the state of a lifeless body or a stone: 
and now you in your turn are depicting a life like that of an 
obscene and ravenous bird. 13 dwdfievov irXfipovvTa] If we 

are not to adopt Stephen's correction irK-qpow^ we must suppose 
that infinitive understood in connexion with dwdfievov. The 
concourse of participles is difficult to render in another language, 
but it is much in Plato's manner, and here, in particular, is not 
without force. 'I do acknowledge the existence of the appetites 
you mention,' says Gall.: *I speak of a man drinking when he is 
thirsty, and eating when he is hungry; and not only so, but also 
of one who possesses all the other natural appetites, with the 
means of gratifying them, and who does gratify them and enjoys 
it, — and that man, I say, leads a happy life.' As Stallb. observes, 
Callicles cuts Socrates short in his tedious enumeration of 
appetites, any or all of which he is prepared to recognize; and 
then, with characteristic 0j3/>ts, adds unasked his opinion that he 
who indulges them all to the top of his bent is the happy man. 

496 a] notes. 193 

18 elirk el Kal xptopwpra] ' Tell me whether one afflicted with the 
itch« who has a perpetual desire to scratch, and who can scratch 
to his heart's content, and spends his life in scratching, whether 
it can be said that such a person lives happily?' Obs. KVTJ<r$ai not 
KvoffOai is the Attic form, analogous to i^ijv, yf^rjy, <rfAVv» vriv for 
viijOeuf, See Cobet, N. Lectt. p. 160. So xptapOpras is better than 
xf/bfpiwvTai, the common form, and found here in the old edd. 
Phot., AiOwvrat T/Ho-uXXdjSws, ot> XiOiQvrai, Hkdrdtv ta' ISdfuai^ 
(p. 916A)...^67pai^ KoX ^payxoiv durvWdfitas "K^yovai. So SoufaTOMj 
not davariay, daxfiopw not datfMVLoiv. Lob. Phryn. p. 80 fol. In 
KVTjaiav the i belongs to the root, and is to be retained. Presently 
for KVTjffup (or perhaps KvrjaKfiii) the codd. give Kvrfffioi. The 
phenomena of pruriency are described with grotesque accuracy in 
the Philebus, p. 46 d, a passage illustrative of the present in more 
than one respect. Compare also Democritus, Frag. Mor. 49, ed. 
MuUach, Sv6fi€voL dvOpwiroi 7j5ovtou Kal <r<f>iv ybercu air«p Twai 
d<f>podi<nd^v<ri, 21 *0s drowos eZ, <3 2., ^a^ drexyQi drf/Aiiydpos} 

*How absurd you arel what a thorough mob-orator 1' i.e. how 
thoroughly unscrupulous as to the nature of the arguments yon 
use, stooping, as you do, to the lowest kind of clap-trap. Olymp., 
SrjfiTjydpos et* tA tois woWoU dp^CKOvra \4yeis' oJJrot ydp oOk hv 
etiroiev rovi roio&rovs e^dalfiwas. 25 crd Si oi fi^ iKvXay^Jl *I 

have no fear of your being shocked or put to shame.' Inf. 520 d, 
o05ip SeiMdv fii^ore ddiKriOy. Phaedr. 84 B, odShf deivbv fi^ <popri0y. 

Page 76. 2 KdX To&rw Tow6r<av 6vT(av ice^dXaioi'] ' and, — to 
mention the crowning instance of all such — ^is not, (fee* The 
object of Socr. in introducing a coarse topic like this, is, as he 
presently says, to prove that ''there are pleasant things which are 
not good." Callides was proof against the last instance, but 
recoils before this, which Socr. calls the ice^dXeuoi^, that in which 
the argument is * brought to a head,' or 'reaches its climax.' In 
Theaet. 190 b, rh irdvnav K€<f>d\aiov denotes the most general form 
in which a number of particular instances can be summed up. 
This can hardly be said of the present question, except in a 
rhetorical sense. 9 dy^ft/y ogr&y] * Broadly, without lim itation 

or exception.* Inf. 609, <is ywv hv dd^eiev oinrutal, *at first signt.^ 
Arist. Ban. 625, ofhu di /Sao-dvtf* dira^aYwy, * without more ado.* 
Soph. Antig. 315, elrreiv ri ddxrcLi, ^ (rrpaipels oUrtas tta; 'without a 
hearing.' Above, p. 464 b, r^v 8* irl rtf <rd)/MTi /dop fikv oihus 
dvofidaat odK ix*^* *^ cannot give it one single name.' Also 
p. 503 n, oirruHrbf drp^fia ffKOiroi^pLevou IAl *'\va ^-^ v**^ V^ 

PL. GOE. ^^ 


1 94 Q0RGIA8. [495 a— 

duoMJo\oyoiiti€vos i] * Jast that I may not contradict myself, as I 
must if I say that the pleasant and the good are distinct, I say 
that they are the same.' To which Socr. replies, that by such an 
answer Gallicles destroys the force of his first speech (in which 
he had censored Gorgias and Polus for answering against their 
conviction), and that if he too says one thing while he means 
another there is an end of their joint investigation of the truth. 
dvoAu>Xo7oi//A€vo$ has the force of an adj. as in Arist. Anal. i. 34, 
quoted by Heind., ijfOfAclkoyoiifievov rots irpoeiprffUvots. So Plat. 
Legg. 741 ▲, TO bfioKoyoiiievov rifiuvres, 'honouring consistency.' 
2a ToOrd re yd.p — &K\a voWd] *For if this is so— if Good is 
always Pleasure, and Pleasure Good — ^there will plainly follow 
many other disgusting conclusions besides those at which I have 
just now darkly hinted.' 

Page 77. 1 "Idi d-fi fwi] The last elenchiis consisted in an 
appeal to the moral sense. The position of Gallicles had been 
shown to involve consequences revolting to his natural taste and 
feeling : this he had virtually acknowledged, owning that it was 
merely for consistency's sake that he still clung to his thesis, 5r( 
rdyadbv koI t6 i^db rairrbv. The argument which follows is dialec- 
tical, as the former was popular. Olymp., rov ^ktov imxeifyi^' 
fiaros i<pairr6iA€$a' 6 Sirrbv iffri^ rb ftiv /car eibOO, rb di bib, rys 
€ls dbdvarov dira^wT^s. He means that there is direct proof of the 
impossibility of good and evil, which are contraries, existing and 
ending simultaneously in the same individual. The iuraydty^ els 
bZT&varov consists in showing the incompatibility of this principle 
with the proposition Ikt rb ribb koX rdyoBbv rairbvy which is effected 
by producing instances in which pleasure and pain do co-exist and 
end together. hreib^ oUrta dojcei] Stephen followed by Hirsch. 

gives oikia ooi Bwcei from one MS. But <roi is better absent ; * seeing 
that it is so ruled,' Lat. * sic placet,' viz., iirixeipeiv r^ >Ay(^ C(>s 
<roO (Tirovbd^opros. Parmen. 137 b, rj ^odXeadct ireibifyn-ep 8ok€l irpay' 
fJUXTCiibbrf TcubLay irai^eiv, dir' ifiavToO dp^fiai Kcd ttjs ifiavTOv t/7ro- 
di<F€U)s; In the next fnjffis but one us h-cpov r^v dvbpeiav r^s 
iTTiim/jfiris Heind. and Bkk. insert Ih^ after Jhepov, So also Hirsch. 
The instances quoted by Stallb. (though not all in point) establish 
the legitimacy of the omission even in absolute clauses. Yet I 
incline with Heind. to suppose that in the present case 6v has 
been accidentally absorbed by the preceding word. buXoO rdbe, 
iinaHnjLTjv ttov KoKets n ;] * Resolve me this. I presume you call 
eomething Soienoe,* i.e. you recognize the existence of a thing 

496 d] notes. 195 

called Science. 20 rj 6fM\oy€i; 0«Jx ^M-o^oyet] What the 

Platonic Socr. really thought on this subject he tells ns plainly in 
the Philebus, p. 60, where after stating the opinion of Philebus, 
that pleasure was the finis bonorum, and that Good and Pleasant 
were interchangeable terms, he adds: SwK-pdriys Si trpQrop fih oH 
{jyriai rovr etvaif 8i/o W Kdddircp tA dphfiara, koL t6 re dyaObp koI to 
il8d 8id</>opov dXXi^Xwi' <f>i^<Fiv ^etv, fiSXKop 8i puhoxop etvai ttjs toO 
dyadov /Aoipas t^p ^pdprjcrip ^ r^p ijdoP'fy', 23 rods ed irpdrropras... 
7r€iropdipai\ In order to prove that good and evil cannot co-exist 
in the same individual, he enumerates instances of both states, 
in which their incompatibility is evident. The induction, though 
imperfect, satisfies GaUides, who finally admits the proposition 
in its utmost generality (496 b, Hdprm S-ffrov), 32 dvoKa^^p 

(ric6ir6t] The participle has the force of an adv. < Examine separ- 
ately any part of the body you think proper.* So Bep. 420 c, 7771^ 
e^daifJLOPa (Tr6\tp) wKdrrofAep odK diroXaj86i'res, dXiyovs ip adrj 
ToioijTovs Tipds ti64pt€s, dXX' SXrjPi 'not in detail, but in its 

Page 78. 10 Qavfid<nop...ylypeTai] *No, for such a con- 
clusion is both startling and absurd.' yiyperox is equiv. to 
(TVfipalpeit as in 497 a, irepop ylyperai to ii8v toO dya6ov=Ija,t, 
efficitur. Compare Phileb. 66, IIoXXi^ Tis...d\oyia ^vfipaipci yiy- 
jfeaOat, 14 d^oXXt^et] Hirsch., who agrees with Cobet in 

banishing the forms in vta from Attic writers, reads of course 
4.r6KKv<ri, EI and CI are easily interchanged, but there are 
passages in the comic poets where the metre forbids us to 
alter the forms objected to. Person's note on Medea, 744, ex- 
hausts the subject : " Hac forma, ea nempe ubi ikD pro vfu in fine 
verbi ponitur, nunquam uti Tragicos ; rarissime veteres Comicos; 
saepius mediae, saepissime novae Comoediae poetas. Paulatim et 
parce adhiberi coepta est sub mediam fere Aristophanis aetatem ; 
tantum enim occurrit d/AP&g Av. 1610, avfivapafuypi^fap in ultima 
^jus fabula Pluto 719. Cetera loca, ubi usurpari videtur, aut 
emendata sunt, aut emendanda.'' 

Page 79. 3 Mapddpcci] The MSS. here give either Kal iy(i> 
jMLpOdpu, or *Eyd) fmpddpu). Possibly this was a corruption of 
another reading, X^w, or, as Dr Badham suggests, of icaXu) at 
the end of the last fnjan (KAFQ KAAO). Anyhow it cannot be 
tolerated. 15 t6 fi^p dirJ/wPTa Xviro^/xepop StJttou iarip;'] **In 

this phrase^ to drink when athirst,' the word *athirst' is equiva- 
lent to * being in pain,' is it not?" Bo '^Te'Bi^T^>i\'^^ ko.t>». -rh Tc\.vt>» 

196 QOBQIAS. [496 ©— 

xalpeiv \4y€is; "it is in respect of his 'drinking* yon mean that 
the drinker feels delight ? " 

Page 80. 2 t^0i7fte&(u] Hirsch. ^0170-9* e7j/a(. Phrynichas: 
'E01JJ* iiTTi fjuh vapa roTs dpxodoHf a\\* 6\lyop* to di TXeurrov 
i<t>-n<Tda : where Lobeck observes : ''"E^f tarn panca habet idoneae 
anctoritatis ezempla (Plat, Grorg. 466 e, 496 a, Xen. Cyr. iv. 1. 23, 
Isocr. Busir. 3. 367), at Phrynichi mirer vereenndiam, praesertim 
com affini ijs, quod nihilo melius est, tam grave sabierit judiciam/' 
The following <l»iid inclines me to substitute ^f here, as in 466 e, 
and in Euthyd. 293 o. The passage from the Busiris has been 
corrected from the MSS. I agree with Baiter in thinking ^^i;; 
inadmissible in Plato. lO Odir oW arra <To<f>i^€it u ZdKpares] 

Though he has assented to all the premisses, Gallides is unable or 
unwilling to accept the apparently inevitable conclusion. Even 
the Platonist Olympiodorus finds a difficulty. Health and sick- 
ness, he says, cannot co-ezist, because they are contraries : so of 
well-being and ill-being generally. How then can pleasure and 
pain co-ezist? Are not they contraries also? irQs X^76tf fii) etvai 
iuaprlav t^v ifiovifv koX t^v Xwnjy; Of this diropla he offers a 
characteristic solution. But the true key to the difficulty is 
furnished in the Philebus, where Socr. argues on grounds physical 
rather than dialectical. The good state of a thing, it is there 
argued, is its healthy normal state, free alike from &$e(a and from 
T\n<FfMvi/ij either of which constitutes disease. The perception of 
ivdeia is painful, the process of its removal causes pleasure. So 
long as the process continues, pain does not cease, though pleasure 
may predominate. When the want is removed, and the normal 
state of the body is re-established, pleasure and pain cease to. 
gether. But the normal is the good state, and as it is that in 
which pleasure ceases to be perceptible, the good and the pleasant 
cannot be convertible terms. It is conceivable that the subtle 
speculations of the Philebus, in which, though there may be 
occasional defects of analysis, there is xio taint of logomachy, may 
have been suggested by objections raised to the reasoning in this 
part of the Gorgias : reasoning which is rather unconvincing than 
illogical. The student needs reminding that the proposition 
against which Socr. is arguing, is not that Pleasure is or may 
be good, but that Good consists in Pleasure : that the two words 
* good ' and ' pleasant ' are convertible ; that all which is pleasant 
is good, and all which is good is pleasant. This was the doctrine 
of AriatippuB, of which CalUcles is a popular, perhaps an un. 

497 A] NOTES. 197 

oonscions exponent. 11 OtadOi dW a/rfc^^ec] The verb ci/c/ci* 

^€<rdai and its derivative oKKiafids are used to denote any kind of 
mock modesty or prudery, especially, though not exclusively, on 
the part of women. Philippides, Com. ap. Athen. p. 384 e, rd. fikv 
otv yiivaia tAXX' 'ffKKl^ro^ 'pretended to be shocked.' Philemon, 
ib. 569 D, o{>K €<rr* o^8i ets *AKKt<rfibs MlX^pos, 'there is no coyness 
or nonsense here.' Hence the glosses, BpvirTdficyost wpoo"n'oioi&jjL€voSf 
yvvaiKit6iJi€voi. The grammarians derive the word from a female 
appellative *AKK(b, and add biographical particulars of the lady. 
These are doubtless apocryphal, for we find from Plutarch that 
'Aic/cc6 was used as a name of fear to terrify children, like Mop/tc6, 
KapKih (=Aa/Ja), &c. Plut. de Stoicorum repugnantiis, p. 1040 b, 
where Chrysippus is said to have derided Plato's doctrine of divine 
retribution, Cjs oi/bkv iia<f>4povTa ttjs 'AkjcoOs Kal ttjs *A\<pirovs 8i* cSv 
tA fraLddpia rod KaKcwxoXeii' al ywouKcs dvdpyovatp. Hence the 
word aKKi^effdai may originally have denoted chimerical or feigned 
alarm, the transition from which meaning to that of affected 
modesty or niceness is not difficult. The word first occurs in 
Pindar Frag. inc. 217, "AvBpes rivh dxKil^dfievoi Z/ct^^at 'NcKpbv tirxov 
arvyioicrip X67V. Hence the proverb, 6 'ZKi^drjs rbv tinrov^ said of 
those who affect dislike of what they secretly hanker after. Here 
the sense is obvious : You know, though jou make believe that 
you don't know. You know perfectly well whither my arguments 
are leading you, but it does not suit your purpose to acknowledge 
it. In the sequel the words Bri ix^^ Xi7pe?s seem to have strayed 
from elsewhere. Heind. thinks they stood in the place of X^eis 
in the next reply of Callicles. Others divide the /t-fiffeis as follows : 
giving SI}. OtffOaj aXX' dxKl^eif a EaXXkXeis. EAA. Ka2 irpbidl 7* 
€Ti eli ToiifiTpwrdev, 8ti ^X"^ XrjpeTsi tv* eldys &s <r(xf>6s wv fie PovOereis. 
SO. OtJx <»/«* dt\//Qv 6* l/cao-roj ^mwj' k.t.X. Even so the clause Sri 
l^Xf^v Xi7pets is in the way : nor is there much point in the next 
clause, Xv* e^d^s, <&c., as coming from Callicles. In the mouth of 
Socr. it is an apt retort to oix old* drra <ro</>l^€i, as if he had said, 
You blame me Sid rb <ro(/>l^€<r0ait answer a few more questions, and 
you will discover that you are no aoipbs. Comp. (3 aoiptLrare <r6 
supr. 495 D. Moreover, the succeeding question of Socr., Odx d/ia 
dLiJ/Qv K,T,\,, comes in abruptly. We should have expected Upbeifii 
difj, or some such prefatory formula. However the ^^o-ets be di- 
vided, one thing seems clear, that ^t ^x^^ Xripets comes more 
naturally from Callicles, and that, if retained, it ought to bA 
transposed as Heindorf suggests. KkN.. O^k oU^ o tv %xvav Vt\^wi. 

198 QORQIAS, [497 a— 

TOP. MrfSafJuos, u KaWlkKeis /c.r.X. 18 ica2 iifuSv (peKo] i.e. 

not merely to please Soor.,' but to save us from the tedinm of 
a protracted discussion. 22 Trdprui oi (H) aih^ 17 rt/ti^] A 

proverbial expression, doubtless: but whether rt/x^ is put for 
rifivfJM, * multa/ * damnum/ is not so certain. The sense required 
is, **That is not your affair" — not your reputation, but that of 
Socr., is at stake in consequence of his objectionable practice 
of testing your assertions by simple instances. So Olymp., etre 
KOKus ifxarq. etre koKQs, oWv vpbs <rL We have here a touch of the 
tlpuvela, for which, according to Aristotle, Gtorgias was remarkable. 
Presently i>T6<Txej= * permit * as frequently, 25 'Epdrra, 8^ o-tJ] 

' Proceed then you, sir, with your little cramped questions.' This, 
says the Schol., was a standing scoff on the part of the rhetoricians 
against dialectical arguments. Hippias, for instance, called them 
reptr/Ai^/iara, shreds or parings. 27 rd fieydXa fi€fi6rj<rai -n-plv 

TO. fffuKpa] supp. fAvridijifai, The Schol. explains rd afUKpd of the 
I fivcr-fipia iv daTet, the /AeydXa as rd iv 'EXevtru't. It was necessary, 
f he says, to be initiated in the former before witnessing the latter. 
|i The lesser Eleusinia were celebrated at the temple in the suburb 
Agra: the greater both at Athens in the Eleusinium, and at 
Eleusis itself. See the testimonies in Leake's Athens, p. 250. 
Symp. 210 a, raOra rd iptariKd tffuts kSlv <rif /avtjOcItis, rd, di riXea 
Kal iiroTTTiKdt cSv ^vexa koX raOr' iariv, oifK oXS* el otds t' dv eft;?. 
Synesius (Dion. 52 c) seems to understand rd fiixpd of the pre- 
liminary rites : 8eT rd juKpd ivovrevcau rrpb r(av fji^L^^uty, Kal xopevaai 
vplv Sq.dovxv(Fcu, Kcd Sq.dovxri(rat irplv lepoipavTijaaL. But there is no 
discrepancy between his view and that of the Schol. if we are to 
believe Plutarch, vit. Demetrii, c. 26 (900 n), r&re d' ot^y dvai^ev- 
yvHuw els tAs 'AO'^vas, (yparf/ev Stl /Soi/Xercu 7rapay€v6/xevos evdvs 
fivrfd^ai, Kal t^v reXeTijv arairay dirb tQv fiiKpQv dxpt t&p iwo' 
vtikQv irapoKapeTp, tovto 8i oi Bc/iitop ^p oiidiyeyopbs irp&repop. 
dXXd rd fiiKpd rod * ApdeffTtjpiCjPos ireXovvro, rd d^ /i^ydXa rcni 
BorjSpofuQpos' iirdnrrevaip di ToiXdxtffTOP dirb tQp /xeyd\(ap ipiavrbp 
dia\nr6pT€s. Hence from the fUKpd to the state of a complete 
epopt eighteen months would intervene. See, however, Lobeck, 
Aglaoph. p. 36. 

Page 81 . 4 OifKovp Kal Twp \utQp] To prove that during the 

act of drinking the thirsty man is the subject both of pain and 

pleasure, Olympiod. suggests the experiment of stopping short 

(dpaxaiTiaai iavrbp) before the thirst is slaked : under these cir- 

cazuBtanceSt he says, aUrdapbfAiBa rfis Xviri}s rdXip, cl Si ifjLirXT^ofjLep 

499 B] NOTES. 1 99 

4avToh, ybferai ^luv rh \exBiv irlov r* i.KiovT6 r« dtrffav, (II. 
X* 2.) 15 Koi TJ8^ MffKeyj/aii Here begins a new elenchus. If 

tide essence of good and eyil be pleasure and pain respectively 
those who feel pleasure are better under all circumstances than 
those who feel pain. But there are circumstances under which the 
coward feels as much pleasure as tiie brave man, or more. Where- 
fore, the brave man being good and the coward evil, under such 
circumstances the evil man is better than the good man, or at 
least as good — the good and the bad are put on a level in regard of 
goodness and badness, or, if there be any difference, the bad man 
is at one and the same time better and worse than the good. Here 
again a paradoxical conclusion is shown to follow necessarily from 
{Miradoxical premisses. 

Page 83. 5 17 koX in /uaXXof i.yadol koX KaKot ctatv d KaKol] 
The meaning of this is explained in the foregoing note. But the 
reasoning was spoilt by the copyists, who inserted ol dyadol after 
dyadoii writing thus: rj xal eri fiSWoy dyadol ol dyaOol Kal KaKol 
tUriv ol KaKoi ; Bouth first perceived the interpolation, which the 
Ziir. edd. expelled from the text. lO KaKobi bk icaicwv] Hirsch. 

unnecessarily inserts the article, reading rot)s KOKoifs U KaKQv, f 
The art. is again omitted in the following clause: xaxd 8i rks 

Page 84. 5 koX Us ydp rot koX rpls] Schol. 'Efiir€doK\4ovs rb 
liros, 00' od Kal rj wapoi/da' <t>7j(Tl Bi' Kal Sis ydp d Set KoKdv i<mv 
ipurreiv. The proverb is repeated, Phileb. 59 e. Legg. 956 e, 
KoKbv t6 ye 6p6bv Kal bis koI rpls. 25 k&p vaij^wv'] Gallioles is 

driven to the pretext that he was not speaking seriously when he 
affirmed the identity of good and pleasure. 'As if he did not 
know as well as any man that some pleasures were better than 
others.' Contrast with this Phileb. 13 b, tcus \4yeiSt (3 l^Kpares ; 
otet ydp Tiva airyxw/Mjcrca^at, Oifievov TJbov^v etfai rdyadbv^ elra 
dv4^€<r0al aov \4yovTos rds p^v etvaX Ttvas a^a^As •fjbovds, rds S4 rivas 
Mpas ainrQv KaKds ; Of course, no consistent Hedonist would 
make such an admission. But Callides was no philosopher, but a 
repeater by rote of dogmas which happened to take his fancy, as 
furnishing a theoretical ground for his own practice. That practice 
was probably not so bad as his theory, which he accordingly lays 
aside as lightly as he had taken it up. The quickness with which 
he resumes the offensive after his defeat is a happy dramatic 
touch. Plato evidently intends to contrast his rhetorical address 
with the oibevla he displays as a dialeotloian. %^ ^\s3i^ Xa^ 

200 QORQIAS. [499 b— 

Noted by Hesych. as a g-xcrX tcmrtjic^y^ rf/^^A**' ^^ f^ 0^^. Arist. 
Pint. 477, Od dei oxerTadi^ew koI fioay irphf av tMi0tp,^Kal tU SiJyeuT' 
ay n^ fioay lod loit ToiaDr' oKoiafv; Both in tragedy and comedy loi^ 
lo6 denote pain, sorrow, or indignation ; but in comedy sometimes 
agreeable surprise. Arist. Equit. 1091, loif lo{i, OOk rjv Ap' oidels 
ToO T\dvi8os ffw/xbrepos. Here the interj. has its ordinary sense ; 
Socr. protesting, or affecting to protest, against the ill-usage he 
has received from GaU. This seems obvious, but Heind. says, 
*' Mirantis magis sunt voculae quam indignantis." 31 tot^ 

fih ravra ipdaKu^l The Bodl. with others gives rork fUy a9 ^dffKuy, 
If this is not a mere blunder, probably a9 has been transposed, 
and we should read ror^ d' ad iripui. The Ziir. edd. with Stallb. 
follow the Bodl., but the meaning given by Stallb. is somewhat 
forced: '*Bespicit enim Socrates ad ea quae supra. cap. xlvi. in. 
Callidi dixerat, oidivoTe ravrd \4y€Ls repl rwv avrCjv,^* Others give 
Tori lihf rh abriL or rabrh. <pd<rK(av, 

Page 85. 4 TO Trapbv ed Troieiv'] * I must do the best I can.' 
Generally ed T^^eo-^at, as in Lucian, Necyom. § 21, rb vdpbv eS 
OifjLcvoi. But Legg. 959 E, rb di vapbp Betv eS voieTv, Olymp., 8ia 
roOrov 8k (T7jfjt.abf€Tcu, Srt, rd iK TTjt r^xv^ 8i86ft€Pa K6<rfi£L fidXurra 
8k rovTO \iyercu inrb (leg. ivi) tG>v KvfievbvTUv, idif ydp dpiOfibs 
pucrrHipios vicQi elri 8k Koi rexyiTqi 6 Kvpebtop, davfiturTQs viKq. ' el 8k 
V TiJx'? A*^ 'flf^o* ^^ 5ef td, 6 8k 8€x6/jl€pos drexyoi tav /i^ elSeiri 
Xp^offdaii ob8kp XPV<^'^^^ dirojSa^et. In the first part of the 
scholium he alludes to the well-known ^irdprctM ^axes, toujtcim 
xbafAei, 17 el dpa — iroLovffiv] The old reading was iroiovaai, 

voiovffuf was adopted by Bekk. from four MSS. 81 ijMl re 

Kol Il(t)\(fi] See p. 468 b, &6k' dpa rov ayaOov airovra ravra iroiov<riy 
ol iroiovpres — ^fd. We must know, says Olymp., that good is not 
a means but an end : Iffrkov Sri rb dyaObv obx eariv h^^Kd rov dWd 
od ^P€Ka • hcKa p.kv ydp rov iarlv ^ 65bs rj dyovaa iirl rb rkXos ' oO 5^ 
^veKa abrb rb rkXos. The episodical fight with Call, is now at an 
end, and Socr. brings the discussion round again to the topics 
previously under consideration. 

Page 86. 8 iK rpiruvl *in the third place,* *of the third 
part.' The same periphrasis occurs, Eur. Orest 1178, ffwrrjplay 
ffoi r<}8k r kx rpLrtop r ifioL Also Symp. 213 b. In Timaeus 54 a, 
we have ix rplrov in the same sense. 14 8ri eUv 7rapa<rK€vai] 

"qu*il y a certaines industries," Cousin. vapaaKevij is a general 
term, including true rkx^ax, and those empirical contrivances 
which pretend to be rkx^ai. but are not. The definition of a 

600 D] NOTES. 201 

T4j(yrf is, a process or *',uida8tr7** which aims at good. So 
Aristotle: Toura rixyi dyaBw twos i^ffOcu, SokcT. The false 
r^voi, on the contrary, limit their aim to pleasure. ao irpbs 

^iXlov] so. At^. Phaedr. 234 e. Frequent in comedy; as 
Diodorus ap. Athen. yi. 239 b, 6 Zei^s 6 ^iXtof, *0 rQy OeQv /j^yLtrrot 
6ful\oyovfi^ws, Call, had professed a friendship for Socr. : wpbt 
ai imeiKus ^cu j^TukQs, 485 B. 28 6pfs yd,p Sri] * The subject 

of our discussion, you peroeiTe, is one which cannot fail to be 
most interesting to a man of even ordinary intelligence, the 
question being, after what manner we ought to live : whether in 
that to which yon invite me, in doing man*s work, as you call it, 
speaking in the assembly, and practising rhetoric, and playing a 
part in politics on the principles now in vogue with you politicians; 
or,' (fea arovddatit is opposed to the foregoing ireU^iv. In the 
next clause iirl, which Hirsoh. brackets, is found in all the MSS. 
It is evidently better absent — r&repou toOtop or iKttPop rov filop iip* 
tv cif vapoLKoXm ifik {Set ^p) rj rbvie rhv ip 0iXo(ro0^. If retained, 
we can only suppose a confusion of thought produced by the 
foregoing ira/KiicaXett, from which TapaK\rfT4op may be "under- 
stood." But this would surely be bad rather than colloquial 
writing ; and it is equally easy to presume a confusion on the part 
of the copyist. In ra roG dv8pbs 8rj raOra lies an allusion to the 
invective of Callides, p. 485; 5^, as usual, denoting that the 
sentiment is not that of Socr. but of his opponent. So the 
Schol., 6 dii avpdefffjubs ifufHwrucbs elptapeUu iirrL 

Page 87. 1 el ian toOtw 5t,TTu) tCi pUa] An instance of the 
Schema Pindaricum of the grammarians, the dual however taking 
the place of the plural. This construction, we are told, is in 
Attic admissible only when a substantive verb, as iari or yLyverau, 
stands at the beginning of a clause. Euthyd. 302 c, iari ydp 
i/ioiye KoX piafioL Soph. Trach. 520, ^p d* dfAtptrXeKTOi K\lfiaK€s» 
Aristoph. Vesp. 58, ijfup ydp o{ik Har oihe xdpv* ix <f>opfjUSos Ao^Xta 
diafi^irrouvTe rciis OeufUpoLs, In these cases fori answers to the 
Germ, es giebt or Fr. ily a or il est with plur. Here however (<tti 
is apparently the copula, of which rd) ^L<a is the subj. and dirrtb 
the predicate, and this seems to distinguish the case from those 
quoted in the ordinary grammars. ' If these lives are really two,* 
i.e. diverse and opposite. Stephen, following the Aldine, omitted 
the article r(6 in his text. If we could adopt this reading in 
defiance of the MSS., the passage would fall under ordinary rules, 
and we might translate : 'If there really exi&tf^ %\iQ\\.^^\i\x. ^\\v^^^ 

202 G0R0IA8, [600 d— 

as that supposed, let us see how they differ/ Ae, 9 ixaripov 

Si airroiv] 'and that a certain stndy and preparation go to the 
acquisition of either.* The next clause, t^p fihf — roO dyaOovt is 
bracketed by Hirsch. as suspiciouB. But there is dramatic 
propriety in the iteration. 11 17 <r^fxif>a0i -fj fiii* vtfufnii;'] 

Formerly the edd. gave 4j ai/x<pa$t ij fi^. trvfuffis, Heind. first 
pointed out the solecism— M prohib. with the subj. present. It is 
a question whether this ffvfixf>is was not originally an 'interpre- 
tamentum.' Heind. quotes Charm. § 29, t^rep^p i<m rh fiap6 re koI 
rb KoOfpov T^j o-rariK^ oi5t^' ^vyxtapcTs; But we nowhere meet 
with such interrogative clause after the formula 17 tpdBi rj fiij, ' say 
yes or no,' of which the present is a variety. 16 iXeyw Si 

Tov] * I said, I believe, that cookery is in my view no art, but an 
expertness — unlike medicine, which is an art — arguing that the 
latter has explored the nature of the subject she has to treat, as 
well as the causes of the treatment she adopts, and that she, 
medicine, can give a reasonable account of both: whereas her 
rival, even in regard of that pleasure which she exclusively 
cultivates, goes to work in a thoroughly inartistic manner, having 
never studied either the nature of pleasure or its cause, and 
without a pretence of reason, without any attempt, one may say, 
at classification — ^the creature of routine and practice— she is 
content with keeping record of what usually comes to pass, 
whereby in fact she is enabled to provide her various pleasures.' 
The sentence is irregularly constructed. In the clause, i) 5* h-ipa 
T^s ijdoprjs, the genitive is out of construction, its connexion with 
^<TLv being interrupted by the words KOfudy—fpxerai. This two 
oodd. seek to rectify by repeating 1^, — 1^ 8* h-ipa, ri rvji iibovrji, — 
but we thus lose the correspondence with the antithetic clause, ^ 
liAv To&rovt which is important, rhetorically speaking. In the 
sequel rpi^^ koX i/iweipla are in the nature of epithets rather than 
of predicates, depending with the participles <rKe\l/, iiapidfx, upon 
the finite verb ipxircu, (ruj^ofiivrfi on the other hand, belongs 
rather to rpipij xal ifxreipla, as if he had said r/u/Si^ odaa Kal 
ifiweiplat are fiviiiiTiv fibvov au^ofi^yrff &o, ^ dij refers to rdO 
€Iu66tos yLyvcffdcut ovBh SiapidfiTiaatUvJi in the next clause being 
only a development of iXbyui. Rational sciences count and 
classify their subject-matter, as medicine counts and classifies the 
diseases of the body. In the Phaedrus, Socr. proposes a scheme 
of rational rhetoric, which shall undertake diapiOfAelffBaL (Lat. 
dinnmer&re) rds ^Offeis tQp dKowron4vup...Kal Kar* etSri 8iap€i(r$ai, 

601 E] NOTES. 203 

according to the analogy of that rational (as opposed to empirical) 
medicine, of which Hippocrates and the Coan school were the 
founders. See Phaedr. 270 — 273. The popular rhetoric, here 
compared to cookery, is in the Phaedrus illustrated hy the 
analogy of medical quackery, p. 268 a — o, where see the notes. 
The subordination of the arts and sciences to an ethical law is 
peculiar to the Gorgias. The empiric looks only to pleasure, the 
true artist extends his view to the useful and the good: a 
distinction which is put in the background in the Phaedrus, where 
the form of science is in question rather than its practical 
tendency. 29 wpayfrnreiai] Equiv. to vapatrKevcUf 500 b, 

* operations,' * modes of procedure,* or simply 'occupations.* 
Presently we have iviHiSevffLs in the same sense. 

Page 88. 8 ffvyKararLdeaai — rifv aMjv Sd^aif] This is an 
uncommon usage, cvyKararidcfmi being generally put absolutely, 
or with a dative. It is very doubtful whether y(ni<pov is ever to be 
supplied, as the Lexx. suggest. The Greeks do not say Karaudiadat, 
yfnjipovy but BicSai, Here, according to the Schol., the phrase = 
avyx(>fp€ts rd a^d Topylq, xal IIc^X^. Hesych., KaradiaOat* (rwaivi- 
(rai. Bost and Palm quote A. Gellius, N. A. xix. 1, ffvyKaTaridrrat, 
Tiis Totat/ras ipavToaiast as parallel to the present passage, but the 
quotation is not accurate, as tf>avTa(rlas 1.1. depends upon ' appro- 
bare,' not on ffvyKaTariderai, which belongs to a subsequent 
clause. In Isaeus 59, 25, dvyKaradMai. has the sense *una 
deponere,' scil. ypafAfiareiov irapd rtp. But this does not support 
the present reading. In one MS. we find rijv airfjp S&^w ix^^i 
and this suggests the suspicion that r^y aCrifp dd^av ^x^^' ^^7 
have been an old marginal gloss on (rtry/caraW^eo-ai. lO O^k 

iyujye] Compare note to 458 d. We have the same use of the 
negative in the next f^ijins but one. 22 r^v ai/XfiriKifpf] * Auletic* 
was one of Plato's favourite aversions. Bep. 399 d, tI 64; 
adXoTotoi); rj aOXTjriis irapaS4^ei els t^v ir6\iv ; 7J oi rovro voKvxopSd- 
raroPt Kal airrii rd irapapfidpia adXoO rvyxdyei 6pTa fii/x'^fw.Ta ; This 
illustrates a difficult passage in Philebus 56, where the reading 
aUXrjTiK'fi is not to be disturbed. The flute was used in religious ^ 
ceremonies of an exciting and impassioned kind, such as the 
orgiastic rites of Bacchus and Cybele. It was probably from the 
associations thus suggested thfit it derived its ill name; for we 
must not forget, in estimating the reasonableness of the prejudice, 
that the dramas of Sophocles and Aeschylus were accompanied byl 
the flute. 26 1^ KiBapuTTLK^ if ip roij d-y«<r«.v\TV!kfc\3iXXi«.^^x^5\ 

204 G0RGIA8. [501 fl- 

are emphatic, as the Schol. has correctly observed : aCfXriTiKijv fxh 
TOffOM ix^dWei rCav dpdCov voKtTeiQvi KidapKTTkK^v Bk oi voLa'aVj dXXd 
Hpf iv TOtf 6.yG>ff^ ftbvriV oWe yh.p AXXijf ^v (Ttb^eiv tAs iroXtretas 
ve»6fUK€v. He refers to Bep. 1.1., Xi^/xi ^ trot koI Ki9dpa Xeiireraij 
KoL /card w6\af xP^^f^' ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ &^^s, rhetoric 
incladed, are allowed in the Platonic state, but in subordination 
to the educational purposes for which civil society is supposed to 
exist. The citharistic practised in the musical contests seemed 
to Plato an aimless exhibition of manual skill, and therefore an 
oKoyos Tpipifi, "rd ^^fiufxavou apfibrrovffa o6 fUrptfi dXXd /AeX^riyf 
ffToxiKrfJu}" — "by rule of thumb," as we should say (Phileb. 1.1.). 
81 Kwrifflav rbv MAi^ros] Cinesias is mercilessly ridiculed by 
Aristophanes for the wildness and incoherency of his dithjrrambic 
effusions : Ban. 153, where see Schol., ib. 366. Nub. 333. Av. 
1379, &o. The hearty assent of Gallicles to the censure in the 
text seems to prove that Plato and Aristophanes represented the 
J general opinion in regard of this poet. 

Page 89. 6 T£ 5^ 6 ira'Hjp airov MAt/s] Pherecrates, Com. ap. 
Sohol. Arist. Av. 868, ^4p* f5w, jci^opyS^s Ws <cd/ct(rro$ iy^vero; '0 
Ueifflov MA17S. /Acrd 8^ MAiyra rts; "Ex* drp^fi, eyySa, Xaipis, 
Presently ^/c6(vof=this last, as in Phaedr. 231 0, Scrufv av iiarepw 
ipaa0Q<rt»t iKelvovs aifTuv vepiL vKdovoi iroii^trovrai, where see the 
note. irpds rb ^ikriarov /SX^wf] One MS. omits p>\iv<av, which 

Hirsch. brackets. Though not needed, the participle seems to me 
innocuous. X^TiBk i^^ ff€/j»^ — i<f>' $ iawoj^daKe] The order is : 
ri 5i 5^ (icTiv iKeivo) i<f>* <j5 iffvo^fBoKev ij aefuf^ koL 0, * What of 
that griTve and august personage, Tragedy — ^what, I say, is the 
object of her ambition?' The repetition of ij is thus illustrated 
by Stallb. : "£ vulgari ratione dicendum erat: ri 5^ 5ij ij aefip^ 
aCnj Kal davixaffr^ volrifftSj ij ttjs rpaytpdias ; sc. voirjffn, Sed 
eodem modo Herod, vii. 196 : 6 pavriKbs 6 tQv pap^dpuw arpards. 
Plat. Symp. 213 b, rijv rodrov ravniyl t^v daviMCr^v /ce0aX9jv," <fec. 
The censure which follows is too sweeping even from Plato's point 
of view, for Euripides at any rate aimed at a moral purpose of one 
sort or other, and sacrificed to his zeal as an instructor much of 
the popularity and much also of the poetical beauty of his plays. 
As a criticism on Sophocles and Aeschylus it is, to modem 
apprehension, still more deplorable. Compare, or rather contrast, 
Phaedrus 268 c, a passage which proves that Plato had a thorough 
perception of poetic excellence, whenever it suited him to forget 
hi3 political theories. 17 cl 8^ ti xv-fx^ti-— <Jwt>^>^''l''<>v"^ On the 

603 a] notes. 205 

omission of the participle see note to Phaedrus 263 d. Hirsch., as 
usual, inserts Sy after <JiHf>4\ifiov. 19 koI \4^€i xal ffferai] * he 

will introduce both in dialogf u e and in song / 37 df ns 

ircptAotro] * if we strip any kind of poetry of melody, rhythm, and 
metre, the residue consists of speeches, does it not?' — ^where 
fiyvovrai agrees with the predicate, as freq. in Plato. All the 
MSS. but one have dXXo ri ^, but this is a case in which the 
conjunction is better omitted. This follows from the answer of 
Callicles — not Mbf dXXo, but i^&yKii, For vepiAoiro the Schol. 
gives ireptiXoif and so Ar. Bhet. in a passage copied from this : et 
Tty T^? Troii^<r€(t)S irepiAoi rb fiirpov Ktd rbv ^vOfxdv, drffiriyopla Sii rb 
\€nr6fji€v6v iariVt Or. Plat. ii. p. 278. But Ast quotes Xen. Cyr. 
viii. 1. 47, rb fUv vipieKiffdai aifrwv rb. dirXa kqX diro\4fMvs iroi^ai 

Page 90. 4 ^ oi) l^op€i6€Uf BoKovai] Probably this was more 
true of the tragic poets of the fourth than of the fifth century. 
But the rhetorical tendency of Euripides is proverbial, and even in 
Sophocles there is much which seems to us to need apology on 
this score. But Socr. means the proposition to be absolute, in 
which case it becomes untrue ; for ' persuasion ' is not the end of 
tragic poetry as of rhetoric. Nor indeed Is * pleasure ' the end, 
but rather a condition of its excellence. In the Laws the * truest 
tragedy ' is said to be the * imitation of the noblest and best life ' 
(817 b). 7 Nvp &pa iifiets] * So now between us we have dis- 

covered a species of rhetoric which addresses itself to a concourse 
of people comprising men, women, and children, both bond and 
free, and it is one we are far from admiring.* It follows from this 
that there was no restriction of age or sex in the admission to 
tragic spectacles. From the Laws, p. 658 d, we should infer that 
*big boys' were allowed to witness comedies; but that women 
were excluded seems to follow from the olassification of the 
audience in Arist. Pax 50, which includes only males. lO icoXa- 
KiK^v yb.p airiiv ^fx€p eXycu] Tragedy, says the Schol., is a xoXaKcLa, 
because it utters moral sentiments, and talks largely of justice, 
beauty, and goodness. Stript of its metres, it is a drjfirjyopiat for 
both are^ provocative of violent emotions (Tra^ioi' ifirep^dKKbvTunf 
KiPTjTiKal i.ix<f>6r€pai), Comp. Isocr. Evag. p. 191, tjv ydp tu tuv 
voirifjidT(ov Tuv eiboKtfMi^vTw rb fikv dvbfiara koX rbs Siavolas KaraKlvut 
rb b^ fUrpov StaXwru, <pavi^eraL voKd Karadeiarcpa rijs b^rjs ijv vvv 
iX^fJLCP vepl ai>r(av, 24 Oi5x dvKow (tl toOto ipurq^s] *To 

this question the answer is not single as hitherto-. ^<^^ Vks.<^ 

206 Q0RGIA8. [603 a— 

speakers who in what they say have a dae regard to the good 
of their fellow-citizens ; and there are also speakers such as yon 
describe.* Early edd. have roOro 6 iptarqist which Bekk. following 
Heind. corrected from two MSS. The abbreviated construction is 
neater, and of constant occurrence. Phileb. 29 o, Tovto fxhf odB* 
dvoKpiffeios A^iov ipwrfs, 27 ef yii.p Kod rovrd i<m SiirKovp] ' If 

even this is double * ; i.e. if rhetoric also has two aspects, like that 
of which it is a part. Socr. is thinking of his own frequent 
" dichotomies," especially of that which occurs in this dialogue, 
464 B, where sophistic and rhetoric divide between them the 
psychical branch of KoXaxiK'/i, He does not absolutely deny that 
there is a sound and good rhetoric, but leaves the onus proband! 
to GaJlicles, who owns that he knows not where to look for such a 
rhetoric among the politicians of the day, but reminds Socr. of the 
four great statesmen of the past. This gives occasion to Plato's 
celebrated attack on the ' Quatuorviri,' which called forth the 
elaborate apology of Aristides Khetor. 

Page 91. a ri ovxl — i^ppouras] Equiv. to <f>pdoov 6 tl TdxtffTO 
— ovK Siv ^dvois tppi^iav ; Meuez. 236 c, rl otnf ov 5i^\6€s ; Eur. 
Heracl. 804, Kfiiretr' Ae^ev, (5 crparir/i *$ *Apy6d€v "H/ce^s, rl ri^vBe 
yoiw OVK etdffafjLev; where see Elmsley's note. Here transL 
*Pray lose no time in telling his name.' Kal ifjLol^ *that I may 
know as well as you.' Lat. * Quin mihi etiam quis sit indicas?* 
4 'AXX& fih. At* OVK ex<>>] Aristophanes makes a similar complaint: 
'H Srifiayioyla ydip ov irpbs fiovffLKOv "^r* iarlp dvdpbs ovd^ x/^iycroO 
toOj t/wStouj, *AX\' els dfiadij koI ^deXvpdp, Eq. 191. Comp. Pax 
680. 6 TL 54; rQv vdKouQv k.t.X,] * Well, and of the statesmen 

of the old time, is there one you can name, by whom the Athenians 
are alleged to have been made better; the improvement dating 
from his first appearance on the bema, before which they were 
worse than they afterwards became? * 18 t6v vetaarl rereXev- 

TTiK&ra] Athenaeus pounces upon this as a gross anachronism. 
He argues (v. 217 n) that if Archelaus is reigning at this time 
(supra, 470 d), Pericles has been long dead ; and vice versd^ that if 
Pericles is but recently dead, Archelaus is not yet seated on the 
throne. Casaubon attempts to get out of the dilemma by insisting 
(valeat quantum) that the death of Pericles was comparatively 
recent * respectu superiorum.' But two times are pretty distinctly 
indicated in the dialogue (compare sup. 473 e), and the liberty 
taken is by no means so great as in the Menexenus, where an 
eveni ia alldded to which notoriously occurred thirteen years after 

508 d] notes. 207 

the death of Soor. Nothing can be more true than the remark of 
Athenaeus, Sn xoX\A/6 TLXdruv/ xapd rods xp^^^^ atfaprrdvei^ nor 
anything idler than his abase of Plato on this account. \l tlhk 
fi^ TovTo — fii/i] This passage loses its difficulty if we suppose dpeHi 
dXrjd'/ii icrw repeated after at di x^^P^* Mi}* * But if this is not so, 
but that is true vrhich we were forced to acknowledge later in the 
discussion, viz. that the fulfilment of those desires which we are 
the better for indulging, and the restraint of those which make us 
worse, is true virtue.' In the next clause, whether we read rovro 
with the Bodl. or Toirrov with the vulg., an apparent breach of 
syntax remains : r^x^ti ris for t4x^^ '''^^^ Hence Ast ingeniously 
proposed rovro Bk r^x*^' etvcu. He now assents to Stallb., who 
conceives Plato to have written as if for the preceding iivayKdadtfifjxv 
i)fi€is dfJLoKoyeuf the words d>fio\oy€iTo iifw^ had occurred ; and if the 
text is to stand, we must suppose some such ellipsis. In any case 
there is no room for the coarse expedient of supposing '^6ri fol- 
lowed by an infinitive," for in that case we must have found r^xv-nv 
rwd. Neither is deiv understood after diroreXciy, for we have here 
a scientific description of dper'fi, not a mere moral maxim. Other- 
wise it would be better at once to repla.oe Seuf in the text, from 
which it might easily have dropped, * absorbed* by the foregoing 
AnOTEAEIN. But if any alteration were needed, I should prefer 
changing ctyai for the oblique etrf. In an ethical point of view the 
passage is noteworthy, as it presents in harmony two theories 
which are generally contrasted, the psychological and the utili- 
tarian. Our actions are to be determined by a consideration of 
their consequences, but of these consequences those which affect 
the moral nature of ourselves or others are mainly to be kept 
in view. Observe also that development is to accompany restraint ; 
the statesman is not only to curb the evil passions of the citizens, 
but also to foster their nobler impulses, such as the desire of 
knowledge, beauty, &o. This is the true statecraft ; and tried by 
this standard Themistoeles and his compeers are found wanting. 
They had not the skill to determine what desires were legitimate 
and what not, nor how to further the one and restrain the other : 
in a word, they were not rex^iKol ro&rtay W/m. This is the force oi 
roiovTov dvdpa in the next clause : we need not understand the 
question as an insinuation against the private characters, which 
were very various, of the great men enumerated. 25 o{fr<a(rh> 

drp4/xa] The majority of codd. give oirrwrl drpifm. So also Bekk. 
iiere and in p. 509 a, 510 s. But the v i<p€\K. i& l<&ss>^5s&sbi^ \&. 

208 Q0RGIA8. [603 d-^ 

oirroahf ixcivwrlv and their cases ending in s. See the reS. to the 
Greek Grammarians in Steph. Lex. iii. p. 408 n, ed. Bind., com- 
paring ibid. v. pp. 2432, 2435. The idiom o^uxrlv irp^/M has been 
illustrated in the note to 494 e. Here tr. * quite at our ease.' 
20 6 dyaSbi dv^p Kal irl rb piKrioTOv \iyiav] A tme political 
rhetoric, it is urged, must follow the analogy of other arts. It 
must have a definite object, and select its means and instruments 
intelligently and with an eye to that object. The craftsman, 
whether painter, architect, or shipwright, seeks to fashion his 
materials according to a particular type or form ; and his work is 
done when he has so marshalled the parts that they constitute an 
orderly and consistent whole. In this order, when realized, con- 
sists the excellence of the work. In the human body such order 
or excellence is called health ; in the soul it is virtue. But the 
soul is the matter on which the rhetorical statesman operates : 
for rhetoric, as defined in the Phaedrus, is a yl/vxny^ay^ bibk X&yw, 
and the art Politic has already been pronounced to be a depavela 
^Iwxv^t sup. 464 B. It is therefore the business of the 'ffnap^ot 
statesman (for present purposes the two being identical) to make 
his hearers sober, just, and generally virtuous ; and that not only 
by direct encouragement, but by the restraints of law. With this 
entire passage compare Sophist p. 228. 

Page 92. 29 elveip tatrirep iKctvtp t6 6pofjLa] Crat. 385 n, 
KoKeTv iKd(mi) 6yofia, where see the instances quoted by Heind. 
More freq. is iirl rivi. 

Page 93. 1 rats fib^ rod ffi&fMTos rd^effiv] The appliances for 
producing order in the body are called salutary or * 'sanitary,** 
and the result of such means and appliances is health, and the 
general virtue or excellence of the body. So in the soul, right and 
law are the means, moral virtue the result. Kofffi-fureLs and rd^en 
are here synonymous, and mean ' processes which produce order,' 
* arrangements,* 'ordinances.' 8 ravra d* iffn] Not t6 

pdfiifxSv re koX ydfiost which are causes, but rd pd/ufiov xal Kdtr/uov 
y€yov4vaL, the result of law and regular government, is the same 
thing as temperance and justice. 14 dQpov idp n Sib$] This 

may have special reference to the well-known liberality of Gimon: 
or perhaps to the theoric allowances made to the Athenian demus 
by Pericles, who might very fairly have argued that the Athenians 
were, or ought to have been, made better by listening to the plays 
of Sophocles and his brother-tragedians. 22 HI yb.p ^^eXof] 

The meaning seems to be : 'What is the use of administering to a 

605 d] notes. 209 

diseased body a variety of dishes, or the most delicious of drinks 
or other compotinds, when these will frequently be of no more 
service to it than abstinence and mortification (roivavrlov iroWwp 
ffirltav /c.r.X.), nay, rightly considered, will do it even less good 
than abstinence? * But there remains a seeming asyndeton in the 
last clause, which Heind. proposes to remove by reading rj Kard ye 
rbv dUaiov \(tyov Kal iXarrov: but Stallb. is possibly right in 
defending the received text by the analogy of such phrases as 
6\Lyov Kal oifSiv. 

Page 94. 14 OiKoOu rb etpyeip] The order is, oiJufow t6 
etpyeiv dtp* wv hriBvfJxi KoM^ew iarlv; 'to restrain a man from 
gratifying his appetites is to chasten him, is it not?* The seeming 
play upon the words KoXd^etr^oi and &Ko\a<rla in the next question 
may be represented in English by * chastisement ' and * unchaste- 
ness,' though the latter word denotes only one form of dKo\affla, 
Punishment is treated by Plato as either exemplary or corrective, 
never as simply retributive, a view which he distinctly deprecates. 
See L^g. 934 a, o^x ^^i^o, rod KaKovpyijcou {SiS&rta) riiv SUrfPf oi ydp 
rb yeyovbs dyiyrjrov ((Ttcu tot4, toG 5* e/j rbu avSis hf€Ka "Xfi^^ov rj rb 
vapdvav /xicr^at r^v ddtKiav a&rbv re xal rods IS^vras a^rbv SikoloC- 
fxevov, 7, \(a<prj<Tai fiifnj iroXXd rrjs roia&nfS ^vfji^pai, Gomp. ibid, 
p. 854 B, and see note inf. p. 525 a. 31 Ovros dp'/ip] '* Behold 

a man who cannot bear to be improved, or to submit in his own 
person to that 'chastisement' which is the subject of our conver- 
sation." See above, 489 b, oifrwrlv duifp od irai^o-erai ^XvapQv. 
20 /i€Ta|i> rbv \6you KaraXi^ofiev] *Do we break off,' or *are we to 
break off the discussion? * Some MSS. have /caTaXi^wfi€i/, but tlie 
pres. indie, is idiomatic, as in such phrases as rl; vus \4yofiev; 
Sup. 604, bfioKoyovficv oihta tout ^eiv; inf. 513 c, \iyofx4v ti irpbs 
Taxna.; 2S Ai5r6s yviinreC] * You will judge for yourself,' i.e. 

Hhat is your affair, not mine.' So Phileb. 12 a, iiMl puev irdyTujs 
vlkSlv i}dotn] doKcT Kal d6^ei, <rj> d\ iaUpdlyrapxej a^bs yvdxrci. Olymp., 
ef Tt di\€LS irolei, ifiol ydp oi /u^Xei. 39 'AXX' oiSk roifs fxj^dovs] 

'Nay, they tell us we ought not to leave even tales half told, but 
ought first to fit them with a head, that our story may not walk 
abroad headless.' dK44>a\os fxvBos, a story 'without head or tail,' 
is a proverbial expression. So in the Laws, 752 a, quoted by 
Bouth, otKOW ^'fi Tov Xdyujp ye Av fivBw dK4<pa\ov ixCttv KaroKlTroifu * 
TXavibfAcvos ydp w dTcdvni roiovroi tap &fjiop<pos <f>alvoiTo. Compare 
Phaedr. 264, deiv Trdvra. \6yov (a<nrep ^tfiov <rw€aT<£i'cu...(3<rTc {l^^* 
dK^ifHiKw elyai n-fyrt dvovv k,t,\. Phileb. ^^"D, o<)^\v >savic>sv -nVtv 

PL. QOR. ^^ 

210 GORGIAS. [505 D- 

MTwep K€<pa\^P dvoSovifcu to?j elprj/Jiivoii, fxcra^d — icaraXe/ircii'] 

Isocr. varies the phrase, Panath. § 27, dfieXTfiaoPTL to&tujp xal 
fiera^if KarapaXdvTi. 

Page 95. 9 rb Tov 'EirixdpfJifiv] We have the line in full, 
Athen. vii. 308 C, iyCj 5e/KarA t6v ao(l>bv "Eiwlxo-plJ'-ov\ fitfdiv diroKpiva- 
fUvov TOV Kvu6i, TA irpb rov 5ii* dpSpes (Xeyop eU iyCi)P droxp^w — 
where it may he well to mention that kj^wp is not a quadruped 
brought on the stage by Epioharmus, but the Cynic Cynulcus, who 
is one of Athenaeus' Deipnosophists. Of the original purport of 
the line the aooount given by the Schol. is palpably an improvi- 
sation. The comedies attributed to Epicharmus contained philo- 
sophical dialogues, specimens of which have been preserved to us ; 
and the line in question was possibly the first of a soliloquy 
immediately succeeding one of such discussions. The change of 
dvoxp^ia into an Attic equivalent is agreeable to Plato's frequent 
practice, as remarked on supra, 485 e. 20 dp ri ipalprirai] If 

there be anything in the objections of his opponent, says Socr., 
he will be the first to concede the point in dispute. For, as he 
has already informed the company, he is one of those tQp i)d4u)s 
fiep av Os.^fxJ^^u)P et ti /ii) dXrjdh Xiyoi, p. 468. 81 rrip rod 

'AfupLopos] *The speech of Zethus' is of course the plea for public 
and active as distinguished from the contemplative lif§ — 6 ip 
tpi\o<rwpi(f piott sup. 485 B. Socr. has already in some measure 
answered the arguments of Callioles, but his answer is not yet 
complete. He has still much to explain: in particular the causes 
which make it impossible for a righteous man to take part in the 
administration of an unrighteous polity, such as he considers the 
Athenian to be. Here diridtaKa has its proper sense of paying a 
debt; giving an equivalent for value received. Presently ijris 
iKd(TT<i> dirodidoTai= * which is the due of each,* in other words that 
which is appropriate, or suitable to the nature of any given subject. 
Page 96. 8 o^/c dxOiffoixa.i'] The MSS., followed by all the 
edd. except Hirschig, give the form dx0€<rdri<rofim, which is else- 
where substituted by copyists for the Attic dxBiirofuu. So in Bep. 
X. 603 B, where dxB^(ro/jiaL is now universally adopted. 17 *AXXA 
flip 5rj ri 76 dper-q] This passage, most important as determining 
the scope of the entire dialogue, has already been illustrated in 
the Introduction, p. xx. Those who delight in parallelisms of 
ancient and modem authors, will do well to compare Bp Butler*s 
justly celebrated Preface to his Sermons. The ** ground-idea" of 
Mb ethical system will be seen to be rather Platonic than, as he 

507 a] notes. 211 

himself supposed, Stoical. The * conformity to nature' of the 
Stoics, though he horrows the phrase, was something different 
from Butler's. 19 oi^x o^wj cZ^J] * not by mere haphazard.' 

So Ale. ii. 143 b, oClrwy eU^ \f/iy€iv. lb. d. The Zurich reading 
od T^ clKy, founded on some MSS., is also admissible. Phileb. 
28 D, T^v rod d\6yov xal elicy hivafuv, Tim. 34 c, fierixoin-es rod 
wpwTTvx^vTos KoX clicy. One cod. has o(h-oi, and so the 2nd Ztir. ed. 
But oOrtoi is preserved in the Bodl., which however, with others, 
omits oiX' The following KdWia-ra is bracketed by Hirschig, but 
is certainly no interpolation. For, to say nothing of the possi* 
bility of the body's attaining health by the operation of natural 
causes, Plato in many passages admits the idea of a spontaneous 
virtue in the soul bearing the same relation to the conscious virtue 
of the philosopher as in the region of the intellect subsists between 
6p07j d6^a and iirL<rHifjt.rf. Thus in the Phaedo he speaks of oi t^v 
drj/j.0TiKi^v T6 Kal ttoXltiktiv dperijv iTirenjdevK&res, riv d^ KoKovai 
ffuxppoffJLfvriv T€ Kal dtKaioa-^vtfv, i^ ^Oovs re Kal /ueXcr^s yeyovvlay avev 
<f>i\o<ro<pias re Kal vov, 82 a. The distinction is also brought out in 
the Laws, i. p. 642 c, where he allows the existence of a natural 
goodness, produced at^To^ucDs deiq. fxolpti.. Compare also a re- 
markable passage in the Meno, 99 b — n. The qualification is 
therefore introduced purposely, though for obvious reasons not 
dwelt on. 28 E6(r/Aos — dyaBov irap^xei HKaarov rQu 6vtiou\ 

This idea is worked out with greater completeness in the Philebua, 
where the absolute good is found to reside irepl ixirpov koX t6 
fA^rpLov Kal KalpioPj and to manifest itself in t6 (r^fifAerpov koI Ka\bp 
Kal rb Ti\€ov Kal Uavdv, p. 66 A. 39 *H &pa cdjtppwv rj/vxh dyad-^] 
This passage, taken together with the context, clearly identifies 
iT(a<l>po<rtfVTi with ^ ffifivaca dp^rii. 'Temperance' is that capital \ 
virtue which includes all others, as courage, justice, and piety. L 
It is, in a word, the right state of the soul, in which all the parts / 
of our complex nature are kept in due subordination, and so / 
organized as to form a harmonious whole. This pre-eminence, as 
is well known, is in the Bepublic assigned to diKaioff^rj^ the sister 
virtue ; Sophrosyne being there relegated to a subordinate province 
in the moral economy. But if this theory is less mature than 
that in the Bepublic, it is an advance upon the speculations 
pursued in the Charmides, where Socr. is made to arrive at the 
merely negative conclusion that ffuxppoa-i^Ti is not a mode of 
iTLffTifl/xri. This has been taken to prove that when he wrote the 
Charmides Plato was dissatisfied with tha ^o^x^Naa ^^b'casvNoVSkXL^ '^R. 

212 OORGIAS. [507 a- 

the virtues, and was feeling his way to some more satisfactory 
theory: a state of mind of which, in my opinion, there are 
indications in the Protagoras, at the end of which dialogue 
Socrates stands self-convicted of inconsistency. 

Page 97. 1 el ij c(ii4>fM» iyaOii] 'If the temperate soul is 
(eo nomine) good, the soul which is in a condition directly opposed 
to temperance is evil. But this, as we have seen, is none other 
than th e insensate and dissolute jioiiL* We cannot in Eng. give 
the antithesis between adj(f>p<ap and AippojVf which even in Greek is 
a false one, for the true antitheta are atppwv and (fiippup. The 
force of the imp. rjv is nearly the same as in the familiar formula 
rd d' rjp dpa, but it retains more of its past signification. In later 
writers the past sense seems to disappear, and ^p is used for iffrl 
in general propositions. Hence we may explain the Aristotelian 
formula rb H rjv etvai. 8 Ea2 firjp 8 yc aiSuppuw] This intro- 

duces an idea quite foreign to our notion of 'temperance.' The 
atJIxppcjVi the man of orderly well-regulated mind, will not be 
content with abstaining from evil: he will be inclined to the 
performance of all positive duties both towards men and towards 
I gods, ffbxppoa-i^pri is thus seen to include conscientiousness, an 
idea which associates itself much more naturally with SiKcuoa^rf. 
The theory of Duties, it may be observed, which fills so large a 
proportion of our modem treatises, is very slightly touched by 
Plato and Aristotle. The scholion of Olympiodorus on this 
passage, though evidently much blundered by the student who 
took it down, is curious and worth quoting : 6 ffiSxppw xal SlKcuds 
iari Kal &vdp€iof 6 ydtp {firordTTUv tA x^h^^^ ''ots Kpclrroai Kal pi.ii 
i&p iirraffdau Tbp \6yop inro rod dvfiov (read ttjs iiri0vp.laSt coll. Rep. 
iv. 430 e), oiJtos dpdpeibs iariP. ij Sk 5iKaLoa^i^ ^ct xal to 6(nop, 
detpydp &p4(rK€t, 6 toiovtos. '*Thus,'' he continues, "the different 
virtues are concurrent {(rvprp^xovaip dXXi^Xcus), and we are enabled 
to solve the well-known diropLa with regard to divine providence: 
viz. that if virtue is sufficient for happiness (for airrdpK^i i} c^dai- 
fjLOpia irpos ipcT'^p read aArdpKtfs tj dperfi vpbs eifSaipLOpiop), virtuous 
people ought not to offer prayers and supplications to heaven, but 
rather to acquiesce in their lot. To this we reply, that the 
ffdxppiaPi as before remarked, desires to acquaint himself with the 
higher powers and to give them pre-eminence: for this is a duty 
of piety, and hence we are bound to pray. For prayer is a sign 
that we know the higher powers and invoke their aid. So that 
prayer, through its being pious, is included even in the list of 

507 c] NOTES. 213 

moral virtues." 60-16x77$, it will be remembered, is added by 
Protagoras to the received list of cardinal virtues, Protag. p. 329 c. 
5 oH yiip Av ffw^popolrf] 'He would not deserve to be called 
temperate if he did what he had no business to do.* This is, to 
say the least, a very popular kind of reasoning, and scarcely equal 
to sustain the conclusion that the (rc60pwv, qtta aiixppuPf will 
perform all his duties — all the things that concern him. If Socr. 
had said /xi) tA vpoffiiKovra, Tpdrrw^ the syllogism would have been ^ 
good, though the premiss might seem doubtful. But the paral- 
lelism between the (rc60p. of this passage and the UKaio% of the 
Republic is kept up. For the dUaios also is one ds r& a^ToO 
vpdTTeif Bep. p. 433 b. In the immediate sequel all the special 
virtues are subordinated to auxppoa^vrif as in the Bep. to diKaioffi^vTj, 
Plato must have felt that none of the popular terms were quite 
adequate to express his own more comprehensive idea of Virtue as 
a state or constitution of the inner man. For it must be owned 
that some of the functions of diKaio<r6yrif as described in the larger 
dialogue, are more appropriate to the sister virtue; and the truth 
may be that in each case he has selected the one which best served 
his immediate purpose. This union of e^x^peia in the use of 
terms with elaborate clearness in the elucidation of ideas is 
characteristic of the author. See Theaet. 184 b, rb 6* e^ep^s tQv 
dvo/xdrw re Kal jfriyAnav kqX /a^ 6t' dKpifielas i^eraj^&fievov t& flip 
voXKd oiK dy€Pv4Sf dXXA fuLXKop t6 to&tov ipoprLop dpeXeiidepop. 
There is a palpable sneer at Plato in Isocrates, Encom. Helenae 
init., as one who KvrayeyfipaKe Sie^ithp ibs dpSpla xal <ro<f>la Kal 
dLKouoffilrPTi ravrdp ^ori, Kal...fxia itrurn^fii^ Ka0* dvdpTWP itrrip, 
11 od ydp d^ <T(ii<l>popos — <p€iy€i.p d fiTJ irpo0"^Kti] Hence the SeiXds is 
one dt ra fi'^ Tpoa-qKOPxa ipeiiyeL re koI 5((6/cei. The old Socratic 
definition would rather be, dt oix olScp oHd' a diuicriop itrrip oHO* d 
^evKTiop, Plato*s includes both the knowledge and the disposition 
(the rjBos as well as the iirurr'^ifni), and is therefore more true 
to nature. 19 rbp 9* ev Tpdrropra fjuoucdpiop] This, which 

seems a sophism founded on the double sense of eO irpdrretv, is in 
fact a cherished paradox. It was a point of honour with the 
Platonists to preface their letters with the salutation eZ irpdrretv 
instead of the more usual x^'^f^'^* ^P* ^ii* ii^it., UXdrup 
Aiopvffl<p x^^P^^^ ixurrifXat dp dpBCjs dp rvyxdpoifu ttjs /ScXWoti/s 
Tpwrpn/jaeofs; rj fxaWop xard t^p ifiriP ffup'^Seuuf ypdtfxap ed irpdrTtiPt 
K.r.X. Comp. Charm, p. 172 a, dpOdrriTos di ijyovfiipris ip vda'^ 
irpd^et, dpayKawp koXws Kal iu Trpdrrtiv Toi»^ o^w ^vaKtv\»^wj%^TQ^%'S 

214 GORGIAS. [507 0— 

€v irpdrTOvras eiSalfiovas eivai. So Ale. i. 116 B, Scrris koKQs irpdrrei 
oirxjt Kai ed rpdrrei; We find a similar ambiguity in Arist. Eth. 
N. vi. 2. 5. 81 odros ifioiye] 'This, as I think, is the mark 

on which we should fix our gaze through life ; to that we should 
bend all our powers and all the powers of the state, and so act 
that Justice and Temperance shall be our portion, as they must 
be if we would be truly blest.* The oCna rrpdrreLv is illustrated by 
Phaedr. 263 b, dXX* eh dfiOL&rrfra aifroh Kal t<^ ^eifi 6v dv rifjuoffi, 
TcUrop irdmus 8 rt fidXiffra ireipdjfiepot. dyckv oVtu voioOiriv (equiv. 
to oijTta Toiovffip u><TT€ &y€ip), Phaedo 67 b, 76X0*01' av drj AvSpa 
irapaffKevd^ovd* iambv iu r^ pi(p fin iyyvrdrto 6vTa tov reOvdvcu 
oGT<a ^rjv (=o(Jtw ^ijv utrre ehai). Presently dpi^vvTov Kaxbv (an 
evil of which there is no end — a sort of * vicious circle') is intended 
to recall the simile of the Danaids with their sieve, p. 493. Ast 
quotes Legg. iv. 714 a, ypvxhy ^ovaa iidovwu xal imOvfuQv dpeyofii- 
VTjv Kcd vXripovaBai to&twv deofiiifrjv, trr^ovaav B^ o^Bivt dXX* dvrjviTt^ 
Koi dirXiiaTtfi KaKtfi...^vP€xofJi>^y'nv. The * brigand's life' is explained 
in the immediate sequel as that of one who by his excesses cuts 
himself off from communion with gods and men, as an outlaw 
does. Olymp., \ri(rTOv Si plov ^ i7r€i87i...T(av dWorplujp ipq.' 
evipxerai ovp Kal yvpat^l Kal xMmck^'j Xd^pa 8k ravra irotet &<nr€p 

Page 98. S ol (ro4>o(\ According to Olymp. the Pythagoreans, 
and Empedocles, who said ri^p <pCKlav hovp rbp ff<paipop, Gomp. 
Emped. v. 94, Earst., "AXXore jul^ <Pi\6t7)ti <rvP€px8fJi€P els ip 
diraPTa, "AXXore 8* ad Six* ^Kaara tpope^ffiepa peiKeos ^Oei, with ibid. 
V. 69, 0(h-w$ apfioplrji WKiPcp Kp^<pif} ian^piKrai ^<paXpos KVKXorcp^s 
fjLOplri irepiTiyii yaltap. In the semi-Pythagorean system of Empe- 
docles, <^£X£a, 0<X6ti7s, *A<ppoSiT7} represented the conservative 
principle of the universe (t6 oKop, <r<p(upos:), as l^eiKos stood for the 
principle of change and dissolution. See Gio. de Amic. vii. The 
Pythagoreans, according to ancient tradition, first called the 
universe E6o-/aos, and the word in that sense occurs in a frag, 
attributed to Philolaus ap. Stob. Eel. Phys. p. 420, ?$ 88€ 6 Ko^fios 
i^ alQpos, 16 ^ UtSttis ij yeia/xeTpLK'/i] This 'geometric,' as 

distinguished from mere arithmetical equality (a=/3), is what we 
call Equality of Eatio or Proportion (a : j8 : : 7 : 5). Aristotle, in 
a well-known passage^flEe Nhx^ Ethics, defines "distributive 
justice" as the rendering to each citizen according to his merits, 
adding, ^(ttip dpa rb SUaioP dpdXoyop TL...KaKov(ri 8k rr}P roia&njp 
dyaXoylay yewfiCTpi.KTjp oi /AadTjjuiaTiKot, kv 'yJip t-q -Yew^.cTp<.Kxi avii^aipei 

608 d] notes. 215 

Kal rb S\ov irpds rb S\op Sirep iKdrepop vpbs iKdrepop, B. v. 3. 8. So 
Olymp., liTTiov 6ti rpeis elffiv ItroTriTeSt yeufierpiK'/i, dpidfXTjTLK'fij 
dptioviK'fi. Koi 7} fikv yeufAerpLKri l<r6rris icrlp^ (irav dvaXoyla (pvXdr" 
r7jTai...laTiov di 6ti rj fieu yeu/JLerpla irp6s diavo/jAs <rvfipd\\€Tai...Kal 
ydp ffTparriybs Xd^vpa Siavifnov (TTpartwrots a& vaci rb a'urb irap^ci 
...Kal 6 iroLTiT'^s yovv fprrfciv* *E<rdXA ixkv icSXos fdvye, xipTia di 
X^ipopi d6<TK€v (II. xiv. 382). The idea is folly developed in the 
Laws, p. 757, where the legislator is taught to distinguish between 
simple and proportional equality, and to enforce the latter — rfjv 8' 
dXrjBeffTdTTiP koI dpitrrtiv Itriyntra oifKiri, j^iov iravTl IdeTv. Atos ydp 
6^ KpLaii icrrlp — t<^ fikv ydp p-cl^ovi TrKelia ry Bk eKdrrovL fffiiKporepa 
v4iJL€(,...i<TTi ydp 5i^ wov koL to ttoKitikov ij/Mv del tovt airrb to dlKoiov, 
Following this rule, Lycurgus, according to Plutarch, *' expelled 
from Lacedaemon arithmetical equality, holding it to be demo- 
cratic and levelling in principle, and introduced the geometric, as 
best suited to a temperate oligarchy and monarchy." Mor. 
p. 719 B. 37 r6 dSiKcip roO ddiKeitrdai] Among the impugners 

of this splendid paradox is Aristides Bhet., whose spirited but 
wordy tirade is to be found, T. iii. p. 103, ed. Cant. In his Epist. 
ad Capitonem (ibid. p. 533) he produces with great glee a passage 
from the Laws (829 a) which he conceives to be inconsistent with 
the doctrine laid down in the Gorgias. 28 koX Tbv yuAXoi^ra] 

This passage is quoted with approbation by Quintilian, ii. 15. 28. 

Page 99. \ daif ifwl dveibi^eis] He refers to the warning of 
Callicles, p. 486. Presently, in el/jX 8* 4vl r^ ^ovKofUvtf^ Coairep 61 
&TL/X0I, Tou idiXovToSf Hirsoh. brackets rou idiXovros as an interpo- 
lation. But the pleonasm is surely not unexampled. The two 
phrases mean of course the same thing — I am at the mercy, or in 
the power, of any one who chooses to molest me, just as an outlaw 
is at the mercy of the first comer — to6tl6vtos, Heind. quotes 
Legg. iv. 707 b, v&repov i^ drdarjs Kp^f/Trjs 6 i$iX(t)v...oi ydp irov top 
PovX6fitp6p yc 'EXX-ffPtap avpdycTe: and Stallb. a passage from Xen. 
Anab. i. 4, 5irwj jult^otc Ht, ^arai M T(p ddeXtptp, Add Rep. v. 
460 A, TO ttXtjOos tujp yd/jnov iirl tois Apxovtn TTOffyrofiep. 6 to 

peoPLKOp di} TovTo] * To quote that spirited phrase of yours.* 
Callicles had apologized for the roughness of the expression: df n 
Kal dypoiK&repop elprjaffait ^effTiv iirl ko^/^s HfirropTd <re k,t.X., 
p. 486 0, where see the note. Socr. softens down the dypoiKOP of 
Callicles into peaviKOP^ 'bold,' * smart.' In apologizing for the 
vigour of his own language, he presently adopts the stronger 
epithet dypoiKOTepop, inf. 509 a. pcopikop is one ot tb^s^-^j^ ^s^^t^i^^^'i^ 



216 G0RGIA8. [508 D— 

which ma; imply either praise or censure ; and on that account 
commends itself to an etfwv such as Socr. was. SO ravra 

ilfuv AiKo] 'These statements, which were before shown in the 
course of our past discussion to be as I say, are, however uncouth 
the expression may sound (however harsh the metaphor), held 
firmly and tied fast by a chain of argument strong as iron or as 
adamant.' The expression &iKa iKcT could not have been intro- 
duced by way of gloss upon the more usual iv tois irpdffde \6yoiSf 
as Hirsch., who brackets them, would seem to imagine. The 
conclusion Socr. has just drawn {ivddde) had been shown iKcty in 
another place, farther back in the discussion, to follow from the 
premisses. It is conceivable that iv r. vp, X. may have been added 
as a marginal explanation of difu ixeij as l^ixvpwrdev occasionally 
appears after vvv hij when it is not wanted: but on this I do not 
insist, as the redundancy is not without its rhetorical effect in the 
present instance, irpdffde for the vulg. vp6(Tdev occurs in the 
Bodl., and is retained by Bekk. and Hirsch., though condemned 
as un-Attic by Lobeck, Phryn. p. 284. The constant occurrence 
of vpoffde in the comic poets, in places where the metre forbids 
rrpoffOevt makes it unlikely that it would grate on Athenian ears 
when occurring in prose. 38 ws yovv iw do^eiev ourtaa-iv] 'as 

would seem, at any rate on a ^i-imd facie view*: that is, unless 
proved to be otherwise. 

Page 100. 4 ToW^ dvdyKff ra&njv] ^It cannot fail but that 
this is the power it is most shameful to be without — the power of 
rendering aid' &c. ra^brqv L t^v aJUrx^<^- poi^d. is put by 'at- 
traction' for TovTo elvat, at<rxt<TT0Vf fx^ tivaaOai ^orideiv. Properly it 
is not the poi^Oeia but its absence which is disgraceful — ^ alffx^arrj 
ddwafda rov ^O^tv, as Heind. puts it. The most disgraceful 
form of helplessness is, not to be able, after wrong done, to render 
oneself up to justice: the second, not to be able to preserve 
oneself from doing wrong: the third, to be unable to defend self 
or Mends from wrong done by others. This paradox of course 
must rest on the principle that punishment, and nothing besides 
punishment, has a medicinal effect upon the offender: which 
being granted, it follows that it is, if possible, worse for a man to 
'continue in sin' by escaping punishment, than to sin in the first 
instance; and that if worse, it is more disgraceful. The fallacy 
seems to lie in the assumption that a man has no other means of 
purifying his soul from the taint of wickedness than that implied 
m ihe words didopcu dUriv. For though Sidovai dUriif might admit 

510 a] notes. 217 

the milder meaning of 'making amends* to the person injured, 
that is not Plato's meaning here. Again, it can by no means be 
conceded that the shame of not performing an act of heroic virtue 
is proportional to the glory of performing it, as the sequel would 
seem to imply. Shame and glory are rather in inverse than direct 
proportion in such cases: for it is never glorious to perform an 
act which it is very disgraceful to omit. No one, for instance, 
ever thought himself a hero for supporting his wife and family, or 
again, for abstaining from murder or theft. Nor does any stain 
rest on the Boman name, because Ourtius alone dared to leap into 
the gulf. But the words xaxdv and dya66v, as used in this 
argument, referred to the effect of a man's conduct on his 
spiritual nature, and this is a matter to which the consideration 
of judicial penalties is in reality irrelevant. Plato's reasoning 
involves the principle of punishment 'pro salute animae,' which 
he avows in more places than one, but nowhere perhaps so 
distinctly as in the Laws, viii. 862 n, e. The 'medicinal' nature 
of punishment is recognized also by Arist. Eth. N. ii. 3. 4, {al 
KoXdaeis) larpeial rivh elaiv, 15 tI ovv w TrapaaKevcurdfievos] A 

ne w question is here started : wrong-doing and wrong-suffering 
bemg evils, and wrong-doing a greater evil than wrong-suffering, 
how is a man to procure himself the advantage of exemption from 
either? As regards the former it is argued that, inasmuch as no 
man does wrong willingly, his wrong-doing must be due to want 
of power, not to want of will to avoid it. He must therefore 
procure this power or art by instruction and exercise — by such 
discipline, we may suppose, as we find prescribed in the Bepublic. 
But to avoid suffering wrong there are but two methods possible: 
either a man must make himself absolute ruler in the state, or 
else he must make friends with those in power (inf. 510) : and that 
can only be done by making himself like them (ibid. e). He who 
succeeds in doing this is safe; he who refuses is in jeopardy every 
hour. 80 fiTfdiva ^ovMixevov ddiKelv] Olymp., ivravOa dvor 

<f>aiver<u UKaT^tnuKhv Zbyfjudy t6 \4yoy on vdvra rd dfrnftn^fAara 
dKodaid i(mv...Kal (^ari rrapddo^ov. The dvoplaL suggested by this 
paradox are discussed at length Legg. is. 861 sqq. 

Page 101. a diaTrepdvji] The Bodl. and one other have 
Siairepap^, Edd. dtairepav^/s. The middle aor. is sufficiently 
common, and here, perhaps, better than the active. a Kal 

ivi TouTO — OTUJS fi^ ddiKi^aofiev] Codd. ddiK^ffiafieVi oorr. Heind. 
The correction was indispensable. Such vet\^% «8^ b^v^ qkvk^v^ 

218 GORGIAS. [610 a— 

irapaiTKcvd^eiv, /ArixavourdaL, <kc., are followed by 8irw with the fut., 
not with the oonj. The reason is obvious : Swus in such a context 
retains its original sense 'quomodo.' So inf. d, irapaffKcvd^eiv 
dvws 8 TL fidXiffTa 6fiMos ^ffrai iKclpip. 513 A, 8pa...87r(as fi^ 
weiadficdaf where the codd. give the solecistic form veKribfieSa (for 
irddia/xev), 11 61 iraXaiol re Kod <ro<f>o[] So in the Lysis this 

trite proverb is said to be found "in the writings of the very wise," 
who it would seem are ol irepl "Ofirfpov. Od. xvii. 218, C)s aUl rbv 
SfMiov Ayei debs ths tov 6fAoiov, Aristotle gives a list of proverbs 
with this meaning. Bhet. i. 11. 25, <hs ^\i^ ijXiKa r^pirei, Kal fbs 
aUl rbv Sfioiov, Kal ^yvu di O^p d^pa, koX del KoXoibi irapd 
Ko\, But * birds' of this 'feather' are heard in all languages. 
ao OiKwv Sttov Hfpavvoi] These words have been supposed to 
contain a covert allusion to a passage in Plato's private history ; 
his sojourn at the court of Dionysius I., and its disastrous 
termination. If this is so, this dialogue must have been com- 
posed after B.C. 388. But the epithet dvalSevTos is hardly 
applicable to a man of such literary accomplishments as the 
elder Dionysius, who is moreover credited with ffo<pla by Plato 
himself, and contrasted in that respect with his successor, Ep. vii. 
332 0, n. And in any case the supposition is gratuitous : for 
Plato had enjoyed ample opportunities of acquainting himself 
with the characteristics of the ripavvoi even before he left Athens. 
See the same Epistle, p. 324 d. 33 koX To&r(p i^ a.] ' And to 

him, the tyrant, he, the virtuous man, could never in his heart of 
hearts be a friend.' That there is this change of subject in the 
sentence appears from the next j^Tjcis of Socr., where the implied 
predicate to ovros is oiJ/c ai' b^aiTo 0. yev. Parallel instances are 
accumulated by Heind. and Stallb., the latter referring to Liv. i. 
60, ''Ne id quidem ab Turno tulisse tacitum ferunt [so. Tar- 
quinium]; dixisse enim [h.e. Turnum] Nullam breviorem esse 
cognitionem" <&c., where the student will find the notes in 
Drakenborch's ed. worth attention. In Greek a good instance is 
that in Bep. ii. p. 359 b, to&tov 6^ yevopuivov d<l>av7j a^bv yevMw, 
(sc. rbv V&^T^v) ToU irapaKadrifUvois, Kal diaX^yeadat (as irepl 
olxofxivov (sc. Toifs TapaKadrjfjL^vovs). 38 (hs vpbs <pt\ov 

airovddffeiev'] As (nroudi^ denotes warmth, earnestness, (nrovdd- 
^eiv irpbs nva (comp. Lat. 'studere alicui') signifies esteem, 
affection, or attachment. In Bep. iii. 403 o, we find vphs 5v 
ns ffirovbd^i said of the attachment of an ipaari/js. The tyrant 
might amuse himself in the society of a man worse than 

611 b] notes. 219 

himself, but ooald never feel for him the esteem and affection 
due to a friend. 

Page 102. 1 ovTos fUya — rovrov oiddels] So Persius, Sat. ii. 
37, '*Hunc optent genemm rex et regina, puellae Hunc rapiant, 
quicquid oalcaverit hie rosa fiat." Comp. the donble iKctPof in 
Eur. Bacch. 248, iKcTvos etvoU tpTfai Aidvvaov dedvt 'Ekcivos iv firip^ 
iror' ijil>a<l>6ai At6s, where the repetition implies contempt instead 
of honour. Presently raiJri; r^ irdXei refers not to Athens, but to 
the ir6X(S Sirov vOpoufvds iariv &px^v fc.r.X. sup. B. 18 Cai 6 

{ffih-epos \6yos] * As you and your friends would say.* This refers 
especially to fxiya d6va(rd<Ui which Socr. himself would of course 
refuse to predicate of the person described. Sup. 466 b, i\dxt(rr6v 
/loi doKoOffi tQv iv TQ 7r6X6( d6yaffd<u ol fin^Topes. But the general 
doctrine that in order to rise in a state it is necessary to share 
the spirit or ^dos which animates such state was a commonplace 
both with philosophers and orators. So Demosth. c. Androt. 
p. 613 (§ 79), rbv birkp v6\€(ai irpdrrovrd tl dei rd ttjs iroXews tjOos 
/ufi€i<r6ai. Compare Timoor. p. 753, where the bright side of the 
Athenian rjdos is exhibited. Isocr. Nicocl. 21 a, t6 rijs wdXem 
(UKris ^6os d/uLoiovrau rots ApxovaiVy is the converse of the proposition. 
14 dtan-eirpd^erat] * will have been achieved ' : i.e. after he has thus 
schooled himself into sympathy with the ruling powers, he, the 
aspirant just mentioned, will have attained to the much-coveted 
power and security from wrong. In the Laws, viii. 829, we read, 
t6 fjukv (fi^ dhiKcXv) oi> irdvv xaXcTro*', tov 6^ fi^ ddiKeurOai KTriaaffdou 
di&vafuv irayxdXeirov, koX oi>K iarip a^rb tcX^ws axeiv AXXws 17 tcX^wj 
yevopjevov dyaOov, In the sequel of this passage the principle is 
applied to international relations, in a manner not uninteresting 
to the citizens of a non-intervening state. 19 ot(p re etvai — koX 

dSiKoOvTo] The change of case is justified by 492 b, ivel ye ots i^ 
dpxvs inrrjp^ev 17 ^aaCKiwv vUaiP elvcu rj a^oi>s r^ 0t^(ret Uavoifs /c.r.X. 
Of the MSS., however, one gives otov re, and several ddiKovvri. 
The same variation is found 525 b, rl ^ekriovL ylyv€(rdai...'rl 
Trapadeiy/JMTi (al. Trapddeiyfia) rots dWois ylyveaOai, 37 ^ o^/c 

dt<r6a on] * or do you need to be told that our imitator will slay 
your non-imitator, if he have a mind, and will spoil his goods?* 
6 fup.ovp.evos is transitive, though foolishly supposed to be passive 
by Thomas Mag., in v. pup.oOpLaif as if it referred to rdpawos — the 
person imitated. The imitator will have this power, are p.iya 

duvdp.evo5 iv T'S TTOXet. 

Page 103. a OiJkoOv toOto B-ft Qt^xm. "It. ^^As^* ^^ssiL xssr^ss^ 

220 Q0RGIA8, [611 B— 

eben das das Emporende ?" " And is not this the very thing that 
makes one so indignant?" viz. that a fiox^vpos should take the 
life of a icaX6s KdyaOdsf This is the sense required in order to 
give point to Soor.'s reply. The *irrisio* which Ast and Stallh. 
discover is out of place here, for Gallicles was quite earnest in the 
warning he addressed to Socr. Comp. 486 b, Karriyopov rvx^^^ 
ir&vv ^>a6\ov Kal fiox^VP^^* dvoddvois dv, el pouXoiro Ocwdrov ffoi 
Tifxaadai. 5 rj otei Seiv tovto] Soor. proceeds to show, with an 

affectation of inductive reasoning, that if forensic rhetoric has the 
life-preserving power claimed for it, it does not therefore follow 
that it is a liberal or dignified art. Exaggerated as this may seem, 
Plato's deliberate convictions pointed this way. Thus in the 
Laws, his latest work, he says, '*The union of soul and body is 
in no wise a better thing than their dissolution, as I should say, 
and that with perfect seriousness." And accordingly he enjoins 
that public honours be paid to Pluto every twelfth month, adding, 
Kal o6 5u(rxcpo»'T^ov rroXefUKoh dvdptbwois rbv toioOtov Oedv, dWd 
Tifxiffriov u)f ovra del T<p rcDv dvdpdairdiv y^vei, Apurrov, 828 c, D. 
IB 0^ fidvov rds ^i/xas aibj^ei] Olymp., rpvxds vw KoKeX ras ^(ods. 
True, no doubt ; but what becomes of the antithesis dXXd koX rd 
aibfMTa^ This refers to the 'bodies* of other members of the 
passenger's family — irdidas koX ywcuKas named presently after. 
The pilot's art saves not only the lives of passengers, but the 
persons and chattels belonging to them. ao vpoaeffroKfiiifri] 

Said properly of a close-fitting dress — ^vestis oppressa corpori — or 
of skin or other integument which adheres tightly to the body. 
Galen, irpocrflrAXcreu t$ xpw*^ ^^ d4p/xa, Arist. Hist. An. 9, 0pi^ 
vpoaeGTokiUvTi, Hence in its applied sense ir/)o<re(rr.s plain, 
humble, modest. avveffToKfUvoi is used in nearly the same 
manner, as Isocr. p. 280 d, aweaTokfxiyrjy ix^^ "^W dtdvoiavt oiairep 
XP^ Toi)s €u ippovowras. Opposed to dyKibdr/s or iirax&V^* 2X oi 
c€fAviiv€Tai ^<rxi7/iart0'/t6'i7] *She does not plume herself on her 
performance, making believe that it is some dazzling achievement.' 
Tim. GL, o'x^Mart^o/xei'os, Trpo^iroiodfxcvos. Phaedr. 255 a, oifx 
inrd irx'nP'O.Ti^oiAivov t(w ipQvros dXX* dXtjOios tovto ireirovd&ros, Ach. 
Tat. p. 148, dKxii;^ Kal <TxvP^'''^tv '•'pds dvbvoiav, 'Your mincing 
and affectation are intolerable.' 34 di)' 6^\oi%\ This very 

modest fare had been greatly increased in Luoian's time. Navig. 
15, h Myivav ivl t^v ttj^ ^Epodlas T€\€T^v...'irdvT€S afw. ol ^IXoi 
TtTTdptav iKa<TTos d^oXQv di€v\€Jj<ra/jL€v, Here, on the contrary, 
tJ2e two oboli are paid for the entire party. See Boeokh, Staatsh. 

612 c] NOTES. 221 

i. p. 166, 2te Au8g. 35 Hlv vdfivoKv raOrrit t^j fJxydXrft 

€6€py€(TLai\ Supply wpdmiTai, and comp. Eriphus, Com. ap. Athen. 
84 B, To&ruv fUv 6po\6v, el iroX«J, rlOrifu, Also Apol. 26 D, i^eariVf 
el tcAmv iroXXoO, dpaxfJ^^s vpiafjJvois ic.r.X. The utmost she ever 
asks for this great service is two drachms, for saving the good- 
man, his children, his money, and his womankind, iv iitrpii^ 
<rxAimTiy 'with unassuming carriage/ without pomp or parade. 
(Tx^/Mt, as Stallb. points out, is not 'vestitus,* but * habitus'; 
*port/ 'bearing,* 'general aspect.' So Soph. Ant. 1169, koI fl 
rCpawov (Tx^/A ^x*^- Ltioian, Timon, c. 54, o^oi 6 to <rxvM^ 
eioTaX'qSt Kal K6<Tfuo5 to ^ddurfMj Kcd <r<a4>poviKbs r^v dvafioXi^v, 

Page 104. 8 Xoyl^eToi odv 6ti o^k] The negative belongs 
properly to the second limb of the sentence, To&rtp 5i piwiov 
iaH. The meditative skipper cannot tolerate the inconsistency of 
supposing that if a man labouring under an incurable bodily 
disease had better perish at sea and have done with it, one whose 
soul is a mass of vice and corruption ought to live on, and will be 
greatly the better for his preserver's exertions. Hirsch. unac- 
countably brackets od/r, but Stallb. properly compares 516 e, 
oHkovv otyedyadol ijvloxot /car* dpxds fA^v oi}ic iKvlvTovviv ix tCHv 

^eirytDv, iireiddv di Oepave^auxri rods iwovs tot iKirlirrovffi. 

'We cannot suppose that skilful drivers, who are not thrown 
out when their team is raw, will be unable to keep their footing 
when driving well-broken steeds.' In To&rtfi di fiiurriov itrrl koI 
toOtov 6v'fi(r€i€»f there is apparently a change from direct to ob- 
lique, as Tim. 18 O, /xrjxoi'VtifJLeyos Stnas fxrfdels rd yeyevT^fUvov 
yv(h(roiTO, vofAioOai 5k trdvTCi k,t.\. Conversely Menex. 240 d, 
di8d(rKa\oi.,,y€y6fJL€»oif &ti o^k dfMxos etri ij HepaQv dCvafuSt dXXd 
iray ir\7ldo5...dpeTy iTeUei, So Stallb., but he translates 
itfiiaeiev as if it were potential, ' juvari posse.' In which case we 
must read dtHjaeiev 6», or &v dv^aeiev, as Heind. suggests. I am 
not aware of any certain instance in Attic prose of the omission 
of &y, where the so-called optative is evidently potential. That 
quoted in Heind.'s note is not in point, being an ordinary case of 
oratio obliqua. Bep. 352 c, quoted by Eiihner (Jelf, Gr. Gr. 
§ 426, Obs. 1), is equally wide of the mark, for there the d» is 
merely not repeated. 18 fii^ troi doKcT KaTd Tbv SucopiKdv 

c&cu] 'You would not think of bringing him, the engineer, 
down to the level of a mere advocate?* Symp. 211 d, d (sc. adrd 
rb KaXbv) idv rrore Idxi^, o^ kaTa xfi^^^ '''• 'f*^ iffdTJra xal tovs 
KoKoi/s vaidai KoXveaplffKOvs db^ei ffoi etvai. 33 iKav^^'v^^^ 

222 GORGIAS. [512 c— 

a6T$ 6 \6yos] Germ. Tr. "denn an Griinden wiirde es ihm nicht 
fehlen." Better than Stallb.'s '* Nam larga ei dicendi copia.'' 
\6yoi is the theme or argument taken up by the supposed 
engineer, who will find plenty to say about it. We might say 
'*his theme is a fruitful one." In the previous clause there is an 
apparent pleonasm, iirl rb Seuf yiyv€<rBai for M rd ytyvetrdai. Tr. 
*argaing and preaching up the duty of becoming engineers — no 
other profession being worth anything.' 34 cbs ^i' dveldei 

dvoKoK^ffais Av] The comp. dTroxaXeti' generally implies the Cos iv 
dvelSeiy as Theaet. 168 n, x<^/^^>'Tt0'M^v &iroKa\(av, Demosth. F. L. 
p. 417, Xoyoypd^vs toIvw Kal (Totf>uTTh.'5 ijroKaKQv roifs dXKovs xal 
ippl^cLP ireipthfJievoSi ah-ds i^eXeyxOT^ccTai roiJrots uv (voxos. So in 
Xenophon, Sophocles, Euripides. But in the spurious Sisyphus 
we have dvoKaXovtriv e^/Soi^Xoi/s, and it may be observed that in 
later Greek generally, Attok. is used in a neutral or laudatory, as 
well as in the vituperative sense, which is the only one noticed by 
Dr Donaldson, N. Crat. § 184, who accounts in an ingenious 
manner for the bad sense of the compound. 

Page 105. 1 KarayiXaffrds aot 6 ^^70$] Callicles seems 
from the context to have been a man of rank. A citizen of the 
middle class would scarcely have disdained to ally himself with a 
physician, whatever he might think of a firjxavoTroLds. In Greece 
the medical profiession was esteemed * liberal.' See Bekker's 
Charicles, p. 281, Transl. 5 fi^ yhp tovto fju^v, rb f^»» 

birocovb^ Xpbpov] 'For the question of living a few years more or 
less is one, I apprehend, which he who is really and not in name 
only a man, will do well to dismiss from his thoughts.' An 
objection was taken by Buttmann to the construction fiij — iffrl, 
following fjL^ y. He accordingly proposed xal yb.p tovto tiiv^ but 
afterwards recanted. The use of fiii interrogative or dubitative 
with the indie, is recognized by grammarians. Alo. ii. 189 d, Bpa 
/A^ 0^ othia TavT* ?x^** Soph. Trach. 561, Tavr* ovv (po^oOfmi /ju^ 
ir6<7i$ fih 'Hpa/cX^s 'E/u6s KaXetrat, t^s vewTipas 5' &vi^p, Thuc. iii. 
53, vdv d^ (pofioi^fAcda /a^ diJ,<f>oTip(ov -fifiapr^Kafiep, Isocr. ad PhiL 
p. 85 E, i^€Tr\dyriaoi» fji,^ did t6 y^pas i^iaTTjKa toO <f>pov€iv (Bekk. 
i^€ffT7iici>s (3). Theaet. 196 b, ivdvfiov /tij rt TbTe ylyverai dXXo, 
where see Heind. In all these oases /ui^ denotes doubt or mis- 
giving concerning the present rather than fear for the future. 
Hence the frequent use of fi-^voTc in Aristotle, where an diropLa is 
suggested. Eth. N. x. 1. 3, MiJ iroTt dk oti /coXws tovto \4yeTou. From 
this the transition to the later meaning ' perhaps ' is very easy. For 

513 a] notes. 223 

oToffoudT^ the MSS. give iyjrdaov 54 or Set, the former being retained 
by the Zurich edd. The emendation eifKriov for eariov may be 
passed over in silence ; but G. F. Hermann's ^ 5 1> jul^v tovto rb ^Vy 
bvbaov W xp* ^-t.X., deserves to be mentioned for its curiosity. 
Stallb. *B ^i; 7Ap Touro /Wy, rb ^V bTrbaov bk yjibvov k.t.\. appears 
to me very lame. He interprets his text thus : '* noli enim putare 
istud quidem, videlicet nt vivas, honestum atque bonum esse: 
imo quamdiu (vivat) id earn, qui vere vir sit, curare non oportet," 
Ac. 8 irurrej^ffavTa rats ywou^Lv] Routh appositely quotes 

Cic. N. D. i. 20, ^'Quanti haec philosophia aestimanda est, cui 
tanqnam aniculis et his quidem indoctis fato fieri videntur 
omnia." rb iwl To&rip=^ in. the next place.* "Adverbii loco 
adhibetur rb iirl ra&rtfii rb iirl rtpde velut rb fierb. tovto. Apol. 27 b, 
dXXd Tb iirl roirtfi dnoKpivai, ted* SffTis etc." Heind. 13 Kal 

vvv bk &pa bel <r4] *And whether at the present time it is not 
your special duty to make yourself as like as possible to the 
Athenian demus, if you would make friends with it, and acquire 
great power and influence in the state.' dpa=*all things con- 
sidered.' The clause depends on <TK€irrioVi as if w&repov had 
followed with a finite verb, instead of apa with a participle. 
15 Svws ix^ veiiThixedal So Heind. for the solecistic Teiffibfjieda 
of earlier edd. The emendation is confirmed by the Bodl. Before 
Sttw, 6pa is virtually repeated, and the following dffraL is in 
apposition with ireurbfieda. ' See that we do not suffer the sup- 
posed fate of those witches of Thessaly who bring or try to bring 
the moon down from the sky. See, I mean, that the choice of 
that political power we spoke of, do not cost us all that we hold 
most dear.' The Gomm. quote Virg. Eel. viii. 69, "Carmina vel 
caelo possunt deducere Lunam." Arist. Nub. 749, where Strep- 
siadee proposes to purchase a Thessalian hag possessed of these 
accomplishments, for the purpose of defrauding his creditors — 
for, as he observes, el fkriKir avariWoi (reXiivq firjbafioO, O^k Slv 
diroboirfv tovs t6kovs. Lucan (Phars. vi. 438 sqq.) describes with 
his usual diffuseness the black arts of the Thessalides. In 
particular see line 499, *411is et sidera primum Praecipiti deducta 
polo : Phoebeque serena Non alitor, diris verborum obsessa vene- 
nis, Palluit, et nigris terrenisque ignibus arsit, Quam si fraterna 
prohiberet imagine tellus." The superstition that the exercise of 
supernatural influence is dearly purchased by the adept has 
survived to modem times. It is expressed in the Greek proverb 
(Paroemiogr. ii. p. 417, Leutsoh.), ivl cavrui r\v <r ^Vfvvtv^ 

224 QOROIAS. [613 A— 

KadiXxtii' iirl tQv iavrots /ca«A iviffTiafiiviov. at ydtp rf^ acXi/^rfw 
KadeXKoi^ffai QerraTddes \iyovTcu. tG>v 6<f>da\fiQp Kal rQv rodQy 
ffTcplffKeadai. For the idiom <n>v rots ^cXrdrocf, comp. Xen. Cyr. 
iii. 1. 34, ffifv tQ trt^ dya$f rits TifAwplai 7roieT(rdai, Stallb. quotes 
Horn. H. iv. 161, <r^ re fAcydXip dir^Turav, Xify <r<f^<Ti.v ic€0aX^t, 
yvvat^i re koX TCKieaai, 38 o^ ydp fUfArjTTjv del etvcu] *It will 

not do,' says Socr., * merely to copy the ways, whether of the 
Athenian Demns, or the Demos of Pyrilampes; you must be 
radically like them if you would make any real progress in the 
affections either of the former, or, by heaven, of the latter either.' 
To&rois refers to the Athenians : the ' Demus of Pyrilampes* being 
an after-thought. But it is difSicult to render the passage 
intelligibly without some such prolepsis as that adopted in the 
translation. 83 Aiyofih rt] The more usual \4y<afi€y is 

found in five codd. named by Bekk. But the best give X^o^ei', 
which, as Heind. remarks, is justified by the common formula 
if irQs \4yofji€v; 

Page 106. 3 rd tQv ToWQvvddos] An example of this rrddos 
is found in the admission of Meno, a&rbs Swep ol iroWol iriirovda * 
t6t€ ii4v fjMi doKovffi, rork d^ oH, Men. 95 c. Compare the well- 
known passage in Cicero, Tusc. Disp. i. 11. 24, ** dum lego assen- 

tior; quum posui librum assensio omnis ilia elabitur": the 

* liber ' being the Phaedo of Plato. 5 idv voXKdKis tatas] " In 

Cod. Beg. a manu recente superscriptum £jov." Heind. This 
seems to have been done on the supposition that ^^ iroXXd/cts 
was used in the sense ' si forte,' and that taw koX piXriov (' equally 
well or better') went together. But it is better with Heind. to 
regard taws as transposed, as if we had found dXX' fo-o^s, idv iroX- 
"Kdxis Kal pi\Ttov...8iaaKOirdjfi€$at ir€i(Tdi^(r€L, For diaffKoirdfieda 
some codd. have the un-Attic diacKeimbixeda, 7 Si^o itpafiep 

etvai rds irapaaKcuds] See p. 464 B foil. 31 hnx^Lp^Tiov'— 

depair€TjcLv\ literally : * ought we not so to set to work upon the 
city and its citizens in order to their tendance, as to try to make 
them as good as they can be made ? ' Here the inf. Oepairei^eiv is 
epexegetic, as in the passage quoted by Stallb. from Bep. iii. 416, 
iirix€Lpijaai rots Trpopdrois KOLKovpyuv, Comp. Phaedr. 242 b, k<lI vvv 
av 8oK€h aXrids fuoL yeyetnjffOai XAytp twI j^ridrivai., 81 Trpd^oi'ras] 

I have given this on the authority of a few codd. The best seem 
to give TTpd^avTes. So Bodl. ; but according to Gaisford, ** o supra- 
scriptum a manu redente." wpd^oPTas is equiv. to cbs wpd^ovras, as 
521 B, KoKaKcCffovra &pa fxe irapOKokeis, Stallb. defends rpd^avres 

516 d] notes. 225 

because it is equiv. to irix^ifyfi<ravT€s vpa^cu. This I am unable to 
understand. Buttm. irpd^ovres. For the genitive ttoKitik&p vpay- 
fidrtavj comp. Rep. iv. 445 d, Kiv^ffei^v B,v r(av A^iwv \byov vbfiwv t^j 

Page 107. la ToXXd dk Kol tSia ijfiQv] *' Dictum ut ^tUrepa 
adTdjy" Heind. Bekk., Stallb., and Hirsch. have I5l<;f, ^0' ijfi&v, 
the preposition occurring in but one MS. ^S/g, though better sup- 
ported, is inappropriate here. It is properly opposed to drjfKXTig. — 

* in a private * as distinguished from a public or official capacity. 
But a work done under the eye of a master (/ter^ dida(TKd\<av) may 
be done /^^g, though it is not tdiov tov fiaBrjrovy as an independent 
performance is. 14 ofh-u fUv SiaKeifi^vuvl * If we had fulfilled 
these conditions, we might with prudence venture on the public 
works, otherwise it were absurd to attempt them.* After A.vbriTov 
riv the av is omitted. Soph. Oed. T. 255, ojJ8* el ydip rju rb irpay/xa 
UT] Oei^XaTOv, ^AjcdOaprov v/xoLs eUbs jjv o&rus iav. With this idiom 
the Latin coincides: Ovid, Am. 1. 6. 34, '* Solus eram, si non 
saevus adesset Amor." Virg. Georg. ii. 132, "Et, si non alinm 
longe jactaret odorem, Laurus erat." See instances from Plato in 
Ast, Lex. P., p. 136. 38 drf/jLoaiehiv] See the note on p. 455 b. 

* Before we set up for state-physicians,' says Socr., *we ought to 
have had considerable and successful private practice, otherwise 
we shall be acting like a potter's apprentice, who should try his 
unpractised hand on a wine-jar, instead of some smaller and less 
costly vessel — we shall begin in fact where we ought to have 
ended.' 39 rjifpiffKOfAeu] The rare augmented form has been 
replaced by Bekk., following the Bodl. See L. Dindorf in Steph. 
Lex. iii. col. 2420, who defends the augment by reference to an 
inscription dating from the 95th Olymp. Comp. Elmsley on 
Heracl. 305, and see inf. 615 e. 

Page 108. 4 eV r^ irl0<fi ttiv Kepa/nclw] This proverb in effect 
answers to the adage, "Fiat ezperimentum in corpora vili," and 
to the Greek itf rf Kapl b Kivbwot. See Laches 187 b. So taken 
by most writers. See Paroemiogr. Gr. i. p. 73, Leutsch, where an 
alternative explanation is cited from Dicaearohus : r^ tieKir-nv iv 
rots bfxolois rroieurOaij ws Kupepvi^rfs ivl rijs v^os Kal ijvloxos M tCjp 
tvirwv. An instance of this application is given in the note 1.1. 
37 ^irtas 6 ri ^iknaroi oi voKItoi, C^iji^v] . * That we the citizens may 
be as good as possible' : unless the ol be a careless repetition of the 
last two letters of ^tknvroi. 

Page 109. 14 Oi>K icm 6iJ] So Le^^^, ^^& <i, <^\)k vau»'4 »^ 

PL. aOR. ^"^ 

226 GORQIAS. [615 D— 

8vT(as. Bekk. retains iet, the reading of the best MSS., whioh 
may perhaps be defended by Theaetet. 184 a, Set di o^idirepa, dXXa 
OealrrfTOv iav Kvei vepi ivurn^fAris veipcurdai iifxas ry fiaievTiK^ t^x^V 
dvoXvffai, But del and difi are not unfrequently confounded, as 
Phaedr. 261 a, ro&rtav dei tQv \6y(av, vulg. to^twv 5iJ, In either 
case we may translate: '* There is no room for a * perhaps'; it 
follows necessarily from the premisses," &o. 31 XdXous] In 

the Banae of Aristophanes, Enripides claims the credit of having 
made the Athenians garrulous: "Eiretra tovtovcX XaXeti' iU^a^a, 
Mffx. ^fJil Kdytb. How Pericles can have made the Athenians 
* cowardly/ it is not easy to understand. Aristides is justly in- 
dignant at the imputation, and asks with great force, rl X^ets; 
8etXoi)s HepiKXifS, <a deol, SetXoiJs; ds Kal drjfirfyopuv €^6i/s hOMe 
ijp^arOy Irjs fUv yvibfirfs, ^01?, ti}s ai/rijs, w ' AOrivatoij del ^x^fiau, fiTj 
€tK€ip HeXoirowiialoiSy 6 rls riav els iKeivriv r^v ijfiipav eladira^ elveip 
iddfil>rf<T€v ; De Quatuorv. p. 136, Jebb. €^s fuaOotpoplav — Kara- 

ffn^ffavTo] Pericles introduced the practice of paying dicasts. 
Arist. Polit. ii. ad fin., rd diKacrtipia iuvdo<f>6pa Kariari^e litpiKXrjs, 
It was he also who persuaded the Athenians to pay their soldiers, 
who had previously served at their own expense (Boeokh, Staatsh. 
i. 377, 2te Ausg.). The theoricon does not so properly come under 
the head of /uo-^o^opfa, but Plato may have had it in view when he 
added dpyla to the vices which he supposes Pericles to have 
fostered. 28 T&v rd Crra KareayiTcjv] *You hear this from 

the men of bruised ears,' i.e. from those who are addicted to 
pugilistic exercises, a sign of Laconism.f Protag. 342 b, ^^T^Trar^- 
Kaai rovf iv reus TrdXeai AaKuvll^ovras^ Kal oi fi^v rd wrct re KaTaypvprai 
/jLifioiL/fievoL ai)roi5s, Kal IfwvTas trepieiXlTTovTOA, Kal ipCKoyvixvacrovai koL 
^paxeias dva^oXds <f>opovaiVf u)s S^ TOilrrois Kparovvras ruv *E\\i^p(au 
Toi/s AaKcSai/iiovlovs, Theocr. xxii. 45, dewbs Idetv, (TK\rjpaiffL reffXay- 
fUvos o{>aTa nvyfrnh* The affectation of Laconian manners, ridi- 
culed in the Protag., is however attributed to Socrates himself by 
Aristoph. Av. 1281, 'EKaKwvofidvovv dira^res Avdpoyjroi r&re *EK6fjuaVj 
iveivuw, i/ifuh-uvf icuKparuv. Laconism was affected by the oli- 
garchs, whose prejudices Gallicles accuses Socr. of having adop- 
ted. 26 TiifSoKifAei] So the Bodl. and Vat. 1. Vulg. eifhoKlyxi. 
29 iy€y6vi(Tav'\ Found in the BodL <&c. ycydveaav Bekk.> Heind., 
Stallb., &om inferior MSS. But in Symp. 173 b all give vapaye- 
ybv€u SO kKov^v avrov KaT€\//f}(pl<TavTo] Thucydides mentions 
only the fine, without specifying the pretext under which it was 
inflicted^ ii. 65, ov tUvroi Tpdrepdv ye ol ^^fivavrcs iva^aavro iv 6pyy 

616 A] NOTES. 227 

ixopres avTOP vplv i^fUwraof "xp-f^fiaxnv. Hffrepov 5k adOis ov iroXXy, 
direp 0tXe? 5/euXos woietj', ffTpanfybv etXovro koX Trdvra ra xp'J/^ttTa 
ivirpeyf/aif. It would have been fairer if Socr. had noticed the 
change of feeling on the part of his conntrymen, and the hand- 
some amends they made to the statesman whom they had injnred : 
fairer also if he had made some allowance for the effect of un- 
exampled calamity in disturbing their judgment. Meanwhile it is 
clear that Plato disbelieved the charge on which Pericles was 
condemned, else he would not have brought it forward in proof of 
the supposed deterioration of the Athenians under his government. 
I assume that Plato and Thucydides allude to the same charge, 
though Heind., and with him Stallb., suppose that the kXotttjs 5Urf 
is that in which Phidias had been implicated before the Pelopon- 
nesian war. But it does not appear that Pericles was condemned 
or even brought to trial on this charge. In fact, the malicious 
report that he " blew into a flame " the warlike passions of the 
Athenians, in order that they might be diverted from inquiring 
into his proceedings (Pint. Per. p. 169 f), coupled with the absence 
of any testimony as to the fact of the trial or its result, is a proof 
that it never took place : unless, indeed, we suppose that the old 
charge was revived on the occasion alluded to by Thucydides. But 
this we are nowhere told, and it is more probable that the pretext 
for the latter attack was misappropriation of money entrusted to 
him in his capacity of strategus (kKoiH) drifiwrla, Legg. 857 b). This 
supposition is not inconsistent with the narrative of Plutarch, 
p. 171 D, E, and is even suggested by the emphatic words of 
Thucydides, trrpaTrjybv cTKopto koX TdvroL ri, xp'ht^^'^O' ivh-p^yj/aif. 
Lastly, Plato's phrase, eVl reKevr^ tov fiiov, seems of itself to fix 
the date of the transaction. The words 6\iyov 8i Kal Bavdrov 
irLfjirfffay may be an exaggeration, for they are not confirmed by 
the historians ; but with this possible abatement, there seems no 
reason to impeach the accuracy of Plato's story. The amount of 
the fine inflicted was very large : 15 talents according to the lowest, 
50 and even 80 according to other estimates. See Grote, H. G. vi. 
p. 226, note (1). Boeckh, Staatsh. 1. p. 506, who supposes that the 
larger sum represents the damages fixed by the accuser, the smaller 
those actually recovered. 

Page 110. a "O^wv yovv cut iirifxcXriTTis] The same homely 
comparison is put in the mouth of Socr. by Xenophon, Mem. i. 2. 
32, Elir^ irov 6 I^WKpaTiji tri davfmardp ol doKoli^ etvou, et res, yepdfjiepos 
^oQp dy^Xrfs pofjuifs Kal rds ^ous iXdrrous re koJL y^i.^\i>% Tcwisv^ v^ 

\0— ^ 

228 GORGIAS. [516 a— 

6/1x0X070/17 KaKOS povKo\os etvait in dk OavfMiTT&repoVj et rtf , vpoffrdrrfs 
yev6fi€vos ir6Xcwj, Kal irotuv roifs ToXLras iXarrovs koX x^^po^^* M^ 
alax^vcrai /irid* dlercu Ktucbs elvai Tpoa-Tdrrjs r^s 7r6\€<as, This is said 
in reference to the administration of the XXX. — After XcucW^oiras 
several MSS. insert iavT6v, in which there is obviously an error. 
See later, p. 519 0. Others give avro^^s, which is more tolerable, 
and Aristides Bhet. aMv. 32 rjfiepoL Cjs i<pTf "OfAijpos] No such 

words of Homer are extant in our copies. The nearest approach 
to the sentiment is in the lines quoted by Bouth from Od. vi. 120 ; 
ix. 175, "H /&' oty {fftpurral re Kal Aypioi, o6d^ dlKaioif *B.i (piXd^ufOi 
Koi (Tipiv v6oi iarl deovSiji, 26 els aMfy 6v rjKKTT^ dv ^/SoiJXero] 

For eh 6v ijKiffT* dv ifi. This ellipse Heind. justifies by p. 453 e, 
ivl tQv aiiTuv rexyCjv Xiyofiep (Svirep vQv drj, Phaed. 76 n, iv ro^rip 
dvdWvfiev firep koX Xafx^dvofxevj where however the best MSS. give 
ip firep. More to the purpose is Lysias adv. Andoc., p. 255, Beisk., 
edvffev M tQp ficjfjubv Siv oiK i^ijv aih-f. 

Page 111. e o'^K i^uxrrpdKKrav aMv] Cimon's ostracism took 
place B.C. 461. He was recalled at the instance of his rival 
Pericles, b.o. 456, more than five years before the completion of 
his term of exile: oddiTrto vhre irQv irapeXrfXvd&ruv, as we learn 
from a fragment of Theopompus. Both his banishment and recall 
were owing to political causes ; and Plato ought to have mentioned 
the reparation as well as the supposed injury, as Aristides has 
justly remarked, Quatuorv. p. 158. Comp. Grote, H. G. v. p. 443. 
8 Oe/uo-roicX^a — <f>vyi Tpoffel^jfilucav'} This statement is quite 
correct, as the final sentence was passed during the ostracism 
of Themistocles. Thuc. i. 135, rod 6^ MriSiafioG rov Uavcraplou 
AaKedaifjUtvtoi irp4<rp€i5 vifi^apres vapd toj>s AOrfvaiovs ^weTrjiTtQvTO 
Kal rbv QefiuTTOKXiaf <as eUpiffKOP ix tQv trepl Hawraviav iXhfx^^^ 
7}^[ow T€ rots airroh Ko\d^e(T0ai airbv, oE Bk ireurdivTcs {^tvx^ yb-p 
ibcTpaKifffiivos Kol ix^^ diairav fUv iv "Apyei^ iwufMirQv 6i Kal is 
Ti}v dWrjv HeXoirdvvrtffov) Tifiirovai puerh, twv AaKcdaifiovtiav h'ol/xwv 
ovTtav ^vv8L(iKeiv Avdpas oTs dpuj^o dyeiv oirov dv irepiHrx,ia(nv, Thucy- 
dides adds, c. 138, that he could not be publicly buried in Attica, 
Cos ivl vpoSoffiq, (pe&yujv. With Plato, he omits to mention the 
heavier penalty of confiscation to which Themistocles as a traitor 
was subject, Plut. Them. c. 25. The language of Thucydides 
{ws eUpiffKov K.T.X,) does not prove either his belief or disbelief in 
the truth of the charges alleged by the Lacedaemonians ; but the 
fiight of Themistocles and his friendly reception at the Persian 
court could not fail to convince the Athenian people of his guilt, 

616 d] notes. 229 

and ought to be taken in justification of the second sentence. 
lO rbv [iu] 'MLapaOuvi] I have bracketed the preposition, not 
being satisfied of its admissibility. The stereotyped formula is 
rbv 'M.apaduvif as may be seen from the following passages of 
Aristophanes, in some of which ip is excluded by the metre, while 
in not one is it required. Arist. Eq. 781, 0-^ yhp ds Mi^Soto-i die^i- 
<f>i<r(a T€pl TTJs x^P^^ Mapad&vi, where the Bavenna Cod. inserts ip 
in violation of the metre. Ibid. 1334, Kai toO MapadQvi rpoiralov 
(al. ToiffinapaBQyL). Ach. 696, 697. Vesp. 711. Thesm. 806, wpos 
ixelvrjv ttjv Mapadcjvi, And such in the majority of cases is 
Plato's usage, according to the oodd. Comp. Arist. Bh. 1. 1. 
p. 196, MiXTiddTjs irpQrov MapaBCjvi^ koI Havff aulas ^(rrepov IlXarou- 
a<rt : whence we see that MapaOQui is in effect an adverb of place. 
On the other hand, no doubt rests on the reading t^p iv ^oKafuvL 
in Arist. Eq. 786. And in Isocr. PhiUpp. p. 112, we find U hk t^ 
MapaOQvL fidxrf^ Kcd Tijs iv TidKafupi vavfxaxias. But we sometimes 
find lioKapXpi alone, as in Menex. 246, rd rpdiraia rd re yiapadQfPt. 
KciX ^aXafuvi /caMIXaratous — ^though more frequently^)' Z. or rrepl 
ZaXa/iim, where the battle is spoken of. So ij iv 'Aprefualtp, or 
rrepl *ApT€/dffiop vavpxtxia — never ^ *ApT€fu<ri(pt ^ox an obvious 
reason. It would therefore be wrong to banish the preposition 
from all such formulae, as Cobet seems to recommend, Yv. LI. 
p. 204. Hirschig has not scrupled in the present instance to cut 
the knot by proposing to expunge rbp ip Mapadupi as a gloss. 
But the words have considerable rhetorical force as *augentia 
invidiam.' els to fidpadpop ipLfidKeip] The crime imputed to 

Miltiades was, that he had deceived and injured the Athenian 
people by employing the forces entrusted to him in prosecuting a 
private quarrel. We find from Xen. Hell. i. 7. 20, that there was 
\f/'tl<f>i,(r(ia Kappdpov Icx^P^^"^^* ^ ^ceXeiyet, i6» ris rbp tQv *A6r)pai(ap 
SijfWP ddiK^t deSeixipop aTroSiKeLP iy r^ di^fup' Kol Hlp Karayptaady 
ddiKe'ip, dirodapbPTa is rb ^dpadpop ijxfiXrjdijpai, The psephism of 
Cannonus was passed, no doubt, later than the time of Miltiades, 
but it refers to an existing punishment. There is, therefore, no 
antecedent improbability in the account given by Plato, though 
confirmed only by the Scholiast on Aristid. Bhet. p. 232, who says, 
^di\7)<rap a^bp KaraKprifAplaai. 6 di irp&rapis elaeXdiap i^-gn^ffaro 
airbv. According to Herod, vi. 136, the charge against Miltiades 
was capital : (%dvdi.mros) ffavdrov inrayayt^p iftrb rbp b^fwp "iliXridSea 
ibluKe T^s *Adripal<ap dirdrris hfeKa, a statement which by no mesAft 
excludes the former. The Prytania menWoxi^^ ^i^ "^VaJwi ^sA '^'^ 

230 G0RGIA8. [616 d— 

Sehol. was doubtless the Epistates or Chairman for the day, who 
had the power of refusing to put an objectionable motion to the 
vote. Herodotus, it is true, gives the people the credit of refusing 
to allow Miltiades to be punished capitally. But their wishes may 
have been carried out by the Prytanis in the exercise of his lawful 
power ; and Plato may be guilty of unfairness in imputing to the 
Athenians at large a sanguinary proposal emanating from a 
personal enemy of the accused. But more probably he only 
repeats a tradition of the anti-democratic clique in which he was 
brought up. The fidpadpov is explained as an opvy/m (Tim. Lex. 
in v.), or x'^^t^^' i^pcarCodes (Schol. Arist. Plut. 431), into which 
condemned malefactors, or more probably their bodies after 
execution, were thrown. The proposal would therefore, in the 
case of Miltiades, amount to a denial of the rites of sepulture. 
The Lacedaemonians, as we read in Thucydides i. 135, had 
designed to throw the dead body of Pausanias into the Gaeadas (a 
pit or chasm corresponding to the ^dpadpov at Athens), but after- 
wards relented and gave it burial. The Schol. on Aristides appears 
however to have thought that the Athenians, but for the Prytanis, 
would have had the victor of Marathon thrown down the pit alive 
{KaTaKprifjuf iff at) t and such may have been the practice in early and 
barbarous times. We are told by Pausanias, iv. 18. 4, that the 
Lacedaemonians thus punished their captives taken in one of the 
Messenian wars, and this sanguinary view of the uses of the 
barathrum seems to have found favour with scholiasts generally. 
Gomp. Schol. Arist. Plut. 431, iv d^ tQ x^^^'M^^* toiJtv inriipxov 
6yKiPoij ol,fUv &v(a ol dk Kdrio, So the Schol. Arist. Eccles. 1089, 
in giving his version of the psephism of Gannonus, alters the 
words of Xenophon from dirodapdvra els t6 fidpadpop i/ipKridrjvcu to 
els rb pdpadfov ifi^Xrjdivra dirodavetp. But from a well-known 
passage in Plato's Bepublic (iv. 439 e) it appears to have been the 
practice to expose the bodies of criminals for some time after their 
execution. The executioner would afterwards probably throw the 
remains into the fidpadpop, if, as I suppose, that is the same thing 
with the dpvyfiat from which the functionary in question derived 
his euphemistic name of Hhe man at the pit' (6 iirl r^ dpijyfjLaTi), 
by which he is known to the orators. The Schol. on Plutus l.L 
even states that the original barathrum was filled up by the 
Athenians in mythical times. This amounts to saying that the 
punishment of KaraKprfitunffis had long been obsolete at Athens. 
19 oOkovv 0% ye dya$oX ^vfoxoi] The ioxce of the negative in this 

617 b] notes. 231 

sentence is explained in the note to 512 a. 25 (aa-re el o^tol 

jyffTope^ Tjffav] The final cause of the true rhetoric is to make men 
better, that of the false to gratify their inclinations. But the 
statesmen in question had not attained either object, and there- 
fore, if rhetors in either sense, they were not masters of their 
craft. Callicles is unable to evade the dilemma, but says that, 
bad as they may have been, it will be long ere any of the statesmen 
of the day accomplish such feats as the worst of the four mentioned. 
28 iroXXoD ye dei—fn/i Tore] The usual construction of voWov de? 
is with the infinitive, as the Gomm. observe. Plato might have 
written od ix-firroTe iprydariTai, iroWou ye Kol 5e<, of which the 
construction in the text is a kind of abridgment. For ds /8oi;\et, 
oomp. CratyL p. 432, jj Sans po^Xei aWos dptSfids^ 81 ws 7e 

diuKdvovs etvai] 'Viewed as servants of the state,* says Socr., 
* I disparage them no more than you do; on the contrary, they 
seem to me to have been more serviceable, certainly, than their 
successors of the present day.* Complaints of the falling off of 
the public men succeeding Pericles occur in the comic poets, 
Arist. Eq. 191. Eupolis, A^/uoi, Fr. xiii. and xv. Mein. But 
Plato probably intended the remark to apply to the times in which 
he was himself writing, as well as to those in which the dialogue 
is supposed to take place. The idiom us etyoL is familiar. Herod, 
ii. 136, fxeydXa iKTi^<raTO xpijMaTO, ws dp ehai 'PoSwirii', i.e. con- 
sidering she was but a hetaera. 

Page 112. 2 dXXd ydp /lerapi^d^etv] *But then in the art of 
turning the desires of their countrymen into other channels, 
instead of giving them free course, — ^leading them by persuasion 
or force to measures likely to make them better, — ^in this the men 
of old were little superior if at all to our own contemporaries.' 
Aristides has an ingenious argument to show that the Athenians 
did gradually improve under the auspices of the Four. IIiDs, <a 
fjMKdpie; el ydp i<my dXqdijs & ffbs \&yos Cn MiXrtdSi/v ye fUKpod els rd 
^dpadpw ivi^oKoVi vav roivavrlov TJdTf fpalperaii 6 fih Oe/uoro/cXiTf 
dypibyrdrovs TrapaKapCdv "^fiepwrfyovs von^aas, rb yovv i^oirrpaKurSrjvoUt 
Kal vp6s y\ el /SoiJXct, 4>vyi iyifUwOrji^ai, xipdos icap eKeltnjv r^p 
ffvfAtpopdv. vdXiv 8* 6 KI/jlwp i^wrrpaKlirOTj fUp, 4>\jyi dk o{f vpoae^rf- 
fuJI)$7f, dXXA KoX KaTijXde irpb roO x/>^''ou, oOnas ^ri irpgiOTipoLS ovros 
iXfi^aaro. 6 8* ad HepiKK^s in rojirov fierpiiirrepa dvffrvx'^OLS ic.t.X. 
Quatuorv. p. 284 (367, Dind.). It is obviously quite untrue that 
Pericles had no skill in bridling the passions of the multitude, and 
the greatest sacrifice the Athenians ever xiv&d& '^^<& YQL^N2^sig^^^>s^ 

232 QORGIAS. [517 b— 

Themistocles. In fact of all the four Cimon alone seems to have 
been open to the imputation of unduly flattering and cajoling the 
populace. Pericles and Themistocles led quite as much as they 
followed the tendencies of the public mind. 9 lipdyfia ovp 

yeXotop TToioOfxev] Socr. here reminds Callicles that he had as- 
sented to premisses of which he rejects the logical conclusion : the 
premisses being contained in the original dichotomy of depairela 
and jcoXa/ciJci^ (464 o, and note), and the assumption that states- 
manship as vulgarly practised falls under the psychical branch of 
the latter. This admission Callicles wilfully forgets, perpetually 
coming round again to his own point of view, that of common 
sense and the received opinion. In this passage KoKaKcLa is 
softened down, or rather generalized, into diaKovla — ministration 
—a somewhat less invidious word, but equally available for 
Plato's purpose. Comp. inf. 521 a, where SiaKoveiv is made 
equivalent to irpbs X'^P^^ 6iu\€Tv, and then to KoKoKciiieiv, 18 iap 
dk lny<?] Moeris (corrected by 13uttmann), 'PcyQv, *Arrt/cws, 
fnyovv Koiv&s, 'Pt7<f ^AttikQs, (nyol 'EXXiji'ticws. This precept of 
the grammarians is frequently but not always confirmed by the 
codd. Its meaning is that jnyoia makes jivy&v instead of pLyow in 
the infin., and (n.y(} for (nydi in the conj.; the opt. jnyt^n being 
formed after the analogy of other verbs in ow. Comp. Arist. Vesp. 
446, wore /a^ jiiyQv kKajcrror, Av. 935, dXXcf /uot piyG>v doKeU. But 
the common form jkyoi occurs in Phaedo 85 a, and ^1701;^ in 
Rep. 440 0. These ought probably to be corrected, as well as 
Arist. Nub. 442, where the codd. have jtiyovv, Meineke fayCov, 
The form in ap is Doric, and analogous to irciv^v, dirj/ijv, &c. 
24 ffKin-dderj/ov] Schol. Olymp. p. 171, &mK(jbT€pov t6 (rKvXdSe^J/ov, 
iircid^ rd (T/cOXa, 6 iari rd i^eicpd <r(6/Aaro Kal dipfiara^ ixfiCjvTai 
(sic). The forms <rKVTod4\J/ris and <rKv\od4\J/7is are more common, 
but T^ (TKvXodexl/ou occurs in Demosth. c. Aristog. p. 781. In the 
two best MSS. ffKurbbcxf/ov is accented as in the text; all the 
others, followed by the edd., make the word oxytone. The 
reasoning in the passage is explained by reference to the earlier 
portion of the dialogue, 464 seq., in which the OcpairelaL of the 
body and of the soul are classified, and distinguished from the 
KoXaKeTai which simulate them. But the argument is vitiated by 
the confusion of arts which minister to utility, such as those of 
the {/^vTTfs or ifiiropost with those of which mere sensual in- 
dulgence is the object. Statesmanship implies the power of 
making provision for the physical well-being, as well as for the 

618 B] NOTES, 233 

mental culture of the people; but this is quite another thing 
from pandering to licentious appetite, whether mental or cor- 
poreal. But Socrates is made to identify diaxovla with KoXaKcla, 
wherein he is by no means justified even on his own premisses. 
It is, besides, very perverse to represent Pericles, who reorganized 
the Athenian commonwealth, as a mere didKopos, even if we take 
that word in its least contemptuous sense. He was at any rate a 
pofioOh^s on a large scale, and therefore, from Plato's point of 
view, a Tratdorpl^rjs or larpos of the soul, however bad his thera- 
peutic may have appeared to critics of aristocratic leanings. 

Page 113. 14 BeapLwp 6 dfyroKdvos'] Athens was famous 
for the excellence of its bread. Archestratus ap. Athen. p. 112 b, 
rbv d* els dyop^ voieij/jLevoy Afrrou At kXeiyal vap^xovat ^porois 
KdWiOToy 'A^^vai. The baker Thearion is mentioned by two 
comic poets, Antiphanes and Aristophanes. Athen. ib. d, e, 
*ApurT0(/>dy7is iv Vyipurddy Kal AloKofflKuwi 8id rointav "H/cw Qeaplwvos 
^pTowtbXiov Aiirwv tv iarl Kpi&dvwp id(i>\ia. So Antiph. in Omphale 
1.1., dpTovs — oDs drffUrais Qeapiuy idei^e, whence we conclude that 
Thearion was an Athenian citizen. The form dproxSvos is recog- 
nized as more Attic than dpToiroi6s, Lobeck on Phryn. p. 222. 
MidaiKos 6 'Hjv dxpoiroUav (rv7767pa^(6$] 'Siculae dapes* were 
proverbial. Bep. iii. 404 n, ^vpaKoalav Bk (S 4>l\€ rpdvc^av Kal 
liKcKiK^v woiKiKlop 6\//ov...otfK aiveis. In Epist. vii. 326 b, Plato 
speaks of the excessive luxury at the court of Dionysius: pios 
'IraXKOTiKQv xal 'LvpaKwrloiv rpave^Sty TrK-fipijs, Comp. Athen. p. 
25 E, "LiKcKiKdi Kal Xv^apiTiKds Kal *lTa\iKdi rpavi^as, ijdrf 8k koX 
Xias. Mithaecus, according to Maximus Tyrius, Diss, vii., was a 
Syracusan, as great in 6\j/oTFoda as Phidias in sculpture. He was 
expelled from Sparta, where he had begun to exercise his skill, 
but welcomed by all other cities that he visited. Possibly his was 
the first cookery-book. It does not however seem to have survived 
to the time of Athenaeus, who would not have failed to quote, 
had he known it. Of Sarambus, as the copies have it, or Sarabus, 
as the name ought to be written and pronounced {^apapiK&v 
Koirl8iav ffvpofubpvfie, Achaeus ap. Athen. p. 173 e), we learn from 
another comic poet that he was a Plataean, and his reputation 
one of the very few things on which that small city could plume 
itself. Posldippus, Fr. inc. iii., Meineke iv. p. 525. Jul. Poll., 
vii. 193, explains the business of the KdmjXos to have included the 
mixing of wines for the table: Kdm/Xoi od fjiopop ol fxerapoXeist 
dXXd Kal ol rbv owop Kcpat'PiJifTes ' b0€P koX idpa^ov li \S>sn.Tvss» 

234 GORGIAS. [518 b— 

KaTrrfKov (bvofiaffevt iiraiyup airrhv irr* ohfovpyiq. (for the vulg. Zapd- 
pcopa). The true form I,dpapos also lurks in a MS. reading 
of Athen. 112 e, Kcd adpajj^os 6 Kdpa^os 6 KdirrjXosi doubtless a 
duplex lectio — Idpafi^os (•fj 'Zdpapos). From the yeydvatri which 
follows, we may infer that these three worthies were dead when 
the Gorgias was written. 19 Icrwf Av ovp ityaudicreLs] *Now, 

I dare say yon would have been indignant if I had said, Friend, 
you know nothing of Gymnastic ; you tell me of fellows who are 
mere ministers and caterers to the desires, destitute of all sound 
and right views concerning them,' i.e. concerning the desires, and 
their fitness or unfitness to be gratified. Comp. p. 501 b, ^r» Si 
^ ficXrluv rj x^h^^ f^^ ifiovGiv oUre CKOvoifuevai oUtc fU\op airrais 
dWo 4 x^^P^I^^^^f^^ fMvw, 25 Trpoa-avdKoxkriP oAtQp Kal rdf 

dpxaicLs ffdpKas] These quacks will not only add no new flesh to 
the bodies they cram and pamper, but will eventually cause them 
to lose the flesh they had. They may grow fat for a time, but 
repletion will bring in its train disease and ultimate emaciation, 
having been effected without regard to sanitary rules. 

Page 114, 5 Kal ipaai/JLeydXrjp t^k toXiv vcwotriKipai ai^oi5r] 
Comp. Thuc. ii. 65, iyipero iv iKelvou /leylcrrri. People pretend 
that the statesmen of old have made Athens great, not perceiving 
that she is tumid from disease, and rotten at the core — all in 
consequence of those men and their measures. They have glutted 
the city with all the appliances of material prosperity, without 
teaching her to use them temperately and righteously; and hence, 
when the disease shall come to a head, blame will be thrown on 
whoever shall happen to be her advisers, instead of on the true 
authors of her woe. ^ Kara^oX^ aUni is the TXTja/xop^ v6<tov 
<l>ipovffa just mentioned. icarajSoX^ is a medical term for the 
'access' of a periodic or intermitting fever, which leaves the 
patient apparently well in the interval. The metaphor is not 
uncommon. Thus Demosth. Philipp. iii. p. 118, in speaking of 
the insidious approaches of the Macedonian power, says, &ri ye 
&<rv€p TcpLodos tj Kara^oX^ TvperoO i} rtpos AXXov kclkoO Kal t^ irdvv 
vo^JKi) doKovPTi PUP dtpetrrdpaL Tpoaipx^rait ovSels dypoet, Comp. 
Hipp. Min. 372 e, pvpI 5' h ry TrapSpri /wi cSaTrep KarapoX^ ircpieXi}- 

\v0€ <r^ odp x^<^<'*> K^l M 4>9op'fyfiQS IdffaffSai t^p \pvx'^^ M^v» 

Socrates having said that he was liable to vacillation — to hot and 

cold fits of opinion — on a certain doubtful question. 15 koX 

roG ijMu h-alpov ^AXki^Mou] This part of the prophecy was 

Milled, for the fall of Athens w&a veiy generally attributed to 

619 cl NOTES. 236 

the rashness of Alcibiades in urging on the Sicilian expedition. 
The admirers of Pericles might justly complain of his being thus 
made responsible for a step the most directly opposed to his 
own policy. Thucyd. 1.1. § 6 seq. The present passage seems to 
imply that Alcibiades was still in Athens. If this is so, and we 
assume 405 b.o. for the date of the conversation (473 e), Plato is 
guilty of an .anachronism, for Alcibiades left the city for the last 
time B.C. 407. But he was probably aware of the inconsistency, 
and indifferent to it. 10 aladdvofAOL — Xoyos] "When the 

state," says Socr., "deals with any of our public characters as 
wrong-doers, I hear of their being indignant and loudly lamenting 
the injustice they are made to suffer : * So, after all our valuable 
services to the state, we are perishing unrighteously at her 
hands' — such is the language they hold." This version shows 
the force of &pa, which has its usual inferential sense, though 
placed somewhat late in the sentence. Of this however there are 
other examples. Symp. 199 a, dXXd ydip eyib oifK jdrf dpa rhv 
rpSirov ToO ivoLvov. Ibid. 177 B, raOra Sij koX ol dWoi jrdvres &pa 
^vvi(/>a(Tav, **But in this," proceeds Socr., "there is not one 
word of truth, for there can be no such thing as a ruler of a state 
perishing unrighteously at the hands of the state he rules. For I 
fancy the case is much the same with professed politicians as with 
professed sophists or teachers of wisdom. Such teachers, wise as 
they are in all other respects, are in one point guilty of gross 
absurdity: pretending to be teachers of virtue, they not on- 
frequently accuse their pupils of wrong-doing in withholding their 
fees," &c. This may be a fair *argumentum ad hominem* against 
a sophist who should give out that virtue is capable of being 
taught, and that he can teach it ; in fact, we know that it was a 
common taunt against such persons. See Isoor. c. Soph. §§ 4, 5, 6. 
No such boast however was made by Pericles or his successors ; 
and the principle Socrates endeavours to establish is an extrava- 
gant paradox, quite unsupported by the analogy he alleges. ' To 
make men good' may be the final cause of statesmanship, but it 
is an end which in the nature of things can only be partially 
accomplished, even under the most favourable circumstances. In 
practice such professions are usually a cloak of tyranny, as Plato 
might have learned from the case of his relative Critias. His 
Sicilian experiences were probably not yet purchased. 81 d;; 

ddiKouffL (T<f>ai] I agree with Bekker in thinking airo^ inadss^- 
sible. &biKov<n <r<f>as aOrojJs vjomIA. tueOiii ^>i?cv«^> 'Ccka ^^i;:si"^^^ ^'^'^ 

236 G0RGIA8. [519 o-^ 

wronging themselves/ 'ipsi se injuria afficiant.' The following 
rot^ easily explains the origin of the error. See above 506 a; 
also 520 B, u)s vovrjpop iariy els atpSis, A similar error has been 
corrected in Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 6, iTiffreTXai dk <r<f>i(TLv [a^ro7$] roi)s 

Page 115. 5 ddiKeiv To&rcfi ^ o{>k ixo^<^''^] ^ Socratic lan- 
guage, ddiKlq. ol d^iKoOvres ddiKOvaiy. 7 'Qs dXrjdus drifiriyopeLPl 
Callicles had said, *0 St^icpares, doKcTs veavui^eadai iv foTs \6yoLs ws 
dXridQs drifiTjydpos (5v, Socrates quotes his words, and tells him 
that his declamatory style is this time compulsory. Callicles had 
the remedy in his own hands ; he had but to answer the questions 
proposed to him, and the long harangue would be exchanged for 
dialogue. 1 1 vVv yovv — Xbywy"] Heind. quotes Protag. 329 a, 
Kal ol jiip-opis oCrw afiiKpd ip(»ynjd4in-€s doXix^v Kararelvovn rod \&yov. 
But in his note on that passage, he alleges that the cases are not 
parallel. However this may be, the phrase exrxyoits reLvu) rG>v \&y<av 
is scarcely to be distinguished from the ordinary avxpoifs reivta roifs 
X670VS. 'It would seem,' says Socr., 'that I can get on without 
such assistance— for now, at any rate, the speeches I make are 
prolix enough.' "In sequentibus ^Treira vovripbs iffriv, positum 
^eira pro oficas, usu frequentiflsimo." Heind. 20 dvdpibvunf 
rripc oidepbs d^ltop] This is a good dramatic touch. Callicles, an 
admirer of the pure rhetoricians, adopts their tone of contempt for 
the sophists, who professed to teach virtue. See in particular the 
curious fragment of Isocrates, xard tQv (ro<f>iffTuy, in which he 
describes those who make such professions as \Lav dvepiaKiirrtai 
d\a^ov€v6/JL€voi — fibvov oIk ddavdrovs inr(,<rxyo{t/JL€Poi roi^ awdpras 
voiifltrcip, §§ 1, 4. In this Isocrates follows the traditions of his 
master Gorgias, as appears from Menon, p. 95 0. Socrates 
presently maintains that if a comparison be made between rhetoric 
and sophistic, the latter must be preferred : just as legislation is a 
higher art than dicastic, and the art which keeps the body in health 
superior to that which removes sickness. But here again the 
analogy fails ; for the political rhetor {5rjp.7iy6pos) U on occasion a 
pofio64TrjSf and is not eo nomine a pleader in the courts (SiKocTiKds), 
As a public speaker, it is true, he may have to rebuke as well as to 
exhort ; but to make that his principal or only duty is surely 
perverse. 24 Srap tj6x^<^''^] *when occasion serves/ as when 
they are unjustly punished, ostracized, or the like* 

Page 116. 2 To&r(p rt} Trpdy/MTL] Not exclusively *the 
people/ as Ast puts it, but the people in the case of the orators, 

621 a] notes. 237 

their pupils in that of the Sophists. irpayfM and XPV/^ ^^ ^ot un- 
frequently applied to persons. Aristoph. Eccles. 441, ywauKa d' 
€tva.L TpSiyfi* (<fnf vovfivariKdv, Eubulus, fr. Chrys. ii. ap. Mein. iii. 
260, /ca/c^ yw^ MiJSeta, UrfveXdireuL di M^70. trpayfia. With a 
genitive, Criton 53 c, o6k otet &<rxw<^ <f>a»€iffOaL to tou ZuKpdrovs 
vpayiia. 7 Kal vpo^ffOaL ye brprov] Sophists and public men, 

if their professions had been worth anything, could alone afford 
to trust those whom they benefit. A trainer would have less 
reason to complain if his pupil, when he had learnt to run fast, 
should refuse to pay him — supposing he had left the question of 
payment open, instead of stipulating for a fee to be paid down as 
nearly as possible at the time of imparting the desired accomplish- 
ment. TpoiffOai — to trust a customer, to leave the time or amount 
of payment to his honour — occurs in much the same sense, Legg. 
849 B, 6 d^ irpoifxevos (bs irurrciJwi', idv re KOfjUffrfrai idv re /X17, arep- 
yirbo ws oiK^ri dUris oijffTis rOtv roio&rwy ir^pt (TwaWd^etav. Xen. 
Anab. vii. 7. 47, xiotcjJw <re o6k dvi^eaOoL toiJs cot irpocfx^vovs 
eiepyefflav bpQvrd ffoi iyKaXovfTas (sc. Stl oix dir4d(aKas), Our 
modem honoraria answer in theory to the suggestion in the 
text. 17 OOkoOv d rts] ' Whoever then can remove injustice 

from the soul, need be under no apprehension of ever being 
wronged: for him alone it is safe to bestow this boon uncon- 
ditionally.' For fi6v(p it would have been more correct to say 
fidvffv. In the next clause Socrates intimates* scepticism as to the 
reality of such pretensions. * If indeed there were any one capable 
of making men good.' The Comm. speak of the sophists Pro- 
tagoras and Prodicus as the objects of these satirical remarks. 
But it is to be observed that Plato's contemporaries the Cynics 
made the same profession, and to them the description in Isocrates, 
Kara rwv (rotpiarQv, § 4 seq., is applicable in all its features. 
Doubtless also there were sophists unattached to any sect who 
followed the example. The rhetors, who did not teach virtue, 
consistently demanded payment in advance. This we gather 
from Demosth. c. Lacritum, p. 938, together with the informa- 
tion that the amount of the fee was ten minae. Evenus the 
Parian, an educator of the ethical school, was content with five, 
Apol. 20 B. The formula oirSh deipbif m occurs Apol. 28 b, odd^p 

Page 117. 12 dkatos yap et, uxnrep rjp^ci)] * As you spoke 
your mind freely from the first, I have a right to expect you to be 
consistent and to tell me now what you really thinkJ \sv Skk& 

238 GORGIAS. [521 a— 

next speech of Socrates the construction Ko\cuc€i^ffovTa rrapaKoKcuf 
is rare, and many edd. prefer ds Ko\aK€i6ffovTa, which has no MS. 
authority. But the sense is the same whether we prefix 6s or- not. 
We may say, for instance, indifferently, irapaKoKe'iy els AcoXaic6i/(rtp, 
and vapaKoKeof Cas els KoKdxewrw, and so too, I conceive, where the 
participle is used. See ahove, 514 a. 18 Bf <roi "ilvadu ye 

ijdiov KoXeip] The Comm. have given themselves much needless 
trouble with this passage, which is perfectly clear when seen by 
the light of the context. Socrates had asked Callicles whether he 
would have him come forward as the larpSs or as the didKovos of 
the Athenian people.— 'As the didicopos certainly.' 'In other 
words, as its flatterer.' — *Tes,' answers Callicles, 'its flatterer, 
if you prefer to use the most opprobrious word you can think of. 
If you are too proud to flatter — ' you must take the consequences. 
The prov. "ilvabv KaXeTy hangs together with "ilwruv t^cxo^Tosj "MiVffiav 
Xeia. The Mysians, like the Carians, were regarded as the refuse 
of mankind. Hence lAv<rhv «caX6<v=to call names. This the Greek 
interpreter Olympiodorus has understood, but it was hidden from 
all the edd. preceding Bekker. It should be observed that the 
word /c6Xa^ (later Ta/odo-tros) is much more invidious than our 
'flatterer.* * Toad-eater,' or even 'pander,' would better convey 
its force to an English reader. (See Plant. Amphitr. i. 3. 17.) 
Compare also the description of the ir6Xa^ in Eupolis (/c6Xaic6s, 
Fr. i.) with that of iihe irapdairos in Diodorus Com. ('Et^icXi^/dos, 
Mein. iv. 543). Another comic poet records of Socrates that 
starved as he was he never stooped to be a /c6Xa^ — odros fUvroi 
TeivCjy odrtas o^ibvor* frX?; KoXaKeOaai, Ameipsias, Connus, Fr. i. 
82 TTovTjpds ye tav dyadbv Svto] For the full force of these words in 
the mouth of Socrates, compare ApoL 30 d. 27 "Qs fxoi 5o/c6(s] 

'How confident you seem that nothing of this kind will ever 
happen to you — ^as if you dwelt apart and were not liable to be 
dragged into court — it may be by some wretch of the vilest 
character.' Possibly Plato aimed this at Meletus, who seems to 
have been a bad man as well as an indif erent poet. Mein. Com. 
Gr. ii. p. 1126. 

Peige 118. 2 vepl ro(fT(jiv rivhs KivbyveOtav] "Videlicet de 
capite et bonis: quae ante oommemoraverat Callicles." Stallb. 
18 rd Kofirf/d raCra] We must suppose this a quotation. Callicles 
had adjured Socrates to abandon philosophy — dWois rd KOfixJ/d 
ravT* d<peLs — and Socrates retorts by calling the arts of the rhetor 
rd Ko/irj/d raOra. Sup. 486 c. The next sentence is an amplifi- 

622 c] NOTES. 239 

cation of 464 d. A philosopher in a court of justice is like a 
physician accused by a confectioner before a jury of school-boys. 
dij/oiroids stands of course for the rhetor who accuses him. 
22 xc6/iOTo] The codd. give ir6/Liara, some few vififmra. Pors. 
on Hec. 392, xal dU rdcov irufi aXfiaros yevf^aerai, ^'"irbfi MSS. et 
edd., sed haec forma Atticis erat incognita. Quod hoc uno argu- 
mento satis probatur. Multa sunt loca in quibus metrum irw/xa 
flagitet ; nullum ubi vbiia postulet; pauca, ubi admittat." It may 
be added that the codd. sometimes give Trbfia where the metre 
convicts them. Thus in Alexides Com. irdfMTos is made to end a 
senarius, in a frag, cited by Athenaeus, p. 28 e. 24 tI or 

otei — dTroXrjtpdivra] *What would the physician find to say, think 
you, under these desperate droumstances?' dvoXyjipd., shut off as 
it were from all aid and sympathy — 'driven into a comer,' as we 
say. Menex. 243 o, direiKTffifiipwy iv MvrtXi^i; tQv yeiav, Euthyd. 
305 D, iv 5k ToTs Idiots \6yois Brav dvo\i^d(offiP, ivb tQv dfji.(f>l 
Evdi^SrjfjMv Ko\oj^€<r6<u — sa^d of a fluent rhetorician brought to bay 
by a skilful controversialist. 27 wdcoy otei] This rests on 

the authority of a single MS. All the rest have 6v6(tov, and so 
every ed. but Hirschig. Several instances of the oblique for the 
direct interrogation occur in Plato, if the codd. are to be trusted ; 
as inr&repos, Lysis 212 o, Euthyd. 271 ▲. iirotos, Alcib. i. 110 a 
But in Charm. 170 b, for raj^Tji rf immfifi'g Sttwj eiaerai; the edd. 
now give irws on the strength of one MS. The other instances are 
not improbably neoterisms introduced by copyists. No example 
has been adduced from an Attic poet, where the oblique form in 
the direct sense is required by the metre, and till this is done the 
legitimacy of the usage may be doubted. 

Page 119. 1 ToiovTov fjJfToi] Compare the exordium of the 
Apologia, where Socrates disavows the Setv&njs attributed to him 
by his accusers. 6 dTopeo^ toiovvto] He alludes of course 

to the effect produced by his cross-questioning. This could not 
be made an article of impeachment by his accusers, but Socrates 
points to it in the Apol. as one principal cause of his unpopularity, 
p. 23. The Comm. quote Menon 79 e, Theaet. 149 a. 9 Trpdrrta 
rb ityuhepov d^ toOto] * Herein I am acting in your interest, not in 
my own.' Apol. 31 b, he makes the same assertion: tQv fikv 
ifiavToG dv&vrwv iitJxK7iKiv(u...rb 5* t/iircpov trpdrreiv dei... 
veldovra imfitXeiffdai dpcrijs. Similar is the expression, 455 c, 
Kdfik vvv ybfucov xal rb <rbv ffveijdeiv. After oihe dWo oidhf supply 
of course ^|w elirup, 15 Ei iK^ivb -ye ^«^v\a<)T$ ^Tc<v.vr«iC\'TtNRi 

240 GORGIAS. [622 c-- 

omission of iv is saggested by Heind. Stallb. defends the prep, 
on the insufficient plea that iwdpxoi has the force of ipclrj, THe 
phrase inr&px'^^^ "^^^^ seems invariable. '*I think it would be well 
with him if he stood on that vantage-ground which you have 
frequently acknowledged in the course of our argument. I mean 
if he had * helped himself by abstinence from injustice to men 
and gods, whether in word or deed. For this is a kind of 
self-help which we have more than once allowed to be of all the 
best." With po^deia iavrf comp. Apol. 30 a, tV ^M^** "^V Oecf 
{/VTjpeaiap, lb. d, wepl rijy tov Oeou ddaiv iffup, 24 dyaya- 

KTolrjv &v] In the Apology, after his condemnation, he says, rd fiiy 
fiil iyavaKTcTv, w &v8pes 'AdrfvaXoc, ivl TO&rtp t$ yeyov&ri, &ri fiov 
KaT€\J/TI<f>i<raa6€j aWa ri fwi woXKd ^vfipdWcratf koX o^k dpiXiruTrdv 
fioi yiyove rb yeyovbs tovto, 35 E. 27 ai>r6 fi^v ydp rb dvo- 

OvifiaKetvl Apol. 28 b, od koKQs X^«j, el oXei deiv kIv^wov ifvoXoyl^e- 
cdai rod ^v TJ Tcdvdvai Avdpa 6tov ti koI cfUKpbv 6<f>€\os /c.r.X. 

Page 120. 8 'Alcove $i^, 0cur£, fidXa-KoKod Xltyov] Here, as in 
the Bepublio, after he has proved that, irrespectively of conse- 
quences, Justice is better than Injustice, Socrates adds a mythical 
account of the rewards of the righteous* and the punishments of 
the wicked after death. This in the Bepublic he prefaces by the 
apologetic remark, that to dwell on the subject of rewards is free 
(dv€vift>dovov) only to those who have shown on independent 
grounds the superiority of suffering virtue to prosperous wicked- 
ness, the thesis which it was the professed object of that dialogue 
to defend, x. 612. In the Gorgias he has a different audience to 
deal with, and therefore makes no apology for thus shifting his 
ground. Still it is surprising to find him expressing his beUef in 
the myths he is about to relate: Ck dXridrj ydp 6vTa ffoi \4^(o a 
fiiXKu) \^€tp. What however Plato meant to convey, we may see 
in Phaedo 114 d, where, after a recital differing from that of the 
Gorgias in its scenery and accessories, he adds, rb fikv odv raOra 
diurxvp^erao'^at oUrus ^x^^^ ^^ iytb dieXi^XvBa, ov vpiirei vovv ^oyrt 
dv^pif oTi fiiPTOi ^ ravT* iarly ^ roiavr* drra irepl rds rj/vxds ijiiCjp Kal 
rds olK'^eiSf ivei wep dddvarbv ye ^ ^vx^ ipalvcTCU, oi?<ra, roOro Kal 
vpiireiv fMi boKci Kal a^iov KLvbvvewrai olofji4v(p oOrcas ix^*^* ^^^ with 
this passage agree others, in which Plato gives us hints of what 
he intends by his mythical narrations. It may be observed that 
of the three myths referred to, that in the present dialogue is 
much the simplest, and least removed from the accepted popular 
mythology. This difference may be due to considerations of 

523 D] NOTES. 241 

dramatic propriety ; but it is not easy to believe that Plato would 
have written the recital in the Gorgias after those in the Phaedo 
and Bepablio were before the world. The passage from "Axove dif 
to dv dWijKoiv, 524 B, is quoted by Platarch in the Gonsolatio ad 
Apolloninm, c. 36 ; the entire myth by Ensebius in the Praeparatio 
Evang. xii. p. 677, and by Theodoret, Graec. Affect. Cur. For 
^ofL Plut. has ipriffL But il>aal refers to the conventional be- 
ginning "Axove di^, which recurs in Tim. 20 d. So Arist. Equit. 
1014, "jLKove drf vvp koI wpdaexB rhv vovv ifwl. The words following 
are given by Plut. in a slightly different order: dv <r^ fih ^^o-^, 
(i;s iyd) oXfjuUi fiv6ov. iytpfMi, for the vulg. iyC) dfytaiy is restored 
from Euseb. and Theodor. 6 'Qairep ydip''Ofi7ipos X^vct] In 

the 15th Book of the Iliad, 186 fol., Tpets ydp t U Kp6vov elpJkv 
db€\<f)€(A ovs t4k€to 'P^a, Zei>f koX iyti} rplraTos 8* *Atdfis ivipoivw 
dvdavujVy TpixOd Sk irdyra diSaffraif (Ka<TT0S d* ififiope rifiris. 
15 To&rwp 5^ diKairraC] * These, in the reign of Cronus and even in 
the early days of Zeus, were tried while yet alive by living judges, 
who judged them the very day on which it was their fate to die.* 
Plutarch has ol SiKcurralt which is clearly wrong. For kukus olhf 
K.r. X. he gives Kireira al BiKou inas oi KoKm iKpivovro. '* In Aegypto, 
referente Diodoro, i. c. 92, judioia de mortuis ad sepultnrae diem 
haberi solita sunt. Et multa Orpheus, si modo verum narra- 
verint Aegyptii, ex hac regione transtulit in Graecorum fabulas. 
Hinc igitur originem suam traxisse poterat commentum istud." 
Bouth. Without putting faith in the veracity of the Aegyptians, 
we may think it probable that Plato was indebted for this and 
other features of his story to the Orphic poets. 10 oZ iirip,€- 

\rp-aX ol ix fi. yJ] The second ol is supplied from Plutarch. 
Without it Pluto would be represented as coming from the same 
region as the ' overseers of the Isles of the Blest.' Presently for 
<poiT(fiiv <r<f>w Plut. has 0. (Tiplffw, which is much more usual in 
prose. But in mythical narrative we sometimes find these semi- 
poetical forms. iKaripwre means, of course, *to either place,' to 
that of reward and to that of punishment. 82 iwhrpoirOev] 

Plut. hrnrpdadviaii, a word found in Aristotle, but unknown to 
Plato. i-nrhrpoaOeif has nearly the sense of €>Tod(6v, as Legg. i. 
648 D, rh rrji alax^prp iTrlirpoadev voio^fievos. 

Page 121. B Kal 5tj ctfnrrai r^ npotJLried--ain(av] 'This 
pow» orders have already been given to Prometheus that he cause 
to cease in them' — Hhis power of theirs he has had orders to 
suppress.' Prometheus as the giver of foiesi^^ <^Q\i\<^ ^2iSi^ \a2&&>^» 

PL. GOR. ^^ 

242 G0RQIA8. [523 d— 

a,way, aooording to a received principle in Qreek theology. Plato 
may also have remembered the line in the Prometheus 248, Ovtjto^s 
7' fvavaa fiii vpod4pK€ff6ax /i6poPt i*e. as he explains, by making 
them hope against hope : rv^Xds h a&rots iXvldas Kan^Kura, For 
aifTwv^ the reading of the best codd., some give abrbv, others airrb 
ain-Q, whence Steph. aM odrQp, But the construction of the 
genitive is usual enough, though it seems to have perplexed 
transcribers. 12 di6o tih ix rijs * Aulas'] Both Minos and 

Bhadamanthys were bom in Crete, which we must therefore 
understand Plato to class with the Asiatic islands. .According to 
the perhaps interpolated passage in the Iliad, xiv. 322, they were 
sons of Jupiter and Europa, the daughter of Phoenix. Plato's 
contemporaries seem to have recognized only two capital divisions 
of the earth's surface. Isocr. Paneg. p. 78, r^s 7^$ awdarfs ttjs ifir6 
T(p KdafUfi KuiJjkinfi 8lx<i rerfirifiivriSt xal rrfs fthf 'Afflas ttjs 8* Ei;p(6Ti7S 
KoKovM^pfis. Aegypt and Libya were according to this division 
parts of Asia; but I know no passage except that in the text 
where Crete is so represented. Olympiodorus indeed says, tireidif 
icard ro^s yetaypdipovs rods duupm/pras els di6o Hip xaO* ii/mi olKovfjuiPTjp 
eZs *A.<riap xai l^ipiinrriPf koI ij Aip&tf Kcd ^ Kpaffni rrji ^Aalas 
ei/plaKero^ but he gives no authority for this statement, nor for the 
stranger one that Bhadamanthys Alpvs ijp. 10 ^ T<p XeifiOpi, 

iv ry Tpi68(p] The topography of the corresponding scene in the 
BepubHc is slightly different. The ghosts are there brought els 
T&irop Ttvd doufUvioPf ip f t^$ re 7^ 66' i<rri x^^M^'^^ ixofi^Pb) 
iWi^Xoip, KoX Tov oipapov ad h r(p Apu dXXa KaropriKpi^. The 
Xeifuifp is in the spurious Axiochus converted into redlop iXrjdeias, 
concerning which see note to Phaedrus 248 b. For Tpiddcp comp. 
Virg. Aen. vi. 540. 18 Mfi'v 8i rrpea^ela diixrui] Minos enjoys 

this precedence as At6s fJLeyd\ov.6apun"/is, Od. xix. 179. See the 
Minos, p. 319 seq. Of Bhadamanthys it is said, *Fad6,fiapdvs di 
iyadbs fikp ^ dviip^ iveircUdevTo fUpToi oi5x ^W '''V Pa<fCSiK^p 
T^p^Pi dXX* iiirripecrlap rf ^criKiKy, taw iTUTrareip ip roU diKcumj- 
piois. 6dep Kot diKaoTTfs dyados iX^x^V c^cu* POfio<p{f\aKi ydp a^ip 
ixpv'f'o b yilpas Kard rb Aarv. lb. 320 B. Minos is accordingly 
mcMle a 'judge of appeal' in doubtful cases. In the Apol. 41 a, 
Socrates adds to the three the name of an Attic hero Triptolemus, 
whose duty it would be to try departed Athenians. 27 ijreiSdp 

8k 8ia\v6riTOP &pa] * And when accordingly they are separated the 
one from the other, each retains with little alteration the 
condition it had while the person lived ; the body preserving its 

625 a] notes. 243 

natural oharacteristios, and the results of training or accident all 
still traceable upon it — ^for instance/ &o. The apodosis to re 
seems to be forgotten, but is represented by radrbv di/f fioi SokcI 
inf. D. TaO'^fAara denotes the effects of impressions from without, 
OepaTre^fMTa those of self-treatment, whether in reference to 
health or appearance. 82 rj dfKp&repa] 'or in both ways.' 

This adverbial use of dfi<f>6T€pa is illustrated by Heind. on Charm. 
303 D (where however dfi<f>oT4pois is found in nearly all the codd.). 
Laches 187 a, TrelOwfiev tj despots ^ x^P^<''*^ V dfiip&repa. See above 
477 D, dviq. — ^ ^dpjj — ^ djjifp&repa. Different but analogous is the 
Homeric usage with dn<t>6Tepov, Od. xiv. 505, * Afujibrepoif, <pi\cmfn 
xal aldoT (fxorbs ^os. Comp. II. iii. 179. odS^rcpa and brdrepat as 
Stallb. remarks, are used in the same manner, Theaet. 184 a, 
Oorg. 469 A. 

Page 122. 4 fMoriylas av] 'Once more, if he was some 
wretched gaol-bird who bore traces of the blows he had received 
when alive, whether inflicted with the lash or otherwise, in the 
shape of scars upon his body.' fMuniyias answers to * knight of 
the post.' G«rm. ' Gulgenstrick.' 18 iKdpom iiriffrfiiras] 

^ Bhadamanthys causes them, the spirits from Asia, to confront 
him (has them up before him), and inspects each one separately,' 
&c, Kareidcp odSiy iryUs 6y — ' he finds there is no soundness in it 
— that it is seamed all over and covered with scars, the effect of 
perjuries and wrong-doing — the foul traces left upon the soul of 
«ach man by his past conduct.' Presently we have dxparlas, an 
old form. Euseb. dxparelas, perhaps rightly, for this seems the 
favourite form in Plato, who nowhere uses dxpaalat which is 
common in later Attic. See Lobeck, Phryn. p. 525. With this 
picture of a mind diseased may be compared the image of the 
battered and weedy sea-god, Bepub. x. 611 o. Also the well- 
known passage in Tacit. Ann. vi. 6, ''Neque frustra praestantis- 
fiimus sapientiae firmare solitus est, si recludantur tyrannorum 
mentes, posse adspici lauiatus et ictus; quando, ut corpora 
verberibus, ita saevitia, libidine, malis consultis, animus dila- 
oeretur." 80 6i)di> ttjs <pf>ovpds:] 'straight to the place of 

custody.' Olympiodorus, and, according to Ast, the Cod. Vind. 1 
have eiOik, a v. 1. not noticed by Bekk. The distinction is 
familiar. Phryn. Eel. p. 144, EiJ^jJ* voWol dprl rod cO^iJy. 
Zta(f>ip€i 64* rb fjutv ydprburov itrriv* eifSb *A0T]vQPt rb di xpbvov. He 
ought rather to have said <l>QpS.i or fieTa^oKrii rbvov iarlv. Lysis, 
init., iiropcvbfifiv i^ ^AKabrffdas ei/^j) AuK€to\). «Jj%<j^ \& '^^'rj 

244 QORGIAS. [525 a— 

frequently topical, as Thuo. vi. 96, x^p^ov-.^t^P fiji vSXewi e^dvs 
Keifiivov, where €i>di6 would have been incorrect. On the other 
hand, mo9t of the passages in which ed^i/; is put for e^$6 either 
have been or may easily be corrected. Perhaps the only certain 
instance of this kind is the well-known line, Eur. Hipp. 1197, r^y 
eiOdi Apyovs Kdwidavplas hbbv, <f>povpd for dctrfMoHipiov or diKoiW' 
n/jpiov occurs Phaedr. 62 b. 82 IXpoo^icet Bi iravrl rf iv rifi, 

6vtl\ Plato recognizes no other uses of punishment than the 
corrective and the exemplary. See note to 505 b, and compare 
Critias init., dUrj 8i 6pd^ rhv 7r\7ifip.€Kovvra ififieXij rroietv. The 
same was the opinion of Protagoras, if we may draw that inference 
from its occurrence in the speech, Protag. 324 a, el iOiXen ifvoTJaai 
rb /coXd^etv, w Zc&irpare;, roin dSiKOvvTas ri jrore di^varai, airb ae 
Sidd^eiy Sti <il ye AvOpayiroi ijyoOvTai TrapaaKCvaffrbv etvat Apcn^v, 
oidels yhp KoKdl^ei robs ddiKOvfras npbs rovrtp rbv vovv §x(ap Kal 
ro&rov hfCKa, 5ri '^dUriffcv, 6<rTis pAf (aaircp Orjplop dXoyUrrias 
TifuapeiTOU' b 8i fAerb, \6yov ivixeipQv KoXdfeii' oi rod jrapeXriXvdoTOs 
heKo, abiic^fiaTos TificapeiTai — o6 ydp Sof t6 ye vpax^kv dylvrfrov delTf 
— aXXd ToO fiiWovTos x^P^^* ^^^ M «v^t$ a5i/ci)<r]y fJL'fyre aCrbs odros 
fii/jre dWos b tovtop l8Ct)v KoXaaSivTa, And this is the view which 
seems to have commended itself to the civilized Greek mind 
generally. The notion of * satisfaction * shows itself however in 
some of the details of the myths at the end of the Bepublic, 
615 b. 

Page 123. 6 afMipruxrw] Three codd., according to Bekk., 
give the solec. d/mpn^iruffiv, 8 od ydp oXbv re dtXXws] This 

and similar passages in Plato doubtless laid the foundation of the 
theological idea of a purgatory, which seems to have been alien 
from the native Hebrew mind. 10 drex^Cii] As usual, the 

particle apologizes for a strong expression. * Literally hung up 
as warnings in that dungeon down in Hades.* Olympiodorus 
refuses to take rbv del xfibvov literally, and understands by the 
words the fjuiyaa iviavrbs, or period in which the heavenly bodies 
recover their relative position: rwravra irn KoKd^rai 6<ra dpKet 
irpbs T^v (rwavoKardaTaffiv, Comp. Phaedr. 256 e. 18 *A.pxi' 

\aop] So in the similar myths, Bep. x., 'Apbiaios b iikyas is 
mentioned by name as one of the hopelessly lost, 615 o. Kings 
and potentates, temporal and spiritual, occupy prominent places 
in the Judgment-pieces of the Catholic painters, as particularly in 
those of Fra Angelioo. 20 od ydp—i^riv oi^ry] We must 

anderstand /ueydXa diMprHipara dimprrdveiv. Whatever may have 

526 b] notes. 245 

been the animus of Thersites, his power, fortunately for himself, 
was limited by reason of his low estate. 

Page 124. lO *AfH<rTeldris 6 Av<rifidxov] On this passage 
Olymp. makes the following carious remark: &ri di kclL ai^rbs (6 
* ApKTTeidrjs) o^k ijv els Axpov iroKirucbs d^Xov, 6ti koX ica/cws iwade, Kal 
Sti ij KUfUfidla 4*^<rl rrepl aOroUf &ri ivl *Api<rT€i^ov diKaiop o^Biv 
oidafjLoO 7fyove vebmov. The comic line is omitted in Meineke*8 
collection* The poet seems to have meant that, righteous as 
Aristides may have been, his example was not followed by the 
youth of his generation. 17 imirnfiriva/jLevosy iav re] ' denoting 

by a mark whether he may think him curable or incurable'; L e. 
distinguishing the curable from the hopeless cases by separate 
marks. A similar detail occurs in the Bep. 1. 1. p. 614 c, roi>s 
diKcurrdf . . .rot); fxkv diKalovs kcXcijcip iropei^effOai t^p els de^idy,,,ff7ifi€Ta 
vepiarl/aPTas tQp SeducaafUvup ip rip vpbcdep* rovs 8^ ddUovs ttjp els 
&purTepap...ltxovTos Kal tot^tovs ip r<fi binadep (nifieZa vdprtop <Sp 
irpa^ap, 20 Ididjrov — rd aOrou Trpa^aPTOs] Readers of the 

Bepublic are aware that a special meaning is there given to the 
phrase 'to mind one's own business.' B. iv. p. 433 a, 6ti ye rb rb, 
a{rrov Trpdrreiv koX fi^ voXvirpay/iopeiP 8iKaLO<r6p7} eari, koX touto 
dWuv re ttoXKup dKriKbafiev Kal airol voXKaKis elpi^Kafiep, The 
righteous man acts always in conformity with the law of his 
nature, which subordinates appetite and passion to reason. He 
therefore in the truest sense rd a^oO vparreu But here Plato 
may use the phrase to denote the single-minded devotion to his 
calling which distinguished Socrates. Comp. Apol. 31 e, where, 
after pointing out the causes which made it impossible for him to 
take part in public affairs, he adds, dpayKoibp iari rbp r^ ovri 
fxaxo^fiepop {/v^p tov diKalov Kal el fiiWei 6\iyop xpbvop atad-i^effdaif 
IbicaTeieiP dWb. pJi) brj/xoffiedeip. 25 ixdrepos — piKVffcivl 

This passage Ast and Heind. agree in thinking an interpolation, 
but, as it seems to me, on quite insufficient grounds. The quota- 
tion is from the Odyssey, xi. 569. 81 <r/coTw Bircjs diro- 
ipavovfuu] ' I study how I shall present my soul to the judge's eye 
in the healthiest possible condition.' dvo<p. as a middle transitive 
is extremely common; not so as a middle neuter. Hence the 
folly of the old interpolation ^wv, inserted before rrjv ^ux^v, as if 
diroipapoOiMu were used for <f>apovfixu, 

Peige 1 25. O dprvicapaKaKial Gallicles had exhorted Socrates 
to the rhetorico-political life, p. 521 a. Socrates replies by an 
invitation to a life of self-culture in '9te;^x^\A.Qtv lort ^ «^\>^a'«^^ 

246 QORQIAS, [526 b— 627 d 

which, aa he affirms, outweighs in importance all the contests of 
the dicastery. 11 xao'/bii/o'et xat l\iyyid<r€ii\ * Before that tribunal 
you shall gasp and be ready to swoon, even as I might before a 
human court.' In the next clause Heind. suspects iwl KdfifnjSt and 
Gobet Kol and iriims^ Yv. LI. p. 341. It is true that a blow hrl 
Kdfi^s of itself implies irlfMaiSt but to object to so slight a 
redundancy seems to me hypercritical. The Kal is supplied from 
the best MSS. It would in strictness have come before rvirr^o-ei, 
but the transposition is fSar from unprecedented. Socrates here 
retorts upon Callicles his own words, IKiyyuprfs &v koU x<^M j^o o^k 
iytav 6 T( ttvoiSt 486 B. rdy di roiovroVf et rt koX Aypoucdrepoy 
elprjadaii l^c^mi' iirl Kd^fnjs Tirrovra, fii) 8id6vcu blKT)Vf ib. C. With 
the entire passage compare Theaet. 175 n, where the rhetorician is 
represented as suffering in a similar manner in presence of the 
philosopher. 2S iKciffcl *in the other world, when we get 

there. * Presently ^pc/ttci = * stands its ground,* * remains unshaken.' 
i^peiMLv is in other dialogues opposed to j^eiv or Kiveiffdai, and equiv. 
to iiTTdvai, Soph. 248 E, rrjp o^<rl<uf...Kaf€t(r0ai did rb T<£<rxcti', 8 dij 
^aii€v oiiK av yev^ffSau irepl rb ^pefioup. 

Page 1 26. 3 dKo\oi^$ri<rov evravda] ' Go with me in pursuit 
of that which when attained will secure your well-being in either 
state of existence.' ivrauOa with verbs implying motion is very 
common in Plato, e.g. hn-wda iXrjXjudafieyf Bep. iv. 445 b. 7 Kcd 
val M Ala <r6 ye] ' Nay, fear not to let him inflict upon you that 
last indignity, the blow with the open palm.' eacotf must of course 
be supplied before vard^at. The proposed vdra^au,, * let yourself 
be struck,' is a mere barbarism introduced by Stephen on next to 
no authority, and was properly expelled from the text by Bouth, 
though afterwards patronized by Van Heusde. The latter quotes, 
in illustration of rV drifiov vXrjyrjvf Lucian Necyom. p. 481, Kord 
KdfiltffS vai6fi€tf0Si wffTrep ruv dydpairdduy rd aTifAorara: with 
which we may compare Plato's language in p. 508 o, el/d iwl rf 
Pov\ofji4v(fi, iSffirep ol art/biot,...(& re r&irTeiv Po6\iiiTai...iTl Kofiprjs, 
Beaders of the Midias will remember the blow M Kofilnjs which 
Alcibiades inflicted upon Taureas, Demosth. p. 562. Add Chry- 
sostom on S. Matth. v. 39, Kal ivravda t^v fidXiara 8oKov<rav 
eTj^at vXriyiiv iirovelSiffTOVf t^v iirl ciayovoi, Kal ttoKK^v exovffOM 



The fragments of Gorgias have been collected by his bio- 
grapher Foss, by Spengel in his Artinm Scnptores, and by 
Mullach, in the second volume of his Fragmenta Philoso- 
phomm Graecorum. Few as these are, enough remains to 
enable us to form a judgment of the truth of Plato's 
representations of his style, both in the Phaedrus and in 
the elaborate imitation contained in the Symposium. The 
most considerable by far, and in every way the most 
important of these fragments, is preserved in the Scholia to 
the treatise irepi tdcwv of the Greek rhetorician Hermogenes^. 
This writer (who lived in the time of Hadrian), in his chapter 
irepl a-cfivoTriTos, after citing with measured praise certain bold 
Demosthenic metaphors, contrasts with them an instance of 
counterfeit sublimity taken from a speech of Gorgias, whom 
however he does not name : Trapabetyfia toijtov Arjfio(r6€Puc6v 
ovK av \dfioiSf ovdi yap i<m» irapa dc rois vno^Xois rovrouri 
(To^KTraif fra/i9roXXa tvpois av, Td<l>ovs rv yap c/i^v^ovf^ 
Tovs yvwas Xfyovo'iy, amrcp eltrl /LtaXiora &$ioi, Ka\ SK\a roiavra 
ylrvxp€vovTai ndfiiroXka, In a later passage, too, he censures 
"Polus and Gorgias and Menon" for their pompous and 
pretentious way of writing : (jyaivrrcu dc \6yos deivos, ovk &v 

1 Rhetores Graeci, ed. Walz, iii. pp. 226, 862, compared with v. 
p. 548. 

s The author of the treatise irc/>2 i^i^ovv, o. iii. 2, attrtbutes the 
metaphor to (Gorgias. 


TOiovros,,»6 reSv (ro^toreSv, X/ya> r&v irtpi Ti&\ov kclL Vopylav 
KOi M€V€i>va ie.r.X. (frcpl 18. ff.). On this his annotator Planudes 
remarks : Aiovvfrtos iv r^ dcvrcp^ vrcpl x^^"^''^P^^ ^^P^ Vopylov 
rad€ (f>r)(riv, Sri Tfjs Ibias twv avrov \6yoiv rowvrot 6 x^P^'^P' 
cyKOfKo^ei dc rovs iv iroXifia apiorrtvo'avTas rmv * ABrjvaioav, ''Ti 
**yap aTrfjv rols dubpaai tovtois &v bei dvdpcun 7rpo<rtlvai; rl 5c 
*^Ka\ npoaijv w ov btl irpoa'€ivai; tlneiv dvvaifja)v a ^ovXofiaiy 
*' fiov\oifir)v dc a dec, XaOatv fi€v rrfv Beiav v4fX€<riv, <f>vyuiv bk rov 
" dvBpcoTTivov <f>66vov, OvToi yap eK€KrrjvTO tpOeop fiev r^v dp€r^v, 
** dpBpcoTrivov 6c TO Ovryrov TroXXa luv bri to firapoy^t iiruixes 
^^Tov avBc^ov^ bucaiov irpOKplvovrts^ TroXXa dc v6p.ov aKpi^eias 
" \6yap opBoTTiTa, Tovro vofii(ovT€s Oeiorarop Ka\ Kouforarop pofiop, 
*^To biop iv T^ beoPTi koL Xcyctv Koi aiyav ical frotciv*, #cai bi&cra 
" atTKiftrovrcff fiaXurra cJv Set, yvdfirjv *Kai p<ifir)p*^, rfjv flip 
" /SovXcvovrcff r^i' 6* aTrorcXouwcs, Bcparrovrfs fi€V t<Sv dbiKcas 
*^ bvtrTvxovvrav, KoKaarai dc t»v dbiKoas €VTVxovvTO)Py avddbcis 
^^TTpos TO (rvfi(l)€poVf €v6pyrjT0i TTpos TO irpiiroPf t^ <l>popip.^ rrjs 
** yvdfirjs iravoPT€S to a<l>pov "^t^s p<ofUfjs*\ vfipiorrai tls vfipiard^, 
^^ Koa-fuoi els roxfs Koa-fiiovs, a(f)o fioi els Tohs d<l>6^vs, beipol ip 
*^TOis beipois, fjMpTvpias be tovt»v Tpontua ian^trapro Tav 
^'?roXcfuW, Atoff flip oyaXfiara^, tovt<op be dpaBrjfiaTay ovk 
" atreipot ovTe ip.<f>vTov "Apeos, oiJTe vofxifKnv ipcaroiv, ovTe ivonkiov 
ipibo£f oiJTe (l>i\oKaKov etpijpris^ (rep.Po\ fiep Trpos tov£ deovs T<a 
biKaiij^, ocrioi be irpos Tohs roKeas t§ Bepaneia, bUaioi npos tovs 

1 irapop obvioasly is corrupt. The easiest remedy, so far as the 
letters go, would be to substitute irpaov, and this was suggested by 
Spengel and adopted by the Ziirich edd. rightly, as I think. Mullach 
adopts the ingenious conjecture of Foss, irapUv ('indulgent/ 'yielding'), 
which gives an apt sense, though I should like to see another example 
of this adjectival use of the active participle. The perf. vapetfxevop 
would give nearly the same sense, and is more accordant with usage. 

s Here, in order to create a second antithesis, Sauppe has introduced 
into the text the words kuI kav, and that, or something equivalent, 
seems to be required. Perhaps koI nroielv Kal fiti iroceti/. 

B Kai pvafinV' These words do not occur in the codd., but were 
introduced, not without necessity, by Foss. The antithesis of yvdfin 
and ptofin occurs Aristoph. Av. 637. 

* T^ fitofitt^j introduced into the text by Sauppe. 

<( At^v flip dydXfiara, Gomp. Eurip. Phoen. 1473, wv d' iviKutfiep 
fidxVt O^ M^" ^'^^ TpoTTaiov %<rravav fipira^. Heraclid. 936, fiperat 
Atd« Tpoiraiou koWIpikop Xaraarap. 


"dcrrovff t^ tcr^, cwtrc/Scir dc irpos roifs ^iKovs tJ TrtWci* 
"rotyapoOv avrov airoBavovrviV 6 noBos ov avpa7r4dau€v, aXX* 
'^d^oyarof cV fovKJ- do'tt/Aoroir^ (r<ofia(ri 0j ov i«i^o)i»/' 2€fivat 
yap €VTav6a (rvfi<l>opi]a'as \4$€is 6 Topyias iwoLas iirviroKaiwipas 
ef ayycXXci, rois rt irapt(roi,s Koi ofioioTcXevToiv Koi ofioioKarapKTois 
KaKk<a7ri(oiv diokov irpotrKOpas^ top \6yov. 

In reading this fragment of the Epitaphius (probably its 
peroration), we are disposed to concur on the whole in the 
censure of the Scholiast, echoing that of Hermogenes. The 
ideas are, with some exceptions, ' superficial,' the assonances 
tedious, and the sacrifice of sense to sound, perspicuity to 
point, manifest throughout. Yet there runs through the 
whole a certain loftiness of sentiment which seems to take 
Gorgias out of the category of "gingerbread sophists 3" to 
which Hermogenes condemns him. Some of the antitheses, 
as those of €7n€iK€s and dticatoi^, vofios and \6yos, are true, and 
were possibly new: and though others are little more than 
verbal, the same may be said of many of the antithetic 
clauses which stud the earlier speeches in Thucydides. We 
can well understand that the historian should have incurred 
the blame of ^ Gorgiasm' at the hands of the ancient critics : 
and it seems probable that the funeral oration which he puts 
in the mouth of Pericles, admirable as it is, may have owed 
some part of its spirit, as well as its style, to the earlier effort 
of Gorgias^. And though there can be no comparison between 

1 So 3 codd. Al. dd, ovK kv aQavanrovs, Aid. ovk iv dawfAaToi^. If 
we read as in the text, the ovk dcroifiaTa croSfAara mast refer to the 
dydXfiaTa named above. Walz prefers d, iv ovk dQavuTon awfiatnv^ 
the meaning of which escapes me. l» dcrwfxdToit crcofiaatv was pro- 
posed by Hermann, which, though enigmatical, is perhaps best of all. 
I should refer it to their "bodiless forms" still hamiting the minds of 
the survivors. 

3 So Walz. Al. nrpdi Kopov. Bat the adverb is found in Hermo- 
genes, who also frequently uses ir/>oorKo/>if«, as does Aristotle in the 

s viro^v\ot«. Hermog. ubi supra. Literally "plated" as opposed 
to solid metal; "tinsel," or, more exactly, "Brummagem," would be 
the English equivalent. 

* See Dionys. Halic. de Lysia, p. 458, Beiske. Philostratns, Epist 
13, KpiTiac ih KoX iiouKvdidti^ oitK a7i;oouvTai t6 v»-«'^aKA<^vu&V'U\» kqX 


the sparkling ingenuity of the Sicilian rhetorician, and the 
vivid and penetrating intellect of the historian — that " philo- 
sopher not of the schools'' — it is something to have aided in 
the formation of a style like that of Thucydides, which was 
itself the model of that of the first of Attic orators. In 
general there can be little doubt that the excesses of the early 
rhetoricians, like those of the euphuistic writers of the time 
of Elizabeth, tended both to refine and invigorate the language 
of prose, and to render it a more adequate vehicle of thought 
than it had hitherto been^. 

It should further be observed that this fragment enables 
us without hesitation to condemn as spurious the two etitire, 
or nearly entire speeches which under the name of Gorgias 
used to stand in editions of the Oratores Attici, beginning 
with the Aldine^, under the titles naKafn^bovs arroKoyLa, and 
*E\€fnrjs €yK<afuov. Of these the former has none of the 
peculiarities of Gorgias' style ^ : the second, though abounding 
in alliterations, verbal antitheses, and other characteristics of 
the Sicilian school, has little or nothing of the pomp and 
splendour of the author of the fragment. Neither is mentioned 
as a work of Gorgias by any ancient writer, and the absence 
of such notice in the Helenae Encomium of Isocrates* has 
been taken as evidence that there was no work of Gorgias 
bearing that title. 

Another fragment of the Epitaphius is preserved by 

T»ji/ 6<ppvu trap avTOv KCKTrifxeuoL^ /uerairotovvrev ^k abtb eU nro oIkcIov 
h fihv uir' euyXcoTTiav, 6 de vird ^tvfifi9. 

1 See on this subject some judicious remarks of Mure, Critical Hist, 
iv. p. 121. 

3 They are given in the ZUrich edition, p. 182, not however as 

B Nor even of his dialect, for it is written in new Attic, the En- 
comium Helenae affecting the old forms. 

^ Isocrates refers to a declaimer on the subject, whom he does not 
name; but it has been sagaciously inferred from the tone of the 
passage that it refers to a then living writer, who cannot however have 
been the author of the declamation attributed to 6k>rgias, which is 
written in old Attic. It is curious that in the same speech Gorgias is 
referred to by name as the author of the well-known work nrepi ^ov fiii 
ovTOiy and this is a proof that Isocrates would not have scrupled to 
name the author of the speech, had he been Goxg^aa. 


PhilostratuB, from whom we learn that it was delivered in 
Athens — 

'^Ta fi€v Kara t&v PapPapav rp&nauL vfivovs airatrct, ra dc 
Kara t<5i/ '£XXf;va>y BprjvavsK" 

He had harped on the same string in his Oljmpicus, 
where he endeavours to persuade the Greeks ^' iffXa Trouia-Oai 
tSv oirXtop iMTj r^r oXXifXcDV iroXctr, dWh r^v rSv fiapfiapcav 
X<^pav" Ibid. This was a favourite theme of Isocrates, and 
probably a common-place in the rhetorical schools. 

A Pythicus of Gorgias is also mentioned by Philostratus, 
with the fabulous addition that on the altar or pedestal from 
which he spoke, a golden statue of the orator was set up cV r^ 
Tov IlvOiov iep^, 

Aristotle, Rhet. iii. 14. 11, quotes the initial clause of his 
€yK€afiu)v els *HXc/ovf* "*HX(f iraikis evdaifioitv" at the same 
time censuring the speaker for rushing in mediaa res^ without 
any prelusive sparring (ovbev 7rpo€(ayK»via'as), 

From another passage of the Rhetoric we may infer the 
existence of a fourth panegjrrio oration, " in praise of Achilles," 
from which however Aristotle gives us no extract. It re- 
sembled, he tells us, the epideictio speeches of Isocrates, in 
the complimentary episodes with which it abounded (r^ 
€iTei(ro8iovp iiraivois)* A fragment preserved by the Scholiast 
on Iliad iv. 450 may have belonged to this speech : dvefiiayovro 
dc Xirais dneiXal Ka\ cvp^atr olfioryai 

Whether Gorgias, like his countrymen Tisias and Polus, 
wrote a rexvrji or formal treatise on rhetoric, has been dis- 
puted 2; but there can be no doubt that the precept recorded 
by the Scholiast on Gorg. 348 is a genuine fragment from 
some written work of his, whether strictly a rix^ or not, 
"(Set) ras tnrovdas t»v dvTidiKoup yeXari eicKveiVj ra be ycXoia 

1 It is difficult to imagine that this sentiment can have been intro- 
dnced with propriety into a speech in honour of Athenians who had 
died fighting against Peloponnesians; yet we do not hear of Gorgias 
visiting Athens before the year 427; for the statement that Pericles 
was his disciple is probably a late fable. Possibly the fragment may 
have belonged to the speech next mentionedi and Philostratus' memory 
may have failed him. 

3 See note on Phaedrus, 261 o. 


rais <nrovba7g tKKpov€iv/* and it is to this doubtless that 
Aristotle refers in the Rhetoric, iii. 18. 7, belv €<l>rj Tofyylas rfju 
fi€P awovbffv K»T,\. The remark is one which could not have 
been made by an ordinary man, and the sentence is too nicely 
balanced for a mere colloquial dictum. 

The definition of rhetoric given by a Scholiast on the 
2Ta(r€i£ of Hermogenes*, under the title "Opos pr)TopiKfjs koto. 
Vopyiavy is evidently only a compilation from the Platonic 
dialogue (comp. 450 B, 455), though it is given by the Ziirich 
editors as an extract from Gorgias' r/x*^* 

The remaining fragments it is impossible with certainty 
to refer to any one speech or treatise in particular. Some of 
them were doubtless taken from his writings, but others, and 
those not the least characteristic of the man, seem to have 
been orally delivered, probably in conversation. Of the former 
class one has already been quoted : 1. y\m€i efjLyjrvxoi rd(t)oi — 
a metaphor which shocked the taste of Hermogenes, and drew 
forth, as we have seen, a malediction upon its author. 

2. Longinus, or whoever was the writer of the well-known 
treatise on the Sublime, quotes a similar metaphor of Gorgias : 
Sdp^rjs 6 tSv Ilcpo-eSv Zcvg. This does not appear to our 
modem taste either very * ridiculous,' or particularly revolt- 
ing: though we may accede to the remark that it and the 
foregoing are rather "high-flown than lofty 2/' 

3. Other more or less violently metaphorical phrases are 
quoted by Aristotle, Rhetoric iii. 3. 4, olov Topylat "x^wpi 
Kal avaifia^ ra irpayp.ara' (rif dc ravra alaxp^s fiep 
€(rfr€ipaSf kqk^s de eBipio-asJ' These he condemns be- 
cause they are " too grand and tragic,'' the former also because 
" obscure and far-fetched." To us the metaphor of reaping 
and sowing is a mere common-place, and it is used by Plato 
in the Phaedrus without offence. But " pallid and bloodless 

1 Bhet. Gr., ed. Walz, t. vii. p. 33. 

3 ir. uij/owt O. iii. 2, to tov Aeoirrlvov Topyiov yeXarai, ypd<povT09f 
Sep^tiv o Twv n.€pcriov Zevv, Kal, yvires ifixlrvxot ra^ot... 
otrra obx vi/rt)Xa dWd fitTetapa. 

^ Yulg. and Bkk. evaifict. Bat uvaifia is well supported, and cannot 
but loe light. 


affairs" is a phrase which would need apology even from a 

4. In the same chapter of the Rhetoric, Gorgias is 
censured for using extraordinary compounds: ra dc ylrvxpa,., 
yiyverai Kara Trfv Xcfiv €V»;Tois biirkois 6v6fxa(ruf.,,<)as Tofyyias 
(ovofiaCe, **7rTo);(o/iiov<roff* KoXa^y' ^ imopKrjo'avTas koL 

5. In the Convivium of Xenophon (c. 2. 26) we are 
presented with what Socrates calls a Topyltiov prjfia — tjv dc 
i]fuv ol naides fUKpais irvXift infKva cirtif^aiicd^axriy, where the 
last word, or possibly the last two, may be assigned to 

On the whole, the charges of tumour, affectation, and 
"frigidity" may be taken as * proven' against the Sicilian 
rhetor; though the less fastidious taste of the moderns, 
accustomed to use unconsciously phrases which to an Attic 
ear would have appeared startling metaphors, may sometimes 
disagree with that of the ancient critics. There is, however, 
a passage of Aristotle in which he seems to compare the 
grandiloquence of Gorgias with that of Plato in the more 
poetical parts of the Phaedrus, defending both as * ironical*.' 
We can discover no trace of irony in the inflated passage 
recorded by the Scholiast : and we should be at some loss to 
account for Aristotle's phrase, but fcnr an amusing instance 
which he has happily preserved for us in the same chapter of 
his Rhetoric in which he censures the tragic pomp of the 
Sicilian school and its founder. 

1 This can hardly mean ' arm an dichterischer Begabmig,* as Bost 
and Palm explain. Liddell and Scott give with greater probability 
"living (or rather starving) by his wits." It might also mean, '*one 
whom poverty inspires" (cui ingeni largitor Venter). Wit and poverty 
are the hackneyed attributes of the Greek parasite, and in a comic poet 
the epithet woold probably have been thooght happy. A similar 
compound, 'n-TcoxaAa^mv, is quoted from Phrynichns Com. (Meineke, 
C. G. ii. p. 582). Foss, not too happily, changes koXu^ into Kopa^. 
De Gorg. p. 53. 

^ Rhet. iii. 7. 11. After observing that poetical language is ad- 
missible in oratory when the speaker has succeeded in raising his 
audience to the proper pitch of passion or enthusiasm, he adds: i| Stj 
ovTu) dtif ri fier elpuveiai, birfp Po/oytos ktroUi Kal rd iv tw 


6. To dc Topyiov wis x^^^^^o^ ^^^ i^o^^ avrov veroiiivrf d<f>f/K€ 
TO ntptrrtayMj apurra r&v rpayiK&v' tlirt yap ^^ Altrxpov y€, eS 
^i\ofjLi]\a\** ZpviBi fi€V yap, el eirolrj(r€Vj ovk altrxpov^ 7rap0€v<a 
di aWxpov. mZ oZv ikoMprnrev elrrmp o fi^, dXX* ovx o icrnv^. 
That Gorgias had a sense of humoiir appears even from Plato, 
and will appear in sayings hereafter to be quoted; but we 
may conclude from the Aristotelian passage that whatever 
gift of pleasantry he may have possessed, whether ironical or 
otherwise, he reserved for conversational use. 

7. Topyias fiev oZv 6 Afovrlvos, ra fi€P la-ots dnoprnv ra 6* 
€lpoiv€v6fi€»os, e<l>Tjf KaBajTep oXimovs elvai rovs vtto tSv okfiorroiSv 
ir€iroirjfi€Vovs, ovrcf> Koi Aapitraiovs roifS vtto tSv Brjp^iovpyatv 
ir€iroirjfi€vovt' elvai yap rivas Aapio'OTroiovs. Arist. Pol. iii. c. 1. 

This saying has been understood as a reflection on the 
undue facility with which strangers obtained the franchise at 
Lansa. Whether in its original form it was spoken or written 
we have no means of determining ; but it seems to have been 
called forth by some political arrangement which fell under 
its author's notice during his long sojourn in Thessaly^. 

8. Besides his rhetorical course of instruction, Gk)rgias 

1 What poet first transposed the names of Procne and Philomela is 
not quite certain. In all Greek authors, so far as I know, ' Philomel' 
is the name of the swallow, and Procne of the nightingale (Arist. Ayes 
665). The Latins generally reverse this: but Yarro de L. L. and Virg. 
Eel. vi. 81 adhere to the Greek version of the story. 

3 The same story is told, but less neatly, by Plutarch, Sympos. viii. 

8 The conjecture suggests itself, that more may have been meant by 
Gorgias. From the passages presently to be quoted it is clear that 
he shrunk from, or was incapable of, wide ethical generalizations. 
This dictum about Larisa and its institutions may have been intended 
as a scofiSngly evasive answer to a question in political science. What 
constitutes a citizen? — a question which Aristotle takes so much pains 
to answer. The conjecture that there may be a play on the two words 
vapiaoiroioi and Aaptaroiroiot is not improbable; in my opinion, less 
so than the notion propounded by Schneider, that the ambiguity lies 
in the twofold sense of Aa/9t<ratov, which may mean either a Larisaeau 
man or Larisaean kettle, in which case it would be necessary to 
substitute Aapi<raioiroiou9 in the text of Aristotle. See Anthol. Pal. 
vi. 305, TC0C Aapicraitov KUToyd<rTopa9 e^i)T^/)a«. But it seems unlikely 
that Aapiaaloi without a substantive would have suggested any other 
notion than that of a man of Larisa. 


seems to have entertained his Thessalian admirers with 
ethical discussion. As he disowns the imputation of pro- 
fessing to "make men better," these lucubrations were 
probably of a purely speculative or perhaps sceptical charac- 
ter. The question, What is virtue? raised originally in 
Attica, had apparently troubled the grosser wits of the 
Thessalian landowners, one of whom is represented as answer- 
ing it in the sense if not the words of Qorgias^, and of course 
as failing to defend his thesis when subjected to a course of 
Socratic cross-questioning. Aristotle, who seems to have had 
a better opinion of Gorgias' understanding than of his taste, 
gives us the following account of the philosopheme in question: 
KaBoKov yap ol \4yovT€S i^airar&a'iv iavrovs, on to cJ c^^ti^ ttiv 
^Irvx^p open;, fj to op^oTTpoyciv, if t* tSv Toiovroiv, iroXv yap 
ayufwov \4yovtrw oi i^apiOyuawrts tcls dpeTas, »<nr€p Topyias^ 
t£v ovro>s opi^opJvoup, 

Waiving the question of the consistency of this opinion 
with Aristotle's treatment of Virtue in the Ethics, we may 
observe that the passage obviously refers to an opinion ad- 
vanced by Gorgias' admiring disciple Meno in the dialogue 
bearing his name. The context proves that Plato intends to 
criticize the master rather than the pupil ^, and independently 
of this circumstance it is plain that the i^aplBprjfns Tcav 
ap€T&v which Aristotle commends is that given in the Meno, 
viz. an enumeration of the different virtues corresponding to 
differences of sex, age, and condition — Kaff iKdtmjv yhp ratv 
TTpd^emv Ka\ reSv rjXucimv irpos tKoarop tpyov iKaart^ i^pSv ^ 
dp§Tij iimv\ It seems probable, though it cannot perhaps 
be proved, that (Jorgias denied, the possibility of any more 
general definition, such as that which Socrates professes to 
seek^: or it may be that he felt the same difficulty in 

1 See Meno, p. 71 e foil. 

3 Meno, 71 d, av ^av^s <rb fihv elitot KalVopyla^. 

8 In these concluding words we seem to perceive the hand of the 
master. Compare with the repetition, kKd<rrriv — '<iKa<rrov — eKatrrvo, the 
language of Polns, p. 448 c, especially dWoi — dWoov — tSWax, r&y S^ 
dplarrotv — ol dpiarToi. 

* Gorgias, we know, ridicnled the pretensions of Protagoras and 
other sophists who professed to teach Virtue. Possibly therefore this 


apprehending the nature of Definition which Plato elsewhere 
attributes to many of his speakers, and here in particular to 
Meno. However this may be, Virtue, according to Gorgias, 
amounts to much the same thing as Efficiency — a defensible 
and not un-Socratic view of the matter. In what work these 
speculations were contained is a question we have no means 
of determining: but whatever may have been its title, to it 
probably belonged the two apophthegms which follow. 

9. *H/[iii» 5c KOfx\l/vT€pos^ fi€V 6 Topylas (^oiucrcu, K^ktv^v 
firi TO etdos dWa r^v bo^av tivai iroWolg yvapi^iov r^s 
yvvaiKos, Plutarch, Mulierum Virtutes, c. 1; Moralia, 
p. 242 E. 

10. Oi5 yhp airkas aKrjBts o \4yei Tofyyias' cXcye 84' ro 
fi€v €ivai d<l>aP€S (m^ tvxov tov doKctv, to de boK€iv 
d(r6€V€s fi^ TVXOV TOV eJpai. Proclus, Schol. in Hesiodi 
0pp. 1. 768 (Qaisford, Poet. Min. iiL p. 340). 

This is probably a literal quotation, and may have been a 
continuation of the foregoing. To the same treatise we may 
not improbably refer— 

15. *0 fjLcv yap <l>ikos ovxt <S(nr€p d7r€<l>aiv€To Vopyiasy 
avro) p.€V d^i^(r€i to, diKaia top ^i\ov virovpyeiv^ 

€K€LP(0 8* aVTOS VTD/pCD/O'Cl TToXXa KGl T&V fl^ dlKoicaV, 

Plutarch, Mor. p. 64 c. 

This maxim, more generous than just, may have occurred 
in the description of " The Virtue of a Friend" ; but though 
in substance doubtless a true quotation, the phraseology has 
probably^ been altered. It is far less easy to admit the 

treatise of his contained a proof of the thesis Bti oit iiiaKrdv tj a'^ertf, 
and as part of that proof he may have insisted that there is no general 
conception answering to the word, bat that there are as many separate 
Tirtnes as there are classes of human beings and departments of hnman 

1 'Finer,' that is to say, than an opinion of Thacydides jast referred 
to by Plutarch: 6 fihu yap, t^s a» iXax^o^oi ^ irapd toI« ^kt^s i/royov 
ire/oi t) iiraivov \6yo^, dpiaTi\v dirofpaiveTat' Kaddirep t6 awfia Kai 
Tovvofxa T^9 dyaQ^^ yvvaixdv olofievo^ ielv KaTaKXenrrov elvai Kai 
dvej^oSov. The words of Thncydides, ii. 45, are not repeated, but his 
meaning is fairly given. So probably in regard of the citation from 


genuineness of the following fragment, omitted, whether by 
oversight or design, in Mullach*s Fragmenta : — 

16. Topyias 6 p^rtop eXcyc rovs (l)iKo(ro(l)ias fx€v d/ifXot/vra; 
7r€p\ de TO. €yKVK\ia fia&qfiara yivofitpovs Ofxolovs eivai rois 
fivrjo'TTJpa'iVy oi Trjp HrjpeXofrrjv cBiXovres rait deparrai- 
viaip avrfjt ip.iyvvPTo. 6 avros roifs priropas €<tirj 6p.oiovs 
€ipai fiarpaxois' rovs p-ip yap iv vSari lecXadcii/, roits 
6 6 €P rfi yfj, (In SpengeFs Artt. Scriptores, p. 70 note, from 
an inedited Munich MS.) The former of these dicta, if not 
too witty, is too wise for its reputed author, being rather in 
the manner of Plato than of Gbrgias, to whom it seems an 
anachronism to attribute the distinction of supreme and 
ancillary sciences. The word cyicv/cXtof, in the sense here 
given to it, is also of later date^; and it is difficult to believe 
that the author of the sceptical or rather nihilistic treatise 
frepi roG prj optos can have thought thus highly of philosophy. 
Still less can we believe that he would have disparaged the 
practitioners of his own art, as he is made to do in the second 

17. "Eti toIpvp Topyias ptp 6 A€ovt1p6s ^170*1, top Kt/xa>ya 
TO, xpijpara KraaSai p,€P as xp<ioTo, xpria-Oai, be »s 
Tiparo. Plut. Cim. c. 10. This fragment, which has every 
note of genuineness, may possibly have come from the 
Epitaphius, as MuUach supposes. 

The dicta which follow, though not fragments from his 
writings, illustrate the personal character of Gorgias in -an 
interesting manner. 

18. Four sayings are preserved, which, whether written 

1 First so used by Aristotle, as Eth. N. i. 5 (8), where Michelet 
observes : ** PhilosopMa Aristotelis temporibas reliquis a scientiis non- 
dnm distingaebatnr; qaamobrem ii Ipsi, qui proprie philosophi neqae 
erant neqae fieri cnpiebant, philosophicas materias docebantnr, sed 
aUter ac philosophantes, uempe eo modo, qao vnlgi anribus et intellectai 
accommodatae erant. Illae scientiae quibas onmes Graeci imbaebantnr, 
qui veiraiSevpevoi esse vellent, nominabantnr \6yQi ij^mrepiKot, 
iyKVK\iot, €V K01V& y€v6p€V0ij iKieSofiduoif Ta i^w yuaOtf /tiara, qnibns 
opponnntur \6yoi KUTd (fnXoaoKftiap." eyKVK\. juaOtf/tiara were there- 
fore those sciences or parts of sciences which entered into the ordinary 
cnrricalmn of liberal instraction — ' popular ' as opposed tA ' «iAct\>^ 

PL, QOB. ^ 


or only spoken, are not improbably authentic i. Gorgias is 
said to have been the author of a phrase adopted by Aristo- 
phanes: €P tSv {Al(rxv\ov) bpafidrav fiearov ^Apec^s etvai, 
Toits inra iirl eif/Say. Plut. Sympos. vii. 10. 2. In a 
similar vein is the following: Topylav ttjv rpaymhiav ^lircv 
dnarrfp, fjv 8 re airoTiycras diKaiorepos roif p,^ drrarij' 
aavTOSf Ka\ 6 dTraTr)B€\s tro<f>(^T€pos rov prj dfraTrjdevros, 
lb. de Audiendis Poetis, c. 1. 

Il6tr<p TovTQUP /ScXria)!/ Topyias 6 Atovrivos nepl ov (Prjirtv 6 
avTOS 'KXeapx^os €» r^ 6y86<^ tSv fiidnVy on dia to (roi)<l>p6v<ii>s 
(fjp arx^^op 6yboi]KOPTa cny to) (ftpopeip (rvpffiicaa-e, kol cVci ris 
avrbv ijpero tipi diairjj XP^I^^^^ ovrtos eppeXois Koi pera 
altrdi^(r€Oi>s roaovrop xpoPOP fijo'ctcv, Ovdev ir(0 7roT€, einevy 
rjbop^s €P€K€P TTpd^as. ArjpfjTpios fie d Bv(dpTios ev TcrdpTc^ 
ir€p\ Troirjpdroip ^^ Topyias, ^tjo'Ip, 6 Aeom^vos eparrfOfls tl avr^ 
yiyopep atriop rov jSuocrai 9rXcio> rap iKarop ct^v, €(t>Tjy To prjdtp 
TrwTTOT* iripov €P€K€p it ciro it} K€pai,y lb. de Gloria Athen. 
c. 5. 

Of these sayings the first three need no comment, but the 
fourth is more obscure. The French translation, ^^ Jamais je 
n*ai rien fait par complaisance pour autrui (centre ma sant^)," 
is countenanced by a passage of Lucian which seems a para- 
phrase rather than a quotation: ov (sc. Topylav) (jiouriv 
cpaTqOivra rriv air tap rov paKpov yfjpoas Ka\ vyieivov iv Tracatf 
Tatff ala'6ija-€a'iv, ctjrcty bia to prjbiiroT€ o'vp'iTtpievtx^V^'^*' 
rais aWotp tvaxiats. Macrob. c. 23. Meineke however 
bakes the words erepov €V€K€v in their most general sense, as 
an avowal of mere selfishness, which he thinks it incredible 
that Gorgias should have made. He therefore (Philologus 
xiii p. 242) proposes to read, did to prjdep ir<onoT€ ipripov 
€PtK€P 7r€iroiriK€P(u — " er habe nie der dnnlichen Lust gedient." 
The word Zprtpov is once used by Archilochus^ in an indelicate 
sense, but the emendation is not justified by the passage 

1 It is quite possible that they may have formed part of the 
celebrated Epitaphius, in which they might have fonnd a place as 
easily as in Plutarch's treatise de Gloria Atheniensinm. The words li^ 
Vopyiat (fujcrlvf in the latter passage, rather imply that the dictmn 
came from a wiitten work. 

^ Frag, Lyr. 141 Bergk. 


adduced, nor, it seems to me, is it necessary to alter the text, 
if we accept the interpretation above given ^. A critic in the 
Rhenish Museum for 1860, p. 624^ censures Meineke for his 
bad taste, thinking that the reply of Gtorgias really contains 
a playful admission of his habitual '^ Egoismus,'' though 
exaggerated for the sake of effect. But neither Meineke nor 
his opponent has noticed the illustrative passage of Lucian, 
where the word avfiirtpi€V€xOfjvtu^ bears out the "par com- 
plaisance" of the French interpreter. 

A different version of the same reply is given in Stobaeus, 
Anthol. 101. 21, Topylas iptdrqOtis Trolq. dtairu xP^H-^^^^ ^^^ 
fioKpov yrjpai ^XBev' Ovbiv oudcTTorc, €^77, rrpos ^8ov^v 
ovT€ <l>ay^p oiStc bpaa-av. Also in Valerius Maximus, viii. 
13, "Gorgias Leontinus...cum centesimum et septimum ageret 
annum, interrogatus *quapropter tam diu vellet in vita 
remanere' : * Quia nihil,' inquit, * habeo, quod senectutem 
meam accusem.'" Equally characteristic of the man were 
his last words — 

19. Topyias 6 X^ovrivos iifi repjiari wi/ tov filov, vn 
daOepflas Kard^rjcftBeisf kot oXiyop €ls vnvov wrokiaddvcav €K€ito ' 
eVci dc Tis avTov tSp emrrjbeiiov rjpero tI frpOTTOiy 6 Topyias 
an€Kpivaro ' "VLbri fic 6 virvos apx^rai irapaKararlOeaOai rdb€k(f)^. 
Stob. Anth. 118. 23, from Aelian, V. H. ii. 35. 

20. The following is given on the authority of Arsenius^, 
who certainly did not invent it: 6 avrbs (sc. Topyias) fjdrj 
yrjpaios vnapxav, iptorqBfis el i/dccof nTTO^vifericot, "Hdiora, ftnev, 
ttXTTTcp 5f €K (rairpov Kal peovros (rvvoiKiov a(rp.iv<as,. 

The treatise of Gorgias Trfpl roO /xj) oin-os, though it is 
important in a history of philosophy, as a kind of reductio ad 
ahsurdum of the Eleatic method, is preserved to us only in 

1 Another conjecture, yaarepo^ (iveKaj is approved by Zeller, Ph. d. 
Gr. i. p. 737, note (5). 

3 ^'Comiter se dare, alicui morigemm esse," Budaeus, quoted in 
Steph. Lex. s. v. avfjureptt^eptiv. o-uyuirepi^epeo-Oot is frequently used 
in this sense of "going with the multitude," but only in late writers. 

8 In the "Praeclara Dicta Philosophorum," an early-printed and 
once well-known compilation by a Greek Archbishop, son of Michael 
Apostohus, a Byzantine refugee of the fifteenth century. 

\1— '^L 


epitome. For that reason, and because it throws no light 
on the personal or purely literary characteristics of its author, 
and is therefore of no direct use to a student of this dialogue, 
I have thought better to omit it. The best edition of the 
Aristotelian critique is, so far as I know, that of Mullach in 
the first volume of his "Fragmenta Philosophorum" in Didot's 


[Notes are referred to by the paging of the text] 

dyad6v = <jlxp4\Lfiop, 44 
'dyavaKTTjrds, 103 
aya<r$<u, construction, 5 
dyyeui rcr/wy/A^a Kod aaOpd, 74 
dyopd irXi^dovaa, 36 
ddid(/>opat theory of, 33 
ddiKcTp rod d8iK€7<r0ai...KdKiop, 98 
ddiKeip /JiiyiffToy tup koxQv, 36 
d^KeiirdaL alpertiyrepop 'fj ddiKciVy 

dSiKT^<ro/x€v, not dSiKi^crtafiev, 101 
ddiKiap i^aupetaOaif 115 
ddiKos — d$\ioSy 39 
deiy insertion of, 22 
dei, force of, 50 
dOdpwroi HffToi irovrjpbi iSvt 56 
alaOduofiai — aov — firt — o6 dvpa- 

fiivov^ 57 
aitrx^cm; /Soi^^eta, 100 
dK/c£^6(r^a(, dKKur/xdst 80 
'AKift6, 80 

dxpaffla onplatonic, 122 
dKparela preferred to aKparia., 

dxpodaOai used as i^ira/coi^eo', 

ctXXo Ti... 15, 37, 40, 46, 57, 69, 

AXXo Tt o^Kj 91 

aXXos, idiomatic use of, 2, 43 
*AX0iT<6, 80 
dfiddep yi iro0€P for dXXo^ei' 7. 

IT., 73 
djuoD, &fi6d€Pf dfi^, dfiias, aspi- 
rated in Attic, 73 
dfi^TjTOSj 73 
'A/t^ovos /&^<rtf, 95 
dfufnff^rjTeTvy 54 
dfA<p6T€pat adverbial use of, 50, 


d/iff>6r€pov, Homeric usage o^ 

&p, omission of, 72 
&p not omitted with potential, 

dp omitted after rjpf 107 
dpayxdi^eiM, 41 

dpayxatos, construction of, 5 
dpadiadoL, 24 
dpalrrp-ost 60 
dpaXa^eip rhp \biyop^ 96 
dvaXi<ric]7, not dvaXtcnciTTat, 56 
dpapfjuHFTeiPf 58 
dpoaTavpovffOai, 43 
dpiSifP oUnOf 76 
dvei for d76t? 60 
dvetMu, 72 
dpa^ip€ff6(u, 60 
di'iJj'UToy KaxdPt 97 
dpInjTOP TTpdyfiaf 114 
dpofw\i»yo6fJi£Pos = inconsistent, 

dvTLXafJL^dpeaOaii 95 
dyriirapaicaXa;, 125 
di'Turrarcti', 106 
dpriffrpoipoSf 28 
dpTiTid^poUf 24 
d7ra7wy^ c/j ddiLfParoPt 77 
diraXXdrnTTcu passive, 93 
dTT^dctf/ca, sense of, 95 
dweKplOrj inadmissible in Attic, 2 
dTTLffrLay 73 
dirXa); oihrcus, 34 
dTrd <ro(; dp^d)ti6vos, 40 
dTTodetici'i^i'at, 110 
dwodeiXidPt 55 
d^od/^oo-^ai, 96 
dTTOKaXecv generally implies 

reproach., W^ tig\» viJi:««^%» "Ssi. 



dvoKpthrT€<r6<u^ transitive, 55 
dwokafidjv used adverbially, 77 
diroXeiTreadcUt 118 
diroXXi)€t, dtrdWvffL, 78 
dTTOTTi/ATrXdvai, 71 
dTro<r€i€<r6(Uy 60 

dTTOTeiveiVt 30 

dTO^ad/eo-dcu, transitive, 31, 

diroipoiTaVf 68 

dwoxp^fj^i 95 

dpa, 73, 105, 114 

dpa, for yap aS, reading from 

Olympiodorus, 14 
apa placed late in sentence, 

apa, 7 

apa in the middle of the 

sentence, 41, 48 
ap* ovv ouxi 67 
dpcT-ifl according to Callicles, 

72, 73 
dpen/j defined, 96 
dper^ d'nfJLOTiKTJj 96 
dperrj tov (rJjfMLTos, 53, 98 
dpid/xrjTiKriy 8, 12 
ApiffTOKpdrrjs 6 S/ce\X£ou, 40 
dpTOKdwos more Attic than dp- 

Torroidsy 113 
&pX€<T0ai. with accus. of cognate 

signification, 4 
dpxriv = ^' in the first instance," 

and with neg., " not at all/* 

HpXovTO. ^avroO, 71 
dtr/f^TTTWs ^X'^''» ^ 
dral^a, 92 
dr^X^m, 70, 87 
drcxvws, 70, 123 
drexviai ArifJiOVj 63 
drexf^^i 8rjiJ.riy6pos, 75 
drifios rrXrfyri, 126 
droiroJ' ipydj^ovTai vpay/MLy 114 
cTrra, 64, 80 

druxi7<'"ttts» iiot dTTOTUX'yo'ctts, 24 
dri/xw with genitive, 24 
aC>\rjTiKi^f 88 
a^XT/ri/c^ in Philebus, not to 

be altered, 88 
airrUa, "for instance," 41 
a^rlKa wpQTOVy 41 
ath-deep, 38 

adrois for dXX^Xois, 29 
aj>r6i' = ultro, 19 
aitrbs yv(*><r€i, 94 
ai)rot>s interpolated, 114 
a^o^ucDs dfioioPt 105 
aifTCHv, 71 

ai^rwi', construction of, 121 
dxO^<rofiaLi not dx^^ffO'^ffopMif 

§a\\6jfTiout 99 

^dpadpov, 111 

Paaavi^eiVy 64 

^daavoSj 65 

^e^atiixrwpai rrapd aoOi 67 

/8Xd^ dird rou /mXa/coO, 65 

^orideia ^aury, 119 

fiovXeOeiVt 43 

fiovXei&fiaai and ^ovX'q/iaffi in- 
terchanged in codd., 57 

/SoiJXT^cris roO rAous, 33 

/8ot/Xo/Aa(, distinction of from 
9om /Aot, XX, 31 

fiovXofjL^vtp <rol iffrlvy 4 

7dp in apodosi after paren- 
thesis, 13 

7^ in exclamation, 32 

ylyv€<T0ah 109 

yiyv€Tai = ffvijpalv€if 78 

yvricriov ri dtrepydj^effdou. eli 
^Xiap, 105 

yorjre^eiv, 60 

I*op7/6(0)' ^^/xa, 253 

yvfjLvdaiov = school of philoso- 
phy, 74 

yvfivaariKrj, 29 

ywaiKOfu/xoSt 63 

7i}7r6S ifjLrpvxoi rdipoit 247, 252 

dcufJLovdVf not dcufiopiavt 75 
d^derai . . . aidrjpoTs xal ddajMLvrl' 

vois X6yoiij 99 
96t and 5^ confounded, 109 
^etv, ellipse of, 41 
detv, pleonasm of, 104 
detpdrrfi attributed to Socrates, 

5^ used ironically, 86 
317X01, 60, 74 
W|\ov 5ti, ^5, 109 



drifiriyopcip, 58, 115 

Srj fitly opla...ij iroiriTiKrit 90 

5r}fji.7jyoptK65y 59 

drjfAijy^poSt 58 

drifiiovpyds and Idiumjs, distinc- 
tion between, 15 

dvjfjMKpaTiKbs ifTJp in the Be- 
public, xxiii 

djifioKpaTucbs dvr)p^ Callicles a 
specimen of, xxiii 

dTifioaieiL^ew and Idiure^eiVt dis- 
tinction between, 15, 107, 

diaKovla identified with KciXoKeLa, 

duLK<afi(fid€iVi 26 

diairepaLpeffdaif 13 

diatrepdvyy not ys, 101 

dLaTreTTpd^erau,, 102 

Siawp^veiVy whether transitive, 

diaptOixetadaiy 87 

diaaKeirrdfj^da, solecistic read- 
ing, 106 

Starpi/S-^, 61 

diaipdcipcis TOi)j irpiSiTovs \6yovs^ 

StJd^oi, not didd^ei, 58 

$(d6va( dlKrfVf 100 

d^iccua = /caXd, 47 

diKaiot, '^/xepoi, 110 

5tVa(os, 21 

S^icaios, construction of, 4 

diKaioa^PTj, Platonic, xxi 

diKouociiprj and ffuxppoailfvrf, near- 
ly coincide in the Kepublio,xxi 

8iKaio(r6vr}p preferred to dticcurn- 
Kijv, 28 

diKouCov t6 ^laidraroPf 60 

diKoaTT^s — dUaios, 28 

3^/ci7 iroprjplas larpiK^f 52 

5/ ACT/)' diddpai diraWayri xa/coD, 53 

Atds d7dXjuara=Tpoirata, 248 

8is Kal TpLSi 84 

8ib)KaO€iv, not duaxdOtLPy 59 

Soicet, use of, 77 

doiceZ /to(, distinction of from 
/3oi;\o/Mu, XX 

doKeiP efJLoij 58 

$0K6(s for ibbKciSy 40 

hoKO^PTWP elvai ti, 4D 

dt^paffdai interpolated, 37 
d^paadai dyadbv rtf 5vpafUp(fi, 30 
5u<rxfpcU>'€iv, 7 
$4^ for doirj inadmissible, 56 

idiP TrdfxiroXvt 103 

iavrdp interpolated, 110 

iyKi^kXia fiadi^/JutTa^ 257 

iyKibfuop els ^RXeiovs of Gorgias, 

iy<fifmi, not iyCi) ol/tai, 120 

i8i(t)Ka6€Sf aorist, not imperfect, 

idpos used as Latin *natio,' 15 

cl di iiii after idp (Up, 37 

ei /A-}; ef ris, 55 

€l fiif} TL taken as one particle, 57 

el fi-^ Ti <rb AXXo ^^els, 105 

6/ vdvv TTOWOV^ 103 

el ToXi5, 103 

elev for etrjaap, 72 

efi; for elyat, 91 

elfMpfjuipoif 105 

cl/tei', 72 

eliriop diraWdyriOii 71 

els ^/xo2 dprl woWQp, 48 

e/s t6 airrd Trepi^pdfJLePoif 112 

€/s rd pdpadpop ifi^aXetyt m 

e2(rT(dKa(rti'...a;i' iweOi&fMVP, 114 

clre, ctriyi', 72 

^K Tf^Tov, TpLrtaPf 86 

iKaripbXTe^ 120 

^ic6(vos=this last, 89 

^ic€l(r6, 125 

ixXd/JiireiPf 60 

iKT^fipeip, 43 

^/rwy eli'at, 85 

AcTXOs, 47 

A€(i/6s, not Aeeti'^s, 36 

*EX^i7s iyxibfuop falsely attri- 
buted to Gorgias, 250 

iXOdprej not iXOdpra, 16 

l^jx^paxv altered into ip ^paxei, 

ifjLfiopi^y 54 

i/xweipLa and r^i'i; distinguished, 

ifxirXifyydrfPf 58 

(^fiwXriKTos, Attic sense of, 58 

ifiwXriKTos confounded with ix- 
irXrjKTOSy 58 



^y, use of, 10 

h, omission of, 119 

iv /xerplifi cx'^IM-oLTif 103 

iv livBiov preferred to ip Ilu^ot, 

iy T<fi AiovvffLtfi distingaished 

from T(fi iv Lioviaov dedrpffi^ 40 
h T(fi TTidtf) TTjif KepafieLaVf 108 
&a ^ fxrihiva, 40 
ivbeiKvivai^ 65 
ivhihbvai^ 84 
ivravda with verbs of motion, 

i^ airavTOS rov vov^ 101 
i^OfJLOiQp aifTov rp iroXiref^, 105 
i^oarpaKil^eiPj 111 
i^uyrepiKol \6yotf 257 
etraKoi^eiv — inraKOiidv — irapaKo^' 

€iM distingaished, 65 
iiravlffTaadaif 60 
hravopdolre, not iwavopdOrc, 24 
iireit rhetorical use of with im- 
perative or an interrogation, 

^weira for Sfitos, 115 
iTr€^4px€i r(p Xdyy, 72 
iripxccBai, 62 
^in}xou(ra, not ^in^xou<ra, 66 
iiri after icaXecy omitted, 92 
i?iri ic6/J^>7J, 63, 99, 125, 126 
irl ToifvavTiov,, 55 
ivl T<p ^ovkofiivifit 99 
^iri T<fi ivl rldeadai vdfwvSt 66 
iTideiKv^vai and indeiKwaOai 

distinguished, 1 
iirlSei^iSy 1 

iTTldJjVy 43 

iwieiKusy meaning of, 73 
iirieiKUfs ^la ^\iku>s, 62 
iriBivTas K€</>a\'^p, 94 
iriBeTiop dUriv, 97 
iriOufxicop irapaffKevaaralt 113 
iTiKovplaj 72 
iwiXa^oVf 30 
iiriXafJi^dveadai, 114 
iiriXafjL^dpoVy 36 
^7rt/i6\6t(rd(u, 110 
^7rt/x^\6(r^ai, 110 
^TTi/LteXiyri^s ji'o;)', 110 
irLirpocBep^ifivod^Pi 120 
iwi^peip, 76 

irlffra/xai used for knowing by 
rote, also to denote personal 
acquaintance, 60 

iviCTTdTTlS, 43 

irrurn^fni and iriaTis distin- 
guished, 14 

imffTTfifjLrif its identity with <l7a- 
^6i/, 77 

iTTUTTopii^cadai, 58 

^iri7Tj5cu<rcts = 7ra/)a(ric6ua^, 87 

iTriX€ipvTiop...Ti irdXei xal toIs 
TToXLTais Bepawe^ewt 106 

^{\^aKd^6{v, 253 

iwi\lnj<f>ltfip, 43 

^iroxcTciJeti', 74 

^wt^tt;?, not ifTTaiTriSf 39 

ipfjLouop, 64 

iffBrjaip for cdffB-fyFet., 29 

ioBrjaiSy a woid of doubtful note, 

^o-r^y and ^(tt/i/ confused in 
MSS., 14 

^<rX'7/t*ciTi<7/AA'os, 103 

Ircpoy, 77 

iripov iv€K€Vf 258 

eS r(r^' ort, 11 

«5 Trpdrreip, double sense of, 97 

eS TrpdTT€LP instead of xa//>cti', 97 

e^daifiopLa irepl aQfjuit 52 

eifdoKifieiPf 109 

eiepyirrji opaypdipcaBaii 96 

6i)^]} and 6i)^i;s distinguished, 122 

etKTiKo. dvrl iTroraKTiKUPt 24 

i<f>ri(rBay not ^01;$, 80 

^Xe 5i>, 21 

^X^^s «cii irpibr)Py 38 

^X« ""wj efira;, 91 

iVa, 11 

17 after ipaprlou^ 57 

^ after tdiop, 57 

^, repetition of, 89 

^ for ^f, 66 

ij ip *ApT€iu<rl(fi or irepi 'Aprc- 

fdaiop fidxVi never ^ 'Apre- 

fuffitfit 111 

^ /A-J? '/ATTCip/a, 52 

^ 59J for 17577, 73 
^Soi'^ Trapadot^s, 47 
^Soi^^ Kai iTTiffT'^U'rjy 77 
4)5i) To\) d.*^aBo\) ^t^v^ SO 



TJOos of a polity, 102 
ijXiKiaf iikiKOSy 61 

^v, use of, 52 

^v used for iarl in general 

propositions, 97 
^yio^c^a, 111 
'^ptfj^iVf 125 

^s for ^(T^a inadmissible, 80 
f^ifplaKOfiep, 107 

OavaTouff not OavaTLOof, 75 
dav6.Tov — TifMiaBcu, 63 
depaircia <r(bfJLaTos, division of, 28 
GerraXtSes ffeXi^vrjy Ka0aupoii<rait 

laTpe^ecdaiy 52 

tarptKiJ, 28 

t5ia Tf/Awv, 107 

^dtorret^eiv, 15 

tdi(6r77s, 15 

«i^ai ^i, 107 

I/covds 6 X670S, 104 

iKiYyiciVi 63 

i^va in local and final sense, 62 

hit lotfy 84 

Iffdrrjs yewfierpiKi^i 98 

icrxvf^i^ca $ai els tovs dcrdcveiSf 68 

itrxvpftratr^at ry <r(bfJMTif 68 

Kad^p^rjSi not Kadeif^'Qs, 24 

Ka9o^ioXo7€(y, 84 

icaZ eyci; pxLvO&vta corrected, 79 

KaZ TTov interpolated, 11 

(fa/(^=>'6(ros, 49 

KaKLaVf not dSiK^ai', 53 

Kaxdv = pXapepdVt 44 

^caKOV/r/ets ^v rots XSyoiSt 59 

<caXX(6ir«r/xa, 72 

iraX6)', rdf 45 

fcdTnjXos, business of, 113 

KapK<Jl)='M.opiMbi 80 

Kard Tii'a elvat, 104 

K$ra and icdxetra for etra and 

^TTcira, 17 
/carajSoX^, a medical term, 114 
KaradeSvKJKy 62 
KaTad4a0(u=ffvvaiv4(raLf 88 
KaraKpTifiylffaLf 111 
KaraKpi^fjLvuTis, punishment of, 


icaraXi^oAiev, not /raraXi^ca/iei', 94 
/caraTTtTToOcr^at, 43 
KarairoPTOva'dait 104 
icaraa"/cei/^ ffibfiaroSy 49 
Kara<nccu^ xflVM^'^'^^i ^9 
icarax(^<r6(€i' ai' rocs X670ts, 104 
icar6a7^yai with genitive, 37 
Kareaydvai rijp kc^Xt^p, 37 
Kareay^vai rd wra, 109 
KaT€Trg.d€ip^ 60 
Kar&iruf iopTTJs ijKO/JL€P, 1 
KCKn^ofMu and KTi^ffp/Mu distin- 
guished, 32 ' 
K60aXaroy, 76 

Kidapi(TTLK7j if ip TOLS dyuffiPt 88 
Kivaidcap ^ioit 75 
KwdvpedcLP, 114 
icXo7n7i» Ka.Ta^4>l^€<T0ai, 109 
KPrjcOat,^ not KPoaOaif 75 
KPTjaiStPf 75 

KPTJCltp or KPTJffKfiTl, not KPTjaifHi 76 

icoXd^6(r9ou d/i.€iPOP r, dKoXaffUit 94 
/coXa/ceto, 29, 89, 90, 106 
KoXoxe^a softened into dtaicoy/a, 

icoXa/r6i^<roi'ra irapa/raXet)', 117 
/coXa/cevrtici^, 28 

i(oXaictK9} applied to tragedy, 90 
/c(5Xa|, 117 

KOfifjMvv, etymology of, 29 
Ko/xfjuttrriif 29 
Kop.pjumK'fi, 29 
KOfifJuoTucbp icdXXos applied to 

Isocrates, 29 
KOHfiurrpla^ 29 
KOffKtPOP, 73 
KOfffii^is, 93 

KV^pPTlTllcfly 103 
KVplTT€lPf 110 

KVpov/jL^cjp = diairpaTTOfiiptaPt 8 
Kvpovp and Kvpovadou. distin- 
guished, 8 
K^pwnSi 7 
Kvrp^Xri ip (b<rif 57 

XdXos, 109 
Xa/Li^pos, 61 
Aapta'oiroi6s, 254 
X^70/tc€y, not X^Wjuev, 106 
Xeiiin/s, 29 
Xi^pi^/xara^ 63 



X-ffffTov piosj 98 
\i0CjtfTaii not \idiQvTas, 75 
XvttoTto Xi^as, 74 
XwjSatr^ai T'qy ypvx^Vi 102 
\(}(TT€ nCiXe, 32 

fjL and /3, interchange of, 65 

fidj or 0^ /Ltd, 68 

fid. rdvf 31 

/id rbv K^va, 23 

/tut rdy Kvva Tov AlyvirTlwp deivy 

fca77av6/a, /jLayyavevfM, fidyya- 

VOVy 60 

fia0i^<T€Taii or fiad'ffaeffdaif 21 

fiaKph. TcixVi 16 

fcdX); used in singular only, 86 

Mapa^wn, 111 

fia(rrt7£as, 122 

;u^a $i;i/a<7dat, 102, 105 

fiiXov put absolutely, 88 

fliVTOly 1 

fjL^vToit position of, 31 

fidvTOL in apodosi to /j^^ an 

Attic usage, 42 
fjuera^if jcaraXe^Tretf , 94 

/l€TaffTpi\f/aVT€St 17 

fjL€raTi64yaif 74 

/t^XP^ tfiroi, 65 

fii^ prohib. with snbj. present, 87 

H7l—^(TTiy 105 

f(i^ interrogative, 104 

/A^ interrogative or dubitative 

with indicative, 105 
lirj oi> with conjunctive, 76 
firihi preferred to o^d^, 52 
fiiribe KT^trts, 52 
fkribcis in interrogation, 102 
fit^S^repa, 33 

fii^^ore, use of in Aristotle, 105 
firfX<tyovoi6s, 104 
fxiouf oih-iaSf 28 
"MildaiKos 6 TW drl/OTTOilap (rvyye- 

7/>a0(6s, 113 
ftopiM>\tjTr€(rdait 43 
/jLopfub, 43, 80 
Mu<rw icaXet»», 117 
Mucwv iaxo-ToSy 117 
Mu(ru;i' Xeto, 117 

#'4^«, 74 
yeapieveaScUi 58 

veaviKOv ^ovXev/xa, 63 
veaviKdSj 99 
yi) roi' Kvva, 31 
v^y, 75 

Nt/cfas 6 ISiKTipdroVj 40 
vofioBeriK-ii, 28 
I'OMos 6 irajfTtov /SaatXeus, 60 
i^oju^; — 0t;(r6(, antithesis attri- 
buted to Archelaus, 59 
yoOs, 30 

vvv, enclitic nsed in prose, 8 
vw d^j 85 
vuv StJ, 16, 74 
pwdn^j 25 

6 del xP^^^i 123 

6 ^^Aw^, 99 

6 ^wi r<jJ dpHyfuiTi, 111 

6 O/JtOlOS T(f 6/M0i(f, 101 

d ^K^tdvjs rbv tviroVy 80 
6 TpJjtras Kal Idaerait 1 
ol SoKoDKre;, 40 
ol 5oKo0i'TC$ elyaf rt, 40 
ol aoipoit who? 98 
oldciPf 114 

ol/iai for iiy^ofJLaif 41 
dXiyurra, 101 
dfwifidrjs, 101 
6/AoXoy)^/iara A^ct, 55 
6jtto0 ird^ra xP^f^^'^^t ^0 
Sv, omission of, 77 
6vi^a€i€Vf or dv^aeiev di/, 104 
oj/o/Mi 4K€iv(p elireTv, 92 
6v6fMTa Orfpeiiav, 67. 
6v6fMTa X^7«s, 68 

dTTCKTOI'dl}, 105 

dtrdrepa, adverbial use of, 121 

«7rws with future, 77, 101, 102, 

dirci;s fii^, 105 

5iraw /Aij with future, 67, 76 

6s /8oiJX6i=6a"Ti<roC>', 111 

8(ra for 7r6(ra or 6ir6<ra, 8 

d<r(6ri7s, 97 

Ih-i followed by infinitive, doubt- 
ful construction, 91 

6 rt ix^'' XripeTSf 80 

ov ivexa irivovaip interpolated, 33 

od /lil with conj. = oi)dd' deii^ir 
M^, 75 

od ^dXijs {(ro, 52 

o(nrA.vv A"^> ^^^ 



oi; jrdyVf in the sense of {fir6 ti, 
according to Olympiodoms, 

oi o-i} aikrj rj rifi'fft 80 

oidafiov &v <f>a.v9jva.iy 16 

oibeli ^otLtXerai KaKWi iroieiVt XZ 

oidiv deivbu n'^i 116 

oiSip doiKCPt 47 

oidiv oloPy 2, 56 

oidip irdjfVi 18 

o{r8^T€pa, adverbial use of, 121 

oiJ/c, force of before fjL^v — 5^, 104 

oifK tff(as...d\W d^ayKTi, 109 

o^K old' arra, 94 

oilKovv before fUv — 5^, 111 

owros, repetition of, 102 

ovTos dviip, 32, 94 

oiroffivt 67 

o^ta TrpdrreiP, 97 

odrws, use of, 76 

oOrws eU^, 96 

ofrrftwij' drpifiUt 91 

o^X dwXovp—ipcoTq.s, 90 

oiJx 5rt, 7 

dfpSaXfda, 78 

6^07roi/a, 25 

aV'o^ou/c^, 28, 87 

drl/owouK'ii preferred to 6\l/ovoiri' 

TlKil, 26 

dV'OTroids, 28, 118 

TdOjjfjLa and OepdrrevfAa com- 
pared, 121 

traidoTpi^rjSf 6 

TraXaiol re Ka2 aotpoif 101 

IlaXa/ii^dovs d7roXo7fa falsely 
attributed to Gorgias, 250 

vdvv ye <j<f>6dpay uncommon use 
of, 71 

TTapdffiTOSi 117 

wapaffKtv^j 86 

vapei/xipop, 248 

^ap6fcaXou;Li6 J' dXXiJXovj irpa- 

^opraSy 106 

vap^eiv larpfy 47 

irap^eip iJj5<TavTa...larpQ^ 55 

irap^tap T<f X67V, 47 

vapiiVf 24ti 

vap6p, 248 

ITft^ttJ, 12 

veivijp, 75 

wctadfJieda, not 9r6C0'(6)U€da, 105 

7r€urrtic6s, not irt<mic6s, 14 

^eio-c^Aie^a, solec. reading, 101 

Trepalpeffdou, passive, 13 

Tcp/ interpolated, instances of, 

irepl tIpo. and irepl tUkop dis- 
tinguished, 69 

TTcpiaipeta'daif 89 

vepiTfi-^fjMTa applied to dialec- 
tics, 80 

TrerrevTiK'^f 7 

iridapds used passively, 73 

wiffTiK6sj 73 

xfoTts ^l/evdifs Kod dXiy^iJj, 14 

irX(£7~rci>'...i'6;«)us, 60 

TXdTr€t»'...ir6Xti', 60 

irXiypoDi'ra, Stephen corr. tXi;- 

pow, 75 
iro\€fjU<ap = Tr6\€fUKQPf 63 
iro\4fxov Kai [J.dxnSi 1 
ToXirefas ^atpos, 101 
iroXtrixiJ, division of, 28 
iroXtr(/c6s equivalent to ii$iKfit 

in later Platonists, xiii 

TOXX-J; ^(FTfhprf, 20 

roXXoO dei, construction of with 
/ti^ and conj.. Ill 

TTOpKTTlKbSy 112 

rdfi^u) TTJi ijXiKLaSf 61 

vd^jka </>t\oa'o<plas i\a6p€iPy 63 

ir6<roi', not 6v6<roPf 118 

irpdyfM applied to persons, 116 

TTpayyuoLTeiai = wapaffKevali 87 

vpd^oPTas equivalent to uts 
vpd^oPTas, 106 

wpdop corr. for irapdPt 248 

■jrpea^&nis yepdfiepos interpo- 
lated, 30 

vp6 X670U, 20 

ir/)0j8dXXcTe, 2 

Trpo8i8d<TK€LP equivalent to di8d- 
<rK€LPf 68 

irpodi8d<TK€ip and TpofiapSdpciP 
correlative, 68 

irpo^tr^at, 116 

irpoiadai eiepyealaPy 116 

irp6s iidoPTjp (ZpfiTirai, 89 

irp6s X67oy, X670U, 20 

T/D^s ^<X£oi;, 86 

ir()0(yairo\o\)<j\.v Tb.'^ ^^^5*^^"^ **^^" 



irpoaeiTTaX/iivoSt 103 
TTpoffi^rifuoOyf 111 
wpdffOe for vpoaOe^t 99 
TrpoaKopifi^ 249 
irpoaKoptoSf 249 

**vpoi(rK€TrTO pro irpoiaKivrero 
"' restituendum Thucydidi," 47 
TTa;xoAM>v<rof ic($\a^, 253 
HvBoI rather than ^ JIu^oi, 41 
TTuiixa preferred to ro/io, 118 
vCJi 7df> oif, 48 

/n^fjMTa OtipeOta^ 68 
/yifl/xari d/iafyrdveiy, 67 
fnjTopei&eip, 90 
ftrp-opiKTfif 28 

priTopiK'iij definition of, 25 
^Topiicfif limits of, 19 
ffTjTopLK^ i3rrlffTpo<f>os ($^iro(£as, 30 
(njTopiidi KoXaKcias tiopiovy 30 
fflffTopiK^ veidovs dT^fuovpyoSf 11 
^rjTopiK'^ iroXiTtK^i fiopLov etdu' 

Xov, 27 
fnfropiKrf yprrxay^fjo-, 11 
^TopiKbv dlKaiov...d€i ehcu koI 

hncrrifiova tQv dixaiuVf 98 
fnjTOpiKbi — S//catos, 22 


fnyQviAmKQst ^lyovv, KoivuJSi 112 

ZaXayuti'i alone, or with ev, 111 
2d/>a^os 6 KdTrrjKoSt 118 
Z(K6Xos rather than ZiJceXi/cos, 73 
2ciceXds Kop^yj/bi dv'^p, 73 
<riro7rotrfs, 112 
ffK^vTOfMiif ffKiiTTiOf barbarisuiS) 

TKevTofiida occurs in text of 

Laches, 47 
iTK€TrTopAvia occurs in Alcibi- 

ades II, 47 
(T/coXidv, 9 

ffKovbv KaBiaTaaOoA,, 44 
(TKOirbv aTTiaojadaiy not irp^f 

(TKorrbv aTi^<raa$aif 44 
(tkottQ^ tenses of, used by Attic 

writers, 47 - 
CKiJTo^ypris — <rKvKo54^7iSf 112 
ffKvrddeil/oi — trKvXoderj/oSj 112 
^/u^, 75 

<ro0{OTt/c^, 28 

ffOipLffTlldl ftrjTOplKTJS KdXXiov, 115 
liirdprav Aaxes, rwOrav Koa/xeif 85 
(TTTOuSd^fCi' rpos rtva, 101 
<rre7a»'6s — ar^yeiVj 73 
arox'O-o'TiKos — 5o|aa"rtic6j, 26 
(r6yypafifw^ 8 
<r\rfypa<t>6pL€V0Li 8 
(TvyKaTaTidepLcUj usage of, 88 
av/jipcUv€L Kaxbv without ^i', 54 
(TvpL^Xaxa^ 61 
ffvpL^vXevTiKri^ 13 
ffvpLir€pi^p€o6ait 259 
(r^fjL\p7j<f>0Sf 86 

<n>i' row ^iXrdrMf ^ atpecris, 105 
(Tui^a/rtos, 114 
avpcffTaXpiiyos opposed to dyKdh- 

dris or ^Tox^J/s = ir/)o<7ea"raX- 

^t^yos, 103 
ffwlaraa-dai, 92 
ffvvtffxop.evos, passive, 53 
avptpcTos, 68 

(rux^oi)! re/fcu tQp XoytaVy 115 
0-0^)' for a<f>Laip, 120 
o'xcSdi' 7dp irov, 53 
<^X^Ma, 103 

(rxfjpM Kara rb (njficupbfJi^POPt 68 
ffxnf^'rai various kinds of, 29 
<T(b^€Lv re KciX aJfj^iffdaij 105 
aQfjMj aijfjui, first said by Hera- 

clitus, 73 
adf/iaros Oepairelat division of, 28 

adjfMLTOS pLOX^VP^OLi 93 

c(i)(f>poaTipr} and 5t.Kaio<r6vri nearly 

coincide in the Eepublic, xxi 
fftaippoffjjPTj identified with a(^/x- 

vaca dperrit 96 
ffcixppoffiiPTjt its wide sense in 

Gorgias, 97 
C(b4>pwp and &<ppbjp, a false 

antithesis, 97 
adjippcop and 5kouos, parallelism 

between, 97 

tA ai/Tov TTpdrreiPf meaning of 
in Eepublic and in Gorgias, 

rd icaXd, 84 

rd KOfMypiL raOra, 118 

Tk /ueydXa fiefivriffou. vpltf rh 
cfUKpdf 80 



Tct vpb rod 8v* Aydpes iXeyoif eU 

iyCi)v dtroxp^fa, 95 
rd^is, 93 

rainrd for raOra, 40 
Td(/>os Hfixf/vxoSi 247, 252 
rdxct, 30 
tAx etiTOfiai, 7 
rdx iireiddv, T 
reixos, t6 5td /j^aoVy 16 
riXos l|ci T^s dXi^^eias, 65 
TCTprifiivOs vidost 73 
T^x^rj, technical sense of, xvii 

t4x^V ^tI ry crJjfiaTLf 28 
rexi'tfoi vpay/uLTetcUi 87 
T€xvoypd<f>oSf xvii 
T-^v €v ZaXa/ui'i, 111 

T^v d/)x^'' = *iJi tlie first iJi- 
stance,' and with neg., 'not 
at aU,' 52 
tL ^v etuaif 97 
tI oifxji' — ^^paffas; 91 
Tifi-fii whether put for rlfiTifiaf 80 
t6 iirl TO&r(ff rb irl r(^5e, ad- 
verbial, 105 
rb fxiya dwaadaut 35, 37 
rb fUya dj6va<r0ai interpolated, 

rb irapbv eC ttoic?!', 85 
rb rdv voWQy irddosi 106 

TOtX^^P^X^^^f 99 

rbv JdapadQvit not rbu iv Mapa- 

eQpi, 111 
To&rov Trp6<r6€P interpolated, 32 
rpaycfdias TrolTjais, 89 
Tpl' Arra for rpla Apa, 64 
T/x/3i>, 87 
TpLodos, 121 

n;0\ws ^X"''» S3 
r^ 6yr(, use of, 65 

ivdpx^f'Vt 62 

ifirdpx'^i'V TLvif not ^v r. , 119 

dir^5i;, 28 

ivepipvei ws /AeYdX?; ^Xd^jji 51 

{fTrepiaruyi 59 

i7r6 fidX^;, 36 

6x0 rt droTra, 73 

6T0/3dXXety, 70 

67rodt^ec=i>irod^e( in Xenophon, 

^irodOeffdait 28 

{)iro/c6{(r&at, 29 
i^oXajSety, 7 
i;Td^uXoj, 247 
^6(rxcs, 80 
inroT€lv€<r6ai, 4 
(JttouXos, 55, 114 
{Kp>* elfidrtaUt 36 

i/w, verbs in, whether used by* 
Attic writers, 78 

0tX/a, <Pi\6t7is, 'AippodiTTfj NeiKOS, 
meaning of in Empedocles, 98 

ipl\6v€iK0S 67, 108 

(pXvapeLS ^x^^i 70 

4>opTiK6s, 59 

ippovpd for dea/xwTTJpLOify 122 

XapoiSpios, 76 

Xo-padptds in Babrius a singing 

bird, 75 
XapaSpiov /S/os, 75 
X<KrfM<r6ai, 63 
X€ipo6pyrjiiay 7 
X«/xJi' yofios, 60 
XXca/od iftti dti'ai/ia rd irpdy/mTa^ 

X/>^/Mi applied to persons, 116 
Xprif^ria-nKi/i comp. with Sf/ci; 

and larpiKrjt 52 
Xpvaijtf ^vxWi 63 

yl/€\\il:€<TeaL, 62 
lA^v, 75 

if^rjipov dicrdati not Karad^ffdai, 88 
^(/(apaMy 75 

}l/(op<dvTas better than yj/iapiujy- 
ras, 75 

c5 0/X17 /ce0aX^, 105 

wv for c5s, 73 

(!;s for ^ after comparative, a 

barbarism, 73 
d>f — di' with optative, 11 
(t^s cu' So^etey ovrojaivy 99 
(«;$ dy eti'at, 111 
m y ifMl doKew, 58 
<Ss ye diaxovovs eli^at, 111 
cis ^TTOj e^Tretj/, 6, 7, 87, 112 
(bs ^€1 iroSwv, ^7 
(bffa&rtas oih-(a, 22 
uarrep av et, 53 
(Scirep aOT(Ka> ^Q 


[Notes are referred to by the paging of the text] 

Aegina, fare to Athens from, 

Alcibiades, 114 

year of his death, 58 
Alcibiades II, the, spariousness 
of, 2, 38, 47 
by some falsely attributed 
to Xenophon, 38 
Alexis, comic poet, cited, 29 
Alliteration, 72 

Anachronisms in Gorgias, 58, 91 
Anachronisms in Plato, 38, 114 
Anacoluthia, 10, 11 
Analogy, false, in Gorgias, 115 
Anaxagoras, 30 
Andron, 66 

Antisthenes characterized, xviii 
Anytus, though /«)x^>7pos not 

0auXos, 63 
Aorist, force of, 91 
Apollo Pythius, sanctuary of, 41 
Apologia, the, 119, 124 
Aposiopesis, 31 
Apuleius, xxxi 
Archelaus, 91, 123 
reign of, 38 
vlbi ^inUrfi, 38 
entertained Euripides, 88 
his talent extolled by 

Thucydides, 38 
his history, particulars of, 
found only in Plato, 38 
Archelaus, Ionic philosopher, 
Socrates' early training under, 
Ai'chilochuR, fragment of, vari- 
ously cited, 59 
Aristides, 124 
Aristides Bhetor, 90 

cited, 26, 28, 29, 98, 111, 112 

Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae, 
said to ridicule the Platonic 
Commonwealth, xxxvi 
Aristotle cited, 33 

on the unity of yirtue, xxii 
Soph. Elench., 59 
Ethics, 64 
Arithmetic among the Greeks, 
specimen of, in Theaetetus, 
Arithmetical equality distin- 
guished from geometric, 98 
Arnold on Thucydides cited, 40 
Arsenius cited, 259 
Art, decorative and rhetorical, 

Arts and sciences, subordina- 
tion of to an ethical law, 
peculiar to Gorgias, 87 
Arts, useful, confused with 
those which aim at plea- 
sure only, 112 
higher and lower, 112 
Article omitted, 83 
Ast corrected, 69 

cited, 122 
Asyndeton, 40, 67, 60 
Athenaeus cited, 73 
refuted, 38, 91 
value of his accusations of 

Plato, 38, 91 
emended, 113 
Athenian people, justification 

of. 111 
Athens famous for good bread, 

Attraction, 100 
Augment, doubtful, 47 
Auletic disliked by Plato, 88 

INDEX 11. 


AxiochuB, the, interpolation in, 
cited, 43 

Babrius cited, 75 

Badham, Dr, cited, 14, 73, 

Baiter cited, 31 

Barathrum, 111 

Beast-taming brought to per- 
fection at Athens, 60 

Beauty, definition of, 45 

Bekker cited, 122 

Boeckh cited, 103, 109 

Butler, Bp, his system rather 
Platonic than Stoical, 96 

Callicles characterized, 84 

a specimen of the di^/xo/c/xtrc- 

Kbs iivfipy xxiii 
speech of, more applicable 
to Plato than Socrates, 
hedonism of, not that of 

Aristippus, xxxiv 
his (JjSpts, 76 
earnest in his warning to 

Socrates, 103 
a man of rank, 105 
an admirer of Bhetorioians, 

a despiser of Sophists, 115 
Cannonus, psephism of. 111 
Casaubon cited, 91 
Case, change of, 102 
Change from direct to obUque, 

Charadriadae, modem name of 

the plover tribe, 75 
Charmides, cousin of Plato, 

Charmides, the, crudenesB of, 96 
Christian ethics, likeness of to 

Platonic, xix 
Chrysostom cited, 126 
Cicero translates Gorgias, 88 

de Officiis cited, 44 
Cimon, 91, 109 

his liberality, 93 
ostracized, 111 
Cinesias ridiculed by Aristo- 
phanes, 88 

Classification, scientific value 

of, 87 
Cobet cited, 1, 17, 25, 73, 78, 

111; controverted, 125 
Comedies, women excluded 

from, 90 
Construction, abbreviated, 72, 

Constructions, blending of two, 
with 6ir<as, variety in, 56 
Cope, Mr, cited, xv, 18 
Crete classed by Plato with the 

Asiatic islands, 121 
Criminals, bodies of, exposed, 

Critias, uncle of Plato, xxix 
Critias, the, cited, 122 
Cynical paradox, refutation of 

in Philebus, 33 

Danaids, fable of, moralized, 73 
Datismus, 56 
Definition, xv, 11 
Democritus cited, 75 
Demus, son of Pyrilampes, 57, 
mentioned by Eupolis and 

Aristophanes, 57 

a trierarch, 01. 98, 57 

Dialectic and rhetoric, contrast 

of, 5 
Dichotomy, Socratic, 90, 112 
Dionysius I, supposed allusion 
to, 101 
a man of literary accom- 
plishments, 101 
Disjunctive syllogism in Gor- 
gias, 44 
Distributive justice, 98 
Dobree cited, 16, 53, 59 
Donaldson, Dr, cited, 104 
Drakenborch cited, 101 
Duplex quaestio, 31 
Duties, theory of, slightly touch- 
ed by Plato and Aristotle, 97 

Ecclesiazusae, written by Aris- 
tophanes in ridicule of the 
Platonic Commonwealth , 

Elenchus, Socratic^ 80 



Eleusinia, lesser and greater, 

Ellipse of preposition, 110 
Ellipse of dciv, 41 
Elmsley in Med. cited, 59 

on Eur. Heracl. cited, 47 
Empedocles cited, 98 
an Eclectic, 74 
borrowed from Pythago- 
reans, 74 
semi-Pythagorean system 
of, 98 
Epicharmus cited, 95 
Epistle in the Phaedms, a 

genuine work of Lysias, xiv 
Epistles, Platonic, genuineness 
of, maintained by Grote and 
Cobet, xxvi 
Epitaphius, the, of Gorgias, 249 
Equality, simple and propor- 
tional, 98 
Ethics, Christian, likeness of to 

Platonic, zix 
Etymology, false, 73 
Euclides, the host of Plato, xxx 
Eucrates, brother of Nicias, 40 
Euripides, Antiopa of described, 
Hippolytus of cited, 122 
Eusebius cited, 120 
Euxitheus, the Pythagorean^ 

condemned suicide, 73 
"Exagitator omnium Ehe- 
torum," said of Plato, xx 

Fine arts allowed in the Pla- 
tonic state under certain 
conditions, 88 

Future optative in obliqna 
oratio, 58 

Galatians, St Paul's Epistle to, 
cited, 40 

Genitive, use of, 106 

Geogiaphical divisions, accord- 
ing to Plato's contemporaries, 

Good and pleasure, identified 
in Protagoras, contrasted in 
Gorgias, xxxiii 

Good, how far synonymous with 
nseful in Gorgias, 44 

Good, standard of beauty in 

Plato, 44 
not identical with pleasure, 

nor pain with evil, 81 
Gorgias, his first visit to Athens, 

• • • 

his funeral oration, xiv 
ditto characterized, 249 
ethical dogma of, men- 
tioned by Aristotle, 
handled in the Menon, 

• • • 

treatment of, in dialogue, 


his age, xiv 

omniscience of, 2 

sicelisms of, 7 

irony of, 80, 254 

fragments of, 247 

spurious speeches, 250 

lus Olympicus, 251 

his Pythicus, 251 

his iyKibjuov e/s'HXetous, 251 

his oration '*in praise of 
AchiUes," 251 

written work of, on Bhe- 
toric, 251 

that Pericles was his dis- 
ciple a late fable, 251 

metaphors of, 252 

Eleasantry of, 254 
is i^pLOfirjffis tmv dperCop, 

ridiculed Sophists who pro- 
fessed to teach virtue, 

ethics of, commended by 
Aristotle, 255 

regards virtue as equivalent 
to efficiency, 256 

four sayings of, 257, 258 

phrase of, adopted by Aris- 
tophanes, 258 

his description of tragedy, 

dictum of, explained, 258 

longevity of, attributed by 
himself to his temper- 
ance, 258 

last saying of, 259 

and Tisias, their brachy- 
logy, 6 



Gorgias, the, date of the dia- 
logue, xxxi, XXXV, 114 

date of, according to Gray, 

of later date than the 
Lysis, 33 

scenes of the conversation, 

aim of, xiii, xiv 

an ethico-political dialogue, 
xix, xxii 

not a treatise on Bhetoric, 


marks an epoch in the 
growth of Platonic sys- 
tem and of moral science, 

Order or Harmony the 
germinal idea of, xxi 

analogy between it and 
the Bepublic, xxv, xxvi 

identity of notions in Gor- 
gias and Bepublic, xxiii 

an' AiroXo7/a IIXaTa;f os, xxxii 

not anti-Oyrenaic, xxxiv 

tone of political despair in, 

undiscriminating severity 
of, xxxiv 

reasoning in, sometimes 
unconvincing, 80 

exaggerations in, 103 

prophecy of Socrates' death 
in, xxv 

anachronisms in, 58, 91 
Gray cited, 9, 15, 16, 33, 38, 

40, 66, 57, 58 
Grote, History of Greece cited, 
40, 109, 111; controverted, 

Happiness, bodily and mental, 

Harmony the germinal idea of 
the Bepublic, xxi 
and of the Gorgias, xxi 
Hartung, Euripides Bestitutus, 

referred to, 63 
Heindorf cited, 119, 121 

controverted, 126 
Helenae Encomium of Isocrates, 

PL, GOB,. 

Hendiadys, 4 

Heraclides Ponticus quoted, 43 
Heraclitus, anecdoton from, 43 
cited, 73 
explained, 73 
Hermann, 0. F., curious emen- 
dation by, 105 
Hermann, G., cited, 43 
Hermogenes cited, 247 
Herodicus the brother of Gor- 
gias, 3 
Herodicus the Selymbrian, 3 
Hesychius cited, 58, 60, 84 
Hippias in Xenophon, 70 
Hippias II, emendation of, 41 
Hirschig cited, 9, 15, 22, 29, 41, 
45, 50, 65, 72, 78, 89, 96, 99, 
104, 111 
HomoBoteleuton, 24 
Hyperides pro Euxenippo cited, 
pro Lycoph. cited, 56 

Indifferent things defined, 33 
Induction, imperfect, 77 
Infinitive, epexegetic, 106 
Interpolations in text, 83, 88 
Interrogation, oblique for di- 
rect, instances of in Plato 
doubted, 118 
Irony, Socratic, instances of, 

43, 56 
*Irrisio,' out of place, 103 
Isocrates, 32 

cited, 26, 29, 60, 61, 62, 121 
Karh. tQ>v <TO(f)i<rrCJif cited, 

Evag. cited, 41, 90 
Helenae Encomium of, 250 
wrote speech Against So- 
phists early, 26 
his insinuations against 
Plato and his school, 61, 
hated philosophy, 61 
acknowledges its educa- 
tional uses, 61 
an apologist for "Univer- 
sity Studies," 61 
follows the traditions of 
Gorgias, 116 
It&Qlsm, ^1 



Julius Pollux cited, 113 
Justice, according to Plato, a 
harmouy or proportion, 
in the Republic, equivalent 
to virtue in general, zxi 
defined by CaUides, 69 

Laches, the, emended, 47 
Laconism attributed to So- 
crates by Aristophanes, 
affected by the oligarchs, 
Lact&ntius, xxxi 
Laws, the, referred to, 36 
Leake cited, 16, 40, 80 
Lobeck cited, 76, 113, 122 

on Phrynichus cited, 39, 80 
Aglaoph. cited, 80 
Locke cited, 33 
Logistic, 8 
Long Walls, the, 16 
Lucan cited, 105 
Lycurgus, 98 

Lysias, epistle in Phaedrus, a 
genuine work of, xiv 

Mango, mangonizare, 29 
Medical profession liberal in 

Greece, 105 
Meineke, emendation of Gorgias 

by, 258 
Meles ridiculed by comic poets, 

Meletus, allusion to, 63, 117 
Menexenus, the, anachronism 

in, 91 
Meno, disciple of Gorgias, 255 
Meno, the, referred to, 33 

quoted, 255 
Miltiades, 91, 109 

crime imputed to, 111 
saved by the Prytanis or 
Epistates, 111 
Minos, 121 

Mithaecus, a Syraousan, great 
in dyl/oirodaj 113 
his the first cookery-book, 
MSS., authority of, set aside, 

Mysians, the, regarded as the 

refuse of mankind, 117 
Myths, the, in Gorgias and Re- 
public compared, xxvi, 
in Phaedo and Republic, 
later than that in Gor- 
gias, 120 
Mythical account of rewards 
and punishments after death, 

Nausicydes mentioned by Xeno- 
phon and Aristophanes, 65 

Negative constr. with a sub- 
stantive, with and without 
article, 52 

Neo-platonic trifling of Olym- 
piodorus, 23 

Nicias buUt a temple within 
the peribolus of Bacchus, 40 

Oaths used by Socrates, motive 
of, 31 
recommended in sixth 
Epistle, 31 
Odyssey, the, quoted, 110, 124 
Olympicus of Gorgias, 251 
Olympiodorus characterized, 
cited, 6, 20, 21, 32, 37, 43, 
59, 63, 73, 74, 75, 77, 80, 
81. 85, 97, 98, 100, 121, 
122, 124 
emended, 73 

Neo-platonic trifling of, 23 
readings from, 1, 3, 14 
Optative for conjunctive, 24 

after indicative present, 58 
Oration of Gorgias "in praise 

of Achilles, "251 
Order the germinal idea of the 
Republic, xxi 

Pain not identical with evil, 

Paradoxes in Gorgias, 100, 114 
Participle, causal, 45 

omission of, after rvyxdy^h 
&c., 89 
Participles used adverbially, 17 
concourse of, in Plato, 75 



Peacocks kept by Pyrilampes 

and his son Demus, 57 
Perdiccas the Third, his reign, 

Pericles, 91, 109 

unjustly handled in Gor- 

gias, zxziv 
unfairness of Plato*8 at- 
tacks on, 112, 114 
his eloquence spoken of in 
Protagoras and Phae- 
dms, XXXV 
whether he improved the 
Athenian character, 109 
his theoric allowances justi- 
fied, 93 
accused of making the 
Athenians mercenary, 
fine imposed on, 109 
a yofJLo64r7is, not a diaKOvoSf 
Persuasion not the end of tragic 

poetry, 90 
Phaedrus, the, cited, 55 

epistle in, a genuine work 

of Lysias, xiv 
eloquence of Pericles spoken 
of in, XXXV 
Phalerum, site of, 16 
Philebus, the, characterized, 
xxii, xxxiv 
referred to, 33, 44, 75 
passage referring to Anti- 

sthenes, xviii 
theory of Pleasure and 
Good contained in, 77, 
possibly written to meet 
objections to reasoning 
in Gorgias, 80 
greater completeness of, 96 
Philo cited, 73 

Philolaus, partition of the soul 
attributed to him, 73 
condemned suicide, 73 
Philomela, name of the swallow, 
Procne that of ^e nightin- 
gale, in Greek authors, 254 
Philostratus cited, 29 
Phrynichus cited, 80 
Physicians, public, 15 

Pindar, fragment of, examined, 

Plato, his feelings towards Athe- 
nian democracy, xxiii 

his early political experi- 
ences, xxvi 

his connexion with mem- 
bers of the Thirty, xxviii 

an Eupatrid, both by his 
father's and mother's 
side, xxix 

brought up an oligarch, 

repeats party traditions, 111 

his dislike of public life, 

himself a rhetorician, xx 

probably studied rhetoric 
with a view to public 
life, xxix 

his treatment of the So- 
phists, xiii, xiv 

depreciates the fine arts, 

utilitarianism in, xviii 

how far utilitarian in Gor- 
gias, 91 

his censure of Tragedy, 89 

had a thorough perception 
of poetic excellence, 89 

intention of his mythical 
narrations, 120 

indebted to the Orphic 
poets, 120 

a borrower from Isocrates, 

dramatic impartiality of, 61 

antedates the opinions, 
etc., of his own time, 

changes words in quota- 
tions, 63 

substitutes Attic equiva- 
lents in quotations from 
poets, 95 

provincialisms in, 7 

tabular arrangements in, 

anachronisms in, 38 

epistles of, cited, 31, 38 

his original name Aristo- 


INDEX 11, 

Plato takes refage in Megara, 


his travels, fabulons extent 

and duration assigned to, 

by his biographers, xxxi 

his service in the army at 

Tanagra, Corinth, and 

Delium, xxxi 

his elx'^peia in the choice 

of terms, 97 
his attack on the Qaatuor- 
viri, 90 
Platonic Dialogues, on what 
principles named, xi 
earlier and later, contrast 

between, xxii 
doctrine of tripartition of 

the soul, 73 
Epistles, genuineness of, 
maintained by Grote and 
Gobet, xxvi 
Pleasure and Good, identified 
in the Protagoras, contrasted 
in the Gorgias, xxxiii 
Pleasure the final cause of lyric 
and dithyrambic poetry, and 
of Tragedy, 89 
Pleasures, impure, preceded and 
accompanied by uneasiness, 
Pleonasm of Mv^ 104 
in pronouns, 59 
Plutarch cited, 40, 55, 80, 120 
Pluto, in the Laws, public ho- 
nours to be paid to, 103 
Poetry a kind of popular ora- 
tory, 90 
Politic a Oepaveia yj/vxv^i 91 
Politicus, the, 28 
Polus, character of, xvi 

a Euphuist and coxcomb, 

puns on his name, xvi, 27 
banter of, in Phaedrus, xvii 
cCfiveia of, xvii 
his T^xyVi S 

ditto, a fragment of in dia- 
logue, xvii 
handled rhetoric sBstheti- 
cally, xvii 
Polygnotus, 3 
Polyidus of Euripides cited, 75 

Porson cited, 24, 86, 52, 61, 78, 

Prayer, Neo-platonic theory of, 

Proclus characterized, xiii 
Procne and Philomela trans- 
posed, 254 
Prodicus, apologue of, 1 
Protagoras, discourse of, charac- 
terized, xiv 
his ^ir/dei^ts, xiv 
paradox of, in Theaetetns, 
Protagoras, the, earlier than the 
Gorgias, xxxiv 
eloquence of Pericles spo- 
ken of in, XXXV 
referred to, 33 
a transitional dialogue, 96 
cited, 60, 122 
Proverbs, 1, 43, 57, 60, 73, 80, 
84, 85, 95, 101, 105, 108, 117 
Provincialisms in Plato, 7 
Public men succeeding Pericles, 

inferiority of. 111 
Punishment remedial, accord- 
ing to Plato, 49, 52 
treated by Plato as exem- 
plary or corrective, never 
as retributive, 94, 122 
* medicinal,' recognized by 

Aristotle, 100 
"pro salute animae," a 
principleavo wed by Plato, 
regarded as 'satisfactory,' 
Purgatory, theological idea of, 
had its foundation in Plato, 
Pyrilampes, Demus of, 67, 105 
Pythagoras quoted by CJbero 
against suicide, 73 
Theory of Virtue as an 
Order or Harmony, pro- 
bably suggested by, xxii 
first called the universe 
KhafJuoSi 98 
Pythicus of Gorgias, 251 

Quatuorviri, the, 90, 109 
QumUliau cited, 11, 22, 98 



Bednndancy justifiable, 99 
Bepublic, the, date of, xxzvi 
Order or Harmony the 

germinal idea of» xxi 
picture of ideal J^ust and 

Unjust Men in, xxiv 
cited, 44, 122, 124 
emended, 44, 56 
Bhadamanthys, 121, 122 
Bhetoric, false and true, i^ 
Phaedrus, xv 
the true, xxxiii 
definition of, 11 
ditto in Phaedrus, 11 
a spiritual cookery, 30 
its uselessness, 55, 56 
rational, scheme of in Phae- 
drus, 87 
treated formally in Phae- 
drus, ethically in Gor- 
gias, 87 
true political, must follow 
the analogy of other arts, 
true and false distinguish- 
ed, 111 
Bhetorician, the true, must be 
just and acquainted with 
justice, xxxiii 
Bhetoricians, early, effect of 

their writings, 250 
Bouth cited, 81, 57, 59, 83, 120 

St Paul cited, 40 

Sarabus not Sarambus, 113 
a Plataean, 113 

Saving life not the highest end, 
104, 105 

Schema Pindaricum, when ad- 
missible in Attic, 87 

Schleiermacher controverted, 

Scolia, 9 

Seneca cited, 54 

Sextus Empiricus quoted, 5 

Shakespeare cited, 56, 73 

Shilleto, Mr, cited, 13, 72 

Sicelisms of Gorgias, 7 

Simplicius, commentaries of, 

• • 


Socrates, inventions of, xv 
paradoxes asserted by, xix 

Socrates, prophecy of his death 

in the Gorgias, xxv, xxxv 

his conduct as chairman of 

the assembly, 43 
his utilitarianism, 44 
his theory of the beautiful, 

his passion for consistency, 

58, 70 
in what sense said Siatpdel" 

peiv rods viovs, 65 
prefers rhetoric to sophis- 
tic, 115 
effect produced by his cross- 
questioning, 119 
his professed belief in the 
myths related by him, 120 
his devotion to his calling, 

of Xenophon, 44 
his opinions, 61 
Socratic elenchus, 66 
Socratic Ethics, fundamental 
principles of, 33 
irony, instances of, 64, 65 
paradox, only seeming, 54, 

oaths, 23 
temperament, 31 
view of virtue, 21 
Solecisms, 56, 101, 105, 106, 123 
Sophists, common taunt against, 

Soul, penal incarceration of, 
held by Pythagoreans and 
Orphics, 73 
State, the, and Individual, 
parallelism between, in the 
Bepublic, xxi 
Statecraft, the true, according 

to Plato, 91 
Statesmanship, final cause of, 

Stobaeus cited, 42 
Stoical doctrine, resembling 
Platonic, 54 
exaggeration, 54 
Subject, change of in sentence, 

Suicide condemned by followers 

of Pythagoras, 73 
Synesius clted^ ^Q 



Tacitns, Annales of, cited, 122 
Temperance, the right state of 

the soul, 96 ' 
Theaetetus, the, explained, 69 

cited, 125 
Thearion, 113 
Themistocles, 91, 109 

banished after being ostra- 
cized, 111 
Theocrines, speech against, 

falsely attributed to Demos- 
thenes, 40 
Theodoret cited, 120 
Theoricon, the, 109 
Thersites, 123 
Thessalides, black arts of the, 

Thucydides cited, 109 

Gorgiasm of, 7, 249 
Tisander, 65 
Topography of myths in Gor- 

gias and Bepublic, 121 
Tragic poets of the fourth more 

rhetorical than those of the 

fifth century b.c, 90 
Tragic spectacles, no restriction 

in the admission to, 90 
Triptolemus, 121 

Uninitiated, the, wretched con- 
dition of, 73 

Utilitarian and psychological 
view of Ethics reconciled, 91 

Utility not the sole test of 
beauty according to Plato, 44 

Van Hensde cited, 58, 126 
Vice a disease or deformity, 49 

the greatest of all evils, 51 
Virtue, definition of, xx 

Theory of as an Order or 
Harmony, probably sug- 
gested by P3rthagoreans, 

Socratic view of, 21 

a spontaneous, admitted 
by Plato, 96 

consists in harmony, order, 
and proportion, 96 

s efficiency, according to 
Gorgias, 256 

Woolsey, Prof., cited, 22, 23, 72 
Wordsworth cited, 60 
Wordsworth, Mr J., cited, 8 

Xenophon, 43 
cited, 36 

Alcibiades U, by some at- 
tributed to, 38 

Zeno of Gitium, 38 

S^^ 1 -^ 192T