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Full text of "Gorgias. With English notes, introd., and appendix by W.H. Thompson"

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tsf) JioteS, flntroauctum, anU 






(English Jiflits, Intabuttkm, anb 



&pa, tins p.e\\fi ev TOIS iro\irucois flvai, rb %Qos elvai 




iO 5, CANADA, 







OF the more important changes adopted in the text of this 
edition, or suggested in the notes, the following is a list : 

1. In p. 5 (448, B) rt for rtvd. 

2. In p. 19 (454, D) for jap av I give apa with Olympiodorus, 
and with Dr. Badham etrrov for ecrrir. 

3. In p. 22 (456, B) eXOovre, at Dobree's suggestion, for 

4. p. 28 (469, D) for OVKOVV avdyfcr) rov prjToptKov Sttcaiov 
elvai, rov Be Bitcatov ftoiikecrOai, del SiKaia Trpdrreiv, I add dec 
after J3ov\e<r6(u, and with Woolsey and Hirschig omit the words 
prjTOpifcov to rbv Be inclusive. 

5. p. 66 (478, E) I ought to have received into the text the 
emendation of Dobree recommended in the notes, 6 e^wv Kaiciav 
for 6 e%<0z> dSuclav. 

6. p. 70 (481) for the solecistic dvakia-KrjTcu in transitive 
sense, which, strange to say, has stood in all editions hitherto, 
I give dva\i<TKy. 

7. p. 84 (486, E) for rpia apa, I venture to suggest the 
stereotyped Attic rpC arra. 

8. In pp. 91, 92 (490, c, and 491, A) the prep, irepi, bracketed 
by Hirschig, should be expelled from the text. 

9. p. 96 (492, E) Dr. Badham's excellent emendation &v for 
o><? is adopted, and justified in the note. 

10. p. 99 (493, c) I ought to have mentioned the same 



critic's ingenious conjecture ravr aireiK,a<T^kv earlv faro ri aroTra 
for the received eTneiicws pev eanv VTTO ri aroTra. 

11. p. 106 (496, D) I omit with Badham ical ey<w before 

12. p. 118 (501, c) the words rrjv avTrjv Sogav should cease to 
stand in the text. 

13. p. 142 (512) for Kal TOVTOV ovija-t,ev,J. nowprefer owja-ei. 
Of these changes some, it will be seen, rest on the authority of 

Olympiodorus, whose lemmata are perfectly distinguishable from 
his commentary. In no case have his readings been adopted 
without regard to their intrinsic merit, as compared with those 
of our surviving MSS., the oldest of which is more recent than 
that which he used by at least four centuries. The two 
emendations suggested by Dobree ("criticorum princeps," as Cobet 
calls him) seem to need no recommendation. Students of Plato 
can only regret that he did not bestow on their favourite author 
more of the time and pains spent on the minor orators. To the 
suggestions of the eminent Dutch scholar Cobet, and to those 
of his meritorious disciple M. Hirschig, I have always given 
careful attention, even when they have not commended them- 
selves to my judgment. The latter scholar published in 1859 ' 
an elaborate examination of the arguments contained an this 
dialogue and in the Philebus, with a view to removing the 
" non sequiturs " introduced by unintelligent or officious copyists. 
This book reached my hands before I had finished my com- 
mentary. The following extract gives a fair idea of its scope 
and method : 

" Non poenitet me investigationis et correctionis disputationum 
quas dixi, imprimis quod pro ineptiis genuinam disserendi subti- 
litatem auctori reddere mihi contigit, sed etiam quod, cum omnes 
de hujus generis emendationibus judicare possint, eas omnibus 
me probaturum spero, tarn philosophis et caeteris quam gram- 
maticis. Atque illos his lectis cautiores fore in laudandis Platonis 

1 Exploratio argumentationum Socraticarum in quibus scribae labefactarunt 
medios Platonis dialogos, Gorgiam et Philebum. Trajecti ad Rhenum ap. Kemink 


scriptis confido, simulque in his luculentissima exempla visuros, 
uncle liquido discant, quid possit critica et quam late pateat ejus 
provincia. Verum erunt fortasse qui hujusmodi emendationes 
minus certas esse suspicentur. Sed certo scio omnes mihi assen- 
suros nullas esse posse certiores. Habet enim Socratica disserendi 
ratio mathematicain fere subtilitatem, et tantam avatyicrjv logicarn 
sive dialecticam (sit venia verbis) ut corrigenti ipsa quaeque dispu- 
tatio certissima praebeat argumenta, et poetam emendans ne ex 
metro quidem evidentiora petere possit. Fieri enim potest ut 
metrum plures voces admittat, argumentationes autem illae par- 
tibus tarn firmo et rationis et orationis vinculo connexis constant, 
ut iina tantum vox quemque locum occujpare possit, alia, vel idem 
significans, omnem ava^KT\v tollat" 

Of German editions more recent than Stallbaum's latest, I 
know nothing but what may be learnt from Cron's " Beitrage 
zur Erklarung des Platonischen Gorgias *," which reached me 
a few weeks ago, and which I have cursorily inspected, long 
however after this book was in print. Of the older editions of 
the Gorgias I must not omit to speak with respect of that 
(published in his early manhood) of the late venerable President 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, Dr. Kouth. Ast and Heindorf 
have of course been consulted, and I can also speak with praise 
of a very useful edition by Mr. Woolsey, formerly Professor of 
Greek in Yale College, U.S.A. 

In tbe annotations, which in the main were written some 
ten years ago, I have endeavoured, as in those to the Phaedrus, 
to call the student's attention to the substance as well as to the 
words of the dialogue. In doing this I have in many cases 
ventured to criticize my author's premisses. This, I trust, 
has been done with candour, and with due allowance for the 
circumstances of the time and his own personal antecedents. 
It is certainly true that many of the arguments in this Dialogue 
are more logical than convincing; but it is also true that its 
purely ethical conclusions are as sound as they are noble and 
elevating. Of this, as of so many works of genius (if I may be 
2 Leipzig, Teubner, 1870. 

xii] PREFACE. 

allowed the quotation) it is the ' spirit ' that ( giveth life :' nor 
is there one of the whole series of dialogues that may be more 
safely recommended to beginners in the study of Plato and his 

The Introduction prefixed to the Dialogue aims only at con- 
veying a clear and connected notion, from the Editor's standing- 
point, of its general drift and purpose. A much more elaborate 
analysis was of course possible ; but in such compositions there 
is always a danger of the details obstructing the student's view, 
and making it difficult for him " to see the wood for the trees/' 

In the text the critical reader will detect a few orthographical 
inconsistencies, arising from the circumstance that the sheets of 
the Zurich text from which these are printed were insufficiently 
corrected. These errors chiefly consist in the retention of the 
iota subscriptum where it ought to have been omitted ; and in 
one case at least, in its omission where it ought to have been 
retained. A graver lapse will be found in p. viii of the Intro- 
duction, where ' Callicles ' appears as ' Callias/ 

The fragments of Gorgias, printed in the Appendix, seemed 
necessary in order to enable the student to form an independent 
judgment of the character of his writings, and of the fairness 
of the treatment which the great rhetorician receives in this 
dialogue. The collection will be found slightly more complete 
than those of previous editors. 

December, 1870. 


OF the genuine Platonic Dialogues, the majority are named after 
some one of the different persons who bear a part in the discussion. 
Sometimes this distinction is conferred on the interlocutor who con- 
tributes the greatest or next to Socrates the greatest share towards 
the elucidation of the subject debated, as Timaeus, Critias, Par- 




. 18, dele the concluding sentence of the 
Page 183, line 10, for Three read Four 

183, - 27, for two read three, and for third read fourth 

display, he seems tlie aesuutm 

prowess. But the encounter between Socrates and Gorgias is 

but a preliminary skirmish. The triumph or the defeat of the 
master is prevented by the officious zeal of his disciple Polus ; 
whose retreat again is covered by the impetuous advance of their 
eloquent and reckless host. Not only is the larger half of the 
dialogue devoted to the single combat between Socrates and Callicles, 
but whether we regard the comparative importance of the sub- 
jects discussed, or the earnest tone assumed and maintained to 
the end, we are led to conclude that in this latter portion we 
are to look for the main scope and intended result of the entire 



xii] PREFACE. 

allowed the quotation) it is the ' spirit ' that ( giveth life :' nor 
is there one of the whole series of dialogues that may be more 
safely recommended to beginners in the study of Plato and his 

The Introduction prefixed to the Dialogue aims only at con- 
veying a clear and connected notion, from the Editor's standing- 
point, of its general drift and purpose. A much more elaborate 
analysis was of course possible ; but in such compositions there 
is always a danger of the details obstructing the student's view, 
and making it difficult for him " to see the wood for the trees/' 

In the text the critical reader will detect a few orthographical 
inconsistencies, arising from the circumstance that the sheets of 
the Zurich text from which these are printed were insufficiently 
corrected. These errors chiefly consist in the retention of the 
iota subscriptum where it ought to have been omitted ; and in 
one case at least, in its omission where it ought to have been 
retained. A graver lapse will be found in p. viii of the Intro- 


OF the genuine Platonic Dialogues, the majority are named after 
some one of the different persons who bear a part in the discussion. 
Sometimes this distinction is conferred on the interlocutor who con- 
tributes the greatest or next to Socrates the greatest share towards 
the elucidation of the subject debated, as Timaeus, Critias, Par- 
menides ; sometimes again on the most resolute or most formidable 
of Socrates' opponents, as in the Protagoras, Philebus, Hippias, 
Euthydemus. A third set of dialogues are named after persons 
whose part in the discussion is subordinate, but who appear to have 
been singled out in testimony of the respect and affection of the 
author. Such is the Phaedo, such the Charmides, and probably the 
Lysis. It cannot be said that the Gorgias falls into any one 
of these three classes. The part which the great rhetorician bears 
in the dialogue is comparatively insignificant. As the most dis- 
tinguished of the assembled group he is naturally the first object of 
Socrates' curiosity, and for a while, notwithstanding the intimation 
given at the commencement that he is exhausted by a previous 
display, he seems the destined victim of the philosopher's dialectical 
prowess. But the encounter between Socrates and Gorgias is 
but a preliminary skirmish. The triumph or the defeat of the 
master is prevented by the officious zeal of his disciple Polus ; 
whose retreat again is covered by the impetuous advance of their 
eloquent and reckless host. Not only is the larger half of the 
dialogue devoted to the single combat between Socrates and Callicles, 
but whether we regard the comparative importance of the sub- 
jects discussed, or the earnest tone assumed and maintained to 
the end, we are led to conclude that in this latter portion we 
are to look for the main scope and intended result of the entire 

VOL, II. a 


Such is in effect the view adopted by the Neo-Platonist Olym- 
piodorus 1 , in the introduction to his Scholia on the Gorgias, whose 
theory of the CT/COTTOS, as he calls it, of the dialogue, though perhaps 
incomplete, is well worthy of attention. Some, says this philo- 
sopher, think that the purpose of the author is Trept p-rjTopiK^-s 
StaAex^vat, to discuss the Art of Rhetoric, and they accordingly 
prefix to the dialogue the words still found in the MSS., Fopytas 17 
Trept pf}TopiKij<s. But, he justly observes, this were to characterize 
the whole by a part, and that not the larger part, /cat yap ovSe TroAAoi 
ctcriv ot Totovroi Aoyot. Others, he adds, conceive that Justice and 
Injustice form the subject of the dialogue : an account truer perhaps 
than the former, but still, he thinks, inadequate and partial. Much 
less can he admit the absurd notion of a third class of expositors, 
who pretend that the contemplation of the S^/uovpyos or Creator of 
the world, is the object to which Plato would conduct his readers. 
This notable explanation (a fair specimen, by the way, of the 
mystical interpretations of Proclus and some other later Platonists) 
is founded, says Olympiodorus, on the consideration that the 
8r)p.Lovp-y6s (it may be presumed under his exoteric name Zeus) is 
introduced in the concluding mythus. His own account, it appears 
to me, is worthy of the reputation of Olympiodorus for comparative 2 
good sense and insight into his master's meaning. <J?a/Av TOIVW, he 
observes, on O-KOTTOS aura) Trcpt TWV dp^wv TWI/ rjOiKuv 8i.a.\e^6r]vaL TWV 
<epovo-eov r)/ CTTI rrjv TroXiTiKyv cvSatftovtav 3 . The aim of the 
Gorgias is to discuss the ethical principles which conduct to political 
well-being, it explalUs^-al least "To a considerable extent, the later 
as well as the earlier discussions ; whereas, if we assume that the 
main end of the dialogue is to bring the art of rhetoric and its 
professors into discredit, we can assign no sufficient motive for the 
importance assigned to a character like Callicles, who heartily 
despises the profession of a Sophist, and hates the schools and their 
pedantry ; and who, though he makes an exception in favour of a 

1 Given by Routh, p. 561 of his ed. The entire Commentary is printed in the 
Supplement to J aim's Jahrbiicher, Bd. xiv., from a hitherto unedited MS., a copy 
of what profess to be contemporary notes of the oral lectures of the master. 

2 I say " comparative " for Olymp. is a Neo-Platonist, and repeats much of the 
nonsense of his predecessors. But the Greeks, even in their decline, were excellent 
interpreters. The commentaries of Simplicius on Aristotle are, with the single 
exception of those of Alexander, the best ever written ; and he was a member of the 
Neo-Platonic brotherhood, on whom Justinian planted his armed heel. Proclus was 
by nature a 'weak vessel;' but even in him treasure may occasionally be found. 

3 P. 4, ed. Jahn. iro\iTii<6s is often used by the later Platonists where other 
writers would have preferred TjOiicds. In such passages it is used in a semi-mystical 
sense, to denote the relation of the Philosopher to his true country, the n-JAis lv 
ovpavif avaKifj.evr] of which Plato sublimely speaks in the ninth book of the 
Republic (592 B). 


polished and brilliant man of the world like Gorgias 4 , would pro- 
bably regard the frigid pedantries of his disciple Polus with a 
contempt as hearty as the author of the Phaedrus could himself have 
desired. Had Plato seriously harboured the intention of destroying 
the reputation of Gorgias, whether as a thinker or a speaker, it 
would have cost him little trouble to put words into his mouth which 
would have seemed to his readers sufficient for either purpose 8 . 
Had he wished, for instance, to impair his dialectical reputation, 
what expedient more obvious than to lead the veteran speculator into 
a discussion on the pr) ov or " non-existent," the title of a metaphysi- 
cal work of Gorgias, of which Aristotle or his epitomator has given 
us a careful analysis ; fragments of which work, a good deal carica- 
tured it is true, are paraded with much complacency by Gorgias's 
pupil Euthydemus in the dialogue which bears the name of this 
latter Sophist. Or if his rhetorical success had roused that spirit of 
envious emulation with which, according to Athenaeus and others, 
Plato was so strongly imbued, what was easier than to have put into 
his mouth an e7ri8etis or ' panegyrical oration,' full of pointless anti- 
theses and glittering with meretricious ornament, like that famous 
Funeral Oration which is condemned by the very Scholiast 6 who 
quotes it, as "enunciating superficial thoughts in pompous and stilted 
phrase 7 " ? That Plato was not afraid to let his Sophists tell their 
own tale in their choicest manner, is clear from the instances of the 
e7T6 x Seiis delivered by Protagoras in the dialogue so named (p. 320), 
and of the epistle, assuredly a genuine work of Lysias, which is 
read aloud in the Phaedrus. The discourse of Protagoras meets with 
the unqualified approbation of an eminent modern historian, and is 
quite as moral in its tendency, and at least as elegant in style as 
any of the polished platitudes of " the estimable Isocrates." We 
hear, however, nothing of this kind from Gorgias, and as if to guard 

* See Diod. xii. 53, T$ evioi>n rrjs \eecas efir\t)e rovs 'Adrjvaiovs ovras ew 
tyvf'is Kol <t>i\o\6yovs. Diodorus here refers to the first visit of Gorgias to Athens, 
B.C. 427, as one of the Leontine embassy, which is mentioned also by Thucydides, 
though he seems to have considered it beneath the dignity of history to mention 
the names of the persons who composed it. Olymp., who repeats the account of 
Diodorus, adds, on what authority we know not, elx 8e /xtr' avrov Ilca\ov. But 
the present interview is supposed to take place more than twenty years later. 

* An ethical dogma of Gorgias, which is mentioned not without respect by Aris- 
totle, is critically handled in the Menon (71 E seq.), but in this dialogue no similar 
opinion is attributed to him, the moral heresies refuted being those of Polus and 
of Callicles. 

6 On Hermogenes. See Spengel, Artt. Scriptt. pp. 78, 79, 80. 

" ffefj.vas yap fvravBa ffunQop-fiffas \feis 6 Vopyias evvolas tiriiroXaiorfpas 
VTrta.yye\\i, rots re irapiffois /cat 6noiore\evrois Kal &noioKardpnrois Ka\\wirl- 
fav 81' oAou irpoffK6pojs rbv \6yov. " Sickening his readers with the lavish and 
continued use of ornamental figures of speech, with clauses of exactly the same 
length, and sentences which rhyme at the end or at the beginning." This speech, 
or what remains of it, will be found in the Appendix. 

a 2 


against possible disappointment, we are warned at the outset of the 
dialogue, that the orator has already perorated, and that we are to 
expect no second display from the exhausted physical powers of the 
now elderly statesman 8 . And in truth, if we examine carefully 
that part of the dialogue in which Gorgias takes a part, and the few 
incidental remarks put into his mouth in the course of the conver- 
sation with Polus and Callicles, we cannot but feel the justice of 
Mr. Grote's observation that the treatment he receives in this 
dialogue is respectful rather than contumelious. It is true he is 
forced into certain admissions not favourable to the art he professes ; 
true also that he shows himself no adept in the art of definition. 
This art, on which Greek philosophers lay so much stress, is 
mentioned as one of the two philosophical inventions of which 
Socrates was the undisputed author. It is not likely that Sophocles 
would have defined Poetry better than Gorgias defines Rhetoric 9 : 
and we know from Xenophon how poor a figure Pericles made when 
his irreverent ward Alcibiades, fresh from a Siar/H/^ with Socrates ', 
importuned him for a Socratic definition of Law. On the whole, if 
by any perverse fortune this dialogue had been lost, and the works 
of Gorgias had come down to us entire, there is reason to doubt 
whether his reputation would have stood so high as it does at 
present. However this may be, enough has been said to show that 
the Gorgias is not a direct attack upon the great Rhetor or his 
opinions : and it is still more evident that it is not, like the Phaedrus, 
a critical treatise on the Art of Rhetoric. Here, as in that dialogue, 
Plato recognizes, it must be granted, the distinction between a false 
rhetoric and a true : but his exposure of the former, instead of being 
reasoned out on sound aesthetic and psychological principles, as in the 
Phaedrus, is conducted in a spirit of mockery and caricature, skilfully 
covered by a show of dialectical precision. He treats Rhetoric in the 
Gorgias much as he treats ' Sophistic' in the Sophist : and stoops, 
intentionally or not, to the artifice of putting the abuse of a thing 
for its use. But whatever its philosophical value, this part of the 
conversation has not only a high dramatic propriety, but leads, as we 

8 ijSri yripdfficovTos, according to Philostratus, p. 493, in B.C. 427, when he first 
came to Athens as ambassador from Leontini ; and therefore a very old man at the 
period when the conversation is supposed to be held, viz. at or about B.C. 405 ; if 
we adopt the strict view of the Platonic chronology advocated by Mr. Cope in 
a note on p. 45 of his Translation. 

9 Compare Phaedr. 269 B, ov xpb xo^w-iveiv et rives jdj firiffrd/^fvoi Sia.\fyea-9ai 
aSvvaroi eyevovro 6piffacr9ai T'I iror' ttrn firiTopucfi, K.T.\. This reads like a good- 
humoured apology for past severities; or like a caution to the reader not to 
exaggerate the intellectual deficiencies of the Sophists and Rhetoricians who succumb 
to the dialectical skill of Socrates, as he worries them with inquiries into the rl 
iffrt of the matters on which they discourse or the arts and sciences they profess. 

1 Memorab. i. 2. 40. 


shall see, by an easy and natural sequence to the later and more 
important discussions. 

In the second Act*, so to speak, of the Gorgias, the part of 
respondent is undertaken by Polus. Of this Rhetor we have but 
few and scanty notices. What little we know leads us to think 
that he was no unfit subject for the exercise of Plato's comic 
powers : and if the remark attributed to Gorgias by Athenaeus, o>s 
KctXois oTSe nXaTuiv^eiv (what a master in the art of lampooning 
is Plato !), was ever made, it is certainly more characteristic of this 
second portion of the dialogue than of the first. Gorgias himself 
could not have desired a better foil to set off his talents and character, 
than that which is afforded by the presence of his faithful famulus. 
The juvenile ardour of Polus 8 appears to have attracted the notice 
of others beside Socrates ; for Aristotle 4 , in enumerating various 
punning accusations brought against persons who had the misfortune 
to bear names susceptible of this species of wit, condescends to 
mention one of which Polus was the subject. His " coltish " 
humour betrays him into many misadventures in the course of the 
discussion. At the outset his indiscreet zeal provokes a most 
disparaging description of the art in which he gloried. Rhetoric, he 
is informed, is no art, but the counterfeit of an art. It seeks not 
Good but Pleasure : flattering the mental as the confectioner flatters 
the bodily palate. It recks no more of the health of the soul to 
which it serves up its highly flavoured compositions, than the cook 
is troubled by the vision of the dyspepsy or podagra which lurk 
beneath his covers. Both alike have attained their object, so long 
as the taste of the consumer is gratified. 

The sarcasm implied in this comparison was calculated to touch 
Polus in a tender part. He had himself composed a work on 
Rhetoric, and Socrates 5 had just read it. To that work he had 
prefixed the very word Te^vT? by way of title. This term, as 
every reader of the Phaedrus knows, was appropriated by the 
Rhetoricians to Rhetoric as the art KO.T c^o^v, or KaAAi'ony T>V 
re^vwv, as Polus and Gorgias agree in calling it. So generally 
was this sense recognized, that TJ IIwXou 17 KopaKos 17 Ticriou re^vr?, 
without the addition of Xo'ywv, w,ould have conveyed to a Greek the 
idea of a treatise on Rhetoric, by Polus, Corax, or Tisias, as the case 

2 P. 461 seq. 

3 Gorg. 463, IloiXos SSe vtos effrl /cai our, "This colt Polus is young and 

4 Rhetoric, b. ii. c. 23, 29, del av IIwAos I, "Colt by name and colt by 

5 P. 462, eV T<? (rvyypdfjL/j.a'Ti t> iyk evayxos avtyvcov, where the Schol. observes, 
IK rovrov STJAOP, ZTI ov% 6 ^| dpx^ y ria>Aou \6yos - 


might be. And as TC^VT; meant Rhetoric, so re^voypa^os meant a 
rhetorical teacher. Of this Tiyyt] of Polus, there can be little 
doubt, as indeed the Scholiast 6 relates, that Plato has preserved a 
characteristic fragment (perhaps the initial sentence) in the opening 
scene of this Dialogue 7 . 

' : This same treatise is the subject of a bantering notice in the 
Phaedrus, p. 267, where Polus is ridiculed for parading certain novel 
terms of art, diplasiology, gnomology, eiconology, and certain others 
not specified, which he borrowed from a brother rhetorician Licym- 
nius " to help in the construction of an elegant style " (6vo/x.aro)i/ 
AiKv//,vtwv a e/cetVw ISutpycraTO Trpos TroLrjcnv eveTrei'as). Polus 8 was by no 
means the earliest of the re^voypa^ot he had been preceded by 
Corax and Tisias and probably by others. As Polus and his book 
have both perished, and as no plea in their favour has been entered 
by any ancient or modern apologist of departed charlatanism, no 
great injustice will probably be done to his memory if we accept as 
sufficiently faithful the certainly life-like portrait with which Plato 
has presented us, and, assuming that he was a Euphuist and a cox- 
comb, resign ourselves without misgiving to the amusement which 
his maladroit proceedings are intended to afford. We have indeed 
the less compunction on this head, as Polus himself is thoroughly 
unaware of Socrates' satire. Even when informed (p. 463) that 
Rhetoric is " the counterfeit of a branch of the art Politic," he 

6 (pafft fj.}) e ouTO(TX8iou T}>V TLia\ov ravra elirfiv, irpoffvyypatydfj.ei'oi' 5e. 

' P. 449, TroAAaJ tf^vai tv avOpcairois elfflv eic TUV efj.irfipi.iav efiirtipws fuprjfie- 
vai' iftir'tlpla /J.ev yap iroit'i rbv alceva rjfj.>v iropfveffQai nark Tt~)(yt\v, aireipia 5e /cora 
rv'Xftiv' eKaffTwv Sf TOVTUV fiLtTaXafi^dvovo'iv &\\oi &\\u>s &\\cat>, TUV Se apiffrow ol 

8 If, as seems not improbable, Polus handled rhetoric rather in an ajsthetical 
than in a practical manner, the comparison of his -r^vi] with that of the fancy-cook 
will appear more pointed and appropriate. Plato, though he had deeply studied, 
systematically depreciates the fine arts : poetry, painting, and music (p. 502), as well 
as rhetoric, he reckons among the arts that minister to Pleasure rather than to 
Good. This is undoubtedly one of the shallow places in his philosophy. We may 
trace in his way of treating such subjects, a vestige of that Socratic utilitarianism, 
which, in the hands of the Cynic school, degenerated into a worship of the 
physically and morally hideous. Plato is, however,- inconsistent with himself in 
this disparagement of the fine in comparison with the useful arts. In the Philebus 
he distinguishes between pure and impure' pleasure, and censures those who, like 
the coarse and really sensual Antisthenes, .affect to condemn all pleasure as evil. 
[Compare Phileb. p. 44 c, where the speaker condemns the Svo-x^pda nara. of 
those who detest pleasure in all its forms, nal vevofj.iK6T(v ovSfv vyits, a passage 
generally allowed to refer to Antisthenes.] It is indeed not a little remarkable 
that Plato's own writings furnish the means of completely refuting those low views 
of the nature and object of the fine arts which alone could justify his disparaging 
treatment of them in this dialogue and in the Republic. At the same time it is 
impossible to deny the force of this portion of the Gorgias, considered as an argu- 
mentum ad hominem in relation to Polus and his much-boasted Tex^n : for there 
is no reason to suppose that Polus was prepared with any sesthetical theory sounder 
or purer than that exemplified in the even-cm, of which he offers us a specimen in 
the passage (p. 449) quoted above. 


asks with amusing naivete, " Very well then, is it a fine thing 
or the contrary?" as if Socrates had uttered a truism which he had 
heard a hundred times. Not so Gorgias, who is at once struck with 
the singularity of the remark which Polus, true to his name, " doth 
gambol from," and putting his disciple aside with little ceremony, 
calls upon Socrates for a fuller explanation of his meaning 9 . A 
very delicate touch this, showing what was Plato's estimate of the 
relative powers of master and scholar. 

The discussion, however, does not linger long over Rhetoric, but 
passes, by natural transition, into that Ethical speculation, which, as 
has been said, occupies the greater part of the Dialogue 5 the third 
and last Act into which the colloquial Drama resolves itself. The 
incautious rhetorician is speedily betrayed into a confession of his 
ethical faith, by the paradoxical statement of his opponent, that the 
public rhetors are not, as Polus thinks, the strongest, but the weakest 
members of the community, albeit they have the power which P. 
claims for them of " doing what seems them good," p. 468. " As if 
you yourself, Socrates," he exclaims, " would not rather have this 
power than be without it as if you did not wish yourself in the 
rhetor's place, when you see him take the life or spoil the goods or 
imprison the person of any body he happens to dislike V This, it 
may be conceded, is no theory characteristic of the Sophist. It is 
rather the voice of unsophisticated human nature, expressed with 
more than usual candour by the ingenuous Sicilian being in effect 
none other than " That good old rule, that ancient plan, That those 
should take who have the power, And those should keep who can/' 
of which our own philosophic poet sings. Socrates, however, 
promptly joins issue on this point, and proceeds to assert with equal 
boldness the two paradoxes " that no man wishes to do evil," and 
" that it is better to suffer than to inflict a wrong," inferring from 
both combined that the Rhetor is not only the weakest but the most 
miserable of his species. 

The latter of these two propositions (/cpctrrov d8iKcto-0at 17 dSixeiv) 
has excited the admiration of all ages, and its close approximation to 
the great principle of Christian Ethics is too obvious to need remark. 
Socrates, moreover, was soon to give his life in testimony of his 
sincere belief in its truth, and, paradox as it seems to his hearers, 
they fail to detect a flaw in the reasoning on which it is built. So 
much can hardly be said in favour of the paradox oiSeis 

9 aAAa rovrov fj.ev Ha, tfaol 8' elite itS>s \tytts. 

1 us Si] (TV, & ~2.tliKpa.res, OVK Uv Se^ato f^ftval ffoi o n SoKt'i ffoi v rfj ir6\et 
fjLa\\ov ?) iji-fi, oiiSe V?A.o7s Srav I$TIS nva. T? a.iroKTeiva.vTa ftv ($oev avrf, 1) a.(j)f\6nevoi> 
Xprjfj.a.Ta, ^ S^ffavTa. 


ois, or as it is sometimes worded, ovSeis IKWV KaKo's. The 
distinction between /3ovAo/x,cu and SOKCI /AOI, between Will and Judg- 
ment, is sufficiently obvious ; but Socrates' reasoning is of tbat 
a priori type which alternately vexes and amuses us in the early 
dialogues ; and his conclusion that every sin is but an error of 
opinion is one against which the common sense of mankind rebels. 
The paradox is, however, too closely connected with the leading 
principles of the Socratical ethics, that Virtue and Knowledge are 
one, to allow us to doubt that it was seriously maintained by 
Socrates, even if we had not the independent testimonies of Xeno- 
phon and of Aristotle to appeal to 2 . 

Not indeed that Plato affirms this dogma, that Virtue is Knowledge, 
in the Gorgias. It was one of those Socratic prejudices from which 
he gradually emancipated himself, as his Ethical views matured; 
and in the present dialogue he proposes a theory of Virtue substan- 
tially the same with that which is more fully developed in the 
Republic. The passage in the Gorgias which contains this newer 
theory occurs at a later stage of the dialogue, in that long and 
animated discussion with Callicles in which the " exagitator omnium 
rhetorum" proves himself a consummate master of the art which he 
has been disparaging. The Virtue or Excellence, he argues, of 
any thing which contains a multiplicity of parts, whether such parts 
be vitally or only mechanically connected, whether the thing spoken 
of be characterized as a O-KCVOS or a <3ov consists in the Law, order, 
or arrangement proper to the organism in question 3 . In living 
material organizations this order or harmony of parts is called 
Health ; in the case of the human Soul it is called Temperance, 
Justice or Righteousness, Goodness or Virtue ; and the regulating 
cause bears the name of Law or Right 4 . This description, if we 
compare it with those given in the purely Socratic dialogues, the 
Laches, for instance, the Charmides, or the Protagoras, will be 
seen to mark an epoch in Plato's mental growth, or, what is the 
same thing, in the History of Moral Science. Order or Harmony 
is the germinal idea of the Republic, as it gives unity and coherence 
to the parts, otherwise ill-connected, of the present dialogue. We 
shall illustrate this new standing-point by a fuller comparison of the 
two works and with parts of other dialogues, early and late. 

First, then, every reader of the Republic knows that the Platonic 

2 Aristotle, Ethics, b. iii. 6 [4]. Xen. Mem. iii. 9. 4. 

3 P. 503 E 507 c. 

4 504 D, rats Se TTJS "J^X*?* Tae<r re /col Kotr^tretn v6fj.ifj.6v re Kal v6fj.os, 80ev 
Kal v6fj.ifj.oi yiyvovrai Kal K6fffj.tof ravra 8" Hern SiKaiocrvvr) re Kal cr(i>(f>pocrvvi) : com- 
pared with 506 E, ic6(r(j,os TIS &pa tyyev6fj.evos eV eKac-rcp 6 eKaarov oiKftos ayaObv 

' eKa<TToi> TUIV uvrwv, K.T.\. 


represents not any single feeling or faculty of the soul, 
but the just proportion of the whole, as shown in the correlation 
of its constituent parts. The same conception is expressed, as we 
have seen, though less completely, in the Gorgias s . The readers of 
the Republic also know how nearly the descriptions there given of 
these two virtues St/catoo-wr; and crw^poa-vvrj coincide, and we should 
be at a loss to account for Plato's using the former rather than the 
latter word to designate the virtue which is to include all other 
virtues, did we not know that his choice was determined by his 
peculiar theory of the exact parallelism between the constituent ele- 
ments of the State and of the individual Man, and by the consequent 
necessity of denoting the corresponding virtues of each and every 
part of each by one and the same word. Whatever objections may 
be raised against the propriety of this terminology, the fact is so, 
that in the Republic the description given of the particular virtue of 
Justice is in effect a description of Virtue in general. 'Apery in that 
dialogue is Si/caioo-w-y, and Si/caioavvy is apeTrj. In the Gorgias too, 
p. 506, we find the same thing predicated of apery which was pre- 
dicated in p. 504 of o-d)(f>poa-vvr), that it consists in KOO-//.OS or ra|tSj an 
order or constitution or right state of the soul. As in the former pas- 
sage SiKcuoo-wr?, so here crwcfrpocrvvr] is made synonymous with apery 6 . 
This, we repeat, is a proof that when Plato wrote the Gorgias 
his ethical theory had grown into something different from that of 
Socrates, who taught that apery and eVto-ry/x,?;, virtue and science, 
are one : all special virtues being resolved into true theories of 
certain external relations ; courage, for instance, being but the exact 
knowledge of what was really to be dreaded, temperance the know- 
ledge of what was truly pleasurable, and so on. And to this 
Socratic theory Plato adheres in his earlier dialogues ; whereas in 
those of his maturity eVicrryju/y is dethroned from the exclusive 
supremacy which Socrates assigned to her. At the conclusion 
of that abstruse and closely reasoned dialogue, the Philebus 
(pp. 65, 66), a passage occurs, containing in brief language 
a summary of the whole intricate argument, and assigning their 
relative precedence to three principles, yueVpov, 7ncrry/u/y, and 17801/17, 
which had severally claimed to be considered the ayaOov or 
highest Good. The Philebus is indeed an ethico-metaphysical 
rather than, like the Gorgias, an ethico-political dialogue, and 

5 This definition of Justice was preserved among the traditions of the Old 
Academy. Thus, in the so-called "Opoi 'Sirevirlinrov, we read, AiKaiocrvvi)' 6/j.ovoia. 
rrjs \j/v^r/s irpbs a\ni]v, Kal fvra^ia TWV TT)S <//t>x'5 s /ueptSi/ trpbs &\\rj\a. 

6 fj &pa <T(e(pp!tiv ^vx^i ayad'f]. A. passage by the way illustrative of Aristotle's 
drift, when he censures TOVS \ta.i> tvcaffavras T^V aper^v, 'those who unified virtue 


therefore the more abstract term fitrpov is preferred to KO'CT/XOS or 
T<xt9. The same associations, however, are suggested by all three 
terms : for if Measure or Law is the supreme principle of the 
Universe, co-ordinate with the Creative Reason, it must also be the 
ruling principle in the microcosm called man ; cognate but superior 
to the human intellect 7 , whose noblest employment is to trace out the 
Law or Idea in all its varied manifestations. This theory of virtue 
as an Order, Constitution, or, as it is called in a parallel passage of 
the Republic (b. iv. 443 D), a Harmony, was probably suggested 
to Plato by Pythagorean teaching 8 ; but as Plato handles it, the 
theory is neither extravagant nor unfruitful, for both here and in 
the Republic he carefully avoids confusing the sign with the 
thing signified, an error into which the Pythagoreans, like other 
" dreamers in the dawn of science," seem to have been betrayed. 

Enough has been said to show the substantial identity of the 
notions of Justice or Virtue which are briefly sketched in the 
Gorgias, and thoroughly worked out in the Republic. We shall 
now see that there is a corresponding congruity between the political 
ideas, and still more in the tone of political feeling and sentiment 
which pervades the larger and the smaller dialogue. 

Plato's contempt and dislike of the Athenian democracy are 
notorious. In the Republic a he represents Democracy as but one 
degree better than absolute government or tyranny, and in a picture, 
evidently a grotesque likeness of Athens and Athenian society, he 
gives a description, half humorous, half contemptuous, of the results 
of unbridled liberty. This is followed by an equally vivid portrait 
of one whom he calls the S^/Ao/cpartKos avtfp, the man whose principles 
and disposition are framed upon the democratic model. Now of 
this ' democratic man,' allowing for the personal traits necessary for 
dramatic eifect, the Callicles of the Gorgias ] may be considered a 
fair specimen. He is a free and enlightened citizen of the freest 
state in the world ; one to whom his lusts are law, keen of wit and 
ready of speech, without prejudice and without principle, to whom 
virtue and its semblance are alike contemptible : he is one who 

7 I say the " human intellect " advisedly : for Plato in more than one passage 
seems to identify the Supreme Good with the divine intelligence. This side of a 
difficult Platonic question is well argued hy Bonitz in a short treatise ' De Idea 
Boni,' Dresden, 1837. 

8 The passage in the Gorgias bearing on this subject is, however, hardly 
sufficient to support Schleiermacher's inference that the dialogue cannot have 
been written until after its author's return from his sojourn in Magna Graecia, 
i. e. 388 B.C. 

9 B. viii. p. 557 seq. 

1 Compare p. 513 A, nal vvv 8 &pa Set ere ws biJ.oi6-ra.rov ylyvto-Qai r$ 8r;/xw TWV 
' AQijvaioov, ft fj.e\\ets ro^iry irpofftpi\i}s eivai KO.\ peya SvvaffGai iv TTJ Tr6\et. 


" calls sliame silliness, and temperance cowardice, and moderation 
and frugal living the attributes of hinds and mechanics 2 ;" one who 
yields himself in turn to the instincts of his intellectual and his 
physical nature ; whose life is spent in gratifying the desire 
that for the time is uppermost ; giving one day to wine and music, 
another to idle pastime, a third it may be to literature and 
philosophy 3 . Frequently too he engages in politics, and rises on 
his feet in the assembly, speaking and acting with equal reckless- 
ness : Kal OVTC Tts T<xis ovTC avdyKr) ITTCCTTIV O.VTOV TO> /3i<j>, dAA' rjSvv 
re 877 KOL tXevOepiov Kal fj.aKa.piov KttAioi/ rov fiiov TOVTOV, ^p^rai avra> 
Sta Travros 4 . 

This description and its impersonation in Callicles are equally 
happy specimens of Plato's talent for the higher comedy. His 
tragic powers also are exemplified in passages of both dialogues, 
remarkable for their excellence and for their resemblance. Those 
who have once read will not easily forget that opening passage of 
the second book of the Republic, in which a comparison is instituted 
between the ideal Just Man and the ideal Unjust Man, for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether of the two is the happier 5 . The 
candidates, like statues at an exhibition, are stripped and cleaned 
for the inspection of the judges': the unjust man is denuded of all 
moral scruples, the just man of all worldly prudence and of all the 
outward advantages which a reputation for honesty confers on a 
man wise in his generation. Each is endued with the intellectual 
qualities which will make him perfect in his own business ; the 
unjust man with boundless cunning and perfect worldly wisdom, 
his rival with intelligence enough, and not more than enough, to 
render him perfectly just ; the unjust man will consequently, by the 
hypothesis, have established a character for perfect justice and fair 
dealing, while the just man, who is to know nothing of the art of 
seeming, will seem to the vulgar eye as great a scoundrel as his 
rival is 7 . This being supposed, it is no longer difficult, says Grlau- 
con in the dialogue, to foretell the fortunes of the two. The unjust 
man is of course promised a career of uninterrupted enjoyment, 
victory over his enemies, wealth, popularity among men, and, if 

o[>Tes ff(a<ppoff\>vi\v Se avavSpiav 

O 5e Kal Koffptav Sairocijj/ us aypoiKiav Kal av\fv9epiai' olaa.v, Rep. 
560 D. Comp. Gorg. 491. 

3 Compare Gorg. 484 D. 

4 Compare Gorg. 491, rovs iiXiBtovs \eytis rovs trtixftpot'as : mox, 5t? rbv 6pda>s 
Bitatr^ufvov ras pev firi6vfj.ias TOT avrov tav <J>s n-yi<nas fli>ai Kal yu^ Ko\dfiv, 

5 Rep. ii. 361 D, eKdrepov &ffirep avSplavra ets T^V Kpiffiv fKKadaipfts rolv av- 

Rep. ii. 360 E. 

7 fi.j)8fv aSiKcoy $6av e'xeVco rrjv p.fylffrriv aSiKias, 361 C. 


costly sacrifices avail with heaven, the favour of the gods. Of his 
opponent martyrdom is the too certain doom : he will be scourged, 
tormented, cast into prison, and will end a life of misery upon the 
cross. Whether of the two, it is asked, is the happier man 8 . 

This, it is clear, is but a statement in its most abstract form 9 of the 
question discussed with Polus in the second, and with Callicles in 
the third act of the Gorgias, and the prophecy in the latter passage l 
of the condemnation and death of Socrates completes the resem- 
blance. Only, as Glaucon complains (Rep. p. 358 D), as if with 
reference to this dialogue, the case of the just man is not repre- 
sented quite so unfavourably as it ought to be, in order to the final 
and irreversible decision of the suit between him and his rival. 
From which it would seem as if Plato himself had been dissatisfied 
with the too hasty decision of the question at issue which Socrates 
in the Gorgias pronounces, and accordingly it is much more elabo- 
rately discussed in the Republic : the arbitrator declining to adju- 
dicate until many previous questions are disposed of; in fact until 
the definition of Justice, moral and political, is satisfactorily made 
out, and the various stages and modifications of Injustice discri- 
minated. In the tenth book, however, Socrates sums up, and 
delivers sentence according to the evidence. And even here there 
is this analogy between the Gorgias and the Republic, that both 
end with mythical descriptions of the doom which awaits the 
righteous and the unrighteous after the soul shall be parted from 
the body. The scenery of the myth in the Gorgias is far less 
elaborate than that in the Republic : but the inference intended to 
be drawn is evidently the same in both cases. 

To bring the points of resemblance between the two dialogues 
into yet clearer light, it may be well to quote in free translation, and 
with a few unimportant omissions, a passage of some length but great 
interest from the seventh of the thirteen Epistles attributed to Plato *. 

8 This passage is perhaps glanced at by Arist. Eth. N. i. 3 : rd^a tie Kal fj.a\\ov 
&v TIS reAos TOV TTO\ITIKOV fiiov TavTTjv viro\d/3oi. QaivfTcti Se viroSfeo'Tfpa Kal 
OUTTJ. SoKei yelp ei/Se^eaOai Kal KaOetSftis exovra f\\v apeT-fjv, ^ aTrpaicrtlv Sia fiiov, 
Kal irpbs TOVTOIS Ka.Koira6elv Kal arv^dv ra /jLeyurra' rbi/ $' ovrta ^wvra ovSels kv 
ev5aifj.oviffeiev, ft yifJj 010*11' 5ia<pv\d,TT o>v. 

9 P. 469 A, ?i TTOV '6 ye airodvfiffKtav dSi/cws eteivbs Kal &0\ios. T)-TTOV ^ 6 
airoKTivvs, K.T,\. The case of Archelaus follows, pp. 470, 471 ; an instance of 
successful wickedness to which Polus points with triumph. 

1 P. 521 B, c. 

2 The case for the Platonic Epistles has of late gained greatly from Mr. Grote's 
masterly historical analysis of their contents ; while an eminent scholar of a totally 
different type, Gabriel Cobet, has pronounced in favour of their genuineness on 
grounds purely philological. This most fastidious of critics declares that no one 
but Plato could have written them. But however the question of authorship is 
decided, the authority of the seventh Epistle, of which the eighth is properly a 
part, has never been impugned by any competent scholar. 


In this document, professing to be -written when its author had reached 
an advanced age, Plato (if Plato it is) prefaces a detailed histoiy of 
his dealings with Syracuse and her successive rulers, by a brief sum- 
mary of his early political experiences in Athens 3 . " While young," 
he says, " I, like so many others, resolved that as soon as I became 
my own master I would try my fortune in public life. This reso- 
lution of mine coincided with certain changes in the state of Athens, 
which I shall describe. The then much-abused constitution under- 
went a radical change ; and the government in its altered form was 
entrusted to a body of fifty-one magistrates, of whom eleven admi- 
nistered affairs in the city, and ten in Peiraeus. Over these twenty- 
one was set a board of Thirty with absolute powers. Among the 
fifty-one were several of my own kindred and acquaintance, who 
soon invited me to take part in carrying out a policy which they 
thought would suit me well. Young as I then was, who can 
wonder at the error into which I was betrayed ? For I fondly 
thought, that their administration would be directed to the great 
end of leading their countrymen from an unrighteous to a righteous 
course of life and manners, and so thinking I began carefully to 
watch their proceedings. What was my surprise to find that faulty 
as was the old order of things, it was pure gold * in comparison with 
the iron rule now set up in its stead. Among their worst acts of 
tyranny, was one they practised on my friend Socrates, now advanced 
in life, who, I make bold to say, was the most righteous man then 
living. Him they ordered to go with certain others to fetch from 
Salamis one Leon, whom they had doomed to death, evidently for 
the purpose of compromising Socrates, and making him an en- 
forced accomplice in their crimes. This order, however, he refused 
to obey, being prepared to face the consequences of disobedience 
rather than assist in their unhallowed proceedings. When I wit- 
nessed these and other equally infamous doings, I was filled with 
disgust, and withdrew myself altogether from the horrors of that 
evil time 5 . Ere long however the Thirty were unseated, and a 
counter-revolution took place ; whereupon my old passion revived, 
though slowly, and I was again fain to take an active part in 
politics. Under this new regimen, affairs being still in an unsettled 
state, many things occurred which might justly be objected to : 
though on the whole the restored fugitives acted with considerable 
moderation. It is not wonderful that reprisals should be inflicted 
by political opponents in times of revolution, but it was a strange 

3 vebs e'7<i> &v, K.T.A.., p. 324 c to 326 B. 

4 Xpvffbv ct7reSei|ai' -r^v ffj.irpoa'Bei' iro\iTtiav. 

5 fTravfjyayov efiat/rbj' oiro rial/ r6re KaK&v. 


chance that led certain of the people then in power to arraign 
Socrates in a court of justice on an atrocious charge which fitted 
him less than any man. He was accused of impiety : and the 
judges had the ingratitude to condemn and put to death one who, 
when they were in trouble, had refused to perpetrate an act of 
unhallowed violence against one of their exiled friends. When I 
reflected, I say, on proceedings like these, and on the characters of 
the principal public men, and the laws and customs prevalent at the 
time ; the longer I considered and the older I grew, the more diffi- 
cult it appeared to me to govern Athens on right principles. In the 
first place it was impossible to act without a party ; which the 
universal corruption rendered it difficult to find ready made, and 
which it was not easy to construct anew ; in the next place both 
laws and manners were degenerating with fearful rapidity. The 
consequence was that, full as I had once been of political enthu- 
siasm, the spectacle of the general disorder and confusion almost 
turned my brain : and though I would not desist from looking out 
for some opportunity of mending the present state of things and was 
prepared to bide my time, I finally arrived at the clear conviction 
that all existing forms of governmeut are radically wrong ; and that 
their reformation will require a machinery of extraordinary power, 
working under unusually favourable circumstances. 

" Thus I was constrained to say, that it is true philosophy alone 
which can enlighten us to discern the principles of justice whether 
in the State or in the Individual ; and that accordingly the crimes 
and misery of mankind will never have an end, until either the 
highest class of philosophic thinkers shall step into the seats of 
power, or the existing rulers shall by some miracle become imbued 
with philosophic ideas." 

In this passage there is scarcely an expression of which we do not 
hear the echo either in the Gorgias or in the Republic. The tone of 
political despair which pervades the former dialogue, and the equal 
scorn poured on the professions of the rhetor of the agora and the 
rhetor of the schools, as exemplified in Callicles and in Polus ; all the 
intolerance and all the exaggeration which mark its polemical pas- 
sages, find, if not their complete apology, at least their explanation 
and palliation in the sad tale of his political experiences which Plato 
unfolds to his correspondents in the letter just quoted. His hopes 
of serving his country had twice been blighted. The severity of the 
first disappointment may be inferred from the fact that among the 
Thirty and their subordinates were men endeared to him by literary 
sympathies as well as by near relationship. Critias and Charmides 
are names that figure in his earliest dialogues ; one was his uncle, the 


other his cousin by the mother's side ; and of Charmides he himself 
says that he was </>tAoo-o<os Kal TTO.W TTOITJTIKOS, a description also 
applicable to Critias. Glaucon 6 too, his maternal grandfather, was 
one of the Piraeic Decemvirate. Add to this, that Plato was an 
Eupatrid both by father's and mother's side ; and his aristocratical 
prejudices, derived from his ancestors, and fed by a naturally nice 
and fastidious temper, a Suo-^e'peta <ucrecos OVK dyevvous, to use his own 
phrase 7 , would incline him to augur well of any attempt to reform 
and remodel the state on Lacedaemonian principles, even had the 
enterprise been confided to persons less known and trusted than 
those friends and patrons of his youth, with whom he had spent 
many an hour in the society of the man who was to him the ideal of 
all that was wise and good in humanity. Disappointed in the hopes 
he had formed of the aristocratic party, he was the better prepared 
to take a favourable view of the proceedings of the people's friends 
when their hour of triumph came : and for some time their conduct 
was such as to encourage his reviving hopes of operating a bene- 
ficial change in public and private morality by the methods (which 
Socrates himself by no means despised) of. the rhetor and legislator. 
The extensive knowledge which the author of the Phaedrus displays 
of the writings of the leaders of both the great schools of oratory, 
the Attic and the Sicilian, may lead to the conjecture that he had at 
one period of his life studied rhetoric with a view to its public 
practice : and one can hardly doubt that under moderately favour- 
able circumstances, his success as a speaker would have been bril- 
liant. It is even probable that the interval which elapsed between 
the overthrow of the Thirty and the death of Socrates an interval 
of from three to four years was employed by Plato in studies pre- 
paratory to political life. That he ever ascended the bema during 
this period we do not indeed learn. He was not more than twenty- 
six years of age at its commencement, and we know that Demos- 
thenes did not begin to speak in public until he had entered on his 
thirtieth year. Possibly, too, the unsettled state of parties to which 
he alludes in the Epistle above quoted, may have contributed to the 
delay. He himself says, fipaBvTfpov p.w, el\K Se p.*. O/AWS rj irepl TO 
Trparretv TO. KOWO. KOL TroAmKa eTri^uyata. 

But whatever degree of maturity Plato's purpose may have 
attained, it was checked at once and for ever by the unrighteous 
sentence passed upon his Master and Friend. It was this that 
forced upon him the conviction that oligarchs and democrats were 
alike unprincipled, and that the task of forming a third party, 

6 So Taylor, Life of Lysias, p. xlv, note k. 
" In Philebus, 44 c. 


sufficiently honest and sufficiently powerful to effect a radical reform 
of Athenian institutions was a mere impossibility, and the hopes 
founded on such a contingency chimerical. We know from other 
authorities, that immediately after the perpetration of that great 
judicial crime, he retired from Athens, and took refuge in the neigh- 
bouring city of Megara, where Euclides, a native of that place, a 
friend and admiring disciple of Socrates, and the founder of the 
Megarian sect, is said to have received him under his roof. That 
residence, and his subsequent travels, may have contributed in more 
ways than one towards maturing and enlarging his philosophical 
views : but we have it on his own word, or the word at least of the 
author of that seventh Epistle, that the two most important practical 
convictions of his life, the hopelessness of any attempt to amend 
the existing laws and practice of the Greek communities by any of 
the ordinary and constitutional means, and the necessity, and under 
given circumstances the feasibility, of an entire re-construction of 
the political fabric on principles of pure reason and philosophy that 
these two convictions date from the death of Socrates, and were the 
result of conclusions deliberately drawn from that and his former 
experiences in Athens. Of the first of these convictions, as it seems 
to me, the Gorgias is the public vindication : of the latter, the 
Republic. Of the time and place at which these dialogues were 
composed, we have no distinct testimony ; but it is difficult to 
believe that the Gorgias could have been written any where but 
at Athens ; and we cannot but incline to the conjecture that it 
was the first or one of the first written after his return, which 
according to more than one witness must have taken place about 
four years after the death of Socrates, that is to say not later than 
395 B.C. 8 Plato's deep and passionate disapproval of Athenian 
institutions does not seem to have deterred him from serving in his 
country's armies, and bearing his part in three distinct engagements, 
at Tanagra, at Corinth, and at Delium. His performance of the 
military duties of a citizen may have encouraged his friends in 
Athens to hope that his quarrel with the Athenian people was now 
made up, and that the disposition to public life of which he had 
twice before shown indications, would now ripen into act. Regard 

8 The fabulous extent and duration assigned to Plato's travels by his later biogra- 
phers need not cause any embarrassment. The accounts are so discrepant and so ill- 
supported as to excite our wonder at the trouble which modern scholars have taken 
to manufacture them into history. As usual in such cases, the later the narrative, 
the better informed we find the narrator. The " doctrine of development " alone 
could give value to the discoveries of Lactantius and other Christian Apologists 
who have favoured us with Platonic Itineraries ; but the Pagan Apuleius, and, in a 
less degree, the more accurate Cicero, have lent their names to very questionable 


for his own safety may have been one of the considerations by which 
his friends would urge him to cultivate the power of public or judicial 
hpeaking : for, they may have plausibly urged, it was the want of 
this accomplishment that sealed the doom of Socrates. 'ATTOKTCVCI ere 
to DAaTtoj/ 6 (3ovX6p.evo<>, Kal eicra^T^crei eis Si/caor^piov VTTO TTO.W urtos 
[Mox&rjpov avOpwirov Kal <avAov, by a vulgar leather-seller like Anytus, 
or a wretched scribbler for the stage such as Meletus, may have 
been among the warnings given by some friendly Callicles'. Or, 
these considerations apart, what nobler end could be pursued by an 
Athenian of family, than the acquisition of influence and wealth and 
distinction in the State ; or what nobler art than that of bridling 
and taming the multitude, and riding into power on their backs? 
They too, his friends and well-wishers, had philosophized in their 
time: for philosophy was doubtless an elegant amusement 1 for a 
young man of rank and leisure, and an excellent training for the 
inind, as his fellow-pupil Isocrates, now making his fortune by his 
pen, had substantial reasons for acknowledging. 

The speech of Callicles is indeed throughout more applicable to 
the circumstances of a comparatively young man, who, like Plato on 
his first return to Athens, had his profession to choose, than to an 
elderly and inveterate dialectician, such as Socrates must have 
seemed at the time when this conversation is supposed to take place. 
The readers of Plato will be at no loss for parallel instances of 
passages in which his contemporaries would recognize the author 
under the mask of his hero, or in which the opinions, the parties, and 
the personages of his own time are antedated by some twenty or 
thirty years. 

But the best argument in favour of our hypothesis is, that it 
affords a point of view from which the various divisions and sub- 
divisions of the dialogue group themselves into unity. The Gorgias 
is in effect an 'AiroXoyLa nXarwvos. It contains his reasons for 
preferring, under existing circumstances, the contemplative to the 
active, the philosophic to the rhetorical life. The philosopher, as 
Socrates says 2 , is the only true master of the science of Politics. 

9 See Gorg. p. 521 B, c. 

1 <pi\o<ro<pta yap -rol term/ cD ~Su>Kpares -xapifv av TIS avrov fterpiias otyijTat 
tv TTJ i)\iicia' lav Se irtpairfpca roD 5f6i/Tos evStarpfyri, Sta<p8opa T>V a.t>9pti>ir<uv, 
tav yap Kal irdvv (vQviis $, Kal tt6pl><a rrjs fi\iKlas <t>t\o<ro<pfj, avdjKr) irdvTtar 
&TTfipov "yryovtvai fffriy, &v xpy tfj.irtipov effat rbf fJ,f\\ovra Ka\bv KayaObv Kal 
(vS6Ktfj.of efffffdat avSpa, Kal yap -rS>v v6p.O}v atretpoi yiyvovrai TUIV Kara rfyv 
TroAii', Kai raic \oy(av, ols 5(7 \ptS>iJ.vov <5ju.iA.eiV tv rots ffvfj.f$o\aiois TO?S avOpw- 
wois Kal ISia Kal Si]fj.o(rla, Kal TWV ri$ovG>v re Kal eirtOvfjuvv TOIV ai/Bponrtloov, Kal 
v\\r)f)8r)i/ rS>v rjOwv iravrdiraa'iv aireipoi yiyvovrai. Gorg. 484 D. Ib. 485 A, oAA' 
olfjLai T& bpQ6raT6v tffriv af*.<poTtp<av ^rt-)(fiv, <t>t\o(ro<pias, offov iraiSflas 
\dpLV, KOL\I>V fj.frexftv, Kal OVK aiffxpbv /.tfipaaiy OVTI <pi\offO(t>e'tv. 

' 2 oTjuai /UT' o\iyiai> 'AQrivaiuv, iVa fitj efrrw ^6vos, eVixe'pet^ TJ? ws 
TroAtTjicp rtxT, P- 521 D. 

VOL. II. b 


The end of that science and of the art founded upon it is not to 
pander to the inclinations of a people, but to make them wiser, 
juster, and by that means happier 3 . The only true rhetoric is that 
of the philosopher who is able to persuade his fellow-citizens to 
cultivate these virtues in themselves, and to embody them in their 
legislation. Consequently 4 , the true rhetorician must be just himself, 
and acquainted with the principles of justice. How then is it 
possible that one who holds these principles can take part in the 
administration of a state like that of Athens, where the statesman is 
but the tool, the Sia/covo?, or upper servant, of the Demus 6 , hired for 
the purpose of supplying its outward needs, and gratifying its 
passions of vainglory and ambition ? As the ends pursued by the 
ablest of the only statesmen possible in a popular government, are 
such as no wise man can esteem ; so the means they are compelled 
to employ are such as no honest man can stoop to. The most 
approved of these means is Rhetoric, the Rhetoric taught by Gorgias 
and practised by Callicles, the TroXtriKr}? popiov etSwXov, or semblance 
of that true Rhetoric 6 which is auxiliary to the higher and only true 
art Politic, the art of producing justice in the souls of individual 
citizens, and in that aggregate of souls we call the State. 

To complete this statement, it was necessary to describe the true 
nature of Justice, which, as we have seen, Plato expresses in terms 
substantially, and as far as they go, literally the same as those which 
he employs in the Republic. 

With the same object in view, he seeks to establish the essential 
difference of Pleasure and Good, which is done briefly, but accurately 
enough for the purpose we assumed 7 . The question is determined 
on its own merits in the Philebus, which contains, as it seems to me, 
the most satisfactory analysis of Pleasure and its ingredients that is 
to be found in any Greek writer, and in which the discussion is of a 
more searching and speculative kind than that in the Gorgias. In the 

3 ovros efiotye fiottfi 6 tr/coirbs elvai irpbs bt> frKtirovra Sf'i rjv, Kal iravra. fls rovro 
Kal TO. avTOv ffvvTflvovTa Kal T T7J5 ir6\f<as, '6ir<as SiKaiocrvvr) iraptffTai Kal ffaxppo- 
ffvvi] rqi fj.aKapt<a fM\\ovri efffffOai, p. 507. 

4 rbv f*e\\ovTa opOws prjropiKbv effecrdai Siiccuov Set eJvai Kal eVjo'T^/uoi'a TUV 
SiKaiwv, p. 508 B. 

s P. 517 A. 

6 See Phaedrus, Introd. p. xvii. 

7 P. 500 E, final fj.fv n jjSv elvai 8e T< aya06v, Zrepov tie rb 7]Sv rov ayaBov. 
If we compare this with a passage in the Protagoras, we shall see that Plato's 
views on this subject had undergone an important change during the interval 
between the composition of that dialogue and the Gorgias. elf try exeTe &\\o rt 
<pdi>a.L tlvat rb ayaBbv ff r^v rt^ovi\v, i) rb KaKbv &\.\o n t) rfyv aviav, ^ apKfi V/MV rb 
fjSews Kosrafriiavai rbv /3iov avev \vir>v ; Protag. p. 354 E, compared with the con- 
text preceding and following. As the opinion in the Gorgias was certainly that of 
his later life, it seems irrational to doubt that the Protagoras was the earlier \ re- 
duction ot the two. 


Philebus, uiere is little doubt that the tenets of the Cyrenaic school 
are attacked ; but I cannot, with Schleiermacher, detect any such 
polemical reference in the Gorgias ; where the "hedonistic" senti- 
ments put into the mouth of Callicles are the expression of mere 
practical libertinism seeking arguments in defence of its own 
practice, and are totally unlike the scientific sensualism attributed 
to Aristippus. 

Throughout the whole dialogue there reigns a spirit of passionate 
vehemence, scarcely reconcilable with a scientific or speculative 
purpose, but thoroughly consistent with that more practical object 
of justifying abstinence from political action in a depraved common- 
wealth which I suppose Plato to have had in view when he wrote.i 
Bitter indeed must have been his feelings on revisiting the guilty 
city for the first time after his master's death : deep his abhorrence 
of that art whose professors, represented by the rhetor Lycon, had 
mainly contributed to the perpetration of that crime : not over- 
friendly his feelings towards the poets who had conspired with the 
rhetoricians in their attack upon the man whom both hated with 
nearly equal hatred. His dislike of public life, at least in Athens, 
never left him. It is expressed in the Theaetetus 8 , but with more 
of scorn than of anger : but there is not one of his dialogues in 
which the public men of the best times of the Athenian History, 
such men as Pericles and Miltiades and Cimon, are treated with 
such indiscriminating severity as in the Gorgias '. 

After all, it may be said, the date here assigned to the Gorgias 
rests on mere hypothesis : for the dialogue itself contains no indi- 
cation of the time at which it was written. This however is not 
exactly true. The prophecy of Socrates' death put into his own 
mouth (p. 521 D, ovSev OLTOTTOV i airo6dvoifji.i}, coupled with the warn- 
ing of Callicles before alluded to, compel us to place the composition 
of the dialogue after the year 399 : and its evident applicability to 
Athenian life and to nothing else, almost compel us to defer its 
composition to the time of its author's return. It also expresses the 
very sentiments which, as we read in the seventh Epistle, were upper- 
most in the mind of Plato at that period. We are moreover told by 
Athenaeus, and there is no improbability in the story, that this 
dialogue was read by the personage after whom it was named, who 
assured his friends, somewhat gratuitously, one would have thought, 
that he never said or heard any of the things contained in it. Now 
Gorgias is said to have been 77817 yrjpdo-Ktav, already advanced in 

8 P. 172 c seq. 

9 Compare, e. g. Protagoras, 319 E, 322 A, and still more the Phaedrus, 270 A, in 
which the eloquence of Pericles is spoken of in terms of the most exalted admira- 


years, when he came as ambassador to Athens in the fifth year of 
the Peloponnesian war, B.C. 427, twenty-eight years before the 
death of Socrates. He is also said by Quintilian " ultra Socratem 
usque durasse," to have outlived Socrates ; and the duration of his 
life is put at 105 and even 108 years, a longevity greater by 
ten or thirteen years than that attained by his celebrated pupil 
Isocrates. These and similar notices (which it would be tedious to 
enumerate) have induced his biographer Foss to assign the year 496 
as his approximate birth-year, on which supposition he must have 
died not later than 388, which is the date of Plato's second return 
to Athens. If therefore we accept as true the story in Athenaeus, 
we must infer that the Gorgias was written before Plato's second 
departure from Athens, i. e. in the interval between 395 and 389. 
The date of the composition of the Republic, or at any rate of its 
commencement by Plato, is assigned by many scholars to the same 
period of time. This opinion seems a plausible inference from 
the concluding sentence of the passage quoted above from the 
seventh Epistle : Ae'yeiv re rjvayKa.<r6r]v, CTTCUVWV rrjv opOrjv <iAoo-o<iav, 
<Ls e/c Taurus tern rd re. 7roAm/ca Strata /ecu TO. T<3v tSiarrwv /caTiSeiv' KaKuiv 
ovv ov Ai^eiv TO. avOptaTTLva yew), Trplv av f] TO rtav <iAoo~o<owT<ov 6p6S>s 
TC Kat aA^ois yevos ets dp^as eA^r; ras TroAm/cas, r) TO TWV Svva.(TTev6vT<DV 
iv rais TroAecrtv e/c Ttvos /AOtpas $ei'as OVTWS (juXcxTOcfrrja-r]. These two 
sentiments are, as I have before observed, the texts on which the 
Gorgias and the Republic are respectively founded ; and when Plato 
goes on to say, that these ideas had been formed in his mind before 
he first visited Sicily 1 (B.C. 389), it is difficult to avoid the inference 
that the Gorgias was written and the Republic at least begun at 
the period last specified. 

It is also a general opinion that the idea of a female common- 
wealth exhibited by Aristophanes in the Ecclesiazusae was written 
by the comic poet in ridicule of the Platonic commonwealth 2 . 
The Ecclesiazusae was represented in the year 392 ; it seems there- 
fore possible that at this date some part at least of the Republic was 
written, and had been publicly read, if we may not say published, in 

1 ravrr)V T^V Sidvoiav els 'lTa\iav re Kal ^iKfXlav ^KQov '6re irpwrov a.< 

2 Meineke has even pointed out two passages, one in this play, and one in the 
Plutus, in which, as he supposes, Plato himself is ridiculed under the name of 
Aristyllus, the diminutive of Plato's original name Aristocles, which, if he ever bore 
it, was inherited from his grandfather. Com. Gr. i. p. 281. I confess, however, 
that such an allusion seems too far-fetched to have been intelligible to an Athenian 
or any other audience. The Aristyllus in question was probably some person 
notorious for low profligacy , and quite unconnected with Plato. 








,.f 1/tsK 

[/cat v 

AX\' 17, TO Xeyo/zevoz/, Karoiriv copras 

KAA. Kai //,aXa ye dcrreias eoprrjs' vroXXa yap /cat 
/caXa Popytas ^/xt^ oXtyov rrporepov eTreSet^aro. 

J?/2. Toirrwv /xeVrot, a) KaXXt/cXetg, atrtos Xatpe<a)j> 
B oSe, eV dyopa cu>ay/cacras Tj/xas StaTy3ti//at. 

XAI. OuSei/ Trpay/xa, a) ^oj/cyoares' eya> yap /cat ta- 
o"O/xat. ^>tXo? yap /xot Popyta?, wfrr' eTJ^tSet^erat ^tt', et 
So/cet, I'O^, ea^ Se ySovXr 

noA.6,uo] " First at a feast, last at a 
fray," is the corresponding English saw. 

/car^Trij' eopTT/j] Olymp., ras fi/j.epas er 
als eVeSe/Kyi/To 6 Top7fos eoprcts iitaKovv. 
Moeris, Ka.r6iriv 'ArrtKoi, oirtcrO ei'"EA- 
Ar/ves-. ' Are we come the day after the 
feast? 5 

[/caJ u(TTpoG/x6i'] These words are ap- 
parently a mere interpretation of the 
foregoing proverb, the point of which 
is blunted by their retention. Olym- 
piodorus quotes only as far as ^Ko/Mtv. I 
have bracketed the words, thinking with 
Cobet (De Arte Interpret, p. 141) that 
they ought to be ejected from the text. 
A similar interpolation is detected by 
Cob. in the Axiochus, p. 366 c, Sia iravrbs 
8e fdos eafr\v avry (fxave'tv rb 'ETrj^ap- 
fjLfiov a 5e X ^P TO.V \e1pa vtft [56$ 
TI Kai \afie T], where it is impossible to 
adapt the words in brackets to the 
trochaic metre. 

ptvroi} The force of the particle is 
this : ' You may think it my fault ; you 

B 2 

are mistaken, however; Chaerephon is 
the person to be blamed.' 

B. iyii) yap Kai Idcrofjiai^ 'for I who 
have done the mischief will repair it.' 
Such is the force of /cat. Schol., curb 
Tri\f<pov Kai TOV rpcaffavTos 'A^iAAeais, 
cal TOV xpTjo~TT)plov avf\6i>Tos on o 
Tpcao-as Kai IdfffTai. Observe the 
special use of fTri5t(eTcu,=:firi5fiiv iroi- 
^fffTat, i. e._ after the manner of the 
Sophists. Euch an e7ri8et|is, or exhibition 
of literary skill, according to Xenophon, 
was the celebrated apologue of Prodicus, 
called the Judgment of Hercules (Mem. 

ii. 1. 21). owfp 5k (Tlp65iKos 6 ffotb6s) 

. ' t ! / o V*. 

Kai ir\eia'Tois eiriSfiKi'VTai. feo alter 

the long speech of Protagoras in the 
dialogue bearing his name, Socr. ob- 
serves, ripcoTa-ydpas /j.ff TOffavra. KO\ 
Toiavra fTTt5eidfi.i>os arrfirauiraTO TOV 
\6yov (p. 328 D). The active form of 
the verb has the sense 'indicare,' 'de- 
monstrare,' as below, p. 464 B, <ra^e- 
ffTepov firi5(i(o ?> \eyta. 

IIAATfiNOS [447, B 

KAA. Tt 8', oi Xaipe<oi> ; e7Tt#v/iet ^Wpar^s d/covcrat 
Topyiov ; 

XAI. 'ETT' auro ye rot rovro Tra'peayxei'. 

1L4A OVKOVV orav jBovX^crOe Trap 3 e/x,e i^/ceiv ot/caSe' 
Trap* e/xot yap Popytas /caraXuet /cat eTrtSet^erat vj 

2/2. Eu Xeyets, a> KaXXt/cXets. dXX' apa 
ai> ^/AIV StaXe^^vat ; ^SovXojaat yap irvOecrffcu Trap' avrov, 
rts 17 Svva/xts 7779 re'x^g TOV cb>8po9, /cat rt eoTtv 6 eVay- 
ye'XXerat re /cat StSaor/cei. r^y 8e aXX?^ (ETTtSet^tv etcr- 
awtsT tocnrep (TV Xeyetg, Tronrja'dcrOa). 

__. . . ^--w >O\ T* N *N 5 ^ ^* ^^ ^ ^ 

KAA. Ovoev oiov TO aurov epoorav, <y ^w/cpare?. /cat 
yap avr&> ei> rovr* ^ T^S eTTtSet^ews* e/ce'Xeve yow 
8^ epaiTav o rt rts ^SovXotro rwv e^8o^ OVTWV, /cat 

/caXws Xeyeis. T /2 Xatpe^wv, epov avrov 
XAI. Ti epwjaat ; 
^/2. ""Ocrrts earriv. 
XAI. Jlais Xeyets ; 

av et ervy^avev ai^ V7ro8^/>tarct)v 

Tt 5'] So Olymp. ; vulg. rl Se; Ziir. use of &\\os is familiar to readers of 

rl Sal; Plato, and will be found illustrated in 

OVKOVV '6rav &ovXriff8e~] Supply O.KOV- the note on p. 473 c. 

fftcrOe from the foregoing aicovaai. ' You OvSev ofoi'] " Nothing like inquiring 

shall hear him then, when you think at head-quarters." "Best go to the 

proper to pay me a visit at my house ; fountain-head." " II n'y a rien tel que 

for Gorgias is my guest, and will exhibit de parler alui mesme" (Steph.). "Nichts 

to you.' Schleiermacher infers from this, besser als ihn selbst fragen " (Schl.). In 

that the scene of the conversation is not Demosth. Mid. 529, we find, ovSe v olov 

the house of Callicles, as commonly sup- aitoveiv avrov rov vA^ov, the art. before 

posed, but a gymnasium or other place the infin. being omitted ; as it is likewise 

of public resort. The Srav , which " mar- in Aristoph. Aves 966, a\\' ovSev ol6v 

vellously offends" Stallbaum, may thus &rr' aKovetv rS>v tiruv. On the other 

be defended, and the elo-av6is Sxnrep crv hand r6 is inserted both here and below, 

\tyeis Tronj<racr0<u of Socr. explained, p. 481 B, as well as in Xen. Oec. 3. 14 

I cannot believe with Ast that rjKeiv is adduced by Matth. (Gr. Gr. 541, q. v.). 

here used imperatively, or with Schleierm. In Lysistr. 135, ovSfv yap olov S> <pt'A/j 

that the Kat before &n5eieTu is in ^.vcriffrpari}, the inf., or word answering 

apodosi. Hemsterhuis conjectured S> to the inf., is suppressed. The Schol. on 

'rav for orav, retaining the vulg. fiov- the last passage erroneously explains the 

\eff9e, but has found no follower among phrase by ovSev Kti>\vfi. 

the edd. ^/ceAeue 701"^] Comp. Philostratus, Vitt. 

C. 5iaAex0'5*'at] Resigning himself to Soph. p. 487, o-xtSiov \6yov Topylas 

the loss of the formal tiri$eiis, Socr. ?ip\tv . . . irape\6cav yap es rb 'AOrjvaiuv 

i'lopes that Gorgias will not at any rate Oearpov 0d^rjo-ev elireiv, irpold\\(re 

)e indisposed for a conversation. The . . . fvSfiicvvufvos S-ffirov irdvra /*fi> elSfvai. 

\words rfyv &\\r)v MSet^iv are equiva- irepl iravrbs S" &v flire'iv e^ieh r$ 
Jlent to T))V ?7r(S6t|t^7jXX7?y ovffav. This 


148, B.] 


D ov/3yo9, direKpivaro av 817 TTOV crot on cr/curoroftos. -9 ov 
[j,avddvei<s &>s Xeycj ; 

II. XAI. Mavddvo) /cat epi^cro/xat. ELTTC (JLOL, at 
Topyia, dXr)6rj Xeyet KaXXt/cX^? oSe, ort eVayye'XXet 0,77-0- 
Kpiveo~6ai o TL av rt? ere epcara ; 

TOP. 'AXrjBrj, a> Xaipe<f>a)v /cat yap vvv ST) aura 
448 raura eTT^yyeXXo/x^r, /cat Xeyw ort ovSet? /xe TTO> r)pa>Tr)K 
KOLIVOV ovbev TroXXwz/ ere>v. 

XAI. 'H TTOV apa /5aStw5 drroKpivel, at Topyia. 

TOP. ndpeaTL TOVTOV irtLpav, a) Xaipefyuv, Xa/xy8a- 

IIfl A. Nrj AC" av oe ye /3ov\.r), a) Xaipefiatv, C/AOU. 
TopyCas ptv yap /cat aTrei/ary/ceVat /x-oi So/cet' TroXXa yap 

XAI. Ti Sat, a) ITaiXe ; otet cru /caXXioy ai/ Topylov 

TIflA. TL oe TOVTO, lav crot ye t/cavo>? ; 

. Ovoev dXX' eTretSr) crv ^SovXet, diroKpivov. 

. 'Epcora. 

St/catws ; 
TIfl A. Flaw ye. 


, rt cw> avrbv 

oTrep eicevov ; 
XAI. 'larpbv apa <acr/covTes avrov elvai, /caXais 

D. oire/cptVaro] One MS. has airfKpiOij, 
an aorist inadmissible in this sense, in 
an Attic writer. cwroKfn07)j'cu occurs in 
the sense of 'answering' in the 2nd 
Alcib. 149 B, and is one among many 
indications of the spuriousness of that 

448. oTro/fpjreT] So the Bodl. The 
other MSS. and edd. except Hermann's 
have aironplvfi. Chaerephon means to 
say, ' If such has been your past success, 
you will have no difficulty in answering 
any question I may propose.' 

B. 'HpdSi/cos] The Schol. cautions us 
against confounding this Herodicus with 
Herodicus the Selymbrian, also a phy- 
sician, of whom see an amusing notice in 

Republ. iii. 406. The brother^ 
tophon presently mentioned was no less 
a person than the_famous^olygnotus, 
who painted the Lesctip at, Pplpbi This 
is proved by an epigram quoted by the 
Schol. : 

, dfftos ytvos, 
v a.Kp&ito\iv. 


' A.y\ aoty 
vl6s, irfp6o 

Also by a passage in the Ion, p. 532 B. 

rl &V aurrfrj The MSS. have TJJ/O. 
Olyrnp. reads ri, which had been con- 
jectured by Buttmann, in consideration 
of the following Sn-ep. 


Iltl A. NaL 

XAI. El Se' ye rjcnrep ' Api(TTO<j)a)v 6 ' Ay\ao(j)(t>i>To<s f) 
6 dSeX<os CLVTOV e/MTretpos ^ re^z^s, rtva ai> aural' op0a)<s 

HfiA. Arfkov ort <oypct<oi>. 

IVw S' eTreiSiT TWOS re'^i^g e7TtoTT7//,6>i> ecrrt, 
/caXoiWes avrov 6p6a><5 /caXotjaei' ; 
TIflA. ^fl Xatpe^>a>z>, TroXXat re^at ev av0ptoTrois elcriv 

aTan/a T7;acuv iropevecrBai Kara T^gvqv, aTretpta Se 
/caret TV^TJV. e/cacrrcui^ Se rourwv jaeraXa/xySavovcrtv aXXot 

aXXft)?, TOJV 8e dpioTtov ot apicrroi" &v /cat Popytag 
ecrrti' oSe, /cat /xere^et TT^S /caXXtcrT^g TWI/ re^^aiv. 

III. ^/i. KaXai<; ye, a> Topyia, (ftaiverai ITwXo? Trap- D 
e<T/cevacr^at ets Xdyovs* dXXa yap o UTrecr^ero Xatpe- 

<f>O)VTL OV TTOtet. 

POP. Tt /ActXtcrra, co ^cu/cpares ; 

To epwrw/Aej'oi' ou irdvv /xot ^>atverat ctTro/cpt- 

POP. *.4XXa <TV, et ^SouXet, epov avrov. 
/2. Ov/c, et avraJ ye crot y8ovXo/AeVw earii/ a7ro/cpti>e- 
crOai, dXXa TTO\V av ^Stov ere. S^Xo? yap /aot UaiXos /cat 
etpry/cev, ort T^V /caXov/xeV^v prjTopiKrjv jjia\\oi> 
TI StaXeyecr^at. 


c. 'fl Xatpe^cDv] This speech of Polus 
was a part of his Tfxyn, or treatise on 
Rhetoric, of which we hear below, p. 
462 c. So the Schol. on Hermogenes, 
p. 18 (Rhetores Graeci Walz. iv. 44), 
SOej' /cai n<\oj 6 Topyiov /uaOrjrijs f c rp 
T^'X.vrf (prjcriv iroAAol rf^vai ev a.v- 
6p<a-jrois elfflv K TUV f/j-ireiptui/ 
^/UTTftpias (L. efiirfiptas) ft/pt]fj.fuai. 
Conip. Arist. Metaph. i. 1, ^ yuev 70^ 


opvtas \eyiav, K.T.\. 

TTJS KaAAi(rT7jj rajy Tf^' 
pare Philebus, p. 58, %KOVOI> /j.ev Hytayt, 
& ScoKpares, eKotrroTe Topyiov AeyocTos 
TroAAa/cJS, a>y ^ rot) ireidfii' iroAu Siatyfpot 
na.atav rsyyiav' iravra yap v<p' avrrj 
Sov\a Si' tit6vT(av aAA' ou Sia /3/as 

7TO0?TO, Kttl /J.O.Kp TtaffUV apiffTT) till T&V 

D. o-ol jSouAo^eVaj ^o-rfj'] This suffi- 
ciently common idiom is illustrated in all 
the Grammars, as in Donaldson, 458 
$y. It is imitated in Latin by Sallust 
and Tacitus. 

8r)\os yap /xoi] This construction (for 
ol eartv on IIoJAos), which is 
illustrated by Stallb., is especially fre- 
quent in the case of the words ST}AOS and 
St/cojos. Soph. Ant. 400, Siicaits elfju. 
r&vS' aTTTjAAa^Soi KatcSiv. Srj\os, and 
8i)\ovv in its intrans. sense, are more 
frequently used with participles, as ib. v. 
20, Sr]\ois yap TI Ko.\xo.ivova-' eiros. Stallb. 
quotes three instances from Plato in 
which avayKaios is similarly used, among 
these the passage below, 449 c. 

449, B.] 

IlflA. Tt 877, 

%fl. "Ort, a) IZaiXe, epopevov Xai/3e<aWos TIVOS Pbp- 
ytag eVtcrTif/xw^ TCJ^W^S, ey/a^uaets /-te^ avrov 
tocnrep TWOS ^eyonras, ^rts Se ecrnv OVK aTreKp 

IlflA. Ov yap a.ireKpLvdfji'rjv on elrj rj 

2fl. Kai /u,a\a ye. dXX' ouSet? r)pa>Ta Trota Tt? efy 17 
Topylov re^vr], dXXa TI?, /cat ovnva 8eot /caXett' TOV 
ylav. coo-Trep ra ejjLirpoa-Qev crot VTrereivaro Xatyae^wv 


449 avro) 


etTre, rt? 


Se, a> Topyia, avros 
a>s TWOS eTTLCTTTJ/JLOva re^v^s. 
POP. TTJS p7)Topu<rj<s, a) 
^lO. 'Pryroyoa apa ^17 o~e 
POP. '^lya^oi' ye, a) 
elvat, a>? e^ "OfJLrjpos, /3ovXet 

5 1 > 

ota ppayetov aireKpwa), /cat 

\/ T-. / \ 

/cat rti'a J opyiav Ka.Kf.iv 
cure', rtVa ae 




o ye 

TOP. KaXet 877. 

5^/2. OVKOVV /cat dXXovs o~e <^w//,ev Swarot' etvat 
Troteti' ; 

13 POP. 'ETrayye'XXo/xat ye 8r) ravra ov povov ev6a.Se 
dXXa /cat aXXo#i. 

5*/2. '^4p' ou^ e6ektjcra.L<s av, at Topyia., coo-irep vvv Sta- 
Xeyd/xe^a, StareXeVat TO ju,ei^ epatraiv, TO 8' a 
TO Se /x^/cos TWV Xoycov TOVTO, otoy /cat JlaiXo? 

E. WffTTfp TA fJiirp00de 

t'a mis sur la voie par des 
exemples " (Cousin), viror. is used simi- 
larly in Theaet. 179 D, (r/ceirreov ' 
apxys, uxrirfp avrol vTroTfivovrat. The 
| active is found in like sense in Clitoph. 
408 D. It is nearly equivalent to 
iKprjyt'tffBai ( praeire, pi-aemonstrare), Tas 
Hemdorf remarks. Comp. 455 B, avrbs 
jap Ka\ws vtj>nyfiffw, ' have shown me the 

way.' The allusion here is to the exam- 
ples of the physician and painter above 
proposed by Chaerephon. Observe the 
hendiadys, for &T7rp, . . . uTroTeiva/ueVou 

Kal vvv oDra>? e 
TheaefT 171 E. 


Comp. i> 

used to 

stand after vvv, though patronized by 
Heiud., is now properly omitted by the 
edd. It is absent from the Bodl. 

449. OVKOVV Kal aAAous] Olymp. in 1., 
ev fffTt TCOV \apaK'n\pi6vT<av rbv firiffT'f]- 
/jiova rb Kal &\\ovs Svvavdai irotf'iv tiri- 
o'T'iinovas, us Kal ev ry 'A\Ki/3id5y ftprjrai. 
" Ad v. &\\ovs int. pTJropos. Plene infra 

flvai, Kal iroiriaai ttt> Kal &\\ov pijropa. 
Conviv. 196 E, ironjT^s 6 6(bs fffxpbs ovrtas 
Hiv-Tf nal &\\ov TfOLr/a'ai " (Ast). 

B. <iiw KOL Tl(o\os ^p|To] 'such as 
was the exordium of Polus,' as if he had 
said o'lav apx V tfpfcTO, as in Soph. 242 B, 
TWO. apYTjv Tis Stv apfcatTo Aj*you; Tim. 
36 E, Ofiav 

~ V 




[449, B 

et<rav0ts OLTToOea-Oai ; dXX' oTrep vinayyei, ^ \}iev(rr), dXX' 
I6e\r)(rov /card ftpa,^v TO epa)Ta>fJi.ei>ov arroKpivealTai. 

TOP. Eicri jaeV, u> 2d)Kpare<s, eVtat TWV airoKpicrea)v 
dvay/caiai Std {JiaKpatv rous Xdyous 7rotetcr$af ou ]j,r)V 
dXXd Tretpdaojaat ye as Std flpaxyTaT&v. /cat yap av /cat 
TOVTO eV CCTTLV )V <f>r)[j,C, /x/^SeW dz> eV /Spa^urepots e/xou 
raurd etTreti'. 

572. TOVTOV fjirjv Set, a) Popyta* /cat /aot eTTtSet^tv 
avrov TOUTOV Trot^crat, r^? /8y3avvXoytas, jaa/cyaoXoytas 8e 

TOP. \4XXa- TTOLtja'd), /cat ovSe^o? ^r^cret? 
Tepoy d/coucrat. 


etvoLL /cat TTOtiJcrat ai^ /cat dXXov piJTOpa' 17 prjro- D 
vreyat Tt T<S^ ovTuv Tvy^d^et oucra ; a)(T7rep f) v<f>av- 
Trepl Tr)v TCOV t/xartcav epyacriav fj ya*p ; 
TOP. Nat. 

5*/2. OVKOVV /cat 17 jLtoucrt/c^ Trept r^v raiv /AeXwv TTOLrja-Lv ; 
TOP. Nat. 

ry^ "Hpav, a) Topyia, dya/i,at ye (rou rets 
OTL airoKpivei w? otdv re Std ^pa^yTaroiV. 

SictQepei SioXe/CTt/c); pyTopiKrjs, ffvffTptfyas 

a\\' Sirep {nri<T)(yeT\ Sup. 447 E, enre 
pot, S> Topyia., aA.j0fj Xeyet KaXXj/cA.?)? 
85f, O'TI (irayye\\fi a.iroKpiva.ff6a.i '6 n &v 
rts fff tyuri}; 'A.\i}(>ri,3>Xaipf<p<oi>, nalybp 
yDv S^ avra ToCro eirt]yyf\\6iJ.riv. After 
airoOfffOat some few codd. give raf. 
Buttmann would receive this into the 
text, as the answer of Gorgias to the 
request made by Socr. He urges that 
the general firdyye\fj.a of Gorgias did 
not imply all that Socr. here requires 
of him. To evade the difficulty Ast 
proposes eftrep for oirep. It is, I think, 
conceivable that Socr. refers to a boast 
which he regards as notorious, and which 
Gorgias presently repeats, ^.TjSfVa &v ec 
fipaXVTfpois, K.T.A. viriffxvtt will thus 
have its natural meaning 'the profes- 
sion you habitually make.' I hesitate 
between this view and the expedient 
proposed by Buttm. Sext. Empir. (adv. 
Matth. ii. 7) gives a well-known anecdote 
in illustration of the contrast between 
dialectical brevity and rhetorical diffuse- 
ness : T^vwv 6 KiTTtevs epcarydels oTy 

" rovry," KOT& juev T^I/ ffv<rrpo<p^i' rb 
ffrp6yyv\ov Kal Bpaxv T^y SjoAeKTj/cijs 
TOTTWJ' iSiufia, Sia Se T^S ^!a7rA.c<rea>s 
al ^Kraffews TU>V SaKrv\cav rb vKarv 
rrjs pijropiKris Swd/Aeus aiVtrr^evos. 

c. EiVl ^tv, & 2d>Kpare x] Olymp., virdp- 
x ovffl V-* v f'^es TUV epeoTrjereW Kal fnaitpov 
\6yov xP'>lC v(ral - Rightly as regards 
the sense. For the use of avayitatai 
comp. Legg. i. 643 c ; Soph. 242 B, and 
the note on 448 D above. Tr., ' There 
are answers, Socr., which cannot choose 
but be diffuse. Not but what I will try 
to be as brief as possible/ 

Kal yap oSJ This boast was common to 
Gorgias and his master Tisias. See 
Phaedr. 267 B. 

TOVTOV i.-i}v] Olyinp. reads TOVTOV 
jueWoi, which is perhaps better, 

D. aya/uat ye <rot;] So Heind. Some 
MSS. have ye only, some <roi/ only, but 
both are required by usage. Hirschig 
in a recent tract insists on expelling rets 

450, B.] ropriAS. 9 

TOP. Haw yap ot)uat, a) ^aj/cpare?, eVtei/ctws TOVTO 

Xe'yets. t#t Sr; /aot aTro/cpti'at OVTU /cat 
E TT^S pv)TopLKr}<;, Trepl ri TO>V ovrwv icrriv eTTtcmf/xry ; 
TOP. lle/H Xo'yovs. 

. ITotovs TOVTOUS, ai Topyia ; apa ot S^Xovcri TOVS 

, a>9 av Scairaj/xevot vyiaivoitv ; 
TOP. Ov. 
Hfl. OVK apa trepl Travras ye TOUS Xdyovs 17 pyTopiKij 


TOP. Ov S^ra. 

5*/2. '^4XXa JLL^V Xeyetv ye Trotet Sv^arovs. 

POP. Nat. 

5*/2. OVKOVV Trepl (uvrrep \eyeiv, /cat <f>povelv ; 

TOP. Uws ya^o ov ; 

A en ** /- T .j * A \ >\ / e \| \ 

^J2. Ap ovv, rjv vvv OT) eXeyo/xev, 17 tarpt/cT) | 7re/)t 
TG>I> Kap,v6vT(t)v Trotet Swarovs ett'at <f>povelv /cat Xeyetv ; 

POP. 'AvdyKr). 

Hn. Kal rj laTpiKrj apa, a>? eot/ce, 7re/)t Xoyovs cart. 

POP. JVat. 

5"/2. Tov? ye Trept ra voa"tjjJ.aTa ; 

TOP. MaXto-ra. 

2^/2. OUKOU^ /cat rj yvjJLva(TTiKr) Trepl Xoyovs eart TOV? 
irept evej^av re TMV cra>/xara)^ /cat Ka^e^Lav ; 

POP. Haw ye. 

^/2. Kat ja^v /cat at aXXat re^vai, a) Popyta, OUTOI? 
B e^ovcriv e/cacrr^ avrotv Trepl Xoyovs eart TOVTOU?, ot rvy- 
v ovreg Trept TO npayfj-a ov e/cao-TT/ eortv 17 


reading &ya/ ye ffov Sri fj yvfju'ao'Tiicfi^ Olympiodorus makes a 

awoKpivfi K.r.\. So Hipp. Maj. 291 E, curious remark on this passage. He says, 

fryo/uof (rou STI juot So/cer? /c.r.A. " Socr. is not speaking of the trainers 

E. is &/ StomffMiTM frywlrftui'] 'how (iratSoTpificai') of the present day, but of 

they must live in order to get well :' or ancient times, when it was the task of 

more literally, ' by observing what rules the physician to restore health, and of 

of diet they will get well.' the trainer to preserve it" (^ 8 yv/j.i>a- 

450. irtpl TUIV KO-nvovTiav Troie?] iroifi, ffriKij f<pu\a.TTf). " In our day," he says, 

which some of the best MSS. omit, seems " the two functions are confounded " 

to me indispensable. avyKfx vvral ravra. 



[450, B 


Tt ovv S?7 TTore ra? aXXas re^a? ov 
/caXet?, oucras vrept Xdyous, etTrep ravTiqv p 
^ cu> 97 Trept Xdyous ; 

TOP. "On, a> ^cuAcpareSj TOJJ> /zei> 

re /cat TotauYas Trpd^ets, a>s eVos etTretv, Tracra 
Trj<s Se 

ecrriv 17 

ouSeV ecrrt rotovrov 

, dXXa Tracra 17 7rpdts /cat 17 /cvowcrts Sta 
Xoyon^ecrrt. Sta ravr' ey<w r^v prjropiKrjv re^yyjv d^cw c 
ett'at vrepl Xoyov?, op0(o<s \eya)V, a? eyw ^/xi. 

V. ./2. T ^4/j' ou^ fj^avOaiva) olav avrrjv flovXei /caXetv ; 
raya 8' etcro/xat cra^ecrrepov. dXX' aTTQKpwai. etcrtv 17^1^ 
re^ai. f) yap ; 

5*/2. ITacrcSv Se, ot/xat, TW^ re^yatv T&V jaev epyacrta TO 
TroXv ecrrt /cat Xdyov /Syoa^eos Seovrat, liftat Se ovSet'd?, 
dXXa TO T^? T^yr)<s irepaivono av /cat Sta crty^s, otov 
r) /cat avSpiavTOTroda /cat aXXat TroXXat' TO,? Tot- 
/Aot 8o/cet? Xeyetv, Trept as ou <^>r)s TT^V pr)7opu<r)v D 

* * 
^ ou ; 

POP. Ildvv fJiev ovv /caXws VTroXa/>ty8dvet9, o> JS'oj- 

"ErepctL Se y* eto~t TWV rc^ycttv at Sta Xdyov 7rcu> 
irepawova-L, /cat epyou, a>9 eVos etTretv, -^ ovSevos Trpocr- 

B. xetpoup-ygjua] This word and the 
following Kvpcaffts are pronounced Sice- 
lisms by the Schol. Kvpaxris is found in 
Thucyd. vi. 103, and perhaps may he set 
down as an instance of the Gorgiasm of 
which the ancient rhetoricians accuse 
him. Kvpos is presently used by Socr. in 
the same sense. "~ .Later writers do not 
scruple to employ both the words ob- 
jected to. Olymp. quotes the Boeotism 
TTO> Zei/'s put into the mouth of the 
Theban Cebes in Phaedo 62 A as a proof 
that Plato sometimes indulges his cha- 
racters in the use of their native pro- 

c. ^Ap" ovv p-avBdvca} ' I am not sure 
that I understand what art you mean to 
call it : but I shall presently ' &c. apa is 
uently used when the_sgeaker qties- 
iinselfT See below^463 D7^*"oS/ 

tions hii 

&f p.d.Qois a.iroKpiva.fievov ; ' I should like 
to kfioW WEeuier you will understand 
my answer when I have given it.' _j^a 
^i quTt/ca, as__ftgc[. in Plato and Xeuo- 
phoiT Below, 466 A, rl rax Spdfffts; 
where the gloss irp*fffi\>Ti)s yev6/>os used 
to stand in the text but is now ejected. 
In Phaedr. 228 C Ta%' eireiSdv =. e'n-etSoc 
rax'Ta. With eftro/xai, TCX has nearly 
always this sense, but there is a seeming 
exception in the Minos, p. 314 C, ical 
lirias fjiev ica\<as \eyeis, raxa Se w8e 
Hpfivov ei<r6/j.e8a,. 

rLaffUpy fe', oluLai^Tuv reyvcav] ' of the 
various arts there are ^ome in which 
work is the principal ingredient, and 
they require little or perhaps no dis 

D. ws Unos flirelv^ 'paene dixerim,' 
opposed to a/</H/3et \6y<? in Rep. i. 3 11 B, 

451, A.] 


Seovrcu T) (Bpaxeos navv, olov dpt^/u/^Tt/cT) /cat XoytcrTt/cr) 
KOI y0)fJLTpu<r) KOI TreTTet'Tt/c'q ye /cat dXXat TroXXat re^vat, 
a)*' eVtat cr^eSoV Tt tcrovs TOUS Xdyovs e^ovcri rats Trpd^ecrw, 
E at Se TroXXat TrXetou? /cat TOTrapaTrav Tracra -f) Trpa^LS /cat 
TO Kvpos avrat? Sta Xdya>i> ecrrt. TO>V TOLOVTMV TWO. juot 
So/ceg \eyeiv rrjv prjTopiKijv. 

TOP. MXi^ Xeyet?. 

^/2. \4XX' ovTot TovTcoi' ye ovSe/Atav ot)aat ere /SovXe- 
cr#at prjropiKrjv /caXeti/, oy^ jrt TW PTJ^OTL OVTQJS 

oTt 17 Std Xdyov TO Kvpos e^ovo~a prjTopLKTij eo~Tt, /cat VTTO- 
\d/3oL dv Ttg, et ySouXoiTO ^tvcf^epaiveiv tv Tots Xdyot?, Trjv 
dpiBfJL'rjTLKrjv dpa pr)Topt,KTJv, a> Topyia, Xeyet? ; dXX* ou/c 
ot/xat o~e ovTe T^P' dpiO^riK^v OVTC TT)V yewjiteT/atav prjro- 
piKrjv Xe'yeti>. 
451 POP. 'Op^ws yap otet, w ^w/cpaTe?, /cat St/catcos 



I^t vuv /cat crv TT)V a7rd/cpto~tv ^ 
eVet yap 17 pyropiKr) rvy^avei ptv ovo~a TOV- 

and to OCTWS in Legg. ii. 656 E, in which 
passages tr. ' in popular language,' in 
vulgar parlance,' or the like. 

<rxfS6i' Tt fcrous] Schol., &>s ^ irer- 
TUTI/C)J (col KidaptfSia. It is hard to see 
how the game of draughts should require 
speech and action in equal proportion. 
Olympiodorus's explanation, which is 
somewhat obscure, shows, however, that 
a mixed game of chance and skill, like 
our backgammon, is to be understood by 
irfTTVTiK-{]. The 'speech' consisted in 
calling out the number of each throw of 
the dice ; the action in moving the pieces 
to the best advantage under the cir- 
cumstances. e'| i<rov ex* 1 T 6 Te epyov 
Kal rbv \6yof ii.uo yap T<$ piimtv TOS 
tyrityovs Kal firi\eyovai nvo.' olov <?' (' 5' 
^ TpieKTo. (sc. rpls ef, Aesch. Ag. init.) 
ij TJ roiovrov. By \l/-lj(povs I imagine 
that he means icvfiovs, for the draught- 
men can hardly have been made to 
serve a double purpose even though 
they were, as he says, like a split die 
(5ie<rr7j/co>j KV&OS fK rpiiav rpiyuvcav 

E. otr^ ori] ' not^ buJL-ghat, taken at 
your word, you did SHV as much as that' 
&C. Protag. 336 D, o^x on iraifei Kat 

tirt\iiafiav flvai, ' though he does 
Relieve and protest that he has no 

Kal viro\dBoi &i> TJS] 'and a captious 
opponent, if so disposed, might reply, 
" Oh, so it is arithmetic you mean when 
you say rhetoric."' 5u<rxpaf'f'> 
<t>i\ovfiKf"iif (Olymp.). 

451. "I0t vw~\ Most MSS. have vvv. 
Bekker reads ofiv on the authority of one 
or two. I have restored the enclitic, 
which Dindorf replaces likewise in 
Sophist, p. 224 C, "I0i 8^ vvv <rwa- 
ydy<a/j.v airr6 for the vulg. 8^ vvv (Ad 
Steph. Thes. ii. p. 1049). So in Xen. 
Hell. V. 1. 32, Ire vvv Kal epon-are. " Non 
est enim cur poeticum putetur vvv en- 
cliticum, quod prosae quoque tribuere 
videtur Schol. ad Eur. Hec. 975 Matth." 
(Bind. ibid. torn. v. p. 1613). The tem- 
poral adverb is out of place here, and the 
reading ovv was probably a gloss on the 
original vvv or vvv. The same account 
may be given of 817, which is found in 
another MS. On the quantity of the 
enclitic vvv see the accurate remarks of 
Mr. J. Wordsworth in the Philological 
Museum, i. p. 226. 



[451, A 

Tt? T&v rexy&v r&v TO TTO\V Xoyw 
vovcri Se /cat aXXat rotaurat oucrat, Tretpcu elireiv, r^ Trept Tt 
eV Xoyotg TO Kvpos_J[)(ovcra pr]TopiKTJ_6(rTLV atcnrep av et 
Tt? /xe epotTO a)v vvv Sr) <[\.yov Trepl ^CTTIVOCTOIIV rcov rzyytov, 
' n ^w/cpaTe?, Tt? ICTTLV rj dptfytryTt/a) re^vrj ; etTrotju,' av 
o), wcTTrep (TV apTt, ort TCOV Sta Xoyou rts TO /cvpos 
. /cat et /xe eVavepotTo Twv Trept Tt ; etTrotja* ai> 
6Yt TWV Trept TO a/movj2^/cal TreptTTov, oa' av e/cctTepa Tvy- 
^avot wTa. et 8' au epotTo, T^v 8e \oyicrriKT]v rlva 

\^/ V f*</ \c/ JN^X/ \ 

/caAet? T)(vr)v ; etTrot/A av OTt /cat auT^ eo~Tt Tcut' Aoyw TO 

TTCtl' KVpOVfJieVOJV. KO.I t CTTavepOtTO 'H TTCpt Tt ; CtTTOt/A* 

a^ wcrTrep olev TOJ 8T7ju.a^o~vyypa^o/xftiot, OTt TO, /xez/ aXXa 

B. jrepjTT^i'] After this word ypcDem 
stands in the MSS. Bekker and all sub- 
sequent edd. have bracketed it. It is 
so palpably a gloss that it is better 


here and in 453 E is used for irdcra or 
6*6(70.. Soph. Oed. R. 1271, 60ovvei?~ovK 
fyoivrd viv O&O' oT eiratrxf o6ff 6iro?' 
tSpa Kaicd. Xen. Cyr. v. 29, ^7070^ 
ov% offovs ffii Hireiffas a\A.' 
7<i> 7r\6t(TToi;s ^SvvdfjLijv. For 
the Bodl. and others give 
;, and so the Ziir. edd. But this 
could only mean, ' as many as there may 
be of either sort, 5 whereas the meaning 
required is, ' how many either may be ;' 
1 i. e. how many units_there arey or ' may 
I be,' in any particular odd_or even num- 
ber. ThepOtenTiaTSi r TU7xai'ot will give 
this sense, but we should have expected 
to find Sffa . . . rvyxdvet, as in the 
passage of this dial, just referred to we 
have o<ra 4crriv and oaov tffrlv, and in 
Theaet. 198 C OKotre'icrBat ir6aos rts aptBfjibs 
rvyxdvei &v. One MS. has -rvy- 
XO.VSL, though apparently retaining &v. 
Arithmetic, in its popular acceptation 
among the Greeks, was limited to Nota- 
tion or Numeration : speculative or scien- 
tific Arithmetic took a much wider range, 
including the science of the forms and 
properties of numbers, as developed for 
instance in the four books of Euclid 
succeeding the sixth. Logistic in like 
manner was both popular and philo- 
sophical, the former being confined to 
the " four rules " and their applications. 
It is evident that Socr. is here speaking 

only of the popular Arithmetic and 
Logistic : Olympiodorus is therefore wide 
of the mark when he says, -^ ptv apiO- 
/$] irepl Tb e?8os avrSiv (sc. TOU aprlov 
Kal rov irtpiTTOv) fj 8e \oyi(TTiK^i irepl r^v 
Z\i}v for his statement, if true, is in- 
applicable to the passage before us. 
Those who are interested in the history 
of Greek mathematics may consult upon 
this point Kliigel's Mathematisches Wor- 
terbuch, i. 174 fol., comparing Plat. 
Politic. 299 E, and Phileb. 56 C fol. The 
theorem given in Theaet. 147 D is an 
elegant specimen of the higher Arith- 

Kvpov^fvuv] ' which accomplish ' or 
' achieve :' nearly = StaitpaTro/j-fvuv, with 
which it is coupled below (D). Kvpow=: 
to give validity to the will or act of 

of ev ry S'fifjLQ) ffvyypa<t>6uJ'Oi^ 'thos 
who frame amendments in the assembly, 
i.e. upon the probouleumata brough 
down from the Council. The force o 
the following words will be at once eviden 
from an inscription in Boeckh (No. 84) 
TO p.ft> &\\a KaBdtrep rrj f$ov\rj, avaypdtya 
Se $av6KpiTOV rbv Tla.pia.vov irpo^tvov Ka 
evepyeTtjv avrbv Kal TOVS fKytivovs e, 
(TTTjA?? XiQivri. The honours decreed by 
the Council to this Phanocritus had been 
more limited, and the orator Cephalu 
adds this ' rider.' In Aesch. c. Ctes. p 
71, 127, we find ffvyypa/j./j.a used iu the 
corresponding sense of a clause in a bill 
Kal ird\ti> eV T(p avrif ^(piff/iaTt iro\i 
Kal ffa<f>f(TTfpov Kal Tnicp&Tepov ffvyypa/j.fta 
ypd<pet, ' he inserts a much harsher pro- 

451, E.] 



crv, a> 

Ka.6a.TTep 17 dptfyt^Tt/o) rj Xoytcrri/o) ex^' vrept TO avro 

yap ecrTi, TO TC apTLOv /cat TO TreptTToV 8ta<epet Se 

TOCTOVTOV, 6Yt /cat Trpos avTa /cat Trpbs dXX^Xa TTOJS e)(ei 

7T\tj0OV<S eVlCT/COTret TO TT6piTTOV KO.I TO apTLOV r) XoytCTTl/Oy. 

/cat et Tt? TT)I> aa'TpovofjLLav avepono, e/xou Xe'yovTos oYt 
/cat avYrj Xdyw Kvpovrai TO. TraWa, Oi Se Xoyot ot TTJS 

doTpoi'Ojiita?, et ^>atry, Trept Tt eicrw, a> 2a>Kpa.T6<s ; ctTrot/x* 
*v \\~* j\ \\/ > 

a^ oTt Trept TT)V Tcop ao~Tpo>^ P^ Kat A.tou /cat 

770)5 Trpb? aXX^Xa TOVOV? 

POP. 'Op0a)s ye 

D 5*^2 . *I0t 8^ /cat crv, ai Po/oyta. 
17 pyropiKr) ovcra TO>V Xdyw TO, iravra, 8ta7rpaTTo/xeVa>v TC 
/cat Kvpovfjievcov [TIS] ^ yap ; 
TOP. "ECTTL ravra. 

%fl. Aeye ST) Taiv ire/Dt Tt ; *rt* ecrTt TO 
Trept ou ovTot ot Xoyot etcrtV, of? 17 prjropiKr) 

TOP. To, fteyurra TO>V fcOpweuav Trpo.y^drwv, ai 
^w/c/oaTe?, /cat aptcrTa. 

VII. ^12. '^IXX', ai Po/oyta, a.jji(f)Lcrftr)TTJa-ifJiov /cat 
TOVTO Xeyet? /cat ouSeV TTO) o~a^e5. oto//,at yap ere 01/07- 
E /coeVat e^ Tots o~v/x7rocrtot9 aSovTcov avOpamw TOVTO TO 
o'/coXtdi', ev w /caTapt^/xowTat aSo^Te? OTI vytati/etv /xe^ 
ecrTt, TO 8e SevTepov /caXoi^yeve'cr^at, rpirov Se', 
<j>T)arw 6 TrotTjTTys TOU cT/coXtou, TO TrXouTetv dSo 

/ . 

D. rvyx^vet [TIS] For this TJS the 
Bodl. and some other MSS. have riva-i', 
possibly, as Herm. thinks, a relic of 
Texvw!', which may have been itself a 
gloss. I have followed his example in 
bracketing TJS, which though harmless 
is unnecessary. 

* rl *] This second ri was introduced 
by Heind. Some MSS. omit TUV irfpt, 
which Ast inclines to do. 

E. rovro rb ffxoKiov] This ran thus, 
as edited by Bergk : 

vyialveiv &piffrov avSpl Ovary, 
SfiiTtpov 6e tyvav Ka\bv yevtcrBai, 
rb rpirov Se ir\ovTtlv a.56\cas, 
Kail rb reraprov ri&av fj.era -r<Lv <f>i\cav. 
Anth. Lyr. p. 408. 

" These Scolia were a kind of lyric com- 
position sung either in concert or sue- 
cessively, hy all the guests after a 
banquet : the subjects of them were 
either the praises of some Attic Divinity, 
or moral precepts, or reflections on life, 
or gay exhortations to mirth or wine, or 
to love. There were some scolia of great 
antiquity; the most esteemed were those 
of Alcaeus, of Praxilla, and of Anacreon" 
(T. Gray). Olyinpiodorus says that the 
o-jcoAjo were so called because the myrtle- 
branch held by the singer inter can- 
tandum, was not handed to his next 
neighbour, but to the person opposite 
him on the other side of the table : ical 
ffKO\ia rj /j-frdSotris ty'tvero. This par- 
ticular scolium is quoted by Athen. (xv. 

14 TIAATflNOZ [451, E 

POP. 'AKTJKOO, yap' dXXd Trpo? Tt TOVTO Xe'yet? ; 

^2. c/ Ort crot avTt/c* av irapacrTcuev ol S^tovpyot 452 
TOVTGJV &v eirrjveo-ev 6 TO o~/coXtov Trot^o-a?, iarpos re /cat 
TratSoTpt^? /cat ^p^aTtcm??, /cat etTrot av TrpaVrov p,ev 6 
taTpo? 6Vt 'fl J^cu/cpaTe?, e^aTrara ere Popyta?' ov yap 
e'o-Ttv 17 TOVTOV re)(vr) Trepl TO jaeytcrTov ayaOov TOI? dv- 

/) / '\\' >/ >? 5\ >V>/ ^<V ^\ 

c/pa>7rot9, aAA 77 e/x,7). et ovv avrov eyai epoi^v 2,v oe 
Tt9 oil/ TauTa Xeyts ; etTrot av tcra)? OTI 'Iarp6<s. TL ovv 
Xeyets ; 17 TO r/7? o~^5 re^vr)^ epyov /xeyto~Tov ICTTIV ayaOov ; 
JTco? yap ov, ^aiiy av to~(W5, ai ^w/cpaTe?, vyteta ; Tt 8' eo~Tt 
dya6bv dv0pa>iroi<s vyteta? ; Et S' av jaeTa TOUTOZ^ 6 B 

etTrot oTt au|aaot/u,t y' av, w 5*w/cyoaT5, Kat 
avTos, et o~ot ej(t Popyta? jaet^ov dyadov eTTtSet^at 
avTot) Te^v^? ^ e'yaj T^? e/a^s' etTrot/u,' av au /cat 

^\ O\ ON /??*/) \/\\V 

TOVTOV 2,v oe or) Tt? et, aj avupanre ; /cat Tt TO crov epyov ; 
^atr; av, TO 8' epyov /xov eo-Tt /caXov? T /cat 

Trotetv TOVS avd ponrovs TO, o-w/taTa. MCTO, Se 
TOV 7rat8oT/Dty8^v etvrot av 6 xp^/AaTio'Tifc, ^ ? eyw/xat, 
Travu Kara,<f)povu)v aTravTwv, ^KOTTCL S^Ta, a) ^w/cpaTe?, eav 
o~ot TrXouTov <j>a.vf} Tt /xet^ov dya0bv ov 17 Trapa TopyCa rj 
Trap 3 aXXw OTOJOVV. <^at/xev av ouv TT/>O? auTov 2't Se 817 ; ^ 
o~v TOVTOV Sr^/xtovpyd? ; ^at^ av. Tt? a>v ; Xpr)[JLaTLO'TT]<s. 
TL ovv ; /cptvet? o~v peyiorrov avOpurroLS dyaBov etvat 
TrXovTov ; (f)ij(rojj,ev. Uw? yap ov/c ; epet. Kat /xr)v dju,- 
(frio-jS'YjTel ye Popyta? oSe TT)V Trap* avTw re^vrjv juetovo? 
dyaBov airiav elvat ^ TT)V aryv, ^at/xev av r^/xet?. 8r^Xov 
ovv OTt TO /xeTa TOVTO epoir av Kat Tt cart TOVTO TO 
dya^ov ; d7ro/cptvdo~$a> Popyta?. ^I^t ovv vo/>tto~a?, a) D 
Popyta, epcoTao~^at /cat VTT' e/cetvwv /cat VTT* e/xov, aTro- 
/cptvat Tt eo"Tt TOVTO o <^>r)? crv /xeyto"Tov dya6bv etvat TO?? 

/cat o~e S^tovpyov etvat avTOv. 

p. 694) and attributed by Clemens Alex, of the verb requires the repetition of the 

to Simonides. particle. 

452. /col eftrot &V] I have followed D. S (775 crfr wal o-e] The same kind 

Hirschig in inserting &V. Trapaaraiev &i/ of anacoluthia occurs inf. 454 B, & SOKE? 

. . al !Wot6>' would have been agreeable jitey S^Aov elvot eyw S' ^iravepcaTca. 
to usage, but the change in the subject 

453, A.] 


POP. "Onep ecrTti>, <5 ^w/cpaTe?, rf) aXrjBeCa /xeytcrrov 
ayadov /cat atrtov a/xa /xev eXev#eptas avTots rots avBpto- 
77-019, a/xa Se rou aXXwv ap^eiv ev ry avrov TrdXet e/cacrrw. 

^/2. Tt ovv Sr) TOVTO Xeyei? ; 

E POP. To ireiOew eyajy* otoV T* elVat rot? Xdyots /cat 
eV St/cacmyptw St/cacrra? /cat eV /3ov\VTr)pLO) ^SovXevra? 
/cat eV e/c/cX^o-ta e'/ocjVrKTiaorjas /cat eV aXXw ^uXXdyw TTO.VTI, 
carts ai> TroXtrt/co? ^uXXoyos ytyi^rat. /catrot ev ravrrj rrj 
SovXov /aev e^et? TOV larpov, SovXov Se rov vrat- 
Se ^p^/xartcTT^9 ovro? aXXw a 

/cat ov^ avrw, dXXa crot rw 
Xeyetv /cat neiBetv ra irXtjOr). 

VIII. 5*/2. JVvv /xot So/cets S-^XcJcrat, w Topyia, eyyv- 

453 rara r^v prjropLKrjv \ r)vnva re^rjv T^yet etvat, /cat et rt 

eya) crwtT7/xt, Xeyet? ort 7ret0ovs Sry/xtovyoyd? eartv 17 pyro- 

piKij, /cat 17 Trpay/xareta avr^s aVacra /cat TO /ce^xxXatov 

ets TOVTO reXevra. ^ ^ et ? Tt Xeyetv evrt TrXeov r^ prjTo- 

pu<r)v SvvacrBaL fj TreiOa) rots a/covovo~ii> ev riy ^v^fj iroietv ; 

POP. OwSa/xais, w 2(t>Kpa.T<s, dXXa /xot So/cet? t/ 

ecrrt yap TOUTO TO K<f>aXa.iov 

r^, w Topyia. eya> yap 


B. ^v TOMTTI TTJ] ' armed with 
this power you will hold in thraldom 
hoth physician and gymnast, while your 
great capitalist will be seen to be 
heaping up riches for another rather 
than himself, even for you who are 
able to move the masses by your elo- 
quence.' For the use of tv comp. Xen. 
Cyr. viii. 6. 20, ravrijv T^V ff-rpanav 
f-^tav tv 17 Ae'-yeTcu /caTaerTpe'<J/aer0ai Trdvra 
TO, fOvT], For that of dAAa see below, 
454 c. 

453. irfiOovs Sumaufybs ^ ^ToptK^I 

This definition was not inventea byTflato 

for the occasion. It appears to have 

been an heirloom in the schools of 

rhetoric, originating, according to the 

author of the Prolegomena to Her- 

t mogenes (p. 8), with Corax and Tisias, or, 

\ according to Quintilian, willl isocrates 

| (Inst. Or. ii. c. 15, 4) : " Haec opinio 

originem ah Isocrate, si tamen revera 

jars quae circumfertur ejus est, duxit, 

' qui cum longe sit a voluntate infa- 

mantium oratoris oificia, finera artis 
temere comprehendit, dicens esse rhe- 
toricen persuadendi opificem, id est, 
trf i&ovs SrifitovpySv." The circumstance 
that it proceeds from the mouth of Socr. 
rather than of Gorgias, is an intimation 
that the definition was current in Athens 
when this dialogue was written. An 
amended definition is given by Socr. in 
Phaedr. 271 A : y ^TopiK^ &c *Jrj rtx^n 
^v^aytayia TIS Sia A^-ywj'. 

eyco yap eS IffO' on tlvai TOVTCOV eVa] 
An anacoluthon. The regular constr. 
would have been Kal tyco (1/j.i rointav fy, 
both tv "tffff on and us fftavrbv ireiOco 
being parenthetical. The phrase 3 fo-0' 
Sri is sometimes in construction and some- 
times independent, as STJAOV STI. In B, 
ffcupias eS IffQ' STI OVK o?8o its use is 
ambiguous. Socr. alludes in this passage 
to his invariable practice of seeking a 
definition of the terms of an argument 
the ri (<TTII>, in the language of Greek 

16 IIAATflNOS [453, A 

e/aauTov TreiOct), etTrep Tt9 dXXo? dXXto StaXeyerat /3ov- 
Xd/xei/os etSeVat avro TOVTO Trept OTOV 6 Xdyos ecru, /cat B 
e/xe etvat TOVTCOV eW' d'tco Se /cat ere. 
TOP. TL ovv 817, cli ^co/cpares ; 

2n,. 'Eya) e'pai vvv. eyw TT?V aTro 7779 p^ropt/crjs TreiOco, 
77 rts TTOT* ecrrtt' 7)V cru Xeyets /cat 77ept OJVTIVW 7rpay/ut,aYeui> 
ecrrt 7ret#cJ, crac/>a)s /nev eu tcr#' cm ov/c otSa, ov /AT)^ dXX' 
vto ye ^^ ot/zat ere Xeyetv /cat Treyat w^' ovSeV /xeWot 
epi7cro/x,at ere TtVa Trore Xeyets r^ Tret^co TT)J> CXTTO 

prjTOpiKrs /cat 7re/)t TIVMV avrrjv et^at. TOV ow eVeKa c 

8^ avros vTTOTTTtvtov ere epTJCTOfjiai, dXX' ou/c aurog Xeyct) ; 
ou crov eVe/ca, dXXa TOV Xoyov, tva ovrco irpotrj, a>s jadXtcrr* 

*e^ i\ ^\V\/ / V 

av T7/at^ /caracpaveg Trotot Trept orov Aeyerat. cr/co7ret yap 
et crot So/ca) St/catws avepcorav ere. axrirep av el ervy^avov 
ere epwTwv rts ecrrt raiv ^wypafjxdv Zevt,<s, et /xot etTre? ort 
6 rd ^cpa ypdc/xw^, dp' ov/c cti> St/catcos ere ^po^v 6 rd 
Trota rail' ^wcuv ypd(f)(ov ; [/cat TTOU ;] 
TOP. ITdVu ye. 

T -4pa Std roOro ort Kat ctXXot etcrt cuypac/>oi ypd- 
dXXa TroXXd wa ; 

B. '7^ epai i/Of. tyciS] The first ^cfi is adopted by various interpreters from 

absent from the older edd. but is found Ficinus downwards. How the words 

in the Bodl. and elsewhere. The re- forced their way into the text it is hard 

petition is, however, harsh, and one would to understand. They were read by one 

gladly dispense with the second tyio, Scholiast, who adds the gloss, eV TTJ 

which is omitted in one of the less im- irotKl\ri ffro^, which, besides being irre- 

portant Paris MSS. levant, is untrue, for the portico in 

ov /*V dA\'] ' not but what I have my question was painted by Polygnotus, not 

suspicions as to its nature and its pro- by Zeuxis. Ast defends the vulgate, 

vince. 3 translating thus : " welche Thiere malt 

0. &s /xcUierr' &v n-oioT] In this clause er, und von welcher Seite malt er sie, 

&s is relative. Tr., ' so as it shall leave no d. h. was stellt er an ihnen dar ? " 

doubt in our minds what we are talking Another interpretation is ' whether he 

about.' Lat., ' quo maxime modo.' painted on walls (in fresco) or on panel ' 

[/col iroO] These two little words &c. ; but if Plato had meant this, he 

have greatly embarrassed the inter- would certainly have expressed it differ- 

preters. It is, however, clear from the ently. The clause, it seems to me, can 

next speech of Socr. (apa .... &\\a have no relevant meaning, nor is any 

TToAAa <?') that the sentence closed other clause needed in its stead. Hir- 

with ypaqxav, for otherwise /cal &\\o6t schig leaves the text untouched, retain- 

jro\\axov or something equivalent must ing the old interpretation of Ficinus, 

have occurred after ij?a. This considera- " quo pacto," as if he had read al irus ; 

tion may relieve us from the trouble of Olympiodorus quotes only as far as 

discussing the merits, or rather perhaps ypcujxav, and ignores the Ka.1 TTOV in his 

demerits, of the various conjectures (ircSs, paraphrase, which he could hardly have 

irdcrov &c.) which have been made or done had he found the words in his copy. 

454, B.] ropriAS. 17 

TOP. Nat. 

Sn. El oe ye //^Sets aXXos r) Zetfts eypa<e, /caXw<? 
aV o~ot a.TTKKpiTO ; 
TOP. 2Ta)9 yap ov ; 

^72. *I$t ST) /Cat 776/51 T77? p1f)TOplKV)<S 1776' TTOTCpOV (TOt 

So/cet 77et#a> TToieiv rj prjTopiKrj ^ovrj rj /cat aXXat re^vai ; 
Xe'ya> 8e TO rotdt'Se* ocrrts StSacr/cet ortovi^ Trpayjaa, irorepov 
o StSa<T/cet Tret^et ^ ov ; 

TOP. Ou S^ra, w Sw/cpare?, aXXa Tra^rw 

//} -- _ 


E ^/i. Hd\iv 8* et eTTt T&ii/ avrcov rzyywv Xeyo/xev 
v\)v 817, 17 apiO^riKvi ov StSacr/cet 17/^015 ocra ear! ra TOV 

POP. Haw ye. 

5*/2. OVKOVV /cat 7Tt$et ; 

POP. Nat. 

5*/2. Uet^ov? a/oa S^/xtov/oyos ecrrt /cat 17 a 

TOP. ^atVerat. 

Ov/coOv eav rts e/awra 17/xas Trotas Tret^ovs /cat 
rt, oLTTOKpivovfjieBd TTOV avro) ort r^g StSacr/caXt/CTjs 
454 Tr}s Trept TO apnov TC /cat TO Trepnrov otrov eo~Tt. j /cat 
TO.? aXXa? ag vi)v 8^ eXeyo/xev Te'^as a7rao~a5 e^o/Aev 0,770- 
Set^at 77et#ovs 8-^/xtovpyous ovcras /cat ^o'Ttt'os /cat 77et o 

* V 

Tt. r) ov ; 

POP. IVat. 

5*/2. Ou/c a/oa p^TopiKJ] i^ovr) 7TiOov<s eo~Tt 

POP. '.4X7?6^ Xeyetg. 

IX. 5"/2. '7761877 TOttW ov /xovry aTrepyd^eraL TOVTO 

TO epyov, dXXa /cat aXXat, St/cata>s cjcnrep irepl TOV ^a>- 

ypd<j)ov /u,eTa TOVTO eTravepOLfjitO* av TOV \eyovTa, 77otas ST) 

77et^ovs /cat TT^S 77ept Tt 77et^ovs 77 prjTopiKr) e'o"Tt Tf^in] ; rj 

B ov So/cet act 8t/caiop etvat eTravepecrffai, ; 

TOP. "E/xoiye. 

D. "104 8^] Socr. objects to the defini- which creates belief only. Below, p. 

tion that its terms are ambiguous. For 455 A. 

there are two kinds of ireiQA, that which Oif Sfjra] Not the negative of -rti6ft, 

imparts knowledge with belief, and that but of ou irdOfi. 'Nay, he persuades 



[454, B 



'AiroKpLvai 877, <5 Topyla, 

ye /cat crot 


POP. TavTys TOLVVV TTJS Tret^ov? Xe'yo), o> 
7775 eV Si/cacrT77ptots /cat eV rots dXXotg 0^X019, axrirep /cat 
dprt eXeyov, /cat ?rept rovrwv a ecrrt 8t/catd re /cat dSt/ca. 

572. Kat eyed rot VTratTTTevov ravrrjv ere Xeyetv r^ 
7ret#ti) /cat Trept TOVTCUV, <5 Popyur dXX* tVa JUT) 6avfj,d[,r)<s, 
lav okiyov varepov TOLOVTOV ri ere avepcojaat, 6 S^)/cet /xe> 
8^X0 v etj'at, eyw 8' eVavejOwra) o7re/3 ya^ Xeya),lrou ^5 
eVe/ca TrepaivecrOau. TOV Xoyovjepaira), ov crov eVe/ca, dXX* 
tva XT 0La>JLe0a vTTOoovvTjjjQaTTa.LV dXXXceJi/ TO. 

Xeyg/xeva, dXXa cru ra cravrov Kara 
Trepaivrj s. 

POP. Kat 6p0a>s ye /not So/cet? Trotetv, a) 

*I#t 8^ 

/cat ro 


/caXets Tt 

POP. KaXw. 
Sfl. Tt'8e'; 
POP. "Eywye. 

572. ITorepov ovv TOLVTOV So/cet crot etz/at 
/cat TreTTtcrTev/ceVat, /cat /xd^crts /cat 7rtcrrt9, 77 dXXo TI ; 
POP. Oto/xat juev eywye, a> 5*w/cpaT9, dXXo. 

^ /~ ir \ ^ N v ' N )' 5/ ' 

^/2. KaAcus yap otef yvcocret oe evuevoe. et yap rts 
ere epotro *-4p* ecrrt rt9, w Popyta, Trtcrrts i//evSr)9 /cat dXTy- 
di', a>9 eya) oT/xat. 

C. row er}s] The order is, tycoTu eWa 
roD e|ijs irfpaivt(r8ai TOI> X6yoi>. 'I ask 
in order that the argument may move 
towards its completion in regular order, 
by due steps. 5 trepalveo-dai is passive, as 
below, 497 D, '/ca irfpavOSxriv ol \6yoi. 
Stallb. translates as if it were transitive 
and governed \6yov, which can hardly be 
the case, though the comp. Stawepaiveo-Oai 
is not unfrequently used in the middle, 
as Phaedr. 263 E, \6yov 

q\A.' 'iva. ^ e6i<i>/j.fdci] ' that we may 
not contract a habit of forestalling or 
taking for granted each other's statements 
from vague suspicions of what they are 
likely to be; but that you may rather de- 
velop your own views in your own way in 
accordance with the premisses assumed. 5 

unquestionably.' So inf. 501 c, 


454 B. irepl rovriav a effTi 5'iKaid 
Kal ^Siica] This definition applies in 
strictness only to SiKaj/iicot A<Jyo. The 
province of deliberative oratory (eru 
AeuTiK 1 ^) is TO dya^ct cai KO.KO.. 
Phaedr. 261 c D, and the notes. 



ut ne Tnirere TTTTcito me interrogare" 
&c. (Heind.) The particle yap is here in 
apodosi, as frequently after a parenthesis. 
See by all means Demosth. de F. L- 107, 
and Mr. Shilleto's accurate remarks in 
the Vv. LI. The idiom has escaped Stallb. 
'6irfp Ae'yeo is explained by 453 0, ov crov 

455, A.] 


COT! r/fevSr)? /cat dXr)6r)<s ; 

TOP. Nat. 
Sn. TL Se; e 
TOP. OvSajuw?. 

Hfl. Ari\ov apa 6Yt ov TOVTOV CO-TOP. 
POP. '^Xrjftj Xe'yets. 
/2. s .4XXa /XT)V ot re ye 
E /cat ot 7r7rto-Tev/c6Yes. 

.BovXet ow Svo etSr 

avev TOV eiSeVat, TO S* 
POP. Haw ye. 

. Tlorepaiv ovv rj prjropLKr) ireiOa) Trotet ev 8t/ca- 

TC /Cat TOtS ttXXot? O^XotS 7TyOt TUV St/CtttWJ' T /Cat 

l rj<s TO TrtcrTevetv ytyveTai a^ev TOV etSeWt -^ e 

<p \ j^ / 
179 TO etoevat ; 

POP. ^d^Xov ST^TTOV, a) 5*oJ/cpaTs> oTt e^ -^s TO TTI- 

TreTretayxeVot etcrt 

, TO 

455 /. prjropLKrj apa, a? eot/ce, 

ecTTt TTtarevrt/oJ?, dXX' ov StSao-KaXt/c^g Tre^ot TO 8t/catov TC 
Kat a8t/cov. 
POP. Nat. 

OtS' apa StSacr/caXt/cos 6 piJTtop eo"Tt 
TC /cat TOOI/ aXXwv o^Xwv St/catwv T 7re/3t /cat d 
dXXa 7reto~Tt/co9 \i6vov. ov yap &TJTTOV o^Xov y av Svvairo 
TOCTOVTOV ev 6Xtyo> -^pova) StSct^at OUTCU /aeydXa 
POP. Ou S^Ta. 
X. 5'/2. $e/3e 8>y, tSw/xe^ Tt -TTOTC /cat Xeyo/xev 

D. A^Aov Spa eo'To*'] Vulg. Sffcov yap 
a5 . . . fffriv. An illative particle being 
evidently needed here, I have not scrupled 
to adopt the excellent reading of Olym- 
piodorus, Spa. The eVrov was suggested 
by Dr. Badham, who had also acutely 
conjectured 7' &pa for -yap oS. Olymp. 
reads -ravrd. flaiv, but ravrov, 'the same 
thing,' is commonly used in such cases, 
as in 462 E. The received yap av converts 
an inference into a reason. (n6v is fre- 
quently replaced by fffriv, as in Politicus 
263 A, where the vulg. has fffriv for the 
fffr6v of the Bodl. and other MSS. 

455. ireto-TiKiJs] ma-TiK6s is the reading 
of the Bodl. and the majority of MSS., the 
rest giving trtiffTiitfa. Sext. Einp. (adv. 
Math. ii. 2, 75) seems to have read 
vti<rriK6s here and irfHrriKrjs for irKTrev- 
TiKTjy paul. sup. In the latter case he is 
doubtless wrong, but both Buttin. and 
Heiud. seem with reason to question the 
legitimacy of the form irt<niK6s. There 
is the same confusion in the readings of 
Aristot. Rhet. i. 2. 1, where irturTiidi is 
now accepted by the edd. instead of the 
old iriffriK-fi. 

c 2 


[455, A 

au orav 

rrjs prjTOpLKrjs' eyo) fj.ev yap rot ouS' auro9 TTG> SuVa/zat 
/carai'OTjo'at o rt Xe'yco. orav Trept larpuv atpe'o~ea>s TJ TT? B 
TroXet o~vXXoyos 7) Trept vavrnqytov fj TrepiaXXov rtvos 077- 
to/rft*a nLovpyiKov cBvow;, aXXo rt TOTC 6 priroptKosfov 
r~ trv Xevcretl; $TJ\OI> yap ort eV e/cdcrrTj atpe'cret rov 

^*l?1/&) , p> e; ~ r\ > <$* v \ r * 

oet aipetcrc/af ovo orav rei^tov irepi ot/cooo/x/^o-eaj? 77 
-^ vewpiw^, dXX' ot dyD^tre/cToves* ovS' 
atpecreajg Trept 77 ra^ews rt^o? Trpo? 

KaTa\tj\jjea)<s crv/xy8ovX7) TJ, clXX* ot o 
Tore crvppovKtva-ova-iv, ot prjTopLKol Se ov. 77 
7TCU9 Xeyet?, a) Topyia, ra rotavra ; eirei&r) yap avros re 
<T)S prjTtop elvai /cat aXXov? Trotetv pr)TopiKov<s, ev e^et 
ra rT^s o~775 re^T^? irapo. crov TrvvBa.veo'Ba.i. KOI Ipe vvv 
vofjucrov KcuToaovaTrevSeiv. to-ws yap /cat rvy^ai/et rts 
raiv ev$ov OVTWV jaa$7ir7is crov y8ovXd/>te^o yeveo~ 
eyw rt^as o-^eSov /cat crv^vous atcr#aVo/>iai, ot tcrw? 


' av ere avepecrOai. VTT' e/>iov ouV dveporw/xe^os ^o- D 

/cat VTT* iiitwvnr dvepwracr^at Tt T^U', a) Topyia, 
ecrrat, ectv crot avvtopev ; irepl TLVUV rfj TroXet o-Vja/3ovXeuetv 
otot re eo-djue#a ; irorepov nel St/catov 6vov /cat d8t/cou 

B. Srav wcpl IO.TOUV a!pea-fo>s~] " There 
were public physicians elected in most 
of the Greek cities, who received a salary 
from the commonwealth, and seem to 
have taken no fees of particular people. 
Those physicians who exercised this 
office were said Smtog-tevetp. See Aristoph. 
in Avibus 584, ki'tf 1 <i y *3tWAA(o>/ Iarp6s 
y Siv laffOoi, /j.i<T6o<t>opei tie : Ac'harn. 994, 
'TiroAenpoj/ ftpiifp fj.t Twet>6a\fj.& raxv. 
AI. 'A\\' S> irovftp' oil 5r)fj.offtevo)i> Tvy- 
^ai'ia. But this custom seems to have 
been laid aside before Ol. 97. 4. Arist. 
Plut. 407, Tts SJJT' iorp^y tffri vvv tv rrj 
ir6\et ; Oijre yap 6 /uto-0by owSeV ^<TT' otiO' 
V reX" 1 )- Gorg. 514. Politic. 259, ft T<J> 
TIS T<av S-r)fj.ocrifv6vTcav larpiav iKavbs 
v[*./3ov\(vfii' iSicarevuv avrSs, ap' OVK 
avayicaiov avry irpocrayopevfcrGai TOVVO\HO. 
TTjy rf \vrjs TO.vr'bv ftitfp ip |iiyUj8ouAUi " 
(T. Gray). Hesych., Syj/xoo-ieuejj/ rb 
Srj/j.ocriq. virripeTfiv fir\ fjuaQja. Suid. \. 
STfl/mocrievu. ol STJ/UOCT/O ^eipoTovovfi.ei'oi 
larpol Kal STj/uoff/a 7rpo7/ca eOfdirfvov. 
Comp. Horn. Od. x vii. 382, Tfs yap 

y' (I fify TUV ol Srjfiiofpyol eaffi ; MdvTU> 
f) irjr^pa KaKwv, t) TfKrova Sovpav, 
*H Kal 6effiriv 0.0180 V, o Kfv repirriffu' aei8<av. 
These passages explain the origin of the 
oft-recurring distinction of Sriptovpyds 
and i8ia>Ti)s, equivalent in the time of 
Plato to that between professional and 
unprofessional, clerk and layman, the 
learned and the vulgar. 

^ jrepl vav-irriyojv 3) irepi'] Understand 
alpefffws, unless with Hirschig we sup- 
pose the prepositions to have been im- 
ported into the text, edvovs is used as 
the Lat. natio in Cic. pro JMurena 33, 
"tota natio candidatoruin. JJ So Ast, 
who'refers iV> Rep. i. 351 c, &c. 

&K\o rt T<$Te] So Bekk. after a few 
MSS. Vulg. &\\o ri $ r6re. Here &\\o 
TI is equiv. to ap'ov, nonne ; ~^s~^nf. 
495^5: Tt corresp'onds to" the Germ. 
nicht wahr, as Ast observes. I do not 
deny that there are cases in which ^ 
is to be retained, as in Phaedo 79, 
Tt THJ.WV avrwv t) Tb p.ev fftafj.d eVrt rb 
tyvxt ; to which the answer is, 

456, B.] 


T) /cat Trept &v vvv 817 

eXeye ; Tretpai ovv avrot? 

POP. -4XX eyw crot TretpoVo/xat, o> 5*w/cpare9, cra(f>cos 
ci7ro/caXvi//at rip 7-779 p^ropt/CT^ Svvafjav a-rraa-av avro9 ! / 
yap /caX&J9 v^yTJo-a). olaOa yap &TJTTOV ort ra vewpta 
E ravra /cat ra ret^ry ra ! ' ABrfvaiatv /cat 17 rail/ Xifievw /cara- 
crKevr) e/c rr^9 0ejato~ro/cXe / ov9 o-v/u,/8ofX>79 yeyovc, ra 8* e/c 
7179 JTept/cXe / ou9, dXX' ov/c e'/c rwv S^fjaovpyatv. 

2SI. AeytTai ravra, a) Popyta, Trept 0e/xtcrro/cXe / ou9* 
nept/cXe'ov9 Se /cat auro9 TIKOVOV ore crvvefiovXevev 

)t rou Sta fjiecrov ret^ou9. 


crv eXeye?, 

456 at orav ye rt? atpecrt? 

a) ^w/cpareg, opa? ort ot pujropes etcrtv ot 
/cat ot vt/caWes 7019 yi'w/xag Trept rovrwv. 

5*/2. Tavra /cat davfjid^cav, a) Popyta, TraXat epwrai 
17 rt? Trore 17 Sv^a/i,ts ecrrt r^9 p^ropt/cTy?. Sat/novta yap 
rts e/xotye /cara^at^erat TO /aeye^o? ovrcu (TKOTTOVVTI. .. 

XI. POP. Et Travra ye etSetiy?, w ^w/cpare?, ort I/VT 

- ' 

? ITTO? etTretv aTracra? ra? SiW/xets o-vXXa/3ovo-a v 
15 e^et. ju-e'ya 8e o~ot Te/c/i^ptov epar 7roXXa/ct9 yap 17817 eycoye 
//.era, TOU dSeX^ou /cat jaera TOW aXXwv iarpcov eia"e\0<i)v 

E. nept/cXe'ous re/xous] "The 
rfixn which~^DhretT3lEen8 to the Piraeus 
were begun on the motion of Pericles, 
Ol. 80. 4, B.C. 457. Socr. at that time 
was about twelve" years old. See Plu- 
tarch in Vitt. Pericl. et Cinion. Har- 
pocration tells us that of the two walls 
which extended from the city to Piraeus, 
the southern only, or the innermost, was 
called rb 5ia pfffov, as lying between the 
innermost, T& &6pftov, and rJ> &a.\ripiK.6v, 
which was a third wall drawn from 
Athens to the Port Phalerum, and he 
cites this very passage" (T. Gray). This 
statement is substantially correct, but 
Gray is mistaken in supposing that the 
intermediate or southern Peiraic wall 
was projected at the same time with the 
two mentioned in Thuc. i. 107, 108. It 
was not built until a later period, when 
the northern Peiraic and the Phaleric 
wall were finished, i. e. after B.C. 456. 
We thus get rid of the difficulty, such as 
it is, of supposing Socr. a hearer of Peri- 

cles at the early age of twelve. The. 
two Peiraic Long Walls ran parallel to 
each other, enclosing an oblong space of 
four or five miles in length (40 stades) 
and 550 feet in width. That to Phale- 
rum was built at an angle to the other 
two. Since the appearance of the work 
of Ulrichs on the subject, most topo- 
graphers have agreed to place Phalerum 
on the spot called Trispyrgi, rather than 
on that now appropriated as the site of 
Munychia, and distant from the former 
by the whole extent of the Phaleric bay. 
See Leake (Topog. Ath. i. 422), who 
differs however in regard of the situation 
of Phalerum. This latter question is 
probably not yet definitively settled. 

&v vvv S'fi'] One MS. has vvv a.v. The 
rest omit vvv. Heind. properly insists 
on retaining it. See note to p. 462. 

456. Et iroi/ra ye (IS fills'] ' well it 
might, Socr., if you knew all if you 
were aware that Rhetoric includes in 
her domain I may say all the faculties.' 

22 IIAATfiNOS [456, B 

TLVa TftV KajJLVOVTWV OU^t 06\OVTdL T) <j)dplJLaKOl> 

r) re/xeZv ^ /caucrat irapao"^eiv TO> tarpw, ov Swa/ae- 
TOV tar/oou Treurcu, e'yw eVeto-a, ov/c aXX^ T*yy$ ^ TT? 
j. <j)f)iJil Se /cat ets TroXw oVot /3ovXet IXBovre prj- 
TopiKov avSpa Kal larpov, el Se'ot Xdyw Staya>vtecr0ai eV 
eKK\Tf)(ria ^ ev aXXa> rtvl crvXXoyw, orrorepov 8et aipeOrjvcu, 
larpov, ovSa^xov av <j)avr}vai. rov larpov, dXX' atyoe^vat 
av ro^ etrreTv Suvaro^, t /SouXoiro. /cat et irpos aXXov 
ye 8T7/uoiy>yoi> ovrtvaovv dycovt^otro, TreiVetev cb> avrov 
eXecr^at 6 /a^ropt/cos fj.a\\ov fj aXXo? ocrrttrovi/' ov yap 

COTt 7T6pt OTOU OV/C CtV 7TL0ava>TpOV CtTTOt 6 pTJTOpiKOS 

f) aXXo? OCTTLCTOVV To>v S^jatovpywv > 7r\tj0L. 'H ^ev ovv 
TocravTr) <rrl /cat rotaur^ rxj? re^^?. Set /xeVrot, 
pijTopucfl "^prja"6ai cbcnrep rrj a\\r) Trdcry 
dyft)vta. /cat yay3 T^ aXX^ dytuvta ou TOVTOV eVe/ca Set Trpos D 

/'*^- _ /!/)/ v /) / 

aTravra? -^prjcrtfaL avvp<aTrov<;, on e/xaae rts 
re /cat Tray/c/oartd^ett' /cat eV oTrXotg ^cfyecrflat, (ycrre 
TO>V etvat /cat <J>I\CDV /cat )^6p(av ov TOVTOV eVe/ca rovs 
<j)iXov<; Set TUTrretv ouSe /cevretv re /cat aTro/cTtwwat. ovSe 
ye /xd Jta ecti^ rt? ets TraXatorrpav ^otrifcra?, ev e^tov TO 
cra)jj.a /cat TTv/crt/co? ye^o/aevo?, eVetra rov Trarepa TVTTTT/ 
/cat TT)^ /u^repa ^ dXXov Ttt'd TWV OLKeiwv f) TO>V ^>tXft>v, 
ov TOVTOV eVe/ca Set TOVS 7ratSoT/3t/3a? /cat TOUS ev Tots E 
oVXots StSdo-/covTas /u-d^eo-^at pLcrelv re Kal e/c/SdXXetv e/c 
. e/cetvot /xev yap uapeBocrav CTTI TGJ St/cata>5 
TOVTOIS TT/DOS TOVS TroXe/xtov? /cat TOU? dSt/covv- 

ol Se /xeTacrTpe^i/fa^re? 457 

B. e\0<We] Vulg. i\96vra, corr. Do- above, 455 B, STOP Trtpl la-rpSiv alpeffeus p 
bree. T ir6\fi 

C. otiSa/tfO &v ^ay^yat"| Tr., 'jyould D. ejuade TIS] The Bodl. omits TJS. 

be entity distancedT" as we say of a So the Aid., which Heind. was disposed 

beaten horse, ' he_jnpwhere.' Soph, to follow. I retain it, with Bekk. and 

Ant. 183, TOVTOV ovSa,fj.ov \eyea. For the majority of MSS. 

diroTepov 8e< alpfOrfvai larpAv, which is 457. /leTao-Tpevf/afTes] "Vern. e* - 

the reading of the Bodl. and several Jcehrend, h. e. umgekehrt, i. q. eVavrias 

codd., the edd. retain the inferior, oirrf- (ut c) Latinor. ex contrario. Polit. ix. 

Tfpov 8e? alptOrtvat, p-fiTopa ft la.Tp6v, 587 D, ^av TJS peTaffTpetyas . . heyy, 

which destroys the point of the example. K.T.\." (Ast). Participles are frequently 

The rhetor will persuade the people to used thus adverbially, of which usage 

elect him state-physician in preference TeA.ei/TcDj', 'tandem,' is a familiar in- 

to a regularly trained practitioner. See stance. See not. on Phsedr. 228. 

457, c.] 



rrj tcr^vt Kal rf) Te^vy OVK opOws. OVKOVV ot St- 
Trovqpoi, otSe 17 re^vr) ouYe atrta ovre Trovrjpa 
TOVTOV eW/ca I&TIV, dXX' ot ^T) ^ow/xevot, ofyxat, 6p6<jj$. 
6 avros ST) Xoyos /cat rrept r^? prjTopLKrjs. Swaro9 /u,eV 
yap Trpos anavrd? ICTTLV 6 prJTwp /cat Trept Travros Xeyetv, 
cooTC TriOavtoTepos eu>at Iv Tol<s TrkrjOecnv e/A^pavu Trept 
B orou av /3ov\-r)Tai' dXX' ovSeV rt fjia\\ov TOVTOV eveKa. Set 
OVTC rous tarpov? r^ Sofat' a^aipeur&u, ort Svz/atro ai/ 
TOVTO TTOtrJcrat, ovre rov? aXXou? S^/xtovpyov?, dXXa St/catw? 
/cat T^ prjTopucfi ^prjcrOan,, utcnrcp /cat T^ dywvta. eat' Se, 
oTjaat, prjTopiKos yev6fj,v6<s rts /cara TavTr) Ty Svi'd/xet /cat 

/ C> ^ > N C> C 1 ' * C> * ^ > r> '\ 

T ?7 T X V V a LK y> ov 7OV oioaga.vTaL oet /atcretv re /cat e/cpaX- 
Xetv e/c TWI^ TroXea)!'. e'/cetvos /Ltej^ yap evrt St/cata 
TrapeSoj/cev, 6 S* eVai'Ttajs "^prJTai. TOV ovv OVK 
XptolJievov /xtcretp' 5t/catov Kal e/c/3dXXeii> /cat 
dXX' ou rbif StSd^a^Ta. 

XII. 5*/2. Ot/xat, w Topyia, /cat tre epTreipov eli>ai 
TToXXajy Xoy6>y /cat /ca^eopa/ceVat eV avrots TO rotdvSe, 
ort ov paStws Swavrat Trept a)f ou> eTTi^eip^crfacri StaXeye- 
Stopto~dju,vot Trpos aXXryXovs /cat /xa^o^Tes /cat SiSct- 

adds, "Apparebit nunc quam infeliciter 
Stallbaum in Platonis Hippia minore, 
365 D, pro fpcara e/j./3paxv 8 TJ 0ov\ei ex 
deterioribus receperit ev &paxfi" Cobet 
justly observes that ev /Bpoxfi" is not 
synonymous with e^/Spaxi', but means 
rather 'briefly' (as in Soph. El. 637, 
tv f)pa.x*'i ffvvOeli \tyta). Ast in his 
Lexicon correctly renders e/j./3paxv by 
the Latin 'cunque* (Germ, was nur 
immer). The form of the word is illus- 
trated by /nros, efiirav, e/tiro. 

B. K$rd] Kqra and K&ireira not unfre- 
quently occur after participles, where we 
should have expected eTra and eireiro. 
Of this usage Heind. quotes two in- 
stances from Aristophanes : Equit. 391, 
a\\' (t^Sis ovros roiovros &>v airwra rbv 
&lov K&T' a.v^p t$otv flvai : Nub. 623, 
avB" Siv Aaxa"' 'Trre'p/JoAos Tijres Upofjtvrj- 
noveiv K&TTfiff v((>' v/Licav rtav 6tuv Tbv 
trrfQavov cupripeeij. Add Xen. Mem. i. 
1. 5, fl Trpoayopfvtav ws vwb Otov <(>aiv6- 
fteva. K$TO. ^ev56fj.tvos fQaivtro : and the 
refl'. in Kiinuer's note. 

STOU &v 0oi5\ijTat] "Vox 
quam veteres O-WTO'/UWS vel 
explicant, eodem fere modo, quo 
formula ilia is KTTOS etVeTj/ orationi mo- 
deste restringendae iuservit, nisi quod 
ilia fere ante ouSeV et iraj/Tts inferri 
solent, hoc ante SCTTIS &v, ftffrts jSouAfi, 
Siroinrep et talia. V. Tim. Lex. v. e/x- 
jBpoxu ibique Ruhnk. imprimisque Schol. 
Plat, ad Theagem, p. 88" (Heind.). 
The Schol. in question quotes a line of 
Cratinus thus : 8e irapfx* lv 8 ri ry 
i/|oiT' epfipaxv, where read, with Cobet, 
fSei irapaffx^". The use of the formula 
is restricted, in good authors, to the 
cases noted by Heind., though later 
writers do not scruple to use it generally 
in the sense of air\<os, (rwr6fj.<i>s, as Dion 
Chrys. (p. 446 c), & 5e \6yos ouros ju- 
/Spox" effirovSaKe ^vvapfj.6ffat -r<2 6ef rb 
avOpunrfiov ytvos. I quote this from 
Cobet's Varr. Lectt., p. 208, where e/t- 
/3pax is shown to be frequently altered 
by copyists into iv /3paxet, as in Plat, 
Synipos. 217 A, Strre iroirjTe'oj' elvot iv 
/3pax 8 TI KeAevoi Sco/cpaTTjs. Cobet 


24 IIAATflNOS [457, c 

eavTOvs ovrco SiaXveo~0at Tag o-woucrtag, dXX' 
7re/3t TOU djU(tcr/3i7Ti7crcocri /cat ft,?) (77 6 eTepog TOV erepov D 
opdats Xeyetv rj pr) crac^aig, ^aXeTratvovcrt re /cat Kara 
<j)06vov otovTat Tov eavTwv Xe'yetv, (^tXovet/couvTag dXX ov 
^TOiWag TO Trpo/cet/zevov eV TW Xoyw. /cat evtot ye reXev- 
TaWeg atcr^tcrra dTraXXarrovrat, XotSopT^eWeg re /cat 
etTrovTeg /cat d/covVavTeg Trept cr^aiv avTaiv rotavra, ota 
/cat Tot>g TrapoWag ayOecrBai virep cr(f>a>v avrav, on rot- 
OVTCOV avOptoTraiv r)i(i)crav d/cpoarat yeveaOai. Tov or) E 
eVe/ca Xeyw raura ; ort vuv e/AOt So/cet? cru ot> Trdvu d/co- 
\ov0a Xeyetv ovSe cru^^w^a otg TO Trpatrov eXeyes Trept 
prjTopLKrjs. <f>oftovpaL ovv SteXey^etv ere, /AT^ /xe 
[ov TTyoos TO Trpctyjaai <$>L\oviKovvTa. Xeyetv^Tou KaTa<f>ave<; 
yevccrOaii dXXd Trpo? ere. eya> ovv, el jjiev /cat o~v et TWV 

oivrrep /cat eyw, rjoecos av ere OiepaiTtoyv et Se 458 
d'^. eyw Se rivwv et/xt ; roil' T^Se'cog /*> av eXey^- 
et Tt ft/*) aX-Y)6es Xeyw, i^Se'cos 8' a^ e'Xey^dvTcov, et 
Tt9 Tt JUT) aXr)0<s Xeyot, ov/c ar)Oo~Tepov /U.CVT' av 
/otet^ov yap avTo ayaOov 

eo~Ttv avrov d?raXXay^vat /ca/cov 

TOU //,eyto~Tov ^ dXXov aTraXXd^at. ovSev yap ot/xat TOO~- 
OVTOV /ca/cov etvat dvOpcaircp, ocrov So^a \}jevor)<s Trept wv 

E. oil jrcij'D a/c^A.oi9a] Olymp., 8po cult to explain Lysis 204 E, ou -yap 

i)0os Osroc TOU Sto/cparous' ou/c elTre yap irdvv TI avrov rofW/ua Ae'7ou(ri', aAX' 

STJ ava.K6\ovQa ^ ^ei/S?) Ae'7iy, oAA.' ou ert TroTp^Oey eirovofjid^frai except as an 

irdw a.K6\ovda, rtf /Mfrpitfi KoKafav rb unqualified negation. The same remark 

8piju.ii r^y ^KX^crecos. This use of ou applies to Legg. iv. 704 C, ye/ron/ Se 

7r</uas a qualified negative is common, if aur^y 7r<{Ajy ap' earaj T irh-fifftov ; K. Ou 

not universal, in the Atticists of the Em- irdj/u- 8(b /cat /caroj/ci'^eTat, to Aristot. 

pire, as in Lucian according to Cobet (Vv. Eth. N. x. 5. 4, x a ' l P" Tes t>T<?ovv a-QoSpa 

LI. p. 222), who at the same time denies ov TTOJ'U Sptapev ertpov, to Menander, 

that this sense was known to the Attics frag. 198, ov irdvv EfcoO' a\riOes ouSe 

themselves. Mr. Cope, in a carefully- Iv yvvri \eytiv and, as Mr. Cope seems 

written and candid Excursus to his Trans- to admit, to ovSev iraw wheresoever it 

lation of this dialogue, strenuously main- occurs. In Plat. Rep. 549 D, eaurV 

tains the view expressed by Olympic- 8e ji^re irdvv TintevTa /uTjre a,Tipdot>Ta 

dorus, and I observe that the late Mr. we should perhaps adopt the variant 

Riddell, in the " Digest of Idioms," at- of Cod. D and two others, /u^re ira*"rrj 

tached to his edition of the Apology, held ari/j.d^oi/Ta. If irdvv be retained, the 

the same opinion. On the other hand, see passage makes unequivocally in favour 

among Greek authorities, the Scholiast of Mr. Cope's view, and we shall have to 

on Phaedo 57 A (ouSeis irdvv TI eV<- admit that the same negative is some- 

X<>>pid(i . . .), who writes avrl TOV ov- times used in the qualified, and some- 

SojUws' <TT\ yap ri er)s OVTWS' irdvv times in the unqualified sense by the 

ovSels firixaptdfci. It seems also diffi- same authors. 

458, E.] TOPTIA2. 25 

TvyvoVet vvv r^iiv 6 Xoyog wv. el [Lev ovv /cat arv 
TOIOVTOS eTvat, SiaXey<y/xe#a* et Se /cat 8o/cet -^p^jvai tav, 

rjorj ^atpetv /cat StaXvcoitev TOV Xoyoi>. 
POP. '^XXa (^Ltt p,ei> eycoye, a; ^cu/cpaTe?, /cat avros 

TotovTO? etvat otoi> crv v^yeZ' tcraj? xteWot XP*I V 

TO rait' irapoVTWV. TrctXat yap rot, Trplv /cat 
\0LV, eya> rot? Tiapovcrt TroXXa eTreSet^ayu-rp, /cat vvi^ 10-0)5 
C Troppa) aTTorevoOjLtev, ^ 8taXeycjj/A^a. CTKOTT^IV ovv ^pr) 
/cat TO TOUTOJV, /xi7 Ttvas OLVTMV /caTe^w/xev /8ovXo)u,eVous rt 
/cat aXXo irpdrTeLV. 

XIII. X^I. ToG /x/ 0opvj3ov, 5 Popyta TC /cal 

avTOt d/covTe TOVTCDV T&ii' d^Spai^, 
d/covetv ectv Tt Xeyrjre' e/xol 8* ovv /cat avT&> 

yeVoiTO rocravTr) do~^oXta, aicrTe TOLOVTCDV Xoywv /cat OVT<U . . . 
d<^ejaez/a> Trpo-t^ytatr^oov Tt yevecrdai aXXo TrpaT- *^ <nr vA*-^ 

D KAA. Nrj TOVS Oeovs, w Xatpe^wv. /cat /xev ST) /cat 
avTO? TroXXot? 1787^ Xoyot? Trapayevo/xevo? ov/c oTS' et TTW- 
TTOTC rjcrOrjv OVTWS axnrep vvvi, OHTT' e/xotye, /cav TT)V ^jue- 

StaXeyeo~^at, ^aptetcr^e. 

'^4XXa jai^v, w KaXXt/cXets, TO y' e/xov ovSev /ca>- 
Xvet, etTrep e^eXet Popyta?. / 

POP. Ala^pov 8^ TO XotTroV, w ^cu/cpaTe?, ytyveTat 
e/xe ye /XT) e^e'Xetv, aurov eTrayyetXa/xevov e 


E ySouXeTat. clXX* et 8o/cet TOVTOLCTL, StaXe'yov TC /cat epomx o S^- r*5K. t 
Tt ySovXet. l 

5*/2. "AKOVZ Sr;, cS Popyta, a #av/xda> e^ Tots Xeyo- 
/xeVot? UTTO o~ov* to~co9 yap Tot o~ou op^ai? Xe'yovTO? eyco 
ov/c 6p$a>5 vnoXa/JL/^dva). p^ropiKov ^>r)? Trotett' oto? T' 

et^at, edi' Tts /SovX^Tai Trapct croi) 
POP. JVat. 

458. c. /xol 8" oSf] yoCi/ Olymp., and D. AtVxp^ S^j /SouAerot] 'After my 

for TOO-OUTTJ, roiavrti. 'And for my voluntary challenge to all questioners I 

own part, God forbid that my hands cannot for very shame refuse henceforth.' 

should ever be so full, that I must OWT^ =r ' ultro.' After iOe\tit> formerly 

abandon a discussion so interesting and stood /col TOUTO, now omitted by the 

so ably conducted, in favour of any other edd. in conformity with the Bodl. and 

employment however profitable.' some other MSS. 

26 IIAATfiNOZ [458, E 

.2/2. OVKOVV Trepl Trdvrwv OHTT' ev o^X<w TnOavov elvai, 
ov OiodcTKOvra dXXa ireWovra; 

TOP. Haw jueV ovv. 459 

Sfl. *EXeye's rot vvv or) on Kal Trepl rov vytewov rov 
larpov TTiOavcorepos carat 6 p-rjroip. 
TOP. Kal yap eXeyov, ev ye o^Xa). 

OVKOVV TO ev o^Xaj rovro ecrriv, ev rot? /x-^ etSo- 
ov yayo ST^TTOV e^ ye rot9 etSocrt rov larpov TriOava)- 
reyoo? ecrrai. 

TOP. *A\r)0f) Xeyet?. 

^/2. OVKOVV eiTrep rov larpov TnOavwrepos ecrrai, rov 
etSoVo? TriOavo)repo<s yiyverai ; 
POP. Haw ye. 

^(/-j /->> ' v ^>r 

4^/2 . OUK tar/505 ye w^' 17 yap ; 

POP. Nat. . B 

5*/2. 'O Se ju,^ tar/aos ye STJTTOV aveTTio-TyfJiMv a>v 6 
tarpos eVtcrr^/Mcoi'. 
POP. J^Xov ort. 

^< f^ /-. >O \ V >O / > > >^ / 

2, SI. O OVK etocos apa rov etooro? ei' OVK etooo~t ?rt- 
Oavcorepos eo-rat, orav 6 pr]r(ap rov larpov TTiOavurepos 
y. rovro (TVjJL/Baivei, 17 aXXo rt ; 

TOP. Tovro evrav9d ye crvpfiaivei. 

%n,. OVKOVV Kal Trepl ras aXXas a7rao-as re^as a>o-- 
avrajs ex et p^T^p xal rj prjropiKT] ; avra fj^ev ra Trpdy- 
/iara ovSe> Set avrrjv etSeVat OTTWS e^et, fnfflaygv oe nva 
7ret0ovs evprjKevai,, ware (f>aivecr0aL rots OVK etSocri /xaX- 
Xov etSeVat rai^ etSorcoi/. 

XIV. TOP. OVKOVV TroXkr) pao-ravr), &) 2a>Kpares, 
yiyverai, /U,T) paOovra ra? aXXas re^^as, dXXa /xta^ rav- 
, jjuqoev e'Xarrovcr^at rwv ^rjfjuovpyatv ; 

El fj.ev eXarrovrat ^ /t^ eXarrovrat 6 pijrwp 

459. B. avTcb ^te^ T 7rpa7/xaTa] This disciple Polus is less scrupulous, as we 

was distinctly maintained by Tisias, ac- shall find below, 461 B. 

cording to Phaedr. 272 D, OTI ouSev C. OVKOVV TroAAi; faffrtisvii] 'And is it 

a\T)6eias ^iTex e " / Se'ot . . . rbv fit \\ovra not a great comfort, Socr., to find yourself 

iKavSts f>t)'TopiKbv tlvai. Presently in p. fully a match for the professors of any 

460, Gorgias seems disposed to qualify other art, without having had the trouble 

this broad statement of his master. His of learning any but this one ? ' 

460, A.] 



tov a\\a)v Sta TO OVTGJS c^ew, avTt/ca eVto~/cei/fo/ji$a, edv 


Xoyo v $ i>vV Se ToSe irporepov cr/ct//cJ/xe#a, 

Tiept TO St/catoi> /cat TO aSt/coi> /cat TO alcr^pbv 
/cat TO KOL\OV /cat dyaOov /cat KO.KOV OVT&J<? fy&v 6 prjro- 
as Trept TO vyteii>oz> /cat Trept TO, aXXa <5i> at aXXat 
t, avTa /u,eV ov/c etSoJs, Tt dyaObv rj Tt /ca/coV l(rnv r) 
Tt /caXoz> ^ Tt atcr^pov 77 8t/catov ^ aSt/coi', ireidto Se Trept 
avTuv jU-ejut^ai^/AeVo?, <3crT So/cetv etSeWt ov/c etSajs ei^ 

> >?/ ^\\ >O / */ >' >O 

ov/c etooo~t jaaAAoi' TOV CIOOTO? ; ^ avay/ciy etoevai, /cat oet 
E irpoeTTLo-ToifJievov ravra d^)t/ceo-^at Tra/oa o~e TOZ^ jaeXXozra 
fJLa0TJa'ea'0ai Trjv prjTopLKTJv ; et 8e ju-ry, crv 6 TTJ? pr)TopLKr)<s 
StSacr/caXo? TOVT&V peis ovSez^ StSct^ets TOI' a^KVOvfj.ei'ov 
ov yap (TOV epyov, 7701170-619 8' eV Tot? TroXXots So/ceu> 
etSeVat avTov TO, TOtavTa ov/c etSoTa /cat 8o/cet^ ayaBov 
ov/c o^Ta ; ^ TO Trapdirav ov^ otos T ecret 8t8aat 

TTOJ? TO, TOtavTa 

460 a\tj6eiav ; 

.dtos, tocnrep apTL etTre?, a7ro/caXvi//as 

TtS TTO^ 17 Swa/Ht? <TTIV. 

T1 f~\ T ' ^ \ \ ' * > ^ * - ? 

1UF. A\\. eyoj jj,v otjaat, oo 
/cat Tavra Trap e/tov ju/a^c 


pf)TOpiKri<$ etTie 


irpbs \6yov'] C. F. Herm. proposes 
irpbs X6yov, on the ground that irpbs 
^.({701; is found nowhere else. Phileb. 33 
C, &* irpbs A<J-yor T< ^. So Trpbs liros, 
ibid. 18 B. But irpbs \6yov is supported 
by irpbs Tp6irov, Phaedr. 252 D, and 
Theophr. CBSfTxxx., to which the anti- 
theton is airb rp^ron. Comp. OVK airb 
ffKoirov eipifKev, Theaet. 179*07 TJIymp. 
gives irpb \6yov, which, if not a copyist's 
error, has the analogy of irpb 6Sov and 
irpodpyov in its favour. Tr., ' If it should 
answer our purpose;' 'it itfTKFTn~the 
interest of onT^iscussion to do so/ After 
next line Olymp. inserts 

460. Siffirep &pri eltrfs, a.iroKa\v\)/as^\ 
Above, 455 D, oAA' eyd> aoi ireipaffonai, 
5 Sw/cpares, ffafytas a.iroKa\v^ia.i r))i> 
TT)S pTjTopi/cTJs Siivafiiv. 

'AA.A' 6710 fjifv /j.aB'iia-frai] Perhaps 
the cloud of quotations collected by 
Stallb. may be sufficient to protect 

this reading of the MSS. against Ste- 
phen, who alters fj.aO'fifferai into /iof?^- 
a-fffOai. I confess that the position of 
ey& fn\v ol^at in the sentence seeins to 
ine to distinguish it from cases in which 
di^ai Se, SOKU Se, SOKOJ /ueV, SOKSI 8e /uoj, 
and the like are placed in parenthesi. 
Heind. reads /xafl^ffeerflai with Steph. 
Stallb.'s argument, " quod indicativus 
longe accomniodatior est Sophistae con- 
fidentiae quam oratio aliunde suspensa," 
is characteristic. 

v ExS^] This phrase oceura again 
490 B, ex* ST; WTOV, evidently in the 
sense of eiritrxes, ' hold/ a meaning how- 
ever which it will not always bear. The 
grammal-ians explain it by irp6fftx f > ^7 6 
S-fi, 'dpa 8^, and the like : but the parallel 
passage in this dialogue justifies Heind.'s 
version, " subsiste," with which Stallb. 
quarrels. Compare Protag. 349 D, and 
Heind.'s note. The argument which 
follows is to our notions sophistical 



[460, A 

crv nva TTOLt^crr)?, dvdyKrj avrov etSeVat ret St/cata /cat TO, 
aSt/ca ^rot uorepov ye rj vcrrepov paOovTa Trapa crov. 

POP. ndvv ye. 

%fl. Tt ov*> ; 6 TO, reKTOviKa ju,e/aa#i7/ca)9 re/crovt/cos, B 
f) ov ; 

POP. Nat. 

^/i. OVKOVV /cat 6 ret /xovcrt/ca Covert/cog ; 

POP. Nat. 

^/2. Kat 6 TO, iarpiKa tarpt/co? ; /cat rdXXa ovrco /caret 
TOI> avTov \6yov, 6 jae/xa^/cws e/cacrra rotovros ecrrtv otov 
17 iTTLcrTTJfJir) Kao~Tov aTrepydtf.rai ; 

POP. nd^u ye. 

OVKOVV /caret rovrop rof Xoyov /cat 6 ret St/cata 
St/cato? ; 

TOP. Uctvrcos ST^TTOV. 

^/2. 'O Se St/catos St/catd TTOU irpdrrei. 

TOP. Nat. 

5"/2. OVKOVV dvayKT) TOV [prjropiKov St/catov etmt, ro^ 
Se] St/catoi^ fiov\.o~0ai * clet * St/cata 

enough. Not so, however, from the 
Socratic point of view, according to 
which every virtue is a form of know- 
ledge, and every vice the result of igno- 
rance. Cornp. Xen. Mem. iii. 9. 4, 5. 
It may seem that Gorgias might have 
turned the tables upon Socr. by simply 
substituting &SIKOS for SiKaios in the pre- 
misses, as indeed Olymp. remarks (p. 49), 
IffTfov Se on Suyarbv Kal e/c rov Ivavriov 
ffvfj.irepavai Kal elirelv 'O piirtap ^TTHTT^- 
/JLUV rov aS'iKov o ^Triffri]fji<av rov aS'iKOv 

SiaTTpdrrerai- & Siairparr6fjievos &5iKa OVK 
effn wore SiKaios' 6 apa p-f)rcap ovSeirore 
S'iKai6s e<rriv. 'A\\a <t>afj.ev, he adds, 
on Svvarai o p4)r<ap elSevai rb SiKatov 
ov% 'Iva. xp^trTjTot oAA. 1 'Iva. <pvyr) avrb Kal 
/j.$l ayvoSiv irepiireay. The objection how- 
ever is fallacious, for, according to the 
doctrine of Socr., the &SIKOS is not 6 ra, 
&SiKa elStas, but 6 ra SiKaia, and (as a 
consequence) ra &SiKa /u^j flSds. 

C. OVKOVV\ Quintilian adverts 
to this passage in terms which prove 
that he read it nearly as it now stands, 
but in a different position, at the end, 
namely, of the argument, after tpalverai 

ye. " Disputatio ilia contra Gorgiam ita 
clauditur : OVKOVV aydyK-rj -rov fy-t\Toputbv 
SiKaiov elva.1, rbv Se SiKaiov /3ov\firOai 
SiKaia irpdrrfiv" (Inst. ii. 15. 27). From 
this it is pretty evident that the text 
had been disturbed before his time, and 
the sequence of the reasoning inter- 
rupted. The mention of pT/iropiitos in the 
sentence as it stands in our copies is 
clearly premature, his turn coming after 
the SiKaios has been disposed of. Another 
fault is, that the proposition ouSeTroTe 
I3ov\-t]o-frai 6 SiKaios aSiKtlv is more than 
the premiss, as it stands, can support. 
If we insert ael, which may easily have 
been absorbed by the last syllable of 
/3ov\ecr6ai, the reasoning becomes conse- 
quent, as, by expelling the clause I have 
bracketed, it is made regular in its form. 
'The just man performs just actions, 
does he not ? ' ' He does.' ' In fact he 
wills to do just actions always.' 'Ap- 
parently.' 'If so, the just man will 
never will to act unjustly.' ' That fol- 
lows of necessity.' ' But from the pre- 
misses it follows of necessity that the 
rhetorical man is just ' (sc. on ra SiKaia 
, sup. A and B). ' Yes.' ' If 

461, A.] POPPI42. 29 

TOP. 4>aiveTaL ye. 

572. OvSeVoTe apa ySovX^creTat o ye St/catos dSt/cetv. 

POP. 'AvdyKf). 

. Tov Se prjTopiKov dvdy/CT; e/c TOV Xdyov St/catoi> 


TOP. Nat. 

372. OuSeVoTe dpa ySovX^crerat 6 pr)TopLKo<s dSt/ceu'. 
POP. Ov <f>aivTai ye. 

XV. 372. MefJLVTjo'a.i ovv Xeywi/ 6Xtya> irporepov on 
D ov Set rots 77atSorpty8at5 iyKoXtiv ovS' e/c/8aXXetv e'/c raiv 
eav 6 TrvKTfjs rfj TTVKTiKr) -^prJTai, re /cat dSt/c^ ; 
Se ovrw Kat eai/ 6 pTjTCjp ry prjropLKy d8t/c<w? 
i, /U,T) rw StSct^avrt ey/caXetv //,i^Se e^eXawetv e/c 
, dXXa rw dSt/cowrt /cat ov/c 6p6a><s 
prjTopiKrj ; epptjOrj ravra >) ov ; 
POP.' 'Epp-qOr). 

^/2. Nv^ Se' ye 6 aurog ovros ^>atverat, 6 
E ov/c ctf Trore dSi/o^o-as. 17 ov ; 
POP. $atVerai. 

5*/2. Kat eV rotg Tr/owrot? ye, w Po/jyta, Xdyots eXeyero, 
ort 17 prjTopiKrj Trepl Xdyovs etry ou TOVS TOV dyortov /cat 
TreotTTOv, dXXa rovs TOV St/catov /cat dSt/cov. ^ yap ; 
POP. Nat. 

5"/2. 'Eya> roivvv crov TOTC TavTa Xeyoi'Tos vneXajBov 
a>s ovSeVoT* av etiy 17 pyropiKr) dStKov TTyoay/xa, o y' del 

atoo-WTy? TOVS Xdyovs TrotetTaf evretS^ Se 6Xtyoi> , c 
eXeyes oTt 6 piJTwp TTJ p-r)Topu<fj KOV dS/c6j^p^ro, r. 
461 | OVT&) Oavpdcra<s /cat ^yqcrdyievos ov o-vvaSe/ Ta Xeyd- 
/zeva e/cetvovs etTrov TOVS Xdyovs, 6Vt et /Ltei/ /cepSos ^yoto 

so, the rhetorical man will be incapable proposed, which, however, need no re- 

of willing to act unjustly.' [Of these commendation beyond their intrinsic ne- 

alterations the first was anticipated by cessity. lu defence of &/, which Hirschig 

Professor Woolsey of Boston, U. S., in places before f}ov\fff6at, he justly appeals 

his edition, p. 147. The second (the in- to 460 E, ovtieiroT* Uv foj ^ f>rjToptK^ 

sertion of act) occurred to me some years &StKoy Trpay/j.a, '6 y' dei vepl StKatoawris 

ago. All three have, I now see, occurred rows \6yovs irotf'iTai.^ 

independently to M. Hirschig (Explora- D. do-auras 5e oureo] So Protag. 351 

tio Argumentationum Socraticarum, &c., c, TO. aviapa WCTOUTOIS OVTUS ov 

1859). I mention this by way of external Scrov avtapa. 
evidence in favour of the emendations 


30 IIAATflNOS [461, A 

etmt TO eXey^ecr^at axnrep eya>, a.t;iov etrj StaXeyeo-#at, et 
Se ^77, lav -^aipeiv vcrrtpov Se rjitatv eTTtcr/coTrov/zeVGJV opas 
ST) /cat avro? ort au 6/xoXoyetrat rov pj^ropiKov dovvarov 
etvai dSt/ca>s ^p'rjcrOa.L rf) prjTopiKy /cat e'0e'Xetz> dSt/cew>. 
ravra ow 07777 TTOTC e^et, /xa rov KVVCL, <w Popyta, OVK 
oXty/7? crvvovcrias ecrrlv <5o"re t/caz>a>s Stao~/cei/facr#at. B 

XVI. TlfiA. TL Sat, o3 ^w/cpare? ; owrw /cat o-v Trept 
r^5 prjropiK'YJ's Soaets tocnrep vvv Xeyet? ; ^ otet OTI Pop- 
ytas ya")(yv6r) CTOL jfir} Trpoo-o/xoXoy^crat TOV prjTopiKov 
avSpa /XT) ov^t /cat TO, St/cata etSeVat /cat ra /caXa /cat ra 
dya^a, /cat ea*> jai) eX^ ravra ctSw? Trap' avrov, auros 
StSd^etv ; erretra e/c ravri^? tcrws rr^s 6/xoXoytas ZVO.VTLOV 
rt <Twef37) ev rots Xoyotg^Toi)^' 6 Sr) dyaTra?, aurojjxya- c 
CTTI TOtavra epwrry/xara. eiret rtva otet dirapvrjo'eo'Oai, 
ov^t /cat avrov eTTto-racr^at rd St/cata /cat d'XXovs StSd- 
^etv ; dXX* ets rd rotavra dyetv TroXXr) dypotKta ecrrt row? 

9 /2 /cdXXtcrre ZTwXe, dXXct rot 

eratpovs /cat vtets, tVa eTretSdi' avrot TrpecrfivTepoi yiyvo- 

461. ju.eb T^P /euro] A choice specimen the causal clause 8rt Fopy/os K.T.A.. The 

of Neoplatonic trifling is the following passage however seerns to me to make 

scholium of Olympiodorus : fia. rbv Kvva. sense without resorting to either sup- 

ffv^oXiKSts TOVTO. 6 yap Kvtav ffvfj.^o\6v position. ' Do you who maintain these 

<TTI Ti?r \oyticfis farjs, ws etpijTai ti> rats paradoxes yourself believe them? or do 

iroKireiais- fx l Tl ^ KVO>I> tyiXfootyov, rb you think (with me) that Gorgias was 

StaKpiTiK6v, K.T.\. He alludes to Eep. ii. ashamed, &c. And then, in consequence 

376 A. The Socratic oaths, not however of this unlucky admission of his, I dare 

peculiar to Socr., v^ or juo rbv K^va, say a contradiction did occur in the 

or rbt> wiva, find an odd counterpart in reasoning the thing we know you 

the old Engl. " by cock and pye." dearly love for it was you, not he, who 

B. ^ olet 'Ari\ Stallb. stops before and gave the conversation this interrogative 

after olei, and interprets tin by "prop- turn.' In OVTU Kal ffv the /cot does not 

terea quod," quoting Theaet. 147 A, tf, belong to 5oaejs, as Ast strangely sup- 

oltt, rts rt avvl^trl TWOS OVO/JLO., K.T.\. poses, but to ffv : ' Do even you think as 

The 2nd Zurich ed. agrees with him and you say to say nothing of your audi- 

with Hirschig in placing the interrog. ence ? ' 

after \6yois. I am not sure that this is C.'fl /caAAicn-e IlwAe] It is possible that 

any improvement on the punctuation of this homosoteleuton was intentional, and 

the first ed., which I have retained, by way of parody of the Sicilian practice. 

Professor Woolsey conceives that the In sense it is much the same as & \tpffre 

sentence ends abruptly at SiSd^ei)/, and Hu\e, inf. 467 B. See note to Phaedr. 

that Polus meant to have added, ' that 278 E. 

therefore his inconsistency is to be a\\d rot] A Paris MS. (C) gives 

charged to rhetoric,' or something to TI, perhaps a relic of an old reading &\\o 

that effect. And certainly the clause ri. But roi and T( are perpetually con- 

a /c.r.A. would be no just apodosis to founded in the MSS. 

461, E.] 


/xei>oi crc/>aXXwjue$a, Trapovres v/xets ot vewrepoi liravop- 
OoiTe rjfJLMV TOV /3toi> /cat eV epyot? /cat eV Xdyots. /cat ^w 
D et rt eya> /cat Popytas eV rot? Xdyots cr<aXXd//,e#a, erv 
TrapoDV 7rav6p9ow St/catos S' et. /cat eyw e$e'X&) TOW a>ju,o- 
Xoy^/xeVcuv et Tt <rot So/cet /u,^ /caXw? w/xoXoyrycr^at, dva- 

o rt az> crv ySovX^, edV /-tot eV [JLOVOV <f>v\oLTTr)s. 
Tin A. Ti rouro Xeyetg ; 

TT)I> /xa/cpoXoytW, w ILwXe, ^ KaOep^ys, y TO 

Xco/xat ; 
E ^/2. Aeiva. 

Tt Sat ; ov/c e^ecrrat jaot Xe'yetv oTrocra a 


av 7ra#ot5, a) /Se'XTtcrre, et 
'.EXXdSos ir\eio~Tr) o~rlv e^oucrta TOV 
Xeyetv, eVetTa cru evravOa TOVTOV jadvo? aTv^Tycratg. dXX* VLt^-jAt'V 
Tot* crov jJiGLKpa XeyovTos /cat ^17 eBeXovTos TO iy &isg. 
ov Setv' dv av eya> 7rd#ot/u, et 

gives the following passages in justifi- 
cation : Rep. v. 461 B, |tWpavToy : Tim. 
34 C, |wp|as : Polit. 285 B, ep|as : Tim. 
18 D, ffvvep^iv : Rep. v. 460 A, <rvvepews : 
Thuc. v. 11, irfpifpavTfs : Soph. Aj. 593, 
fi/i/e'pT6 : Oed. T. 890, 894, epfrrai. He 
might have added KaOepyvvrat in Cratin. 
ap. Polluc. 10. 160. As the tendency of 
the scribes would be to alter the older 
form into the more modern, I have 
adopted KaBfptys, which, as Baiter ob- 
serves, is further confirmed by the cor- 
rupt reading Ka0e|r?y. 

"bene" (Pindeisen). Rather male, for 
Plato would have written O.TTOTVXOIS, an 
objection which seems to have escaped 
Ast. O.TVX& occurs with the gen. in 
Isocr. Nicocl. p. 20, St., iiiv . . . fj.r]Stvbs 
Tov-rcav druxpy- 

d\\' avriOfs roi] This reading of the 
Bodl. and many other MSS. was restored 
by Bekk. in place of the vulg. r& or TI'. 
Conip. Soph. El. 298, a\\' taQi roi 
riffovffa. y' a^iav ?>iirt}v, as one instance 
among many of the separation of a\\d 
D. Ka6fpr)s~\ Vulg. KaOfiptys : St. and rot. The meaning is, ' as a set^fflq, 
KaBe^rjs with one MS., an impossible this, think what a hard case mine will be, 
tense. The older form KaQepfys is pre- iffyou aie to hold forth without deign - 
served by Olymp. and the Bodl. and ing to answer my questions, while I am 
seven other MSS. Baiter, who has not to be at liberty to leave the room, and 
changed the KaBfiptys of the first into get out of hearing.' 
Ka0e'p|?js in the second ed. of the Zurich, 

e] Heiud. reads, with one 
MS., tiravopBSiTf, adding, " Vulgo tiravop- 
Ooire, quod soloece infertur post prae- 
gressum praesens tempus KT&fj.f0a.. V. 
Dawes, Misc. Cr. p. 85." See however 
Person on Ear. Ph. 1. 68, " Hanc regu- 
lam (sc. Dawesianam) non videntur per 
omnia servasse Tragici : cf. Hec. 1121, 
3131;" and Gram. Meerra. ap. Schaef. 
Greg. Cor. p. 647, ra evuTiica avrl viro- 
TaKTtKcav Xanfiiivova'tv (pi 'ArTtKol). 
Comp. also Rep. iii. 410 C. " Hoc dicit, 
ut nos, id quod optamus, sustentetis et 
erigatis" (Stallb.). 

/col vvv~\ Tr., ' and if in the present 
discussion Gorgias and I are in danger 
of breaking down, pray come and help 
us up again, as it is but fair you should. 
On my part too I am prepared to cancel 
any of the premisses you may disapprove 
of, if you will oblige me by observing 
one^ condition.' ai/qfleirPat is properly 
to revoke aT move in a game of draughts. 
Hipparch. 229 E, dA\a nfyi' /col tUffire 
TreTTev<ui> e(?e'A.a> <TOJ a 



[461, E 

r) e^ecrrat />tot aVteVat Kat /XT) a/covets crov ; dXX et rt 462 

TOV Xdyov TOU eipry/xeVov /cat Tra.vop6d>cracr6aL avrov 
jSouXet, axnrep vvv 817 eXeyo*>, dvaOefJievos o TI o~ot SoKet, 
eV raj fjiepei IptoT&v re Kat epcDTUfJievos, aicnrep eyw re /cat 
Topylas, eXeyxe re /cat eXey^ov. <r)? yap 8177701; Kat o~v 
eTTtcrracr^at aVe/a Popytas. ^ ou ; 
U/2^1. "Eyojye. 

5*/2. OVKOVV /cat <jv /ceXeuet? crairro^ epcorav e/cao-rore 
o rt av rts ySovXiyrat, a>s eTTtcrra/xe^os aTro/cyot^ecr^at ; 
TIflA. Ildvv [lev ovv. 

Kat Wi' Si) TOVTWV OTrorepov ^SovXet Trotet' 

XYII. HflA. *A\\a ironjcra) ravra. Kat /xot 
eVetS^ Po/ayta? aTropelv croi 

\\ /INT 

, cru avrrjv rwa <prj<s et^at ; 
epwra? rjVTLva Te^vTjv <j>rjp,l etvat ; 

La e/xotye SoKet, a) JlaiXe, a>s ye 77/305 

eu>ai ; 

IlflA. '^4XXa rt o~ot SOKCI 17 p 

ITpay/Lta 6 (17? cru TrotTjcrat Tt)(vr)v iv rep ervy- 

Tlfl A. Tl rovro Xeyets ; 

eywye rwa. 

462. Koi rOv 8^7] pCy 5^, it is scarcely 
necessary to observe, has usually the 
sense of ' modo,' ' but now,' ' a short time 
ago' (oXt^oj' e/j.Tr(>off6fv, as the gram- 
marians explain it), and takes an imperf. 
and sometimes an aorist. It is so used a 
few lines above, &<rirtp vvv 5^ e\fyov, 
and in this sense is occasionally opposed 
to vvv, as in a passage of the Laws (iii. 
683 E), ^ vvv 8^ [0^170^ e/u.irpocrflej'] 
rovrois irepnvx^vres rols \6yots OVTU 
ToCT 1 fri6ffj.ev, vvv 8' &nA.eA.^<ryue0a, 
whence Cobet ejects the palpable gloss 
b\iyov e/jiirpocrOfV. Magnes Comicus (ap. 
Meineke ii. p. 10), elite pot, vvv 8^ /j.ev 
&/J.MS fj.ij ytyovevai, vvv 8e <f>-r)s, where, 
as well as in Eurip. Hipp. 233, Cobet 
reads vvvS^i (following the analogy of 
titeiSfi, SrjXafi'fi, &c.). Compare by all 

means his Vv. Lectt. p. 233, " Con- 
firmat hanc observationem et veram esse 
demonstrat quod vui'5^ non dirimitur 
interposita particula, et dicitur vvv^ 
fj.ev, non vvv /j.fv S^, quod sicubi legitur 
videbis ad vvv Si] referendum, et cum 
praesenti tern pore et futuro conjungi." 
In the passage before us, however, vvv 
8^ is used as T&rt 5^, auri/ca 5ij, &c., 
each adverb and particle retaining its 
ordinary sense. Stallb. has collected in- 
stances in his note : which perhaps are 
hardly called for. 

B. Hlpayna, 6 </>7jy cru iroiTJffai Tfxvrjv^ 
'a thing which you say created Art/ 
See the quotation from his own book 
given by Polus, sup. 448 c, efj.Treipia 
fj.ev yap Trote? rbv alwva. 
/car a ' 

403, A.] ropriAS. 33 

HflA. ' E pTreipia apa o~ot So/cet 17 prjTopiKrj eu>at ; 
, et JJLTJ TL a~v aXXo Xe'yet?. 

Iin,A. TlVoS fJLTTLpLa ; I . .1 . 


IlflA. OVKOVV /caXoV o~ot So/cet 17 prjropLKr) elvaL, 
tat olbV T etvaL dv6p(t>TTOL<; ; 

TL Se', a) UaiXe ; ^817 TreVvaat irap e/xoi) o Tt 
avTrjv etvat, a>o-Te TO /XCTO, TOUTO ep&JTas et ov 
D fJiOL So/cet et^at ; 

Ilfi A. Ov yap 7reVvo-/xat oTt e/x7retpta^ TIVO, avrrjv 
etvat ; 

BovXet ovv, eTretS^ Tt^aas TO 
Tt /x, 
lift A. 

5*/2. 'Epov vvv /Lie, 6i/07rotta ^Tt9 jw-ot So/cet Te^vrj etvat. 
Tin, A. 3 Epa)Ta) Sif, Tt's Te\mr) 6i//O7rotta ; 
5^/2. OvSeyata, a> JloiiXe. 
IlflA. 'A\\a Tt ; ^a^t. 
5*/2. $17/1,1 817, e/itTretpta Tts. 
JI/2^1. TtVos; ^t. 

5*/2. $??/x,t 817', ^aptTO? /cat 17801^5 aTrepyacrtas, a) HwXe. 
TlflA. Tavrov ap ea-riv 6i//07rotta /cat p 
; ye, dXXa 

TlflA. TtVo? Xeyets 

5*iT2. Mr^aypoiKOTepov rj TO dX^^es etTreu'* o/c^w 
Topyiov eVe/ca Xeyew, /^>) oliqraL /xe Sta/cw/xwSetv TO eav- 
TOV e7rtrjf8ev/x,a. eya* Se', et jLtev TOVTO icrTiv 17 prjropiKr) 
463 ^^ I Topytas CTTtT^Sevet ov/c otSa' /cat yap apTt e/c TOV 
Xoyov ouSef -^/xtv /caTa^>ave? eyeVeTo Tt TTOTC OVTOS T^yetTai- 
o o eyw /caXw T^V pyTopiKujv, TrpayjaaTos TWOS eo~Tt popiov 
ovSews TO>^ /caXoiv. 

POP. TtVo?, a) 2<aKpaTe<s ; etTre', 

V- Mj? aypoiKfafpov ^1 ' I fear it may ence to Gorgias, lest he should thin i 

be some^yhat uncivil to say the truth ; that I am caricatnriiig_hi8 special_pur- 1 

for I shrink from speaking, oat of defer- suit." 




XVIII. 2f2. AoKti 
eVtTrjSeu/x.g re\vu<ov 

y ov 


[463, A 

o> Topyia, elmt 
crro^aorrtKJ^? Kat 





KaXco Se avroC ey<w TO K<dXatoi> KoXaKetav. ravr^? jtzot B 
SoKet r)s eViT^Sevo-ews TroXXa /xev Kal dXXa juopta eii/at, 
IV Se /cat 17 O^OTTOUK^' 6 SoKet /x> etvat re^vrj, a>s 8' 6 
/M' e/xos Xoyos, ou/c cart re^vrj, dXX' e/x,7ret/3ta Kat r/nffiy. 
Tavr^5 fj.6pi.ov Kat T-^V prjTopLKrjv ey&> KaX&i Kat TT^ ye 






TTapo~L rrpayfJiao~Lv. el ovv ySouXerat 
7rvv0aveo-0o)' ov yap TT&) TreVvcrrat orrolov ^p eyco TTJS 
KoXaKetas [topt-ov elvai TTJV prjropiKTJv, dXX' avrov 
d,7roKK/H/AeVo9, 6 Se eVave/xura et ov KaXov 17* 
eya> 8* aurw OVK airoKpivov^ai Trporepov etre 
^yov/xat ett'at TT}V pr)TopiKijv, Trpiv av 
o rt earTLV. ov yap BiKaiOV, w JTaiXe' dXX 
ySovXet TTv0ecr0aL, epwra OTTOIOV nopiov rrjs KoXa- 
Ketas <j)r)jjil etvat n)i> prjTopLKTJv. 

Tin, A. *Ep<t)Ta> 817, Kat airoKpwai, oirolov 

4^53. Aofce? roiVw] This entire passage, 
as far as Si/cajoo-uj'ijj', 466 c, is quoted by 
Aristides Rhetor in his spirited but ver- 
bose treatise De Rhetorica (p. 6, Dind.). 
I have noted many and adopted some of 
his various readings. 

TI] Om. A. Rh. 

tJ/tiX^s Se ffroxcurriKrjsl Isocr. c. Soph, 
j 294, rauTa 4e TToAAijj e'iri/j.e\eias Se?ff6ai, 
I Kal tyvxys avSpiK^s Kal 5oaffrtKrjs (f. 
/ ffToxaffriKTis, Hirschig) epyov elvat, as 
I here, an enumeration of the qualities re- 
quired in a rhetor. The coincidence be- 
tween this passage and that in the text 
cannot be thought fortuitous; and as 
Isocrates wrote the speech against the 
Sophists at an early period (see Antid. 
7, p. 280, Ziir.), it is probably Plato 
who is the borrower. There is some 
malice in the substitution of ffroxo-ffriKr\s, 
' shrewd/ for theSof acrriKris of Isocr., 
wEo" meant toUeicnTJe^a' person, 8o|o<roj 
vepl eKaffrov .r}\v a.\i]6eia.v fj.a\\of Svvd- 
fMvov rlav eiSevai <paffK&vr<av, which he 
boasts to have been his own case (Panath. 
234 D). These considerations should, I 
think, prevent the acceptance of Hir- 
schig's plausible conjecture noted above. 

B. TJ 6^/oiroiiK-fi'] A qualitative adj. de- 
rived directly from tyoirot6s. The art 
of the fancy-cook or cuisinier. Stephen 
injudiciously adopts O^OTTOHJTJ/C^J on in- 
ferior MS. authority. In A. Rh. the 
article % is omitted. 

&s 8' <5] So A. Rh. ; vulg. o>* 5e 6. 

c. (^Tjyu 1 tyw] So A. Rh.; vulg. 

eyo> 5'] A. Rh. ; vulg. 4y& 5. 

tire Ka\bi> efre oitr^p^J'J A. Rh. elre 
alffxfibv fire Ka\6v. 

2 rt I<TT(V~\ A. Rh. 8 iffnv. 

TTvdtff6ai] A. Rh. irvvOdveffdai. 

air6Kpit>ai] A. Rh. cnroKp. ILOI. With 
the entire passage which follows, and its 
tabulation of sciences and pseudo-sciences, 
the reader may compare a passage in the 
Antidosis of Isocrates, possibly suggested 
by the present. $ov\o/ 8e irtpl rijs 
TOJJ/ \6yuv iraiSeias &ffirtp ol ytvta.- 
\oyovvTfs irpcaTOV 5tf\0t'ti' . . . 6/j.o\o- 
yitrai Mev yap r})v <pv<riv ijnuv tK re rov 
ffdifjiaros ffvyKelaGai Kal rrjs <^iX^s . . . 
ovru tie rovrtav fX^ vr(av Aptovre? rives 
irepl fiff riav a\\cav iro\\as Te^vas awe- 
ffrriKvias, irepl Se rb rrania Kal rty tyvxty 
ovSff rotovrov ffvi/TfrayfJ.ei'oi', evp6vres 

464, A.] 



*Ap ovv av jua#ots airoKpiva^evov ; CCTTI yap 17 
Kara TOV \6yov vroXtTt/cTy? jMOpiov etSwXov. 
Hfi A. Tt ovv ; KoXov r) alo-^pov Xeyets avrrjv elvat ; 
Alcr^pov eywye* Ta yap /ca/ca atcr^pa /caXoi* 
7) Set trot aTTOKpivacrOai a>9 T]S^ etSort a eya> Xeya). \ ^ ua 



eya> oue auro? 





POP. Ma TOI> Jta, 
E <TWir}fJLL o TL Xeyet?. 

5*/2. ELKOTUS ye, a) Popyta* 

\ / TT^X ^ x "^ / > \ > > { / 

Xeyw, UwXos oe ooe veos ecrri Kat ogus. 

n^k r *^\\^ ** \ v >\o>>\ 

POP. ^4XXa TOVTOV fj.ev ea, e/zot o eiTre 

[JLOploV tS&)Xoi> Cti^at T^V pTJTOplKTJV. 

'.4XX' ey<u Tretpacro/xat ^>pacrat o ye 
elvat 17 prjTopLKTJ' el Se /MT) ruy^ai/et oi' TOVTO, ITa)Xos oSe 
e'Xey^et. erw/xa TTOU /caXets Tt, /cat ^vyriv ; 
4C4 | POP. Hw? yap ov ; 

^< <- ^-k > ^ V' * \ 9 t r 

2,fi. OVKOVV /cat TOVTCOV otet rtva et^at e/carepou 

+T* \Jte>e*> 


POP. "Eywye. 

5"/2. Tt Se' ; 8o/covcrav JJLCV eve^tav, ovcrav S' ou ; olov 
rotd^Se Xeyw -TroXXot SOKOVOW eu e^etv ra craj/xara, ovs 
ov/c av paSto)? atcr^otrd Tt?, ort OVK ev e\ovcriv, dXX' ^ 
tarpd? re /cat rail/ yvfJUsacrTiKuv rt?. 

POP. ^X^^ Xeyets. 

To Totourov Xeyft) /cat eV crw/iart etvat /cat eV 

ev eetv TO craiw,a /cat 

Se ovSev ^a 

eTnueAei'as Kar4\ivov Tj/tuV, irepl 
^.1' ra ff<afj.ara r^v iraiSorpi^iK^v ^js ^ 
yvfivaffTiK^i jue'pos effrt, irtpl Se TOT i^u^cts 
T^J' <pi\o<j-o<p'iav irtpl ?is y<> fji(\\ta irotti- 
ffdai TOVS \6yovs, avriffrpS^ovs Kal 
<rvvyas Kal aipifftv avrdis 6fju>\oyov- 
Htvas, K.T.\. Antid. 193, Bekk. Observe 
the expressions &<nrep ol yfvtaXoyovvrts 
and trvfryas, as illustrative of those tabu- 
lar arrangements of which Plato is so 
fond ; and of which we have elaborate 
specimens in the Sophistes and Politicus. 
E. n&>Aos 8e o8e] Of course a play 
upon the name Polus. See Introd. and 
the passage there quoted from Aristotle's 


Rhet. The ovrr)s of Polus arose from 
his failing to perceive the importance of 
knowing the rt ^<rr of the thing discoursed 
of. He inverts the natural order by 
asking for the irot6t> before he knows the 
T(. In fact he was ignorant of the first 
elements of the dialectic art. Gorgias 
is better instructed, and exclaims, with 
something of impatience, ' Oh ! never 
mind him. Tell me what you mean by 
saying that Rhetoric is the image or coun- 
terfeit of a branch of the art Politic. 5 

464. aXX' ff] So A. Rh. ; vulg. &\\os $. 

b irotei~] So A. Rh. j vulg. 8 TI. 



[464, B 

TOP. "E<rn TavTa. 

XIX. 5*iT2. <&epe 817 crot, 

6 Xeyw. Avow ovrow rolv Tr^oayaarotv Suo Xeytu 
TT]v fj,ev eVt rfj ^v^rj TroXtTt/cTp /caXai, TT)I> 8* CTU 
[TW] (rw/aart fita? /xe> OVTWS 6>o/>tdcrai ov/c e^cu croc, /Aids 
Se ovo"r)<; r^s rov crwjutaro? ^epavretas Svo [Jiopia Xe'yco, Tr}*> 
r^v 8e larpiKiijv TT}S Se TroXm/djs 
/xei> T^ yvftmcrrt/cTT? rrjv^Q^ioOeTLKtjv, OLVTI- 
<TTpo<j>ov 8e T$ iaTpiK-fj Tr)v St/catocrw'^v. CTTIKOIV wvovcri 
/nez/ Sr) dXX^Xatg, are Trept TO avro ovcrat, efcare/oat rovrwz/, 
17 re icLTpiKr) ry yvfJLvacrTiKy /cat 17 BcKaLocrvvYj Trj 
BeTiKf)' 0/ Se 8ia^>e/3ouo-t Tt dXX^Xwv. 
TOVTGJV ovcrwv, /cat del TT/OOS TO fteXncrTov 

TO eraijaa, TO>^ Se T>)V ^v^ijv, rj /coXa/cevTt/c^ ato~- 
j, ov yvovcra Xey<w dXXci crTo^acra/ieV^, 

B. rV /teV] A. Rh. T);V /uev o5f. 
Bekk. /col TTJI' jueV, with one MS. T^ 
before (r<fytcm omitted in Bodl. 

/xiaj' /ui/ ot/rws] Of this idiomatic use 
of o0T<os see exx. Phaedr . 235 c, ' I 
cannot invent a single name on the 

cufTiffTptxpov fj.ev Trj 'yv/j.vaff'riKfi^ So A. 
Rh. j *^ulg. avri /uev TT}S yv/jtvaffriKrjs. 
The repetition of avriaTpofyov seems to 
me" more ' forcible. The word is used 
with a dative Rep. x. 616 BJ with a 
gen. Phileb. 40 D and elsewhere, as below, 
465 D. It denotes a relation like that of 
' strophe ' and_J antistrophe ' in poetry ; 
or between the two win^s bt J a regular 
facade in architecture, or a picture and 
its j_p_ejid.ant/ &c. 

c. SjKcuoffiJj'Tjc] I have retained SIKCUO- 
avvt\v in preference to the rival reading 
SiKaffTucfiv, which has the support of two 
inferior MSS., and is confirmed by the 
authors of the Prolegomena to Hermo- 
genes, p. 9 (Rhett. Graeci, p. 22. 15, ed. 
Walz). But Quintilian certainly read 
SiKaioffvvr)v (Inst. Or. ii. c. 15, " duas 
partes civilitatis . . animo assignet, lega- 
lem atque justitiam "), which is also 
found in Aristides Rh., in the Schol. on 
this passage, and in Olympiodorus, who 
has the gloss, irpbs ^iKa,ioavvi)v O.VT\ 
rov Trpbs StKaariK-fif. Socr. is en- 
titled to assume the identity of justice 
and dicastic, for he has just proved on 6 

f.i.tfj.a.6 views ra, $1x0.10. tlictuot. He ' who 
has learnt all about justice' is the ideal 
dicast, and it is of his art that Socr. now 
speaks under the name of justice. A 
passage in the Politicus is illustrative of 
the present : \flirr6ai Se r& ripta /col 
vyyfvij (TTO\ITIKIJS firio'T'fi/j.rjs), TOVTUV 
5' &TTI irou (TTpaTriyla Kal SiKaffr ticfi 
(303 E). So inf. 520 B, we read, K<\- 

vof^oOeTiK^i SiKcumicris, where however 
we find in the text quoted by Arist. Rh., 
as here, SiKaiotrvvys. The passage of 
Rep. i. 332 D, where SI/COIOCTWTJ is for 
the sake of the argument virtually iden- 
tified with SiKaffriK-fi, is not really in 
point, as the opinion is only advanced 
for the purpose of being refuted : nor is 
it safe to build upon a passage in a 
doubtful dialogue like the Clitophon 
(408 B), where SiKaioa-vvij is identified 
with both TroAjTHCTj and 5i/ca<rri;cVj. But 
the passage from the Politicus proves 
that Plato could use StKao-Ti/c^ in a good 
sense, as the art of the model Si/coer-r^y, 
who, as we have seen, has been shown to 
be SlKaios. 

f] KoKaKevTiK 1 !}] Olymp. p. 62, IffTeov 
'6n TOffovTov Sicupfpfi, us <t>"n(rlv 'Api<rro- 
reA.77s, <t>i\os KdhaKos offov TO ayaBbv rov 
rjSeos, alluding perhaps to Eth. N. ii. 
7. 13. 

rerpaxo. 5ia.veifj.affa] The following 
scheme will assist the reader : 

465, B.] rorriAS. 37 

eavT?)v Siavei/xao~a, VTroSvo~a VTTO eKaorov TWV 
D irpoo-Troietrai elvai TOVTO o7rep~v7re'Sv, Kal TOV /xev 
O-TOV ovSev <povTtei, TO> 8c del T^CO-TO) ByjpeveTai, TTV 
avoiav Kal l^airaTa, wore SOKCI TrXetcrTov d^ta etvat. VTTO 
jtxev^ovv TT)V laTpiKrjv r) OI/JOTTOUKT) vTroSeSvKe, Kal irpocr- 
TroietTat TO, ySeXTto~Ta o~tTta TW o~cy/xaTt etSeVai, WO~T' ev. 
Seot ev 7raio~l Staycuvi^eo"^at O^OTTOLOV TC Kal taTpov 17 ev 
dvSpdcrtv OVTWS dvo^TOis wo~7rep ot TratSeg, TroTepos eVatei 
Trepl TWV ^p^crTaiv o~tTt<uv Kal Trovqp&v, 6 taTpos ^ 6 
E 6i//O7roto5, Xt/xw av a7ro$avtv TOV laTpdv. KoXaKetav /xev 
465 ovv avTo KaXw, Kal atcr^pdv ^/xt etvat TO TOIOVTOV, | a) 
JIaiXe TOVTO yap Trpos o-e Xeyw, OTI TOV i^Se'os o-To^ct- 
^eTat dvev TOV ySeXTtcrTov Te^vr^v Se avrr)v ov ^/xt elvat, 
dXX' e/XTretpiav, OTI OVK e^et Xdyov ovSeVa wv 7rpoo~^>epet, 
aTTa Tt)v <f>vo~iv eo~Ttv, WO~T T^V atTtav eKao~Tov jtx^ 
etTretv. eya> Se Te^vryv ov KaXai 6 av 77 dXoyov 
7rpdy/xa. TOVTOJV 8e Trept el d/x^tcryS^Tet?, eOeXu VTTO- 
o-^eiv Xdyov. 

XX. T^ tiev ovv taTpiKTj, wo~7rep Xeyw, 17 oi/fOTrouKr) 
B KoXaKeta vTroK^traf TT} Se yvfJivaa'TiK'fl KaTa TOV avTov 
TOVTOV 17 KOfJLfJiaiTiKTJ, KaKovpyd? T ovp-g Kal aTra- 
Kal dyevv^s Kal dveXev^epos, o*^T7/xacrt Kalvpw/xacrt 


^ roO ffwfjLdTos dfpairtia 

virgSt1 Arist. Met. 3. 2. 19, of Sa- Jupiter;' Tim. Lex., Kon^bs \6yos. 

\eKTitcol Kal (ro<J>i(rTa raurii' viro5i5oi'- KO!"^ ayatfdj Se KoJ d wjeoi'^TTjTj uiroSvo'- 

TOI o-xwa TIJ; <t>t\offd<p(f. Id. Rhet. i. 2. /texos rV aA^eeioi'. (In Xen. Oec. 14. 

7, 81 J> aJ uiro5uToj uirb T& erx^a rb 3, ^ /cai T^V St/caioeruj'TiJ' viroSuet 8t- 

TTJS iro\jTiKr)s ^ pijTopiK'fi. The metaphor Soff/ceif, used for U7ro5e'x'.) 

seems taken from the stage : Luc. Pise. B. coo-re SoKfi aid] AT. Kb. has 

c. 33, viro$v(r9ai rbv Afa, ' to personate SoK(7v and a^iav. 


[465, B 

/cat XeioTrjon /cat icrQr\(Tiv a,7rarw(ra > ware iroiew aXXorpiov 
KaXXo? l<f>e\KO[JiVOvs TOV ot/cetov roO Sta rrjs yu/xvacrrtK^g 
d/xeXea'. tv ovi> /u,>) /Lta/cpoXoyoo, IBeXo) crot etTretv (oonrcp 
ol ye&j/Ae'rpat 17817 yap av tcroog <x/coXov$i7<Tais [ort _ 

/COja/ACOTt/Cl) 7T/DO5 yVfJiVaO'TLKtjV, rOVTO Olj/OTrOtt/a) TTyOOS tttTpt- 

Tt 6 KopjuoTucr) TT/DOS v^vacrTLK^v, c 



oTt] O OlfjQTTOUKr) 

7T/30S iarpLKT/jv, rovro prfTopiKir] TT/OOS iKau.o<Twr]V. 
/xeWot Xe'yo), Sie'or^Ke jj.ev_ovTat_^varL' are 8' eyyu? 
<j>vpovTa.L iv r<w avrw /cat Trepl raura cro^torat /cat pijro- 
p9, /cat ov/c )^ov(TLV o TI ^pf)(ra)i>TaL ovre avrot eajurpls 
cure ot aXXot av6p<imoi TOUTOIS. /cat yap ai', et JU/T) 17 
raJ crcj/xart eVeoTaret, aXX' auro avra>, /cat /u/r) VTTO 

not include itrBijcri. Other (rx^juora were 
the paddings with which lean persons 
eked out their figures, and the thick 
soles with which the dwarfish supplied 
their lack of stature, as set forth by 
Alexis in the edifying passage referred 
to. This use of ff-xfinara is analogous to 
its rhetorical sense. Illustrative of this 
analogy of the decorative and rhetorical 
art is likewise the following passage of 
Photius quoted by Jacobs (ap. Steph. 
Lex. ed. Dind.) : tiravQei TOIS \6yois (rov 
*lo~OKpd.Tovs) ov fiovov efjKpvrov, aAAa /cal 
KOfj.fn.(ariKOf Kd\\os. 

C. oirtp p-fjropes^ This passage seems 
to be corTticLljy explained by Stallb., who^ 
understands ravra after SjeVrrj/ce, andl 
retains ffo<pio-f&l kal frtifopty us absolutely I 
necessary to the sense, though omitted f 
in one MS. and by Bekker at Schleier-? 
macher's instigation. OVTWV refers ap- 
parently to rhetoric and sophistic. Tr., 
* However7 though as 1 say, there is this 
essential amerence between tne arts in 
question, yet as they are near neighbours, 
their professors, the sophist and the 
rhetor, are apt to be confounded as oc- 
cupying common ground and employed 
upon the same subject-matter, insomuch 
that they know nofc what to make of 
each ot^ier (avrois for ctAA^Aojs as frecf ), 
nor indeed does the rest of the world 
know what to make of them.' Invectives 
against 'Sophists/ it may be observed, 
are as frequent in some of Jsocrates's 
orations as in the Platonic dialogues (see 
esp. Isocr. c. Sophistas, Busiris, Helenes 
Encomium), and the Eristics entertained 

465 B. Af(5T7J<r4 KOI &T07)(T'] Vulg. 

AetdrrjTj /cal alffB^fffi, Ar. Rh. has ecrOriri, 
which confirms the (as it seems to me) 
certain emendation adopted by Bekker 
from three MSS., two of which give 
Afidrrjo-t and the other eVOfjmv, which is 
also recommended by Heind. Tim. 65 c, 
rpaxvTTjffi T *coi<jT77(n. Hirschig 
gives tffB-fjffft, a word of doubtful note, to 
say nothing of the inelegance of the change 
from a significant plural to singular. 

[&'TJ t> /cojUjucoTi/dj] The brackets in the 
text include the words omitted by Ar. 
Rh. f,ia.\\ov Se wSe sound to me like a 
gloss, introducing a duplicate reading. 
Certainly the terms of the proportion 
which Aristides retains are all that are 
necessary for Socr/s purpose. The word of somewhat uncertain lineage. 
A scholiast derives it from K6fifjn, gummi, 
which can hardly be true. Modern lexi- 
cographers connect it with Ko/teiV, comere, 
or, still better, with udo-fios, KOIJL^I&S. The 
arts of the KO/U/UWT^S or Ko/j./jLcerpta are 
vividly described in a passage of the 
comic poet Alexis, quoted by Athen. xiii. 
p. 568 (Meineke iii. p. 422, 'Itroo-rdfftov), 
and more briefly by Philostratus, Ep. 39, 
as o4>0aAjuc viroypatyai, Kal KOfiuv irpoo~- 
Oeireis Kal faypcufttai irapfiuiv Kal xetA.ecoj' 
fiafyai. The corresponding Latin terms 
are mango, mangonizare, as in Plin. 
N. H. xxiii. 1, " Succus radicis vitis 
nigrae cum ervo laetiore quodam colore 
et cutis teneritate mangonizat corpora," 
a passage which illustrates AetoT7j(rt in 
the text. KO^&V irpoo-de<rets would come 
under the head of o"xi7M a(r '> which would 

166, B.] 


D rairnys /coreflecupetTO /cat 8te/cptVeTO 17 TC 6i/fO7rott/Qj_/cat 
17 larpiKif], dXX' avTo TO o-w/xa e/cpive aTa^xaj/Aej^pvrats 
rats Trpos avrd, TO TOV 'Avaayopov OLV TTO\U 17 p, a) 
JTaiXe crv yap TOVTUV e/XTretpos, 6/xou 
e<ftvpeTo eV TO? avTaj, 

a.TpiKiav /cat 

rav re 

/cat O^OTTOUKWV. o jueV ow eyoij 
etz^at, d/c^/coas* avTicrTpcxfrov 6t//o- 
ev o"w/AaTi. *Jo~a)s /u,ei> ovy aTO- 

7r7roi?7/ca, OTI ere ov/c eoiii/ p,cu<pov<s Xdyov? \eyeiv 
crv^vov Xoyoi> aTroreraKct. di.ov /xev ov^ e/iol avy- 
eyeiv eo~Tt* Xeyoi'Tos yap ^u,ov ftpa^ea OVK 
ou8e ^o^cr^at T^ aVo/cpto-ei 17^ o-ot 
ovoev olds T' y<rda, aXX' eSeov Si^yifcrea)?. eav /txev 
466 /cat eyw crov airoKpivo^evov pr) e^co o Tt ^pi 

Tetve /cat o~u Xdyov, eai^ Se ex^), ea fte xprj(T0ai' 
yap. /cat ^vi/ ravrr) ry dTro/cptVet et Tt e^ets xpfjc 

XXI. IlflA. Tt ovi/ <^5 ; /coXa/ceia 8o/cet o~ot u>at 
17 pTjTopLKij ; 

Sfi. KoXa/cetas /Aei' ov^ eycuye elTrov jotdptov. dXX' ou 
T^Xt/covrp? wi^, a) HwXe ; TI Ta^a Spacret? ; 

IlflA. 'Ap* ovv So/coOo't o~ot 015 KoXa/ces ev Tat? 7rdXeo"t 
vo/xt^ecr^at ot dyaQol pr^Topes ; 

'EpwT^/LAa TOUT' e'pwTas ^ Xdyou Ttvos 
Xe'yets ; 

doubtless an equal contempt for the more 
popular accomplishments of the pro- 
fessed rhetor, while both were in dis- 
repute with the simple citizens, the 
iStwrai of the day. 

D. rb TOV 'Avaa.y6pov fey 7ro\i> %v~\ 
"Late p^teret ac irequens esset~Hlud 
Anaxagorae dictum" (Stallb.). The 
" dicturaJL-QCCiirred at tbe^comapce- 
menr^fhis celebrated treatise. See the 
authorities in Ritt. and Preller, Hist. 
Ph. 61. Anaxagoras^yas the_first to 
give to vovs or tyvtffi thepre-eminence of 
which Socr. has just spoRH: 

BJ CKCIVO iv ffta/JUlTl] i. C. 01S fl 

tyoiroiia a.VTiarpo<f>6v fern rrj faTopiKfj 
Iv (Tta/jiaTL. Rhetoric is a spiritual cookery, 
as cookery is a corporeal rhetoric. Each 
is the pendant or counterpart of the other. 

466. KoXaKf fay fiev oZv Spdffe ts] 
' No ! I called it a branch ot flattery. 
Is your memory failing, Polus, and you 
so young ? What will you do presentfy ?' 
He had understood Socr. to identify 
Rhetoric with Flattery, as if they had 
been co-extensive terms, irpfff&imis 
yfv6fj.(vos formerly stood in the edd. 
after Spoereis, but some of the best 
MSS., including the Bodl., omit the 
words. That they are a gloss appears 
from another v. 1., vtos &>v Trpfa&vriis 
yfySptvos an interpretation of TTjAi/c- 
OVTOS as well as rdxa- There is certainly 
some difficulty about the use of rdxa, 
but perhaps Stallb.'s defence is satis- 
factory, " Taxa nunc facets et jocose de 
longiore temporis spaTIo~dicitur/ r ~Conip. 
Ar. - 

40 IIAATflNOS [466, B 

, IinA. 'EpuTu lywye. 
fct* - pv* , 5 ! ,'' a . 5 

-i 372. Ovoe vouA,L,cruai> e/xotye oo/covo"tv. 

^ TinA. ITois ov vo/xt^ecr^at ; ov tte'yto-Tov Svvan"at ev 

rats 7rdXeo-ti/ ; 

3/2. Ov/c, et TO SvvacrQat ye Xe'yets dya#oV Tt etvat TW 

Tlfl A. *.4XXa /x> ST) Xey&> ye. 

372. 'EXd^LO'Tov roivvv /aot So/covo-t TOJJ/ eV T# TrdXet 
Svva.(r0ai ol pijTopes. 

TlflA. TL Se'; ov^;, aMnrep ol rvpOLWoi, a,TTOKTivvva.(ri 
re oi> av j3ov\a)VT(u, Kal a^aiipovvrai ^p-rj^aTa /cat e/c- 

aurot? ; 

&> ITaiXe, 

e/cao-rov a)v Xeyet?, TTOTepov avTo? ravra Xeyet? /cat 
CTO.VTOV airo<f>a.iveL, f) e/x,e e/xura?. 
'<4XX* eywye o~e epwra). 
Etev, a) <^>tXe' eTretra Suo a/xa /xe e/o<uras ; 
Iin,A. JTais Svo ; 

JS'/i. Ou/c a/DTt ource) 7T&)9 eXeye?, ort 
ol piqTopes 0^9 av ySovXwvrat, axrirep oi Tvpawoi, /cat 

d^>at/3ovvrat Kat e^eXawoucrtv e/c TWV TroXewv 6v D 

avrot? ; 

Tlfl A. *Eya>ye. 

XXII. ^12. Aeya) roivvv o~ot ort Suo ravr' eo~ri ra 
/cat aTro/cptvouttat ye crot Trpo? dtt(^ore/3a. 
t ya/), a) JTaiXe, eya> /cat TOU? ptJTOpas /cat rovs rvpdv- 
vov<s Suvao-#at /xev eV rats rroXeo-t cr^Kporarov, axnrep 
vvv 8^ eXeyov ouSev yayo Trotetv 5v )8ovXovrat, a? CTTOS 

> < / V * '"^'i^/D^V T 


c. N); rbv /cvra] ' I swear to you, questions instead of one. It seems to me 

Polus, that I am really in doubt, each that the position of jueVrot in the sen- 

time you speak, whether you are stating tence is sufficiently justified by the pas- 

your own views, or asking my opinion.' sages adduced by Ast, viz. Gorg. 481 B, fi\ So Protag. 336 D, T^JV v^i robs 6foi>t a\\' iiriBvfjiia : Arist. Nub. 

eauToO yvdfj.rit' airoQaiveffOai : ib. 340 B. 652, v 1 ^ r'bv Al' aAA' o?5o. Clearly jueWoi 

Stallb., following Bekk., places a colon could not precede apQiyvow, as oAAa 

after v^ rbv Kvva, thus making Socr. could not have followed it. I do not 

answer Polus's question in the affirma- therefore perceive the force of Stallb.'s 

tive, though he immediately afterwards objection. 
declines to reply to it, as involving two 

467, A.] 


TIflA. OVKOVV TOVTO lam TO /ne'ya SvVao-$at ; 

2f2. Ovfc cos ye ^ycrt ITcoXos. 

TIflA. 'Eyai ou ^/u,t ; ^/xl /xeV ow eycoye. 

572. Met TO*' ou <rv ye, eTrel^ TO /xeya SvVacr#ai ^9 
dyaObv elvai TCO Swa/aeVa). 

Tlfl A. $7)1*1 yap ovv. 

2n. '^lya^o^ ow otet u>cu, edV Tts 770177 ravra a 
av SO/CT} aural /3e'XTio-Ta eli'cu, i>ouV JU,T) e^wv ; /cat TOVTO 
/caXels jjieya Svvao~0ai ; 

IlflA. OVK eya>ye. 

5'/2. OVKOVV aTToSei^ei? TOU? prfropas vovv e^oi^Tas 
467 /cat Ttxyyv TTJV prjropiKrjV aXXa | JU,T) /coXa/cetav, e^ae ee- 
. et Se jae eacret? d^eXeyKTov, ot pyTopes ol 

Tats TTO\O~LV a So/cet avTots /cat ot rvpavvoi ovoev dya- 


oV, TO Se Trotetv d^ev vou a So/cet /cat crv 6ju,oXoyeis 
KOLKOV eivai. f) ov ; 

HflA. "Eycoye. 

2fl. JZcos ai/ ovv ot pijrope<s peya SvvawTo r) ot rvpav- 
VOL ev Tats 7ToXeo"tv, edv yai) SfOKpa.T'r)? e^eXey^^ VTTO 

UcuXoU OTt TTOtOUCTtV a j3oV\OVTO.l ', 

TIflA. OVTOS avrjp 

TOV, we find a like aposiopesis in Aj-ist.l 
Ran. 1374. uo T&V, tyk /j.fv ovS' oy els, \ 
K.r.'XT, where no such motive can be as- \ 
signed. See however the Schol. on that 1 
passage and Routh's learned note on this ] 
place. Compare also the sixth Platonic 
Epistle, ad Jin., where the writer's 
friends are bid to swear " at once with 
scholarly seriousness, and with that 
sportiveness, of which seriousness is twin- 
sister " no inapt description, by the 
way, of the true Socratic temperament. 

<^js] Vulg. (<pris, corr. Baiter. 

467. KtKT-fiQ-Qi'Tai] 'will have herein 
no advantage nothing to congratulate 
themselves on :' a future distinguished 
from KT^ffonai as Ke'/cTij/toi ' to have ' 
from KTw/xoi ' to acquire.' 

OVTOS av-fip ] Schol., oiffavfi c\fyev, 6 
&v9p(airos OVTOS T'I irdff^et ; Socr. finishes 
the sentence for him. Comp. Rep. 506 
B, OVTOS, ffv 5' fy<a, oi/ijp Ka\6s. 

E. Oft/tow TOVT& f<rri rb ue-ya Si^f 
In illustration ot 1 this use of the article 
in the predicate, compare Mr. Shilleto's 
note on Dem. F. L. 130, roCro yap 
^ori T& \a/j.Trp6v, where he refers to the 
expression of Callicles (492 c), ra 8e a\Ao 
TOI!T' ^(TTi TO KoAAwirier/xaTa, TO irapa 
fyvaiv (Tiy^/iOTa. Tr., 'Is not this 
what I called' (above, B) 'having great 
power ? ' 

'Eyb off (print] ' I say no? I tell you I 
say yes ! ' 

Mo TV Olymp., 

t6ie(rffa.i Kpartiv TCOV opK<av. A similar 
pious motive 'is assigned by the Greek 
interpreters for Socr.'s habit of swear- 
ing 'by the dog' and 'by the goose.' 
This however, it is to be feared, arose as 
much from whim as from piety, for in 
this dialogue (449 D) we find him swear- 
ing v^j T^v"Hpav, and adjuring trpbs Ai6s, 
in cases which hardly require the inter- 
position of a deity. And as to the /*a 

UAATflNOS [467, B 

Ov c/?/u Troteti' avrous a f$ov\ovTai' clXXa p B 

TIflA. OVK dpTL a>/xoXoyets Troieiv a So/cet avrots ^e'X- 

Ttcrra evai , TOUTOU 

[, TOU 

. Kat ya/9 vui> 6/>ioXoyu>. 
IlflA. OVKOVV TTotovcrtf a /8ovXo>Tai. 
Xf2. Ov c/07/xt. 
IlflA. UotovVres Se a So/eel aurots ; 


IlflA. ^VeVXta ye Xeyet? /cat V7rep<f)vyj, at 

.< . , Tl^V / T \ ** TT"^V * 

4/2. Mr) KOTJ7yo,_aLAo_T_ : n&)A.e, tva 

\ /. s\\j \v >\> s'^^r *~ ~ ' 

/cara (re aXX et ju-et' e^ets e/x,e epwrav, eTTtoetgov ort r//ev- 

So/tat, et Se ^17, avros aTTOKpivov. 

IlflA. *A\\' eWXa> diroKpLvecr0ai, Zva /cal etSai o rt 

XXIII. ^/i. Tlorepov ovv (rot So/coverts ot aivdpcjTroL 
TOVTO ftovXecrOaL o av TrpaTTcoa-LV e/cacrrore, ^ e/cetvo ou 
eW/ca Tryaarrovcrt Tov6* o TrpdrrovfrLV ; oiov ot ra ^a/D/xa/ca 
Trapa TUV iarpwv Trorepov o~ot So/covert TOUTO 

C. fldrtpov ovv irpdrTov<nv] " He is 
proving that fundamental principle of his 
doctrine, viz. that the wicked man is 
doing he knows not what, and sins only 
through ignorance : and that the end of 
his actions, like that of all other men, is 
good, but he mistakes the nature of it, 
and uses wrong means to attain it " (T. 
Gray). Compare Arist. Eth. Nic. iii. 6, 
rj 8e /8oiA\7j(rs on fitv TOV re\ovs iffriv, 
(fyriTai, Soitel Se rots fJ.ev ayaOov elvat, 
rots Se TOV (patvof^evov ayaOov. ffvfj.Saivet 
8e TO?S fifif rb f3ov\r]Tbv rayaObv \tyovffi 
ju^ flvai fiovXyrbv t> /3ov\fTat 6 n^i opOws 
alpovfifvos (et yap tffra.i ^ov\Tftr6v, ical 
ayadAv, ?iv 8', el ovrcas erv^e, Ka.n6v), TO?S 
8' aS rb tyaivofjLfvov ayadbv rb fiov\r)rbv 
\eyovffi /J.^1 flvai (pvffei 0ov\T/]r6y, a\\' 
endo-Tcp rb SOKOVV &\\o S' &\\<a (paiverai, 
Kal fl ovrcas ervx*,, K.T.\. Also 
Meno, pp. 77, 78; Protug. 357 C. Gray 
refers his readers also to Locke's cele- 
brated chapter on Power (Essay on 
Human Understanding, b. ii. c. xxi. 
41, 42), which is interesting from its co- 
incidence with the Socratic view. 

B. [TOUTOU irpJ<r0j'] There can be no 
doubt that these words are a mere in- 
terpretation of &pn, as Bekk. perceived. 
Stallb. defends them on the remarkable 
ground that they are " agreeable to the 
genius of the man," namely of Polus. 
See the note on vvv 817, 462 A, and the 
passage there quoted from the Laws. 

2x6T^-' 7* \67s] Vulg. (TxerXto 
\fytts. The ye is added from Olymp., 
as freq. in quasi exclamatory passages 
like the present. So, from Stobaeus, 
Heind. also ; who refers to p. 473, &roird 
ye . . eVtxejpeiS \eyeiv. 

& \<f(TTf IlwAel^A jingle of sounds, 
such -as ^JSllW haSprescribed in his art 
of Rhetoric. So in the Symp. (p. 185), 
Ha,vffaviov Se ira.vffOLfj.4vov (SiSdffKOvffi ydp 
ue laa. \eyfiv ol ffo<f>ol), and Hipparch. 
p. 225, teal x&Pt Ka ^ &p<%" (T. Gray). 
So also Olynip. p. 70, and Philostr. Vitt. 
Soph. 13, who observe the same jingle 
in the foil. 'Iva irpofftiirw tre Kara ere. 
Here again possibly Plato casts a side 
glance at Isocrates, who, as a pupil of 
Gorgias, frequently sins in this way. 

-468, A.] 


/3ov\eo-0ai 6Vep TTOLOVCTL, 

TO <dp/z,a/coi> /cat dXyeu>, 

e/ceto, TO vyiaiveiv, ov /ca irvovo~LV ; 

IIf2A. Ar]\ov 6V t TO 

D 5*/2. OVKOVV /cat ot 



[,ov eVe/ca 7rtVovcru>]. 
T /cat TOI> dXXoi> Yp??- 
eo~Tii> o jySovXovTat, 6 

7roiovo-u> e/coTOT' Tts 
vevew /cat TT/aay/xaT* 

fiovXerai TrXetv TC /cat 
^^' eKCtvo, otjLtat, ou eW/ca 
TrXeovcrt, TrXovTetf TrXovTov yap eve/ca 7rXeouo~tv. 
IlflA. ndvv ye. 

^XXo Tt ovi' OVTCU /cat Trept TTOLVTW ; edv Tt? Tt 
eVe/ca TOV, ou TOVTO )8ovXeTat 6 TrpctTTet, dXX' 
e/ceti'o ov e^e/ca TrpctTTet ; 
E H/2yl. JVat. 

V /^ * j ' * * V A>\* 5 /3' 

^/2. ^lp ow eo~Tt Tt TWV OVTOIV, o ov^t -^TOt aryauov 
y ecrrlv rj KO.KOV rj /AeTa^v TovVft)g, ouTe ayaBov ovre 

IlflA. IIo\\r) avdyKr}, a> ^oj/cpaTe9. 

5^/2. OVKOVV Xeyet? eTi'at ayaBov pev crofaav re /cat 
vytetav /cat -TrXovroj/ /cat TaXXa TCI TOtauTa, /ca/ca Se Ta- 
vavria TOVTOIV ; 

HflA. "Eywye. 

Ta Se ja^Te aya^a /Arfre /ca/ca apa TOtaSe Xeyet?, 


TOV /ca/cov, 
iv /cat Tpe- 

468 a eVtoTe /nei/ /oteTe^et TOV dya#ov, 

Se ovoerepov, olov Ka@f)o~0ai /cat / 
/cat 7rXeu>, /cat otov av Xt^ovs /cat vXa /cat TaXXa 

Ta TotavYa ; ov TavTa Xeycis ; "^ aXX' aTTa /caXets Ta 
/) \ / / 

ay at/a ju,7yT /ca/ca ; 

This second o5 
fvtKa. irivovffiv is omitted in two MSS., 
and in Stobaeus, as it seems to me, 

B. T Ap' ogy eq-Tt TI] This theory of 

^ aSiqftopg is^put forward mprpi liositnt.ingly 
in the Lysis, p. 216 D : So/ceT poi uffireptl 

Tpf &TTO, eli/ai 7V7j, T{> /uev ayaSov, rb 
tie KO.K&V, rb 5" otfr" a-yaSbi/ oCre KO.K&V. 
rt Se ffoi; Koi e/j.oi, f<pt). The terms of 
Polus's reply are to be understood Kara 
fb ffrinatvofj.ei'oi'. " Necesse est omnino, 

i sc. omne quod sit uim^ex~his tribus 

esse^" (Buttm.). In the Lysis the theory 
is"wbrked out in considerable detail, not, 
as here, assumed as self-evident : which 
we may take, with Schleierm., as au 
indication of the later date of the Gorgias. 
For Plato will often be found to take for ; 
granted in a later what he has been at 
great pains to prove in some earlier 
dialogue. In the Philebus (p. 43) we 
find an analogous distribution of ^8e'a, 
\vwripd and /uijSeVepo, which Plato em- 
ploys in refutation of a well-known Cyni- 
cal paradox. 

44 IIAATnNOS [468, A 

TlflA. OVK, dXXd Tavra. 

Hn. Horepov ovv ra /aera^v ravra IW/cev TUV dya- 
6a>v TTpdrrovcnv, orav TT parr coo- us, f) rdyaOd T<OV /xeragv ; 
Iin,A. Ta /xera^v STJTTOV ratv dyaBvv. 

To dyaOov apa Stw/covre? /cat )8aSt^o/xv, orav B 
i', oto/xei^ot j3e\.Tiov elvaL, /cat TO ivavriov eo-ra- 
oray eo-rw/Aev, rou aurov eve/ca, TOV ayaBov. r) ov ; 
UflA. Nat. 


/cat e/cy8aXXo/xev /cat afaipovfjieOa ^pri^ara, otd/xe^ot a/xet- 

et^at iatv ravra irotetv 

TlflA. Ildvv ye. 

Sf2. "EveK apa TOV dyadov airavra raura 


nn,A. $^/xt. 

XXIY. 5*/2. OVKOVV aj/xoXoyryo-ajaev, a et'e/ca rov 
Trotov/xev, /x^ e/cetva @ovXeo~0ai, dXX* e/cetvo ou ei/e/ca 
ravra Trotov/xev ; 


Ov/c a/)a cr^arTett' ySouXo/xe^a ouS' e/cySaXXetv e/c 
TroXetuv ovSe ^prj^ara a,<^>atpeto"^at aTrXw? ovra)9> 
dXX' eav jaei' ax^eXt/xa ^ ravra, y8ouXo/xe^a irparrf.iv afard, 
fiXafiepd 8e 6Wa ov ^SovXo/xe^a. ra ya^o dyaOd j3ov\6- 
peOa, a>? ^5 o~v, TO, Se /xTyre dya^a /xifre /ca/ca ou y8ou- 
Xo/te^a, ouSe ra /ca/ca. ^ yd/3 ; d\r]0rj croc So/cai \eyeu>, 
o) IlwXe, ^ ov ; Tt ov/c airoKpivei ; 
UflA. "A\t)B^. 

Ov/covv enrep ravra 6fioXoyovju,ez>, et rt? d?ro- I) 
rtvct ^ e/cySdXXet e/c TroXews ^ d^>atptrat ^/o^/xara, 
etre rvpavvos &v etre piJTfop, oto/aevo? dfAeivov eti^at avrw, 
Se Si> /cd/ctov, ovros STJTTOV Trotet a So/cet avr&>. 


468 c. oTrXaisouTcos] In the abstract ; ' we do not will murder for murder's 
out of mere wantonness and without any sake,' &c. 
ulterior view. Or, as we should say, 

469, B.] 



"^Ap ovv Kal a ySouXeratj etTrep Tvy^avei ravYa 
6Wa ; Ti OVK airoKpivei ; 
HflA. *A\)C ov JJLOL So/cet iroieiv a ySovXerat. 
5/2. *Eo~Tiv ovv OTTO)? 6 TOIOUTO? joteya SuVarat eV 777 
E TroXet Tavrr), eiirep eo~Tt TO peya ovvao~0ai asyadov rt /card 
TT)I> cr^v 6/xoXoyiai^ ; 
lift, A. OVK ecrnv. 

5*/2. 'A\t]6rj apd eyw eXeyov, Xeywv ort- ecrrtv 
irov Trotoui/ra e^ TroXet a So/cet avrw /x^ /xeya 


TTOtetv a 
TiflA. '/2s 
aw TTotetv o rt 

ov/c ay $eaLo 
SoKet <roi cv r^ TroXet /xaXXov ^ 

rtva ^ airoKTeivavra. ov e$oev aurw 

^ S^cra^ra. 
Xeyet? 77 dSt/cws ; 
TlflA. 'OTTorep* \ av TTOI^, ou/c d/A<^OTe)ociJS 


i, a) IlatXe. 
HflA. Ti oij ; 

Ort ou ^/o^ ovre rows d^Xwrovs 
d^Xtov?, dXX* cXeeti'. 

Ti Sat ; OUTCO crot So/cet ^X LV 
Xeyw Taiv av0p<oir(ov ; 
Z/2. JTais yctyo ov ; 

HflA. v Oo~rt9 ov^ a.TTOKrivvvo~iv ov av 80^17 avrw, 
8t/cat(ug O.TTOKTLVVVS, d^Xio? 8o/cet o~ot ctf at /cat eXeu'ds ; 
5/2. OUK e/xotye, ovSe /xeVrot ^Xturos. 
HflA. OVK apTL <L6\iov <f>ir)(r0a elvai ; 
5/2. Tov dStKw? ye, a* eratpe, aTTOKreivavTa, 
eXeivoV ye vrpos' TOJ/ 8e St/cat'ws d 

469. e'Xejj/cJs] Vulg. 3\ffii>6s. See 
Porson's Pref. ad Hec. p. vi : " Atticae 
linguae analogia hanc scripturam flagitat. 
Ut enim a Se'os formatur SeivSs, ut a 
K\OS K\ttv6s, sic ab eAfos formatur 
f \eiv6s." The circumstance that the form 
f\ffiv6s is almost universally found in 
the tragedians, where the metre requires 

s, is a proof that the authority of 
the MSS. may be safely set aside in 
prose writers also. The Attic form is 
preserved in the case of the derivative 
adverb in Arist. Thesm. 1063, K\dfit> 
t\fivus, and by one MS. in Soph. Phil. 

[469, B 
dStKO)? eXewds Te Kal 

Iin,A. V H TTOV o ye a 

a#Xl09 <TTLV. 

2/2. T HrTov rj 6 airoKTivvvs, oi IToiXe, Kal ^TTOI> ^ 6 
St/catws aTToBvri<TK<i)v. 

IlflA. IIius Srjra, a> 2d>KpaT<s ; 

2/2. OvTCt>9, a>s jMeyLCTTov Totv KOLKMV 

IlflA. *H yap TOVTO peyicrrov ; ov TO d 

2/2. "H/ctcrTct ye. 
IlflA. 2v <x/oa ySov 


2/2. BovXoiprjv [Lev av eycuye ov^erepa' ei 8* dvay- o 
Kalov eir) aSiKelv fj dStfcetor^at, eXot/xiyv ai/ jtxaXXoi' dSt- 

HflA. 2v ct/oa rvpavvelv OVK av Se^ato ; 

2/2. OVK, et TO rvpavveiv ye Xeyets oTre/9 eyw. 

11/2^1. '.4XX* eywye TOVTO Xeya> ovrep a^Ti, e^etvat eV 
TroXet, o a^ SOK^ auTw, Trotetv TOUTO, /cal aTTOKTwvvvri 
e/C)8aXXovTt Kal TraWa irpdrrovTi Kara rr\v avrov So^a 

XXV. 2/2. ^/2 fJiOLKapLe, e/tov S*?) XeyoyTog 
eViXa/8ou. et yap eyw ei' ayopa irXyOovo-fl Xa/Swv 
Xeyoc/x,c Trpos o~e oVi^ 

- D 

C. TV \J7<j> e'irj\a)3oC] Inf. 506 B, ^uou 
76 aKovwv iiri\afj.fia,vov, liv ri aroi SOKW 
p)) KoAais \fyeiv. 

D. ^i/ iuyopa ir\ri6ovffri] h. e. in the 
forenoon. Herod, ii. 173*; Athen. p. 279. 
2. Xenophon says of Socr., irput tis 
robs Trfpiirdrovs /cal ret yvfj.vd.ffia 0ei, /cal 
TrATjflouffr; j ayopay ^/ce? <f>a>'tpbs ^v, 
Kal rb A.otirbi' del TTJS ^/uepay ^v 8irou 
7r\f(TTOis fj.e\\oi ffuveffeffBat. 

virb fid\T)s^\ Schol., ^irl rot) icpvQicos TI 
TrpdrTftv, ais Arj^ocrfleVrjy ^v 'A^xJ^^i (p. 
848. 12), ' aA\et/i))J' ou5' wirb /j.d\ys i] irpA- 
is yeyovev, a\\' ev rp ayop.' ir\f- 
iKtas Se ou /xaAas \tyovffiv, a 

Ancrtos ' /cal TT/C ^ 
. s > Tas ^^ MaTX^^- 015 Saeretas.' 
As synonymous phrases he mentions virb 
ic6\Trov or uirb K6\irov. Comp. Aesch. 
Choeph. 73, Saicpvca S" v<p' lfj.drtav, and 
the veru. 'in the sleeve;' Fr., so 

Olymp. seems to have read, virb 
eyxfiplStov Kal \\f)(^vov, and below, et 
ofiv , . . Sfi^aifjLi rb fyxeipfotoi' Kal rbi> 
\vx"ov. The \vxvos may have been a 
bright thought of his own, to account for 
the burning of the arsenal, for which pur- 
pose a dagger would be an unsuitable im- 
plement. Or he may have really found the 
words in his copy. That inrb fnd\r)s needs 
not to be interpreted literally here, we see 
from the following passage of the Laws 
(vii. 789 c), where, speaking of the mania 
for cock or quail fighting prevalent in 
Athens, Plato says, irpbs TOVTOIS \o.B6vres 
virb /j.d\rjs c/caaros, TOVS (iff fadrrovas 
fls ras x f ?P as > M 'C OUS 8' virb r^v ayKd\T]v 
tvr&s, iropevovrai ictpiircnovvTes ffTaSiovs 
ira/u.Tr6\\ous fveica TTJS eue^ias ov TI TTJS 
rtav avroav fftefidrwy aA.Aa TTJS rovrcav rav 
6pfjjL^.dr<av, where Ast observes justly, 
" vtrb fj.d\ijs \a@6vTfs generale est de 

470, A.] 


TI<? /cat Tvpawt? #au/xacria dpTt Trpocryeyovev eai> yap 
dpa e/AOt 0^17 TWCL rovT(t)vl r<av avdpaiTrotv atv crv 6pa? 
avTLKa fJLciXa Seu> reBvdvai, T0isrjei ovros 6v ai^ $6r)' 
KOLV TLVOL So>7 /AOI TTj? /c<^aX^9 o.vT<i)v /caTeayeWt Self, 
/careayws ecrrat avriKa /xaXa, /cai; OoLfJidnov 
Stecr^tcr/ieVoi> ecrrar ouro> /xeya eya> $vvafj,aL iv 
TroXet. et ouv aTTicrrowTt crot Set^at/xt TO ey^eiptSio^, tcrco? 
ai/ etTTOt? tSwv OTI '/2 ^w/cpare?, OVTO> /AC^ Tratre? cu> 

eVet /cat' ejaTrprycr^eti? ot/cta TOUTW TO> 
a.v <TOI So/c^, Kal ra ye *AOrfViuav vecupta /cat at 
rpt^pet? /cat ra TrXota irdvra /cat TO- Sry/Aocrta /cat ra tSta. 
dXX* ov/c dpa TOVT' eart TO ^teya SvvacrOaL, TO Trotetv a 
So/cet avTto. f) So/cet crot ; 

IlflA. Ov $rJTa OVTCD ye. 
470 2/2. "-Eets ovi^ etTretJi/ St' o Tt 

TISIA. "Eyo>ye. 

2/2. TtS^'; Xeye. 

TlflA. "Ort, avayKaiov TOV OVTU Trp&TTOvra 


2/2. To Se ^/Atovcr^at ov KOLKOV ; 
TlflA. ndvv ye. 

2/2. OVKOVV, Si #av/xdcrte, [TO /oteya Swacr^at] 
av crot (^>aiveTat, eav fiei> irpdrrovrt. a So/cet enthral TO 

broken, broken it shall be,' &c. 

470. OVKOVV, & 0atv*a<ne] The frequent 
repetition of SwaaOai is at least un- 
pleasing. In Olyrnpiodorus's copy, the 
sentence plainly ended with <rp.iKp&v 
(Comm. p. 78, Jahn), and I cannot but 
think that the first T& (i.eya SvvaaBai 
was added in the margin by an inter- 
preter who did not perceive that the 
subject of tlvai is the clause tav 
irpdrTovTi . . . uepe\iuti>s vparrfiif. The stu- \ 
dent will observe that t'qyjxeV is followed \ 
in apodosi by e 5fjtTj._ngFJjy tav Se fjA\. 
This usage is universal, where no second 
verb follows, ft Se /^tj having the force of 
&\\<as 5f, alioqui. See Sympos. 185 D, 
tai> <TOI edf\ri TravfffBai TJ A.u-yf, . . (I 
tie fi-fi, v5an avaicoyxv\ia.ffoi> (for 4&v tie 

omnibus usurpatur quae occultantur et 
omnino teguntur, ne cadant vel effugiant, 
vel omnino conspiciantur." Arist. Lys. 
985, /fSirftra 8<Jpu 5^fl' uTrb fid\7]s r/Kfts 
tX&Vi where the literal sense is equally 

TTJS /ce^aArjs Karfayfvat] A suffi- 
ciently familiar use of the gen. of the 
part or place. Arist. Acharn. 1180, TTJS 
K</>aA.7js Karfaye irtpi \iOov trtffui/ : ib. 
Vesp. 1428. Herodian ap. Bind, ad 
Steph. Lex., Kareayias TTJS Kf<f>a\fis, ov 
fj.$iv Ko.tfa.v rr]v Kt>a\riv, a\\a fjifpos n 
avr-tjs. EJ/TroAts. Ou yap Kard^fis TTJS 
/ce(pa\TJs Ta pdfjL/j.aTa. But Kartaytvcu 
Tr)v Kpa\'f)v is equally good Attic : 
Lysias, p. 99. 43. So Ta &ra Kartay6Tiav, 
inf. 515 E. Here tr., ' If I resolve that 
any one of them should have his head 



[470, A 

a></>eXt/xct>s Trpa.TTt.iv, ayadov re tlvaL, /cat TOVTO, cos eot/cei>, 
ecrrl TO /xeya SvVao-0ar et Se /x-if, KO.KOV /cat crfJUKpov 
[SvVacr0ai]. Z'/cei/ico/Lte^a Se /cat ToSe. dXXo Tt 6/u.oXo- B 

eVtoTe /oteV aptwov etz>at raura Trotetv a vw ST) 
eXeyo/xei>, dTro/cTtwvVat re /cat eeXauVeti> avOpatTrovs /cat 
d(at/>tcr0at ^pry/xaTa, eVtoTe Se ov ; 
Tin A. Haw ye. 

TOVTO jueV Sif, as eot/ce, /cat Tra/oa crov /cat 


ewat TavTa 






'Eycu juev TOIVVV ^/xt, a) ITcuXe, et crot Trap* e/xov 
.<TTIV oLKoveiv, oTav fJLtv St/catcos rts raura 770177, 

etvai, OTOLV Se dSuccos, KO,KLOV. 
XXVI. TIflA. Xa\eir6v ye o~e eXe'y^at, ai ^w/cpares. 

\\> >N * * 'X'^ " * *\ /)'* \ ' 

aXA. ou^t KCLV Trats o~e eA.eygetev ort ov/c a\r)ur) Aeyet? ; 

IIo\\r)V apa eya> rep TratSt ^aipiv e^cu, 10*77^ Se 
/cat aTraXXd^s <f>\vapia<s. clXXd 
) KafjLr)<s <tXov d^Spa evepyeT&v, dXX' eXey^e. 
TlfiA. *A\\a v, cu ^w/care?, ovSeV ye ere Set Tra- 

/cat o-ot, edi' 

. . a v, cu w/cpare?, ove ye ere et Tra- 

yk/'P^T/, Xatots TrpdyfjLaa'LV eXey^etv rd yap e^es /cat Trpforjv ye- D 

D. TO 7ap ^x^* s ^"^ wpcfojy 
day or CIlU dn^ liufui u tile' other day. 3 
Horn., x^'C 1 ^ Te Ka ^ Tpwr^ii : Thuc. iii. 
113, ovStvi tyaxd/ufOct X^f^j-^^ irpu>r]v. 
"As the time of this dialogue plainly 
appears (from that passage in p. 473, /col 
Trepvffi 0ov\fi>ftv Kax^v, which is taken 
notice of by Athenaeus, v. 217) to be 
Ol. 93. 4 (B.C. 405), the year after the 
sea-fight at Arginusae, these words must 
be taken in a larger sense, as we say of 
a thing long past, ' It happened but the 
other day,' when we compare it with 
more ancient times : for Archelaus had 
now reigned at least nine years" (say 
eight"'y ear's see" t'lltlLOll, F. II. -fl. an. 
414. 2, ib. p. 223), " and continued on 
the throne aj^out six years longer. So 
in p. 503 in these words, neptK\fa TOV- 

TOV\ rbv vftaffrl Tfre\evT7]K6ra, we must 
understand veceari in the same manner, 
for Pericles had been dead twenty- 
three years, but the time is there com- 
pared with that of Cimon, Themistocles, 
&c., who died many years before. Socr. 
indeed might have seen and remembered 
Cimon, the other two he could not. 
These particulars of Archelaus's history 
are curious and not to be met with else- 
where. Athenaeus (xi. 506) is absurd 
enough to question the truth of these 
particulars, or, supposing them to be 
true, he says that they are instances of 
Plato's ingratitude, who was much in 
favour with Archelaus. The passage 
which he cites immediately after from 
Carystius of Pergamus disproves all this, 
for it shows Plato's connexion to have 

470, E.] 


yovora ravra iKavd ere eeXeyat eVrt /cat aTroSei^at a? 
TroXXol aSt/covVre? avdptDTroi, evSatjU.ove's etcru/. 

Jf/2. Ta Trota raura ; 

Tlfl A. 3 Ap^e\aov Sr^vrov TOVTOV rot' TlepSiKKOv 
ap-^ovra. MctKeSoz'tas ; 

5^/2. jEt Se /xi7, aXX* d/cova> ye. 

TlflA. EvSa.L[j,(t)i> ovV crot So/cet e>ai -^ a#Xtos ; 

Ov/c otSa, a) UaiXe' ov yap 7r<u crvyyeyova 

E TlfiA. Ti Sat ; o-vyyevo/xevo? ap yvot^s, aXXcag Se 
ov ytyvwo'Kets ort 

Ma Ai ov Srjra. 

J 77X01* S^, <5 2a>KpaT6<s, ort ovSe TOV /le'yav 
ytyvajo~/ceii' <f>ijcrei,<s evBaifJLova 6Vra. 
Kat aX-rjO-rj ye epar ov yap oTSa TratSetas OTTO;? 
t StKatoo"vVrys. 

TT f~l A T\' ? ' / e SO />/ 

1112A. it oat ; > rovrw 17 7rao~a evoat/xovta eo~rti/ ; 

been with Perdiccas <Ae Third, who 
began to reign thirty-five years after 
Archelaus's death, and was elder brother 
to the famous Philip of Macedon. We 
have an epistle of Plato to that prince 
still remaining. At the time of Arche- 
laus's death, Plato was under thirty- 
years of age" (T. Gray). The blunder 
of Athenaeus is almost incredible. It 
may serve as a criterion of the value 
of other malignant accusations of Plato 
and his school which we have no direct 
means of refuting. Archelaus is the 
king who entertained Euripides, and 
at whose court the poet died. His 
talent as a ruler is highly extolled by 
Thucydides (ii. 100). According to 
Aelian (V. H. xii. 43), Sov\t)s vlbs fy 
TTJJ St/ut'x''?*- The author of the Second 
Alcib. alludes to his death and its cir- 
cumstances as x^'C 1 * Te Ka ^ irp(ei& 
yfytvrj/jLeva (141 D). This anachronism 
hardly needs the elaborate apology of 
Mr. Clinton (1. 1. p. 224, not. k), for the 
dialogue in which it occurs is the work 
of a later and probably an ignorant 
imitator. Anachronisms differ in kind 
and degree, and it is hardly possible to 
conceive that Plato or Xenophon (to 
whom the Alcib. ii. is by some attributed) 
would have represented Alcibiades, who 
died at a mature age in 404, as still 

young in B.C. 399 ; still less would either 
of these authors have introduced Socr. 
conversing with his young friend at least 
two years after his own death. Ibid. E, 
and Buttmann's note. The hand of an 
imitator is betrayed by the 
irpwi^d, as compared with the 
vptarjv of the passage before us. 

E. avTodiv ov yiyvt&ffKfis^ 'don't you 
know already^' i. e. t'ronT the facts men- 
tioned ; as it" he had said 4 "avrov rov 
Hpxeiv avrbv MaKeSovlas. Arist. E"q7330, 
SfjXtfFTcrTjV a,in60tv. The passage from 

OVK ol8a~ to &5cov is thus rendered by 
Cicero : " Haud scio, nunquam enitn 
cum eo collocutus sum. Ain* tu ? an 
aliter id scire non potes? Nullo modo. 
Tu igitur ne de Persarum quidem rege 
magno potes dicere, beatusne sit? An 
ego possim, quuin ignorem, quam sit 
doctus, quam vir bonus ? Quid ? tu in 
eo sitam vitam beatam putas ? Ita 
prorsus existimo : bonos beatos, improbos 
miseros. Miser ergo Archelaus ? Certe, 
si injustus" (Tusc. Quaest. v. 12 [35]). 
The object of the chapter is to claim for 
Plato the credit of a sentiment after- 
wards maintained by Zeno of Citium, 
who is called " advena quidam et igno- 
bilis verborum artifex." Cicero proceeds 
to translate a kindred passage from the 
Menexenus, p. 248, ory yap avSpi, K.T.\. 

50 IIAATfiNOS [470, E 

ye eyw Xe'yco, c5 ITwXe- rov /u,ev yap 
KayaObv aVSpa KOI ywat/ca evSat/xova etvat (frrjfju, TOf Se 
dSt/cov /cat TTOvrjpov <L9\iov. 

| TlflA. "A6\Lo<s apa ovrds earw 6 'Ap-^eXao-s Kara 471 
rbv crov \6yov ; 

2"/2. Eiirep ye, a> <tXe, dSt/cos. 

HflA. 'A\\a /xeV S?) Trwg ov/c aStKos, oj ye TT^ooa^/ce 
rrjs -PX% ovSei' ^ vvf e^et, ovri e/c ywatfcos ^ ^v 
*A\KTov rou ITepStK/cov dSeX^ov, /cat /caret /zi> TO 
St/catoi' SovXos 17^ '^X/ceVov, /cat ct e'^SovXero ra 8t/cata 
iroielv, eSovXevev ai/ t A\KTy KOI 3\v evSat/xcov /caret rov 
cro^ Xoyo^* vvi' Se ^au/xacrtws a>s a^Xto? yeyovev, eVet 
TO, jae'y terra ^St/c^/cev os ye TrpfoTov peis TOVTOV avrov B 
rov SecrTror^f /cat Oeiov /u,era7rejLn//ctjaevo5 a>s aTroScocrot)!' 
JfTepotK/cas avrov a^etXero, ^eiAtaas /cat 
avrov re /cat TOI> utov avrov 

avrov, cr^eSo^ r)\LKia>Tr)v, efjifiaXaiv et? 
e'^ayaywv aTreV^a^e re /cat ^^avtcre 
/cat ravra dSt/cT^o'ag eXa^e^ eavroi^ d^Xtwraro? 
/cat ov /xere/ J te / X'/yo"et' avrw, dXX' oXtyov vcrrepov rov aSeX- 
^>o^ rot' yvrfcriov, rov UepSt'/c/cov vtdi', TratSa ws eTrrer^, 
ov 17 dp^t) eylyvero /caret TO 8t/catov, ov/c e/SovXi^^ evSat- 
/ot6Jf ye^eV^at 8t/catcus e/c^pe'i//as /cat dVoSov? r^v ap^v 
KLV(t), dXX' eisjfegeap ljji(3a\cov a7TOTTVia<s Trpo? TT)I> /a^- 
Tepa avrov KXeoTrdrpav X^ va ^^ 8tw/co^ra e/xTrecretv /cat 
airoOaveiv. roiydproi v\)v, are ^eyiorra ^St/cTy/ays TCJV ev 
Ma/ceSot'ta, d^XtcuTaTO? eo~Tt Travrajv Ma/ce8dvwv dXX' ov/c 
, /cat torco? eo~Ttv ocrTtg ^ AO^vaio^v OLTTO crov 

471 c. lirreT?}] Vulg. fTrraeTr). I have r^p^s is found iu one MS. and is probably 

restored the undoubtedly Attic form, the true reading. See Lobeck on Phry- 

Comp. Arist. Ran. 421, &s eTrrenjs &j/ nichus, p. 406 foil., whose authority, 

ou/c t<t>v<rf (ppdropas. So eerei iu Nub. supported by the unvarying practice of 

862 ; ITTTSTIJ', Thesm. 480. The genuine the Attic poets as well as by the testi- 

forin is preserved by the transcribers in mony of the grammarians, outweighs 

Alcib. i. p. 121 E, en-eiSay eTrre'rety that of " Bremius on Aeschines," to 

yeisdivrai ol ircu5es, and in SeKt'rrjs where- which Stallb. appeals in defence of the 

ever it occurs in the text of Plato. On vulgate reading. 

the other hand the vicious form Stxcie- airb aav jxg&j^f</os] " nee t(3_gxcepto " 

T7?poy occurs Legg. 772 B, where 5e/ce- (AstjT^Tuqueinipriinis s. inferque_eos 

472, A.] TOPTIAS. 51 

' av dXXos ocmcrouV MaKeSovaiv yevecrOai 

XXVII. Z/2. Kal KOJT dp^cts raiv Xoycov, <5 ITajXe, 
eywye' ere eV^ecra on juot So/ceis eu Trpos T^V priTopu<r)v 
7re7ratoeucr#ai, rou Se StaXe^eo^cu 

aXXo rt ouTo? ecrrtv 6 Xdyos w p,e /cav Trats 
/cat eyw UTTO crou i>w, a>s cru otet, e^eX-^Xey/xai rourw re 
Xoyw, (f>d(TK(t)v TOV dSi/cov^ra ov/c cuSat/xo^a elvat ; TroBev, 
a) *ya0 ; KOL /xr)v ouSeV ye trot TOVTWV o/toXoyo) a>i> cru ^175. 
E nn,A. Ov yap e^e'Xet?, evrel So/cet ye' croi a>5 eya> Xeyco. 
'/2 /xa/cdpie, prjropLKcos yap /xe eVt^etpei? eXey^eLV, 
oi eV TOI? StAcacrrTyptot? ^yov/xei/ot e'Xe'y^etv. feat 
yap e/cet ot erepot rous erepovs SOACOVCTI^ eXey^etv, eVet- 
Xoywt' a>f ai/ Xe'yotxrt jadpTUpas TroXXou? irape- 
Kal evSo/ajaou?, 6 Se ravavria \eyu>v eVa 

ovro? Se 6 eXey^o? ovSevo? d 
172 ecrrt Trpos r^v j dX-^^etav eviore yap av Kal 

rts VTTO iro\\a>i> Kal ^OKOVVTWV elvai, n. Kal 
vvv irepi a)V cru Xeyets oXtyou crot Trdvre? cru/A<^n7croucri raurd 
'AOr/valoi Kal ol 4voi, lav ftovXy /car' e/xou /xdprupa? 
Trapacr^eV^at a>s ou/c aXyOrj Xeya>. /xapruprycroucrt crot, ectv 
et' (3ov\r}, Nc/cias 6 NiKrjpdrov Kal oi dSeX<^ol /xer' aurou, 

tu primus " (Heind., who compares Rep. Eur. Hec. 294, \$7os yap e T' oSoloucTwv 

ii. 336 Dj ib. vi. 498 C, &c.). Tr., 'And juiv Ka/c rcSj/ Sottouvrait' aurJis ou ravrby 

I dare say there are those in Athens (rfleVet : and by St. Paul in his Epistle to 

Iwho, with you at their head (following the Galatians (ii. 2), /car' iSuw 8e TOS 

your lead), would rather change places SOKOWTJJ', where he alludes to his fellow- 

with any Macedonian you could name apostles " James, Peter, and John," the 

than with King Archelaus.' cr-rvKoi of the church, as they are pre- 

D. 5oK?s] We should rather have sently called (ib. ver. 9). 

expected t86i<fis, which at any rate is TOUTO] Van Heusde's emendation, ac- 

better than Heind.'s conj. So/cots. He cepted by Stallb. for the vulg. ToOro, 

alludes to p. 448 D, SijAos yap /J.OL Ha>\os which Ast defends. But the passage 

. . . STJ T^j/ Ka\ovfj.fvr)t> frr)TOpiKr)i> ^taAAoy from Rep. iv. 432 A, irapexoyttei/Tj ^ui'iy- 

fj.f/j.e\eTiiKev % Sia\eyecr6at, a remark Sovras ravrbv Kal Ifrxvpordrovs Kal rovs 

here ironically called a compliment. fieaovs, makes in favour of the change, 

E. eVa Tii/a r) jtujSeVa] Xen. Cyr. v. or at any rate justifies the pleonasm, 
5. 45, TovT<ei> 8e rOav irepifffT-riK^TCiiv tf which is idiomatic. The Zurich punctua- 
Tiva fy ovSfva o!5a. Pers. Sat. i. init., tion of the sentence a full stop after 
" vel duo vel nemo." \ey<a is evidently right. There is great 

472. SOKOVVTUV fli/al ri] Equiv.ilent force in the asyndeton with which the 

of course to ei/SoKifntav. So Euthyd. 303 C, following sentence commences. 

ro>v ffffnvSiv Kal SOKOVVTOM TI thai. Ni/cias 6 NiKripdrov] The famous Nicias. 

Sometimes the tlval ri is omitted, as iu " The tripods mentioned here as dedi- 

E 2 



[472, A 

a>v 01 T/H7roSes 01 e^e^s ecrTwre? etcrtv eV^ro) A tower tw, 
eav 8e flovXrj, ' ApurTOKpaTris 6 JSVeXXiov, ou aiT ecrrw 
f evJHvOol f_ TQVTO TO KaXbv avd07){JLa, lav Se ^80^X17, 17 
ITept/cXeov? 0X17 ot/a'a ^ aXX^ o-vyyeVeia I^TII>' a^ flovXrj 
TWV evBevSe e/cXeao~$ai. aXX' eycu trot, ets a>v ou^ 6/xo- 
Xoyoi)' ov yap /xe cru dvay/cd^eis, dXXa i//v8o/xctyorvpas 
TroXXovs Kar' e/xou Trapacr^o/M-e^os evrt^etpets eVcySctXXeiv ju,e 
ovcrias /cat TOJ) aX^flot)?. eya> Se ay fj,r) ere avro*> 

cated in the temple of Bacchus, must be 
the prizes which he and his family must 
have gained in their frequent xpn7^- 
. . . The brother of Nicias was named 
Eucrates : he outlived his brother, and 
was this very year Trierarch at Aegos 
Potaini (Lysias, Orat. contra Poliorchum, 
p. 320 [149]) ; and soon after was put to 
death with Niceratus his nephew, by 
order of theThirty Tyrants, in the number 
of which he refused to be" (T. Gray). 
Plut. Vit. Nic. c. 3, rota 'A0rjraioi/s 

iro\vTe\fiq. Kdl X"P' T * TOIIS irpb avrov Kal 
Kaff eavrbv airavras. tffriiKfi Sf Kal rSiv 


<av avrov /co( ]/ r 
a,Kpoir6\fi, T^JV xpvfftaffiv O.TTO- 
, Kal 6 TOIS "X.opT)yiKols rpitroffiv 
viroK.eift.fVOS ev Aiovvaov ve<as. fvlKt)ffe 
yap iroAAa/cis xoptiyfiffas, e\ei<p6ri 8' ovSe- 
irore. It appears from this passage, as 
Col. Leake observes, that Nicias built a 
temple to support his tripods : larger, 
no doubt, than the surviving choragic 
monuments of Lysicrates and Thrasyllus, 
but, like them, situated within the 
peribolus of Bacchus (for so we must 
interpret tv r$ Aiovv<rtif), not in the 
theatre itself, T<j3 tv Aiovvarov Oedrpcp 
(Athens and Attica, i. p. 185, note 3). 

Apin-Tfin-p^T^y ft ^g-fAAfnn] " A prin- 
cipal man in the ol i garcB^_ofFour Hun- 
dred (Ol. 92. 1), and of the same party 
with Theramenes. See Thucyd. L. viii. 
(c. 89) and Lysias contra Eratosth. 
( 66), Aristoph. in Av. 125 et Schol." 
(T. Gray). "This is the person men- 
tioned by Xenophon, Hellen. i. 4. 21 ; 5. 
16; 7- 2. He perished with five others 
of the generals, by the result of the 
famous trial which followed the battle of 
Arginusae " (Arnold on Thuc. 1.1.). The 
same Aristocrates is extolled by the 
author of the speech against Theocrines 
attributed to Demosthenes, for the part 
he took in destroying the fort of Eetionea 
(B.C. 411), and restoring the popular 

party to power : a passage in which the 
orator commits the singular blunder 
of identifying the destruction of the 
power of the Four Hundred with that of 
the Thirty Tyrants. See Grote, H. G. 
viii. p. 93, note 2. 

t ev YivOo'i f] One MS. gives ev Tludiov, 
i.e. irptf, meaning the sanctuary of 
Apollo Pythius, called rb TlvQiov, which 
was adjacent to the celebrated Olym- 
picum, in the southern quarter of Athens. 
This, I confess, appears to me the more 
probable reading, for several reasons. In 
the first place it is more probable that 
Aristocrates should have made the dedi- 
cation in question at home, and in a 
place which we know from Suidas (v. 
flvQiov) was appropriated to the reception 
of the tripods consecrated by ol ry 
KVK\ici> x^PV viK'fiffavres ra apyfi\ia, 
than that he should have presented at 
Delphi an offering so distinguished 
among the splendours of that sanctuary, 
as to have won for him a Hellenic 
reputation (rov-ro rb Ka\bv avd6., "pul- 
crurn illud denarium quod satis notum 
et celebratum- est " [Stallb.]). Secondly, 
HuBoi rather than ev flvBoi is the stereo- 
typed form in such cases. Plat. Lys. 
205 C, TlvBoi Kal 'IffB^ol Kal Nf/ue'a : 
Axioch. 367 C, rb TIvBo? repevos : Arist. 
Lys. 1131, 'OKvn.iria.ffiv, ev TlvKais, Iltif 
TTOCTOVS, K.T.A. : Lysias de Bonis Arist. 
63, ev'iK-rifffv 'I<r6(i.oi Kal Ne/uea. Thirdly, 
as Pytho was a shrine better known 
than the Pythium, UuQo? is more likely 
to have been substituted for TlvOiov than 
vice versa, not to mention the elliptical 
construction ev TIvBtov, which might 
puzzle an ignorant scribe. 

B. ov ydp /xe qji avayKdCei^ ' I am not 
compelled by^ any 7 argument of yours,' 
ffv being empliatic. Olymp., loov avdyKrjv 
/caAet T7J^ awoSeiKTiK^v triffnv. 

IK rfj? ovo-ias Kal T<w~aAjjflaus^' from 
my patrlmongtlje -truth.' If KaT is to 
be retained fiT must be understood as 

-472, D.] ropriAS. 53 

eva ovra fjidprvpa Trapda-^cofJiaL 6//.oXoyowra Trepl tav 

Xeyw, ovSev ot/xat a^ov Xoyov /*ot ireTrepavdai rrcpl >v av 

C TI^IV 6 Xoyog # oi)aat Se ovSe crot, lav pr) eyw crot 

"" t* * / \ O>> f\ \ / / 


ea?. ecrrt /u.e> ow ojro? rtg rpoVos e'Xey^ou, a>s crv re otet 
/cat aXXot TroXXot* ecrrt Se /cat aXXo?, oz' eyw av oT/xat. 
ovv Trap' dXXiyXoi^ cr/ce\//w/xe^a, et rt Stot- 

(Tovcriv a\\r)\o)v. /cat yap rvy^a^et Trept w 
rovfjiev ov trdvv crfjuKpa. OVTCL, d\Xa (r^eSov rt ravra Trept 
wv etoet'at re /caXXtcrrov /U,T) etSei/at re atcr^tcrroz/* ro yap 
/ce^aXatov auroiv e'crrii> ^ yty^wfr/cetv ^ cx.yvoett' o<rri5 re 
D euSat^awv ecrrt /cat ocrrt? /ar^. aurt/ca irpwTov, irepl ov vvv 
o Xoyos ecrrt, cru i^yet otov re eu>at jaa/capto^ ai/Spa dSt- 
KOVVTO, re /cat a8t/cov ovra, etTrep 'Ap^ekaov a8t/cov 
etvat, euSatxova 8e. aXXo rt a>9 ovra) o"ov 

HflA. Haw ye. 

XXVIII. If/2. 'JByo) Se <f>r)fji(, dSvvarov. IV /xei' rourt 
ete^- a8t/ca)*> 8e Sr) euSat/awv ecrrat ap' 
St/cr^? re /cat rt/xwptas ; 

epexegetic. I much doubt the double f)yr)<ral/j.r]v &v. 

reference in ouo-ioj which Stallb. sug- c. &* e'7<i) o5 o?,u.ot] Supply Ser^, as 

gests : " Ludit in ambiguitate vocis below, p. 474, TOU t\4yx ov ? ov *7& 

ova-las quae et de bonis ac facultatibus ol/Jiai Sew flvai. Sew is not unfrequently 

dicitur, et de eo quod re vera est." omitted after ol/xai, as in Xen. Hell. iv. 

Compare the boast of Polus, p. 466 C, 7. 4, $OVTO airifvat, and after riy-fitraTo in 

a-TroKTivvvaffi ff t>v &v &ov\(avrai Kal Protag. 346 B. 

a<f>aipovvTai xp^t JLara Ka ^ eK&d\\ovo'ii> /c D. auTt/cgj ' for instance.' See Ruhnk. 

rtav ir6\f<i>v t>v &c 5ocp. in Tim. Lex. Plat. v. avrtKa. Hirschig 

ovStv o7/ioi] Between these two words brackets trpiaroi', as an " interpretamen- 

Hirschig inserts &v, ex conj., so that the turn." But see inf. 474 D, olov irpwTov, 

sense shall be, ' I conceive nothing will a phrase exactly equivalent. 

have been accomplished, unless 1 can aSiKuv 5p' Sf] ' You say that a wrong- 

secure your testimony and your assent doer may be happy : good but I want 

in the course of our subsequent dis- to know whether he will be so if he 

cussion.' I doubt, however, the admis- obtains his deserts and is punished.' 

sibility of this construction here. The Something like this is implied by the 

irregularity is in the use of ol/taj, for position of Spa in the middle of the sen- 

which we should expect T]yfiffo/ ' I tence. It occurs in a similar position. 

shall not think that any thing has been p. 476 A, rb aSiKovvra StS6i/ai S'IKTJV apa 

done.' But the text as it stands is de- /jLtyitrrov r<av KaKtav iarlv ; And so per- 

fensible. An analogous case is Isocr. haps we ought to read Hipp. ii. 366 B, 

Evag. 36, riyovfj.a.1 /j.ev obv, d /col /uij- Swarbs 8' *aT\v I/COO'TOT' ap' f>s Uv 

$fi>bs &\\ov fj.vija'Ofiijv, a\\' evravOa irotfj r6re ft kit jSouAijraj, '6rav jSouATjroi ; 

Kara\fliroifJt.i rbv \6yov, paStov fK rovrcav for the vulg. fKaffros apa. 
flvai yvcavai rfyv apfrfyv r^v f.vay6pov, for 

54 IIAATflNOS [472, D 

TlflA. "H/ctard ye, eVet OVTW y av d^Xiwraros 117. 

572. *A\\* lav dpa /XT) Tvy^dvrj St/crjs 6 dSt/cajv, Kara E 
TOV o~ov \6yov et>Sai/A&>i> ecrrat ; 

TlflA. $r)iJ.L 

372. Kara Se ye TT)V e'/x^v So^ai/, c5 IlaJXe, 6 dSt/caii' 
re /cat 6 dSt/co? irdvTO)^ jue> a^Xto?, a^XiajTepos //.eWot, 
ea^ ^ StSw Suajv /xr^Se Tvy^dvr} rt/AWyota? dSt/ca;^, TJTTOV 
Se a^Xto?, eat' St8a> BiKrjp Kal rvy^avr) St/cTjs VTTO $ecoi> re 
/cat av0p(oiT(t)V. 

\ TlflA. "Arorrd ye, a) ^aj/c/Dare?, eVt^etpers Xe'yetv. 473 

JS'/i. JTetyoacro/xat Se' ye /cat ere Trot^frat, a> eratpe, 
ravra e/xot Xeyetv <j)i\ov ya/> o"e ^yov/xat. z/Of /ie> ovt* a 

8ta(f>epdae^a ravr* ecrrt* tr/coTret 8e /cat cru. eiTrov eyw 

TTOV ev rots efJLTTpocr6ev TO dSt/ceT^ TOV dSt/cetcr^at KO.KIOV 


TlflA. Ildvv ye. 

5"v Se TO 


Kat TOVS dSt/covt'Tas d^Xtou? e^>^^ et^at e'yw, 
/cat er)\ey)(07)v vno crov. 
IlfiA. Nal /u,d Jta. 

*/2? cru ye otet, a) UwXe. 

*A\T]0f} ye otdjae^o? uroog. 
^v 8e ye evSat/xovas au TOV? dStKiowTa?, eat' /LCT) 

TlflA. Hdvv 

. 'Eya) oe avTovs d^XtwTarov? ^/xt, Tovg Se St- 

iKrjv rJTTov. /Bov\L /cat TOVTO eXey^etv ; 
HflA. *A\\' CTI TOVT' zKtivov ^a\TT(OTepov eorriv, & 

Ou Sr^Ta, w UaiXe, dXX' dSuz/aTot'' TO yap dX?/- 

TlflA. ITws Xe'yets ; edi^ dStKwv avOpanros \r)<j)6f) TV- 

'S. Tr&VTies /uevToi] These two words /ueVrot in apodosi to /ueV is noted by the 

are supplied from Stobaeus in place of grammarians as a peculiarly Attic usage. 

the old readings of the MSS., OTT^J/TCOV The emendation Traj/rws had been antici- 

. . . /uep -rolvvv (ed. Gaisf. vol. iii. p. 352). pated by Stephen. 

173, E.] 


C pavviSt e7n/3ovXeuon>, /cat X-^^^ei? crrpeySXamxt /cat 
vrjTCLL /cat rows 6(/>$aX/zou9 e/c/ca^rat, /cat aXXas TroXXas 
/cat /xeyaXa? /cat TratroSaTras Xajffixg avros re 
/cat rovs avrou 7Tt8&)V TratSag re /cat ywat/ca jro 

ecrrat ea^ Sta</>uywi> rvpavvos Kara-crrf) /cat dp^ajv iv 
TroXet Sta/3taJ Trotoiv o Tt a> /SovX^rat, ^Xwro? aw /cat 
euSat/xovt^o/xevo9 VTTO TOJV TroXtraiv /cat TWV aXXwi' eva)v ; 
D ravra Xeyet? cxSwarov eti/at efeXey^eti' ; 

XXIX. 5*/2. MomxoXvTret av, <u yevvale Ha)\e, /cat 
ov/c eXey^ets' a/ort 8e efjiaprvpov. ofJL(o<; Be 
fte a-piKpov lav aSt/cw? eTrt/SovXevwv rvpawiBi, 

lift A. "Eyojye. 

5*/2. EvSaiiJLoveo'Tepos fifv roivvv ovSeTrore ecrrat ov- 
Serepo? auraiv, oure 6 /caretpyacr/u.eVos TT)^ Tvpavviba dSt- 
/c&>5 oure 6 St/crp 8tSovs* Svoti/ yap a.6\ioiv evSat/Aoi>e- 
areyoog /xet* ov/c av etT?* a^Xtwreyoo9 jaeWot 6 Sta^vywt' /cat 
E Tvpavvevcras. Tt roOro, a> UaiXe ; yeXa? ; aXXo au TOVTO 
etSos eXeyxov Icrriv, CTretSat' rts rt etTTiy, /carayeXaV, eXey- 

473 C. eVre'/wT/Tai] " ^Krtp.vti.v, abso- 
lute positnin, est Latinoruin exsecare, 
li. e. castrare. Euthyphr. 6 A, Kt>.Ktlv6v 
ye rbv O.VTOV irartpa, tKrefj.f'ii/ Si' trepa 
rotavra. Xen. Cyrop. v. 2. 28; vii. 5. 
62 al. Unde fKrofj.a.1 Conviv. 195 c" 
(Ast, who quotes iu illustration of e- 
KtojTai Herod, vii. 18, Oepfwlffi (TiSrjpioiffi 
titKaifiv rovs o(pf)a\fji.ovs). 

<ViSc6y] ' having lived to see.' So 
used, whether the spectacle is gratifying, 
or, as here, distressing. Horn. II. xxii. 
61, (coKa TrJAA'iJTriStd'Ta. Tick T* oAAv- 
M ffovs 6A/cgt>6t^as_ Tf QvyaTpaf. B ut 
Xen. L'yr. vni. 7. 7, TOWS <f>i\ous tTTflSov 
Si" e'/uoO eu8ai/j.oi>as ytvo/j.fvovs, where the 
dying Cyrus speaks : Thuc. vii. 77, reu- 
'|djuei'o civ firiOufj.e'tTf TTOV eirjSftj': Ari- 
stoph. Acharn. 1156, SI/T' t'TrtSojMi 
TfvBiSos 5eA/j.evoi> : iSoph. Trach. 1027, 
TOJ/ ciio 1 firihffi/j.1 Trecroucrai/. After ira?8as 
re /cal 7uyaT/ca we may nnderstaqfl TgrA 
7rttgxo/Tay. which however is elegantly 

KaT07rtTTw0y] The usual euphemism 

for hnrniug alive, as appears from a pas- 
sage of Heraclides Ponticus (ap. Athen. 
xii. 524) quoted by Gray : roiyaproi 
ird\ii' ol ir\ovffioi Kpa.-ri\ffavrts [rov 
Sijjuou] airavTas &v Kvpioi Karea'rija'av 


Ka,io/j.e>>wv <paa\v &\\a re iro\\a ytve- 
ffdai repara Kai e\a.lav ifpav avrofj.d.Tt]!'<p9fivai. Every one remembers the 
lines of Juvenal, "taeda lucebis in ilia, 
Qua stantes ardent," &. (Sat. i. 155). 
Many other parallel passages are ac- 
cumulated by the comm. 

virb riav iroXrriav Kal riav &\\<av ^fvtav^ 
' by citizens : and foreigners as well,' a 
well-known idiom : 480 D, avrov Kal riav 
&\\wv oi/ceiW : Isocr. de Permut. 103, 
e/c re riav eirir^evfjuiroiv Kal riav a\\uv 

D. MotmoAvTTft aS] 'Now you are 
trying to frighten, instead of refuting 
me.^ Olyinp., avrl rov us traiSiov tyo/Bets. 
Crit. 46 C, &f . . . Sxrirtp iraitias r] 
fj.opu.o\vrrr)rcu. i*opu.<a or fj.opfj.o\.VKetov 
answers to our ' bugbear ' or ' hobgoblin.' 



[473, E 

IlfiA. OVK otet e^eX^Xeyx&xi, eu ^w/cpare?, orav 
rotavra Xey^s a ovSets av (^cretev dvOptoTrcov ; eVet epov 

Tll'a TOVTtoVl. 

2fl. *fl JTwXe, ov/c et/at raiv 7roXtTt/cwi>, /cat Trepvcrt 
ySovXevetv Xa^wv, eVetSr) 17 <j>v\r) iirpvrdvevf. Kat eSei jLte 
eiri.,\ljr)<}>tf,iv i yeXcora Trapel^ov | /cat ov/c rjTTLO'TdfJL'rjv eTTti/*^- 474 
<j)i,eiv. jofy) ou^ /AT^Se vuV /xe /ce'Xeve eiri\ljr)<f>i,ew rov? Trap- 
dt'Ta?, dXX' et JU.T) ^X t ^ TOVTCOV ySeXrtw eXeyxov, OTrep vvv 
Sr) eyw eXeyov, e/xot eV TG> /aepet Trapdoos, /cat 7retpao*at 
rov e'Xeyxov otov e'yw ot/xat Setv et^at. eya> yap a)v ai/ 
Xeyco eVa /xev Trapao~^4(rOaL /taprvpa e7rto~ra/xat, 
7rpo5 ov aV /xot 6 Xdyo? ^, TOVS Se TroXXovs eai ^ 

eTrtcrra/xat, rot? 8e vroXXot? ov8e Sta- 

E. ^jrel^poO] ' If you doubt me, ask 
one or the company present,' or 'you 
have only to ask,' &c. This rhetorical 
use of tret I with the imperative or with 
an interrogation is common. Soph. El. 
352, <hrl SiSa^ov t) fide' e' fyov, ri poi 
KfpSos ytvon' &v, rcavSe \rj^da"t] y6tav ; 
cf. Aristoph. Vesp. 519. " Elliptice tirti 
ponitur cum Imperativo cum res videtur 
certa et minime duhia, adeo ut tuto 
adversarius ad objiciendum provocari 
possit" (G. Hermann). 

Trfpvi_ov\evtii> Aayt^yl ' Last year 
when I was drawn for the Council, 
and when my tribe succeeded to the 
Prytany and it became my duty (as 
their &n<rraTrjs or chairman Xeu. Mem. 
iv. 4. 2) to take the votes of the as- 
sembly, I exposed myself to ridicule, 
because I knew not how to collect the 
suffrages' an ironical description, more 
suo, of one of the noblest acts of his life, 
his refusing to put to the vote the illegal 
proposition of Callixenus against the 
generals who had fought at Arginusae. 
Compare Xen. Hellen. i. 7. 14, 15 with 
Memor. i. 1. 18 (ema-Tarris fv rep 8?'j/.uo 
yv6/Afvos, finBvfiria'avTos TOV 8/7/uot> irapa 
rovs vo/jious fvvta. <TT parity ovs /uioi if7?</>o> 
. . . airoKTt'ivai iref^Tas, OUK Tj()t\ria'tv iiu- 
ifaQlfffu, K.T.\. ; and both passages with 
Plat. Apol. p. 32, ^760 ydp, 3> ' AOrivaiot, 
&\\r)v /uec apx^l" ovSf/j.iai' irwirorf i5f)|a ev 
rrj ir6\ft, f&ov\evff0. Se- Kal eru^ec rjfiwv 
7) <f>v\Ti 'fiVTioxis irpVTavtvovffa, Sre v/j.f7s 
TOUS 5e'/ca ffrpaTijyovsrovs OVK ave\onfvovs 
robs fK TTJS vav(ia.x.ias tfiovXfffOe a.9p6ovs 
Kpivfiv,, us iv ftf vffrfpif 

TO>V irpvrdvecav JIVO.VT idiOriv vp.'iv 
iroieiv irapa. rovs VO/JLOVS, Kal fvavria. 

, K.T.\. The author of the 
Axiochus (368 D) tells the tale differently, 
and with embellishments. Mr. Grote, 
in the course of his able and searching 
discussion of this event and its circum- 
stances, takes occasion (H. G. viii. p. 271, 
note) to question the accuracy of Xeno- 
phon's statement in the first book of 
the Memorabilia, that Socr. was tb-j- 
0-TOTTjy on the day referred to : but it 
seems to me difficult to understand the 
language of Plato in the text, without 
supposing that Socr. was individually 
responsible in the. matter of taking the 
suffrages, and not merely entitled to a 
vote as one of ten Proedri upon the ques- 
tion whether the suffrages were to be 
taken or not. How could he else have 
betrayed his 'ignorance' of the proper 
mode of proceeding in other words, his 
invincible repugnance to the act required 
of him ? If this view be correct, it is 
not a little bold to call in question a 
statement resting on the consilient testi- 
mony of two such authors as Xenophon 
and Plato. The passage in the Apology 
does not confirm, but surely does not 
contradict it. 

474. eVo fj.fv ^irlffTa/j.a,t] Olymp. has 
the following interesting scholium on 
this passage : oSra> Kal 6 'HpaK\eiros 
e\eyev. efs ffnol avrl iro\\5>v, Kal 
Ae-yco TOUTO /cat irapa Hep(re<f>6vri 
t<av, a fragment which, so far as I know, 
exists nowhere else, and is highly charac- 
teristic of its author. 

-474, D.] TOPTIA2. 57 

B Xeyofioi. opa ovV ei e'&X^crets eV raJ /xepet 8tSoVat eXey- 
%ov aTTOKpLi>6[JLvo<; ra pa>T(t>fJLva. eyw yap Sr) ofytat /cat 
e/xe /cat ere /cat TOVS dXXovs av6pct>7rov<s TO dSt/cetv rot) 
dSi/cetcr$at /cd/ctov ^yetcr^at /cat TO /tx?) StSoVat St/ci^ TOV 

IlflA. 'JSya Se ye OUT* e/te OVT' aXXov avOpanrav ov- 
SeVa. eVet o~y Se^ai av fj.a\\ov a.St/ceto~$at ^ dSt/cett' ; 
5*/2. Kat crv y' a^ /cat ot aXXot Tra^Tes. 
HflA. IToXXou ye Set, dXX* OUT' e'ya> OUTC (TV OVT' 
aXXo? ouSet?. 
C 5*/2. OVKOVV aTTOKpivti ; 

. Tldw p.ev ovv /cat yap eVt#Vju,<w etSeWt o Tt 

TTOT* epet?. 

. ^leye 817 /u,ot, u/' etS^s, wcrTrep av et e^ dp^rjs o~e 
TTOTtpov So/cet o~ot, <u ITaiXe, /cd/ctov ett'at TO 

>O ^* v ' ~ Q 

aot/ceti' 17 TO aoi/ceicrc/ai ; 

IlflA. To dSt/ceto*^at e/xotye. 

. Tt Se 8^ ato-^tov ; irorepov TO dSt/ceti' ^ TO d8t- 

; *Airoi<pivov. 
IlflA. To aoLKelv. 

XXX. .2/2. Ov/couv /cat KO.KLOV, etTrep ato-^tov ; 
HflA. "HKIO~TO. ye. 

2f/2. MavOdvw ov ravrov rjyel crv, a>s eot/ca?, /caXoi' 
D TC Kat ayaBov /cat KO.KOV /cat atcr^pov. 


. Tt 8e ToSe ; TO, /caXa irdma, otov /cat 

c. oi> raurbf ^76? <ru] Cic. de Off. iii. At the same time we must conceive Socr. 

3. 11, " Socratem accepimus exsecrari in the passage before us to be arguing 

solitum eos qui prirnum honestum et ' ad hoininem,' and it would be unsafe 

utile, natura cohaerentia, opinione dis- to infer that Plato really regarded Plea- 

traxissent." Throughout the whole of sure apart from Good, as sufficient to 

this reasoning the a-yaOAv is assumed to constitute an object beautiful. Compare 

be synonymous with the oxpe'At.uoy and esp. Philebus, p. 64 fol. The steps in 

the KO.KOV with the P\a&ep6v. But this the present argument are these : 
utilitarianism is, it must be confessed, of 

a very transcendental order. rb Ka\6v implies either utility or 

. ra Ka\o iravra] This little " theory pleasure, or both. 

of the beautiful" is an improvement rb aiffxpt" either hurtfulness or pain, 

upon that of Xenophon's Socrates, Mem. or both. 

iii. 8. 4, and Conv. c. 5, where utility is But Polus had said Sn rb oSi/ceii/ 

represented as the sole test of beauty. afcrxtov rov o5!/ce7er0eu. 


[474, D 


/cat tficovas /cat e 
/caXets e/cao"Tore /caXa ; otoz> 

TO, crw/xara ra /caXa ov^t T^rot /caret rr)v ^petav Xe'yet? 
/caXa elvat, Trpbs 6 cu> e/cacrrov x/ 31 7 o ~ t A 101 ' 77, Trpbs rovro, 
^ /cara rj&ovTtjv Tiva, eav eV rw 6 emptier 6 ai ^aipeiv 770177 
rov? ^ecopowra? ; e^ets rt e/crbs rovrwv Xe'yetv Treyot or<y- 

/caXXovs ; 
IlflA. OVK ex^' 

Ou/cov^ /cat raXXa Trav^' oura) /cat 
^ St' ^Soi'Tp rtt'a ^ 8t' ai^eXetav ^ St' 
KaXa Trpocrayo/jevets ; 

Ov /cat ras (fxovas /cat ra /cara TT)V 



Kat jarp ra ye Kara rovs vd/xov? /cat ra 
Sev/^ara ou SrfTrou e/crbs TOVTGDV ecrrt [ra] /caXa, rou -^ 
ax^eXt/xa etvat >) 17 Sea ^ OL^^>6repa. 
21/2/1. Ou/c e/xotye 8o/cet. 

OVKOVV /cat rb TOJV jLaOrJLarojv /caXXos &)<r- 475 

rb aSi/cetf is therefore either more 

painful or more hurtful than rb 

But it is not more painful, by Polus's 

Nor, consequently, is it more painful 

and more hurtful. 
Therefore it is more hurtful, or, in 

other words, worse than rJ> a8t- 

A similar disjunctive syllogism occurs 
inf. 477 c. There is a locus classicus 
concerning the relation of Ka.\6v and 
ayaOdv, Ka.tt6v and alffxp^v, in the Fifth 
Book of the Republic, p. 453. In the 
last clause of the passage referred to, an 
obvious but necessary emendation has 
escaped the edd. : ndraws os ytKolov 
&\\o TI fiyfTrat ^ rb KaK&v, Kal 6 yt\<a- 
TOiroiflv eTrixeipic irpbs &\\riv nv' otyw 
a.Trofi\fTr<ev us ye\oiov -ft TIJI> rov &tppoi>6s 
re Kal KO.KOV, KOI Ka\ov av ffirov'Sd^ei 
Trpos &\\ov rn-a ffKoir'bv ffrriffa.iJ.tvos /} 

rbv TOV ayadov (ib. D). Who ever said 
irpbr ffKoirbv ffrrjcraffOai ? or how can 
ffrtlffaaQai mean "se convertere," as Ast 
renders it? Dele irp6s, and compare 
Critias, Eleg. i. 2 (ap. Athen.), tv <TKO- 
irbv els Kardyajv T(J|a KO.Qiffro.fji.tfia.. 
The sense will thus be, ' He is a fool who 
in his serious compositions proposes to 
himself any other standard of beauty 
than that of Good. 5 The irp6s is a mere 
repetition of the irp&s which stands before 
&\\rii> in the clause preceding. 

E. ov S^TTOU Ka\a] The rd before 
Ka\d is omitted in one MS. Though 
defensible, it seems better absent. ' Laws 
and Institutions surely are not beau- 
tiful irrespectively of their utility, or 
pleasantness, or both ;' or, if we retain 
rd, 'The beauty which resides in laws, 
&c., is not independent of utility,' &c. ; 
or, more literally, ' The instances in laws 
and institutions of beauty, I mean/ so 
that ra Ka\d shall be explanatory of ra 
Kara robs t>6fj.ovs, K.T.\. 


475, c.] rorriAS. 

HflA. Ildvv ye" /cat /caXais ye vvv 6ptet, oJ 
r)$ovfj re /cat dya$a> 6pto/xevo9 TO /caXoV. 

Z/2. OVKOVV TO alcr^pov TW eVaima;, \vnr) re /cat 
/ca/coj ; 

Hfl A. 'AvdyKt). 

OTO.V apa Svotv /caXotv Odrepov /cdXXtov ?y,j2_!2> 

d/X<ftoTepOt_V7rp/3aXXoV /CaXXldV CTTtV, 


Iin,A. Hdvv ye. 

Sfi,. Kal orav Se Sr) Svotv alaxpoiv TO erepov 
B ^, 17TOI XVTTT; ^ /ca/ca) virepfiaXXov alcr^iov ecrTat. ^ ov/c 

TiflA. NOLL. 

rt/-\ JK/ C 1 ' ** *\ ' ^ ^^ ^ P> > 

.4/2. <Pepe 017, TTOJ? eAeyeTo PUZ> 017 Trept TOV aot/cetv 

/cat a.Si/cetcr#ai ; ov/c eXeye? TO /xe^ a,8t/cetcr^at /ca/ctov etvat, 

TO Se dSt/cetv 


OVKOVV elirep alcr^iov TO dSt/cetv ToO aSt/cetcr^at, 
\v7rripoTep6v eo~Tt /cat XUTTT^ V7rpj3d\\ov OLCT^LOV av 
eif) rj /ca/coj TI djj.(f)OTepoLS ; ov /cat TOUTO avdyKf) ; 
lift, A. Hoi? yap ov ; 

XXXI. 2fi. npa>Tov jLtev 8^ o-/cei//<w/xe^a, apa XvVry 
C vTrepjSdXXet TO dSt/celf TOV d,8t/ceto~^at, /cat dXyovcrt fj,oi\\ov 
ol dSt/cowTes -^ ot dSt/cov/xevot ; 

IlflA. OvSa/xoiis, a) 5*w/cpaTe9, TOVTO ye. 
Ov/c apa \vTry ye vTrepe^et. 

Ov S^Ta. 

OVKOVV el /XT) Xvirrj, dtt<^>oTepots fiez/ ov/c cu> ert 

TlflA. Ov (^atVeTat. 

5*/2. OVKOVV TW erepo} XetTreTat. 

475. KoloToi' ^o-Tai] This proposition is of course causal. 'If the doing iu- 

ought evidently to correspond to the justice is more ngly or offensive than the 

foregoinpr, substituting, \virr), suffering it, either it is more painful, and 

and KO.K<S for their antitheta. Hence it it is because it exceeds in pain that it is 

seems impossible to dispense with 3) more ugly, or (because it exceeds) in evil, 

afjuporepots, which Hirschig accordingly or in both,' i.e. it owes its greater ugli- 

would insert after KO.K&. ness either to its exceeding in pain or to 

B. \virri virtpl3a.\\oi>~] The participle its exceeding in evil, &c. 

60 IIAATflNOS [475, c 





et?7 TOU dSi/cetcr0ai. 
Tin A. Afj\ov ST) OTL. 

%n. *A\\o n ovv VTTO fiev TO>V TTO\\OJV dv0patTTa)v /cat T) 
VTTO crov ojjuoXoyetro rjfjuv ev TW fJL7rpocr0ev ^povut aia^Lov 
elvaL TO dSt/cetv TOV dSt/cetcr#at ; 


Nvv Se -ye KOLKIOV e^dvr). 

CLVTL TOV rJTTOv ; Mr) OKVCL a7roKpivao~0aL, a) UaiXe 
ovBev yap ySXa/Sifcrei, dXXa ye^t'atty? TO> Xoyoj a>cnrep 
tarow Trape^cov diroKpLvov, /cat 77 (a#i ^ ^til) a 
'-4XX' ou/c av Se^at/xiyv, a> 

Ov /Ltot So/cet /caret ye TOVTOV TOV \6yov. 

^\/l' -NV >\V\ V V>* J\ V* 

AXrjur) apa eyai ekeyov, OTL OVT av eyat OVT av 
(TV our' aXXos ouSets avOpuTruv Se^atr' av fiaXXov dSt/cetv 
rj aSt/cetcr^af KO.KIOV yap rvy^avet oi'. 

'O/jas ou^, w JTwXe, 6 eXey^os -Trapa roi' 
7ra/>aj8aXXo/x,ef09 ort ot>8ev eot/cev, aXXa trot /xeV ot aXXot 
Tra^res 6/xoXoyoOcrt ir\r)v efjiov, e/xot 8e cru e^ap/cet? efs a>^ 
JJLOVOS /cat o/xoXoywv Kat f^apTVpcov, | /cat ey&> ere povov 476 

i). T<{5 Adyij) &ffirep larpy Trope'x'""'] adjective as secondary predicate, as 

' submitting to the argument as a patient Euthyph. 3 D, SoKf'is a-irdviov fffavrbv 

to the surgeon.' irapexftv = 'copiam irapex 6 "') "rarissime tui copiam facis;" 

facere.' See above, 456 B, Ttntiv f> and by an adverb, as here and in Arist. 

Kavffai irapa.ffxe'iv r<p iarpy : and 480 C. Lys. 162, 227. Similar is the use of 

If any thing is to be " understood " it is irapaSovvai in Phaedr. 250 E, rjSovfj irapa- 

probably rb ff<a/j.a, which is expressed in 5ot5s. 

Arist. Nub. 440, TOUT! r6 y' 3/ <rco/u' i) <p6.Qi i) /u^ & ^poircD] ' Say yes or no 

avTolaiv irapexM T^nrreiv veivfjv Si^/jjj', (tynfd or oft <pr]/j.i) to my questions.' 
K.T.A.. Similarly Aesch. Pers. 210, 7TTTj|as E. ovSev^oiicev] " Intell., jL-JAe-yyoy 

SefMs Trape?xe, and with <J*i>x^" Protag. r$ f \fyxt?'' (Astj. The context proves 

312 C. On the other hand we have that nis is the right interpretation, and 

ifjLavrbf TT. in Phaedr. 228 E, a com- that Heind. is mistaken in supplying 

bination very frequently followed by an elfai as if oi5eV meant " res nihili." 

476, o.] ropriAS. 61 

> rovs aXXous eat ^at/Dew. Kal rovro /xe> T 
e'^erar /xera TOVTO Se rrepl ov TO oevTepov ^/-t^ecr/fy- 
, cr/cei//tojae#a* TO dSt/cowTa StSoVat St/ojv dpa 
Tail' KaKtov ecrriv, a>? <ru wou, 77 ptitpv TO JUT) 

OC.' e ? \ * ' /) v *> N ' 

otoovat, cus av eya> (a^v. cr/coTrw/xet/a oe Tyoe' TO oioovai 
SIKI^V /cat TO KO\d^<rdaL St/catws aSt/cov^Ta apa TO 
/caXets ; 

TlflA. ^Eywye. 
B 5*/2. *E^ts ovi' \lyeiv &>? ov^t Ta ye St/cata 

cart, /ca^' ocrov St/cata ; /cat Stao-/cei//ajU,evos etTre. 
TlfL A, *A\\d fjiOL SoKet, w ^w/cpaTes. 
XXXII. 5*/2. ^KOTrei S>) /cat ToSe* dp' et Tt? Tt Trotet, 

a.v<jKT] Tt etvat /cat TTOLO-^OV VTTO TOVTOV rov TTOIOVVTOS ; 
TlflA. *iote So/cet. 

pa TOVTO 7TCtO~^OV TO TTOtOW TTOtCt, /Cttt TOt- 

ofov Trotet TO TTOtow ; Xeycu Se TO TOtdt'Se' et Tt9 
, avdyKr) Tt rvTrrecrdai ; 
IlfiA. 'AvdyKf). 

2fl. Kal et cr^>d8pa TvvrTet ^ Ta^v 6 TVTTTMV, OVTCO /cat 
C TO TvirTopevov rvTrrecrdat, ; 
HflA. Nat. 
2fi. TotouTov apa nd0o<s rta TUTTTO/xeVa) ecrriv, olov av 


TLfl A. Ildvv ye. 

OVKOVV /cat et /caet Tt?, dvay/cry Tt /caeo~#at ; 

476. i?/iK^(r)3TjT^(rouej'] This form eVicoirTjera/uTjj' (Elmsl. on Eur. Heracl. 

alternates in the MSS. with r;/i</>i<r|8. 148, who adds, " irpo^ffKevro pro irpou- 

The second augment is in principle <r/ceVrTo restituendum Thucydidi viii. 

indefensible, implj'ing as it does that the 66 "). One exception is found in a 

word is compounded of a/jKfii and o-jSTjrcS. genuine dialogue of Plato, the Laches, 

"Augmentuin mire interpositum, quod 185 B, fiov\fv&/j.(0a Kal ffKtirT6/j.e0a, 

cadeutis jam linguae vitio similius et and another in the spurious Second 

recentioribus, quorum in libris apparet Alcib. 140 A, <rKevTo/j.fva>. In the for- 

relinquendum " (L. Dindorf). In this mer passage the last two words, Kal 

passage the Bodl. and all the best codd. ffKfirr<Sfj.e6a, are unnecessary and in- 

seein to have rnj.<t>ffffi. elegant (comp. ib. 185 A), and have the 

B. 2/cJir6i] The tenses of this 'verb air of a gloss. With the latter dial, it 

used by Attic writers sensu transitivo is not necessary to take any trouble, as 

are the following : <rjcoira>, ffKoirovfj.a.1, this is not the only instance of vicious 

ovv, 3(TKoirov/jiT]i>, crKe'if'o^uai, eV/ce- phraseology which it contains. See note 

, fattfunai. They never say <r/cV- 447 D. 
(far less ffKeirr(a), ffKoirriffopat or 

TIAATftNOS [476, c 

. TIa)<s yap ov ; 
. Kal el o~<f>6opa ye Kctet ^ d\yeivo)<;, OVTO> /caecr#ai 

TO Kao/Aevov &>s a*; TO Kao*' /car? ; 
Tin, A. Tldvv ye. 

. OVKOVV /cat et Te/xvet Tt?, 6 <XVTOS Xoyos ; Te)a- 
ya/) Tt. 

. IVat. 
. Kal et jaeya ye ^ /3a6v TO T/xiJjLta ^ dXyeivoV, 

re^verai TO re^vo^evov, olov TO re^vov D 
re^vei ; 

TIflA. $aiveTai. 

et 6/xoXoyets o a/3Tt eXeyov 


. *^4XX' o/xoXoyai. 

. TOVTCOV 8r) o/ioXoyov/xeVwv, TO BiKyv StSovat 
TTorepov 7rao"^etv Tt ecrnv 
TISl A. 'AvdyK-rj, a> ^cu/ 


Tlfl A. JTws yap ou ; VTTO ye TOV 

. 'O 8e 6p0a)<; KO\aE,<t)V St/catco9 /coXaet. E 

. JVat. 

. AiKaia TToi&v TI ov ; 
Tin A. .Jucata. 

S'/Z. OVKOVV 6 Ko\a,6[i,evos Stfoyv St8ou5 StKata Tra 
Tin A. Qawerai. 
~%n. Ta 8e Strata TTOV fcaXa w 
Tin, A. Tldvv ye. 

. TOVTUV dpa 6 ^ev Trowel /caXa, 6 8e Tracr^et, 6 

. Nat. 
XXXIII. 5*/2. OuKoOv etTrep fcaXa, aya.6d ; r) yap 477 

Tin A. ' 

Hn. 'AyaBa dpa Trao-^et 6 StKiy^ StSous ; 

Tin A. 

477, c.] ropriAS. 63 

dpa ; 


572. ^Apa TjVTrep eyo> vTroXa^ftdva) TVJV a></>eXetaz> ; 
P\TLO)V rr)v ifrvxyv ylyverau, elirep St/catws /coXderat ; 

H/2yl. Et/co's ye. 

572. Ka/ctas dpa i/Jf^s aTraXXctTrerat 6 Si/op StSous ; 

H/2.4. Nat. 

572. ^4p' oui> rov /ueyuTTOu aTraXXaTTercu Ka^o 
8e cr/co7ret. eV ^prjfjidTcov /caraavcev^ dvOptorrov 
dX\rjv nv evopas rj Trtvla.v ; 

TIflA. OVK, dXXa Ttevlav. 

. Tl 8* eV crwjaaros /caracrKev^ ; KaKiav av (f>TJcrai<s 
et^at ical vocrov /cat atcr^os /cat ra rotavra ; 


^/2. OVKOVV /cat et i|/v^ Trovypiav rjyel Twd et^at ; 
TIflA. Uwg yap ov ; 

5'/2. Tavrrjv ovv OVK dSiKiav /caXet? /cat a^aOiav /cat 
SetXtW /cat TO, rotavra ; 
TIflA. ndvv p,ev ovv. 

5*/2. OVKOVV ^prjfJidTatv /cat (rw/xaros /cat x//v^?, rpiwv 
C ovroiv, rptrras etp>y/cas TrovrjpLas, ireviav, vocrov, dSt/ctav ; 


Tts oSi^ TOVTWV ra)t> irovypiuv ato-^tcrr^ ; ou^ 17 
dSt/cta /cat r) rry? V'^X^^ irovr)pta. ; 

. IIoXv ye. 

. Et 819 alo-^io-TTj, /cat KaKio-rrj ; 
TIflA. Titos, a) 2a>KpaT6<;, Xeyets ; 

'/28t. det TO ato^tcrTo^ 17x01 XvTrrjv ^eyio~rriv irap- 

477 B. tV yfiujjo-Twy KUTaffKevfj ayOpia- 2. But Injustice exceeds in ugliness 

TTOU] In the frame or fabric of a man's (ea; concessis). 

fortune. So eV trci/iOToj /corocrKeup pre- Therefore Injustice is either the most 

sently -'in his bodily frame or const! - painful or the most hurtful, or both. 
tution.' ~ 

CT aei r6 aiVyig'Toyl The steps of the a|/ means, in any list of uglinesses, what- 

argun^Tit are the following : ever tney 'may 1)H : Lhy UlHJOl 1 propositioii 

is universal, the minor and conclusion 

1. That which exceeds in ugliness particular. In Comparing any set of 

always does so, because it is either ugly things, if there be one uglier than 

the most painful or the most hurtful the rest, it is always because it is either 

or both (by the &/j.o\6yrtfj.a 475 B). the most painful or most harmful of the 




\.dj3r)v 17 dfJufioTcpa at 

Iv TO) e/x,7rpoo-^ev. 
JT/2^1. MdXto-Ta. 

372. Ala"^i<TTov Se dSt/cta /cat o~u/A7racra $v)(TJS TrovrjpLa 
vvv ST) a>/AoXoy?7Tat 17/^1^ ; 
Tlfl A. t fl^o\6yf]Ta,i ydp. 
372. OVKOVV 17 aviapoTosrov cart /cat di^ta vrrepftdXXov 

TIfl A. 'AvdyKir). 

372. ^p' ovv dXyeLvorepov e'art TOU irevea-Oai /cat 
TO aSt/cov et^at /cat d/cdXao~Tov /cat SetXoi/ /cat 


nfiA. OVK e/xotye So/cet, ai 
jEg^vet rtfl a/)a w 
a) VTrepjSdXkov&a raXXa 17 




cart irvT&v, 

/cat /ca/ca> 
novrjpUL at- 

ov/c dXy^So^t ye, a>s 6 cro? 


'^4XXa ja^t' TTOU TO ye /xeytcrTry fiXd/Siy VTrep/3dX\ov 
av KO.KOV etry TOJI^ OVTMV. 

'II dSt/cta apa /cat 17 d/coXao~ta /cat 17 


construction elsewhere, as 1. 1. and ib. A. 
I believe that the a^oTepa. (irape-^ov) of 
the last proposition but one misled the 
scribe, and therefore do not hesitate to 
accept Hirschig's emendation, though 
the quasi-adverbial aju^Jrepa is common, 
enough elsewhere. 

'YirfpQvti \6yos^ If, as you say, it is 
not panTTvlul'li -causes the vice or bad- 
ness of the soul to be of all things 
foulest, how extraordinarily great must 
be the hurtfulness, how astonishing the 
evil effects far beyond those of aught 
besides which entitle it to this bad 
eminence. Such is the meaning of this 
very closely packed sentence, which with- 
out some such dilution would perhaps 
be scarcely intelligible in English. It is 
a necessary conclusion from the alter- 
natives accepted by Polus, ^ oj//<y 

set, or both. But Injustice is ugliest of 
a certain set of ugly things. Therefore, 
it is so because of that set it is either 
most painful or most harmful. From 
this, I think, it will appear that Hir- 
schig is mistaken in proposing the ex- 
pulsion of TOVTUV iu the last j$f}<m. It 
had also offended Heind., who proposed 
irdvT<v instead. But this would make 
the conclusion a ' non-sequitur.' It has 
only been granted that dStfua is uglier 
than irtvia. and v6<ros (TOVTUV riav TTOVTJ- 
piSiv, paul. sup.). 

D. OVKOVV ^ a.via,p6T<n6v <TTI o/x'/>o- 
re'poij] This sentence is framed on the 
same model as that in 475 B, OVKOVV . . . 
rb aStKelv . . . tfroi \virijpoTep6v effrt Kal 
\virri vTrtp&d\\ov aXffytn fag tiij $) natty 
% ; In the present passage 
aHfyoTtpa. stands in the MSS., though virfpB<i\\eiv is the unvarying 

478, c.] ropriAS. 65 

TlflA. 4>atVerat. 

XXXIV. 2fl. Tts ovv Tc?) 7re*>tas dTraXXdrret ; ov 

JI/L4. Nat. 

Hfl. Tt's Se vdo~ou ; OVK l 
TlflA. * Ava.yKt\. 

478 2fl. Tt? Se TTovr}pia.<$ /cat | dSt/cta? ; St /AT) 
evrropels, a>Se <TKO7ref Trot dyo/xev Kat irapa rtvas 
/cd/Ltvovra? ra crw/u,aTa ; 

Tin, A. Ilapa TOU? iarpovs, at ^w/cpare?. 

. Hot Se TOVS aSt/coiWag Kat TOUS d 

TlflA. Tlapa TOVS StKacrras Xeyets ; 
5'/2. OVKOVV SIKTTJV Swcrovras ; 
IlfiA. $r;/xt. 
5*/2. T -4/a' ouv ou Stfcatocru^ rivt 

Ot Op0(t)<S KO\d^OVT<S ; 

TlflA. AfjXov Sif. 

^/i. Xprj/Jia.Tio'TiKr) JJL^V apa. Tret'ta? aTraXXctrret, ta- 
B TpLK?) Se vdcrov, 8607 Se d/coXacrtas Kat dStKta9> 
TlflA. $aiv6Tai. 

5*/2. Tt ovi/ TOVTGJV KaXX terror ecrrtv ; 
TlflA. Tlvtov Xeyets ; 
5*/2. XprjjjLaTicrTiKrjs, tarptK^?, SIKT^?. 
TlflA. UoXv Sta<^ejOet, a) ^wK/aare?, 17 StKiy. 

. OVKOVV av TJTOL fjbovrjv TrXeta'T'^v Trotet ^ axfteXeLav 

, etTrep KaXkicrrov IGTW ; 
C TlflA. Nat. 

2fl. *Ap* oivv TO laTpevecrOat. i^Su eart, Kat ^aipovcriv 
ot tarpevo/xe^ot ; 

UK e/xotye SOKCI. 

^>e'Xt/xo^ ye. T) yap ; 

. MeydXov yap Ka/coi) aTraXXdrreTat, cuo~re Xvcrt- 
reXet VTrojaeti^at rr)y dXy^Sdva Kat vytet eti/ai. 
TlflA. Hois yap ou ; 




[478, o 

ovv ovrcog av Trep crw/xa 
(Lv6po)Tro<s etiy, larpeud/xevos, ^ /x^Se /cctj 
TlflA. Afj\ov 6V t /x^Se Kdpvcav. 

. Ov yap TOVT* ^v euSai/xovta, a>s eot/ce, KOLKOV 

r], a\\a rr]v ap^rjv /r^Se /exports. 
TlflA. "ECTTI, ravra. 

. TtSe; ad\L(t)T6po<s Trorepos Svolv l^ovroiv KO.KOV D 

cir* e^ crw/xart etr* ev ^^X^ ' taT^euo/xet'o? /cat aTraXXar- 

TOU KaKou, ^ 6 /M^ ia.Tpev6p.evos, e^aiv Se; 
HflA. ^atVerai /AOI d /u/r) iarpevofjievos. 

. OVKOVV TO SiKrjv 8t8o^at jaeyt<JTou /ca/cou a 

tar/oi/o) yiyverai 

UflA. *Hv yap. 

L^eL yap TTOV /cat St/catore/jov? Trotet /cat 
Tro^ptas 17 8607. 
. JVat. 
. EvSai/xoveVraTos ju.ez> apa 6 JUT) e^wv /ca/ctav et' E 

^ 7rt ^ 1 9 TOVTO ftyUTT 

Iin,A. Arfkov STJ. 
5"/2. ^eurepo? S^TTOU 6 

nn,A. "EoiKtv. 

. Ovros S* -ni/ 6 vov^erovao'os re /cai 77177X17770- 

--- -- --- - _ * 

/cat $LKr)v StSov?. 

. JVat. 
. KoLKLcrTa apa fj 6 e^wv f aSt/cta^ f /cat /u/) a 

478 C. ei>8aj/uoj'<rTaToj] ' Is this then 
the highest physical happiness of which 
a man is capable, to be under medical 
treatment, or never to have been sick at 
all ?' The reason of the preference of 
/uTjSe to ouSe here is evident, if we resolve 
the participles into their equivalents, j 
larpevoiro, fy d /urjS" ctpxV Kap-voi. A few 
lines farther on we have r^v apxV M^/Se 
KTTJO-IS, which may be similarly analysed, 
As regards the latter, observe the absence 
of the article, which is usually prefixed 
in such cases : Ar. Eccles. 115, tieivbv $' 
I<TT\V it fj.^ 'fjLtrtipla : but omitted in Eur. 
Kacch. 455, irAd/ca^ds re ydp ffov ravabs 
Ciro, a line which Person was 

the first to explain (ov Tr^Xrjs viro VTT' 
ayv/j.vaffias). In the present passage 
symmetry requires its omission. Tr., 
' For this was not happiness the getting 
rid of a malady but the not having 
caught it originally.' l\v = 'in the case 
supposed above.' TV apxtv or apx'fl" are 
used indiscriminately in the sense, 'from 
the first,' ' in the first instance,' and 
with neg. ' not at all.' Theaet. 185 D, 
T ty apx V ovS' Tcai roiovrov. 

D. ~S,<e<ppov(fi Sforj] ' For justice, I 
conceive, sobers men and makes them 
more honest, and thus acts upon crime 
medicinally:' or 'as a moral medicine.' 

E. 6 tx<nv t o-^txiav f] " Lege 6 ex a " / 

479, D.] ropriAS. 

Hfl A. 

OVKOVV OVTOS TvyxdVet an/ o? av ra /xeytcrra 
/cat xpco/xei'o? /xeytaTT? dSi/aa StaTrpd^rjTat wore 
479 /uifre vov0Telcr0ai pyre /coXdeo~#at /Aryre Si/op StSoVat, 
a)(TTTp crv (f>r)<s 'Ap^eXaov Trapecr/cevdcr^at /cat TOVS dXXous 
Kal prJTOpas /cat Swaoras ; 

XXXV. 5*/2. ^'^eSoi' yap TTOU ovrot, <S aptcrr, TO 
auro StaTreTrpayju-evot etcrti/ atcnrep av et rts rots /iteytcrrots 
vocnj naa-t. oryt/t(r^OjU.^Q9 StaTrpa^atro ju,^ StSo^at SiKrjv 
TOJ^ Trcyot TO (T&i/Aa dju.apTT^aTcoi' Tots taTpot? /xiySe larpev- 
ecrBaL, ^oySou/aevo?, a)(nrpa.vel irats, TO /caeo-#ai /cat TO 
B TenvecrOaL, oYt dXyett'oi/. ^ ou So/ceZ /cat crot OUTOJ? ; 

ye, ag eot/cei/, otoi' eo'Ttt' 17 vyteta /cat 
aperrj o'eu/xaTo?. /ctvSvvevovo~t yap e/c TOJ^ vw ^ja'ti' a>/xo- 
Xoyr?/-teVcui' TOIOVTO^ Tt iroitiv Kat ot TT)V 
a) IlwXe, TO dXyet^oi/ avTou Kadopav, Trpos 8e TO 

icrn \fJLrj v 

? dXXa craBpa /cat dSt/ca> 

C /cat dVoo-ta>. o^ev /cat irav 7rotouo-tv wo-T St/CTyv jar) StSoi'at 
/x^S' a7raXXaTTeo-#at TOU /aeyto-Tou /ca/cov, /cat xpif/zaTa 
7rapao~/ceva^o/u-evot /cat <^>tXou5 Kat OTTOIS av aicrtv a5 irida.- 
vatTOLTOL Xeyetv. et 8e T7/aets aXi^r) oj/AoXoyif/ca^ei', a) 
IIa>\, a.p atcr#dVet TO. o-v/x,^atf oi/Ta e/c TOU Xoyov ; ^ 
/SouXet Q-yXXoytQ-oj/te^a avTct ; 

TIflA. El fjir) o~ot ye dXXa>9 So/cet. 

5 1 /!. T -4p' ovv <rv/>ty8atVet /ie'yicrTov KO.KOV rj dSt/cta /cat 

\ C> * 

TO aot/cew/ ; 

HflA. 3>aiv.TaL ye. 

D 5"/2. Kat /LATyi/ aTraXXayr; ye <f>dvir) TOVTOV TOV KOLKOV 
TO St/oyv StSoVai ; 

Alias irpoafiir<iei -rbv \6-yov d.ira.\\arT6(j.fvos (sc. T^S icaKt'as). As the 

Socrates" (Dobree). The emendation text stands, the conclusion is a wow 

seevns to me certain. Compare the con- sequitur. The identity of Ktwcfa with 

text,^ u5ai^ov(j-TaTo$ /^ev &pa 6 /i^ x a "' aStx^a is first acknowledged in the-ques- 

/ <J/txp . . . Seurjpoy Sriirou 6 tion and answer which follow. 

p 2 

68 IIAATflNOS [479, D 

IlfiA. KtvSvvevet. 

j> g ' y e pjj StSoVat e/x/xovr) TOV /ca/cov ; 

Nat. r ~ 

JevVe/3OV dpa ecrrt TWV /ca/ccov /xeye'$et TO dSt/cetv 
TO Se dSt/covvTa /XT) StSoVat SI/CTTV TrdvTuv /xeyto~T6V TC /cat 


%&. ^Ap ovv ov irepl TOVTOV, a) <^tXe, 
(Ta.jjLv, crv pels TOV 'Ap^KoiOv euSat/xo^t^wv TOV Ta 
dSt/coui'Ta St/oyv ovSejatav StSovTa, eyw Se rovvavTiov E 
otd/xevo9, CIT' f Ap^(e\a.o<s etT* aXXos av0pa>7ra>v OO-TLCTOVV /XT) 
iKtjv a$LKa>v, TovTto 7rpoa"tJK6iv d0\C(p elvai Sta- 
TO>V aX\<DV dv6p(aTTO)v, KOI del TOV dStKoiWa TOT) 
d0\L(aTepov elvai /cat TOV /AT) StSovTa St/c^v 
TOV StSovTos ; ov TavT* T^V TO, VTT* e/xov Xeyo/Acva ; 


Ov/covv curoSe'Sei/CTai OTI d\r)6fj cXeyero ; 
TIflA. 3>aiveTai. 
XXXVI. 5*/2. Etev. et ovv Sr) TavTa d\r)6f), a) 430 

17 /xeydXiy XP ^ a e '" T ^ T ^ 9 pvjTopLKrjs ; Set /u,ev 
yap Sr) e/c T&iv vvv aj/AoXoy^jaevcov avTov eavTov /x-dXtcrTa 
(f)V\aTTLV OTTW? /AT) aSt/c^crei, a>? t/cavov /ca/cov e^ovTa. ov 

IlflA. Ildvv ye. 

Jjf/2. 'Edv Sc ye dSt/ci^cr^ 7^ avTo? 77 dXXos Tt? aiv av 
CLVTOV e/covTa teVat e/ceto"e OTTOV a>5 Ta^to~Ta Swo~et 
, trapd TOV St/cao-Tryv, axnrep trapd TOV laTpov, o-7rev- 
U 1 >^ SovTa OTTCOS /XT) ey^povLa-0ev TO vdo-Ty/xa TT^? dSt/cta? VTrovXov B 
, *-t TT)V \livyriv TTOLTJcrei /cat dvCaTOV 77 Trois Xeyw/xev, w JTwXe, 

479 E. rby aStjcoj/j/Ta roD dStKouM^Q" 9- tune habebis tuum, cum iutelleges in- 

Xi&Tfpov] Also aStmcal doctrine. Seneca felicissimos esse felices." Ibid. xx. 7. 24. 

Ep. Mor. xv. 3. 52, "Ex illius (sc.Natu- 480. '6-irws ^ tyxpovurBtv o.vla-rov'] 

rae) constitutione miserius est nocere 'lest the disease of injustice become 

quam laedi ;" surely a deep moral truth, chronic, and render his soul gangrenous 

though in the guise of a paradox. But and past cure.' STTOV\OS is said of a 

another passage in Seneca goes beyond sloughing sore. Comp. Plut. Qu. Plat. 

the modesty of nature and the Academy : 1000 C, ov yb.p criii^aTos ri ^caKpdrovs 

" Brevem tibi formulam dabo, qua te iarptia, tyvxrjs Se %v VTTOV\OV Ko.Bapfj.6s. 
metiaris, qua perfectum esse jam sentias : 

480, E.] 



elfrep ra irporepov /xeVet 6fj.oXoyrjfj.aTa ; OVK dvdyKrj 
ravra e/cetvot? OVTOJ fj.ev o~vfj.<f>(avelv, dXXcus Se ^r\ ; 
HflA. Tt ydp or) (f>a)fj.ev, a> 2u>KpaTes ; 

'Eirl fj.ev dpa TO ct7roXoyeto~#at virep Trjs dSt/cta? 
avTov r) yovewv r) eraipoiv rj 7ratSaji> 17 TraTptSos 
dSi/coucny? ov ^ptjo~ifj.o<s ovoev r) prjTOpu<r) rjfJLiv, u> JTaiXe, 
C et ft^_eT. Tts v7roXdf3oj L jJ7rl^TovvavTLOv. KaTrjyopeiv oelv 
/xdXto-Ta fjiev eavTov, CTretTa Se /cat rav oLKei&v /cat 
69 av del TCOV <j>iXa)v rvy^avrj dSt/coaz/, /cat /x>) c 

, dXX' ets TO <f>avepbv dyeiv TO dSt/ay/xa, tVa 
OLKrjv Kal vyir)<s yevrjTaL, dvayKatf.iv Se /cat avTov /cat 
dXXov? tt^ aTToSetXtdf dXXd irape^eLv fj.vo-avTa_Kal ff^ \ ^, 

o~Trep reuveiv /cat Kaeiv larpw, TO dyadov /cat 
KaXoi' Stw/covTa, /XT) ~uTro\oy^ofj.evov TO dXyetyo^, eav tieV 
D ye irXr)ya)v dta ^St/c^/cws iy, TvvrTetv nape^ovra, eav Se 
Seo-/xov, Set^, ear Se ^/xta?, aTTOTLvovra, eav Se <f>vyrjs, 
<f>evyovTa, eav Se Oavdrov, diroOvrjo-KovTa, avTov irp>Tov 
ovra KaTijyopov /cat avTov Kal TO>V dXXaiv ot/cetwv /cat eVt 
TOVT&J 'xpwfj.evov Trj prjTopiKri, OTTCO? av 
dSt/cr^/aaTcov ytyvo/xeVwv aTraXXaTTcovTat TOV 
/ca/cov, dSt/ctas. (j)(0{j.ev OUTOJ? ^ /x^ <f)a)fj.ev, at UaiXe ; 
E IlfiA. *ATotra fj.ev, & ^cu/c/aaTeg, e/xotye So/cet, Tots. 
fjievToi, eairpoo-0evZ(r<t)s crot 6/xoXoyetTat. 

B. efrrep 6/to\o7^^toTa] ' if our pre- 
misses still hold good.' 

"Eiri /ir ctga aA.'yftydpI 'It follows 
that*as"aTneans of defending our own 
misdeeds or those of parent or friend, 
child or country, rhetoric is of no real 
value to us : unless indeed we adopt the 
contrary view that it is our duty to 
denounce first ourselves, then our kindred, 
and finally any one of our friends who 
may be guilty of injustice not, I say, to 
screen the delinquent, but rather to 
drag his offence to the light, that he 
may be punished and made whole. We 
should even force ourselves and our 
neigh bours-not_tg shrink from the ordeal, 
but like brave men, with closed eycs7 to 
invite the physician to operate upon us 
with knife or searing-iron, pursuing an 
end which is good and noble without 
weighing the attendant pain.' After 6rl 

Heind. understands 
clpcu, but it seems rather equivalent to 
ei's rot'^ofTioi' in Soph. 221, or (caret 
Tovvavriov, Tim. 36 D, or to ^f e^arrias, 
which is the most common. airoKpinr- 
Tto-flat is frequently transitive, as inf. 
492, airoKpvwT^fjifvoi rriv avrS>i> aSvva- 
ftiew. It seems indifferent whether rbv 
aurov tj>i\ov, or rb aSinTi/jLa TOV otvrov 
fy'iKov be regarded as the object of the 
action here, as the middle form is ap- 
plicable in either case. For nvtravra. 
Olymp. reads fj.vffa.vras, but the vulg. is 
preferable. He adds the explanation, 
feet /xrj opiafft vies Tf^vovrai as patients 
are now blindfolded on the operating- 
table. For rvyx^"V ttSiKwr the Bodl. 
gives rvyx&voi, which Heind. (' quod 
mireris') endeavours to defend. The 
formula ft fj.^1 (1 TIS p. supr., of which 
there are many instances, may support 



[480, E 


\vreov r TaSe 



TlflA. Nat, TOVTO ye OVTWS 
^fl. TOVVOVTIOV Se ye av neTaftaXovTa et dpa Set 
Ttvd /ca/cai? Trotetv, etr' e\0pov etT OVTIVOVV, lav povov /X,T) 

yap euXa- 

dSi/cT^Tat UTTO TOU e^dpov' TOVTO 
edi> Se a\\ov dSt/CTj 6 e^pos, iravTl TpoVw Trapa- 

<TKeva(TTOV /Cat TTpOTTOVTCL /Cat \lyOVTd, 


S&I 481 

Trapa. TOV StKacmfz/' e'av Se eX 

/ V *J' ^ NO^O/ </)/ ' 

vrjTeov O77cus av oiayvyri /cat JUT) ow oiKfjV o e^c/pos, a 
eav re ^pvcriov ^pTraicws ^ TroXv, ^17 aTroStSw TOVTO dXX* 
CYCOI' avaXioTKr) /cat ets eavToz^ /cat et? TOU? eavTou dSt/ca>5 
/cat d^e'aj?, ecti^ TC BavaTov d^ta ^St/ci^/cws ^, OTTGJS /u-t) 
jadXto~Ta /xe^ /ATySeVoTe, dXX' a0dvaTo<s eo~Tat 
&v, et Se ^17, OTTW? ag TrXeto-Tov \povov fiutxreTaL B 
TotovTos ajv. eTTt TO, TotauTa e/xotyc So/cet, &) IT&iXe, 17 
pr)TopLKr) ^p^o~tju,o5 eti^at, eTret TW ye /XT) /uteXXot'Tt dSt/ceti^ 
ou jaeydXTy Tt9 jtxot So/cet 17 XP e ^ a avT ^j^ eti/at, et ST) /cat 
eo~Ti Tt? ^peta, 0*5 eV ye Tot? irpocrOev ovSa/x>J eV^dVTi ovcra. 
XXXVII. KAA. Erne /xot, a) Xatpe^wv, o~7rovSd^et 

duty to do harm to any body, so long as 
we can do it without being injured our- 
selves,' Socr. is obviously ironical, as 
one wonders that so acute a critic as 
Gray did not perceive. Socr. is assuming 
the premisses of his opponents in order 
to lead them to a conclusion from which 
their common sense will revolt. 

481. waKiffKri] Codd. and edd. ava,- 
\i<rtcj]Tai. A similar solecism of the 
kind known to grammarians by the word 
' Datismus,' has hitherto held its ground 
in Rep. viii. 563 D, K&J' 6-riovv 5ov\tias 
TIS irpo(r<]>fpr]Tai (sc. rots TroAtrajy), 
where read of course irpoffQepri. 

aOdvaros effrai irovripbs &v~\ Live 
through an immortality of wickedness. 
Hyperides pro Lycoph. c. 3, STTWS &/ ^ 
addvaros (TVKO(f>dvT7)s : Shaksp. Othello, 
iv. 2, " I will be hanged if some eternal 
villain," &c. Observe the variety in the 
constructions with 'Airias ftirws ^ 5f 
(fjrws &*' Statyvyr; Kal /J.^ Sy (V. Syr], an 
inadmissible form for So/rj : v. Lobeck ad 
Phryn. p. 345) fj-rj airoSiSif dAA' ava- 

the-Bodl. reading of Phaedrus 279, e^re 
et OUTI^ ju^j oTroxp^irot Toi/Ta, where per- 
haps I ought not to have bracketed the 
following 8e. 

7 E. Tovvavrioi', /c.T.A.1 " This T " says 
i Gray, "Is a conclusion so extravagant, 
1 that it seems to be only a way of 
/ triumphing over Polus after his defeat, 
or perhaps in order to irritate Callicles, 
who had heard with great impatience 
the concessions which Polus had been 
forced to make, and now breaks out with 
warmth, and enters into the dispute." 
The dramatic intention is not to be mis- 
taken, still the extravagance is not so 
great as Gray supposed. He did not 
sufficiently attend to the important con- 
dition, fl&pa, 8e? Tiva, KUK&S iroif'iv. If 
it is our duty ' to do evil to our enemy,' 
as written in the popular Greek code, 
Socr.'s conclusion is perfectly sound. We 
cannot really hurt a man more than by 
promoting his growth in wickedness. If 
revenge is lawful, this is its most perfect 
form. But in assuming that ' it is our 

481, D.] 


XAI. '.E/xot fJLev So/cet, at KaXXt/cXet9> vTrep<f>va><s O~TTOV- 

ovSev fjLevroL olov TO avTov epcordv. 

KAA. Nrj TOV9 0eov<s aXX' eVt$vfta>. Elire /-tot, a 
5*w/cyoaTe9, Trorepov ere (j)a>jjLv wvl crirovftd^ovra rj iraC- 
tpvra ; et /u,eV yap o"7rovSaet9 TC Kal Tvy^dVet Tavra 
d\r)0f) ovra a Xe'yet9, aXXo Tt [^] rjfjiwv 6 ^8109 dvarerpa^- 
av eir) TMV dv0p(oir(t)v Kal rravra rd Ivavrla wpdr- 

t f * A O 

/, 019 eoiAcet', -^ a oet ; 

T /2 KaXXtfcXet9, et ^17 Tt ^v Tot9 dvBpanroLs Trd- 

/ \\\ ^^"xx N > ' \ \ ' ITJtTi 

^09, Toi9 /ae^ qAAo TI, Tot9 oe aAAo Tt, TO airro, aXAa Tt9 j.fe 

r)fj.a>v tStov Tt CTracr^e Trd0o<s ?) ot aXXot, OVK av T^J/ paftiov 

eVSet acrdai ToJLTpo) TO eavTov TrdBrjpa. Xe'yw S' 

OTt eyw TC Kat crv vvv rvy^dvo^ev ravrov Tt 

epoivre Svo OI^TC Svetv CKarepos, e'yo) /aet' '-4X/ct)8taSou TC 

TOV KXetvtov /cat <^>tXocro<^ta9, o~u Se TOV Te 'A0rjvaCa)v 

Sr^aov /cat TOV UvptXau7rov9. alcrOdvofMai ovv o~ov e/cacr- 


\lffK7) O7TCOS /XT/ <Z7rOvGt) / tTCll CtAA. 

to-rai &Vws f3i<atreTai. 

B. ou5e^ epaTap] See note on p. 
447 c. 

c. &AAo T [^]] Bekk. omits the ij, 
though found in all the MSS. I think 
rightly, if only on the ground of euphony. 
fi\Ao Tt, as a formula of interrogation, 
needs no defence. 

et TI] 'Were it not that mankind 
had feelings in common,' some being the 
subjects of one kind of emotion, others of 
another, i. e. some sharing the passion of 
love, others that of ambition, &c. et M^ 
TI -^v ' nisi forte accidisset ut :' et /j.ri 
Tt being taken together, as one particle, 
like ei p-fi vov, or as e? Tt pri is sometimes 
used. Rep. vi. 509 c, Kal /i^Sa/xws 7', 
e<prj, iraiXTrf el fj.'fi Tt, aAAa T)JV irepl TOV 
TjAiov d/xot^TijT' a3 5tetu>v. So inf. 513 C, 
ei fjd\ TI ffb &\\o \eyeis, ' nisi forte,' &c. 
In the sequel "tSiov is constructed with ^ 
as if tTtpov had been used. So paulo 
sup. eVoi'Ttoj' . . . ^ tie?. ' Were one or 
other of us capable of any feeling in 
which the rest of mankind had no part, 
it would in that case have been difficult 
to make our own experiences intelligible 
to our neighbours.' Routh thinks that 
Socr. alludes to the Protagorean doctrine 
dis ISiot ar#T)0'ets eKO(rra> rj/j,cav ytyvomai 
(Theaet. 166 c) ; but this seems question- 
able, though the suggestion is ingenious. 
Before TO OUTO" all the codd. without ex- 

ception interpolate ij, thus inverting the 

D. *"> '' TT 'Y"*ifl/f r ""Tl S " A ^|""1', 

the son' of Pyrilampes being so called. 
" It is possible too that there may be a 
secret allusion to the Equites of Aristo- 
phanes, where the Athenian people is 
introduced as a person, under the' name 
of Dernus," &c. (T. Gray). This seems 
a needless refinement. Demus was in 
his bloom when the Vespae was acted 
(B.C. 422) : Kal v^ Ai' $v ttri ye irov 
yeypa.fJ.iJ.tvov Tbi> TIvpi\d.ft,irovs tv Ovpa, 
Aijuof ica\6i> (v. 98), where the Schol. 
remarks, ^v Se Kal e&(j,op<f>os d ATJ/UOS- 
ttreypafyov 5e ot 'AOrjvatot ra T>V KaX&v 
ov6fj.aTa ovrtas- Af/yuoy tca\6s. Deinus 
was also mentioned by Eupolis in his 
play named Tl6\(is : Kal rip nvpi\dfj,irov? 
dp' Iv uirl Kv^e\r], as Meineke corrects 
the line quoted by the Schol. 1. 1. Kv^ie\Tj 
ev uffi, ' sordes in auribus,' was a figura- 
tive expression for dulness (compare the 
" purgatas aures " of Persius v. 63, and 
Bekk. Anecd. p. 425) which agrees well 
enough with the description of the cha- 
racter of Demus in the text. He is also 
noted as effeminate (6rj\v5ptas) by Liba- 
nius (Pro Salt. xix. p. 500 D), and by 
Athen. (ix. 397 c) he is said to have kept 
peacocks, inheriting this taste from his 
father Pyrilampes, according to Plutarch 
(Per. c. 13), who speaks of the bpviOorpo- 
(piai TOV Hvpi\d/ji.Trovs oj Ta?poy ?iv Tlepi- 



[481, I) 

rore, /caurep 6Wos Setvov, ort OTTOCT' cU> (77 <rov TO, 
St/cd /cat oVoos av <$ e^et^, ov Swa/teVov dvTtXe'yeti>, dXX' 
dVoj /cat /caraj ttera^aXXo/xeVoi;. eV re [yap] 17? e'/c/cX^crta, E 
edV rt o~ov Xeyovros 6 877^09 6 'AdrjvaLtDV /AT) <j>rj oimy? 
e^etv, /xeraySaXXo/xevos Xe'yet? a e/cetvos ^SovXerat, /cat Trpo? 
rov UvptXciLiTrovs veavtav TOV /caXov TOVTOV rotav$' erepa 
TreTTov0a<s. rots yap rwv 7ratSt/ccJi> /3ovXev/xao~t re /cat 
Xoyot? ov^ otos T* et eVavTtovo~#at, w<rre, et Tts crov 
Xe'yozros e/cacrrore a Sta rovrovs Xeyets ^av/xa^ot a>s aroTra 
tcrcos etTrots ai/ avrw, et )8ovXoto TaXfjO^ \eyeiv, on, 
rt5 7ravo~et ra o-a TratSt/ca TOVTWV roli^ Xoya>v, ovSe 482 


o~v 7ravo~et -TTOTC ravra 


eyw ravra 


Irepa Totav/ 


vo^itf. TOLVVV /cat Trap 
a/covets, /cat p,-^ ^av/aa^e ort 
<tXoo-o<tav, rd/xa vratSt/ca, 

Travcrov ravra Xeyovo"ai>. Xe'yet yap, a> <tXe eraTpe, del a 
vvv e'/xov d/covets, /cat ttot eVrt TWV erep&w 7ratSt/co>v TroXv 
TJTTOV e/xTrXfi/cTos' 6 tteV yap KXewteto? ovros dXXor' 

ing was Swws ov </>?? trot; rek iraiSiKa Kal 
onus ov jU.^? (pfj fX* ll> > comparing E, tav o 
SrjfjLos . . fi^i <j>fj OUTCOS ex 61 "- ^ n the next 
sentence %v rt yap, K.T.A., yap is not found 
in the Bodl. nor in many other codd. The 
asyndeton might, I think, be tolerated. 

E. jSouAeujuotn] fSov^/J-affi is also 
found, and agrees better with the fore- 
going & &cVos /3ov\tTai. It is in Aid. 
and Steph. and perhaps ought not to 
have been altered, even in deference to 
overwhelming MS. authority. The words 
in question are perpetually interchanged 
in the codd., as few can fail to have 

482. iro\v $ITTOV fnir\r)KTos~] 'she is 
far less flJgfiTy"a"nTTTTcT{le" 1 "Ehan her rival 
in my affections.' fK/3\T)ros, mentioned 
as a v. 1. by Olymp., is possibly a cor- 
ruption of exTr\riKTOs, with which t/j.- 
irATj/cros is perpetually confounded. 
Comp. Hesych., ^JUTTA^/CTOI/S fj.ffj,pv6ras, 
tv/4fTa0fTovs: Soph. Aj. 1358, rotoiSe 
fi.evroi <f>wTes \IJKTOL &poT<ai/, where 
the Schol. int. tcovQoi : Eur. Tro. 1205, 
at Ti>xat, " \rjKr os us avOpiairos, 
&\\OT^ &\\offe Tlr]$(afft, KovSfls avrbs 
evrvx" iroTf : Plat. Lys. 214 D, t/j.- 
ir\rjKTovs re Kal aa'Tad/j.^rovs (speaking 
of fickleness in friendship) : Thuc. iii. 
82 has -rb ffnirK^KTcas ov, where see 
Arnold, who compares Aeschines, F. L. v 

/cAe'ous. Gray adds, " Demus is men- 
tioned as a Trierarch in the expedition 
to Cyprus (as I imagine) about Ol. 98. 
1, under Cliabrias (Lysias de Bonis Aris- 
toph. p. 340 [154])." If we assume 405 
as the. date of this dialogue, Demus is 
too old to be the iratSi/cu of Callicles. 
Comp. Protag. init. It is curious that 
the clauses relating to Demus and Alci- 
biades are entirely passed over in the 
version of Ficinus, which in other points 
also disagrees with the received text. 
In 513 B the clause, /col vat n& Ala T 
nupjAojUTTovs yt irp6s, is translated thus : 
" ac per Jovem insuper Pyrilampi," this 
being the only passage in which the 
name of Pyrilampes occurs in this 

alffOdi'o/j.a.i ffov 8rt ov f)vva,fj.tvov~\ 
The blending of two constructions (1) 
alffOdvouai 0ov ov, (2) alffOd- 
vofj-at '6n ov Svvaffai is sufficiently justi- 
fied by the passage quoted by Heind. 
from Thuc. iv. 37, yvovs 8e 6 K\ta>v . . . 
'or i, el Kal biroffovovv /xaAAoc fvSdffovffi, 
Sta<f>6apr]a'Ofifi'ovf avrovs. 

STI dirSa-' ta> </>p] Some MSS. give 
Sirens, others a.i>Ti<f>fj. Here dirdcra. refers 
to the number, otruts x*" / to the nature 
of his assertions. 'Let him say a thou- 
sand things in a day and all different.' 
I once suspected that the original rend- 

482, c.j ropriAS. 73 

d\\a)v e'crrt \6yoiv, 77 Se <ptXoo-o<ta det TO>V avrotv. Xe'yet 
B Se a crv z'ui', TrapfjQ'Oa 8e /cat avTog Xeyo/xeVot?. 
^ ow licGunfv e^eXey^ov, oirep dpn eXeyov, co? ou TO 
dSt/ceti' ecrrt /cat , dSt/coiWa St/oii> /XT) StSoVat airavTw 
<r\aTov KaKOiv f) el TOVT' eacrei? dveXeyKTov, pa TOV 
Kvva, TOV AlyvTTTLOJV #eoV, ov crot o/xoXoyifcret KaXXt/cX^?, 
a) KaXXt/cXets, dXXd Sta^wvi^o'et, eV airavri rw ^Stw. Katrot 
ey(oy ot/xat, &> /8eA.rtcrre, /<al TTJV \vpav p,oi KpeiTrov 

p \ O I ~ "" X v T 

C et^at avapiJLOcrTeiv Te /cat oicupajvecy, /cat -^opov ai XP*)~ 
yotyv, /cat TrXetcrTovs dvOpa>Trovs pr) 6/xoXoyeu' /xot dXX 
ivavria Xeyetv /xaXXov ^ eva ofra e/xe 
etvat /cat Ivavria Xeyetv. 

XXXVIII. KAA. T /2 ^w/cpare?, So/cet? 

rot? Xoyots <Ls d\rj0(a<s S^/x^ydpo? a>v /cat vw ravra 
t? ravrov iraOovTos ITwXov irdOos, oircp Topyiov 

77/305 ere TraOeiv. e<f)irj ydp TTOV Topylav e 
VTTO o~ov, eav d^tK-^Tat Tra/)' avrov /XT) 
ra St/cata 6 TT)^ pr)TopiKT]v ySovXd/xevo? /xa^ew, et StSd^ot 

p. 327 R. ( 164), where TroXiTtfas t'/u- had to lead should sing out of tune, or 

irATjfi'a means little more than 'politi- that great masses of men should dis- 

cal inconsistency.' In Horn. Od. xx. 132, agree with and contradict me, than 

fHirXtytiriv, which is commonly inter- that I, who am but one, should be out of 

preted ' insanely/ will better bear the harmony with myself and contradict my 

meaning ' capriciously.' Later writers own assertions.' 

use these compounds to denote madness '1 '2ci>Kpasrf i Jiajtls_xea,i'ifv((T6at~\ 'you 

or folly in general, except in a few seem to me, Socr., to be reckless in your 

passages written in imitation of Attic talk, like an arrant_decl aim er , as you are.' 

models. The word Sri/tg^dpos is equally applicable 

6 KA.ejj'teios] "Alcibiades had now to a ' stump-ora 

left Athens, and taken refuge in Thrace, preacher, to one who rants and to one 

and the year after he was murdered" who cants. Compare Theaet. 162 D, S> 

(T. Gray). The i<nl seems to imply that ytwaioi ira78's re ol ytpovres, STJ^TJ- 

Plato had forgotten this circumstance, or yoptlrt>oi . . . ical & ol iro\\ol 

at any rate disregarded it. &v a.iro$tx it ' TO O-KOVOVTSS, \eyt7e ravra, 

c. xP^ v V X o P 7 y' 7 ? > '] For V by X ' where the latter clause explains STJ^TJ- 

pT)y>, an irregular use of the optative yoptlrt. In Demosth. Olyuth. iii. 3, 

after a leading verb in the indie, pres. irp&s X i P lv Si]/j.rjyope'ti/ ' to speak ad 

I Comp. Soph. Oed. R. 979, flicy Kparitrrov captandum' 

\ ?iv Sirtos SvvatrS ny. In this passage Kal vvv, K.r.\.~\ ' and if you now hold 

i olna.1 flvat is equivalent to ort forth in this strain, it is because Polus 

1 eftj &v, tne case supposed being an has made the very mistake for which he 

imaginary one. The reading avapnoffrtiv blamed Gorgias ' the mistake of giving 

was first proposed by Van Heusde for the way to false shame. Presently el $i$dii 

vnlg. avdp^offrov. The verb is found depends on tpwrtafifvov, according to the 

Soph. 253 A, and elsewhere in Plato, strict use of the fut. optat. in the obliqua 

Tr., ' I cannot but think it better that oratio after a past tense. The MSS., as 

my lyre should be out of order and give usual in this case, vacillate between 

discordant notes, or that any chorus I Si5ot and Si8aoi. 



[482, D 


O.VTOV 6 Popyta?, ala"xyvOriva.i avrov /cat c^aVat SiSd^ew D 
Sta TO e#os raw av0pa)TT(t)v, on dyava/crotez' cb> et rt<? /XT) 
^atr/- Sta Sr) ravTTfjv rr)v 6/xoXoytav dfay/cao-^vat ivavria. 
avrbv auraJ elTrelv, ere Se avro rovro dyavrav. /cat crou 
/careye'Xa, (5? y' e/xot So/ceti', 6p#a>s Tore, vuV Se TrdXw 
auras TO.VTOV TOVTO errade, /cat eytuye /car' avro rouro ov/c 
aya/xat IIa)\ov, ort am (Tvvegofnjcre TO dSt/cetv atcr^tov 
cl^at rou dSt/cetcr#at' e/c ravrrjs yap au TTJ? 6/xoXoyta9 
avro? VTTO o"ou o~v/x7roStcr^ets e^ rots Xoyot? TT(7TO[Jiia'6rj, B 
<ucrxyv6ei<s a eVoet etTret^. cru yap ra> 6Wt, a) ^cu/cpare?, 
et? rotavra ayetsjftoprt/ca /cat 8i7/xT;yopt/cd, (j>dcrK(ov 
StwKetv, a ^>va"t /te^ ou/c ecrrt /caXct, 


ravra evavra 



rt9 alor^vvrjTat, /cat />t^ roX/xa 483 

Xeyetv avrep voet, a vay /cotter at eWvrta Xeyetv. 6 Sr) /cat 
CTV rouro ro cro(j)ov /caravevo^/ccy? /ca/coupyetg e^ rot? 

"D. fff 8e ouTb TOUTO a707raV] Supr. 461 
C, TOVO" ?> Sri dyoTroy, ouTbs ayayiav eVl 
TOiavTa tptaT'fi/j.aTa, 

&s y fnol SoKeip] Meno 81, a\r]dr}, 
f/j-oiyf SoKeiv, Kal Ka\6v. Soph. El. 410, 
e/c 8efy*OT<$s TOV vvKTtpov, 8oKeV 2/j.ot. 
Herod, ii. 124, &s 7* ^o\ ooKftiv. 

E. fireo-TOfjiiffQri} ' p&gge^' i. c. silenced 
and put down. 

ffv yap Ty OVTI] ' For it is you, in 
point of fact, Socr., who, under pretence 
of pursuing the truth, lead your hearers 
to adopt (pass off upon your audience) 
a set of stale popular fallacies, grounded 
on legal (conventional) notions of the 
fair and comely, which have no founda- 
tion in nature.' Schol., (popTiKa T& fidpos 
eVtiroioGpTo (molesta,putida). Srifj.rjyopi.Ka 
TO trpbs TT}V TODV iro\\ojf ^\7rovTa ooco^. 

483. $ Sri Kal o~v ToOro] " Verba TOVTO 
Tb o-otf>6i> epexegeseos instar praegressi 8 
interposita sunt usu satis trito . . Soph. 
Ant. 4)4, TOUTTJI' 7' i$hv BdrrTovo-av, ov 
o~v Tbv veKpbv 'A.iTf'iTras : ubi Schol., Tbv 
<> t>v ffv aire'iTras OdwTftv OVTOOS Se 
at ol Tra\atol . . . K.paTlvos,"Oi>irfp 
4>tA.o/c\eTjs Tbv Xoyov Ste<f>0opfv " (Heind.). 
To the numerous examples he gives from 
Rep. 579 c, 583 E, &c., may be added 
Hyperides pro Euxenippo, Col. 19, S>v 
ov5ffj,ia Srjrrov Ttav aiTiiav TOVTCDV ovoev 
Koivbivel T^5 etero77eATiK<p vo^y. For 
KaKovpyels e. T. \6yots compare inf. 

489 B, & 8^ Kal 4y& yvovs KaKovpyoa 
fi> ro7s \6yois. Routh has seized the 
point of the clause, TOVTO Tb ffo<f>bv Ka.Ta- 
vevoTiK&s, which contains an allusion to 
Socr.'s early training under the Ionic 
philosopher Archelaus, to whom was as- 
signed the credit of having invented the 
antithesis between TO v6fj.y Ka\d and ia 
(pvo~et. The passage Routh quotes from 
Aristotle is highly illustrative of this 
portion of the dialogue : irAe?o-Tos 8e 
TOWOS effT\ TOV troifiv iro/)d8o|a \eyetv, 
&<Tirfp Kal 6 Ka\\iK\TJs tv Tip Fopylt} 
ytypmrTai \eycav, Kal ol apxaiolye irdvTes 
$OVTO o~v/j./3aii'fiv, irapb. Tb Kara tyvaiv 
Kal /carcb Tbv v6/j.ov. tva-vria yap tlvai 
tyvffiv Kal v6p.ov, Kal T}\V $iKaioffvvr]i> /cara 
v6p.ov fj.ev flvai Ka\bv /caro (piiffiv 8' ov 
Ka\6v. Se"tv ovv irpbs fJtev Tbv elirovTa 
Kara <pv<riv KOTO vop.ov awavTav, irpbs 8e 
T~OV Kara vop.ov ir\ T$]V tyvffiv ayeiv 
a,u.(poTfp(as yap tlvai \eytiv irapa8o|o. -ftv 
8e Tb fj.ev KOTO (puffiv auTots Tb a\ij6es, 
Tb 8e K-OTO v6fiov Tb -rots Tro\\ol-i SOKOVV 
&<TTe 8fi\ov OTI KaKfwoi, Ka8direp Kal ol 
vvv, ^ eAey|at ^ 7ropa8o|a Xtyeiv T"OV 
awoKpivopevov tirexeipovv tcoitlv (Soph. 
Blench, c. 12, 6). Comp. Diog. Laert. 
ii. 4, 'Apxf\aos, /uofljjT^s 'Avaay6pov, 
SiSofTKoAos 'SooKpaTovs . . . eotKe Se Kal 
OUTOS atyao-0ai Trjs i)9tKris. Kal yap irfpl 
vS/j.cai' ire<pt\oo-6(pr}Ke Kal Ka\cev Kal St- 

483, C.] 



Xdyots, lav jj.ev rt? /caret VOJJLOV Xe'y?/, /caret <f>v<Tiv vnepoj- 
TO)v, lav Se rd rrj<5 <f>v crews, ret rou v4fj,ov. aKrfirep aurt/ca 
e^ rourot?, rw dSt/ceti> re /cat ra> dSt/cero~$at, IIa>\ov TO 
Kara vopov aicryiov Xe'yovros (TV rov vopov eStw/ca^e? . 
/caret <j>vcriv. <j>vo~ei fj.ev yap TTOV alcryiov eo~nv onep Kal 
KO.KIOV, rb dSt/ceto"$at, v6[j.u> Se ro ctSt/cetv. ouSe yap 
dz>Spos rouro y' eVrt ro irct^/xa, ro dSt/ceto-^at, dXX* 
rtz'ds, &> /cpetrroV eVrt redvdvai r) fcrjv, oo~rts 
/cat Trpomr)\aKL^6fj.evos pr) OLOO-T* e&rlv avros 

aural fiorjBelv /xr^Se dXXcj ov ay /cryS^rat. dXX', oT/xat, ot 
TLOejjievot, rous ^d/xous ot do"^evet9 avOpomoi fieri /cat ot 
TroXXot. TT^OOS aurov? ouv /cat ro avrot? crvjji<j>epov rovs re 
ridevrai /cat rov? eTrat^ov? e7ratvoOo~t /cat 

re rovs 

rwv dv0pa>7T(t)v /cat oWarous ovra? TrXeov e^etv, ti>a /x 1 ^ 
avTotv TT\OV e^wo-t, Xeyovcrw, a>5 alcr^pov /cat ct8t/coj/ ro 
7rXeoi/e/cretf, /cat rouro ecrrt ro dSt/cet^, ro TrXe'ov 

, aurot a 

ayf^erat ourbs fupeiv 
Sf . . . rb S'tKaiov tlvai Kal rb a.l(T%pbv ov 
<t>v<rfi, a\\a v&fj-tf. In the sequel uire- 
pwTun' is explained by Ast, " interrogans 
ita ut aliud quid subjiciat;" but pro- 
bably wr($ has the same force as in uiro- 
Ao/Seip, so that vTTfpurut shall be equi- 
valent to viroXafriav tpwria. The sense 
will thus De : ' meeting your opponent 
with a question framed in accordance 
with the natural sense of the terms* em- 
plo^t'd, he* hating einylu^ml Lite same or 
similar terms, rb aiffxp^v, ^b Ka\6v, rb 
SiKaiov, in their conventional sense. The 
word inrfpiariav is not found in any other 
classical writer. 

eStu>Ka6ts^ "urgebas" (Ast in Lex. v. 

SiwKa6ta'). But fSiiaKaOes is an aorist, not 

an imperfect, nor is there such a word as 

SiaiKiiQta. This point seems to be proved 

by Elmsley (Annot. in Eurip. Med. p. 

113, not. y) : " Rectius, Sita- 

KaOe'iv, fiKa6f7if, flpyaBf'ii', ut ayaytiv :" 

cet. Dind. assents (H. Steph. Lex. Gr. 

L in v. SiaiKa.Bt'iv). Tr., ' when Polus meant 

I that which was legally or conventionally 

I fouler, you dealt with his conventionalism 

I as if he had been speaking the language 


of nature/ i. e. you made his conventional I 
to include a natural deformity. 

<pvtrei fifv yhp -rb afiiKflffBai] Dobree 
proposes the election of rb &SiKfiff6ai 
v6/j.(f Sf rb aSiKflv. As a milder remedy 
Stallb". suggests ffAfft^ AJF irav. ' Steph. 
would have read olov rb a.8iKt'i<T6ai, which 
does not much mend the matter. I had 
bracketed the clause, but am now dis- 
posed to leave it untouched, not because I 
think Dobree's conjecture " inane," but 
because the context seems to require 
either these or other equivalent words. 
Olympiodorus remarks on this passage, 
fl Se aSiKftrai ns irfpl ra ^Krbs ^ rb 
ffHua., OVK fffrt (ca/crfc. ovtif yap ffvveyfv- 
vi\Q^jj.fv rovrois, &crre ra uri f<f>' Tjfuit 
airo\\vtsrfs OVK o<pel\ofj.fv axOfffOaf t 
Sf a5iKo7ro fi ^/vx'h, KOLKiffrov Kal Set 
r6re ffirevSeiv ravrir)s aira\\ayrjvai rfjs 
aStKias. (ppovriffa/' ol>v rov ffct>6rjvai 
rfyv tyvx-l]i>, elSores a>s TO ^P'?j u - aTO Ka ' T 
(Ttx-ua ovSfV ffvfi^a.\Kovrai, sroffiffca/j.ev 

OVV f) fllTfV fKflvOS. Avrbl> /JLfV ^.' 

effotoira' T t fioi fteAet ; affirls iKftvr] 
'Epperat. The words quoted are from 
Archilochus, and are generally cited 
thus : aiirbs 5' et<pvyov Qavdrov rt\os- 



[483, C 

XXXIX. -Jta ravra Sr) v6fj,(o (JL6V TOVTO aSt/coi> /cat 
Xeyerat, TO ir\eov r) tytiv Ta>v TroXXait', /cat 
auTo /caXovtrtt'' r) Se ye, ot/xat, <j>v(ri<s avTrj cbro- 
av art St/caidV ecrrt TOV a^eivfa TOV ^eipovo? ir\eov 
/cat rof ovvaTcoTepov TOV dovvaTMTepov. Sr^Xot Se 


u ort ovrwg 

/cat T(w*> dv0pa>7ra>v ev oXats rats TroXecrt /cat rot? yevecrw, 
on ovTO) TO St/catov /ce/c^otTat, TOZ> KpeiTTO) TOV T)TTOVO<; 

/cat TT\OV e^etv. evret TTOIOJ St/catw 
67TL rrjv 'iJXXaSa ecrTpdrevarev fj 6 Trarrjp CLVTOV 
eTTt 5*/cu^as ; 17 aXXa p,vpC av Tt? e^ot TOtavTa Xeyetv. dXX', E 
oT/xat, ovTot KaTa (J>VCTLV [rrjv TOV St/catou] Tavra 
Tovcrt, /cat z/at /ixa, ^dta /caTa VOJJLOV ye TOV Trjs 
tcrws /caTa TOUTO^ oz^ T7/aets TiOepeda 


ov Kaicico. Bufc in Aristoph. Pac. 1267, 
the former line begins, ^"XV 8' e'|e- 
o-aoxro. It would therefore seem that 
there were several readings of this cele- 
brated Elegy. Possibly the Aristophanic 
included the T /uoi jte' ; of Olymp. 

c(7ro(f>a^i a5] Restored by Bekk. from 
one MS. in place of avr6, which Stallb. 
defends. Vulg. t>v airo<palvoi &v, which 
he rejects as " lenius ac modestius quam 
pro Calliclis superbia et confidential' 

D. 5rjA.o?] Tliis verb may be in con- 
struction with <f>v<ns, but it is better to 
regard it as intransitive, either in con- 
struction with Tavra, or, better still, as 
impersonal. 'That such is the case may 
be seen in a variety of instances ; both 
among the inferior animals, and in the 
great civic communities of the human 
race, as well as in whole families.' The 
sentiments of Callicles, though differing 
somewhat in terms, are substantially the 
same with the doctrine attributed to 
Tlirasymachus in the first book of the 
Republic, p. 338 C fol., rb Siicaiov OVK 
aAAo T flvai T) rb rov Kpfirrovos v[i- 

eirff] ' what right for instance had 
Xerxes to invade Greece ? ' e-irei is fre- 
quently thus used with the imp. or an 
interrog. Comp. Protag. 319 E, ^iret 
IlfpiK\ris, K.r.\. : sup. 473 E, eVel epov 
riva rovruvi, where see the note. 

4) &\\a pvpi' &v~] Routh quotes Apol. 
41 B, t) a\\ovs fj.vp(ovs &i> ns tfirot Hal 

&v^pas Kal yvvaiKas. 

E. [VV rov 5t/cafou] Schleierm. first 
cast suspicion on these words, which 
have evidently crept in from the margin. 

ri6ffj.e0a TtXdrrovrfi] Explained as 
equiv. to n6ffj.tvoi irKarro^ev, ' the laws 
we model in our legislation.' ir\drruv 
is joined with vdpos. Also in Legg. 712 
B, irfip<afji.fOa, KaOdwep TraTSa Trpeo~/3vrat, 
ir\drrfiv r<p \6yu robs v6/j.ovs. So with 
ir6\u>, Rep. 374, in the sense of shaping 
an ideal commonwealth. The word, of 
course, originally meant to mould in wax 
or clay, as the sculptor his models, but 
in its metaphorical sense it is far more 
frequently applied to persons or parts of 
persons, as o-ta^a or ^vx"hv, than to inani- 
mate things, as indeed appears from 
the passage quoted from the Laws. On 
this account, I know not whether Ast's 
punctuation is not better than that in 
the text : ri6f/j.e6a. irKdrrovrts robs 
/3e\rio~Tovs Kal fppuu.fveo'rdTOvs rujLiav 
avr<ov, e vetav Xapftdvovres (i. e. ovffirtp 
fK vftav \au.&, /c.r.A. The asyn- 
deton may be compared with that in 
Protag. 325 C, tK iraiSay a^wpiav apd- 
/>oi, K.T.A., and the passage may be 
thus translated : ' in bringing into shape 
(educating) the best and most vigorous 
of our youth, we take them in hand at 
an early age, and tame them as men tame 
lions, plying them with spells and sor- 
ceries, and telling them/ &c. The art of 
beast-taming was brought to great per- 
fection at Athens according to Isocrates, 

484, B.] 


Tovg ^SeXrtcrrov? /cat eppcuyaevecrTaTov? r)fjia)v avratv, IK 
veoiv Xa/x)8aVoz'T9, (ocnrep Xe'ovras /caTeTraSovTe's TC /cat 
484 yo^Tfcvovres /caTaSovXouju,e#a | Xeyovre? as TO tcrov ^JOT) 
es^etv /cat TOUTO eo~Tt TO /caXov /cat TO St/catov. eat' Se ye, 
ot/xai, <j>vo'iv iKavv}v yevrjTai e^w^ dvrfp, rrdvra, TO.VTOL 
a,7roo~eto~a/zevo9 /cat Siap^^a? /cat Sta< 
TTTcras TO, rjfieTepa Kal /Aayyavev/xaTa /cat 
Sag /cat vd/xovs TOUS Trapa (j>v(riv aVai'Tas, e7raj>ao-Ta<j dve- 
(frdvr) Seo~7roTi79 ^/xeVe^o? 6 SouXos, /cat cvravOa e 
B TO TTJS <f>vcr(t)<s St/cato^. So/cet Se /tot /cat JTtV8apo9 
eya> Xe'ya) efSet/cvvo'^at ei^ TW acr/zaTt ev 

S 6 TToivTtov )8ao~tXevs 6var(ov re /cat d6a- 

151 : . . . Kara (pvfftv . . . N<J/uos 6 irdvroiv 
/3afTt\tvs Qfartav Tf Kal aQavdriav y A-yet 
SiKaiuv Tb /3iai6TaTov 'tireprdra x ( p' 1 ' 
TeKfiLatpofnai "'Epyouriv 'Hpa/cAe'or, tirfl 
Ttjpv6va ft6as KvK\tairtcav tirl irpodvpcav 
Eupi'crOe'os 'AvairiijTas Te Kal dirpiaras 
tfXaffev : " Secundum rerum natnram . . . 
Lex omnium dominus inortalium et im- 
mortalium affert vim maximum, justam 
earn efflcicns, potentissima manu. Id 
assero ex Herculis facinoribus : quippe 
Geryonae boves ad Cyclopia Eurysthei 
vestibula neque prece nee pretio adeptus 
egit." Of the words not found in the text 
KaTa <p<uffiv are restored by comparison of 
p. 488 B of this dial, with Legg. 690 B, 
with a gloss in Hesych. (No/uos. itavroiv 
6 jBcunAeus KaTa T^V <(>v<rtt>), and some 
other passages ; Trjpv6va . . . Kai and 
fj\a(rfv, from a Scholion on Aristides 
Rhet. ii. 52, to which Boeckh was the 
first to call attention. ai/atTTjroy, ' un- 
begged/ though a OTTO! \ty6fj.tvov, is a 
probable emendation of the unmeaning 
avaipfiTov of the Schol. referred to. For 
SiKaicav in the text of Plato h. 1. the MSS. 
give /SicuW and fiiaiuiv, whence the vulg. 
/3ia/o>y. But SiKatwv is found both in the 
text of Aristides, 1. 1., and in the Schol. 
to Find. Nem. ix. 35 ; also in Plat. Legg. 
iv. 714 E. On the whole, the restoration 
may be considered satisfactory, as it is 
certainly most skilful. But to Boeckh's 
interpretation of &ytt Ast demurs, and 
with apparent reason, for ftfav or Tb 
QiaiAraTov ayttv can hardly mean " vim" 
or "vim maximam affetre." His own 
interpretation is better : " Abigit (tit 
Hercules boves) *. rapit. Sic 488 B, 
ayttv /3ict Tbv Kpt'iTTia TO TWV r\Tr6v<av" 

Antid. 228 : Kafl' fKaffrov rbv tvicun'bv 
OtoipovvTfs tv rois dav/j-acri TOVS fiev 
\fovras wpaoTfpov Sicuceififvavs irpbs rovs 
OtpairtvovTas ^ TO)*' a.v8pwir<ov evioi irpbs 


Sov/j.evas Kal ira\aiovffas Kal /j.ifj.ovij.fvas 
Tas Tj/j.(Tfpas tiriffTJiLias. Juvenal too 
speaks of a tame lion as one of the 
domestic pets of a Roman gentleman 
(vii. 75). Aescli. Ag. 696, HQpefytv it 
\eovTos v lvtv &6nois ayd\aKTOv, K.T.\. 

484. e'^v 5e 76] 'Ay, but if there come 
a thoroughly strong-minded man, he, me- 
thinks, will shake off from him and tear 
asunder and escape from these trammels ; 
he will tread under foot our prescriptions, 
our witcheries and spells, in a word, every 
ordinalufe that is at variance with nature ; 
until, rising in open rebellion, he, the some- 
time slave, appears in a new character as 
our master; and herein does Nature's 
Justice shine forth in full lustre.' 

fj.ayynxfvti.aTa] Legg. 933 C, pay- 
yavev/jiacri Kal (pl\rpois: Arist. Plut. 
309, OVKOVV <re -rty K.ipKt]v ye r^v ra 
(papuax'<ra.v Kal fjLayyavtvovffav 
(i.o\vvov(rdv Tf rovs eraipovs. Hesych., 
(j.dyyai>a, (pdpftaKa, S//CTUO, yorjTtvuara. 
The form payyavtia is found twice in 
the Laws 908 D, and 933 A coupled 
in the latter passage with QappaKfia, 
4irci>$ai, and KaraSfVets. The alleged 
etymology is fj.d<rffw, whence pay-is, /j.dy- 
ejpos. Sanscr. Masg, to soak -feucht- 
machen (Benfey, Wiirz. Lex. i. p. 515). 
Others derive the word from jta-yos 

B. N6/J.OS 6 irdvTcav /3a(TtAeu$] This 
remarkable fragment is thus restored 
and interpreted by Boeckh, Frag. Find. 



[-184, B 

ouros Se 877, <f>r)crii>, ayetSt/catajy To_ 
TOLTOV VTrepTdra. X P^' TeKfj.aipop,ai epyoicriv 'H/oa- 
/cAe'os, cTrel aTrpidVas Xe'yei ouroo mo?' TO yap 0,07x0. 
ov/c eTTio-Ta/xai. Xeyei S' ort ovre TT pia^vo^ ovre SoWos 
row Fypvovov ^Xacraro ras ^ov?, a>s TOVTOU oVros rov 
St/catov <vo~et, KOI /8ovs /col rdXXa /cr^/xara eiWi TTOLVTO. 
rou ySeXrto^os re /col KpetrTovos ra TMV "^eipovcav re /cat 

-TTT m^^ * \ /iv v v / / * \ 

AJj. To ju> ow ahyues OVTU<S e^et, yi'wo-ei oe, av CTTI 



cv rts aurov 

At the same time it is not impossible 
that the dependent noun to &ye< is lost 
with the context. Provisionally the 
words may be rendered, ' carries all with 
a high hand, justifying the extreme of 
violence;' i. e. turning might into right; 
and the entire fragment may be thus 
paraphrased : ' There is a law of nature, 
the law of the stronger, to which all in 
heaven and earth must submit, and which 
overrides at times all positive enact- 
ments, justifying deeds of violence which 
are condemned by human codes. This 
law sanctioned many of the exploits of 
Hercules, otherwise indefensible : as in 
particular, that in which he seized with- 
out money paid or leave asked, the cows 
of Geryones, and drove them from the 
far-west away to the palace of Eury- 
stheus, at Argos.' The same thought is 
expressed in homelier language by Words- 
worth, in his poem on Rob Roy's 
Grave : 

" For why ? because the good old rule, 

Sufficeth them ; the simple plan, 
That they should take who have the 

And they should keep who can." 

The phrase v6^os irdvreav 0affi\evs, de- 
tached from the context, very soon be- 
came proverbial ; and was used by Hero- 
dotus and many after him, to signify the 
' tyranny of custom,' a sense nearly the 
reverse of that in which Pindar uses 
it. See Herod, iii. 38, /cal 6p6&s pot 
SoKfei nivSapos iroirfffai, v6p.ov iravrtav 
/3a<rt\e'a (/>^<7<zs elvau. When Boeckh 
speaks of a law of fate, " fatalis lex," he 
introduces an idea equally foreign to 

Pindar's drift. The Law spoken of is 
that which the Greeks understood by 
Xetpqjy ptfytoy (Aeschiin3s~"c7TimT 5), the 
Germans t>y ' Faust-recht,' and we by 
' Club-law,' or the ' law of the stronger,' 
as I have paraphrased it. This sense 
alone agrees with the context in Plato, 
who in the Legg. (690 c) contrasts, with 
a reference to this passage, T^V TOV v6fj.ov 
iK^vToiv apx"f]v with fiiaiov. Ast takes 
rb Ptat6raroi/ adverbially, translating 
&yei SiKaiwv "rapit ex suo jure agens;" 
but I cannot agree with him. The Schol. 
on Aristides has by way of interpretation 

T& S'lKCUOV V iVxUpOTOTTJ ^pl ai>Ul. 

Did he read &vei for &yei in Pindar's 
text?] This verb is frequently 
used in the sense of knowing by rote, as 
in Phaedo 61 B, ous irpox^ipovs elxov Kctl 
7)iriffTdfji.'r]V fjivOovs TOVS Aiffcairov, and 
other passages quoted by Ast. It is also 
used to denote personal acquaintance : 
as by Aristoph. Equit. 1278, vvv 5' 'Api- 
yvtDTov yap ovSels SffTis ov/c firta-rarat. 

C. <pi\o<ro(pia yap rot] This view of 
the use and abuse of philosophy was 
doubtless very generally adopted by men 
of quality and education, in Athens as 
elsewhere, and it is a proof of Plato's 
dramatic impartiality, distinguishing 
him favourably from most writers of 
dialogues, that he should have put words 
into the mouth of Callicles which to the 
majority of his contemporaries would 
seem the perfection of good sense and 
political wisdom. Isocrates, a much more 
decorous character than Callicles, indeed 
a model of conventional propriety, speaks 
precisely to the same effect in more than 
one of his orations. For instance, in the 

-484, D.] 


a\jj7)Tcu iv ry ^Xt/cio,' lav Se irepaiTcpa) TOV Se'cwros cV- 
8tarpti//T7, Si,a<f>0opa TO>V avOptoirw. eav yap /cat TTOLVV 
V(f>vr)s 77 Kat iroppo) TYJS r)\LKias ^)tXocro^, avdyKrj irav- 
D TOW airtipov yeyovevai ecrriv, &v -^prj e^Treipov elvat TOV 
/xe'XXoi'Ta KaXov KayaOov /cat evSo/ct/xov ecre(r#at 

/cat yap T<WI> vo/xtuv aVetpot yiyvovrai TO>V Kara rrjv TTO\IV, ' 
Kat T<UI> Xoya>i> otg Set xpcofj-evov 6/xtXetv eV rots crv/x^So- x?t\l 



Xatot? rots dvOpuirois /cat tSt'a /cat Si7/xo<Tta,, Kat TWI> 
re /cat eVt^u/xtaij' rail' dv0p(t)TT.Ca)V, Kat ( 

amusement if studied in youth, and 
within reasonable bounds : but it is ab- 
solute ruin to those who remain at their 
studies too long : in fact, let a man be 
ever so highly gifted, if he philosophize 
to an advanced period of life, it is im- 
possible he can be versed in those accom- 
plishments which every gentleman, every 
man of consideration, should possess/ 
iv fj\iKia means, strictly speaking, 'at 
the proper age/ according to the original 
sense of the word f)\iKos. It may there- 
fore denote youth, or manhood, or mature 
life, according to circumstances. In 
Charm. 154 B, ev rfj TJAtK/a is applied to 
boys who are old enough and not too old 
to have lovers, and so means ' in early 
youth/ as it does here. But it6^p<a TTJS 
TjAiKios does not necessarily mean " ultra 
juventutem," as Stallb. translates : but 
rather ' far into life/ as in such phrases 
as ir6p'p<a ffoipias e\avv(iv (inf. 486 A), 
ir6^pia fJSrj earl rov /3iou (Apol. 38 c), 
which is in fact the more idiomatic use 
of ir6^poj with the genitive. Comp. Xen. 
Apol. Soc. 30, Trpofii]ffeff8ai iro^pia fJtox- 
Brjpias : Arist. Vesp. 192, irov-upbs el 

irbpfyw TfXVIS- 

D. Kal yap rtav v6fj.(av~\ The ignorance 
of pedants like these extends not merely 
to the laws of their country, and to 
those principles which enter into all 
covenants between man and man, or be- 
tween one country and another; they 
are equally ignorant of human pleasures 
and passions; inxghort. of human cha- 
racter in the aggregate. r<av \6ytav, 
' the "arguments and "considerations/ 
ofjuXelv is to be constructed with rols 
ayflpThnni, as If lie had Bald, bis Be? 

Panathenaicus (p. 238 B) he observes, 
TTJS ^tev oSc iraiSetas TTJJ forb rcij' irpo- 
yJ'w' Ka,Ta\fi<t>6fiffris Toffovrov Sew /caro- 
(ppovflv, SiffTf Kal T^JV ^<^)' rifiiaf /caTatrra- 
0fT<rai' ^iroiraj, \tyca 8e T^V re 
Kal r^v a,ffrpo\oylav Kal rovs 


vttarepoi fj.aX\ov %alpovffi TOV 
Ttav Se irpfffpuTfpcev ovSels ( 
&v aveKToJij aurouj elvot (p'fjae 
0/j.ais iyw TO?S &p/j.i)iJ.(t'ois f 
irapaKt\ irovtiv Kal irpofft^eiv T~bv 
I'ovv airacrt TOI/TOIS, \tycav ais e Ka2 ^trjSec 
&AAo SWOTOI TO fj.aOriiJ.aT a ravra iroie^v 
aya06v, oAA* oSr airorpeTTfi ye rovs veca- 
Tf'pouy jroAAaij' &\\cav afj.apr-n/j.dran'. rots 

fJLfV oSj' TTjAlKOUTOIS OuStTrOT* &V fvp- 

Orjrai vo^'ifa Siarpifias u<pf\inurepas 
rovTcev ouSe juaAAoj' irpfTroiiffas. rots Sf 
irpfo-ftvrfpois Kal rots els avSpas SeSoKt- 
/j.a<r/jifvois ovKert tp-n/j.1 ras fi\tras ravras 
if. bpia yap fviovs rSiv eir\ rols 
i rovrots ovrws ainjKpi^(a/j.ev<av 
&o~rf Kal rovs &\\ovs oiSd<rKfiv, ovr' 
tvKaipus rats iiriffri}fi.ais als exovffi XP ta ~ 
/jtevovs, %v T ra?s irpayfj.arelais ra?s irepl 
rbv jSior cuppoveffrfpovs ovras riav (J.aOt]- 
Ttav, OKVU yap tlire'tv rtav o'lKtriav. The 
appositeness of this quotation must ex- 
cuse its length. More to the same effect 
will be found in Antid. 280 fol. 
(Bekker), in the Helenes Encom. init. 
and other speeches : some of which con- 
tain obvious polemical insinuations aimed 
at Plato and his school. The Xeno- 
phontic Socrates will be found also to 
agree with Callicles in his sentiments on 
this subject, better at least than with 
his Platonic self. Comp. Mem. iv. 7. 2 
fol. Socr., as a philosopher, argues 
Callicles, might naturally doubt the truth 
of these doctrines : but let him take part 
in the serious affairs of life, and his 
doubts will disappear. ' For Philosophy 
is doubtless a pretty thing a nice 

ev T< OfjuKetv rols avdp. ffvp- 
&6\aia is explained by the Schol., at 
a(r<pa.\eiai Kal ffuyypaipal Kal ffvvOrjKai 
ir6\f<ai>, KaO' as ro Sixaiov 



[484, E 

TO>V r^Qtov TravraTTacriv oVeipot yiyvovToa. lireiftav ovv E 
eX^cacrtv ets nva i&iav rj TroXiruop irpa^iv, KaTaye'Xacrroi 
ylyvovTo.1, coorirep ye, ol)aai, ot TTO\LTLKOL, eVeiSai> au et? 
70,5 Vjuerepas Star^t^a? eX#a>cri /cat TOUS Xoyov?, joara- 
yeXacrroi eicri. cru/x/3atvet yap TO TOV Evpnr&ov Xa/x- 
7jy>os T* ecrrtt' e/cacrros eV TOUTO>, 

E. &inrfp -ye. aTMst"! ' as I suppose men 
of the world are when they are admitted 
to your reunions and the discussions that 
take place there.' Siarptftri is either the 
place in which, or the matter ahout 
which Siarpiftei ns. Of the former we 
have an example in Charm. 153 A, #<x 
eir\ T&S vvr]0eis SiarpijSds. ' I was pro- 
ceeding to my accustomed haunts :' of 
the latter passim. Siarpi/Sal ical \6yot 
are found together Apol. 37 c. Siarpiff-f] 
is used for ' ludus,' a school of rhetoric 
or philosophy, by Isocr. Panath. 237 A, 
TOI/S eVx^'f^Tos TTJS ^/uijs StaTp/jSrjs. So 
by later writers in such phrases as fi 
fI\6T(ovos, 7] 2.itvtovos SiaTpi/3-fj. A. Gell. 
xviii. 13, " Sophisma a quodam dialectico 
ex Platonis diatriba propositum." Ibid, 
xvii. 20 al. 

TO Toy EtiptTTtSou] These lines, and 
those which follow presently, are quoted 
from the Antiopa of Euripides, a drama, 
which, if we may judge from the number 
of fragments preserved by Clemens, Sto- 
baeus, and others, was a favourite in the 
schools. Zethus and Amphion were 
twins, born to Zeus by the beautiful 
Antiopa, and whom she was constrained 
to leave on Mount Cithaeron, under the 
care of a faithful shepherd. In this 
seclusion Amphion, to whom Hermes 
had given the lyre, devoted himself to 
music and other liberal pursuits, while 
the ruder Zethus led the life of a shep- 
herd and huntsman. In the animated 
dialogue, of which these lines form a 
part, and of wLich some eighty or ninety 
survive, each brother extols his own pur- 
suits ; Zethus twitting his brother with 
effeminacy, unbusiness-like habits, &c., 
while Amphion dilates on the superiority 
of intelligence to brute force, and similar 
topics. The three verses in the text are 
said by the Scholiast to have formed 
part of the prjins of Zethus : but from 
their tenour they seem mor,e appropriate 
to the character of the gentler and more 
reasonable Amphion, and to him ac- 
cordingly Hartung gives them (Euri- 
pides Ri'stitutus ii. p. 420). However 

this be, Hartung is probably right iu~\ 
regarding the words \<tfj.irp6s and ettaa-ros \ 
as belonging to the text of Euripides : 
\a(j.irp6s 6' (8' Hart.) ettaffros Kcnrl TOUT' 
^TTflyerat. The second verse is quoted 
twice by Aristotle, once with a slight 
variation, unimportant as regards the 
sense (Rhet. i. 11. 28); the third by 
Plutarch (Mor. pp. 514 A, and 630 B), 
whose MSS. in the latter passage give 
^v'YX'* v y> i Q the former Tvyxavfi- The 
reading rvyxavri is also that of the MSS. 
of Plato here and Ale. ii. 146 A, where 
only one codex gives rvyxant. This 
latter is however more legitimate with 
Iva. in the sense of oirov or iv <jj, and 
Buttm., Bekk., and the Ziir. Edd. adopt 
it. Stallb. defends the vulg. rvyx&vri 
on the ground that irpiV, oirov, oOev, and 
similar adverbs of time or place, are by 
the tragic poets frequently constructed 
with the conjunctive alone, in cases where 
a prose author would have added &v. 
He appeals to two well-known notes of 
Person, on Med. 222 and Orest. 141, 
where however there is no mention of 
'tva. Some colour is lent to his opinion 
by the succeeding '6irov 8' &v, and Ast 
accordingly approves, though he had 
given rvyxoivft in his text. 1 have never 
seen an instance of 'Iva. in its local sense 
with the conj., and the ambiguity which 
would arise from such use, between the 
final and topical use of the particle, may 
have caused it to be exempted from the 
licence taken in the case of OTTOV, &c. 
Probably, for a similar reason, 'iv' &v is 
never used in a final sense, as &s &v and 
OTTWS &v frequently are. I have there- 
fore not hesitated to retain Bekker's 
Tvyx&vci, and the less so as the confusion 
of ei and i] or 171 is of perpetual occurrence 
in ordinary MSS. In the degenerate 
pronunciation of later times, t\, ei, 01, i, 
v had all precisely the same sound, as 
they have in modern Greece at the pre- 
sent day, the sound namely of our long 
e or of the Italian i. This confusion is 
well known to scholars by the term 
'itacism/ and has naturally been the 

485, c.] ropriAS. 


vc/J.<i)V TO TrXeicrrov rj 
IP* avros avrou riry^avei 

485 | OTTOV 8' ai> <auXo? 77, evrevdev <f>evyi /cat XotSopet rovro, 
TO 8' erepov lirawel, evvoia rrj eavrov, i^yov/xe^os OUTWS 
auras eavTov eTraLvelv. dXX', otjaat, TO opOoraTov ecrnv 
JLTaa-)(LV. <tXoo-o</tas jaeV, ocroi> TratSetag 
KaXbv /aeTexew, /cat ou/c cdcr^pov jnetpa/ctw 

ert fyikocrofyfi, KarayeXacrTov, a> 2(aKpaTe<s, TO ^prjfjia yiyvz- 

B Tat, /cat ey<aye o^oiorarov 7rao-^w TT/DOS TOV? <f>L\ocro(f)ovv- 

Ta? (ocnrep irpos TOV? i//eXXt^oju,eVovg /cat iraitflvra.^. orav 

/xev yap TratStov tS<u w eTt TrpoarfKei StaXcyo~^at oima 

\fj\\L,6jJiVOV /Cat TTOltpV, ^CtCpO) T /Cttt ^apUv fJLOL <f)aiV- 

Tat /cat IXevOepLov /cat Trpeirov rrj TOV TratStou T^Xt/cta* 
oTav Se o-a<^tu? StaXeyo/xeVov TratSaptou a/covcrw, iriKpov 
Tt /xot So/cet ^prjp,a etvat /cat dvta /xou TO, a>Ta /cat //,ot 
8o/cet 8ovXo7rp7re9 Tt eti/af OTav Se d^Spo? d.Kovo"r) Tt? 
C T/eXXio/xeVou -^ TToitpvro. opa, KarayeXaaTOV (f>aweTa.L /cat 
ava.v$>pov /cat TrXrjywv CLLOV. TO.VTOV ovv lywye TOUTO 
/cat Trpos TOVS <j)iXocro<f)OvvTas. Trapa vea) fiev yap 

cause of much vicious orthography in the though he had no head for abstruse philo- 

MSS. The general sense of the passage sophy, and indeed thoroughly hated it, 

is this : ' every man will most distinguish acknowledges very freely its educational,^ 

himself in those pursuits for which he uses. After informing us that mathe- 

has a natural turn : to these he will ap- rnatics and such-like sciences are of no 

ply himself with the greatest zeal and value whatever to those who profess them, 

assiduity.' except as a means of getting their bread, 

Aa/xirpJs] { eminent,' ' shining,' as Eur. he admits that they are exceedingly 

Supp. 902, OVK tf \6yois $v \afj.irp6s, valuable to the pupils of such persons : 

a\\' tv affiriSi Aeivbs ffofyiffTiis. TOVS 8e /j.avQdi'oi'Ta.s ov(vi\ai m inpl yap 

1v' jSf'ATtffTos &v] 'in which he is at T)]V trfprnoKoyiav /col r^v aKpipftav rrjs 

his best,' or, ' in which his forte lies.' a<TTpo\oyias Kal yafj.erpias SiaTpipovTfs, 

The idiom is sufficiently common, and is Kal SiNr/caTo/uaO^Tots irpdyfj.afftv avayKaty- 

illustrated in all the grammars. yuevoi jrpoo-e'xf"' T^>V vow, IVi 5e avvtQi- 

485. <pi\o<ro<pias /ueV] ' It is good, I (6/j.fvoi \iytiv Kal irovftv firl rots \tyo- 

know, to have just such a tincture of /j.evois KOI SfiKw/j.fvois, Kal ^ ireirXavii- 

philosophy as may serve the ends of a fj.tvi)v %x fiv r ^ v Sidvotav, Iv TOVTOIS 

liberal training, and it is therefore no yvfjivaaBevres Kal irapo^vvOtv-rfs pa.ov Kal 

discredit to a mere lad to philosophize.' Qarrov ret trirovSaid-repa Kal wAMMf &ta 

This comparative liberality is more in TOIV irpaynaTwv airoSe'xfO'Oai Kal /j.av- 

harmony with the notions prevalent in Bavtiv Swavrat (Antid. 3, 283, Bkk.). 

the fourth than in the fifth century, B.C. We seem to hear some modern apologist \ " 

Aristophanes at least makes no such con- for " University studies." 
cessions. Isocrates, on the other hand, 




[485, C 

fj,eipa.Kia> opatv <f)i\oo~o<f>iav ayajuat, /cat irpeireiv (JLOL oo- 
/cet, /cat T7you/xat IXevdepov TIVOL etvat TOVTOV TOV avdpoj- 
TTOV, TOV 8e ja^ <f>i\oo~o<j)ovvTa\ev0pov /cat ovSeVoTe 
ouSei'o? oi^KtKTOVTa. eavTov ovre /caXou oure yevvaiov irpoiy- 
ftaros* oraf 8e ST) Trpeo-fivrepov tS&> ert <tXocro<owra D 
/cat JU,T) a7raXXaTTo/Ai>ov, TrXrjywv /xot So/cet 17817 8etcr#at, 
<5 ^w/cyoare?, ovro? 6 dvrjp. o yap vvv or) eXfyov, VTrdp- 
^et rovro) TW av6pa)TT(i>, KO.V Trdvv ev<f)vr]<; y, 
yevecrBaL favyovTL ra /LteVa rTj? TrdXeo)? /cat ras 
et' at? e^ 6 Trot^T^s TOV? av8pa? dyowrgeirets yiyvecrdai, 
/caraSeSu/cort oe^ fov Xoi7ro*> yStoi' yStwvat jaera jaetpa/ctajv 
> ycui/ta rpitov rj TeTrdpaiv ifjiOvpi^ovra, \ev0epov 8e /cat 
ja^SeVore tf>ueya.cr6au,. E 

Se, a> ^wK/jare?, TT/JOS ere eTTtet/cws 

vvv oirep 6 
TOV 'Afjj<j)iova 6 EvpLTTLOov, bvlJjcrOjv. /cat 

p.eya /cat 

e/i,ot rotavr' arra eTrep^erat vrpos ere Xeyeiv oidirep 

irpos TOV doe\(f>6v, ort d/aeXet?, a) ^w/care?, wv Set ere 

eTTt/xeXetcr^at, /cat ^>vo~iv 



/cat ovr' 

irpoBeT OLV 6pOai<s \6yov, OVT' et/co? af /cat iriBavov 

E. djufXeTs, S SoS/cpares] Critics can- 
not be said to have succeeded in integrat- 
ing the text of Euripides satisfactorily. 
Nauck gives the following : 

[Ve fypovri^tiv 

e yevfaiav tyvaiv 

offTrfSos (cu 

evffai6 [TI], 
(Frag. Eur. 185.) 

Of these the second line is poor, though 
not umnetrical, as Valckenaer's : Al<rxp^s 
re jf'ux'Js w8e yfvvala. <f>v<ns. The 
first may probably have begun with 
the voc. "A/j.<j>iov. Nauck's $>povrleiv is 
perhaps better than the more prosaic 
>v tiri/j.e\f'iffOai ere Sej of other edd., nor 
is it unlike Plato to change a word in a 
quotation. For ywaiKonintf we have 
the authority of Philostratus : ywaiKo- 
Se /j.op<pwu.a.Ti KOT^ rbc EvpnriSrtv 

alffxp&s Siairpeirov (Vit. Apoll. iv. 160). 
Olyinp. by a slip of memory, aided by 
ignorance of metre, says that Euripides 
wrote ywaiKuStt. He adds, /cal of/r' b.v 
SlKais (sic) fiovXalffi: It Eupjir. flire 
' Kal oijr' Uv atririSos Kvrei irpoffofit^fftis.' 
We are not therefore to force the former 
words into the text, as Hartung and for- 
mer critics have done ; reading, ofrr' ej/ 
5i/cjjs &ov\aLffiv bpQias &f \6yov TIpoBflo 
, iriQa.v6v. The vicious pause condemns the 
former line : we must therefore presume 
that Callicles paraphrases Euripides here, 
as subsequently he puts irpay/jtaroav for 
ico\fniiav. It is difficult to account for* 
the apparent construction of fyvffiv with! i 
Siairpeiretv in Plato's text, but it appears! j 
from the passage of Philostr. that Euri-|l 
pides did not intend his words to be sol I 
taken, and that (pixriv depends on some Vl 
participle, ex a "'> TpfQuv, j$b.a<n<av or the II 
like, which Callicles or the copyists have I 



186, C.] 



ov0' vnep dXXov veaviKov /3ov\Vfj,a ^SovXevcrato. /catrot, 
w <f)i\e ^aj/cpares /cat /uot ^SeV d^0ea'0'r)<s' tvvoia yap 
epto T?7 crry ov/c atcr^po^ So/cet crot eivat OUTCOS e^etv ft>s 
eyw ere ot/aat e^etv /cat TOUS dXXovs TOV? Troppcu del ^>tXo- 
<TO<ta9 eXawo^ra? ; vvi' yap et rt? crov XaySo/te^os -^ 
dXXov drovow roiiv rotovra)^ ets TO Seo"/xa)T^ptov aTraydyot, 
<j)dcnDV doLKelv prjoev doiKovvra, olaff on OVK a.v e^ot? o i 
)T7O~ato cravTW, dXX' tXtyytyTy? av /cat ^acr/xwo ov/c 
o Tt etTTOt?, Kal et? To'cH/cao-T^ptoi/ dva^Sd?, /caT^yopov 
rrdw (f>av\ov /cat p,o^(0rjpov, aiTTo9dvoi<; civ, et /Sov- 
XotTO 6avdrov crot Tt/xdcr^at. /catrot vrftig o~o<f>ov TOVTO 
eo"Ttv, w ^w/cpaTe*?, et Tt? evcf>vd XaySovcra re^vrj 
0r)K ^.LpovcLj fJiijTe avTov avTca ovvdp,evov j3or)0iv 
e/ccrcucrat e/c TWV jj-eyicrTtov Kiv$vva)v ^Te eavTo^ 
C dXXov /rrySeVa, VTTO Se TW^ e^0po}v 7reptcrvXacr#at rrdcrav 
rrjv ovcriav, dre^vax; Se drt/xov ^v e^ T]7 TroXet ; TOI' Se 
TotouToi', et Tt /cat aypot/coTepov etprjcr^at, eeo-TLV enl 

/< / ^^^/ fc ' > \ \ > T ' /I ' > 

TUTTTOvTa JUT) OLOovai oucrjv. aAA &) yac/e, e/xot 
Traucrat 8* e'XeyYw^, TrpayuLdrw 8' evaovcrtai/ 

486. Wp/ta del eAaucovras] The 
phrase recurs in Crafc. 410 E ; Euthyph. 
4; Plut. de Invid. 538 A (ej's ftrxarov 
TroKjjpi'as 6 \ri\aK6-r as). Cotnp. Euthyd. 
294 E, ir6pf><a aro<pias Clefts, and tr., ' who 
are never satisfied with the progress 
they have made in philosophy,' hut wade 
deeper and deeper into its mysteries. 

B. KarriySpov Tv^iav irdvv ftovAoi;] 
Alluding pr^jVlily t" Mp^t"^ SeeApol. 
36 AT^Br"^Anytus, though IJLOX^P^, 
would not have been called ^oCXos. 

OapciTOu Tjua<rSo] Apol. 36 B, Tt/ua- 
rat 5* o?r /xot i dv)jp Bavdrov. The 
formula is well known. 

fcafrot TreSs ffo^xii'] We have here at 
least two lines from the drama : icotl ircos 
(ro(f>bi> TOVT' fffnv, el ris eixpva Aafiovtra. 
Tt\VTi (pur' fOrjKt xfipova. Some add a 
third : /K^T* aiirbj' aury $vi'd/j.fvoi> [i^poff- 
apKfffai], With Bekk. I have given 
fixpva, as the Attic form, for fixpvrj, 
which is found in the Bodl. and several 
other MSS. 

C. art-xyotis J6_fcrtjuoy1 In a state of 
i virtual arista, or dist'ranchisement : ' to 
I all intents and purposes^atToutcastV 

^wt >cJp^?y1 The blow upon the facei 
with tte^bpen hand, opposed ~lo KOJ'- 
5i5A.ou, "Dem. Mid. p. 537. See infra on 
p. U27, note. 

ctAA.' S 'ya6e, f/j.ol ireiflou] Here Stob. 
and Olymp. together enable us to restore 
the text of Euripides with tolerable con- 
fidence. Read with Nauck 

. oAA.' f/j.ol 


8" fvfuov- 

&\\ois TCL 



voifiviois \_-<av, 
' atytls <ro<piff- 

Nauck gets his p.e\<f$5iv, whether fairly 
or not, from Arist. Av. 1382, and Com. 
inc. ap. Mein. iv. p. 659. Olymp. tells 
us that iro\tn<av, not irpa.y/j.dTwv, was in 
the original, meaning evidently voKf^itav 
(Hesych. iro\e/j.icav iroAe/tiKtSj'). For 
roiaCr' SejSe Kal Hartung proposes 
rotoCr' aftS' '66ev S. (pp. as nearer to 
Plato's text. But icai is found in Stob., 

G 2 



[486, o 

/Cat d(TKi OTToBeV So^Ct? <f)pOVell>, dXXotS TO, KO/X1//O, 

' dc^et?, etre XTipTy/xara xp?) <aVat etz/at etre (^Xvaptas, 
e wz; Ktvola-Lv ey/caTot/CT7o-ets So/xois- ^TiXwv ou/c eXey- 
X wras cw'Spas T< * /u-t'cpd ravra, dXX* ots ecrrt" /cat yStos Kat 
Sofa/col dXXa TroXXd dyaBd. 

XLII. 572. .Et \pvcrriv e^co^ ervyyavov TT)*> 
a) KaXXt/cXet?, ou/c ai/ otet /xe dtr/xevov evpeiv 

vrpogayayw^ a.vTrji> 1 et />tot 

KaXws re^epaTrevcr^at TT)V \jjv)(yi>, ev etcrecr^at ort 
ej^eo Kat ovSeV /xot Set dXX^s flacrdvov ; 
KAA. Hpos rt ST) TOUT' epcora?, ai ^w/cpare? ; 
*.Eyaj crot epai vui^. otjotat eyw (rot 




Ev otS' on dv /not o-v 6fJLO\oyTJ(rr)<s Trept 

*'> * ^ ' ^ \ /3^ 

o^a^et, ravr 17017 eo-rtv avra 701X77 #77. 
yap ort TOV ju,eXXo^ra fta(ravt.eiv t/cavais V'^X^ 
6p$<ws re > (!>o"r)S /cat /XT) rpta dpa Set c^ew, a crv 
l^et?, eTno'TTJiA'rjv re /cat evvoiav /cat Trapp^criav. eyaj yap 
rroXXot? evTvy\dv(o ot e/xe ov^ otot re etcrt y8ao-avt^tv Sta 
TO /XT) cro(f)ol elvai tocnrep o~v' erepot Se o~o<ot /xeV eto~tv, 
ou/c eWXouo~t Se /xot Xeyetv TT)V d\ij6ei,av Sta rb /XT) /O7Seo~- 
/xou wcTTrep o~u' rw Se (reVw rciSe, Fopyta? re /cat 

48 'J 

who quotes from TotaDr' to ffo^>lff/j.ara 
(Anthol. 56. 13). Those who would 
know all that is to be learnt of the 
Antiope, and a little more, are referred to 
Hartung's Euripides Restitutus ii. 415. 

D. Et xpvffrjv ex a "'] Arist. Ehet. Qua- 
tuorv. 174. 15, el xpv<rfjv trtyxavtv 
X & "' T V ^ V X^ V > " K k v a-vrif Ka\\lca 
fiaffavov irpoa-fivtyKev : where the Schol., 

Ti/uelrai TO?S TrapaSfty/j.a.o-i rod 
or & y&p Tl\drwv rovs ayaOovs 
Xpv<ras fx fiv ^<7 e ' TOS \^ux<is. The 
Ka\\ita of Arist. illustrates T^V apiffrriv 
in the text. 

E. E oI8" 8rt] ' Sure I am that if I 
get you to assent to any opinions of 
which my judgment approves, such 
opinions may pass henceforth as abso- 

lutely true. For I remark that before 
any one can adequately try a human 
soul as to its right or wrong living, he 
requires some three qualifications, all of 
which exist in you knowledge, good- 
will, and moral courage.' For rpla &pa 
I should propose rpl' &rra. v Arra is very 
commonly used with numerals, and the 
force of &pa is but slight in the present 
context. The interpreters give "tria 
potissimum," a rendering which answers 
to STTO, but not to #/z. Rep. iv. 445 c, 
Ttrrapa 5' eV avrois &TTCI Siv KOI &tov 
tirinvriaQriva.1 ; ib. iii. 400 A, '6-n /uc 70^ 
rpl' &rra ftrrlv etSi} . . . Tfdianfi/os &/ 
efiroi^i. So in Arist. Eth. N. x. 10. 9, for 
the unmeaning avrd the context suggests 



E UoiXo?, o~o<f>w jJLev /cat <tXa; ICTTOV e/xw, eVSeeo-Tepa> Se 
TrappTTcrta? /cat alcr^vvTrjpoTepa) /xdXXoy TOV Se'oyTos* TTGJ? 
yap ov ; a* ye et? TOCTOVTOV ato^vyr/s ikfjX.vOa.Tov, wore 
Stct TO aio"xyveo-9a.i ToX/xa e/cdrepos CLVTWV auTos aura> 
eVayna Xeyety evavTiov TroXXaiy dy$pw7ra>y, /cat ravra vrept 
Taiy /xeyto"Tajy. &v Se ravra udvTa e^et? a ot dXXot ov/c 
e^ovcrr TTCTratSeuaat re yap t/cavw?, a>s TroXXot ay <^>Tyo~atey 
'A0r)vaia)v, /cat e'/xot et evyov. rt^t re/c/xT^ptw ^pw/xat ; eyw. 

(rot epai. otSa u/xcts eyw, ai KaXXt/cXet?, rerrapa? oyras Vl^^ 

KOivot)vov<s yeyoyora? o~o</>ta5, o~e re /cat Tio~a.vopov TOV L% 

. / / * 

*A(f)L$valov /cat ^Avopaiva. TOV ' 
roy XoXapye'a. /cat TTOT u/xaiy ey<Jt> eiruJKovcra, 
fj.ev<av P'^xpi' OTTOL TT^y o~o^tay d(TKrjTeov eirj, /cat otS' OTI 
eyt/ca ey v/xty TOtdSe Tts Sod, /XT) Trpo^u/xeto-^at et9 jrr}y 
d/cpt)8etay ^tXocro^ety, dXXd evXa/8etcr^at Trape/ceXeuecr^e 
D aXX-^Xot? OTTW? /XT) Trepa TOU Seoyros o~o^>ajTepot 

B. a<rxwTripoTp(0 fia\\ov TOV Seoj'Tos 
So presently (D), irepa roD Seovroy cro<f><a- 

C. "AfSpeava rbi> 'A.vSpoTiwfos'] He is 
named among the <ro<poi assembled in 
the house of Callias, Protag. 315 C. Of 
Tisander nothing seems to be known. 
The deine of Nausicydes was not XoAap- 
ytvs, as the Schol. gives it, hut Xo\ap- 
ytls. He may have been the same per- 
son as the Nausicydes mentioned Xen. 
Mem. ii. 7. 6, and Aristoph. Eccles. 426, 
as a wealthy meal-merchant (a\<t>iTa- 

iiri\Kouffa\ So the Bodl. and Bekk. 
Vulg. virfiKovaa, which Heind., strange 
to say, prefers. The confusion is of 
common occurrence in MSS. Thus in 
Arist. Nub. 263, fvcprjfj.eTi' XP^I T ^' / irpfff- 
&VTIIV Kal T-fis fi>xy s firaKovfiv, the old 
reading, corrected from the Ravenna, 
was viraKovftv. Ib. Vesp. 318, <f>i\ot, 
rr}KO/ fj.ei>, 8ia TT}S OITTJS 'Tficoc 
vira.Kovtai' (Meineke, e'lraKovoov). eira- 
Kovtiv is 'to lend an ear,' 'to listen,' 'to 
attend to,' vira.Koveiv, ' to answer to a call,' 
' to obey :' the former always takes the 
genitive, the latter generally the dative. 
In Theaet. 162 D, we have, TT/S S^ijyopfas 
of(os viranoveis Kal irtidfi, no MS. giving 
t-xaKovtn, which seems however prefer- 

ovv crov /coua> raura 

able, if only to avoid tautology. Ib. 255, 
y A(?pet 8); TrfpiaKoiriav, Iva p/fi ns riav 
a/jivfiruv firaxovr}, the MSS. are unani- 
mous, yet Heind. says, " Malin viraKovy," 
adducing the present passage. Comp. 
however Arist. Thesm. 627, <ri> 8' ctiro- 
ffrrjdi fioi, "iva ^ 'traKOVO'rjS (sc. iira- 
Kovo-ys) &iv avfip, where, as in Theaet. 1. 1. 
the word implies 'to hear as a bystander 
who has no right there to overhear ' 
(nearly as irapaKovtiv, Euthyd. 300 D, 6 
Se, are iravovpyos lav, . . aura ravra irapa- 
Ki)K6fi). Add to these exx. Xen. Anab. vii. 
1. 14, tiraKOvffavTts Se rjj/ey riav ffrpa- 
nttiriav ravra, i. e. from Anaxibius, whose 
words were intended for the officers. 

Mf'xp' Swoi] So Xen. H. G. iv. 7. 5, 
/xe'XP' Aiev irol irpbs rb reT^os ^ya'yei' 6 
'A^TycrtA-aoy, juexpt Se iroT T^JV x&pa.v 
eSrjdxrfv. Hirschig gives the commoner 
^e'xpt OTTOV, on no MSS. authority. 

eu\a/3e?(r0aj $ia<p6aptvrf s] 'to take 
heed lest if you become wise overmuch 
(over-educated) you be spoilt ere you are 
aware,' i. e. or, as we should say, ' lest 
you find, when too late, that you are 
quite unfitted for practical life.' So 
484 C, fav Se irepairepco eVSiarpii//?;, Sia- 
<f>0opa rStv avOpcaircav. It was in this sense 
that Socr. was said by his accusers Sta- 
(bOfipfiv TOWS vtovs. 

86 TIAATftNOS [487, D 

oep ros creavrov eratpoTaots, t/cavo 
/not TeKjj.rjpLoi' ecrnv on cos aXrjOais JJLOL evvov<s el. Kal /u)z/ 
6Vt ye otos 7rappi7crtaecr#at Kal pr) aia"xyv(j6ai, avros re 
(f)r)<S KOL 6 Xoyos ov okiyov Trporepov eXeyes 6/xoXoyet (rot. 
evet 8?) ouTcocrt 877X0^ ort TOVTCOV Trept vwi' lav Tt crv eV 
rot? Xoyots o/AoXoyifcrys /xot, fie/Sacravicrnevov TOVT 17817 E 
ecrrai t/cavwg VTT' ejutou re /cat crou, /cat ou/cert auro Saycrei 
eV a\\r)v ftda-avov ava<f>epeLV. ov yap av TTOTC avro crw- 
e^wp^cra? crv ovre croc/>ta? eVSeia our' atcr^v^? Treyotoucrta* 
ouS' au airaTfov e/xe cruy^wpi7o-at5 av c/>tXos ya/o /aot et, 
a>? /cat avrb? C/>T)S. TO> ovrt ouV 17 e^ /cat o">) 6/xoXo^aa 
reXos -^817 e^et TTJS aXi7#etag. Trdvrwv 8e KaXXicrTr) ICTTLV 
f) o-/cer//ts, a> KaXXt/cXet?, Trept TOVTWI^ a>v o~u S^ jotot eVe- 
Ttjai7O"as, Trotov Ttva ^p^ etvat TOI^ avSpa Kal rt eVtTT?- 
Seueti/ /cat | /Ae^pt TOU, Kal irpecrflvTepov Kal veatrepov 488 
oVra. eyo) yap et Tt /xr) op0a)<s Trparra) /cara TOI> yStov roi/ 
e/xavrov, eu to~#t rovro ort ou e/ca>v eaxaTaV<o dXX* 

dfj,a0La rfj e^y. (TV ovv, (Za-irep r)p(o vovffeTelv ju,e, /u,^ 
a,7rocrT7ys, clXX' t/cavai? /xot eVSetfat Tt eart TOUTO 6 771x17- 
SevreW /tot, /cat rt^a rporrov /cr^aat/xi^v a^ avro. /cat 
edV fte Kafirs vvv p,ev crot oiAoXoyrjo'avTa, iv Se TW varepa) 
^pova) p,r) ravra irpaTTovTa airep ajjaoXoy^cra, Travv /xe 
i7yov )8XaKa eTj^at /cat /x^/cert TTOTC' /ze vov0TTJa"fl<s vcrrepov, B 
aiov ovra. e ap^s Se' /zot eVavaXaySe, 


D. lx' 5)) ourwffi 8^A.ov STI] 'The Eq. 9. 12, /3A.a| '/TTWOS is opposed to 
case then evidently stands for the pre- 0u/toi5^s. Olympiod. in 1., T& j8Ao| 
sent thus :' SfjAoj/ Srt being adverbial, as 6vo/j.a yeyovev airb TOV /J.O.\O.KOV. For the 
inf. 490 E, oAA' ets viro5rt/j.ara Sfi\oif Sri interchange of yu and j8 compare Buttm. 
SeT TrAeoye/creij'. Lexil. No. 108 ; Donaldson, N. Crat. 

E. Tt?jt>vTj.^jolv~\ ' Thus, without exag- 218. Also Curtius, Gr. Etym. pp. 292, 
geration, our agreement will result in the 297, 471. 

perfect truth :' i. e. any proposition upon B. ^| apx?)* 8e' M 01 ^^e] After a 

which you and I shall agree, is sure to long rhetorical interlude, Socr. resumes 

be thoroughly true. TV &VTI, like are Y- his dialectical weapons, and makes a 

vies, is used by way of apology for a formal attack upon the position taken 

seemingly nyperoolical statement. up by Callicles, sup. p. 484 A. The 

488. l<iv /ue Aci/Sj/s] If you gain my elenchus is thus managed. The more 

assent now, and then in time to come powerful, the better, and the stronger, 

find that I fail to practise what I have mean, according to Callicles, all the 

agreed to, account me a very dolt, an same thing. But the Many are more 

imbecile, and never waste advice upon powerful than the One. Hence the laws 

me again. )8Aa implies feebleness both and maxims of the Many are those of the 

of mind and character. Thus in Xen. more powerful, and therefore of the 

488, D.] rorriAS. 87 

<f>r)<S TO St/CtttOl/ )(LV KOi (TV /Cat ITtVSa^OOS TO KOLTO. (j>VCTU/ ; 

dyetz> ySta TOV KptiTTO) TO, TO>V rjTTovtav /cat ap-^eiv TOV 
j3e\TL(t) TMV )(eLp6v(t)v /cat TrXeov \e.iv rov d/xet^w TOV 
<f>av\oTepov ; prf n dXXo Xe'yets TO OIKO.LOV etvat, TJ 6p0a><s 

XLIII. KAA. *A\\a. TavTa eXeyov /cat ToYe, /cat 

Ilorepov oe TOV avTov /3eXTta> /caXets oa> 
C /cpetrroj ; ovSe ya^> Tot Tore olos T' ^ (JiaOelv o~ov TI 
Xeyet?. iroTepov TOUS lo~xypoTepov<> /cpetTTov? /caXet? /cat 
Set aKpoaaBai TOV lo~)(ypoTpov TOV? do-ffeveo-Tepovs, olov 
pot So/cets /cat TOT evoiKvvo-0ai a>s at yxeyaXat TroXet? 


/cpetTTOvg eto~t /cat Icr^ypoTepai, ag TO KptiTTov /cat to^v- 
poTepov /cat /Se\.TLOv TO.VTOV ov, f) eb~Tt /3e\TiO) JJLCV etvai, 
rJTTO) Se /cat acrdeveorTepov, /cat KpeiTTO) [lev eivcu, p,o^0r)- 

D pOTCpOV ^ 6 aUTO? O/)O5 O~Tt TOU fieXTLOVOS Kal TOV 

KpeiTTOvos ; TOVTO fJLOL OLVTo (ra^)a>5 oiopicrov, TavTov ri 

ETp6v IcTTL TO KpeiTTOV Kal TO J3\TIOV KOI TO lo~)(Vp6- 

Tepov ; 

KAA. *A\\* eyw o"ot o"a<^>a>5 Xeyw oVt TCLVTOV O~TLV. 


; ot Sr) Kat TOV? vopovs TWevTcu. eVt TW evt, wo-7rep 
/cat o"u d/3Tt eXeyc?. 
KAA. JTai? yap ov ; 
5*/2. Ta TO>V iro\\a)v cipa VO^L^O. TO, TOJV KpeLTTov<ov 


KAA. II dw ye. 

better. By the premisses, therefore, tinction. A similar dialectical artifice is 

these maxims are by nature beautiful, in the Theaetetus employed against a 

But it is the opinion of the Many, as paradox of Protagoras (Theaet. p. 170). 
indeed Callicles had himself insisted, KO.\ crv ical nirSopos] Above, 484 B. 
that equality is just, and also that to do C. a/cpoa<r0ai] Used, as more frequently 

injustice is ' uglier ' than to suffer it. a-Kovtiv, in the sense of \ncaxovtiv, obe- 

These maxims are therefore ' beautiful by dire. 

nature,' and not by law or convention D. e'irl rf tvC] As a check upon the 

only, and law and nature are not con- one. So Legg. 853 C, quoted by Heind., 

trary the one to the other, as Callicles TOVTWV airoTpoirfis rt eVewo /col yevo^veav 

had maintained ; nor had Socr. been KoAatrews nQfvai eV O.VTOIS v6fj.ovs. 
guilty of sophistry in ignoring the dis- 


[488, E 

OVKOVV TO, TO*V (Se\Ti6va)v ; ol yap /cpetTTov? E 
)8eXrtov? TroXv /caret ToV aov \oyov. 

KAA . Nat. 

372. OVKOVV ra TovYa>i> vofjupa, Kara <f>vo~w /caXd, 
KpeiTTOVtov ye omwv ; 

KAA. $r)p,L 

372. ^p' ovV ov^ ol TroXXot vopi^ovcnv OVTOJS, &s a/art 
av o~v eXeye?, St/catoi> euMXt TO 10*01; e^etv /cat aiar^iov TO 
d8t/ceu> TOV d8t/ceto~0at ; eb~Tt TavTa ^ ou ; /cat OTTWS /u,^ 489 
dXot>o-t evravOa. cru atcr^v^Ojaej'o?. vo/xt^ovo-tv, ^ ov, ot 
TroXXot |TO to~ov ex etl/ ^^' ou TO TrXeovl Sucaiov elvai, /cat 
ato-^tov TO dSt/cetv TOV dSt/ceto-^at ; M^ <#oVet /xot a,7ro- 
KpivacrBan TOVTO, KaXXt/cXets, tj/ eai' ju,ot o/ 
/3ey8atajo~<u/jiai ^817 trapa arov, aT t/cavou di'Syoos 
wjaoXoyry KOTOS. 

KAA. 'A\\* OL ye TroXXot vo/xt^ovcrtv OVTWS. 

^/i. Ov vo/xw apa povov eo~rlv alo~^iov TO aSt/cetv TOV 
aSt/ceur#at, ov8e St/catov TO to~oj> e-^eiv, dXXd /cat ^vcref 
wore KtvSwevet? ov/c 0X7)67} Xeyetv eV Tots irpocrOev ov8e J{ 
6p0<a<s e/xov KaTTjyopelv Xey<w^|6Vt evavriov ecrTtv 6 VOJJLOS 
/cat 17 covert?, a 87) Kat ey<w y^ovs KaKovpyo) ev Tot? Xoyot?, 
edv fieV Tt? /caTcl <^>vo~tv Xey$j evrt TOZ^ vo^ov ayaiv, edv Se 
Tt? /caTa TOV vopov, CTTI T^V ^vcrti'.! 

XLIV. KAA. OvTocrlv avyp ov TravaeTat <f>\vapa)v. 
ELTTC jaot, <S UtoKpares, ov/c ato^^wet, TT^Xt/covTos wv, ot'O- 
(hjpevtov, /cat eat' Tt? pr^aaTi apdpTTj, epp^aiov TOVTO 
; e/xe yap otet ctXXo TI Xeyetv TO /cpetTTovs etvat 

E. 'Ap' oSr oiixl Bekk. retains this 
old reading But the oux is not found 
in the Bodl. nor in the majority of MSS., 
and is omitted by the Ziir. and Stallb. 
With Hirschig I prefer to retain it. 
' Is it not true as in fact you yourself 
recently maintained that the majority 
hold the opinion,' &c. 

489. /3ef3a.icaffci>/J.a.i tfSri iropct ffoD] ' that 
1 1 may henceforth make sure of it on 
I your authority,' atiro, understood from 
' TOVTO, being the object of the verb. 
3aiw(Ta<r0a( is a middle transitive, as 

Heind. remarks, and 'mini confir- 
mare.' Compare Rep. 461 E, ois 8i 
fTTOfj.evij Tf Trj &\\r) iro\tTfla Kal fiaicpqi 
fit XT'IOT-I], 8*? $)) rJ yuera TOVTO j8j8atci- 
ffatrOai irapcl TOV \6yov. 

B. oi>6fj.a.Ta 6T)p<-ve>v~\ The "aucupari 
verba" of Cicero. To give chase to 
words to lie in wait for verbal inaccu- 
racies, as a fowler for game. Socr., says 
Callias, reckoned a slip of the tongue a 
very god-send, and of this, at his time of 
life, he ought to be ashamed. 

489, E.] 




f) TO ySeXTtovs ; ov TrctXat o~oi Xey&) oVt TO.VTOV 
TO j3e\Tiov /cat TO Kpeirrov ; rj otet /xe Xeyew, eai> crvp- 
o~vXXeyr7 SovXtuv /cat TravToSaTTwv a.vOpwTTo>v ja^oe^o? 
TrXrjv tcrws TW o~w//,aTt lo'^ypia'a.a'da.i, /cat OVTOI 

avTa Tava erat 

.Etc^, a) crofjxoTare KaXXt/cXets* OVTO> Xeyets ; 
KAA. UaVv /ae> ovv. 

'^4XX* eya> jneV, a) SatjUoVte, /cat avTos TraXat 
TotovToV Tt ere Xeyetv TO /cpetTTOv, /cat avepwTO) 
o"a^>a>9 etSeVat o Tt Xeyets. ou yap S^TTOU o~u 
ye Tovs uo ySeXTtous T^yet TOU evd?, ou8e TOT;? o~ou9 Sov- 
Xovs /SeXTtovg crov, oYt Icr^yporepoi eicr(.v r) crv. dXXa iraXw 
etTre, Tt TTOTC Xeyetg TOVS ^SeXTtovs, eVeiSr) ov TOVS 
c5 ^av/u,ao~te irpaoTepov p,e TrpoStSacr/ce, 
tva ^,7) a,7ro^otTJ^a;cu Trapa crov. 
E KAA. Eipaivevei, a> ^w/cpaTes. 

ZrjOov, a) KaXXt/cXcts, w o~v 

C. if) olfej jue Key f iv vcfyiijua] 'Or think 
y you I mean that if a rabble be got toge- 
ther, of slaves and all sorts of wretches, 
good for nothing unless, perhaps, for 
feats of 1 physical -strength, and these 
people say this or that, that these^heir 
mere dicta are to have the force of law ? ' 
The iuterpp. differ in the sense they 
attach to lffx v p^ ffaff ^ al - Heind., " cor- 
poris viribus fidere ;" Ast, " corporis 
viribus pollere." The verb has both 
senses, but the latter suits the context 
better. Prof. Woolsey quotes Dio Cass. 
p. 406 (Reimar.), xateirbv Iffxvpi^f-fv6v 
n rip (rcijuoTi <ppovin<in<nov tK^vai. The 
same sense is evident in Arist. Eth. N. 
iv. 3. 26, fls TOVS curdfvtls 

ffaffBai, TOVTOVS elj/oi TOVS Kpflrrovs, Kal 
a tii> <pwffiv, avrd, K.T.A.. But probably 
Fie. was merely translating his own con- 
jectural text, as we frequently find him 
doing. Ast in his larger comna. ap- 
proves the conj. of Heind., Kal ovroi 
<pu>ffiv arra, TOUT" tlvai vAm^a, to which x 
neat as it is, I prefer the received text. 

D. irpa6Tfp6i' fj.e irpo5iSa(TK ffov~\ I 
' Instruct me with more gentleness, lest \ 
I leave your school' and seek another ' 
master. irpoHiddffKfiv is said by the 
Schol. to be equiv. to the simple StSdcr- 

The article evidently belongs 
to trufjiari, not, as Ast supposes, to lax v ~ 
plaaaQai, which depends on Svvaroi, or 
some equivalent antitheton to ovSevos 
aioi, a very common form of the trx^M* 
Kara rb ffi\fj.aiv6iJ.fvov. (ptiaffiv standing 
without a case has scandalized many of 
the comm., but the remedies proposed 
are not happy. The best, perhaps, is a 
&v ovroi tySxriv, avra, TOUT" fJvai vo/JLt/^a. 
Ficinus, " hos, praeterquam fortasse cor- 
poris viribus, esse potentiores : et quae 
hi statuant, esse jura." From this Van 
Heusde extracts the following : laxvpi- 

Soph. Phil. 1015, fv irpovSiSa^fv et> 
etyai <To^>6v : where Ellendt observes, 
" Praepositio non alii rei constituta est, 
nisi ut monita tempore priora esse quam 
quod inde redundet indicet." But irpo- 
SiSdffKfiv and irpo/j.avOdvftv are corre- 
lative tenns, denoting the relation be- 
tween master and pupil. Arist. Nub. 
966, fir' av irpo^aOflv afffj.' f5i5ao~Ktv: 
Legg. 643 C, Sfi IK iraiSoii' . . . TWV 


E. Ma rbv ZTJ^O;/] ov is absent in all 
the codd., but is added from Hermo- 
genes and the margin of a Florentine 
cod. by Stallb., who remarks, "aut 
diserte addenda est negaudi particula, 

90 nAATtiNOS [489, E 

TToXXd vvv ST) eip&vevov irp6<s fie' dXX* Wi etTre', rtVas Xe- 
yet9 TOVS /Be\Tiov<5 etvat ; 

KAA. Tovs d/Aetvovs eywye. 

^/i. 'Opa<s dpa 6Vt CTU atrros oVoftaTa Xeyet9 } SryXo^ 
Se ovSeV. ov/c e/oet?, TOVS ySeXrtou? /cat Kpeirrovs irorepov 
TOV9 (f)povLfJi(i)Tepov<s Xeyet9 17 dXXov9 rtvas ; 

KAA. 'AhXa val JJLO. Aia TOVTOVS Xeyw, /cat o~<oS/oa ye. 

UoXXd/ct9 apa el? cfrpovav pvplwv prj (j>povovv- 490 
KpeiTTOiV ecrrl /cara rov a"ov Xoyo^, KCU TOVTOV ap^eiv 
Set, rovs 8' ap^ecrdai, /cat TrXe'ov ej(et^ rov ap^ovra TOIV 
dp^o/xeVwt'. TOUTO yap /xot Sonets flovXecrOaL Xeyetv /cat 
ou /37^/xara Oypevo) , ct 6 et? TOJI> ^vpitav KpeiTTwv. 

KAA. '^iXXa ravr* ecrrtt' a Xeyw. rovro ya/3 ot/xat 
eyw TO St/catot' et^at ^vtret, TO fieXria) ovra. /cat 
repov /cat apxeiv /cat TrXeW e^etv TWV <{>av\OTepa)i>. 

XLY. 5*/2. V -Ex c ^ aurov. Tt TTOTe av vvt' Xeyet? ; 
ei* TO> avTO) w/jiev, axnrep vvv, TroXXot aOpooi avOptoiroi, /cat 
^tf 17 eV /cotvw TToXXa o~tTta Kat TTOTCI, a)/Aev Se 
Trot, ot fici' ia"xypoi> ot Se do-^e^et?, e?9 8e rjfjitov y 
Trept TavTa iarpos <AV, y 8e', ofov et/co?, 

TO>V Se do~^eve'o~Teyoo9, dXXo Tt OUTOS <f>povi- 

v j3\Ti(ov /cat /cpetTTw^ ecrTat ets TavTa ; 
KAA. Ildvv ye. 

aut, si ea omittitur, formula refcrri debet 490. "AAAi rai/T 1 (TT' & Aey^] Calli- 

vel ad praecedentern aliquam iiiterro- cles, seeing the absurdity of making 

gationem cum negatione conjunctaui, vel physical strength the criterion of justice, 

ad sententiam subsequentem, quae aut declares that he meant by ' the stronger' 

particulam adversantem habeat, aut the better and wiser. It is these who, 

negandi vi praedita sit." But the usage according to natural justice, ought to 

in Alcib. i. 109 D is exactly in point : govern and ' have more ' than their in- 

ffuwirrtis, & 2w/fpaT$ Mo rbf <pi\iov feriors. The analogies which Socr. sug- 

T}>V ^6v re Kal ff6v, t>v ^yta VJKHTT' kv gests, go to prove that the wise man is 

fviopK-fio-aifju- a\\' fliffp x e ' y " r T '* entitled to more power, but not to a 

eff-n ; The following passage would fall larger share of property than his fo- 

under Stallb.'s rule : Phileb. 36 A, irArt- feriors. On this principle the ruling 

pov a\yovvd' '6\ws ^ x a 'P*' Ta '' Mi At', body in the Republic is constituted. 

a\\a Snr\rj nvi A.UTTTJ \vTrovfjievov. But The instances adduced are taken as usual 

that in the Alcibiades would need altera- from common life, and are not the less 

tion as well as the present. It is to be apposite for their studied grotesqueness. 

observed that Hermogenes quotes from B. &\\o TI oSros] I have followed 

memory, as appears from his substituting Bekk. in omitting ^, which the codd. 

rbf Zrjva for -r\>v ZriBov (Rhet. Gr. ed. insert after rl. 
Walz. iii. p. 425; Aldus, p. 155). 

490, B.] TOPTIA2. 91 


on ertov eoru>, j T&> /xe ap^eiv irvTa 
Set vef^eiv, eV Se TGJ oWXto-/cetV T aura 

TO eavTou a-w*av~'novtKT'YTOV, et 

XX TOJI> /xe> TrXebv, TOJV eXarrov e/cTeW' e'i> 
Se TU^]? TrdvToiv dcrOeveaTaTos a>v, Travraiv eXa^tcrrov TO> 
ySeXrtcrTw, a) KaXXt/cXet? ; ov;^ oura>5, a) *ya.9e ; 

KAA. [Ue^l] 2iTia Xeyets /cat TTOTO, /cat tarpous /cat 
D (^Xvaptas* eyw Se ov ravra Xey<w. 

Tlorepov ovv TOV (f)povLfj.a)Tpov f3e\TL(0 Xeyets ; 
17 /x^. 


*^4XX' ou rov /SeXTtw TrXeov Setv e^etv ; 

^/i. MavOdvo), dXX' to~<w? t/xartwv, Kat Set TOJ> v<f>av- 
TLKUTCLTOV /xeytcrro^ t/xaTtov ^etp /cat 7rXetcrra /cat /caX- 

2ft. 'A\\' etg vTToS^ara S^Xov ort Set TrXeove/creu' 
E rov ^po^t/iwraTov ets raura /cat /Se'Xrto-rov. TO^ cr/cvroro- 
to~cos fveyurra Set vvroS^aTa /cat 7rXeto~ra vTroSeSe- 

KAA. Jlota VTroS^/iara ^>Xvapets 

D. [iTspl] 2ro Xe'7jy. The preposi- ri Xe'^ets 'Qfi.T\pti<av, nal fri ira\aiorep(av, 

tion is interpolated. Plato would have avrois fiev rots irepl -rty 'Efto-ov, 3<rot 

written irepl ftwluf \eyfis. I have there- vpoffiroiovvTaiffiireipoi tivau, ovStv fj.a\\oi> 

fore followed Hirschig in bracketing it. ofJj/ re StaAexS^j/oi ^ TO?? oltrrpua-iv : 

So 491 A, for Trepi rlixav 6 KpeirTtav re " Of these Heracleiteans, &c., those at 

al typovLfuarepos ir\eov <ex uv 8((caiws head-quarters (auTois) who liv r e at or 

ir\fovfKre'i ; it is clear that Plato wrote near Ephesus," as distinguished, for ex- 

rivtav . . . ir\fot> x a "'' ' e> ^ no ^ If-ariuv ample, from the Heracleiteans at Athens. 

or invoSrtfj.dr<av. In this latter instance This seems better than the awkward 

we must have had irepl nVo, 'in regard rendering, "quod attinet ad," or even, 

of what ?' In one cod. a is written over as it seems to me, than the more in- 

<av, and Heind. remarks, " Rarius lo- genious supposition that 'Hpa/cAen-ei'toi/ 

queudi hoc genus TcXtovtureiv irepl -rivo? is the epithet of Soyfj.drwv understood, 

pro Trepi TI ; cujus exemplum non est in not of afSpfav, as the words 'Hpan\f'iTov 

promptu." In both cases the preposition erolpoi occurring a few lines before 

mars the idiom of the language; and in would lead us to suppose. A clear in- 

the second instance it seems to have stance, noted by the 'com in., occurs ibid. 

come down from the preceding line. Of 181 D : rV /*" oAAotWu', T^V 5e [irepl] 

an interpolated irtpi I see an instance <popa.v. 

also in Theaet. 179 E, /cal yap, S> SccKpares, E. Iloia uiroS^uara <p\vapeis X a "'] 

[irepl] TOUTOIV rS>v 'Hpa/cXeireieov, ^ Sxrirfp ' What shoes are you prating about ?' 

92 IIAATnNOS [490, E 

el pr) TO, roiaCra Xe'yets, to-wg ra rotaSe- 
otbz> yeaipyiKov av&pa irepi yfjv (frpovLfJLov re /cat /caXoz' /cat 
ayaBov, TOVTOV ST) tcrwg Set 7rXeove/creu> rwv 
/cat a>g TrXetcrrw cnrep^ian ^prjo-Bai eig T^V avrov 

KAA. V2g del ravrd Xeyetg, c5 ^wKpareg. 

572. Ov povov ye, a> KaXXt/cXetg, dXXd /cat TreyQt 

KAA. Nr) | rovg #eovg, are^vcos ye act (TKvreas re /cat 491 
Kva(f)a<s /cat /xayetyoovs Xeytyy /cat tarpoug ovSev vravet, 
<t>a"n.p irepl TOVTMV rjfjiiv ovra TOV Xdyov. 

OVKOVV &v epetg [fi"^!] rivwv 6 KpeirTW re /cat 
TT\OV ^(t)v St/catco? TrXeove/cTet ; -^ oure ejaou 
dve^et, ovr' avro? eyoet? ; 
KAA. A\k eywye /cat TrdAat Xeyw. 7rpo)Tov fjiev rous 

ot etcrtv, ov or/curoro/xovs Xeyw ouSe /xayetpou?, B 
dXX' ot av etg ret rrj? TroXeoas Trpdyjaara (f>p6vip,oL OXTLV, 
ovriva av rponov ev ot/cotro, /cat /x^ povov ^povi^oi, dXXa, 
/cat avSpetot, t/cavot o^res a ai/ voi^crajcrti> eTTtreXett', /cat 
/w,^ aLTroK(i^v(acri Std juaXa/cuw T-^S \}jv^rj<s. 

XLYI. XT2. 'Opa?, a) ySe'XTtcrre JTaXXt/cXets, as ow 

Comp. Phaedr. 236 E, TI 8^ra ex^^ AJ7WC KaTaye\dtrfie, K.T.\. 

ffrpt<pfi; Ar. Eccl. 1151, -rf S^ra 5ta- 491. drexvaJs ye de^] 'You literally 

rptfifis ex c "" / Such phrases as Ar/peTs never cease from talking,' &c., = it is no 

f\u>v, <t>\vapf?s ex cav are common in Plato exaggeration to say that these topics are 

and Aristophanes. The force of iroios in always in your mouth, to the exclusion of 

such cases is familiar. others. It is difficult to understand 

dA\d Kal in pi riav O.VTUV} See a simi- Schleierm.'s preference for the drex^ws 

lar retort in Xen. Mem. iv. 4. 6, Kal 6 of the Bodl. The idiomatic use of drex- 

'Iiririas aKovffas ravra, axrirfp liria'K.tinrTtav vass, ' actually,' ' literally,' ' without 

av-r6v, "En yap ffv, e<pr), S> 'SdiKpares, metaphor ' or ' exaggeration,' is familiar 

(Kfiva. TO. avra \eyeis, a eyia Trd\ai irore to all readers of Plato and Aristophanes. 

ffov iJKovffa ; Kal 6 Sw/cparr/s, *O Se ye = A\\' tycoye Kal ird\at Ae'ya.'] ' why, I 

TOVTOV Sftv6repov, & 'liriria, ov fj.6vov ael have told you long ago.' On this Stallb. 

TO aura \fyto, dAAd Kal ire pi -rG>v avriav remarks, " Callide se simulat Callicles ea, 

ffv 5' frrcos 8jd TO iro\vfj.aQ}]s eJvai irepl quae nunc dicturus est, jam antea dixisse, 

T<av avTwf ovSeiroTe TO. ai>Ta \eytis. Cal- quum tandem longe alia proposuerit." 

licles here affects not to see the point of This is unjust to Callicles, who had elo- 

the remark, which is really lost upon quently maintained the superiority of 

Hippias (1. c.), who answers in apparent practical talent over the wisdom of the 

good faith, 'A/teA.ei, Treipw/xat Kaiv&v TI schools, and had stood up for the right 

\eyeiv aet. Alcibiades shows greater in- of the ahler man (<t>vo-iv iKavrjv x & "' 

telligence : Symp. 221 E, uvovs KavOrj- avrip, p. 484) to work his will upon the 

Aiovs \tyfi Kal x^xeas ruds Kal ffKVTo- vulgar herd. The " calliditas " is rather 

T-6(j.ovs Kal /3upcro8e'i|/as, Kal del 5id TCOI> on the part of Socr., who had taken a 

avTwv Tavra (palverai \eytiv, 8>ffTe airet- dialectician's advantage of a rhetorical 

pos Kal a.i>6i\Tos avOpwiros iras &c TWV opponent. 

491, E.] TOPTIAZ. 93 

ravra crv r euov KaT^yopets Kat eya o~ou ; cru uev yap 

e'/xe <T)S del TauTa \eyecv, Kat /u,e/x^>et /otof eya> Se crou 

rovvavriov on ovoeTrore ravra Xeyets rrepl ra)V avrvv, dXXct 

TOTC fjiv TO us /3eXTtous Te Kat KpetTTous TOUS la"xypo- 

/ ' y ^ /) v N _l ' T 

Tepous wpti,ou, aut/ts oe TOUS (ppoi'tfAWTepous, vuv o au 
erepoV TL T^KCIS ^<DV di/SpetoVepot Tti'es UTTO crou XeyovTat 
ot KpetTTous Kal ot /SeXTtous. dXX', a> 'ya^e, flnutv arra\- 
XdyrjOi Tti/as TroTe Xeyets TOVS )8eXTtovs re Kat KpetTTOvs 
Kat ets o Tt. 

KAA. 'A\\' etpr^Ka ye eywye TOUS <f>povifj.ov<s ets TO, 
Tijs TrdXecos Trpdyuara Kat d^Spetous. TOUTOUS yap Trpoo-- 
D T^Ket Tait' irdXewv dp^eiv, Kat TO StKatov TOUT' eo~Tt, 
e^etv TOUTOUS TWI/ aXXa>i>, TOUS dpyovras rfov df. 

%fl. Tt Se' ; avrcov, a* eTatpe ; 

KAA. ITous Xe'yeis ; 

^.fi. "JE^a e/cacrTov Xeyw auTo^ eauTou dp^ovra. 
TOVTO fiev ovoev Set, avTov eavTov dp^etv, TOJV Se d^ 

KAA. Ha>s eauTou dp^ovTa Xeyets ; 

5*/2. Ovoev Trot/aXov, dXX' cuo~7rep ot TroXXot, 
ot'Ta Kat eyKparf] avrov eauTou, Tail' f]$ov(ov Kat eVi#u- 
E /xtaiv dp^ovTa rvv ev eauT&J. 

KAA. '/2s i^Sus el! TOUS ijXi^tous Xeyets TOUS crw- 


Hois yap ; ouSets oo-Tts OUK av yvoiT) OTI ou 
TOUTO Xeyo). 

D. Ti 8 ,- auTi', 5 eTcupe] ' Tell me, and indeed there is evidently no place 

do you mean rulers of themselves ' when for apxo/j.evovs. Callicles is not familiar 

you speak of &px o>/Ta * ? T these words with the phrase avrov apx^f, which, 

the codd. add variously ^ TI apxovras fi nevertheless, Socr. declares to be ' no- 

apxofjLfvovs : ri % n apxovras % -PX~ thing subtle or recondite/ but identical 

ptvovs : Bodl. TI TI apxofifvovs. All this with tyKparfys eavrov, a phrase of current 

was expelled from the text by Bekk., use in general society, 

who is followed by the Zur. and Hirschig. E. nS$ yap; ovSfls #TJ ov rovro 

Some attempts have been made to ex- \4y<a] This is the reading of Ast and 

plain or emend these additional words, the Ziir. The majority of MSS. have 

which, however in all probability, re- ircSs yap ov ; words which, to avoid the 

present an old gloss upon Socr.'s ques- contradiction, Bekk. gives to Callicles. 

tion. The ^ TI, perhaps, is a corruption The 06 however may be accounted for by 

of <JTOI, 'videlicet/ which, like %yovv, the following ouSei's; and we obtain the 

is found in this sense in scholiastic following reasonably satisfactory sense : 

Greek. Socr. presently states his mean- Call. ' How droll you are ! by your 

ing to be such as I have represented it ; temperate men you mean the weak and 


[491, E 

KAA. Ildvv ye 


eVet TT<US ai> 

)v yeVotro avOpomos SovXevwv orwouv ; dXXct rovr 
eo"Tt TO /caret <f>vcriv KaXov /cat St/catov, o ey<y o~ot vw 
Xe'yw, ort Set rov opOais yStwa-o/xevov rds 
ret 9 eavrou eaj' a>s /xeyto-ras etvat /cat /XT) 
/coXdeu>, raurats Se a>s jaeyurrats ovcrats t/cai'oz' et^at 492 
vTryperelv St' avSpetav /cat <j>p6vr)criv /cat a7ro7Tt/x,7rXdVai 
toz> av det 17 eVi^u/Ata ytyv^rat. dXXa rovr', otju,at, rots 
TroXXots ou SwaroV' o#ei> \fjeyovcn rows rotovrovs 8t' at- 
aTro/cpVTrro/xevot r^v avrwv aSwa^'iav, /cat at- 
817 <^acrtv eu'at r^ cl/coXao~ia^, oVep ev rots irpoaOev 

/Aevot rovs ^SeXrtovs rr)v (f>v(nv 
TTOVS, Kat avrot ou $vvd[JLVOL e/c7ropiecr#ai rats 
TT\rip(D(Tiv eTraivovcri rr)v cro}(j)poa"ui>rjv /cat r7)v St/catoo'u^i' jg 
Std rr)v avTa>v avavSpiav. eVet ye ots e'^ d 

simple/ Socr. ' How so ? every one 
must know that that is not my mean- 
ing.' CaW. ' Oh ! but it is, Socr. ; for 
how can a man possibly be happy so long 
as he is in bondage I care not to whom 
or what ;' i. e. whether to himself or to 
another. For an instance of this rather 
rare use of irdvv ye (r<f>65pa (which is 
commonly a strong affirmation, "and not. 
as here, a contradiction), compare De- 
mosth. de Falsa Legat. p. 395, 191. 
Jickk., ov yap t*yyy' ovrtas i\v lid\ios 
Siffre . . . TOUT' OVK fpouAojU7;y yiyvtaOai. 
Kal" o<l>6ijpa *ye, Si tivbfifi Atirjvaioi. A 
dilWkillL turn is given to the passage, by 

H^>> KvffirfKflv, f>iKaioo~6i>r)V 8' ov. 'A\\a H 
rl vA\v ; Tovvavriov, -^ 8' 8s. 'H rty 
8iKaioffvvt]v KaKiaf ; OVK, a\\a irdvv 
ytvvalav ev-tjQfiav. With which comp. ! 
Thuc. iii. 83, Kal rb etiyOes, ov rb yev- 

the reading found in the Bodl., and at 
least two others. 211. Titos yap oti ; 
ovSfls Sffrts OVK kv yvoi-ri Sri oSr<a \4y<a. 
KAA. flaw ye ff<t>68pa, K.T.\. This is 
adopted by Stallb., who gets over the 
difficulty of making Socr. identify the 
temperate with the foolish by the re- 
mark, "Quod Socrates urbane concedit, 
ideoque respondet sic : Quidni vero ? 
quilibet enim intelligat ita me sentire." 
This " urbanity " I cannot but think 
misplaced; and therefore, though not 
without reluctance, have preferred in 
this instance the vulgate to the Bodleian 
reading. For the sentiment expressed 
by Callicles compare the conversation of 
Socr. with Thrasymachus, Republ. 348 c, 
OVKOVV r^v juev Sutaioavvriv aptr^v [ica- 
A?S] TV 8" aSiiclav icaic'iav. EjVJs y', 

irias av] Comp. Lysis 207 D, So/ce? 
8e ffoi fvSa'i/j.(av flvai avBpoiiros 5ovhev(ai> 
T, Kal ^ fiTjSfv e|ei7j iroie'tv wv eirtOvfj.o'i ; 
Ma At 5 OVK e/j.oiyt, e<t>Tf]. Schol., IvTfvQev 
6 irepl Trjs reXiK^y alrlas T>V tjBiKSiv 
\6yos. effTi 8e apx$) Kara fiev ~2,<ai<pari)v 
rayaQd, Kara Se Ka\\iK\fa alaxpa ^5o^. 

492.'ai >v &c oel rj tiri- 
Qvu.(a yiyvrirai] ' to glut each successive 
appetite with its appropriate food.' Of 
this, says Callicles, the vulgar are in- 
capable : and hence they condemn the 
abler few, being ashamed of their own 
incapacity, and wishing to hide it : i. e. 
they divert attention from their own 
defects by abusing others. 

B. tirel ye ofr] ' Suppose, for instance, 
a man is a king's son to begin with, or 
is able by his own natural genius to get 
himself appointed to a high office, or to 
make himself a tyrant or member of 
an absolute government, what were in 
truth more disgraceful or more injurious 
than temperance to persons like these : 
who, instead of taking their fill of good 
things without let or hindrance, should 
voluntarily invite the law to be lord 
over them, with the idle talk and ill- 

492, D.] 



^ /3aort,\(t)V vlecriv elvat r) aurovs rfj (ucrei t/cai>ov? IKTTO- 
picracrOai apxn v Ttl/a ^ Tvpavv&a fj Swaareia^, TI TT/ 
aXrjdeia alcr^iov /cat /cd/aoi> Lrj o-ax^pocrui^? TOWTOIS rot9 
av6p<i)iro(.<; ; of? eoi> diroXauetv raiv dyaOwv /cat ^Sefos 
e/ATroSoji' oi/TO9, aural eavrots Seo'TTOTrjv tirayayoivTO rov 
ra>v TTO\\O>V dvOpcoTTtov VOJJLOV re /cat \6yov /cat \jjoyov ; rf 
C 7To>? ot>/c at' d#Xtot yeyorores eirjcrav VTTO rov KaXov TOV 
TTJS St/catoo-v^? /cat TT)? crw^pocrvi^?, /M-qSa/ TrXeov 
rot? <^>tXot5 rots avraiv ^ rotg e^^pots, /cat ravra 
/ T^ eaurwv TroXet ; dXXa T^ dXr^eux, &i 
^5 (TV Stco/cetv, ojS' ex et ' T P V( j>v) * a ^ d/coXacrta /cat 
Oepla, lav iiriKOVgiay C^TJ, TOVT' ecrrt^ aperij re Kat 

rd Se dXXa raur' e<rrl ra /caXXo>7rtcr/xaTa, ra Trapa 
<f)\vapia /cat 

D XL VII. 5'/2. Ou/c dyewais ye, a> KaXXt/cXet?, e 
ra> Xdyw Trappr^crta^ojaei'os' cra^ais yap cru 

, ZeS, 

natured censure of the multitude.' " Cum 
verbis i>6fi.ov, \6yov, ^/6yov : conf. Aga- 
thonis illud Conviv. 197 D, Iv ir6v<f, tv 
<p6$ f j.', v ir6Q(p> V Ao'yy " (Ast). 

fl tiij~] The omission of I' 
justified by Soph. Antig. 604, T 
ftvvQ.O'w TIS avfip&v vTTGpfifHria K 
Aesch. Choeph. 314, oAA' virfpro\^ov 
avSpbs (t>p6viina rts \eyoi ; yet the cases 
are not precisely in point see Ellendt, 
Lex. Soph. p. 125 ; and " &v may have 
dropt out here, as ri itself is wanting in 
ten MSS., both being absorbed, so to 
speak, by the two last syllables of Svvaff- 
rtlav" (Woolsey). 

ofs tbv airo\avfiv] For olnves, t$>v 
auTols a.iro\a.Jieiv. Compare, for sense as 
well as construction, Rep. 465 E, OVK oT5' 
?TOI/ \6yos T)iiiv tirtir\riev ZTI rovs 

<pv\Q.KQ.S OVK u5ot/OPO9 ITOlOlfJifV, ols ffbv 

TCO.VTO. fXfiv TO. ruv iroAjTwi' ovSfv ex' e( '' 
Presently for eJrjcroj' Hirschig gives tifv, 
on no authority. The shorter form is 
preferred by Plato in fiptv, ttriiv, elrt. 
C. a.v eiriKOvptav ex??] Schol., ^ r)]v 

they are the auxiliary forces, the eiri- 
Kovpot of luxury, &c. But he may have 
meant tav rois ^/crbj 017060?? t/caccDs 
K6xop177)M e ' I/OJ/ p (Arist. Ethic, i. 10. 

TO Sc, &\\a ravr' & f , la ~\ Most COmm. 

understand -ra Ka\\cairiffnaTa to be the 
subject of tarrl. ' As for those other 
matters the fopperies, the unnatural 
conventionalities they are the mere 
cant of men, and nothing worth.' But I 
am disposed, with Mr. Shilleto, to make 
TO /coAA. the predicate : ' As for those 
other matters (justice and temperance 

and their like), they are the 


>na of 

socletyTthe prattle of men.' &c. For the 
sentiment, compare Eur. Cycl. 317, 

rt Kal avdpias. The latter is perhaps 
the more correct view : sup. A, ravrais 
5 s us fJieylffrais ovffcus iKavbv fJvat \>TCI\- 
pert'iv Si' avSpfiair Kal <pp6vi]<nv. The 
end is pleasure, to which valour and 
prudence are means. In other words, 

6 TrXoCros, av6punriffKf, Toly <ro<pois 

TO 5* &\\a K6(j.iroi Kal \Ayuv fv- 


Ibid. 339, 

ot Se TOI/S v6/j.ovs 

eOevTO, iroiKi\\ovTes d.vQp<air<av $(ov, 
K\aieii> avtaya. 

D. eTTf|f'pxetT<ji> \6ycj>~] Legg. ii. 672 
A, tirt%f)rtGr~^e-<0v ' explicet oratione.' 
Socr. applauds the courageous frankness 
with which his opT5on5nt avows senti- 
ments which the majority of mankind 



[492, D 

Xe'yets a ot dXXot StavooiWat /xeV, Xe'yeiJ> Se ov/c I0e\ovcri. 
Se'o/xat ow eyw crou /z^Seft T/OOTTW ai'eu'ai, tW TW oWt 
Kara.Sr)\ov yeV^rat TTWS yStaireov. /cat /xot Xe'ye' rag 
eVt#v/Atas <>)9 ov /coXacrTeW, et jae'XXet rts otoi> Set 
eaWa Se auras a? /zeytora? TrX'^pwcrti' avrat? d/xo#ei> ye 
TToOev erot^a^etv, /cat rovro et^at rx)i> apertjv ; E 

KAA. $r)(ju ravra eyw. 

Ov/c dyoa 6/3^0)5 Xeyovrat ot 

KAA. Ot Xt^ot yap ai/ ovra> ye /cat ot vtKpol euSat- 


ou yap rot 
Xeyet, Xey<wi> 

817 /cat wv ye o~v Xeyet? 
a^, et 

e rotcr 



tv Se ^v; 

TIS 8' 

TO /ca 

secretly entertain, but are loth to ex- 

afj.odei' 76 7ro9f>''| 'from some source 
or other/ Kestorect by Bekk. for &\Ao- 
eeiT^ 7ro0ej/ found in all the MSS. The 
confusion is very common, as the forms 
ayuoC, aju.Mei', o/uj?, a/xais- had ceased to 
exist in the later dialect. See Cobet, Vv. 
LI., p. 255, and Schol. in Plat. Sophist. 
259 D. In the Attic dialect these words 
are aspirated. 

E. OUK &pa opOcas \fyovrat] Xen. Mem. 
i. 6. 10, "EoiKas, S> 'Avricpcav, T^V tvSai- 
fjLOflav oiofj.fvcp rpv(f>))i> /col iro\vre\eiav 
flvcu, fy&> Se vofj.i^(a rb /j.ff /AriSevbs SetffOai 
6eiov flvat, rb $' as^o'Tcoi' ^yyvrdrcii 
TOV Qfiov. Kal rb (ifv Ofiov Kp&Tunov, rb 
8e tyyvrdru TOV Qfiov ^yyvrdrdi rov 
KpariffTov. Hence correct Olymp. in 
Gorg. comm. p. 121 (358 Jahn), 6 ovv 
jr\-flpr) tx<av (sc. rbv irlOov) Oeov ftiov ^r), 
for the corrupt Oeov ottfj, by which the 
editor is baffled. 

$>v ye (TV \eyfts~l Vulg. &s yt ffv \tyfis, 
corr. Badh. This again is a frequent error 
of copyists. Aesch. Prom. 629, /u^ /*ou 
irpoK-fi$ov paffffov &s fyol y\vKv. Her- 
mann uiv which is much better than 
Elmsley's /iafffffotas ^ '/j.ol y\vi<v. In 
L/ysias vii. 31, TrpoOv/j.6Tfpov & y ijvay- 
KofojUTjv, read 8>v iiva.yKa.^^'rjv. The use 
of &is for ij after a comparative is a 
barbarism, though introduced by Prof. 

Sauppe into the text of the Epitaphius 
of Hyperides, Col. 14, 1. 22. Here u>v 
ye ffv \eyeis is in antithesis to ot \l6ot 
Kul o! vfKpoi. 

ris 5' olSev, fl rb C^"l- This passage 
appears to have come from the Polyidus ; 
and is thus completed by the Schol., 

T(S S 1 olSev el fb f^c fj.ev effn KarBa- 

fb'iv 8e rjv Karca vofjii^erai. 

He is apparently in error when he says, 
fK TOV $piov TOV 5pdfj.aTOS 'EvpiiriSov. 
The lines in the Phrixus ran thus, ac- 
cording to Stobaeus (Anth. 120. 18) : 

S 8* 

G" t> KeK\ijTat 

Se 6vi\ffK.eiv 

voaovaiv ol fiXeirovTes, ol 8' oAeoAorey 
ovSev voffovffiv ovSe KfKTrjvTai Kaicd. 

The sentiment is parodied by Aristoph. 
(Ran. 1477). T/s oTSei/, ej rb fjji/ pen 
&rrt KaTQavetv, Tb irve?v Se tieiirveiv rb 
Se KaOevSeiv KcaStov ; From ib. 1082, 
Kal <pa.<TKovffa.s ov ^r\v rb rjv, we may 
infer that a woman was the speaker in 
one at least of the Euripidean passages. 
The idea, though not the precise words, 
was borrowed from Heraclitus (Philo, 

493, A.] 


493 /cat i7/uet9 rw OVTL tcrcos TeOvapev oirep 178^ row | eywye 
/cat rjKovcra T&V crofyuv, a>5 z^u^ i^etg T&VOjLQr, /cat TO 

Alleg. Leg. 1, fin.) : fj.ovovov Kal o 'Hpd- 
K\eiTos KaTa TOVTO Mcavfffcas aKo\ov6riffas 
Ty SoypaTi, <f>T)o~i- Zu>jj.ev rbv fKelviav 
(sc. Otiav) OdvaTov, Tedvf)Kafj.ev Se 
Tbv eKeivuv ftiov coy vvv /j.ev ore ev- 
(wfjiev TeOvf^Kvias TTJS fyvxys, Kal cos av 
ev o~7j/LiaTi Tit* o~wu,aTi evTTv/jil3fvu.evTis, 
el Se diro9dvoifj.fv TTJS \f/vx^}s (itiffTjs Tbv 
ffiiov piov. From which the editors of 
Heraclitus' fragments infer that the well- 
known ffuua 0-rjfj.a was first said by him. 
The Heraclitean fragin. is given at 
greater length by his namesake the 
author of the Homeric Allegories : &vdpa>- 
iroi Oeol OvrjTol, Oeoi T' avOpiairoi, 
(wires Tbv eKeiviav BdvaTov, BvrjffKOVTes 
TTIV ixcfrw fariv (Ed. Gale, p. 442). A 
fragment quoted by Sext. Empir. comes 
nearer still to the words of Euripides : 
6 Se 'Hpa/cAf mis iprjffiv OTI Kal Tb TIV Kal 
Tb airoOavetv Kal ev Tip (r}v ijftas to~T\ Kal 
iv Tip TeOvdvar OTe fj.ev yap rifj.e'is (aifiev 
Tas tyvxas fifiiav Tedvdvai Kal Iv rifuv 
TeBdipBai, ore Se fj/j.f7s airoBvria'Ko/jiev Tas 
tyvxas avaBiovv Kal f)v : " Heraclitus 
says that both living and dying are in 
our life as well as in our death : when 
we live our souls are dead and are buried 
in us, when we die our souls revive and 
live" (Pyrrh. Hypot. iii. 230). But 
closer than all is the citation in Plutarch, 
Consol. ad Apoll. 106 E, <^>T\O\V 'Hpd- 
KA.6JTOS, TavTb . . (av Kal TeOvr)K6s 
. . . TdSe yap /j.eTaireo~6vTa eKelvd 
IffTi KaKeTva trdXiv /j.fTaireo~6vTa 
TavTa. The meaning of this probably 
is, that life and death are part of one 
and the same process of continuous 
growth and decay, according to the prin- 
ciple implied in the formula Siaipep6fj.tvov 
ael tvntyepeTat (Plat. Soph. 242 E). It 
is not however to be supposed that Plato 
in the present passage refers to Hera- 
clitus. The o-oip6s whom Socr. affects to 
quote may have been some Orphic or 
Pythagorizing speculator of his own 
day, for we know that both Pytha- 
goreans and Orphics held the notion of a 
Cal incarceration of the soul in the 
y (Plat. Crat. p. 400 B c, compared 
with Phaedo, 62 B). On the other hand 
the words TTJS tyvx^s TOVTO (sc. fj.epos) 
ev $ a.1 eiri6vfj.iai eltriv point to the Pla- 
tonic doctrine of the tripartition of the 
soul (see Phaedrus, App. i. p. 164), 
and it might seem that Plato had here 
committed a conscious anachronism, in 
attributing the doctrine to some earlier 


school. Even this would- not be incon- 
sistent with the only half-in-earnest tone 
of the entire passage ; for we know how 
easily the Platonic Socrates could evoke 
imaginary vouchers for his own views 
(comp. Phaedr. 275 B, T n Sco/cparey, 
paSi'ai? av, K.T.A..). Still as the aoip6s in 
question appears in company with other 
undoubtedly real personages, I incline to 
think that some particular speculatist is 
intended. The comm. give us no light, 
but content themselves with accumu- 
lating passages from Heraclitus and from 
Plato, as if the difficulty were not rather 
to account for the juxtaposition of the . 
dogmas of schools so distinct both in 
time and character. In suggesting the 
name of Philolaus, I rest upon the slender 
data that some rude "partition of the 
soul is attributed to him on reasonable 
and good authority " (see Zeller, Phil, der J 
Griechen, i. p. 325, 2te Ausg.). Clemens 
Alex, quotes a fragment purporting to 
be his, but which may be only Plato in 
a Doric dress : coy Sid Tivas afiaprias 
a tyvxa Tip o"iiifj.a.Ti irvve^evKTai, Kal Ka- 
Odirep tv o-d/j.aTi TeOairTai (Strom, iii. 
433 A, ap. Lobeck, Aglaoph. p. 795). 
A better critic than Clemens, Athenaeus, 
gives the following important notice, on 
the authority of Clearchus the Peri- 
patetic : Evt6eos 6 flvBayopeios, & N'IKIOV, 

Sevrepifi Bicof, e\eyev evSeSeffdai Tip 
ffit>fj.aTi Kal Tip TrjSe /3iip Toy airdvTiav 
(JoXay Ti/itoptoy -)(.dpiv Kal Sieiirao~6ai Tbv 
6e6v, cos el fj.^) fj.evovffiv eirl TOVTOIS, e'coy 
'av KCt>f avTbs \vo~T), ir\eoffi Kal fj.eioffiv 
efiireffovvTai TOTt \vfnais' Sib itdvTas 
ev\a&ov/j.evovs T^V TWV Kvpliav dvaTaffiv 
<po$e'io~9ai TOV (TIV eKOVTas eKfiijvai, fj.6vov 
re Tbv ev Tip yflpa BdvaTOV dcriracrjcos 
irpoffieffQai, irtirtio'p.evovs T^JV airAXvaiv 
TT)S tyvxTJs fJ-eTa TTJS TWV Kvpiiav yiyveffdai 
yvufiris, iv. p. 157 C. Compare Plat. 
Phaedo, 61 E, where Philolaus and ' cer- 
tain others ' are appealed to by Cebes as 
affirming the unlawfulness of suicide. 
This evidence in favour of the Pythago- 
rean origin of the speculation in the text 
seems to me unexceptionable, and we can 
afford to give up the suspicious fragment 
of Clemens. Add Cicero de Senect. c. 20, 
" Vetat Pythagoras injussu imperatoris, 
id est Dei, de praesidio et vitae statione 

oirep fjSrt TOV ^co-ye] The Bodl. omits 
oirep with several other MSS. The 



[493, A 

croi/xct I&TLV fjiuv o~rjfjia, rrj<s Se i//v^? TOVTO ei> < 
ju-tat etcrt Twyxdvet ov olov dvaireiOecrOai, /cat 
aVco KOLTO). /cat TOVTO apa Tts fj-vdoXoycov /cojai//6s avijp, 
io~a)<5 t/ceXds Tts ^ 'IraXi/co?, Trapaycuy TOJ 6vo/Ag/rjLjSia TO 
TTiOavov re /cat TTKJTIKOV aivojaao~e iriOov, TOVS Se aVoT^rov? 
8' ap,VTJTa)V TOVTO T77$ V^X^ 5 ^ a * e ' 7n " 
eicrt, TO d/cdXacrroz' avTov /cat ov oTeygpoV, a>s 

aTret/cacras. TOV- 


, Sta 

orj OVTO? o~ot, c5 KaXXt/cXet?, 
TO aetSeg ST) Xeyoiv ouTot d^XtcoTaTot av 

original reading may therefore have been 
?f S^ TOU eyco-ye. 

493. /cat TOVTO &pa TJS ^u6oAo7&Ji'] 
'And it was this part of the soul, we 
may suppose, that an ingenious person, 
a Sicilian mayhap or Italian, allegorically 
styled a jar, in consideration of its per- 
suadable and credulous nature, by a 
change in the worcl iri\)a.v6s, wKich he 
made into iriVos.' TEE 2t/ceA<iF~ was 
possibly Empedocles, as Olympiodorus 
and the Schol. assert. To this Karsten, 
the editor of Empedocles, assents. " Pro- 
babile mihi videtur Empedoclem, ut re- 
ligiosum hominem et mysteriorum pa- 
tronum, aftu^rous vocasse dementes et 
miseros, eosque ut est in Danaidum 
fabula finxisse velut aquam fundentes in 
dolium perforatum (iriQov rerpr]fj.evov) 
quod insatiabilem libidinum cupiditatem 
significat. Haec fictio ab ingenio poetae 
(qualis fuit Empedocles) fabulas alle- 
gorice interpretantis baud aliena, neque 
vero e veterum judicio abliorret a fabulae 
sensu. Similiter in celebri Polygnoti 
pictura praeter multa alia pictae erant 
duae mulieres, Qepovtrai SStap tv Karea- 
7 '6<r iv offTpaKois, quibus erat inscriptio 
elj/oi ff(j>as Ttav ov'tav. Paus. x. 
c. 31. Caeterum quam misera haberetur 
in inferis Ttav a/j.vfiTcov sors, declarant 
nota Platonis dicta in Phaedon. p. 69 " 
(Empedocl. ed. Karsten, p. 302). Here 
however we are not to suppose that 
Empedocles is seriously credited with the 
authorship of the psychological doctrine 
implied in the words TTJS tyvxris TOVTO eV 
$ at eiri6v/j.ia.i flat. The particle &pa 
frequently denotes an inference false but 
specious. Theaet. 171 c, et/cJs 7" &pa 
tKtlvov (sc. Tlp(aTayopav) irpffffivTepoy 
OVTO. ffo(pci>Tpov rjnuv fiva.i. Rep. 358 C, 
iroXv yap afj-fivtav apa o TOV aS'tKov 2) 6 

TOV SiKaiov ftios, &is \fyovcrtv. Inf. B, TO 

Of KOCfKlVOV CLpO, \yl, <dS *tyT] O TTpbs 
/J, \4yt0V, T$)V ll/U Y^C CLVTTJIS. 

to-ias 2(KA<5s Tts] Why 'SiKtXos, rather 
than 'S,iKe\iK6s, which was read by Olymp. 
and Stobaeus, and is found in some codd. ? 
The answer to this was given by Butt- 
mann, who calls attention to a love-song 
of Timocreon Rhodius, beginning with 
the lines, SiKeAbs K0fj.\]/bs av^p Tlorl TO.V 
/xaTe'p' ffya, ap. Hephaest. p. 40. Hence 
2^KeA^s Ko/j.'fybs avrip became proverbial. 

Sia TO irifJai'oV] Of TriQuvos used pas- 
sively we have an instance in Aesch. Ag. 
485, Tri6avbs &yav 6 OT)\VS opos. 

TUV S'^auu^Tcop] Socrates makes d/xu^*' 
Tons synonymous with oti o-Te-yat/ou^' the 
contrary of watertignT,' deriving^ the 
word from fivot ' clauclo, instead or ~fj.vfco 
' initio.' For this etymology his ' learned 
friend ' is made responsible. Tr. ' But 
that portion of the uninitiate soul in 
which the appetites reside, its incon- 
tinent and irretentive part, he repre- 
sented as a leaky jar, figuring thereby its 
insatiate nature,' literally, 'using that 
similitude in consequence of the impos- 
sibility of filling it.' 

B. ov ffTfyav6v] Compare with this 
Repub. ix. p. 586 B, are oi>xl TOIS ovffiv 
oitSf TO Sc ovoe TO ffTeyoy tavTuiv irt/J.- 

&s TfTpijjueVos tfri tri&os] Shakspeare, 
Cymb. i. Sc. 7, " The cloyed will, That 
satiate yet unsatisfied desire, That tub 
both filled and running." 

TOvvavTiov 8^ OUTOS trof] 'Thus does 
my friend set forth to us, in direct op- 
position to you, Callicles, that of all the 
dwellers in Hades these, the uninitiated, 
must be the most wretched, being ever 
employed in lading water into the leaky 
jar with an equally leaky sieve.' 

493, D.] 



ot d/xv^rot, /cat <j>opoif.v ets ro^ rerpypevov irWov v 


Xe'yet, as e</7 6 irpos e,ue Xe'y<ui>, TYJV \JJV^T)V et^af TT)^ Se 
C $vx*) v KocrKiva) ciTreiAcacre rrp TGJI/ aVo^ron/ w? TeTprjfjieviqv, 
are ov ovvafjLevrjv crreyeiv St* a,7rioTtai> re /cat \TJOrjv. 
ravr' eVtet/cais iieV ecrrtv VTTO rt aroya, S^Xot /XT)^ 6 eya> 
crot eVSet^atievo?, edV TT&J? otos re eo, Tretcrat 
t, aVri rov 0.^X77 crrcug /cat a,/coXa<rrajs 
/cocrtucus /cat rot? aet TTapovaiv tfcavai? /cat 
c^ovra PLOV eXecr^at. aXXa Trorepov neida) ri ere 
D /cat /xerart^ecrat evSaifJiovea-Tepovs etvat rovs /coo-titous 



The repe- 

tition of Tfrprj/jievui, though suspicious, 
seems to be supported by Phaedo, 80 D, 
^ il'i'X^ ^pa, r6 aei5es, rJ> ets roiovrov 
-r6irov erepov ol-^A^vov, ytvvaiov Kal 
KaOaphv Kal aeiSi), es "AiSou a>y aATj^ws, 
a passage which also illustrates the fore- 
going eV "AiSou, rb afiSes Srj Aeyaji'. 
The image is also found in Shakspeare, 

"Yet in this captious and intenible 


I still pour in the waters of my love, 
And lack not to lose still." 
All's Well that ends Well, I. iii. 193. 

C. 5i' cnrifTriav re Kal Xij^rjc] ' by 
reason of its fickle and forgetful nature.' 
Legg. iv. 705 A, tfOri iraA.fyijSoAa /cal 
&iri(rra. Ibid. vi. 775 D, apw/iaAa Kal 

firieiKws . . . vir6 n &Toira~] ' Satis sub- 
absurda,' the^only rendering of wliich 
these words will admit, is more than 
'somewhat absurd.' There seems to 
be no authority for the meaning of 
firitiKcas, assumed by Ast and Stallb. 
'freilich,' Eng. 'it must be confessed,' 
which is rather the force of the particle 
Hfv, nor is the rendering ' sane ' given in 
his Lexicon justified by the passage of 
the Phaedon there adduced. e'jne</cy 
can here only mean'satis^__ladaio_duni ' 
as we say, ' ab3uTd 'enough :' so__supr. 
485, Trp6s fff firitiKtas 6X W <f>'^-lK(as. One 
might conjecture, firieiKcus /ueV (anv i) UTTO 
Tt itTOTra, but 

frigicT. And yet few woul3 consent7ex- 
cept in the last resort, to omit tvifiKcas, 
as Hirsch. following Cobet has done. If 
either must be sacrificed, it is better to 
omit vTrort^for which one-MS. gives 
flir6vTt,~tf~I vmjleislaadBekker aright. 

If this was not originally intended "to sup- 
plement e'Triei/coJs, it may represent a dif- 
ferent reading from the received. What 
Olympiodorus found is also doubtful, as 
his gloss hardly corresponds to the text 
as we have it. He says, robs Se TOIOVTOVS 
/j.v6ovs ov irdvv aroirovs Ka\e7 &>s irpbs TOVS 
iroirirtKoiisirapa^d\\fii>v, fireiSi] eKelvot /xe/ 
frKaiTTovcn, Ol. Schol. p. 120. Perhaps 
he only meant to paraphrase vir6 ri by 
ov irdvv in the sense, 'not altogether,' 
'not quite.' Meanwhile we may trans- 
late the passage thus : ' These details, it 
is true, are more or less absurd ; yet there 
is no doubt as to the point, by proving 
which I mean, if possible, to induce you to 
retract your former preference, in lieu, 
that is, of the life of unsated indulgence, 
to elect that rival life which is charac- 
terized by moderation and contentment.' 
o depends upon ivfei$4fMMf, ' what 
having proved, I wish,' and, as Stallb. 
observes, there is no necessity for ad- 
mitting the inferior reading ^j/5ei|acr0a. 
It is nearly indifferent whether we take 
SjjAo? as impersonal ('patet,' 'liquet'), 
or construct it as a transitive with ravra. 
The Kal, which in one MS. follows fnfra- 
BfffQai and is admitted by Bekk. and 
Hirsch., is not needed, as lAt'erflat is 
either epexegetic or may be understood 
to depend upon /j.cra6eo-0ai. Stallb. 
prefers the latter view; to me the 
former seems the simpler of the two, 
and in accordance with Plato's usage. 

fj.eTa6fo-0ai] Comp. Rep. 345 B, f/j./j.(vt 
TOVTOIS, 2) to,v iifTartOfj fpavepHis ficra- 
riOeffo, Kal fi/jias yu.^ f^cnrdra. The word, 
like dtffOai and avaBftrOai, may have been 
transferred from the game of draughts 
to verbal contests. 

/*T aTidfffui] Equiv. to fifra9efjifvos 

H 2 



[493, i) 


TO>V ct/coXdo-Twv, rj ovSeV, ctXX' cu> /cat TroXXa TOtavra /xv- 
6o\oytL), ovSeV Tt /xaXXov ju-era^crei ; 

.KAd. TOVT' dXr^eo-Tepov eiprjKas, w ^w/cpaTe?. 

XLVIII. /2. 4>pe 817, aXXyv crot et/coVa Xe'y&> e/c 
TOV avTOV yv/xvacrtov TT? vvv. cr/coVet yap et TotoVSe Xeyets 
Trept TOV /?tov e/caTepov row re crwc^povog /cat TOU aKoXa- 
OTOV, otbv et Svotv aVSpotv e/carepw TrWoi vroXXot elev, /cat 
TW /aei' erepw vytet? /cat TrX^pet?, 6 jaei^ ot^ou, 6 Se /xeXtro?, 
6 Se yaXa/cro? /cat aXXot TroXXot TroXXwv, vapora Se E 
cnrdvia /cat ^aXevra e/cacrrou rovTajy etr; /cat /u,era Tro\\a)v 
TTOVOJV /cat -^a\TT(av e/C7ropto/u,ei>a' 6 /xev ovv erepo? 77X77- 
pwcra/Aevos ^177' eTroyerevot /xi^re Tt (^poyTt^ot. aXX' eVe/ca 
TOUTOJV rjcrv^iav e^of TW 8' eTepw ra jaev vctjaara, wcrTrep 
/cat e/cetVw, Swarct jaei^ Tropi^eaOai, ^aXeTra 8e, ra 8' 

dyyeta TCTpr^eVa /cat cra0pd, /cat dvay/cdotTo det /cat 
vv/cra /cat Tj/ze'pav TTi/ZTrXdvat | avTct, 77 Ta? ecr^dTag 494 
XvTrotTo XuVaq* dpa TOtovYov efcaTepov OVTO? TOV /8tov, 
Xeyetg TOV TOV d/coXdoTov evSat/utoveVTepov etvat 77 
TOV /coo*/xtov ; TTL0oj Tt o~e TavYa Xe'ywv o~vy^a)prjo~at 
/coo~/atov ^8tov TOV d/coXdo~Tov d/>tetva> etvat, T^ ov 7ret#a> ; 
KAA. Ov Tret^ets, a> ^w/cpaTe?. TW /xev yap TrX^pw- 

^7J. " Mutasne ita sententiam ut 
statuas feliciores esse modestos libidi- 
nosis?" Simili Ppaxv\oyia p.frayviava.1 
adhibitum a Thucyd. i. 44, pertyvwo-av 
KfpKvpaiois ^v/j./jLax'io.v fJ-ff M iroi-fi<rao-6a,i, 
K.T.X. Heind. The Bodl. and several 
other MSS. have fMtraridta-Oai, an evi- 
dent blunder. 

D. TOUT" o\T)0<TT6/)o'] i. e. liteivov. 
No number of such fables will induce 
Callicles to transfer his preference. 

IK rov avrov yv/jj/affiov rrj vuv^\ ' from 
the same" yehuut~"with the last,' qu. ry 
vvv STJ. The-uiomluf thib latter allegory 
is much the same as that of the former, 
of which it seems to have been but an- 
other version possibly by a different 
hand. The Schol. suggests, ?iv Se e'/ceiVo ruv Hu6ayopf(wv oiKe7ov, rovro Se 
2<i>Kpdrovs, us ffatpfffrepdv rt Kul TrA.rj/c- 
riKtiirtpov. Olymp., Iffrtov 'ori o^eS^ rb 
avrd effri rb tirixtipiina rovro ry Tlvda- 
yopeica- Sia rovro yap elirev 6 ~2.uiKpa.rfjs 
Sri rov avrov yv/j.vaffiov. Empedocles, 
as au Eclectic, borrowed much from the 

Pythagoreans, with whom he is sometimes 
classed, as by Olymp. and the Schol. 

E. yd/Mara, 5e ffirdfia] ' Suppose that 
the supplk'B Of these several liquids are 
scanty and hard to get ; in fact, not to 
be procured without frequent and severe 
exertion. We will further suppose that 
one of the two persons mentioned, when 
he has once filled his jars, does not trou- 
ble himself toleed them with fresh sup- 
plies, but lets well SllUHU, ku fur as the ves- 
sels are concerned.' The different liquids 
denote of course the variety in the objects 
of human desire. All are represented as 
more or less agreeable to the taste. For 
the sense of va/ua compare Phaedr. 235 D, 
\fiirfrai Srj, ol/nai, e aKKorp'uav iroBev 
va/j.dr(av irrirhripcaffOai /xs Sucrjj/ ayyflov. 

494. r) ras to-xdras \v-irnlro \vwa<t'\ 
'or else \m a JJl'Uy Lo Llie most excru- 
ciating pains.' Referring to the uneasi- 
ness with which impure pleasures are 
preceded and accompanied. See inf. 
496 C E. 

494, C.] 


ou/ceV ecrriv rjSovr) ovoe/xta, dXXa TOUT* 
ecrTiz/ o vvv Sr) eya> eXeyo^, TO a>o"rrep \L6ov tflv, eVetSob' 
B 7r\Tr}pcoa"rj, pyre yaipovTO. ert fJLtjre Xvrrovfievov. dXX' eV 
TOVTO) ecrrl TO i^Sew? T^, eV TW a>s TrXeto-Tov enippeiv. 

5*/2. OVKOVV dvdyKr) y, a> TroXu tTTipper), TTO\V /cat 
TO aTrtov el^at /cat jiteydX' aTTa Ta Tprm-ara. elvai, Tat? 

KAA. Ildvv fjiev ovv. 

Sfl. XapaSpiov nv av o"u ^tot' Xeyet?, dXX* ov i^e- 
v ovSe \wov. /cat /not Xeye, TO Toioi'Se Xeyets otoi' 

/cat TretvaWa laBLf.iv ; 
KAA. *J3y&jye. 
C 5*/2. Kat St^v ye /cat Su//aWa TrLve.iv ; <} 

KAA. Aeyo), /cat Ta? aXXag evrt^u/xta? avrao-a? e^ovra 
/cat 8vvdp.evov TrXypovvra yaLpovra. evSat/xo^oJ? 

B. OWKOVV ayo-y/cTj 7'] ' The more then 
you pour in, the greater the waste wide 
too must be the holes for the liquid to 
escape by.' 

XapaSpioC] The Schol. favours us with 
an edifying description of this bird and 
its habits : x a P- upvis TLS t>s fi^to ry 
icrOifiv fKKpivei (the peculiarity to which 
Socr. alludes). He adds : tit t>v airo- 
/3\ftyavTes, a>s \6yos, ol iKTipiiavrts paov 
awaAAaTToi'Tor '66fv /col airoKpinrrovffiv 
avrbv ol irnrpdffKOVTfs, Iva fj.)] irpol/ca 

Kai funs Ka\vifTfi. (t.wi> ^opoSpibv 
irfpvds ; 

&s (prifftv 'liriran'a^. The xapg,$pt65 is 
mentioned by Arist. Av. 1141, among 
the opvfa, in accordance with 
the apparent etymology of his name, 
Trapot TO tv rcus xapdSpats Siarpififii', as 
the Schol. on Aristoph. observes. With 
him Aristotle agrees, H. A. is. c. 11, 
adding, eo~n 5' 6 x a P8pibj Kai rrjv xpoav 
Kal TTJV (puv^jv <pav\os' tpaivtrai Sf i/vKTcap, 
ilfjitpas Se airoSiSpdaitfi. He is therefore 
not the 'lapwing,' as Lidd. and Scott 
suggest : nor does the <(>av\6ri\s of his 
colour agree with the 'curlew/ Nor is 
he the same as afdvta, as Timaeus in Lex. 
supposes, for the birds are mentioned as 
distinct by Arist. H. A. 8. 3. Some 
species of plover is probably meant; 
' charadriadae ' being the name given by 
modern ornithologists to the plover-tribe. 

Many of these, e. g. the dotterels and 
golden plovers, are said to be night- 
feeders, as Aristotle reports of his ' cha- 
radrius.' According to Plut. Sympos. 
p. 681 c, the x a P- cures the jaundice by 
catching it himself through the eyes : 
hence airoffTpftpfrai TOVS iKTepieavras, 
Kal ra ofi/tara o-vyK\eiffa$ ?x fl > from 
which we may conjecture that the ex- 
periment had never been fairly tried. 
The \apa1ipi6s, which is the subject of 
one of Babrius's fables, is a crested bird, 
KopvSd\\y irpbs rbv opOpov avTqSeav. 

TLV' al ervj You said the life I ap- 
proved was no life, but the state of a 
lifeless body or a stone : and now you 
in your turn are depicting a life like 
that of an obscene and ravenous bird. 

C. Swdftevov ir\ripovvra] If we are not 
to adopt Stephen's correction ir\T)povv, 
we must suppose that infinitive under- 
stood in connexion with Suvdpevov. The 
concourse of participles is difficult to 
render in another language, but it is 
much in Plato's manner, and here, in 
particular, is not without force. ' I do 
acknowledge the existence of the appe- 
tites you mention,' says Call. : ' I speak 
of a man drinking when he is thirsty, 
and eating when he is hungry ; and not 
only so, but also of one who possesses all 
the other natural appetites, with the 
means of gratifying them, and who does 
gratify them and enjoys it, and that 
man, I say, leads a happy life.' As 



[494, c 

XLIX. /2. Evye, at jSe'XrtcrTe* Stare'Xet yap axnrep 

/cat OTTCU? /A?) aTratcr^wet. Set Se, cos eot/ce, 
e//,e drraiar^yvOrji'ai. /cat Trp&rov jueV elrre el /cat 
Kal /cvTcrtctWa, d<f)66va)<s c^ovra rov Kvjjcr6a.i, 



877/^17- D 

StareXoiWa rov 

KAA. e /2s aTOTros eT, a; 

JT/2. Totyaprot, a> KaXXt/cXet?, JTwXov /xeV /cat Pop- 
ytav /cat e'^eVX^fa /cat cdcr^yveorOai eVot^cra, cru 8e ov /AT) 
e/cvrXayi^s ovSe /AT) al&xyvd'fis' dvSpeto? yap et. d\X' 
airoKpivov JJLOVOV. 

KAA. ^/xt TOIVVV /cat TOV /cvcujaevov T^Seco? ob> /3twi/at. 
OVKOVV einep i^Seco?, /cat ev8at)u,o^a)s ; 

ITai'v ye. 

Ilorepov el rrjv Ke(f>a\r)v [JLOVOV /c^crtw, -^ ert TIE 
<re epa)TO) ; opa, a KaXXt/cXets, rt aTro/cptvet, e'ai' rts ere 

ep(ora. /cat 

6vTa>v /ce^xxXatov, 6 raiv /ctvat'Swv /3to9, ovro? 

Stallb. observes, Callicles cuts Socrates 
short in his tedious enumeration of appe- 
tites, any or all of which he is prepared 
to recognize; and then, with charac- 
teristic frSpis, adds unasked his opinion 
that he who indulges them all to the top 
of his bent is the happy man. 

el-rrt fJKal \j/wpa>i>Ta] ' Tell me whether 
one afflicted witTl the itch, who has a 
perpetual desire to scratch, and who 
can scratch to his heart's content, and 
spends his life in scratching, whether it 
can be said that such a person lives 
happily ? ' Obs. KvrjffQai not Kvatrdat is 
the Attic form, analogous Lo rjv, ^v, 
a'fj.TJi', vrjv for Hjfleii'. i5ee" Cobet, N. Lectt. 
p. "WOr So ^<apu>vras is better than 
tycapicavTas, the common form, and found 
here in the old edd. Phot., AiOSivras 
rpi(rv\\<as, ov \i0icaVTas. Tl\d.T(ai> id 
N6fJ.a>i> (p. 916 A) ... tywpav Kal fipayxav 
Siffv\\d&ws \fyov(ri. So Qavasrav, not, SatfJLovav not Saifnoviav. Lob. 
Phryn. p. 80 fol. In Kvrjffinv the i be- 
longs to the root, and is to be retained. 
Presently for wriffty (or perhaps Kv-ritrtyri) 
the codd. give Kv-naioi. The phenomena 
of pruriency are described with grotesque 
accuracy in the Philebus, p. 46 D, a 
passage illustrative of the present in 

more than one respect. Compare- also 
Democritus, Frag. Mor. 49, ed. Mullach., 
s,v6fj,evoi &v6pcairoi ^Sofrai Kai <r<piv yl- 
vfraL airep roiffi a,(ppoSicrid^ovcn. 

D. 'n$ STOTTOJ el, & 2., Kal arexvus 
5rn*i]y6pos^\ ' How absurd you are ! what 
a thorough mob-orator ! ' i. e. how 
thoroughly unscrupulous as to the 
nature of the arguments you use, stoop- 
ing, as you do, to the lowest kind of 
clap-trap. Olymp., Sri/j.riy6pos el- TO 
TOIS iroXAoTs apfffKovra \4yeis' OVTOI 
yap OVK tip etTToiev TOVS TOIOVTOVS evSai- 

<rv tie ov jj.}} fKirXa,yrjs] ' I have no fear 
of your being shocked or put to shame.' 
Inf. 520 D, ovSfv Sfivbv /U^TTOTC ctSiKTjflj;. 
Phaedr. 84 B, ovSfv Seivbv fify <j>o/3riOrj. 

E. Kal rovrcav TOiovTcav fivrtav Ke<f>d- 
\aiov] 'and, to mention the crowning 
instance of all such is not, &c.' The 
object of Socr. in introducing a coarse 
topic like this, is, as he presently says, 
to prove that " there are pleasant things 
which are not good." Callicles was proof 
against the last instance, but recoils 
before this, which Socr. calls the Kfipd- 
\atov, that in which the argument is 
' brought to a head,' or ' reaches its cli- 
max.' In Theaet. 190 B, rb no. 

495, B.] 


ov Set^og /cat atcr^/oo? /cat a#Xto? ; 77 TOUTOVS 
Xe'yetv evSat/xovas etpat, edV d(f>66v(o<; e^crti' &v Seo^rat ; 
KAA. OVK aia"xyvei ets rotavra dyaiv, a> 
Xoyov? ; 

'H yap eyw ay<w ivravOa, a> yevvale, 
os ai> (17 dveSrjv ovra) rovs x a */ 3OI/Ta S OTTWS af 
eu>at, /cat /XT) Stopt^Tat 


dyaQal /cat /ca/cat ; aXX' ert /cat yvi> Xeye, TroTepov <f)rj<; 

f N >\^O^ ^* /)' * T / ^ / A> 

ei^at TO avro T)OV /cat ayac/o^, T) eii'at rt TOJ^ r)oew^ o ov/c 
ecmv dya66v ; 

KAA. "Iva. Stj fMOL p.!) dvo/xoXoyov/Ae^o? ^ 6 Xoyos, eai/ 
erepov <f)tj(ra) etvat, TO avTo <^^/xt etvat. 

5"/2. ALCKJiOeipeLs, a> KaXXt/cXet9, TOU? TT/DWTOV? Xoyov?, 
/cat ov/c ai/ ert /XCT' e/xov t/ca^ws TO, wTa e^eTa^ot?, elirtp 
Trapa TO, So/covt'Ta o~avTG> e 

KAA. Kal yap a~v, < 

5'/2. Ou roivvv opOws TTOLCJ OVT' eyw, etTrep mia> 

B TOVTO, OUTC cru. aXX', ai /xa/capte, a^pet /XT) ov TOVTO 7j 

TO dyaOov, TO vrat'Tajg yaipeiv ravrd TC yap TO. ^Oi' Sr) 

alvi^devTd TToXXa /cat ato-^pa <^ati/Tat crv^^aivovra, el 

TOVTO OVTCU? ex et ' Ka ' ^^- a 

KAA. '/2s cru ye otet, ai 

^v Se TW oi'Tt, a> KaXXt/cXets, 

Kf<pd\awv denotes the most general form 
iu which a number of particular in- 
stances can be summed up. This can 
hardly be said of the present question, 
except in a rhetorical sense. 

ai>e$i)t> ovTia~] ' Broadly, without limi- 
tation^or exception? Inf. ouy, cos 70 vv 
&v )5o|7iv ovTcaffi, ' at first sight.' Arist. 
Ean. 625, ovrta Se fiaffdvi^' awayaycav, 
' without more ado.' Soph. Antig. 315, 
enre?> n Swfffis, fl ffrpa(f>(ls ovrtos fa ; 
'without a hearing.' Above, p. 464 B, 
T^V 8" eirl T< ff(a/j.a.Ti ft'iav fitv ovrtas 
opoyuacrcu OVK fx w - ' I cannot give it one 
single name.' Also p. 503 D, oiiraxrly 
a,Tpe/j.a ffKoiroiifjifvot. 

495. "iva. ST; /API /j.)] a.voij.o\o"vovp.fvos 
f] 'Just that 1 may not contradict 
myself, as I must if I say that the 
pleasant and the good are distinct, I say 

that they are the same.' To which 
Socr. replies, that by such an answer 
Callicles destroys the force of his first 
speech (in which he had censured Gbrgias 
and Polus for answering against their 
conviction), and that if he too says 
one thing while he means another there 
is an end of their joint investigation of 
the truth. ai/o/ioAoyov/uevos has the 
force of an adj. as in Arist. Anal. i. 34, 
quoted by Heind., avofj.o\oyov/j.evov -rots 
irpoeiprintvois. So Plat. Legg. 741 A, 
rb 6fj,o\oyovfj.evoi' -rifj-uvrts, ' honouring 

B. ravrd T6 yap &\\a iroXAaJ 'For 
if this is so if Good is always Pleasure, 
and Pleasure Good there will plainly 
follow many other disgusting conclusions 
besides those at which I have just now 
darkly hinted.' 

104 TIAATftNOS [495, B 

KAA. v Eywye. 

L. 2ft. ' 

apa TW Xoyw o>s crov CTTTOV- 

. ITdVv ye cr<oS/>a. ^ \/ 

. *I#t 817 />tot, eVeiS?) ourw So/cet, SteXou raSe. 

JJLrjV TTOV KttXet? Tt ; 

. Ov KOL aVSpetaf vvv Sr) eXeye'g Tti>a eu'at /xera 






7 a />- f 
Tt ovv os erepov Trjv av^peiav Trjs eVt- 

Suo TavTa eXeyes ; 

Tt Se' ; rjftovrjv /cat eTncrTtjfMrjv ravrov 17 erepov ; 

"Erepov STJTTOV, c5 ao^xarare cru. D 

'H /cat a^Syoetaf eTepav r)$ovfj<s ; 

JTws yap ou ; 

$epe 8r) OTTOJS /xejLtvTycrojae^a Taura, OTI KaXXt- 
17 6 'A)(apvv<s rjftv p.ev /cat ayaObv ravrov eivai, 
8e Kat avSpetai^ /cat aXX^Xwv /cat TOU aya^ou 


pleasure and pain do co-exist and end 

firetS)] ovrca So/ce?] Stephen followed 
by Hirsch. gives ovrw ffoi So/ce? from one 
MS. But ffoi is better absent ; ' seeing 
that it is so ruled,' Lat. 'sic placet,' viz., 
eirixfipftv rw \6yea ws ffov cnrovfid^ovros. 
Parmen. 137 B, ^ /3ov\fcr6e, fireiS-fiirep 
5of? Trpay/J-areitaSt] iraiSiav VcdfclV, air' 
ffiavrov apfa/Ltai Kal rrjs efj-avrov viro- 
Beireus ; In the next p7)(ris but one &s 
frtpov rfy avSpeiav rfjs e'TrierTTj/uTj? Heind. 
and Bkk. insert 6v after f-repov. So also 
Hirsch. The instances quoted by Stallb. 
(though not all in point) establish the 
legitimacy of the omission even in abso- 
lute clauses. Yet 1 incline with Heind. 
to suppose that in the present case 6v 
has been accidentally absorbed by the 
preceding word. 

KAA. ^w/cpaTiys Se y 
Xoyet TavTa. f) 6/xoXoyet ; 

c. "I0i 5^) /ioi] The last elenchus con- 
sisted in an appeal to the moral sense. 
The position of Callicles had been shown 
to involve consequences revolting to his 
natural taste and feeling : this he had 
virtually acknowledged, owning that it 
was merely for consistency's sake that 
he still clung to his thesis, on raya&bv 
Kal rb TjSv ravr6v. The argument which 
follows is dialectical, as the former was 
popular. Olymp., rov e'/crou tirixftp^- 
UCCTOS <poL7rro^f6a' & fiirr6v ftrrt, rb fj.V 
Kar' fvOv, rb 8e 5ia rrjs fls aSvvarov awa- 
ycoyrjs. He means that there is direct 
proof of the impossibility of good and 
evil, which are contraries, existing and 
ending simultaneously in the same in- 
dividual. The airaywy)) els aSvvarov 
consists in showing the incompatibility 
of this principle with the proposition on 
rb fjSv Kal rayaBbv ravr6v, which is 
effected by producing instances in which 

Tt,-"| ;* Resolve me this. I presume you 

496, A.] ropriAH. 105 

E Hfl,. Ov% 6/xoXoyet' otjaat Se y ovSe KaXXt/cX^5, orav 
IVTOV Oedo~rjTai opOtos. etTre yap /xot, TOV? ev TrpaT- 
rots /ca/caig TrpdrTovcriv ov TOVVO.VTLOV rjyel ird6o<s 


KAA. "Eyarye. 

^Ap ovv, etvrep Ivavria earl ravra dXX^Xots 
Trepl avratv *X eLV Mcnrep Trepl vytetag e^et /cat vo- 
<rov ; ov yap apa brjirov vyiatvei re Kal vocrel 6 av6po)Tros, 
ovSe a/xa aTraXXciTrerat vyteta? re /cat vdtrov. 
Xeyet? ; 

Trepl ocrou ySovXet TOV crw/xaro? a-TroXa- 
TTOU av0p<t)Tro<; 6(j)6a\fJLOv<5, w 

cr/co7Tt. I'oo'et 

KAA. ITw? yap ou ; 

^/2. Ou ST^TTOV /cat vytau/et ye a/xa row? avrou? ; 


.2/2. Tt 8e'; orai/ TT^S 6<$aXjatas aTraXXarr^Tat, dpa 
Tore /cat TTJS 7/ytetas aTraXXarTerat rail' o^6a\^v /cat 
reXeuTwi> a/xa d/x^orepwv aTrryXXa/crat ; 

KAA. "HKicrTa ye. 

avfJidcTLOv yap, ol/xat, /cat dXoyo^ yty^erat. ^ 



call something Science,' i. e. you recog- 
nize the existence of a thing called 

Oi>x <5/uoAo7*'- Wliat 

the Platonic Socr. really thought on this 
subject he tells us plainly in the Phile- 
bus, p. 60, where after stating the opinion 
of Philebus, that pleasure was the finis 
bonorum, and that Good and Pleasant 
interchangeable terms, he adds : 

T7JS Sf ITpWTOV fJifV oij (f>T)<Tl ToCr' 

flvat, ovo Se KaQairtp ra ov6fj.a.Ta, Kal r6 
Obv Kal T?> ^5u 5id(popov a\\-fi\ct!v 
t%fiv, j^oAAoc Se /J.troxov tlvai rrjs 

TOV ayaOov fioipas rrjf (ppovtiffiv ^ TT\V 


E. TOVS 6 irpdrTOVTas . . irfirovOevai] 
In order to prove that good and evil 
cannot co-exist in the same individual, 
he enumerates instances of both states, 

in which their incompatibility is evident. 
The induction, though imperfect, satisfies 
Callias, who finally admits the pro- 
position in its utmost generality (496 B, 
HdvTcas S-ffirov). 

airo\afiwv ffK^irti] The participle has 
the force of an adv. ' Examine separately 
any part of the body you think proper.' 
So Rep. 420 C, r^v ev$aifj.ova (v6\iv) 
ir\dTTO/J.ei' OVK oiro\aj3<5i'Ty, o\(yovs 
fit aurp TOIOVTOVS rivas TiOfVTes, a\\' 
S\riv, 'not in detail, but in its totality. 
. 496. Qavfj.dffioi' . . yiyvfra.i\ ' No, for 
such a conclusion is both startling and 
absurd.' yiyvtrai is equiv. to ffv/jfiaivci, 
as in 497 A, ertpov yiyverai -rb ^5ii TOV 
ayaBov = Lat. efficitur. Compare Phileb. 
55, rioAA,^) TIS . . a\oyia 



[496, B 

2ft. '.4XX' iv jJiepei, ot//,at, eKarepov /cat Xa/x^avet /cat B 
aVoXXuei ; 

KAA. $r)fjii. 

2ft. OVKOVV /cat iayyv /cat da-Beveiav Q)cravT(t)<s ; 


2ft. Kal ra^os /cat /SyoaSimjTa ; 

KAA. Ildvv ye. 

2ft. 'H /cat rdyaBd /cat Tr)i> euSatjuovtai> /cat rdvavTia 
TOVTOJV, /ca/ca re /cat a^Xtor^ra, eV /xepet Xa/x/3aVet /cat > 
aTraXXarrerat e/care)oou ; 

KAA. IIdvT(t)<s ST^TTOU. 

dp' drra wv a/xa re aVaXXctTrerat 

Kat a/xa e^ 61 ' ov ort ravrct ye ov/c ai^ eti^ c 
TO re dya9ov /cat TO /ca/cdv. 6/xoXoyov/xev Tavra ; Kat eu 
jaaXa o"/cex//ajaevo5 a 

TO uewrjv eXeyes Trorepov r)$v rj aviapov elvai ; CLVTO Xeya> 
TO TT6ivrjv. 

KAA. 'Avuapov eywye* TO /u,eWot Treti/w^Ta ecrOieiv ^Su. 
MavOdvar dXX' ow TO ye Trewrji' avTo aVtapoV. 

e?rt TO. 


2ft. OVKOVV /cat TO 
KAA. 2<f>68pa ye. 

2ft. Tlorepov ovv ert -TrXetw epwra), ^ o/toXoyets aVa- 
/cat e-mBv^iav dviapov 

B. ctTroAXuei] Hirsch., who agrees with 
Cobet in banishing the forms in uo> from 
Attic writers, reads of course air^AAvcn. 
El and CI are easily interchanged, but 
there are passages in the comic poets 
where the metre forbids us to alter the 
forms objected to. Person's note on 
Medea, 744-, exhausts the subject : " Hac 
forma, ea uempe ubi vca pro v/j.i in fine 
verbi ponitur, nunquam uti Tragicos; 
rarissime veteres Comicos; saepius me- 
diae, saepissime novae Comoediae poetas. 
Paulatim et parce aclhiberi coepta est sub 

mediam fere Aristophanis aetatem ; tan- 
turn enim occurrit ofuwbri Av. 1610, crwju- 
irapafiiyv^xav in ultima ejus fabula Pluto 
719. Cetera loca, ubi usurpari videtur, 
aut emendata sunt, aut emendanda." 

D. TfiavGavta] The MSS. here give 
either Kal eyta /j.av6dvca, or 'Eyia fAavOdvo). 
Possibly this was a corruption of another 
reading, \tyca, or, as Dr. Badlmin sug- 
gests, of KoAw at the end of the last frrjffis. 
(KArn KAAQ). Any how it cannot be 

497, A.] 



KAA. 'O/xoXoyw, d\\d /XT) lpo)Ta. 

. Eiev. Sti//oWa Se Sr) irivf.iv aXXo TI ^ T^Su <T)S etvat; 

. OVKOVV TOVTOV ov Xeyet? TO //,ei> Su/f&Wa XVTTOV- 

817770 v ecrrtV ; 


572. To Se TTivf.iv 

2fi. OVKOVV /caret TO irlvetv 
KAA. MaXtcTTa. 
5*/2. ^d ti//a)i/Ta ye ; 

is re TT^S eVSetas /cat rj 
Xeyets ; 

KAA. Nat. 

5^/2. AlcrOdvtL ovv TO crvfJi/Balvov, OTI XvTrov^evov 
peiv Xeyet? ayu,a, oTai^ Sti//aWa irlvf.iv XeyTys ; ^ ov^ 
TOUTO ytyveTat /caTa TOZ> avrov TOTTOV /cat ^povov etre 
^v^s etTe crw/xaTos ySoyXet ; ovSet 1 ya/o, ot/xat, Sta<^epet. 
eo~Tt TavTa ^ ou ; 

irpdrreiv a/xa 

TV ev ye irprrovra 
t eiVat. 




*AvL(t>iJ.vov Be ye 


OVK apa TO yaipeiv Icrrlv eu irpdrTew ovSe TO 
o.via.o~9ai /ca/cws, cuo~Te erepov yiyverai TO r)8v TOV dyaffov. 
KAA. OVK oTS' aTTa cro^tet, 

rb ^.e^ Si^wJ'Ta \viro{ip.tvov S-ffirov 
eVTiV;] "In this phrase 'to drink when 
athirst/ the word 'athirst' is equivalent 
to ' being in pain,' is it not ?" So pre- 
sently, Kara rb irivtiv x&tpt"' htytis ; "it 
is in respect of his 'drinking' you mean 
that the drinker feels delight ? " 

E. fs^is t ?""] Hirsch. f<p7i<r6' dvai. 
Phrynichus : "EC^TJS- tan irapa. -rois 
apxaiots, a\\' b\lyov rb Se ir\?<rrov 
f(pi](r8a: where Lobeck observes : ""'Etfrjs 
tarn pauca habet idoneae auctoritatis 

exempla (Plat. Gorg. 466 E, 496 A, Xen. 
Cyr. iv. 1. 23, Isocr. Busir. 3. 367), ut 
Phrynichi mirer verecundiam, praesertiin 
cum affini ijs, quod nihilo melius est, 
tarn grave subierit judicium." The fol- 
lowing <t>ripi inclines me to substitute tpTjs 
here, as in 466 E, and in Euthyd. 293 c. 
The passage from the Busiris has been 
corrected from the MSS. I agree with 
Baiter in thinking e^Tyj inadmissible in 

497. OVK olS' OTTO ffo<piei, 2> 2<i- 


[497, A 

OlcrOa, dXX' d/ooei, < 

j v ) \ V /) """ - r V 

y TL eis TO efJiirpocruev, \_OTL 


\ <> -| 




s / e 

eto^s ws 

/cpares] Though he has assented to all 
the premisses, Callicles is unable or un- 
willing to accept the apparently inevi- 
table conclusion. Even the Platonist 
Olympiodorus finds a difficulty. Health 
and sickness, he says, cannot co-exist, 
because they are contraries : so of well- 
being and ill-being generally. How then 
can pleasure and pain co-exist ? Are not 
they contraries also ? TTWS \eytis /u}j 
elvat evavriav r^v fjSov}] 1 ' K <d T$f AUTTJJC ; 
Of this atropia he offers a characteristic 
solution. But the true key to the diffi- 
culty is furnished in the Philebus, where 
Socr. argues on grounds physical rather 
than dialectical. The good state of a 
thing, it is there argued, is its healthy 
normal state, free alike from fvSeia and 
from ir\ri(rnovfj, either of which con- 
stitutes disease. The perception of evSeta 
is painful, the process of its removal 
causes pleasure. So long as the process 
continues, pain does not cease, though 
pleasure may predominate. When the 
want is removed, and the normal state 
of the body is re-established, pleasure and 
pain cease together. But the normal is 
the good state, and as it is that in which 
pleasure ceases to be perceptible, the 
good and the pleasant cannot be con- 
vertible terms. It is conceivable that 
the subtle speculations of the Philebus, 
in which, though there may be occasional 
defects of analysis, there is no taint of 
logomachy, may have been suggested by 
objections raised to the reasoning in this 
part of the Gorgias : reasoning which is 
rather unconvincing than illogical. The 
student needs reminding that the pro- 
position against which Socr. is arguing, 
is not that Pleasure is or may be good, 
but that Good consists in Pleasure : that 
the two words ' good ' and ' pleasant ' are 
convertible ; that all which is pleasant is 
good, and all which is good is pleasant. 
This was the doctrine of Aristippus, of 

I which Callicles is a popular, perhaps an 

V unconscious exponent. 

Ola6a, oAA' o/cKifci] The verb a.KKi 
effOai Slid, its derivative a,KKiff[j.As are 
used to denote any kind of mock modesty 
or prudery, especially, though not ex- 
clusively, on the part of women. Philip- 
pides, Com. ap. Athen. p. 384 E, TO /j.ev 
ofc yvvaia r&\\' T/KK^TO, 'pretended 
to be shocked.' Philemon, ib. 569 D, OVK 
eoV ouSe els 'AKKi(r/ubs oi>8e A%>os, ' there 

is no coyness or nonsense here.' Hence 
the glosses, OpvirrAntvos, irpoa"iroiov/jLfvos, 
ywaiKi^ofjifi/os. The grammarians derive 
the word from a female appellative 
'AtcKia, and add biographical particulars 
of the lady. These are doubtless apocry- 
phal, for we find from Plutarch that 
"A/c/cc6 was used as a name of fear to 
terrify children, like Mop/te6, xapKu 
(=Aa(j.ta), &c. Plut. de Stoicorum re- 
pugnantiis, p. 1040 B, where Chry- 
sippus is said to have derided Plato's 
doctrine of divine retribution, d>s ovSfv 
SicupfpovTa, Trjs 'AKKOVS /col TTJS 'A.\<pirovs 
Si' S>v TO ira.i5a.pia rov Ka.KOffXo\fiv at 
yvvaiKes avtipyovaiv. Hence the word 
a.KKifff6ai may originally have denoted 
chimerical or feigned alarm, the transi- 
tion from which meaning to that of 
affected modesty or niceness is not diffi- 
cult. The word first occurs in Pindar 
Frag. inc. 217, "AvSpes -rivts a.KKt6fji.evoi 
2/CV0CU NfKpbv '/TTTTOJ' ffTvyeoiffiv \6yif. 
Hence the proverb, 6 2/cuflrjs rbi> 'lirirov, 
said of those who affect dislike of what 
they secretly hanker after. Here the 
sense is obvious : You know, though you 
make believe that you don't know. You 
know perfectly well whither my argu- 
ments are leading you, but it does not 
suit your purpose to acknowledge it. 
In the sequel the words Sri ex 6 "' A/jpe*f 
seem to have strayed from elsewhere. 
Huind. thinks they stood in the place of 
\tyeis in the next reply of Callicles. 
Others divide the fi-fiveis as follows : 
giving 2fl. OZo-00, aAA.' aKKifct, & Ka\- 
\iK\ets. KAA. Kol irpdiBi y' en ts 
TotifAtrpoffOev, OTI f\<av AiypeTs, 'Lv elSfjs 
ail ffO(pbs &v fj.e vovOeTtls. 2fl. Oux 
Syua Si\i/wv 0' e/cacrTos rifj.a>v K.T.\. Even 
so the clause art tx (av Mp?s is in the 
way : nor is there much point in the 
next clause, lv' tlSfis, &c., as coming from 
Callicles. In the mouth of Socr. it is 
an apt retort to OVK ol8' OTTO ffotpifci, as 
if he had said, You blame me SJQ rb 
ffo(t>ie<r6at, answer a few more questions, 
and you will discover that you are no 
<rocfi6s. Comp. S> tro^xarare ffv supr. 
495 D. Moreover, the succeeding ques- 
tion of Socr., Oi>x o,ua Si^cSf K.T.A. , 
comes in abruptly. We should have 
expected n/xki/.u STJ, or some such pre- 
fatory formula. However the /Mjcms be 
divided, one thing seems clear, that 'An 
fX<ev ATjpels comes more naturally from 

497, C.] 



ov-% a/xa u>a>v re 
B TreVavrai Kal a/za 1780/^6^05 cka TOV rrivew ; 
KAA. OVK otSa o rt Xeyet<?. 
POP. M^Sa/aws, <5 .KaXXucXeis, dXX' airoKpivov Kal 

ev6Ka, Iva. TrepavOaxriv ol Xdyoi. 

KAA. \4XX' del rotovro? eo-rt ^w/c/aar^?, a> Topyio.' 
JiLKpa Kal oXiyov a^ta avepoira. Kal e^eXey^et. 
TOP. \4XXa rt crol Sia^epet ; TraWoos ov err) OLVTYJ 17 
if, to KaXXtKXets' dXX' vTrocr^e? ^wKpdret e^eXe'yfai 
orrcos a^ (BovXrjTai. 
KAA. 'EpatTOL Brj av ra cr/uK^a re Kal arei'd ravra, 

TopyLa. SoKet ovrws. 

LII. 5"/2. EvSat/zwv et, a) KaXXtKXetg, on TO. /xeydXa 

' ey<u 8' OUK <^f]v Befjurov 
a.iroKpivov, et ov aaa Traverat 

lJ.e[j.vrjcra.L irpv TO, 

MV eKao~ro9 -TJLOW Kal 


Callicles, and that, if retained, it ought 
to be' transposed as Heindorf suggests. 
KAA. OIKC ofS' 8 Tt X WJ/ Aijpe?j. TOP. 
M7)5a,uoJs-, S KaAA/KAeis K.T.A. 

B. ai ^yucSv eVe/ca] i. e. not merely to 
please Socr., but to save us from the 
tedium of a protracted discussion. 

jrcWcos ou ffi) atfrTj ^ Ti/x^j A pro- 
verbial expi'fibsiuu, duubLless : but whether 
TI^^) is put for Tfynjju> 'multa,' 'dam- 
uum,' is not so certain. The sense re- 
quired is, " Tfyat is not your affair "- 
not your reputation, but that oi' Socr. is 
at stake in cerism.iuyilee'o'f his objection- 
able practice ol WyLlliy your assertions 
by simple ^Estances. So Olyrnp., ttrf 
KaK&s epcarif: tfre KoAcSs, ovSff irpbs ffe> 
We have here a touch of the tlpcoveia, 
for which, according to Aristotle, Gorgias 
was remarkable. Presently inr6<rxes = 
'permit' as frequently. 

C. 'EpojTo 5^ av] ' Proceed then you, 
sir, with your little cramped questions/ 
This, says the Schol. was a standing scoff 
on the part of the rhetoricians against 
dialectical arguments. Hippias, for in- 
stance, called them TreptT^Tjftaro, shreds 
or parings. 

TO /4eyd\a /^ffA.vrjffat irpiv TO fffj,iKpl 
supp. fi.wriOrjva.1. The Schol. explains TO 
crjuiKpo of the'T'fipia ev &ffrti, the 
fj.tyd\a as TO eV ''Ehfvff'ivi. It was 

necessary, he says, to be initiated in the 
former before witnessing the latter. The 
lesser Eleusinia were celebrated at the 
temple in the suburb Agra : the greater 
both at Athens in the Eleusinium, and 
at Eleusis itself. See the testimonies 
in Leake's Athens, p. 250. Syrnp. 

210 A, ToDTO TO fptaTlKO, IffOlS /COI> <Tl 

fj.vri9eir)s, TO, S( TfXeo /coi eiroirriicd, 3>v 
fVfKa Kal TO.VT' eaTiv, OVK ol8' fl ulos T' 
&/' etrjs. Synesius (Dion. 52 c) seems to 
understand TO /.uupa of the preliminary 
rites: 8e? TO fiiKpa firoirreva'ai irpb Ttov 
/j.ti6vcav, Kal xopfvffai irplv So8oux'? <ra '> 
Kal Sa.Sovxija'ai irplv iepfHpavTrjffai. But 
there is no discrepancy between his view 
and that of the Schol. if we are to 
believe Plutarch, vit. Demetrii, c. 26 
(900 D), T<{T 8' ovv bva^tvyvvuv fls TOS 
'Aflrjj'as, ffputytv 'An $o{i\rrai irapayv6- 
fifvos fvdiis fj.vTi6r]vai, Kal r-^v Tf\fT^iv 
airaffav airb ruv jui/cpwc axpl TWV eiroir- 
TIKU>V irapaXafitiV, TOVTO Se ov Qep. IT bv 
?\v ovSe yfyovbs irp6repov. aAAo TO fiiKpa 


fifyd\a TOV jSoTjSpojuiwi'os' fireairTfvov 8e 
Tov\dxi<TTov airb Ttav /j.fyd\cav fvtavTbv 
8ta\nr6vTes. Hence from the /.UK/JO to 
the state of a complete epopt eighteen 
months would intervene. See, however, 
Lobeck, Aglaoph. p. 36. 


110 IIAATfiNOS [497, c 

OVKOVV /cat Treivatv /cat raw dXXaw eVt^VjUtaw /cat 
rj^ovcav d/xa Traverat ; 
KAA. *Eo~Ti ravra. 

372. OVKOVV /cat raw XVTTOW /cat rail/ ySovuv dfjia 
Traverat ; 


'-4XXd JUT)*/ raw dya#aw /cat KOLK^V ov^ djaa 
Traverat, a>? o~u cu/xoXoyet?' vOz/ Se ou^ 6//,oXoyet? ; 
KAA. "Eyojye, rt ovr/ Sry ; 

Ort ov ravrd yiyverai, a> <tXe, rdyaOd rot? 
ovSe ra /ca/cct rot? di/tapot?. raji/ /xet' yap 
Traverat, roji/ Se ov, a>? erepcov ovruv. TTOJ? ovr ravrct 
117 ra ^Se'a rot? dya$ot? -^ rd dvtapd rot? /ca/cot? ; 'j 
Se j3ov\.rj, /cat riyS' eVto-/ce\//af ot/xat yap crot ovSe ravry 
6/xoXoyeto~^at. d^pet Se'' rov? dya^ov? ov^t dyaOatv 
Trapovcrta dya^ov? /caXet?, tocnrep rov? /caXov? of? av 
KaXXo? Trapf) ; 
KAA. "Eyaiye. 

^fl. TL Se'; dya^ov? di/Spa? /caXet? rov? a<f)pova<s 
Kal SetXov? ; ov yap dprt ye, dXXd rov? dVSpetov? /cat 
^>povt/xov? eXeye?. 17 ov rovrov? dya^ov? /caXet? ; 
KAA. Ildvv i^ev ovv. 

Tt Se' ; TratSa dvo^rot' ^atpovra 17817 etSe? ; 

"-4 i/Spa Se OVTT&) etSes 
KAA. Otjaat eywye. dXXa rt rovro ; 
OvSeV dXX' airoKpivov. 

D. OVKOW Koi TWV AvTrcSf] To prove pain. But there are circumstances under 

that during the act of drinking the which the coward feels as much pleasure 

thirsty man is the subject both of pain as the brave man, or more. Where- 

and pleasure, Olympiod. suggests the fore, the brave man being good and the 

experiment of stopping short (dj/axa'TiVai coward evil, under such circumstances 

tavT&v) before the thirst is slaked : under the evil man is better than the good 

these circumstances, he says, aiffdavAptOa, man, or at least as good the good and 

rrjs \virfis ira.\iv. fl Se e'/xTrA/jjcro/iej' lav- the bad are put on a level in regard 

TOVS, yitxrat 7]fuv rb \fx9ef iriov r' of goodness and badness, or, if there be 

a.Keovr6 re Sityav. (II. x- 2.) any difference, the bad man is at one 

ical TTJ8' eiriffKftyai] Here begins a and the same time better and worse 

new elenchus. If the essence of good than the good. Here again a paradoxical 

and evil be pleasure and pain respectively, conclusion is shown to follow necessarily 

those who feel pleasure are better under from paradoxical premisses. 
all circumstances than those who feel 

498,0.] TOPTIAZ. Ill 

KAA. ElSov. 

498 /2. Ti Se'; vovv e^o^ra XvTrovfMevov /cat ^aipovra ; 
KAA. $*r)[JLL. 

. HoTtpoi Se /xaXXov ^aipoucrt /cat XuTrowrat, ot 

fj ol oi(f)pove<$ ; 

KAA. Ot/xat eytuye ou vroXv rt Sta<^epetv. 
5*/2. '^4XX' dpKtl Kal TOVTO. ev iro\fJL(o Se 17877 elSe? 
av&pa SeiXov ; 

KAA. U&is yap ov ; 

. Ti ovv ; airiovTtov T<OV TroXe/xtwv Trorepot crot 

jotaXXov ^atpetv, ot SetXot ^ ot d^Spetot ; 
E KAA. 'AjjL^orepot, e/xotye /xaXXov et Se /xif, TrapazrX^- 


5^/2. OvSeV Sta^epet. ^atpouo~t S' OUP /cat ot SetXot; 
KAA. ^(^dSpa ye. 

. Kat ot ci(f)pove<s, a>s eot/cei^. 
pocTLovTcov Se ot SetXot povov XvTroiWat ^ /cat 

c > * 

ot avopeioi ; 

KAA. MaXXof tcrw? ot SetXot. 
5"/2. '^Trtd^Toj^ S' ou /xaXXov 
KAA. V lo~co5. 

5*/2. OVKOVV XuTTOv^rat /xev /cat ^aipovcri /cat ot a<j>po- 
C ves /cat ot <j)povijj,oi, /cat ot SetXot /cat ot di'Spetot 
a)<s <ri> <>s, xaXXot' Se ot SetXot 


5*.f2. '^LXXa prjv ot ye ^pdvt/xot /cat d^Spetot ayaOoi, ot 
Se SetXot /cat a^po^es /ca/cot ; 


. napaTT\r)(TLa)<s apa yaipovcri /cat XvTroiWai ot 
dya^ot /cat ot /ca/cot ; 
KAA. $>7/xt.\r)o-ia)<s elorlv ayaOoi /cat /ca/cot ot 

IIAATf2NOS [493,0 

s /i / \ /* \ * 

ayauoi re Kat ot KaKot ; ^ /ecu ert 

KttKOt IO~IV Ot KttKOt ; 

"Hill. KAA. 3 A\\a JJ.OL A" OVK otS' o rt Xe'yets. 
372. OUK olcr^' ort rov? cxya^ovs dyaOwv ^? Tra- 
povcria etvau dya#ov?, /cafcou? Se KO.KU)V ; ra 8e ayada 
eivou ret? -Sovas, KOLKOL 8e ra? 

. OVKOVV rot? -^aipovcTL 7rdp(TTL TayaOd, at ^Somt, 

KAA. Hois a3 ov ; 

. OVKOVV dyaffwv irapovruv dyaOoi etcrtv ot x at/ " 

. Nat. 

. Tt 8e; rots cUaco/xeVots ou Trayaeo-rt TO, KOLKOL, at 
Xvvrat ; 

KAA. ndpe&TL. 

. KCLKUV Se ye irapova-iq. (f>r)s av eTi^at Ka/cov? E 

TOVS Ka/cov?. - ov/cert 

l Se 

apa ot a^ ^apoicrL, KaKo e ot av vt- 

(OVTCLi ; 

KAA. Ildvv ye. 

5*/2. Ot /xeV ye /xaXXov /xaXXov, ot S* TJTTOV TJTTOV, ot 
Se 7rapa7rXi7a"taJ9 Trapcnr\r)crL<i)<s ; 
KAA. Nai 

OVKOVV <j>r)<s / jrapaTr\r)crio)<s ^aipeLv Kat Xv7reto~^at 
Kat TOVS d(f>pova<s Kat TOVS SetXovs Kat 
di'Spetou?, ^ Kat fj.a\\ov ert rovs SetXovs ; 
KAA. ^Eycoye. 

^vXXdyto-at Si) Koivf) yaer* ejaov, rt ^t 
eK rw^ wjaoXoy^/AeVcov Kat St? yap rot Kat 

498. c. ^ /col Irt /j.a\\oi> ayaBol /col which the Ziir. edd. expelled from the 

Ka/cof eiVix ot Kaico/] The meaning of text. 

this is explained in the foregoing note. D. Kaxoiis Se /ca/fw?] Hirsch. unneces- 

But the reasoning was spoilt by the sarily inserts the article, reading rols 

copyists, who inserted ot ayadoi after KCLKOVS 5e wa/cwy. The art. is again omitted 

ayaBoi, writing thus: i) Kal tn /xaAAov in the following clause : Ka/cci Se ras di'tos. 
07060! 01 07080! Kal KO.KOI flfftv ol KO.KOI ; Kal Sis yap roi Kal rpis] Schol. 'EjUTre- 

Routh first perceived the interpolation, SoK\4ovs TO CTTOJ, acp' ou Kal r) irapoi/j.(a- 

499, B.] 


499 (fracrt, KO.\OV elvaL ret /caXd Xe'yew re /cat | eVtcr/co7retcr#ai. 


r yap ; 

'AyaOov uev elvat, TOV 

KAA. Nai 

372. KaKov Se TOV dfypova /cat SetXoi' ; 

KAA. Ildvv ye. 

272. 'Ayadov Se av TOI> yalpovTa ; 

KAA. Nai. 

372. KaKov Se TOZ> dvLcojAevov ; 

KAA. 'AvdyKt). 

272. '^t^tdcr^at Se /cat ^alptiv TOV dyaBov /cat KaKov 
6/xota>s, tcrws Se /cat /idXXo^ TOZ> KaKov ; 

KAA. Nai 

572. OVKOVV o/xotojs ylyverai /ca/co? /catdya^o? ra> 
J] dyaOq) f) /cat /xdXXov dya$os 6 /caKO9 ; ou ravra crv/x,)8at- 
vet /cat rd irpoTepa e/cetva, edi/ rt? ravrd <y i^Se'a re /cat 
dyadd eivai ; ov ravr' dvdyKf), a> KaXXt/cXet? ; 

LIV. KAA. ITdXat rot crou d/cpow/xat, w ^w/cpare?, 
KaOopoKoyoiv, evdvpovptvos OTL, KO.V 7rat<ui> rt? <rot ei'S&J 
ortow, TOUTOU dcr/xevo? e^et (ti&irep rd /xetpd/cta. as S>) 
cru otei e/xe ^ /cat dXXov OVTLVOVV dvBpanrdiv ov^ r)yeio~6ai 
rd? yutev ySeXrious rjoovds, rd? Se ^etpous. 

'lou tou, a> KaXXt/cXets, as Travovpyo? et, /cat 

fvunrfiv. The proverb is repeated, Phileb. 
59 E. Legg. 956 E, icoAbv T<{ 76 op0bi/ 
K-al 51 s Kal rpis. 

499 B. /c&r iroifoii'] Callicles is driven to 
the pretext that he was not speaking 
seriously when he affirmed the identity 
of good and pleasure. ' As if he did not 
know as well as any man that some plea- 
sures were better than others.' Contrast 
with this Phileb. 13 B, wws \eyeis, & 
'Siaxpa.Tfs ; olfet yap rii/a ffvy\(api]fff(T6a.i, 
Offjitvov riSovrtv flvai Ta.ya.86v, fl-ra avt- 
eff6ai ffov \fyovros ras /J.ev flvai rivas 
ayaBas riSovds, ras $f -rivas Irtpas av-riav 
/coas .- Of course, no consistent Hedo- 
nist would make such an admission. 
But Callicles was no philosopher, but a 
repeater by rote of dogmas which hap- 
pened to take his fancy, as furnishing a 
theoretical ground for his own practice. 
That practice was probably not so bad 
as his theory, which he accordingly lays 


aside as lightly as he had taken it up. 
The quickness with which he resumes 
the offensive after his defeat is a happy 
dramatic touch. Plato evidently intends 
to contrast his rhetorical address with 
the oiiSevia he displays as a dialectician. 
'lov too] Noted by Hesych. as a 
o"%tr \iaariKOv tirippr)fj.a. us rb <pev. 
Arist. Plut. 477, Ov 5e? ax^^^C^" Kal 
ftoav irpiv &j/ nd6ps. Kai ris Svvatr' av 
/j.)] fioav lov lov TOIOVT' aKOvcav ; Both 
in tragedy and comedy lov lov denote 
pain, sorrow, or indignation ; but in 
comedy sometimes agreeable surprise. 
Arist. Equit. 1091, lov lov. OVK ^v &p' 
oi>5els rov T\dvtSos ffo<p<artpos. Here 
the inter) . has its ordinary sense; Socr. 
protesting, or affecting to protest, against 
the ill-usage he has received from Call. 
This seems obvious, but Heind. says, 
" Mirantis magis sunt voculae quam in- 



[499, c 



/catTOt ov/c 

OUTCOS ej(tV, 

ye /car* 


Tore Se erepa)?, 
dpx<*s VTTO o~ou 

<j)i\ov vvv Se \ljv<rOr)v, /cat a>s eot/cev dvdyKTq /xot Kara TOI> 
TraXatov Xdyov TO irapov evjroteu' /cat TOUTO 8e^eo~^at TO 
StSd/aevov Trapa o-ov. eWt Se 817, w? eot/cev, o vi)^ Xeyet?, 
OTI i^Sovat Ttve'? eto~tv at /xet dya#at, at Se /ca/cat. ^ yap ; 

>' /3^ ^ * > J '\ N ^ c 

ayao'at /x,e^ at oxpeAtjaot, /ca/cat oe 


IlaVv ye. 
'/l^e'Xt/xot Se' ye at aya^ov Tt 7rotovo-at, /ca/cat 




Ta? TOtao-Se Xe'yet?, otov /caTa TO 
a? ^Of S^ eXeyo/xev e^ TW ea0iLv /cat Triveiv i^Sovas* et 
ctyoa TOUTWV at /xei' vytetav 7rotouo-ti> ei^ TOJ o"w/^taTt "^ 
i&Xyv rj aXX-^v Ttva dperrjv TOV crcoyaaTo?, avTat /xei^ dya- 
#at, at Se Tai^avTta TOVTCO^ /ca/cat ; 

JTdvu ye. 

OVKOVV /cat XvTrat &>o~avTw? at 
at Se TTov^pai ; 

KAA. Ua)9 yap ov ; 

OVKOVV TO.? Ltev rcrTa? /cat 

^pr)crTa eanis, E 

/cat Xv?ra5 

/cat apereov e'crrt /cat Trpa/CTe'ov ; 
KAA. Ildvv ye. 

C. T^TE /tej/ roDra (^ao-Kcoi/] The Bodl. 
with others gives TOTC ju< aS tydffKcav, 
If this is not a mere blunder, probably 
av has been transposed, and we should 
read TtJre 8' ai> trfptas. The Ziir. edd. 
with Stallb. follow the Bodl., but the 
meaning given by Stallb. is somewhat 
forced: "Respicit enim Socrates ad ea 
quae supra cap. xlvi. in. Callicli dixerat, 
ovSfiroTe ravra \tytts irfpl riav avrfov." 
Others give r6rt fj.fv TO avra or TOUTOI 


rb irapbv tv tToitiv} ' I must do the I can.' Generally eO riveffVai, as 
in" Lucian, Necyom. 21, rb irap'bv e5 
Ofptvos. But Legg. 959 E, rb Se irapbv 

SeTy e8 iroifiv. Olymp., 
ffr^fj-aivtrai, on, TO K T?)S 
nAfffiet. /j.d\tffTa Se TOVTO \4yerai 
(leg. ^r!) TUJJ/ Kv$ev6t>Ttav. iav ybp 
apiO/ubs viicrjT'fiptos itfffri, eti\ Se KaJ 
TfX"irr}s 6 Kv&ev<av, Oavnaarrjas vixa- el 
8e r) rt/x^ V-fv irapex 01 r & 8e|ia, 6 Se 
Sex^f * &Tex v s &>v ^ elSeir) XP^' 
aaaftai, ovSfv XP^^" a-vopalvet. In 
the first psirt of the scholium he alludes 
to the well-known ^iraprav eAa^es, rav- 

TO.V K6(T/J.l. 

D. et &pa iriiovtriv] The old reading 
was iroiovtrai. iroiovaiv was adopted by 
Bekk. from four MSS. 

500, B.] 


Ta<s Se irovrjpds ov ; 
KAA. ArjXov Stj. 

EveKa ydp TTOV T(OV dyaOtov 
elvaL, et /xi^/u.oi'evei?, e/xot TC /cat ITcuXw. apa 
/cat o~ol o~wSo/cet ovY<y, TeXo? eu'at d7rao"aii> TCUI> npa^ecov 
TO dya66v, /cat e/cet^ov eW/cei> Seti/ irdvra TaXXa Trpdr- 
500 Teo~0ai, dXX' ov/c e/ceti'O | TO>*> aXXaw ; crv/x^/r^os r^\^lv el 
/cat <rv e'/c rplr^v : 
KAA. *Eya)ye. 

2ft,. TMV dyaOotv dpa eVe/ca Set /cat TaXXa /cat TO. 
^Se'a TrpdrTeiv, dXX' ov Taya0d TWV rjoeaiv. 
KAA. Ildi>v ye. 

2fi. ^Ap* ovv Travrb? dt'Spd? ecmv e/cXe'^acr^at Trota 
dyaOd TMV r)$ea)i> eo~Tt /cat 6?rota /ca/cd, ^ Te^vtKoO Set et? 



LV. 5*/2. 'Ava{j,vyjo~6a>fJiev or) 

/cat Topyiav ervy^avov Xeywz/. eXeyov yap> et 
p, /xovevet?, oTt elev 7ra/5ao~/ceval at /xev /-te^pt T^SovrJ?, avTO 
TOVTO fJiovov 7rapao~/ceuaouo~ai, dyt'oouo'at Se TO fieXnov 
/cat TO ^tipov, at Se yiyvaxTKOvcrai o Tt re dya.6ov /cat 
o Tt KO.KOV /cat Iridrjv TMV ^ev irepl TO,? 1780^0.5 TT)^ 
fj.ayLpi.Kr)v e/x7retptav, dXX' ov re^v^v, TWV Se Trept TO dya- 
T^r iaTptKrjv ri^yt]v. /cat vrpos ^tXtov, ai KaXXt/cXei?, 
avrbs otov Setf Trpo<s e/xe Trat^etv ^170' o Tt at* 

K. C/UO1 

rf /cat riajAy 
roO d-yaSov 

See p. 468 B, 
airaj'TO raGra 

B. Sri tlfv irapa(TKeuai] "qu'il y a 
certaines industries," Cousin. 

noiovffiv ol troiovvres <?7;ui. We must is a general term, including true rex"o.t, 
know, says Olymp., that good is not a and those empirical contrivances which 
means but an end : Icrrfov OTI rb ayaBbv pretend to be Tf^rai but are not. The 

OUK fffrtv fvtKO. rov a\\a ov 
p.fv yap TOV fffr'tf TJ dSbs ri &youcra tirl 
rb TtAox- 06 Se fVe/ca aiirb rb rt\os. 
The episodical fight with Call, is now 

definition of a -T\VI\ is, a process or 
industry " whicli aims at good. 

Aristotle : 

era TeYfT; a j 
The false ^ri\va.i 


Tivoj espif- 
on the 

at an end, and Socr. brings the dis- contraTy^ limit their aim to pleasure, 

cussion round again to the topics pre- irpbs <t>i\iovl sc. At6s. Phaedr. 234 

viously under consideration. E. WuqiliiuL in comedy; as Diodorus 

500. e/tTpfrwj/] 'in the third place,' ap. Athen. vi. 239 B, & Zeus o <pi\ios, 

' of the tmrd mrt. J lue same peri- 'O TWV OiSiv /j.tyt<rTos 6fio\oyovfj.i'<os. 

phrasis^occurs, Kur. uresL. 11?8, uwiij- Call, had professed a friendship for 

pioy <ro\ ripSe T 1 ec TptTOJj' T" ejuof. Also Socr. : Trp6s fff eiridKvs f\a> tpi\tK(as, 

Symp. 213 B. In Timaeus 54 A, we have 485 B. 
fK rpirov in the same sense. 

i 2 



[500, B 

irapa TO. ooKovvTa dnoKpivov, /AT^T' av ra Trap e/iov OUTO>? 
a.7To8e^ov cos irai&vTos' 6pa$ yap on Trepl TOVTOV eio~iv 
T7/X.M' ot Xoyot, ov rt av jaaXXov cmrouSacreie rts /cat 
vow e^wi' avOpaiTTos, fj TOVTO, ovTiva XP*) Tpoirov 
TfOTepov eTrt ov o~v Trapa/caXets e/xe, TO, TOV dvopo<s or) 
ravra TrpaTTovTa, \eyovTa re ev TOJ orjp.a> Kal prjTopLKrjv 

VVV TTO\LTeveO-0e, f) [eTu] ToVSe TOV fiiOV TOV eV <f)i\OO-0(f)La, 
Ti TfOT O~Tlv OV7OS K6LVOV OLa<f>p<t)V. t(7Ct>5 OVV 

fif.\T(.o~Tov ecrrtv, a)? apTi l-yco eire^eLprjo'a, 
5teXoju,eVous Se /cat 6/xoXoy>fcravra5 aXXi^Xot?, et ecrrt D 
TOVTO) StTT&j TO) )8toj, cr/cei//a<T#ai rt re Sta^eperov aXX^- 
Xou> /cat onoTepov fiuuTtov avTolv. urtos ou^ OUTT&) otaBa 
rt Xeyw. 

Ov S^jra. 

. \4XX' eya> crot o~a<f>eo~Tpov e/ow. eTreiS?) w/zoXoy^- 
eyw re /cat eru etvat /xei' rt dyadov, etvat Se rt i^Su, 
Se TO 178 v rou dya$ov, e/carepou 8e avTolv 


T"^-'r fiif"" "-- 
the Schema. ^Pind 

c. dpasyap 8rt] ' The subject of our 
discussion^ you perceive, is one which 
cannot fail to be most interesting to a 
man of even ordinary intelligence, the 
question being, after what manner we 
ought to live : whether in that to which 
you invite me, in doing man's work, as 
you call it, speaking in the assembly, 
and practising rhetoric, and playing a 
part in politics on the principles now in 
vogue with you politicians; or,' &c. 
(nrov^dtreie is opposed to the foregoing 
*ofur. In the next clause eiri, which 
Hirsch. brackets, is found in all the 
MSS. It is evidently better absent 
irdrepov TOVTOV or ttttivov Tbv fiiov <=<>' 
bv ffv'is ^ue (5e? fjv) t) r6ifSe 
Tbv eV <pi\offo(f>lq.. If retained, we can 
only suppose a confusion of thought pro- 
duced by the foregoing Trapa/caA.eis, from 
which 7ropa/c\TjTe'of may be " under- 
stood." But this would surely be bad 
rather than colloquial writing; and it 
is equally easy to presume a confusion 
on the part of the copyist. In TO TOV 
avSpbs S^i TO.VTO, lies an allusion to the 
invective of Callicles, p. 485 ; 8^, as 
usual, denoting that the sentiment is 
not that of Socr. but of his opponent. 
So the Schol., 6 Sr; efj.<pavTiKbs 



D. el "- 

instance of the Schema. ^Pindaricum of 
the grammarians, the aual however 
taking the place of the plural. This 
construction, we are told, is in Attic 
admissible only when a substantive verb, 
as to-Ti or y'tyveTcu, stands at the begin- 
ning of a clause. Euthjid 368 c, e<rrt 
yap_[j.oiyf KOJ gegjitof. Soph. Trach. 520, 
fivjo' au(piTr\fKToi K\i/jia.ites. Aristoph. 


eK (j^opjuSos Ao'SAca 
BewfJLfvois. In these cases ecrri answers 
to the Germ, es giebt, or Fr. il y a or il 
est with plur. Here however eori is 
apparently the copula, of which T<O Rita 
is the subj. and SITTW the predicate, and 
this seems to distinguish the case from 
those quoted in the ordinary grammars. 
' If these lives are really two,' i. e. 
diverse and opposite. Stephen, following 
the Aldine, omitted the article Tea in his 
text. If we could adopt this reading in 
defiance of the MSS., the passage would 
fall under ordinary rules, and we might 
translate : ' If there really exists such a 
pair of lives as that supposed, let us see 
how they differ/ &c. 

eKdTfov Se af'TOiV ' and that a cer- 

501, A.] 


\ 9 \ 

nva twai /cat 

TTJ<S /cr^orews, TV (JLCV rov 
E i^Seos Orfpav, rrjv Se rov ayaOov avro Se /x,ot rovro 
irpwrov rj crvp.<f)a6i, fj JJLTJ- (rvjjufrrjs ; 
KAA. Ovrai (f>7)p.L 

LVI. 572. "I0i Sry, a /cat Trpos roucrSe eyoj eXeyop 
StOju,oXoy77<Tat /aot, et dpa crot eSofa Tore 01X17 #77 Xe'yeti>. 
eXeyov 8e irov ort 17 peis oi/fOTrott/a) ov JJLOL So/cet 

501 eu'at dXX' e/A7retpta, 17 8' iarpwij, \y(ov ort | 17 /xev rovrov 
ov Beparrevei /cat rrp ^>vcrtv ecr/ceTrrat /cat TT)V air Lav wv 
Tr/adrret, /cat Aoyoi> cx t TOI ^ rwit/ c/cdfrTov Sou^at, 17 ta- 
y* 17 S' erepa rrjs rjoovfjs, TT/JO? ^v 17 Oepaneia avrfj 

tain study and preparation go to the 
acquisition of either.' The next clause, 
T^j/ jUi/ ToC ayaOov, is bracketed by 
Hirsch. as suspicious. But there is dra- 
matic propriety in the iteration. 

E. ff avfj.<padi f/ /ji-fi- (rv/i<f)rjs;] Formerly 
the edd. gave ^ ffv/j.<t>aOi 3\ ^ O-U/U^TJS. 
Heind. first pointed out the solecism 
UTI prohib. with the subj. present. It 
is a question whether this <ru^^>py was 
not originally an ' interpretamentum.' 
Heind. quotes Charm. 29, f-rep&v fffrt 
rb jSopu re xal rb novtyov rrjs trrariKris 
auTjjs- f vyxvp^s ' But we nowhere 
meet with such interrogative clause 
after the formula ij <po0t ^ fvfi, ' say yes 
or no,' of which the present is a variety. 

I \fyov Se irou] ' I said, I believe, that 
cookery is in my view no art, but an 
expertness unlike medicine, which is 
an art arguing that the lattr has ex- 
plored the nature of the subject she has 
to treat, as well as the causes of the 
treatment she adopts, and that she, 
medicine, can give a reasonable account 
of both : whereas her rival, even in regard 
of that pleasure which she exclusively 
cultivates, goes to work in a tho- 
roughly inartistic manner, having never 
studied either the nature of pleasure or 
its cause, and without a pretence of 
reason, without any attempt, one may 
say, at classification the creature of 
routine and practice she is content with 
keeping record of what usually comes to 
pass, whereby in fact she is enabled to 
provide her various pleasures.' The 
sentence is irregularly constructed. In 
the clause, fi 8' er4pa TTJS T/Soj/fjs, the 
genitive is out of construction, its con- 
nexion with <pv<nv being interrupted by 

the words Ko/j.t5rj epxfrai. This two 
codd. seek to rectify by repeating ft, 
j\ 8' erepa, fy TTJS ^Sovrjs, but we thus 
lose the correspondence with the anti- 
thetic clause, r) fnev rovrov, which is 
important, rhetorically speaking. In the 
sequel rpi^ Kal epirfipta are in the 
nature of epithets rather than of pre- 
dicates, depending with the participles 
aKety. SiaptOfj.. upon the finite verb epxe- 
rai. ffwonevri, on the other hand, 
belongs rather to rpi/3)i Kal euireipia, as 
if he had said rpi/}^ ovcra /cot tfiirftpia, 

refers to rov elte96Tos yiyvtaQai, ouSev 
SiapifyirjcrafieVTj in the next clause being 
only a development of a\6yu>s. Rational 
sciences count and classify their subject- 
matter, as medicine counts and classifies 
the diseases of the body. In the Phae- 
drus, Socr. proposes a scheme of rational 
rhetoric, which shall undertake Stapid- 
fj.firr6ai (Lat. dinumerare) ras (pvffeis rS>v 
a.KOvffOfJ.ev<av . . . Kal Kar' efSr] StaipetffOai, 
according to the analogy of that rational 
(as opposed to empirical) medicine, of 
which Hippocrates and the Coau school 
were the founders. See Phaedr. 270 
273. The popular rhetoric, here com- 
pared to cookery, is in the Phaedrus 
illustrated by the analogy of medical 
quackery, p. 268 A c, where see the notes. 
The subordination of the arts and sciences 
to an ethical law is peculiar to the 
Gorgias. The empiric looks only to 
pleasure, the true artist extends his 
view to the useful and the good : a dis- 
tinction which is put in the background 
in the Phaedrus, where the form of 
science is in question rather than its 
practical tendency. 



[501, A 

airacra., Ko/xt are^vox; TT avTrjv e/o^erat, ovre rt 
<j)vorw o-/cex//a/AeVi? 7779 1780^9 oure rr)z> amcu>, dXdyws 
re TravTaTracriv, a>s ITTO? elirelv, ouSe> 
rpt/Br) /cat e/ATretpta, p.vTJfJL'rjv {JLOVOV 
TO9 ytyveo~$at, w ST) /cat Tropt^erat rd? 7780^01$. ravr* ovv B 

cr/coTret et So/cet croc t/cava>s Xeye<r0ai, /cat eivat 
/cat 7T/3t ^v^i> rotaurat aXXat Trpay/xaretat, at /^ef 
re^vt/cat, Trpo/xT^eidV Tti/a e^ovorat TOU fieXricrTov irepl 
rrjv ^iv^v, at Se rovrou juei/ oXtywpovcrat, eV/ce/x/u.eVat 
S' au, axnrep e/cet, riyt' 1780^1)^ [JLOVOV rfjs T//U^S, rtt'a ai/ 
rponov yiyvoiro, T^rtg 8e r) ySeXrta)^ ^ ^etpcov TWI^ 
ovre (TKOTrov/JLevai, ovre /xeXot' avrat? aXXo 17 

povov, etre ySeXrtov etre ^elpov. e/xot /xei> yap, c 
a) KaXXt/cXet?, So/covert re et^at, /cat eywye (frrjjju, TO rotovToi/ 
/coXa/cetai' et^at /cat Trept o~ai/xa /cat Trept ^JV^TJV /cat vrept 
aXXo orou av rt9 TT)V 7)801^^ BepaTrevr) ao"/ce7rro)9 e^wt' row 
re /cat rov ^etpo^os' crv 8e ST) irorepov o~vy/caTa- 

irepl TOVT<DV [rrjv avrrjv So^av] ^ a^rt^? ; 
KAA, OVK eywye, dXXa crvy^copw, tVa o~ot /cat TTC- 
y 6 Xoyo? /cat Popyia rwSe ^apto"<u/xat. 

JTdrepov 8e Trept /xe^ /xtav ipv^v eo"rt rovro, Trept D 
8e Svo /cat TToXXa? ou/c ecrrtv ; 

KAA. OVK, dXXa /cat Trept Suo /cat Trept TroXXag. 
OVKOVV /cat d^pdat? a/xa ^apt^eo~^at ecrrt 


ffvyKa.ra.rlQtra.i ras Toiavras tya.vTo.aia.'i, 
as parallel to the present passage, but the 
quotation is not accurate, as (pavracrias 
1. 1. depends upon ' approbare,' not on 
ffvyKaTariOerat, which belongs to a 
subsequent clause. In Isaeus 59, 25, 
a-vyKaraOfffOai has the sense ' una depo- 
nere,' scil. ypa/*/j.a,Tf'ioi> irapd Ty. But 
this does not support the present read- 
ing. In one MS. we find r^v avr^v 56av 
ex , and this suggests the suspicion that 
TV niir^c 56av *x eis may have been 
an old marginal gloss on <rvyKa.Taridfffai. 
OVK ey<aye~\ Compare note to 453 D. 
We have the same use of the negative 
in the next pyffis but one. 

KAA. OT/xat eycuye. 

501 B. Trpa-yAtttTeratl Equiv. to itapa- 
(naval, 5CKT^, ' operations/'modes of 
procedure/ or simpTy^occupatTons". r Pre- 
sently we have eiriT-f]Sev(ns in the same 

C. trvyKararideffai TTJJ/ OUT^J' S^la//] 
This is an uncominon usage, (ru7caToTi- 
^e/it being generally put absolutely, or 
with a dative. It is very doubtful 
whether i/>7J(oj' is ever to be supplied, as 
the Lexx. suggest. The Greeks do not 
say KoTa0r0cu tyrifyoi', but Offfdat. Here, 
according to the Schol., the phrase = 
trwy^copeis TO OUTO Topyitf. Kal Tlca\ciJ. 
Hesych., KaraOe<r0ac ffvva.ivtaa.i. Rost 
and Palm quote A. Gellius, N. A. xix. 1, 

502, A.] 




at eVtT?}- 

Sevcrets at TOUTO Trotovcrat ; MaXXov Se', ei ySovXet, e/aoi) 

epwToWog, r) av o~ot 80/07 TOVTOJ^ elvat, <a$t, fj S' ai> 

E ^17', /XT) <d#t. rrpoirov Se <r/cei//a;/xe^a TT)^ avXrjTLKtjv. ov 

So/cet crot Totaim? TIS eu/at, &> .KaXXi/cXet?, 

10)KIV, aXXo 8* OvSeV <f)pOVTL^,iV 

KAA. *E/xotye So/cet. 

OVKOVV KOL at rotatSe avracrat, 



f] KiOapi- 
Iv Tot9 dyoicrti' ; 


Ti Se r\ TIOV ^oputv StSao"/caXta /cat 17 rcav St0u- 
ov TotauT?? TIS o~ot /caTa^au'erat ; 77 "^yet 
Kivqa-iav rov Me'Xr^Tos, oVws epet Tt TOIOVTOV 
av ot a/couo^Tes /SeXTtov? ylyvoivro, \ rj o TI 

KAA. ^JT^Xof Sr) TOVTO ye, a> ^aj/cpaTe?, Kivrjcriov ye 
./2. Tt Se 6 Trarrjp avrov Me'Xr^g ; 7^ Trpo? TO / 
O~TOV fi\TT<i)v eSo/cet crot /ct&xpwSeti' ; -^ e/cet^o? /xeV ovSe 

E. rV auATiTiK^v] ' Auletic ' was one 
of Plato's favourite aversions. Rep. 
399 D, W 8; ai>Aoirooi;s ^ auAT/ras 
7ropa5e'| is rV ir6\n> ; t) oil TOVTO 
Tro\vxopS6raTov, /col OUTO TO. iravapfj.6via, 
av\ov rvyxdvei uvra /ui^tTJ/uora ; This 
illustrates a difficult passage in Philebus 
56, where the reading avATjri/c^j is not to 
be disturbed. The flute was used in 
religious ceremonies of an exciting and 
impassioned kind, such as the orgiastic 
rites of Bacchus and Cybele. It was 
probably from the associations thus sug- 
gested that it derived its ill name; for 
we must not forget, in estimating the 
reasonableness of the prejudice, that the 
dramas of Sophocles and Aeschylus were 
accompanied by the flute. 

rj KtdapiffTiKi) TI ev Tins ayeacriv^ The 
latter words are emphatic, as the Schol. 
has correctly observed : av\riTiKi]v pey 
traffav e/c|3aAAei TUV opOwv iroXiTeiiav, 
KiOapUTTiK^v of oil Traaav, aAAa T$)J/ ec 

<rwfiv Tas iro\irtlas vevopiKtv. He refers 
to Rep. 1. 1., \vpa S'fi ffoi Ka\ KiBdpa 
Xeiirerai, KOI Kara iro\iv xpr)ffifMa. In 
fact all the fine arts, rhetoric included, 
are allowed in the Platonic state, but in 
subordination to the educational pur- 

poses for which civil society is supposed 
to exist. The citharistic practised in the 
musical contests seemed to Plato an 
aimless exhibition of manual skill, and 
therefore an &\oyos rpijS^, "rb ^vfji^xavov 
apfjLOTTOvffa ov nfrpcp a\\a /*f\frris O~TO- 
Xaa-pif" "by rule of thumb," as we 
should say (Phileb. 1. 1.). 

Ktrgo'tay T^I>__MA^TOS^| Cinesias is 
mercilessly ridiculed by Aristophanes 
for the wildness and incoherency of his 
dithyrambic effusions : Ran. 153, where 
see Schol., ib. 366. Nub. 333. Av. 1379, 
&c. The hearty assent of Callicles to the 
censure in the text seems to prove that 
Plato and Aristophanes represented the 
general opinion in regard of this poet. 

502. Tl Se 6 Trarfyp avTov MeA.rjs] 
Pherecrates, Com. ap. Schol. Arist. Av. 
858, 4>f'p' %5w, KiQapfuobs TS naKiffTos 
tytvfTO ; 'O Tletffiov MeArjy. /uera Se 
MeAT/ra -rls ; "Ex' arpeju', 4yySa, Xatpts. 
Presently ^Kelvos this last, as in Phaedr. 
231 C, Sffeav kv vffTfpov tpo<rtftD(jjv, 
fKtivovi av-rSiv irtpl irteiovos troiii<rovrai, 
where see the note. 

irpbs Tb $\TI<TTOV &\tirtav~] One MS. 
omits &\eiruv, which Hirsch. brackets. 
Though not needed, the participle seems 
to me innocuous. 



[502, A 

77005 TO TytcrTov ; "nva yap acot* rovs 0eaTas. dXXa 017 
tr/coVei* ou^l 17 re /ct^a/xwSt/o) 8o/cet o~ot iracra /cat 17 raii> 
$L6vpd[Ji/3(ov TToirjcris 1780^779 yapw evpTJcrBai ; 

KAA. "Epoiye. 

372. Tt Se ST) 17 (refjivr) avrirj /cat BavpacrTi], 17 TTJS B 

ecr7rou8a/ce ; iroTeov I<TTLV 

TO eVtxet/3>7/aa /cat 17 0-^0^817, a>s crot So/cet, 
,60-00.1 Tot? 0eaTats JJLOVOV, r) /cat Sta/xa^eo-^at, e'dV Tt 
avTots ^Sv /u,ei> 77 /cat Ke^apicr^evoi', Trovrjpov Se, 
TOUTO /xev /a^ epet, et Se Tt Tvy^dvei a/iySe? Kat 
TOVTO Se /cat Xe^et /cat acreTat, ea^ TC ^aipcocnv edv re ysr\ ; 
CTOL 8o/cet Trapeo-KevaaOan, 17 

KAA. AT)\OV 8^ TOVTO ye, eu ^w/c/aaTe?, oTt -n-pos 

jaaXXov o^p^ran /cat TO ^api^ecrBaL Tot? ^eaTat?. 

OVKOVV TO TOtouTov, a) KaXXt/cXets, efiajAev vvv ST) 
/coXa/cetav eivai. 
KAA. Tldw ye. 

2fl. $epe Sry, et Tts Trepte'XotTo T^? Trotr^crews Trao-^s 
TO TC jaeXos /cat TOV pvOpov /cat TO fjierpov, aXXo Tt Xoyot 
yiyvovrai TO 

B. Tf 5e 8^ ^ fff/J.vr) e^' ^> o"7rouSa/C] 
The order is : rf 8e 8^ (fffnv iKelvd) 
e<p' ^ eerTrouSa/cef r) fretiv)) Kal 6. ' What 
of tftat grave and august personage, 
Tragedy what, I say, is the object of 
Aer ambition ? ' The repetition of rj is 
thus illustrated by Stallb. : " E vulgar! 
ratione dicenduni erat : ri Se 8)j rj ffefjiv^ 
auTTj KO.I Oav/j-currr] iron/ens, TJ rfjs rpaytfi- 
Slas ; sc. iroit)(ns. Sed eodem modo 
Herod, vii. 196 : 6 vavrutbs 6 -rSiv /3ap- 
pdpcav ffTpar6s. Plat. Symp. 213 E, rV 


&c. The censure which follows is too 
sweeping even from Plato's point of 
view, for Euripides at any rate aimed at 
a moral purpose of one sort or other, and 
sacrificed to his zeal as an instructor much 
of the popularity and much also of the 
poetical beauty of his plays. As a 
criticism on Sophocles and Aeschylus it 
is, to modern apprehension, still more 
deplorable. Compare, or rather con- 
trast Phaedrus 268 c, a passage which 

>er- . 

r it | 
ies. j 

proves that Plato had a thorough per- 
ception of poetic excellence, whenever 
suited him to forget his political theories, 

el tie ri Tvjxavfi ciKpe^/j.oi'^ On 
the omission of the participle see note 
to Phaedrus 263 D. Hirsch., as usual, 
inserts ov after oxpeKifiov. 

Kal \eti Kal ^trerat] ' he will intro- 
duce both in dialogue and in song.' 

C. et TIS TreptfAotTo] ' if we strip any 
kind of poetry of melody, rhythm, and 
metre, the residue consists of speeches, 
does it not ? 'where ylyvovral agrees 
with the predicate, as freq. in Plato. 
All the MSS. but one have &\\o TI tf, 
but this is a case in which the con- 
junction is better omitted. This follows 
from the answer of Callicles not ovStv 
&\\o, but avayK-fi. For irepie\oiro the 
Schol. gives irepie\oi, and so Ar. Rhet. in 
a passage copied from this : el TIS TTJS 

pvOfjiAv, SijjUT/'yopia S^j rJ> \eiir6fj.fv6v effTiv, 
Or. Plat. ii. p. 278. But Ast quotes 

502, E.] rorriAS. 121 


372. OVKOVV 7T/30S TTO\VV O^koU Kal Sr^Ol/ OVTOl Xe'- 

yovrai ot Xoyot. 
KAA. $r)p.C. 

372. At] p.r)yopia dpa Tts Icnw rj TTOITJTIKT]. 
KAA. Waiver 0.1. 

D 372. OVKOVV prjTOpLKr) S^/A^yo^ota av eifj. rj ov 
peveiv So/covert o~ot ot Trotryral eV rots 0aVyoot<j ; 
KAA. *E/xotye. 
372. JVvV d^oa i^/xet? ev/o^/ca/xev prjTOpiKTjv TWO, 

TOtovYo*> olov TratSoov re OJAOV KCU yvvaiKtov /cat 
, Kal SovXaw /cat ekevdepw, f)v ov irdvv dya/ 
KO\a.Kt,Kr)v yap CLVTTJV <j)ap.6v elvai. 
KAA. IIdi>v ye. 

LVIII. 2^/2. Etev. rt Se rj irpbs TOV 
E STJ/XOI/ p-rjTopiKr) /cat rovs aXXovs rows et' rat? TroXecrt 817- 

/LtOVS TOVS TWJ/ \V0p(i)V dvOpa>V, Tt 7TOT6 T^/Xtt' aVT^ CCTTt ; 

irorepov crot So/covert TT/DO? TO ySeXrtcrroi' del Xeyetv ot 
p-rjropes, TOVTOV crTo^a^o/ae^ot OTTCOS ot TroXtrat ag ySe'X- 
rto~rot ecrovTaL Sta rovs avroiv Xdyov?, ^ /cat ourot TTyoo? 
TO ^apii^ecrBaL Tot? TroXtTat? o^p^^dvoi, Kal eVe/ca TOU 
tStov TOV avTwv 6Xtyo)pov^Te9 TOV /coti'ov, cocnrep vratcrt 

Xen. Cyr. viii. 1. 47, rJ> ^ev irfpie\e(rOai one we are far from admiring.' It follows 

ai'Tajj' ra SirAa Kal airo\ffj.ovs iroi^(roi from this that there was no restriction 

aTreSoKificurf. of age or sex in the admission to tragic 

D. ^ ou faropefaiv 8o/coC(rt] Probably spectacles. From the Laws, p. 658 D, 

this was more true of the tragic poets of we should infer that ' big boys ' were 

the fourth than of the fifth century, allowed to witness comedies; but that 

But the rhetorical tendency of Euripides women were excluded seems to follow 

is proverbial, and even in Sophocles there from the classification of the audience in 

is much which seems to us to need Arist. Pax 50, which includes only males. 
apology on this score. But Socr. means KOA.OCICJKV yap OMTI\V <j>afjiei> eli/ac] 

the proposition to be absolute, in which Tragedy, says the Schol., is a Ko\aKfia, 

case it becomes untrue; for 'persuasion' because it utters moral sentiments, and 

is not the end of tragic poetry as of talks largely of justice, beauty, and good- 

rhetoric. Nor indeed is ' pleasure ' the ness. Stript of its metres, it is a 677/1*77- 

end, but rather a condition of its excel- yopia, for both are provocative of violent 

lence. In the Laws the ' truest tragedy ' emotions (waBuy virep^a\\6vro>v KIVI\- 

is said to be the ' imitation of the noblest n/cal a/japorfpat). Cornp. Isocr. Evag. 

and best life ' (817 B). p. 191, fy yap ns TVV iroirip.a.ruv -rSiv 

Nw apa T^juelj] ' So now between us tv5oKifnovvr<av ra /tev ov6f*ara Kal Toy 

we have discovered a species of rhetoric Stavoias Kara\lirr), rb Se /uerpoj/ Sia\vffp, 

which addresses itself to a concourse of tpav^fftrai iro\v KaTaSftcrrtpa TT^S 

people comprising men, women, and %i/ vvv e j xM e ' / lrf p^ &VTUV. 
children, both bond and free, and it is 



[502, E 

rots Sr^uot?, 
el Se ye ySeXrtovs eaovTai rf 




KAA. Ov% OLTT\OVV ert TOUTO e/owTas' eta! /aeV yd/> ot 503 

raiv TroXtToiz' Xe'youcrtz> a Xeyovcrt?, eto"t Se 
otovs crv Xeyetg. 

5*/2. 'E^ayo/cet. el yap /cat roGro ecrrt StTrXow, TO 
erepov TTOV TOVTOV /coXa/ceta av elvj /cat atcr^pa 
TO 8* erepov /caXoV, TO Trayoacr/cevd^ew 6V&>9 w? 


Kat e 

\eyovroL TO, fie\Ti<jTa., eire ^Stw etre arjBea-repa ecrrai Tots 
a./covovo"tv. dXX' ou TTWTTOTe o~u Tavrrjv etSe? TT)V prjTo- 
pLKT/jv fj el nva e^ets TWZ/ prjTopcov TOLOVTOV etTretv, Tt 
^t /cat e/xot avrov e^>pacra Tt9 eo~Tti/ ; 
KAA. *A\\a fj.a A'C OVK e^w eywye o~ot etTreti^ TWI^ ye 


Tt Se ; TWV TraXatajv e^ets Ttm etrreti' St' OVTUHL 
* AO^vaioi /3eXTtou? yeyovevai, eireiSr) e'/cetws 

, ev TO> irpocrOe 
ya/j ov/c otSa Tts e'o~Ttv OVTO?. 



503. Oux aTAoGc ert TOVTO ^pa>Tay] 
' To this question the answer is not 
single as hitherto : there are speakers 
who in what they say have a due regard 
to the good of their fellow-citizens ; and 
there are also speakers such as you de- 
scribe.' Early edd. have TOUTO & e'pcoT^s, 
which Bekk. following Heind. corrected 
from two MSS. The abbreviated con- 
struction is neater, and of constant oc- 
currence. Phileb. 29 C, TOUTO p.\v ov5' 
airoKpiffftas &iov fpuTqs. 

fl yhp Kal Tovr6 effri 5nr\ovv] 'If 
even this is double;' i.e. if rhetoric also 
has two aspects, like that of which it is 
a part. Socr. is thinking of his own 
frequent " dichotomies," especially of 
that which occurs in this dialogue, 464 
B, where sophistic and rhetoric divide 
between them the psychical branch of 
KoAa/ah-7). He does not absolutely deny 
that there is a sound and good rhetoric, 
but leaves the onus probandi to Callicles, 
who owns that he knows not where to 
look for such a rhetoric among the politi- 
cians of the day, but reminds Socr. of the 
four great statesmen of the past. This 

gives occasion to Plato's celebrated attack 
on the ' Quatuorviri,' which called forth 
the elaborate apology of Aristides Rhetor. 

B. T( oi>xi e^pao^os] Equiv. to 1 
typ&aov '6 n rd-^iffTo. o\>x kv <j>9dvois 
<j>p<ifav , Menex. 236 c, ri oftv ov Sirj\0fs; 
Eur. Heracl. 804, K&irtiT* Z\ffv, & 
a-rpar-fiy' oy 'ApyrfOec "H:ets, rl T^vSe 
ycua.v ovKela.ffa.ptv ; where see Elmsley's 
note. Here transl. ' Pray lose no time 
in telling his name.' Kal fyoi, 'that I 
may know as well as you.' Lat. ' Quin 
mihi ctiam quis sit iudicas ? ' 

"AAAo /u.a At' OVK exw] Aristophanes 
makes a similar complaint : 'H ^rj^aytayia 
yap ov irpbs p-ovcriKov "ET" tffrlv avSpbs 
ovSe \pt](frov TOVS rpoirovs, 'AA.A.' els 
aftaOri Kal /35eAupdV, Eq. 191. Comp. 
Pax 680. 

T/Se'; TWC tra\aiu>v K.T.X.] ' Well, and 
of the statesmen of the old time, is there 
one you can name, by whom the Athe- 
nians are alleged to have been made 
better ; the improvement dating from 
his first appearance on tHeTbema, before 
which they were worse than they after- 
wards became ? ' 

503, D.] 


KAA. Tt Se' ; @fjiicrTOK\ea OVK d/couets dVS/aa dyadov 
yeyofora /cat Kipuva /cat MtXTtdST^v /cat UeyDt/cXe'a Touro^t 
rov rewcrrt TeTeXeuT77/cora, ov /cat o~u d/C77/coa5 ; 

5*/2. l2t eo~Tt ye, a> KaXXt/cXet?, 77^ rrpoTepov cru eXeyes 
>7^, 0X77 #77?, TO Tc\5 e7ri#u/u,tas dTTOTTt/ATrXdVat /cat TO,? 
/cat TO,? TOJI> d'XXeoi'* et Se /XT) TOVTO, dXX' oVep eV T< 
Xoycw r)vayKd(T0r)tJiev 77/xets 6/xoXoyeu>, on at /xe> 
Jv[jLia)v rrXrjpovjJLevai /JeXTta> vrotovcrt TCW dvOpanrov, 
D TavTas /u,eV a7roTeXeu>, at Se yzipo), /XT^- TOUTO Se Ttyyi) TIS 
et^ar TotovTot> dv'opa. TOVTUV nvd yeyovzvau e^et? etrretv ; 
KAA. OVK e^ct) eycoye Trais 

naeus pounces upon this as a gross ana- 
chronism. He argues (v. 217 D) that if 
Archelaus is reigning at this time (supra, 
470 D), Pericles has been long dead ; and 
vice versn, that if Pericles is hut re- 
cently dead, Archelaus is not yet seated 
on the throne. Casaubon attempts to 
get out of the dilemma by insisting 
(valeat quantum) that the death of 
Pericles was comparatively recent 're- 
spectu superiorum.' But two times are 
pretty distinctly indicated in the dia- 
logue (compare sup. 473 E), and the 
liberty taken is by no means so great as 
in the Menexenus, where an event is 
alluded to which notoriously occurred 
thirteen years after the death of Socr. 
Nothing can be more true than the 
remark of Athenaeus, on iro\A.a 6 n\d- 
Ttav irapa robs xpovovs a/j.aprdi'ei, nor 
any thing idler than his abuse of Plato 
on this account. 

t 5e /*}) roDro ^j] This passage 
loses its difficulty if we suppose dper^ 
dA.7i0^s tarty repeated after at 5e x e ^P (a ' 
/j.ri. ' But if this is not so, but that is 
true which we were forced to acknowledge 
later in the discussion, viz. that the ful- 
filment of those desires which we are the 
better for indulging, and the restraint of 
those which make us worse, is true virtue/ 
In the next clause, whether we read TOVTO 
with the Bodl. or rovrov with the vulg., 
an apparent breach of syntax remains : 
Tf'X.vr] TIS for -T-)(y-f\v nvd. Hence Ast 
ingeniously proposed TOVTO 8e rex^s 
elvai. He now assents to Stallb., who 
conceives Plato to have written as if for 
the preceding j]va.yK<iff6-n^ev ri/j.f'is 6/j.o- 
\oyfiv the words u/j.o\oyt'tro rnj.1v had 
occurred ; and if the text is to stand, we 

must suppose some such ellipsis. In any 
case there is no room for the coarse expe- 
dient of supposing " on followed by an 
infinitive," for in that case we must have 
found Ttx vr l v fivd. Neither is SeTv under- 
stood after airoTeXelv, for we have here 
a scientific description of dper^, not a 
mere moral maxim. Otherwise it would 
be better at once to replace 8e' in the 
text, from which it might easily have 
dropped, 'absorbed' by the foregoing 
AHOTEAEIN. But if any alteration 
were needed, I should prefer changing 
elvai for the oblique ttrj. In an ethi- 
cal point of view the passage is note- 
worthy, as it presents in harmony two 
theories which are generally contrasted, 
the psychological and the utilitarian. 
Our actions are to be determined by a 
consideration of their consequences, but 
of these consequences those which affect 
the moral nature of ourselves or others 
are mainly to be kept in view. Observe 
also that development is to accompany 
restraint; the statesman is not only to 
curb the evil passions of the citizens, 
but also to foster their nobler impulses, 
such as the desire of knowledge, beauty, 
&c. This is the true statecraft; and 
tried by this standard Themistocles and 
his compeers are found wanting. They 
had not the skill to determine what 
desires were legitimate and what not, 
nor how to further the one and restrain 
the other : in a word, they were not 
Texvixol Tovrtav IT* pi. This is the force 
of TOIOVTOV &vSpa in the next clause : we 
need not understand the question as an 
insinuation against the private charac- 
ters, which were very various, of the great 
men enumerated. 

124 IIAATnNOS [503, D 

LIX. %&. 'A\\* edv 

8?) ovraxrlv drpe/xa cr/coTrov/tewt ei Tts TOVT<WJ> TOIOVTOS 
yeyove. <e/> yap, 6 dya0os a,vr)p /cat CTTI TO fteKTi&Tov 
\ly(DV a az> Xe'yiy, dXXo Tt ou/c et/aj epet, dXX' a7TO)8XeV<wi> E 
Tt ; axrirep /cat ol dXXot Trct^re? S^/xtoupyot y8Xe- 
TT/DOS TO avTutv epyov e/cao~Tos ou/c et/oj e/cXeyo/xe^o? 
TTpoo-<f)pet, a TTpo<T(f>epeL TT/JOS TO epyov TO auTov, dXX' 
6Vw5 ai^ eTSo5 Tt avT&j o*^ TOVTO o epydt^rai. oiov et 
/3ouXei tSeti' Tovg ,(t}ypd<f)ov<s, TOWS ot/coSo/AOVs, TOV? ^au- 
TTf)yov<s, Toug dXXov? TTOLVTO.^ 8^/xtovyoyovs, OVTWO. /SovXet, 
avroiv, a*s ets TOL^LV nva eicacrTOS e/cao~TO^ Tidycriv o a.v 
TiOyj, KOL TrpoaavayKd^eL TO erepov TO> erepco Trpeirov re 
\ elvaL /cat dp/xoTTtv, eiws | a,!/ TO aTrav crvcrT'rjo-rjTaL reray- 504 
' TC /cat KeKoa'^f)^vov 7rpay/xa, /cat ot TC 8^ aXXot 

/cat ov? fvi' 8^ eXeyojaev, ot rreyot TO craijaa 
T /cat larpoC, Kocr^ovcri TTOV TO o"<S//,a /cat 

o/xoXoyov/xei' OVTOD TOVT ex tl/ ^ ou >' 
5*/2. Td^ecus dpa /cat /cdcr/xou TU^ovo~a ot/cta 
117, dramas Se fJio\0Tf]pd ; 
KAA. ^rj^i. 

OVKOVV /cat TrXotoi^ a>o"avT&>s ; 

D. ouTwerij' oTpe'/ua] The majority of codd. when he has so marshalled the parts 

give ouroxrl orpe/u.a. So also Bekk. here that they constitute an orderly and con- 

and in p. 509 A, 510 E. But the v f<pe\K. sistent whole. In this order, when 

is legitimate in ourocrlj' tKeivoviv and realized, consists the excellence of the 

their cases ending in y. See the reflf. to work. In the human body such order 

the Greek Grammarians in Steph. Lex. or excellence is called health ; in the 

iii. p. 408 D, ed. Dind., comparing ibid, soul it is virtue. But the soul is the 

v. pp. 2432. 2435. The idiom ovrutrlv matter on which the rhetorical states- 

oTpe'/u." h as been illustrated in the note man operates : for rhetoric, as defined in 

to 494 E. Here tr. ' quite at our ease.' the Phaedrus, is a ^/vxayuyta Sia \6ytav, 

6 ayaQbs avfyp KO.} M rb f}f\Tt<TTot> and the art Politic has already been pro- 

Ae'ywj'i A true political rhetoric, it is nounced to be a Oepaweia TJivxrjs, sup. 

urged, must follow the analogy of other 464 B. It is therefore the business of 

arts. It must have a definite object, the p-fircop or statesman (for present pur- 

and select its means and instruments poses the two being identical) to make 

intelligently and with an eye to that bis hearers sober, just, and generally 

object. The craftsman, whether painter, virtuous ; and that not only by direct 

architect, or shipwright, seeks to fashion encouragement, but by the restraints of 

his materials according to a particular law. With this entire passage compare 

type or form ; and his work is done Sophist, p. 228. 

504, D.] rorriAS. 125 

Kal jji,r)v /cat TO. crw/xara ffxLfjiev ra 

Ildvv ye. 

Tt S' 17 ^fv^r) ; dra^tas TV^oucra ecrrat 
r) ra^ew? re /cat /cocr/xov TU>OS ; 

KAA. AvdyKTj IK rutv rrpocrOev /cat rouro crwo/>toXoyeu>. 
Tt ovi> ovopd IOTTLV eV TW crw/jtaTt TO> e/c rJs 
re /cat TOV /coo~/aov yiyvopeva) ; 
KAA. 'Tytetav /cat icr^yv tcrw? Xeyct?. 
^/2. "Eyoiye. rt 8e av TOJ ej^ r^ ^v 
e/c T^? ra^ew? /cat rov /cocr/xou ; treLpaJ evpelv /cat 
wcr7re/3 e/cetva) TO 6vojJ.a. 

KAA. Tt 8e ou/c auros Xeyetg, ai ^w/cpares ; 

J \ \ ' v <X^/ > >\> V O / * 

^lAA et crot TTJOLOV earns, eyw epa>. crv oe, a^ 
crot So/cai eya> /caXai? Xe'yet^, (ftdOc et Se /xr^, eXey^e 
/cat JU.T) eTrtrpeTre. e/xot yap So/cet rats /jLei/ rou crw/xarog 
rd^ecrLv ovofjia et^at vytetvor, e^ ou ei^ aurw 17 vyteta 
ytyverat /cat 17 aXX^ dperr) TOV o~cjju.aro5. ecrrt ravra ^ 
ov/c ecrrtv ; 

Tat? Se r^5 ^^775 ra^ecrt /cat /cocr/x->7crecrt 
re /cat vo/to?, o^e^ /cat vd//-t/u,ot yiyvovTai /cat /cocr//,tot* 
ravra S' ecrrt St/catocrvvry re /cat (Tux^pocrvvq. <f>r)<s fj ov ; 

KAA. "EcrTQ). 

LX. ^/2. OVKOVV Trpos ravra j3\eiT<Di> 6 pyrap 
e/ceti'o?, 6 re^vt/co? re /cat dya^o?, /cat rov? Xoyous irpocr- 
otcret rat? i//u^ats ov? ai/ Xey^ /cat ra? Trpd^i<s avracra?, 
/cat Swpov eav rt StSaJ, Swcret, /cat eav Tt d<f)cn,prJTaL, 

504 c. eVij/ So-Trep ^Kfivc/1 rJ> oj/o^o] c^ses which produce order/ 'arrange- 

Crat. 385 D, KaAelV fKatrry ovo^a, where ments,' ' ordinances? 

see the instances quoted by Heind. More D. ravra STim] Not rb v6fi.ifj.6v re Kal 

freq. is eVf nvi. v6/j.os, which are causes, but T& v6p.ijj.oi/ 

rats fifv ToS^jrtjj^gTnc raeffiv~\ Tlie /col Kofffjuov ytyo vtv a i, the result of law 

appliances lor producing order in the and regular government, is the same 

body are calledsalutaryoF " salutary," thing as temperance and justice. 

and the resuTt~t>f^sTJch means and ap- Scapov tav n 55ip] This may have 

pliances is health, and the general virtue special reference to the well-known 

or excellence of the body. So in the liberality of Cimon : or perhaps to the 

soul, right and law are the means, moral theoric allowances made to the Athenian 

virtue the result. Kexr/u^crtis and rd^tis demus by Pericles, who might very 

are here synonymous, and mean 'pro- fairly have argued that the Athenians 



[504, D 

irpos TOVTO e rov vovv e^a)v, OTTWS av 
avTov rots TroXtrats St/catocru^ /xeV eV rat? i/w^at? yCyvr)- 
rat, dSt/cta Se aTraXXdrr^Tat, /cat crax^pocrui'^ /act' eyyty- 
vr)To.L, d/coXacrta Se aTraXXdrr^Tat, /cat 17 aXXry aperr) 
eyytyv^rat, /ca/cta Se dTTtrj. crvyx&jpets ^ ou ; 

KAA. Hvyx&pa). 

2ft. Ti yap o<^eXo5, w KaXXt/cXet?, o-wyaart ye icd- 
jjivovTi KOI fjio^6rjpa><; Sta/cet/AeVw crma iroXXa, StSo^at /cat 

\VC* * \*W\\> A \>/ >\V /)> 

ra TjOLcrTa T) Trora -^ aXX ortouv, o /AT) o^cret avro ecrt; 
ore TT\OV f) Tovvavriov Kara ye TOI> St/catov Xoyoi' /cat 
ecrrt ravra ; 

. r >05 


Ov yap, otjaat, XucrtreXet /xerd 
jaaro? ^17^ dv0pa>Trq>' dvdy/c^ yap ovrw /cat ^17 
ovra>9 ; 


OVKOVV /cat ras eTrt^u/xta? aLTroTn^ 
<f>ayelv CKTOV ySovXerat ^ Sn/fajj/ra Tnelv, vytat- 
VOVTO. pels ewcriv ot larpol &? rd TroXXd, /cd/A^ovra Se, 
a>5 erros etiretv, ovSeVor' euxruv e/A7rt7rXacr^at wt* 7n0V(Jt.el ; 
TOVTO ye /cat <ru ; 

Ilepl 8e i|/u^r, w dptcrre, ou^ 6 avro? rpoTro? ; B 
ea)5 /ae^ dv Trovrjpd 77, d^d^rd? re ovcra /cat d/coXaoTO? /cat 
dSt/co? /cat dvdcrto?, etpyetv avrr)v Set TWI/ eiriOvfJLiwv /cat 
/a^ eTTtr/DeTretv dXX* drra 7roteu> ^ d<^>' wi^ /3e\TLO)v ecrrai ; 

IN * V 

<)<? ^ ou ; 

KAA. $r)iJ,i. 

OvTO) yap TTOV avry dpewov Trj 

were, or ought to have heen made better 
by listening to the plays of Sophocles 
and his brother-tragedians. 

E. Ti -yhp o<A.os] The meaning 
seems to be : ' What is the use of ad- 
ministering to a diseased body a variety 
of dishes, or the most delicious of drinks 
or other compounds, when these will 
frequently be of no more service to it 
than abstinence and mortification (TOW- 

vavrlov iroXXwv anr'uav K.T.\.), nay, 
rightly considered, will do it even less 
good than abstinence ? ' But there re- 
mains a seeming asyndeton in the last 
clause, which Heind. proposes to remove 
by reading f) icard ye rbt> SlKcuov \6yov 
teal e\a.TTov : but Stallb. is possibly right 
in defending the received text by the 
analogy of such phrases as b\lyov KCL\ 

505, D.] 


KAA. Tlavv ye. 

572. OVKOVV TO eipyeiv ICTTLV 

Stv eTTi^u/xet KO- 

KAA. Nal. 

G ^fl. To Ko\d > (T0ai apa rfj 
d/coXacria, axnrep crv vvv ST) wov. 

KAA. OVK oTS' arra Xeyeis, <5 2a>KpaTe<s, dXX' aXXov 

a/xeii'oV icrnv rj 17 


Kal avro? 

. OSro? di^p ov^ uTTo/xeVei 
TOVTO Tracr^ajv Trept ov 6 Xoyos ecrrt, /coXao/>c,ei>os. 

KAA. OvSe ye /xoi /xeXet ovSeV a)i/ <ri) Xeyet?, Kal 
raOra crot Topyiov yapiv drre/cptva/x^v. 


v TOV \6yov 

KAA. AVTOS yv(i)<T.i. 

X' ov8e TOLS pvOovs <ao~i p,erav Ocpis etvai 
, dXX' eTrt^eVra? Ke<f>a\tjv, Iva pr) aVev K6(f>a- 

505 B. OvKovy rb 6lp7/] The order 
is, OVKOVV r5 tlpyfiv a<f> J wv firtdufj.e'i 
Ko\dfii> tffrlv ; ' to restrain a man from 
gratifying his appetites is to chasten 
him, is it not ?' The seeming play upon 
the words Ko\deG0a.t and aKoXcur/cc in 
the next question may be represented in 
English hy 'chastisement' and *un- 
chagteness,' though HiS Tatter word 
denotes only one form of a.KO\aa-ia. 
Punishment is treated by Plato as 
either exemplary or corrective, never as 
simply retributive, a view which he 
distinctly deprecates. See Legg. 934 A, 
oi>X "<K<* TOV Ka.KOvpyrjo'ai (SiSoTio) T^V 
Slicrjv, oi> yap rb yfyovbs ayevrfTov Hffrai 
TTOTe, rov 8" fls rbv audit fveKa. ~)(jf6vov 
r) rb irapdirav mffr)<rai T}\V aSuc'iav avr6v 
re Kal robs I56vras aurbv SiKaiov/ifvov, i) 
\ttxprjffai H*pr) iro\\a rrjs roiavrrjs v[i- 
<{>opas. Comp. ibid. p. 854 B, and see 
note inf. p. 525 A. 

c. Ovros a.vhp~\ " Behold a man who 
cannot bear to be improved, or to submit 
in his own person to that ' chastisement' 
which is the subject of our conversation." 
See above, 489 B, ovroalv oi/^jp oi> irav- 
fftrai (pXvapwv. 

/jifra^v rbv \6yov Ka.ra.Xvonev~\ ' Do we 
break off,' or ' are we to break off the dis- 

cussion ? ' Some MSS. have Ka.ra.\va>fifv, 
but the pres. indie, is idiomatic, as in 
such phrases as rl ; TTUS \fyonfv ; Sup. 
504, 6fj.o\oyovfifv ourca TOUT' e^fiv ; inf. 
513 C, \4yop.ev n vpbs ravra. ; 

Avrbs yv<ao~ef\ ' You will judge for 
yourself,' i. e. ' that is your affair, not 
mine.' So Phileb. 12 A, efiol fift> ird.vro>s 
VIKO.V riSovi] SoKf"i Kal 5<f|ei, ffb $', & TIpco- 
rapxf, avrbs yv<!>fffi. Olymp., tin 0e'A.eis 
iroift, f/j,ol yap ov fif\et. 

D. 'AAA' ovSe rovs juuflous] ' Nay, they 
tell us we ought not to leave even tales 
half told, but ought first to fit them 
with a head, that our story may not 
walk abroad headless.' a.Kftt>a\os jivOos, 
a story 'without head or jtall,'~ is a 
proverbial expression^. So in the Laws, 
752 A, quoted by Routh, O(>KOVV STJ TTOV 
\fytav ye &i> pvOov a.Kttpa\ov kit&v KOTO- 
Ai'irofyuc irAo'5/uj'oy yap av airavrrj roi- 
ovros &v &fiop<pos (paivoiro. Compare 
Phaedr. 264, 8e7j/ irdvTa \6yov &o-irtp 
wov ffvveffrdvai . . . ware /ITJT* a.Kt<pa\ov 
elj'ai (J.-fir &TTOVV K.T.\. Phileb. 66 D, 
ovotv \oiirbv Tr\T]V Sxnrfp K<pa\$]v airo- 
Sovvai Tciis flprj/j.ti'ois. 

/nfrab Kara\ftireiv^\ Isocr. varies 
the phrase, Panath. 27, a/itA^owrj 
rovrtav Kal jtt6Tau K ara/3a\6vr i. 



[505, D 

Trepur). aTro/cpwat ovv /cat ra Xourd, Iva r) 6 
Xoyos Ke^aXyv Xafiy. 

LXI. ILid. 'ft? /3tatos el, a) ^w/cpare?. eav Se 
e/xot Treidy, eacret? yaipeiv TOVTOV TOV \6yov rf /cat aXXai 
T<W StaXe'^et. 

5*/2. Tts ow dXXo< ede\ei ; JU,T) yap rot areX^ ye TOV 
\6yov KaTa\iTTa>iJ,ev. 

KAA. AVTOS Se ov/c av Svi>ato SieX^ew' TOV Xoyov, 
^7 \rya)v Kara cravrov 17 aTTOKpLvopevos (ravrw ; 

5*/2. ""I^a /tot TO roG ^Eniyapf^oy yevrjTai, a irpo row E 
Svo avSpeg eXeyov, et? aw tK-avo? yeVw/xat. dra/) /ctvSv- 
I'evei d^ay/catoraTov elvat ovrw?. et fjievroi 
ot/xat eywye xprjvaL TrdVras i^/xa? <f>i\oviK(t) 
TO etSeVat TO dX-^^es Tt ecrri TTC/DI a>^ Xeyopev /cal Tt t//eu- 
Sos* KOLVOV yap ayaObv a-rrao-t <j>a.vpov yevecrOai avro. 
Stet/ti /net' ovi^ TW Xoy&) eya> &? dv /aot So/c^ e^et^* | edv 506 
8e T&> v/zaif /x^ TO, ovTa So/cai 6/xoXoyetv e/x,avTw, 
avTiXajji/BdvecrdaL KOL ekey^eiv. ouSe yap Tot lyajye 

\/ A\/ >\\^V " /3' ' ^_ * __ 

Aeyce) a Aeya), aA.A.a 4 7 ? ra> KOIV utfto+*iairTe, av Tt 
Xeywv 6 d/i^io-yS^Tai 

\eyco /xeWot TavTa, et So/cet 

0fjvai TOV \6yov et Se ja^ ySovXea^e, ICO/JLCV ST) 
/cat a.TTiwfji..v. 

TOP. '^IXX' e/AOt /xey ou So/cet, a) 2a>KpaTe<;, 
7TO) dirteVat, dXXd SteeX#eu> ae TO^ Xoyo^' ^atveTat Se's 
/xot /cat Tot? dXXot? So/cetv. /8ouXo//,at yap eywye /cat 
avTo? d/couo~at crov atTov Sttdi^Tos TO, eTrtXotTra. 

preserved to us ; and the line in question 
was possibly the first of a soliloquy im- 
mediately succeeding one of such dis- 
cussions. The change of a.iroxpf<a into 
an Attic equivalent is agreeable to Plato's 
frequent practice, as remarked on supra, 
485 E. 

506. &v n ^aiVrjTot] If there be any 
thing in the objections of his opponent, 
says Socr., he will be the first to concede 
the point in dispute. For, as he has 
already informed the company, he is one 
of those TWV rjSf&s ( &i/ i\ty- 
e5f TI ^ a\y6fs \eyot, p. 458. 

E. T?> roO 'ETrix^PM 01 '] We have the 
line in full, Athen. vii. 308 c, ^7^ 8 
KT& rbv <ro<f>bv 'E.TrlxapfJ.01/, firjSei/ diro- 
Kptvafj.ti'ov TOV KVVOS, T^ irpb TOV tiff 
HvSpes f\fyov els ey&i> diroxpe'w where 
it may be well to mention that tcvtav is 
not a quadruped brought on the stage 
by Epicharmus, but the Cynic Cynulcus, 
who is one of Athenaeus' Deipnosophists. 
Of the original purport of the line the 
account given by the Schol. is palpably an 
improvisation. The comedies attributed 
to Epicharmus contained philosophical 
dialogues, specimens of which have been 

506, D.] TOPTIAZ. 129 

877, <5 Popyta, /cat auro? i^Se' 
af KaXXt/cXet TOUTCJ ert SteXeyo/x??*', e&)<? aurw rr)v TOU 
'AfjL<f>iovo<s aTre'Sw/ca prjcriv dvrl TTJS TOV ZtjOo 
Se crv, a> KaXXt/cXets, ou/c eWXet? o-wStarrepdz/at 
Xoyov, dXX* ouz> e/Aou ye a.Kov(ov eTrtXa/AySaVov, edV Tt o~ot 
C So/ca> /XT) /caXws Xe'yeiv. /cat /xe ecu> e'feXe'y^s, ou/c a^Oe- 
tro//-at crot cocnrep crv e/xot, dXXa /xe'ytcrTos evepyeriys Trap* 
e/xot d^ayeypai/fei. 

KAA. Aeye, a) 'ya^e, avro? /cat irepaLve. 

LXII. 5*/2. "Axove Sr) e^ dp^? e/iou aVaXaySoVro? 

N\/ ?.! \CCSN \\ /]\ \ >/> 

TOI^ Xoyov. -4pa TO T^OU /cat TO ayauov TO avTo ecrrus ; 
Ov Tai>Tov, a9 eyw /cat KaXXt/cX^s a>/ioXoyT7o~a/xev. Uo- 
repov 8e TO 1781; .vKa TOW dya^ou TrpaKTeov, fj TO aycuOov 
e^e/ca TOU 178609 ; To 1781; eVe/ca TOU dya^ou. 'HSu Se 
]) ecrTt TOVTO ov TTa/Daye^o/xeVou TJSoyu,e#a, a.ya.9ov Se ov 
dya$ot Icrp-ev ; HOLVV ye. \4XXct /x^ dya^ot ye' 
/cat TJ/xet? /cat TaXXa Travra ocra dya^ct CCTTLV, ape- 
rrjs Tt^o? TrapayevojjLevTjs ; "Efjioiye So/cet dfay/catoi/ etvat, 

<y TT- \ \ / \ "" -1 _J^^B_V >O\V > \e/ \ 

a) KaXXt/cXetg. vBMH ^ ^ ^ e a P T7 ) ^Kf-crrov, /cat 
cr/cevou? /cat o~aj/xaToT /cM ^/u^? av /cat ^cuov Trai'TO?, ov^ 
t/c^ /cdXXto~Ta TrapayiyveTai, dXXa Ta^et /cat 6p66- 

~B. r^v TOU 'A/x<|)^ovoy] c The speech of D. 'AAAa /xei/ S^ ^ ye aper^] Tliis 

Zethus' is of course the plea for public passage, most important as determining 

and active as distinguished from the the scope of the entire dialogue, has 

contemplative life 6 eV <pi\oa-o<pi<} pios, already been illustrated in the Prole- 

sup. 485 E. Socr. had already in some gomena, p. viii. Those who delight in 

measure answered the arguments of parallelisms of ancient and modern 

Callicles, but his answer is not yet com- authors, will do well to compare Bp. But- 

plete. He has still much to explain : in ler's justly celebrated Preface to his Ser- 

particular the causes which make it im- mons. The "ground-idea" of his ethical 

possible for a righteous man to take system will be seen to be rather Platonic 

part in the administration of an un- than, as he himself supposed, Stoical. 

righteous polity, such as he considers The ' conformity to nature ' of the Stoics, 

the Athenian to be. Here aireSwKa has though he borrows the phrase, was some- 

its proper sense of paying a debt ; giving thing different from Butler's. 

an equivalent for value received. Pre- ov% ovrws *'?] 'not by mere hap- 

sently JJTIS fKaffrcp arroSeSorai =. ' which hazard.' So Ale. ii. 143 B, ovrcas ei/q; 

is the due of each,' in other words that ^e'-yetv. Ib. D. The Zurich reading ov 

which is appropriate, or suitable to the r<f iKrj, founded on some MSS., is also 

nature of any given subject. admissible. Phileb. 28 D, TV TOU a\6yov 

C. OVK dxfleVojUcu] The MSS., followed ical ewcjj Tim. 34 C, utre^ovrfs 

by all the edd. except Hirschig, give the TOV irpoffrvx^vros KO.\ flity. One cod. 

form ax6e<T0^<roju.oi, which is elsewhere has oCVoj, and so the 2nd Ziir. ed. But 

substituted by copyists for the Attic ovrus is preserved in the Bodl., whicli 

axOf< So in Rep. x. 603 E, where however, with others, omits ovx- The 

ox^e'cro/tai is now universally adopted. following /coAATTa is bracketed by 



[506, D 

Kal rex&Q, ^rt? e/cacrrw a/TroSe'Sorai avrwv. apa eori 
ravra ; '.Ey<y /xe> yap ^jat. Ta^ei apa reray/xeVov /cal 
KKO<r/xi7/xeVo^ ecrrti^ 77 dperr) e/cacrrou ; $aiiqv av eywye. E 
Kocr/xo? rts apa eyyevo/xevos eV eKacrrco 6 e/cacrrou ot/ceio? 
ayaBov irape^et tKaarrov rwv OVTCDV ; ^Euoiye So/cet. Kal 
apa Kocr/Jiov e^ovcra TOP eavTTys d/xetvcov 7779 dfco- 
; *Ava.yK.f\. 'AXXa JJL-YJV r) ye /cocr/xov e^ovcra 
/cooyxta ; JTois yap ou /xe'XXei ; 'H Se ye /cocr/xta o-dxfrpuv ; 
| IJoXXr) avayKf]. 'H apa ardxfipa)!/ *jjv)(r) ayaOrf. *Eya) 507 
jaei' OUK e)(&> Trapa ravra aXXa (ftdvai, a) ^tXe KaXXt/cXets* 

\ C> > -V O'0> 

cru o et e^et?, otoacr/ce. 
KAA. Aey, w 'ya^e'. 

S?) ort, et 17 craji^pcov ayaOuj ecrnv, T] rou- 

Hirschig, but is certainly no interpola- 
tion. For, to say nothing of the pos- 
sibility of the body's attaining health 
by the operation of natural causes, Plato 
in many passages admits the idea of a 
spontaneous virtue in the soul bearing 
the same relation to the conscious virtue 
of the philosopher as in the region of the 
intellect subsists between opO$i 5da and 
e'lricrT-fi/j.ri. Thus in the Phaedo he speaks 
of of rty STJ/UOTIK^I/ re Kal iro\iriK^]i' 

fftafypoffvvT]V re Kal StKaioffvyriv, e| edovs 
re Kal /j.f\errjs ytyovvlav avev <pt\offo<plas 
re Kal vov, 82 A. The distinction is also 
brought out in the Laws, i. p. 642 c, 
where he allows the existence of a natural 
goodness, produced avrotpvws 6eta fjioipa. 
Compare also a remarkable passage in 
the Meno, 99 B D. The qualification is 
therefore introduced purposely, though 
for obvious reasons not dwelt on. 

E. K<Joytoj ayaBbv iraptxei eKaarov 
rS>v UVTO>V~\ This idea is worked out 
with greater completeness in the Philebus, 
where the absolute good is found to 
reside irepl fterpov Kal rb /j.erpiov Kal 
Kaipiov, and to manifest itself in rb tru/u- pov Kal Ka\bf Kal rb re\eoi> Kal 'iKav6v, 
p. 66 A. 

507. 'H &pa <rd><t>p<ai> ij/vy)] wyaOif] This 
passage, taken together witli the context, 
clearly identifies__jn)4ipflrnu'J3._with fi 
avpiracra aperii. ' Temperance ' is that 
capitaFvirtue which includes all others, 
as courage, justice, and piety. It is, in 
a word, the right state of the soul, in 
which all the parts of our complex nature 
are kept in due subordination, and so 

organized as to form a harmonious whole. 
This pre-eminence, as is well known,! 
is in the Republic assigned to Si/ccuo- 
ffvvt), the sister virtue ; Sophrosyne being 
there relegated to a subordinate pro- 
vince in the moral economy. But if 
this theory is less mature than that in 
the Republic, it is an advance upon the 
speculations pursued in the Charmides, 
whe/e Socr. is made to arrive at the 
merely negative conclusion that <rta<ppo- 
avvri is not a mode of e'iri<rrr)nr). This 
has been taken to prove that when he 
wrote the Charmides Plato was dis- 
satisfied with the Socratic definitions of 
the virtues, and was feeling his way to 
some more satisfactory theory : a state of 
mind of which, in my opinion, there are 
indications in the Protagoras, at the end 
of which dialogue Socrates stands self- 
convicted of inconsistency. 

e r) fftacppcav d/yofl^] ' If the temperate 
soul is (eo nomine) good, the soul which 
is in a condition directly opposed to 
temperance is evil. But this, as we 
have seen, is none other than the in- 
sensate and dissolute soul/ We cannot 
in Eng. give the antithesis between 
<r<i><ppcav and a$put>, which even in 
Greek is a false one, for the true anti- 
theta are &<f>p<av and epfyptav. The force 
of the imp. -fi is nearly the same as in 
the familiar formula TO' 8' ^v apa, but it 
retains more of its past signification. 
In later writers the past sense seems to 
disappear, and $v is used for tffri in 
general propositions. Hence we may 
explain the Aristotelian formula TO ri 
?tv elvai. 

507, B.] 


vavriov rrj crwfypovi ireirov0via /ca/of ecrnv. fjv Se avrrj 
r) appeals re Kal d/coXacrro? ; Tldvv ye. Kal ^v o ye 
craxbpcov TO, Trpoo"rJKovTa TrpdYrot a.v /cat Trepl 0eovs /cat 
Trepl dvOpuirovs ; ov yap av o-axfrpovoir) ra ^77 rrpo<riJKOi>Ta 
B irpdrro)^ ; 'AvdyKr) ravr' eti'at OVTOJ?. Kal p.r)j> irepl fjLtv 
dvOpcorrovs TO. irpoanJKovTa irpaTTav St/cat' cu> Trpdrroi, 
Trepl Se $eovs ocrta* rov Se TO, Stvata /cat ocrta irpdrrovTCL 
dvdyKri Si/catoi> /cat OCTLOV et^at ; *Eo-rt ravra. Kal 
S?) /cal di'SpetoV ye dVdy/c^ ; ov yap ST) o-axf)povo<s dv 

to the received list of cardinal virtues, 
Protag. p. 329 c. 

oil yap av ffw(ppoi'olri^\ ' He would not 
deserve to be called temperate if he did 
what he had no business to do.' This is, 
to say the least, a very popular kind of 
reasoning, and scarcely equal to sustain the 
conclusion that the ff<a<pp<av, qua <r<a<ppiav, 
will perform all his duties all the things 
that concern him. If Socr. had said /ujj 
ra irpoffiiKovra irpdrrwv, the syllogism 
would have been good, though the premiss 
might seem doubtful. But the parallelism 
between the fftixpp. of this passage and the 
S'tKaws of the Republic is kept up. For 
the Stfcaio? also is one t>s ra avrov vpdr- 
rti, Rep. p. 433 B. In the immediate 
sequel all the special virtues are subordi- 
nated to o-wtppoavirt), as in the Rep. to 
SiKaioffvmj. Plato must have felt that 
none of the popular terms were quite 
adequate to express his own more com- 
prehensive idea of Virtue as a state 
or constitution of the inner man. For 
it must be owned that some of the 
functions of SiKaioavvi], as described in 
the larger dialogue, are more appropriate 
to the sister virtue ; and the truth may 
be that in each case he has selected the 
one which best served his immediate 
purpose. This union of evxe'p' a in the 
use of terms with elaborate clearness in 
the elucidation of ideas is characteristic 
of the author. See Theaet. 184 B, rb 5' 
fi>Xepfs riav ovofidrtav re Kal prj[j.dr(ai> 

iroAAck OUK aytvvts, aAAa /j.a\\ov rb rov- 
rov tvavriov avf\vdepov. There is a 
palpable sneer at Plato in Isocrates, En- 
com. Helenae init., as one who naraye- 
yflpaxe 5ieiiav ws avSpla Kal ffotyia Kal 
SiKaioffvvrj ravr6v tffri, Kal . . . p.ia eiri- 
(TTTjjUTj Kaff airdvTuv effrtv. 

B. ou yap S)] ff<ii(ppovos <$>*vytw a 
arj irpoa-TjKejl Hence the Sti\6s is one 

Kal fjifyv 8 7* crttf^petfv] This introduces 
an idea quite foreign to our notion of 
' temperance.' The <rca<(>p<av, the man of 
orderly well-regulated mind, will not be 
content with abstaining from evil : he 
will be inclined to the performance of 
all positive duties both towards men and 
towards gods, ffa>(ppo<rwri is thus seen 
to include conscientiousness, an idea 
which associates itself much more natu- 
rally with Si/ccuocrwTj. The theory of 
Duties, it may be observed, which fills so 
large a proportion of our modern treatises, 
is very slightly touched by Plato and 
Aristotle. The scholion of Olympiodorus 
on this passage, though evidently much 
blundered by the student who took it 
down, is curious and worth quoting : 6 
o'ta<ppiav Kal SiKaius iffTi Kal avSptios' 6 
yap viroTotTTcav ra -^fifiova TOIS Kptirroffi 
Ka\ jj.^1 eS>v rjrraffdai rbv \6yov vwb rov 
Ovuov (read rrjs eiridufulas, coll. Rep. iv. 
430 E), oi/ros avSpflds tcrriv. TJ Se StKato- 
avvi] *x ei Ka ' T ^ offtov, 6e yap apfffKti 6 
roiovros. "Thus," he continues, "the 
different virtues are concurrent (irvvrpe- 
\ovffiv a\\-ri\ais), and we are enabled to 
solve the well-known airopta with regard 
to divine providence : viz. that if virtue is 
sufficient for happiness (for avrdpKris ij 
tvSai/j.ovla irpbs aper-fiu read aurap/crjy r) 
aper)] irpbs tvSaifjLOflav), virtuous people 
ought not to offer prayers and suppli- 
cations to heaven, but rather to acquiesce 
in their lot. To this we reply, that the 
ffwfypwv, as before remarked, desires to 
acquaint himself with the higher powers 
and to give them pre-eminence : for this 

is a duty of piety, and hence we are 

, , 

bound to pray. For prayer is a sign 

that we know the higher powers and 
invoke their aid. So that prayer, through 
its being pious, is included even in the 
list of moral virtues." 6ffi6rijs, it will 
be remembered, is added by Protagoras 

K 2 


[507, B 

ovre Stw/cew ovre (fievyew a jjirj Trpocryj/cet, dXX* a 
Set /cat Trpdy/xara /cat avOpa>7rov<s /cat ^So^ds KOI XvVas 
fyevyew Kat Stw/cew, /cat inrofJievovTa /caprepetv OTTOU Set. 
ware TroXA/r) dvdy/o;, a> KaXXt/cXet?, roi^ aax^pova, ajcnrep 
Str^X^ojaev, St/catoi> otra /cat avSpetov /cat ocriov ayaOov 
dVSpa etvat reXe'ws, rot' Se ayaOov ev re /cat /caXws irpar- 

A * / \ C> ^ / // \ 

a a*> TrpaTTy, TOV o v TrpaTTovra /xa/captoi> re /cat 
eu>at, ro^ Se irovrjpov /cat /ca/cais rrpdrrovTa. 
et?7 6 e^avrtw? e^toi/ rw c 

d#Xtoz>. OUTO? S' 
6 d/cdXa<TTOS, 6i> crv 




ravra ouroo rt^e/xat /cat 
et Se ecrnv aXr)6fj, TOV 
eot/ce^, evSat)aova etvat crw^pocrw^v /xei' Stw/cre'ov /cat D 

, d/coXacrtaf Se <j>evKTeov a>9 e^et TroSaiv e/cacrros 
/cat TrapacrKevacrTeov jiiaXtcrra 
TOU /coXd^ecr^at, edi^ Se SeyOfj 77 avros 
ot/cetwv, ^ tStwr^? ^ TroXtg, evrt^ere'ov 
crreov, et /xeXXet euSat/xwv eti'at. ovros 
O-/COTTOS etvat, Trpo? 01^ ySXeVovra Set ^v 

8s ret ju); wpoffTiKovTa tyevyei re Kal StcaKfi. 
The old Socratic definition would rather 
be, 6s oii/c o?8ei/ otffl 1 & StcaKrtov effrlv 
o#0' & (ftfvKTfov. Plato's includes both 
the knowledge and the disposition (the 
^0os as well as the ^JTKTT^JUTJ, and is 

dXXos rt? TWI> 
/cat /coXa- 
ejaotye So/cet 6 
/cat irdvra et? 

therefore more true to nature. 

C. ri^ 5' e3 irpdrTovra na.Ka.piov~\ This, 
which seems a sophism founded on the 
double sense of ev irpdrretv, is in fact a 
cherished paradox. It was a point of 
honour with the Platonists to preface 
their letters with the salutation eS irpdr- 
Tfiv instead of the more usual x a ' L P etv - 
Ep. iii. init., Tl \drcav Aioifvfftip 
pfiv eiri(TTei\as S.p' opOws &c 

rfis j8eA.T/o"rTjs itpotrp-^ffews ; fy /j.a\\ov 
/Cora T}\V e/*$iv ffvvfjOetav ypatytov fS 
irpdrTeiy, K.r.\. Comp. Charm, p. 172 
A, opQ6ri]TOs 8f fiyov/ ff irdffrj irpdft 
avayKalov /coAcSs Kal fv irpdrrfiv rovs 
ovT<a SiaKei/jiwovs, rovs 8* fS irpdrrovras 
fv8al/ui.ovas flvai. So Ale. i. 116 B, SOTJS 
Ka\a>s irpdrrti oi>xl ^al ev Trpdrrei; We 
find a similar ambiguity in Arist. Eth. 
N. vi. 2. 5. 

D. OVTOS efj.otyf~] ' This, as I think, is 
the mark on which we should fix our 
gaze through life ; to that we should 

bend all our powers and all the powers 
of the state, and so act that Justice and 
Temperance shall be our portion, as they 
must be if we would be truly blest.' The 
OW'TGO Trpdmiv is illustrated by Phaedr. 
253 B, ciAA.' ei's (5yuoj<$TTjTo auTo?s /col r^5 

0< v v TifjLcecn, traaav irvrais ' TI 
fj.d\t(rra ireipw/jievoi &ytiv oSrca iroiov- 
fftv (equiv. to ovrca iroiovffiv Sxrre &yew). 
Phaedr. 67 E, ysKdiov &/ ti-rj &vSpa irapa- 
(ncevafrvO' eavrbv eV ry jSi'y '6n tyyvrarta 
&VTO. TOV reOvdvai ovrw fijv (= OVTW 
rjv Sxrre tlvai). Presently avfivvrov 
Ka.K6v (an evil of which there is no end 
a ^^ of 'vicious circle') is intended 
to recall the simile of the Danaids with 
their sieve, p. 493. Ast quotes Legg. 
iv. 714 A, tyvx^v e^oucro riSoviav Kal eirt- 
6v/j.tcav opeyoufv-rjv Kal ir^povcrBai rointav 
Seofj.fvrii', ffrtyouffav 5e ovSev, a\\' avri- 
vvT(f Kal\T]<rTip KaKff . . . l-vvexo- 
/j.4vr)v. The ' brigand's life ' is explained 
in the immediate sequel as that of one 
who by his excesses cuts himself off from 
communion with gods and men, as an 
outlaw does. Olymp., AptrroG Se f$iov rj 
eireiSi] . . . TUIV aAAoTpfcov tp<- eirepxe-rai 
ovv Kal yvvai^l Kal xP^lf^ aa ' t > hdOpa 8e 
ravra iron? Sxnrep \rt<rriis. 

508, B.] 


TOVTO /cat TO. avTov crvvTcwpvTa /cat TO, rfjs TroXeoj?, 

St/catocrwr; Trape'crrat /cat o-axjtpoo-vmrj TW jaa/capta) /u,e'X- 

E Xovrt ecrecrOai, OVTO) irpdrTtiv, ov/c eTTt^v/xtas e&Wa d/co- 

\ / T >/ <-\ \ 5 / 

Aaorov? ewat /cat ravra? eTTt^etpou^ra TrXrjpovv, avrjWTov 
KOLKOV, Xycrrov (3iov aWa. cure yap a> dXXa> av6pd)iT(p 
Trpo(T<l>L\r)<s av etry 6 TOIOVTOS oure 0ear Kowwvelv yap 
dSwaros* OTG> Se /U.T) eW /cou'covta, <tXta ou/c av etry. 
^>acrt 8' ot o~o<f>OL, a) KaXXt/cXet?, feat ovpavbv /cat -yyjj/ /cat 
508 #eovs /cat avOpuirovs rty Kowtoviav \ (rvve^eiv /cat <f)L\iav 
/cat /cooyuor^ra /cat <T(D(f>poa'vv'r]v /cat St/cator^ra, /cat TO 
0X0^ TOUTO 8ta ravra KOCT^OV KaXoixriv, a) eratpe, ou/c d/co- 
cr/xtav ovSe d/coXa(7tav. cru Se /aot 8o/cets ou Trpoare^eiv 
rov vovv TOVTOIS, /cat ravra cro^o? wz/, dXXct \\f)0e ere ort 
17 tcTOTi^? 17 yeco/xerpt/o) /cat ez^ ^eots /cat ev OLvO 
SvvaraL. crb cie TrAeo^e^tav otet Set^ dcr/cet^' 
yap d/xeXet?. Etev ^ e^eXey/creo? 8^ ovros 6 Xoyo? 

B ecrriv, as ou St/caiocrw^g /cat crotx^pocrv^? /crr^cret ev8at- 
p.ove<s ot evSat/xove?, Ka/cta? Se d#Xiot ot d^Xtot* ^ et ouros 

E. of tro^oQ According to Olymp. the 
Pythagoreans, and Empedocles, who said 
T^V (f>i\iav kvovv rbv ff(pcupov. Comp. Ein- 
ped. v. 94, Karst., "AXAore /ev (pt\oTijTi 
awtp^^tv' fls ev airavra, *A\\OTf S' aS 
StX* eVatTTo fyopevfjLtva vetitfos exdet, with 
ibid. V. 59, O&rtos apfjLOvlrjs irvKivif Kpv<t>y 

ireptriyfi yaltav. In the semi-Pythagorean 
system of Empedocles, *iA/o, tyiK&ri\s, 
'A^poSiVrj represented the conservative 
principle of the universe (rb SAov, o-<J)ai- 
pos), as Neros stood for the principle of 
change and dissolution. See Cic. de 
Amic. vii. The Pythagoreans, according 
to ancient tradition, first called the uni- 
verse Ktfcrjuos, and the word in that sense 
occurs in a frag, attributed to Philolaus 
ap. Stob. Eel. Phys. p. 420, i?s 85e 6 *6ff- 
pos ^ aluvos, 

508. rj Iff6rr)s rj yea)/x6Tpt/cT;1 This 
' geometric/ as djsU"g"'s^^ fmm ^PVP 
arithmetical equality (a ~ ^3). is what 
we call Equality of Klitin or Proportion 
( I & '.'. y '. 8). Aristotle, in a well- 
known passage of the Nic. Ethics, de- 
fines " distributive justice " as the ren- 
dering to each citizen according to his 
merits, adding, ttrrif &pa rb SiKaiov ava- 
\oy6v TJ . . . Ka\ovfft 5e rrjv TOIO.VTTIV 

ava\oylav -yew/xeTpi/cV o 
ev yap TTJ yfufufTpiicfj (Tvfj.fia.ivei Kal rb 
8\ov irpbs rb %\oi> Strep eitdrepov irpbs 
eKarepof, B. v. 3, 8. So Olymp., lareov 
8n TpeTy tltnv IffSTrjTfs, yfta/jifTpiicfi, 
aptdfj.r]riK-fi, ap/j.oviK-fi. Kal fj fnev yew 
fifrptK^ itr6Ti)s effriv, 8rav ava\oyia 
<pv\d.TTt)Tai . . . IffTfov 8e STJ ^ fj.ev yew- 
fj.trpia irpbs Stavofias (rvfj.Bd\\erai . . . 
Kal yap ffTparijybs \d<pvpa 5iavffj.cav arpa- 
ncarais ov iracri -rb avrb irapex ei K < 
& irotTjT^y yovv <pi)ffw 'Effd\a 
e<rO\bs eSvve, xeprja Se x ' l P ot 
StvKev (II. xiv. 382). The idea is full 
developed in the Laws, p. 757, whei 
the legislator is taught to distinguis 
between simple and proportional equality 
and to enforce the latter TV 8' a\riO 
(TTOTTjj' Kal apiffrriv \atnrrta. ovKen 
iravrl tSe'tv. Aibj yap Sfy Kpiffts e 
rff f*.fv yap fj.eiovi ir\elca rf Se e\d 
fffJ.iKp6repa veftei . . . effn yap 877 TTOV 
Kal rb iroKiriKbv i]fuv ael rovr' avrb rb 
Sixaiois. Following this rule, Lycurgus, 
according to Plutarch, "expelled from 
Lacedaemon arithmetical equality, hold- 
ing it to be democratic and levelling in 
principle, and introduced the geometric, 
as best suited to a temperate oligarchy 
and monarchy," Mor. p. 719 B, 

<fT\V 1 


134 TIAATfiNOS [508, B 

6<TTt, <TKTTTeOV Tt Ttt (TVp-ftaivOVTCL. TO, TTp6(T0V 

e'/cetW, > KaXXucXets, a-vpftaivei vravra, e<' 019 crv jae 
^ou et o-7rouSa&)v Xeyot/At, \eyovTa on Kar-qyop^reov eur) 
/cat avTOV /cat vte'os /cat eraipov, edv TL doLKrj, /cat T^ 
prjTopLKy eVt TOVTO ^pr)O~Teov. /cat a Ua)\ov alcr'xyvri 
GJOV o~vy\(t)pelv, aXr)9rj dpa r\v, TO eti>at TO aSt/cetv TOV 
dSt/cto-#at, oo-a)7rep ala-^iov, TOCTOVTO) KOLKIOV /cat TOV 
jaeXXovra op0a>s pir]TopiKov ecrecr^at Sucatoi' ayoa Set etvat 
/cat eVtoTr^aova TWV St/catwv, o av Topyiav e<f>r) ITwXo? ot 
alo~xyvr)v o/xoXoyrjcrai. 

LXIY. TOVTOIV oe ovrcos \6vT6)v, (r/cei^w/xe^a rt TTOT* 
ecrrti^ a (TV e/xot ovetSt^ets, a^>a /caXws Xeyerat "^ ov, cos 
apa ey&> ov^ otos r* elpl j3o-r)0f}(rai ovTe e/xaural ovre 
<f)t,\(t)js ovoevl ovoe TUV oi/cetwi>, ovS' e/ccrcocrat e/c 
/txeytoTcov /ctvSwcuv, ei//,t Se eTTt rep y8ouXo//.eVa> oicnrep 
ot drtjaot rov IdeXovTos, a.v re TVTTTZLV ySovX^rat, TO D 
ST) TOVTO TOU o~ou Xdyov, eTTt Koppys, edv TC 
d(f)a.Lpel(r0aL, edV TC e/c^SaXXetv e/c TT^ 
eai/ T, TO ea-\aTov, aTTOKTelvac /cat OVTCO Sta/ceto-^at 
TCOP ST) ato~^to~Tov ecrTtv, a>s 6 o~os Xoyo?. 6 Se S?) C/AO?, 
OCTTIS 7roXXa/ct9 /Aei/ ^817 eiprjTOLL, ovotv Se /ccoXvet /cat ert 
Xeyeor^at* ov fftrj/jii, a> JKaXXt/cXet?, TO TvirTecrOai lirl Kop- 

B. rb d5(/ce?j' roD oSK?(T0aj] Among first comer TOUTTI^J'TOS. Heind. quotes 

the impugners of this splendid paradox Legg. iv. 707 E, ir6-rfpov e| oTracnjs 

is Aristides Rhet., whose spirited hut KP^TTJS 6 *6t\<av . . . ov ydp irov rbv 

wordy tirade is to be found, T. iii. p. 103, Bov\6nev6i> ye "E.\\4)viav avi>dytTf : and 

ed. Cant. In his Epist. ad Capitonem Stallb. a passage from Xen. Anab. i. 4, 

(ibid. p. 533) he produces with great #ira>s /j.^irore %TI effrai eirl -r<f a.$e\(pip. 

glee a, passage from the Laws (829 A) Add Rep. v. 460 A, rb ir\rj0os TUV ydfj.<oi> 

which he conceives to be inconsistent ^irl rots &pxov<ri TrotTJiroftei'. 

with the doctrine laid down in the D. -rb^eaviKby $k ToDro'l'To quote 

Gorgias. that^p]rTtS_phrasiiJj-y<prs7 Callicles 

c. Kol rbv IJLC \\OVTO] This passage is had apologized for tlie roughness of the 

quoted with approbation by Quintilian, expression : elf ri Kal aypoiKSrepov elprj- 

ii. 15, 28. ffffai, eeVTii> eirl K6pprjs rvirrovrd (re 

ft crb t/jiol ovetSlteis'] He refers to the K.T.X., p. 486 c, where see the note. Socr. 

warning of Callicles, p. 486. Presently, softens down the &ypou<ov of Callicles 

in elfjil 8' tirl ry ^ov\onev<f, &mrep ol into vea.viK.6v, 'bold,' 'smart.' In apolo- 

&TI/J.OI TOV eOeKovTos, Hirsch. brackets gizing for the vigour of his own Ian- 

TOV ^6e\ovros as an interpolation. But guage, he presently adopts the stronger 

the pleonasm is surely not unexampled, epithet aypoiKorepov, inf. 509 A. veaviKov 

The two phrases mean of course the same is one of those epithets which may imply 

thing I am at the mercy, or in the power either praise or censure ; and on that 

of any one who chooses to molest me, account commends itself to an elpwv 

just as an outlaw is at the mercy of the such as Socr. was. 

509, B.] 



dSt/coj? aicr^LcrTOV elvai, ovSe ye TO Te/xz>eo~$at ovre 
E TO o~oi/xa TO efiov OVT TO f$a.\\dvTiov, dXXcl TO TUTTTCIV 
/cat e/xe /cat TO, e/xct dSt/cwg /cat re^vew /cat ato~^tov /cat 
/cd/ctov, /cat K\6TTTLV ye <x/xa /cat dj>Spa7roStea-#ai /cat 
Tot^wpv^eu' /cat crv\\tjj33r)v OTLOVV d8t/cetv /cat e/xe /cat TO- 
e/xd TO> dSt/coiWt /cat /cd/ctov Kat ato-^to^ elVat ^ e/xot T<W 
dStKOU/xeVcw. TavTa i^/xti; di>a> e/cet eV Tots irpocrOe Xdyots 
509 OVTW fyavevroi, a>s eya> Xeyu, /caTe^CTat /cat Se'SeTat, | /cat 
et dypoiKorepov TL etTretv ecrTt, crtS^pot? /cat dSajota^Tt^ots 
Xoyot?, as yov^ av So^etev OVTOMTLV, ovs crv et /XT) Xvo~ets 
^ o~ov Tts veavLKMTepos, ov^ otoi' Te dXXws XeyovTa ^ 0*5 
eyw vvv Xe'yw /caXai? Xeyetv eTret e/xotye 6 avTo? Xoyo? 

act, OTI 



, axrirep vvv, ovSets otos T* Icrrlv dX- 
Xa>9 Xe'ywv tt^ ou /caTaye / Xao~TO9 eti'at. e'yw 

ravra OVTWS e)(etv. et 8e OVT&JS e^et Kat 

ow au 


/ca/caif eo~Ttv T) dSt/cta TW dSt/cowTt /cat eTt TOVTOU 
et olof Te, TO dSt/cov^Ta x^ S 

TtVa a 

/caTaye'Xao'Tos cti> T^ dX-^^eta 117 ; dyj' ou Tavrrjv 

TT]v fMyLCTTr]v ^/xoiz/ fiXd/Brjv ; dXXd 

occurs in the Bodl., and is retained by 
Bekk. and Hirsch., though condemned 
as un -Attic by Lobeck, Phryn. p. 284. 
The constant occurrence of -irp6ff6e in the 
comic poets, in places where the metre 
forbids irpdcrGfv, makes it unlikely that 
it would grate on Athenian ears when 
occurring in prose. 

509. us yovi> Uv 86fiei> ovraxrlv'] ' as 
would seem, at any ~Tatfi on K~pri-md 
_/V/c?'e_view ;' that is, unless proved__to be 

B. iroAAJ? ai/^/cj^ ra.ini]v] 'It cannot 
fail but tEat this is the power it is most 
shamefuT to be without the poweFof 
rendering aid' &c. ravrriy t. rrjv ala-xTtr. 
fio-fiO. is put by 'attraction' tor TOVTO 
flvat aZa-xicfrov, pi) Sv^acrOai f$oi}Qfiv. 
Properly it is not the /Stcrjfleio but its 
absence which is disgraceful rj ai(rx'i<rTT) 
dSu^ayuio TOI" jSuTjfltij', as Heind. puts it. 
The most disgraceful form of helpless- 
ness is, not to be able, after wrong done, 

E. TOUTO ^/iiv Si/w] ' These state- 
ments, which were before shown in the 
course of our past discussion to be as I 
say, arc, however uncouth the expression 
may sound (however harsh the meta- 
phor), held firmly and tied fast by a 
chain of argument strong as iron or as 
adamant.' The expression &v<a e'/ce? could 
not have been introduced by way of 
gloss upon the more usual ^c TO?S vp&ffQe 
\6yois, as Hirsch., who brackets them, 
would seem to imagine. The conclusion 
Socr. has just drawn (eV0t5e) had been 
shown ^Ke7, in another place, farther 
back in the discussion, to follow from the 
premisses. It is conceivable that ev T. 
vp. \. may have been added as a mar- 
ginal explanation of &v<a ?, as e/t- 
irpoffQfv occasionally appears after vvv S'fi 
when it is not wanted : but on this I do 
not insist, as the redundancy is not with- 
out its rhetorical effect in the present 
instance. irp6<rOe for the vulg. trp6adtv 



[509, B 

re KCU 

EIV fj,t]T avTw ftrjTe Tot9 <XVTOV <tXot9 TC Kal ot/ceiot9, 
SevTepai> Se TT)I> TOV SevTepov /caKOv /cat TpiTijv rrjv TOV G 
TpiTov Kal TaXXa ovTW9, a>9 e/cdcrTov /ca/cov /xe / ye^o9 irefivKev, 
OVTO) Kal /cdXXo9 TOV SvvaTov eu>at e<^>' e/cacrTa /So^^etv /cat 
ato-^vVr; TOV /xr;. apa dXX<w9 ^ ovTa>9 e^et, a) 

KAA. OVK aXXco9. 

LXV. 5*/2. Jvott' ow OVTOIV, TOV dSi/cetv 
d,St/cero~^at, jaeroi> /tei/ <f>afJLv KaKov TO aoiKeiv, 
Se TO dSt/cetcr^at. Tt ovV av 7rapao-/cevao-a/xevo9 aj 

TC aV6 TOV /XT) dSt/cetv Kat T?)I> aTro TOV ^17 D 
; TTOTepa Swa/xtv 77 ySovX^at^ ; aiSe Se Xeyw 
TroTepov ecb> JUT) ySovXr^Tat, dSt/cetcr^at, ov/c dSt/ci^creTat, 77 
ear Svj/a/xtv Trapacr/cevdcr^Tat TOV /XT) dSi/ceuj#at, 

this argument, referred to the effect of 
a man's conduct on his spiritual nature, 
and this is a matter to which the con- 
sideration of judicial penalties is in 
reality irrelevant. Plato's reasoning 
involves the principle of punishment ' pro 
salute animae,' which he avows in more 
places than one, but nowhere perhaps so 
distinctly as in the Laws, viii. 862 D, E. 
The ' medicinal ' nature of punishment 
is recognized also by Arisfc. Eth. N. ii. 
3, 4, (at Ko\d<reii) larptud rives fiviv. 

C. rl oliv fay 7rapa(r/cei/a<ra|U.ej'os] A 
new question is here started : wrong- 
doing and wrong-suffering being evils, 
and wrong-doing a greater evil than 
wrong-suffering, how is a man to pro- 
cure himself the advantage of exemption 
from either ? As regards the former it 
is argued that, inasmuch as no man does 
wrong willingly, his wrong-doing must 
be due to want of power, not to want of 
will to avoid it. He must therefore 
procure this power or art by instruction 
and exercise by such discipline, we may 
suppose, as we find prescribed in the 
Republic. But to avoid suffering wrong 
there are but two methods possible : 
either a man must make himself absolute 
ruler in the state, or else he must make 
friends with those in power (inf. 510) : 
and that can only be done by making 
himself like them (ibid. E). He who 
succeeds in doing this is safe; he who 
refuses is in jeopardy every hour. 

to render oneself up to justice : the 
second, not to be able to preserve oneself 
from doing wrong : the third, to be 
unable to defend self or friends from 
wrong done by others. This paradox of 
course must rest on the principle that 
punishment, and nothing besides punish- 
Anent, has a medicinal effect upon the 
/ offender : which being granted, it follows 
/ that it is, if possible, worse for a man to 
I ' continue in sin ' by escaping punishment, 
than to sin in the first instance ; and that 
if worse, it is more disgraceful. The fal- 
lacy seemstojie_in_th^_assumption that a 
I man has HcTother means~0f p"uHfying his 
I soul from the taint of wickedness than 
I that implied in the words $i$6vai Sixriv. 
For though 5tS<!i/ai SiKriv might admit the 
milder meaning of ' making amends ' to 
the person injured, that is not Plato's 
meaning here. Again, it can by no means 
be conceded that the shame of not per- 
forming an act of heroic virtue is pro- 
portional to the glory of performing 
it, as the sequel would seem to im- 
ply. Shame and glory are rather in 
inverse than direct proportion in such 
cases : for it is never glorious to perform 
an act which it is very disgraceful to 
omit. No one, for instance, ever thought 
himself a hero for supporting his wife 
and family, or again, for abstaining from 
murder or theft. Nor does any stain rest 
on the Roman name, because Curtius 
alone dared to leap into the gulf. But 
the words ita.K6v and 0706^1', as used in 

510, B.] TOPTIAZ. 137 

KAA. ArjKov ST) TOVTO ye, ort ecti/ SvVajuti>. 

Sft. Tt Se Brj TOV dSt/cetv ; norepov lav /XT) ySovX^Tat 

dSt/ceu', t/cawf TOVT' icnlv ou yap dSt/aycret, ^ /cat 

E eVt TOVTO Set SvVa/xtv Twa /cat T)(Viqv 7rapao~/cevdo~ao~#at, 

a9, eav /XT) /x,d#i7 aura /cat dcr/crycr^, dSt/CTjcrei ; Tt ov/c 

avTO ye' /xot TOVTO aireKpiva), a> KaXXt/cXets, TroVepoV crot 

So/cov/xev op0a)S a,i'ay/cacr0T}vat o/ioXoyetv eV rot? 

(T0ev Xoyot? eyw re Kat UaiXos ^ ov, rjviKa w 

/SouXo/xevov d8t/cetv, dXX' a/co^ras TOUS d 
a,8t/cetv ; 
510 KAA. "Eo-TO) crot TOVTO, co ^w/c/oaTe?, OVTOJ?, | tva 


Xat eVt TOVTO apa, a>5 eot/ce, Trapao~Kevao~Tov 
ecrTi Svt'a/Atv Ttva /cat Te^vrjv, OTTW? JLIT) a,St/O7O"o/xev. 
KAA. Jlavv ye. 

TTOT' ecrTt T)(vr) TT)? Trapacr/cevTjs TOU 
17 a? 6Xtyto~Ta ; o~/cet/fat et o"ot So/cet 
e/xot. e/xot yxei^ yap So/cet i^Se' 77 O.VTOV ap^etv Seti/ 
eV TT} TrdXet ij /cat Tvpavvelv, fj TTJS virap^ovcr^ TroXtTetas 


KAA. 'Opa?, w ^(OKpctTes, a>s eyw IVot/xds et/zt 
, aV Tt /caXai? Xeyys ; TOVTO jaot SoKets irdvv /caXai? 

LXVI. 5*/2. ^/covret 8^ /cat ToSe eav crot So/cw eu 
Xeyetv. ^>tXos //.ot So/cet e/cao~Tos e/cao~Tw eti/at a>s otov TC 

/xdXtcTTa, ovirep ot TraXatot T Kat cro<^ot Xeyouo~tJ', 6 
o/xotos TO) 6/xoiw. ov /cat o~ot; 

E. /iT)8Vo &ov\6/j.(i>ov oSiKeTv] Olymp., with the fut., not with the conj. The 

^ToCOo ava^aij'eTtu IlAoTa>ct/cJ>j' 5J"yjuo, reason is obvious : 3irws in such a 

rJ> \tyov OTL vdvra TO a/xopr^ara d/cou- context retains its original sense ' quo- 

rii fffTiv . . . Kal tan irapaSo^ov. The modo.' So inf. D, wopacrKeua^fj^ Sirws 

airopfat suggested by this paradox are 8 T fj.d\iffra '6fj.oios fffrai tKtivq. 513 A, 

discussed at length Legg. ix. 861 sqq. opa . . oircos /u$) Trftcr6/j.f0a, where the 

510. Sioirepdi/Tj] The Bodl. and one codd. give the solecistic form Trncrc>fj.e0a 

other have Siairtpoyfj. Edd. SiaTrepaijJy. (for ira0w/xe>'). 

The middle aor. is sufficiently common, B. ot ira\aiol re KOI ffoQof] So in the 

and here, perhaps, better than the active. Lysis this trite proverb is said to be 

Kal eitl TOVTO STTCBS /UTJ &5K7j- found " in the writings of the very wise," 

ffofiev"] Codd. aSiKriffia/uiev, corr. Heind. who it would seem are ot irepl "Ofj.rjpov. 

The correction was indispensable. Such Od. xvii. 218, o>s alel rbv o^oiov &yti flebs 

verbs as bpav, (TKOTT^V, irapaa-Kfvdfciv, us rbv 8fj.oiov. Aristotle gives a list of 

UrixavaaOai, &c., are followed by OJTWS proverbs with this meaning. Rhet. i. 



[510, B 


. OVKOVV OTTOV rvpavvos eaTW ap-^a)v aypios /cat 
To?, et rts TOVTOV eV TT; TroXet TTO\V fiekritov ei-rj, 
<f>oj3oiTo SryTrou av avrbv 6 rvpavvos /cat TOVTO) e aVai'TOS 
TOV vov OVK av irore Swatro <tXos yevt&Bai ; 
KAA. *Ecrrt raura. 

/2. OuSe ye et rt? TroXv ^>avXorepos etTj, ouS* ai> 
ovYos' /carac^povot yap a> aurov 6 rvpavvos /cat ou/c aV 

KAA. Kat rauT* a 

2fi. yletVerat ST) e/cei^o? /xoVo? d^to? Xoyou <^)t 
rotovro), 05 at' 6p.oTJ0r)<; <Z>v, ravra ifjeyuv /cat eT 
0eXr) ayo^ecr^at /cat vvro/cetcr^at rw apyovTi. ouros jaeya 
ei/ ravrr) rfj TroXet Sv^crerat, TOVTOV ovSets aiiwv aSt- D 
/cifcret. ov^ ovrws 

11. 25, a>s ^Aif ^}XiKO Tfpvfi, Kal &s 
alel rbi> '6/Jioiov, Kal eyvta Se 0);p 
Oypa, na.1 a.fl KoAotbs irapa K0\oi6v. 
But ' birds' of this ' feather' are heard in 
all languages. 

Ou/coOj/ O'TOV rvpawoy] These words 
have been supposed to contain a covert 
allusion to a passage in Plato's private 
history; his sojourn at the court of 
Dionysius I., and its disastrous termina- 
tion. If this is so, this dialogue must 
have been composed after B.C. 388. But 
the epithet airaiSevros is hardly applica- 
ble to a man of such literary accomplish- 
ments as the elder Dionysius, who is 
moreover credited with <ro0i'a by Plato 
himself, and contrasted in that respect 
with his successor, Ep. vii. 332 c, D. 
And in any case the supposition is gra- 
tuitous : for Plato had enjoyed ample 
opportunities of acquainting himself with 
the characteristics of the rvpavvos even 
before he left Athens. See the same 
Epistle, p. 324 D. 

C. Kal TOVTCI) e| a.] 'And to him, the 
tyrant, he, the virtuous man, could never 
in his heart of hearts be a friend.' That 
there is this change of subject in the 
sentence appears from the next prjffts of 
Socr., where the implied predicate to 
oSroy is OVK &v SUKIITO $. yev. Parallel 
instances are accumulated by Heind. and 
Stallb., the latter referring to Liv. i. 50, 

"Ne id quidem ab Turno tulisse taciturn 
ferunt [sc. Tarquinium] ; dixisse enim 
[h. e. Turnum] Nullam breviorem esse 
cognitionem " &c., where the student will 
find the notes in Drakenborch's ed. worth 
attention. In Greek a good instance is 
that in Rep. ii. p. 359 E, TOVTOV Se yevo- 
p.fvov aipavri avrbv yeveaBai (sc. rbv 
Tvyriv) TOLS irapaKa.Oiri/j.ei'ois, Kal Sia\f- 
yf<r6ai &s irtpl ol^op-fvov (sc. TOWS irapa- 

&s irpbs tyi\ov tnrovSda'ftfi''] As airovfti) 
denotes warmth, earnestness, <nrov5d.fiv 
irpA'i nva. (comp. Lat. ' studere alicui '), 
signifies esteem, affection, or attachment. 
In Rep. iii. 403 c, we find irpbs '6v TIS 
o"n-ov$doi said of the attachment of an 
fpaffT-f]s. The tyrant might amuse him- 
self in the society of a man worse than 
himself, but could never feel for him the 
esteem and affection due to a friend. 

OUTOJ /j.tya TOVTOV ouSefj] So Per- 
sius, Sat. ii. 37, " Hunc optent gene- 
rum rex et regina, puellae Hunc rapiant, 
quicquid calcaverit hie rosa fiat." Comp. 
the double eKtivos in Eur. Bacch. 243, 
fKtlvos flvai Qriffi AiSvvffov Oe6i/, 'E/cs?^os 
eV nrjpy TTOT' fpf>a<p8ai At6s, where the 
repetition implies contempt instead of 
honour. Presently ravTy rfj ir6\tt re- 
fers not to Athens, but to the ir6\is 
'6irav>6s effTiv ap\cov K.T.\. snp. B. 

5ii, A.] 



El apa Tts evvotjo-eicv ev Tavrrj ry TrdXet 
, Tiva OLV rpoTTOv lyai peya Swat/A^i' /cat ^rySets JLLC 
ir), avTij, a>? eot/cev, avrw 6Sds eo-Ttv, evOvs e/c veov 
avTov rot? avrots ^atpetv /cat a^Becrdai TOJ 8e- 
oTr), /cat Trapacr/ceua^etv OTTWS o Tt /naXicrra O/AOIOS ecrrat 
Kiv(t>. ov^ ovrtus ; 

K^. JVat. 

E /2. OVKOVV rourw TO /u,e^ /x^ dStKetcr^at /cat 
L, a? 6 v/xerepos Xoyo?, e^ r^ TroXet 
Hdvv el 


^4/>' ovv /cat TO /XT) dSt/cetv ; -^ TroXXov Set, etrrep 
ecrTat TW apyovri OVTI dSt/cw /cat irapa 
Swr^creTat ; dXX' oipai eywye, Trai/ rovvavriov 
17 TrapacTKevr) eo~Tat avTw eTTt TO otw TC etvat a>s 7rXeto~Ta 
dSt/cetv /cat dStKov^Ta /x^ StSoi'at St/cry^. 



TOV Seo~77OTov /cat 
KAA. OVK otS* 

/cat Kara), a 

E. is 6 vpfTtpos \($7os] 'As you and 
your frteuds would say.' Tfalsrefers 
especially to ^^'70 Sui'oo-flot, which Socr. 
himself would of course refuse to pre- 
dicate of the person described. Sup. 
466 B, t\dxiffT6v fioi SoKovffi rS>v tv 
TTJ ir6\fi tivvcurBai ol gropes. But the 
general doctrine that in order to rise in 
a state it is necessary to share the spirit 
or ^0os which animates such state was a 
commonplace both with philosophers 
and orators. So Demosth. c. Androt. 
p. 613 ( 79), rbv virfp ir6\eus irpdr- 
Tovrd TI Set rb rrjs ir6\f(as $6os /ii/ne?- 
<rdat. Compare Timocr. p. 753, where 
the bright side of the Athenian ijflos is 
exhibited. Isocr. Nicocl. 21 A, -rb rfjs 
ir6\e<us 8\t)s %9os 6/j.oiovrai TO?J &p- 
Xovffiv, is the converse of the proposition. 

5a7reirpa|Tat] 'will have been 
achieved :' i. e. after he has thus schooled 
himself into sympathy with the ruling 
powers, he, the aspirant just mentioned, 
will have attained to the much-coveted 

(TTpe<f)ei<5 e/cao~Tore Tot>9 Xoyov? 
rj OVK olcrBa OTL OVTOS 6 

power and security from wrong. In the 
Laws, viii. 829, we read, rb yuei/ (u^/ 
dStfctri/) ou iroj/u x a ^- 69r ^ J 'j T v 8e /i^ 
a.Siict'io-Oa.i *cT^<ra<r0cu Svva/j.iv ira.yx L ^ f - 
irov, ical OVK tffnv avrb re\fws ff^tlv 
&\\o>s t) re\fcas yfv6/j.vov ayaQ&v. In 
the sequel of this passage the principle 
is applied to international relations, in a 
manner not uninteresting to the citi- 
zens of a non-intervening state. 

o1(a re tlvai Kal aSiKovvrci] The 
change of case is justified by 492 B, 
e'irei yf ols e opxijs virrj^ev ^ fSaffiKfuiv 
vifffiv fJvai fy avrovs rfj (pvfffi luavovs 
K.T.A.. Of the MSS., however, one gives 
oUv re, and several aSmovvrt. The same 
variation is found 525 B, ^ fieK-riovi 
yiyvecrOat . . . ^ irapaSeiyfiaTi (al. irapd- 
Seiyfid) rols SAA.OI* yiyveffBai. 

511. ^ OVK olaQa 2rt] 'or do you need 
to be told that our imitator will slay 
your non-imitator, if he have a mind, 
and will spoil his goods?' 6 /ziyuou/tej'os 
is transitive, though foolishly supposed to 

140 IIAATflNOS [511, A 

TOV fir) fJiifiov/JLevov eKevov oLTTOKTeve, av 
, /cat d<f>aipijcreTaL TO, ovra ; 

OlSa, &> y yade KaXXt/cXet?, el JUT) /cax^os y et/xt, B 

/cat crou aKovuv /cat ITajXou dyort TroXXd/cis /cat TWV aXXwv 

6XtyOV TTOLVTCDV TO)V l> TT) TToXet. dXXd /Cat (7V C/XOV O.KOV6, 

OTL airoKTevel fjiev, a> ySovXiyrat, dXXd Trovypos &v Ka\bv 
Kayadov OVTCL. 

KAA. OVKOVV TOVTO or) /cat TO dyava/cr^roV ; 
/2. Ou vow ye e^ovn, a)<s 6 Xoyos cr^ati'et. ^ otet 
Setv TOVTO 7ra/>acr/cei>aecr#at avBpwirov, a>s TrXetcrrov 
vo^ ^t', /cat fj,e\eTav ra? re^vas rauras at i^/xas del e/c 
Kiv$vv<0v (Tto^ovcnv, cocnrep KOI fjv (TV KcXevets e/ae 

p-rjTopiKyv Trjv ev rot? 8t/cacrr^ptots Stacrco^ovcrav ; 
KAA. Nal JJLCL AC op0a)$ ye crot (rvfJifiovXevaiv. 
LXYII. ^/Z. Tt Se', a) /8e'Xrto-re ; ^ /cat 17 TOV velv 
torri7//,^ (rep.vrj TL<S croi So/cet el^at ; 
KAA. Ma .JT ov/c e)aotye. 

Kat /XT)V crtu^et ye Kat aurry e/c OavaTov TOV$ 
, oTav etg rotovrov ep^Trecrwo'iv ov Set ravrry? 
et 8' avTTj crot 8o/cet cr/xt/cpd elvat, eyw 

crot /met^ova Taur^? epai, TT)V KvfiepvrjTiKtjv, rj ov JJLOVOV D 
rets i/jv^as crw^et dXXa /cat TO, cro^ara /cat ra 

be passive by Thomas Mag., in v. pifiov- it does not therefore follow that it is a 

juai, as if it referred to Tiipavvos the liberal or dignified art. Exaggerated as 

person imitated. The imitator will this may seem, Plato's deliberate con- 

have this power, are futya. Svva.iJ.tvos tv victions pointed this way. Thus in the 

rfj ir6\ei. Laws, his latest work, he says, " The 

B. OVKOVV TOVTO 5^] Germ. Tr. " 1st union of soul and body is in no wise a 

nun nicht eben das das Emporende P " better thing than their dissolution, as I 

" And is not this the very thing that should say, and that with perfect serious- 

makes one so indignant?" viz. that a ness." And accordingly he enjoins that 

/j.oxGrip6s should take the life of a Ka\bs public honours be paid to Pluto every 

KayaOos? This is the sense required in twelfth month, adding, Kal ov 5urx- 

order to give point to Socr.'s reply. The pavrtov TTO\/J.IKO'IS avOptairots rbv roiov- 

' irrisio ' which Ast and Stallb. discover TOV Qf6v, a\\a T IV.T\T iov ws 6vra del T<$ 

is out of place here, for Callicles was ra>v a.v6p<airo>v ytvei &PI<TTOV, 828 C, D. 
quite earnest in the warning he addressed D. ov U.OVQV TOS 4"^X" y f^C 6 '] Oly m P-> 

to Socr. Coinp. 486 B, Kart)y6pov TVX&V tyvx&s vvv Kate? ras (cads. True, no 

trdvv <f>av\ov Kal ^ox^J/poD, airo6dvots &v, doubt; but what becomes of the anti- 

et jSouAoiro Bavdrou aroi n^aaQai. thesis a\\a Kal ra (rca/Aara ? This refers 

^ otei Seiv TOI/TO] Socr. proceeds to to the ' bodies ' of other members of the 

show, with an affectation of inductive passenger's family Trcugqy Kal^ryvvouKas 

reasoning, that if forensic rhetoric has named presently after. \Thie' pilots art 

the life-preserving power claimed for it, saves not only the lives of passengers, 

512, A.] 


e/c TOJV oyrw Kwvvwv, atcnrep rj prjTopLK]. /cat avrrj 
TrpocrecrraX/AeVT} ecrrt /cat /cocr/xta, Kal ov cre^vvverai 

rt StaTr^arro/xeV^, ctXXa 


crtoa'r}, olfJLai Su' 6/3oXovs eirpd^aro, lav Se 
^ e/c rov Tlovrov, lav Trdfj^roXv TavTr)? TT^S /AeydX^s ev- 
E epyecrta?, trwcrao"' a vvv ST) eXeyov, /cat avrbv /cat TratSa? 
/cat ^pyjjjiaTa /cat yvvat/cas, aTrofiifidcraar et? TOV XtjuteVa 
Svo Syaa^/xa? TrpdaTo, /cat auro? 6 e>(a> TT)V Te^vrjv Kal 
Tavra SLaTTpa^duevos e/cy8as Trapa TT)^ OdXaTrav /cat T^V 
vavi' TreptTraret > jMerptw cr^^art. Xoyt^ecr^at ya/3, 
ot/xat, eTTtcrrarat ort aSr^Xov ecrrti^ ovcrrtvas re ax^eX^/ce 
o-v[JiTT\e6vT(i)v ovK ectcra? KaTaTrovTtoOT}vai Kat ovcrrtva? 

512 oot 


i>/3'r)crav ) ovre ra cr<w/xara ovre ra? t/iii^a?. Xoyt^e- 
ort ov/c, et jLteV TIS /xeyaXot? /cat dvtarots voo"r]- 

but the persons and chattels belonging 
to them. 

7rpo(r(TTaAjueV7j] Said properly of a 
close-fillllJy, dituu vuL-Lis appressa cor- 
pori or ol 1 yklu or other iulegument 
which adheres tightly to the body. 
Galen, vpoff<rTf\\Tai rep \p<aT\ ri Arist. Hist. An. 9, #pl irpoere- 
(TTaA/teVr;. Hence in its applied sense 
irpoffeffT. = plain, humble, modest. 
ffvve<rTa.\/>os is used: hi nearly the 
same manner, as Isocr. p. 280 D, o-wt- 
<rra\fitmtv t^uv T}\V Stdvotav, Sxrirep XP^I 
TOUS ev <t>povovvras. Opposed to oy/caJSTjs 
or eVox^s. 

ou ffffj.vvi'tTai ^ffxrjfj.aTio'ij.fVT^] ' She 

(does not plume herself on her perform- 
ance, making believe that it is some 
dazzling achievement.' Tim. GL, O-XTJ- 
j t*a,Ti6nf>>os, irpoairoiovp.fvos. Phaedr. 
255 A, oi>x vnb a'xrjfiaTi^'ov TOW 
tpiavTos oAA' oATjflais TOVTO ireirovQ6ros. 
1 Ach. Tat. p. 148, OKKI^TJ /col o"X7?M aT 'C?? 
I irpby a-K^voiav. ' Your mincing and affec- 
tation are intolerable. 5 

8u' oo\ovs] This very modest fare 
' had been greatly increased in Lucian's 
, time. Navig. 15, s AXyivav eirl r^v TTJS 
'Ei-oSiaj Te\(Tr]v . . . Travrfs oi <pi\ot 
1 TTTa,p<ai> fKaarros ojSoA.wj' SjeirAev- 
l (ra./j.ei>. Here, on the contrary, the two 
I oboli are paid for the entire party. See 
| Boeckh. Staatsh. i. p. 166, 2te Ausg. 

rd/j.iro\v TOI/T'JJS- TTJS fi.eyd\ris evtp- 
Supply vpdrrr]rat, and comp. 
Eriphus, Com. ap. Athen. 84 B, roimav o&o\6i', el iro\v, rlBrint. Also Apol. 
26 D, ef(mv, ft iravv iro\\ov, SpoxM^s 
irpiaufvois K.T.\. The utmost she ever ' 
asks for this great service is two drachms, 
for saving the good-man, his children, 
his money, and his womankind, tv 
/Afrpitp ffxiifucni, ' with unassuming car- 
riage,' without pomp or parade. <rx^/" n > 
as Stallb. points out, is not 'vestitus/ 
but 'habitus;' 'port,' 'bearing,' 'general 
aspect.' So Soph. Ant., Kal fi tvpavvov 
axw *X Ct "'' Lucian, Timon, c. 54, oSros 
6 rb ffx^fii tvffTa\4}s, Kal Krfcr/uios rb 
^dSiffua, Kal ffutppofiKbs r^v avafto\fiv. 

512. Aoyi'^erat olv Sn ou/c] The nega- 
tive belongs properly to the second limb 
of the sentence, Tovrcp Se Ruareov l<rri. 
The meditative skipper cannot tolerate 
the inconsistency of supposing that if a 
man labouring under an incurable bodily 
disease had better perish at sea and have 
done with it, one whose soul is a mass 
of vice and corruption ought to live 
on, and will be greatly the better for 
his preserver's exertions. Hirsch. un- 
accountably brackets OVK, but Stallb. 
properly compares 516 E, O&KOVV ol ye 
ayaOol yvlox 01 Ka ' r ' apx,as fj.ev OVK fKiriir- 
rovcriv K Ttav fvya>v, eireiSav Se 0tpa- 
jrevffcaffi TOVS Imrovs . . . TOT' e/cirnrroi/ert. 



[512, A 

/xacrt Kara TO <ro>/xa crvv)(opevo? /XT arreTn'tyri, ovro? /x> 

*/l\ / v > >'Z) \\e'v9i/ 

ac/Xtos ecrrtv on ou/c aTrefave, /cat ovoei' VTT avrov &><pe- 
et Se rts ayoa eV TO> row crco/xaros Tt/xtwrepw, rr} 
TO ^-^ ^oo~T7/xara e^et /cat aVtara, TOVTCO Se ftuoTeov 
eVrt /cat TOVTOV owijcreiev, aV re e/c $aXaTTTi<j <Lv re e/c 
St/cao-TTiptov aV T aX\o0ev biroOevovv (ra>crr), dXX' oTSe*> 
ort ov/c a/xetvoV eo~rt ^^ rw fjio^Orjpa) av0pa)ira>' /ca/cw? B 
ya/3 avdyKT) ecrrt 7p. 

LXVIII. ^lia ravra ou VO/AOS ecrrt creaywecr^at rov 

KvfiepivJT'rjv, KaiTrep autflVTa i^/xas. ovSe ye, <S 0avp,dcri, 

rov iMrrva^oTTOLoy, 6s cure arTpaTrjyov, /XT) ort KvfiepvrfTov, 

.. f i ovre aXXov ovSevos eXarra) evtore Sut'arat crceJ^etv TrdXets 

0(t^ y^p eo-rtv ore oXa? crw^et. /XT^ crot So/cet /ca,Tfl u jrov 8t/ca- 

' We cannot suppose that skilful drivers, 
who are not thrown out when their team 
is raw, will he unable to keep their foot- 
ing when driving well-broken steeds.' 
In rovry tie fiitareov 

" thai'c is appureuny a^change 
im. 18 c, 

ai'c is appureuny 
tnrgBIique, as Ti 

VIKOV elvai ; /catrot et ySouXotro Xeyetv, ai KaX\t/cXet, a7re/> 
v/xets, (jtpvvvwv TO TTyoay/xa, /cara^wcrete^ av v/xa? rots 
Xoyot9, \eywv /cat TrapaKaktov eirl TO oelv yiyveo-6ai fjurj- 
^avoTTOtovg, a>9 ^o^Sg^ TaXXa eorTiv t/caws yap avra> 6 
Xoyo?. dXXa o~u ovSev 77x70 v avrov /caTa^pot'ets /cat 
TS cKeivov, /cat a>s eV ot'etSet aTro/caXecrat? ai^ 

of a mere advocate?' Symp. 211 D, 
t> (sc. avrb rb Ka\bv) t&v irore ISys, ov 
/caret ^pvcriov re Kal fffOfjra Kal TOVS 
Ka\ols 7ra?5os Kal veaviaxovs S6ei <roi 

C. licavbs yap avrcp 6 \6yos~] Germ. 
Tr. "denn an Griinden wiirde es ihm 
nicht fehlen." Better than Stallb.'s 
" Nam larga ei dicendi copia." \6yos is 
the theme or argument taken up by 
the supposed engineer, who will find 
plenty to say about it. We might say 
" his theme is a fruitful one." In the 
previous clause there is an apparent 
pleonasm, M rJ> 5e<V yiyveaQat for firl 
rb yiyvfffBai. Tr. ' arguing and preach- 
ing up the duty of becoming engineers 
no other profession being worth any 

ws &< ovetSfi awoKa\f(rats &V] The 
comp. curo/faAejV generally implies the 
&s ev ovelSft, as Theaet. 168 D, x a P lf "~ 
THTfibv airoKa\>i'. Demosth. F. L. p. 417, 
Koyoypcupovs -roivvv Kal ffotytiTTas OTTO- 
'/caA.a-j/ TOUS &\\ovs Kal v/3pifti> Ttftpta- 
Htvos, avrbs e|eAe7%0?j(rerai TOVTOIS Siv 
evoxos. So in Xenophon, Sophocles, 
Euripides. But in the spurious Sisyphus 

W)(a v<a ! J - el ' os TTCOS (UTjes rb yfyevfi^vov 
yvaffono, vojj.iovffi 5e iravrts /c.T.A. 
Conversely Menex. 240 D, 5j5a<r/ca\oj . . . 
ytj'iJyuej'oi, OTJ OUK &/iaxos ettj 7] Hepffuv 


. So Stallb., but he translates 
as if it were potential, 'juvari 
In which case we must read 
&v, or &/ bv{]<reifv, as Heind. 
suggests. I am not aware of any certain 
instance in Attic prose of the omission of 
&v, where the so-called optative is evi- 
dently potential. That quoted in Heind.'s 
note is not in point, being an ordinary 
case of oratio obliqua. Rep. 352 c, 
quoted by Kiihner (Jelf, Gr. Gr. 426, 
Obs. 1), is equally wide of the mark, for 
there the &v is merely not repeated. 

B. f>-4[_ tta^^^nKf'L Ktifa. T}>V S^aviit^i/ 


Ielroi] ' You would not think of bring- 
ing him, the engineer, down to the level 

512, E.] 


vavoTTOtoV, Kat T&> vtet avTou OVT* av Sowai 6vyo.Tf.po, 

j/j/\ * > * >\ ** \ O ^ v ' ' 

et/eXoi9, OVT ay auTO9 TO> o~avTou Aapetv TT^y CKetyou. 
KatVot e o5y TO, cravToO eVatyet9, Ttyt StKatw Xoyw TOU 

D yoy ; oTS' ort <at779 ay /SeXTtwy etyat Kat CK /3eXTtoyojy. 
TO Se pYXTtoy et /LIT) eo~Tty o eyat. Xeyw, dXX' avTo TOUT* 
eo-Tty dptTij, TO croj^etv O.VTOV Kat TO, eavTou o^Ta 61x0109 
Tt9 eVv^e, KaTaye / XacrTO9 o~ot 6 t//oyo9 ytyveTat Kat /xr^^a- 
yoTrotov Kat laTpov Kat TWV dXXajv T.^yo)v, ocrat TOU o~oij- 
^ety eVeKa TreTrotTpTai. dXX', a) juaKapte, opa /AT) dXXo Tt 
TO ye^yatov Kat TO dyaObv y TOV <rute.iv TC Kat o~w^eo~^at. 
,T) yap TOUTO /xeV, TO ^y oTroaovST) xpovov, TOV ye a>9 
dVSpa laTeov eo~Tt Kat ov <^i\o^v\f]Tlov } dXXa 
eVtTpe'i//ayTa irept TOVTUV TW ^ew Kat Trto-TevaayTa Tat9 
oTt TT)^ et/xap/xeVm' ouo' ay 4t^~K(j>vyoi, TO evrt 

8<a rb y?jpas e^fffTijKa TOU (ppoveiv (Bekk. 
e'leo-TTj.-cis S). Theaet. 196 B, <?/0u^oO 
/^ TI T<Jr 7/7i'Tot #XAo, where see 
Heind. In all these cases ju^ denotes 
doubt or misgiving^oncerning the pre- 
sent Tather~ tbanfear for the future. 
Hence the frequent use of y^n-ore in 
Aristotle, where an airopta is suggested. 
Eth. N. x. 1. 3, M^ irore 8e ov Ka\cas 
TOVTO \fytTai. From this the transition 
to the later meaning 'perhaps' is very 
easy. For ovoffovSri the MSS. give 
otroaov Se or 8e?, the former being re- 
tained by the Zurich edd. The emen- 
dation VKTOV for earfov may be passed 
over in silence; but C. F. Hermann's 
7)8 v ftfv TOVTO rb ^TJy, bitbaov 5e %p. 
K.T.\., deserves to be mentioned for its 
curiosity. Stallb.'s firi yap TOVTO fiey, rb 
ffiv oiroo-ov 5e XP OVOV K.T.\. appears to 
ine very lame. He interprets his text 
thus : " noli enim putare istud quidem, 
videlicet ut vivas, honestum atque bonum 
esse : imo quamdiu (vivat) id eum, qui 
vere vir sit, curare non oportet," &c. 

E. vio'Ttvffa.VTa. TCUS yvva.i%(v~\ Routh 
appositely quotes Cic. N. D. i. 20, 
"Qtianti haec philosophia aestimanda 
est, cui tanquam aniculis et his quidem 
indoctis fato fieri videntur omnia." rb 
eirl TovT(f = 'in the next place.' "Ad- 
verbii loco adhibetur rb tirl TOvry, rb 
^irl Tcpfif velut rb /leT^ TOVTO. Apol. 
27 B, a\\a rb tirl TovTif a-xoKpivai, fffff 
'6o~Tis etc." Heind. 

we have airoKoXowrji' ev&ov\ovs, and it 
may be observed tbat in later Greek 
generally, &TTO/C. is used in a neutral or 
laudatory, as well as in the vituperative 
sense, which is the only one noticed by 
Dr. Donaldson, N. Crat. 184, who ac- 
counts in an ingenious manner for the 
bad sense of the compound. 

D. Karay(\affr6s (rot 6 ty6yos] Calli- 
\ cles seems from the context to have 
been a man of rank. A citizen of the 
middle class would scarcely have dis- 
dained to ally himself with a physician, 
whatever he might think of a ^TJX"O- 
Troi6s. In Greece the medical profession 
was esteemed 'liberal.' See Bekker's 
Charicles, p. 281, Transl. 

/*)) ykp TOVTO fjifv, Tb ffji' AiroffovSi) 
Xpdvuv^ 'For the question of living a 
few years more or less is one, I appre- 
hend, which he who is really and not in 
name only a man, will do well to dismiss 
from his thoughts.' An objection was 
taken by Buttmann to the construction 
fj.^1 fort, following ^ 77. He accord- 
ingly proposed Kal yap TOVTO fiev, but 
afterwards recanted. The use of fj.ij in- 
terrogative or dubitative with the indie, 
is recognized by grammarians. Ale. ii. 
139 D, opa fj.^] oi/x ovTta TUVT' x '- 
Soph. Trach. 551, TOUT" ovv < /u-J; 
jr6ffis /j.fv 'Hpa.K\T)s 'Ejubs Ka\e'iTai, TJJS 
vfUTtpa? 5* avrip. Thuc. iii. 53, vvv 8e 
(f>opov/j.t6a. n^] auQoTfpwi' Tjfi.apTriKafJ.ei>. 
Isocr. ad Phil. p. 85 E, tfir\dyrio-a>> pri 



[512, E 


a>s apicrra 


>v OLVTOV r TroXtTeta 

ev y dv OLKy, /cat vvv Se apa Set ere &>? o^oiorarov 513 
yiyveorOai TO> Sr^ua) TW 'AOrjVaLcov, et /xe'XXets TOVTOJ Trpocr- 

I \ \ f \ / / /) > ^'\ ^ t> f 

(1X179 etvat /cat fteya ovfacrc/at ev TT^ TroAet ; TOUP opa et 
crot XucrtTeXet /cat ejuot, OTTO)? /XTJ, <5 SatjaoVte, 7retcrojue$a 
6Vep ^>acrt Tag T^V ore\TJvY)i> /ca#atpovcras, Tas CTTaXtSas' 
Tot? <^>tXTaTot9 17 at'pecrts i7jat^ eo~Tat TavTrjs T^q 8uva- 
TT]? eV T^ TroXet. et Se' crot otet OVTWOVV dv0pa>Tra)v 
re^vrjv nva roia.vrrjv, T7Tt5 ere Tronjcrei p.eya 
ry TroXet T^Se dvopoiov ovra rfj TroXtTeta CIT' B 
e?rt TO fieXnov etr* evrt TO ^etpov, as e/xot So/cet, ov/c opOax; 
^SovXeuet, a) KaXXt/cXet?' ov yap (jLifJLrjTrjv Set etvat aXX* 
avro<f>v(t)<s ofJioiov TouTot?, et /xe'XXets Tt yviqcriov direpyd- 
tf.crOaii et? ^>tXtav T&> 'AOrivaiutv OTJIJLM /cat vat 
ITuptXa'/XTrovs ye Trpd?. ocrTts ovv ere TOUTOIS 6^ 

513. ical j/vr 8e apa Se? (re] 'And 
whether at the present time it is not 
your special duty to make yourself as 
like as possible to the Athenian demus, 
if you would make friends with it, and 
acquire great power and influence in the 
Istate.' Spa = ' all things considered.' 
IThe clause depends on crKeirreov, as if 
Irro'Tepoi/ had followed with a finite verb, 
Instead of apa with a participle. 
* 8ir<as ui) ireig-6/j.e9a~\ So Heind. for the 
solecistic ireifftii/j.e6a of earlier edd. The 
emendation is confirmed by the Bodl. 
Before '6-ircas, 8pa is virtually repeated, 
and the following effrai is in apposition 
with 7re((T(fyi0a. 'See that we do not 
suffer the supposed fate of those witches 
of Thessaly who bring or try to bring 
the moon down from the sky. See, I 
mean, that the choice of that poli- 
tical power we spoke of, do not cost us 
all_that we ho'ldrmost dear.' The Comm. 
quote Virg. Kcl. viii. 69, "Carmina vel 
caelo possunt deducere Lunam." Arist. 
Nub. 749, where Strepsiades proposes 
to purchase a Thessalian hag possessed 
of these accomplishments, for the pur- 
pose of defrauding his creditors for, as 
he observes, el JUTJKS'T' avare\\oi trsA^frj 
fjL-riSafjLov, OVK OP a.TroSoirji' rovs rditovs. 
Lucan (Phars. vi. 438 sqq.) describes 
with his usual diffiiseness the black arts 
of the Thessalides. In particular see 

line 499, "illis et sidera pvimum Prae- 
cipiti deducta polo : Phoebeque serena 
Non aliter, diris verboruin obsessa vene- 
nis, Palluit, et nigris terrenisque ignibus 
arsit, Quam si fraterna prohiberet ima- 
gine tellus." The superstition that the 
exercise of supernatural influence is 
dearly purchased by the adept has sur- 
vived to modern times. It is expressed 
in the Greek proverb (Paroemiogr. ii. 
p. 417, Leutsch.), tirl ffavry rrjv <T\TJ- 
vi\v nadf\Kfis' fal rS)v fo.vro'is caa 
eiriffircafj.ei'cai/. at yap T^V ffe\4ivt]v Kade\- 
Kovffat TTaAi5ej \fyovrcu Ttav o(f>6a\- 
IJ.iav Kal TOIV iroSiaf crrfpitTKfffOai. For 
the idiom <rvv -rots fyi\-rd.Tois, comp. Xen. 
Cyr. iii. 1. 34, abv ry cry a.ya.Q<p ras 
riftcapias iroie'iffdai. Stallb. quotes Horn. 
II. iv. 161, avv re /Aeyd\ci> airfriffav, Suj/ 
fftyriffiv K<t>a\rjffi, yvvat^i re Kal reKtecrffi. 
B. ou yap jUi/xTjT^*/ Set elvai] ' It will 
not do,' says Socr., ' merely to copy the 
ways, whether of the Athenian Demus, 
or the Demus of Pyrilampes ; you must 
be radically like them if you would make 
any real progress in the affections either 
of the former, or, by heaven, of the latter 
either.' TOUTOIS refers to the Athenians : 
the 'Demus of Pyrilampes' being an 
after-thought. But it is difficult to render 
the passage intelligibly without some 
such prolepsis as that adopted in the 

sis, E.] rorriAS. 145 

o-TrepydcreTai, oSros o~e TronqcreL, o>s eTTi6v^e1<; TroXiTt/cos 
C eu'at, TroXiTiKov /cat prjropiKOV \T(a avrwv yap rj6ei Xeyo- 
fj,ev(i)v TUV \6yuv I e/cao-rot xatpouon, \ TO> oe dXXoT/>t<y 
a^Oovrai. el /zry TI crt> dXXo Xe'yets, a) (tX>7 /cc^aXrj. 
Aeyofiev ri Trpos ravra, a) KaXXt/cXet? ; 

LXIX. KAA. OVK oTS* ovTivd /xot rpoirov So/cets eu 
Xeye>, a) 2a>KpaTe<s. ireirovda Be TO rwv iroXkav TrdOos' 
ov irdvv crot Tret^o/xat. 

5*/2. 'O STJIJLOV yap epcos, a) KaXXt/cXet?, eviov iv ry 
D $v)(r) Trj cry ai/Ttcrraret jutot* dXX* lav TroXXa/cis to"&)5 /cat 
ravra ravra Stacr/coTrw/xe^a, 7reio-0TJcrei. dva- 

&> ? f O / I T \ \ \ 

o ovv, OTC ovo <f>afjiv ZLVCLI rag Trayoacr/ceva? eTrt 
TO e/cacrrov OepaTreveiv /cat cra>/aa /cat ifjv^tjv, pCav /xe^ 
7T/30S rjbovrjv 6/uXetv, r^v erepav Se 7T/3O9 TO /3e'XTtcrTOv, 
/xr) Kara^apii^o^evov dXXa Stajaa^o/otej'o^. ou TavTa ^ a 
TOTC a)pL^6fJie6a ; 

KAA. Ildvv ye. 

2fi. OVKOVV 17 /xei' erepa, 17 77/305 ySoirfv, dyevvrjs /cat 
ouSev aXXo i} /coXa/ceta Tvy^dret ovo~a. -^ yap ; 

KAA. "Ecrro), el /SovXet, o~ot OVT&>. 

E 5*/2. 'H Se ye erepa, OTTW? a? ySeXTtcrTOV ecrTat TOVTO, 
etT crai/xa Tuy^dvet 6^ etre V'^X 1 ?' 0epaTrevofj.ev ; 

KAA. Haw ye. 

%fi. *Ap* ovv ovTO)<s eTn^eip^reov rf^lv ecrrt T^ TroXet 
/cat Tots TToXtTats Bepaireveiv, w? y8eXTto"Tov? avTovs TOVS 

C. Afyofjifv TI] The more usual \4yw- was used in the sense ' si forte,' and 
/xtv is found in five codd. named by Bekk. that frrws /caJ )3 '\TIOV (' equally well or 
But the best give Keyontv, which, as better ') went together. But it is better 
Heind. remarks, is justified by the com- with Heind. to regard taws as trans- 
mon formula t) iroSj \(yo(i.ev ; posed, as if we had found a\\' l<r<as, tav 

rb TUV iro\\wv irdflosj An example of iroAAo/c<s /cal fi(\Tiov . . . Siaa-Koira>/j.eda, 

this iraJdos is found in the admission of jrei(T0^<rej. For Sta<TKoirca/j.f0a some codd. 

Meno, avrbs Zirtp ol iroAAoJ ireirovOa. ; have the un-Attic SiaffKeirrca/jifOa. 

r6n fj.v not SoKovffi, rare 5e oti, Men. Svo e^a/jLtv elvai ras TrapacrKfvds;] See 

95 c. Compare the well-known passage p. 464 B foil. 

in Cicero, Tusc. Disp. i. 11, 24, "durn E. tirixtipirrfov flepoTrtvetv] literally : 

lego assentior ; quum posui librum .... 'ought we not so to set to work upon the 

assensio ornnis ilia elabitur :" the ' liber ' city and its citizens in order to their 

being the Phaedo of Plato. tendance, as to try to make them as good 

D. e'oi/ TroA.Acis Ifereos] " In Cod. Reg. as they can be made?' Here the inf. 
a manu recente superscriptum foov." Otpairtvtiv is epexegetic, as in the passage 
Heind. This seems to have been done quoted by Stallb. from Rep. iii. 416, 
on the supposition that &v iro\\a.Kis ^irtx e< P^ (ral T( " s irpo/Sarois Ktutovpyt'ii', 


146 IIAATflNOS [513, B 

TToXtVa? TTOtowra? ; aVeu yap S?) TOVTOV, a>s eV rots e/i- 
irpo(T0ev evplcTKoaev, ov$ev 6<j>\o<s dXXrjv evepyecriav 

irpoa-(j>epet.v, lav \ /rr) /caX^ /cdya$? r) StdVota 17 514 
[jie\\6vTa)v r) ^pij^ara TroXXa Xa/xy8aVeu> 17 
TLVWV fj d\\y]v Swa/xtv rjvTivovv. Owuev OVTCOS 
KAA. Haw ye, ei crot 178107'. 

Et ovv TrapeKaXovaev dXX^Xovs, a) KaXXt/cXets, 
Trpd^ovras T&V TroXtrticwv Trpaypdrtov eirl TO. 

V) ret^wv 17 veupiuv TJ epa)v n ra jueytcrra 

v? /cat e^eracrat, TrpaiTOV /xef et eTTtcrra/xe^a r^ Tyyr)v 
^ ou/c eVto-Tctjae^a, r^v ot/coSo/xt/oyv, /cat Trapa rov e'jaa- 
eSet a^ -^ ou ; 

Ildvv ye. 

OVKOVV Sevrepov av rdSe, et rt Trojuore ot 
/coSo/x-^/ca/xe^ tSta ^ rwv ^>tXojv rtvt 
avraiv, /cat TOVTO TO ot/coSo/x^jaa Ka\ov r) ala"^pov ecrrt. 
Kat et ftei/ euptcr/co/xe^ cr/co7rovjae*>ot StSacr/caXov? re rj 
dyaOovs /cat e'XXoyt/xous yeyovoras /cat 
TroXXa jaev /cat /caXa ju-era TOJV StSacr/cctXcuv w/ 
T7jatv, TroXXa Se /cat tSta ^^v, evretSr) TOW StSacr/caXcuv o 
aTTT^XXay^/xev, OVTQ) /u,e> Sta/cet/xeVajf, voGv e-^ovrwv fy av 
levai errl rd S^jaocrta epya' et Se /AT^Te StSacr/caXov 

Comp. Phaedr. 242 B, al ySi/ oS Soxery to Srj/uoirtiy ' in a private ' as distin- 

ofrjJs /uoi 77e'7j<r0o A.^^ rtri fadrivai, guishcd from a public or official capacity. 

514. Trpa|ovros] I have given this on But a work done under the eye of a 

the authority of a few codd. The best master (/uerA SiSao'KoAcoj') may be done 

seem to give irpd^avrts. So Bodl. ; but iS/a, though it is not fStov roO fj.a6r)rov, 

according to Gaisford, " o suprascriptum as an independent performance is. 
a manu receiite." irpd^ovras is equiv. to ouria /j.v StaKei/j.fvcav] ' If we had 

iy Trpoloi/Tay, as 521 B, Ko\a.K6vffovra fulfilled these conditions, we might with 

&pa fj.e irapa/coAeTj. Stallb. defends irpd- prudence venture on the public works, 

leu/res because it is equiv. to firixt'p'h- otherwise it were absurd to attempt 

ffavres irpafat. This I am unable to un- them/ After av6r]rov ?iv the &v is 

derstand. Buttm. irpa|ovres. For the omitted. Soph. Oed. T. 255, ouS" ci 70^ 

genitive TTO\ITIKWV irpayndraiv, comp. ^v rb irpay/j.a /x^ 6ff)\aTOf, 'PiKaQapTov 

Rep. iv. 445 D, Kivfjcreiav tiv TWV a|faj> v/ i/cbj -fiv oSrcas fay. With this 

Affyou vdynav rfjs ir6\cas. idiom the Latin coincides : Ovid, Am. 

c. iroAAct 8e Kal f5io rin5>v~\ " Dictum i. 6. 34, " Solus eram, si non saevua 

ut finer f pa aiircav." Heind. Bckk., adesset Amor." Virg. Georg. ii. 132, 

Stallb., and Hirsch. have S/a v<p' rii^tav, "Et, si non alium longe jactaret odorem, 

the preposition occurring in but one MS. Laurus erat." See instances from Plato 

iSi'o, though better supported, is inap- in Ast, Lex. P., p. 136. 
propriate here. It is properly opposed 

515, A.] rOPFIAS. 147 

rjfjLMV CLVTMV eVtSet^at oiKoSo/otif/xaTa re r) p.r)$ev fj TroXXa 
KOLL p.r)$evos a^ta, OVT&J S?) avo^rcy -^v ST/TTOV 7ri)(ipeiv 
rots Srjp.oo'Lois epyot? /cat irapaKaXeiv dXXi^Xous eV' aura. 
(j)(ofj.ev raura opOfas Xeyeavac ^ ou ; 
D KAA. Haw ye. 

LXX. 5*/2. OVKOVV OVTOJ TrdVra, ra re aXXa, /cay 
et eVt^etpifcravTe? S^/xocrteuety Trape/caXou/xey dXX^Xous as 
tKavol larpol oz/re?, 7recrAcei/fa/xe^a SifTrov av eyw re ere 
/cat cru e/xe', $e/De vrpos ^eaiv, avros Se 6 

ro o-w/xa ?r/)O9 vytetav ; -^ ^817 rt5 aXXo? Sta 

vocrov, f) SoCXos ^ eXev^epo? ; Kcu> eycu, 
ot/tat, Trept <rou erepa rotavra ecr/coTrow. /cat et 
E tr/co/xev 8t' rjjJias jLtTySeVa ^SeXrtcu yeyovora. ro crai^ta, 
rwi' ev<t)V pyre TO>V acrrwv, pyre a.vpa /xi^re ywaT/ca, 
7r/)05 ^dto?, a) KaXXt/cXet?, ov /caraye'Xacrrov ai/ i^v r^ 
et? roo~ovrov d^otas \0eiv av6p(i>irov<s, <3crre, Trpti/ 
TroXXa /xeV OTTWS erv^o/Ae^ Trot-^o-at, TroXXa Se 
KaTOp0(t)craL /cat yv/Ai^aaacrfat t/cava>s r^p re^vryv, ro Xeyo- 
rovro, eV ra> 7Tt^<u rr)i> /cepa/x.etay 

/cat avrovTl i: ~o^/Zoo : tevetv^7rt^etyoetv /cat aXXov? 
rotovrovs Trapa/caXeu/ ; ov/c avorjTov crot So/cet ay et^at 
ovrw TTpdrreiv ; 

KAA. "E/aoiye. 

515 2*/2. IVOy Se, | w y8e / Xrto~re avftpatv, e?retS^ cru /aey au- 
ros aprt ctpx t ^p^rrety ra rrj? 7rdXea>5 irpdy^aTa, e/xe 
Se Trapa/caXets Kat oyetSt^ets ort ou 7r/Darr<y, ou/c eVi- 

D. 57j/toaivetv] See the note on p. 455 dating from the 95th Olymp. Cornp. 

B. 'Before we set up for state-phy- Elinsley on Heracl. 305, aud see inf. 

sicians,' says Socr., ' we ought to have 515 E. 

had considerable and successful private B. ^v T w^fl^ T^V Kepo/xeiW] This 

practice, otherwise we shall be acting proverb in effect answers to the adage, 

like a potter's apprentice, who should " Fiat experimentum in corpore vili," and 

try his unpractised hand on a wine-jar, to the Greek tv T< Kopl 6 tcivSviros. 

instead of some smaller and less costly See Laches 187 B. So taken by most 

vessel we shall begin in fact where we writers. See Paroemiogr. Gr. i. p. 73, 

ought to have ended.' Leutsch., where an alternative explanation 

yupifficonfv} The rare augmented form is cited from Dicaearchus : T^JV fj.e\frijv 

has been replaced by Bekk., following 4v rols 6/j.oiois troie'iffOcu, ws Kvftfpvfirt]s 

the Bodl. See L. Dindorf in Steph. M T^S vrjos Kal fjvioxos Vl ruv 'linroiv. 

Lex. iii. col. 2420, who defends the An instance of this application is given 

augment by reference to an inscription in the note 1. 1. 

L 2 

148 UAATflNOZ [515, A 

a dXX^Xovg, $eyoe, KaXXt/cX^g 17817 nva /SeXrtft) 
TreTrouj/ce TO>V TroXtr&V ; ecrnv ocrrtg trporepov Trovypos 
ftV, dSt/cog re /cat aKoXacrrog /cat a<f>pa)v, Std KaXXt/cXea 
/caXog re Kaya^og yeyovev, f) eVog 17 do"rog, ^ SovXog ^ 
e\ev6epo<s ; Aeye />tot, edi' rtg ere ravra e^erd^, w KaXXt- 
KXetg, rt e'/)etg ; TtVa ^cretg /SeXxttu TreTrotTy/ceVat dvOpairov 
^W^ T^ crvt'ovcrta r^ cr^ ; 'O/cj'etg OLTTOKpivo.a'Ba.i, emep ecrri rt 

L'^llf*''^ V \ JO / \ 

*^ epyov (Tov ert toiajrevoi'Tog, Trptv 

1J I't*"' ~~~^' J /I /K,\ Ji-,.f, ,*^f, * * 

LXXI. 5"/2. *^4XX' ou <f)i\oveLKLa ye epcorw, dXX* eug 
y8ovXo//,evos ctSeVat OVTLVOL TTOTC rpoirov otet Setv 
7roXiTve<r^ai eV r^jJlv, et aXXov TOU ayoa iTrifJieXrja'ei i^/xtv o 
eX0a)v eVt ra r^? TroXecus TTyoay/xara ^ OTTO)? o rt ySe'Xrtcrrot 
ot TToXtrat &>/xev. ^ ov TroXXct/cts 178^ 
roOro Setv TrpctTTetv rov TroXtrt/co^ av&pa, ; ' 
^ ov ; airoKpivov. V2jUoXoy)7 / /ca/xei>' eyw vTreya <rov 

t TOLVVV TOVTO Set TOV ayaObv avSpa Trapa- 
V rrj eavrov TroXet, vu^ jaot avap,vr)cr0el<s etvre Treyat 
TUV avSpaiv &v oXtyo) wporepov eXeyeg, et ert crot 

dya^ot TroXtrat yeyo^eVat, IIepLK\rj<s /cat 
/cat MtXrtd8i75 /cat e/xtcrro/cX^?. 


OVKOVV elnep dya#ot, 8^Xov ort e/cacrro? 
eTrotet rous TroXtras dvrt ^eipovutv. eTrotet 7^ ov ; 

OVKOVV ore He/at/cXrj? yjp^eTO \eyeiv ev TW 
T7o~av ot 'A0r)valoi f) ore rd reXevrata eXeyev ; 
KAA. *Icra)<s. 

Ov/c tcrws 817, a) ^Se'XTtare, dXX* dmy/ciy e/c 
, etTrep dya#o5 y' i^v e'/cetj'os TroXtr^s. 

515 C. 8irwj 8 TI &f\TiffTOi ol iro\?roi 184 A, 5e? 8^ ouSe'repa, aAA.^ ealrr)rov 

S/xv] 'That we the citizens maybe as SF /cue? irtpl tTria-r^^s irftpaadai ^/xay 

good as possible :' unless the o< be a T^ jueuetm/cp rexvri airo\v<rai. But 

careless repetition of the last two letters 5e? and 8^ are not unfrequently con- 

of jSe'ATKTTOj. founded, as Phaedr. 261 A, TOVTUV Sel 

D. Ou/c Itrwy 5^] So Legg. 965 C, TW^ \6yo>v, vulg. rof/Twr 8^. In either 

OWK fcra>s aAA.' ^/TWS. Bekk. retains case we may translate : " There is no 

8e?, the reading of the best MSS., which room for a ' perhaps j* it follows neces- 

may perhaps be defended by Theaetet. sarily from the premisses," &c. 

516, A.] 



KAA. Ti ovv 77 ; 

OuSeV. dXXa roSe /tot elire 7rl TOVTM, el \eyovrai 
Sta Uept/cXe'a fieXriovs yeyoveVat, rf irav TOV- 
VOLVTLOV $ia<j>0aprji>aL VTT e/cetVou. ravrt yap eywye d/covw, 
ITeyot/cXea TreTrotry/ceVat ' AdrjvaCovs dpyovs /cat SetXous /cat 
XaXou? /cat <j)i\apyvpov<s, ets /ucr#o<ftoptap Trpurov /cara- 

a/covets ravra, 


*^4XXa TctSe ov/ce'rt d/covw, dXXa otSa cra^xus /cat 
eyw /cat crv, ort TO /ACV irpa>rov ^v8o/ct)aet 

atcr^pav Si/ciyv Ka.refy'rjfyicravTo avrov 

eTretSr) Se /caXot /cdya^ot eyeyovecrav 

516 VTT aurov, evrt 


rov )8tov TOW ITept/cXeov?, K\oirr)v 
, oXtyov Se /cat Bavdrov 
ort as TTOvirjpov 

E. AaAous] In the Ranae of Aristo- Aa/ccoj/t^bi'Tas, wol ot /*6J/ ra 5ro re KOT<- 
phanes, Euripides claims the credit of ywvrcu mnovpevoi avrovs, ital Ifjidfras 

having made the Athenians garrulous : 
"EireiTo Tovrovffl AoAeiJ' e$iSaa. A-fox- 
*JJM! Kayw. How Pericles can have 
made the Athenians ' cowardly,' it is not 
easy to understand. Aristides is justly 
indignant at the imputation, and asks 

ovrai Kal <f>i\oyvfj.vacrrova'i Kal 
ava./3o\a.s <popovfftv, us 5^ rov- 
TOIS Kparovvras ruv 'EAA^jvwj' rovs Aa/ce- 
Saifj.ot>iovs. Theocr. xxii. 45, Suvbs ISfw, 
ffK\T)pa7ffi rt9\ayfj.fvos oGara irvynats. 

r , The affectation of Laconian manners, 

great force, ri Aeyeis ,- Set\ovs ridiculed in the Protag., is however attri-j 
rjs, & Qfoi, SetAovs ; t>s Kal 8r;ymj- buted to Socrates himself by Aristoph.; 

Av. 1281, 'E\aK(avo/j.dt'ovi> airavrfs av- 

fffompa.T(av. Laconism was affected by 
the oligarchs, whose prejudices Callicles 
accuses Socr. of having adopted. 

nvSoKififi] So the Bodl. and Vat. 1. 


iyey6vfffav~\ Found in the Bodl &c. 
yty6vfffav Bekk., Heind., Stallb., from 
inferior MSS. But in Symp. 173 B all 
give trapayfy6t>ft. 

516. KAoTT^j/ aiiToO KaTefyri<p[ffavTO~\ 
Thucydides mentions only the fine, with- 
out specifying the pretext under which 
it was inflicted, ii. 65, ou jttVroi irp6Tp6v 
yf ol ^vnvavrfs firavrravro tv opyfj X OV ~ 
Tfs avrbv irplv ^iifj.iiaa'av xP'ht JLafflt '- vffTe- 
pov Sf avOis 011 iro\\y, oirtp <pi\fl S/uiAos 
itoifii>, ffrparj\y}>v e'/Aocro Kal na.vra. ra 
Xpripara tirerpetyav. It would have been 
fairer if Socr. had noticed the change of 

yopiav fvVvs eV0eV8e ^p|aro, T^s /uev 
yvcafjirjs, t<pi\, rrjs aiiTTJs, & 'Mijvaloi, dei 
f^Oftai, /J.}] ffafiv Tlt\oirovvr\fflois, i> T'IS 
fiav els ^Kfivrjv TT^V r)fj.tpav tlffa.ira.% 
flirtiv i6appr\fffv ; De Quatuorv. p. 136, 

tls fiicrGoQoplav KaraiTT^(TavTa~\ Peri- 
cles introduced the practice of paying 
'dicasts: Arist. Polit. ii. ad fin., rd SiKa- 
fj.iff06(popa Kariffrrifff HfpiK\rjs. 
It was he also who persuaded the Athe- 
nians to pay their soldiers, who had pre- 
viously served at their own expense 
(Boeckh. Staatsh. i. 377, 2te Ausg.). The 
theoricon does not so properly come 
under the head of nurBotpopia, but Plato 
may have had it in view when he added 
apyla to the vices which he supposes 
Pericles to have fostered. 
. Tuv ra Sna Kariy6r<av] 'You hear 
I this from the men of bruised ears,' i. e. 

, . . . 

I from those who are addicted to pugilistic feeling on the part of his countrymen, 

I exercises, a sign of Laconism. Protag. and the handsome amends they made to 

342~B, ^|7jTraTi)(ca(ri TOI/J tv raTs Tr6\fo~t the statesman whom they had injured : 

150 IIAATftNOS [516, A 

LXXII. KAA. TL ovv ; rovrov IW/ca Ka/co? r\v Uept- 


^ / f > 

OOKt etl'Ctt, t 


6Y aypior^ra. 
ctTroSetf^ dyptcorepa ^ 

aavTa Trotovras 

"Ovwv yovv av 

^ * v * 


\OLKT itflVTas [eavroz/] 
aWSei^e TCLVTO, 
So/cet o-oi /cot/cos evat 
6s cb> irapa.\aj3a)v ^ 
Xa/3e ; .Jo/cet ^ ov ; 

KAA. Haw ye, Iva croi 
5*^2 . Kat roSe roivvv 

/cat 6 ai>6pa)7ros ev 
KAA. ITws yap ov ; 

OVKOVJ/ avdp(oTTO)v JTeyat/cXrJs eTre/xeXero ; 

^aptcrat aTTOKpivpevos, 
ecrrlv f) ov ; 

) ov 
<wov, B 


fairer also if he had made some allow- 
ance for the effect of unexampled cala- 
mity in disturbing their judgment. 
Meanwhile it is clear that Plato dis- 
believed the charge on which Pericles 
was condemned, else he would not have 
brought it forward in proof of the sup- 
posed deterioration of the Athenians 
under his government. I assume that 
Plato and Thucydides allude to the same 
charge, though Heind., and with him 
Stallb., suppose that the KAoirrjs SI'/CTJ is 
that in which Phidias had been impli- 
cated before the Peloponnesian war. 
But it does not appear that Pericles 
was condemned or even brought to trial 
on this charge. In fact, the malicious 
report that he "blew into a flame" 
the warlike passions of the Athenians, 
in o/der that they might be diverted 
from inquiring into his proceedings 
(Plut. Per. p. 169 F), coupled with the 
absence of any testimony as to the fact 
of the trial or its result, is a proof that 
it never took place : unless, indeed, we 
suppose that the old charge was re- 
vived on the occasion alluded to by 
Thucydides. But this we are nowhere 
told, and it is more probable that tle 
pretext for the latter attack was mis- 
appropriation of money entrusted to him 
iu his capacity of strategus (K\OTT)) 
SrifjLoaria, Legg. 857 B). This supposition 
is not inconsistent with the narrative of 
Plutarch, p. 171 D, E, and is even suggested 
by the emphatic words of Thucydides, 

e'i\ovro Kal irdvra TO XP^l' eireTpftyav. Lastly, Plato's phrase, 
^irl TeAevrp roD jSi'ou, seems of itself to 
fix the date of the transaction. The 
words 6\iyov 8e Kal Oavd-rov eri/XTjcrav 
may be an exaggeration, for they are not 
confirmed by the historians; but with 
this possible abatement, there seems no 
reason to impeach the accuracy of Plato's 
story. The amount of the fine inflicted 
was very large : 15 talents according to 
the lowest, 50 and even 80 according to 
other estimates. See Grote, H. G. vi. 
p. 226, note (1). Boeckh. Staatsh. i. 
p. 506, who supposes that the larger sum 
represents the damages fixed by the 
accuser, the smaller those actually re- 

"Ovuv yovv to/ eVijUfATjT^s] The same 
homely comparison is put in the mouth 
of Socr. by Xenophon, Mem. i. 2. 32, 
E?7re vov 6 Sci'/fpdrrjs Sri 6av[i.a<rrbi> ol 
8o/coi) flvai, ft TLS, yeco/uevoy /SocSc <rye- 
ATJS j/OjUis Kal ras jSous tkdrrovs re Kal 
Xflpovs iroiiav, JUT) &fj.o\oyo(i\ /ca/c&s j8o<5- 
Ko\oi flvai, ert Se 6avj*affT6rfpov, ei ris, 
TrpoiTTaTTjy yfv6nfvos ir6\t<as, Kal irotatv 
rovs iro\iras f\drrovs /cat ^ftpovs, /u^J 
aiffxvvfrat ^178' ottrai Ka.Kbs flvai irpo- 
<TTaT7js TTJS ir6\fo>s. This is said in 
reference to the administration of the 
XXX, After AoKT^oj/ras several MSS. 
insert eawr6v, in which there is ob- 
viously an error. See later, p. 519 c. 
Others give avrovs, which is more tole- 
rable, and Aristides Rhet. a\n6i>. 



Tt ovv ; OVK eSet avrou?, a>? aprt w 
St/catorepovs yeyoveVat dvTt dcH/c<yreyoco&' VTT* e/cetvov, 
C e'/ceu>o9 eVefteXetTO avrSiv dya#6s &>i> ra TroXtrt/ca ; 
KAA. ndvv ye. 

/2. OVKOVV 01 ye St/catot ^/xepot a? e 
crv Se rt <^)T7< ; ou^ ovrws ; 
1L14. JVat. 
572. '^4XXa /A?)!/ dy/Hcore/ooug ye avrous a.Tre<f>r)vev fj otov? 

, KCU TO.VT ets auroV, 


KAA. BovXet crot oj 

/2. t SoKal ye' crot 0X1)6 fj Xe'yeu>. 

KAA. *E(TT<t) Sr) ravra. 

OVKOVV etTreyo dyptwreyoou?, aSiKtwre/oous re 



5*/2. Ot/c ap' dya^os TO, 7roXtrt/cd 
TOVTOV rou Xoyou. 

KAA. Ov (rv ye ^>r?. 

/2. JVfci ^dt' ovSe ye crv e^ a>v a/xoXoyetg. ITcxXtv Se 
Xe'ye /xot Trept Kt/Atuvos* ou/c e^&a'TpdKia'a.v CLVTOV ovrot 
ot5 lOepaTrevev, Iva CLVTOV Se'/ca erai^ JLL^ d/covo-eiav TT^S 
<f>o)vf)<; ; /cat @e/xtcrTo/cXe / a raurd ravra eirofycrav /cat <{>vyfj 

c. f}^poi is ?<TJ "O/tTjpos] No such 
words of Homer are extant in GUI* copies, 
The nearest approach to the sentiment 
is in the lines quoted by Routh from 
Od. vi. 120; ix. 175, y H ' oty' vfipia-Tai 
rt KO,\ &ypiot, ovSe Si/caioi, "He <f>i\&tivoi 
Kai ff<(>iv v6os tcrrl 6eoi/5i7s. 

els a.in6v, $>v ?IKI<TT' &/ /3ou\To] For 
is bv ^KKTT' &/ ^3. This ellipse Heind. 
justifies by p. 453 D, M TU>V av-ruv 
rtx.vuiv \fyofj.ev Sivirfp vvv 5rj. Phaed. 
76 D, 4v Tovrcp a-!r6\\vfj.v ^irep Kai Aajti- 
Pdvofifv, where however the best MSS. 
give iv (pwep. More to the purpose is 
Lysias adv. Andoc., p. 255, Reisk., fOvffev 
eirl riav y3oi/ciujj' oil/ OVK Qfit' avr. 

D. OVK eiaffTpa,Ki<rav a,vr6v'\ Cimon's 
ostracism took place B.C. 461. He was 
recalled at the instance of his rival 
Pericles, B.C. 456, more than five years 
before the completion of his term of 
exile : ovSeiria irecre eriaf irape\i]\vd6r(av, 
as we learn from a fragment of Theo- 

pompus. Both his banishment and recall 
were owing to political causes ; and 
Plato ought to have mentioned the re- 
paration as well as the supposed injury, 
as Aristides has justly remarked, Qua- 
tuorv. p. 158. Cornp. Grote, H. G. v. 
p. 443. 

This statement is quite correct, as the 
final sentence was passed during the 
ostracism of Themistocles. Thuc. i. 
135, rou Se MijSiir/xoD TOU flavffaviov 
AaKe8at/j.6i>ioi TrpeV/Ssir ir4[tfyavTfs irapa 
TOOS 'A.9rjvaiovs vveirr)Tiui>TO Kai r'bv 
&f/j.tffTOK\ea, &s evpuntov eK TUV irtpl 
Tlavffavtav ^\tyx<av t i]iovv re TO?J auro?s 
Ko\deff6ai avTOf. ol Se ireiffOevres 
(ervx* yty wtrrpaKiff/jLevos KOI ex<v 
Siairav pev iv "Apyei, ^iritf>oirS>v Se Kai es 
r^v &\\r)v Ue\oir6vvriffov) ire/jiirova-i pera 
TIV Aa/ceSatjuoi/tW eroifiiav ovTiav vv- 
StiaKftv avSpas ols efyriTO &ytiv Swov &v 
irepirvx^ffiv. Thucyclides adds, c. 138, 



[516, D 

MiXrtctSr;^ Se rov [ei>] MapaOcovi ets TO 
(3dpa.0pov [Ji/3a\elv e^^LcravTo, /cat et /AT) Sta TOV Trpv- E 

that he could not be publicly buried in 
Attica, o>s eirl trpoSoa-ia <pe6y<av. With 
Plato, he omits to mention the heavier 
penalty of confiscation to which The- 
mistocles as a traitor was subject, Plut. 
Them. c. 25. The language of Thucy- 
dides (&s evpiffKov K.T.A..) does not prove 
either his belief or disbelief in the truth 
of the charges alleged by the Lacedae- 
monians ; but the flight of Themistocles 
and his friendly reception at the Persian 
court could not fail to convince the 
Athenian people of his guilt, and ought 
to be taken in justification of the second 

rbv [^P] MapaQSivC] I have bracketed 
the preposition, not being satisfied of its 
admissibility. The stereotyped formula 
is rbv MapaBtavi, as may be seen from 
the following passages of Aristophanes, 
in some of which ev is excluded by the 
metre, while in not one is it required. 
Arist. Eq. 781, at yap &s M^5on 5ie|- 
<piffa> vepl TI)S \<apas Mapad&vt, where 
the Ravenna Cod. inserts tv in violation 
of the metre. Ibid. 1334, Kal rov Mapa- 
Btavt Tpoiralov (;il. Tuv/j./j.apa0wvi). Ach. 
696, 697. Vesp. 711. Thesm. 806, irpbs 
eKelvriv TV HapaGwvi. And such in the 
majority of cases is Plato's usage, ac- 
cording to the codd. Comp. Arist. Rh. 
1. 1. p. 196, MiATtaSijy irpurov HapaBwvi, 
Kal Tlavffavlas ZffrtpovTiXa.ra.ia.a'i: whence 
we see that Mapadwct is in effect an ad- 
verb of place. On the other hand, no 
doubt rests on the reading T^V ev 2aAa- 
fuvi in Arist. Eq. 785. And in Isocr. 
Philipp. p. 112, we find IK Se TTJS Mapa- 
al TTJS ev ~2,a\afuvi vavf 

But we sometimes find ~S,a\a.(juvi alone, 
as in Menex. 245, TO rpdwaia rd re Mapa- 
Oiavi Kal 2a\a/j.7vi Kal IlAaTOJors though 
more frequently 4v 2. or irepl '2a\a/juva, 
where the battle is spoken of. So fj tv 
'ApTe/Aiffttti, or irepl 'ApTe/jLicnor vav/jLa^ia 
never fi 'Aprfnitricii, for an obvious 
reason. It would therefore be wrong to 
banish the preposition from all such 
formulae, as Cobet seems to recommend, 
Vv. LI. p. 204. Hirschig has not scrupled 
in the present instance to cut the knot 
by proposing to expunge rbv ev MapaGuvi 
as a gloss. But the words have con- 
siderable rhetorical force as 'augentia 

(Is -rb fidpaQpov ^uj8aA.e?i/] The crime 
imputed to Miltiades was, that he had 
deceived and injured the Athenian people 

by employing the forces entrusted to him 
in prosecuting a private quarrel. We 
find from Xen. Hell. i. 7. 20, that 
there was ^(pifff^a Kavixiavov l(T)(yp6- 
raroy, fe Ke\fvti, lav TIS r}>v TUV 'A.0ij- 
valcav Srj/jtov a5it<fj, SfSf/j.evov cnroSiKf'iv ev 
r<p S-f] Kal tav KarayvtotrOfi a.SiKe'tv, 
airo9av6vra es rb ftapaOpov e/j.j3\ri()r)vai. 
The psephism of Cannonus was passed, 
no doubt, later than the time of Mil- 
tiades, but it refers to an existing punish- 
ment. There is, therefore, no antecedent 
improbability in the account given by 
Plato, though confirmed only by the 
Scholiast on Aristid. Rhet. p. 232, who 
says, T)OeXi)ffav avrbv /caraKpij/u^iffat. 6 
Se irpvravis elffeXOtav etyr-fjffaTO avr6v. 
According to Herod, vi. 136, the charge 
against Miltiades was capital : (s.dv6nnros) 
Oavdrov virayaywv virb rbv Srjfj.ov MtA- 
ndSea fSicoKe TTJS 'AOijvateav airdrris eveKa, 
a statement which by no means excludes 
the former. The Prytanis mentioned by 
Plato and the Schol. was doubtless the 
Epistates or Chairman for the day, who 
had the power of refusing to put an 
objectionable motion to the vote. Hero- 
dotus, it is true, gives the people the 
credit of refusing to allow Miltiades to 
be punished capitally. But their wishes 
may have been carried out by the Pry- 
tanis in the exercise of his lawful power ; 
and Plato may be guilty of unfairness 
in imputing to the Athenians at large a 
sanguinary proposal emanating from a 
personal enemy of the accused. But 
more probably he only repeats a tradition 
of the anti-democratic clique in which 
he was brought up. The ftdpaOpov is 
explained as an Spvypa (Tim. Lex. in v.), 
or xdfffna (ppearuties (Schol. Arist. Plut. 
431), into which condemned malefactors, 
or more probably their bodies after exe- 
cution, were thrown. The proposal would 
therefore, in the case of Miltiades, amount 
to a denial of the rites of sepulture. The 
Lacedaemonians, as we read in Thucy- 
dides i. 135, had designed to throw the 
dead body of Pausanias into the Caeadas 
(a pit or chasm corresponding to the 
pdpaBpov at Athens), but afterwards re- 
lented and gave it burial. The Schol. 
on Aristides appears however to have 
thought that the Athenians, but for the 
Prytanis, would have had the victor of 
Marathon thrown down the pit alive 
((caroK-pTj/inVat), and such may have been 
the practice in early and barbarous times. 

517, B.J rOPFIAS. 153 

raviv, eveire&ev dv ; KatTOt ouTot, el rjcrav aVS/aes dyaOoi, 
as crv <f>rjs, OVK dv irore raGra evracr^oi'. OVKOVV ot ye 
dya$ot rjVLO^OL /car* dp^ds f^ev OVK eK7rLTTTovo~Lv e/c 
euya>i>, eVetScu> Se #epa7revo~a;o~t rov? ITTTTOVS /cat 
d/xeiVous yevuvTGLL i^t'o^oi, TOT' eKtriTrrovcrw. OVK earn 

OUT' eV r)vio)(eia OUT' eV dXX<u epy<u ovBevL fj So/cet <rot ; 
KAA. OVK e/xotye. 

/2. *A\r)6el<s dpa, w? eoiKev, ot epTrpoa~6ev Xoyoi 
517 'qcraz', OTI ouSeVa ^/xet? to-ftev ai/8pa ayaBov yeyovoTa TO, 
eV T^Se T^ TrdXet. o-u Se w/xoXoyets TOJV ye 
W^ p,evTOL ejJLTrpocr0ev, /cat irpoel\ov 
ai/S/aa?. ouTot Se av<f)dvr)O'a.v e Zcrov Tots 
ao-Te, et OUTOI pyJTOpes y(rav, ovre ry aX-rjOivrj 

> V * >/*' * " \ < 

expaiVTO ou yap a^ ege7reo~ov ouTe T^ KoAaKt/c^. 

LXXIII. KAA. \4XXa pevroi TTO\\OV ye Set, <3 5*w- 
E Kpares, p.rj irore Tts TCUI/ vi)v e)oya TOtavTa epydcrrjTai ola 
rovT(t)v 69 /SovXet eipyacrrat. 

*n, Saifjiovie, ovS' ey&> x//eya> TOVTOVS w? ye Sia- 
et^at TrdXew?, aXXct jnot 8o/couo*t TW^ ye vvv 8ta- 

We arc told by Pausanias, iv. 18. 4, that times. This amounts to saying that the 

the Lacedaemonians thus punished their punishment of KOTOUCP^IWO-IS had long 

captives taken in one of the Messenian been obsolete at Athens. 

wars, and this sanguinary view of the E. O$KOVV ol ye ayadol fivioxoi] The 

uses of the barathrum seems to have force of the negative in this sentence is 

found favour with scholiasts generally, explained in the note to 512 A. 

Comp. Schol. Arist. Plut. 431, Iv 5e T< 517. Scrre OVTOI gropes fi<rav~] The 

Xtio'/xoTt TOVTCI> virripxov oyidvoi, ol ft.v final cause of the true rhetoric is to make 

&vu> ol Se Kara. So the Schol. Arist. men better, that of the false to gratify 

Eccles. 1089, in giving his version of the their inclinations. But the statesmen 

psephism of Cannonus, alters the words in question had not attained either 

of Xenophon from iiro0av6vra els rb object, and therefore, if rhetors in ^u/3A.7)07j'ai to els rb ffdpaSpov either sense, they were not masters of 

^fj.ft\ridevra airoQavelv. But from a well- their craft. Callicles is unable to evade 

known passage in Plato's Republic (iv. the dilemma, but says, that, bad as they 

439 E) it appears to have been the may have been, it will be long ere any 

practice to expose the bodies of criminals of the statesmen of the day accomplish 

for some time after their execution. The such feats as the worst of the four men- 

executioner would afterwards probably tioned. 

throw the remains into the fid-paBpov, if, iroAAoD 76 Se? /j.-fi wore] The usual 

as I suppose, that is the same thing with construction of iroAAof; 5e? is with the 

the 6pvy/j.a, from which the functionary infinitive, as the Comm. observe. Plato 

in question derived his euphemistic name might have written oi> /tiijTOTe epydtn)Tai, 

of ' the man at the pit ' (6 tvl rf opiry- iroAAoS ye /cat 8*?, of which the construc- 

MOTI), by which he is known to the tion in the text is a kind of abridgment. 

orators. The Schol. on Plutus 1. 1. even For 8s /3ov\et, cornp. Cratyl. p. 432, ?) 

states that the origiual barathrum was So~ris &ov\ei &\\os &piO/j.os. 

filled up by the Athenians in mythical B. &s ye HiaKtvovs eft-cu] 'Viewed as 



[517, B 

yeyovevai /cat fj.a\\oi> olot re e/aropieu> rfj 
TroXei u>v eVe#u/iet. dXXa yap fJierajSi^d^eiv TO,? einOv- 
fjLta<s /cat /ar) eViT/jeVew, ireidovres /cat /3tao/xevot eVt rovro 
e/AeXXoz> dftew/ous ecrecr^at ot TroXtrat, a>s 7705 eiirelv, 
TOVTOJV $Le<f>epov e/ceu'or 6Vep p6vov epyov eo~Ttz> 
v TroXtrov. i>av? Se /cat TeC^rj /cat vtatpia. /cat ctXXa 
TroXXa rotavra /cat eyw crot 6//,oXoyai Seti^orepoug etvat 
TOVTOIV eKTropi^eiv. JTpay^ta ow yeXotov Trotov- 
ey<u re /cat cru eV rot? Xoyots. ei> Travrt yay9 r&> 
ov StaXeyojae^a ouSev Travo/xe^a et? TO avro act 
pofjievoi. /cat ayvoowre? dXX^Xcov o rt Xeyo/xev. eya> youi/ D 
ere TToXXa/cts ot/xat w/xoXoy^/ceVat /cat eyvw/ceVat as ayaa 
SITTT) avr^ Tts 17 Trpay/xareta e<rrt /cat vrept TO craJfJia /cat 
t TT)V \jjv)(yv, /cat 17 /act' erepa Sta/coi't/oj eo-Ttv, ^ Su- 

servants of the state,' says Sow., ' I dis- 
parage them no more than you do ; on 
the contrary, they seem to me to have 
been more serviceable, certainly, than 
their successors of the present day.' 
Complaints of the falling off of the 
public men succeeding Pericles occur in 
the comic poets, Arist. Eq. 191. Eu- 
polis, Af)/*oi, Fr. xiii. and xv. Mein. But 
Plato probably intended the remark to 
apply to the times in which he was him- 
self writing, as well as to those in which 
the dialogue is supposed to take place. 
The idiom As elvai is familiar. Herod, 
ii. 135, /j.fyd\a e/crVjiraTo xP^)M aTa > <* s 
by tlvai 'PoSuiriv, i.e. considering she 
was but a hetaera. 

aAAet yap /jLtTafiifid^eiv] ' But then in 
the art of turning the desires of their 
countrymen into other channels, instead 
of giving them free course, leading 
them by persuasion or force to measures 
likely to make them better, in this the 
men of old were little superior if at all 
to our own contemporaries. 5 Aristides 
has an ingenious argument to show that 
the Athenians did gradually improve 
under the auspices of the Four. n<s, 
& ftcucdpie ; el ydp IffTiv oArjfl^s 6 orbs 
\6yos &s MiArtaSr)!' yt fiiKpov ets rb 
fidpaBpov evefiaKov, iruv rovvavrlov ijSri 
<paivtTai, 6 /UV @f/LiiirTOK\r)s aypicardrovs 
irapa\a.P&v -rj/jifpfaTfpovs iroi4iaas, rb yovv 
foffTpa.Kiff6rivai, Kal irpds y\ fl /SouAet, 
(pvyfj ^jj.i<aQrivai, KfpSos irap' fKfivqv T\\V 
ffv/j.popdv. na.Kiv 8' 

/ieV, (pvyfj Se ov irpoffefafjuiodr), a\\a Kal 
Karri\6e irpb TOV xp6vov, oSrcas tn irpqo- 
repois OVTOS &xP'h ffwro - & 8' av TIfpiK\rjs 
en TOUTOV fjLerpiiiiTepa Svffrvx-fiffas K.T.A. 
Quatuorv. p. 284 (367, Bind.). It is 
obviously quite untrue that Pericles had 
no skill in bridling the passions of the 
multitude, and the greatest sacrifice the 
Athenians ever made was instigated by 
Themistocles. In fact of all the four 
Cimon alone seems to have been open to 
the imputation of unduly nattering and 
cajoling the populace. Pericles and 
Themistocles led quite as much as they 
followed the tendencies of the public 

C. Tlpayfj.a ol>v ye\oiov iroiovfiev] Socr. 
here reminds Callicles that he had as- 
sented to premisses of which he rejects 
the logical conclusion : the premisses 
being contained in the original dicho- 
tomy of Bepaweia and KO\aKiKTj (464 C, 
and note), and the assumption that 
statesmanship as vulgarly practised falls 
under the psychical branch of the latter. 
This admission Callicles wilfully forgets, 
perpetually coming round again to his 
own point of view, that of common sense 
and the received opinion. In this pas- 
sage Ko\aKtta is softened down, or rather 
generalized, into SiaKovia ministration 
a somewhat less invidious word, but 
equally available for Plato's purpose. 
Comp. inf. 521 A, where StaKovew is 
made equivalent to irpbs x-P lv ofj.i\e'ir > 
and then to /coAa*eueic. 

sis, A.] ropriAZ. 155 

VO.TOV elvai e/C7ropteii>, eav [lev frewy ra cr^^ara 
crtTta, eav Se Sti/n^, Trora, lav Se p^y^t If/WfUb crTp 
vTToBijfJLaTa, dXX' a)i^ ep^erat or a> para ets .TTi6v^iav. 
E e^eTrtr^Se? crot Sta TCUV CLVTMV et/coVajv \eya), Iva paov 
TOVTMV yap Tro/noTt/cbv eti'cu r) /caV^Xov 6Wa 
Sr)p,iovpyov rov avra)v rovratv, CTLTOTTOLOV vj 
6i//07rotbi> TI vfydvrriv r) crKVToro^ov fj crKvrdSei//ov, 
Oavpaa-Tov ecrrtv, o^ra TOIOVTOV Socu /cal avraJ /cat 
aXXot? OepaTrevTrjv elvau (rw/xaros, Tratrt ro> /^^ etSort ort 
ecrrt TI? Trapa ravras ctTracra? re^yr] yvfJLvacrTiKTJ re /cat 
TJ, rj ST) TW ovrt ecrrt erw/xaros depaTreia, TJVTrep /cat 

TOVTWV ap^iv iracrwv rcav re-^voiv /cat 
rot? TOVTOJV epyoL<s 8ta TO etSevat o Tt xprjcrTov /cat 

518 pOV TO>1> (TLTltoV T! TTOTtoV CCTTtV CtS dptTrjV | CTCU/AaTO?, TO.9 

S* dXXas Tracra? rauras dyvoeTi/' Sto ST) /cat Tavra? /u,e^ 
re /cat Sta/cow/cas /cat dveXeu^e/Dou? elvat 
crw/xaro? Trpay^aTeiav, ras dXXa? reams' rr)v Se 
/cat larptK^v Kara TO St/catoi^ Seo'Troti'as 

B. t'iv 8 ^47^] Moeris (corrected by to the earlier portion of the dialogue, 

Buttniann), 'Pry&ij', 'ATTIKWS, frtyovv 464 seq., in which the 0fpa7rercu of the 

Koivtos. 'Piyif 'ATTJK&JS, ^70? 'E\\riviK<as. body and of the soul are classified, and 

This precept of the grammarians is fre- distinguished from the Ko\aice'icu which 

quently but not always confirmed by the simulate them. But the argument is 

codd. Its meaning is that friytn) makes vitiated by the confusion of arts which 

fiiyuv instead of fiiyovv in the infin., and minister to utility, such as those of 

frtyf for f>iyoi in the conj. ; the opt. the v^avrr/s or tfn-rropos, with those of 

f>iyi?Ti being formed after the analogy of which mere sensual indulgence is the 

other verbs in oeu. Comp. Arist. Vesp. object. Statesmanship implies the power 

446, SoTe fj.^ fitytav eKa<r-roT'. Av. 935, of making provision for the physical 

a\\d /xoi fiiyiav So/eel's. But the com- well-being, as well as for the mental 

mon form 170? occurs in Phaed. 85 A, culture of the people ; but this is quite 

and friyovv in Rep. 440 c. These ought another thing from pandering to licen- 

probably to be corrected, as well as Arist. tious appetite, whether mental or cor- 

Nub. 442, where the codd. have fiiyovv, poreal. But Socrates is made to identify 

Meineke frtyiav. The form in tav is SiaKovia with KoAaxcio, wherein he is by 

Doric, and analogous to treivriv, Si^irjf, &c. no means justified even on his own pre- 

E. ffKvr6$rfyoi>] Schol. Olyrnp. p. 171, misses. It is, besides, very perverse to 

a.TTtK<&rtpov rb ffKv\65e\l/oi>, tntiS)) TO represent Pericles, who reorganized the 

(T/cCAo, 8 eVrj T& vfKpa aufiara Kal Sep- Athenian commonwealth, as a mere 5<ct- 

fjiara tyatvTai (sic). The forms (r/curoSe'^Tjs KOVOS, even if we take that word in its 

and (r/cuAoSe'^Tjs are more common, but least contemptuous sense. He was at 

rbv fficv\6$f\l/ov occurs in Demosth. c. any rate a vo/j.o6fTi)s on a large scale, 

Aristog. p. 781. In the two best MSS. and therefore, from Plato's point of view, 

fficvrdSftyov is accented as in the text; a ireuSoTpi'/Srjs or Iarp6s of the soul, how- 

all the others, followed by the edd., ever bad his therapeutic may have ap- 

make the word oxytone. The reasoning peared to critics of aristocratic leanings. 
in the passage is explained by reference 



elvai TOVTO)V. ravra ovv ravra ort eo-rt /cat Trepl 
rore /zeV jiiot So/cets pavBdveiv, ort \eya), /cat o/toXoyets 
a>5 etSws o rt ey<u Xeyw i^/cet? Se oXtyov vcrrepov \eya>v 
ort av0p(t)TTOL /caXoi Ka.ya.6ol yeyovacn TroXtrat eV r^ TrdXet, 
/cat eVetSav eya> epcoTO) otrtve?, So/cets juot o/xotorarov? B 

a.v0pa>TTOv<; Trepl ra TroXtrt/ca, atcnrep av el 
ra yv/xvao~ri/ca e/x,ov eyowraivro? otrtves <xya#oi yeyd- 
vao~iv r) eto~t o~a>/Aarwv depoiTrevrai, eXeye'? /MOI TTO.VV O~TTOV- 
Saa>v, Oeapiuv 6 dpro/coTro? /cat Mt#at/cos 6 r^v 6\fjOTroiia,v 
(rvyyeypa<j>a)<s rrjv ^t/ceXt/c^ /cat 2dpafio<; 6 /caVryXo?, ort 
ovrot 0avjJLdo~ioi o~(i)p,dTa>v BepaTrevrai,, 6 pev 
aprov? 0av/xao~rovs Trapao~Kevd^o)V, 6 Se o^iov, 6 oe oivov. C 

LXXIV. *Io~cos av ovv ^yava/cret?, et o~ot eXeyov eyai 
ort Av6pwTre, eVatets ovSev 7re/>t yv/x,vacrrt/c^s* Sta/cdvov? 

518 B. tapl<av 6 apTon6iro<i] Athens had he known it. Of Sarambus, as the 
was famous for the excellence of its copies have it, or Sarabus, as the name 
bread. Archestratus ap. Athen. p. 112 B, ought to be written and pronounced 
T&p 8* et's a-yopav troifv^vov &prov At (Sapa/Si/caii/ KO7ri5a>i/ <rvi>o/juai>vfj.f, Achaeus 

ap. Athen. p. 173 E), we learn from an- 
other comic poet that he was a Plataean, 
and his reputation one of the very few 
things on which that small city could 
plume itself. Posidippus, Fr. inc. iii., 
Meineke iv. p. 525. JuTTPolI. vii. 193, 
explains the business of the /coVrjAos to 
have included the mixing of wines for 
the table : /cairrjAoi ov fj.6foy ol yuera- 
&o\eis, aAAa Kal ol rbv olvov nepavvvvrfs- 

uv6p.a.fftv, firaivcav ai/rbi* fir' olvovpyia 
(for the vulg. Zapdfiwva). The true form 
2apa/3os also lurks in a MS. reading of 
Athen. 112 E, Kal <rapa/u/9oj & Kapafios 
6 KaVijAos : doubtless a duplex lectio 
2apa,u/3oy (^ Sapa^os). From the 767^- 
va<ri which follows, we may infer that 
these three worthies were dead when the 
Gorgias was written. 

C. y l<ro>s &j/ ovv TiyavditTus] 'Now, I 
dare say you would have been indignant 
if I had said, Friend, you know nothing 
of Gymnastic ; you tell me of fellows who 
are mere ministers and caterers to the 
desires, destitute of all sound and right 
v : ews concerning them/ i. e. concerning 
the desires, and their fitness or unfitness 
to be gratified. Comp. p. 501 B, T}TU Se 
$1 f3t\Ticav $j T^dpuv T<av rjfioviav of/re 
ffKoirovfj.fvai ovrf /xeAop avrais 2cAAo ^ 

The baker Thearion is men- 
tioned by two comic poets, Antiphanes 
and Aristophanes. Athen. ib. D, E, 'Api- 

(TTO<f>d'TJS V r7Jpl>T<{5J ICol AlO\OalK(l>Vl 

Sjet Toiirwi' y H/cw tapiwyoy opTOTrcuAtoj' 
Anrwj' y^' ^<rrl Kpi$a.v<av eScuAia. So 
Antiph. in Omphale 1. 1., &provs ofis 
tirjutrais tapitav eSetfe, whence we con- 
clude that Thearion was an Athenian 
citizen. The form apro/cJiroy is recog- 
nized as more Attic than aproiroios, 
Lobeck on Phryn. p. 222. 

MiOaitcos 6 TTJV oil/owodav <rvyyeypa<p<as^\ 
' Siculae dapes j were proverbial. Rep. 
iii. 404 D, ~S,vpa.KO(riav $e 8> <pl\f rpd- 
Trfav Kal SiKfAiKr;*' irotKi\iav fyov . . . 
OIIK otVeTy. In Epist. vii. 326 B, Plato 
speaks of the excessive luxury at the 
court of Dionysius : jSfos 'IraXuaTinSiv 
Kal 'S.vpa.ttoff'uav rpaire^oav TrA^pr/s. Comp. 
Athen. p. 25 E, 2i/cAi/car Kal ~S,v&api- 
jnicas Kal 'iTaAtKos rpawefas, tfSri Se /col 
.(as. Mithaecus, according to Maxinius 
!*yrius, Diss. vii., was a Syracusan, as 
reat in otyoiroiia as Phidias in sculp- 
;ure. He was expelled from Sparta, 
vhere he had begun to exercise his skill, 
mt welcomed by all other cities that 
visited. Possibly his was the first 
)kery-book. It does not however seem 
have survived to the time of Athenaeus, 
'ho would not have failed to quote, 

519, A.] 


/xot Xe'yet? /cat eVt#i7Atcoi> irapaa'Kevao'Ta.s dv0pa>irov<s, OVK 
/caXbi' KayaObv ovSe> Trept CLVTUV, ol, av ovrat 
e/xTrX^cravTes /cat Tra^v^a^re? TO, (rw/xara raw 


/cat TO.? cxpvata? crdpKas. ol 8' au 
eartaii'Ta? alna.crovra.1 TUV v6<T(0v amovs evat /cat 
0,770/30X7)9 TOW dpyoiitov (rapKOLtv, dXX' ot at* avrot? 
rare Trapovres /cat crv/xySouXeuoi'Tes rt, orav 8^ aurot? 
17 rore TrXrjo-fiovT) vocrov <j)pov<ra crv^vy varepov 

St' aTretptai> ov rous 

yeyovvta, TOUTOU? atTtacrovrat /cat 

E /cat o~) 

/cat KaKov TL TTOir)(Tov(riv, av otot r acrt, rous 8e 
e/ceti/ov? /cat atrtovs raiv /ca/ca>^ eyKw^iacrovcri. 
, a) KaXXt/cXet?, o/xotoTarov TOVTW lpydlf.1' 
dvOpuirovs ot TOVTOVS eto'Tta/cacrtv 
v. KO.L ^>ao~t /xeyaXryv r)i> iroXt 

oTt Se otSet /cat uTrovXos eVn St' e/cetvovs roug 

519 TraXatov?, ov/c"6a.vovTan. avev yap (T<t)<f>po(Tvvr)<; /cat 
St/catoo~wi7< Xt/xeVajv /cat vewpiw /cat ret^wv /cat <f>6p(t>v 
/cat TOtovrojv <[>\vapia)v e/ATreTrXTf/cacrt r^v TrdXtv orav ov^ 
eX^ 17 jcaTaySoXTj^tvTry T^9 ao~#vetag ) TOVS rare Trapovrais 
atrtao"ovrat o~v/x;SovXov5, @e/xto~TO/cXea Se /cat Kt/xcuva /cat 
Uept/cXe'a ey/ca>/xtcicrovo-t, rovs atrtous TO)^ /ca/cwv o~ov Se 

D. irpoffairo\ovffii' avrtav Kal ray ap- 
Xaias <fpkas] These quacks will not 
only add no new flesh to the bodies they 
cram and pamper, but will eventually 
cause them to lose the flesh they had. 
They may grow fat for a time, but re- 
pletion will bring in its train disease and 
ultimate emaciation, having been effected 
without regard to sanitary rules. 

E. KOI $o<ri /ufyoArjj' T))I' WAiv ireiroir;- 
KeVcu OUTOUS] Covnp. Thuc. ii. 65, tyevero 
fir' fKflvov firyio-Ti). People pretend that 
the statesmen of old have made Athens 
great, not perceiving that she is tumid 
from disease, and rotten at the core all 
in consequence of those men and their 
measures. They have glutted the city 
with all the appliances of material pro- 
sperity, without teaching her to use them 
temperately and righteously ; and hence, 
when the disease shall come to a head, 
blame will be thrown on whoever shall 

happen to be her advisers, instead of on 
the true authors of her woe. r) Karafto\^ 
O.VTI) is the ir\rjffiJiov^i v6crov (ptpovffa just 
mentioned. KaraBo^ is a medical term 
for the ' access ' o7~aj>eriodic or inter- 
mitting fever, which leaves the patient 
apparently well in the interval. The 
metaphor is not uncommon. Thus De- 
mosth. Philipp. iii. p. 118, in speaking 
of the insidious approaches of the Mace- 
donian power, says, STJ ye &a-irfp irfpiotios 
t) Karaflo\}i irvperov % TIVOS &\\ov KO.KOV 
Kal Tip -irdvv ir6^p<a SOKOVVTI vvv a<i>fffra.i>a.i 
Trpo<rfpx*T<u, ovSfls ayvoe?. Comp. Hipp. 
Min. 372 E, vvvl 8" iv r<j5 Trdpovrl pot 
wffirfp Ka.Tafio\)] Trepif\-i)\vf)t . . . <rv a&v 
Xo-piffai, Kal fjLij <p6ovfiaT}S lavaffOai T^V 
^iX^" P<> v - Socrates having said that he 
was liable to vacillation to hot and cold 
fits of opinion on a certain doubtful 


[519, A 

t, lav /AT) ev\afirj, /cat TOV ep,ov eraipov 
'A\Kij3id$ov, orav /cat TO. dp^ala 7rpocra7roXXva>crt vrpos 
ots KT7J(ravTO, OVK airioiv OVTMV r&v KCLKO)V dXX tcrws B 
(TvvaiTitov. KCLLTOL eywye dvo^rov Trpdyp.a Kal vvv opat 
yiyvQ^VQV KOL aKova) TOIV iroXanwv dv$pa)v Trepi. atcr- 
6dvofj,ai ydp, orav 17 TroXtg Tivd Ta>v 

co? dSt/cowra, daya/cTOwrcay /cat 

TroXXa /cat dyat)d TT)^ 7roAti> 
TreTro 07 /cores apa dSt/coo? UTT* avrrjs aTroXXwrat, a>s 6 
rovrajv Xoyo?. TO 8e oXov i/;evSos ecrrt. 7rpoo-TaTr)<s yap o 
TroXecy? ovS* av els TTOTC dSt/ccos aTroXotro vvr* avr^s T^S 
7roXew9 ^5 Trpoararel. KivSvvevei yap TOVTOV etvat, ocrot 
re TToXtrticol TrpocrTroiovvrai et^at Kal ocrot o~o^)tcrrat. 
/cat -yap ot croc^tcrTat, raXXa cro^ot oi/reg, TOVTO OLTOTTOV 
epyd^ovrat Trpay/xa* ^dcr/covre? yap dper^s SiSdcr/caXot 

519. /col roC ^to eralpov 'A.\Ki&id$ov~] 
This part of the prophecy was fulfilled, 
for the fall of Athens was very generally 
attributed to the rashness of Alcibiades 
in urging on the Sicilian expedition. 
The admirers of Pericles might justly 
complain of his being thus made re- 
sponsible for a step the most directly op- 
posed to his own policy. Thucyd. 1. 1. 
6 seq. The present passage seems to 
imply that Alcibiades was still in Athens. 
If this is so, and we assume 405 B.C. for 
the date of the conversation (473 E), Plato 
is guilty of an anachronism, for Alci- 
biades left the city for the last time 
B.C. 407. But he was probably aware of 
the inconsistency, and indifferent to it. 

B. \6yos~] " When the 
state," says Socr., "deals with any of 
our public characters as wrong-doers, I 
hear of their being indignant and loudly 
lamenting the injustice they are made to 
suffer : ' So, after all our valuable ser- 
vices to the state, we are perishing un- 
righteously at her hands' such is the 
language they hold." This version shows 
the force of &pa, which has its usual in- 
ferential sense, though placed somewhat 
late in the sentence. Of this however 
there are other examples. Symp. 199 A, 
a\\ci yap tyti) OVK 77877 apa -rbi/ rp6vov 
roD fitaivov. Ibid. 177 E, ravra 5^ Kal 
ol &\\oi iravrts &pa ^vvf<pa.ffav. "But 
in this," proceeds Socr., "there is not 

one word of truth, for there can be no 
such thing as a ruler of a state perishing 
unrighteously at the hands of the state 
he rules. For I fancy the case is much 
the same with professed politicians as 
with professed sophists or teachers of 
wisdom. Such teachers, wise as they 
are in all other respects, are in one point 
guilty of gross absurdity : pretending to 
be teachers of virtue, they not unfre- 
quently accuse their pupils of wrong- 
doing in withholding their fees," &c. 
This may be a fair 'argumentum ad 
hominem ' against a sophist who should 
give out that virtue is capable of being 
taught, and that he can teach it; in 
fact, we know that it was a common 
taunt against such persons. See Isocr. 
c. Soph. 4, 5, 6. No such boast how- 
ever was made by Pericles or his suc- 
cessors; and the principle Socrates en- 
deavours to establish is an extravagant 
paradox, quite unsupported by the ana- 
logy he alleges. 'To make men good' 
may be the final cause of statesman- 
ship, but it is an end which in the 
nature of things can only be partially 
accomplished, even under the most 
favourable circumstances. In practice 
such professions are usually a cloak of 
tyranny, as Plato might have learned 
from the case of his relative Critias. 
His Sicilian experiences were probably 
not yet purchased. 

520, A.] rOPFIAS. 159 

elvai 7roXXd/ct9 Karryyo/aovcrt TOJV jj.aOr)TO)v a>s dStfcovcri 
crfias [aurou9,] TOU? re fjn.cr0ov<s airocrTepovvTes /cat aXXyv 
D )(ap LV V K diroStScWes, eu iraOovTes VTT* avrwv. /cat TOUTOU 
TOW Xoyou rt ai> aXoyurepov etry Trpayp^a, a.v0p<aTrov<; dya- 
#ov9 /cat St/catou9 yevopevovs, eaip06i>7a<s ju,o> dSt/ctav 
VTTO TOV SiSaovcdXov, cr^oi^ra? Se St/catocrv^v, dSt/cetv 
TOUTOJ to OUK e^ovcriv ; ov 8o/cet crot rovro aronov et^at, a) 
eratpe ; '^2? aXrj0a)<s $r)p,r)yopelv /ae ^vdy/cacra?, a> KaX- 
Xt/cXet?, ov/c eWXcov airoKpivea-Oai,. 

LXXV. KAA. 2v S' ou/c av otos T* euj? Xeyetv, et 
^17 Tt? crot airoKpivoLTo ; 

*Eoii<d ye- vO^ youv cru^vovs TtVa> rai^ Xoywv, 
ry jotot ov/c e^eXet? airoKpivecr0aL. dXX', a) 'ya#e, ctTre 
<f>i\iov, ov So/cct crot dXoyov eti/at ayaOov (f>dcrKoi>Ta 

TLVO, p.e[ji<f>e(T0<u TOVTU ort vc/>' eavrou d 
yeyovcu9 re /cat ai> eTretra Trovrjpo 1 ; ecrrtv ; 
KAA. *Enoiye So/cet. 

OVKOVV d/covet9 rotavra 

520 | KAA. *Eya)ye. dXXd rt a^ Xeyot9 avOpvircov 

C. aiy a8Kot}(Ti ff(f)Ss] I agree with Protag. 329 A, /col <u gropes oZrsa 
Bekker in thinking aurovs inadmissible. fpwTijflfVTfs 5o\ixbi' KaTareivova-t TOV 
aSiKovtri ff<j>as avrovs would mean ' they, A<tyoi;. But in his note on that passage, 
the pupils, are wronging themselves/ he alleges that the cases are not parallel. 
'ipsi se injuria afficiunt.' The follow- However this may be, the phrase avx- 
ing roi5s easily explains the origin of the vovs rfivw riav \6y<ov is scarcely to be 
error. See above 506 A ; also 520 B, as distinguished from the ordinary avxvovs 
xovi]p6v fffnv (is ff(f)as. A similar error reivta TOVS \6yovs. ' It would seem/ says 
has been corrected in Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 6, Socr., ' that I can get on without such 
*jrrre jAoi Se fftylffiv [avro?j] TOVS 4<j>6- assistance for now, at any rate, the 
povs. speeches I make are prolix enough/ 

D. dStKEtV Tovrif $ OVK ex ovfflv ~\ I Q " ^ n sequentibus firtna. irovripAs fffnv, 
Socratic language, aSiiciq ol aSiKovires positum fireira pro S/juvs, usu frequentis- 
ei5(coi5(Tij'. simo." Heind. 

'fls aA.7)0cSs Sri/jLtiyopetv] Callicles had 520. avOptairtav vepi ovSevbs fyicav] 

said, ^n 'SvKparfs, SoKe'ts vfavieveffdai tv This is a good dramatic touch. Calii- 

TO?S \6yots us a\r]0<as Sri/j.r]y6pos &v. cles, an admirer of the pure rhetoricians, 

Socrates quotes his words, and tells him adopts their tone of contempt for the 

that his declamatory style is this time sophists, who professed to teach virtue. 

compulsory. Callicles had the remedy See in particular the curious fragment of 

in his own hands ; he had but to answer Isocrates, Kara TWI> fftMpiffrwv, in which 

the questions proposed to him, and the he describes those who make such pro- 

long harangue would be exchanged for fessions as \iav a.TrepiffKirT<as a\aovfv6- 

dialogue. /j.fvoi JJ.&VOVOVK adai/drovs viriffxvovfifvoi 

E. vvv yovv \6y<av~\ Heind. quotes TOVS ffvv6vTas iroii}ffea>, 1, 4. In this 



[520, A 

. Tt 8' av Trepl eKtivtov Xeyot5 ot <f)dcrKovTe<; irpoe- 
o-raVai TTJS 7roXea>5 /cat eVt/jteXetcr^at 6V&>5 a>5 
carat TrdXiv avrrjs Karqyopovo'Lv, orav TV^QMTIV, a>5 

; otet Tt Sta^epeti' TOUTOUS tKeivcav ; ravroV, a) 
ipi, earl cro^>tcrT^5 /cat piJTvp, rj lyyvs rt /cat irapa- 

, axrirep eya) eXeyov irpos TltoXov. crv Se Si' B 
ayvoiav TO jaeV iray/caXoV TL otet etvat, r^ pr)Topu<r)v, rov 
8e Kara()ovei<s' r Se d 

ocruirep vo^oeTLKr) tKatrrtKg Ka 
larpLKrj<s. JJLOVOLS 8' eyooye /cat wja^v rots 8^/^1770/3015 re 
/cat o~o^>to~rat5 ov/c ey^copelv jae//-^)eo~^at rovrw TW Trpay- 
ytxart 6 avrot 7ratSevovo"tv, a>9 Trovypov tcmv et? cr^a?, ^ 
TW avra> Xoyw TOVTOJ a/xa /cat eaurcui^ Karyyopelv ort ouSev 

KAA. Ildvv ye. 

. Kal irpoecrda-i ye 8177701; T^V evepyecriav avev 
>5 ro et/co'5, i*.6vois rourot5 eve)(a>pi, ei-rrep aXyOfj 
aXXrjv pev yap evepyeo-iav rt5 evepyeTrjOtis, olov 



, tcra)5 

Isocrates follows the traditions of his 
master Gorgias, as appears from Menon, 
p. 95 c. Socrates presently main- 
tains that if a comparison be made be- 
tween rhetoric and sophistic, the latter 
must be preferred : just as legislation is 
a higher art than dicastic, and the art 
which keeps the body in health superior 
to that which removes sickness. But 
here again the analogy fails; for the 
political rhetor (Sri/j.rry6pos) is on occa- 
sion a vonodfTys, and is not eo nomine 
a pleader in the courts (Si/catm/frfs). As 
a public speaker, it is true, he may have 
to rebuke as well as to exhort; but to 
make that his principal or only duty is 
surely perverse. 

'6Tav vvxe>ffw~\ ' when occasion serves,' 
as when they are unjustly punished, os- 
tracized, or the like. 

B. Tovrcf T<f irpa.yiJLa.Ti] Not exclusively 
' the people,' as Ast puts it, but the peo- 
ple in the case of the orators, their pupils 
in that of the Sophists, irpayfia, and 
Xp7)|U.a are not unfrequently applied to 
persons. Aristoph. Eccles. 441, yvvatica. 
8' ilva.1 irpayfi !<|>7j vov$v<TTiit6v. Eubu- 
lus, fr. Chrys. ii. ap. Mein. iii. 260, KUK^I 

, Tilijvf \6irftaSe Meyairpa.y/j.a. 
With a genitive, Criton 53 C, OUK ofet 
<pa.VflaQai rb TOU 'SwKpd.T ovs 


C. Kal Trpoe<rQa,i ye S^TTOU] Sophists 
and public* menyif their professions had 
been worth any thing, could alone afford 
to trust those whom they benefit. A 
trainer would have less reason to com- 
plain if his pupil, when he had learnt to 
run fast, should refuse to pay him 
supposing he had left the question of 
payment open, instead of stipulating for 
a fee to be paid down as nearly as pos- 
sible at the time of imparting the desired 
accomplishment. irgpeffOai to trust a 
customer, to leave tEe time or amount 
of payment to his honour occurs in 
much the same sense, Legg. 849 E, 6 8e 
irpof/jifvos o>y iriffrevcav, ta.v re KOfiicrrirai 
fdv re p-fi, ffrtpytrta ais ov/cert SI'KIJS 
oijcrris Ttav roiovraiv irepi <rvva,\\df(i>j'. 
Xen. Anab. vii. 7. 47, TriffTevw <rt OVK 
ave^effdai rovs aoi Trpotfj-tvovs fvepyecriav 
dpavrd ffoi tyKa\ovi>ras (sc. Sri OVK 
cbre'Sco/cas). Our modern honoraria an- 
swer in theory to the suggestion in the 

52], A.] 





> <> <* o *n v > 

, et TrpooLTo avra) o TraiooTpipys /cat JU.T) crw- 

avro) fJuo-ffbv o n p.d.XiO'Ta dpa ju,TaStSov9 TOT) 
\afJLJ3dvoi TO apyvpiov ov 'yap rr} 
oluai, doLKovcriv ol avOponroi, dXX' aoiKia. 17 yap 

OVKOVV el Ttg avTO TOVTO aufraipel, TT)V d 

vTO) fJMJTTOTe aBiKrj6y, a\Xa povw 
rrjv evepyto-iav TrpoecrOai, eiirtp TW oi'Tt 
Tt? dya^ovs Trotett'. ou^ oimos ; 
KAA. $7) jut. 

LXXVI. 5^/2. ^Jta TavT* apa, a>g eot/ce, Ta? 
crv/x/3ovXas crv/>t/3ovXevtv Xa/x^8dvovTa apyvpwv, olov 
ot/coSo/uas Trept ^ Taij^ a\\ajv Te^va)v, ovbev alcr^pov. 
E K^4^1. "EoLKt ye. 

5*/2. Uept Se ye Tavr/ys TiJ<? Trpdea)<s, OVTIV av Tt? 
rporrov a>s ySe'XTto-Tos etr^ /cat apicrra rrjv avrov ot/ctav Stot- 
/cot ^ TrdXtv, alcrxpov ve^o/xtcrTat /w,-^ cravat o-vp,fiov\evi.v ) 
lav fJLTj TL<; avTa> apyvpiov 8tSa>. ^ yap ; 

rJXo^ yap oTt TOUTO aiTiov icmv, OTL 
evepyecTLtov TOV ev Tradovra lindvfjieiv Trotet 
77otetv, WO-TC KO\.OV 8o/cet TO (rrjfjLelov elvaL, et eu 
ravrrjv rrjv evepyecriav dvT* v TretcreTar et Se jary, ov. eo~Ti 
TavTa OUTOJS c^pvra ; 
521 | ILIA "Eo-Tiv. 

'.Eir! TroTepav ovv /ae Trapa/caXet? TT)I> Oepaireiav 

' ev 

D. OuKoCj' e? TIS] 'Whoever then 
can remove injustice from the soul, need 
be under no apprehension of ever being 
wronged : for him alone it is safe to 
bestow this boon unconditionally.' For 
fj.6ftfi it would have been more cor- 
rect to say n6vi)v. In the next clause 
Socrates intimates scepticism as to the 
reality of such pretensions. ' If indeed 
there were any one capable of making 
men good.' The Comm. speak of the 
sophists Protagoras and Prodicus as the 
objects of these satirical remarks. But 
it is to be observed that Plato's con- 
temporaries the Cynics made the same 


profession, and to them the description 
in Isocrates, Kara, rwv <ro(t>t(rra>v, 4 
seq., is applicable in all its features. 
Doubtless also there were sophists un- 
attached to any sect who followed the 
example. The rhetors, who did not 
teach virtue, consistently demanded pay- 
ment in advance. This we gather from 
Demosth. c. Lacritum, p. 938, together 
with the information that the amount 
of the fee was ten minae. Evenus the 
Parian, an educator of the ethical school, 
was content with five, Apol. 20 B. The 
formula ouSev Seivbv fi/h occurs Apol. 
28 B, oi>5ec S. u^j eV ffj.o\ trry. 




[521, A 

rrjs TToXecos ; StoptcroV /xor rrjv rov Sta/xa^ecr^at *A0r)- 
oVa>9 a>9 jSe'Xrtcrrot ecrovrai, a>9 tarpoV, f) a>9 Sta- 
/cat 77/305 ^apiv o/xtX^cro^Ta ; Ta\r)6ri /xot 
etvre', a> -KaXXt/cXet9* Sycatps yap el, cocrirep Y)pco Trappr/- 
crtdeo-#at 7rpo9 e//,e', StareXetv a i>oet9 Xe'yaw. /cat vvV ev 
/cat yewat<u9 etTre. 

KAA. Aeya) roivvv ort a>? Sta/covrjcrovra. B 

oXa/cevo-ovTa dpa /x,e, &> yewatorare, 7rapa/caXet9. 
.Et (rot Mva-QV ye ^810^ /caXetv, a> ^w/cpares' 
a>9 et /x^ ravra ye Troti^crets 

Mi) etTT^s o 7roXXa/ct9 etpry/ca?, ort aTTOKrevet /xe 6 
t^a /AT) av /cat eyw et77&), art irovqpos ye wv dya- 
ovra' ft^S' ort d^atpr^creTat e'aV rt e^w, tra /AT) av e'yw 
) ort '^IXX' d^)eXd/xevo9 ot^ e^et o rt ^pr/o-erat aurot9, 
dXX' cocnrep /AC dSt/ca>9 d^etXero, ovrw /cat Xafiav dSt/ca>9 
^pr/o-eraf et Se aSt/ca>9j ato~^pw9' et Se 
LXXVII. KAA. v /29 ftot 8o/cet9, 

521. Stogies 7&p el, Scrirep ^p|a>] 'As 
I you spoke ~youf~~mind freely from the 
I first, I have a right to expect you to be 
I consistent and to tell me now what you 
j really think.' In the next speech of 
I Socrates the construction KoXaufvaovra. 
irapaKa\e?j/ is rare, and many edd. pre- 
fer <ws Ko\a.Kev(roi>Ta, which has no MS. 
authority. But the sense is the same 
whether we prefix o>s or not. We may 
say, for instance, indifferently, Tropa- 
Ka\e7v fis Ko\d.Ktvffiv, and Trapo/caAeo' 
us fls KoXdKfvffiv, and so too, 1 conceive, 
where the participle is used. See above, 
514 A. 

B. Et jroi Mvcrfo ye i$ioi>_Ka\eiv] Tlie 
Comm. liave given themselves much 
needless trouble with this passage, which 
is perfectly clear when seen by the light 
of the context. Socrates had asked Calli- 
cles whether he would have him come for- 
ward as the larp&s or as the Stdicovos of the 
Athenian people. 'As the Sidtcovos cer- 
tainly.' ' In other words, as its flatterer.' 
' Yes,' answers Callicles, ' its flatterer, 
if you prefer to use the most opprobrious 
word you can think of. If you are too 
proud to flatter ' you must take the 
consequences. The prov. Mvabv KaXtiv 
hangs together with Mva-uv ecrxaTos, 
Mvff&v \eta. The Mysians, like the 

Carians, were regarded as the refuse 01 
mankind. Hence Vlva-bv itaXtiv = to call 
names. This the Greek interpreter Olym- 
piodorus has understood, but it was hid- 
den from all the edd. preceding Bekker. 
It should be observed that the word K&\a 
(later Trapdffiros) is much more invidious 
than our ' flatterer.' ' Toad-eater/ or even 
' pander,' would better convey its force 
to an English reader. (See Plaut. Ain- 
phitr. i. 3. 17.) Compare also the de- 
scription of the KoAa in Eupolis (ic6\a.Kfs, 
Fr. i.) with that of the Trapc<nToy in 
Diodorus Com. ('EirtK\r]pos, Mein. iv. 
543). Another comic poet records of 
Socrates that starved as he was he never 
stooped tobe a /c^Aof OVTOS fj.4vroi irtiviav 
OI'ITWS OUTTCOTTOT' T\rj KO\aKfvffa.i, Ameip- 
sias, Connus. Fr. i. 

-jrovr)p6s ye &>v cLyaObv OVTO] For the 
full force of these words in the mouth of 
Socrates, compare Apol. 30 D. 

c. "n,s fj.oi 8o/ceTs] ' How confident yon 
seem that nothing of this kind will ever 
happen to you as if you dwelt apart 
and were not liable to be dragged into 
court it may be by some wretch of the 
vilest character.' Possibly Plato aimed 
this at Meletus, who seems to have been 
a bad man as well as an indifferent poet. 
Mein. Com. Gr. ii. p. 1126. 

-522, A.] ropriAS. 163 

crreveii> *?&' av ev TOVTMV 7ra0etv, o>9 ot/coiv e/CTroSw^ /cat 

ov/c a.v eicray6e\s ets StKaon^piov VTTO TTOLVV tcrct)? ^u,o- 
\0r)pov dv0p(t>Trov /cat (ftavXov ! 

5"/2. '^l^o^Tos apa ei/xt, a) KaXXt/cXets, a>s d\r)0a><s, el 

\ * > ~ ~ ,x C V </ / 

/r7 oto/xat e*> T^oe TT? TroAet OVTLVOVV av, o Tt Tv^ot, TOVTO 

/) /o / ? -?o> " > ' > ' > ^ 

Trafetv. rode [Lzvroi ev oto on, eavirep etataj et? otKa- 


po<s Tts /xe eo~Tat 6 eurayaiv ovSet? yap av ^prja~Tb<s jar) 
aSi/coiW (LvBpanrov eto~ayayot. /cat ovSeV ye O.TOTTOV et 
a.Tro0dvoi[jii. )8ov\et o~ot etTrca 8t' o Tt ravra Trpcxr- 

KAA. Ildvv ye. 

Ot/xat /ACT' oXtyay 'A&qiHUtaw, Iva /U,T) etTrw 

TT) O)<S a\.r)0)<S 7ToXlTt/CT7 TC^VT) KO.I TTpOLTTeiV TO. 

7roXtTt/ca jLtovo? Taif I'vt'. are ow ou TT/DOS yapiv Xe'ycuv 
rovs Xdyov? ous Xe'yaj e/cacrrore, tlXXa 77/305 TO ySe'Xrtaror, 


, Ta /co/u,^a TavTa, ov^ efu o Tt Xeyw eV TO> St/ca- 
6 avTo? Se' /xot T^KCI Xdyos ovirep Trpos 

/cptvov/xat yap a)? c^ TratStotg taTpos a 

>i < / //*\> 

oi//o7rotov. cr/co7rt yap, Tt av a7roXoyotTo 

6 TOIOVTOS avdptoiros ev TOVTOIS \f]<j)0ei<s, el CLVTOV KaTTj- 
yopot Tt? Xe'ywv oTt '/2 vratSe?, TroXXa v/xas /cat /ca/ca oSe 
etpyaorat aK>)p /cat avTov?, /cat TOUS vecjTaTovs v/xwi^ 
522 8ta^>^etpet rep-vc^v re /cat /cawv, /cat Icr^valvajiv \ /cat Trviyw 
Trotet, TTt/cpoTaTa TTcej/AaTa StSovs /cat ireLVTJv /cat 
ji' a^ay/ca^wv, ov^ cocnrep eya> TroXXa /cat T^Se'a /cat 

D. TTepl To\n<av Tivbs KiySwfv<av~] who accuses him. 

" Videlicet de capita et bonis : quae 522. irdj/uora] The codd. give v6/j.ara, 

ante commemoraverat Callicles." Stallb. some few ireju^ora. Pors. on Hec. 392, 

E. TO Ko/j.^a ToJJra] We must sup- /eal Sis T&UOV iriafj.' o7/iOToy 7ej/Tj(TTaj. 
pose this a quotation. Callicles had "irJ/u* MSS. et edd., sed haec forma 
adjured Socrates to abandon philosophy Atticis erat incognita. Quod hoc uno 
&AAou ret KOfj-ifta roOr' <x</>ei's and argumento satis probatur. Multa sunt 
Socrates retorts by calling the arts of loca in quibus metrum ircDjua flagitet; 
the rhetor TO /co/i^/d raOra. Sup. 486 C. nullum ubi W/to postulet ; pauca, ubi ad- 
The next sentence is an amplification of mittat." It may be added that the codd. 
464 i). A philosopher in a court of sometimes give Tr^ua where the metre 
justice is like a physician accused by a convicts them. Thus in Alexides Com. 
confectioner before a jury of school-boys. ir6funos is made to end a senarius, in a 
tyoiroi6s stands of course for the rhetor frag, cited by Athenaeus, p. 28 E. 

M 2 



[522, A 

r av otet e TOVTO> rco /ca/c<w 
etTretv ; r) et etTrot rrp 01X17 #etaz>, 

01770X17 (#eVr a iarpov 
ort Taura TraVra eyw eVotovv, &) iraTSes, vytewais, TTOVOV 
otet av dvafiorjcrai rows rotourovs St/cao~ras ; ou /xeya ; 
KAA. v lo-tos' otecr#at ye x/ 31 ?' 

OVKOVV otet eV Trdcry airopia. a.v avrov \ecr0ai o 



rt xp<7 eiTrev ; 
KAA. Ildvv ye. 

LXXVIII. 5*/2. TotoGrov /xeVrot /cat eya> o 
7ra#ot/u av eicre\6(t)v et? SiKaarTtjpLov. ovre 
0,5 eKTreiropiKOL e^co avroT? Xe'yetv, as ovrot evep- 
yecrtas /cat ax^>eXetas vofJii^ovcrLV, eya> Se ovre TOV? Tropi- 
^oi'ras ^Xw ovre ots Tropitf.Tai % lav re rt? /xe ^ vetore- 
pow; <f>f) $La<f>6eipeiv aTropelv Troiovvra, fj rov? irpecrfivTe- 
pov? KdK^yopeiv Xeyovra iriKpovs Xdyovs ^ tSta ^ S^/xocrta, 
ovre ro d\r)0es ea) eiirtiv, ort /dt/catw? TraVra ravra eya> 
Xe'yw, /cat Trparrw ro vperepov ST) rouro, <> at'Syoes St/cao-rat, 
oure aXXo ouSeV. <uo~re to~cus, o rt cu> rv^w, rouro 7reto"ottat. 
KAA. AOKCI ovv o~ot, a) ^w/cyoares, KaXai? e^eti^ av- 
eV TrdXet ovrw Sta/cetjaevos /cat a.8 wares wv eavraJ 

o] ' What would 
the physician find to say, think you, 
under these desperate circumstances?' 
airo\i)<pO., shut off as it were from all aid 
and sympathy 'driven into a corner,' 
as we say. Menex. 243 c, cbreiATj/u/utVcoj' 
V MuTtA.Vjf'T? TWC vtiav. Euthyd. 305 D, 
eVSe TO?$ 5io(s \6yois '6rav a.iroXT)<pQ(ii>ffiv, 
uirb TUIV afj,<t>l EvSvSr)/uLov Ko\ove(r6ai 
said of a fluent rhetorician brought to 
bay by a skilful controversialist. 

ir6ffov ofcj] This rests on the authority 
of a single MS. All the rest have 
6ir6<rov, and so every ed. but Hirschig. 
Several instances of the oblique for the 
direct interrogation occur in Plato, if 
the codd. are to be trusted ; as &ir6rfpos, 
Lysis 212 c, Euthyd. 271 A. (nroios, 
Alcib. i. 110 c. But in Charm. 170 B, 
for Tavrr] rfj fjrio-T^/uj; SITUS efoerai; 
the edd. now give TTCOS on the strength 
of one MS. The other instances are not 
improbably neoterisms introduced by 
copyists. No example has been adduced 
from an Attic poet, where the oblique 

form in the direct sense is required by 
the metre, and till this is done the legi- 
timacy of the usage may be doubted. 

B. TOJOUTOV M^TOJ] Compare the ex- 
ordium of the Apologia, where Socrates 
disavows the Setcdr^s attributed to him 
by his accusers. 

airopftv iroiovifra] He alludes of course 
to the effect produced by his cross-ques- 
tioning. This could not be made an 
article of impeachment by his accusers, 
but Socrates points to it in the Apol. as 
one principal cause of his unpopularity, 
p. 23. The Comm. quote Menon 79 E, 
Theaet. 149 A. 

c. irpdrru rb fyuerepoc Si] rovro~] 
' Herein I am acting in your interest, 
not in my own.' Apol. 31 B, he makes 
the same assertion : TWV yuei/ e/jtavrov 
airdvruv ijfif\r}Kfvai . . . rb S' 6/j.fTfpov 
Trpdmtv at] . . . irel6ovTa ^TriyueAeTcrflai 
fytrris. Similar is the expression, 455 c, 
/co/te vvv v&fjuffov nal rb abv ffire&tieiv. 
After otfre &\\o ovSev supply of course 
e'w etVetV. 

523, A.] 



572. El e/ceti'o ye [eV] auro> virap^oi, ai KaXXt/cXet?, 
o crt* TToXXd/cts a)fJio\6yrjcra<s' el /3efior}07)KGt><s elf) avraJ, 

D jLtT^re Trept dv0p(jj7rov<s fJLTJTe Trept Oeovs dSt/co^ 
etp?7/ca>9 fnjre etpyao~/xeVos. avrry yap rt? 
TroXXd/as i^u,u/ a/xoXoy^rat /cpaTtcrT^ elvai. el //.ev 
e/xe Tts e^eXey^ot Tavrrjv rrjv /3oiq0eLav dSvvarov oWa 
e/xauTaJ /cat dXXa> (3or)0elv, alcr^yvoLfjirjv av /cat eV TroXXot? 
/cat eV oXtyot? e^eXcy^o/xez^o? feat p,6vos VTTO p.6vov, /cat et 
Sta TavT-rjv TVJV dSwa/xtav cxTro^i^cr/cot/xt, ayai/a/crot^j' aV. 
et Se /coXa/ct/c^5 p7}Topu<fj<s eVSeta reXevrwryi' eywye, eu 

E otSa ort /aaStcu? tSot? av fte <j>epovTa rov Bdvarov. avro 
/^te^ yap TO airoOvTJa'Keii' ovSets fyofieirai, QCTTIS p.r) TTCLV- 
raTracrtv aXoytoro? re /cat avav$p6s ecrrt, TO Se dSt/ceti/ 
<^)oy8etTaf vroXXaiv yap dSt/c^/xaTW^ yep-ovTa rr]V ^V^TJV et? 
"^itSou d(j>u<e(r0cu TrdvTcov eV^aTov /ca/ctov ICTT'IV. el Se 
)8ovXet, o~ot eyw, a? TOVTO OVTCO? e^et, e^eXw Xdyov Xe'l'at. 
KAA. 'AXX eTreinep ye /cat TaXXa eVepavas, /cat TOVTO 

v -4/cove Sry, <acrt, /xctXa /caXov Xoyou, 

Ei ^K(lv6 ye [_v~] avry ujrap^ot] The 
omission of ^v is suggested by Heind. 
Stallb. defends the prep, on the insuffi- 
cient plea that uiropx< has the force of 
fveljj. The phrase inrdpxfiv nvl seems 
invariable. " I think it would be well 
with him if he stood on that vantage- 
ground which you have frequently ac- 
knowledged in the course of our argu- 
ment. I mean if he had 'helped himself 
by abstinence from injustice to men and 
gods, whether in word or deed. For this 
is a kind of self-help which we have more 
than once allowed to be of all the best." 
With oT)0eio scurry comp. Apol. 30 A, 
T^f f/j.}iv r<f Ot(f inrijpeaiav. Ib. D, irf pi 
T^V TOV deov Sdffiv vfuv. 

D. a.yava.KTo(i\v &v] In the Apology, 
after his condemnation, he says, rb ptv 
p.^1 a.yavaxTf'iv, & &v$pfs 'AflTjfaloi, eirl 
Tovrif T$ ytyovtiri, STI fj.ov /eare^T/- 
<f>tffaffO(, S\Ao re pot iro\\a |u/ij3aAA.Tat, 
Kal OVK a.vf\irtffr6v (JLOI ytyove rb yeyo- 
vbs TOVTO, 35 E. 

E. atnb /jLtv yap rb a.Tro8vi\ffKfiv~\ Apol. 
28 B, 06 rcoAcDs \4ytis, ti ofti oetv K'IV- 
Svvof inro\oyifff6ai TOV ^yv y TtBvdvai 
avSpa 2roi TJ KOI cr^iKbf o<f\os K.T.\. 

523 LXXIX. 

523. "A/coue 8^7, tpacri, juaAa /coAoO 
A^ou] Here, as in the Republic, after 
he has proved that, irrespectively of con- 
sequences, Justice is better than In- 
justice, Socrates adds a mythical account 
of the rewards of the righteous and the 
punishments of the wicked after death. 
This in the Republic he prefaces by the 
apologetic remark, that to dwell on the 
subject of rewards is free (aveicitydovov) 
only to those who have shown on inde- 
pendent grounds the superiority of suf- 
fering virtue to prosperous wickedness, 
the thesis which it was the professed 
object of that dialogue to defend, x. 612. 
In the Gorgias he has a different audi- 
ence to deal with, and therefore makes 
no apology for thus shifting his ground. 
Still it is surprising to find him ex- 
pressing his belief in the myths he is 
about to relate : us a.\T)6rj yap oirra. ffoi 
\fta & /ueAXw \eyeiv. What however 
Plato meant to convey, we may see in 
Phaed. 114 D, where, after a recital dif- 
fering from that of the Gorgias in its 
scenery and accessories, he adds, rJ> nei> 
ovv TavTa. Siiffxvpiffaffdai OVTUS *X fLV & s 



[523, A 

ov crv fjiev r)yTJ(T6L pvOov, a>? eyw/xat, eyo) Se \6yov 
d\r)6r) 'yap ovra croi Xe'a> a /Ae'XXa) Xe'yetv. "flo-Trep yap 
'Ofj.r)po<; Xe'yet, ^levei^avro T^ dp^rjv o Zevs /cat 6 Uo- 
o-etSaii> /cat 6 IlXovrtov, eVetS?) irapd rov irarpos irape- 
\afiov. r^v ovv VO/AO? 6'Se Trept dv6pa>Tra)v eVt Kpovov, 
act /cat z'w ert ecrnv ev 6eol<s, TWV dv0pa>Tro)v rov 
Si/catws TOJ> ySiov SteX0oVra /cat ocrtw?, eVetScb> re- 
eis fJiaKapatv VTJO~OV<S dinovra ot/cetv eV Trdcrr) B 

e/cros KaKatv, rov Se dSt/ca>5 Kat d00)<s ets 
TO 7^5 rtcrew? re /cat 81*779 Secr/Awr^to^, o 817 rdprapov 
KaXovcrw, ievai. TOVTOJV Se StKatrrat eVt Kpovov /cat ert 

vTO^ ^a>vT? rjo~av t^vrtov, 

7 ej - 7y T "~^\ \ \ < 

rrj r r){J<epa< ot/ca^ovTe? 17 /xeXXotei' reXevrav. /ca/c&>5 
at St/cat eKpivovro. o re ow ITXovrcov /cat ot 

X^rat ot e/c fiaKapajv VTJCTGDV tovres eXeyov Trpb? TOV 

avSpt, '6ri [nevTOi 1) TOUT' e<TTlv ^ TOIOUT' 
STTO irepj ray ^uxs ijfuiav Kal T^S ol/cV)- 
<re(s, ^ire/ Trep ye % i^ux^J ^>^- 
yeroi ou(T<x, TOVTO Kal irptirfiv pot So/ce? 
aj Slior /ciJ'Suj'eCo'oi olofufvcp OVTOOS ex 6 " 7 - 
And with this passage agree others, in 
which Plato gives us hints of what he 
intends by his mythical narrations. It 
may be observed that of the three myths 
referred to, that in the present dialogue 
is much the simplest, and least removed 
from the accepted popular mythology. 
This difference may be due to considera- 
tions of dramatic propriety; but it is 
not easy to believe that Plato would 
have written the recital in the Gorgias 
after those in the Phaedo and Republic 
were before the world. The passage 
from "AKOU 8^j to ebr" dAA^Aotj', 524 B, 
is quoted by Plutarch in the Consolatio 
ad Apollonium, c. 36 ; the entire myth 
by Eusebius in the Praeparatio Evang. 
xii. p. 577, and by Theodoret, Grace. 
Affect. Cur. For Qavi Plut. has (pijffi. 
But <$>affi refers to the conventional 
beginning 'Aicove S'fj, which recurs in, 
Tim. 20 D. So Arist. Equit. 1014, 
^A/coue 8^7 vvv Kal np6ae'%e rbv vovv enoi. 
The words following are given by Plut. 
in a slightly different order : &v trv /j.ev 
fyffajt, us eyca, fjivdov. tycffj,ai, for 
the vulg. 67<J> oljuai, is restored from 
Euseb. and Theodor. 

"fiffirfp yap "O/UTjpos \eyei^ In the 
15th Book of the Iliad, 186 fol., Tpe?j 

yap T' etc K.p6vov flfitv aSf\<(>fol ofis 
T6K6TO 'Pea, Zebs Kal y& rpiraros 8' 
'AiSrjs fvepoiffiv ai/dffffcav, Tpix^a 8e 
Tra^ra SeSaffrai, fKatrros 8' TijUTjy. 

B. Tpfa-wv Se_ SiKaffrall 'These, in the 
reign of Cronus and even in the early 
days of Zeus, were tried "while yet alive 
by living judges, who judged them the 
very day on which it was their fate to die.' 
Plutarch has 01 SiKaarrai, which is clearly 
wrong. For KO.KWS ovv K.T.X. he gives 
eiretra al Sinai iras ov Ka\>s tttpivovTO. 
" In Aegypto, referente Diodoro, i. c. 92, 
judicia de mortuis ad sepulturae diem 
haberi solita sunt. Et multa Orpheus, 
si rnodo verum narraverint Aegyptii, ex 
hac regione transtulit in Graecorum 
fabulas. Hinc igitur originem suam 
traxisse poterat commentum istud." 
Routh. Without putting faith in the 
veracity of the Aegyptians, we may think 
it probable that Plato was indebted for 
this and other features of his story to 
the Orphic poets. 

ol eVi/ueAijTal oj eK /j.. v.~] The second 
ol is supplied from Plutarch. Without 
it Pluto would be represented as coming 
from the same region as the 'overseers 
of the Isles of the Blest.' Presently for 
(poiTtffv tr<piv Plut. has <p. o-<piffiv, which 
is much more usual in prose. But in 
mythical narrative we sometimes find 
these semi-poetical forms. eKarfpuare 
m eans, of course. ' to either placCjtBLJhat 
of reward and to thaTpf punisSSiaent. 

524, A.] 




E avTaV. 

C on <oiTcpe'v o~(j)iv avOpajTTOL eKarepoxre dvd^tot. etrrev ovv 
6 Zev$, '.4XX' eyw, 6(^17, Travcrat TOVTO ytyvottevov. vvv 
tiev yap /ca/cws at St/cat St/cdovTat. d/xTre^o/xevot yap, 
(77, ot /cptvo/xevot /cptvovTar aWes yap Kpwovrau. rroX- 
Xot ovv, 17 8* 09, i//u^as irovTipds e^ovTes ^/x^tecr/xeVot etcrt 
crw/xara re /caXd /cat yevry /cat TrXovVovs, /cat, eVetSdv 17 
/cpurts 77, ep^ovTat avTOts TroXXot /xdpTvpe?, /xapTvp77o~ovTes 
a>5 St/cata>s /8ey8tw/cao*tv. ot ovv 8t/cao~rat VTTO re 
D e/CTrXrfrroi'Tai, /cat a/xa /cat avrot d/xTre^o/xet' 
Trpo TT]? ^X^7 S T ^5 ? avTatv o<f>da\jjiovs KOL a)ra /cat 
croi/xa 7rpoKe/caXv/u,^teVoi. ravra S^ avrot? rravra lirL- 
TrpocrOev yty^erat, /cat rot aurajv d/x^ieV/xara /cat rd r<Si/ 
Kpivopevw. TTpatTov /xev ovv, e^, navcrTeov eVrt Trpo- 
etSoras avrov? TOV Odvarov vvv yap Trpoto-acrt. TOVTO 
ovv /cat S^ etp^Tat TW Upo/xT^^et OTTCUS av Travcry 
erretTa yv/xvovs Kpireov airavrtov TOVTCOV rtO- 
yap Set Kpivecrdai. /cat TOV /cptT^v Set yv/xvov 
etvat, TeOve&Ta, avrfj T-YJ ^v^f} avrrjv rrjv ^v^rjv ffewpovvra 
.TTO0av6vTO<; e/cdo~Tov, epi^/xov iravTaiv TO>V crvy- 
/cat /caTaXtvrovTa evrt T^5 yrjs TrdvTa e/cetvov TOV 
KOCT/XOV, tva St/cata 17 /cpto~tg 77. eyw /xev ovv TavYa e'yva>- 
/ca>5 Trpdrepo? 77 v/xets eTrot^crd/x^v St/cacrTa? vtets ettavTov, 
Svo /xev C'K TT]? '^lo-ta?, Mtva) Te /cat 'PaSa/xav#vv, | eva Se 

of the genitive is usual enough, though 
it seeflirlTrBaye perplexed transcribers. 

E. 8uo ^iv eic T^S "Atriarl Both Minos 
and RhadantSiilliys "were born in Crete, 
which we must therefore understand 
Plato to class with the Asiatic islands. 
According to the perhaps interpolated 
passage in the Iliad, xiv. 322, they were 
sons of Jupiter and Europa, the daughter 
of Phoenix. Plato's contemporaries seem 
to have recognized only two capital divi- 
sions of the earth's surface. Isocr. Paneg. 
p. 78, TTJS yrjs aira.a-ij'i TTJS uirb T<J> /cJoyia> 
/ceijueVrjs Si'x TeTfj.rjfj.fvns, ical rrjs fief 
'Airfos T^S 5' EuporTrijs Ka\ovftevris. Aegypt 
and Libya were according to this division 
parts of Asia ; but I know no passage 
except that in the text where Crete is so 
represented. Olympiodorus indeed says, 
tiffiSr) /cora TOVS yetaypdtyovs TOVS Siat- 
povvras tls Svo T%V KO.&' oiKovfj.evriv 

D. 67ri7rpo<r0vj Plut. firnrpoffOtjo'ts, a 
word found in Aristotle, but unknown to 
Plato. firlirpoffOfv has nearly the sense 
of tfjjrotidv, as l<egg. i. 648 D, rb TTJS 
a.lff'XJ" lrr ls e'iriirpoffdfv iroiovfj.fvos. 

'This power orders have already been 
given to Frometbpiis that, be cansp to 
cease In them' *tnis power of theirs 
he has~~h"ad orders to suppress.' Prome- 
theuras the giver of foresight could also 
take it away, according to a received 
principle in Greek theology. Plato may 
also have remembered the line in the 
Prometheus 248, BVIJTOVS y' eiravcra fiy 
irpoSfpKfffBai fiopov, i. e. as he explains, 
by making them hope against hope : 
TtHpAas lv avTois eAirfSas KartuKiffa. For 
avrSiv, the reading of the best codd., some 
give O.VT&V, others av-rb O.VTW, whence 
Steph. cttrb avTvv. But the construction 



[524, A 

e/c TT)S Ety>to7n?9, AiaKov OVTOL ovv eTretSav 
St/caVovcrtv eV TO> Xeiju,aii>t, eV r^ r/DtdSoj e^ ys 
oScu, 17 fJLev ets ^a.K(ipwv vrfcrovs, 17 S' ets rdpTapov. /cat 
TOVS jueV e'/c rrjs '.4crias 'PaSdjaai^us Kpivel, rovs Se eV TT^S 
EvpatTT'rjs -4ta/cos' Mwo) Se 7r/>eo-/3eta Swcrw, eVtSta/cyou'eti', 
eai> airop^rov Tt ro> eWpcy, tW a>s St/catoTaTT? 17 /c/>tcris y 

[XX. Tavr' ear iv, a) KaXXi/cXets, a 

Ofi elvai' /cat CK TOVTUV rwv Xoywz/ ToiovSe 15 
Tt Xoyt^oju-at crvpfiaiveiv. 'O Bdvaros rvyyavei &>v, a? ejaot 
SoKet, ovSet' aXXo ^ Svotv Trpay^aiToiv StaXvat?, 
Kat TOV crw/aaro?, du' aXXi^Xotv. CTreiSat' Se 
apa 0,77' aXX^Xotv, ou vroXv TJTTOV eKaTepov avrolv e^et 
e^tt' r^f auroi) rjvirtp KOI ore efy} 6 avOptoiros, TO re 
TT)I> (f>vcrLV rrjv avrov /cat ra^ OepcnreviJiaTa /cat ra 
ev$r)\a travra. olov et TWOS /jte'ya 17^ TO 

TOVTOV /cat eVetSaz/ 

ei'y 'A.trlat> Kai 
^ Kp^rrj TTJS 'Aer/as evpifffcero, but he 
gives no authority for this statement, 
nor for the stranger one that Rhada- 
manthys AijSus ^r. 

524. ev TI^ Aejjuojj'j, ^v T^ rpj^Sqn] The 
topogi-aphy of the corresponding scene 
in the Republic is slightly different. The 
ghosts are there brought efs T^TTOJ/ TIJ^ 
Saj/uopioc, eV $ TTJS re 7171 8u' fffrl 
Xd.fffiia.Ta fxo^tvta a.\\4\\oiv, Kal rov ov- 
pavov a6 V Tip &vca &\\a KaTavTiKpv. 
The \eifJL<S>v is in the spurious Axiochus 
converted into irtSiov a\rjdfias, con- 
cerning which see note to Phaedrus 
248 B. For Tpi65y conip. Virg. Aen. vi. 

Vllvtf St irpefff3e?a Scaffta'] Minos enjoys 
this precedence as Atbs f*.eyd\ov oopurr^s, 
Od. xix. 179. See the Minos, p. 319 seq. 
Of Rhadamanthys it is said, ' 

lemus, whose duty it would be to try 
departed Athenians. 

B. tVetScfcv 5t Sia\v9iJTOi' &pa] ' And 
when accordingly tney are separated the 
one from the other, each retains with 
little alteration the condition it had while 
the person lived ; the body preserving its 
natural characteristics, and the results of 
training or accident all still traceable upon 
it for instance/ &c. Tne apodosis to T 
seems to be forgotten, but is represented 
by Tourbj/ 5ift juoi So/ce? inf. D. ira6ri/j.aTa 
denotes the effects of impressions from 
without, OepoTreuyuaTo those of self-treat- 
ment, whether in reference to health or 

C. ^<p&Tfpa] 'or in both ways.' 
This adverbial use of o/i^rfrepo is illus- 
trated by Heind. on Charm. 303 D 
(where however>oT(poi^ is found in 
nearly all the codd.). Laches 187 A, 

virr)pe<riav Trj f$a<n\ticf}, offov tirurTaTfiv 
tv TOIS SiKaffTijptots. oQfV /cat StKaffT^s 
ayadbs eAf'x^l elvar i/ofj.o<f>v\a,Ki yap 
avTta ^xpfjTO 6 Miifias KOTO ri &<TTV. 
Ib. 5320 B. Minos is accordingly made a 
'judge of appeal' in doubtful cases. In 
the Apol. 41 A, Socrates adds to the 
three the name of an Attic hero Tripto- 

See above 477 D, ai>iq ^ 
afj.rp6Tfpa. Different but analogous is the 
Homeric usage with a^STtpov. Od. xiv. 
505, Aju<>oTfpov, <pt\oT7)Ti Kal 0180? d>wrbs 
frjos. Comp. II. iii. 179. ouSerepa and 
dirfaepa, as Stallb. remarks, are used in 
the same manner, Theaet. 184 A, Gorg. 
469 A. 

525, A.] 




vtKpos /xeyag- /cat e Tra^ug, Tra^vg /cat OLTTO- 
Oavovros, /cat TaXXa ovTtog. /cat et av eVerjfSeve KOfJiav, 
TOVTOU Kal 6 veKpos. //,ao*Ttytag av el Ttg vjv /cat 
et^e rwz/ TrX^yaJi/ ouXag eV ra> <rctj^taTt ^ VTTO 
ycoi' ?} a\\an> rpav^drwv i&v, /cat Te&'eaiTog TO 
tSetv ravra ex oi/ * Kareayora re et row ^ 
eVa ^aivro?, /cat re^eaiTo? ravra ravra 
D evt 3e Xoyw, olo? et^at Trayoecr/ceuacrTo TO o-w/xa ^w^, e^ 
/cat re\VTTjcravTO<5 f) iravra rj ra TroXXa cVt 
Tavrov STJ /not So/cet TOVT* ayaa /cat Trept 
elvai, at KaXXt/cXets* ev$r)\a irdvTa ecrriv Iv rtj 
CTreiSav yv^vutdfi TOU o~a>/x,aTO5, Ta Te Try? (ftva-ecos 
/cat TO, Tra0TjfJiaTa a Sta T^V eTTtT^Sevo'tv e/cao"Tou Trpdy- 
ecr^ev ev ry ^v^rj 6 dv0pa)7ro<s. 'ETreiSdv ovv d(f)i- 
irapd rov St/cacrT^v, ot /xet' e/c T^? '^Icrta? irapd 
E TOV 'PaSdpavOvv, 6 'PaSa/xav^u? e/cetVovs eTTto-T^cra? 
Oearai e/cacrTou T-^V ifjv^v, OVK etSwg OTOU ecrriv, aXXct 
TroXXa/ct? TOU /xeyaXov )8ao~tXea>5 eTTtXaySo/tei'os -^ aXXov 

, dXXa Sta/xe/^i' /cat ovK&v fjLecrrrjv virb 

_ <* >sO/ Alt/ e > >^>.-t/^ 1<1 '' 

525 7TtopKL(DV /cat aot/ctag, a | e/cao~T<w T) Trpagtg avTov egw- I i 
etg TT)I> ijjv^v, /cat TravTa cr/coXta VTTO i//evSovg 

*~\ Xi* / > '> >/3 x ^ y \ > \ /I ' 

/cat aAa^o^etag /cat ovoe^ evc/u Ota TO aveu aAiyt7etag 1 - r 
T60pd<j>0aL' /cat UTTO ^bvo~tag /cat Tyov^g /cat vftpews /cat 

TWV irpd^eatv do-u/x/xeTptag T /cat 

tas aS] ' Once more, if he was 
some wretched gaol-bird who bore traces 
of the blows he had received when alive, 
whether inflicted with the lash or other- 
wise, in the shape of scars upon his 
body.' naa-Tiylas answers to 'knight 
of the post.' Germ. ' Galgenstrick.' 

K. (Ktlvovs &rTT^<ras] ' Rhadaman- 
thys causes them, the spirits from Asia, 
to confront him (has them up before 
him), and inspects each one separately,' 
Ac. KaTeTSep ovSi v vyits t>v ' he finds 
there is no soundness in it that it is 
seamed all over and covered with scars, 
the effect of perjuries and wrong-doing 
the foul traces left upon the soul of 
each man by his past conduct.' Pre- 

sently we have a/cparfay, an old form. 
Enseb. d/tpoTefas, perhaps rightly, for 
this seems the favourite form in Plato, 
who nowhere uses aKpatrta, which is corn- 
mon in later Attic. See Lobeck, Phryn. 
p. 525. With this picture of a mind 
diseased may be compared the image of 
the battered and weedy sea-god, Repub. 
x. 611 c. Also the well-known passage 
in Tacit. Ann. vi. 6, "Neque frustra 
praestantissimus sapientiae firmare soli- 
tus est, si recludantur tyraunorum men- 
tes, posse adspici laniatus et ictus; 
quando, ut corpora verberibus, ita sae- 
vitia, libidine, malis consultis. animus 



[525, A 




Se drt/xw? Tavrrjv ane- 


ev0v 7779 (frpovpas, ol /xe'XXei eXOovcra d 

6Wi, vif 

LXXXI. Upoo-77/cet Se TTO.VTI TO> eV 
aX\ov op6a)<s rt/xcopovjLteVw, 77 /3eXrtoi>t yiyvea~6ai /cat oVt- B 
TI TrapaSety/Aart rots dXXot? yiyve&Bai, tVa aXXot 


re /cat 

v OVTOI ot a*; tacrt/za 

eto~t Se ot /xe> 
StSoWes UTTO #eoi)i> re /cat dv 

djLtctprwcrtv o/xw? Se St* dXyr^So^wv /cat 
ytyverat avrots 17 a^>eXeta /cat e^^ctSe /cat > 
ou yap otoV re dXXws dSt/ctas aTraXXdrrecr^at. ot 
S' av rd ecr^ara dSt/CT^crctJcrt /cat Std rotavra dSt/ci^ara 
dvtarot ylvtovrai, IK TOVTWV rd TrapaSetyjaara ytyverat, 
/cat ovrot avrot /xev ou/cert ovivavTai ovSeV, are dVtarot 
otre?, aXXot Se ovivavTai ot TOVTOV? opwvTes Std rets d/xap- 
rtas Ta jLte'ytcrra /cat oSw^porara /cat <^o^epwrara Trd^ 
rov del ^povov, drev^ftis TrapaSety/xara a 

TMS ftpoupasl 'straight to 



custody/ Ulympiodorus, 
and, according to Ast, the Cod. Vind. 1 
have evOvs, a v. 1. not noticed by Bekk. 
The distinction is familiar. Phryn. Eel. 
p. 144, Ei>0u' 7ro\\ol dvrl row evdvs. 
Siatpepei Se- rb> y&p r6Ttov effrlv 
ev6v 'AOyvSiv, rb Se xP^vov. He ought 
rather to have said <popas or /uera^oA^s 
r6irov fffrlv. Lysis, init., eiropev6/j.tjv e 
'AKaSijjufos fvOb AvKftov. evdvs is very 
frequently topical, as Thuc. vi. 96, x^P^ " 
. . . virep TTJS Tr6\ecas evOvs Keifj.ei'ov, 
where tvdv would have been incorrect. 
On the other hand, most of the passages 
in which evdvs is put for ei>6v either 
have been or may easily be corrected. 
Perhaps the only certain instance of this 
kind is the well-known line, Eur. Hipp, 
1197, TV fvdvs "Apyovs KairiSavpias 686v. 
typovpd for Seff/j.wT'fipiot' or StKaicar'fipiov 
occurs Phaedr. 62 B. 

Tlpoo"i]Kei Se iravrl T$ ev Tip.. OVTI] 
Plato recognizes no other uses of punish- 
ment than the corrective and the ex- 
emplary. See note to 505 B, and com- 
pare Critias init., 81*77 8e 6pd$i Tbi> TTAT^- 
/xeAoCi/ra efj.fjL\rj iroitlv. The same was 
the opinion of Protagoras, if we may 
draw that inference from its occurrence 

iu the speech, Protag. 324 A, et e6e\fis 
tvvoT\aa.i rb /co\(^ej^, SaS/cparey, TO{/S 
d5j>cotWas T TTOTC Suj'aTai, aurJ (re 
SjSafet, Srt o? "ye &v0pcoiroi riyowrai irapa- 
tr/ceuaffTjii' elj/at oper^j'. ouSsis yctp /coA.a- 
fi rovs aSiKovvras Trpbs ro^ry rbi> vovv 
Hxcav Kal TO^TOU eVexa, 8ri ijStKriffev, 
SCTTIS /xf &ffirfp 6~fipiov a.\oyiffTcas TI/J.U- 
pelraf 6 8e juerd \6yov eiri-^etpuv KoXa- 
fiv ov TOV Trape\ri\v96Tos fveita. aSiK-fi- 
paras Tip-tapel-Tai ov yap &y r6 ye irpax.- 
Q*v o.yivi\Tov Betri dAAa TOV fj.e\\ovTos 
^epi*', 'Iva /J.}] afidis dSi/c^irjj )ii^Te avrbs 
OUTOS ju^re &\\os 6 rovrov t'Soby Ko\a<r- 
OeVro. And this is the view which seems 
to have commended itself to the civilized 
Greek mind generally. The notion of 
' satisfaction ' shows itself however in 
some of the details of the myths at the 
end of the Republic, 615 B. 

B. a.fji.dpT(a<nv~\ Three codd., according 
to Bekk., give the solec. anapThvaxnv. 

ov yap o16v Te SA.XCOS] This and similar 
passages in Plato doubtless laid the 
foundation of the theological idea of a 
purgatory, which seems to have been 
alien from the native Hebrew mind. 

c. aTe^/ais^As usual, the particle 4 
apologizesforastrTmg^xpression. 'L^te- 
rally hung up as warnings in that dun- 

526, B.] rOPTIAZ. 171 

e/cet eV^tSou eV rw Secr/xcjr^ptw, rots act 
D aSiK(DV oufrLKvovfjievoLS OedfJLara KOI vov0 try para. aiv eyw 
<f>rjnt, eW /cat 'Apyekaov eo~eo~#at, et aXrjBrj Xe'yet JTaiXog, 
/cat a\\ov ocrrt? av TOIOVTOS rvpawos #. otjaat Se /cat 
rovs TToXXov? earn TOVTWZ/ TO>I> 7rapaSety/AdYaj*> e'/c rvpdv- 
v(ov /cat /SacrtXecov /cat Swao~TOJV /cat TO. rail' TroXewv 7rpa- 
dvrcov yeyovoTa?' OVTOL yap 8ta T^I/ e^ovcriav /xeytcrra 
/cat avocrtwrara d/>ta/3TT7/xara dfJLapTavova-L. p.aprvpel Se 
rovrot? /cat v O/tx7ypos' ySacrtXeas yap /cat Swacrra? 
E TreTTOirjKe TOV? ef "^ItSou TOJ> del ^povov 
TdvraXov /cat ^tcrv^ov /cat Tirvov. 06pa-iTr)v Se, /cat et 
rt? dXXo? TTovqpos r\v tStwTTy?, ouSets TreTrot^/ce /neyaXats 
Tt/xwptats crvve^ofjievov w? d^taroi'' ou yctp, ot/xat, e^ryv 
avTO)' Sto /cat evSatjaovecrrepos ^^ ^ ots e^t'. dXXct yap, 
a> KaXXt/cXeis, e/c TWI/ Svva/AeVwv et(rt /cat ot <T(f>6$pa Trovr)- 
526 pot | yiyvopevoi dvOpamov ovSev /tTp /cwXvet /cat ev rou- 
TOIS dya^ovs di'Spas eyyiyvecrOai, /cat <r<oSpa ye OL^LOV 
dyacrOai TO>I> yty^o/xeVwf ^aXeTrov yap, a) KaXXtKXet?, 
/cat TToXXoC eiraivov diov eV peydXy e'fovcrta row d8t/cet^ 
yevofjievov St/catws StayStcoi^at. oXtyot 8e yiyvovran ot 
rotoOrof eiret /cat eV$aSe /cat dXXo^t yeyovacrtv, otjuat 8e 
/cat ecrovTai /caXot /cdya$ot ravTryt' t^v dperrjv r^v TOV 
B St/catws Sta^etpt^ett' a dV rt? eTrtrpeTT^' et? Se /cat irdvv 
eXXdyt/xos yeyove Kat et? TOUS dXXovs "JEXXr^vas, *Api- 
o~TetSr79 6 Ava"Lfj.d^ov. ot Se TroXXot, a) aptare, /ca/cot 

geon down in Hades.' Olympiodorus E. ou 70^ ^p avrij)] We must un- 

refuses to take rbi' del ^pAvov literally, derstand /j.eyd\a a/j.apTfi/jLa.ra<ivfiv. 

and understands hy the words the /xryos Whatever may have been the animus of 

eviouTJs, or period in which the heavenly Thersites, his power, fortunately for bim- 

bodies recover their relative position : self, was limited by reason of his low 

Too-aDra TTJ KoAa^eraj 3(ra ap^ce? irpbs estate. 

T^j/ (rwaTro/coTocrTotriv. Comp. Phaedr. 526 B. 'A.pi<rrdSris & A.vffi/j.dxov^\ On 

256 E. this passage Olymp. makes the following 

D. > Apx e '^ a o' / ] So in the similar myths, curious remark : on 5e /cal avrbs (& "Apt- 

Rep. x., 'ApSiaios 6 fifyas is mentioned (TreiSTjs) OUK ^j/ e(j &Kpoviro\iTiKbs 8fj\ov, 

by name as one of the hopelessly lost, ST Kal KHKWS eiraBe, KOI on fj K(n/j.Cf<Sia 

615 C. Kings and potentates, temporal <pi)<rl trtpl O.VTOV, '6n firl 'ApjareiSou 

and spiritual, occupy prominent places ttfaiof ovSev ovSa^ov ytyove ve6r- 

in the Judgment-pieces of the Catholic nov. The comic line is omitted in 

painters, as particularly in those of Fra Meineke's collection. The poet seems to 

Angelico. have meant that, righteous as Aristides 

172 IIAATflNOS [520, B 

LXXXII. "Orrep ovv eXeyoi', erreiSav 6 ' 
e/cew>O9 roiovrov rwa Xd/3r), aXXo jjiev Trepl avrov OVK oTSev 
. ovSeV, ovO* ocrrts ov0* aivrcvcov, on Se irovrjpos rts' /cat 
TOVTO KO.Tio(t)v a7re7reju,\//ei> ets ra.pra.pov, eVt 
edV re iacrt/xos eaV re di'taros So/a? etvat* 6 Se e 
d^t/co/ze^o? ra irpocnJKOvTa. rrdcr^ei. eVtore 8' aKXrjv eto~t- C 
Sajf ocruos /3ey8ia>/cvtav /cat //,er' dX??#eiag, dvSpos tStwrou 
^ aXXou rt^o?, /xaXtcrra /aeV, eycoye' ^17/^1,, w KaXXt/cXet?, 
(f)L\o<r6(f>ov TO, O.VTOV rrpd^avro^ /cat ov Tro\virpayiJLOV'ij- 

<ravro<s ev rw uw, yacriy re >cat e? 

ravra ravra /cat 6 ^ta/cos. e/carepos Se rov- 
pdfiSov exwv 8t/cd^et. 6 Se MtVa>9 emorKonan' /ca^rat 
^pvcrovv o-KTJTrrpov, 0)9 <^rycrtv 'OSvcrcreu? 6 
'Ofjitjpov tSetv avrov D 

(TKrfTrrpov t^ovra, Oefnarevovra veKvcrcriv. 

ovt*, a) KaXXt/cXet?, VTTO rovrtu^ rw^ Xdywv 
TreVetcr/xat, /cat (r/cowai OTTWS a7ro<az>ov/Aai rw KpLry a>s 
vyiecrrdrr^v rrjv \ftvxrfv. yaiipeiv ovv eacras ras rtjaa? ra? 
rw^ TroXXwv oLvdptoirwv, rfjv aXriOeiav CTKOTTUV ireipd- 
crojuat rw oi'rt a>s av Sww/iat ySe'Xrta'rog a>v /cat ^v /cat 

may have been, his example was not sense T& auroO Trparret. But here Plato 

followed by the youth of his generation, may use the phrase to denote the sin- 

^iriffTf)fj,7]ydfj.fvos, eav re] ' denoting by gle-minded devotion to his calling which 

a mark whether he may think him distinguished Socrates. Comp. Apol. 

curable or incurable ;' i. e. distinguish- 31 E, where, after pointing out the 

ing the curable from the hopeless cases causes which made it impossible for him 

by separate marks. A similar detail to take part in public affairs, he adds, 

occurs in the Rep. 1. 1. p. 614 C, rovs avayKou6v Itrn rbi> ry SVTI /uaxouyuej/oj/ 

St/catrr&s . . . TOI/S /xev SiKalovs Kf \eveiv virtp TOV StKalov leal t jUeAAei b\iyov 

jropeveffdai T^V eh Sf^laf . . . ffrifj-fia. \p6vov ffcaO'fifffffdai, ISitarfveiv aAA^ ft,}) 

irepid.tya.vrfs T<OV SeStKaff/j.ev<av ev rip Srmo(ne6fH>. 

irp6ffdev TOVS tie aSlnovs r^jv els apt- endrepos viitvffffiv] This passage Ast 

trrepav . . . Uxovras Kal TOVTOVS v T$ and Heind. agree in thinking an inter- 

oiriaQtv crrjfj.eia iravrtav wv ewpaav. polation, but, as it seems to me, on quite 

C. t'Stc^TQu T& avrov Trpd^avros] insufficient grounds. The quotation is 

Readers of the Kepublic are aware that from the Odyssey, xi. 569. 

a special meaning is there given to the D. ffKoirw Airws airo(] ' I study 

phrase 'to mind one's own business.' how I shall present my soul to the 

B. iv. p. 433 A, '6n ye >rb ra avrov judge's eye in the healthiest possible 

irpd-rTeiv Kal ^ iroXvirpayfjiovelv SiKaio- condition.' airo<p. as a middle transitive 

ffvvrj tffTl, Kal TOVTO &\\cai' re iro\\>v is extremely common ; not so as a middle 

a.Kf}KoaiJ.fv KOI avTol iro\\aKis elp-fiKa/j.ev. neuter. Hence the folly of the old in- 

The righteous man acts always in con- terpolation lx a " / > inserted before TV 

formity with the law of his nature, tyvxh v > as if airpQavovnai were used for 
which subordinates appetite and passion 
to reason. He therefore in the truest 

527, c.] ropriAS. 173 

E eTretSdv arroOvrjcrKO) drroOv^crKeiv. Se /cat TOVS 
dXXovs rrdvras dvOpunovs, Kaff oarov SvvapaL, /cat Sr) /cat 
ere dvTL7Tapa.Ka\a> eVt rovrov rov /3toi> /cat TOV dywva. rov- 
rov, ov eyw ^jat d^rt TTOLVTCDV ra>v eV#dSe dywvuv etvat, 
/cat oi'eiSt^co trot ort ou^; otds r' ecret eravrw fior)6rjcra.L, 
orav TI 81/07 crot 77 /cat 17 /c^tcrt? rjv vvv or) eyw eXeyo^, 
dXXa e\0ojv irapa rov Si/cacrT7)v rov TT}S Alyiv^ viov, 
527 eVetSdr crow | CTrtXaySd/xevos cty]7i xa(rp.ij(T6L /cat tXtyyta- 
cretg ovSei' fJTrov rj ey w cvOdSe orv e/cet, /cat ere ttraj? ruTrr^- 
eret rts /cat eTTt Koppr)<; drt/xws /cat TrdWo)? irpoTrr^aKiei. 

Ta^a S' ow ravra n/v96<; crot So/cet Xeyecr#ai, axnrep 
ypad?, /cat /cara^yoovet? avTa>v. /cat ovSeV y* av i^ ^av- 
/aacrrov Ka.Ta<f)poveiv TOVTMV, et 7717 ^rov^res et^o/xei^ CLVT&V 
^SeXrtw /cat dXtjOecrrepa tvpelv vvv Se 6/oa? ort rpet? oz^re? 
v/xet?, oLTrep cro^curarot eVre TW^ vu^ 'EXXijvav, av re /cat 

B UwXos /cat Popyta?, ov/c e^ere aTroSet^at a9 Set aXXot' 
rtva /8tov ^i^ ^ rourot' ocnrep /cat e/cetcre ^>at^erat crv/i- 
(f)epa)i>, dXX* ei^ Tocrourot? Xdyotg TWI> aXXcui' eXey^o/zeVwi' 
fj.6vo<; ovro? ^pe/xet 6 Xdyos, a>5 evXaftyTeov ecrrt TO dSt- 
/otdXXoi/ 17 TO dSt/cero~^at, /cat TravTos /x,a,XXo> dvS^ot 
ov TO So/cetv et^at ayaBov dXXa TO u>ai, /cat 
tSta /cat S^ocrta' edi> Se' Tt? KaTct Tt /ca/co? ylyvr\ra.i y 
/coXacrTe'os eo-Tt, /cat TOVTO Sevrepov aya.6ov pera TO etWu 

St/catov, TO ytyvecr^at /cat /coXa^d/xevo^ StSdi^at St/cr^v 

E. apTiirapoKaXco] Callicles had ex- from unprecedented. Socrates here re- 

horted Socrates to the rhetorico-political torts upon Callicles his own words, 

life, p. 521 A. Socrates replies by an l\iyyitfris fev Kal x a W "^^ ex ft "' ^ T * 

invitation to a life of self-culture in tfrrois, 486 B. rbv 8e TOLOVTOV, el n ical 

preparation for a contest which, as he a.ypoiK6rfpov eipfjerflcu, I^eo-Tiv eirl /C^^TJS 

affirms, outweighs in importance all the rvwrovra /j.^ SiS6vai SiKrjv, ib. c. With 

contests of the dicastery. the entire passage compare Theaet. 175 

527. xacffiiiffei tta.1 l\i-yyid.fftis~\ ' Before D, where the rhetorician is represented 

that tribunal you shall gasp and be as suffering in a similar manner in pre- 

ready to swoon, even as I might before a sence of the philosopher. 

human court.' In the next clause Heind. B. &tre] 'in the other world, when 

suspects 7ri Kdpfas, and Cobet /cat and we get there. J Presently ^/pe/ue? := 

arfyuos, Vv. LI. p. 341. It is true that ' stands its ground,' 'remains unshaken/ 

a blow firl Kofipris of itself implies art- ripefj.fiv is in other dialogues opposed to 

/uoicm, but to object to so slight a re- pflv or KivfivQai, and equiv. to f<rr<iva.i. 

dunclancy seems to me hypercritical. Soph. 248 E, r^v ovaiav . . . Kivfla6ai 

The teat is supplied from the best MSS. 5m rb Trdcrxf'v, & 817 <pa/jiev OVK fiu/ yeveff- 

It would in strictness have come before dai vfpl rb ript 
ei, but the transposition is far 



Kal Tracrav /coXa/cetav Kal rr]v irepl eavrbv Kal rrjv irepl 
rov9 dXXou9, /cat irepl 6Xtyou9 /cat Trept Tr 

/cat 777 prjTopiKrj OVTCO ^TjcrreW, eVt TO St/catoz> dei, /cat TT? 
dXXjj Tracrr) 7rpdet. 

LXXXIII. 'EfJiol OVV 7ret#0/-tI>O9 aKO\OV0r)(TOV eV- 

, ot d<^t/cd/xe^os evSai/xcwycrets /cat aw /cat reXev- 
, a>9 6 Xoyos criy/xatvet. /cat eacrov rtifd crov /cara- 
<f>pov7J(T(u a>9 avoiJTOV Kal irpOTT^Xa/ctcrat, edv )8ovX^rat, 
/cat i/at jLtd Jta cru ye 0app<ov Trard^at r^ drt/Aov TavTrjv 
ovftev 'yap Setvbv -rretcret, edv rw oi'Tt T)S /caXos 
?, dcr/cwv aperrfv. /cavretTa OVTO> KOIVT/ O,(TKTJ- 
, rare 17817, eai> So/cry ^prjvai, eiriOr^of^eOa rots 
TroXtrt/cots, ^ oTrolov o.v rt T7/xtv So/c^, Tore /8ovXevcro/u,^a, 
/3eXrtov5 ovre? ySovXeuetr^at ^ vvv. ala^pov 'yap 
ye a>s i>w (>aLv6JL0a eetr, eVetra veavievecrOai 


g, ot? ouSeVore raurd So/cet irepl rail' avrwv, /cat 
raura ?rept rai^ jaeytcrrwv etg TOOTOVTO^ rfKo^ev airai- E 
Seucrtas. oKrirtp ovv ^ye^ovi ral Xoy& ^p^aw/xe^a TQ> 
I'ui' Trapa^aveWt, 09 17/^1^ (n7/xatvet ort ouro9 6 r/)O7TO9 
dptcrro9 TOV )8tov, /cat TTp St/catocrw^v /cat r^ dXXrp 
apTr)v aa-KovvTas Kal Qrjv /cat TtOvdvai. roura) ov^ eTrw- 
fj.0a, Kal TOV9 aXXoi>9 Trayoa/caXw/xei', /AT) e/cet^&) w cru 
TTtcrreuwv e/x,e 7ra/)a/caXet9' ecrrt yap ou8^o9 aio9, <S KaX- 

C. aKo\ovBf)<rov fi>ravOa] ' Go with me 
in pursuit of that which when attained 
will secure your well-being in either 
state of existence.' ^Tat/0a with verbs 
implying motion is very common in 
Plato, e. g. ^Ta00a f\7)\v6a.fJLev, Kep. iv. 
445 B. 

D. KOI val /ua Aa (T5 -ye] 'Nay, fear 
not to let him inflict upon you that 
last indignity, the blow with the open 
palm.' tcurov must of course be supplied 
before -irard^at. The proposed 7roTo|a, 
'let yourself be struck,' is a mere 
barbarism introduced by Stephen on 
next to no authority, and was properly 
expelled from the text by Kouth, though 

afterwards patronized by Van Heusde. 
The latter quotes, in illustration of T^I/ 
Hn^ov ir\i]yi\v, Lucian Necyom. p. 481, 
/caret Kofi{>r)s ira,i6fj.ti>os, fccnrep rtav avSpa- 
WSeoy ra aTt/i^Tara: with which we 
may compare Plato's language in p. 508 
C, I/xi jrl T$ f}ov\o/, Sxrirep ol 
&Tifj.oi, . . . &t> re rvirrtiv ftov\rirai . . . 
&ri K6^prjs. Readers of the Midias will 
remember the blow firl Hdfiftris which 
Alcibiades inflicted upon Taureas, De- 
mosth. p. 562. Add Chrysostom on S. 
Matth. v. 39, /col evravQa. TT/J/ /*a\to-Ta 
So/coOcror elvai ir\t]y^i' tiroveiSi- 
trrov, T^V tirl ffia.y&vo'i, /cat iroAAV 
<lx ovffa ' / T 



THE fragments of Gorgias have been collected by his biographer 
Foss, by Spengel in his Artium Scriptores, and by Mullach, in the 
second volume of his Fragmenta Philosophorum Graecorum. Few 
as these are, enough remains to enable us to form a judgment of the 
truth of Plato's representations of his style, both in the Phaedrus 
and in the elaborate imitation contained in the Symposium. The 
most considerable by far, and in every way the most important of 
these fragments, is preserved in the Scholia to the treatise irepl iSewv 
of the Greek rhetorician Hermogenes 1 . This writer (who lived in 
the time of Hadrian), in his chapter Trepi crffjLvonjro^, after citing with 
measured praise certain bold Demosthenic metaphors, contrasts with 
them an instance of counterfeit sublimity taken from a speech of 
Gorgias, whom however he does not name : TrapaSeTy/xa TOVTOV 
Ai]p.ocr6fviKOV OVK av Aa/3ois, ouSe yap rri. irapa. Se rots v7rovXots 
Tourotcr! cro^iaTats Tra/ATroXXa et'pois av. Ta^ovs TC yap ey 
TOVS yvTras \eyovaiv, alvTrep io~t fidXurra aiot, KOI aXXa TOiavra 
ovrat TrajHTroXAa. In a later passage, too, he censures " Polus and 
Gorgias and Menon " for their pompous and pretentious way of 
writing : <f>atverai Se Xoyos Scivos, OVK wv rotouros . 6 TWV 
Xeyo) Toiv Trepi IloiXov Kal Topyiav KCU M.ev<ava K.T.X. (?rpt tS. 
On this his annotator Planudes remarks : Atovvcrtos ev TO) 
Trepi ^ftpaKT^pwv Trepi Popytov raSc <f>T)<riv, ort r^s (Seas raiv avrov Xoywv 
TOIOUTOS o ^apaKTT^p* cy/ca)yu.ta^t 8 TOUS fv TroXe/Aw dpicrTCvcravTas ruiv 
'A^Tjvatwv. " Ti yap a7nyv TOIS avSpacrt TOUTOIS aiv Set avSpaat Trpocr- 
"etvat; TI 8e Kat Trpotnp aiv ou Set Trpoo-ctvai ; eiTretv vvaifj.r)v a. j3ov- 
" Xo/xai, /SovXoiyx^v 8e a SeT, Xa$a>v /xev T^/f Ofiav vefJLe&iv, <J3vya>v Se TOV 

1 Ehetores Graeci, ed. Walz. iii. pp. 226, 362, compared with v. p. 548. 

2 The author of the treatise vtpl vtyovs, c. iii. 2, attributes the metaphor to 


(frdovov. Ourot yap CKCKT^VTO ev^eov //.ev rrjv 
8e TO OVTJTOV TroAAo, p.ev 8rj TO f Trapov s f eVteiKes TOU av0dSou? 
" SiKatou TrpoKptvovTCS, TroAAa oe vopov d/cpi/3etas Aoytov opOoTrjra, TOVTO 
" vo/Atoi>TS ^etoTaToy Kat KOtvoVaTOi' vo/xov, TO Seov eV TU> SCOVTI Kai 
" Aeyeti' Kai crtyav Kat Troieiv*, Kai Stcrcra dcrK^cravres /AaAiora wv Set, 
" yv<i>fjir]v *Kat pw/XT^v* 5 , TT)V ynev /3ovAevovTes T)V 8' aTroreAowres, Oepa- 


" ai^aSets Trpos TO cru/x.<^>pov, evopyrjTOi Trpos TO TT/DCTTOI', TO) <{>povifjua T^S 
" yvwfii7S TraijovTCS TO a(f>pov *T^spwft7/s* 6 , v(3picrTal cts vy8/3to-Tas, Ko<rp.ioi ets 
"TOVS Kooyuous, a<fro(3oi ets TOVS a<f>6(3ov<;, Seivot CVTOIS Setvots. (j.apTvpia.$ 
" oe TOVTCOV TpOTraia. eo-TiycravTO TWI/ TroAe/xtwv, Atos fiev dyaAju,aTa 7 , TOUTCOV 
" 8c dvaO^fJidTa, OVK aTretpot ovTe e/x^>uTou "Apeos, OVTC vofj.ip.(ov 

" OVT VO7rAtOU tptSoS, OVT6 <f>i\OKOL\OV Ctp^VI^S, CTe/XVOt /XCV 7T/30S 

" TO! StKata), oo~tot 8e irpos TOVS TOKeas r^ pepaTreta, StKaioi Trpos TOIJS do"TOVS 

" T<3 to"(j>, evo"/3ts 8e Trpos TOUS ^)iAovs TTJ TrtcrTef TOtyapow 

'' a7ro0avovTii)V 6 TTO^OS ov o-vvaTre^avcv, dAA' d^dvaTos ev fo 

" trwfjuicn f) ov ^WVTWI/." 2e/x,vas yap evTaG^a cru/x^op^o-as Ae'feis 6 

Fopytas eia'otas tTriTroAatoTepas e^ayyeAAet, TOIS TC Traptaots Kat 6/xoto- 

TeAevTOis Kat 6/totoKaTapKTOts KaAAwTrt^coi' StoAov Trpoo-Kopws 9 TOV Aoyov. 

Iu reading this fragment of the Epitaphius (probably its per- 
oration), we are disposed to concur on the whole in the censure of 
the Scholiast, echoing that of Hermogenes. The ideas are, with some 
exceptions, ' superficial,' the assonances tedious, and the sacrifice of 
sense to sound, perspicuity to point, manifest throughout. Yet 

3 Ttap6v obviously is corrupt. The easiest remedy, so far as the letters go, would 
l>e to substitute irpaoi>, and this was suggested by Spengel and adopted by the 
Zurich edd. rightly, as I think. Mullach adopts the ingenious conjecture of Foss, 
ira.pi.ev ('indulgent,' 'yielding'), which gives an apt sense, though I should like to 
see another example of this adjectival use of the active participle. The perf. 
Trapei/j.evoi' would give nearly the same sense, and is more accordant with usage. 

4 Here, in order to create a second antithesis, Sauppe has introduced into the text 
the words Kal eai>, and that, or something equivalent, seems to be required. Perhaps 
Kal irotfiv Kal /*)) iroiftv. 

5 Kal piaprjv. These words do not occur in the codd., but were introduced, not 
without necessity, by Foss. The antithesis of 71/^77 and /5cfyi; occurs Aristoph. Av. 

6 TT}J pcafirjs, introduced into the text by Sauppe. 

7 Aibs /J.fv ayd.\fj.ara. Comp. Eurip. Phoen. 1473, us $' iviKo>fi.ev paxy, Ot n\v 
Aibs rpoira'iov 'tyraffav ftptras. Heraclid. 936, /3peras Aibs Tpoiraiov Ka.\\iviKov 

8 So 3 codd. Al. a.6. OVK v aOavdrois. Aid. OVK tv aarcandrois. If we read as in 
the text, the OVK ao-ta/jLara ffeafjiara must refer to the ayd\fjLaTa named above. Walz 
prefers o. eV OVK aOavdrois crdt/Macriv, the meaning of which escapes me. 4v acreojUOToi? 
ff^fjiaa-iv was proposed by Hermann, which, though enigmatical, is perhaps best of 
all. I should refer it to their " bodiless forms " still haunting the minds of the 

9 So Walz. Al. irpbs K&pov. But the adverb is found iu Hermogenes, who 
also frequently uses irpoffKop-fis, as does Aristotle in the Bhet. 


there runs through the whole a certain loftiness of sentiment which 
seems to take Gorgias out of the category of " gingerbread sophists ' " 
to which Hermogenes condemns him. Some of the antitheses, as 
those of eTrtetKes and SIKCUOV, vo/xos and Xdyos, are true, and were 
possibly new : and though others are little more than verbal, the 
same may be said of many of the antithetic clauses which stud the 
earlier speeches in Thucydides. We can well understand that the 
historian should have incurred the blame of ' Gorgiasm ' at the hands 
of the ancient critics : and it seems probable that the funeral 
oration which he puts in the mouth of Pericles, admirable as it is, 
may have owed some part of its spirit, as well as its style, to the 
earlier effort of Gorgias 2 . And though there can be no comparison 
between the sparkling ingenuity of the Sicilian rhetorician, and the 
vivid and penetrating intellect of the historian that " philosopher 
not of the schools " it is something to have aided in the formation 
of a style like that of Thucydides, which was itself the model of that 
of the first of Attic orators. In general there can be little doubt 
that the excesses of the eai'ly rhetoricians, like those of the euphuistic 
writers of the time of Elizabeth, tended both to refine and invigorate 
the language of prose, and to render it a more adequate vehicle of 
thought than it had hitherto been 8 . 

It should further be observed that this fragment enables us 
without hesitation to condemn as spurious the two entire, or nearly 
entire speeches which under the name of Gorgias used to stand 
in editions of the Oratores Attici, beginning with the Aldine*, 
under the titles IlaAa/Li^Sovs a-TroXoyia, and 'EAoo;s ey/cw/xiov. Of 
these the former has none of the peculiarities of Gorgias' style 5 : 
the second, though abounding in alliterations, verbal antitheses, and 
other characteristics of the Sicilian school, has little or nothing of 
the pomp and splendour of the author of the fragment. Neither is 
mentioned as a work of Gorgias by any ancient writer, and the 
absence of such notice in the Helenae Encomium of Isocrates 6 has been 

1 VTTOV\OIS. Hermog. ubi supra. Literally "plated" as opposed to solid metal; 
" tinsel," or, more exactly, " Brummagem " would be the English equivalent. 

2 See Dionys. Halic. de Lysia, p. 458, Reiske. Philostratus, Epist. 13, Kpm'as 
8e ical QovKvSiSris OVK ayvoovvrcu rb n*ya.\6yv<afjiov Kal rrjv o<f>pvv irap' avrov 
KtKTi)fi.fvoi, fj-frairoiovvres Se av-rb fls rb o'tKeiov 6 fiev vir' fvyXonrias, & 8e virb pcou?;s. 

3 See on this subject some judicious remarks of Mure, Critical Hist. iv. p. 121. 

4 They are given in the Zurich edition, p. 132, not however as genuine. 

5 Nor even of his dialect, for it is written in new Attic, the Encomium Helenae 
affecting the old forms. 

6 Isocrates refers to a declaimer on the subject, whom he does not name ; but it 
has been sagaciously inferred from the tone of the passage that it refers to a then 
living writer, who cannot however have been the author of the declamation attri- 
buted to Gorgias, which is written in old Attic. It is curious that in the same 
speech Gorgias is referred to by name as the author of the well-known work irtpl 
rov fj.^ SVTOS, and this is a proof that Isocrates would not have scrupled to name the 
author of the speech, had he been Gorgias. 



taken as evidence that there was no work of Gorgias bearing that 

Another fragment of the Epitaphius is pi'eserved by Philostratus, 
from whom we learn that it was delivered in Athens 

" To. pJkv Kara T<av (3ap(3dp(DV TpoVaia V/J.VQVS aTratret, TO. Se Kara TWV 
'EXXr/vtov ^pr/vovs 7 ." 

He had harped on the same string in his Olympicus, where he 
endeavotirs to persuade the Greeks " aOXa TroielcrOai TUV oVXwv /xr) ras 
uXX^Xort' TroXeis, dXXa TT/V TWV /3apj3dpwv ^wpav." Ibid. This was a 
favourite theme of Isocrates, and probably a common-place in the 
rhetorical schools. 

A Pythicus of Gorgias is also mentioned by Philostratus, with the 
fabulous addition that on the altar or pedestal from which he spoke, 
a golden statue of the orator was set up ev TU TOU Hu0i'ou lepu. 

Aristotle, Rhet. iii. 14. 11, quotes the initial clause of his eyuwfuov 
cis 'HXetovs' " *HXts TroXts euSai/jKov," at the same time censuring the 
speaker for rushing in medias res, without any prelusive sparring 

From another passage of the Rhetoric we may infer the existence 
of a fourth panegyric oration, " in praise of Achilles," from which 
however Aristotle gives us no extract. It resembled, he tells us, 
the epideictic speeches of Isocrates, in the complimentary episodes 
with which it abounded (TO) en-eio-oSioCy eVai'vots). A fragment pre- 
served by the Scholiast on Iliad iv. 450 may have belonged to this 
speech : av^Laryovro Se Xirais aTreiXai KOI ev^ats olfjuaryai. 

Whether Gorgias, like his countrymen Tisias and Polus, wrote a 
TC^VT;, or formal treatise on rhetoric, has been disputed 8 ; but there 
can be no doubt that the precept recorded by the Scholiast on Gorg. 
348 is a genuine fragment from some written work of his, whether 
strictly a re^inr] or not, " (Set) ras OTrovSas TWV . aimSuccov yeXwri 
e/cXuetv, ra 8e yeXoia rais o-TrovScus eKKpouetv," and it is to this doubtless 
that Aristotle refers in the Rhetoric, iii. 18. 7, Seiv ty-q Popytas T^V 
/xev a-rrovSrjv K.r.X. The remark is one which could not have been 
made by an ordinary man, and the sentence is too nicely balanced 
for a mere colloquial dictum. 

The definition of rhetoric given by a Scholiast on the Srao-ets of 
Hermogenes 9 , under the title "Opo<s p^roptK^s Kara Topytav, is evidently 

7 It is difficult to imagine that this sentiment can have been introduced with 
propriety into a speech in honour of Athenians who had died fighting against 
Peloponnesians ; yet we do not hear of Gorgias visiting Athens before the year 
427 ; for the statement that Pericles was his disciple is probably a late fable. 
Possibly the fragment may have belonged to the speech next mentioned, and 
Philostratus' memory may have failed him. 

8 See note on Phaedrus, 261 c. 

9 Rhet. Gr., ed. Walz., t. vii. p. 33. 


only a compilation from the Platonic dialogue (comp. 450 E, 455), 
though it is given by the Zurich editors as an extract from Gorgias' 

The remaining fragments it is impossible with certainty to refer to 
any one speech or treatise in particular. Some of them were doubt- 
less taken from his writings, but others, and those not the least 
characteristic of the man, seem to have been orally delivered, pro- 
bably in conversation. Of the former class one has already been 
quoted : 1. yvTres f/j.ifrvx l Ta</>oi a metaphor which shocked the 
taste of Hermogenes, and drew forth, as we have seen, a malediction 
upon its author. 

2. Longinus, or whoever was the writer of the well-known treatise 
on the Sublime, quotes a similar metaphor of Gorgias: Ee'p^ 1 ?? TOW 
Hepa-wv Zeus. This does not appear to our modern taste either very 
' ridiculous,' or particularly revolting : though we may accede to the 
remark that it and the foregoing are rather "high-flown than lofty 1 ." 

3. Other more or less violently metaphorical phrases are quoted 
by Aristotle, Rhetoric iii. 3. 4, olov Fopytas "x^-wpa Kat ava.ifj.a* 
TO. TrpayyuaTcr <rv 8e ravra aicr^pws fiev IcrTreipas, KOIKCUS & 
e#ep6o-as." These he condemns because they are "too grand and 
tragic," the former also because " obscure and far-fetched." To us 
the metaphor of reaping and sowing is a mere common-place, and it is 
used by Plato in the Phaedrus without offence. But "pallid and blood- 
less affairs " is a phrase which would need apology even from a modern. 

4. In the same chapter of the Rhetoric, Gorgias is censured for 
using extraordinary compounds : TO. Se \Jjvxpa. . . ytyverat Kara rr/v \tw 
iv . . TOIS StTrAoIs ovd/tacriv . . . a>s Fopytas a>vo/xae, " 7TT();(o//.ou- 
0-os 8 KoAa," " cTriopK^o-avTas Kal KaTeuopK^o-avras." 

5. In the Convivium of Xenophon (c. 2. 21) we are presented 
with what Socrates calls a Fopyieiov pvjfJ-a. rjv 8e rjfjuv ol TrcuSts //.ncpais 
KvXt|t iruKva liruj/a.Ka.<Dcriv, where the last word, or possibly the 
last two, may be assigned to Gorgias. 

On the whole, the charges of tumour, affectation, and " frigidity " 
may be taken as ' proven ' against the Sicilian rhetor ; though the 
less fastidious taste of the moderns, accustomed to use unconsciously 
phrases which to an Attic ear would have appeared startling meta- 

1 IT. vtyovs, c. iii. 2, TO rov Aeotrlvov Topy'iov yf\arai, ypaQovros, Ee'p|7js 6 TUV 
TlepffSiv Zeus, /ecu, yvirfs /xiJ>ux ot To^ot . . ftvra. oi/x fyi]\a. oAAo /xereajpa. 

2 Vulg. and Bkk. o/oi/xa. But &vai/j.a is well supported, and cannot but be right. 

3 Tliis can hardly mean 'arm an dichterischer Begabung,' as Rost and Palm 
explain. Liddell and Scott give with greater probability "living (or rather 
starving) by his wits." It might also mean, " one whom poverty inspires" (cui 
ingeui largitor Venter). Wit and poverty are the hackneyed attributes of the 
Greek parasite, and in a comic poet the epithet would probab]y have been thought 
happy. A similar compound, irra,xa\^o>i', is quoted from Phryniclius com. (Meineke, 
C. G. ii. p. 582). Foss, not too happily, changes tc6\a into nopvl,. De Gorg. p. 53. 

N 2 


phors, may sometimes disagree with that of the ancient critics. 
There is, however, a passage of Aristotle in which he seems to 
compare the grandiloquence of Gorgias with that of Plato in the 
more poetical parts of the Phaedrus, defending both as ' ironical Y 
We can discover no trace of irony in the inflated passage recorded 
by the Scholiast : and we should be at some loss to account for 
Aristotle's phrase, but for an amusing instance which he has happily 
preserved for us in the same chapter of his Rhetoric in which he 
censures the tragic pomp of the Sicilian school and its founder. 

6. To oe. Topyiov ti<s ^eXiSova, CTTCI /car' avrov irero^ivf] a(f>f]K TO 
7re/oiTTa>/x.a, a/surra TO>V rpayiKwv e*7T yap "Aicr^povye, w <J>iAo- 
fj.r)Xa & ." opviOi fj.v yap, tl liroiijo'tv OVK alo~^pov, 7rap0eVu> Se alar^pov. 
fv ovv f\oioopr)o~ev CITTWV o r/v, dXA' oi>x o CCTTIV". That Gorgias had a 
sense of humour appears even from Plato, and will appear in sayings 
hereafter to be quoted ; but we may conclude from the Aristotelian 
passage that whatever gift of pleasantry he may have possessed, 
whether ironical or otherwise, he reserved for conversational use. 

7. Fopytas l*.fv ovv o ACOVTIVOS, TO, yaev ureas a.7ropa>v TO. o' eipwvevofAevos 
t<J>T], Ka.6a.Trep aA.yu.ovs *vai TOVS VTTO TU>V oXfiOTroiwv TreTroo^eVous, OVTCO 
Kal Aa/Dto-atovs rows VTTO ra>v oyfjuovpyoiv TTCTrotry/xevovs* tvat yap nva<s 
Aapto-077-oiou's. Arist. Pol. iii. c. 1. 

This saying has been understood as a reflection on the undue 
facility with which strangers obtained the franchise at Larisa. 
Whether in its original form it was spoken or written we have no 
means of determining ; but it seems to have been called forth by 
some political arrangement which fell under its author's notice 
during his long sojourn in Theesaly 7 . 

4 Rhet. iii. 7- 11. After observing that poetical language is admissible in 
oratory when the speaker has succeeded in raising bis audience to the proper pitch 
of passion or enthusiasm, he adds : i) 8)7 ovrta SeT, ^juer' elpuveias, Swep Topyias 
tiroifi Kal TO. eV T<j5 QaiSpy. 

5 What poet first transposed the names of Procne and Philomela is not quite 
certain. In all Greek authors, so far as I know, ' Philomel ' is the name of the 
swallow, and Procne of the nightingale (Arist. Aves 665). The Latins generally 
reverse this : but Varro de L. L. and Virg. Eel. vi. 81 adhere to the Greek version 
of the story. 

6 The same story is told, but less neatly, by Plutarch, Sympos. viii. 7. 4. 

7 The conjecture suggests itself, that more may have been meant by Gorgias. 
From the passages presently to be quoted it is clear that he shrunk from, or was 
incapable of, wide ethical generalizations. This dictum about Larisa and its insti- 
tutions may have been intended as a scoffingly evasive answer to a question in 
political science, What constitutes a citizen ? a question which Aristotle takes so 
much pains to answer. The conjecture that there may be a play on the two words 
(rapiffoiroi6s and Aapt(roirot6s is not improbable; in my opinion, less so than the 
notion propounded by Schneider, that the ambiguity lies in the twofold sense of 
Aapiffaios, which may mean either a Larisaeau man or Larisaean kettle, in which 
case it would be necessary to substitute Aapuraioiroiovs in the text of Aristotle. 
See Anthol. Pal. vi. 305, TCOS Aapuraius Kvroyda-Topas tyt}rripa.s. But it seems 
unlikely that Aapitralos without a substantive would have suggested any other 
notion than that of a man of Larisa. 


8. Besides his rhetorical course of instruction, Gorgias seems to 
have entertained his Thessalian admirers with ethical discussion. 
As he disowns the imputation of professing to " make men better," 
these lucubrations were probably of a purely speculative or perhaps 
sceptical character. The question, What is virtue ? raised originally 
in Attica, had apparently troubled the grosser wits of the Thessalian 
landowners, one of whom is represented as answering it in the sense 
if not the words of Gorgias 8 , and of course as failing to defend his 
thesis when subjected to a course of Socratic cross-questioning. 
Aristotle, who seems to have had a better opinion of Gorgias' under- 
standing than of his taste, gives us the following account of the 
philosopheme in question : KaBoXov yap ol Aeyovres tlaTrarwcrtv eavrous, 
OTI TO ev ex tv r ^l v */ a 'X^ v <*P T7 ?> *l T0 opOo-irpayeiv, TJ TI TWV TOIOVTCDV. 
TroAv yap a/xetvov Ae'yovcrtv ot eaptfyi.ovvTS ras operas, aJcrTrep Fopytas, 
TWV OVTWS 6pio/AV(ov. 

Waiving the question of the consistency of this opinion with 
Aristotle's treatment of Virtue in the Ethics, we may observe that 
the passage obviously refers to an opinion advanced by Gorgias' 
admiring disciple Meno in the dialogue bearing his name. The 
context proves that Plato intends to criticize the master rather than 
the pupil', and independently of this circumstance it is plain that 
the e^api'fyi^cris TWV dperwv which Aristotle commends is that given in 
the Meno, viz. an enumeration of the different virtues corresponding 
to differences of sex, age, and condition *a#' cKacrrqv yap TWV 
irpa^ewv KCU TWV rjXiKiuv irpos eKaarov epyuv eKacrTw rj/j.wv V) a.prnj ecrrtv 1 . 
It seems probable, though it cannot perhaps be proved, that Gorgias 
denied the possibility of any more general definition, such as that 
which Socrates professes to seek 2 : or it may be that he felt the 
same difficulty in apprehending the nature of Definition which Plato 
elsewhere attributes to many of his speakers, and here in particular 
to Meno. However this may be, Virtue, according to Gorgias, 
amounts to much the same thing as Efficiency a defensible and' 
not un- Socratic view of the matter. In what work these speculations 
were contained is a question we have no means of determining : 
but whatever may have been its title, to it probably belonged the 
two apophthegms which follow. 

8 See Meno, p. 71 E foil. 

9 Meno, 71 D, kv fya.vris av n\v ei'5a>s teal Fopy'ias. 

1 In these concluding words we seem to perceive the hand of the master. 
Compare with the repetition, titiivnjv eKatrroi/ eKaory, the language of Polus, 
p. 448 C, especially &\\oi &\\(av &\\eas, TU>I> Sf apiartav 04 &piaroi. 

2 Gorgias, we know, ridiculed the pretensions of Protagoras and other sophists 
who professed to teach Virtue. Possibly therefore this treatise of his contained a 
proof of the thesis on ov St8aicrbi> % aptr-ft, and as part of that proof he may have 
insisted that there is no general conception answering to the word, but that there 
are as many separate virtues as there are classes of human beings and departments 
of human activity. 


9. 'H/x.iv Se KOjw^drepos 3 fikv 6 Fopyias <f>awcTai, /ceXevan/ fj.rj TO 
etoos dXXa rrjv Sdav eli/at TroXXois yvwpi/xov T^S yvvaiKos. 
Plutarch, Mulierum Virtutes, c. 1 ; Moralia, p. 242 E. 

10. Ou yap cbrXcos dX^es o Xeyi Fopytas' eXeye Se' TO /JLCV clvat 
agaves /AT) TV^OV TOU Ooxetv, TO Se SOKCIV dcr6Uve9, ft,?) TV^OV 
TOV etvou. Proclus, Schol. in Hesiodi Opp. 1. 758 (Gaisford, Poet. 
Min. iii. p. 340). 

This is probably a literal quotation, and may have been a con- 
tinuation of the foregoing. To the same treatise we may not 
improbably refer 

15. 'O p.ev yap <t'Xos ov\, worrep aTre^aiWro Fopytas, avT<3 /x,ev 
d^twcret TO, SiKaia TOV <i'Xov vTrovpyeiv, exeiva) 8' avTOS inrr}- 
pf.r-rjO'f.L TroXXa /cat Taiv fjirj Si/catwv. Plutarch, Mor. p. 64 C. 

This maxim, more generous than just, may have occurred in the 
description of " The Virtue of a Friend ;" but though in substance 
doubtless a true quotation, the phraseology has probably been 
altered. It is far less easy to admit the genuineness of the following 
fragment, omitted, whether by oversight or design, in Mullach's 
Fragmenta : 

16. Topycas 6 piyrwp eXeye TOVS <iXoo-o</>tas [J,tv d//,eXowTas Trept Se Ta 
lyKVK\ia fj-aOyfJiaTa ytvo/Aevovs ouotovs clvai TOIS /xv>;o-T^po'iv, ol Tr)v 

rr) v e^e'Xoi/Tes Tats OtpaTraivifT iv auT^s efJ-iyvvvro. 6 
TO^S pr^Topas tcfrr) 6/u.oiovs etva t ySaTpa^ois* TOVS /xev yap 
ev vSaTt KeXaSeii/, TOVS 8e ev T^ yg. (In Spengel's Artt. Scrip- 
tores, p. 70 note, from an inedited Munich MS.) The former of 
these dicta, if not too witty, is too wise for its reputed author, 
being rather in the manner of Plato than of Gorgias, to whom it 
seems an anachronism to attribute the distinction of supreme and 
ancillary sciences. The word cy/cvKXios, in the sense here given to 
it, is also of later date 4 ; and it is difficult to believe that the author 
of the sceptical or rather nihilistic treatise Trepi TOU ^rj oWos can have 

3 ' Finer/ that is to say, than an opinion of Thucydides just referred to by 
Plutarch : 6 juei/ yap, ?/s &v eAaxurros rj irapa ro7y e/crbs fydyov irepi ^ firaivov \Ayos, 
aplffrriv airo^ati/erai' KaOdirfp rb (TcS/ta Kal Totivopa r-rjs ayadrjs yvvaiicbs ol6/j.fvos 
SeTv KaTaffXeio-Toc eli/ot Kal ave^oSof. The words of Thucydides, ii. 45, are not 
repeated, but his meaning is fairly given. So probably in regard of the citation 
from Gorgias. 

4 First so used by Aristotle, as Eth. N. i. 5 (3), where Michelet observes : "Philo- 
sophia Aristotelis temporibus reliquis a scientiis nondum distinguebatur ; quam- 
obrem ii ipsi, qui proprie philosophi neque erant neque fieri cupiebant, philosophicas 
materias docebantur, sed aliter ac philosophantes, nempe eo niodo, quo vulgi auribus 
et intellectui accommodatae erant. Illae scientiae quibus omnes Graeci imbuebantur, 
qui Trtirat5(v/>oi esse vellent, noininabantur \Ayoi f^tarepiKol, tyKiiKXiot, tv Koivy 
ftv&litVQl, fKSeSofjLfvoi, TO, ^w fj.a64)/jLaTa, quibus opponuntur \6yoi KUTO. <f>i\offo(f>tav." 
tyKVK\. nad'fifj.aTa, were therefore those sciences or parts of sciences which entered 
into the ordinary curriculum of liberal instruction 'popular' as opposed to 
' exact.' 


thought thus highly of philosophy. Still less can we believe that 
he would have disparaged the practitioners of his own art, as he is 
made to do in the second quotation. 

17. "En roiVw Fopyias p.ev 6 Aeovrtvos (ftrjo-i, rov Ki'ju,a>va TO. 
XpT/p-aTO. Krao-Qai //.ev us XpwTO, XP^fOo-i- Se u>s Tip.a>TO. Plut. 
Cim. c. 10. This fragment, which has every note of genuineness, 
may possibly have come from the Epitaphius, as Mullach supposes. 

The dicta which follow, though not fragments from his writings, 
illustrate the personal character of Gorgias in an interesting manner. 

18. Three sayings are preserved, which, whether written or only 
spoken, are not improbably authentic 6 . Gorgias is said to have been 
the author of a phrase adopted by Aristophanes : ev TWV' (Aicr^uAov) 
Spa/iaTwv pcvTov "Apa>s eTvcu, TOVS cTrra 7rt 7j/3as. Plut. 
Sympos. vii. 10. 2. In a similar vein is the following : Fopyias 
ryv Tpay wSt'av C'TTEV aTraTTji/, ^v o T aTrar^o-as SixaioTcpos 
TOU p.r] aTraT^o-avTOS, Kat, 6 aTrarrjOfl'S cro^torepos TOV p.rj ciTra- 

Ib. de Audiendis Poetis, c. 1. 

Ilocrw rotVwv fteXritav Fopyias 6 Aeovrtvos Trepl ov <f>rj(riv 6 avro? 
eV T(3 oySow TWV (Biwv, on Sia TO o~a)^)pova)S ^T}V o^eSov oySorj- 
T<5 <f>poveiv o-wey8iwo-e. Kai eVet TIS avrov ^pero Tivt 8taiTg 
ovrws\(a<s KCU /Aera atcr^^o-ews TOQ-OVTOV ^povov ^aetev, 
OvSev TrwTTOTe, ttTrev, i^Sov^s Iveicev Trpa^as. A^/xT/rptos Se 6 
ev Terapra) irepi iroirjp.drwv " Fopytas, <f>r)criv, 6 Acovrtvos 
TI avTu yeyovev atrioj/ TOV y8taio*ai TrXeuo TWV eKaTOV CTWV, 
1^)77, To fti/Sev TrwTroTe cTepov IVCKCV TrcTrot^Kei'ai." Ib. de 
Gloria Athen. c. 5. 

Of these replies the first two need no comment, but the third is 
more obscure. The French translation, " Jamais je n'ai rien fait par 
complaisance pour autrui (centre ma sante)," is countenanced by a 
passage of Lucian which seems a paraphrase rather than a quotation : 
ov (sc. Fopytav) <ao-tv cpMTrjOevTa. TTJV alriav TOV /Aa/cpou y^pws Kal 
vyieivov cV Trao-ats Tats atcr^o-ecrtj/, eiTreiv Sta TO /nijSeTTOTC o-vfLTrepi- 
f.v^6rjva.L Tais aXXwv fvw^Lai<s. Macrob. c. 23. Meineke how- 
ever takes the words frepou eVtKev in their most general sense, as ;ui 
avowal of mere selfishness, which he thinks it incredible that Gorgias 
should have made. He therefore (Philologus xiii. p. 242) proposes 
to read, ota TO (j-rjotv TTWTTOTC evTepov Ij'eKcv TrcTrot^xtvai " er habe 
nie der sinnlichen Lust gedient." The word IvTepov is once used by 
Archilochus in an indelicate sense, but the emendation is not justified 

5 It is quite possible that they may have formed part of the celebrated Epitaphins, 
in which they might have found a place as easily as in Plutarch's treatise de 
Gloria Atheniensium. The words &s Topyias c^rjtriV, in the latter passage, rather 
imply that the dictum came from a written work. 

6 Frag. Lyr. 141 Bergk. 


by the passage adduced, nor, it seems to me, is it necessary to alter 
the text, if we accept the interpretation above given T . A critic in 
the Rhenish Museum for 1860, p. 624, censures Meineke for his 
bad taste, thinking that the reply of Gorgias really contains a playful 
admission of his habitual " Egoismus," though exaggerated for the 
sake of effect. But neither Meineke nor his opponent has noticed 
the illustrative passage of Lucian, where the word o-vturepievev^vai 8 
bears out the " par complaisance " of the French interpreter. 

A different version of the same reply is given in Stobaeus, Anthol. 
101. 21, ropyias epamy^eis Trota SICU'TT; yjaeo/xevos ets p.a.Kpov yrjpa<s rjXOev' 
OvSev ouSeTrore, />T;, irpos ijSov^v ovre <aya>v OVTC Spao-as. 
Also in Valerius Maximus, viii. 13, "Gorgias Leontinus . . cum 
centesimum et septimum ageret annum, interrogatus ' quapropter tarn 
diu vellet in vita remanere :' ' Quia nihil,' inquit, ' habeo, quod 
senectutem meam accusem.' " Equally characteristic of the man were 
his last words 

19. ropyias 6 Aeojmvos rt Tep/xaTt tav TOV fiiov, vir do-$Vtas /cara- 
X-n&OeiS, KO.T oAiyov cts VTTVOV VTroXiarOdvwv IKCITO' CTTCI Se TIS avrov TCOV 
riTw8eia>v rfpero TL irpdrTOi, 6 Fo/jytas aTrcxpiVaTO' "tlSrj p.*. 6 VTTVOS 
apvTai<r6ai rdSeX^w. Stob. Anth. 118. 23, from Aelian, 
V. H. ii. 35. 

20. The following is given on the authority of Arsenius 9 , who 
certainly did not invent it : 6 avros (sc. Fopytas) ^877 yjjpatos 
VTrapYWV, epwrrjOfls el T^Sews a.iroBvr)(TK.oi, 77* terra, etTrev, cocnrep Se 
K eraTrpou Kai peovro? CTUVOIKIOV tlcr/Aevtos aira A.AaTTO//,cu. 

The treatise of Gorgias Trept TOU /XT; OI/TOS, though it is important 
in a history of philosophy, as a kind of reductio ad absurdum of the 
Eleatic method, is preserved to us only in epitome. For that reason, 
and because it throws no light on the personal or purely literary 
characteristics of its author, and is therefore of. no direct use to a 
student of this dialogue, I have thought better to omit it. The best 
edition of the Aristotelian critique is, so far as I know, that of 
Mullach in the first volume of his " Fragmenta Philosophorum " in 
Didot's series. 

7 Another conjecture, yacrrepos eVewa, is approved by Zeller, Ph. d. Gr. i. p. 737, 

note (5). 

8 "Comiter se dare, alicui morigerum esse," Budaeus, quoted in Steph. Lex. s. v. 
ffv/jiTrfpi<pfpfiv. ffv/j.irfpi<t>epeff6ai is frequently used in this sense of " going with 
the multitude," but only in late writers. 

In the " Praeclara Dicta Philosophorum," an early -printed and once well-known 
compilation by a Greek Archbishop, son of Michael Apostolius, a Byzantine refugee 
of the fifteenth century. 




dyadov = o><eXt/*oi, 57. 

etyavaKTTjros, 140. 

ayaaffai, construction, 8. 

ayytia Tfrpijfjieva Kal vaOpd, 100. 

dyopa ir\r)6ov<Ta, 46. 

d8id<f)opa, theory of, 43. 

aSiKelv TOV d8iKfl<r6ai . . . KOKIOV, 134. 

/ie'yiaroi/ T>V KaxStv, 46. 

d8Keiff$ai alptTvtTfpov T) dSiKf'iv, ib. 
d8iKf)(rop.fv, not d8iKT]<ra>iJ.fv, 137. 
d&uciav faip(l<r6ai, 159. 
a8iKos a8\tos, 50. 
act, insertion of, 28. 

force of, 63. 

dddvaros etrrat irovrjpbs a>v, 70. crow OTI ov Bwauevov, 


aier^iVrj; ftoydda, 135. 
dKKtf<rdai, duKHTfjios, 108. 
'AKKO), ib. 

dttpavia, unplatonic, 169. 
dupartia preferred to aKparla, ib. 
oKpoacrOai used as inranovftv, 87. 

SXXo Ti 20, 48, 51, 60, 71, 90, 


5XXOTI OVK, 124. 

r, idiomatic use of, 4, 55. 
w, 108. 

ye irodev for oXXotfep y. TT., 96. 
, afj.66fv, apfj, afiwr, aspirated in 
Attic, ib. 

dfJiVTJTOS, 98. 

'A/i<j!>i'oi/o9 pfjffis, 129. 

dfjifpicr^rjrdv, 68. 

dpfyoTtpa, adverbial use of, 64, 168. 

dp.(poT(pov, Homeric usage of, ib. 

av, omission of, 95. 

av not omitted with potential, 142. 

omitted after TJV, 146. 

dvayKafiv, 52. 

dvayKalos, construction of, 8. 

dvadfo-dai. 31. 

dvairijTos, 77. 

dva\afttiv TOV \6yov, 129. 

dva\{<TKTj, not ai/aXt(TKjTai, 70. 

dvapp.oa-Tfiv, 73. 

dvaoravpovcrdai, 55. 

avtSrjv ovro), 103. 

avet for ayt ? 78. 

fli'f ifai. 96. 

, 77. 

KQKOV, 132. 

, 158. 

= inconsistent, 103. 
, 128. 
w, 173. 
i', 145. 
dvri(TTpo(pos, 36. 

, 31. 

^ ety aSvvaroi', 104. 
TTJjrat, passive, 126. 
, sense of, 129. 
, inadmissible in Attic, 5. 
dirKTTia, 99. 
a?rXcoy ovrtor, 44. 
OTTO troC dpdp.(vos, 50. 
aTroSetKi'vi'ai, 150. 
OTroSeiXiai', 69. 
dno8i8oadai, 130. 

aTroKoXeii', generally implies reproach, 
but not always in later Greek, 142. 
djroKpv7rTrdai, transitive, 69. 
a7roXa/3wi; used adverbially, 105. 

, 164. 
, dwoXXvat, 106. 

, 94. 
dnocrdfcrdai, 77. 

dllOTf'lVflV, 39. 

a7ro(paiv((T6ai, transitive, 40, 172. 
dno(poiTav, 89. 



, 128. 
fya, 98, 144, 158. 

- for yap av, reading from Olym- 
piodorus, 19. 

- placed late in sentence, 158. 
apa, 10. 

- in the middle of the sentence, 53, 

ap" ovv ovx, 88. 

aperr), according to Callicles, 95, 96. 

-- denned, 129. 

dperj) drj/jLoriKT), 130. 

dpfrf) TOV (Ttofiaros, 67, 125. 

Tj, 12, 17. 

6 2ceXXtoii, 52. 
more Attic than dproiroios, 
apxeo-dai, with accus. of cognate signi- 

fication, 7. 
dpx^v = " in the first instance," and 

with neg., " not at all," 66. 
apxovra euvrov, 93. 

darKfTTTCOS fX.U>V, H8. 

dral-ia, 125. 

s, 92, 118. 
s, 92, 170. 

O.TLJJ.OV, 83. 

- 8r]p.r]y6pos, 102. 
arifios TrXj/yij, 174. 

v epydovrai irpayp.a, 158. 
arra, 107. 

drvx^fuis, not dTrorvx^crms, 31. 
drvxo>, with genitive, ib. 
avXrjTiKr], 119. 

- *- in Philebus, not to be altered, 

avr'iKa, "for instance," 53. 

- TTp>TOV, ib. 

avroOfv, 49. 

avrois for d\\rf\ots, 38. 

avrdj/ = ultro, 25. 

avrbs yvuxrfi, 127. 

avTovs interpolated, 159. 

avTo(pva>s S/JLOIOV, 144. 

aiiToov, 93. 

avT&v, construction of, 167. 

i, not, 129. 


r, 135. 
fidpadpov, 152. 
f3a<ravieiv, 84. 
/3dcrai/os, 86. 

^f^ Trapa (row, ib. 
/3Xa^ OTTO roi) p-aXa/foy, ib. 

eavrw, 165. 
ti*, 56. 

j3ovXtvp.a<Ti and ftov\rjp.a(ri, inter- 
changed in codd., 72. 

@OV\T)(TIS TOV Tf\OVS, 42. 

/3ovXop,ai, distinction of from fioxel /xot, 

viii, 40. 

(TOt f(TTlV, 6. 


ydp, in apodosi after parenthesis, 18. 

ye, in exclamation, 42. 

yiyvfo-0ai, 149. 

yiyvfTai = o-vfj-ftaivd, 105. 

yvf]o~iov TI djrepyd^fo'dai tls (pi\lav, 


yorjTevfiv, 77. 
Topyifiov pf]p.a, 179. 
yvp.vao-iov = school of philosophy, 


yvp.vao-TiKT), 37. 
yvvaiKop.lp.os, 82. 

Td0ot, 179. 

8aip.ovdv, not daip.ovidv, 102, 

8e8fTai . . . ariSqpols Kill d8a/j.avTivois 

\6yois, 135. 

Set and 77 confounded, 148. 
fiflv, ellipse of, 53. 
- pleonasm of, 142. 
8eivoTi)s attributed to Socrates, 164. 
8r/ used ironically, 116. 
8rj\ol, 76, 99. 
SjjXoj/ ort, 86, 149. 
SiJXoff, construction of, 6. 
8r)p.r)yop('iv, 73, 159. 
8rjp,T]yopia . . . f) TTOITJTIKT), 121. 
8r)p.7)yopiKos, 74. 
8r}fj,r]y6pos, 73. 
8r)fj.iovpyos and tSKo 

between, 20. 
8ij/j.oKpa.TiKos dvrjp, in the Republic, x. 
Callicles, a speci- 


men of, ib. 
8rip.o(rifvfiv and tStwrevetv, distinction 
between, 20, 147, 148. 

ia identified with KoXoxe/o, ]55. 

e'LV. 33. 

bunrtpaivfcrdai, 18. 
8iairfpdvT), not .^r, 137. 
8ta7T7rpd^erai, 139. 
8i.a7rpf7rfii>, whether transitive, 82. 



i, 117. 

8iaa-KfTTTa>fjif0a, solecistic reading, 145. 
diarpi^r), 80. 

8ta(f)0fipfi.y TOVS -rrp<i>TOVs Xdyovs, 103. 
8i8dgoi, not 8i8dgei, 73. 
8i86vai 8iKr)v, 136. 
8iKaia = KaXd, 61. 
diKaioi rjfj.(poi, 151. 

SlKCUOS. 28. 

construction of, 6. 

8iKaioa-vvr], Platonic, ix. 

8iKMo<Tvvr) and craxppoo-uiny, nearly 

coincide in the Republic, ib. 
8iKaioo"uvr)v preferred to SiKao-TiKrjv, 

8iKaiS>v TO /3iatoTarov, 78. 

8lKa.CTTT)S SlKCllOS, 36. 

8iKr) Tfovrfplas larpiKT], 66. 
diKTjv 8i86vai aTraXXayr) KO.KOV, 67. 
Aiof ayd\p.ara = rpojraZa, 176. 
8ls KOI Tpis, 112. 
StcoKa^etv, not Siwitddciv, 75. 
SoKei, use of, 104. 

fj.01, distinction of from /3ovXo/iai, 


8oKlv fp.oi, 74. 
8oKfls for (8oK(is, 51. 
8oKovvra>v flvai TI, ib. 
SouAorrpeTnjs, 81. 
8vva<r6ai, interpolated, 48. 
8vva(rdai dyaGbv TW Swapfva), 40. 
8v<T)(fpaiv(iv, 11. 
8w>j for So/?;, inadmissible, 70. 


e'ai> TrafiTToXv, 141. 

Tov, interpolated, 150. 

/j.adfifJMTa, 182. 
fyKO)p.iov fls 'HXei'ovr, of Gorgias, 178., not e'yo> olfiat, 166. 
(8iu}Ka6es, aorist, not imperfect, 75. 
fdvos, used as Latin ' natio,' 20. 
ei Se /iij after e'av /iv, 47. 

/jij ei TIS, 69. 

/IT? T(, taken as one particle, 71. 
crv aXXo Xeyetj, 145. 

irdw TToXXoC, 141. 

TroXv, ib. 

(lev for fijjtrav, 95. 
efy for eii/at, 123. 
flfjiapfjifvos, 143. 
(l^fv, 95. 

i7ri)i' OTraXXayTj^t, ib. 
eis e/zol airt TroXXwi*, 56. 

fly TO OVTO TTfpl(f)fp6pitVOl, 154. 

(Is TO ftdpaQpov ffj.fiaXf'iv, 152. 

elre, flrrjv, 95. 

(K TpiTov, rpirtuj/, 115. 

(KClTipOXTf, 166. 

cueivos = this last, 119. 
eWo-6, 173. 

(K\dulTflV, 77. 

at, 114. 

6s, not e\(fiv6s, 45. 
C EX*V7? eyKw/ziov, falsely attributed to 

Gorgias, 177. 
(\06tnf, not f\66vra, 22. 
^/3pa^u, altered into eV /Spa^et, 23. 

ffJLfJ.OVT), 68. 

t'a and TSYVIJ distinguished, 37. 

, Attic sense of, 72. 
confounded with (KirXrjKTos, 

t'a, 73. 
EI/, use of, 15. 

omission of, 165. 

/iierpta) cr^ij/iaTi, 141. 

nu6>i'ou, preferred to eV Ilv^ot, 52. 

TO) A(oi/iio-ia>, distinguished from 
rw eV Atovucrov ^earpw, ib. 

7U$< TIJV Kepapfiav, 147. 

fv8eiKvvvai, 86. 

fv8i86i>ai, 113. 

fvravda with verbs of motion, 174. 

e' airavTos TOV vov, 138. 

e^o/j.otS)v avTov TTJ TroXiTfia, 144. 

ft-oo-TpaKigfiv, 151. 

ea>T(piKoi Xdyot, 182. 

firaKoveiv vira/coueti/ napaKovfiv dis- 
tinguished, 85. 

(iravio-Tacrdai, 77. 

eiravopdolTe, not eiravopd>Tf, 31. 

eTret, rhetorical use of with imperative 
or an interrogation, 56, 76. 
for o/xcos, 159. 
)(ei T<U Xdyo), 95. 

fiTT]Kovo-a, not vTrrjKOVcra, 85. 

67ri after xaXetv omitted, 125. 

ri Ko'pp;j-, 83, 134, 173, 174. 

Tovvavriov, 69. 

TW ei/t Tideo-dai vop.ovs, 87. 
fTTi8eiKinii>ai and (Tri8fiKvvo-0cu dis- 
tinguished, 3. 

7J"l<i>J>, 55. 




ms, meaning of, 99. 

-- (X<i> (f)i\lKU>S, 82. 

(Tridevras KffpaXrjv, 127. 
(iridertov SIKTJV, 132. 
firidvp.i5>v TrapavnevaaTai, 157. 
(TTiKovpia, 95. 
, 46. 

t, 158. 
, 46. 
i, 151. 
i, 150. 
(Trip.f\ijTris ovav, ib. 


fTTlppflv, 101. 

eiri<rrjfj,aii>((rdai, 172. 

cV/crra/icu, used for knowing by rote, 

also to denote personal acquaint- 

ance, 78. 
(TTKrrdrrjs, 56. 

f7ri(TTT]p.r) and TriWtr distinguished, 19. 
-- its identity with ayadov, 104. 
i, 74. 

fTTlTT]8(V(TflS = iraplUTKfVal, 118. 

firi\( . . . . 777 TroXei Kat roTs 

TToXtraty dtpanevfiv, 145. 
f7ri^aKd(iv, 179. 
v, 56. 

V, 100. 

(TrreTTjs, not fTTTafTrjs, 50. 

fpp.aiov, 84. 

(<r6rj<Tiv for ai<r6r)<rfi, 38. 

s, a word of doubtful note, ib. 
and eortV, confused in MSS., 19. 
s, 141. 

fTfOOV, 104. 
fTfpOV fVfKfV, 183. 

5 ur$' ort, 15. 
(v8a.ip.ovia Trtpl crto/xa, 66. 

fV?>()Kl.fJ.flv, 149. 

(VfpyfTrjs dvaypd<pr6ai,, 129. 
ei^u and ev^vy distinguished, 170. 


etJ Trpdrreiv, double sense of, 132. 
-- instead of xoipftv, ib. 
ttpTja-da, not e^^f, 107. 

fXdfS Kdl 7TpG)T)V, 48. 

e^w wwr etTTw, 123. 



^ after evavriov, 71. 

after iStoi/, ib. 

^, repetition of, 120. 
^ for ^, 87. 

17 ev 'ApTffjiKTM or Trept ' 
p-dx*], never ^ 'Apr(p.i<ria>, 152. 

/xij 'fMreipia, 66. 
77 S^ for ^ij, 98. 
r]8oi>f) Trapadovs, 60. 

KCtl CTrl<TTT]p.T], 104. 

v TOU dya^ou ertpov, 107. 
^os, of a polity, 139. 

T)\lKia, Tj\lKOS, 79. 
TlfJL(p((T^T}Tf)(Tap.V ) 61. 

^i/, use of, 66. 

used for e'ori in general proposi- 
tions, 130. 

ia, 153. 

, 173. 

for ^o-^a, inadmissible, 107. 
, 147. 


davarav, not Savanav, 102. 
davdrov Tip-aa-dai, 83. 

ifnaros, division of, 37. 

crf\r)vr)v Kadaipovaai, 144. 

la.Tp(vt(rdai, 65. 

T], 37. 
f)p,5>v, 146. 
eiv, 20. 
, ib. 
tei/at Vt, 146. 

6 Xoyof, 142. 
tXtyytav, 83. 

iva, in local and final sense, 80. 
tov tou, 113. 

l<r6TT)S yfOtflfTplKT), 133. 

l(TXVpi(crdai els rovs daQeveis, 89. 
TW crw/xart, ib. 


, not KaOeipgrjs, 31. 
, 113. 



KOI e'yo) fuivddva), corrected, 106. 

Trot), interpolated, 16. 

KaKia = voaros, 63. 

Kcuciair, not ddiidav, 66. 

Kaic6i> = /3Xa/3epdV, 57. 

KOKovp-yeiy eV TOI? Xdyot?, 74. 

AcaXXwTTKr/ia, 95. 

Ka\6v, TO, 59. 

KaTnjXo?, business of, 156. 

KltpKO) = MopfiO), 108. 

icara and KoWtra for f tra and 


Kara/3oXij, a medical term, 157. 
/cara&e&VKO)?, 82. 
Karade&dai = crvvaivfcrai, 118. 
.vi(rai, 152. 

s, punishment of, 153. 
i/, not KaraXvapcr, 127. 

t, 55. 
K.aTairovrov<r6ai., 141. 

t) <TM[j.aTos, 63. 
v, ib. 

*cara rtva eii/ai, 142. 
Kara^oxTfiev av rots \6yois, ib. 
Kareayfvai, with genitive, 47. 
TTjj' Kpa\f)v, ib. 

TO &ra, 149. 
v, 77. 

v, 3. 

KfKT^crofuu and Krqo-o/xat distinguished, 


K((pa\alov, 102. 

KidapiiTTiKri TJ ev rois dyaxriv, 119. 
Kival8ov )3i'oy, 102. 

C(I'8vi'fVC(I', 158. 

KXcTr^i/ Kara'\lfr)(j)i^f(rdai, 149. 
Kvrja-dai, not Kvaa-Qai, 102. 
Kinjcriav, ib. 

KVTJ<TIU> or Kvrjcruaij, not Kwjcrtot, ib. 
KoXa^e(rda( ap.(ivov f; aKo\acria. 127. 
*coXaca, 37, 120, 122, 145. 
- softened into diaicovia, 154. 
a Trapa/caXetj', 162. 

7, 36. 

T), applied to tragedy, 121. 
a, 162. 

v, etymology of, 38. 

S, ib. 
T], 37. 

KciXXoy, applied to Iso- 
crates, 38. 

ia, ib. 
i/, 99. 
s, 125. 

T], 140. 
KVplTTflV, 150. 

= buarparro^fvatv, 12. 

Kvpovv and Kvpov&dai distinguished, 

KVpOHTlS, 10. 

ev a>cri, 71. 


XaXor, 149. 
\afjL7rpos, 81. 
Aapteron-otdf, 180. 
Xeyo/iev, not Xe'yw/ifi/, 145. 

XftOTTJf, 38. 
\T)pf)fJMTa, 84. 

Xijo-ere 8ia<pdaptvr(s, 85. 
X^orow ^t'or, 133. 
Xt0a>/ray, not Xi^twj^-as, 102. 
XIWOJTO XuTrar, 100. 

I/ -fyvxnv, 139. 
IIa)Xe, 42. 


/i and , interchange of, 86. 
/xa, or ov /ltd, 89. 
TO'*, 41. 

, 30. 

TO/ AtvjrTt'wi' $oi>, 73. 

a, fiayyavevpa, pdyyavov, 77. 
fjLadr)(TTat, or (j.a0T)<Tf(r6ai, 27. 
fjMKpa T(ixT), 21. 
/idXi;, used in singular only, 46. 
MapadS>i>i, 152. 
Hmmyias, 169. 

8vva<r6ai, 139, 144. 
e'Xoi/, put absolutely, 118. 

fJLfVTOl, 3. 

- position of, 40. 

- in apodosi to /iv, an Attic 
usage, 54. 

fJifTdgv KaTaXfilTflV, 127. 

li.fraa-Tpftya.VTts, 22. 

fteTOTtdevai, 99. 

fi*XP l noi, 85. 

/i^ prohib. with subj. present, 117. 

/MJ - fCTTl, 143. 

/tij interrogative, 142. 

interrogative or dubitative with 

indicative, 143. 
pfi oi/ with conjunctive, 103. 
p.rj8e preferred to ov8e, 66. 
p;8e KT^crtf, ib. 
p.T}8fit in interrogation, 139. 

, 43. 
, use of in Aristotle, 143. 



ds, 142. 

p.ittl> OVT(OS, 36. 

Midaiicos 6 rr)i> otyoiroiiav (rvyyeypa- 
(pa>s, 156. 

i, 55. 

o), ib., 108. 
Mvcrbv KaXeii/, 162. 
Mvcrcov eo-yaTOS, ib. 
Aeia, ib. 


vdpa, 100. 

veavtfveadai, 73. 

veavmov /SouXevjua, 83. 

veaviKos, 134. 

j/^ TOV Kvva, 40. 

i/iji>, 102. 

NtKi'as 6 NtKTjparou, 51. 

VOfJ-odfTlKT), 37. 

vofios 6 TrdvTcav jSao'iXevs', 77, 78. 

) (fjvo-fi, antithesis attributed to 
Archelaus, 74. 
vovs, 39. 

vw, enclitic used in prose, 11. 
vvv Se, 114. 

817, 21, 100. 

r), 32. 


6 det x/>ows, 170, 171. 
- e'deXoH;, 134. 

eVi TW opvypari, 153. 

OfJLOlDS T< 6/LtOtO), 137. 


rpaxras Kal la&fTai. 3. 
ot crofpoi, who ? 133. 
<u8i, 157. 

oi SoKOtijTes 1 , 51. 

cii/at Tt, ib. 

otfjiai for ^y7j(ro/iat, 53. 
oX/ytcrra, 137. 
ofjiOT]6r)s, 138. 
o/ioXoy^/iara p.evei, 69. 
6/xoi) Trdvra xpr)p.ara, 39. 
ov, omission of, 104. 
ovt]<rdfv, or ovf]<reifv av, 142. 
ovo/na (Kfivca elnflv, 125. 
ovofiara dr/pevatv, 88. 
Xe'ym, 90. 

OTTOCTOvSfj, 143. 

oTTorepa, adverbial use of, 168. 

ojrwy with future, 104, 137, 139, 160. 

07TWS /iJ, 144. 

with future, 88, 102. 

os /3ouX = 6<TT(Toi)i', 153. 

ocra for Trocra or OTrdaa, 12. 

oaidr?;?, 131. 

on followed by infinitive, doubtful 

construction, 123. 
o TI f^aiv \r)pfls, 108. 
ov evcKa trivovariv, interpolated, 43. 
ov pr) with conj. = ovftev deivbv p.r], 


TrdXrjs VTTO, 66. 
, 24, 145. 
in the sense of vno TI, accord- 

ing to Olympiodorus, 99. 

Crf/ O.VTT) f] TlfJLT], 109. 

ovdapov av (pavrjvai, 22. 

ovSeiy /SovXerai KUKWS Troiflv, vii. 

oiibev 8eivbv p.rj, 161. 

eoiKfv, 60. 

olov, 4, 71. 

Trdvv, 24. 

, adverbial use of, 168. 

OUK, force of before pev 8e, 141. 

lams . . . dXX' dvdyKr), 148. 

o?8' &TTO, 127. 

OVKOVV before p.ev 8e, 153. 

, repetition of, 138. 

- dv-fjp, 41, 127. 
, 88. 

OVTO) TTpaTTeiV, 132. 

ovrcoj, use of, 103. 
flier], 129. 

niITO)(T\V tT.TftfU.rt 1 24 

ov% airXovv eptoras, 122. 

on, 11. 

6(pfla\fj,la, 105. 

O^OTTOtlC, 33. 
O^OTTOUKT), 37. 

preferred to 


6s, 37, 165. 


and Qepdirevna compared, 168. 
oTpij3r]s, 9. 
TraXatoi re *cai crocpoi, 137. 

uy aTroXoyi'a, falsely attri- 
buted to Gorgias, 177. 
ow ye (r<p68pa, uncommon use of, 

TrapdaiTos, 162. 
Trapa<TKevT), 115. 
Trapeipevov, 176. 

TrapeAcaXov/iCi/dXXijXoDS . . . Trpdovras, 



larpep, 60. 

(jLiHravra . . . larpa, 69. 
if^wi' rep Xdya>, 60. 
TrapieV, 176. 
irapov, ib. 
i/3 ' 1 7 

TTfll'JJl', 101. 

irfiaop-fda, not neicra>iJ.f6a, 144. 
TretoriKoy, not TrtcrriKoy, 19. 
7retcra>/ie$a, solec. reading, 137. 
TTfpaivearQai, passive, 18. 
TTtpi interpolated, instances of, 91. 
Trepi Tt'ra and n-ept rivaiv distinguished, 

irfpiTp.r]fiaTa applied to dialectics, 109. 

mdavos used passively, 98. 
TnoriAcdy, ib. 

TTierrty r^fvS^y *cat aXj^^y, 18. 
ir\aTT(iv . . . vop.ovs, 76. 

. . . TroXti', ib. 

TrXeoi' f^eiv, 90. 

ir\rjpovvTa, Stephen con\ ir\ijpovv, 


iro\ffj.ia>v = TroXeftucwi/, 83. 
TToXe/xov /cat /xd^Tjs, 3. 
TroXtTei'aj eralpoy, 137. 
TroXtTt/cij, division of, 37. 
TToXtrt/cds equivalent to rjdtKos ia later 

Piatonists, ii. 

TToXXlJ pq<TTU>VT], 26. 

TroXXoi) Set, construction of with /ii7 

and conj., 153. 
Tropierrucds, 155. 
Trdppco r^y f)\iKias, 79. 

7TOCTOI', not OTTOO'Ol', 164. 

applied to persons, 160. 
= irapatTKevai, 118. 
irpd^ovras equivalent to cay irpdgovras, 


irpaov corr. for Trapov, 176. 
7rpe(r/3uT7;y yevdpevos, interpolated, 39. 
5rpo Xdyou, 27. 

7rpo8tSdcrKei' equivalent to StSucr^fii', 

and irpofj.avddvfiv correla- 
tive, ib. 

7rpO(TUQ.l, 160. 

fiitpyecriav, ib. 

TTpOS TjQOVTJV >pp.T)T(ll, 120. 

Xdyoi/, Xdyov, 27. 

(piKlov, 115. 

7rpo(rn7roXo{)(rti> ray dp^at'ay crdpnas, 

irpocrecrraX/ieVof, 141. 

Trpocr^rjfiiovv, 152. 

7rp6(r6e for TTpdcrdtv, 135. 

TrpocrKOprjs, 176. 

irpoo-Kopoas, ib. 

" npovo-KfiTTo pro irpoiKTKeiTTfTO rcsti- 

tuendum Thucydidi," 61. 
iTTa>x6[iovcros KoXa, 179. 
Ilu^ot rather than eV Ilv^ot, 52. 

preferred to TTO/I, 163. 
yap ov, 62. 


drjpfvco, 90. 
pr)p.a.Ti dfjiaprdveiv, 88. 
pijropevfiv, 121. 

p7]TOplKTI, 37. 

definition of, 33. 

limits of, 26. 

avricrrpofpos otyoTroitas, 39. 

KoXa/cf tay fiopiov, ib. 

Treidovs 8rjp,iovpyds, 15. 

rroXtTiKjjy fj.opLov etSwXoi/, 35. 
/t'a, 15. 


T>V SiKaicav, 134. 
prjropiKos 8iKaios, 28. 

iya), 'Ai-Ttjcmf, ptyot/EXXijwKwy 1 1 -- 
iyatv, 'Arnicas, piyovv KOIVU>S / 

alone, or with eV, 152. 
2dpa/3os 6 KOTT^XOJ, 156. 
2t*ceXdj, rather than St/ceXiKo'?, 98. 
bs dvrjp, ib. 

(TtTOTTOlOS 1 , 155., crK7TTO), barbarisms, 61. 
a-Kfirrop-fda occurs in text of Laches, 

e'i'co occurs in Alcibiades, ii, 


OJ/, 13. 

(TKOTTOI/ KaflicrTdcrQai, 58. 

-- a-rrjcracrGai, not Trpos (TKOTTOV 

<TTT(ra,<j()ai, ib. 

, tenses of, used by Attic writers, 


(J-KV\o8f ^fas, 155. 

dc^os trKvX6Sf\|/oy, ib. 

, 102. 

ijs KQI pTjTcop TUVTOV, 160. 
T], 37. 

CpiOTlK^ pT)TOplKT)S K.d\\lOV, 160. 



?, ravrav Koapei, 114. 
iv irpos riva, 138. 
(TTtyavos (rreydv, 98. 

OTO^aCTTtKOS So^aaTMCO?, 34. 

avyypafi/Mi, 12. 
a~vyypa(p6fjLfi>oi, ib. 
(TvyKaTaTidffjiai, usage of, 118. 
(rvp,/3aiVf i KaKoV, without 6V, 67. 
<rup./3dXaia, 79. 

f], 18. 

i, 184. 
s, 115. 

o-vj/ TOty (piXTaToi? ^ aipfcrts, 144. 
crvvairios, 158. 

(rvvfiTTa\[j:fvos opposed to oyKwSqr or 
= irpoa-ea-TaXfjLfvos, 141. 
i, 124. 

<rvvi(Tx6[j.cvos, passive, 67. 
crvpfaros, 89. 

<rv\vovs Tfivat TWV \6ya>v, 159. 
>u> for (r<pi<Tiv, 166. 

-yap TTOV, 67. 
Jia, 141. 

Kara TO a-T]fjiaiv6p.fvov, 89. 
, various kinds of, 38. 
e Acai <r<af(rdcu, 143. 
<rS>fj.a, 0-fjp.a, first said by Heraclitus, 

<ru>p.aTos depaireia, division of, 37. 

(TOt/JMTOS fJ.O)^dtJpla, 126. 

crcotppocrvvT) and 8ucaioo'vvT) nearly coin- 
cide in the Republic, ix. 

- identified with av/rao-a 
dperf], 130. 

o-ax^poo-wjj, its wide sense in Gorgias, 

<T6<pp<t>v and afppcov, a false antithesis, 

and dtKutor, parallelism be- 
tween, 131. 


TO avToC Trpdrrfiv, meaning of in Re- 
public and in Gorgias, 172. 

KoXd, 113. 

Kop.\l/a ravra, 163. 

p-cydXa fiefi.vr)(rai irp\v TO erui/cpd 

p.frav, 43, 44. 

Trpo TOV dv' avSpes eXeyov ds tyuti 

' . i go ' 


TalS, 125. 
ravrd for TaOTa, 51. 
Ta<por /^iiIruYOS, 175. 
Taxa, 39. 

i^' eto-op-at, 10. 
eVeiSdV, ib. 

, TO Sia fj,e(rov, 21. 
e^et T^S a\T)6fias, 86. 
EVOJ Trtdos, 98. 
Tex"*), technical sense of, v. 
7rl T^ ^v\r], 36. 

TW o'cop.aTt, ib. 

Tf\viKaL TrpaypaTftat, 118. 
re\voypa$os, V. 

f eV 2aXap.ii/t, 152. 
dpxTjv = ' in the first instance,' 
and with neg., ' not at all,' 66. 
TJV flvat, 130. 

oi>xi-e(j)pacras ; 122. 

Tip.^, whether put for n'p.r;p.a, 109. 
TO firl TOUTO), TO eVi TwSf, adverbial, 

p-ey a Svvaa-dai, 45, 48. 

interpolated, 47. 

irapov tv Troiflv, 114. 

Twj' 7ro\\S>v irddos, 145. 
Toi^wpu^ftj', 135. 

TOI/ Mapadwvt, not TOV eV Mapa$aw, 


TOUTOU irpo<rdfv, interpolated, 42. 
TpaywSias iroirjcri.!, 120. 
Tpt" aWa for Tpi'a apa, 84. 
Tpi/3.;, 118. 
TptdSos, 168. 

t, use of, 86. 


, 82. 
Tij/i, not ev T., 165. 

VTTfSv, 37. 

vTTfp(pvfl as firyaXj; /SXdjSi;, 64. 

vnfpa>Tmi>, 75. 

VTTO pdXrjS, 46. 

VTrd Tt aVoTra, 99. 

V7roj3dXXetj/, 92. 

viroftvei = vTrooV^ei in Xenophon, 

, 37 ', 
viro8v(o-6ai, ib. 

viroKflcrdat, ib. 
viro\af$t1v, 11. 
, 175. 
, 109. 

, 7. 

, 68, 157. 
v(p" et/xaTO)!/, 46. 

v, verbs in, whether used by Attic 
writers, 106. 




(piXt'o, (piXdnjs, 'A.(ppo8iTT), 

meaning of in Empedocles, 133. 
(pi\6vfiKos el, 148. 
<p\vapfls f\o>v, 91. 
(poprtKos, 74. 
(ppovpd for bfo-pwrrjpiov, 170. 


, 101. 
in Babrius a singing bird, 


v fiios , ib. 
at, 83. 
, 10. 
s, 78. 

Kal tivaifjLa ra irpdyfuira, 179. 
applied to persons, 160. 
i<mKT) comp. with S/KJ; and 
fi, 65. 

iv, 84. 


>v 6f<rdai, not Karadea-dai., 118. 
ai/, 102. 

better than ^a>pia>vras, ib. 

Kt(paXr], 145. 
2>v for ws, 96. 
ws for 17 after comparative, a bar- 
barism, ib. 
coy av with optative, 16. 

ai 86(i(v ovraxriv, 135. 
dvai, 154. 

wr -y' V* So*ceT/, 74. 

ye SiaKOPOiif etVat. 153. 

<5>s CTTOS etTretv, 10, 11, 118, 154. 

f\(i Tiobatv, 132. 

or ovrco, 29. 
av el, 67. 
, 75. 



Aegina, fare to Athens from, 141. 
Alcibiades, 158. 

year of his death, 73. 

II., the, spuiiousness of, 5, 

49, 61. 
by some falsely attributed to 

Xenophon, 49. 
Alexis, comic poet, cited, 38. 
Alliteration, 95. 
Anachronism in Gorgias, 73. 
Anachronisms in Plato, 48, 158. 
Anacoluthia, 14, 15. 
Analogy, false, in Gorgias, 160. 
Anaxagoras, 39. 
Andron, 85. 

Antisthenes characterized, vi. 
Anytus, though poxdr/pos not <j)av\os, 


Aorist, force of, 122. 
Apollo Pythius, sanctuary of, 52. 
Apologia, the, 164, 165, 172. 
Aposiopesis, 41. 
Apuleius, xvi. 
Archelaus, 123, 171. 

reign of, 48. 

vios 2i/ii*7s, 49. 

entertained Euripides, ib. 

his talent extolled by 

Thucydides, ib. 

his history, particulars of, 

found only in Plato, 48. 

Ionic philosopher, Socrates' 

early training under, 74. 
Archilochus, fragment of, variously 

cited, 75. 
Aristides, 171. 

Ehetor, 122. 

Ehetor, cited, 34, 36, 38, 

134, 149, 151, 154. 

Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae, said to 
ridicule the Platonic Common- 
wealth, xx. 

Aristotle, cited, 42. 

on the unity of virtue, ix. 

Soph. Blench., 74. 

Ethics, 84. 

Arithmetic, among the Greeks, 12. 

specimen of, in Theaetetus, 


Arithmetical equality distinguished 

from geometric, 133. 
Arnold on Thucydides, cited, 52. 
Arsenius, cited, 184. 
Art, decorative arid rhetorical, 38. 
Arts and sciences, subordination of to 

an ethical law, peculiar to Gorgias, 

Arts, useful, confused with those 
which aim at pleasure only, 155. 

higher and lower, ib. 

Article, omitted, 112. 

Ast, corrected, 75. 

cited, 170. 

Asyndeton, 51, 72, 76. 

Athenaeus, cited, 97. 

refuted, 48, 123. 

value of his accusations of 

Plato, 49, 123. 

emended, 156. 

Athenian people, justification 


Athens, famous for good bread, 156. 
Attraction, 135. 
Augment, doubtful, 61. 
Auletic, disliked by Plato, 119. 
Axiochus, the, interpolation in, 3. 
cited, 56. 




Babrius, cited, 101. 

Badham, Dr., cited, 19, 96, 106. 

Baiter, cited, 41. 

Barathrum, 153. 

Beast-taming, brought to perfection 

at Athens, 76. 
Beauty, definition of, 59. 
Bekker, cited, 170. 
Boeckh, cited, 141, 150. 
Butler, Bp., his system rather Platonic 

than Stoical, 129. 


Callicles, characterized, 113. 
a specimen of the 

KOS dvrjp, x. 

speech of, more applicable to 

Plato than Socrates, xvii. 

hedonism of, not that of 

Aristippus, xix. 

his v/3pty, 102. 

earnest in his warning to 

Socrates, 140. 

a man of rank, 143. 

an admirer of Rhetoricians, 


a despiser of Sophists, ib. 

Cannonus, psephism of, 152. 

Casaubon, cited, 123. 

Case, change of, 139. 

Change from direct to oblique, 142. 

Charadriadae, modern name of the 
plover tribe, 101. 

Charmides, cousin of Plato, xiv. 

the, crudeness of, 130. 

Christian ethics, likeness of to Pla- 
tonic, vii. 

Chrysostom, cited, 174. 

Cicero translates Gorgias, 49. 

de Officiis cited, 57. 

Cimon, 123, 148. 

his liberality, 125. 

ostracized, 151. 

Cinesias, ridiculed by Aristophanes, 

Classification, scientific value of, 117. 

Cobet, cited, 3, 23, 32, 96, 106, 152. 

controverted, 173. 

Comedies, women excluded from, 121. 

Construction, abbreviated, 95, 122. 

Constructions, blending of two, 72. 
with oTTcof, variety in, 


Cope, Mr., cited, iv, 24. 
Crete, classed by Plato with the 

Asiatic islands, 167. 
Criminals, bodies of, exposed, 153. 
Critias, uncle of Plato, xiv. 
Critias, the, cited, 170. 
Cynical paradox, refutation of in 

Philebus, 43. 


Danaids, fable of, moralized, 98. 
Datismus, 70. 
Definition, iv, 15. 
Democritus, cited, 102. 
Demus, son of Pyrilampes, 71. 

mentioned by Eupolis and 

Aristophanes, ib. 

a trierarch, Ol. 98, 72. 

Dialectic and rhetoric, contrast of, 8. 

Dichotomy, Socratic, 122, 154. 

Dionysius I., supposed allusion to, 

. a man of literary accom- 
plishments, ib. 

Disjunctive syllogism in Gorgias, 

Distributive justice, 133. 

Dobree, cited, 22, 67, 75. 

Donaldson, Dr., cited, 143. 

Drakenborch, cited, 138. 

Duplex quaestio, 40. 

Duties, theory of, slightly touched by 
Plato and Aristotle, 131. 


Ecclesiazusae, written by Aristophanes 
in ridicule of the Platonic Common- 
wealth, xx. 

Elenchus, Socratic, 109. 

Eleusinia, lesser and greater, ib. 

Ellipse of preposition, 151. 

Ellipse of Selv, 53. 

Elmsley, in Med., cited, 75. 

on Eur. Heracl. cited, 61. 

Empedocles, cited, 133. 

an Eclectic, 100. 

borrowed from Pytha- 

goreans, ib. 



Empedocles, semi-Pythagorean, sys- 
tem of, 133. 

Epicharmus, cited, 128. 

Epistles, Platonic, genuineness of, 
maintained by Grote and Cobet, 

Epistle in the Phaedrus, a genuine 
work of Lysias, iii. 

Epitaphius, the, of Gorgias, 176. 

Equality, simple and proportional, 

Ethics, Christian, likeness of to Pla- 
tonic, vii. 

Etymology, false, 98. 

Euclides, the host of Plato, xvi. 

Eucrates, brother of Nicias, 52. 

Euripides, Antiopa of, described, 80. 

Hippolytus of, cited, 170. 

Eusebius, cited, 166. 

Euxitheus, the Pythagorean, con- 
demned suicide, 97. 

" Exagitator omnium Rhetorum," 
said of Plato, viii. 


Fine arts, allowed in the Platonic 

state under certain conditions, 119. 

Future optative in obliqua oratio, 73. 


Galatians, St. Paul's Epistle to, cited, 

Genitive, use of, 146. 

Geographical divisions, according to 
Plato's contemporaries, 167. 

Good and pleasure, identified in Pro- 
tagoras, contrasted in Gorgias, 

Good, how far synonymous with use- 
ful in Gorgias, 57. 

standard of beauty in Plato, 58. 

not identical with pleasure, nor 

pain with evil, 110. 

Gorgias, his first visit to Athens, ii. 

his funeral oration, iii. 

ditto, characterized, 176. 

ethical dogma of, mentioned 

by Aristotle, handled in the Menon, 

treatment of, in dialogue, iv. 

his age, ib. 

omniscience of, 4. 

Gorgias, sicelisms of, 10. 

irony of, 109, 180. 

fragments of, 175. 

spurious speeches, 177. 

his Olympicus, 178. 


his Pythicus, ib. 

his (yKCHLLUtV flS 

his oration " in praise of 
Achilles," ib. 

written work of, on Ehetoric, 


that Pericles was his dis- 

ciple, a late fable, ib. 
-- metaphors of, 179. 
-- pleasantry of, 180. 

his fapidp.r)(Tis TO>V d 


ridiculed Sophists who pro- 
fessed to teach virtue, ib. 

ethics of, commended by 

Aristotle, ib. 

regards virtue as equivalent 

to efficiency, ib. 

three sayings of, 183. 

phrase of, adopted by Aris- 
tophanes, ib. 

his description of tragedy, 


- dictum of, explained, ib. 
longevity of, attributed by 

himself to his temperance, ib. 

last saying of, 184. 

and Tisias, their brachylogy, 


the, date of the dialogue, 

xvi, xix, 158. 

Gray, 48. 

date of, according to 

Lysis, 43. 

sation, 4. 

of later date than the 

scenes of the conver- 

aim of, ii, iii. 

an ethico-political 

dialogue, vii, ix. 
not a treatise on Rhe- 

toric, iv. 

marks an epoch in the 

growth of Platonic system and of 
moral science, viii. 

Order or Harmony, 

the germinal idea of, ib. 

analogy between it 

and the Republic, xii. 

identity of notions in 

Gorgias and Republic, x. 



Gorgias, the, an 'ATroXo-ywi nXa- 
TCOVOS, xvii. 

not anti-Cyrenaic, xix. 

tone of political de- 

spair in, xiv. 

undiscriminating se- 

verity of, xix. 

reasoning in, some- 
times unconvincing, 108. 

exaggerations in, 140. 

prophecy of Socrates' 

death in, xii. 

anachronisms in, 73, 


Gray cited, 13, 20, 21, 42, 49, 51, 52, 

70, 71, 72, 73. 
Grote, History of Greece, cited, 52, 

150, 151. 

ed, 56. 


Happiness, bodily and mental, 66. 
Harmony, the germinal idea of the 
Republic, viii. 

and of the Gorgias, ib. 

Hartung, Euripides Restitutus, re- 
ferred to, 84. 

Heindorf, cited, 165, 168. 

controverted, 173. 

Helenae Encomium of Isocrates, 177. 
Hendiadys, 7. 

Heraclides Ponticus quoted, 55. 
Heraclitus, anecdoton from, 56. 

cited, 96. 

explained, 97. 

Hermann, C. E., curious emendation 
by, 143. 

G., cited, 56. 

Hermogenes, cited, 175. 

Herodicus, the brother of Gorgias, 5. 

the Selymbrian, ib. 

Hesychius, cited, 72, 77, 113. 
Hippias, in Xenophon, 92. 

II., emendation of, 53. 

Hirsehig, cited, 14, 20, 29, 38, 53, 59, 

64, 85, 95, 106, 119, 120, 130, 134, 

141, 152. 

Homceoteleuton, 30. 
Hyperides pro Euxenippo, cited, 74. 
Lycoph., cited, 70. 


Indifferent things defined, 43. 

Induction, imperfect, 105. 

Infinitive epexegetic, 145. 

Interpolations in text, 112, 118. 

Interrogation, oblique for direct, in- 
stances of in Plato doubted, 164. 

Irony, Socratic, instances of, 56, 70. 

' Irrisio,' out of place, 140. 

Isocrates, 42. 

cited, 34, 38, 78, 81, 167. 

Kara T&V (ro^tcrratv, cited, 

Evag., cited, 53. 

Helenae Encomium of, 177. 

^ wrote speech Against So- 
phists early, 34. 

his insinuations against 

Plato and his school, 79, 131. 

hated philosophy, 81. 

acknowledges its educa- 

tional uses, ib. 
an apologist for " Univer- 

sity Studies," ib. 

follows the 

Gorgias, 160. 
Itacism, 80. 

traditions of 


Julius Pollux, cited, 156. 
Justice, according to Plato, a harmony 
or proportion, ix. 

in the Republic, equivalent to 

virtue in general, ib. 
defined by Callicles, 90. 


Laches, the, emended, 61. 
Laconism, attributed to Socrates by 
Aristophanes, 149. 

affected by the oligarchs, 


Lactantius, xvi. 
Laws, the, referred to, 46. 
Leake, cited, 21, 52, 109. 
Lobeck, cited, 102, 107, 156, 169. 

on Phrynichus cited, 50, 107. 

Aglaoph. cited, 109. 

Locke, cited, 42. 
Logistic, 12. 



Long Walls, the, 21. 
Lucan, cited, 144. 
Lycurgus, 133. 

Lysias, epistle in Phaedrus, a genuine 
work of, iii. 


Mango, Mangonizare, 38. 

Medical profession, liberal in Greece, 

Meineke, emendation of Gorgias by, 


Meles, ridiculed by comic poets, 119. 
Melitus, allusion to, 83, 162. 
Menexenus, the, anachronism in, 123. 
Meno, disciple of Gorgias, 181. 

the, referred to, 42. 

quoted, 181. 

Miltiades, 123, 148. 

crime imputed to, 152. 

saved by the Prytanis or 

Epistates, ib. 
Minos, 168. 
Mithaecus, a Syracusan, great in 

o\lsoTroua, 156. 
his the first cookery-book, 


MSS., authority of, set aside, 45. 
Mysians, the, regarded as the refuse 

of mankind, 162. 
Myths, the, in Gorgias and Republic 

compared, xii, 165. 
in Phaedo and Republic, later 

than that in Gorgias, 166. 
Mythical account of rewards and 

punishments after death, 165. 


Nausicydes, mentioned by Xenophon 
and Aiistophanes, 85. 

Negative constr. with a substantive, 
with and without article, 66. 

Neo-platonic trifling of Olympiodorus, 

Nicias, built a temple within the peri- 
bolus of Bacchus, 52. 

ditto, 51. 


Oaths, used by Socrates, motive of, 

Oaths, recommended in sixth Epistle, 


Odyssey, the, quoted, 172. 
Olympicus of Gorgias, 178. 
Olympiodorus, characterized, ii. 

cited, 9, 27, 28, 42, 47, 

56, 75, 82, 99, 100, 102, 104, 108, 
110, 114, 131, 133, 137, 167, 170, 

emended, 96. 

Neo-platonic trifling of, 


readings from, 4, 5, 19. 
Optative, for conjunctive, 31. 

after indicative present, 73. 

Oration of Gorgias " in praise of 
Achilles," 178. 

Order, the germinal idea of the Re- 
public, viii. 


Pain not identical with evil, 110. 
Paradoxes in Gorgias, 136, 137, 158. 
Participle, causal, 59. 

omission of, after Tvy^dvei, 

&c., 120. 
Participles, used adverbially, 22. 

concourse of, in Plato, 101. 

Peacocks, kept by Pyrilampes and his 

son Demus, 71. 

Perdiccas the Third, his reign, 49. 
Pericles, 123, 148. 
unjustly handled in Gorgias, 

unfairness of Plato's attacks 

on, 154, 155, 158. 

his eloquence spoken of in 

Protagoras and Phaedrus, xix. 

whether he improved the 

Athenian character, 148. 

his theoric allowances justi- 
fied, 125. 

accused of making the Athe- 
nians mercenary, 149. 

fine imposed on, 150. 

a vofj.o0erT]s, not a SUIKOVOS, 

Persuasion not the end of tragic 

poetry, 121. 
Phaedrus, the, cited, 70. 

epistle in, a genuine 

work of Lysias, iii. 

eloquence of Pericles 

spoken of in, xix. 
Phalerum, site of, 21. 



Philebus, the, characterized, ix, xviii. 

referred to, 43, 57, 102. 

passage referring to Antis- 

thenes, vi. 
theory of Pleasure and Good 

contained in, 105, 108. 

possibly written to meet ob- 

jections to reasoning in Gorgias, 

greater completeness of, 130. 

Philo, cited, 96. 
Philolaus, partition of the soul attri- 
buted to him, 97. 

condemned suicide, ib. 

Philomela, name of the swallow, Pro- 

cne that of the nightingale, in Greek 

authors, 180. 
Philostratus, cited, 38. 
Phrynichus, cited, 107. 
Physicians, public, 20. 
Pindar, fragment of, examined, 77. 
Plato, his feelings towards Athenian 

democracy, x. 
his early political experiences, 

his connexion with members of 

the Thirty, xiv. 
an Eupatrid, both by his 

father's and mother's side, xv. 

brought up an oligarch, 152. 

repeats party traditions, ib. 

his dislike of public life, xix. 

himself a rhetorician, viii. 

probably studied rhetoric with 

a view to public life, xv. 

his treatment of the Sophists, iii. 

depreciates the fine arts, vi. 

utilitarianism in, ib. 

how far utilitarian in Gorgias, 


his censure of Tragedy, 120. 

had a thorough perception of 

poetic excellence, ib. 

intention of his mythical narra- 

tions, 166. 

indebted to the Orphic poets, 


a borrower from Isocrates, 34. 

dramatic impartiality of, 78. 

ante-dates the opinions, etc., of 

his own time, xvii. 

- changes words in quotations, 82. 

substitutes Attic equivalents in 

quotations from poets, 128. 

provincialisms in, 10. 

tabular arrangements in, 35. 

anachronisms in, 48. 

Plato, epistles of, cited, 49. 

his original name Aristocles, 

takes refuge in Megara, xvi. 

his travels, fabulous extent and 

duration assigned to, by his bio- 
graphers, ib. 

his service in the army at 

Tanagra, Corinth, and Delium, ib. 

his ei^epeta in the choice of 

terms, 131. 

his attack on the Quatuorviri, 


Platonic Dialogues, on what princi- 
ples named, i. 

earlier and later, 

contrast between, ix. 

doctrine of tripartition of the 

soul, 97. 

Epistles, genuineness of, main- 

tained by Grote and Cobet, xii. 

Pleasure and Good, identified in the 
Protagoras, contrasted in the Gor- 
gias, xviii. 

Pleasure the final cause of lyric and 
dithyrambic poetry, and of Tragedy, 

Pleasures, impure, preceded and ac- 
companied by uneasiness, 100. 

Pleonasm of 8("iv, 142. 

in pronouns, 74. 

Plutarch, cited, 52, 68, 108, 166. 
Pluto, in the Laws, public honours to 

be paid to, 140. 

Poetry, a kind of popular oratory, 121. 
Politic, a tiepcnreia ^t^s, 1^4. 
Politicus, the, 36. 
Polus, character of, v. 

a Euphuist and coxcomb, vi. 

puns on his name, v, 35. 

banter of in Phaedrus, vi. 

fveneta of, ib. 

his Tfxvr), 6. 

ditto, a fragment of in dialogue, 

handled rhetoric aesthetically, 


Polygnotus, 5. 

Polyidus of Euripides, cited, 96. 
Person, cited, 31, 45, 66, 80, 106, 163. 
Prayer, Neo-platonic theory of, 131. 
Proclus, characterized, ii. 
Procne and Philomela transposed, 


Prodicus, apologue of, 3. 
Protagoras, discourse of, characterized, 



Protagoras, his tirifaigig, iii. 

paradox of, in Theaete- 

tus, 87. 
the, earlier than the Gor- 

eloquence of Pericles -spo- 
ken of in, xix. 

referred to, 42. 

a transitional dialogue, 

gias, xvin. 


cited, 170. 

Proverbs, 3, 56, 71, 78, 98, 108, 109, 
112, 114, 128, 137, 144, 147, 162. 

Provincialisms in Plato, 10. 

Public men succeeding Pericles, in- 
feriority of, 154. 

Punishment, remedial, according to 
Plato, 63, 66. 

treated by Plato as exem- 
plary or corrective, never as retri- 
butive, 127, 170. ^ 

' medicinal,' recognized 

by Aristotle, 136. 

"pro salute animae," a 

principle avowed by Plato, ib. 

regarded as 'satisfactory,' 

Purgatory, theological idea of, had its 

foundation in Plato, ib. 
Pyrilampes, Demus of, 144. 
Pythagoras, quoted by Cicero against 

suicide, 97. 

Theory of Virtue as an 
Order or Harmony, probably sug- 
gested by, x. 

first called the universe 
Kotr/xos, 133. 

Pythicus of Gorgias, 178. 


Quatuorviri, the, 122, 148. 
Quintilian, cited, 28, 134. 


Redundancy, justifiable, 135. 

Republic, the, date of, xx. 

Order or Harmony, the 

germinal idea of, viii. 
picture of ideal Just and 

Unjust Men in, xi. 

. cited, 58, 169, 172. 

emended, 58, 70. 

Rhadamanthys, 168. 

Rhetoric, false and true, in Phaedrus, 

the true, xviii. 

definition of, 15. 

ditto, in Phaedrus, ib. 

a spiritual cookery, 39. 

its uselessness, 68, 70. 

rational, scheme of in Phae- 

drus, 117. 

treated formally in Phae- 

drus, ethically in Gorgias, ib. 

true political, must follow 
the analogy of other arts, 124. 

true and false distinguished, 

Rhetorician, the true, must be just 
and acquainted with justice, xviii. 

Rhetoricians, early, effect of their writ- 
ings, 177. 

Routh, cited, 41, 71, 74, 112, 166. 


St. Paul, cited, 51. 
Sarabus, not Sarambus, 156. 
a Plataean, ib. 

Saving life, not the highest end, 143. 
Schema Pindaricum, when admissible 

in Attic, 116. 

Schleiermacher controverted, xix. 
Scolia, 13. 
Seneca, cited, 68. 
Sextus Empiricus, quoted, 8. 
Shakespeare, cited, 70, 98, 99. 
Shilleto, Mr., cited, 18. 
Sicelisms of Gorgias, 10. 
Simplicius, commentaries of, ii. 
Socrates, inventions of, iv. 
' paradoxes asserted by, vii. 

prophecy of his death in the 

Gorgias, xii, xix. 

his conduct as chairman of 

the assembly, 56. 

his utilitarianism, 57. 

his theory of the beautiful, 

73, 92. 

his passion for consistency, 

in what sense said 8ta^>$ei- 
pttv TOVS veovs, 85. 

prefers rhetoric to sophistic, 


effect produced by his cross- 
questioning, 164. 

his professed belief in the 

myths related by him, 165. 



Socrates, his devotion to his calling, 

of Xenophon, 57. 

his opinions, 79. 

Socratic elenchus, 86. 

Socratic Ethics, fundamental princi- 
ples of, 42. 

irony, instances of, 85. 

paradox, only seeming, 68, 


oaths, 30. 
temperament, 41. 
view of virtue, 28. 

Solecisms, 137, 144, 145, 170. 
Sophists, common taunt against, 158. 
Soul, penal incarceration of, held by 

Pythagoreans and Orphics, 97. 
State, the, and Individual, parallelism 

between, in the Eepublic, ix. 
Statecraft, the true, according to Plato, 


Statesmanship, final cause of, 158. 
Stobaeus, cited, 54. 
Stoical doctrine, resembling Platonic, 


exaggeration, ib. 

Subject, change of in sentence, 138. 
Suicide condemned by followers of 

Pythagoras, 97. 
Synesius, cited, 109. 


Tacitus, Annales of, cited, 169. 
Temperance, the right state of the 

soul, 130. 
Theaetetus, the, explained, 91. 

cited, 173. 

Thearion, 156. 
Themistocles, 123, 148. 
banished after being 

ostracised, 151. 
Theocrines, speech against, falsely 

attributed to Demosthenes, 52. 
Theodoret, cited, 166. 
Theoricon, the, 149. 
Thersites, 171. 

Thessalides, black arts of the, 144. 
Thucydides, cited, 149. 

Gorgiasm of, 10, 177. 

Tisander, 85. 

Topography of myths in Gorgias and 

Eepublic, 168. 


Tragic poets of the fourth more 
rhetorical than those of the fifth 
century B.C., 121. 

Tragic spectacles, no restriction in the 
admission to, ib. 

Triptolemus, 168. 


Uninitiated, the, wretched condition 

of, 98. 
Utilitarian and psychological view of 

Ethics reconciled, 123. 
Utility not the sole test of beauty 

according to Plato, 57. 


Van Heusde, cited, 73, 174. 
Vice, a disease or deformity, 63. 

the greatest of all evils, 64. 

Virtue, definition of, viii. 

Theory of as an Order or 

Harmony, probably suggested by 

Pythagoreans, x. 

Socratic view of, 28. 

a spontaneous, admitted by 

Plato, 130. 

consists in harmony, order, 

and proportion, ib. 
Virtue = efficiency , according to Gor- 
gias, 181. 


Woolsey, Prof., cited, 29, 30, 95. 
Wordsworth cited, 78. 
Mr. J., cited, 11. 

Xenophon, 56. 

cited, 46. 

Alcibiades II, by some attri- 

buted to, 49. 


Zeno of Citium, 49. 




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