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O- Q. \3^G 


I^ O E. "2" E -A. H ISSS. 



Bequeets to tlie MUsIocorr Society, 18. 

Tba WorM tor CJiri«r, il. 

KTaucellcal Alliance In Wuhln(ton, S3. 

Th« Hope ot PageuilBni, 43. 

WakmaLrT Dlotlonarr, ii, 436, 4M, S16. 

Placeof the I'uiled Swiea to Uie Converaloa of 

tbe World, 64. 
Catalogue ot Books oa the Countries, Peoples, 

and iilaetoiie o( the World, («. 
OompartaoQ of ProtesMnt ChrUllao Workers In 

the United Slates with those In tbe Foreign 

Field. 9i. 
Home for the Chlldrea uf Uts&lourtrles, 91, 
Black IlliU Mission, tM. 
Paul's Argument for the Ueathen, 117. 
What one dollar did, 127. 
Wurktog tor Missions, rM. 
A UeatbeD Womao'8 Friend, ISO. 
Baddhaanil HudJUIani, 182. 
Bow a MUclonnry yool^tf was Organized, 166. 
]lh»lons and Wuman's Work In t&em. 1S7, SOO. 
Tbe ResponttblUty Of Not Uolog, 175. 
One nr Wore Missionary Secretaries, 184. 

O'lr^ ■■— ' Rducatloual Problem, 227. 

Q' -lODS, a«9. 

A:: : of the Missionary Society, 231. 

Ut ii^.,^,^i ,.i,iacopm Church In the South, 233. 

A United Jdeihodlsm, S36 

Oeneral Conferecce .Action on Hlssloiu, ST5. 

Oar Missionary Secretaries, iTJ. 

The Mlatlonary Bishopric. f!7. 

Bishop Taylor's Self 9ui>portlDg Work, 881. 

Methodtst Deaoouessep, 2!i3, 3I7. 

Relomlng Money to ibo Dalles Claimants, 283. 
Mlsalonary Training Sctiool, 817. 
Baddba attd Ule Religion, 320. 
A Three^ jcar-old MltslODarr, 329. 
Ella's MLsalocsry Bank, 330. 
Bu» NeU I'OQtrlbuted to Missions, 331. 
Oeneral Conference /ctlon Kespectlug Church 

Ejii«n*lon Society, 93 j. 
General Cooference Ac ion Respecting Freed- 

men'a Aid Society, 833. 
Our Charch lo tbe South, 333. 
OtBc«rs and Committees ot ite Board ot Man- 
agers ot the Missionary Society, 334. 
Mlaaloos In Loultlana, 335 
Tbe World's Missionary Conference, >!T9. 
Tribute to Bishop Fliz<ierald, 382. 
R«*olutlbos on the Rum Trafflc with Africa, 388. 
The Spirit of Mlaelonsrles, 3S.1. 
Methodist Episcopal C'hurrh In Annlstoa, 888, 573. 
iDtemattcnal Mls^lonary Union, S8S. 
Htadents' Vacation Work for Missions, 384. 
Deads to Propeity In Bishop Taylor's Mlsalons, 

Mobammedaa Doctrine, 401. 

The Moslem seeking Commuolou with Ood, 407. 

Ouestlona and Answers on the Mos'ems, 414, 

OooTerbloos of Mohammedans, 425. 

The Good of Foreign Missions, 4-.!U. 

Final Saocess ol Christianity, tS2. 

MeUkOdlsm and Missions, IS4. 

Missionary Life for a Boy, 473. 

Praying and C>l«log, 474. 

mrtngof Christian Chinese In America, 476. 

Increasing the Collections, 478. 

Tbplos for Mlselooary Sermons, 479. 

The Purpose ot the Ages, 4M. 

Motlthly MUMlooary ^errlcea, 486. 

Mlaalonary Debt and Mlnelonary Potatoes, Sia 

Freedmen's Aid society, 51&. 

Mlaalonary Mice, &23. 

A Cheerful Giver to Missions, 623. 

A Mlsalonary Lesson Eaerclse, &S3. 

Annual Meeting ol the American Board, 38S. 

Oar Duty to Missions, 533. 

The Monthly Concert t f Prayer for Mlsstoos, 635, 

The Meaaage and our Responsibility, 68S. 

Receipts of the MethodUt Missionary Society, 

Mlnutea ot the Annual Meeting of the Oeneral 

Missionary Committee, 649. 
Our Mbalon Fields and Missionaries, 660. 


Dialogue on the Chinese, 10. 

Dlalogae on Ulrlog for Missions, 44. 

Dialogue on Mexico, W. 

Dlalflfae on India, 140. 

DUIogna CO Banna, 178. 

Dialogue on ttam, ItW. 

Offerings to tbe Genius of Christianity, 234. 

A Hasty Wish, 836, 

Dialogue on ibe Berbara, iS8. 

Dialogue on the Malaya, Vft. 

Dialogue on Madagascar. 258. 
Dlalogus on the Hawaiian Kingdom, 840. 
Dlalogae on the Pl]l Islands, 2C1 
Dialogue OD the Children otludla, 383. 
Dialogue on Singapore, SS3. 
Dialogue on Our Indian Cousins, 3M. 
Dialogue on Kores, 372. 
Dlal'gue on Perblau Children, 4:i. 
Dialogue on Persia, 418, 
Dialogue on Soutb America, 468, 
Dialogue on the Congo Free State, 469. 
Dialogue on Syria, 518. 
Dialogue on the ChUdren of Syria, 519. 


One Penny a Day. 48. 

Japat ese Babies. 126. 

Over the Oceop, I£B. 

MlBBlPiiory Kecltotton, 129. 

Take the World for Jeju», ail. 

A Cry lor LIgbr, 3.15. 

The Light Is Breaking, 235. 

Au Appeal to Christian Women, 240. 

Tbe Silver Sixpence, 240. 

fray. Work, Give, 280. 

Come to the Concert. 414. 

A here Is the Gold? 42U. 

Cbrtsi's Command and Promise, 468. 

Grandmother Gray to Grandmother Brown, 514. 


Mr. Ira David Sankey, 15. 
Mr. Dwiglit Lymau Moody. 16. 
Rev, G<orge Bowen of India. 185. 
Rev. 81a 8ck Dug of china, 2.%. 
Hpv. B. H. Badley, D.D of lD'ltB,2«4. 
.Vndrio^ tbe Christian Fakeer, 265. 
K«v. T&l .sio Sblh of China, 461. 
Yu Cbl, tbe Literary Graduate, 601. 

Nonb America and niaaiona. 

Mission Work In Alnaka, 616. 

^r■w xixioo. 

New Mexico and In Resonrcea, SO. 

New Mexico Three Hundred Vean Ago, 63. 

People ot New Mexloo, B6. 

A Saint Day Among the Pueblos, 57. 

Melbodtam In New Mexloo, 69L 

Missions Among the English-speaking People of 

New Mexico. (0. •• » v 

New .Mexico Spanish Methodist Mission, «i. 
Letter from New Mexloo, 95. 
RecoUrctloQS of Santa Fe, 181. 

The Mormon Delusion. 194. 

Five ludlctments Against Mormonlsm, 196, 

Mnrmou Theology 2l)0. 

Some Uoctrlues of Mormonlsm, 301. 

A Look at Morraoulsra in Salt Lake City, 808. 

Marriage Among tbe .Mcirmoax, 'JC>i. 

Uelbodlst .MlttaluuH AmuuK tbe Mormons, 905, 

The Presbyleriau Cburcbin Utah, 808. 

Priestly Rule in Diah, 987. 

Annual Meeting of the Utah HIsalOD, 431. 


Conversion ot an loijlan Girl, 129, 
Dialogue on Our liidian Cousin*, 324. 
Lake Mobouk Indlau Conference, 624. 


A Missionary Tour In Mexico, 76. 
Housekeeping In tbe City of Mexico, TV. 
Dialogue on Mexico 80. 
The Progress ot Mexico, 81. 
Mexloo M, E, t^ouferecoe, 186. 
Mexico M. S. South Coaferenoa, 188. 
General Assembly ot Missionaries In Mexico. 

South America and maalons. 

Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, s6, 484. 

Meitiodlst Mission in Argentina, eta, 109. 

Tbe South American Missionary Society, 129. 

The Bible Socli ty In South America, 120, 

Our Mission Workers In Somh America, 237. 

Emancipation In Broall, 284. 

Tbe South American Natlonf, 434. 

Bible Work lo Argentina, etc, 447. 

Tbe Pelican Procession In Chill, 447. 

Need for Mlssloaarles In South America, 448. 

Outlook for Missions in South America, +18. 

Report ot Rev. J. B. Nelson ot Brazil, 460. 
Dialogue on South America, 468. 
Missionary Exercise on Souih America, 473. 
Portecatlon In BraxiL 477. 

Europe and niaslona. 

Methodist Mission In Finland, 187, 207. 
Methodist Mission In Denmark, 9-97, 467. 

People and Religion of Russia. 890. 

A Russian Wedding, 894. 

Sects In Russia. 296. 

Joeepb Rabinowlix ot Russia, 89B. 

Easter la Ruaeta, 899. 

A Russian Monastery and Clergy, tKNL 

Distribution ot the Bible In Russia, 801. 

Worship ol the Jews In Russia. 839. 


Is the Bulgarian MIi'.<«Iud a Failure? 28. 
Methodist Mlsslotk lu Bulearin. 187, 608. 
Le<:turoa In :>l.><tol, Bulgaria, 2)t7. 
PruHi'blog the Gospol !u Tlruova, 963. 
I.n; liiK a Corner-*toue at SUtof, 376. 
colpi'i'teurB' Work In Bulgaria, 504. 


Dedication at Peragta, Italy, 75. 
Milan Dlsti let ol Italy Conference, 883. 
Vfsllgla of SL Paul lu Italy, 271. 
Pei.l.lif Rii.l Kellgloii of Italy, 308. 
Tbn ItKliaii (iovornnn-ut and the Vatican, 808. 
A KellKlous HpfnrmRtloa lu Italy, 309. 
Protestantism In Italy, 310. 
Arrest of a Protoatont In Italy, 431. 
I'he Methodist Episcopal Church lu Italy, 811. 
Position of Women In Italy, 313. 
A .Methodist Sunday School Beuevolent Society In 
Italy, 330. 


Switaorlond and Its People, 2. 

Thi< SwlHs Nation, 4. 

Beside a Swiuerland Lake, A. 

Religious Liberty lu Swlizerland, 8. 

Religious Life In Switzerland, 9. 

Swltxerlond Methodist Conference, 10. 

Asia and nisaions. 

Dialogue on Slam, 180. 

A Trip Tbruugh tbe .Malay Poulusiila, m. 


Population ot Polesiiiie and Syria, 183. 

A Picture of Belru', 182. 

The .Martyr of Lebanon, 484. 

Progress lu Syria, 487. 

Jews now lo Palestine, 189. 

A Day In Joppa, 491. 

Protectant .Mlseious In Syria and Palestine, 498i 

la mid .Around ihe Uoly City, 511. 

A Syrian Baptism, 513. 

Dialogue on .Syria, 618. 

Dialogue oa Tbe ChUdren of Syria, 519. 

Letter from a Burmese Boy, 134. 
Burma and Itii Noods, UA. 
rutervleva wlib Burmese Royalty, 149. 
Dr. Judson and tbe Burmese Boy. 158. 
MeiLmllst Church lu Haogoou, 164. 
Protestant MLbbIdus In Burma, 157, 
Upper Burma as a MIsslou Field. 159. 
Vi urk Among Kngllsh Sjieaklng People In Burma 

and India, 164. 
Munlc .\inuug the Burmese, 177. 
DlBlogui) ou Burma, 178. 
A Burmou Village, 179. 
Marriage CuHloins of the Karens, 180. 
The First Karon Olsolple, Isn. 
Priests .\mong the Shaiut, 180. 
Tbe S. P. U. Mission In Mandoloy, 192, 

Touring In Persia, 17, 7a 
Country and People of Persia, 388, 
Life Among the Persians, 388. 
Tbe Parses Child and the Astrologsr, 804. 
A Persian Legend, S96. 
Protestant Missions In Persia, 896, 
Dialogue on the Children of Persia, 411. 
Dialogue on Persia, 412. 
Supplying Koords with tbe Goapel,478. 
Commencement and Progross of RvaogaU«aJl 
.Missions In Persia, 648. 

Index of Gospel in All Lands for 1888. 



Tba Turklab Eiupirn, 3vr. 

Babies Id Turkey, 399. 

The Womeu of Turkor, 899. 

The Baiar at Stamboul, 40S. 

Foiuiaiug of Rotwn College, 401. 

The American Board in Turkey, 406, 

Tlalo^ue on Turkey, 400. 

Dialogue ou Turkish CbUareu, 411. 

Darkliih Oo^ernmeot tod Armeu^uu, <?& 


Tbe People of Korea, 135. 
The Korean M. E. MUaion. 1-tS. 
ProteslaDt Progress lu Korea, 803, S87. 
CuBtoma lu Korea, 3M. 
The Gods of Korea, 3814. 
Korea aod Its Needs, 370. 
Proieslant MlesloDorlee lu Korea, 371. 
Dialogue on Korea, UTi. 
North Korea District, 47(1. 

A Japanese Mother Savlug ber Sou, 48. 

Letter from FIIroi«aki,9S. 

iDiago Wnmhlp la Japan, Ijfl. 

The .^Inos of Japan, 187. 

A Japanese Boy at Breakfaat, 1$T, 

A Great Question for Method Um In Japan, 174. 

Methodist Misaion in SeuUal. ItU. 

Reacilooary MoTameDt lu jApau, 180. 

MetboiJiDt Union in Japan, Hi. 

At Work In Japan, l!07. 

A Letter from Norlhern Japan, 273. 

Organising tbe Methodist Church of JapAD, 8S. 

Game of Prorerbs In Japan. 3gO. 

The Japanese ReTolutloa, 88& 

New Japan, 840. 

Sducatlon lu Japan, 341. 

Reforms in Japan, 34S. 

A Romanoe lu Japan, 315. 

The Qospel Story In ./aoan, 318. 

The ^tory of Sakunia, i4U. 

ItlnerntluK lo tbe Uokkaldo, 3iM>. 

Among the Mountains la Japan, 361, 433. 

A Trip to liakodale In Winter, aul 

Six ilunilred .MUfs lu Nmilierii Japan, 858L 

Voihod'st Episcopal MIm-iIoii In Jnpnii, 361. 

Slatlsucs of Pro ohiiui .MWkIoiih Iu Japan, 862. 

Nsmo» of Protoatant Ml9.-ionarloi» In ilapau, 303. 

Some Ja|>an»si(3 Provitrtts*, 'ii>.'. 

Autouoiii}' for Jaiiau .Mo h<j<llsin, ii\ 647, 

Aoiuorl Dtsii-ict Con fort nee, 430. 

A ollnip«o of KlU!tbiu, Jai>&u, 450, 

Au Idol l(i'jei-i»i lu .lapau, 4*1. 

MIsn'oii Notes from Japan, 4TT. 

IIlMtorloul Sketi-h of Japan, MIL 

The MIkHko and the Monkey, SOS, 

Kew Japan and Kducallou, 539. 

A Plea tor Japan, MS. 

Industrial Department of Cobleigh Semiuorr, 30. 

Boys and UlrUt In China, .%. 

WorHlilp of CoDfucluii In China. 31. 

From Shai glial Into Wosteru China, 3.S. 

BludrancoH lo MIbsIou Work In China, 37. 

Chinese Proclamailou ol l oleratiou, 38. 

Central China Metho<ll<9i .\n«slon, 99, 43, 14a 

Sammary of Mtseloiis lu China, 39. 

Dialogue on Tbe Chinese, 40. 

Korth China Methodist Mlselon, 42. 

West CblOR Methodist Mlssloo. 4S, 198,373. 

Poochow Metbodlst Miselou, 13, 96, 118, 184. 

A Mlinlouary Tour In Western China, 78. 

Ploo<l and Drought In China, 9}. 

Fersecutlun in Cblua, IW. 

The Kitchen (iod of China, 123. 

A Uueer Hide in China, 124. 

Babies in China, IM. 

Wahu, China, and ItH Mission, 141. 

Bok Chiang UUtrlct Couforonce, 170 
, A Trip to Wuchau, ITS. 
[ Katlve Prea.'hers lu Fcochow Inglltulo, 190. 

Imponauoeof Native Chinese Ministry, IBl. 

StatUilcs of Pi-Qteslaut Mlaelooe In China, 191. 

Power of Christianity In China, 937, 

Beponfrom Tleaislu, China, WT. 

PhllaiiaeriSniilb EIoHplial at Nanking, 31S. 

Dow .Moi KoHans Pray, 319. 

Wiley Iu» Itute at Peking, 335. 

Little Gsle of China, 3i6. 

TKuislii and Itt I'rotostant Missions, 874. 

Report of n. Naiire ChtnoEe Presiding Elder, 416. 

Outlorik on tbe Kipo<:bow I'Istrlel, 480. 

Narlau, tbe Pebble (i.Hl,4Ti 

Origin of a Chinese Klver, 472. 
, A MIdLlgbt Quarterly Conference lu China, 47B. 

Trial Before a Wooden Judge, ,V)3 
^ The Chinese Ood of Wealth, 513. 


' Work suiong Seamen lu Calcutta, 47. 
CouTerslODS la Blacktown, Madras, 47. 
Village i^obools in South India, 188. 
Aborigines of the Cooiral PrOTlnoes, 131. 
Gaucab, ibe Illudu Ood of Ilo«ts, ISi. 
Little Kalu and her .Mother, 131. 
Ibe Sacred Muukoya of India, 13S, 
Tloma of India. 134. 

Methodist Episcopal Church In India, 134. 

Ajmere District. India, 13& 

Bengal M. E. Conference, 138. 

North India .Vt. K. Conference, 139. 

Dialogue ou India, 140. 

Nalnl Tal. India, lOa 

Dbtrict Conference and Mela, 169. 

India Theological Seminary, 18S. 

Ill isBlonarles In Luoknow, 1S8. 

South India Methodist Coafereoce, 188. 

The Kooloo Valley. atS. 

The Hindu widow, 888. 

Tao leading Native Hulers of India, 889. 

Metbiyllrit Mlulon Work In Ibdla, 8311 

The Oudb Camp-nieeUng and Cocttereiice, S8& 

VldUlug tbe Zenana) of India, S39. 

A Recent Baptism In India, 8S5. 

Tbe Gospel lo a Palace, 86S. 

Bible Woman's Work in Bombay, SIS. 

" nappy Land ' )u India, 380. 

Dialogue on The Children o( India, 388. 

Prom Das, a eoDTeried priest of Indi*, Sff, 

Tbe Word of God In India, 388. 

A Little Blodu Christian, 389. 

Methodist Church at Mbow, 415. 

New Openings lu India, 430. 

A llludu Convert at Hyderabad, 439. 

Country and People of Nepaul, 45-V 

MlK9louary Experience lu DotI, Nepaul, 4H. 

The City of Lucknow, 800. 

The Klugdoin Coni'ng lu India, SOT. 

The Story of SIddappas' Baptism, SSO. 

The WI»o Physician Ifl India, Ml. 

A CurlouH Quertloii In India, 531. 

Couvervion of OM Kouga of India, 591. 

Re<iae»t of ihe Kiuauce Committee of the BoDgol 

Conference, 52rt. 
New MieSlOD VVork In Jubbolpur, BSA. 
Curing a Cattle Plsgue In India, 587. 
Jesus Wor-hlppod In the House of Devi, S88. 
NoGIrlbood In India, !M. 
Tbe Oanfali Festival, 517. 

Africa and maalona, 

Cou:itry and People of Abyfslnlo, 11. 
Tlilingi from Dcudo, 46. 
Malaiige .Vfrlcat Mlaslon. 47, 8.^. 
Bishop Taylor's Congo Conference, 144. 
Kabyle Mission lu Morcco and Tuul«, 198. 
Buropeau GoTommeut and Control In Africa, 

Proiesiaat Missions In Africa. 313. 
Bishop Taylor's Mlwlors lu Angola, 810. 
Alrica IbeUpen 8oro of iba World, 818. 
MIsMoDOry Support In Angola, 81U. 
Dialogue on Africa, 2d0. 
Baptizing Coptic Babies, iJl. 
Nortb .Vfrlca and Its Proteaiaut Missions, S48. 
Egypt .MiNHlon of tb? United Preebyterlona, 844. 
Tbe Cliy of .\lexandria, 344. 
A Coptic Funeral lo Efypt, 840. 
Among tbe Moors of Morocco, 319. 
Ulalogao on The Berbers, 858. 
Mr. Baldwin's Wort lo .Morocco, 314. 
Ptay an<l Playtbiogi ol African Boya, SU. 
The Jews of .Morocco, 488. 
Dialogue ou Tho Co ugo Free State, 409. 
Good News from Africa, 470. 
Rev. F. s. Amot lu Central Africa, 530. 

The lalanda and RlUatona, 

Dialogue ou Madagoecar, 898. 

The Gospel In FIJI, 18S. 

Tbe Fill Islands, 8Se, 961. 

Gowl Sign* In Fl]i, 478. 

The Bible and the New Zeolanders, S87. 

The Wonderful Story of New Zealand, 500. 

New Guinea and Its People, 377. 

Singapore, Slraili Settlementa, 856. 

Dialogue ou Singapore, nan. 

Methodist .Mltslon In Singapore, 479, ML 

The MaurltEui-, 85a 

Dialogue on Hawaii, 860. 

MhiHlon to tbe Japanese la Hawaii. 463. 

The GoHpel In the Loochoo Island', 47o, 

The New ilebrtdee, 461. 

Norfolk Islacd, 509 


A Swies Herdsman, 1, 

Entrance to tbe Church of Guin, SwltMrlaud, t. 

City of Berne, HwllEerlond, 5. 

City of Zurlcb. Switzerland, 6, 

City of Banel, Switzerland, 7. 

City of SL i;alleii, Switzerland, 7. 

A Sceue In Switzerland, 11. 

Mr. Ira D. Sankey, 16. 

Mr. Dwight L. Moody, 16. 

GtrlB In China. 31. 

Temple of Confucius, 38. 

Indian luduAtrlal School at Albuquerque, 49. 

Oapllol Building hi Hauia Fe, 51. 

A Sctue In Mosllla Valley, New Mexico, S5. 

ludlauB of Now .Mexico, 56, 57. 

Interior of a ZunI House, 58. 

Art Parlors In .Mbuquerque, 59. 

Diagram Showing Distribution cf Protestanl 

Christian Workers, 93. 
Diagram Sbowlug Wealth of Protestant Church 

Members lu Vulted Slates, 93. 
Natives of Paraguay, 37. 

Tr. Celman, President of the Argentine Repub- 
lic, 96. 

Pier at Buenos Ayres, 101. 

A Pacsgonlan Eucampment, 108. 

Monkeys of India, 131 

Rev. George Bowen of India, I.')s. 

A Burman Cart, 145. 

Karen Women of Burma, 145. 

A Burmese Girl, 146. 

Burmece Nobleman, 1 18. 

A Buddhist Garden, 151. 

A Burmese Monaaiery, 135. 

A Burmese Dinner, 155. 

City of Calcutta, 165. 

City of Maudalny, 105. 

Bobo Canyon, Utah, 193. 

Hand Car ou Railroad approaching Salt Lakol 
City, 195. 1 

Gate at Entrance of a Mormon School in Baltl 
Lake City. f 

B >use where Brlgham Toung reelded at Skit: 
Lake City. 197. 

Tbe Narrows, Utab, 199. 

Sign of a Mormon Store, '4D3. 

Travelling In Congo Land, 811. 

Mlaslonary Steamer "Ueury Reed" on the Upper J 
Congo, ill. 

Fceues lu Central Africa, 813. 

Hangwa, King of Vgaiida,SlB. 

An African Chief Dancing, 8I&. 

Scenes lu Kooloo, India, eit. 

The Nawab of Bhawalpur, 888. 

The Nizam of Hyderabad, 388. 

ScsuM On aud Near tbe Nile, 841. 

Bedouins of Egypt, 345. 

Scene* in Alexandria. Egypt, 'J47, 

City of Coiro, Egypt, 218. 

Scenes lu the FIJI Islands, 855. 

Rev. Dr. Badley of India, flS4. 

AndrloB of India, ^!A5. 

A Tckutchia of Siberia, Wit. 

Scenes In Rneala, 391. 

Toung People of tbe Ural Mouutalai. SM 

Nevakl Proeplkt In St. Poter»burK, UB. 

Ladles of Southern Rusiila, 895. 

Bisbop of tbe Russian Church, 897. 

Priests of the Russian Cburcb, Wt, 
Joeepb Rabiaowlixof Russia, 809. 
Eeenee In Western Siberia, 30U. 

Church of the Saviour, Moscow, 301. 

Tbe Kremlin In Moscow, 301. 

Natives of Lapland, 3(B. 

Scenes lu Italy, 307. 

Baptistery, Calbedrol aud Leaning Tower of 

Hand Praying Wheel, 31-2. 
Water Prailng Wheel, 319. 
A Old of India, 381. 

Pareee Cblldreo, 38'. 
Sacred Cattle of India, 381. 
A Japaneoe Woman Preparing a Meal, 337. 
A Japanese Tea Party, mM. 
A Japanese Priest Beating a Temple Drum, 848. 
A Japaaese Woman Playing a Koto, 348. 
A Japanese Poeieos, M8. 
Japanese Cbtldreo, 348. 
Crossing a River In Japan, S44 
A Japan oae Doctor, 344. 
A Famous Bridge In Tokyo, 347. 
Mr. Appenzeller's School at Seoul, 887. 
Pagoda la Palace Grounds lu Seoul, 887. 
Mausoleum of Imam All Kezaat Mesbed, Persia. 
885. ^ 

Eldest Sou of Shah of Persia. 3H7. 
Heir-Apparent of the Sbob oi Persia, 387 
Scenes in Persia, StiS. 
Mohammed, 895, 
Ccurt of a Turkish Bouse, 399. 
In a Turkish Barem, 400. 
Turkish Porters in Constantinople, 403. 
Robert College at Constantinople and Its Founder, 

Natives of Paraguay, 433. 

Kmperor of Brazil, 495. 

Hmpreesof Dracll. 486. 

Scenes (n chill, 488. 

Indians of the L'pp»r Orinoco, 440. 

Guajeuro Woman of South America, 441 

Traveling In IJollvar, lis. 

Zumaie ludlaus of tbe Upper Orinoco, 410. 

Joeepb Habluowltch near Jerusalem, 481 

City of Hebron, 4t3. 

City of Beirut, 488 

River Jordan, 485, 

Mouut Lebanon, 485. 

Naz.areth, 488. 

Jeruealem aud Vicinity, 490. 

Sea of Galilee, 498. 

Blahop Gubat, 49:1. 

Jew Phylacteries, 498. 

Child Life lu Cblca, 512. 

A Native Chief of New Zealand, 589. 

Natives of New Zealand aud FIJI, 531. 

Methodist Mission Buildings at Singapore, M3. 

Gammon School of Theology at Atlanta, SOg. 

Map of New Mexico, «o. 
Map cf South America, 100. 
Map of I'lab, 808. 
Map of Egypt, 842. 
Map of North- West Africa, 843. 
Map of South America, 4B1. 

Eugene R. Smith, 


JANUARY, 1888, 

N*w York City. 





Switzerland and Its People. 

The first iahabitants of Switzerland, are supposed to 
have been of Celtic origin and named Helvetians. They 
came from the northeast and settled in Switzerland 
about loo years before the birth of Christ. For several 
centuries Swizerland remained a Roman province. In 
the 5th century the Burgurdians, Alemanni, and Goths 
divided the country among themselves. In the 6th 
century it was brought into subjection to the Franks, 
and Christianity was introduced, and ere long, became 
the religion of the whole country. A part of the coun- 
try came afterward under the control of the Germans. 

The independence of the country came from three 
cantons the inhabitants of which are believed to have 
descended from emigrants from Sweden. These can- 
tons named Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden united on 
January i, 1308, in a Swiss Confederation. The Con- 
federation in 1353 numbered 8 cantons, and in 1513 
numbered 13 cantons. In 1798 was formed the Helvetic 
Republic with 18 cantons, which lasted but four years. 

In 1803 a new Confederation was formed composed 
of 19 cantons which was increased to 22 cantons in 
1815, and these are the number now forming the Re- 
public of Switzerland. Three of the cantons are polit- 
ically divided. 

In 1850 Switzerland had an area of 15,747 square 
miles, and a population of 2,392,740, The last census, 
taken Dec. i, t88o reported a population of 2,846,102 
and an area of 15,892 square miles. 

Switzerland is remarkable for its magnificent and 
picturesque scenery. It is covered throughout its 
whole extent by the Alps which rise to an elevation in 
some places of 15,000 feet above the level of the sea, 
and covered with perpetual ice and snow. The glaciers 
of the mountains are the reservoirs which feed some of 
the largest rivers of western Europe. 

The Rhine and the Rhone rise in Switzerland. The 
Ticino flows through the canton of the same name into 
Italy. The lakes are beautiful and most of them are 
traversed by steamboats. The most important lakes are 
those named Geneva, Constance, Neufchatel, Bienne, 
Lucerae, Zurich, Zug, Sarnen, Lugano, and Lago 

The minufacture of watches is an important industry 
and they constitute an important article of export. 
Cotton goods and cheese are also exported in large 

" The population of the republic is formed by four 
ethnical elements distinct by their language, as Ger- 
mans, French, Italian, and Roumansch, but the first con- 
stituting the great majority. 

" The German language is spoken by the majority of 
inhabitants in fifteen cantons, the French in five, the 
Italian in one, and the Roumansch in one. It was re- 
ported in the census returns of 1880, that 2,030,792 

spoke German, 608,007 French, 161,923 Italian, and 
38,705 Roumansch. The number of foreigners resident 
in Switzerland at the dale of the census was 211,035, 
of whom 95,262 were German, 53,653 French, 41,645 
Italians, 12,735 Austrian, 2,812 British, 1,285 Russian." 

"Of the total population in 1880, 1,138,678 were de- 
pendent on agriculture and dairy farming; 971,052 on 
manufacturing industry; 206,003 °" commerce; 112, 
440 on transport ; 42,879 on the public service; 56,055 
on their incomes or pensions ; 86,837 "'' alimentation ; 
30,616 on service; 24,926 without calling; the remainder 
on mining, silk culture, the chase, professions, etc. The 
soil of the country is very equally divided among the 
population, it being estimated that there are nearly 
300,000 peasant proprietors, representing a populatioti 
of about 2,000,000." 

The population dwell chiefly in small towns, hamlets, 
and villages. The principal towns in 1880 reported the 
population as follows : Geneva, 68,320; Berne, 44,087 ; 
Lausanne, 30,179; Zurich, 25,102; Chaux-de-Fonds, 
22,456 ; St. Gallen, 21,438 ; Luzerne, 17,850 ; Neuchatel, 

About 59 per cent, of the population are Protestants, 
and about 4 1 per cent, are Roman Catholics, According 
to the census of 1880 the number of Protestants 
amounted to 1,667,109 ; Roman Catholics, 1,160,782 ; 
Jews, 7,373, 

The government of the Protestant Church is Cal- 
vinistic in doctrine and Presbyterian in form, and is 
under the supervision of the magistrates of the various 
cantons, to whom is also entrusted, in the Protestant 
districts, the superintendance of public instruction. 

The Constitution of 1874 provides : " There shall be 
complete and absolute liberty of conscience and of 
creed. No one can incur any penalties whatsoever on 
account of his religious opinions. No one is bound to 
pay taxes specially appropriated to defraying the expenses 
of a creed to which he does not belong. The free ex- 
ercise of worship is guaranteed within the limits com- 
patible with public order and proper behavior. The 
order of Jesuits and its affiliated societies cannot be re- 
ceived in any part of Switzerland ; all functions clerical 
and scholastic are forbidden to its members, and the 
interdiction can be extended to any other religious 
orders whose action is dangerous to the State, or inter- 
feres with the peace of different creeds. The founda- 
tion of new convents or religious orders is forbidden," 

There are four universities in Switzerland, situated at 
Basel, Berne, Zurich, and Geneva. There is a Poly- 
technic School at Zurich and a military academy at Thun, 
both maintained by the Federal Government. There 
are academies, high schools and primary schools. 
Education is compulsorj- and is very widely diffused, 

The supreme legislative and executive authority are 
vested in a parliament of two chambers, a " Standerath," 
or State Council, and a " National rath," or National 

The State Council is composed of 44 members, 


chosen by the 22 cantons of the Confederation, two for 
each canton. The National Council consists of 145 
representatives chosen by the people at the rate of one 
deputy for every 20,000 persons. Both chambers 
united are called the " Bundes-Versammlung," or Fed- 
eral Assembly. The chief executive authority is de- 
puted to a " Bundesrath" or Federal Council, consist- 
ing of seven members, elected for three years by the 
Federal Assembly. 

The president and vice-president of the Federal 
Council are the first magistrates of the republic. Both 
are elected by the Federal Assembly for the term of one 
year, and are not re-eligible till after the expiration of 
another year. The President for 1887 was Numa Droz, 
and the Vice-President for 1887 was W. F. Hertenstein. 

There is also a Federal Tribunal consisting of nine 
members, elected for six years by the Federal Assembly. 
It decides on all matters of dispute between the various 
cantons of the republic, as well as between the cantons 
and the Federal Government, and acts in general as 
high Court of Appeal. 

The cantons are sovereign so far as their indepen- 
dence and legislative powers are not restricted by the 
Federal Constitution ; each having its local government 
based on the principle of the absolute sovereignty of 
the people. A general election of representatives to 
the Nitional Council takes place every three years. 
Evary citizen of the republic who has attained the age 
of twenty years is entitled to a vote, and any voter, 
not a clergyman, may be elected a deputy. The Con- 
stitution of 1874 abolished the penalty of death, but 
by a popular vote taken in May, 1879 it was decided, 
by a majority of 195,000, against 180,000, that each 
canton should have liberty to re-enact the infliction 

of the penalty, and Lucerne and Uri have 
Rev. Dr. D. H. Wheeler writes as follows : 
" Like the Dutch, the Swiss have made their land. 
One people have rescued it from the bottom of the sea; 
the other has built it on the mountains. It is difficult 
to tell which process has been most laborious. Both 
people show the courage and hardihood of their tasks* 
The valleys of Switzerland are deep and narrow. Few 
realize how deep they are, how far down towards sea 
level the waters cut in their first dash from the moun- _ 
tain sides. The fat plains made by the streams are in ■ 
other countries — in France, Germany and Italy. Here 
the mountains reign, and the hardy Switzer deals with 
them. There are bits of valley where old lakes have 
been, but even these, are like the lakes which remain, 
narrow and steep sided. At best, the Swiss farmer haa 
a disproportion of hillside to deal with. It is probable 
that they have a land at all solely because they were 
from the first Quixotic in their instincts or their intelli- 
gence, or both. They kept the forests to guard what fl 
they won, and customs of caution settled into law, so 
that now no man can cut a tree except under legal 
restraints. He must cut his land clean and replant it in 
a term of years, so that the early processes are always 
going on. An acre or less or more is cleared of trees, 
every twig being utilized for fuel, and then the land is 
cropped and trees planted again in two or three years ; 
so the steepest crags arc kept under a green veil of 
foliage, and the harshness of the average mountain 
landscape is never felt below the timber line which rises 
above the general average of the hills, so that the coun- ■ 
try looks like one vast park. Even in the valleys the tree 
breaks the hardness of the continuous field views, for 
fruits and vines diversify the scene." 



The Swiss Natton. 


Switzerland is a curiosity among nations. Its exist- 
ence in a unity nearly perfect politically sets at defiance 
most of our modern theories on the subject of national 
union. It has no unity of language ; there are four 
tongues in its Parliament. It is not united in religion ; 
the people are both Catholic and Protestant, and the 
ardent controversies of former times have, if not fires, 
at least live ashes still burning. They are not of one 
race ; three great races are represented. And the Italian- 
Swiss is an Italian, the French-Swiss is a Frenchman, 
and the German is a German, in all except those feelings 
and mental trails which go to make up that mysterious 
human modification which we call national character. 
This character is found alike in Italian, Frenchman, and 
German, and alike also in Catholic and Protestant. 

The first impression is that the union is loose and in- 
efficient, because the central Government has so little 
power. But the real union is in national features of 
mind and sympathy, and it is a very strong union — prob- 
ably there is no stronger one in the world. The existence 
of the nation is not forced upon them by any geographi- 
cal lines. The Alps do not unite, they divide them. The 
Italian-Swiss must cross the Alps to reach his capital 
city of Berne ; lower ranges shut off the German of 
Zurich and the Frenchman of Geneva, while the Swiss 
of the Grisons must traverse other parts of the Alps to 
reach Berne. Geographically no other nation is united 
against so many natural obstacles to union. It would be 
easy to distribute the people by race, by language, and 
by geography among the three great bordering nations, 
each of which could capture the greater part of its slice 
without other difficulties those made by the barriers 
of Swiss patriotism. 

The existence of such a nation with an integrity so 
perfect shows better than any other modern example 
that nations grow and are not made. The Swiss Repub- 
lic is a historical growth ; a long union, in fact, has been 
developed into a solid union in feeling. They are one 
nation, because time has cemented them together and 
created invisible and intangible ties which are stronger 
than language, race, religion, or geography. The fact 
is simple enough, though it is a curiosity. Contrast it 
with the Irish relation to England. In Ireland English 
influence has wiped out the language and the institutions 
without making, after centuries of trial, a union of 
thought and feeling. Force has not accomplished in 
Ireland what a voluntary union, originally artificial and 
almost accidentally produced by external pressure, has 
developed and consolidated into a national character in 
which the different sections are "distinct like the billows, 
yet one like the sea." 

It is well known that the central Government has been 
making gains of power for some years. The universal 
movement toward centralization has been checked and 
modified in Switzerland ; but it has not been arrested. 

Still its progress has been slow, and will require more 
time than elsewhere to reach its normal development. 
A weak Government in a small State will prevail but 
slowly over the natural antagonism of local feeling and 
politics. But if centralization does not become odious 
elsewhere, it will gain its reasonable bounds in Switzer- 
land. It is only a case in which more time is re- 

Mankind are generally agreed that the worst Govern- 
ment is that by your next-door neighbor. In that Gov- 
ernment all the prejudice and passions and animosities 
of social life and competition play at full tide, and reduce 
the rational element to a zero. It was the vice of .Athe- 
nian democracy and of mediaeval Italian aristocracy and 
democracy combined. It is the vice of our American 
city governments, and in a less measure of our State 
governments. If the judge in a nation of one thousand 
souls is your enemy, you cannot get justice. If in a vil- 
lage your enemy could, by a cabal, capture all j'our 
rights, you would soon have none. The possible appeal 
to a disinterested power over us all makes local self- 
government valuable. It becomes a hateful despotism 
wherever it has no superior and imperial authority to 
check it. 

It is the most disagreeable of the forecasts for home 
rule in Ireland that the Protestants may have no rights 
when "the nation gets its rights." It is this feature of 
the case which our people seem slow to grasp, and it ex- 
plains the attitude of men like John Bright toward Mr. 
Gladstone's imperfectly defined home rule. Their fear 
is that home rule may mean the power of the majority to 
extinguish the minority. Our Constitution was made by 
men who believe in State rights as none of us now believe 
in them ; but they took care to say with emphasis what 
States would not do Mr. Gladstone has so far failed 
to imitate the framers of our Constitution in this re- 

In Switzerland I find, through means of study which 
are peculiarly excellent, that local government has all 
the faults which might have been anticipated, and the 
wiser and broader-minded are seeking to escape from 
its worse evils by means of an extension of Federal au- 
thority. The movement will gain strength as it proves 
the wholesomeness of its aims by small trials. But it is 
a nation of peasants and hotel-keepers; that is to say, a 
nation of small men, and every small man on whom the 
present system has conferred any favor naturally clings 
to it. There is no conservatism in the world outside 
quite as conservative as the Swiss brand. What exists 
is right, not merely because it exists, but because "me 
and my wife and my son John" get some good out of it, 
or think we do, or will. And the magnates of the vil- 
lage who manage a Swiss State (Banton) are likely to 
lose wherever Federalism prevails over localism. 

The centralizing movement has, as is generally known, 
adopted a peculiar device which, with some modifica- 
tions, seems capable of great usefulness in modern democ- 
racies. I refer to the submission of laws to popular vote. 


It is not uncommon in our country to demand and obtain 
a popular vote, in a State, on the principle of some measure. 
But this is with us a matter of local Government, whereas 
in Switzerland it is the National Legislature which submits 
its work to popular approval or rejection. And it is the 
finished law, not its principle, which is voted upon. It is 
as though the Inter-State Commerce bill had gone to 
our whole people before it became a law. It is evident 
that among us such a method would reduce the amount 
of legislation and defeat many bad measures. It is hardly 
possible, for example, that the River and Harbor bill of 
the average Congress could become law. 

The system here interested me as one of the most 
promising devices for limiting the powers of representa- 
tives, and during a recent visit to Switzerland I made 
some inquiries respecting the working of the system. It 
appears not to work in a very satisfactory manner; but 
this may be due to the peculiar way in which the system 
is applied. For example, 30,000 names of voters are 
enot^h to secure a general vote upon a bill. This num- 
ber can be too easily obtained by popular petition, and 
it is probably not the best way to call for such a vote. If 
a minority in the law making body — say one-fifth or one 
fourth — could compel the reference of a law to the peo- 
ple, it might work more satisfactorily. 

In the second place; there appears to be no limit to 
the right of 30,000 voters to arrest the passage of a bill 
into a law. Any bill may be so arrested. For example, 
a bill was passed increasing the salary of the Swiss Min- 
ister to our Government from $8,000 to $10,000. An 
appeal was taken to the people, and the increase in salary 
voted down. The Swiss peasant thinks $8,000 a great 
deal of money, and knows nothing of the cost of living 
as the representative of a foreign Government in Wash- 
ington. It is, of course, a question for the judgment of 

But a graver difficulty is that a great number of laws 
may be, on the Swiss system, sent down to be voted up- 
on, and the careless habit which would grow from it 
might take away all value from the system. Such laws 
as the Oleomargarine and Inter-State Commerce, each 
involving advances in legislation, would seem to be prop- 
er subjects for popular voting. And a settlement of 
tariff issues might be reached in the same way. Unless 
Legislatures and Congresses improve in quality and use- 
fulness, some means of revising their work will become 
necessary. Perhaps the fundamental principles of the 
Swiss appeal to the people may contain the desired rem- 

Considerable progress will be made in Switzerland 
under their peculiar method. The local politician is apt 
to be more conservative than his constituents. He fears 
that they may punish him for supporting a measure which 
takes some power from the local Government, or adds 
some power to the Federal Government, If his work is 
to be submitted to his fellow citizens, this representa- 
tive may dare to use his judgment, and silence his fears 
of popular condemnation. Useful measures have already 

become laws which could not have been enacted without 
the provision for submitting them to the people. It is to 
be feared, however, that under any possible system local 
Government in this small nation will always be too 
strong, and that the protection of personal rights will 
continue to be imperfect. Only a great nation can main- 
tain central and Supreme Courts and Legislatures con- 
trolled by wisdom and reason. Even the large nation 
may fail; the small one must fail. The individual is 
jeopardized by the dominion of the few, and by the 
power of the hostile neighbor. Aristides is banished 
merely because a peasant is "tired of hearing him called 
The Just." — Chrislian Advocate. 


Beside a Switzerland Lake. 

BY J. A. J. 

After a lapse of four years I find myself again in this 
lovely spot, whose beauty it is very hard to put into 
words. A few strokes of the brush would be worth 
pages of description, although that would be far below 
the reality. 

How shall I describe this exquisite little lake, fremtd 
in lofty mountains, which at one end pile themselves in 
dim distances behind each other, creating a hazy idea of I 
infinitude in the entranced soul ? How can I make you, 
so far away, to see the emerald-green waters glittering, 
dancing under the clear blue sky, the fir-clad mountain 1 
sides sloping down nearly to the water's edge, with just 
enough level ground at their feet to allow a little past ure 
land, a few orchards, and at distant intervals a pretty 
little town or a liny village, from which the chuich spire 
shoots up literally an "arrow," as the French call it. 
toward heaven? The quaintness of the houses, the 
shyness of the children (an ever-increasing rarity), the 
cleanliness and neatness of the whole country, the 
masses of flower-pots, with gayest colored flowers at 
every window — how can I tell it in mere words? 

Then the twitter of the birds, the splashing of the 
water as the dainty little steamer arrives just under my 
window, the soft hum of the children's voices in the 
neighboring village school, and the sweet sound of the 
little chapel bell calling to morning and evening pray- 
ers — not even a painter could portray them ! 

What a loving, gracious expression of the forethought 
of God for mankind is this little land — Swil/erland — 
the land of the Swiss, but siill more the land of human- 
ity at large ! Not only do its glaciers cool, cleanse, and 
nourish the most important part of Europe, but they 
afford rest and refreshment to the overworked brains and 
the weary hearts of thousands from every part of the 
globe. "Who has not seen Switzerland," said the young 
Swiss governess, with tears in her eyes, in the presence of 
her English pupil, "knows not the glory of God" — and 
the child who heard the remark, and who was destined to 
become a writer of great purity and grace, treasured it 
up and did not rest till the vision of God's glory became 



Yet danger lurks ever near to these regions of enchant- 
ment, and the avalanche, the landslide, the thunder- 
storm, are perpetual wi'.nesses to the tremendous power 
that lies silent amid these mountains. 

I went yesterday by the little steamer across to Zug, 
to see what may be seen of the terrible disaster of a 
few weeks ago. 

A strip of the quay broken away, a great quantity of 
wood, rafters, aud beams piled up on the edge of the 
lake, the attic windows of a house peering from out of 
the water — that is about all. Nature, where she is most 
traitorous, is usually quickest in burying her dead out of 
her sight. Four years ago I spent a peaceful night in 
the pretty hotel whose attic windows alone remain in sight. 

How well I remember it all ! The clean, snug bed- 
room, the spacious, cool dining room, the prettily laid- 
out garden, with its vine-covered arbors, close to the 
water's edge, and the lovely view enjoyed from under 
their shade. The lake of Zug has always been a favor- 
ite spot in my Swiss pilgrimages, having afforded me re- 
freshment at various times ; and a disaster here comes 
home to me. 

It is a region exposed to disasters, however, for it still 
bears the traces of the terrible landslide which took 
place at the beginning of this century, destroying four 
villages with five hundred of their inhabitants. Then, 
as I walked through the narrow streets of the oldest part 
of the town, I found an inscription over a fountain to 
this effect : " In the year 1432 two rows of houses in this 
neighborhood sank into the earth, withsi.xty-six persons." 
Here was a terrible calamity for this lovely district of 
country when America was yet undiscovered! Yet no 
amount of calamity drives people away from their old 
homes in this old world, and they rebuild age after age 
over the ruins of former desolations. A strange kind of 
calmness seems to dwell amid these old places, and the 
people accept disasters and reverses with a placid sub- 
mission almost melancholy to witness. 

I talked with one woman whose earthly all had disap- 
peared with the pretty home sunk into the lake, and who 
was indebted to charity for the clothes she wore ; but no 
complaint escaped her lips, and no tear came from her 
eye. Carpenters were working, in their seamed and 
cracked workshops, close to the ruins, with the utmost 
quietness and self-possession, waiting till the houses 
should be finally demolished ; and women were washing, 
knitting, or minding their children close to the site of the 
catastrophe, as though nothing unusual had happened. 
Better so ! I find myself wondering, as I look at these 
broad-built, solid, and stolid-looking men, whether they 
do not partake of the stone of their mountains as it is 
washed away by their streams, sucked up by their veget- 
ables and taken in by their cattle. Nor is the idea un- 
reasonable, but probably quite scientific, though it did 
not come to me in scientific fashion. 

I can well understand that the forefathers of these men 
beat the legions of Julius Ca;sar, and that after ages of 
struggling they swept away the dominion of Rome, 

Yet they are not what they once were. Tobacco and 
bad liquors are telling upon this strong race, and poverty 
of blood is becoming a prevalent disease among the once 
hardy Swiss. 

I have had a long talk with mine host here on this 
very subject, and he says, with feebly kindling eyes, 
" Ja, madam, sie haben recht," and, touching his own 
large head, he adds, " You have thought a good deal, 
and you have very good foundation principles " (Grund- 

"I hope so," I replied. 

Poor Europeans ! poor Swiss ! they do not know what 
to do with their land since the grain fields of America 
supply the world with bread, and the cattle of New Zea- 
land and Australia with meat. Here the only agriculture 
of any value consists of vines and tobacco, and these, as 
I explained to mine host, put a little cash into one of his 
pockets to take it out of the other. But, in the mean- 
time, what shall they do ? — Christian Union, 

Immensee, Lakb of Zug. 

Religious Liberty in Svitzerland. 


Switzerland approaches nearest the United States m 
her republican organization, though differing in nation- 
ality and language. She is the oldest republic in Europe, 
dating from the " eternal covenant" of Uri, Schwyz and 
Unterwalden, concluded August ist, 1291. 

Originally the Swiss republic was a loose, aristocratic 
confederacy of independent cantons, and recognized only 
one religion, the Roman Catholic in the Middle Ages, 
and after the Reformation two — the Roman Catholic and 
the Reformed {i. e. the Church founded by Zwingli and 
Calvin). There are no Lutheran congregations in Switz- 
erland, but Baptists and Methodists, at first only toler- 
ated, are now legally recognized. 

In 1848, after the defeat of the SonJerbund of the 
Roman Catholic cantons, which obstructed all progress, 
the constitution was entirely remodeled on democratic 
principles, and we may say after the American example. 
The confederacy of cantons was changed into a federal 
state with a representation of the people, and with a cen- 
tral government acting directly upon the people. The leg- 
islative branch of the government {Bundesversavtmlung, 
Congress) was divided into two houses, the Standcrath, 
corresponding to our Senate and consisting of forty-four 
deputies of the twenty-two cantons (which constituted 
the old Diet), and the Nationalrath or of Repre- 
sentatives, elected by the vote of the people according to 
population (one to every 20,000 souls). 

The executive department or Bundtsrath consists of 
seven members, appointed by the two branches of the 
legislature for three years. They constitute the Cabinet. 
The President and Vice-President of the Swiss Republic 
are not elected by the people, as in the United States; 
but by the Cabinet out of their number and only for one 
year. The judicial department or Supreme Court 



[BuMdesgericht) is composed of eleven judges elected by 
the legislature for three years, and decides controversies 
between the cantons. 

The Constitution of 1848 was again revised and still 
more centralized, May 29th, '74, with reference to the re- 
lation of the Federal Government to railroads, post and 
telegraphs, liberty of commerce, emigration, etc. The 
revision was submitted to the vote of the people and ac- 
cepted April loth, '74, by 340,199 votes against 198,013 
and by i4)'2 cantons. 

The Constitution of 1848 guaranteed "the free exer- 
cise of divine worship to the recognised confessions" (»'. e. 
the Roman Catholic and Reformed), but forbade the 
order of the Jesuits. The Constitution of 1874 went 
further and comes nearer the American by declaring, with- 
out qualification, that "freedom of belief and conscience 
are inviolable, that no one can be forced to accept or 
support a religion, or be punished on account of religious 
views, and that the free exercise of worship is secured 
vithin the limits of morality and public safety." 

But the sams constitution, like that of 184S, excludes 
the order of the Jesuits and affiliated orders from Swiss 
territory, and prohibits their members to exercise any 
kind of activity in church or school. The same prohibi- 
tion may be extended to other spiritual orders which are 
deemed dangerous to the State or which disturb the peace 
of the Confessions. The Constitution forbids, moreover, 
the estabHshment of new or the re-establishment of abol- 
ished convents and religious orders. 

These restrictions are un-American, and an abridg- 
ment of religious liberty. 

Another important difference is that this principle has 
not yet worked its way into the several cantons. Each 
canton has still its own established Church — either Roman 
Catholic or Reformed — supported and ruled by the civil 
magistrate. In recent times the politicians and so-called 
Reformers have controlled the Church in the interest of 
prevailing rationalism, and have forced the faithful ad- 
herents of the Reformation creeds to found free churches 
in Geneva, the Canton de Vaud, and Neuchatel. The 
advanced liberal or radical parly in Switzerland is very 
illiberal and intolerant toward positive Christianity. It 
would be far better if the connection between Church 
and State in the different cantons was dissolved, and re- 
ligion allowed to take its natural course. 

The free churches in French Switzerland are on the 
sane footing as the English Dissenters; that is, they are 
self-supporting and self-governing, but have to bear their 
share of taxation for the support of the national Church, 
— Independent. 

The Religious Life or SwiUBrlaai]. 


The lakes and peaks of the Switzer's land are well 
known to all either by actual view or the enthusiastic 
story of eye-witnesses, and one and all agree that in 
theie respects it is a Und blessed of Gjd. Even the in- 

valid who was forced, perhaps, to remain here against 
his will, and whose heart secretly longs for his own 
home and fireside, looks on these great works of nature 
as food for the weary soul as well as a tonic for the weak 

And yet the heart that asks for secret communion 
with God in addition to these, his gre^t works of na 
ture, is frequently but poorly fed, for a fullness of 
Christian feeding and life is not any too easily found. 
Free Switzerland is so free in the matter of Christian 
confession that it is sometimes quite difficult to find any 
true and heart-felt Christian altars. The result is that 
any sanctuary where the American can find the teach- 
ings and the practice of his native confession is doubly 
welcome in this foreign land. It is therefore exceeding- 
ly agreeable to the Christian heart on a Sabbath morn- 
ing, while hearing the bells of the National church and 
seeing the open and inviting dftors of the Eg/ise Libre^ 
to know that it can find even a more welcome altar than 
any of these. 

In Geneva especially, and in several other parts of 
Switzerland, English-speaking evangelical churches have 
been maintained for years to the gratification of travel- 
ers and tourists, and some of these, as in Geneva, have 
been largely supplied by preachers of the Methodist 
faith. The Germans have also of late been quite active 
on the banks of the lake of Geneva and have at last suc- 
ceeded in erecting a handsome edifice in the centre of 
Montreux, where the pure evangelical Gospel is promul- 
gated, without special dogma, to those who desire their 
spiritual food in that tongue. 

This liberty of faith in Switzerland has naturally 
drawn thither many enterprises of a religious and be- 
nevolent character for a general assembly of their work- 
ers or adherents from surrounding lands. And the fall 
months is the period most favorable to these conven- 
tions, which follow each other in quick succession and 
which have just held their anniversaries. The first in order 
was the convocation of the National Church of the Canton 
of the Valais, which has just come off victorious in a long 
contest with the government in regard to the distribu- 
tion of the parishes. The pastors have of late been too 
conservative for the Department of Public Worship, 
which resorted to a species of gerrymandering of the 
parishes that these might be diminished and the unwel- 
come pastors crowded out. Consistories and congrega- 
tions opposed the decree with such energy and deter- 
mination that the government recalled it and the par- 
ishes remained unaltered. 

Another notable convention of the Swiss Pastoral 
Association was recently held in Schaffhausen and was 
attended by nearly two hundred pastors. This assem- 
blage was not of a popular but rather of a professional 
character. Reports were made and addresses delivered 
on the doctrine of reconciliation as taught by the famous 
Ritschl, and the victory seemed to rest on the banner of 
the Gottingen professor. Another German professor 
spoke for nearly two hours on the duty of t.K««j^tTi>. 

faculties in the preparation of the candidates for the 
ministry, in which many excellent thoughts were ex- 
pressed on the matter of sermons, doctrine and pastoral 
care, — the three principal activities of the pastoral 
office. The principal result of this meeting was the dis- 
appearance of the groups know'n as Reformed and Piet- 
ists, and the formation of a new middle party, the gen- 
eral tendency here as elsewhere being towards a liberal 

A great deal of excitement exists in the canton of 
Berne on account of severity toward a conservative 
minority in one of the churches. At the anniversary of 
the Evangelical Association at Berne there were present 
some five thousand persons from all the surrounding 
parts of the canton. This body resolved at its principal 
session to grant to the minority excluded from the 
church the use of its chapel for morning service and 
also for the administration of the sacraments. And 
this association pays the salary of a preacher to serve 
this minority which is thus thrust out into the cold by 
the government. This is all the result of the growing 
liberalism, or rather license, in religious belief in the 
land. An evangelist was brought to Berne in this inter- 
est and in two weeks preached twenty-five times for the 
good cause. This gave new life to the conservative ele- 
ment, which now shows unusual activity. The peasan- 
try shows itself very active in the works and meetings 
of the association. Pastor Heiniger. an octogenarian, 
has just founded a Christian association for women 
which is very successful, and the director of the Dea- 
conesses has built a hospital that was dedicated during 
the festive week. 

In addition to these home movements several foreign 
benevolent associations prefer Switzerland fortheirgen- 
eral conventions. Among these we note the British As- 
sociation for the suppression of the system granting 
license to vice. This was recently held in Luzerne and 
was attended by representatives frcm England, France, 
Germany and Belgium. This movement was started by 
the well known philanthropic lady, Mrs. J, C. Butler, 
and its great object is to kill the vile system of legaliz- 
ing and organizing prostitution on the part of govern- 
ments. The work of this body has been attended with 
great success in England and other countries, and its 
idherents are determined to push their efforts with still 
Tigreater zeal, as they reason that the system simply needs 
to be understood by the Christian and moral world to be 
condemned. The workers in this association were 
'greatly encouraged by the words of the Christian phi- 
losopher, Professor Secretan, of Lausanne: "Woman 
was created, it is true, for the home ar.d the family, but 
our social conditions urgently demand that there be 
opened to her careers where by honorable occupation 
she may be able to support herself by her education and 
culture." — Northern LItristian Advocate. 

The Swilzerland Methodist CoafereBce. 

The German and Switzerland Conference of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church was organized in 1856. At the 
Conference held in Zurich, Switzerland, June 24-30, 
1886, the Conference was divided into two conferences, 
one to be known as the Germany Conference, and the 
other as the Switzerland Conference. 

The last session of the Switzerland Conference was; 
held in Berne, Switzerland, April 23-27, 1887, Bishop 
Ninde presiding. 

The statistics reported showed there were 4,638 mem- 
bers, an increase of 238; 996 probationers, an increase 
of 97; 4 local preachers; 180 Sunday-schools with 935 
officers and teachers and 12.255 scholars; 25 churches 
valued at $207,652; 4 parsonages valued at $21,175; 
present indebtedness on church property, $101,832. The 
collections had been $576 for Missions, $88 for Church 
Extension, $35 for Sunday-school Union, !|^40 for Tract 
Society, $44 for Education, $37 for American Bible So- 
ciety, $68 for Women's Foreign Missionary Society,. 
§7,404 for Pastors, Presiding Elders and Bishops, $254, 
for Conference Claimants. 

The Conference has two Districts and the appoint- 
ments made were as follows: 

Berne District, I.conhardt Peter, PrtiiJittg Elder. Berne, Jacob 
Sporri. Bid and Soloihurn, L. F'cier, lieinrich A. Gut. Genf, 
Jean Wuhrroann. La Chaux-de-Foiids, Golllieb Spgrri. Langnau, 
Ernst K. Schmidtmann. Lausanne, Edmund Diem, Lyst, Johana 
Wellslein. Neucbatel, Gotifried Krauss. Saint Imicr, to be sup- 

Zi^RiCH District, II, Jacob Bretter, PresUing Elder, Aflbltei 
am-Albis. H. Huber. Aussersihl, Heinrich Hartwig. Basel, August 
Rcwlemcyer. Bulach, Ferdinand Sclimidt. Chur, Friedrich Dep- 
eler. Frauenfcld, Ludwig Brandle, Itorgen, H. Geerdess Odinga. 
Leniburg and .^arau, Ka.«parGlatt!l. Lie&lal, Johannes Schneebele. 
Nieder Utswyl, Johann Harle. Kheincck, Ileiiiiieh Brunner. Saint 
Gallea and Herisau, Andreas Rnppanner. Schaflhau&cn Ob, Ilallnu 
and Slein. Bemhard Sctiroder. Thalwcil, GoUfricd 13.irT. Tuibeu-, Jacob Gearing. Uster, Heinrich Kienast. Winterthur. Gott- 
fried Frei. Zurich, Gerhard Bruns and Abraham Lcrch. Director 
of Book Concern in Bremen, Heinrich Neulsen. 


The French system of money, weights and measures 
lias been generally adopted in Switzerland. 

"Christianity was first introduced into Switzerland! 
about A.D. 610 by St. Gall, a native of Ireland and a pu-| 
pil of Cokimban. He was one of twelve Irish monks 
who labored to disseminate Christianity throughout 
Europe. They first took up their residence at the head 
of Lake Zurich, and, burning with zeal, set fire to the 
pagan temples, casting the idols into the lake. Driven 
away by the inhabitants, they settled at Bregentz, but atJ 
the end of two years were banished from this place also, 
and all left for Italy except St. Gall, who was too ill to 
be removed. He repaired to a sequestered spot, and.J 
with a few adherents built the Monastery of St. Gall in the! 
canton of the same name. After his death, several of ■ 
his scholars and monks from Ireland continued his work, 
until paganism lost its hold and Romanism was substi- 
tuted in its place." 





Beqaesls to the Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

RvcordlnK SecreUry of the Missionary Society of the M. 8. Church, 

The frequent failures of the Missionary Society of 
the Metho dist Episcopal Church to secure moneys and 
lands which benevolent testators have designed for it, 
have prompted the writing of this article. 

Much might be said concerning the making of wills 
in general ; the importance of making them at once, 
while health remains; of seeing to it that they are 
drawn with the utmost care by competent persons, and 
in strict conformity with the requirements of the local 
law, etc. The design at present, however, is to con- 
sider more especially, but of necessity in a somewhat 
hasty ma nner, certain questions relating to one feature 
of wills under which the Society above named is a 

Before taking up these questions it may be worth the 
while to give some definition of certain terms herein to, 
be employed, to the end that the reader may get a clear 
idea of th e distinctions between them in law, since their 
constant recurrence might otherwise be productive of 
some mental confusion. 

A Gift is "anything the property of which is vol- 
untarily bestowed without compensation." It is of the 
essence of a. gift that it shall be gratuitous and accom- 
panied by a transfer of possession, together with all 
title and interest therein. 

With regard to gifts of real property there are certain 
distinctions which are recognized by law, but into 
which, at present, it is not advisable to enter. He who 
gives a thing is called the "donor;" he who receives 
it, "the donee." 

A Devise is "a gift or disposition of lands or other 
real property by a last will and testament" He who makes 
it is the " devisor ; " he who receives it is called the 

A Bequest is a term which is properly confined to a 
gift of personal property by will. Such gift is a legacy, 
and he who receives it is the "legatee." 

In common parlance the meaning of the word "be- 
queath" is sometimes broadened so as to cover the 
meaning of " devise," but according to the best authori- 
ties this is improper. 

Many persons who have been successful in accumu- 
lating large sums of money, and many others who, by 
dint of eco nomy or self-denial, have succeeded in saving 
small sums, s eek through their last wills and testaments 
to place t hese moneys where they will aid in carrying 
forward the work of Christian missions. A fair pro- 
portion of such persons are identified with the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church. But through some carelessness 
in the drawing of the wills their object maybe defeatedi 


and the money pass to persons out of whose hand^ 
perhaps, they have been especially anxious to keep it. ■ 

It becomes, then, a matter of no little moment that 
the testator, the execution of whose designs is to bt 
left to others, should see to it that his will be so drawn 
with such precision of terms and such certainty with 
regard to the objects in view, as to reduce the chance 
of successful contest to the minimum, and to render t 
defeat or non-execution of his purpose, as nearly 
may be, impossible. 

It is true that in all cases strenuous endeavor is made 
to ascertain the true intent and meaning of the testator, 
and that frequently the objections urged by contestants 
against the probate of a will, or against the execution 
of a given part of it, are overruled by the courts. Still, 
these objections, often merely technical and, indeed, 
frivolous, give rise in too many instances to protracted 
litigation, which is always costly and often bitter. And 
when at length, if it so happen, the objections a^ 
overruled, the intent of the testator ascertained, ana 
the will established, it is many times found that the 
estate has suffered severely, and that the fund from 
which legacies are to be paid has been materially 
diminished. Thus the attainment of the object which 
the testator had in view is, in a measure, prevented, and 
the work which he wished to advance is hampered and 
delayed for months, perhaps for years. For it must not 
be forgotten that the costs of both parties are quite too 
frequently borne by and paid out of the estate. Further- 
more, there are always certain other expenses incident 
to such litigation, which cannot be estimated as any part 
of the "costs," but which must, nevertheless, be de- 
frayed either out of the legacy or out of other funds 
belonging to the Society defending. 

Again, when a Society is obliged to defend a will 
which is contested, and the will, as not seldom happens, 
is broken, whatever expense is incurred is just so much 
taken out of that treasury which the testator desired to 
replenish and not to deplete. How different is such 
result from the one he intended ! Instead of fu 
thering the good cause which was so near his heart, 
he actually hinders it. Instead of adding to, he takes 
from, those funds which constitute so important an 
agency in carrying the Gospel to the ends of the earth, 

Another evil effect of these legal contests is that they 
are apt to give rise to strong and even bitter prejudices 
in the minds of persons who previously were friendly, oi 
to say the least, not inimical, to the Society or the cause, 
Heirs who consider themselves injured will talk of theii 
wrongs to sympathizing friends and neighbors until all 
agree that these " grasping institutions " are perfectlj 
willing to rob the widow and the fatherless, if so be thai 
their own ends may be thus promoted. In this waj 
there are aroused strong and widespread prejudices 
which are always difficult to overcome, and which ofter 
cause those who entertain them to resolve to withbolc 
or withdraw all sympathy and support from such 
" charities." 


But if the clause in the will be clear and precise, 
leaving no room for dispute as to the manifest intent 
of the testator, the amount will usually be paid without 
arousing any great antipathy toward the beneficiary. If 
the heirs feel that they have any grievance, it will be 
r>ne the respjnsibility for which will lie with the testa- 
tor, and not with the legatee. In any case there will 
be none of the friction and bitterness sure to be engen- 
dered by a contest. 

These contests are engaged in on a great variety of 
grounds, the verye.xistenceof which could be prevented 
in a vast majority of cases by a little forethought and 
care. The consideration of these grounds might be 
entered into, not only to the advantage of the Mission- 
ary Society, but also to the satisfaction of some indi- 
viduals who may be at a loss to know whether provisions 
already made, or likely to be made, in their wills, are so 
expressed and guarded as to render their execution 
certain. But space is limited, and therefore such con- 
sideration must be left for future articles. A single 
defect which leads to much strife, and results in great 
loss to the missionary cause, is all that can be noted at 

That defect is " Misnomer." 

Nothing gives executors more perplexity than this. 
In their own minds they may be satisfied as to the design 
of the testator, but whether the letter of the " will " will 
warrant them in executing what //»n- think to be his pur- 
pose, is a question in regard to which they entertain 
grave doubt. And for their own protection they make 
application to the courts to have the will "construed," 
a part of the expense of such application being ordi- 
narily paid out of the amount to which the Missionary 
Society is entitled. 

Sometimes executors venture to pay over the amount 
specified, upon receipt of a duly executed Bond of In- 
I demnity given by the Society and some responsible in- 
dividual as security. And yet, even, this involves some 
expense and delay, and gives occasion for anxiety lest 
some disappointed heir may charge the executor with 
failure to properly "execute," and subsequently endeav- 
or to make his charge good. 

Legion is the name of the contests that have been en- 
tered into and carried forward on this single ground of 
Misnomer. As remarked above, the contestants are 
many times defeated, but never without expense to the 
Missionary Society. At other times, however, they suc- 
ceed, and the result of each of those times is as pre- 
viously set forth. And it must be conceded that many 
of the decisions against the Missionary Society, on this 
ground of misnomer, cannot well be excepted to, the 
reason being that the defects are so flagrant as to ren- 
der it impossible for impartial tribunals to decide in any 
other way. Reasons for the defects upon which such 
decisions are based are not difficult to find. Too many 
persons either draw their own wills, without any ade- 
quate knowledge of the necessary legal forms and re- 

quirements, or they permit them to be drawn by persons 
almost as incompetent as themselves. 

Often those who are presumed to be familiar with 
the real name of "The .Missionary ok the 
Methodist Episcopal Church" make bequests or de- 
vises to something totally different when they think 
they are making them to that Society. 

That which they specify as the object of their charity 
not only is not known, but never existed. The conse- 
quence is that such bequests or devises are void, and 
very reasonably so, because of uncertainty or illegality. 

The records of legacies in the office of the Missionary 
Society exhibit many striking examples which might be 
viewed with profit by persons intending to make some 
provision in their wills for the advancement of mission- 
ary interest. Here are a few: 

" I give $s<^ to the Methodist Misiiontry Society in the city of 
New York." 

" I give and bequeath five hundred dollain each to the I^rome and 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Epi&copal Church." 

"I give and bequeath to the miMionary cause five hundred dol- 

" I give and bequeath the sum of thirteen hondred doUars to (he 
cause and for the support of the Foreign Missions of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church of the United States." 

"I give and desire that the residue of my properly, if any, 
* * * be given to the authorized agent of the Home 
and Foreign Missionary Society to aid in the propagation of (lie 
holy religion of Jesus Christ." 

"Five hundred dollars to the Home Missionary Society, and five 
hundrel dollar.^ tu the Foreign Missionary Society," 

"One thousand dollars • * • to spread the Gotpet 
among the aborigines of the West through the Methodist mission- 

To these might be added many others, but more are 
not necessary. 

Some of the provisions above quoted are found in the 
wills of persons who possessed large wealth, and some 
in those of persons who had only moderate means, each 
testator having desired to contribute according to his 
ability toward the advancement of the great cause which 
"The Missionary Society of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church" seeks to promote. And yet in no one of 
these cases is the Society properly specified, while in a 
part of them the designation is so uncertain and indefi- 
nite as to render it difficult, if not impossible, for any 
one to fix definitely upon the intended recipient, 

A single letter addressed to the Mission Rooms at 
New York would in each case have secured all neces- 
sary information in regard to the title of the Society 
and the form in which the bequest should have been 
made; and thus there would have been saved to the 
Missionary Society thousands of dollars. Let those who 
still live, and who intend that the great cause of Chris- 
tian missions shall be benefited under their wills, take 
note of this, and see to it- that the legatee is properly 

.\ll pastors feel a deep interest in the work of mis- 
sions, and give freely of their time, labor, and substance 
for its promotion. They are striving earnestly and coa- 


stantly to secure contribtitious to the end that the good 
work may not only not cease for an instant, but that the 
field of libor may be continually widened, Nevetheless, 
the sums collected, though ^ometImes large, are fre- 
quently small, and are olten secured only after great 
wear and tear of both body and mind. To the faithful 
pastor who thus labors in order to secure such meagre 
results, it seems that many of those who have abund- 
ance of this world's goods are quite out of sympathy 
with the great work winch the Master gave orders to 
have carried on until all nations should experience its 

But though men often seem unwilling to be;- tow large- 
ly while they have the rapacity to enjoy their posses- 
sions, there is usualh d' covered an inclmalion to give 
freely of that, the usufrut t or indeed even the use of 
which they c .n no loTig»-r enjoy. Thus it comes to pass 
that pastors frequently succeed in nfiuencing men to 
bestow through their wll, for missionary purposes, 
sums which they will not, und perhaps, in justice to 
themselves and others, cannot, give during iheir lifetime. 
By watching for and improving such opportunities, 
many a pastor has by a s'ngle stroke secured for the 
great cause an smoui t equ. ) in, and possibly above, 
that given by his chaige for an eniir*- yedr. 

Often, too. members of the Church wtth whom the 
pastor ha.s had no communicatifn on the subject, con- 
ceive the purpose of leaving a legacy to the Missionary 
Society, and then make knowi' thai purpose to him. At 
the same time they ask advice or direction as to the best 
form in which to declare their wish. The pastor, being 
anxious to encourage, gives a word of advice, or an ex- 
planation of some particul r point, feeling grateful that 
he has the privilege of aiding so good a work in such a 
way. Hut what must be the measure of his regret when, 
the testator having died, and the will having been offered 
for probate, he learns dis.'^atisried heirs have con- 
cluded to contest on the ground that the object is not 
sufficiently stated or the beneficiary correctly named. He 
neglected to make sure that the bequest or was to 
•'Thf. Misskinakv Sociftv of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church," and the mistake may be so serious as to 
prevent the amount specified from reaching the treasury 
for which it was designed. 

A pastor upon whom the responsibility for such a mis- 
take becomes fixed, generally finds that no one is as slow 
as himself in granting forgiveness of such an error. Far 
different is his experience from that of the minister who 
is permitted to see the fruit of his carefulness and pre- 
cision in the full amount paid over under a will, 
one provision of which at least was made under his 

Some preachers are so alive lo this matter thai when 
they learn of the 'existence of a will, the maker of which 
has kindly remembered the Missionary Society, they ven- 
ture to inquire whether the Society is specified by its 
corporate name, and iheydo n«it rest until they learn that 
all is right, or until they see corrected any error or inac- 

curacy that may exist. In many instances invaluable 
service has been thus rendered. 

Any person who will consider the matter will certainly' 
see the great advantage that would result to the Church 
if presiding elders and pastors, who are in constant con- j 
tact with the laity, would properly inform themselves asl 
to the technical corporate name of " The Missionary 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church," asj 
well as to the form necessary to make legacies to said ' 
Society good in law. These officers would frequently 
find themselves in a position where they might be instru- 
mental in so guiding the framers of wills, as to render 
impossible the raising of objection on the ground we are 
specially considering. Such information is by no means 
difficult to obtain, and once acquired, the result would be 
that many thousands of dollars would be secured toward 
the advancement of the great cause which "The Mis- 
sionary Society or the Methodist Episcopal 
Church " was organized and incorporated to sub- 

The (Gantry and People of Abyssinia. 



There is a good deal of romance in the early history 
of Abyssinia, and at this late period it is very difficult to 
separate the romance from the history. 

The natives call the country " Habesh," which is an 
.Arabic word which signifies mixed. It is an appropriate 
name, for the country has a great variety of physical 
features, and very sudden transitions in its productions, 
and its inhabitants are of many races of men with many 
systems of religion. 

They claim for themselves a descent by a regular 
succession of emperors from the time of Solomon. They 
claim that the Queen of Sheba was their sovereign and 
she was married to Solomon and that the crown was thus 
transmitted lo her son Menilek. That Menilekcameto the 
throne in the year 986 B.C. He was educated and 
crowned in Jerusalem. Whin he returned to his own 
country he took with him a colony of Jews, with a copy 
of the laws and some priests to interpret the laws. This ■ 
is a tradition claimed by them and is sustained by the 
fact that Judaism was in all their early historj' the re- 
ligion of most of the people, and is now held by a large 
number of Jews, who for centuries kept themselves in 
the central provinces and were governed by their own 

It is claimed that there are now near 200,000 of these _ 
people who have the Old Testament in an Ethtopic version I 
and they still adhere to the Mosaic ceremonies. At the 
time of the great dispersion a great number of Jews 
found their way to Ethiopia and joined their brethren, 
and there married wives of the natives, they both being 
Semetic in nationality as well as language. 

There is a similarity in the people of Abyssinia, but 
the whole are distinct from the Negro and Arabian, They 
generally have regular features, with black hair and 




bronze complexion. They are ignorant, superstitious, as 
vrell as warlike. 

They are divided into several tribes. 

The Falashes, the descendants of the Jews occupy 
the mountains of Samen. They profess Judaism and 
claim that they originally came from Palestine. 

The Tigrani occupy the provinces of Tigre. It is a 
hilly country. The rivers in this province run westward. 
Some of the plains are well watered and in a state of 
cultivation. The mountainous part of the province is 
covered with a dense forest and has a sparse population. 

The Amharans occupy the province of Amhara. It 
contains the highest mountains in Abyssinia. The Ab- 
ba-yaret peak rises 15,000 feet high. The sides of the 
mountain are clothed with trees and fine grass, and the 
bottoms are either meadows or fields, where good crops 
are raised. It is a fine climate with an abundance of rain 
ia every month of the year. That part of the mountain 
not covered with snow is pasture grounds and equal to 
the famous .\lpine pastures of Switzerland. 

The Gallas inhabit the banks of the Hawash and are 
a savage race, warlike, and seem ready to make an at- 
tack upon slightest provocation. The habits and prac- 
tices of this Gerce tribe are very singular and interest- 
ing. The emperor or king is the sovereign of the whole 
coatitry, but his authority is only nominal. There are 
no large towns in the country. There is no stability and 
the people do not gather in towns, but rather hide away 
in the mountains for self-protection. There are many 
Mohammedans all over the country. The Abyssinians 
profess to be Christians, but it has but little inflluence 
upoa their lives. .They are divided into parties which 
oppose each other with great bitterness and even vio- 

They retain many forms and ceremonies of Judaism. 
They practice circumcision, keep both Saturday and 
Sunday as Sabbaths, and have many fasts — but a man 
cin piy a small sum of money and be released from 
fasting. The Coptic-patriarch of Cairo is considered 
the head of their church. They have monasteries and 
have unbounded veneration for the Virgin. They were 
converted to Christianity in the fourtli century and they 
have ever since been nominal Christians. 

There has been a good deal of missionary work done 
in Abyssinia and really very little accomplished for the 
great labor bestowed; but the promise now is good and 
it is believed that great results will follow. 

Samuel Gobat, who is justly celebrated for a life of 
great devotion and as being the Bishop of Jerusalem, and 
Christian Kugler both received their missionary educa- 
tion and training in the seminary near Basle. 

They went to Egypt to reach Abyssinia in 1825 but 
. there were so many hindrances in the way that they did 
not reach that country until 1829. While in Cairo they 
learned the language and did what mission work they 
could. Gobat acquired the language in a comparatively 
short time. He acquired a foreign language much more 
rapidly than most persons. It was said of him later 

that he could use eleven languages and could preach 
Christ in them all. 

These brave men settled in the province of Tigre 
where the governor was friendly. They immediately 
established scho^Ls an J after a year Gobat went further 
in th2 interior to Gander, the capital. He was well re- 
ceived and had interesting religious conversations with 
the priests, the king, and many of the leading men. Mr, 
Gobat returned to the first station and said "the people 
were hungering and thirsting for the word of God, such 
as I have never found elsewhere," Soon after war broke 
out and Gobat and Kugler had to flee to the monastery 
at Debra Damo. The monastery was perched high on 
a rock, and was reached by a rope, and there they 
preached to the monks, but the country was in such a 
distracted condition that they were compelled to escape. 

In 1834 Gobat and the missionary Isenberg went to 
Abyssinia and attempted to found a mission at Axum, 
the ancient capital, but soon after Mr. Gjbat's health 
failed and he returned to Europe, and soon the governor 
took of!i:e and ordered all missionaries to leave his 
country. After order was restored and in 1859 Rev. H. 
A. Stern was appointed to visit the Jews in Abyssinia. 
He found them in a depressed condition, but found 
them and others ripe for missionary labor and very 
earnest to hear the word of life. 

In i86i Rev. J. M. Fladt, who had once been driven 
out of the country returned and was allowed to enter 
the country, but not to remain. Irc asked permission to 
teach the Jews, The king said to him: " If those who 
are my subjects teach them and bring them for baptism 
into our church, I shall be happy and promise to give 
them my protection, but I do not wish to have any 
European in my country." 

Soon after this all the missionaries who did not escape 
from the country were imprisoned and beaten and re- 
strained of their liberty unt'.l .\pril 14, 1868, when Gen. 
Napier captured the stronghold of the king, when all 
the missionaries were again free. 

Ira David Sankey. 

Mr. Ira D. Sankey was born at Edinburgh, Pa., in 
1S40, his father being the Hon, David Sankey, for many 
years a prominent member of the Legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
He early showed a great fondness for music and has ac- 
complished great good through the power of song. 
About a year ago the London Christian published the fol- 
lowing concerning him : 

"Brought up under the best spiritual influences, Mr. 
Sankey dates the conscious definite acceptance of Christ 
as his Savior in his fifteenth year, when he joined the 
church of which his parents were members. In the suc- 
ceeding years, he held various positions of trust and re- 
sponsibility in connection with the church and congrega- 
tion. He became leader of the choir, superintendent of 
the Sunday-school, class-leader, and ultimately president 
of the Y. M. C, A. in his town. lt^a&\sv.>>s\vs.\as!(.-'<!Ci.\!B«.^ 

capacity that he was delegated to the Indianapolis Con- 
vention, where he met the great crisis of his life. Here 
it may be mentioned that though fortune has since led 
him to sojourn in many towns and cities, both in America 
and Europe, he has remained loyal in heart and in inter- 
est to the home of his youthful days and the scene of his 
earliest efforts in Christian work. 

"In 1870, at Mr. Moody's earnest .solicitation, Mr. 
Sankey resigned a lucrative appointment in connection 
with the Internal Revenue of his native State, and went 
to Chicago to assist in the Christian work which the for- 
mer evangelist had been carrying on in that great and 
growing city. Previous to this, however, he had achieved 
quite an extended reputation as a singer, and leader of 
Christian song, and was in much request at conventions 
and other religious gatherings throughout Pennsylvania 
and the neighboring States. '1 he call to Chicago i>roved 
to be the beginning of bis real life mission. 

"He is not e.xclusively a singer, for no otiie has been 
more active in the work of the inquiry-room, and many 
sonls have been given to him for his hire, during the^e 
years, through his exercise of the gift of personal con- 
verse and speech, as well as directly through the Gospel 
proclaimed in song. To this unity of purpose, of spirit, 
. and of endeavor, on the part of both evangelists, may 
be attributed the fact that God has so manifestly given 
hem favor with the people wherever they have gone." 

■ # * 

Dwight Ljman Moody. 

Mr. D. L. Moody, the noted evangelist, was born on a 
farm near Northfield, Massachusetts, in 1837. His father 
died when he was but four years old and his early life 
■was spent in hard toil. His educational advantages were 
few. When he was 17 years of age he entered the store 
of an uncle in Boston. A few years afterward he went 
to Chicago, 

His earnest Christian spirit exhibited itself in the for- 

mation of a mission and in successful efforts to lead peo- 
ple to Christ. His abilities were recognized by his be- 
ing elected President of the Young Men's Christian As- 

In 1862 he was married to Miss Emma C. Revell wbi> 
has ever been a true helpmeet. 

He has held meetings in the principal cities of the 
United States and Great Britain and many have been 
led to Christ through his instrumentality. 

Lately he has given himself largely to educational 
work having erected school buildings fpr girls at North- 
field, and for boys at Mount Hermon. 

Concerning the school at Mount Hermon Mr, Moody 
writes : 

"Our object in this school is to train and educate young 
men who have natural ability, but whose opportunities 
for education have been limited; and especially young 
men of this class who Icok forward to Christian wotk» 
thus filling a gap, and not coming at alt intoccmpetiticn 
with other schools. lam convinced that if the lower 
classes of our cities are ever to be reached for Christ it 
must he through the agency of men trained specially^ 
not perhaps in classical education, but in methods of 
work and in knowledge of the Bible. We need in our 
American cities more work like that of Mr. McAlI in 
Paris, led by earnest and consecrated men who will held 
meetings as many evenings a week as (he theatres acd 
saloons are open, and thus win the=e thieatenirg and 
dangerous classes to the Lord Jesus Christ. I earnestly 
desire to reach as many of these young men as possible 
and train them for evangelists, city missionaries, secre- 
taries of Y. M. C. A.'s. fkc, giving them a good English , 
education and such additional training as may be neces- 
sary for the work. We have already in attendance young 
men, some of them very promising, gathered from al- 
most all parts of the world — England, Ireland, Scotland, 
Germany, Austria, Armenia, Greece and Japan." 

Touring in Persia. 


When two years ago I was about to set out from Tiflis 
on a journey to the Turcoman country, I was detained 
two months before I could get off. This year I had a 
somewhat similar experience, When just about to leave 
in the beginning of April on a tour to Kurdistan, to the 
south of Lake Oroonuah, the Evangelical Armenian 
pastor in Tabriz, who had just returned from a trip in 
that direction, reported that the roads to the south of 
Maragha were in such a state that it would be very diffi- 
cult to get through to Kurdistan 

I put off my journey, therefore, for a week or two, and 
then when just ready to start news came from New York 
which detained me another month. My time being 
limited, and not having more than three weeks to give 
to the journey, I now made a change in my plan, and 
determined not to go further south than Maragha. 

On Wednesday, May 28th, I had made all my prepa- 
rations, the' horses were at the door, and I was just 
about to mount, when word came from Dr. Holmes, the 
medical missionary of the Presbyterian Board, asking 
me to wait a little. After some time, I got word from 
htm that he had just received a telegram from Maragha, 
giving information in regard to the state of affairs there 
which necessitated another change in my plans. 

Before, however, telling of the journey itself, I must 
go back and give you a little of the elementary informa- 
tion you ask for. Of course you understand that in 
making a journey here something more is necessary 
than to pick up a carpet bag and set out. There is, 
first, the question of horses. If, as in the present case, 
the party is a small one and the baggage is reduced to 
a minimum, one may get along with one's own horses, 
of which missionary families generally have two, and 
sometimes three, or even more. 

In our case we have two, one a carriage and the other 
a riding horse. As. however, there were three in the 
party, ray eldest boy, Cassie, who was nine in July, 
going with me, every one thought we should at least 
have three horses, but I concluded to get along with 
two, and had no reason to regret the decision. If, 
however, the party is a large one, or if a small party 
desires to take much baggage, it is necessary to hire a 
muleteer or charadar, as he is called here, who will 
furnish the number of horses, mules or camels that are 
needed. The latter, however, are almost exclusively 
used for transporting goods. During the fourteen years 
I have been in the East I have only once been on a 
camel's back, and that only for a short distance, in 
crossing a stream. 

Having got your horses, you must see that they are 
in good order, that they are well shod, that their backs 
;ire free from sores and swellings, which would make 
the journey a very uncomfortable one both for man 
and beast, etc. If the horse is a saddle horse, you can 
only put on him a pair of moderate sized hoorjins or 
saddle bags and a roll of bedding or clothing, both 

strapped to the back of the saddle, the hoorjins also 
having a strap which passes under the horse's belly. 
The extra weight which my horse carried, exclusive of 
rider and saddle was, perhaps, about thirty-five pounds. 

The load horse has what is called a palan, a frame 
stuffed with straw and covered with carpet, which cov- 
ers most of the horse's back. On this is placed either 
a pair of large hoorjins or what are called "mafresh," 
which differ from hoorjins in that they have end pieces 
like a box, and are thus better adapted for carrying 
bedding. I had two mafreshes, which, like the hoorjins. 
are made of carpet. The load horse, a much stronger 
animal than the one I rode, in addition to the servant 
and Cassie, carried a weight of seventy or eighty 

Now as to baggage. One must always carry consid- 
erable clothing. I had no occasion to wear my over- 
coat, but it would have been folly to have gone without 
it, as in case one travels very early in the morning or 
late at night, the change of temperature is very great. 
As it was the rainy season, one must have rubbers, not 
only coat and shoes, but leggings and hat, although I 
have made very little use of the last article. Next comes 

It has been my usual practice in place of a mattress to 
take an empty cover and have it filled with straw at the 
places where we stop over night; but it is not alvvays 
possible to do this, and especially at this season, when ■ 
old straw is scarce. I took, therefore, a light mattress 
for Cassie and a bag for myself, slept on the floor, 
and took a light wooden camp bedstead for Cassie. ■ 
Sheets, a colored blanket or rug, a traveling shawl and ■ 
a small pillow for Cassie made up our list of bedding. 

For cooking utensils, a copper kettle (most of the 
Persian vessels are of copper lined with a white metal), 
a small teapot (a most necessary article on a journey, 
tea wonderfully refreshing one after a hard day's ride), 
a kazan or pot for cooking meat, rice, etc., and a " shish " 
or iron skewer on which small pieces of meat are placed I 
to broil before the fire. Towels, cups, saucers, plates, 
knives, forks, spoons, etc. If in Europe it is well to 
have one's own soap and candles, here one must have 
them, also hand towels, comb, brush, etc. 

In addition to writing materials and a couple of Eng- 
lish books besides the Bible, one of them Perthe's 
" Taschen Atlas," the other the last number of the 
"Asiatic Quarterly Review," a Persian and Turkish 
New Testament, a number of Gospels in Persian and 
Turkish, pack.ige of Scripture Texts in Persian, and a 
number of what might be called hand-bills in Persian, 
one side of which is filled with an illustration of the 
Parable of the Sower, with the text and the fourth chap- _ 
ter of John around the sides. I 

I had intended to take a larger number of .Scriptures 
with me, but just before leaving Tabriz two colporteurs 
had been arrested by the order of the Governor, and ■ 
although soon released, yet as orders had been issued 
forbidding the sale of Scriptures by col'^<itVR.N3A<5.,\\N\«v'5,'t<^ 




it best to be a little careful, especially as Ramazan, the 
month of fasting, when Mohammedans are more easily 
€xcited than at other times, was at hand. 

A small piece of carpeting, a rubber blanket to cover 
the load in case of rain, bread, cake, butter, home-made 
crackers and a sort of zwieback, a cooked chicken and 
some other miscellaneous articles, including horse blan- 
ket, halters, servants' bedding and clothing, etc., made 
up our loads. 

At lo A. M. on Thursday, May 19th, we are ready to 
start. Passing along a street lined with dead wall on 
either hand, with here and there a door leading into the 
courts, around which the houses are built, we soon reach 
a small bazar, roofed over the street, and a few hundred 
feet beyond another with little shops on each side, on 
getting out of which we are outside of the city walls in 
the suburbs, which cover a great extent nf ground. The 
street here, although narrow for a European city is much 
wider than inside the wall. 

On the left hand, surrounded by higher walls, we pass 
the Presbyterian Mission premises, consisting of a build- 
ing for a missionary family and a female seminary with 
a considerable extent of ground, and on the right hand 
the residences of two Europeans. Soon we come out 
on a large cemetery, a mass of mounds and upright 
stones (in Mohammedan lands only Mohammedans are 
allowed to set a stone upright by a grave), but there are 
neither trees, nor sod, nor anything to make the place 
attractive. Crossing the cemetery we turn into a road 
going southwards and, although for a mile or so there 
are houses on either side, these gradually give place to 
gardens, or rather vineyards and orchards which extend 
almost all round the city. 

Looking down from above, the city looks like a huge 
village, or rather a collection of villages in the midst of 
vineyards and orchards, a characteristic of most Persian 
cities. Even the day laborer, whose daily wages isabout 
ten cents, has around his mud hut a little plot of land 
with trees and shrubs for which, if he has not the few 
dolljfrs necessary to purchase the place, he pays a 
monthly rent of from fifteen to twenty cents. 

There is a fact worthy of the consideration of those 
writers who tell us that, though the heathen may be 
saved without the (iuspel, yet nevertheless it is neces- 
sary to send it to them for their temporal well being. 
As regards, however, air, water, food, and other material 
comforts, the common people here are not only much 
better ofT than the masses in Russia and in Europe gen- 
erally, they are much better off than multitudes of the 
laboring classes in America, shut up most of their time 
in crowded tenements and factories. It is only in fam- 
ine time that the laborer is unable to get wheat bread, 
and in the summer he has an abundance of fruit. 

A little over two miles from the house we came out 
on the open plain. f)n the left a range of hills runs 
along parallel with the road. Back of these moun- 
tains, and still further back the higher peaks of Shend, 
11,000 feet above the sea, the level of Tabriz being 

about 4,500. The snow remains on the higher peaks 
till July and the cool winds from thence do much to tem- 
per the summer heat. Hot nights are almost unknown. 
The city is nearly surrounded by mountains, the west 
only opening out on the plain in the direction of Lake 

This plain is mainly a salt desert, once covered by the 
waters of the lake. Here and there are small villages, 
but all those of any size are either near or among the 
mountains. This salt desert however has much to do 
with the heakhfulness of Tabriz, its name signifying 
"fever disperser." Where, as in the rich plains of 
Oroomiah and K.hoi, there is much stagnant water in 
the canals which irrigate the fields, sickness, especially 
fever, is rife. 

On our way we meet trains of donkeys going to the 
city, most of them carrying milk, not only cows but also 
sheep milk which is much used here. The donkey here 
is a very useful animal. In fact, without him the peas- 
ant would hardly know what to do. He can be pur- 
chased for $4 or $5, costs but little to keep, is a very 
hardy animal, and in proportion to his size and value 
carries much more than the horse. 

It is a common thing to see a good-sized man riding 
a small donkey with his feet almost on the ground, and 
the large donkeys, which however cost more, carry from 
I So to 200 pounds, whereas 300 is a good load for a 

About five miles out we come again on cultivated 
fields and stop at an arkh or small stream which runs 
across the road, to water the animals and readjust the 
load which hangs over on one side. A Mussulman 
stands here, and asks for a present but as he will not 
give Cassie a drink out of the pail which he holds in 
his hand, on the plea that it would thereby be defiled, I 
decline to give him anything. It is always necessary to 
have a cup or glass or something of the sort handy, as 
the Persian Mohammedans {not the Turks) generally 
refuse to allow a Christian to drink out of an earthen 

A little way further on a man rides up with a gun 
slung behind his back. As it is a very common thing for 
people to carry weapons, guns, pistols, swords, daggers, 
etc., his appearance excites no comment. In this case, 
however, it was perhaps as well that we met him as he 
met us where he did — on the broad highway and not in 
some lonely place among the hills or defile in the moun- 
tains. His antecedents are worth noticing. 

Some ten miles further on among the mountains there 
is a large village or town, called Ueski, of perhaps 5,000 
inhabitants. The place is notorious through all the 
country round for the disorderly character of its inhab- 
itants. Especially is it noted for its looties, cutthroats, 
highwaymen who have been the terror of the region. It 
is not easy to find a ruler to keep this people in check. 
Not long ago they rose and expelled their governor. I 
had some experience of them some years ago. 

I visited the place, taking some Scriptures with me, 

and sent out my servant to sell them in the bazar. He 
soon came back, saying that a man had taken some 
books from him and was trying to fasten a quarrel upon 
him. It was with difficulty that I got back the books, 
and, on leaving the place narrowly escaped being robbed. 
Two of the looties, as I afterwards heard had concerted 
a plan to waylay me on the road. They calculated, 
however, that I would remain longer than I did, and al- 
though they started after me as soon as they heard of 
my departure, I was too far ahead for them to catch up. 

The man I have just referred to was from this place, 
and not only so but was a notorious looter himself. 
Some five years ago he found it expedient to go to Ker- 
bila, the sacred place of the Shies. Returning, he re- 
ceived word from the Vali Ahd (Crown Prince) at Ta- 
briz, that he wished to see him and, on going thither, 
was made a servant of the Prince with a view of keep- 
ing him away from his former associates and career. 
This is by no means an uncommon policy in Persia. 
Last year three desperadoes who had been the terror of 
the easterly districts of Tabriz, levying black-mail upon 
the inhabitants, and killing any who dared to oppose 
them, were caught and killed- Previously, however, an 
attempt was made to win over the leader of the band by 
ofTering him a place and salary in the Governor Gen- 
eral's service. He soon tired of this and returned to his 
former habits. 

Entering into conversation with this man he informed 
me that he had rented a village, a mile or two to the left 
of the road and invited me to call on him there. As I 
visit the place it is not impossible I may some time ac- 
cept his invitation, and may find the influence of this 
former robber useful in advancing the interests of the 
kingdom of God. 

.\scending a hill we now had a fine view of the vine- 
yards and orchards of this village of Serdan which lay 
below us, presenting an aspect the more agreeable be- 
cause of the contrast with the barren mountains and 
plains aroand. The Orient is a land of contrasts. Where 
there is water, there is life; wliere it ends, there is 
death, although the contrast in May is not as sharp as 
later on, as the Spring showers call forth a certain 
amount of vegetation even in the salt desert. 

It is now past noon and the heat would be very great 
but thunder clouds have arisen in the east and cut off 
the hot rays of the sun. At the door of a caravanserai 
our road acquaintance leaves us and we press on as I 
do not wish to make a halt yet. I had been there only a 
couple of weeks before and had stopped at a little tea 
shop at the end of the village. 

By the way, it may interest some of your prohibition 
friends to know that the Shah of Persia lately judged it 
expedient to shut up tea and cofTee houses. Some of 
the grounds of this decision were as follows: That such 
places were the resort of disreputable characters; that 
tea drinking and opium smoking were closely connected 
together; that fathers and husbands spent too much of 
their time and money there, and that tea being a foreign 

product, there was ground to fear that the country would 
be impoverished by a rapid increase in the sale of that 
article. As a result of this decision, the larger places 
have been shut up, but under one pretext or another the 
smaller are opening again. 

But to come back to my visit. I had been to the 
place a number of times before, and as soon as I entered 
the tea house a crowd gathered around. It was scarcely 
necessary for me to speak, for as soon as they were seated 
on the matting, one of them who seemed to be a man of 
some influence said to the others; ''You know what we 
are, liars, thieves and evil-doers, but these are men who 
speak the truth, are honest in their dealings." "There 
must be something in their religion to account for this." 
The others assented and I thus had a good opportunity 
of setting forth Jesus Christ as not only the great 
teacher but as the life giver and purifier from sin. 

I mention this here in connection with the question 
so often asked as to the result of missionary work. If 
tested by the number of converts, the results of mission- 
ary work among Mohammedans in Tabriz are as yet 
very small. This is, however, by no means the only test. 
The preaching of the Gospel is itself a result. Where- 
ever the Gospel has been preached, there the commission 
as given in Mark has been fulfilled, and it is with the ful- 
fillment of this side of the commission that the end of 
all things is connected. (Mat. 24: 14.) 

Answering the question from this standpoint I can 
say that especially during the early years of missionary 
work in Tabriz and the country round, from 1873 to 1877 
or 1878, the Gospel was proclaimed to tens of thousands. 
This is not, however, the special point to which I here 
desire to call attention. Leaving this out of view, the 
number of converts is not the only test of the results of 
missionary work. There is, as in the case above men- 
tioned at Serdari, a preparation for the reception of the 
Gospel which is of great importance. 

When I first came to Tabriz, in 1873, there was a pre- 
judice on the part both of Mohammedans and Armenians 
against Evangelical Christianity. By the former we 
were regarded as atheists and the latter circulated a story 
to the effect that we had a picture of the Virgin Mary 
which we first spat upon and then trampled under foot. 
This was the sort of testimony which was borne to us in 
those days. The change from this to the testimony at 
Serdari is a great one, and testimony such as this is a 
common thing in these days. 

Leaving Serdari behind us we come to a place where 
two roads meet, the left-hand road going to Ueski and 
other villages in the mountains, while that to the right, 
which we follow, is the main road. A little way further 
on is a caravanserai where we stop to rest the horses and 
take lunch. Passing the gate we enter a covered way 
under the main building where we dismount and remove 
the loads. On either side are banks of earth, two feet 
or so above the ground, and on one of these covered 
with hassir, or piece of reed matting, we sit down. Above 
are rooms for travelers, and beYotvd \.\\«. t<as«.\^^ ■^•»:% ^ 



large quadrangle around the sides of which are numer- 
ous rings and mangers for horses and doors opening into 
stables which occupy three sides of the building and 
part of the fourth. 

The place is on a large scale for these days, but like 
most other caravanserais outside the large cities is built 
of mud and unburnt brick. In the palmy days of Shah 
Abbas, the contemporary of Queen Elizabeth, the cara- 
vanserais were made of stone and burnt brick with arched 
gateways and domes, which present quite an imposing 
appearance. Some few of these still remain but in ruins. 
And as with caravanserais, so with other public buildings 
such as mosques and palaces, and works of public utility 
such as bridges and roads. 

What is old and fine is in ruins or decay, and what is 
new is poor and mean. The same remark applies some- 
what to the products of Persian handiwork and also to 
literature. There is, indeed, need of a change for the 
better but this change is not to be brought about, as 
many think, by the introduction of superficial varnish of 
European civilization and education which only hastens 
the process of decay. 

The closer the contact between poor countries like 
Persia with a European land the more the higher classes 
especially imitate European manners and modes of life, 
the more rapidly the country is drained of its resources. 
European civilization in most cases means spending 
more for food and clothing and for the procuring of 
foreign luxuries, and the addition of other vices to those 
which the people already have. 

As the Constantinople Turks are the worst of all Turks 
so the Teheran Persians are the worst of all Persians. 
But as with the land so with the people. You can take 
a piece of salt desert, and if you can procure sufficient 
water, can change it into a garden of the Lord. So, re- 
membering what the Persians have accomplished in past 
times, remembering also the intellectual power which 
they still evince, we may believe that a radical change in 
the heart and life of this people would along with the 
spiritual blessing, bring also great temporal blessings. 
[To be continue J.) 

The Indnstriiil Deparlnient of Cobleigh Seminary. 


Being fully persuaded that when the Lord calls a man 
to preach the Ciospel of Jesus Christ He also causes him 
to be willing to work to support himself if need be, and 
also that a man who supports himself is nu)re indepen- 
dent, manly, and better satisfied with himself, and bet- 
ter able to grapple with the unsolved problem of self- 
support, and that the Church holds such in special 
honor, a short time after our appointment in the fall of 
1885 to Cobleigh Seminary, then consisting of one theo- 
logical class of abouta do^en men, all dependent on the 
Church for their support, we called these young men 
together and offered to furnish them work and pay them 
ior the work done. 


They at once became interested in the scheme an(f 
freely volunteered to adopt the plan, notwithstanding 
the fact that all or nearly all theological students inj 
non-Christian countries are beneficiaries of the Church." 

Accordingly, when we opened the English depart- 
ment of the Seminary in January, 1886, those most ad 
vanced were employed to teach in the lower classes, 
translation, etc., two were given the care of the build 
ings and grounds, and the rest were provided with work 
on a kind of a pasteboard toy. They entered with great 
zeal upon this work and their interest did not decrease 
as might have been expected but continued to the endJ 
of the school year. ■ 

Other young men came desiring to become theological 
students, so we finally determined to open this industrial 
department to other students besides those pursuing 
theological course of study, and to carry on this part o 
the work by prmiie unsolidted contribuliom made b 
those moved of the Lord to aid indigent students in ac 
quiring a Christian education. The reasons for such 
step were., first and chief, to impress by a practical illus 
tration the great truths that there is a Cod, and that he 
hears and answers prayer. J 

If it can be shown that simply in answer to prayer 
the Lord provides the means to keep a large class of 
poor students in our school here in Nagasaki, where thel 
people have so long and so eifectually withstood the" 
influences of Christianity, we will raise up a witness that 
will bear constant and incontrovertible testimony to th< 
truth and power of the Gospel we preach. 

In the second place we didn't want to place a premiunil 
on theological students, as if this department was oper 
only to them, many whom God never had called to the 
work of the ministry would seek to enter for the sake of] 
the education to be obtained thereby. 

Again, by this means we can provide a Christian edu- 
cation for a goodly number of young men who, beyond 
the limited opportunities afforded by their native villages 
would have no means of procuring an English, much | 
a C'hristian education. 

Moreover, as we donate the products of the man" 
labor performed in this department to churches and 
Sunday-schools in America to be sold for the purposes 
of increasing their missionary collections, we expect to 
see our work in Nagasaki contribute yearly in this man- 
ner a large sum to the cause of missions. 

As a further result we hope to see church memt 
and Sunday-school scholars become not only interestcdJ 
in our Nagasaki work but more interested in mission] 
work in general. 

The following 


under which students may receive assistanc«; in defray- 
ing their school expenses in Cobleigh Seminary were 
adopted : 

I. Only worthy Students will be accepted or retained] 
in the school. 


3. It must be satisfactorily shown that the student is 
not able to provide in any other way for these expenses. 

3. He must carefully keep all the rules of the school 
including the payment of one yen entrance fee, provide 
a responsible security and make the deposit required by 
the school boarding club. 

4. If addicted to the use of tobacco he must give up 
the habit. 

5. The assistance offered will consist of money paid 
for work of some kind that will be provided for the stu- 
dent, and only for work actually done will money be 

6. Work will be provided to the amount of fifty hours 
per month, and for this a sura sufficient to meet all the 
expenses pertaining to the school will be paid, 

7. If at any time, it shall become necessary to with- 
draw this assistance, one month's notice will be given by 
the teacher who has charge of this department. 

A student may forfeit all assistance at any time by 
disobeying the rules of the school. 

8. Students are not expected to remain in the Serai- 
nary during the summer vacation. 

9. No traveling expenses can be paid- 

10. It is expected that more applications for admis- 
sion under these rules will be made than can at once be 
granted, accordingly, each applicant's case will be dealt 
with in the order in which the application was made (un- 
less there should happen to be a donation for some 
particular student). No student living at a distance 
from Nagasaki should come expecting admission under 
these rules until called by the teacher, as there may be 
others who had applied previously and whose cases must 
be considered in their order. 

11. This promise of assistance closes with the school 
year, June 30th, and must not be understood to extend 
to the following year unlit a new agreement has been en- 
tered into. 

The case of old students for admission to the follow- 
ing year will be considered before that of new applicants, 
but their order will depend largely on their standing in 
the school. 


From the beginning we foresaw that students could 
not compete with the cheap labor of Japan and by two 
hour's work a day bring in a return in money sufficient 
to support themselves, so instead of trying to make the 
work self-supporting we adopted the plan of supplying 
the necessary money by contributiom and are thus ena- 
bled to donate the articles manufactured by the students 
to the Sunday-schools and churches in America. Thus 
far, what we have sent has been by friends returning to 
America, but we hope before long to establish de- 
positories where these articles can be obtained by pas- 
tors and superintendents free, or perhaps at a slight cost 
to cover transportation expenses, it being understood 
that the proceeds of sales are not to be sent to Cobleigh 
Seminary but are to be added to the missionary collec- 
tion. These articles are packed in small boxes made of 

camphor-wood and each box is supposed to contain 
enough to net $10, though of course the amount derived 
from the sale will vary in different localities. ■ 

These boxes are especially designed for those places 
where the missionary money is raised with difficulty, to 
aid in securing the last lio of the collection. J 

As has been shown, this department has aided thirty- ■ 
eight in the Seminary for the whole or a part of the year 
just closed. Although we have taken no pains to adver- 
tise this work applications for admission to this depart- 
ment are coming from all parts of this island of Kiushiu, 
also from Shikoku and the main island. We can take 
only a small proportion of the applicants but have ar- 
ranged to start in September with fifty. One hundred dol- 
lars will provide for three students for one school year, and 
as shown above money contributed for this purpose will 
not only aid a student in gaining a Christian education, 
but will also in whole, or in part at any rate, make its 
way into the missionary treasury and thus do a double 

The proportion of the students in the Industrial De- 
partment that have become Christians during the year is 
surprisingly large when we compare that department 
with the whole school. 

Of the twenty-five English Department students in his 
department, five were Christians when they entered, 
eleven of the remaining twenty are now enrolled as proba- 
tioners or church members. In other words, while these 
twenty-five are only one sixth of the school, one-half of 
our converts came from this Department. 

Nagataki, Japan. 

The World for Christ 


The world for Christ ! Is this too much to expect — 
too much too desire ? Is it too much for our faith ? If 
so, does it not humiliatingly constrain us to acknowledge 
that it is exceedingly defective, and far below the Bible 
standard. Can anything less than the world for Christ 
satisfy a scriptural faith? Jesus died for the world, and 
thereby made ample provision for its salvation — for it he 
is interceeding in heaven — and he has organized a 
church, the great commission of which is to preach the 
Gospel to every creature " — " to disciple all nations," and 
this commission is a command, and it is imperative, and 
must be obeyed. Long has it been disregarded — long 
has the church been recreant to its divinely revealed I 
duty and obligation. Its faith has been too weak — it 
needs toning up to the Bible requirement. Then, the 
head and heart, the praying, teaching and giving, will be ■ 
right ; the pulpit and pew will speak with utterances, ac- 
companied with such acts as shall demonstrate to the 
world that it should and must yield to the all conquer- 
ing Christ. 

Methodism has done nobly in pushing the battle for 
the world's salvation, and its success has been marvel, 
ous; nothing like it in the Kvstovj vA Ocv\\sX\ai.'«>\?^ ,\i\;c<^ 



crowning glory yet remains in urging on with increasing 
earnestness the glorious strife to the final conijuest. By 
its million for missions the past year^ it has placed itself 
financially in the front rank of all missionary agencies, 
but this great achievement should encourage, stimulate 
anti urge it not only to maintain its present noble posi- 
tion, but to lead with greater force and earnestness the 
warring hosts in the great battlefield, till: 

"That song of triumph which records 
That ail the earth is now the Lord'si." 

Much remains to be done — very much — the vast oppos- 
ing force to conquer is strong, well disciplined, etjuipped 
and marshalled, and is determined by every means 
in its power to maintain its ground and resist every as- 
sault. The battle will be earnes.. determined, and wax 
stronger and stronger, but let no hearts grow faint, nor 
any discouraging feeling be entertained, for ImmanueFs 
army wiU triumph, for its great Leader " shall overcome, 
for he is King of Kings and Lord of Lords." God has 
declared that " all the earth shall be full of the gIo5y of 
the Lord." 

The world for Christ! We repeat it and take the inspir- 
ing thought to our heart of hearts. Let it be the watch- 
word all along every line of thought and labor; from the 
pulpit and pew, Sunday Schools, the social meetings of 
the church, and from every Christian home, let the grand 
refrain swell in e.xultant song, the tvorlJ for Christ I 

Is the Bulgarian Mission a Failure! 


The impression seems to prevail in some quarters that 
our mission in Bulgaria is, alf things considered, so far 
short of real success that it ought to be considered a 
failure, and treated accordingly. But the failure of re- 
peated attempts to abandon this field shows that it has 
a hold upon the heart and conscience of the Church 
that may not readily be rela.ved. Each unusual discus- 
sion is followed by a vote decidedly in favor of "contin- 
uing the experiment." A considerable sum of money 
and a fair corps of workers are kept employed from year 
to year despite the vigorous protests of an able mi- 

It is the purpose of this article to present, as far as 
possible, an unprejudiced view of this much discussed 
field and the reasons why it ought not to be abandoned. 

That the number of persons in the visible commun- 
ion of our church is small must be admitted at the out- 
set. Nor can it be denied that thirty years have passed 
away since we professed to occupy this field, and that 
we have expended a sum of money verging on a quarter 
of a million since we undertook the work. But if it shall 
appear that our general management has been sedouslv 
lacking in continuity, and our polity has been almost 
uniformly tentative, we must attribute the paucity of re- 
sults to these causes rather than any difficulty inherent 
in the field itself. 

It is true that the mission was "established " in 1857, 




but our establishment consisted of two untried mission- 
aries, occupying rented quarters, and with no accesso- 
ries in the form of school or printing press. 

After seven years of such occupation, one of the mis-J 
sionaries returned to America and the other retired toJ 
Constantinople to engage in literary work. No real es- 
tate had been acquired, no school opened, and no church _ 
established. I 

True one efficient missionary had been sent out to fill 
the place of the four promised as reinforcements, but 
he had been almost immediately diverted to a field ir 
no sense Bulgarian, and his work was all in the Russian^ 

From 1864 to 1870, no missionary of our church lived 
on the field. Good work was being done in the transla- 
tion of the Holy Scriptures and the publication of books 
and periodicals at Constantinople, and a church and 
flourishing school were growing upatTultcha; but this 
one was outside the field and the other outside the tribe 
we undertook to evangelize. M 

An annual visit from Constantinople was the extent oF" 
our personal occupation of Bulgaria for the whole of 
these six years ! 

In 1870 the promising work among the Russians ir 
Tultcha was abandoned and the missionary with a ne* 
assistant from America settled in the Bulgarian city of 
Rustchuk, where he commenced work in a language al- 
most new to himself and entirely so to his assistant.! 
But fourteen years of "unsuccessful " work in " Bulga- 
ria " had discouraged the church and the missionaries 
were recalled in 187 1 I ■ 

Rut still consistent with our vacilating policy we sent 
back Bro. Flocken in 1873 with another new assistant 
The assistant returned the same year on account of il 
health, and Bro. F. was left to toil alone till 1875, whe 
two new men were sent to his assistance. 

Eighteen years had passed and we were still without 
a permanent abode and were just beginning our educa-- 
tional work in rented quarters. I 

In 1876 the first annua! meeting was convened in 
Rustchuk, where three missionaries with si.\ native as- 
sistants were regularly assigned to fields of laborJ 
Surety this was not a bad showing for the three years 
since the work was reopened ! F'air success attended 
the labors of the missionaries that year and increase ofl 
membership was reported from the principal points 
occupied. But the times were inauspicious. Terror 
spread like a pall over the whole land, and the war ol 
1877 easily broke up our missions " on wheels." 

When in 1879 the missionaries were returned for an 
other "tentative " occupation of the field, the indiffer- 
ent Turk had given place to the hostile Russian, in the, 
chief political power they had to encounter, and a c 
fiict with the authorities was inevitable as soon as 
undertook a seriously aggressive work. 

The sharpness of that conflict and its successful te: 
mination are matters of history. It was, perhaps, we 
that we were compelled to give attention to but " on^ 






war at a time," but it did seem like a " mysterious prov- 
idence " that just in this hour of triumph over the 
enemy in the field, the fiercest attack should be made 
upon our base of supplies ! 

1884, J885, 1886 were years of great significance to 
our work. The gradual unmasking of Russia, and the 
series of blunders by which she has been eliminated 
from the domestic politics of Bulgaria have added 
greatly to the respect entertained for us and our work 
by the people to whom we were sent. 

The annua! meeting, held in July of last year, was 
the most enthusiastic and thoroughly self-respecting 
body of the kind we ever convened. Upwards of thirty 
workers "of all arms " were assigned to fields of labor. 
Six young preachers, educated in Bulgaria, are now in 
our ranks. A girls' high school and a boys' literary and 
theological institute are in successful operation, with all 
the patronage they can take care of. Four primary 
schools are established and petitions were presented 
asking for two more, with the promise of liberal contri- 
butions toward self support. Congregations have 
doubled, and in many villages our young itinerants are 
welcomed by the people. 

We own real estate in four principal cities, and our 
work is regarded by the community permanently estab- 
lished. Those reached by the Gospel number vastly 
more than our members or our regular congregations. 
The Scriptures are now in almost every reading family 
in the land. Our hymns are frequently heard in the 
public schools, and our members are regarded the most 
trustworthy employees. The increased patronage of 
our schools among the better citizens, most of whom 
place no restrictions upon the religious instruction of 
the pupils confided to us, the conversions constantly 
taking place in the schools — all these are signs encour- 
aging us to expect a more rapid growth of actual mem- 
bership in the near future. 

It is true the extraordinary expectations entertained 
by the Church when Bulgaria was entered thirty years 
ago, were never realized, and in the nature of things 
they could not be realized. The people were agitated 
over the question of emancipation from a foreign eccle- 
siasticism and the establishment of a church purely 
national. They were actuated by motives political 
rather than religious, and while entertaining the most 
friendly feeling toward Americans as such, they had no 
thought of adopting our religion. But they could and 
did appreciate American education, and had we pro- 
ceeded at once to open schools among them we would 
not now be lamenting our want of success. 

It is not fair to call Bulgaria a hard field because a 
policy that would succeed nowhere else, could not suc- 
ceed there. If it was wise to offer bread to starving 
Chinamen before talking to them about their souls, it 
surely would not be wrong to help the Bulgarians to the 
education they were thirsting for before trying to give 
them the Gospel they knew nothing about. 

By our failure to seize this vantage ground we lost 

twenty years of valuable time and allowed the public 
schools of that country to pass largely, almost univer- 
sally into the hands of modern infidelity. The immoral 
and infidel influences that pervade them are now driving 
those parents who would save their children, to send them 
to our schools. 

If we are not willing to generously sustain our schools, 
it were better to withdraw entirely and at once, and allow 
other hands to gather the fruit. The work does not call 
for extravagant investments of money and men. Two 
additional Americans ought to be on the field at once, 
and the already existing institutions should be properly 
sustained and the work allowed to grow naturally. 

This is all the workers on the field ask for and surely 
it is not becoming in a church like ours to maintain a 
starveling in a position of such importance. It is most 
unjust to keep the force of Americans so small that the 
work is severely crippled by the failure or absence of one. 
The small number of Bulgarians as compared with cer- 
tain other tribes is no excuse for parsimony in dealing 
with the mission. They are a people of strong character 
and intense national feelings. The noble fight they have 
maintained against such fearful odds fully demonstrates 
their right to live. 

They have set up and successfully maintained a free 
government right in the home of despotism. Their most 
serious need to-day is the firm, moral character that comes 
from a general spread of the Gospel. We are on the 
ground; let iis not fail of our duty in giving them the 
strong reinforcf ment that comes from a pure Christianity. 

Meeting of the Evangelical Alliance in Washington 


In response to a call made by the Evangelical Alliance 
a large number of leading representatives of the different 
Protestant F>angelical Churches of the United States 
assembled in the First Congregational Church in Wash- 
ington City, on December 7, and remained in session 
several days. The meeting was held to consider the 
present perils and opportunities of the Christian Church 
and of this country. The proceedings are to be pub- 
lished in book form and will no doubt be found deeply 
interesting. We make the following extracts from 
different addresses made for which we are largely in- 
debted to the JVew York Obsen<er. 
Hon. W. E. Dodge, of New York :— 

We profess to be a Christian country, and we have 
advanced, perhaps, further than has been reached be- 
fore — but the leaven has not entered the whole mass. 

Probably one-half of our people never enter a church. 
When we send out missionaries to foreign countries, 
rum and licentiousness go out with or before them from 
our Christian land, and get to work before our ministers 
can learn the language. 

Every advance of our Christian civilization westward, 
forms first a settlement so crowded with saloons and 
gambling houses that it is a. \\e.V\ ow t'a.\'0^, -a-vv^ \vi. 

character half formed, before our churches are on the 
ground ; and then men and means are so scanty that 
often it is only a forlorn hope. 

We pride ourselves on our magnificent growth as a 
country, our increasing wealth, our pride of life, and 
our material prosperity ; but all history shows that 
these are always the precursors of decay and ruin, if a 
deep foundation of morality and religion has not been 

At the Harvard anniversary, Mr. Lowell said : " Ma- 
terial success is good, but only as the necessary prelim- 
inary of better things. The measure of a nation's true 
success is the amount it has contributed to the thought, 
the moral energy, the intellectual happiness, the 
spiritual hope and consolation of mankind." 

We have been educated into a sort of fatality — a be- 
lief that God would always care for our country, and 
we had little to do but to stand still and see His salvation. 
But this is not Gospel or common sense. For the first 
time in history a country teeming with every treasure 
has been put into the hands of an intelligent people, 
with God's word in their hands and His promises be- 
hind them, and His cheer always. We must "workout 
our own salvation with fear and trembling," but with 
the joyous certainty that God worketh with us. 

We need a new revival, not only of higher spirituality, 
but of the complete acceptance of the idea that each 
Christian man has a real work to do for which he is 
responsible. Such a revival as the Crusades were, or 
the Reformation ! Such a stirring uf the whole church 
as came to both sections of our common country, when 
every man was willing to give all he had, even his life, 
to the cause he believed vital. 

Rev. S. L. Balowin, d,d., of Boston : — 

The people of this country may well consider whether 
the time has not come for laying some restrictions upon 
immigration ; but, as is often the case, we began at the 
wrong end, and restricted immigration at the Golden 
Gate when we ought to have done it at Sandy Hook. The 
industrious, peaceable Chinaman should not be e.x- 
cluded, while lawless Socialists are freely admitted. 
.Vo preference should be given to immigrants from Chris- 
tian Europe over those from Pagan Asia, in cases where 
the facts prove the Pagan to be the more Christian of 
the two. If an immigration law, imposing a moderate 
tax on immigrants, and requiring a certificate from the 
American Consul at the port from which they sail, as to 
their moral character, could be passed and enforced, it 
might prove a very beneficial measure. Christianity 
can approve of such a measure. But the present 
Chinese Law is an abomination. We complain of the 
Chinese that they do not become citizens, and proceed 
to remedy that evil by passing a law that they shall not 
be allowed to become citizens. We complain that they 
are not Christians, and then proceed to commend 
Christianity to them by breaking their windows, and 
^ometimea their head<, even in Boston. Is it any won- 

der that they are not suddenly and universally charmed 
with Christianity? 

When a Chinese mob raged about the residence of 
my colleague Martin at Foochow,and he broke through 
the plastered partition between his house and the 
Taoist Temple adjoining, the Taoist priests took him 
and his family under their shelter, and in the presence 
of the grimy gods of heathenism they dwelt secure dur- 
ing that dreadful night. When the poor hunted Chi- 
nese of Rock Springs were fleeing from their murderous 
pursuers, one sought shelter in the house of a Christian 
minister, but was told that he had better move on, and 
he did move on to his death. How long will it take 
this kind of reciprocity to win the Chinese to Christ ? 
These murderous men, thank God, were not Americans, 
it is true; but the fact remains that they were ignorant, _ 
vicious foreigners from Europe, whose immigration we I 
were encouraging by hundreds of thousands in a single 
year, while our politicians were standing aghast at an 
immigration of peaceful Chinamen, which had barely 
reached the run of one hundred thousand in a quarter 
of a century. 

We have cause for gratitude to God, however, that, 
in spite of all this. Christian kindness and the Christian 
Gospel are at work among our Chinese immigrants and 
are finding the way to their hearts. J 

Briefly, then, let Christian statements deal with this 
immigration question on lines of Christian principle, 
looking to the securing of peaceful and law-abiding ■ 
citizens, and doing away with all discriminations against 
a particular race. Let Christian philanthropy meet all 
the immigrants who come, protecting them from the 
sharpers who meet them at Castle Garden and put them 
in danger of becoming paupers in twenty-four hours if 
they are not so already. Let it meet them with the 
Gospel of Christ and give them the right start in their 
new home. them be protected in their just rights. 

Rev. D. Dorchester, d.d., of Boston : — 

Massed populations are the radiating centers of civili- 
zation. From the cities the rural sections receive their 
moral stamp as well as their fashions and customs. 
Cities are the world's moral battle-grounds. Hence 
the moral significance of the problem of the cities. 
The destiny of the nation depends on its solution. But 
first we need to understand the/m/j' of the cities. 

I. Peril from rapid growths of population. — The 
tendency to a congestion of populations has been a 
marked phenomenon in all histoiy. The growth of 
city populations in this country has been most wonder- 
ful, for it has occurred contemporaneously with the in- ■ 
crease of the States from thirteen to thirty- eight and 
great progress in the territories. At the opening of 
this century only six communities had 8,000 inhabit- J 
ants and over. In 1880 they numbered 286, and 22.5 ■ 
per cent, of our whole population. From 1840 to 1880 
the population of the fifty leading cities of the United 
States increased sixfold, while that of the whole coun- 



try increased threefold. But the relative increase of 
these fifty cities is becoming smaller in each separate 
decade. The gain upon the population from 1840 to 
1S50 was 78 per cent. ; but from 1870 to 1880 it was 
only 37 per cent. The fact of this rapid city growth, 
however, is not an unmixed peril. It has its advan- 
tages, in bringing people together where they can be 
reached by Christian influence. But the peril lies at 
this point, that it is a task of great magnitude to follow 
up this municipal growth, to furnish these cities with 
religious influences, to make lodgments of Christian 
truth in the hearts of the surging masses and to capture 
and hold them to Christianity. 

a. Peril from large accessions of vicious classes. — 
The manifold corrupt elements concentrating in the 
cities produce hideous congestions of evil. These 
slums are re-enforced from several sources. The rural 
districts furnish the cities with valuable additions of 
virtue and intelligence ; but, along with these, come 
other classes of a very different type. Commerce with its 
great advantages brings serious disadvantages to mari- 
time cities. Familiarity with the v/hole world as the 
result of commerce also means familiarity with the vices 
of all nations; thus, our large seaports absorb the vices 
of the world. Quarantine provisions protect us from 
foreign pestilences, but not from foreign I'ices. Fur- 
thermore, the law of growth inheres in sin as well as in 
virtue. Large aggregates of vicious people intensify 
evil, making city slums Satan's seat. 

3. Peril from heterogeneous elements, — A citizenship 
unassimilated into the national, moral and religious life 
of a people is a peril. No nation is so greatly exposed 
to this peril as our own. Its sources are concentrated 
in our cities. If the additions to our cities were homo- 
geneous in race and general ideas, the case would be 
more tolerable. How different is London with only 
1.6 percent, of its population foreign born! But with 
us is found every conceivable nationality, all shades of 
religion and the darker shadows of no religion. What 
a polyglot population ! Taking the leading fifty cities 
of the whole country and it will be safe to say that 54 
per cent, of the people are of the first and second 
degree foreign ; giving a foreign population of 4,194,617 
in these fifty cities. 

4. Peril fron Romanism. — Our religious life is antag- 
onized in an organized form directed by a foreign 
pontiff, who assumes to control alike educational, 
social, religious and political matter. Romanism is con- 
centrated in our cities. Then Dr. Dorchester cited 
statistics that seemed to indicate that the Romish 
Ctiurch has passed the period of its most rapid numeri- 
cal growth in the large cities. But the Roman Catholics 
are miking a very clf2Ctive organization of their forces. 
By thetr religious brotherhoods and sisterhoods, its 
eJucttio.iil and chiritable institutions, a great power is 
exerted in our cities. 

5. Peril deliint foreign radicalism. — The Old 
World has sent to our shores, with its tides of immi- 


gration, radical theorists who assail the foundation of 
our government, social order and religion. Their 
theories have been promulgated especially in the cities..! 
Inflammable edicts issue from their atheistic press, so 
hot with rage that our blood chills as we read them. 
This literature is disseminated with a dead-in-earnest 
zeal. These persons form the worst class of ourforf ign- 
born population ; and by their setting aside our Ameri- 
can Sabbath and introducing the Continental Sunday ■ 
they furnish facts and create conditions of society ■ 
which most seriously imperil the cities in which they 

6. Peril of misrule. — The American policy of rule b 
the people is now put to a severe test. " Ring-rule " i 
predominant in the cities.. Often the primaries of elec- 
tions are held in low saloons where good citizens will 
not go. Municipal administration has fallen into the 
hands of corrupt men. The police reflect the bad 
character of the city officials who appoint them. Crimes _ 
are perpetrated with impunity. And worse than all, I 
the fountain-head of justice is sometimes submissive to 
" the gang." Administration of law is thus at the mercy 
of the low elements of society, the ward politicians and 
saloon-keepers. The relative decline of Roman Cath- 
olic immigration and the larger Protestant immigration 
since 1870, Dr. Dorchester quoted as helpful factors. ■ 
Yet, while this is true there still remain large areas 
destitute of evangelizing influences. Other perils were 
briefly dwelt upon. 

Rev. S. J, McPherson, d.d., of Chicago:— 

The city has always been the decisive battle ground 
of civilization and religion. It intensifies all the natural 
tendencies of man, especially fallen man. From its 
fomented energies, as well as from its greater weight of 
numbers, the city controls. Ancient civilizations rote 
and fell with their leading cities. In modern times, it 
is hardly too much to say: as goes the city so goes the 

The Gospel must follow these lines of autocratic 
influence. Oar Savior enjoins "that repentance and 
remission of sins should be preached unto all nations, 
beginning at Jerusalem," the religious capital. St. 
Paul's missionary methods obediently made every city 
the nucleus of developing activities. Hence, opposition 
to Christianity came to be known as paganism, or the 
life of the rural districts. 

Bad men, in every age, have been quick to utilize the- 
city as the center of their operations. Every peril,, 
which specialists are to discuss at this conference, has 
its fortified base in the city. There, in the citadel of ■ 
each, the duel between Christ and anti-christ is climac- 
teric to the death. There also the hosts of Peril are 
most deeply intrenched. One rampart, for example, is fl 
the ease of concealment, which a city gives to crimes 
and vices, lurking in the ambush of a great crowd. A 
settled home and an acquaintance with one's neighbors 
are no longer sa(e-^uakxd%. 




The garrison of anti-christ finds another bulwark in 
urban perils to the body. Squalor and disease are nat- 
ural defences of sin. Difficulty in securing pure air, 
pure water, and pure food, tend to put virtue out of 
reach. As Victor Hugo shows so rhetorically in " Les 
Miserables," the sewer describes in parable the waste 
and the contamination which flow beneath the surface 
of every city. Christianity must not forget that Christ's 
mission included healing of physical ills, which are so 
closely allied with the moral life. 

The city also arms the enemies of God with bad hab- 
its. A primary one is that pre-occupation of mind 
which leaves to many men neither time nor energy for 
considering their spiritual interests. This habit is fos- 
tered in the city by the multiplication of activities, by 
the allurements of frivolous amusements, and the fierce 
strife for wealth and position. 

The city likewise makes life conventional and arti- 
ficial, and so shuts the normal susceptibilities within a 
coat of mail. Society is filled with mannerists ; the 
church, with Pharisees. 

There follow naturally in the city, the gradations of 
caste, which first divides men into classes, and then 
keeps them apart, like Hindus. 

Thence emerges, oftentimes, the peril of skepticism 
in the city, which is terribly endangered by the witchery 
of easy new theories, and by experimenting with patch- 
work reforms. It grows quickly impatient with the deep 
cutting requirement of regeneration, consenting to have 
its hurts healed slightly. It doubtf, and doubts, with 
superficial skepticism. 

These permanent perils of the city are enormously 
swelled by the unparalleled change in modern social 

Probably no population was ever so largely foreign 
and so heterogeneous as ours. Unlike the early colo- 
nists, our modern immigrants are neither homogeneous 
in our new communities, nor do they come usually from 
the best classes of the Old World. The worst of them 
commonly settle as parasites in the large cities. More- 
over, they frequently aggregate in separate localities, 
speaking foreign languages, maintaining foreign cus- 
toniF, and perhaps propagating alien religions orirrelig- 
ions. This largely accounts for the perilous desecra- 
tion of our Christian day of rest and worship. The 
question is whether the American city is to assimilate 
these agglomerationr, or is to be assimilated by 

This suggests the general and growing political perils 
of the city, The temptations of cfficials increase, with 
their increasing opportunities. Why.* Because, munic- 
ipal govemment is still the gordian knot of all govern- 
ment. It has assumed appalling proportions and per- 
plexities. Leading citizens are preoccupied with pri- 
vate interests. Their abdicated throne is usurped by 
demagogues and by ignorant, irresponsible, and even 
purchasable elector?, who are kings also, in our demo- 
€rrjifjc goverrment. This is a peri] of the church, be- 

cause it is a peril to human nature, and because the only 
redemption is that of individual character. 

Another perilous fact is that the city is hufTeted be- 
tween selfish wealth and desperate poverty. Mammon 
is really the god of both. This omnipotence of wealth 
sets up a wrong standard. It puts character in the back- 
ground. It tempts young men to believe that society 
adopts the motto of " lago." It inspires the craze for 
speculation. It fosters greed and monopolies. It eats 
the heart out of Christian love and public spirit, and 
absorbs man in the dirt-philosophy of his muck-rake. 
It fills the unsuccessful with bitter disappointment and 
hatred. It may encourage them to try visionary reme- 
dies. It afTords plausible grounds for those wretched 
appeals which anarchy makes to the discontented poor. 
The deepest peril of anarchy is also the peril of avarice, 
namely, the deadly selfishness of sin. Human law can 
treat either only as a skin disease. But each is a heart 
disease, which only the Gospel can adequately reach. 
What is anarchism but hatred of all authority ? Hatred 
of human authority, anarchy; hatred of divine authority, 
atheism; two aspects of the same thing. Christ's royal 
law and golden rule in every individual heart and life is 
the only radical cure, and that cure strikes at the root of 
every moral evil. Ah ! the deadly peril of not perceiv- 
ing it! 

One peculiar religious peril of the city is the tendency 
of the rich or refined to take religious care exclusively of 
themselves. In small towns there are very often too 
many Protestant chuiches; in no large city are there 
half enough. 

A great need is that of more complete co-operation 
among the churches. Human nature may not be ripe 
for organic union of denominations; but human nature 
is rotting for want of concerted action among the 
churches. There is happy freedom from sectarian 
rivalry, but we still need to leain to make comprehen- 
sive plans, and to sustain systematic efforts to carry the 
Gospel to the entire community. Our churches act in 
loo desultory and scattering a way. We need a general 
scheme of coalition which will enlist every chuich ard 
every Christian in preaching the Gospel to every creat- 
ure in the city. 

A final peril may coil itself in the suspicion that the 
Gospel of Christ, of itself, is inadequate to win this 
battle. Human nature may be opposite, but the divine 
human nature is on our side. Sin may abound, but 
grace much more abounds. Elijah under the junipc 
tree is our warning. Paul is our example. If »e Ia\e 
the spirit of faith and hope with which he wrote of the 
Gospel as the power of God to Rcmc, Corinth ard 
Ephesus we shall yet be enabled, by Christ's grace, to 
transform the imperilled city into "the city that hath 
foundations, whose builder and maker is God." 

President Gates, ll.d., of Rutgers College : — 

'1 he right use of money does not lie in indijcrimirale 
alms-giving, in filling every outstretched hand, and cfen 


mouth. Nor does a right theory of thi use of wealth 
lead to communistic views of property. Wealth that is 
wisely used lo help others, must help them to help them- 
selves. To educate men in the knowledge and use of 
their own powers, and to bring them under the sway of 
rtght principles and feelings, is the true way to make 
them help themselves. " He is the rich man in whom 
feofile are rich." There is a growing disposition on the 
part of rich men to recognize this truth by giving public 
parks, museums and libraries for the use of the people. 
There is a growing wish to make the life of our toiling men 
"richer with respect to soul, mind and body." Bui all 
attempts to do this throw us back always upon intellectual, 
Aioral and spiritual forces, as the means, through edu- 
cation, of raising the condition of men. But even if 
wealth had supplied all the material appliances which 
men need for self -education and self-elevation, the 
question would remain, have the men whom you wish to 
make self- helpful, the dtsin to help themselves? The 
effort to answer this question will force us to consider 
such men as individuals, to come into relations with 
them one by one. To influence personalities strongly, 
is the great desideratum. 

The mightiest educating power is a strong personality. 
The greatest work which Christian wealth can do for 
the world, is to bring men one by one under the sway 
of that one Supreme Personality, the Lord Jesus Christ! 
The only hope for men is in a close personal relation 
with a Personal Savior. Not in masses will men be 
lifted out of vice and sin. Society will be purified, in- 
stitutions will be made better and kept better, only as 
men are drawn one by one to *' Him who has been lifted 
up." The crisis in our national life calls must loudly 
for Christian work and Christian giving in home-fields. 
From heathen lands come such requests for Christian 
teachers and missionaries as appall our mission boards. 
In our colleges are two thousand young men who say 
\o the Church of America, " Send us, we are ready to 
go." Now that fields are open and laborers ready, shall 
we hold back our Lord's money, and keep these heralds 
of glad tidings from the work tifiey are ready to do ? 

What an opportunity to use for the noblest ends that 
poxver, that cotueHtrated life-effort which is coined in 
wealth ! 

" God loveth a cheerful giver." Have you .studied the 
precise import of the word translated cheerful ? It came 
to me with wonderful force a few days since, as I was 
reading my Greek Testament. The word is " hilaron." 
There is no mistaking its import. God loves a whole 
soulcd " hilarious " giver — one who is not ashamed of 
the cause, for which he gives, — one who with a .strung. 
buoyint. joyous confidence in the cause, in the men 
who are working with him for it, and above all in the 
Go;l who directs the work — gives freely, heartily and 
toith a swing ! To the sense of duty from the law of 
Christian service, shall we not by God's help add this 
crowning grace of spontaneous, heirty, hilarioui Chris- 
tian giving of time and money for the cause of our Master. 

Rev. J. M., d.o., of New York : — 

Dr. King classified the Christian resources of the 
country under a number of heads, as follows : 

I. Historical. — The Christian resources of our coun- 
try, he said, rightfully claimed all there was of Christ in 
our history, government, laws, institutions, homes and 
hearts. This embrace'l all that gave permmency to 
justice, efficacy to mercy, dignity to man and glory to 
God. Christianity, he said, bv reason of the spirit 
brought to the colonies by our forefathers, constituted 

the most important part of the common law of the land. 
It was the strength of the law, because it was intrenched 
in the sentiments and affections of the people. Its 
recognition, as had been said by President Dwight. of 
Columbia College Law School, was shown in the ad- 
ministration of oaths in courts, in the rules which punish 
profanity and blasphemy, and in the observance of the 
Sabbath. Prof. Goldwin had well said : " Not democ- 
racy in America, but free Christianity in America, is the 
real key to the study of the people and their institu- 

2. We are a Distinctive Christian Nation. — 
Every government necessarily had some form of re- 
ligion recognized in its State institutions. The divine 
authority of the Bible was certainJy taken for granted 
in the very make up of our government. Every oflacer, 
from the President down to the lowest official, was in- 
ducted into office unuer the solemnity of an oath on 
that volume. The Christian religion and the morality 
it taught, permeated all our institutions. 

3. DisTiNCTivK Christian Ideas. — Among these 
ideas, Dr. King said, were, individual liberty, the in- 
creased value set on human life, the honoring of woman- 
hood, the elevation and emancipation of woman and 
consequent elevation of man. 'Ihe benevolence of the 
country was in Christian hands or was the offspring of 
Christian thought. Only Christianity was benevolent. 
Modern legal beneficence, had its birth in Christ. t)ut 
of Christian faith had arisen all over the land the in- 
stitutions for the relief of sin-cursed and igrorance- 
cursed humanity. All beneficent conceptions of the 
fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man had 
their origin in the Christian religion. From the Chris- 
tian's conception of God had arisen all the beneficent 
powers of the highest civilization. 

4. Voluntary Support of Christian Institu- 
tions — While we are a Christian nation, absolute 
separation of Church and State is one of our principal 
sources of strength. Voluntary conditions had proven 
to be the best promoters of a pure religious life among 
the people. Voluntary Protestantism is the very genius 
of republican government. 

5. HicHER Education.— The higher educational 
resources of the countiy were largely under Christian 
control. There were now 370 colleges and universities 
in the United States, with 3,000 professors, instructing 
35,000 students. About eighty per cent, of the students 
were in denominational institutions. Institutions 
for higher education, under control of Evangelical 
Churches, had in attendance over 58,000 students. 
There were izo theological seminaries of Evangelical 
churches in the United States, with 4,000 students. 

6. Thk Common Schools.— The idea of the common 
schools dated back to 1642. It was at first a church 
school, in charge of a minister of the township, and the 
children were taught in the orthodox faith. The present 
and former generations had been educated in common 
schools that were never merely secular. In fact, it was 
not attempted to make such schools purely secular till 
very recently. While uniformity had proved itself to be 
impracticable and undesirable for our form cf Govern- 
ment, it was to be hoped, Dr. King said, that the Chris- 
tian sentiment of the people will see to it that the future 
develops no purely secular system of education for our 
citizens. It was hoped the friends of Christian morality 
would come to the defense; of the right of the children 
to a kind of instruction that recognized their responsi- 
bility and immorality, and reminded them thai our institu- 
tions were the fruit of the Christian faith. CKtv.?,v.v!LtAV^ 

must solve the question of tlie education of the masses 
upon Christian and not upon secular grounds. We were 
ab^ut convinced that the time had come when we 
must demand that the State, assuming to teach its 
citizens as a preparation for their responsibihties in 
citizenship, must not only recognize Christianity as the 
religion of the people, but must require the teaching of 
Christian morality wherever education was supported 
by taxes or State grants. Was it not time to banish the 
sickly sentimentality that, under the hypocritical con- 
cession of religious freedom, retreats in the presence of 
secularism, of Jesuitism, and of Atheism ? 

7. The Christian Sabbath as a Civil Institution, 
— We had the Sabbath protected by law in almost all of 
the States The civil Sunday could not stand a decade 
without its Christian sanction. 

8. Financial and Material. — It was estimated, 
that with our great and varied resources adequately de- 
veloped, the United States could sustain a population 
of one thousand millions of people. Our present wealth 
was estimated at over fifty thousand millions of dollars. 
Of this, at least one-fifth was in the hands of members 
of the Evangelical churches. Emerson had said, 
"America is another name for opportunity. Our whole 
history appears like a last effort of the Divine Frovt- 
dence in behalf of the human race." 

10. Roman Catholicism — This was an Evangelical 
Alliance, but in estimating the Christian resources of 
our country, we could not, in justice, ignore the Roman 
Church. It had vitality only in so far as it was Chris- 
tian. Its wholesome restraints upon multitudes, its 
benevolences, its ministrations to the sick, afflicted and 
poor, and its care for neglected childhood, were all 
commendable. That Church claimed as members and 
adherents, 7,000,000 of our population. It had prop- 
erty valued at $70,000,000. 

11. Missions. — Our people were more' and more real- 
izing their obligations to send the Gospel to all the 
foreign nations that contributed to our population. The 
Foreign Missionary Societies of the Evangelical 
Churrhes had now in the field 2,500 missionaries. The 
laborers of all classes numbered over 13,000 ; the com- 
municants, 332,000 ; Mission scholars in their schools, I 
152,000, and they now contribute $3,000,000 to their sup- 

The receipts for Home and Foreign Missions in 1850 
had been $1,232,000 ; in 1886 they were $7,000,000. 

The remaining heads in Ur. King's excellent paper 
were as follows : 

12. The Utilized Energies of Womanhood ; 13. Race; 
14. Freedom of the Press; 15. Latent Powers; 16. 
The Divine Promises, and 17. The Power of the Holy 

Bishop J. F. Hurst, d.d., of Buffalo :^ 

Bishop Hurst said a victory was half won when the 
possibility of defeat was fully before the eye. We 
should look plainly at the position of Christendom, to 
see wherein we were lacking. The city of Berlin, 
which was now the acknowledged center of the culture 
of our age. had but 60 church edifices for 1,250,000 
people, incUidingall denominations. This was i church 
for every 21,000 souls. London, though better, had 
onlv I church for every 3,150 persons. Boston had but 
1 Protestant church edifice for every 1,600 persons. 
Chicago had but t church for every 2,081 and St. Louis 
I for every 2,800. How wretchedly insufficient was 
this accommodation I Clearly it was impossible to 
accommodate in our church buildings any but a very 

small proportion of our people. If the invitations 
usually extended to non-church goers should be gen- 
erally accepted we could not give them even standing ■ 
room in our places of worship. I 

The Bishop severely characterized the elements that 
interfered with the disposition of men and women t* 
attend church. Among the factors of largest potency J 
in this direction he classed the Sunday newspaper. ^ 

Another most objectionable factor was the great 
influx among us of persons of foreign birth, with views 
of Sabbath observance diametrically opposed to those M 
of the American people. 1 

The great evil of intemperance, he said, was another, 
and one of the most forceful factors that interfered 
with the proper observance of the Sabbath. The 
saloon, as a place of attendance on Sunday, was the ■ 
deadly enemy of the church. I 

Another element of no mean proportions, in reducing 
the church attendance, was the drift of city churches to 
the cleaner and better streets. This was a wrong ten- 
dency. The need for churches wis really greater 
where the streets were dirty. It was said that " the 
church follow the people." The churches in European 
cities did not "follow the people," Why should 
churches here do so ? Why was there not as much _ 
need for a church in its old site as in the new ? ■ 

The constant changing of congregations from "down 
town " to " up town " resulted, in certain districts, ia 
cities, being characterized as " poor districts." This 
was a great injury to the poor, as they were disposed to 
abstain from church attendance under such circum- 




Another point; We had too long ignored the influ- 
ence and usefulness of women in our church work. 
See what women had done for temperance ! If we 
would reach the homes of the humble let us say to the - 
Christian woman "Too long have we ignored you." ■ 

Bishop Hurst urged the inculcation of a larger faith 
in Christ among all classes, as the strongest power in 
bringing Sabbath observance back to its original Amer- 
ican character ; so that our country may maintain its 
one-time world-wide fame for the pure and true observ 
ance of the Lord's day. 

Riv. Washington Gladdkn, d.d., of Cleveland: — 

There is one type of union meetings, whose employ- 
ment has often been peculiarly disastrous. The 
churches in manv of our cities have often united in 
employing a traveling evangelist to hold meetings in a 
theater or rink. Trying to evangelize a city by such 
union meetings is like trying to warm a city by building 
a bonfire in its center. Such meetings generally leave 
their converts even further away from Christianity and 
the churches than they were before. The object of our 
Christian co-operation is to strengthen the individual 
churches each in its own field. In order to bring about 
such co-operation, there is necessary the recognition of 
one principle — the equality of all denominations. 
Lhifortunately, much remains to be done before even 
this principle is generally recognized. A prominent 
clergyman of one of the Protestant denominations said, 
in the meeting of the Church Congress at Hartford: 
"The denomination which I represent on this platform 
generously recognizes the parity of every other Chris- 
tian church " "Generously" is not a felicitous word in 
this connection. There is no generosity in recognizing 
other people's rights. Omitting the adverb, however, 
the declaration fairly states the principle whose recog-. 
nition makes successful co-operation possible. 



Rev. a. T. Pierson, d.d., of Philadelphia:— • 

Society is a pjramid, largest at base. Term 
"masses" not contemptuous. Mass is quantity without 

Causes of class alienation. Two opposite tendencies 
at work: centripetal and centrifugal, like opposite cur- 
rents on surface of electrograph. 

The tendency is to mass populations; but also tend- 
ency in the mass, to separate according to affinities. 
Aggregation is followed by segregation. 

All social tendencies are toward estrangement. 

1. Labor — Higher and lower classes are not on the 
same plane, one work with brain, other with brawn. 

The artisan class called to the menial, drudgery, often 
dangerous exposure. Some employes never come in 
contact with employer. 

2. Homes — The workingmen live in small, cheap, 
often unhealthy houses. Sanitary conditions lacking; 
air, light, warmth, space. Better class moves away from 
East end to West end. Rigid class lines come to be 
drawn geographically. 

3. H-iBiTS — Poor workmen uncleanly, coarse, unre- 
fined, in majority of instances. Over-crowding makes 
even the decencies of life impos.'-ible. In some single 
rooms in New York eighteen people, men and women, 
black and white, .sometimes live, eat and sleep. 

4. Mental Uegraoation' — .Struggle for bread leaves 
no time nor relish for feeding intellect. Ignorance pre- 
vails and so superstition. The animal uppermost. The 
educated are naturally repelled. 

5. Morals — Comfortless homes tempt to drink. The 
saloon invites with its cheap gratifications and jolly 
companions. Poverty tempts to dishonesty, and even 
the sale of virtue as a commodity. 

Consequently the districts which are homes of the 
working class degenerate into slums. A city within a 
city with its own code of laws and honor, its own social 
life and habits, even its own dialect and vocabulary. 
George W. Walker found at Norfolk Island an utter 
subversion of terms; evil for good, etc. Not only do 
the higher and lower classes thus drift apart, but the 
lack of sympathy is ripening into positive antipathy. 

To the artisan class it seems as though capital were 
tyrannically trampling on labor. The supreme question 
of heartless greed is how to get the largest product at 
lowest cost. Men are yoked to the machinery of trade 
like dumb beasts, with little consideration for their 

The artisan class sees the higher classes apparently 
without care for the health or even life of the working- 
man. The Earl of Shaftesbury for fifteen years sought 
to bring about reforms in favor of workingmen. He 
exposed outrages in insane asylums, mines, mills and 
factories, chimney-sweeping, etc , mere mention of 
which should arouse a nation to abolish them. But he 
bad to fight dignitaries of Church and State, Cobden, 
Bright, Lord John Russell, Gladstone, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, etc. 

The question just now is ()ressing. The gap has be- 
come a gulf, and it is fast becoming unbridgeable. The 
working class can no longer be neglected with impunity. 
Society has looked on while capital put out the eyes of 
labor and set it to grinding in the mill. But while 
wealth is multiplied and monopolized, knowledge is 
multiplied and popularized. It is dangerous to give the 
workingmen knowledge unless you mean to give him 
liberty, equality and fraternity. While labor grinds, 
whipped to its task by fear of penury and want, the 

shorn locks are growing and eyes of understanding en- 
lightened ; and if society does not have a care, this Sam- 
son, wrapping his arms about the pillars of the common- 
wealth, will bring it down in ruins. 

The churches seem to the lower classes to be associated 
and identified with the higher classes of society. To be 
held in the interests of capital and culture. Hence the 
estrangement from the churches. 

This is not without cause. 

1. Church buildings are removed to aristocratic quar- 
ters. If any are left, they are missions, professedly 
churches for the poor, which is invidious. 

2. Costliness of church establishments. Buildings very 
expensive and often decorated with a debt. Ministers 
paid large salaries, choirs hired at costly rates. Even 
the sexton and collector often gets his thousands of 

Every poor man is repelled, and from an instinct not 
wholly ignoble. He knows that such arc not for him, 
who cannot bear his proportion of expense. They are 
Pullman palace cars or limited express trains for Heaven, 
wholly composed of Pullman cars. 

3. Caste lines of modern churches. No more gigantic 
or malignant foe of humai progress than caste. The 
guage of social condition is the degree in which frecdcvm 
of development exists for each man. India has a rigid 
system, England an aristocratic system. We are boast- 
ing of our democracy, and getting to have the most cc n- 
teinptible of all aristocracy, a plutocracy, or I may call it 
a caste-ocracy. 

God's intention was in His church to exhibit a pure 
democracy — the only ideal State. No barbarian, bond cr 
free, male and female, etc, all one in Christ Jesus, recog- 
nizing God's universal Fatherhocd and man's universal 

But what do we see? Churches largely run by a mo- 
nopoly of wealth, culture and fashion. Had James writ- 
ten his Epistle for to-day the satire would not have been 
more caustic. The communion of saints is displaced by 
the community of respectability. 

4. The /«i' m/^-w is a monstrous barrier between the 
people and the churches. However equitable on a meie 
business basis, inexpedient if the church would reach 
the poor. How invite, how compel them to come into a 
church whose pews are rented or owned. No authority 
or precedent can be found in Word of God for this exist- 
ing pew system. 

5. The parish system has given way to the congrega- 
tional. Chalmers' territorial plan was based on parish 
limits. Now, facilities of travel by horse-car and steam- 
car cause a congregation to gather from all quarters. 
The church no longer 'works within territorial lines. 
No pastoral oversight. 

6. The Sabbath is invaded by travel, toil and pleasure. 
Indissolubly linked with church life; whatever weakens 
the hold of the Sabbath also weakens the hold of the 
church on the people. 

Let us glance at the cure of the nil. 

I. There may be contact between these divergent 

Earl Kinnaird says there must bejf/'«//cr living, plain- 
er and less costly homes and habits on part of rich. 

The contact must be sympathetic, not labor for the 
poor, but labor with them : identification and cooper- 
ation. Shaftesbury joining the costermongers. Touch- 
ing the criminal classes with love and helpful counsel. 
Churches for the people, with rich on a level with the 
poor. McAll at Paris. Two sentences: "God loves 
you ; I love you." 


iWontijlp Coiutit^ 

CIIIN4 will be the siibjecl for the miMlonary^ 
Concert for February. 

Pray for China. 

Pnxy thill the Open Donra of China may l>e so entered by 
Protestant Missionnrien that the people, shall gladly hear the 
Gospel and become the Followers of Christ. Pray that our 
vitHitionari^s shall Ite sustained by Divine Grace under the 
di.HcoiirageinentH of the present, and may aoon be permitted 
to rejoice in seeing the GoKpel make rapid progress through 
their efforts. 

Boys and Girls in Cliina. 

A b")ok has recently been published by Lothrop & 
Co, of Boston, called "When I was a Boy in China." It 
was written by Yan Phou Lee, a Chinaman educated in 
this country. From that book the following extracts 
are made: 

"There is far less of truth told about the 'fair section' 
of the Chinese people than of the sterner sex, because 
far less is known. What I myself propose to tell is 
chiefly derived from daily observation of the female 
members of my family and those of my kindred. Very 
distant relatives are recognized in China ; a man prides 
himself upon the large number of his connections as 
well as upon the inrtupnce his family exert in the com- 
manity on account of wealth or position, A 'poor rela- 
tion' there is treated with much more consideration and 
affection, than in this country. Generosity toward that 
class of unfortunates is so common, and its practice is 
so strenuously insisted upon, in the moral code of the 
Chinese, that it almost ceases to be an individual virtue 
— it is a national virtue. 

"Of the numerous cousins, aunts, and other fair rela- 
tives that fell to my earthly lot, several lived in the same 
house with us, under the superintendence of my grand- 
mother, as I have before said. There were two aunts 
who were then too young to marry, two aunts by mar- 
riage, and three young cousins in the house. Then on the 
same street dwelt about thirty or forty families, all related 
to us by blood, whose female members it was my privi- 
lege, as a relative and as a youngster, to see often. I 
assure you they comprised among them girls of all .sorts 
of tempers and characters. The gentle, refined, and 
modest stood side by side with the rough, uncultured, 
and forward. There were good looking ones, and there 
were homeiy ones. 

"Let me add that these girls had not been 'killed 
during their infancy.' I am indignant that there should 
be a popular belief in America that Chinese girls at 
their birth are generally put to death because they are 
not wanted by their parents. Nothing can be further 
from the truth. 

"In spite of the restraint all Chinese children are sub- 
ject to, we little boys and girls used to have good times 

together. Among the boys were two brothers of minej 
and a whole troop of cousins, of whom five were about 
my age. We used to play cat's-cradle, puss-im-the cor- , 
ner, jack-straws and jack-stones, the girls (all the way[ 
from four to eight years of age) taking as much interes 
in the games as we did. Of course at any lime when the] 
gentlemen of the family were present, we used to sit asj 
quiet as mice, and as demure as monks and nuns. 

"In those games which depend on dexterity and ac- 
tivity, we boys were winners; but when it came to games 
demanding skill, patience, quick wit, and delicacy of j 
touch, we were distanced by the girls. f 

"Many a quarrel did we have as points of dispute 
came up; and often one of our set would not speak to ■ 
another, or would even cut the whole of us for days to-B 
gether on account of some unfair ptay. Those little 
tiffs seemed to be of momentous importance then. But 
the boy whose heart swells with indignation at that which 
offends his sense of justice is likely to grow up a true J 
man after all. " 

"But our chief amusement and delight was to hear 
stories; especially those about fairies and ghosts. Oh ! 
the blood curdling stories that we were privileged to 
hear ! They were enough to set anybody's teeth a chat-l 
tering and to stand his hair on end. They were always 
told in a low, sepulchral tone of voice, and the lamps 
were turned down, which very much heightened the ar-H 
tistic effect. We were also entertained with healthful 
anecdotes, such as scraps of history or biographical 
sketches of China's great men and famous women. But 
when we coaxed 'real hard," we could generally get some 
one to tell us stories of goblins, imps that haunted the 
forests, specters that dwelt in old coffins, and witches 
and fairies that were good to those who pleased them. 
After listening to a glowing account of their antics and 
deeds, good or mischievous, it was useless to attempt 
making me go to bed alone or without a light. Even 
when some one accompanied me with a light, I never 
felt safe until I had covered my head with the 
bedclothes. That superstitious dread haunts me yet, 
especially when walking alone in the dark. I think that 
it is impossible that I shall ever outgrow it. 

"When between six and eight years of age my girl- 
cousins took that step which affected all their after-lives. 
At that age all well-born Chinese misses have their feet ■ 
bound. It is a fashion they are obliged to follow. If^ 
they should not, they would not be recognized as ladies 
when they grow up, and they would become a disgrace 
to their families. Chinese aristocrats are as proud and 
jealous of their good name as the bluest-blooded of 
European nobles. Anything that lowers them in the 
eyes of their neighbors is carefully guarded against. ■ 
Accordingly, only the daughters of poor and humble 
parents are permitted by society to retain the feet as na- 
ture bestowed them. ■ 

"The process of binding is a gradual one. From 
first to last, bands are wound around the tender feet 
to prevent their growth; but at first shoes are worn 


as large as the natural size, in a year or so the 
shoes will have to be smaller, and as the feet decrease 
in size till they attain to three or two and a half inches 
in length, so shoes are made to fit the lessened foot. 
But, oh! the suffering that goes with it! This never 
has been exaggerated in any account. Many a time 
have I heard my cousins groan with pain as the tortures 
of binding were being undergone. Yet, strange to say, 
those girls would not have had exemption from the pro- 
cess on any account. To be ranked as servants, work- 
ing girls? Not they. The Chinese young lady chooses 
to b; fashionable even though she undergo torture for 
several years and incur helple.ssness for life. 

"Don't imagine, however, that Chinese ladies are un- 
able to move. They can. most of them, walk short dis- 
tances. But it is true that the spirit is taken out of 
them by this species of suffering, and that they are op- 
pressed by a sens; of physical and depen- 

"The work that little girls in Chma do is light. 
Trifling things about the cooking, such as shelling of 
peas or assorting of greens, were given over to my girl- 
cousins. Between meals, the little girls were taught to 
sew, embroider, and to spin ria.x. They were never so 
happy as when a group of them sal together at work; 
one would tell a story, another would follow with a bal- 
lad, singing it with that peculiar plaintive tone which is 
considered a part of the ballad's charm. My cousins 
were early taught to read and write, and in company 
with us boys, until they were eleven or twelve ; then they 
were thought too old to be left in the society of boys 
very much ; especially was it so after some young stran- 
crs came to our school, which was established in the 
men's living-rooms." 


One of the most striking and impressive sights Cen- 
tral China can afford, is the worship of Confucius and 
other sages, by the viceroy and other chief mandarins 
of Hupeh. This ceremony takes place twice a year, in 
the spring and the autumn, at the temple of Confucius, 
and the rit^ are celebrated in the early morning just 
before dawn. We arranged to go in the evening and 
see the sacrifices which were afterward to be offered to 
the sages. 

Guided by the light of a native lantern we made our 
way for half a mile along the muddy streets, which that 
night were, however, resounding with crackers, and il- 
luminated here and th^re by the fitful glare of fireworks, 
or the more steady light from some gaily decorated 
shop,— this being the night after the New Year, when 
business is formally commenced, though in reality it 
has been carried on for the last month. Arrived at the 
gates of the temple, we found that entrance was not 
difficult to obtain. Passing through one or two court- 
yards \ye turned to the left and came to an open space 
in front of the inclosure which contains the temple 

After noticing in this outer court an ornamental 
piece of water spanned by a marble bridge, we passed 
on into the latter quadrangle. At the north side stands 
the actual temple, with a terrace of stone before it, the 
ascent to which is gained by some broad steps, divided 
in the centre by a sloping block of granite, with a well 
executed device, in bold relief, representing the imperial 
dragon. At the foot of the steps, on either side, stood 
a pair of massive stone tablets supported on the backs 
of tortoise?. Behind these, on the terrace itself, were 


some ornamental wooden frames, two of which sup- 
ported each a very ancient and sweet-toned bell. The 
other frames were for suspending various musical in- 
struments which we saw and examined after a while. 

We were allowed to enter the temple building, and 
there, before the great central tablet, which was cur- 
tained with yellow silk, were three troughs containing 
an ox, a sheep, and a pig, which had been shaven after 
slaughtering, and thus prepared for sacrifice. The of- 
fering (which was eventually to be devoured by under- 
lings of the Yamun) would certainly not have satisfied 
the requirements of the Mosaic ritual. The sheep may 
have been all right, but the ox reminded one of Pharaoh's 
lean kine. The viceroy, I am told, is supposed to fast 
for three days before offering to Confucius, but that 
poor beast seemed as though it had died through the 
effects of a more protracted fast, and one could not 
help drawing some comparison between the number of 
its very prominent ribs and the age of the old ox. 

On high tables to the right and left of this were 
spread out in ancient-shaped bowls a great many kinds 
of eatables, such as the curator of Bethnai Green 
Museum might be glad to add to his collection of food 
stuffs. In front of all was a table for incense. On the 
left were tables to Mencius and other disciples of Con- 
fucius, Before these were more sheep and pigs and 
another collection of food. On the right were other 
tablets and more offerings. Three ancient-shaped wine 
cups rested on a stand near the doors, and near them 
was a table on which we saw among other things an ode 
to Confucius composed by some renowned poet for the 

We were then conducted to an apartment on the east 
side of a quadrangle, where various musical instruments 
were to be seen, supposed to be of the same kind as 
those used in the golden age of China more than four 
thousand years ago, when the famous emperors Yaoand 


.Shuin ruled in peace and prosperity over a happy land. 
There were several varieties of the flute and flageolet, 
and amongst other sorts we noticed an instrument some- 
what resembling the Pandean pipes, consisting of thir- 
teen reeds of various lengths inserted in a gourd. 
Some of these instruments, notably the flutes, were the 
same in principles as those now in use here ; and I 
doubt whether the others, which wc could not so readily 
identify, were after all such near relatives of those in- 
vented by Jubal as some would have us think. The 
music we afterward heard from them may, however^ 
have been very ancient. The weird performance, to- 
gether with the sacrifices and worship, doubtless have 
meanings brought from a far-off period. 

As we left the building, the little crowd which had 
accompanied us were very orderly, and we were politely 
requested at the gate to return after a few hours. 

Rising at 3 a. m. we were soon out in the streets again, 
and on our way to the temple. By this time a nvmber 
of people had gathered about the inclosure. We made 
our way unimpeded, and before long found ourselves 
within the quadrangle itself. It was now dimly lighted 
by lanterns suspended around the court. A military 
mandarin met us, and with much politeness conducted 
us to a place from which we could watch the proceed- 
ings. This act of kindness was owing to our friend Dr. 
Dease (American Mission), who is on good terms with 
this man's superior officer. One or two soldiers re- 
mained with us all the time. During the hour which we 
had to wait we were plied with questions from the small 
and good-natured crowd which surrounded us. The 
soldiers were very chatty. It may interest our frifnds 
to know that the Wuchang troops are taught Englifh ■ 
drill, the words of command being also in our language. 
We were reminded of this by the fact that one of our 
party, whose feet were cold, began to mark time, when 
one of the soldiers said, "Left rai, left rai," but he 


added, " \\'e say in joke La nan (hih fan, la ri'an chilt 
/an (Hold the bowl, eat the rice)," referring to the ac- 
tion of the left and right hands in feeding. 

Such conversations as we had that night must tend to 
break down whit prejudice remains in the popular mind 
about us, and every now and then there was an oppor- 
tunity for referring to the truths which have brought us 
to this land. 

Our patience was at length rewarded by the announce, 
tnent that the Tsz Tat (viceroy) had arrived. The 
soldiers drew up in line. At the four corners of the court 
bundles of bamboo were then lit. Bands of young men 
appeared clothed in long robes of light blue silk. These 
were preceded by a leader who bore a long rod with a 
crook at the top in the form of a dragon's neck. From 
the dragon's mouth was su.spended a chain of red tassels. 
These men were all scholar.s, and all wore the golden 
button of the B.A. degree upon their hats, though all 
may not have passed the examinations yet. They ar- 
ranged themselves to the right and left of the terrace, 
and each tork up an instrument of music, or a wand 
tipped with a long pheasant plume. A herald standing 
at the top of the steps then cried aloud and invited the 
Tsz Tat to come near and worship. His voice was re- 
markably plaintive and dirge- like. 

The viceroy advanced, accompanied by a few civil and 
a few military mandarins each clad in robes of state. 
Leaving them in the center of the court, he approached 
the temple proper, accompanied only by the master of 
ceremonies. At the same time the Fu Tai (second offi- 
cial in the province), with an attendant, mjdebis way to 
a building at the east side of the court, and the Fan Tai 
(third official) in like manner to the western .side. Here 
are tablets to the seventy sages of China. Meanwhile a 
muffled drum sounded and the music began — strange, 
weird, but very sweet music it was. From the highest 
note of the Chinese scale the musicians descended very 
slowly, tone by tone, repeating each note twice, some- 
what after the style of the third line in the tune Clare- 
mont. The effect was very fine, time and unison being 
perfect. The bearers of wands and waving plumes, 
who had been facing the north, turned slightly with each 
note, assumed some posture prescribed by ancient usage, 
returning to their original position before the next note 


The viceroy has now reached the temple, and first of 
all lights the incense. As the blue cloud curls upward 
and the music is hushei, he kneels before the great tablet 
and three times bows his head to the ground. He rises 
and again kneels bowing thrice. This is repeated the 
third time, and with great majesty he slowly rises as the 
soft music is again heard, and returns to take his place 
in the center of the court. The Fu 7 at and the Fan Tai 
have meanwhile been going through the same ceremonies 
at the two sides. 

The herald again invites them to draw near, this lime 
to offer a cup of wine in worship. This is done by lift- 
ing one of the three antique-shaped goblets above the 

head, and the thrice three prostrations are again per- 
formed. They again return to the centre of the quad- 
rangle, and the herald proclaims that it is time to offer 
the second cup. This ceremony is an exact repetition of 
the former one. On their return the ode to Confucius 
is read on bended knee by a scholar in a musical voice. 
The third cup of wine is then offered. A fire of paper 
is lit in a brazier on the south side of the quadrangle, 
the ode is torn off its tablet and committed to the flames. 
Meanwhile the morning has begun to break, and the grey 
light of dawn lends a climax to the impressive ritual 
which terminates with this act. 

We left the place escorted by our military friend who 
sent a soldier with us to the outer gate. \ few steps 
brought us into the muddy streets, and we felt the con- 
trast between the imposing spectacle we had witnessed, 
and the not over-polite cries of small boys whom the influ- 
ence of the ancient sages has asyel failed to renovate. — 
Missionary Noticts. 

From Shangliat into Western China. 

HV KK\'. F. D. i.AMEWBI.I.. 

A journey of three or four days' duration on the spa- 
cious and well-appointed steamers of the Lower Yang- 
tse carries the traveler to Hankow, six hundred miles 
from the coast. Between Hankow and Ichang, four 
hundred miles further up, two steamers, controlled by 
the China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company, ply 
for nine months nf the year, a steamer leaving Hankow 
for Ichang about every five days. During the remain- 
ing three months, December, January and February, 
owin^ to low water, only the smaller of the two boats 
attempts to navigate the river, making about three 
round trips per month. 

As there are no shore lights above Hankow, vessels, 
cannot run at night in thick weather, and on account of 
this fact, together with the swiftness of the current and 
the slowness of the boat, about five days are required 
for the journey of four hundred miles. Ichang, situ- 
ated about one thousand miles from the coast, is a city 
with an estimated population of twenty-five thousand. 
The surrounding country is mountainous and sparsely 

Ichang is at the head of steam navigation and the 
traveler upward bound must delay for some days in 
order to complete arrangements for the navigation of 
the upper river, the dangers of whose shoals, rocks and 
rapids demand a strong boat and an experienced crew. 
Much has been said about the dangers of navigation of 
the upper Yang-tse, and the statement has been made 
that one-fourth of the boats meet with disaster in the 
rapids, or in the whirlpools. Where money is concerned 
a Chinese is eminently practical, and no Chinese would 
invest his capital where there is one chance out of four 
of losing it. 

Perhaps scarcely a trip is made up the river without 
minor mishaps and some delays, but it i& «,a,^%.^.'^>sa^i^5<^•■5>^. 

not one buat out of ten meets with serious disaster. 
Still care is necessary in the selection of a boat, which 
should be strong enough to stand knockingabouton the 
rocks. A good test, and one commonly applied, is to 
try the bottom planks of the boat with a knife. After 
applying this test to several boats I was finally satisfied 
with one which broke the blade of my new pocket-knife. 

The best time for ascending the Upper Yang-tse is at 
low water, say from November on until May. During 
Jtily and August the number of boats is much reduced, 
and sometimes navigation is entirely suspended on ac- 
count of the dangerous condition of the river. 

Generally speaking, foreigners do not consider the 
river navigable during the summT months. A party of 
us came down in July, i886, however, and were safely 
in Ichang in four and one-half days, the time up being 
about one month. The boat procured for our party of 
seven was eighty feet in length, with four cabins eight 
feet by ten feet, and with a crew of forty-two men, in- 
cluding the captain and pilot. The price fixed was 
Taels 130, or about $160,— a high rate of fare for a jour- 
ney of six hundred miles, but an amount representing 
the food and wages of forty-two men for a month, the 
cost of extra men at the rapids, the purchase of large 
quantities of bamboo rope for tracking, besides the 
profits of the captain, which must enable him to live for 
several months, as he is often compelled to do before 
his return trip. 

Several days elapsed after the signing of the contract 
with the boatman before our crew was .'Secured and 
everythitig in readiness for a start. These were busy 
days for the half dozen picked men who were to be en- 
trusted with the more immediate navigation of the boat, 
forming the deck crew as distinguished from the track- 
ers. -A forward rudder was arranged consisting of an 
oar forty feet long, thirty feet of which projected over 
the bow. 

This when managed by a half-dozen men formed a 
powerful steering apparatus of great service in the 
rapids, when the ordinary rudder was entirely insufficient. 
Plaited bamboo ropes of different sizes were taken on 
board. A new drum was made, which, placed on the 
forward deck was used to guide the trackers, who were 
often far beyond the reach of the voice. The sail was 
put in order and a large quantity of rice taken on 
board . 

Finally, our arrangements were all made, and on the 
afternoon of November i6th, 1884, we crossed to the 
other side of the river from Ichang, which you will re- 
member is one thousand miles from the sea, preparatory 
to an early start next morning. 

We noticed preparations for a feast, which, we were 
told, was to be given that evening in order to get all the 
crew on board. We started away early next morning, 
and the first sight that greeted me on looking out was 
one of the line men swimming through the swift water 
toward a rock, in order to free our entangled tow-line. 

These men display remarkable agility, and the work 

done by the trackers is possible only to tho?e who have 
been trained to it from childhood. The tow-path some- 
times leads several hundred feet above the river along 
precipitous mountains, and furnishes footing sufficient 
only for goats and Sze-chuen trackers. There are said 
to be seventy-five thousand of these trackers on the 
upper Yang-tse. 

On the lower Yang-tse the scenery is monotonous 
and the eye is wearied by the level stretch of its allu- 
vial plain, but the first day's journey from Ichang brings 
the traveler into the gorges of the upper Yang-tse, where 
perhaps some of the most magnificent scenery in the 
world is found. A journey of twelve or fourteen days 
carries the traveler through the Ichang, Lukan, Mitan 
and Washan gorges, some of whose vertical walls rise a 
thousand feet above the river, and through many rapids, 
up some of which a hundred men may have to be em- 
ployed to drag his boat, and places him well within the 
province of Sze-chuen at Kueichun. Sze-chuen was the 
largest of the eighteen provinces before the province of 
Kansuh was extended across the desert, its area being 
double most of the other provinces. 

At Kneichon the gorges of the Yang-tse are passed, 
and the worst of the rapidsare surmounted. The some- 
what depressing shadows of the gorges, through which 
we had been passing for two weeks, gave way to a mod- 
erately open country which is highly cultivated. Knei- 
chon is a walled city of considerable importance as a 
trading point, and there were a large number of boats 
at anchor off the town. It possesses an unenviable rep- 
utation on account of the numbsr of soldiers stationed 

Two days' journey beyond is Wau Hsien, next to 
Knei-chon the most important place between Ichang 
and Chungking. From this point there is a road over- 
land to Chengtu, the capital of the province, a journey 
of some eighteen days. We journeyed on from Wau 
Hsien, passing through frequent rapids, and through a 
country of marvelous fertility and wondrous beauty 
until on December 14th, the twenty-eighth day from 
Ichang, and about one month and a half from Shang- 
hai, we reached the great city of Chungking. 

At first it might seem as if a journey of twenty. eight 
days on so small a craft would be monotonous in the 
extreme, but I know of no more interesting trip than 
from Ichang to Chungking. There is always danger 
and excitement enough to keep the senses aroused. A 
dangerous rapid is reached. The boat stops and awaits 
its turn, for only one boat can go up at a time, and some- 
times a day or two is spent in waiting for your turn. 
Your turn arrives. Additional tow lines are run out from 
the prow to be seized by additional trackers, who rush 
forward several hundred yards. 

Ofi the forward deck there remain only a half-dozen 
men of nerve and experience, one of whom by the roll 
of the drum, signals for the trackers to move forward. 
The line -men, placed at intermediate points, pass along 
the signal to the trackers, and you watch with almost 


pam(ul interest tlie tightening of the lines and the slow 
but sure entrance of the boat into the boiling waters. 
For a moment it moves forward, one hundred men strain- 
ing at its lines until their bodies are parallel with the 
tarth. Snap ! and away goes one rope. There is some 
confusion on the boat, then forward again. Will the re- 
maining ropes stand the strain ? 

Inch by inch the boat moves forward, so slowly that 
its motion is almost imperceptible, and all the while 
there is the roar of the waters, the roll of the drum and 
the constant shout of the trackers. At last, after half 
an hour you pass the two or three hundred yards of 
rapids and glide behind a rock into a pool of calm 

On one occasion the swift rush of the water dashed our 
boat against the rocks and we were delayed a half-day 
for repairs, but we were favored and made what is con- 
sidered a quiet trip to Chungking. 

The accessibility of a field is a matter of importance 
to both the merchant and the missionary. The ques- 
tion, " Is the Upper Yang-tse suitable for steam naviga- 
tion ? " has been raised many times during the past 
quarter of a centurj', and answered affirmatively and 
negatively with equal positiveness. 

Twenty-five years ago Captain Blackiston wrote : 
" The opinion that my colleagues and myself came to on 
this matter was, that for steamsrs of any kind to ascend 
the rapids without being towed would certainly be im- 
possible during low water, and probably so when the 
water was high." 

But great advances have been made in the steam 
engine during the past twenty-five years. All who have 
passed through the rapids probably have an opinion 
about the suitableness or unsuitableness of the river for 
steam navigation. 

We are concerned, however, only with the opinions of 
experts, of those capable of judging in such matters. 
Captain Yangkaski of the China Merchants' steamer, 
"Kiang Tung," which runs between Hankow and Ichang, 
thinks the steam navigation of the rapids practicable. 
The argument is that if a hundred Chinese can drag an 
unwieldy junk up through the rapids, there is no reason 
why steam should not successfully propel a properly 
built foreign boat, In the rapids the current at its 
swiftest is ten or twelve knots per hour, and in ascend- 
ing the river the problem seems to be only to secure a 
boat which will steam more than say twelve knots per 
hour, which of course can be easily done. 

The descent of the river, however, seems to be more 
of a problem, as in many places the slightest failure to 
obey promptly the helm would dash the boat upon the 
rocks. It is proposed to meet this difficulty by coming 
down the rapids stern first ; that is to say while passing 
through the rapids the boats will steam up stream a lit- 
tle bit slower than the current down, and will thus be 
carried gradually over the rapids. 

Steam navigation of the upper Yang-tse will obviate 
to a good degree tha inaccessibility of the province of 

Sze-chuen, which has been a serious consideration in 
our work. If boats are run so that close connections 
may be made it will be possible to reach Chungking in 
twelve or fourteen days, instead of occupying one 
month and a half, as at present. 

Chungking is situated at the confluence of the Yang- 
tse and Chia-ling rivers, and is the largest city on the 
Yang-tse west of Hankow. It is the commercial me- 
tropolis of West China, and enjoys an enormous amount 
of trade, all the products of the province converging 
here for distribution in various directions, and here 
passes nearly all the imports to supply the demands of 
this populous and wealthy province. The city is 
situated several hundred feet above the level of the 
river, the city wall in many places being only a parapet 
along the edge of a precipice of three hundred feet. 

Its gates are approached from the rivers by stone steps, 
there being about 450 steps up to the gates, and in 
passing about the city one is continually going up and 
down these stone steps. The city is compactly built, 
and, as wood is largely used, in order to decrease the 
danger from fire, walls from twenty to twenty-five feel 
surround places of residence and separate business 
houses and shops. The streets are narrow and exceed- 
ingly tortuous, 

Chungking is so situated that with a little care it 
might be well drained and kept cleanly. But its two 
hundred thousand inhabitants, crowded together in the 
southern laititude of 29" 34", show the same extraor- 
dinary disregard of sanitary law so prevalent throughout 
China, and it is a filthy city. Nature does not come to 
the rescue as in Peking, by freezing up the filth of the 
city for three months, but with the lowest record of the 
thermometer eight or ten degrees above the freezing 
point, germs have full sway fortwelve months of 
the year. 

On going to the province I heard it spoken of as 
"' the rainy Sze-chuen." This is hardly a statement of 
the case, for during many months of the year little or 
no rain falls. In the spring and fall there are heavy 
rains, but from November on until April or May, though 
the sky is almost daily over-cast, there is scarcely any 
rain-fall. During July and August there are bright 
skies and intense heat. 

Sze-chuen is perhaps the stronghold of the Romanists 
in China, and Chungking their headquarters for Sze- 
chuen. There are said to be scattered over the prov- 
ince 140 French priests, and while we have no way of 
knowing their actual membership, it is undoubtedly 
large, and their influence is felt throughout the prov- 
ince. Some of the finest stores in Chungking are 
owned by the Catholics and a large part of the trade in 
foreign goods passes through their hands. 

The Abbfe Hue, writing over thirty years ago, places 
the number of Christians in the province at 100,000. 
The Abbfe, however, while traveling through a part of 
the province in summer where there is no ice in winter, 
speaks of being furnished by the o6R.c\^V» '«\nJo.\^"«.^^vmssoi- 


aile. The difficulties in the way of an acceptance of this 
statement are great, there being neither lemons nor ice ! 

The Romanists have been repeatedly and severely 
persecuted in Sze-chuen. The Vicar Apostolic of the 
province suffered martyrdom at Cheng-tu in the year 
1815. Ciptain Blackiston tells of persecutions that were 
carried on twenty-five years ago. Seven or eight years 
ago at Chlang-pei, a place across the Chia-ling river from 
Chungking, seventeen Catholics were killed and their 
bodies thrown into the river. Thesummerof i886added 
another sad chapter to the history of the persecutions 
of the Romanists ia China. Protestant Missions in 
Chungking date from 1877, when the China Island Mis- 
sion established a station there. They have given much 
time to rescuing the lives of would-be opium suicides ; 
scarcely a day passed without their being called to one 
case, and some times two or three cases in a single day. 
They saved over 500 lives in 1885. 

It is reasonable to suppose that in a great city like 
Chungking many times the above number of cases occur 
annually, and it is appalling to think of the annual loss 
of life from opium in this city alone. 

The West China Mission of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church was established in Chungking in 1882. The 
usual agencies were employed in propagating the 
Gospel. Sabbath preaching and daily preaching in the 
Street Chapel, in connection with whioh was a reading 
room and book store for the diffusion of Christian 
literature ; preaching in connection with dispensary 
work ; work among women, including visiting from 
house to house, by the ladies ; a boys' day-school and a 
girls' day-school ; a girls' boarding school with 32 pupils 
and an orphanage. A Sabbath-school had been or- 
ganized with an average attendance of 80, The attend- 
ance on Sabbath services was uniformly good, and 
there were always large congregations of women. 

These various agencies were rudely interrupted by the 
riot of July ist, 1886, but some of them are again in oper- 
ation, and we hope before long the work will again be 
moving steadily forward. 

Opium is an enemy that will hamper the development 
of the church in Sze-chuen. I have just spoken of the 
large number of cases of opium suicides in Chungking. 
On being interrogated the natives almost invariably re- 
ply that eight out of ten smoke opium. A Chinese is not 
given to scientific accuracy, and this answer may have 
become current without any special investigation of the 
subject, but it indicates that a large proportion of ihe 
people are addicted to the use of opium. 

Twenty-five years ago the attention of Captain Blackis- 
ton was attracted by the very common cultivation of ihc 
poppy along the Yang-tsc in Sze-chuen. He calls atten- 
tion to the fact that the Abbe Hue, who so exhaustively 
treats every subject that he mentions, speaks only of the 
smuggling of Indian opium into Sze-chuen, and has noth- 
ing to say of its cultivation by the natives. He suggests 
that this may be due to Hue's passing through the prov- 
ince too late in the season to observe its cultivation. He 


thinks, however, in this case he would at least have heard 
of its cultivation, and inquires: " May we infer from hi? 
silence that this species of agriculture has only grown up 
of late years ? If so, it is most likely but in its infancy." If 
it was in its infancy twenty-five years ago it has had a 
most vigorous growth since. 

I have stood on the hilts in March, when the poppy is 
in bloom, and as far as eye could reach in every direction 
the fields were covered with the beautiful flowers of the 
deadly poppy. 

In the North of China, where its use is at least nomi- 
nally proscribed, there seem* to be some restraint in its 
sale, or at least all evidences of former restraint have not 
passed away, as the present sign of the opium shops, a 
dirty piece of burnt paper smeared on either side of the 
doorway, would indicate. 

But in Sze-chuen it is advertised openly, and one is 
painfully impressed by the large number of opium shops 
and dens. On many streets their signs predominate 
pretty much as those of the grog shops in the worst dis- 
tricts of our home cities. A common sign is: ''Nan yen 
i tuo" — opium ready on arrival. 

Upon inquiry I learned that there are those who are 
not skillful in manipulating the opium for smoking, and 
that in these shops such persons, often including strangers 
from other provinces, recline, the pipe with the opium 
all prepared is placed to their mouths, and they have 
only to inhale. Sixteen small cash^ a little more than 
one cent per day, will furnish a sufficient amount of _ 
opium to satisfy an ordinary smoker, so cheap is the na- I 
tive product. On every hand evidences of the baleful 
effects of thiis wide spread use of opium are apparent in 
sallow faces and in wasted forms. In traveling about ■ 
one constantly meets with eager inquiry for medicine 
that will cure the opium habit, and there is a ready sale 
for books and tracts on opium. 

On the night of the trhungking riot, July ist. 1886 I 
asked one of the chief assistants of the magistrate's of- 
fice to send out men in search of some of our party who 
had not arrived. The stress of affairs removed the cus- 
tomary official disguise, and he said, almost passionately; 
" Whom can I depend on ? We have 200 men here in 
this establishment and they are 200 opium smokers, and 
none of them are to be trusted." 'Ihe magistrate him- 
self was an opium smoker. While it may not be true 
that eight-tenths of the population smoke opium, its use 
is appalling. Sze-chuen is a province of amazing fertil- 
ity. One writer says: " Its fertility is such that it is said 
that the product of a single harvest could not be con- 
sumed in it in ten years." 

This is probably an exaggeration, but the province 
should easily furnish fr>od for its inhabitants. It is well 
known that the cultivation of the poppy exhausts the 
soil, and opium has been produced at the cost of food 
for the people. During late years there has been an in- 
creasing importation of rice from the lower river prov 
inces. and a high price for rice consequent upon high 
freight rates up 600 miles of a rapid river. 

One of the causes of the riot of July, 1886, was the 
high price of rice, and consequent suffering among the 
pnor, making it easy for the military students to incite 
them to deeds of violence by hope of plunder, and the 
high price of rice was caused, not on account of the 
anger of the dragon because of the presence of foreigners, 
asstated by the military' students, but on account of cul- 
tivating land with the poppy that ought to have been pro- 
ducing food for the people. 

Hiadrances to Mission Worii in Cfiina. 


To name all the difficulties that prevent the progress 
of mission work in China would take more space than 
The Gospel in all Lands would care to give to the 
subject. Hence we shall mention only those that the 
missionary is chiefly confronted with. 

Let us suppose that we are about to establish a mis- 
sion in a new field. Our first step would be to rent or 
purchase property for residence, chapel or school use. 
This would not be a difficult task in America or England 
nor even in many of the mission fields of the church — but 
in China it presents itself as our first and greatest barrier 
and one that has proven in many instances insurmount- 

The Chinese government ignores the right of the 
foreigner to own a square foot of its territory, and indeed 
the tenure of land by its own subjects is conditioned 
upon the will of the Emperor, As the " Son of Heaven " 
he is the vice-regent and he alone, in the name of heaven 
uTi'tis the land. 

His subjects lease it from him " Yuen Tsn " or in per- 
pfluity, hence when the " Barbarian Eye " covets his land 
and attempts to buy it, he is respectfully informed that 
it is not on the market. (For convenience sake we shall 
here, as we do in China, speak of buying and selling 
with the understanding that a perpetual lease is 

That is the legal aspect of it and if our troubles ended 
then — a lease in perpetuity would be no essential barrier. 
But the real embarrassments arise from the bitter opposi- 
tion of the Mandarins and Literati who ixy to thwart every 
effort of the missionary to buy, or of the people to sell 
to him, property which the people themselves would be 
glad to dispose of at the rates we are willing to give, 
always in excess of the Chinese market value, 

Very quietly we enter into all the preliminary terms of 
the purchase — the deed is prepared and we proceed to 
the "Yamen" to request the magistrate to stamp it, 
without which the deed is worthless. This is the match 
which ignites the flame of oppusition and indicates too 
the real fountain head from whence issue our streams of 

We are told that the deed must be im>estigated, and 
hence left at the Yamen — indefinitely. The owner of the 
land is then summoned to appear before the magistrate 
lo explain — himself. Threats are used and even the bam- 



boo to induce him to withdraw and we regret to write that 
too often he is persuaded. 

Another method is for the Literati to "Stir up the 
rude people of the baser sort," inducing the neighbors 
to present a petition against the missionary holding the 
property on " Feng Shui " grounds, declaring that should 
the foreigners be allowed to build in that special locality. 
Fortunes' favor would be lost to the town. I 

We know of many instances in Central China where 
impediments were placed in the way of missionaries as 
above indicated, and we doubt if one missionary in ten ■ 
gets possession of property without such experience. 
The trouble is seldom investigated by the common peo- 
ple and indeed it is only when incited by their officials 
that the people interfere. 

The struggle for a year of Mr. Hart to get a building 
site at Nanking for the Philander Smith Memorial Hos- 
pital, is a marked instance of the opposition of the Man- 
darins and Literati, direct and indirect, which we must 
undergo. The following extract from The Chinese 
Recorder of July, 1887, is but another : " From a letter 
of Rev. W. McGregor, we learn that efforts to purchase ■ 
a site for Dr. Grant's Hospital in Chin Chew have failed 
through the opposition of certain of the Literati. The 
owner of the land was thrown into gaol on charges of ■ 
having engaged in gambling, which, however, were with- 
drawn as soon as he promised not to sell or lease the 
ground to foreigners." J 

A great obstacle, hindering and clogging the wheelsof " 
our progress in China, is the use of opium. Thrust upon 
China it may have been in the beginning, it now holds 
the same relation in China as the liquor traffic does in 
America. It is an illustration of that striking but famil- 
iar verse in Dr, Wayland's Moral Philosophy : — 

" Vice is a monster, of so frightful mien, 
That to be dreaded, needs but to be seen ; 

But seen loo oft, familiar with its face. 
We first pity, then endure, then embrace." 

And China is now so familiar with opium, so ac 
customed to iis use, that thestruggle toexpel it from the 
nation would be equal to the contest that is already as- 
suming such large proportions, to stamp out of our own 
land the curse of the liquor traffic. 

It is estimated that nine persons out of ten now use 
opium in some form — certain it is that the majority are 
habitual smokers and when the habit is formed, the 
victim is doomed to slow but steady decline — financially, 
physically, mentally and spiritually. 

I regret to write that another difficulty consists in the 
wicked and loose lines of representations of Christian 
nations who reside in the Open Ports of China. 

With the Chinese, all foreigners are Christians, and 
they have not yet learned to make the distinction. The 
result is that the Christian religion, as represented in 
their lines falls far behind the high .standard of molality 
taught the Chinese by their own sage Confucius. 

Again we are confronted with the conservative spirit 
of the Chinese. How can we ex^tcv a^xvi^ "iv^^'^!^^ 0«v4.w>^«:s. 


or, progress in the introduction of a foreign religion 
amongst a people who call themselves " The Middle 
Kingdom," the van' centre of the political world. Their 
ancestors whom they adore and worship bowed down to 
idols — why should not they ? Shall they presume to 
be better than their forefathers? Nay, that must not 
be, for it would place the old worthies in disrepute and 
no son can afford to do that. Thus the Chinese mind 
argues and it would be difficult to refute him. 

We might enlarge upon other difficulties as the 
mysterious fact of so many denominations in China. 
The Chinese are not acquainted with the polemics of 
the churches. God forbid that they ever should know 
them ! and cannot understand why, if we are all Chris- 
tians, Christianity should be represented by so many or- 

Again we might speak of the great need of an ade- 
quate Native Ministry of consecrated and devoted men, 
the lack of which retards the work as no human being 
can estimate. It is the opinion of many of the oldest, as 
well as the younger missionaries that China will be 
reached not by the foreign missionary, but by earnest 
sanctified native preachers, whom we believe God will 
yet call into the work. 

The great question of self-support would open up a 
subject of much interest and one closely allied to the 
success of mission work. 

The language lies at the doorway of China as a great 
stumbling block, retarding the entrance of commerce, 
of western ideas and in no small measure of missionary 
work. The political representatives in China beat 
around thebush by using the interpreter. When engaged 
in commerce they employ the *' Comprador," but mission- 
aries have no such expediency— they must master the lan- 
guage and use it fluently ere they can enter upon their 
work, and is this an easy task? We have yet to hear 
the first student claim it. 

Can the acquisition of a language which has no 
alphabet and no grammar, but is built up of about thirty 
thousand characters, each of which is distinct from the 
other and must be memorized be called easy? No, if 
it were an easy task, there would be no place for the 
"interpreter," or "Comprador." The expression of the 
Rev. Mr. Milne — the colleague of the early missionary 
Dr. Morrison — is now generally accepted among mission- 
aries and other students of the language as apropos, 
He says : "That to acquire the Chinese is a work for 
men with bodies of brass, lungs of steel, heads of oak, 
hands of spring steel, eyes of eagles, hearts of Apostles, 
memories of angels and lives of Methusaleh." 

^^ Keli^fous Toleration in China. 

^^^ Rev. Nathan Sites, u.u., writes us from Focchow, 
I Sept. 25, as follows ; 

I "Mr. Tiong Ahok sends you enclosed an official copy 
I and an English translation of the recent Proclamation, 
I efxemptjng «ati\e Christians from taxation fcr idolatrous 

purposes. But it does more ; for it publishes in sub- 
stance the Edict of Religion Toleration, in China. 

"The long list of titles of honor and position of the 
high provincial officers issuing it and going forth is 
their name, will make it a most powerful sermon against 
error, and for the truth, 

" Different provincial rulers clothe their respective 
proclamations in different verbiage, but the one great 
fact of religious toleration underlies them all. 

"Well did the Rev. Ur. J. F. Newman .say : 'The 
greatest event of the decade is the proclamation of re- 
ligious toleration by the Imperial authority of the Celes- 
tial Empire, and China to day, opens her gates wide to 
religious liberty ; that for which the martyrs died ; that 
for which the Apostles contended and for which the re- 
formers of all ages have fought.' 

"Let the Church now send her evangelists to the Ce- 
lestial Empire, having the everlasting Gospel to preach 
unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation 
and kindred and tongue and people. 

" -\ hundred copies 'stamped and sealed,' of this pro- 
clamation have been sent to Mr. Wingate, our U. S. Con- 
sul at Foochow, for use in the various chapels of the two 
American Missions here." 


Fang, Official of the first rank. President of the Board of the 
Army, Member of the Censorate, Ciovernor General of Min-Che, 

Ko, Acting Garrison General of Foochow, Superintendent of Cus- 
toms, Overseer of the Forces under the Division Generml and the 
Brigadier Geneial, 

VANCi, Superintendent of Military Affairs, Comtnisjary of Stores, 
and Salt gabelle. Governor of Fookien, Hereby issue this proclama. 
tion : 

By an Imperial Edict granted long ago, missionaries of the various 
countries of the West have been permitted to preach Christianity in 
China, and Chinese subjects to embrace the same. 

It is also stated in the treaties that " He who preaches and he who 
teaches it, is alike entitled to protection, provided that he leads a 
righteous bfe; and Chinese, who of their free will embrace it, being 
at the same time law observers, ahall not be forbidden to do so nor 
be punished on acconnt thereof." 

Further it is on record that the foreign board some years ago 
memorialized the throne to the following effect: "Since religious 
festivals and processions, theatrical performances, incense offerings, 
etc.. being not on the same footing with legitimate contributions for 
public services, do not concern Christians, (we pray that) they be not 
forced to subscribe or to be apportioned a share." This petition was 
graciously granted and was carried into effect. 

The foreign consuls have now requeilcd that the above orders 
should be again made known to the public in order to avoid distuih- 
auces which may arise from calls on Christians for such petty contri- 
bution. The oflicvals of the Foochow Office of Trade through whom 
this request was made, respectfully pray us to grant their wish. Ac- 
cordingly, xve issue this procUma.tion (or the information of soldiers 
and civilians in our jurisdiction, 

Vou people ought to know that foreign Christian missions have for 
a long lime been tolerated ; that Chinese who join them are still 
our subjects, and still ought lo obey the rules or law of the country ; 
that ihey who preach and they who learn, being at the same time 
righteous in life, are to be protected without prejudice ; and that re- 
ligious festivals and processions, theatrical performances, incense 
oilerings, etc., not being legitimate calls, arc not to be forced on 
ihem, they being uninterested in the same. 

From this date, all must respectfully obey tbe above orders, and 
they must not, by reason of such petty ta.xes give occasion to disturb- 

Let every one tremblingly obey and transgress not. 

KwANC-su, J3th year, 5th moon. (A.n., June 25, 1887.) 

This proclamation is to be posted at, ■ ; it is not to be in- 
jured by wind or rain. 

The Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Central 
China Mission. 


On Friday, October 21, the members of the Central 
China Mission, except Or. Bcebe who was unavoidably 
delayed one day, the native helpers, and a large number 
of the members convened in the chapel of the Fowler 
Institute at Kiukiang, with Bishop Warren in the chair. 

After the devotional exercises conducted by the 
Bishop in English and by ihe Supt V. C. Hart in Chi- 
nese, the Bishop spoke to the conference in a most sym- 
pathetic and appropriate address, which was interpreted 
to the natives by the writer. With wonderfu! tact he 
gave a suitable word of encouragement and advice to 
each of his mixed audience. The messenger of the 
cross, the polished literary gentlemen, the rural farmer, 
the advanced student as well as the newest arrival in 
the institute, each received a word of encouragement 
and admonition. 

Through a message of greeting from a band of Chi- 
nese Christians in America, the Bishop endeared himself 
in a remarkable manner to our native Christians. They 
at once felt that he had a heart full of love for their 
souls, and was by no means antt. Chinese. The remaining 
part of the morning was then devoted to the reports of 
several mi-ssionaries through which the Bishop soon ob- 
tained a kind of " bird's eye view " of our work in Cen- 
tral China, 

In the afternoon a temperance meeting was con- 
ducted by the writer. The chief thought of the lecture 
was that God intends our occupation to be of st»me good 
to mankind in general and in particular. It was shown 
by analogy that all occupations can be conducted to 
glorify God and bless mankind, except those of distill- 
ing liquors and cultivating opium. This meeting was 
also addressed by the Rev. V, C. Hart and several native 
brethren, and the result was that quite a few joined our 
temperance society and signed the pledge. 

On the morning of the second day the remaining reports 
of the missionaries and the reports of the ladies of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society were given. Miss 
Dr. Hoag being prevented from attending sent her re- 
port through Mrs, W. C. Longden. In the afternoon a 
meeting was held in the parlor of the ladies' home for 
the consideration of "best methods for woman's work." 
.\tthis meeting Miss Gertrude Howe read a very inter- 
esting paper on footbinding, after which ditferent plans 
were discussed how to create an interest among the 
vomen of our native adherents. 

The Sabbath was a day of good things. At 9 A. M. 
Bro. VV. C Longden preached the annual sermon in 
Chinese to an audience of over 30c. Then followed the 
Bishop's sermon which was a feast of great variety to otir 
souls, it was indeed as water poured on dry land. At 3 
p. M. a meeting for young people was conducted by Miss 
G.Howe, Supt of our Sabbath school here. At the meet- 
ing thirty-two candidates for baptism were examined by the 
pastor in charge, and baptized by the bishop. Of these 
the bishop received twenty-nine into full connection at the 
evening service. The Lord's Supper was then adminis- 
tered to over ninety communicants by the Bros. Hart and 
Longden. And thus a most profitable and blessed day in 
the service of the Master closed. The remaining ses- 
sions were of a purely business character and nothing 
of special impsrtance was accomplished. 

Monday evening was given to a social gathering of the 
missionaries and visitors, twenty-seven in all. After le- 
freshraents in one of the recitation rooms we were enter- 
tained by the singing of some of Miss Howe's school 
girls and boys of the institute. 

On Tuesday morning the meeting was closed by an 
earnest and profitable address of the Bishop. And we 
entered upon our wt>rk with renewed zeal and greatly 
encouraged in our efforts for the Master's work. 

Kiukiang, Nov, 4, 1887. 

Summary of Protestant Missions in China. 

The latest statistics we now have of Protestant Mis- 
I sions in China are those made for December 31, 1886. 
The statistics for December 31, 1887, will not reach us 
before April or May next. 

The report made Dec. 31, 1886, showed that there 
were in China, 925 foreign missionaries (449 men, 318 
wives, 158 single women), 123 native ordained helpers. 
1,365 unordained native helpers, 28,506 communicants, 
11,375 pupils in schools. 

The China Inland Mission has the largest number of 
missionaries (187); the American Presbyterian Church, 
North, the next (95); the Methodist Episcopal Church 
stands third (74); the American Board fourth (65); the 
London Missionary Society fifth {50); the English 
Church Missionary Society sixth (49). The statistics 
for each of the 37 Protestant Societies at work in China 
^re given in the July, 1887, number of Gospel in All 

In 1886, the native churches contributed about $19,- 
000 toward their own support and there is constant pro- 
gress in this direction. In addition to what the differ- 
ent missionary and Bible societies are doing in China 
there are several independent missionaries, who are 
supporting themselves or are being supported by indi- 
vidual friends. Our latest reports from China inform 
us that the openings for successful mission work wete 
never as many as tvoij. 



Tba Chiuene and Thi-lrOiialoma. 

ar ViiirNiii ropeb friiioe. 

fMrs. Foster, u iniiitiionarT nt himitjon furloujfh; 
luid Mtisae* AddIv. Luey, Pearl, and Fauuie, four 
TOUlidrlxii^ who arc nboul Koing out OA co-nork- 
ers with Mrs, Fouler on her roturn to China, i 

Annhs. — " Please tell inu, Mrs. Foster^ 
do you find the Chineae, as a nation, as 
far inferior to our own people, as many 
writers have portrayed them?" 

Mrs. Foster. — "'By no means, my 
deir. The idea of calling the Clunese a 
6«mi-barbarou8 people, has been quite 
explo led; and that, upon the testimony of 
nearly every tourist who lias penetrated 
'The Flowerj- Kingdom,' beyond its 
sea-ports, and seen the Chinese in their 
own homes. 

"In the refinements of social life, in gen- 
uine courtesy, in harmonious affections 
between the several members of the fam- 
ily circle, and especially in filial rever- 
ence and love they sire certainly our 
i^uale, and ia many respects our supe- 
riors. If, within the last century or two, 
we have out.'^trippecl them in scientific 
development, we havestiUtoconfess that 
m wy of our arts, and especially our lux- 
uries, h^ve come to us from the East, 
and that the Chinese were already a set- 
tled nation, having a well organized kov- 
emrneat, with both schools and colleges, 
and a very respectable literature, while 
our ancestors were roaming the forests, 
clothed in skins, and our language with- 
out even an alphabet 1 " 

LOCY.— "Is there any marked differ- 
ence between their social customs and 

Mrs. F. — "Yea, this is everywhere ap- 
parent when you come to mingle freely 
with the Chinese in every day life. In- 
dee<l, their rules of etiquette, no less than 
their modes of life seeui almost at anti- 
podes with ours. We often surmund the 
house with a garden or flower-yard ; but 
in China, they build the house around 
the garden, or if there is no room for a 
garden, the houae enclofles a court-yard, 
upon which nearly all the rooms open 
from the rear, so that the court or gar- 
den is more secluded froui public view 
than the house. The bed-rooms are usu- 
ally on the ground-flixir, and they have 
simply paper screens to the windows and 
doors, that let in the light, ami s<^^'nre 
privacy, but do not imjjede the ingress or 
egr«88 of sounds. 

"As in other countries, the poor live in 
huts or shanties : the well-to-do trades- 
men in comfortable brick or frame 
houses, two or njore stories high, and 
• the nobdity in jmlaces. In the latter, 
the interior apartments are the largest 
and best, wliile those fronting the street 
are smaller and less handsomely deco- 
rated; since orientals do not invite the 
entrance of burglars by an outer display 
f^rtlieir wealtii : but are coatcnt with the 

ownership and enjoyment thertsof, among 
themselves. But whatever may be the 
size of the dwelling — whether palace or 
hut — there is sure to be a corner, if not a 
room, dedicated to 'the worship of ances- 
tors and the gods' — a household altar, 
where are inscribed the names of their 
forefathers, and the images they worship. 
Here at stated seasons, the various mem- 
bers of the family prostrate them.selves 
in adoration, and freih incense is lighted 
every morning and evening— the new 
being invariably lighted before the old 
has burned out, so that perpetual in- 
cense may be said to arise from these 
household altars of the Chinese. 1 fear 
that this also is in contrant to many family 
altars in our own dear land. " 

Pearl — "This household worship is 
not all that the religion of the Chinese, 
calls for. is it?" 

Mrs. F.— "No, there is also the Tem- 
ple worship, with its gorgeous display 
of gilded altars and robed priests, its per- 
fumed incense and rich offerings, to 
which the rich contribute their gold, and 
the poor their loaf of serie or tiny dip- 
per of rice. But every man, woman and 
child gives something, and hence feels 
that he has an interest in the concern. 
The Chinese worship also, at the tomb, 
of their ancestors ; and once a year burn 
upon each grave a full suit of life size 
paper garments which are supposd to 
supply the spirits of the dead with need- 
ful clothing in their new abode. " 

Fannie. — "The Chinese do not seem to 
wish to forget their departed friends, nor 
to seek to drive off, as so many people 
do. the memory of everything associated 
with death. " 

Mrs F. — " No, but they are strangely 
inconsistent. For while they meet death 
with stoical indifference and seem un- 
conceme<l as to a future state, they re- 
gard the quality of the cofBa as a matter 
of vital importance, frequently purchas- 
ing one Ix'forehand, and laying it up in a 
conspicious place till it is needed In 
fact, a handsome coftin, with silver plate 
and name engraveil thereon, is detuned 
an appropriate present from a dntiful 
son to his aire : and it is always, when so 
given, placed among their handsome fur- 
niture, in the best drawing-room, to l>e 
seen an<l admired by guests, as long as 
the owner may live. " 

Annie. — " "What a queer idwi I Aiv the 
arrangements for the funeral in keep- 

Mrs. F. — " Quite so : for their njourn- 
ing color is tchid: iiistea<l of black ; they 
beat gongs and tomtoms to e.\ press their 
grief; and tln-y wind up the funeral 
with a sumptuous fuast— going to the 
late home of the dead en manse from the 
grave, and spending the remuirider of 
the day. in feasting and merriment. The 
grave is shaped exactly like the Greek 

letter. Omega, fl ; and amid the |>eal of 
.scores or hundreds of gongs, the body is 
laid away, while each person in the pro- 
cession bums a strip of gilt money, i. e. 
pup^T of gilt tinsel, on the new made 
l>i!e.-i, and then turns away to discuss the 
feast of fat things spread for their bene- 
at. The viands consist of roast pig, fowls 
and game, with huge pyramids of rice, 
fruits and confectionery ; while wines, 
tea, and arrack circulate freely, accom- 
panied by uproaring mirth. 

"All this takt^ place beneath a large 
canopy erected on the side-walk in front 
of the dwelling, and there, too, the corpse 
has i:s last resting-place before being 
borne to the tomb ; and as the proceflfdon 
starts, one of the sons of the house seta 
fire to a huge sedan chair made entirely 
of paper, saying, as the fragile vehicle 
ignites ; * Here father (or mother), is a 
sedan foryour journey ; depart in peace.' 
This portion of the ceremony seems so 
tender unil beautiful as the sou takes his 
faitf farewell of the loved oue, that de- 
spite its frequency, it always broughtthe 
tears to tuy eyes, and a touch of sympa- 
thy for the bereaved. " 

LcCY. — "Do the relatives of the de- 
ce>ased take part in the wailing, or is it 
done exclusively by the /tired mourn- 
ers ? " 

Mas. F, — ' ' The sons and sons-in-law 
always lead the wailing and lamenta- 
tiunK ; and all the relatives who cim be 
present join in these dolorous dities, a 
hiidnind being the solitary exception. 
According to Chinese usage a man may 
mourn for his parents, brothers, children 
or friends, but never for his wife, how- 
ever much he may have loved her. A 
woman bewails her husband, children, 
and parents, but never a aon-in-law or 
daughter-in-law. " 

Fan.s'IE — •■ But surely the natural grief 
for the loss of near and dear relatives i.s 
not to be regulated by mere outward 
forms. " 

Mk-S. F.— "Chinese etiquette regulates 
everything in that ancient land, even to 
the mauifi'station or suppression of 
grief; and wliile with almost burning 
heart the hu.sbatid may lay away the ten- 
der, faithful wife, who, for aquarter of a 
century or more, has Ijeen the suD.>>bine 
of hi.s heart and home, it ■would be 
deemed a dej;rad!ition to hiiiiaelf to shed 
a t«ar or evince one sign of grief. So in 
stolid silence, without even a parting kiss 
or teiiiter prcsiire of the hand, he must 
seethe liwht of his eyes depart, and give 
no sign. " 

FearL. — *'Do Chinese ladies and gen- 
tlemen visit or travel together, or must 
they go separately and the attendants of 
each be of their t»wu sex ? " 

Mr-s. F. — " When ladies of the better 
class go abroad, ihcy usually ride in 
closely curtained sedans, borne by men ; 

but wht?n tliey walk short (listancea. it Is 
generallv at night, and tbe.v go closely 
veileJ, with od«» or more female attend- 
nnti walking nn either side while one 
CiirryLng an oiled silk lantern, pn^cede.s 
her init»treB8. and ki>e|i» a Bhitrp look-out 
n'lead. It is, however, only on verj* rare 
ox-Asionn, that a young or pretty C'liinese 
laly of the better class, venturea out on 
foot, and then only for short distances, 
C lineie ladies are emphatically 'helpers 
at home.*" 

AsNiK. — "Of what form and material 
are ladies* Kamients made ? " . 

Mrs. K. — '■ Wherever it can be afforded 
the Chinese of both sexes dress in silk or 
silk cr^pe ; and the wealthy make large 
me of very costly furs import«d from 
R 14 ua and Siberia. Blue is the favorite 
c Dior of the ladies' who dress, morning, 
n )o » and night, in long, loose, richly em- 
bruidered robes reaching from the neck 
nearly to the ankle. Full silken trousers 
are gathere<l closely around the ankle; 
and over these u daintily embroidered 
skin laid in plaits, and coufint-it at the 
waist by a very marvel of jewels and ex- 
qoisite needle-work in the form of a 
^HHirdle. The sleeves are wide and hand- 
^^^omely trimoied witbsitin, velvet or fur, 

■ according tu the season. They are folded 

■ b.ick, inordinary indoor wear, but are 
I brought down so as to completely 
^^, cover the hands, in lieu of gloves, when- 
^P*nirer the wearer is in the presence of other 
F gentlemen besides her hiinband ur father. 
P Almost incredible tjuaQtittesur jewelry, 

in the form of rinji^. ear-rings, chains, 
br.icdlet8 and b ingles, are worn by all 
cUises. the quality of course varying 
with the rank and wealth of the owner. 

"The higher class press the feet of their 
feiiAle children from infancy, bo that a 
tiny natin clipper leiss than four inches 
long, is often worn by a woman who is 
already a wife and a mother. The com- 
predion of the feet is a very painful oper- 
ation, but probably far leMs injurious to 
beilta thin tight-lacing, which is utterly 
uakaawa to Cuineie ladies, as are vari- 
oa-t other ab.iminations practiced by la- 
dies in Chri.'ftian lands." 

Leer.— " How is the hair worn, and 
what is the general appearance of the 

Wni. F.— "Tfie h.iir of unmarried fe- 
m.ile3 hangs dotva in Iook braids; but 
all married wome.i twi:)t it toward tht 
back of the beid, and fasten it with bod- 
kins of silver or gold ; while the beauti- 
ful arched eye-brows for which Chinedo 
laiiea are noted, are fashioned, from 
ohildhojd by the hands of the mother 
or her maids. Many of the Chinese 
wom<'n are very handsome in youth ; 
and their dress, is on the whole, modest, 
becoming and convenient— much more 
■o than ours. 

"Neither lady or gentleman is complete 

ly dressed without a /an ; and the mah- 
attire must include aim), a pipe, tobacco 
pouch, flint and steel, and soiuetimes a 
a pair of chop-sticks. The fan and pi|>e 
are carried in the hand, while the other 
accoutrements are attached to their un- 
der belt. 

"In hot weather, the laboring classes of 
. men take off their upper garments alto- 
gether, and go abotit in their loose trous- 
ers only ; but they usually wear sandals 
made of straw-leather ; and wide, um- 
brella-shaped hats to shield their shaved 
heads from the torrid sun. They also 
have queer-looking overcoats made of a 
species of flax, which effectually turn off 
the rain, keeping the whole person and 
clothing comfortably dry. 

' 'The garments of men , 1 ike those of th e 
women, are all loose and wide-sleeved ; 
and those of rich and poor, do not differ 
at all in shape, but only in material, the 
rich wearing Bilk and fur, the pt>or, dyed 
cotton. Among the rich, the upper gar- 
ment is frequently gathered in folds 
aroitiid the waist, by a beautifully em- 
broidered girdle ; and in winter, all class- 
es pull a pair of tight leggins over the 
looie trousers, and wear heavily-wadded 
overcoats. The winter cap is of velvet, 
fur, broadcloth, or flannel ; and the sum- 
mer hat of straw or bamboo. 

"Chinese etiquette, and I believe even 
law, forbids any private citizen to 
change his winter cap for the summer- 
one, or vice rersa, until the governor of 
the province has changed his, and that 
fact ha^ been officially announced. The 
thiuk-soled shoes are made of silk or cot- 
ton with leather soles, the edges of 
which are kept clean by whiting instead 
of blacking; and the stockings of both 
sexes and all ranks are cut out and nuide 
of silk or cotton like any other garment ; 
and of course cannot be tight-fitting, or 
ahiped to the ankle. " 

Pk.vru— " Won't you please tell us 
simj'thingof the household arrange- 

Mas. F.— " All the domestic affairs in- 
cluiing the employment of servants, the 
entertainment of guests, the performance 
of religious rites, and to a larger extent 
even the household expenses are gener- 
ally left to the wife without any dicta- 
tion from her husbind ; as is also the en- 
tire ontrol of the children for the first 
seven years of their life. Thus the wife's 
ptHver is often greater than that of the 
husband and father, and her influence 
ocer her children is next to omnipotent, 
in consequence of this law of (Ufsohtte 
pniver oi'er them in every particular, 
during the most plastic period of their 
lives. Hence, if China is to be won for 
Jesus, KJ« muitt aiice f/i? teomen. " 

FA.NNtE. — '• How are marriages provid- 
ed for in the 'Flowery Kingdom.'" 

Mrs, F. — "Marriage is vety generaV 


in China and within the reach of all, bat 
in upper tendom. at leB«t. girls are kept 
secluded, and from childhood different 
training of the two sexes is maintained : 
and lieirothals are arranged either by the 
parents or professional match- niakem — / 
' golwtweens' as they are called all 
over the East. Engagements take place 
very early for the girls — sometimes at 
three or four years of age : and of course 
the child whose future weal or wotr is 
thus bartered away, has no voice in the 
matter. That 'marriages are made in 
heaven' no nation more devoutly be- 
lieves than do the Chinese; and they enter 
upon its formalities in the gravest man- 
ner. Even the precise hour as as well the 
(lay of male and female infants' birth i* 
carefully noted as having an imp<}rt.ant 
bearing on the marriage question. Both 
sexes are also consulted at the time of 
lx<trotha1, incense is burned, and many 
technical formalities oteerved, A great 
feast follows the betrothal at which the 
prospective bride is arrayed in gorgeous 
apparel of crimson aiik with bright but- 
tons and manifold ornaiaents, all of 
which can be /iir«(f for the occasion if the 
family's qieans are limited. If she be still 
a child, the little betrothed is allowed 
full liberty among the male aa well as the 
female guests, and of course enjoys the 
consciounesB of being one of the chief p«r. 
sonages on so grand an occasion, exper- 
iencing all a child's elation at finding 
herself of more importance than she had 
ever before dreame<l ; and little compre- 
hending the dark future to which all 
this splendor is but the introductory. " 

Ll'CY.— " At what age usually do these 
betrothed children marry?" 

Mrs. F.—" At any time, between twelve 
and sixteen that may be most convenient 
to all, the marriage takes place : when 
a feast is made, guests are invited, mu- 
siciaiui are engaged, the house of the 
bridegroom or of his parents, is cleaned 
from top to bottom, the bridal chamber 
is newly furnished and decorated with 
bright or sensuous pictures suited to the 
occasion, and with more or less pomp 
and parade ; the inexperienced child is 
borne away from a loving mother's ten- 
der ministry, to the unknown home of a 
man she has never seen, and possibly can 
never learn to love or even to tolerate, to 
be literally the slave of his mother's ca- 
prices, the maid of all work in his house, 
to be taunted and scolded, and i)€rbapB 
beaten, while her husband aever dreara.s 
of interfering, perhaps not even caring 
for the bitter bondage of his child wife, 
or seeing her tears, but utterly unable to 
help the cause, even if he wished to do 

"For Chineae custom gives the mother- 
in-law— during her life-time —entire con- 
trol of her son's wifc;aadvC<.\a.'«.y:-ai<ft^^- 





home, the case is still harder, eHpecially 
far the wives of the younger sons, as they 
mse under the control uf the sister-in-law, 
as well as the old people. It is only after 
the motliiT-in-law's death that the sons 
may have establishmentH of their own, 
and then the real reign of the wife be 
gins. Should they loose their bushanda 
before his mother dies, the daughter-in- 
law is not absolved from her allegiance 
nor in the niajority of cases is she per- 
mitted to marry again. Under such cir- 
cuniBlancea a woman's lot is pitiable, in- 

"For the man it is very diflferent. Be- 
fore the earth is dry up<.in Ids wife's 
grave, the " go-l>etween " enters the hus- 
band's gate to arrange for a new wife, 
Tint when the husband dies, he is always 
buried in the same giave with his first 

"Women in China are seldom educated, 
as knowledge of books is deemed for her 
of far less value than how to pamper the 
gro8B appetites of her sensuous lord. 
One Chinaman, a little wiser and kinder 
than his fellows, wrote a book on educa- 
tion : and even advised that women 
should be instructed, "since monkeys 
may be taught to play antics, dogs may 
be taught to tread a u)ill, cats to run 
around u cylinder, t nd patrots to recite 
■verses. ' And women being regarded by 
the Chinese aa nearly equal to the domes- 
tic animals, this pliilanthropic CelfStial 
decides (hat she may share in the intel- 
lectual banquet conile^cendinf ly spread 
for the new household pets, always, of 
course, if she be young and pretty. 

"If fjarents lose two or three sons by 
death, they often give a nirl's name to 
the next, thinking thereby to deceive the 
evil spirit, who is supposed to take as lit- 
tle heed of girls as do the Chinese them- 
selves. Boys are sometimes for this rea- 
son, Buflfered to grow up to manhood, 
wearing girl's clothes, and being treated 
in every way as girls, in order to outwit 
the devil. 'Witat a friendly joy to fce re- 
leased from such a bondage, acd to re- 
ceive the ' new name ' and new nature 
<jf our Divine Redeemer, wilh the bless- 
ed inheritance of everlasting life," 

Nortli dilna Itieltaodlkt E|>l»ci>iial 

From the Annual Report of the mis- 
sion, just received from China we make 
the following extracts : 

"The reports show the beat year we 
have ever enjoyed. The total of mem- 
bers and probationers is 810, an increase 
of nearly 40 per cent. Our jiiiHsionaiy 
collection in $50. W over the 'Million 
Line. ' 

" Substantial progress has" been made 
in self support. The salaries; of two 
JbeJpfrti' hare bfeu entirely met by local 

contributions, and those of two others 
have been partially met. Local ex- 
penses have been largely provided for by 
local contribiitions. The whole amount 
received for self-bupport and local ex- 
fienses 18(840.00, a decided gain on laht 
year, " 

" In Wiley Institute there are 66 pupils 
on the roll. In the Peking Girls' Board- 
ing School the past year there were 
bS pupils varying in age from 7 to 23. 
Lii the Training Class over 20 men were 
instructed. In the women's work there 
have been 7 day schools, 5 for boys and 
2 for girls, and they form valuable 
auxiliaries to the boarding schools in 

" The receipts of the hospital at Peking 
are almost sufficient to pay current ex- 
penses, except drug supplies, and the 
salaries of 2 In the Isa- 
belJa Fisher Hospital at Tientsin, the 
reports shows 125 house-patieuts, 37 eye 
operations. 8 general hurgery, 3,017 dis- 
pensary patients. 280 visits to out pa- 
tients. The Tsunhua Medical \Vork has 
been encouraging. The prejudices of 
the pcojile ha\e been to a great extent 
broken down. ' 

Hev. L. W. Pilcher writes :— "China 
has at last begun to stir with signs of a 
new life. A fine thread of iron wire is 
rapidly penetrating every quarter of the 
Empire. Arsenals and sliipyards have 
been in existence for several years ; 
steamers ply between thepoits; mines 
are beingopened ; railroads are in ojiera- 
tion, and other lines are being rapidly 
built. In the civil service examinations 
the sages are no longer solely to determine 
the fitness of students of to-day for 
honors. By imperial decree, mathema- 
tics and AVestern science have been intro- 
duced into the examinations. A com- 
pany of men chosen from the most in- 
telligent class have been commissioned 
to travel in foreign countries for study 
and observation. The knowledge ac- 
quired will be used for the bcnttfit of the 
countrj- they reprtiient. These and 
other powerful influences are turning 
the minds of the thinking and ruling 
classes to the ^V'e8t. Who shall be their 
teachers'j' Wiley Institute is the only 
institution in this great capital designed 
lo meet this new demand, which at the 
same time proposes to strive against the 
infidel element, characterizing every 
movement of this kind among heathen 

The statistics reported in September. 
1887, show that connected with the mis- 
liiou are 10 foreign missionuxies, 10 as- 
sistant niissiontirits, 5 foreign mission- 
aries of Woman's Foreign Missionary 
t?ociety, 4 native workers of Woman's 
Foreign Miesiunary Society, 8 native or- 
dained preachers, 11 native unordained 
preachere. 12 native teachers, 7 foreign 

teachers, B other helpers. 571 members, 
288 probationers, 1 theological school 
with 3 teachers and 20 students, 2 high 
schools with 7 teachers and 118 pupils, H 
other day-schools with 105 pupils, 1» 
Sundfiy-schoola with 404 scholars. 9 
churches and chapels valued at f lo,!J.">0, 
10 halls and other places of worship, b> 
parsonages or hciues valued at $46,800. 

The missionaries and their places of 
residence aie as follows : 

i'lhirif/ :-Rev. Wm. T. Hobait, Mrs. 
Emily M, Hobart, Rev. Leander W. 
Pilcher, Mrs. Mary H. Pilcher, Itev. 
Marcus L, Taft, Mrs. Louise K. Taft, 
Rev. Fretlerick Blown, Mrs. Agnes B. 
Brown, Rev. George B. Crews, M.D., 
-Mrs. Kate V. Crews, Miss Vesta O. 

Tien t Kin : — Rev. George R. Davis. Mrs. 
Mniia B. Davis, Rev. Wilbur F. Walker. 
Mrs. Flora M. Walker. 

Tsuiitiua : — Rev. Oscar W, Willits, Mis. 
Phena Willits, Rev. Nehemiah S. Hop- 
kins, M.D., Mrs. Fannie H, Hopkins, Hev. 
.James H. Pyke, Mrs. Bella 0. Pyke. 

In the United Si nh's:— Rev. Hiram 11. 
Lowry, Mrs. Parthie E Lowry, En 
m«fc— Rev. W. II. Curtiss, m.d., and 

IF. F. M. S.. Peking :— mas Annie B. 
Sears, Miss Nellie R. Ureer ; Tientsin .— 
Miss Anna D. Gloss, H.D., Mrs. Charlotte 
M. Jewell; launhua: — Miss Edna ti. 
Terry, m.d. 

Rev. H. H. Lowrj- isthesuperintendeut 
of the mission, and will return to China 
in the spring. Rev. L. W. Pilcher is 
Presiding Elder of tLe Peking District 
and principal of the Wiley Institute. 
Rev. W. T. llobart is pastor of Asbury 
Chapel, Peking, and professor in Theo- 
logical Department of Wiley Institute. 
Rev. M. L. Taft is pastor in the Southern 
City. Peking, and professor in the Theo- 
logical Dfpartment of Wiley Institute. 
Rev. G. B, Crews, m.d . is in charge of 
the Medical Department and of Tung 
Jen Hospital at Peking. Miss Vtsta 
Greer is a tcwher in Wiley Institute. 

Rev. G. R. Davis is Presiding Elder of 
the Tientsin District. Rev. W. F. Walker 
is pastor of Wesley Chapel, Tientsin. 
Rev. J. H. Pyke is Presiding Elder of 
the Tsunhua District. Rev. O. W. Willits 
is pa-stor of the church in Tsunhua. Rev. 
N. S, Hopkins, M.U. , is in charge of the 
hospital and dispensary in Tsunhua. 

Wc«t China inrtliodlat KpUcopal 

The Rev. V. C". Hart, superintendent of 
the Central China Mission, wasrequesttd 
to visit the place wliere the West t'hiiia 
Jlission had been pieviously located and 
re-establish it if possible. In a letter 
written Oct. »1. 1887. Bro. Hart reportst 

"I visited Chungking, and various 



places in the province of Szchuen during 
the spring and eummer and had the 
pleasure of seeing our work in thnt 
p?eat province re-opened with many en- 
couraging prospects. There has been a 
steady transformation of public opinion 
f^oing on during the year, and Bro. Cady 
who was left at Chungking has reported 
from time to time favorable indications. 

" I visited the beat and most populous 
portions of the province by land and 
water, and met with the best of treat- 
ment everywhere. Many thousands of 
boolu, pamphlets and tracts were dis- 
poeed of, and some preaching done. 
Sabbath services wore commenced at 
once at Chungking, and all the former 
members of the mission now in the 
province were brought together. 

"PreviouB to our visit to C'hentu, the 
capital of the pruvince, there had been 
much excitement, and after our depart- 
ure there was a temporary outbreak but 
no harm was done. I found the officials 
ready to afford protection and disposed 
to provide against any unpleasantness 
which might arise from the presence uf 
foreigners in their midst. 

" We should open another center 
either at Chentu or Kiating-foo. It will 
not be more expensive to keep six men 
at the two centers than at one. and much 
more good can be accomplished." 

The missionaries at (^ungking are 
Itev. H. Olin Cady, and Hev. Spencer 
Lewis. In the United States are Rev. F. 
D. Gamewell, Mrs. M. P. Qamewell and 
Mrs. Esther B. Lewis. 


Centra.! Ctalna ITIeiliodtat Eplwcopal 

Rev, V. C. Hart, the superintendent of 
Ibe mission writes : 

"The statistics show that we have 
made an advance at nearly every point. 
There has been a healthy j^rowth, and an 
litiun of about une hunrlrecl to our 
Ha. We have also made an advance 
in self support." 

The missionaries are stationed as fol- 
lows : 

Natikittf/ — Rev, Virgil C. Hart. Kev. 
R. C. Beebe, M.D. . Mrs. Harriet L. Beebe. 
Rev. John C. Ferguson. Mrs. Minnie E. 
Ferguson, Rev. James .Jackson, Mrs. J. 

Kiukiang.—Re\, John R. Ilykes, Mrs. 
Rebie 9. Hykes. Rev. C. F. Kupfer. Mrs. 
Lydia E. Kupfer, Kev. J. J. Banbury, 
Mrs. J. J. Biinbiuy. 

Cht'nkutiig.—R^v. \V. C. Longden, Mrs. 
Gertrude K. Longden, Rev. Ed. 8. Little, 
MrB. Carrie Little, Rev. W. H. CurtiBS, 
M.D., .Mrs. W. II. Curtiss, Rev. D. W. Nich- 
ols, Mrs. D. W. Nichols. 

Ww/iw — Kev. Geo. A. Sluurt m.d. , 
Mrs. Anna G. Stuart. Rev. John Wal- 
ley. Mis. J. Walley. 

tn this Country. — Mrs. Addie J. Hart, 
Hev. Cleo. W. W«x)dall. Mrs. Sarah H. 

W. F. M. 8. Chinkia ng. —mRS Lucy H. 
Hoag, M.D., Miss May C. Robinson; 
Kiukiang. — Miss Gertrude Howe, Miss 
Francis Wheeler; Nanking. — Miss Mary 
E. Uarleton, M.D., Miss Ella C. Shaw. 

The statistics report 11 foreign mis- 
sionaries, II assistant missionaries, 6 
mission aries of the Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society, 2 native workers of 
the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, 
8 native ordained preachers, 3 native un- 
ordained preachers, 25 native teachers, 

14 other heliiers. 282 members, 207 proba- 
tioners, 18 students in theology, 4 high 
schools with 12 teachers an<l 115 pupils, 
26 other day schools with 398 Bcholars. 

15 Sunday Schools with 506 scholars, 7 
churches valued at $6,700, 12 other halls 
and places of worship. 13 parsonages and 
homes valued at $50,200. 

»• ► 

Foocbow nelhedlst Cplkcopal Con- 

The Foochow Annual Conference met 
in November last, but at the time of go- 
ing to press we have not received the 
proceedings, appuinlments and statistics. 
We refer to last month's magaMne for 
the latest iuformatiou we have respect- 
ing the mission and its missionaries. 

The Hope 


BT ailHOP K. 8. T>J»TKK, D. O. 

Christianity is confessedly the greatest 
power in the world. This is so politi- 
cally, commercially, intellectually, and 
morally. There are other faiths, as 
Buddhism, with a more numerous fol- 
lowing, but none with comparable power. 

The p<.fwerf(il and ruling nations are 
Christian nations. The aggressive force, 
the elements of conquest and molding 
influence — wealth, learning, enterprise, 
progress — are all in Christian hands. 

It is a significant fact that the political 
power of Christendom dominates almost 
entire pagunisui, whilst one-third of pa- 
ganism is under the absolute sway of 
Christian rulers. 

Ali iho lorccs of modem thought are 

The eyes of heathenism are turned to 
the ct^ntres of Christendom. 

Tne heathen world, dissatisfied with 
its religion and civilization, not less than 
with its fH>verty and misery, is looking 
toward Christendom for lielp. 

They are waiting for deliverance with- 
out knowing what it is they are waiting 

Heathenism cowers and shrinks away 
in con.scious weakness before Cliristian 
thought and rhristian institutions. 

Christian trutJi saturates the atmos- 
phere of the globe. 

The very essence of Christianity is that 
it reconstructs man and makes him a 
new creature. It not only recasts his 
ideas and practices, it resets his affections 
and vrtll. It is a life. It is this fact, 
more than its external victories, that 
gives lis the conBdence that it will pos- 
sess and remake the world. 

There is an old Christian woman, 
named Morita, living in Tokyo, who is 
very zealous in her efifurts to bring others 
to love and obey her Lord and Master. 
She had a son who was very dissolute, 
and wasted his mother's property in de- 
bauchery: and his wickedness went to 
such an extent that in the course of ten 
years he was sent to prison seven times. 

So ba<l and di.sgraceful was liis con- 
duct that all his other relations and 
friends forsook liim, and only his gnod 
and patient mother was left to pity and 
care for hira in his wretched condition. 
Her faith in (Jod did not waver; and 
whenever she saw him she told him 
of Christ, and endeavored to persuade 
him to forsake his sins, and walk in the 
ways of righteousness and peace. 

But be was so hardened in sin that be 
turned a deaf ear to all her loving en- 
treaties. He only said in reply. "Dear 
mother, it is all right for you to be goo<l, 
and to go to heaven, but I am bo addicted 
to evil ways that I cannot stop, and it is 
my purpose to live on in this same course, 
and go to hell." 

Still his mother did not give him up, 
and prayed for him day and night. 

About one year ago he was sent to 
prison once more: and while thus in 
continement his wife died of the cholera, 
leaving four children, of whom the 
youngest was only a babe. The grand- 
mother was at first much troubled, and 
said : " There is surely no other way 
than for these little ones but to die of 
starvation." Then, after awhile, she 
said, "Oh, no, it is a great mistake to 
doubt the jKJwer and goodness of (lod, 
and llt^who has created us is also able to 
supply all our needs." She took the little 
ones to her home and cared for them ten- 

In the month of November last the son 
and father was released, and when he 
come to his home and found the mother- 
less children thus cared for by the old 
grandmother, IiIh hard heart was melted, 
and he became a truly penit*ut and hum- 
ble seeker after that religion which had 
strengthened and comforted his moth- 
er's heart. 

From that time his house was openeJ 
as a place for preaching, and fre<{ueni, 
services were held there for his own ben- 
efit and also to lead others to a knowl- 
edge of Christ ami His salvation. 

One day he read the second chapter of 
Kphesians and was deeply moved by its 
appropriateness to his own case. He has 
been received into the church, and is 
vigorously laboring to extend the bless- 
ings of the Gospel among all his asso- 
ciates and friends. 


Olviitg for inisalonM. 


(Aunt 0«Uit, a iiusaloDarj at home on forlon^h. 
Jnll», Fannie, Ajaj, nai Itnle Ettie, her nieces.) 

Fannie.— "Aunt Celia, why did you 
Bay you could not afford that lovely silk 
mamma wanted you to buy ; and the 
same evening give $40 to aid that new 
mission church in Japan?" 

Adnt C. — ■' Because, dear, I could not 
well do both ; and I thought I could 
better dispense with a new dresa, than 
that little church continue to meet in a 
private dwelling, where there was room 
only for the members, and no apace left 
for outsiders." 

Amy. — "Can't people out there build 
their own churches as we do ?' 

Adnt C. — " Many of them do — that is 
after the membership is large enough to 
divide the cost, between a oonsiderable 
number. In the case of this little church 
at Sendai, they bought, and paid /or 
among themselven entirely, a dwelling 
house, because they could not afford to 
buy a church edifice, and they were 
unwilling either to go in debt, or call on 
outsiders to help them." 

JcUA. — "Well, as they have bought 
this house and used it for church pur- 
poses BO far, why not continue to meet 
in it, until they are able to buy or build 
a regular meeting-house?" 

Aunt C. — " Because the member;*hip 
has quite outgrown the huililing, and 
they have ni> longer any M]iace to give 
even standing room to people who would 
come in 'to hear the new dixrtrine,' 
imlesB some of the members go outside, 
as they have been doing for months 
past. The members are all pf)or— many 
of them not earning more than $3 a 
month, and the richest less thjfti |10. 
Yet these dear converts from heathenism 
so love and honor their new-found Savior 
that they arc ready to niiike any sjicri- 
flce in order to obey His last command 
to ' preach the Gospel to every creature.' 
Many accustomed to the free use of 
tobacco from early childhood, have after 
joining the church given up smoking 
entirely, that they might giye the 
money for the spread of the ' good news 
of salvation.' One old man gave up his 
tea half the days in the week, in order 
to save a few pennies for his Sunday's 
contribution; and many deny themselves 
fish and meat, taking their rice every 
alternate day, without any relish, in 
order to devote a portion of their scanty 
earnings to making trips into the coun- 
try villages where there is no missionary, 
and preach Christ to the awanning mul- 
titudes who have never heard his name. 
They know, as we do not, the bitterbond- 
ag« of idolatry, its helplessness and 
hopelessness, and these converted idol- 
aton mike the most effective teachers 

and guides to the blessed Redeemer able 
to 'save unto the uttermost.' Shall not 
we. whom God has so abundantly helped 
above any other nation or country, deny 
ourselves some superfluities, ihat we 
may help these brave, earnest, willing 
workers in the world's great harvest 

Fanwib. — "Since these native Chris- 
tians make such efficient assi-stants, why 
are not more of them employed by the 
mission boards, instead of sending out 
missionaries from this country? It 
would coat less, and the money contrib- 
uted would go farther, and thus less be 

Aunt C. — "You have used just the 
right words, my dear. The native 
Christians do make admirable 'assist- 
ants ; ' but they have not yet sufficient 
knowledge and experience to be able to 
manage the work without the guidance 
of the missionaries. This has been 
clearly demonstrated by the recent 
troubles in the Hawaiian Islands. Clear 
heads, varied intellectual endowments, 
and much prudence are needed no less 
than warm, earnest hearts, for mission 
work; and you must remember that 
these native Christians have been trained 
under heathen influences, that they lack 
the culture needed for translation and 
interpretation of the Scriptures, for the 
training of ministers and teachers, and 
even for the general control of the 
churches gathered from among the 
heathens. Both must work together ; 
and in planning methods to win the 
world to Jesus, we may no more select 
the cheajwst or easiest, than would Mary 
have done In buying the ' precious oint- 
ment "she poured ujMm the feet of her 
Lord. He gave Himself for us, and in 
' doing His work, carrying out His last 
, command dare we make stinted offer- 
I ings? Who may compute the value of a 
single soul in doUara and cents? and 
when the heathen ar*- dying by hun- 
dreds of millions without any hope of 
salvation, how can one be a ChrisHan 
an<l hold back the money that is needed 
to g^ve them the Bread of Life?" 

Amy. — "Of course Christians ought 
to give what is 'needeHl': hut I do not 
understand why it takes so mucli money 
to carry im this missionary work. Last 
year, I think over $10,OUO.OOO were 
raised by Protestants in Europe and the 
United States, for Christian missions, 
and still the cry for more money seems 
just as urgent as ever." 

Aunt C— "And the need for it is 
greater than ever before. In answer to 
he prayers of His people, Ood has 
thrown wide the doors of almost every 
land to the entnincc of the Hitile nnd 
Christian mia^onaries. China, of late, by 
imperial edict as never liefore, Japan 
and Korea sealed for ages against western 

civilization, the once cannibal islands of 
the sea. and the ' Dark Continent' which 
seemed to frown back defiance toward 
every approach of the white man are 
now wide open, and stretch beseeching 
hands to Christian hearts to 'come over 
and help.' Not to hear is to disobey the 
manifest call of the Divine Spirit. 
Another call comes to us in the (ireat 
awakening there haa been, during the 
paat year, among the young men in our 
colleges and theological seminaries 
throughout the country. While empires 
and kingdoms have been throwing down 
harriers, and opening sealed gates, God 
has been opening from the inside, the 
hearts of our young men and women, to 
go and carry the ' Bread of Life ' to the 
perishing ones who, in this nineteenth 
century since the Son of God offered 
Himself a sacrifice for the sins of the 
whole world, have as yet 'not so much 
as heard whether there be any Savior' 
from sins. More than fifty of these con- 
secrated young men and women, are 
under apixiintment from the different 
boards, to be sent to their respective 
fiiL"td.s, 90 sowi p* the. cinirches itupply the 
moveji. And while immortal souls are 
perishing by millions in heathen lauds, 
and even within the bounds of Chiistiiui 
America, the Dnal and Ashtaroth of the 
Phoenecians are worshiped in the leafy 
groves of New Mexico, where the lives of 
the women are no higher than tliat of 
the brute, nor the hope of immortality 
any stronger in one than the other — why 
sh(»uld there not be a demand for ' more 
money.' Alas ! that thtjae who bear the 
name of Jesus should need be asked for 
money. Tliey should rather press to the 
front with the free will offerings as did 
the Israelites when the tabernacle was 
to Ite built, until those in charge be con- 
strained to say with Moses : * Let neither 
man nor woman bring any more offer- 
ings," becausethe contributions are ' euDi- 
cient for all the work, and too much.' " 

Fannie — "Do you supiwse .such a 
time will ever come in the history of 
modern missions? Oh, Auntie, it does 
seem strange that we whose knowledge 
and privileges are so much greater than 
those of the Israelites, shcmld not even 
come up to their standard of ' one-tenth' 
for the Lfird— that we who have received 
so freely should even count and calculate 
how little we can venture to give back of 
His own. to our Lord, and escape cen- 

Aunt C. — " The time miwt come when 
God's people shall recognize the fact they 
are stewards— not ownei-s of worldly 
(;oc»ds ; and that the grand qualification 
of a steward, is "that he he found faith- 
ful.' How shall the account he rendere«l 
af the Judgment Seat, Ihat the men of 
this ci.untry spend annu.tlly fl»(Ml.i>0«.OU(i 
for whiskey, and $600,000,000 for to- 


bacco, and the women flOO.OOO.OiO for 
duunonds and other fuperfltiitios of 
drera. while Christian men, women, an<l 
children, all told. Rive Sr,,,')(H),OW) f..r the 
conversion of the world. Shall people 
of the world be so lavisli for tbemselves 
— the Christian »o niRKardly for Je8U8 ? 
We live in a day when every Christian 
!■ call£>d to be soldier aa well as laborer, 
l<-i^ad every man in this grand iirmy must 
show his colors. Tlie prince of this 
world ia making a desperate on*et 
agunst tbe Christ— not openly, but 
craftily as in the garden he first despoiled 
man of his innocence; and the conflict 
between light and darkness, truth and 
error, was never more real, more dea<lly 
than now. True and tried men and 
women are needed everywhere to with- 
stand the foe ; chun-hes and sciiools and 
Bibles are needed in hiindreils of places 
perfectly accessible to the minnionarj' ; 
but Wod's people hold back the money, 
to hoard, or spend it in vanity and foUy; 
and then wonder why they are ' iw> often 
called on to give money ' for the Lord's 

AMY. — "It is dreadful, auntie, for us 
to receive so much, and give so little. I 
never saw it so plainly before. Won't 
you tell OS how we girls can help in this 
blessed work T 
AtWTC — 

" ■ Do wbkt iron r«D, l>e whmt foa uc: 
B<! A glow-worm, U doi a ctiir.' 
Save the pennies wasted uselessly, wear 
plainer dresses and give the surplus to 
missiona, earn money in any useful avo- 
cation that is open to you, and above all 
ask tbe dear Savior to use you for Hie 
"•Uglory, and then be sure to watch for the 
opportunities He may send you." 

Ettie. (eight years old.)— "Auntie, can 
I give my $5 gold piece to help teach 
those mothers not to drown their girl- 
taabies any more? Uncle George sent it 
to me to buy a Christmas doll with real 
hair, but it would be so much nicer to 
•ave somebody's live baby from being 
drowned, than to have the prettiest doll 
that erver was." 

AxtstC. — "Uod bless you. dear child, 
for the thought. May it l)e but the be- 
ginning of the blessed work He will per- 
mit you to do for lliiii. 

"The teachers of a girls' school, away 
in Africa, wished her scholars to learn to 
give. She paid them, therefore, for do- 
mg some work for her, sa that each girl 
might have something of her own to give 
away for Jesus' sake. Among tbem was 
a new scholar, such a wild and ignorant 
little heathen that the teacher did not 
try to explain to her what the other girls 
Were doing. The day came when the 
gifts were handed in. Elach pupil brought 
her pi«x;e of money and laid it down, and 
the tea<:her thought all the otferings were 
given. But there «too<l the new scholar 

hugging tightly in her arms a pitcher, 
the only thing she had in the world. She 
went to the table and put it among the 
other gifts, but lK<f«ire she turne<i away 
nhe kisned it .' There is One who watched 
and still watches (leople canting gifts 
into bis treasury. Would he not say of 
this .African girl, ' She hath cast in more 
than they all?'" 

O or mUslooarir Dictionary. 

ALLA.H — .\n Arabian word meaning 
God, the Lord, the Almighty. It is said 
to be derived from the Arabic verb 
"lab." which means trembling and shi- 
ning. Mohammedans revorcntly use it. 
They have ninety-nine attributive names 
of God, and their Rosaries have ninety- 
nine bends, with a large prolonged 
bend, making the one hundreth, lor 
Allah. One of the moat solemn oatbs 
of the Afghans is by the name of God 
(.\llah) three times repeated in three dif- 
ferent forms. 'Wallah, Bellah, Tillah." 
Aryan. — A nam,e given by ethnologists 
to a family of the human race, also des- 
ignated Indo-Kuropean. Indo Germanic, 
Sanskritoid, Japhetic, and Caucasian. 
The original meaning of the word is said 
to have been equivalent to upper noble 
or dignified. It is a Sanskrit word, and 
in the later Sanskrit it means "noble, of 
a good family." The primeval home of 
tbe Aryans was in West Central Asia. 
Thence they went west into Europe and 
south into India. 

•AVKSTA.— A part of the Vendidatl. 
This is the religious book of the Parsees; 
but the first part of the book is of very 
ancient date, and is the groundwork of 
the present Vendidad. 

Ayah.— .\ word used in India to desig- 
nate a lady's maid or a child's nurse. It 
is perhaps derived from the expression 
" Aya,"or "Ayer" which a Hindu wife 
or husband employs to attract the atten- 
tion of one another. 

Baboo. — A respectful appellation 
among the Hindus equivalent to "es- 
(juire" or "your reverence." It is not 
infrequently applied to Europeans when 
addressed by a Hindu. In Calcutta, a 
baboo is a Hindu engaged in mercantile 
business, a native clerk who writes En- 
glish, but in Benares it is applied to the 
near relatives of rajahs. 

Bah. — A sacrifice performed by the 
people of India and Ceylon to local dei- 
ties, to earth and air deities, to 
evil spirits, to the names of de- 
ceased ancestors, and to the Hindu dei- 
ties Siva, Vishnu, their consorts and in- 
ournatiuns. It is a word used in Ceylon 
to express the worship of the heavenly 
bodies. The victim sacrificed is gener- 
ally a cock : and the Baliya are clay ini- 
agt»8 Bupo«e<l to represent the controlling 
planet of the individual, and are de- 

stroyed at the conclusion of tbe Bal 
ceremonies.— A word applied by the Hin- 
dus to the Supreme Being. "Many Hin- 
dus of the present day recognize that the 
Almighty, the infinite, the eternal, the 
incomprehensible, self-existent l>eing, 
he whose power is too infinite to be im- 
agined is Brahm ! creator, preserver, end 
destroyer of the universe, from wlu m 
all souls come, and to him again return '' 
BrahmaXism.— The designation of the 
Hindu religion at present prevailing. It 
is a confused mass of local superstitions 
and mytlis. It worships a multitude of 
figures of local divinities who have beea 
admitted into the Hindu Pantheon as 
avatars of Vishnu or Siva, the chief gods 
of the modem Hindus. 

Brahmo-Samaj.— A reforming Hindu 
sect who believe in the abolition of caste, 
the elevation and instruction of women, 
and the unity and spirituality of God. 
In lt^8U there were 14U societies in India 
l>elungiug to the order and 18 different 
periodicals were jJubliBbed. 

Buddha. — A title employed to desig- 
nate the religious teacher from whoso 
doctrines have sprung up the forms of 
the Buddhiit religion which are found 
prevailing in Ceylon, Tibet Tartary, 
Burma, Siam, China, and Japan. The 
word in Sanskrit means wisdom, su- 
preme intelligence. Sakya Sinha. wl>o 
was Ijorn in the year 628 before Christ, 
was the founder of the great sect, 
and at his death b.c. 543 his do4.-irines 
had beeu firmly established. His body 
was burned and his ashes were distribut- 
ed among eight cities, and the charcoal 
from the funeral pile was given to a 
ninth, lie has become a taint in the 
Roman Catholic Church, under tbe miuiu 
of St. Josaphat. 

BCDDHisiC.— A religion which bad its 
origin in the teachings of Sakya Sinha. 
It is estimated there are 470,(NH).(X>i> 
Buddhists. It is a fundamental doctrine 
that existence i« an evU, for birth origi- 
nates sorrow, pain, dscay and death. It 
teaches that annihilation is tbe highest ■ 
happiness which a soul can strive after. I 
To cease to exist is the prevailing hope. 
1 heir ten commandments according to 
Max iMuller, are :— Do not kill ; do not 
steal ; do not commit adultary ; do not 
lie ; do not get intoxicated ; abstain from 
un'^uitable words : abstain from public 
siiectacle^ : abstain from excess in dress; 
do not have a large l)ed ; do not receive 
silveror gold. The sacred canon of the 
Buddhists now extant is called the Trip 
itoka, i. e. . the three baskets. The first 
basket contains all tlmt has reference to 
Viuaya, or morality or discipline ; the 
secoml contains the Sutra, or discourses 
of Buddha : the third. Abhiilbnrma, in 
dudex all works treating of dogmatiO 
philo.HophY or m'ita.V'Vv^%\R*. 




itloM antr Coinmtnti^. 

The manascript of Prof. Littlf-'a Ad- 
(Ireea on Miasions was received hist tnonth , 
but tod late to b(» printed in this issue. 
It will appear next month. 

Thauks r<ir many kind words of I'om- 
nienJalion lately received. Let each 
a))]>ret<iiitive friend send us at least one 
new subscriber, thereby increasing our 
influence for yoiKi. 

Misa Tucker, known to many of our 
readers as " A. L. O. K.." a very interest - 
iiiK; writer, and an author of many l>ookB 
for youDK pt':>i.ile, is a missionary at Am- 
rituar In India. "A. L. O. E." means 
"A Lady ofEajjland." 

Of the seven missionaries of the En- 
glish Baptist Mission on the Congo, who 
went out in 1885, four have died. Rev. 
H. H. "Whitley and Rev. J. E. Biggs are 
the two latest victims to African fever. 

Tlip Evangelical Alliance suggests that 
on Friday, January 6. there shall be 
prayer for Missions.— " For the quickeo- 
ing of a missionary spirit and for the 
outpouring of the Holy Ghost : for all 
asents in Oo8j»el work, that they may lie 
kept htunble, devoted and courajjeoua: 
for native cJiurihes and convertB, espec- 
ially such as endure persecution for the 
♦ tospel's sake ; for Mission Colleges, Bible 
and Tract Societies, and the spread of 
vernacular Christiau literature : for the 
overthrow of all false religions, and for 
the conversion of Jews. Mohammedans, 
and heathen to the faitit of Christ ; for 
(he complete opening up of Africa to the 
light, and thecessntion of its slave trade : 
for a blessing on all Missionary Confer- 
ences to be held thif year.— Pa. ? ; 67; 
ri : 110 : 136 : Isaiah 9 : 1-0; a.'j ; 40 ; 44; 
.">■!: 60 ; Matt, ft : 3.^38 ; 13 : '24-33 ; 28: lll- 
20 ; John 13 : 20-3J ; Acts 10: 34-48 ; 17 : 
23-81 ; Rom. 10 : 1-15." 

The Southern Methodist Church has 
over 5,000 members among the Indians 
of the Cherokee, Creek: Choctaw, Chick- 
asaw and Seminole nations of the Indian 
Territory. Bishop (iallowav ia calling 
for teachers for Indian schools to be 
opene<l among other tribes. 

Miss Mary A. Sharp writes from Mon- 
rovia, Liberia, Septetnlier f, 1887, that 
there is not a public school building in 
the whole Republic. Great ignorance 
exists everywhere. There is no litera- 
ture and noneof the tribal languages are 
reduced t" writing. The people are polyg- 
amistfl. What tlie natives worship is 
called "Juju." It may be a goat horn, 
an alligator, a snake, a stick with n rag 
tied on. a monkey. When they die they 
expect their souls will go into the botlies 
of brute, beast, or reptile. 

The Women's National Indian Associa- 
tion held their annual meeting in Brook- 
Jtza, .V. y„ Nnr. 30— Dec. 1. Over $10.- 

000 had been expended the past year. 
About $2.5.00 were in loans to Indians for 
building or repairing homes, purchasing 
agricultural or household implements 
and stock. Over $3,700 were expended in 
missionaries' salaries, and in the erec- 
tion of missionary cottages and a chapel. 
Three new missions had been opened in 
Idaho, Dakota, and Nebraska. A new 
line of work proposed is that of sending 
Christian farmers and their families to 
reside on government grants of land, to 
instruct the Indiana in industrial pur- 
suita, the dutiF-s of citizenship, and the 
truths of ('hristianity. 

The Rev, James Johnston, formerly a 
missionary of the English Presbyterian 
Church has been visiting the United 
States to awaken an interest in a Gener- 
al Conference on Missions which \a to he 
held in London next June, and to secure 
a good representation from the churches 
here. His mission has met with consid- 
erable favor and there is no doubt a good- 
ly number of delegates from this country 
wUl be in attendance. The Free Church 
of Scotland Monthly \n its issue for De- 
cemlwrsays: "The General Committee 
appointed to make the nt^edful arrange- 
ments comprise representativoa from 
forty eight British societies— the only 
hollies refusing to co-operate being the 
!S. P. G., the 8. P. C. K.. and the En- 
glish Universities Mi8si<ms, Jill of them 
High Church of England societies. Lord 
Aberdeen is to be Piesident." 

the care of our mission at Aoyama. 
Tokio, Over seventy of our students 
have been converted. Nearly every stu- 
dent in the school has become a Chris- 
tian. This wurk of grace surfiasses any- 
thing of the kind I have previously seen 
in the foreign mission field, 'i be relig- 
ious interest is now spreading among 
the churches of Tokio; and a meeting of 
all the Japanese pastors is to l)e held to- 
morrow to devise measures for carrying 
forward the work. The influence of the 
Holy Spirit has been especially promi- 
nent in this movenient. Many of our 
young men have become powerful wit- 
nesses for the truth. It is inspiring to 
see their zeal and discretion. Pray for 

Our raUnlonarle* and nUanlotiB. 

The address of Kev, R. 3. Maclay, D.D., 
is changed from Tokio. Japan, to 1037 
Market street, San P'rancisco, California. 

The address of Kev. C \V. Drees, D.D., 
is 214 Cfllle de Corrientes. buenos Ayres. 
Argentine Republic, S<iuth Americii. 

Kev, Francis W. Warne and his wife. 
Mrs Marguerette E Warne, sailed Jan. 
31 for India. Brother Warne will lie 
pastor of the English Church at Calcutta. 
Rev. G. F. Ilojjkins and wife sailed on 
the same day for North India. His ap- 
pointment will be made next month. 

Dr. Beebe writes ua from Nanking, 
Oct. 17: "The Viceroy resi<iiiig here has 
given our hospital eighty Ku I'ing taels, 
e<|ual to one hundred and twenty Mexi- 
can dollars. This from one of the 
most prominent men in China, and 
who, a few years a;;o was trying to keep 
us out of Nanking. I have l>een admitted 
by his Excellency to the the inner apart- 
ments of the Viceroy's Yamen. prescribed 
for his own daughter, and now he makes 
his gift to this hospital. ' 'I'his is the 
Lord's doings, and it is marvelous in 
our eyes.'" 

Rev. Dr. R. 3. Maclay writes us from 
Tokio. Oct. 18: "We have just been 
fa%-ored with a precious revival of relig- 
ion in the Tokio Ei Wa Gakko. under 


Tldlng-a from Dondo, Africa. 

Rev. C. L. Davenport writes us from 
Dondo, South Central Africa, Not. 3, 

" More than four months have passed 
since my last letter to the (iospel in All. 
LiNus. During that time you have re- 
ceived a c^rd telling you of the death of 
my beloved wife, 

"Since then our numbers have l)een still 
further reduced. 1st, By the detention 
of two of our menil)ers in L<.^anda on 
hiiKiness. 3d, By the sickness of my 
sister-in-law, obliging their return to the 
States. 'I'huH we lost our mechanic, 
Andrew S. Myers (my hrotherin-law). 

"This reduced our numbers to two, 
sister Susie J. Harvey and myself. 

" 1 applied to the geneial superinten- 
dent of the mission, l>eforethe departure 
of my brother and sister, for a married 
family to l)e sent to our relief and as^ 
bistance. This he could have, but did 
not grant. 

" Being in the midst of men of evil lives 
there wan but one of two steps we could 
take. Ist, For Sister Ilai-vey or myself 
to leave the statiim and thus overthrow 
the work, or 2tl, to get married. 

" We fhrise the latter and were united 
in marriage, at 6 P.M., Oct. 15, 1887, 
Rev. Joseph Wilks, of Pungo Andongo 
Mi»Kion, ofHciating. The work moves 
on grandly. 

' 'Since laiit writing I have been preach- 
ing in Portuguese and thank <i(Hi that 
I can. The Word is received with eager- 
ness. Oh, let earnest prayers go uj> to 
Uod for salvation of souls in Dondo ! 
The Lord is giving us strength to stand 
in our places, let nur light shine, blow 
our trumpets and shout the victor's 

" Dr D, Reid (refwrted eaten up by the 
cannit^als) is with us ft)r awhile, lie ia 
well and strong. We have concluded to 
adopt Mary's Sharp's plan in regard io 
our school, somewhat; viz.: Any one 
wi.4hing to liberate, educate, clothe and 
board a black boy or girl, can do so by 


paying us t7S per year. Tho«e wishing 
to rescue from vire, a mulatto boy or 
girl, (Miucate, board and clothe tliem can 
do B'j by paying »ia %\ 40 per year. Tims 
we will be able to reach those whom we 
<arae to reach and who under the present 
system are excluded. Who will send 
the first ? In thin w.iy -we no ■wise afTcct 
our plan of eelf-support, as the money 
yjll bo given for a !<pecific mission work 
not as a %\it to us. 

My heart goes out to this people more 
and more. The darkness with which 
tbey are surrounded is so intense. 1 I*- 
li«v0 the day is not far distant when we 
shall see them rejoicing in the love of 
the • Mighty to Save,' 

"* I promised to report our conference 
sion. There was nothing took place 
■of any note. The appaintments were 
continued as before. Brother Henley 
Wrigtht, was recommended for orders 
• under the rule.' 

" Now, I must tell you of a little inci- 
dent that happened here among our 
Bcholars I bought » young monkey, 
but it did not live long. The boys asikctl 
ftermission to bury it. which 1 granted 
and gave the girls permifwion to join in 
the procession. Amid the blo«-iag of a 
tin horn and beating on an old tin pail, 
they carried it to one corner of the yard 
and while burying it sang: "Hold the 
Fort" (in Portuguese), and tben dis- 

• « • — 

Ri;v. VV. H. Mead write.s to the London 
flirUiian from Malnnge, South Central 
Africa : " Rev. Samuel J. Mead i.s the 
su|ierint«ndent of this station, ami ha!< 
AAdiM^iated with him, besides liis wife, 
four men and twi.i ladie.'^, inrliidinK Dr. 
R«-id. who wa.s reported in tiie papers as 
having been eaten by cannibals, but in 
tact is Blill enjoying goud health and 
pnioticlng his profession herein Malunge. 
My wife is with me. We thank <iod 
that through his goodness we now 
find ourselves self-sup|mrting, mainly 
through the work of our own hands. 
iiard work it is, too— such as holding 
the plough, hauling logs, hewing timber, 
aewiog and shop work, etc. Wf trust 
Crod for Bach health as ehall be to his 

A con-espondent of the Chriittiau Wit- 
nesM writes from Malaage Sept. 29 : " God 
is prospering us here in Mulauge. We 
have a new schoolroom and chai>el, 1ft 
■X SI feet, very pleasant. The walls were 
standing when this property waslwught, 
but we have roofed and plastered it, and 
titled up. The walls are deL-orated 
with Scripture mottoes, and large pic- 
tarea illuHrating Bible truths that have 
been sent us. We find these pictures to 
be a greit help to the native minds, 
which are quite childlikt* in understand- 

ing what is taught them. We are thank- 
ful to Goii who permits us to say to you 
that through His hand we are self-sup- 
porting now at this station ; we trust 
Him still for the future. 

" Dr. Reid is with us and works In his 
profe.ision, though the papers reported 
him eaten by the cannibals some time 
ago. Some of us hold plow, some dig 
roots and stones, some chop, draw and 
hew timber, maki; tables, etc.. etc., some 
cook, buy and sell, some teach especially 
and all generally, some take in sewing 
to do. VVe are running to some extent 
a jig saw, and sell lumlier. 

" Bro. Shields from Ireland and Bertha 
are pulling on in the native language, 
and have commenced to translate hymns. 
Music is a great attraction and draws 
the natives to us. We have good con- 
gregations Sundays, the people seem to 
be interested more and more, and some 
have commenced to pray. We have the 
little organ, violincello, cornet and vio- 
lin; we believe <lod uses them. The na- 
tives sing splendidly hymns in their own 
ton'.,'ue, mostly translated by Bro. Heli 
(Chatelaine while here. He has left us 
and is on his way to England to get to- 
gether what he has Ci>llected of the na- 
tive tongue, and intends to publish a 
grammar and parts of the Bible, etc., in 
the Ambunda language. May (Vorl bless 
him. They also sing in the Portuguese 
language, and some in English. 

"-Sunday morning is our class-meeting, 
then ssrvics and .Sabbath-sclnKil until 1 1 
o'clock. P. -M we take the cornet or 
other instrumpnts, aomi* native boys to 
sing ami h3lp explain the Bible pictures, 
and go to the native villages about, 
some of them a few miles away, and tell 
them of .l:!.-«us and bis love. Need we 
tellyou thit 0>J blesses us in this work'/ 
Wednesday evening we have school for 
all. Tuesday evening prayer-meeting, 
and private l^jssons in music are given 
by 8om» of m tsvo evenings a week; and 
we have nurning and afternoon day 

♦ • ♦ 

Work Amonjr Seamen In Calcnlla. 

nv RKV. w. p. OVlCIUI. 

The Seam m's Reading and CoflPee 
Rjomi, 1» LiU Bizir street, Cilcutta, 
I are a favorite reiort for sailors of all 
nationalties, Swedes, Finns and Norwe- 
gians fro 31 the North, Africans from th» 
South, C lineae, Japanese and Hindus 
from the E ist, Am.^ricans from the 
West. (fre?k-*, Italians. Eaglish, Scotch, 
Irish, Welsh, Dine.^, strangers from 
Australia. South .\marica, and th? Isl- 
ands of the dei, C3ngregate here from 
time to time. 

Evangelical service? are held every 
evening in the chapel, which opens off 
the coffee rojm. Numb;r8 gather and 
hear the Word of Life. 


It has been mv privilege I'' nssjst dear 
Bro. Ray Allen and wife in these ser- 
vices for the past eight months, and 
during that time I have had the joy of 
seeing many turn to «Jod. Sv'>m'-times 
we have had the opjwrtunity of knowing 
that the work of grace has lieen thor- 
ough. At others we have only had time 
to point to the Lamb of Uod that taketli 
away the ain of world, and commend 
them to Ood and the word of His grace ; ■ 
and they have gone, perhaps never to 1 
return and tell whether they have been 
faithful, or what great things the Lord 
has done for them. Some do, however. 

While we have been engaged in thia 
and other work, wo have been studying 
languages with a view of taking ap 
native work as soon as possible, and, I 
am happy to be able to tell you. have 
made encouraging progress, considering 
the many other demands ufjon our time. ■ 

One more year and I expect to take ■ 
up Hindustani work exclusively ! Will 
otir fellow-workers at home— our pray- _ 
ing friends, our giving friends and our I 
sym-mthizing friends sustain us by daily, 
constant prayer, for in thai way only 
can we be kept really happy out here, 
and, joined with Christ, have the heathen 
for our Inheritance and the uttermost 
parts of the earth for our possession. 

Calcutta, Nov,, 1887. 


Oonvernlnno In Black<o««'a, .'•tadraa. 

BY ur. A. H. BACEfl. 

We have just witnessed the first con- 
version in connection with our labors 
in this mission. Once a week I met w^ith 
my two native teachers " for thepuri)ose. 
of prayer and conversation in regard to 
the needs and longings of our souls.' 
Last week when the time cime to open 
our masting, but one of the teachers was 
present. I opened my Bible to 1 ,Tobn, 3, 
real, aal explained part of the chapter. 

Wnen I hadflnisheL the teacher slid 
h'>wi4 n^t salisHei with his •'hristian 
experience. I explained to him thatOud 
WIS able aiii willing throagh Christ to 
sive him from all sin. And then we 
kuclt together to ask Ood to save him to 
the uttermost. He was wonderfully 
bk'»4?d bat dil mt th>ii r.'ceive a clean 
heart. And from conversation that I 
have hid with him since. I judge ho ia 
nut yet entirely sanctiflod. My prayer 
is that this blessel experience may soon 
be his. 

While we knelt in prayer the native 
teacher cirae and knelt with us. This 
man is one who up to this time had 
been building his hopes for eternity upon 
his baptism and conHrmation without 
ever acc^epting Christ as his personal 
Sivior. B:it now he did not at all feel 
satisfied that he was upon the sure foun- 
dattou. '^ei ^xa.'sa^ "rWV \svvo. ^w^ 




prayed for bimeelf very earnestly, and 
•lid not cease to pray until be cnuld say, 
" I am saved, I have the witness of the 
Spirit. " 

To this meeting none are allowed to 
come save thuse of us who work in the 
mission. But this night one of our old- 
est Bchoolboys had broken the rule and 
had actually joined our circle, and was 
kneeling with us while we were praying 
that Kuthnum— the second teacher 
spoken of above— might find forgiveness 
and acceptance with God, But he soon 
told us why he had come. '" 1 want to 
find Jesus. I have written this to my fa- 
ther and he is very anRry. He will come 
and see you on the tenth July." His fa- 
ther is several hunrirnd miles from 
Madras, and I knew \\\v. paying a visit to 
ine from this distance because be was 
angry that his son thought of becoming 
a ^Christian, meant that he was deter- 
mined to prevent bis son by any means 
in his power from seeking the Lord. 
And the boy knew it. 

Oh !" said he, '" if I could but get my 
fatlier's jMjnnission I would be baptized 
at once." I urged him to seek Jesus at 
once. " I will do it at once," he said. 
And then ami there he sought and found 
Jesus. When we again arose from our 
knees be did so with the blessed con- 
Hciousness that he was u child of (Uid. 
Befoje that night came to a close it was 
our privilege to kneel in prayer with a 
heathen woman (one for whose conver- 
sion prayers had long ascended) and to 
see her, too, saved before the hour for 
retiring came. 

The next morning the husband of this 
woman, one of the worst characters in 
Madras, a man who was released from 
prison but a few months ago, came as an 
inquirer. He was undergrcat convictifin 
but has not as yet yielded himself to 
Christ. Later on in the week the parents 
of twohtrftliien boys sent word to me : 
" Get our boys saved, we want them to be 
Christians, but we are too old to turn." 

Our meetings are well attended. But 
not yet knowing the Tamil well, I have 
to speak through an interpret* r. and can- 
not make nn self us well imderstnod as I 
otherwise could- We nujjht to liavc at 
once a tliornughly sax^etl native brother 
to help me in this work, but have not the 
money to HU|nn>rt liim. 

Before I close I want to say, that those 
who sought the Lord are iill doing well. 
One of them said to-night in our class- 
meeting, •* My iieart is full of happy." T 
believe all tlieir hearts are just us full. 
I thouKht lis I sat in tJie uiidst of this 
hand of happy souls who but a few days 
ago were in heathen darkness, if our 
givers to missions at home could see 
them now, and at the same time realize 
■what they were before it would not re- 
quire many monlhs < r much plending to 
Tnise the "million for miRHJons by col- 
lectii)n« onh'." 

Blackluicn, Madras. 



pigglON3 TOR isss. 

Some can give one penny a day. 
Others can give only one penny a week 
for missions. Let every one give what 
they can, but let every meml)cr of the 
church, and every scholar in the Sunday- 
school give something. 

One Pvniiy Kvrry Day. 

For all to us that's given. 
For all our hopes of heaven, 
For all for which we pray. 

We'll pledge a daily off 'ring ; 

For alt this 'tis but trifling — 
One penny every day. 


Now just one penny give us. 

One penny every day. 
You can do that for Jesus, 

Keep giving as you pray. 

For each unlcoked for blessing 

Our gratitude expressing. 

In this a humble way. 
We never can repay Him, 
But still we'll gladly give Him 

One penny every day. 

Because the sum is trifling. 
The impultie you are stiHing 

To help us while you may. 
We could do much for Jesus, 
If each would only give us 

One penny every day. 

To send the Gospel streaming. 
O'er lands with darkness teeming — 

The heathen far away. 
In ignorance they're sleeping, 
Because for self you're keeping 

One penny every day. 

Although 'tis but a feather, 
When taken all together. 

You can't think what 'twill 
weigh ; 
So join with one another 
To help each fallen brother, 

One penny every day. 

Rev, Geo. P. Smith. Superintendent of 
the First Methodist Episcopal Church 
Sunday School of Tonawanda, N. Y. 
wrote us December 12, 1^87: " Our Sun- 
day School during the last year contrib- 
uted lin-'iOO for the ' Million for Mis- 
sions.' The apportionment for our church 
and school together was ^144.00. The 
distribution of tM\ copies of the Little 
Minsiunary the last Sunday of each 
month easily doubles up our mifsiorary 
collection which is taken en the first 
fundny of each month." 

Baniid, •ound lUe iriiili abroad. 

Sound, sound the truth abroad. 
Bear ye the word of tJod 

Through the wide world : 
Tell what our Lord has done. 
Tell how the day is won. 
And from his lofty throne 

Sutan is hurled. 

Speed on the wings of love. 
Jesus, who reigns above. 

Bids us to fly ; 
Tliey who his message bear 
Should neither doubt nor fear, 
lie will their friend appear, 

He will be nigh. 

Brahman,— A member of ihe higlie 
of the Hindu castes. The duties of Brah- 
mans, according to Menu, are — d) Per- 
f ormances of holy sacriflces : (2) assisting 
at the performance of such by others: 
(3) reading the Vedas: (4) teaching the 
Vedas; (5) making gifts: (Oi accepting 
gifts. They are now. however, largely 
engaged in trade and agriculture. As a 
race they are geiiernlly highly cultured. 
The Gospel of Christ has Ix-en received 
by some of them, nnd when converted 
they are excellent missionaries. 

"Papa, Hovr IHuck Do ■ Coal Toa t^ 

A little girl, ten years old, lay or her 
deathbed. It was hard to part with th«^ 
pet of the family ; with her golden hair, 
her loving blue eyes and affectionate 
nature; how could she be given up? 
Her father fell on his knees by his dar- 
ling's bedside and wept bitterly. He 
tried to say, but could not, " Thy will be 
done." It was a struggle and a trial 
such aa he bad never before experi- 

His sobs disturbed the child, who bad 
been lying apparently unconscious. 
She opened her eyes and lucked dis. ■ 
tressed. " Papa, dear papa," she said at ■ 
length. "What, my dear?" answered 
the father. " Papa," she asked, in faint, 
broken accents, "How much do I co«l 
you every yearf" "Hush, dear; be 
quiet,"' he replied, in great agitation, for 
be feared delirium was coming on. But. M 
please papa, how much do I cost you?" 1 

To soothe her he replied, though with 
a trembling voice, "Well, dearest, per- 
haps $200 to |300. What then, dsrhng '/" 
" Because, papa, I thought maybe you 
would lay it out this year in Bibles for 
po<ir children to remember me by." 

With a bursting heart her father re- 
plied, kissing her clammy brow, " I 
will, my precious child. Yes," he 
added after a pause, " I will do it every 
year as long as I live ; and thus my 
Lilian shall yet speak, and draw hun- 
dreds and thouaands after her tn 
heaven."— 7%e Dayapring. 


EuQtNC R. Smith, 


FEBRUARY, 1888. 

New VoiV City, 



^eto Mtvito. 





New Mexico and Its Aesourcee. 

(We are indebted for the following account of New Mexico to the 
AUuqwerqite Merning Democrat issued January 1. lS8S.) 

To the archaeological student, New Mexico presents 
many attractions in the studj of the aboriginal cliff 
dwellers, who first settled the country thousands of 
years ago, the conquest of the cliff dwelling pigmies by 
the Spaniards in the later centuries, the still later occu- 
pancy of the country by the Mexicans, and finally the 
more recent advent of the energetic Ameiican, whose 
enterprise is rapidly sweeping away all relics of the 
ancient races who have held this fair domain in the 
grasp of antie^uity for thousands of years. 

These four epochs in the history of the territory 
are plainly marked by the caves of the cliff dwellers, 
the pueblo villages of the Spaniards, and their subju- 
gated natives, the churches and acequias, or irrigating 
canals of the Mexicans, and the modern structures of 
brick and stone erected in the modern civilization by 
the American population. But it is not with archa;- 
ological history or antiquarian lore that we have to do. 
In the restless pushing of American enterprise. New 
Mexico has been won over to the era of progress and 
development. Antiquity is lost sight of in the influx of 
home building immigration, and the questions of pres- 
ent import are, What are the capabilities, the resources 
and advantages of the territory, considered with refer- 
ance to the present demand for larger territory to be 
occupied by the flooding tide of immigrants now flow- 
ing westward in search of homes and occupation. 

The total area of New Mexico is 122,444.37 square 
miles, or 68,374,400 acres; confirmed and unconfirmed 
land grants, 13,097,603.13 acres ; pueblos, 1,092,234.94 
acres; Indian reservations, 2,963,622 acres; military 
reservations, 202,151.51 acres; entries made at Santa Fe 
and Las Cruces, 1,858,920 acres ; total occupied, 19,- 
205,634.58 acres ; subject to the homestead, pre-emp- 
tion, timber culture, desert land and mining laws of the 
United States, 59,167,765.42 acres. 


The territory contains fourteen counties, which are 
with their county seats 


Colfax 6,000 Springer 

Taos 11)375 Fernando de Taos 

Rio Arriba ;, , .14,000 .Tierra Aniarilla 

Mora 15,000 Mora 

San Miguel ...30,000 Las Vegas 

Santa Fe ..:. 1^,000 Santa Fe 

Bernalillo 26,000 <...^ Albuquerque 

Valencia i6.370 Los Lunas 

Socorro 14,000 Socorro 

Sierra 60,000 MilUboro 

Lincoln 7,000 Lincoln 

Dona Ana 10,000 Las Cnices 

Grant 9.500 Silver City 

San Juan 2,500 Aiiec 


Santa Fe is the capital of the territory, the military 
headquarters and an educational center. Its antiquities, 
the interest centering about it as one of the oldest cities 
in the United States, and its balmy atmosphere and 
eqtiable climate will always m.a!ce it a popular resort for 
the invalid and tourist, while the arable valleys by which 
it is surrounded, and the valuable mines of gold and sil- 
ver and the immense deposits of excellent coal contiguou.s 
to it are destined to make it a commercial center of con- 
siderable importance in the future. 

Albuquerque, the county seat of Bernalillo county, 
and the junction of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
and the Atlantic & Pacific railway systems, is the com- 
mercial and monetary center of the territory. .Although 
but seven years old, the city already has a population of 
10,000 souls, which is rapidly increasing. The central 
geographical location of Albuquerque and the connec- 
tion here of the Atlantic & Pacific railroad make it the 
objective point of all southwestern railway lines which 
seek an overland connection, and the Kiowa branch of 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific, and the St. Louis &: San P'rancisco 
roads are already building rapidly from the east toward 
the city. With these lines of railway, surrounded as it 
is by vast areas of arable soil, the neighboring moun- 
tains ribbed with great belts of silver and gold, and 
underlaid with inexhaustible deposits of bituminous and 
anthracite coal, Albuquerque is destined to become the 
most important city of the southwest. 

Other cities of scarcely less importance than Albu- 
querque and Santa Fe, are Las Vegas, an important live 
stuck and wool market; Socorro, with vast smelting and 
mining interests; Silver City, the center of an important 
producing mining district; Deming, a prosperous city of 
southern New Mexico; and Kingston, with its great 
mines and mills. 

Among the enterprising and growing towns of the 
territory, all of which are prosperous and possess a 
bright future, and some of them with natural resources 
in process of development, which will soon place them 
among the most important cities of the territory are : 
Raton, Georgetown, Las Cruces, San Antonio, La Me- 
silla, Springer, Los Lunas, Mora, Tierra Amarilla, Farm- 
ington, Lincoln, White Oaks, Taos, Kingston. Cerillos. 
Lordsburg, Lake Valley, Hillsboro, Watrous and Rii h- 


The contour of the country is characterized by a suc- 
cession of mesas, valleys and mountains, foothills, blufts, 
canons and mountain parks, many of the mountain 
ranges being covered with an ample growth of pine, 
cedar and piilon timber. The mountain ranges, extend- 
ing north and south, generally break into spurs and 
foothills, descending to the lower altitudes and termi- 
nating in low mesas, skirting the water courses. 

In the northern part of the territory the Culebri 
range looms up on the east in the Raton spur, and to t 


south in the Taos, Mora and Santa Fe mountains. To 
the wcit are the I'ierra Amarilla and Conejos ranges. 
Northwest of Albuquerque and east of the Rio Grande 
river, is a broken range of lofty spurs known as the San- 
dias which extending southward become in turn the Man- 
zano, Oscura, Jumanes, FraCristobal, Caballo, San Andres 
and Organ mountains. To the east of this range is a 
series of plateaus which extend to the Llano Estacado, 
separated and broken by a number of low mountain 
ranges, spurs and cifiuns, among which are the Gallinas, 
Jicarillas, Carrizo, Capitan and Sierra Blanca. 

On the west side of the Rio Grande, from San Antonio 
mountain, near the northern boundary of the territory, 
another broken range, known by different names in dif- 
erent sections of the range, txtends southward, termi- 
nating in the Florida mountains, near the Mexican line. 

On the western border of the territory a range of lofty 
mountain peaks, composed of the San Francisco, Dalil, 
Zuni, Escudila, Tuleosa, Mogollon, Steins, Animas and 
other mountains, form the continental divide. 

These various ranges form equable divisions of terri- 
tory, between which lie valleys and mesas of rich agri- 
cultural soil. The mountains furnish a large supply of 
water and timber, and excellent grazing ranges for 
cattle, as well as shelter for stock in stormy weather. 


I The mesas and table-lands in the northern part of the 
territory are generally about 6,000 to 6,500 feet above the 
sea level. In the central portion of the territory the 
mesas attain an elevation of about 5,000 feet, and in the 
south about 4,000 feet. The fall of the Rio Grande, from 
the northern border of the territory to the point where 

I it cuts the New Mexico, Texas and Chihuahua boundary, 
is about 3,500 feet. The ranges generally rise from 2,000 
to 5,000 feet above the mesas and high table-lands. 

I The altitudes of various cities in the territory, in feet, 
are as follows : 

I Alhu(]uerqne 4.91S 

Santa F6 7.044 

Kingston 7,400 

Socorro 4i655 

Lordiburg i ..4.200 

Silver City 5,Qi6 

Las Cnicet 3<844 


The vast valleys of New Mexico are drained and irri- 
gated by a system of water courses, which as the coun- 
try settles up will place the territory in the front ranks 
of the agricultural regions of America. The Rio Grande 
is the principal river. Rising in southern Colorado it 
flows in a broad stream, southerlY awd c^.t'A.^'a.Vo^ \N\\«A>i'^ 


the territory, the broad valley and low mesas on each 
side, which with a system of canals will eventually be ir- 
rigated, presenting millions of acres of the finest agri- 
» cultural lands in the world, and capable of sustaining 
with their products a population equal to that of any 
State in the union. The Rio Grande has numerous trib- 
utaries, each of which water extensive tracts of farming 
and grazing lands. 

In the northeastern portion of the territory the Rio 
Colorado or Canadian river, fed by numerous tributa- 
ries, flows eastward, emptying into the Arkansas. 

The Pecos river rises in the Santa Fe mountains and 
flows through the eastern portion of the territory to the 
southern border. 

The San Juan river flowing westward from the north- 
western portion of the territory with its tributaries of 
clear mountain water, furnishes ample drainage for that 

The Rio Mimbres, Rio Gila and San Fraacisco rivers 
furnish an abundance of water for the southwestern sec- 
tion of the territory. 

This grand system of water courses, supplemented by 
numerous small streams, arroyos and springs in every 
section of the territory form a bounteous water supply, 

■ which when utilized by extensive systems of irrigating 
canals, will make New Mexico the paradise of the hor- 
ticulturist and the viticulturist, as it is now for Ihe^tock 

I raiser and the farmer. 
Ample quantities of timber abound in the mountain 
fanges and is distributed in various parts of the terri- 
tory so as to be convenient for local purposes. The 
principal varieties are pine, cedar and pinofi, the latter 

■ being especially valuable for fuel. Ash, oak. maple and 
black walnut are found in some sections. The Glorietta 
mountains, Tijeras cauon and various other sections fur- 
nish excellent lumbering timber, which is furnished at 
the business centers at ver>' low rates. 

Underlying large areas of the territory are immense 
deposits of coal, which furnish the finest qualities of an- 
thracite, bituminous and lignite coal, in sutticient quan- 
tities to supply New Mexico with fuel for all time to 
I come. 
New Mexico is exceeded in its output of the precious 
metals by Colorado, Nevada and Montana, only because 
those regions have greater development and more capi- 
tal invested in ihe mining industry than New Mexico 
has. No more extensive mineral belts or higher grade 
of ore exists in the world than are found both in the 
northern mining region, where nuggets of gold and 
sheets of silver or fabulously rich chlorides have been 
mined ever since Santa Ana made conquest of the coun- 
try with the object of maintaining his army by the pro- 
» ducts of the mints, and the mineral belts of the southern 
portion of the territory, where at Kingston, Silver City, 
Lordsburg, Chloride and many other points, the metal- 
ribbed mountains of New Mexico are yitiding their 



wealth of gold and silver to the enterprise of the miners, 
who are operating their properties with extensive works 
and modern appliances. Although fortunes have been 
made and rich leads have been developed, mining in 
New Mexico is yet in its infancy, and is just now receiv- 
ing its first important impetus by an extraordinary influx 
of capital from abroad, which has been encouraged by 
such favorable results, that a new era in the mining in- 
dustry may be said to have begun, by which is marked 
the beginning of an activity in the development of min- 
eral resources hitherto unknown in the history of mining 
regions of the west. 


No more productive soil exists in the world than that 
of the valleys and mesas of New Mexico. Agriculture 
has made rapid strides in the territory during the past 
two years, hundreds of miles of irrigating canals having 
been constructed, bringing under cultivation immense 
tracts of land. The soil is exceedingly fertile, the root 
crop being prodigious, and oats yielding from fifty to 
seventy-five bushels to the acre. Magnificent farms 
meet the eye in all the valleys throughout the territory, 
and the experience of farmers proves that the soil of 
New Mexico is capable of producing the finest cereal 
crops in the world. An extract from a letter recently 
published in the St, Louis Globe- Democrat regarding 
the prolific soil of the Mesilla valley of the Rio Grande 
applies equally as well to the valley lands of the entire 
territory. The letter says : 

" Everybody who comes and sees the Mesilla valley 
is conquered by it. The dryness of the atmosphere in- 
sures health. The irrigation insures the fullest possible 
control over the rich soil. There is no winter here. In 
summer, if the sun is hot, the Mesillian can sit under 
his fig tree and see things grow, He need never pray 
for rain, for in his bright lexicon there is no such word 
as drouth." 

A ranchman, who recently bought one of the largest 
places in the valley, furnishes an illustration of this fas- 
cination with the locality. He had roamed the States 
well over, always ready for a speculation But when he 
was offered $75 an acre for his Mesilla farm, which had 
cost him but $10 but a few weeks before, he refused 
without a moment's hesitation, and went on with his 
plans for a home. " I have found," said he, "the place 
where I want to live. There is nothing like it anywhere 
else in this country. Ten acres of land means a hand- 
some living to a family, no matter how large. More 
land than thj^t is the margin for profit. How is that ? 
I II show you. Put two of your ten acres in vines 
— 700 vines to the acre. They will bear from ten 
to forty pounds to the vine, with twenty pounds as a 
fair average. That means a clear profit of $280 
to the acre. Five acres in alfalfa mears four tons 
to the acre at the lowest estimate, and that will bring 
%i2t a ton, or $260. One acre in onions will clear$i,ooo, 
it has done it again and again in this country. '1 here 
are two acres left for the home garden and the orchard. 


You've heard of the onions that grow here ? They reach 
a weight of three and a half pounds, and the valley can- 
not supply the demand." 


Fruit growing in New Mexico has proven an exceed- 
ingly profitable occupation, orchards of all varieties 
being thrifty, free from insect pests, symmetrical inform, 
and bearing fruit of a superb flavor. The range of 
fruits which have been found to thrive in the soil and 
climate of New Mexico include all those varieties grown 
in Iowa, Illinois and Ohio, and also many semi-tropical 
fruits and nuts, including the prune, grape, apricot, 
peach, fig, almond and peanut, for the profitable cultiva- 
tion of which New Mexico possesses all the advantages 
of moderate temperature, rapid growth, and a climate 
free from the rigorous weather incident to other fruit 
rowing regions. 


The counties that contain the most available lands in 
greatest quantities are Colfax, Valencia, Socorro, Lin- 
coln, Dona Ana, Grant and Sierra. In these seven 
counties there is approximately 12.000,000 acres of land 
that will in time become valuable, while the valley lands 
of the Rios Grande, Pecos, Hondo, Penasco, Canadian, 
Gila, Mimbres, Rindosa, and others of less importance 
will approximate to 2,000,000 acres. The demand for 
land in New Mexico is rapidly increasing and in the last 
three months there have been filed more applications 
for homesteads than in any other like period in the his- 
tory of the territory. The minimum price for govern- 
ment land is $1.25 per acre, except such lands as are 
contiguous to railroads, to which grants of land were 
made by the government. In such case the price is 
$2.50 per acre. 

Rich, fertile bottom land can be purchased in the Rio 
Grande valley at from lio to $50 per acre. The more 
accessible sections of the territory are rapidly filling up 
with actual settlers, and there is but little unoccupied 
land in the immediate vicinity of the towns and cities 
but new-comers will find opportunities to purchase 
improved ranches upon favorable terms, or by going a 
little farther from the centers of population may locate 
wild lands under the public land laws. 

The public lands in New Mexico are subject to entry 
nnder the homestead, pre-emption, timber culture and 
desert land laws. 

One hundred and sixty acres can be entered under 
the homestead, pre-emption and culture acts, while 640 
acres, or any other smaller legal subdivision, can be 
entered under the desert land act. 

A party can make a homestead, timber culture and 
desert entry, or a pre-emption, timber culture and 
desert entrj* at the same time; but he cannot take a 
homestead and pre-emption claim at the same time. 

A party who is twenty-one years of age, or who is at 
the head of a family, can make an entry of pubhc land. 

A woman who is at the heai of a family, or a single 


woman who is over twenty-one years of age, can make 
entry of public lands. 

Only those persons who are native born citizens of 
the United States, or who have declared their intention 
to become citizens, can avail themselves of the privilege 
of the land laws. No person of foreign birth can 
obtain any right to land by actual settlement before he 
has declared his intention to become a citizen; hencea 
the first thing a person of foreign birth, who intends to 
enter public lands, should do upon his arrival, is to go 
before a clerk of the court and declare his intention t 
become a citizen. 

No party who is the owner of 320 acres of land in 
any State or territory can take a pre-emption claim : 
neither can any person who leaves land of his own in 
this territory to go upon the public land obtain any pre 
emption right by settlement. Ownership to land is n 
bar to making a homestead entry. 




New Mexico Three Hundred Tears Ag 


When Cortez and his horde of adventurers took 
session of Mexico in 1520 they scarcely waited to strik 
down the proud Aztecs who opposed their progress, andi 
to seize upon their vast wealth, before one expedition 
after another was sent in various directions to seek for 
other mines of gold and silver and to discover, if possi- 
ble, a path by sea to India, then supprsed to be the 
world's treasure-house of precious metals. 

In one of the most alluring and disappointing of these 
enterprises the Spaniards went far to the north, to what 
is now known as New Mexico. Here they found the 
kingdom of Cibola (buffalo), whose seven populous cities 
it was said surpassed in wealth and magnificence all that 
they had seen in the domain of Montezuma. Franciscan 
missionaries were the pioneers in this exploration of the 
north. Indian stories of builders so luxurious in their 
tastes that they mingled precious stones with the mor<l 
tar of their temples, and gold and silver piled in heaps 
like common stones, lost nothing when retold by these 
zealous men, who hoped by tales of fabulous wealth toa 
allure their mercenary countrymen to make this great 
outlying region a possession of the church. This was in 

^519- I 

But both this expedition and the next, which was sent ■ 
in 1540, were lamentable failures. The historian who 
accompanied them establishes, however, the fact that 
more than 300 years ago New Mexico and Arizona were 
inhabited by enterprising and well- to-do farmers and 
mechanics who lived in what they described as "excel- 
lent good houses of stone of three, four, or five stories 
high, wherein are good lodgings and fair chambers, with* 
ladders instead of stairs." The town where the explorers 
wintered had "some 200 houses, all compassed with 
walls, with good paved cellais and great store of maize."! 

This description gives some idea of the peculiar archi- 
tecture of all Pueblo or Village Indians then a-'cwi-wcsst. 


When they forsake the chase for the farm and workshop 
ihey live in commiinities, adapting their houses to such 
a state of society. The family includes the clan or the 
tribe. As all find shelter under one roof, their dwellings 
sometimes contain hundreds of rooms and once accom- 
modated thousands of persons. 

The cells in these human hives, like those in a honey- 
comb, were built without any wasted space. No halls, 
stairways, or chimneys were possible in their plans. Each 
story being narrower than the one below it by one or 
more rows of rooms, the roof had a terraced look. Some- 
times these receding stories gave the building the shape 
of a pyramid. Whether square or oblong or round, it 
often had wings, and unless built on a hilltop overlook- 
ing the country, towers were added for the sentinels who 
gave the alarm in case of danger. These with the high 
massive walls gave the appearance of a fortress, which 
in truth it alway? was. Surrounded by gardens, orchards, 
and cultivated fields, these palatial houses must have 
been viewed with greedy eyes by the savages who hovered 
about these thrifty farmers, particularly when pinched 
by hunger or when a fine harvest had been safely 

The interior arrangements of these communal dwell- 
ings were quite as peculiar as the outside. The lower 
story, having neither door nor window in the outer wall, 
was entered by ladders placed on the ground and reach- 
ing to the first terrace. This was always drawn up to 
keep out intruders. The upper stories where entered in 
the same way from the terraces. When the inmates 
wished to go from one of the interior rooms to another 
story they went and came by ladders through holes in 
the floor or ceiling. 

Small, low doorways (they had no doors) placed op- 
posite each other and the slit-like windows in the outer 
walls gave ventilation. The cooking for the commun- 
ity was done over one great fire. Jf warmth was needed 
a fire was built on the stone floor of one of the apart- 
ments, from which the smoke escaped as best it might. 
Coronado, who visited this country in 1540, .says that 
the people, who dressed in white cotton all the year 
round, lived in their cellars in the winter season. 

Such was an Indian house m New Mexico in the 
olden time. That land is now full of their ruins, some 
of them so well preserved that we recognize "the good 
lodgings and fair chambers " which Coronado saw in 
J 5 40. 

Shortly after this region came into the possession of 
the United States, some cf the Government troops, wl.o 
were following an old Indian trail leading through the 
Chaco Canon, came upon (he ruins of a great stone 
buildmg, of whn.^e history the Indians seemed to know 
little or nothing. Many of ils apartments were toler- 
ably well preserved and a part of the house was several 
stories high. Ihe soldiers found so many cedar beams 
and rafters here, imbedded in the masonry, that when 
firewood was needed they made sad havoc of the walls 
by dragging them out to burn, leaving the whole in 

general ruin. This pueblo was one of a group of 
fifteen of the finest to be found in this country. They 
are sit'iated in the northwest corner of New Mexico. 
The small river Chaco, which runs through the Chaco 
Canon, has cut for itself a deep winding channel bor- 
dered by Cottonwood trees and, in the season, with 
tender grass, on which the wandering Indian herdsman 
pastures his little flock. 

On the higher level of the canon, and scattered along 
for twenty miles at the foot of its high precipitous bluff, 
are these ancient ruins, some of which may have been 
deserted before the Conquest, since the Spaniards speak 
of visiting ruined cities. No two are alike in size or 
shape. Altogether they must have given shelter to Irom 
fifteen to twenty thousand persons. Of these ruins the 
Pueblo Bonito is the largest and most finely situated. It 
stands apart from the rest, about 200 yards from the foot 
of the bluff. Its plan is oblong with rounded corners. 
Within the inclosure was a great courtyard and es/u/as, 
or council chambers, for the assemblies of the tribe. 
The whole building had a river front of 1,300 feet. 

The superior workmanship of early days is seen in the 
masonry of this great building. It is built of fine sand- 
stone, a material neier used by Pueblo Inlians now. 
The outside wall which is very thick, is faced with stones 
so small and so carefully laid that at a little distance it 
looks like a bsauliful piece of dark mosaic. One careful 
observer e^itimates that every square foot of this wall con- 
tains fifty of these small stones. Layers of these seem 
to have formed the walls of the apartments, their ceilings 
being always of wood, the floor of stone or cement. In- 
teriors elsewhere among these people were often of 
stucco, beautifully tinted in colors so unfading that in 
that dry, pure air they have lasted for centuries. 

The Pueblo Indians sesm to have been a peace-loving 
race, always in danger of attack from their savage 
neighbors. In time of war the women and children 
were sent to some retreat among the mountains pro- 
vided forsjch emergeiicies. Natural or artificial caves 
were chosen, many of which are found now, some of 
them cut in the face of precipices so high that it seems 
impossible that trembling women and children could 
climb up to them. Cisterns furnished the poor fugitives 
with water, and corn was stored within reach for the 
time of need. 

The inhabitants of the Chaco Canon seem to have had 
a great fortress, now called El Capitan, a.s a shelter in 
war. Its ruins occupy a commanding position on the 
heights back of the Pueblo lionito. When the first ex- 
plorers of the valley were about to leave it, one of them 
saw bshind a huge boulder, lying at tne base of the clifiT, 
what seemed to be steps of stone and timber wedged 
into a fissure in the rocks. This proved to be an Indian 
stairway, up which he climbed without difficulty to the 
table-land above. There he found an immense cistern 
hewn out of solid rock and still full of cool, sweet water, 
as clear as when it first satisfied the thirst of its Indian 
owners long ago. — Christian li't/-i;iy. 

The People of N«w Mexico. 

What is now the Territory of New Mexico was first 
visited by a European, Cabeza de V^aca, before the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century. Not many years later 
permanent settlements of Spanish-speaking people were 
made at Santa Fc, which claims the distinction of being 
the oldest city in the United States. At the close of 
the Mexican War, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 
February 2, 1848, New Mexico was ceded to the United 
ijtates. General Kearney had, two years before, raised 
the American flag on the fort and palace of Santa Fe. 
By an Act of Congress, September 9, 1850, New Mexico 
was organized as a Territory, but embracing what is 
now Arizona and the southern part of Colorado. The 
former was detached in 1863, the latter in 1867. The 
fertile valley of Mesilla was added to the Territory in 
1854, by purchase from Mexico under the Gadsden 

A writer in the Presbyterian Home Missionary gives 
the following account of the people : 

"There are four kinds of people in New Mexico. 
First, the wild Indians; second, the Pueblo Indians; 
third, the Mexicans ; and fourth, the Americans. 
I i" The first of these consist chiefly of the Apaches. 
This is a roving tribe, or a tribe that would rove if it 
were allowed to do so. Some three hundred of these 
came across the range last summer from their reserva- 
tion in ' Tierra Aniarrilla," under a sub-chief named 


' Saint Paul." and camped in the mountains near Mofa 
to hunt deer. The sport of the saintly hunter and his 
followers was cut short, however, by a company o^ 
soldiers who came after them and took them back to™ 
their reseni-ation. They are dressed in buckskin pants 
and calico shirts, with a blanket thrown over them, with 
their hair platted in a long braid, and some paint on, 
their faces. They sometimes bring baskets and earthen, 
ware for sale, but at this time they had none. 

'Saint Paul ' and his wife came into town one daj 
in a gala dress. They both wore buckskin pants. Saint 
Paul with a wife, and she with pants on, will doubtless 
seem doubly shocking. But it is true. In addition to 
the pants of pure white buckskin, only the ankles oifl 
which were seen in her case, she was wrapped in folds 
or rolls of white cambric in such profuse and shapeless 
masses as defied all analysis of description. It was sad 
to see so many children amongst them gtowing up in 
ignorance to be another generation of savages. Would 
it not be true kindness to use the strong arm of au 
thority, if necfssarj-, to enforce the education of th 
children at government expense ? " 

"This is the most numerous class at present, They 
are principally employed in farming and stock-raising. 
The heaviest settlements of Mexicans are in Mora and 
Taos Counties, and in the old cities of Santa Fe, Las 
Vegas and Albuquerque. These have all the charac- 


ttristics of the Mexicans of old Mexico. They are 
naturally quick and shrewd, but have little mental train- 
ing or discipline, and so few of them have the ability to 
carry on great enterprises. The nervous power of the 
Mexican people is probably much impaired by the long- 
continued and almost universal use of tobacco by both 
sexes The languid torpor which they generally mani- 
fest, and which is so severely criticised by many 
Americans, is no doubt to some extent due to this cause. 
We must also bear in mind that they have not received 
the immense mental stimulus and tonic which our own 
more favored land has obtained from an open Bible. 
The educational power of the Bible as a mental stimulus 
is not fully understood and appreciated, even by many 
Christians. Then, too, the Romish system of moral- 
ity has not, as a matter of fact, proved efficient to re- 
strain the corrupt tendencies of the heart. Drunken- 
ness and other gross vices are fearfully prevalent here, 
and of course bring, as elsewhere, spiritual, physical and 
material ruin in their track. Those who will give due 
consideration to these causes, that for centuries have 
operated in forming this people's character, will not be 
surprised to find that they are weak, and that the re- 
forming of them spiritually involves much money, labor 
and prayer." 


" These are not Aztecs, as some writers have su pposed ; 
they speak three different languages at their different 
Pueblos, but of those 1 have not met any one who spoke 
Aztec or a language sounding anything like it, or can 
understand the commonest household names and words 
used by the Aztecs around Mexico Cit)*, nor have they 
any apparent affinity of form or language with the 
Maya Indians of Yucatan. I speak of the Pueblos of 
Taos, Picoris, St. Domingos, Jemez, and Isleta. I have 
never met anyZunis, Lagunasor Moquis. Dr. Thomas, 
the worthy and efficient agent of these Indians, seems 
to have entered successfully into the work of communi- 

cating to them our civilization by the admirable school 
for the Pueblo children at Albuquerque. Its success 
makes the friends of the Indian race wish there were 
ten such schools instead of one in the Territory." 

Rev, O. J. Moore writes from Santa Fe, New Mexico, 
of the New Mexico Indians ; 

*' Out of a population of more than 28,000 in this terri- 
tory about three hundred wear citizen's clothes wholly, 
and something like 9,000 wear combination suits, com- 
posed partly of the ordinary citizen's dress and partly 
of clothes made after their own peculiar fashion. The 
men, as we ordinarily see them here, wear pantaloons 
made of some kind of skins, or of white cotton goods. 
The " dudes" usually have an addition to this depart- 
ment of their wardrobe, of a long fringe, beginning at 
the knee and extending down the outside seam to the 
bottom of the pantaloons. The men almost invariably 
wear blankets thrown loosely about their bodies for 
coats, and they seldom wear hats. They still wear 
moccasins made of deer-skin, or other soft leather, and 
sometimes, especially in summer, of less substantial 
material. The dress of the woman is but little different 
from that of her lover or husband. She has no cover- 
ing for her head, simply a blanket for a dress, which is 
usually much shorter than civilization would dictate. 
Her lower limbs are covered much after the fashion of 
the men, except that the material is always of white 
cotton goods. Her moccasins arc of a piece with her 

" We see upon our streets here representatives of 
three different tribes — the Pueblos, Navijos and Apaches. 
The Pueblos are our near neighbors, some of them liv- 
ing not more than six miles from the city. These 
Pueblos speak the Spanish language, and come within 
the city almost every day, with wood for sale, which 
they usually convey to the market after the fashion of 
their Mexican brethren — upon the backs of the little, 
innocent and much abused burros. Sometimes the 


young men come in with game, and during the fruit 
season they bring some very nice grapes to our mar- 
ket, which they dispose of at very reasonable figures. 
They generally come to our doors with their simple 
merchandise. The Navijos live at some distance from 
this place, but they frequently visit the capital city, 
usually bringing horses for sale. This is by far the 
largest and most thrifty tribe of Indians in the South- 
west. They number over 17,000, and own large herds 
of sheep and horses, and other stock. According to 
the annual census for 1886, they had 800,000 sheep, 
valued at $1,600,000 ; 3,000,000 goats, worth $600,000 ; 
and 250,000 horses, valued at $6,250,000 ; besides a num- 
ber of mules, burros and cattle. The Navijos are really 
an industrious class of people. They weave a g^eat many 
blankets, and exhibit the spirit of industry in many 
ways. I cannot say that their style of dress is much 
less crude than that of the Pueblos ; but they usually 
wear hats, and in every particular that goes to make up 
a vigorous manhood, they are superior to the Pueblos, 
in spite of the fact that the latter have been trained in 
Roman Catholicism for something like two centuries, 
and the Navijos have enjoyed scarcely any of the privi- 
leges of Christian civilization. 

'* We see something of the Mescalero aud Jicarilla 
.\paches. These Apaches are peaceable generally, but 
they adhere to the practice of painting their cheeks red. 
and upon the whole have a more warlike appearance 
than either of the othsr tribes just mentioned." 

A Saint Daj Ami)Dg the Paeblo Indians. 

A correspondent of the Nashville Christian Advocate 
gives the following account of a day among the Pueblo 
Indians in New Mexico; 

'• On the 4th of August, which is the patron saint day 
of the Pueblo Indians of Santo Domingo, a party of from 
thirty to forty ladies and gentlemen left Cerillos to wit- 
ness the quaint exercises au'l dance of the Pueblo Indi- 

ans on that day. The village of Santo Domingo is situ- 
ated on the banks of the Rio Grande, in New Mexico, 
about thirty miles from Santa Fc, and fourteen miles 
from the wide-awake mining camp of Cerillos. On 
arriving at the village, we were conducted to an adobe 
building, which was large and clean, and white as snow, 
to deposit our lunch-baskets, etc., as it was necessary 
for us to spend the entire day to witness all of the curi- 
ous ceremonies. We, however, missed the opening 
dance, which commenced at early morn, but were in 
time to sec the Indian women throw ,their babies out 
into the deep part of the river. Our hearts would 
almost cease to beat until we could see the little bronzed 
creatures rise to the surface and strike out for the shore 
like so many kittens. 

" The first exercise was a dance performed by the 
Zuni men, assisted by the Santo Domingo women. It 
was a grand formal dance headed by eight men, painted 
white, whose loins were girded with fine black embroid- 
ered cloth glittering with gold fringe and belted with 
immense girdles composed of ornamental pieces of 
silver, carrying each one in their right hands a noisy 
calebrah, and in their left a bow. Long feathers orna- 
mented their heads, sticking up like horns. Evergreens 
were fastened around their shoulders, and on their feet 
were exquisite moccasins, with sJlver-fox-skin ornaments 
hanging from their ankles, and fox-skins and coyote- 
skins with long tails hanging down their backs. The 
girls were dressed in rich black stuff, with bright, shin- 
ing, costly Navajos belts, immense and fine necklaces. 
Each girl held a long feather in her hand, with green 
cedar branches. The men also earned evergreen 
branches, and these were all waved gracefully by both 
men and women at certain intervals. 

" This dance was repeated again and again all day 
long, without the dancers appearing the least bit tired. 
While the thermometer was a hundred in the shade they 
were exposed to the suns most glowing rays, out in the: 

streets, bareheaded and almost nude. This dance was 
repeated in connection with their worship in front of a 
brush arbor, where stood their saint, guarded by his 
" familiar," a dog, who was believed to have contained 
the spirit of some good saint, who watched over the life 
and fortunes of Domingo while in life. When the drum 
suddenly struck up, forty women sprang to their dance, 
while two or three hundred of others chanted a refrain 
that was deafening, to which the dancers kept time. 
This is called the 'green board ' or ' corn dance,' on ac- 
count of the green board head-dress, ten inches high, that 
the women wore. The dance consisted of a great 
number of figures, displaying considerable variety, and 
executed with exquisite and rare grace. 

"The figure of Saint Domingo was made of gilded 
carved wood of rare workmanship, said to have been 
brought from Italy 150 years ago. The natives went 
four times thit day to pray aiidjcarry offerings to the 
saint, of melons, corn-bread, shucks for making cigar- 
ettes, and one ofifered as little as a match and a tea- 
spoonful of tobacco. These offerings were later in the 
day gathered up and given to the priest in charge, who 
divided them up among the people. After laying their 
offerings at the saint's feet all knelt to the figure, some 
kissed his robes, some only touching his garments and 
then kissing their hands and crossing themselves in 
various ways. It was a strange sight to see these Indi- 
ans, almost nude, and white ladies in their stylish picnic 
costumes, Spanish -ladies dressed in costly silks and 
satins, side by side. 

"Many incidents of the day will render it memorable 
to us. The bright little Kentucky lady of our party. 
who is a first-class sketching-artist, went down for the 
purpose of sketching some of the Indian characters. 
While we were seated under the arbor with the saint, 
our little friend beside us was sketching a sleeping 
Indian. Just as she was taking the outlines of his 
clasped hands, and bowed head, the Indian dude of the 
village (for the Indians, too, have dudes) shook her 
rudely from the chair, and would have shoved her on 
the floor but for her activity. 

"All of the little lady's Kentucky blood was aroused, 
and she indignantly gave him a blow with her sketch- 
book, and shook her fist at him. and would have slapped 
his face if the Indian Governor had not arrived on the 
scene and made peace. He explained that it was an 
insult to the saint to sketch his people on that day, and 
the dude feared it would bring sorrow and grief to the 
lady and her party, for although the saint wouldn't 
speak, he could hear and see. 

"For a few moments I thought that war Was inevi- 
table.. There stood our little sketcher, with her tiny 
hand drawn in defense of her rights, the fire flying in 
sparks from her sweet and usually gentle blue eyes, and 
in the background stood the Indian dude backed by 
3,000 savages, dressed fantastically, all ready to resent 
any insult offered to their saint, but peace was declared, 
and after that all went ' as merry as a marriage bell.' 

" There were several couples married that day, loo, 
but we were not permitted to witness the ceremony, as 
it was performed in the council chamber, where a light 
has been kept burning night and day for ages, and will 
be kept until Montezuma returns to his people." 


Method Um in New Mexieo. 


How many of our g )od Methodists in the North and 
East know but little of New Mexico and what our own 
Methodism is trying 1 1 do ? I must confess that to me 
it was a sort of an unknown land till after my appoint- 
ment to the Albuquerqije College in August last. Since 
then it has been dakvning upon me gradually that this is 
one of the finest sections within the entire United States. 
At the present writing I am spending three d »ys in Las 
Vegas, about 130 miles north of Albuquerque. I preached 
in our Methodist Episcopal Church twice and spoke a 
few minutes to the Sabbath-school on Sunday. Rev. 
W. R. Kistler, formerly of Kansas, is the pastor. Sat- 
urday was spent in visiting the town and becoming ac- 
quaintel with some of the business and professional 
nijn. Monday was spent in visiting the Congregation- 
al Academy, the Seminary of the Methodist Episcopa^ 
Church, South, and 
the public school, 
and in further sight- 
seeing about town. 
But owing to a 
multitude of other 
duties we did not 
have time lo visit 
and bathe in the 
celebrated Las Ve- 
gas Hoi Springs, 
located about five 
miles from the rail- 
road depot. 

This is a high and 
dry climate, and on 
that account very 
healthful. The 
town, of about 8,000 
population, is cer- 
tainly one of the 
finest not only in 
New Mexico, but 
inall the Southwest. 

There are many fine buildings, am'jnglhem stores, hotels, 
cburche^, residences and court house. The town is most- 
ly situated on an inclined plane. It is well supplied with 
aod water by a system of water works. The streets are 

1 laid out, and already two public parks have been 
opened. The country about the town is as fine as the eye 
often rests on. Nice farming land can be had at a very 
tow fig ire. We saw grasses, grains, fruits and vegetables 
of all kinds, that have been grown near by without irri- 
gation that equaled any we have ever seen in Michigan, 
Ohio, Indiana, or any part of the South. Our first thought 
was, why do not 50,000 of these people now going on to 
California stop off here and find good homes in and about 
Laji Vegas ,' Wc wish a host of our Methodist people could 
see the advantages of this section over any other and 
locate here. We need them in our church and school 

work. 'I'his is one grand mission field, a delightful 
country in which to five and make money, and it affords ■ 
vast opportunity for doing good. Methodism ought to 
make itsrlf felt here in this great Territory. One good 
way to d > so is to establish a system of institutions for ■ 
higher education and so prepare to mould the minds and ■ 
lives of the vast multitudes of young people that will 
soon be knocking at our doors for education and the 

We have pastors in nearly all the more important 
towns, and several churches and parsonages ; but we 
need more means to push on and out into this vast grow- 
ing field. Our Albuquerque College is doing very well I 
for its first year. It ought to be enlarged to meet the 
growing demands made upon it. Branches or feeders 
ought to be located in all the larger towns of the Terri- 
tory, and our educational work pushed forward to be 
ready for the people who will soon be coming back here 

from California, and 



hastening on here 
from the North and 

If the value of our 
land and our de- 
lightful climate were 
well-known to the 
people in the older 
sections of the 
States, 150,000 
people would settle 
permanently in New 
Mexico in the next 
fifteen months. At 
lea<-t one-third of 
these should be 
Methodists. Will our 
Methodists take the 
hint and be on the 
ground with chur- 
ches and schools 
well supplied with 
pastors and teach- 
ers? To do this we need the help and hearty co- 
operation of all our own people North and East. A 
few thousand dollars of the Lord's money that now 
lies idle in Methodist pockets, rightly b;stowed out 
here, will enable us to be ready for the Master's 

Las Vegas offers a grand opening to our W. H. M. 
S. as a place to put at least one good, earnest Christian 
woman to labor in behalf of both English and Spanish 
people. Truly, as one looks out upon this beautiful 
country and sees the need of more laborers he feels like 
saying, *' The harvest is plenteous, but the laborers are 
few." Let us pray the Lord of the harvest that He 
would send forth more laborers. Thus shall we serve 
both God and our country. — Central Christian Ad- 









M-OI /♦ n, Lowe U 





^Hilton ^MuJflM.aT 
l^u^a Mound 

P vBr 1 \ I 

Whllo Oaks 
rt8Unt<iD 4~ 




Missions Among the English Speaking People of 
New Mexico. 

Superintendent of the New Mexico M. E. English Mitiion. 

New Mexico is a vast territory. To state that it has 
an average breadth of 335 miles and an average length 
of 368 miles, and that it has an area of 122,444 miles 
conveys but slight idea of its area. If one could take the 
States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Ma^sachu- 
sets, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New York, and put 
them on the surface of New Mexico there would yet re- 
main nearly the area of New Jersey uncovered. 

I do not mean by this comparison to intimate that 
New Mexico can ever sustain the 10,000,000 of popula- 
tion of these great States, or develop such great possi- 
bilities of cities, and commerce, and education, and art, 
and agriculture, but I do want to call the attention of 
Christians and statesmen and educators to the importance 
of this land that has been supposed to be a mere desert 
inhabited by semi-pagans and with little promise in the 

Glance at the map and note the rivers. The Rio 
Grande rises in Colorado and flows south through the 
centre of the Territory ; in all its windings it waters a 
valley, say 400 miles long and two miles in width, every 
acre of which is capable of the highest cultivation, and 
with abundance of water for irrigation. The Rio 
Pecos, with its branches, traverses also a vast country. 
8,000,000 of acres are farming lands. Raton, Carthage, 
Cerillos and Gallup are coal mining towns, with exten- 
sive fields now being developed. 

The entire southwestern corner of the Territory, from 
Socorro down, is rich in mines of gold and silver. In 
the mountains is found valuable forests of pine and mil- 
lions of acres of good pa.sturage afford ranges for herds 
of cattle and flocks of sheep, so that it seems safe to say 

that within twenty-five years New Mexico will have an 
American population of from 500,000 to 

It is impossible to give the present American popula- 
tion, but it is somewhere from 35,000 to 50,000, an ener- 
getic, live, pushing people, building up thriving cities 
and towns, with the best modern improvements. It was 
only with the building of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa F6 Railway in 1879-80 that these centres of popu- 
lation sprang up, and our mission work among Englij-h 
speaking people properly dates from that time. 

It is the joy and glory of the church of God tliat,as 
the restless tide of immigration flowed into these new- 
lands seeking wealth and homes, she followed them with 
the precious truths of the Gospel. In the providence of 
God our own church had the man on the ground before 
these towns were settled, and just the man for the place, 
a man of courage, and faith, and perseverance— the Rev. 
Thomas Harwocd, now superintendent o» the Spanish 

As the spring freshet sweeping down the valley gathers _ 
up and carries on the crest of the foremost wave, in ad- I 
dition to much that is valuable, a great deal of refuse 
and rubbish, so, on the first wave of immigration into _ 
these new lands there comes among the good much of I 
the bad. The saloon is often about the first building 
erected, and with the corps of venders of strong drink 
coiAe the crowd of parasites that cling to these centres of ■ 
iniquity, and for a time this class of godless men and 
women control public sentiment and morals, restraint is 
thrown off, the -Sabbath utterly disregarded, and profanity ■ 
and vice abounds. 

Such was the condition of things in New Mexico eight 
years ago. Nowhere is the faithful preacher and the 
church more needed, and it is about as difficult to get 
the Gospel into the hearts of uncivilized heathens as into 
the hearts of these educated sons and daughters of 
Christendom. In New Mexico we have special difficul- 
ties, A native population of 100,000 under control of a 
Jesuit priesthood, and men who seek political preferment, 
and men engaged in trade are tempted to seek to please 
this strong power. 

In the midst of all this, and of many forms of antag- 
onism that I have not space to mention, yet seen and 
keenly felt by missionaries on the ground, I rejoice to 
report that the church of the Lord Jesus Christ has been 
firmly planted in New Mexico. 

I ask the reader to study carefully the table presented 
on the next page and note the location and work of the 
different churches. 

I now give a brief sketch of our New Mexico Mission, 
beginning at Raton, eight miles from the Colorado and 
New Mexico line, a neat railroad town where are car- 
shops, round-house, etc. Extensive coal fields have been ■ 
developed here, and the country eastward is rich ingraz- ' 
ing lands. We have a good church built of stone, 34 .1 
55, and neatly finished, but on which is an indebt- 
edness of $1,000. Rev. George W. Ray, a graduate of 
Drew Theological Seminary, is pastor. Membership as 









Wuoo Xonod 


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iAke Valley*. 




La* Onicea.. 


Wbtte Oak*. 










4,000 H. C P. 

i.oooIm. c. p. 


t.lOO H. 0. p. 



















M. C. 
M. C. P. 

H. C. P. 

M. C.P. 






M. C. P. 
H. P. 

M. C.P 
K. C. V. 





M. .P 

M. P. 

M. P. 

H. P. 

M. 0. P. 



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II ta tbe above blanki indicatei Mlaiioa work. 

C Ibat there U a Church building. 

P. that thc^re Is a rt'nideiit praaoher. 

■ Towiui tbua deslfraated are mlolDg toirnii. 

B Paao, Texas, U included because It li Included In ourlfeir Mexico 


reported at the annual meeting was 50, now somewhat 
increased. There is an excellent Sunday-school and an 
average evening congregation of say 150. 

This church last year raised for self support $1,076.25, 
and on the Million Dollar Line J1.36 per member. This 
is a prosperous mission and is doing a great work in and 
for Raton and surrounding country. Blossburg, three 
miles west, is attached to the Raton church, where we 
maintain a Sunday-school and have a small membership. 

Forty miles south of Raton is Springer, county seat of 
Colfax County, and twenty-five miles further is Wagon 
Mound. These two places, together with some outlying 
country settlements, have been formed into a circuit 
under the pastoral care of Rev. J. H, Fraser, of Drew. 
This is a new mission without any churches, but Bro. 
Fraser has made an excellent beginning, and these places 
have become so settled that the outlook is good for the 

Forty-five miles south of Wagon Mound is Las Vegas, 
an enterprising city, or rather two towns, a new and an 
old town ; the new town with a population of about 
4,090. We have a good location in this city of four lots, 
OQ which are a frams church and parsonage. The 
church 30 X 56, but on which is an indebtedness of $500. 
The merabsrship of this church at last report was 35, 
and last year this little company of workers raised over 
I30 apiece for the support of their own church affairs. 

The next mission is Santa Fe on an air line across the 
moaatains about forty-five miles west of Las Vegas, but 
eighty-three miles by rail. 

This IS our oldest mission. As long ago as 185a some 

one attempted to open the work but did not succeed. 
From time to time the attempt was made, but only w'.th- 
in the past eight years has there been a permanent suc- 
cess. We have a church built of adobe, 30 x 50, and a 
parsonage, but the American population has so grown 
away from that part of the city that we feel the neces- 
sity of securing a better location and building again as 
soon as possible. Our church, with Rev. O. J. Moore, of 
Drew, as pastor, is accomplishing great good in Santa F^. 

Albuquerque is next, eighty-five miles from Sante F6, 
situated in the valley of the Rio Grande, a city of 4,000 
population and the leading city in the Territorj' — a city 
of elegant business blocks, street railway, gas, water and 
electric light works. Our mission here was begun in 
i88o ; we now have a good adobe church, 35 x 70, one 
of the best Sunday-schools in the country, a mem- 
bership of fifty-eight, twenty-seven of whom have come 
into the church within the past four months. Socorro 
comes next, seventy-five miles west of Albuquerque. It 
is the county seat of Socorro county, a county rich in its 
mines and both grazing and agricultural lands. 

Our mission in Socorro has had a varied history. 
Sometimes il seemed almost the right thing to give up 
the effort, yet we felt we had too much to lose. Now, 
however, the work under Bro. Lowe looks promising. 
We have no church, but are granted the use of the 
church of our Spanish brethren. 

Running on down to Nutt Station, a distance from 
Socorro of 128 miles, thence fourteen miles on a branch 
road, we come to Lake Valley. Here a few years ago 
was one of the richest of silver mines, but now working 
but a few men ; only a few families remain. Eighteen 
miles northwest is Hillsboro. county seat of Sierra 
County, and twelve miles west of this is Kingston, a sil- 
ver mining town of importance. We have formed these 
towns into a circuit. Rev. N. W. Chase as pastor in charge. 
We have a small membership, have purchased lots at 
Kingston, and tbe pastor s raising money with which to 
build a church. 

If I could take the reader along the main street on 
our way to a school-house for evening service, he would 
see the typical mining town in all its wickedness. Here 
is a long frame building, both doors thrown open, a bar 
at the front, down the long room are gaming tables with 
from fifty to one hundred men, some gambling, some 
drinking, some looking on, all smoking, and at the rear 
end of the room a woman with rich soprano voice sing- 
ing. There is no screen before the door, all is open, yet 
there is but little rioting and brawling. 

We go on to service past a dozen such places and 
soon the room fills until crowded. Men come from these 
places into the place of prayer. Last time I preached 
there fully twenty-five men stood by the door through 
the entire service. You never saw a more orderly con- 
gregation. No whispering, no disturbance. Who are 
they ? Why some of them are graduates of your East- 
ern colleges, sons of godly mothers and fathers, children 
of many prayers. 



Here comes in a mine owner, takes his seat at the or- 
gan and brings out the rich tones of "Martyn," " Rock- 
ingham," " He Leadeth Me," etc., and all hearts are 
touched. 1 ask his parentage. With quivering lip he 
says, " Mr. Thornton, I'm a bad boy. but my father was 
a prominent Presbyterian clergyman and I grew up in 
the church." 

Oh, that the Church at home would give and pray that 
these young men of such wondrous possibilities may be 
rescued and saved. Bro. Chase has a great work in these 
three towns. 

From Kingston we stage it back to Lake Valley, 
thence by rail to Silver City. 

Because of the extensive silver mines this town was 
built up before the advent of the railroad, and is a good 
solid town of elegant brick hotels, blocks, and residen- 

We have a church 30 x 50 and a brick parsonage of 
four rooms, all paid for. Rev. W. H. Williams has re- 
cently been appointed pastor and has already begun to 
see the fruit of his labors. 

Returning to the junction at Rincon, we take the main 
line for EI Paso. Las Cruces, thirty-three miles from 
Rincon, is in the famous Mesilla Valley, a scene in which 
is represented in our engraving (page 55). 

We have planted a mission circuit here and expect to 
have a man on the ground soon. 

Early in r886 our Bishops received letters from parties 
in El Paso urging that we plant a mission in that city. 
As the Austin Conference would have to send a man six 
hundred miles to reach El Paso, and as it is but twenty 
miles from the New Mexico line and easily reached by 
myself, the Bishops decided that I could properly take up 
El Paso in connection with the New Mexico Mission. I 
did so, and we found an open door, ready access to the 
people, and the mission has a fine prospect for the fu- 

Rev. J. W. Sinnock is pastor. Our people have a ren- 
ted hall in which to worship. We need and must build 
a good church at this point. El Paso is a city of vast 
importance. It is the border city, has five trunk lines of 
railway, ard it is of vast importance to Texas, Mexico 
and New Mexico that we as a church establish ourselves 
strongly there. 

It would be a splendid investment to put ten thousand 
dollars into church property at once. 

Thus the reader can see that our work is mainly along 
the line of the Santa Ft- Railway. You will see also that 
the M. E. Church, South is establishing missions along 
this line. Our plan has been that in a town of say six 
hundred inhabitants, if there seems to be an opening for 
but one church, the one that first enters the 
field is not disturbed by the other. 

The reader may ask. "Why is not jour membership 
larger?" 1 answer, because of the fact that the first 
few years of the history of these towns, the people are 
so unsettled. Persons come into the town, hand in their 
letters and perhaps stay but three or six months. In one I 


instance a faithful pastor lost by death and removal 
ot his members within six months. We are now, how- 
ever, rapidly growing out of this condition of things and 
society is becoming settled and permanent. Another _ 
reason is that many Methodists (?) from the east either ■ 
backslide as they cross the Missouri river or else are 
ashamed to unite in Christian labor with our little bands 
of tried and true laborers, ■ 

Do I hear some brother minister afk, " Well, has the 
money that has been spent in our missions in New Mex- 
ico paid ? is it a good investment?" I answer gladly 
and heartily, _>^.r. It has been a good investment. Suc- 
cess cannot be measured here alone by increa.'e of num- 
bers, but the power and light that radiates in these dark 
communities from these missions of ours is incalculable. 
In many ways are our preachers doing a mighfy work 
here laying foundations for a coming State. 

We suffer in our aggressive work for lack of more 
money. I could place missionaries in a number of 
new points where settlements are forming if I had but 

A word about the educational work of our missions. 
The New West (Cung.) have established an academy at 
Las Vegas, which has about one hundred students with a 
faculty of four teachers. 

A university at Sante F<' having four teachers and 
forty-five scholars, and an academy at Albuquerque 
having four teachers and one hundred. scholars. None 
of these are boarding .schools. 

The Presbyterians have no schools among Americans 
in operation in the Territory. The Methodist Episcopal 
Church South have a seminary at las Vfgas with two 
teachers and about fifty scholans. 

Our Church has in operation at Albuquerque the Al- 
buquerque College, with five teachtrs and nearly one, 
hundred and fifty scholars enrolled. 

These five institutions are eanying on the work of 
higher education in the Territory ; are doing a great 
work and need the support of C hristian people. 

Best of all, the churches are, in many places, being re- 
vived to higher spiritual life, and s( uls are being con- 
verted. At Albuquerque the churches have been en- 
gaged in Union Meetings for a month, quite a number 
have been converted and believers quickened. 

A higher spiritual interest pcivades Raton, Santa Fi", 
and Silver City, and all along the line we look for " 1 imes 
of refreshing from the presence of the Lord." 
— — * • * 

New Mexico Spanish Metliadifit Episcopitl Mission, 

Supcrinlendent o( ihe New Mexico Spanish M E. Miuioa. 

Our Spanish Mission embraces all the Spanish speak- 
ing people in New Mexico. We are also doing a little 
work among the Mexicans in Southern Colorado and 
Western Texas, 

There are quite a number of the Mexican people in 
Southern Colorado, Southern California, Western Texas 
and in Arizona, There is nothing being done among 




thetn in any of these States and Territories, by our 
church, except through our New Mexico Spanish Mis- 

Our Spanish work ought to be pushed in all the above 
named places; but for want of more means and authori- 
ty to enter these fields, but little has been done. 

The last General Conference was asked to provide 
more definitely for the Spanish work in this Southwest 
border. The petition was by action of said Gen- 
eral Conference referred to the next General Missionary- 
Committee, and said Committee at its November meet- 
ing in 1884, separated the English and Spanish of the 
New Mexico work and made two missions of it, the En- 
glish and the Spanish. Both missions have run very 
smoothly. The Spanish has more than doubled in mem- 
bership during the past two years. 

The first missionary work done in the Territory by 
our church was in 1850. But this seemed only an ex- 
periment and the work was not kept up. In 1856 a 
missionary was sent out but only spent a few months 
and returned. In 1867 Rev. J. L. Dyer made a trip on 
horseback clear down to the Mexico line and returned, 
preaching wherever he could procure a congregation, 
making a ride of some 2,000 miles, but the services were 
all in English. 

The writer o( this article was sent to this field by 
Bishop Scott in 1869, and has remained at his post ever 
since. His first work, however, was among the .Ameri- 
can people, and but little real Spanish work was under- 
taken until about 1871, and even then only as a kind 
providence seemed to open the way. 

Id 187 1 the writer visited Peralta, where he found 
and reorganized a class of some forty-two persons. It 
seems that our first missionary to New Mexico in 1850 
left Santa Fi-,^ where he made his headquarters, and 
went as far south as Peralta and Socorro. 

While at Peralta he was the guest of Don Ambrozio 
Gonzales. He left a Bible with Don Ambrozio, Dr. 
Lore visited the place in 1856 and found Ambrozio and 
a few of his family Protestants, and organized a class 
of six persons and made Don Ambrozio leader of the 

In 1 87 1 1 organized said class into a church of forty- 
two persons and we made Don Ambrozio local preacher. 
He served his people faithfully for many years, became 
a member of the Colorado Conference, lived to see, 
through the efficient labors of Rev. John Steel at Peralta, 
a large church, Sunday and day schools, and a neat 
church and parsonage and school property, in his town 
and Protestantism spread more or less all over the 
township, having at this writing over 1,000 members and 
probationers. He quietly passed from labor to rest in 
the fall of 1884. 

Seven Methodist preachers and some three hundred of 
his Mexican neighbors followed him to his grave weeping. 

We hope the General Conference at its approaching 
session will make a special study of the wants. of the 
Mexican people in the Southweist. 

Surely the results of our work in New Mexico are of 
sufficient encouragement to justify spetial efforts of 
missionary work all along the lines of this Southwest 

This work is far from being a "honeymoon " as the 
following may indicate: A few weeks ago the people 
sent in a petition of an even hundred names, praying 
that their old preacher might be leh, notwithstanding 
the appointment of the Bishop at the late annual meet- 
ing. A telegram came to-day saying, " Come to Taos 
at once." '1 he severe storm had blown a portion of the 
new, but unfinisi.ed church building down. 

Last Monday morning a telegram was received, 
" Come to Wagon Mound if possible on next train." 
What was the trouble ? The Americans wanted to ac- 
commodate a traveling exhibitor of some kind and let 
him into the church. The trustee and pastor consented 
to it, except one Mexican trustee. He objected and 
they got into a row and were in the courts. We have 
had two cases of suspension to investigate since our an- 
nual meeting but they came out all right. But it would 
seem that " Satan has been let loose upon our work." 

We also give an abstract of the proceedings of the 
last annual meeting written by one of the members : 

" Our mission convened as per announcement on Oct. 
6, at Wagon Mound, Bishop Walden presiding. T. M. 
Harwood was elected secretary, L. Frampton, statistical 
secretary, and J. F, Cordova interpreter. Twenty-four 
out of twenty seven members answered to the roll call. 
The session was opened with the Lord's Supper, ad- 
ministered by the Bishop, assisted by the Superinten- 
dent, Thos. Harwood, Benito Garcia, Bias Gutierrasand 
Dr. Alex. Marchand. 

"Wagon Mound is a small place, and we had fears 
that the members of the mission, and visitors, amounting 
to about forty m all, could not be very easily enter- 
tained ; but a more cordial and royal entertainment of 
a conference we have hardly ever witnessed. The peo- 
ple of the town and the surrounding ranchmen (for ten 
miles out) came in and gave us congregations ranging 
from 50 to 125 in all the meetings. 

*' The Bishop seemed much at hume with our Mexican 
brethren, and by bis wise counsels, stining discourses 
and searching inquiries into the pecuhar character of 
our Spanish work, we believe, will do us much good. 
We raised $200 for missions and $50 for Church Exttn- 
sion, the amounts asked for, but found it hard work, ow- 
ing to the extreme poverty oi our people. 

"The statistics are all quite satisfactory, and a few 
are as follows: Members, 668 ; probationers, includmg 
baptized children, 447 ; churches, 12 and two others 
nearly ready to be dedicated ; parsonages, 12; acres of 
land, 35 ; value of cJ^urch and school property, $33,000; 
.Sunday-schools, 19; scholars, 400; mission day-schools, 
10 : number of scholars, 370 ; preachers employed, in- 
cluding six helpers. 27. The membership, including pro- 
bationers, shows a gain of 36 per cent, over last year, 
and an increase of 300 souls. 


Sr I'KfllNTKMlEST. TllOH. HARWiMtll. 

AlhiKiiierque.T. M. HarwcMnl. 
Anto ctiu-o, to l>e xup, 
Callll. Jiimi GnrclR. 
Coiietox ami C«!>tilla. t« be KOp. 
Doiiit Annii.SA ivtwtr* Garrin. 
Kfliuinolm O. Turret. 
OHllimiK, Oriitf, EiH-funlo Floreii. 
Mlllnboro. Crlr>tu1>al RuliiK»r. 
L«Lj(>}'n. TbecMl'o Clmvi-i. 
Lah Cnwe». Bin* tjiiticrriin. 
L* UenHiik nn<l C'biuilioruzo, T. 

I Pemltu nnd Bslen. J. P. Cordovii. 

Hmi Antonlu. MhtcIuI Smia. 
I 8iint« FS. F. N. Conlovn. 
I 8Hn Pedrd ^Cnl. i to l)« 8U]>. 

Soi'orro. Bi'nito Oarrlo. 

8pniit;i>r, Juuii rtttiidoval. 

Tiiii", Alex .MiirrhiiiKj. 

Nnrtli TitciR I'l to be KUp. 

Tlpl<iiiv(llo unci TniinlMMtjn, 1, 
Fmniplon and one to bfiKiip. 

Viil V»'r»l<*, M»ri'0" Barela. 

Wi»|i on MuunU . v« Vw wiv . 


The Place of the United States in the Conversion 
of the World. 


An address delivered before the General M(i«ioii*ry Commiflee of the Metho- 
dUc Epiuopul Church in New York, November ii, 1S37, aod publiahed by re- 
quest of the Committee ia GOSTBL IN All LtNO*. 

Mr. Chairman and Christian Friends: — I would 
fain bring you something better than a broken voice and 
a tired brain, coming to address you upon a subject so 
important as the one I have chosen for discussion in 
your presence. TAe place of the United States in the 
Cfim'ersion of th/. World '\^ a topic in singular contrast 
to the one which has to-day occupied all thoughts and 
tongues between the Atlantic and the Pacific. The four 
dangling corpses which fling their dreadful shadow 
over the whoJe land have aroused us to possibilities of 
a kind altogether unexpected and hitherto incredible to 
our optimistic feelings. 

As our complicity with slavery involved us at last in 
a crisie which threatened our very existence, so our pas- 
sive complicity with the sin of the whole world, our 
sloth, our avarice, our lack of intelligence, our utter 
failure to comprehend that our perpetuity as a nation 
depends upon our accomplishing, not some human and 
carnal dream but the purpose of Almighty Ood in our 
I development and establishment as an organic people, 
may involve us in a second crisis far more serious and 
exhausting than the first. 

The conflict impending in America to-day is the con- 
flict of the moral and spiritual energies of the people 
with the energies of corruption and of death, the con- 
flict of consecrated intelligence with a public mind 
thoroughly carnalized and a popular imagination in- 
flamed with sensual desire, impatient of restraint. Of the 
issue of such a conflict we need not be afraid if we are 
conscious of internal strength and of divine support ; if 
we can in the very agony of our trial keep alive the 
sense of our "manifest destiny," the conviction that the 
victory of Jesus Christ in America involves the future 
and the salvation of the human race. 

There is I am well aware no novelty in this sugges- 
tion. It has been discussed with great learning and 
ability by Charles Sumner, by John Fiske, by Josiah 
Strong and many others ; it has been expounded by fig- 
ures that startle and suggestions that bewilder ; by 
appeals to our fear, our pride, our conscience, our en- 
thusiasm. Consciously or unconsciously the instinct of 
our place among the nations determined the preserva- 
tion of our union, and will do more than any other in- 
fluence to make thinkers of every section ultimately ac- 
cept and also glory in the issue of the civil war. 

It was the very spirit of prophecy which seized upon 
Matthew Simpson in the March of 1 86 1, " when erecting 

himself above himself " as he faced the excited multi- 
tude all trembling with the flashings of the coming 
storm, he thrilled them with the words of Caesar to the 
frightened boatman, 

"Quid times? Cics»rem vehis." 
What do your fear, you carry Caesar with all his for- 
tunes! What do you fear, .\merica, you are freighted 
with the hopes and welfare of humanity, you are carry- 
ing Christ and the salvation of a world ! 

Yet I have been quite willing to discover that the place 
of our nation in this great work is after all a subordinate 
one. For in the long run, no nation can be saved by false 
and imposssible ideals, however splendid. Collective 
egotism is as ofl^ensivc and as pernicious as individual 
arrogance ; it is no less so because it struts about as 
patriotism. It would be supreme folly in us to assume 
burdens which have not been assigned us : quite as dan- 
gerous as to shrink from duties which are manifestly the 
outcome of our genesis and history, our position and 
our powers. 

Our conceit might easily be flattered by dwelling upon 
distant enterprises full of gorgeous promise, as though 
they were already near achievement. But the tasks of 
a great people must be studied and undertaken with a 
sober mind, with intelligent energy, with resolute and 
invincible purpose, with comprehensive and far-search- 
ing sagacity. 

The enthusiasm which sustains a mighty movement 
must be steady and continuous, not fitful and intermit- 
tent ; it must be renewed by repeated visions of that 
invisible banner which marshals the armies of God to 
the fulfillment of his purpose, and not by the delusive 
glitter of vast and specious undertakings, shapeless and 
unsubstantial dreams, utterly unlike the tasks for which 
God creates a puissant people. ^ 

Hence I approach the problem of our mission as a na- 
tion, with a candid and a sober mind ; desirous rather to 
discover the simple truth in the matter than to reiterate 
and reinforce with passionate advocacy the view of that 
mission to which I have already called attention. 

Now before attacking the problem directly, let me 
bring into clear relief two propositions, not likely to be 
disputed but very likely to be forgotten by you. 

The first of these is that the only tenable theory of 
the progress of the human race is the Christian theory. 
Even Christianity minus the redemptive power of Jesus 
Christ is pure and unmitigated pessimism; — man fallen, 
corrupt, impotent ; man entangled, helpless in a web of 
circumstance which excites him to perpetual effort and 
mocks him with perpetual disappointment. 

The Gospel is not an opiate to create illusion and 
delusion as to facts; it is a joyful confronting of them 
with the power of an endless life. Every other optimis- 
tic system breaks down hopeless in the presence of the 
perpetual recurrence of human struggle. 

The highest teaching of our lime which is not Chris- 
tian teaching, amounts to nothing nobler than a sullen 
consent, or at best a cheerful submission to conditions 



of misery and peril pronounced inevitable. We Chris- 
tians may believe in 

" A far off divine event 
To which the whole creation mores " . 

b;cause we are witnesses of and to a power mightier 
than nature, a power redemptive and transforming, full 
of peace and of eternity. 

To us the poet adds only the music of the lines; the 
music of the thought came first to the startled shepherds 
beneath the sky of Bethlehem when the starry firmament 
blazed out one splendor and the old earth thrilled again 
to hear angelic song once more. 

We may wait patiently for the vision for we have 
some assurance of its coming ; not merely in the song 
of promise but in the outflow of quickenmg and re- 
deeming strength which keeps the promise alive. Be- 
wildering as many aspects of human history are, com- 
plex and apparently chaotic often to our feeble appre- 
hension — we alone among the sons of men need not 
abandon hope and glorious expectation. For we alone 
are engaged in an enterprise in which the immediate 
power of God is absolutely needed and therefore likely 
to be revealed. 

The lightnings may carry the messages of commerce ; 
the potencies of matter suffice for every form of industry 
or visible art ; our very knowledge may analyze itself to 
forms of sense ; but wherever a soul, a sinful soul, shall 
becjnverted, the living God must be at hand. 

To this first proposition the second bears a close 
relation. Every great historical development, every 
nation in a word, has been or is tributary to the redemp- 
tion of mankind. Egypt did not exist merely to build 
pyramids for itskings, but to fertilize the Mediterranean 
with learning, to shelter Joseph and to educate Moses. 
Greece did not exist merely to create art and literature 
but to develop that philosophic instinct which by 
opposing to superstition, science, prevents the degrada- 
tion of Christian truth in its purity to the idolatries of 
the vulgar or the wicked perversions of the corrupt and 

Israel did not exist for Jacob, for Moses, for David 
only, but for the coming Christ. In its singular isola- 
tion it was at work for the whole race ; the narrowest 
of all peoples preparing salvation for mankind. Mace- 
donia, Rome, England, each in turn have diflused 
throaghout vast areas an influence without which the 
propagation of the Christian faith would have been ap- 
parently impossible. 

Smaller nations like Switzerland and Holland and 
Denmark are not exceptions to the rule. It was to 
Geneva that persecuted Protestants fled for refuge in 
the days of Bloody Mary ; it was at Leyden that John 
Robinson and his Pilgrims found ahome when England 
thrust them out and America was as yet without attrac- 
tion for them ; it was the Danish power in India which 
sheltered Carey and his helpers when the East India 
Company would have gladly flung missions and mis- 
sionaries into the sea ! 


My argument is addressed to Christian men and _ 
women who believe in the unity of God's activities and I 
in the harmony of his various plans. But if I stood 
before an audience of men that discard all purpose in 
nature and in human history, of men that shrink from ■ 
the Fuegian and the Hottentot, of men that look with 
cheerless gloom upon the seething, shoreless, tran.sient 
billows of human life, I should point out to them in 
quiet triumph as simple matter of fact, the one palpable 
and abiding effect of the co-operation of historic 
nations, the diffusing of the mind of Jesus Christ, and 
the irrepressible conviction, that the disappearance of the 
mind of Jesus Christ from among those nations, means a 
return to moral chaos, to spiritual and political Nihilism. 
We, then, citizens of a nation whose genesis and his- 
tory are unexampled in the annals of mankind, must 
recognize the lien of Almighty God upon our national 
life. We no more than Israel or Rome, Germany or 
England, exist for private or political reasons. To as- 
sume that we have been established only that we may 
reveal to posterity a marvelous display of energy de- 
voted to purely material aims ; that our institutions, I 
our political systems have no higher destiny than to 
afford free play and increasing power to vast multi- 
tudes who shall be destitute of any ideals but those of 
sense and of the passing moment is to involve the sure 
and swift decay of our organic life. 

In that case the catastrophe of the twentieth century 
will be as terrible as the progress of the nineteenth has 
been stupendous ; we shall be turned into hell with the 
nations that forgot God, punished not for what we have 
done but for what we shall have failed to do. 

But for this audience I may assume the belief that the 
world is to be converted sometime and that it is to 
be converted by human co-operation with almighty 
energy. For it is the life-thought of Christianity, that 
humanity is to be redeemed by humanity, Christ Him- 
self becoming man in order to redeem him. Now there 
are three possibilities conceivable. 

(i). The world may be converted by the diffusion of 
Christian belief from soul to soul, independent of any 
form of organization. Few would deny the essen- 
tially radiant character of Christian energy. From 
soul to soul, from community to community it diffuses 
itself by the law of its being. 

This quality of radiancy has originated missionary 
enterprise, and has more than once in the crisis of mis- 
sionary history made that enterprise splendidly dis- 
obedient to remote command. But in nature and in 
society, energy organizes itself to the end that it may 
operate more efficiently. Light gathers into suns so 
that planets may live upon its undulations, — the waters 
dissolving, the forests rising at their touch, all creatures 
rejoicing in their silent movement. So the radiant 
energy of Divine Truth would in any but a sinful world 
organize itself without effort into forms the best adapted 
to its diffusion. 
But as things are, the Gospel must «Um<{,<^%. v^ ^t^ 




itself organized amid forces destructive, hostile, corrupt- 
ing. Hence the gloomy spectacle of organized forms 
of Christian doctrine perverted from their primal pur- 
pose, or too feeble, too utterly inadequate for the work 
imposed upon them. 

Yet we must not forget that these organizations were 
in every age the best which contemporaneous conditions 
could admit. If we are wiser and nobler than our 
fathers we shall have not only increased energy but more 
efficient organization for its distribution and employ- 
ment. But the notion of a self-diffusing energy, acting 
without organs of any kird is a myth, a metaphor, or an 

In the past the truth has been diffused by organized 
effort, however imperfect or defective such organic 
movements may have been. Christianity can no more 
survive without a church radiant, diffusive of life and 
spiritual power, than the solar system without the orbs 
into which its energies are wrought. 

A second possibility (the barest spectre of a pus- 
sibility), is the transformation of the Roman Catholic 
Church into a vast missionary system, subordinating to 
itself alt other Christian activities, or co-ordinating them 
with its own. Such a dream, the dream of men like 
John Henry Newman is a beautiful delusion too unsub- 
stantial for discussion. 

But if such a dream could be realized to the astonish- 
ment of men and the glory of God, it would come only 
through the influence of a powerful and thoroughly re- 
deemed Protestantism. 

Of the growth of Romanism I am not afraid, if Pro- 
testantism increases duly in vigor, in consecration, in 
the affections of alt the people, adding to its faith cour- 
age, and to its courage intelligence and generosity ; for, 
then, Romanism will be compelled to purify itself or 
disappear. But such a transformation, should it ever 
come, will come too late, I fear, to be of service in the 
redemption of the world. That is a problem for Protes- 
tant Christians, for the people of England, Germany, 
Holland, Scandinavia and the United States. 

Now the bare fact that we shall soon be half the Pro- 
testant world, is startling enough, if the conversion of 
the human race is a task for Protestants chiefly. For 
that of itself indicates that the chief responsibility is 
ours by mere superiority of numbers. 

It would ill become us to speak carelessly of Ger- 
many or Scandinavia ; we Methodists especially are 
bound to keep ourselves forever mindful of Moravian 
missions; much less would it become us to forget the 
splendid work of England and of Scotland, the homes 
of Carey and Morrison, of Gordon and Hannington, of 
Duff and Livingstone. But we must awake to the fact 
that we are the largest Protestant nation in the world; 
that our numbers, our wealth, our history, our institu- 
tions all involve us in an une.xampled destiny. 

Now we are not only in numbers the largest Protest- 
ant nation in the world; we are the only nation upon 
earth which has never been anything else. Our history 

is after all only the most wonderful chapter in the story 
of the Reformation. 

1492 was the year in which Columbus came to America 
but it was also the year that Lorenzo de Medicis died 
and Savonarola became the mightiest man in Florence. 
In that year Luther was a boy of nineyears old and 
Hugh Latimer was a boy of eight working upon his 
father's farm. Zwingli was of the same age, but of 
somewhat nobler birth. 

The first efforts to settle this continent wa-s a scheme 
of the great Coligny to place the Huguenots in Florida. 
No story in our annals, no story in the annals of roan- 
kind so clearly, so terribly reveals the intensity of the 
struggle which shook and stained the sixteenth cen- 

The American colonies of the seventeenth century 
were the outcome partly of Protestant success, partly of 
the struggle of the purer and simpler formsof Protestant- 
ism to keep themselves alive. Dutch on the Hudson, 
Swedes on the Delaware, English on the James, were alt 
borne thither by the spirit of adventure which had been 
transferred from the Mediterranean to the North Atlan- 
tic, from Italy and Spain, to the Netherlands and Britain. 
But the Pilgrims at Plymouth, the Puritans at Salem, the 
the Scotch-Irish in New Hampshire, in the Carolinas, 
in Virginia and Pennsylvania, the Quakers that came 
with Penn, and the Anabaptists invited by him; — all the 
diverse religious immigrations which have really deter- 
mined the development of our institutions hitherto, 
were due to other and far nobler impulses; impulses 
which led on the one hand to the creation of Christian 
States, on the other to heroic efforts for the salvation of 
the natives. 

Of the many utterances upon the Indian question 
none is more touching than the cry of John Robinson, 
the Leyden pastor of the Pilgrims. When he had read 
the letter in which the settlers informed him that they 
had been compelled to put some savages to death, he ex- 
claimed in bitter disappointment; " O that you had 
converted some before you had killed any." 

I quote it here as the earliest testimony we have to 
the spirit which showed itself afterward in men like 
Roger Williams and John Eliot, like Brainerd and 
Losktel, and our own remarkable Russell Bigelow. Al- 
ways Protestant, outcome of agitations in the heart and 
mind of a Protestantism yet struggling for existence, 
stirred with missionary impulse from the beginning in 
the persons of our noblest teachers^ we nevertheless in- 
habit a*'land rescued with difficulty from France and 

The defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo was no more im- 
portant to mankind than the victory of Wolfe at Que- 
bec; indeed had Wolfe been defeated, there might have 
been no Waterloo and the career of Napoleon been alto- 
gether different. As it is, the withdrawal of France 
from America and from India have given to the Angfo- 
Saxon races the supremacy of the world. 

Here we are, then, a Protestant nation, situated be- 

Iwcen the Oriental and the Eurcfesn world; the latest 
nd superficially at sny rate ihe greatest biith of time. 

This geographical position of a Protestant Christian 
ation, remote from the struggles and perils of Weslein 

urope, with an ocean front directly opposite Japan 
and China and India is of itself amazingly important. 

Western Europe is trembling to-day at every mcve- 

ent of the Slav. An irruption of the hoides of Russia 
might be as disastrous to Vienna and Paris as the mi- 
giation of Gotbs ar.d Huns lo Scuttern Europe, tnd 
Saracens and Turks to Antioch and Constantino pie. 

From such contingencies the broad Atlantic is to us a 
■ure protection. When Mr. Seward purchased Alaska 
^ was in the firm belief that commerce would be 
'eventually transferred from the North Atlantic to the 
l*acific as in the fifteenth century it was transferred from 
the Mediterranean to the North Sea and the Baltic, 
I Here we are a Protestant people possessed of a do- 
main not only separate from whilst intermediate be- 
tween the other worlds, but a domain so rich and so 
(fertile that we are absolutely independent of the rest 
«f the earth. 

A thousand millions may live in ccmfort upon the 
Iprodnctions of our soil ; every form of energy may 
here find material for its display ; the quickening at- 
mosphere which sweeps across our prairies and down 
our mountain slopes inspires our people lo strive their 
tttmost up and on. Room and riches, energy and op- 
portunity, freedom and power, faith in Godand faith in 
individual possibility, the constructive influerce of law, 
Ud the diversifying influence of interblending races, 
never met together on this wise in all the cycles of ter- 
restrial history. 

No wonder that a candid statesman like Mr. Glad- 

|8tone admits that we are soon to displace England as 

the chief servant in the household of nations; no won- 

ider that less generous spectators wish for seme mighty 

confusion to arre&t us in the upholding of our colosjal 


To the one who thinks of us, a missionary nation 
radiant with beneficent activity, illuminating the ends 
of the earth with the outstresmings of the Holy Ghcst, 
' the prospect of our greatness is a thought of joy. 

But what if we should fail in the day of our opportu- 
nity as Germany failed after the death of Luther, as 
[France failed in the days of Coligny and of Pajcal ? 
What if we should become through our selfishness a very 
teenrge of other natioi^^the home-of.^ mad adventure 
and reckless enterprise, an enoinrous aggregation of 
discontent and tuibulcnce, torn by social convulsions 
and exploding over the whole earth in outbreaks of un- 
reasoning passion ? 

But again cur appearance anrcng the nations took 
place in a decade in which are clustered more great 
events than can be found in any ten years of human 

In 1785 Watt and Boulton revoluticnized the industrial 
world by the use of the steam engine in manufEclurcs, 

In 1786 Wm. Carey began to think of India as the 
field lo which Almighty God had called him. 

In 1789 the Bastile was destroyed and with it the ab- 
solutism of Western Europe, 

In 1790 Madame Galvani watching a dead frog upon 
the dissecting table of her husband at Bologna noticed 
those convulsive twitches which led to the constiuction 
of the Galvanic battery. 

In 1793 China was entered by the embassy of the 
Earl Macartney. In this same decade the hold of 
France upon India was lost forever, and the Northwest 
Ordinance was passed which led by inevitable conse- 
quence to the destruction of negro slavery in America. 

The Introduction of labor-saving machinery, meant 
an enormous increase of wealth and enormous aggrega- 
tions of human beings in our modern cities with a con- 
sequent multiplicity and complexity of problems for 
both church and slate. 

1 he appearance of democracy in France was the be- 
ginning of that disintegration which was to crowd our 
shores with immigrants and to overwhelm us with the 
discontent, the ignorance, the intellectual and social dis- 
order, the passionate and anarchic irreligion of the con- 
tinental world. 

Our own union had broken with European tradition ; 
it had committed the welfare of the people to the frc^ 
thought and free activities of a self-governed, thougb 
deftly regulated state. 

In the muscles of that twitching frog -were unseen 
prophecies of rapid intercourse which would bring Cal- 
cutta to the wharves of London and bind the cities of 
the world together with arteries of ceaseless and instan- 
taneous thought. 

The project of W^m. Carey to the grosser senses of 
his contemporaries seemed quite as worthless as the 
twitchings of any half-dissected frog ; but God who did 
not disdain to hide the secrets of his power in those 
humble muscles, thrilled the conscience and the heait 
of all the Christian world through the tireless brain and 
courage of that English shoemaker. 

These are not mere coincidence ; they mark the con- 
vergence of great and constructive energies in the pro- 
duction of an epoch, through which should play, not 
the fortunes of a tribe, or a nation, or a race, or a con- ^1 
tinent, but the fortunes of a world. ^^M 

Now upon us as a nation devolved four great tasks : 
first, the demonstration of the feasibility of popular 
so-vere»|taty ; secondly, the establishfl)ent*of a free 
church in a free state, of unmolested and voluntary- 
Christianity ; third, the absorption without deterioration 
to our national life of vast multitudes from other shores : 
fourth, the extrication of ourselves from the system of 
slavery and its consequences which coiled us about in 
almost strangling folds. 

No one of these problems is as yet more than par- 
tially solved. Slavery is gone but many of its conse- 
quences remain ; the churches are here and are growing 
with a rapidity which startles the FAViiXo^fa.'cv <J\s=«.t<i«v 


«:Mr lu. n»ii— 

and yet are not growing rapidly enough to meet the 
wants of such a population; our failure to master the 
heterogeneous elements of our diverse population is 
not only manifest but puts to hazard our institutions 
and our future welfare. 

Wonderful as is the century now closing — and any- 
thing so wonderful is not to be found in earthly chron- 
icles — we are confronted with a situation far more ap- 
palling and inspiring. To master such a situation 
requires a sagacity, a comprehensive intelligence, an 
inspiration, a faith of almost superhuman character. 

Nay it will require an ideal of national life, a motive 
for national endeavor, a source of national enthusiasm 
which are not to be found in any of the impulses which 
usually feed a nation's life. 

Sometimes the mere rush of energy carries a people 
forward to its destiny; sometimes a passion for plunder 
or for glory makes them the willing instrument to indi- 
vidual greed ; sometimes a wild, unreasoning, half- 
noble, half-brutal enthusiasm sweeps them, as in the 
crusades, to peril, to hardship, and to death. 

But problems such as are now confronting us are of 
quite another kind. These demand intelligence, not 
vehemence ; unfaltering trust in God, not mad belief 
in some man's star ; unconquerable devotion to man as 
man, invincible belief in human possibilities, not despair 
of human freedom and distrust of human conscience. 
Now whence are these to come ? 

Where are we to find the ideal of national existence 
vast enough, divine enough, to stir us to that expression 
of our energies which shall save us to ourselves ? 

Let me answer in the words of a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Legislature spoken during the discussion of 
the charter of the American Board. " Mr. Speaker," 
said this wise man, in answer to those who pleaded that 
the money and the energy of Christian people were 
needed most at home. *' Mr. Speaker, religion is a curi- 
ous commodity, the more of it you export, the more 
you have at home ! " 

In that one phrase lies the clue to our national salva- 
tion. God in his infinite wisdom has so bound the 
nations together, that the intelligence and wealth, the 
prosperity and spiritual growth of each is involved in 
the redemption of them all. The very nature of the 
missionary enterprise is such as to develop in the par- 
ticipating nations the qualities which are essential to a 
vigorous and splendid life, .^nd that because God has 
appointed that no nation shall live merely to itself. 

All other problems are included in the problem of the 
world's conversion. The intelligence, the courage, the 
truth, the self-devotion equal to its vast proportions are 
equal to any difficulty and to any emergency which our 
future history may bring. God, I maintain, has so or- 
dained it, that we without the others, may not be per- 

Now, I am satisfied, that it is both possible and easy to 
establish this truth with respect of England and the Uni- 
ted States. No man acquainted with English politics of 

a century ago, especially with the relations of England 
to India can fail to praise God for the double influence 
of Indian Missions, first upon the administration of 
India, and secondly upon the general character of £Qg« 
lish statesmanship. 

A century ago the plea of British interests, by which 
was always meant, the interests of British money makers, 
was the dominant plea in every public question. By 
that plea America was lost, by that plea Pitt was dis- 
honored and Ireland was cheated, by that plea India 
was plundered and denied the grace of God. 

To-day that plea is no longer omnipotent. The souls 
of Carey, of Livingstone, of Duff, of Hannington, of 
Gordon, have transfigured the minds of English states- 
men and of the British churches ! Tell me where in 
all Britain could Duff and Livingstone have done more 
for the people that remained at home than they did ia 
India and in Africa? 

When I read the story of Hannington's boy looking 
up into the eyes of one who had known his father with 
the touching appeal, " Tell me somethingof my father! '* 
it seemed to me unutterably sad that a father should 
leave his children so bereft. But a sharp voice rung 
in my ear, •' Will your boy be sheltered by such a mem- 
ory ? Will the recollections of such a father's life cling 
about your children an invisible armor, a perpetual 
stimulus to noble deeds ? " 

What such an example is to one's own children, it is 
to the whole generation of noble souls. The spiritual 
posterity of Livingstone and Hannington is greater in 
Britain and America than it is in Africa for which they 
gave their lives. So it has been with Judson and Har- 
riet Newell, with Melville Cox and William Taylor. 
" Send me to Africa," said Cox, "the doctors tell me I 
have but a short time to live. I can do perhaps better 
service than a healthy man ; at any rate my few days 
can be as well spent for God in Africa as in any part of 
the world." 

Now if you will trace the influence of such lives 
through the American churches, I think you will soon 
discover that they have been the quickening power of 
evangelistic enterprise at home. One would expect the 
development to take the contrary form, though the com- 
mand is, when you read it carefully, not " Preach my Gos- 
pel at Jerusalem, endmg with the whole world," but 
" Preach my Gospel to every creature, beginning at Jeru- 
salem ! " 

Take quite a recent instance of the working of this 
principle. A Women's Home Missionary Society has 
been organized within our church. The founders of 
that society avowed the other day at Syracuse that they 
were prompted to their work by the existence of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society organized some 
years ago. 

Now we are in the midst of perils innumerable and 
great ; but the peril which includes all others is a feeble, 
a cowardly, a selfish Christianity ; a group of rival 
churches struggling to outdo each other in the retention 


of good society. For my part I welcome the environ- 
ment of danger which now surrounds the spiritual ener- 
gies of our nation. 

God takes delight in driving his mighty enterprises 
along the ledges of disaster. His chariots are chariots 
of fire. He takes the molten earth, and cools the crust 
around a glowing corcj to build upon it the glorious 
habitations of the sons of men. He drives his worlds in 
their tremendous orbits, His hand untrembling and His 
vision undisturbed, amid the million terrors lurking 
through immensity, and not a planet breaks from out 
the countless throng. It has been His way to guide the 
church through peril, for in that way He can make it 
strong to do His will. 

Why should the church be afraid ? Is it conscious of 
cowardice, of avarice, of low ideals, of missions unper- 
formed, of duties neglected, of ignoble motives in its 
nobler undertakings, of mean and paltry conceptions of 
Its calling ? Then it does well to be afraid. 

But if the church and through the church, the nation 
shall come to see in the very conditions which surround 
us the presence of a glorious task, then we may face the 
future with bounding hearts, rejoicing in our age and 

If we have no higher ambition, after piling up more 
wealth in one century, than England has in six, than 
" to beat our own record " by piling up as many millions 
more. God will surely smite us for our carnal mind. 
Men \u other lands look on quite dazed to see with what 
light heartedncss we enter upon enterprises of bewilder- 
ing vastness. To the old-world cry of "See what we 
have done," we utter back our challenge "See what we 
are going to do." 

But every careful observer of all this seething energy 
is painfully aware of a spirit of unrest, a spirit of wild 
adventure which like a fierce water-spout bursts here 
and there from its surface. We are a nation without an 
army, yet a nation in which the old Berseker rage is ac- 
cumulating with startling rapidity. 

The tension of our national life is fast nearing the 
moment of discharge. What will the outcome be ? An 
epoch of reckless and useless conflict and conquest ? 
Schemes of world-undoing, collisior.s of class with class, 
outbreaks of utter folly in garments of millennial splen- 
dor, of turbulence and greed and social chaos? Or will 
it be some glorious undertaking, some splendid scheme 
of mild beneficence ; some missionary enterprise in 
which the mind of America shall reflect the mind of 
Jesus Christ ? 

Europe in the days of St. Bernard was not more sus- 
ceptible to the preaching of a crusade than the people 
of America are to-day. If they are not soon enlisted in 
the rescue of humanity, they will become the eager and 
passionate followers of the prophets of destruction and 
the apostles of unrest ; if intelligent and consecrated 
leaders do not gather them about the standard of a 
world-redeemer, they will make this land to tremble with 
the explosion of their pent-up strength. 

Certainly I recognize with gratitude the work which 
has been done ; the splendid comparative record of our 
last quadrennium, unequalled in the history of any 
American church ; the daring movements of Bishop 
Taylor which challenge the very messengers of God to 
admiration of their terrestrial brother ; the increasing 
interest in all the denominations of our land in every 
form of Christian work. 

But I will permit myself to indulge in no illusions. 
The wealth of the church is yet unconsecrated. It in- 
creases by millions where its benevolence increases by 
thousands, I fear I ought to say by hundreds. We have 
spent more intellect in idle disputations than in the 
study of our missionary labors; we have trusted rather 
to the stress of machinery than to courageous and con- 
tinuous appeal to the brain and conscience of the church. 

We are still, to use Dr. Duff's phrase, only playing at 
missions. And because we are only playing at missions 
we are only playing at everything else of moment to 
mankind. We are only playing at popular government, 
only playing at social reform, only playing at the educa- 
tion of the masses, only playing at art and literature, 
too often only playing at religion, 

A cry of agony runs through the western world; a 
cry of mingled terror and despair. The noblest intel- 
lects are smitten with a ghastly fear. "Is it God or 
only a ghost that fills the sky and flmgs His shadow 
athwart the stars?" 

We who answer, "God!" must prove our answer by our 
faith and works ; prove that Christ is with us by the 
revelation of His mind. We who have been made by 
His providence citizens of this great republic must rise 
to the responsibility of our enormous privilege, recog- 
nizing our allegiance to the Kingdom of Jesus Christ 
for which alone the nations fulfill their lesser destiny. 

There are times when certain careless words clothe 
themselves with strange solemnity. So has it come to 
pass with the old extravagance about the boundaries of 
our country : 

Bounded on the East by the Rising Sun, on the North 
by the Aurora Borealis, on the South by the Precession 
of the Equinoxes, and on the West by the Day of Judg- 

Yes, the old jest is now dead earnest, terribly, por- 
tentously true! 

For when our nation appeared among men it was like 
the rising of the sun to thousands who had watched 
and waited for the morning. The burdened of the earth 
rejoiced and their gladness filled them with new strength, 
for they beheld a land where all men are brothers, where 
love was the light of the people and liberty clasped hands 
with law. 

Bounded on the North by the Aurora Borealis, for as 
the flashing fires of the North are but the witness of the 
overflowing electric energy which enwraps the earth, so 
the exhibitions of our strength that have already taken 
shape upon the firmament of history, are but the witness 
of a power without a parallel in hunva-vv <:.V\.\<^\\\Ov.«^ 

But the great laws of God which determine the seasons 
and hold the planets to their course hold us also to His 
purpose and His will. Irrevocable and relentless, irre- 
pealabte for no world, no man, no nation ; destructive to 
the false and disobedient; a transcendent pledge of life 
to all that are true to the Eternal and Invisible. 

And beyond us on the West looms up the Day of 
Judgment. For yonder on our vast frontiers where 
gathered multitudes shall weave for America in the 
twentieth century either a garment of glory or a shroud; 
yonder across the blue Pacific where China stands sullen 
but slowly yielding to the light, where Japan is thrilling 
with new purpose and new experience ; where India 
verges swiftly to some great surprise, there is our Day 
of Judgment. 

I Con 

Missionary Tearing in Persia. 


(Continued from I.ui Numbr:) 

Connected with the caravanserai is a small tea house 
where we get cups or rather glasses of tea for a shai 
(three-fourths of a cent) per glass. Our bill for tea 
and hay for the horses is 17 shais or about 13 cents. A 
ride of nine or ten miles further brings us to our stop- 
ping plaoe for the night, the village of Ilkidri, about 
njpeteen miles from Tabriz. The people of the village 
are mainly Ali lUahis, that is, people who believe in the 
deity of Ali. 

They are, I think, a remnant of heathenism, put- 
ting Ali in the place of the god they formerly wor- 
shipped. Looked upon with suspicion by the Mussulman 
they are generally friendly disposed toward Chrtstians, 
and Ali Agha, son of the former spiritual head of the 
village, to whose house I am going, has made a profes- 
sion of Christianity, and is now employed by the Pres- 
byterian Board to teach a school in his native village. 

You may ask, what evidence does he give of being a 
Christian. In answer to this, in the first place I would 
say that, being in receipt of a salary he ouglit to give 
very good evidence of his Christian faith. The pre- 
sumption in the case of any one who comes to the mis- 
sionary professing to be a changed man, and desiring 
to be admitted to the church, is that he has interested 
motives, hopes in some way or other to profit pecuniarily 
by the change. 

This is true of all, but especially of Mohammedans. 
A very common experience is for a man to attend relig- 
ious services for a short time, and then make a call 
on you, state that he is a poor man without work or that 
he has pressing pecuniary obligations, and would either 
like to be taken as a servant, or wishes you to let him 
have a few tomans (a toman is $1.43) for a short time, 
This last plea is made by khans and others holding good 
social positions. It is needless to say that if you loaned 
cnoney you would never see it again. 

In the case of Ali, Mr. Wilson, of the Presbyterian 
Board, in whose charge he is, believes that he has good evi- 

ds,i:£ thit Ali is disinterested in his profession, because 
he lately refused an offer of a higher salary from the I 
piOp'.e of his villa|e. All's hauss is atths oppjsite end 
of the village fro.Ti wh;re we enter and wh;n we arrive 
thire b3th he anJ o.i; of his sisters are waiting to greet I 
u>. We enter by a door in:o a s.-nalt court on the sides 
of whic'i thir8 are room;, and at thi further end a door 
op2n> into the stable yard. 

It is not best after ridmg to sit down at once. So 
wctike a few tjrAs a:i jut the coart before going inside. 
Our room is better thin in the average village house, 
in that, though built a; thsy are of mud and unburnt 
brick, tbat is, b.-icks dried in th^ sun, it has a window 
in place of hobs in tus walls or roof to let in the lig'it. 
Around the sides of the room thjre are smill recesses 
which take the place of cupboards. On ths mud floor 
there is a reiJ mittinj, ail o/er this sa^ferit pieces of 
the cjm no.T nitive carpet, called kelim, and felts. A 
cjuple of native pillowi, long anl round, s;rve a sa seat. 

Sion callers bigin to drop in. One is a young min 
who is a leid^r of the A'l lilahis. Another is the 
Kitkhudi (literally "Lo.-d of the village") or head ■ 
man of th J village, and a third his son who has lately 
become a soldier, but who, like mmy other public func- 
tionaries in Persi 1, fiads it diS^cult to get his salary. Just 
now he is honi on leive and is taking lessons in All's 

Several other of the sc'iolarsco ne in. The conversa- 
tion turns on the school wnic 1 his just com nenced with 
a half djzesi scholars, the prospects of which the Kat- 
khuda declares to be good ; on the crop of the village, 
wheat, cotton, etc., the last a profitable but very uncer- - 
tain crop ; on the latest news, etc. I 

The KitkhuJa has the rheumatism, and wishes me 
to prescribs for him, the firit of a number of such re- _ 
quests, every Frank b^ing looked up an as a physician. I 
Except in very simple cases I decline. This time I 
advise to try olive oil. As soon as we can get cows' 
milk, a mymeh or large round tray is broughtin on which | 
the victuals are placed, around which we sit on the floor 
and eat. Several women, relatives and neighbors, come 
in anl accept very willingly the cakes we offer them. 
Nor da they think of veiling their faces as Mussulmen 
women wauld do under the circumstances. 

Supper over, there is a little gathering for prayer, the 
men aad boys sitting near, the women in the end of the 
room. I real the loth of Matthew, make a short ad- 
dress and then pray. Several remiin after prayers, and 
I takeoutapa;kigeof Scripture texts in Persian on such 
passages as John 3: 16, 14: 6. Gal. 3: 13, etc., and have 
a talk with the scholars oa the topics presented, after- 
wards giving one to each who can read. It is after 10 
when I get to bed, and next morning am up at 5. 
Breakfast, prayirs, and conversation with some women, 
among them All's yojng bride wh 3 has brought in her 
book tosh:>iv what progress she ha,s made, and a little 
after 8 a. m. we are again on the road. 

Twenty miles away to the right, among some hills 






which rise from the shore of the lake, are some other 
Ali lUahi villages which I visited some years ago. There 
as here the people were friendly, but with the exception 
of Ali I know of none who have made a profession of 
Christianity. As we leave the village, on the left there 
is a small shrine on the top of a hill where the peopleof 
the village go to worship, making sacrifices, burning 
lamps, etc. 

A little further on is another shrine, and when I was 
in lUsichi last year a large part of the population had 
gone to a shrine two days away. This and other rem- 
nants of heathenism are not peculiar to the Ali Illahis, 
Mohammedans, and even Armenians have similar shrines. 
Sometimes on the road one comes across a tree, apart 
by itself, whose branches will be covered with rags, vo- 
tive offerings of the worshipers who have passed by. 

Coming to a caravansarai we have a choice of roads, 
one making a detour to the left, the other striking direct- 
ly across the low country to Grigan, whose gardens and 
fields we can see on the other side lying against the base 
of the mountain range. I choose the direct route and 
for a time all goes well, but by degrees the horses' hoofs 
sink into the soft ground and I find we must look out 
for another route. 

With some difficulty we find a road across the swampy 
ground, and for several miles have to go on very care- 
fully. After passing the swamp our way lies between 
fields and orchards, the road generally full of water used 
for irrigation. Fruit and nut trees abound, especially 
the white walnut, of which there were many large speci- 
mens. After crossing a river where, as is usually the 
case, the bridge is broken down, and going for some dis- 
tance along a narrow bank we come to a village, and 
crossing another stream, this time on a bridge, reach the 
caravansarai where we are to lunch. 

When again on our way we enter the hills which now 
come down to the shores of the sea. The road is stony 
and in some places on the smooth rocks my horse's feet 
slip. This part of the road is lonely and at times dan- 
gerous because of the robbers who infest it. At 5 p. m. 
we reach the village of Khanija on the shore of the 
lake and our day's journey of twenty-five miles is ended. 
It has been a hot day's ride, especially the latter part of 
it, and we are glad to get under cover. 

At one lime I made the journey from Khanija to Ta- 
brii (forty-four miles) in one day, and on the other 
side of the lake have made fiftytwo miles in one day 
and traveling with fast horses, changing at the different 
stations, on one occasion rode one hundred and twenty 
miles in twenty-two hours, traveling day and night, but I 
am not likely to repeal such journeys, as I tire much 
sooner than I did six or eight years ago. 

This time we go to the Katkhuda's house, of whom I 
have heard through Mr. Ward, of Tabriz. Although 
head of the village, I find out on inquiry that he cannot 
read, bis merza or scribe performing that part of his 
functions for him. It is oftentimes the case that in a 
village of several hundred people, only the Mollah and 

one or two others can read. In the larger villages the 
proportion of readers is much greater, and in the cities 
there are numerous schools, generally connected with 
the mosques. 

The Katkhuda gives us a cordial reception and orders 
the semovar or Russian tea urn, which is much used in 
Persia, to be heated, and soon we have a refreshing cup 
of tea. After some general conversation with the Kat- 
khuda in regard to America, Europe, etc., showing him 
where they were situated in the atlas (Persians generally 
have very indefinite ideas in regard to countries outside 
of their own borders) supper, or dinner as it might be 
called, was served and we retired early. 

Next morning we were off between 7 and 8 a. u., our 
way still through the hills and mountains. At one place 
we came on a guard house, built to protect the road, and 
the guard, as their .custom is, came for a present. Some- 
times these guards are as bad as the highwaymen. On 
the mountain pass between Oroomiah and Salmas on the 
other side of the lake, on an examination being made 
some years ago, seven dead bodies were found under the 
guard house. 

It is not an unknown occurrence for a governor to 
enter into league with robbers, receiving part of the 

Finally we descend from the mountains into a plain. 
Crossing a little stream with a rather high bank on the 
other side, the load horse in climbing the bank slips and 
falls, and the servant in endeavoring to save Chrissie is 
somewhat bruised but not seriously. 

A little way further on we reach our midday resting 
place. There I find a boy who can read and give him 
one of the Scripture texts, at the same time explaining 
the meaning. Also to a second, and shortly after the 
first boy returns and says that his teacher would like 
one. Again our way lies along the side of a hill over- 
looking the plain, and then we descend not far from the 
shores of the lake. There, too, the ground is marshy, 
and part of the way a causeway has been built and 
bridges made over small streams or inlets from the lake. 
In a number of cases these bridges are in a ruinous con- 

In some places we are quite close to the shore but the 
ground is so swampy that it would be difhcult at this 
season of the year to approach it. As we ride along 
thunder clouds arise in the south and cover the sky. It 
looks as though we would be caught in a storm but, as 
is often the case, only a few drops fall. Long before we 
reach Binat our way lies through the gardens and fields 
in its suburbs. On entering the town, a place of about 
ten thousand inhabitants, one is struck by the number 
and size of its mosques. 

In Persia, even in the large cities, the mosques gen- 
erally are by no means such imposing buildings as one 
sees in Turkey, and especially in Constantinople. The 
only really fine mosque in Tabriz is the Blue Mosque, 
now in ruins. Another feature of the place are the 
I pigeon towers, which I ha.N« wo\. ^tttv ^.■k^V**.^^ ^'»fc-. 


although they are numerous in the neighborhood of 

Passing through the bazar we find at the other end 
the caravanserai where we are to put up, a large building 
of two stories, the upper in which are the rooms for trav- 
elers, provided with balconies, and the lower occupied 
by stables. We get a good sized room about eighteen 
by ten with three windows in front, and a door in the 
side with a balcony in front, shut off from the rest of 
the building, altogether much better accommodations 
than one generally finds. 

But there is nothing on the mud floor. After a while 
the attendant brings in a couple of pieces of reed mat- 
ting, and through the good offices of an Armenian we 
get a piece of carpet which with what we have does 
pretty well. But first the floor must be sprinkled not 
only to lay the dust but to rout out the fleas which are 
apt to be numerous in such places. Finally we get things 
to rights, food and provender are purchased for the 
morrow which is Sunday and about 9 p m. we get to btd. 

Sunday morning soon after prayers, I sally out into 
the bazar, taking with me a package of the tracts above 
mentioned. Handing one to a storekeeper, he tells me 
that he cannot read, but that a little way f uitheron there 
is a Mollah. Accordingly I hunt up the Mollah and 
hand him Rom. 6 : 25 : " The wages of sin is death 
but the gift of God," etc. He takes and reads it and 
then turns to me and asks what it means. 

I call his attention to the antitbesis that we can earn 
death but must receive eternal life as a free gift from 
God and that through Christ. To this he replies that 
Mussulmans do believe in Christ and accept Him not 
only as a prophet but as one of the great prophets, 
greater than all that preceded Him. To which I 
answer that He is more than a prophet and hand him 
John 14:16: "I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life : 
no man comelh unto the Father but by Me." 

This he will by no means accept. He is ready to al- 
low ttiat Jesus is an intercessor with God, but not that 
He is the only one. Jesus is a great prophet but Mo- 
hammed is a greater than He, and as those who came 
before testified to Jesus, so Jesus bore witness to Mo- 
hammed. Asking him for proof of this last statement, 
he refers to the passages in regard to the coming of the 
Comforter, and on showing him from Acts ist and 2d 
the fulfillment of the prophecy he begins to wax wrathy, 
and to fall back on the position that the Christians 
had corrupted the Gospel in order not to acknowledge 
the claims of Mohammed, that he believed in the Christ 
who had foretold the coming of Mohammed, but as to 
the Christ of whom I spoke His religion should be pulled 
up by the roots. 

Meanwhile a second Mollah, a man with mild eye and 
a pleasant expression of countenance, made his way 
through the crowd and rebuked the first Mollah for the 
expressions he was using, reminding him that Moham- 
med had spoken very highly of the Christian Scriptures, 
and had acknowledged them to be the Word of God. 

He then turned to me and evidently better versed in _ 
the Scriptures than the other Mollah, endeavored to I 
prove from them the claims of Mohammed. In the 
discussion which followed I had an opportunity of bring- 
ing out the radical differences of the two systems as re- ■ 
gard atonement and regeneration and the crowd listened 
eagerly to what 1 had to say. Going back through the 
bazar I distributed a number of Scripture texts. 

From that time on I was kept busy. Scarcely had I 
returned before callers began to arrive. .Among the 
first was a Mollah who, however, was very unwilling to 
speak and, when urged on by those around got up and left. 
Several of those who came were from Tabriz and they, 
as is generally the case, were especially friendly. J 

As I was talking after dinner with some visitors, a * 
young man came in and invited me to come and see his 
master. A little while after a second invitation came 
and, following the messenger, I was taken to one of the _ 
shops in the bazar, where I found a theological class of I 
some thirteen or fourteen young men gathered around a 
teacher. I soon found that the tone of this audience 
was a very different one from that of those I had met in I 
the morning, not only unsympathetic but hostile. On 
the one hand I had to listen to long-winded harangues 
on the part of the teacher, on the other, I was 
sure to be interrupted in my replies, both by 
teacher and scholars. Some of the topics discussed 
were those of the morning. As might be expected the J 
question of the Deity of Christ was soon brought up. ■ 
How could man be God ? Did God have a wife that 
Jesus should be his son, <:tc. ? It was easy to answer 
the second question by asking them in turn whether _ 
the devil had a wife, since he is spoken of as the father I 
of liars and murderers, that here as in other cases the 
term " Son " implied not physical derivation but moral 
resemblance, all those who God being Sons of 
God, and those who were like the devil, sons of the 

That we did not call Jesus God because he was the 
Son of God, but because he was the Word of God ; that 
as to his human nature that was as truly human as our 
own and was never confounded with that Divine nature J 
which he had from all eternity ; and that as' Divine and * 
human He and He alone was fitted, to be our mediator 
and intercessor. 

When 1 spoke of the sinlessncss of Christ, they re- 
plied that all the prophets were sinless, in this as in 
most other things following tradition rather than the 
Koran which clearly teaches the sins of Mohammed, _ 
David and Adam. I 

Adam they put almost on equality . with Christ. 
Towards the end of the discussion there was an im- 
provement in the tone of the audience and I went away. 
with the feeling that if I had accomplished nothing else'j 
I had done something in the way of removing misunder- 
standings. Walking along one of the streets which 
led outside the city, an old man beckoned to me. 

Seeing that I was a Frank he thought that I was a 

physician and wished to consult me in regard to his phy- 
sical ailments, and also to ask my advice as to whether 
it would be advisible for him to go to Russia where 
wages are higher than they are here. When, however, 
he knew what my work was, he very willingly sat down 
and listened to what I had to say to him on the neces- 
sity of preparing for another and more important jour- 
oey. la the evening several Armenians called for 
prayers and conversation. 

In the morning going through the bazar I found the 
friendly Mollah of the day before, and handing him John 
3:16 we had a conversation which drew around us a 
number of the passers by. Everywhere I was followed 
by a crowd at ray heels and many came asking for the 
Scripture texts. Among those who called at the cara- 
vanserai was one who said that he was going to the 
shrine of a holy man and wished to know whether I did 
not desire the benefit of his prayers. 

In the afternoon in taking a walk in one place a num- 
ber of men met me and asked me to come and talk with 
them. As they seemed rather a rough crowd I declined 
for the present and continued my walk. On my return, 
however, that way, I found them in the same place, an d 
as they were still urgent and had prepared a place in a 
barber's shop near by, I went in and took a seat. 

The place was filled immediately and a number stood 
around the door. Among those present was a Mollah 
and one of the theological students of the day before. 
The latter tried the tactics of the previous day by trying 
to interrupt me, but the crowd promptly stopped him 
and insisted on fair play. The Mollah was well dis- 
posed and I had an e.tcellent opportunity to deliver my 

MIssionarj Toarlng in Western China. 


rOn November uth, 1885, my arrangements for a trip 
having been made, I started from Chungking for Cheng- 
tu, the capital of Sze-chuen, three hundred and fifty 
miles northwest from Chungking. There are no cart- 
roads, and of course no carts nor wheeled vehicles of 
any kind in Eastern Sze-chuen. Traveling is confined 
to sedan chairs, horseback, or boats. On account of 
numerous rapids, it is best, when possible, to travel only 
down stream by boat. 

As regards the choice between horseback and sedan 
chairs, aside from the objection to riding up and down 
stone steps which lead over the mountains, the argument 
which I heard advanced by a German gentleman in favor 
of jin-ric-shas obtains. He was a resident of Shanghai 
and kept a jin-ric-sha and a jin-ric-sha cootie. He tatd 
that jta*ric-shas were a great boon, and that it was much 
better to keep a coolie than to keep a horse, because 

I when a horse died it was your loss, but when the coolie 
died it was his loss. 
You will remember that at Chungking we were 1,600 
miles from the coast, representing a journey of a month 

and a half from Shanghai. From Chungking to the cap- 
ital, the distance of 350 miles by land, requires by sedan 
chair a journey of ten or twelve days. I had engaged 
five coolies, three for my chair and two for my bedding, 
baggage. Scriptures and tracts, and in addition to these 
there was a head-coolie sent by the chair-hong, with 
which my contract was made. They were hired for the 
trip to Cheng-tu at 3,300 casA per man, say $2.50 per 
man for this walk of 350 miles, occupying nearly a half 
month ! 

During the first few miles after leaving Chungking the 
traveler passes through what may be known as the 
Chungking cemetery. The city being at the confluence 
of two rivers is confined on either side, and landward it 
is confined by this vast graveyard, which extends from 
river to river, and stretches on from the city wall to a 
distance of three or four miles. Though the whole 
ground has been buried over, the Chinese continue to- 
bury there, and in the street chapel I have heard ex- 
pressions of incredulity about the resurrection which 
seemed to be based on this cemetery. 

The Great Road that leads to the capital is of stone, 
about four feet wide, sufficient for the passing of chairs, 
and, with the exception of a stretch of about twenty 
miles, half way to the capital, it would be considered a 
fine road in any country. 

During its entire length one meets with numerous /at- 
Iffus, or memorial gateways, of elaborately carved stone 
and very graceful. After passing beyond the cemetery 
and beyond the fortified town of Fu-ton Kuad, situated 
on a picturesque knoll, we ascend the first ridge of 
mountains west of Chungking. 

The temple which we had occupied during the sum- 
mer, in order to escape the heat and foul air of the city, 
is situated in this ridge at a point called Ko-Io Shan, 
from which on a clear day may be seen on the right the 
Yang-tse winding in and oat among the hills, on the left 
the Chia-ling river, flowing between no less beautiful 
hills, but with straighter course as if hastening to meet 
the Yang-tse, and at the point where these two rivers 
meet Chungking, bright in the summer sunshine, though 
twelve miles away. 

Beyond the Yang-tse the mountains rise in range after 
range, until the dim blue outline of the seventh range is 
all but lost in the background of blue sky. The whole 
country is dotted over with cottages, whose white walls 
form a pleasing contrast with the green of the graceful 
bamboo groves among which they nestle. Attention has 
been called to the resemblance which these dwellings 
bear to the old English style of houses. " But distance 
lends enchantment to the view," and on nearer approach 
we find that the inhabitants of these cottages are justas 
dirty as their northern brethren. 

Passing over this first range of mountains and jour- 
neying on for four days through many market towns we 
reached Yung-chuan, the first city on the high road to 
the capital. The road had led through a very broken 
country, crossed at intervals of about sevctk. \£c\«:k Ni^i 


ranges, estimated by Mr. Baber as 1,000 feet above the 
general level. 

Though it was the middle of November our road car- 
ried us through orange groves ladened with their golden 
fruit, which was readily purchased for a little copper. 
These delicious Mandarin oranges sold ten for a cent. 
As there is a large exportation from the province of the 
orange-peel for flavoring and medicinal purposes, the 
orange-peel is reckoned as valuable as the orange, and in 
Chungking during the fruit season the market price is 
two cash for the orange and peel, or one cask for the 
orange without peel. 

On the road from Chungking to the capital there are 
over a score of large market towns and cities. At Yu- 
ting-pu we are about eighty miles from Chungking and 
from this point on to Tzu-chou, say a distance of one 
hundred miles, is a thickly peopled district. Salt 
abounds, the principal wells being at Tzu-liu-ching, a 
few days' journey from the main road, where some of 
the wells are bored to a depth of more than 2,000 feet. 

The salt industry is a Government monopoly, and is 
the source of great revenue. Many of the largest boats 
on the upper Yang-tse are salt junks. The Lu-chou 
river serves to carry the salt right from the district where 
it is produced down to Lu-chou, and thence it is carried 
on down the Yang-tse. The district embraced within 
this one hundred miles is a manufacturing district. Iron 
and coal abound, and Yung-chuan, Jung-chang and 
Nei-chiang are thriving manufacturing towns. Coolies 
and cows, both shod with straw sandals to keep from 
slipping, were constantly met carrying various articles of 
iron-ware to the Lu-chou river for shipment. 

Beyond Tzu-chou we entered a district devoted to the 
cultivation of sugar. As far as eye could reach were 
vast stretches of sugar cane of luxuriant growth, reach- 
ing a height of eight or ten feet. The method of pro- 
ducing sugar is so crude, however, that it is inferior in 
quality and more expensive than foreign sugar. 

As I journeyed along from day to day I met with ex- 
cellent sales of Gospels and tracts which I had brought 
with me. The price charged for our books is less than 
the cost of production, and the nominal sum asked is to 
prevent, so far as possible, their aimless acceptance and 

My supply of books and sheet tracts on opium could 
have been easily exhausted, but I retained a part of it 
for Cheng-tu and the country beyond. Seventeen miles 
beyond Chien-chou, the largest city between Chungking 
and Cheng-tu, the last range of mountains between the 
two cities is crossed. The highest point of the road is 
2,400 feet above Chungking, or 3,200 feet above the sea 
level. From the highest point the view is very striking; 
as you look back you see the broken country through 
which you have been passing, and looking forward may 
be seen the Cheng-tu plain, 1,500 feet below. 

Stopping for the night at Lung-chuan-yi, a place at 
the foot of the mountains and starting out early next 
motMng, by ten o'clock in the morning of November 

26, twelve days after leaving Chungking, I reached the ■ 
eastern suburb of Cheng-tu, and an hour later was \ 
within the city walls. Cheng-tu, meaning Perfect Cap- 
ital, has a population of 350,000 souls. Cheng-tu re- 
minds me of Peking in its general plan. But there is 
this delightful exception that the streets though not so 
wide as the streets of Peking are paved from curb trt 
curb and are clean. There are a few badly kept streets 
along the city wait, but the principal streets are as well 
kept as those of our best cities in the United States- 

With the exception of Chi-nan-fu in the province of 
Shantung, I have seen no city in China that will bear 
comparison with Cheng-tu. I walked about its walls, 
which are kept in good repair, and whose circuit ia ■ 
twelve mites, and daily about its streets finding a ready 
sale for ray books. Even here in the extreme west of 
China, two and a half months by water from Shanghai, 
many articles of foreign manufacture are displayed. I . 
bought ready-made a camp-stool of the most approved I 
foreign pattern. I also bought for twenty cents per 
pound butter in the skins in which it had been churned 
by the Tibetans, who carry it to Sung-pan-ting, a place 
near the Tibetan frontier. 

Cheng-tu is historically known as having been the 
capital of Liu-pei, and vestiges of a palace built by 
him about 222 a. d., are said to still exist on the site 
of the present examination hall. 

Cheng-tu lies in the midst of a plain of the same 
name, and the Cheng-tu plain may justly be considered 
one of the most popular portions of the globe. It is 
about forty miles wide and eighty miles long, and fairly 
teams with life. Within a radius of thirty miles of 
Cheng-tu are fifteen walled cities, and between these 
cities many large market-towns and villages, so that the 
plain may be considered almost one vast city. 

Forty miles northwest of Cheng-tu is Kuan-hsien, a 
city which is at the limit of Chinese civilization. Be- 
yond this the hill-tribes begin, and the officials will not 
be responsible for the salety of the traveler. Indeed I 
Kuan-hsien itself is not considered a place of safely, 
and just before my visit to Cheng-tu a band from the 
hill-tribes had swept down upon the place and made 
away with a good share of plunder. 

The members of the China Inland Mission are the 
only Protestant Missionaries in Cheng-tu. They have 
been carrying on daily preaching and a dispensary- 
work, and entertain targe numbers ol visitors. When I 
was in Cheng-tu only two men were at the station, and no 
attempt had been made to work the surrounding countr)'. 
The ladies were successfully conducting a girls' school. 

Cheng-tu is the geographical center for mission work 
among perhaps sixteen million souls, and the field as 
yet is almost entirely unoccupied. The Cheng-tu plain 
is cut up by a net work of streams of pure water from 
the mountains, twenty miles away. One of these 
streams passes through the city, which is not completely 
built, and in which property for mission purposes can 
probably be readily secured. 



My return trip to Chungking was down the river 
knojra on the maps as Mo, but by the natives as the 
Ku, to Chia-ting-fa, a city of 25,020 inhabitants, situated 
at the junction of three large rivers, the Fu, the Ya, and 
the Tung. Not far from Cnia ting is the famous Mount 
Oiiii, where under certain conditions a rainbow appear- 
ance is seen icnown as the "Glory of Buddha." I did 
not have time to visit the mountain, but I saw foot-sore 
pilgrims from distant Mo.igolii with their faces set 
toward Mount Omi. 

Ttis Tung river is not navigable above Chia-ting-fu 
except for rafts, and even for rafts the navigation is so 
dangerous that employers give a writtei contract to em- 
p'oyees, who are starting down with a raft of logs, to 
provide thim with coffins in case of fatal accidents. 
Even beloff Chia-ting-fu we were shooting rapids 50 
constantly, that I found it impossible to write. It is 
proper to state here that the rapids vary with the con- 
dition of the river and the relative height of water. 

Reaching Sui-fu, at the junction of the Yang-tse and 
Min rivars, I readily disposed of my remaining Gospels 
and tracts, and dropping in at the Yang-tse, in fourdays 
was at my home in Chungking, 

The return trip from the capital occjpied ten days, 
and th; entire cojntry through which I pa4sed with its 
millions of souls, is without a single representative of 
Protestant Christianity. 

Dedicatioa at Perugia, Italy. 


r Perugia, midway between Florence and Rome, is 
on; of the most delightful of the minor cities of Itily. 
It is indeed a "city set on a hitl;" enthroned on its lofty 
eminence, it shines like an aerial city, remarkable for 
beauty from every point of approach, and as first among 
those that— 
" Like an eagle's nest, hang on the creit 
Of purple Appenine." 

From its wills the nikel eye swieps away forty 
miles in almost every direction, over hills and valleys 
dotted over with picturesque hamlets and villages. Its 
cool and airy heights, with its other charms, make it a 
favorite summer resort, especially for foreigners residing 
to luly. 

This was the archiepiscopal seat of Leo XIII. for 
many years prior to his elevation to the Papal See. Re- 
peatedly, in its history, has it seen its cKief ecclesiastic 
advanced to the Pontifical throne. Before the inception 
of our mission the Waldensians sent thither one of their 
ablest men; endeavoring to establish a church there, but 
soon after abandoned the held. 

Several years ago we occupied it and from the 
were graciously favored with a fair measure of .success. 
Though our actual membership is not large, it embraces 
some of the choicest trophies of our Italian work; besides 
during these years many have been converted and received 
into the church, numbers thence going elsewhere, often 
to strengthen other congregations, and not a few after a 
godly lite and a good testimony passing to their final 

" Our people," in Italy also " die well." .\mong these 
last was Filippo Perfetti, a distinguished author and 
Professor of the University of Perugia, whose widow is 
itill a member. The first effective and perhaps most 
successful work there was done by our very scholarly and 
brilliant writer, Dr. Caporali. 

Our work has suffered incalculable detriment how- 

ever, from the want of a suitable place of worship. Since 
beginning we have occupied five different places, each 
less available than the others. What wonder if the fruith 
of our labor sift through our hands away from us, in 
spite of our best endeavors, amid so many buffeting winds 
and contrary forces ! 

Finally last fall the Missionary Society enabled us 
to purchase an excellent property, well situated, near the 
chief thoroughfare, it is but a few yards from the atchi- 
episcopal palace. From the Belvedere of our four story 
building, the Methodist pastor looks straight into the 
vine clad bower, on the house-top, where the arch-bishop 
walks daily, and may easily talk with him across the nar- 
row intervening chasm, in a natural voice — at least with- 
out at all transgressing the disciplinary rule against 
*' speaking too loud ! " 

By provision of our .society, a chapel has been con- 
structed within this building, embracing a large part of 
the ground and second floors; above is a very comfort- 
able parsonage, and a small apartment to rent besides. 
The chapel is not large, nor richly finished; but is in 
excellent taste, beautiful in its simplicity and severe ele- 
gance, and architecturally harmonious and impressive. 

The acoustic qualities are exoellent, the minister 
speaks from a small and graceful apse, and on the wall 
above the arch are in golden tetters : " God is Love." 
The ceiling and walls are sparingly gemmed with some 
of the beautiful Christian monograms from the Cata- 
combs of Rome. The pulpit and altar railing are of 
beautiful, solid black walnut, and the platform is faced 
about with Assisi marble. 

This comely chapel will prove an everyway credita- 
ble and serviceable center for our soul saving work in 
Perugia. It is a place of worship to command the re- 
spect and sympathetic interest of all Protestants whether 
native or foreign. 

We dedicated this very eligible chapel Nov. 6th, 
to the service of Almighty God, '" for the reading of the 
Holy Scriptures, the preaching of the word of God, the 
administration of the Holy Sacraments, and for all other 
exercises of religious worship and service, according to 
the Discipline and usages of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church." The occasion was impressive and epochal for 
our cause in the city. Meetings were held during the 
following week every evening. Dr. Gay, of Rome, com- 
ing to our assistance. The services and attendance have 
been very gratifying and we trust the results may be last- 
ing and blessed. The Church has been much revived 
and a number awakened. 

The front of our edifice, unmodified by the recent 
adaptations, is highly prized by the Municipality for its 
architectural style and merits. The doors and windows 
are chastely dressed in cut stone, and broad lines of the 
same demarcate distinctly the different floors. Upon 
this stone work, of the first and second stories, is en- 
graved across the whole front and over the door, in large 
letters, an old inscription, which we here present as an 
exercise to our young Latinists; 
Bono probari Malo quam, Multis malis Minor ke, 


Perugia, with the overflow about its gates crowding 
down glacier-like toward the plain, numbers some forty 
thousand souls. It is in the midst of a highly cultivated 
and mist interesting country. The people are kind- 
hearted, fairly intelligent, steady-going, industrious and 
frugal. Ours is the only Protestant Church in all this 
broad region between Florence and Rome, to disseminate 
the Gospel and to care for the souls of the people. 

* Some claim this divtt should be vivtU 




iBlontljlp Coiuert 

■EXIca U tho tnhjrrt of the nUalonary Concert 
for niarcfa. 


Prat for Mexico. 
I^ay that the Oovemmetit may continve to give protection 
io Prote$tavt Missionaries. Pray that the Superstition of the 
Bsopie may give place to the Truth of the Qonpfl. Pray that 
our Missionaries may be^ncouraged by seeing viany souls con- 
verted. Pray that tlie Bible may be read and believed. Pray 
for the speedy Conversion of the People. 

A Missionary Tour in Mexico, 


We desire, with your permission, to take your readers 
with us on a missionary tour of nearly three hundred 
miles on horse-back, in the very heart of tho Sierras. 
For some time this trip had been in contemplation, but 
the pressure upon the time of the Presiding Elder of 
this district, had made it uncertain when it should be. 
At last, December ist was decided upon, and we made 
preparation for the journey. 

It was our intention to start al sun-rise on that day, 
but owing to ihe unavoidable delay of one of our party, 
we were unable to carry out our intention. But the 
morning train braught our man, and we started in (he 
afternoon. The party consisted of Rev. S. W. Siberts, Ph. 
D., Presiding Elder of the Central District, Rev. L. C. 
Smith, pastor of Tulancingo, myself and a »Joso,oTfervant. 
Three of us were on horseback, and the mozo on 
foot. A mozo is a necessity to all travelers in Mexico, 
and especially for missionaries. Traveling in this 
country is different to £ny other ccuntry we have ever 
seen or heard of. The meson, or place where yourself 
and hor.'e rest for the night, is an entirely separate place 
from the fotida, or restaurant where (he meals are 
taken. In some villages there is neither meson or 
Fonda, and the mozo has to find one place for 
the traveler to eat, another for him to steep, and still 
another for his horse. None of the mesons have a host- 
ler, as it is the universal custcm for travelers to provide 
their own. 

The reasons for this are various. Where there are no 
mesons, all the provender for the horse has to be sought 
for by the mozo, and sometimes this is a serious task. 
But the principal reason is to guard against thieves. 

At one o'clock we were in motion. A ride of one 
lour and and a half brought us to Real del Monte, the 
highest point of our journey. This is one of the oldest 
and most important mining towns in the Republic, and 
is situated on top of a mountain, at an elevation of ten 
thousand feet. Its population is almost eight thousand. 
Many of its mines were worked by the Aztecs before the 
Spanish Conquest, and are still rich in silver ore, mainly 
blackish silver sulphides. Here we have a pretty little 
chapel, and a small society. 


Our mozo had gone on afoot to make preparation for 
our first night at Atotonilca El Yrande, a distance of 
twenty-five miles from Pachuca. Atotonilca has a pop- 
ulation of five thousand, and is situated on an extensive 
plain, with a beautiful climate ; but it is a very fanatical 
place. We have never been able to open work here, 
though many attempts have been made. But we intend 
to try again. 

The mozo left Pachuca about half an hour before 
us, and was awaiting our arrival at six o'clock. One 
of the most astonishing things is the speed and en- 
durance of these Mexicans. Though they go afoot, a 
first-class horse has no cJiance with them. Our mozo, 
day after day, would make the longest journeys in sev- 
eral hours less time than we could, and we were all well 

But I must detain you a moment with a description 
of our meson in Atotonilca. It is an adobe building, of 
no particular shape, and covers almost half an acre. It ■ 
is surrounded by a wall twelve feet high, for protection. 
Al! the rooms face the mnti pa/io, or yard. The stables 
and the sleeping rooms are an indiscriminate mass, and 
almost the only difference cbsttvable is, a rough un- 
painted door almtst two irches thick in the rctm, ar.d a 
manger in the stable. The one is as respectable as the 
other. Most of the room floors are nothing more than 
mother earth. A window in a room, or even a solitary 
piece of gl^ss for light or ventilation, is an unheard of 
thing in a Mexican meson. Everything is built with a 
view to safety. 

1 never in my life put any horse I evtrcwned into aj 
more uninvitirg place than the rooms provided in a| 
meson. After we had secured our room, for wc all slept 
in the same one, and had made provision for our horses, 
we set out to find our supper. Our fonda was a nn d 
building, perhaps twelve by eighteen feet. It served ll eJ 
purpose of a kitchen, sleeping and living room for a 
numerous family, dining room for the traveling piblic, 
a pulque shop, a general store, and any other require- 
ment necessity put upon it. 

But We were hungry, and asked no que&tions it out 
our food or surroundings, nevertheless it was our unan- 
imous opinion that we fared well. Next morning at 
half past three we were io the saddle without brea kfpit. 
This day's journey was the longest, and most tedious 
division of our trip, and had to be made in a day, as 
there was no place to stop over night nearer than ZecuaU 

By daylight we were fifteen or twenty miles away, al 
the edge of the great ^arra«ira, a valley two thousand 
feet deep, and at this point twenty miles wide. This 
barranca is one cf the roost wonderful things in Mexico, 
or on the globe. By some stupendous convulsion of ■ 
nature this enormous hole has been hewn in the plain. It 
is sixty miles long, two thousand feet deep, with a width 
varj'ing from six to forty miles. Both ends abut 
against mountains, and though a river of considerable 
size runs through it, it has no visible outlet. 


We had descended several thousand feet from Real 
<lel Monte, and now we had to descend two thousand 
TOore, and when we reached the bottom, we should be in 
the Sierra Caliente, or hot country. The road down the 
side is very rough, as it is nothing more than a moun- 
tain path, narrow and zizzag, made in part by the heavy 
rains of the summer. 

We soon found out that to ride down was dangerous. 
Our mozo said it was "muy pedrigoso," that is very 
stony. It was six miles to the bottom, but there w^as no 
alternative, we must dismount and take it afoot, leading 
our horses after us. The lower we descended the hotter 
It became, and we had to take off our coats and vests, 
tie thetn to the saddle and make the best of it. We 
have DO idei whit is the temperature at the bottom, but 
we were warmed to fever heat, and somewhat wilted 
from the exercise and the scorching rays of the sun. 
Nat a breath of air was stirring, and the atmosphere was 
!ike an oven. By the river side is a small village of six 
or eight houses called Los Venados. 

The houses are made of sugar cane, and thatched 
with grass. It was now half past nine o'clock, and we 
tried to get breakfast, but in vain, for it was very doubt- 
ful if there was food enough by joining all their forces 
to feed so large a party as four. So we mounted our 
horses and be^an the ascent of the other side. At this 
point the harranca is about the shape of a capital W. 
We ascended the middle barrier up a steep and winding 
puhway, and went down fifteen hundred feet into the 
second valley, a distance of twelve or fifteen miles, to a 
small village called Mtlpillas. 

Here about nooo we found breakfast for ourselves, 
and provender for our horses. I need not describe this 
fonda, for it was indescribably dirty. Added to the 
soi^ke and smell of cooking in a small room, with the 
sun scorching hot, th^ place served as a butcher's 
slaughter hojse and shop. Two dead pigs hung in the 
door way, and one was being killed and cleaned in 
front. The cook looked as though she had not washed 
herself or clothing in a year, and in sober truth, it is 
dsubtful if she had. But a few months in Mexico 
spoils the novelty of these things. 

It was now afternoon, and we had to climb the last 
side of this double harranca, as our next place was four 
thousand feet above us, and fifteen miles away. Ze- 
cualtipan is a town of eight thousand people, and is the 
centre of a large iron and tanning industry. Here we have 
a sm ill society and congregation, under the care of a na- 
tive pistor. We arrived in time for service that evening. 

In this town we fared weil, for the people are liberal 
in their ideas, and, moreover, it has the most respectable 
meson we have so far seen in Mexico. The Presiding 
Elder preached to a house full of people, who listened 
jttentively to the Gospel. Here we changed our horses, 
and added the native pastor to our number- for the bal- 
ance of the journey. Early next morning we were in 
the saddle, as we had a long journey before us, over a 
road, the like of which I never saw. 


Down two or three thousand feet, up two or three 
thousand feet ; and up and down we went, hour after 
hour. Our " Canino Real," or king's highway, led over 
high mountains, round the edge of precipices two or _ 
three thousand feet below us, through rivers, and I 
through little villages whose people seldom see a white 
man. The horse I rode was a refractory mustang, who 
showed his contempt for me, by trying to throw me oC 
in every conceivable way. But he failed. 

We rested at a village called Malila, beautiful for 
situation, and tried to buy oranges, which grew here In 
great profusion. We were offered all we needed far 
six cents, but though this was the principal store of the 
town, the laly who kept it, could not give us change for ■ 
ten cents. We hid to give hsr the ten cent piece, aiy d * 
she gave us mjre oranges than we could eat, or carry 
away with us in the pockets of oursaddles. Fortunate- J 
ly we had lunch put up bifore we left Zecualtipan, or we 
should have had tj fist till night, for there was noplace 
where we could buy anything to eat, except fruit; but fl 
our provision, and the mountain stream, which we ' 
Upped like Gideon's army, saved us from hunger and 

Tne point we desired to reach thit day was Molango 
a town of five thousand people. The road we were 
traveling was up a steep mountain. Before us, on top, 
was an open space which one of our party siid was "La 
puerta de Molango," the door of MoUngo. When this ■ 
point is reached, the vjlley and town of Molango burst 
upon you instantly. We have no idea what is the dis- 
tance from the top of the mountain to the village, but k 
seemed almost fifteen hundred feet. From " La puerta. 
de M jlango," the village appeared to be built upon a 
level plain. 

Two beautiful lakes rested peacefully, apparently 
only a few yards from the centre of the town. But when 
the village is reached you discover that there is no plain^ 
it is built upon the hillside, there is scarcely a foot ot 
level ground on yoursupp jsed plain, the lakes are nearly 
a thousand feet below you, and two miles away. 

Brother Smith preached that night to a congregatios 
of fourteen people, and we thought we had a large con- 
gregation, for it is a v>ery fanatical place. But though 
our number was small, good was done, for on our re- 
turn we had more than twice that number ; and many 
were desirious to know more of us and of our doctrine^ 
and sought us for religious conversation. We sowed the 
good seed, and trust it will bring forth an abundant har- 
vest in Jesus' name. 

One of our greatest difficulties in towns like this is^ 
the priests tell the people the most ridiculous lies about 
us. At one place it was said that we were after little 
children, which we killed and ate. At another, they 
said we killed them, and baked J;hem for the fat ta 
grease our steam engines. Railroads and steam engines 
are regarded by the people in these out of the way 
places with dread and hatred ; they think they are Pro- 
testant inventions to carry them off a-tvA W\Vvx.S\cww. Vvass^ 



have never seen them, and consequently have the queer- 
est ideas of them. Many of them have never seen a 
wheeled vehicle of any kit d, and are actually afraid of 

Our next halting place was Caluali. Here we receivt d 
a royal reception. The town has a population of two 
thousand, and is well down toward tf e Gulf. The cli- 
inate is that of the Sierra Caliente, and is so soft and 
mild that in a thousand years one would not need an 
overcoat of any kind. Caluali is a beautifully located 
village, and one of the most liberal in the Republic.' 
Such a climate in a civilized land would make the fortune 
•f every man and woman in it, as a sanitarium for in- 

The thermometer, if there was ever such a thing there, 
does not charge five degrees in a year. The air is so 
soft and healing, that you can sleep in the open air, win- 
ter or summer, without inconvenience. Every kind of 
tropical fruit is found here. Oranges grow in such pro- 
fusion as to be absolutely useless as merchsrdise. 1 he 
plaza is an orange grove whose dark green leaves 
and yellow fruit, make a pleasing scene. Here are ba- 
nanas, whose broad and feathery leaves spread out in 
graceful curves. Here are pine-apples, figs, mingos 
aod fruits of great variety. 

As soon as we reached the center of the town wc re- 
ported our presence to the Prtstditile Municipal. He 
at once ordered the soldiers to take charge of our 
horses, and make ready the school house for service. 
All our belongings were placed in his office for safe keep- 
ing, and here, he had erected four beds for our accom- 
modation. Two soldiers were detailed as our special 
guard who watched over us till morning. 

Caluali has no meson or fonda, and the mozo set 
out to find a place for us to eat. After a little search, a 
lady offered to furnish us with supper and breakfast. 
I must detain you with a description of our evening 
meal. The house was made of sugar-rane, size about 
twelve by sixteen, the floor of mother earth. There 
was but one chair, which we gave to the Presiding Elder, 
the rest of us sat or kneeled on the floor. 

The table was a rough board against the wall. Our 
fare was fried salt meat cut up in strips like ropes, and 
tortillas, or cakes of corn ground by the lady of the 
house on a Mexican mill, called a " Mataii" and patted 
out between her hands as thin as they can be made, 
and then baked on an earthenware platter, called a 
*• Comal." They have no more taste than a chip, but are 
hearty food nevertheless. 

There was neither knife, fork or spoon visible^ and 
only one plate on the table, and that held the meat. We 
took our meat in our hands, and using our teeth for 
knife and fork, went to work with a will. Supper over 
we returned to the plaea, on which was situated the 
municipal buildings and school house. There were 
gathered a large number of people discussing the situa- 

So rapidly had the news of our arrival spread, that 

a great many were in frcm the outside cf tfetcnn cb 
horseback. We entered the school hoLse and ccm- 
menced to sing. Soon over 200 people had crowded in. 
Senor Espinoza, the pastor of Zecualtipan preached, 
followed by Rev. L. C. Smith and the presiding elder. 
The congregation was attentive and respectful, and 
impressions for good were made. An appointment for 
February was left, to the apparent delight of all as- 

It was late in the night when we broke up the nipet- 
ing, and retired to cur riom. It was said (hat there was 
not a man of influence in the town, who was not present 
at the service. Next morning when we were ready t€» 
depart, one of the principal men sent us cur breakfast 
of sweet bread and ccffee. Such a thing had never 
occurred in Caluali in all its history. 

On our way back we passed through the large Indian 
village of Aguacatlan. Its inhabitants, of wbcm there 
are about i,sco, are pure Aztecs, and speak the Aztec 
language as their fathers did a thousand years ago. 
The houses are of the most prinnli\e kind, irade of 
corn-stalks, or sugar-cane, and thatched with grass. 
Most of them are set up en poles ieveral feet from the 
ground, this is also true of iheir pig-pens, and is a neces- 
sity to protect them frcm the panthers, tears, and other 
animals that prowl rcund in the night. 

At Coulepec we carre near havinjj a serious tiire. 
It was about noon, and Bro. Smith thought be might get 
us something to eat. On enquiring, an Indian woman 
sold him some '' tamales," ov Indian corn ground, mixed 
with " chiis," a fiery red pepper, and boiled in lard. He 
had paid her six cents for all she could spare, and as we 
were ready to start, handed her a copy of cur psper. 
*« El Abogado Christiano Illustrado." 

But no sooner did she find out that we were Protes- 
tants, and had given her Protestant irorey, and a Prot- 
estant paper, than she refused both. After a few 
moments we moved on, but we had not gone far, when 
an Indian cime running after us, With ft hat intenticn 
we knew not, but he w£s very much excited. After a 
little persuasion he took the paper and departed. 

But before we were aware of it, he stood beside n.j 
horse with a knife in his hand whose blade was twelve 
inches long. We saw at once that he meant mischief, 
and we had to remember "that a soft answer turnetb 
away wrath," Soon others appeared on the scene, anel 
for a few moments it looked as though we should have 
to defend ourselves. But by kind words we tranaged 
to escape, with no further damage than a few hard and 
unmentionable names. 

As we were ascending the mcuntain rut of the vil- 
lage, we heard the church bell ringing violently, and 
the native preacher said, it was rung to call the people 
together, to see what was best to be done with us. 
Whether this is so or rot we have no means of knowing. 
If they had pursued us we could not have got away from 
them, for in that mountain region they could catch any 






On our return to Molango, we had service* in which 
a1] took part. Our congregation numbered over thirty. 
We also held service at Zecualtipan on our return to that 
place. Our congregation filled the house. We were 
well repaid for our journey, for we had preached to 
strange and needy people, whom if the Gospel does not 
help, their case is sad. 

Romanism has crushed them to the earth. Their 
clothing is of the scantiest kind, more than half their 
persons are uncovered. Their morals are indescribable. 
They break all the cormnandments without a scruple. 
In their tastes and aspirations, they are but litt'e better 
than beasts, Their homes are like cattle pens, filthy 
beyond conception. Their bed is the floor. 

They never change their cbthing as long as a rag 
holds together. Two dollars will clothe a large family, 
and when once they put their clothing on, it is never 
removed till it falls ofil in rags. How wretchedly they 
contrast with the sublime scenery amidst which they 
live. It has been a favorite doctrine in some quarters 
that the contemplation of nature is beneficial to the 
morals of the spectator. And of late years, poets and 
philosophers have insisted upon the power of scenery to 
favorably modify character. Indeed they would substi- 
tute it for the Gospel. 

But here man and nature are the very opposites. 
Nature is rich, man is poor; nature is clean, man is 
Altby; nature is happy, man is miserable; nature is gen- 
erous to prodigality, man is selfish; nature is law abid- 
ing, man is lawless. If there is anything in this theory, 
then these people ought to be among the best people in 
the world. The scenery through which we passed was 
magnificent. Here were mountains standing up eight 
to ten thousand feet above the sea, and there were val- 
leys from three to five thousand feet deep, stretching 
out as far as eye could reach. 

At any time the tops of hundreds of mountains were 
in sight, all clothed with heavy forests and tropical ver- 
dure, matted and tangled in hopeless confusion. 

Along the rivers and streams, the abundance of vege- 
tation made the landscape fantastic and beautiful. The 
banks are steep, in some instances thousands of feet 
high, and approach near to each other, the valleys being 
narrow, but may be cultivated to the very top. Here 
grows to the height of 200 feet, the evergreen pine; 
there is the velvet foliage of the magnolia, the graceful 
branches of the cotton-wood, and the targe fan-shaped 
leaves of the pal]i], interlocking each other in graceful 
rivalry, and forming a beautiful picture of nature in her 
wild grandeur. 

Vines and creepers of various kinds festoon the trees, 
brilliant-hued leaves and flowers adorn the landscape; 
wild roses, honeysuckle and jasmine give a pleasant fra- 
gracce to theair, and amid this dense foliage and prodi- 
gality, birds of gorgeous plumage and sweet note, flit 
and sparkle like jewels, and sing their lives away. 
Surely here it may be said: 

" Every prospect pleases 
And only man is vile." 

At Zecuahipan we were nearly a hundred miles from 
home, a fearful road to travel, and the presiding elder 
sick from exposure to the sun, and the miserable food 
we had to eat. And moreover we had been unable to 
perform our morning ablutions for some days, the peo- 
ple here never think of it. When we last washed, it was 
in a soup-plate which had been used in our room for a 

Before daylight next morning we pushed forward over 
the mountains, through the harranca, and over the plain 
to Atotonilca El Grande, where we spent the night. 
Next morning between two and three o'clock, we were 
up and off for home, and just as day was breaking we 
reached Real del Monte, on the top of the highest 
range of mountains in Hidalgo. The view that met our 
vision will never be forgotten. The atmosphere was so 
clear that the eye swept the horizon south and west for 
nearly 200 miles. Mountain and plain lay out before 
us like a map. A thin gauze-like mist served to remind 
us that it was not yet day-light on the plain. 

Grand old Tztaccihuati, a hundred miles away in a 
bee line, towering up nearly 20,000 feet in the air, snow 
crowned, and flashing back the only visible rays of the 
sun, was the center of the landscape. Right in front, 
and reclining on the distant sky, was the southern cross 
paling before the march of the sun. Our hearts fairly 
thrilled at the view before us, and the words of the poet 
came to our mind: 

" These are thy works. Parent of Good, 
This 1'hy universal frame, 
Thyself how wondrous then,'' 

Two hours more, and we were washed, clothed, ant 
seated at our own table, enjoying the only meal worthy 
of the name for over a week. We had held seven ser- 
vices, had preached the Gospel to scores who had never 
heard it before, we had rode over 200 miles on horse- 
back and walked about fifty in a tropical sun. 

PathucOy Mexico. 

Housekeeping in tllie City of Mexico. 

Housekeeping is attended with a good many per- 
plexities here, when judged by our standard. In the 
first place "a maid of all work" is a thing unknown. 
The houses are all built with an open court in the cen- 
ter. This court or patio is paved, and often contains a 
little fountain, surrounded by beds of flowers. Sur- 
rounding this court on the lower floor are the servants' 
rooms and the stables for the horsei. 

A porter is a necessity. He has charge of the great 
front door, sweeps the court, trims the lamps, runs the 
errands, and watersthe street in front of the house. He 
is paid three dollars per week and " finds himself." A 
cook is the next necessary servant. She is paid two 
dollars per week. She is expected to do all the family 
marketing, as it is not considered proper for the mistress 
to do it. The bread is all bought at the bakeries, and 
the washing is also an extra^ and \% d'Ci"5\t -aN. >J^t -^n^^^^ 

tanks. A chambermaid is also con- 
sidered necessary, but in small fami- 
lies she is willinET to wait on the table. 
Her wages are the same as the cook's. 
Wealthy families have a great num- 
ber of servants, each child having a 
separate nurse. All cooking is done 
over small charcoal stoves. As Mex- 
ico stretches over three zones, fruits 
and vegetables of all kinds can al- 
ways be obtained. The market place 
is south of the national palace. Here 
you see men, women and children 
sitting on the flags of the market- 
place, with fruits and vegetables 
spread out around them. 

Fruits are very cheap. A fine pine- 
apple can be obtained for a media (6 
cents). Bananas are ten cents a doz- 
en. Musk-melons cost one real {\2\ 
cents) for three. Limes, lemons and 
oranges are plentiful and cheap. 
Beef is plentiful and good, but the 
mutton is superior, while pork is 
scarce and dear. There are some 
excellent fish brought from the Gulf 
of Mexico. 

Groceries are very high. Tea is 
i3 50 per pound. Good butter is one 
ollar per pound. Milk is 20 cents 
per quart, and sugar 14 cents a pound, 
although a native product. The best 
coffee in the world is raised here, 
and can be bought for 50 cents a 
pound. The chocolate is very fine, 
but it is all flavored with cinnamon. 

The vegetables are raised on the 
"chinampas." or floating gardens, 
and brought to the city by the Vega 
canal. Flowers are raised in great 
profusion, and are cheaper than any- 
where else on earth, I bought a 
bouquet of roses containing 250 roses 
for three reah, or 37 cents. The re- 
staurants here are very good, but 
they have a way of cooking onions 
with all other vegetables that is not 
palatable to an American palate. — 
Good Housekeeping. 

" Sdkdat in some parts of Mexico is 
the great market day. The market-plftce 
of each town is crowded with people from 
the surriiunilinp countrv who seJl their 
manufactures of ponchos, lilauket.'f, sh<>e9, 
and hatfl. and then with the money they 
jjet for tbesethings they buy cocoa, cotton 
goods, etc. They never fail to fjo to mass 
at the Roman churches, and after they %q 
awav from church they get beastly 

IHvKteo and Its Peopl«. 


("Uncle Charles," rficeoUr returned from an 
(Mtended tour in Meziooand Houtb America, olTers 
to ^i« his Ave Depben, Arthur, Rof, Eitwaid, 
Richard, and Hal, nome nuninJaceocee of his ex- 
peripDoc!) in Mexico, provided ibpy will drat eol- 
Irct fnr theinnelveii all the Infunuation tbey can 
fommand on the subject, At their next meeting 
the roUowioK dialogue easuee :) 

Uncle Chables.— " Well, Edward, my 
boy, what have you to tell ua of the size 
and Renerai features of this great coun- 
try that claims now to be our ' sister re- 
public,' after itn many and varied expe* 
riences of Empireship?" 

EowARD—'Ifind, uncle, thatthe total 
area is 769.804 square miles : the great 
mass of which consists of an elevated 
plateau, formed by an expansion of the 
Cordilleras of Central America, from 
which terraced slopes deiscend with an 
inclination more or less rapid, toward 
the Atlantic on the east, and the Pacific 
on the west. This vast tract extends 
from 18° to 83" of north latitude— com- 
prislpg one of the richest and most va- 
ried zones in the world. Its geographi- 
cal position secures for it a tropical vege. 
tation, and the rapid differences of ele- 
vation give it all the advantages of 
temperate climates, in which European 
fauna and flora can come to perfection." 

Rot.—" How high above the sea level 
are the table lands of Mexico ? " 

Edward.— " From 5.000 to 9,000 feet. 
and they are said to vary quite as much 
in their respective levels and in the qual- 
ity of their soil. They generally incline 
northward, and are for the most part girt 
in by low mountain chains." 

Unclk. — ' ' That is the rule ; but among 
these loxttr mountairi ranges, rise indi- 
vidual lofty peaks ; as the CofTre de Pe- 
rote, which is 13,400 feet high ; Orizaba, 
17,370 feet, and many others. They are 
intersected, too, by yet higher ranges, 
above wliich tower a few cones, as Mac- 
ciknntt, or the 'white woman,' 1.5,700 
feet high, nnd the volcano of Popoc^i/a- 
petl, the 'Smoking Mountain,' that wears 
its snowy cap 17,B80 feet above the sea 
level. There aie also found occasional 
isolated volcanoes, as that of Jorulla, by 
which, in 1769, a surface of many square 
miles was raised several feet above the 
level of the plain, and in fact ©very part 
of the Me.\ican territory betrays the vol- 
canic nature of its formation, although 
neither earthquakes nor volcanic enip- 
tioDB have been at all freqtient of late 
years. What can you tell us, Richard, 
nf the iKtpulalioD of Mexico?" 

RicBARD. — "The poputatiim atthelast 
censuB was. in round numbers, ^..^O,- 
000, of whom about one-third are Indians, 
indigenous to the country ; about one- 
sixth are Europeans and their descend- 
ants, and the remainder are of mixed 

races, or Mestizoes, many of whom are io 
part descended from negroes." ■ 

Hal — " What is the national langiuge ■ 
of the country and what the intellectual 
status of its people?" 

Arthur —"I found in a work writteo 
by Senor Don Qarcia Cubas, a leamiMl 
and observant native of Mexico, several 
items that interested me, among which 
are the following : ' The difference in 
dress, customs, and language make 
known the heterogeneousness of the 
population. Tlie habits and ctiatt^kma of 
the Creoles conform in general to Etiro- 
pean civilization, particttlsrly the French, 
with some reminiscences of the Spanish, j 
Their national language is Spanish. I 
though French is frequently spoken and 
occasionally of late years, English, Ger- 
man and Italian. The nearest descend- 
ants of the S])aniard8, and those less 
mixed up with the native race in Mexi- 
co, belong by their complexion to the 
white race.' He then goes on to state 
in subetance that the reason why so 
many of the Mestizoes figure in the most 
important associations of the country 
for learning and intelligence, may be 
found in the tendency of these mixed 
races to adopt the habits and ctistoms of 
their white brethren ; while with each 
successive generation they become more 
estranged from those of the natives. 
Hence the learned writer argues the 
gradual extinction, tn the north, of the 
native Indians, and the rapid develop- 
ment of a more powerful and energetic 

Hal. — "Canyoutellus, uncle, whether 
the native Indians of Mexico resemble, 
in their faab>ts and customs, those of our 
Western frontier?" J 

Unclb. — " The Indian is not a man for 1 
change, and he is slow to adopt new ideas 
on any subject ; nor does he differ mate- 
rially in different localities in regard to 
dress, food, religion, code of law, or 
mode of living. All are simple as his 
own rude belongings. Stout, wide 
drawers of deerskin for the men, and a 
piece of cloth wrapped turice around the 
body and a loose upper garment with 
holes cut for the arms for the women, 
furnish all the clothing they desire in ad- 
dition to their'coarse blanket for warmth. 
Bis but he builds in the warm regions 
of sticks, and covers with palm leaver. 
and on the colder table lands of adobes 
or sun dried bricks. The floor is simply 
earth beaten hard ; the chimney, a hole 
in the roof ; and the seats, table and bed 
are all composed of rush mats, in which 
the body is at the last folded before com- 
mitting it to its (Jnal rest. A hoe, a flsfa- 
ing net, and a primitive loom, with a few 
earthen pots and plates are all the im- 
plements an Indian has use for, besides 
bis weapons of war. He plants his own 
corn, brews his own liquor, kills his own 


game, and desires no other Itizuries. Al- 
most the only employmenta they engage 
in are the manufacture of quaint little 
omamentR wljich they sell! to credulous 
trave-lerB aa ' Aztet: antiquities," and the 
carrying of heavy burdens an porttre, in 
which vocation they are in great de- 
mand both on account of their great 
strength and their knowledge of the 
paths «n<l by-ways, by which they fre- 
quently accomplish a long .journey lie- 
tweeu certain points in less time than a 
mail coach can do the trip. Patient and 
plodding, humble and obedient, they ac- 
cept the reproach often heaped upon 
th6m by the Spaniard, «. e., a gente sin 
raxon, or/man without understanding.'," 

EtoWARo. — "I have lieard, uncle, that 
the Creole women of Mexico were very 
beautiful. Is this so ?" 

Ujicle. — " Yes ! The Creoles spring 
from those who were at one time the 
aristocracy of Mexico and the Andaiu- 
sians who were tlie conquerors and first 
colonists of the country Uoth men and 
women are gentle and refined, but vain 
and passionate — probably combining the 
traits of both ancestral families. One 
writer says : * The noblest of the .iitteca 
fell in battles with the Spaniards, their 
property fell into tVie hands of the vic- 
tors, and their dusky duughters married 
the rude warriors, being made their 
equals by baptism. Thus the Indian 
aristocracy adopted Christianity and l)e- 
came amalgamated with the new com- 
ers — their offspring inheriting the dark 
complexion and .large, languishing eyes 
of their Aztec mothers, and the lithe, 
graceful forms and dainty hands and feet 
of their Andalusian fathers : witli a de- 
gree of intelligence, energy and capacity 
for governing that fully vindicate their 
claim to European parentage. They are 
ly the dominant people of Me.xico 
iay — that is the better das.'* of Mesti- 
Boes or Creoles ; and as politiciai»i they 
have usually been successful, taking to 
law as naturally as to arms." 

ARTHDH. — " What are some of the 
natural productions of Mexico'/ With a 
climate so varied in its several localities, 
I suppose they can grow almost every* 

Uscue. — " Yes. The differenct- ■ of 
climate, depending upon the different 
degrees of altitude, are so great in Mexi- 
co, that the vegetable products of tlii« 
vast country include all that are to he 
found lietween the equator and the poles. 
In the course of a few hours tin- traveler 
may experience various fj^rndationa of 
chmate, including that ndiipt<-«l to wheat 
and to sugar cane, the uiuuntaLn ash and 
the tropical palm, apples und olives, 
strawberries, guavas and plaintains, su- 
gar, and coffee, wheat and tobacco; yams, 
itoes. and capsicums are am(»ng the 
kblr produ<-ts of this wunderful 

clime, as are also melons, pears, figs anfi 

RiCHAJiD. — "What was the religious 
creed of the Aztecs?" 

Unclk. — " They l)elieved in one su- 
preme, invisible creator of all things, 
whom they called Tuotl. and under this 
supreme being were thirteen chief divin- 
ities and two hundred inferior gods. At 
their head was the horrid HnitzilnpitchtH, 
the patron god of the .Aztecs. His tem- 
ples in every city of the Empire were 
(^and and imiKtsing. but their altars were 
drenched with the blood of human sacri- 
fices, so that the smell of the place, we 
are told, was that of a huge slaughter 
house, and in the years that immediately 
preceding the Spanish conquest, not less 
than twenty thousand human victims 
were annually immolated. These horrid 
cruelties w-ere blended with "ither milder 
forms of worship, in which offerings of 
fruits and flowers were laid on golden 
altars amid songs and dances. The priest- 
hood formed a rich and powerful order 
of tite State, and were s<i numerous that 
t'ortez found as many as 5,000 attached 
to the temple in the city of Mexico," 

Roy. — "What is the present religion 
of the <'ountry ?" 

Uncle. — "The Roman Catholic is the 
dominant church, but other sects are tol- 
erated. Mexico maintains three arch- 
bishops and ten bifihopci, and the priests 
have had the entire superviHion of edu- 
cation among the people, though the 
Medical Institute and other missionniy 
schools of Protestant denominations are 

.Arthur.—" What of the wlininistra- 
lion of justice ?" 

Dnci-E. — "The courts are corrupt, hut 
less so than formerly. Urigandage and 
smuggling are common, endangering 
public safety and seriously damaging the 
resources of the nation, but a brighter 
clay seems dawning and we may hojie for 
better things in the future. 

Tlie Vrogwtmn or nexico. 

President Diaz and his party are mov- 
ing along in the work of developing the 
resources of Mexico, of providing the 
country with adequate systems of inter- 
nal improvements, of extending the 
rights and previleges of a free govern- 
ment to all the peoph> in spite of the bit- 
ter and inqilacahle opposition of the 

The latter, who are composed, of 
course, largely of Roman Catholic 
priests, are furious over the prospect of 
losing that hold uih>ii the people which 
centuries of ignorance and superstition 
have given them. Tliej' have been hop- 
ing all along to regain that ascendancy 
in the government of Mexico which they 
lost under Juarez, and regain, as well, 
some of the property which they lost aX 

the same time. But recent events have 
deferred that hope until their hearts have 
become sick. 

The Mexican Congress has recently 
taken stejjs to confirm the titles of the 
confiscated jiropiTty to present owners 
in such a way as to leave no hope of its re- 
version to the Itoman chun'h. The titles 
have always been in doubt, and the CJov- 
ernment has had to sacrifice much of its 
interest in the i»roperly on that account. 

Another serious blow to the prospects 
of the Clericals was the recent adoption 
of an amendment to the Mexican Consti- 
tution, which practically insures the re- 
election of President Diaz. It was adopted 
by a vote of the fR'ople, too, who thereby 
attested their approval of the policy of 
the present .\dmini.stration. Now Diaz 
stands for progress, enlightenment, and 
religious liberty in the Mexico of to-day, 
and is therefore the special object of 
liatred by the Roman Catholic priesthood 
and their lollowing. Hia contiouatton in 
power means continued defeat for them 
in their scheme.t and intrigues. 

The policy of the Clericals in recent 
years has Iteen to iwork up a fanatical op- 
position among the people to the govern- 
ment on the ground that Diaz and his 
party are yielding the control of the 
country to Ameiican capitalists and col- 
onists from the States. The Clerical oi^ 
gans in the Mexican capital have made 
it theirchief bueuiees for several years to 
stir up a feeliogof hos'.ility to the intro- 
duction of American enterprise in Mex- 

Affairs in Mexico are moving right 
along in spite of the senseless and sedi- 
tious opposition of the priests. Impor- 
tant concessions have recently been 
made, liotb to native and to foreign cor- 
porations, with a view of aiding in the 
development of the natural resources of 
the Republic. Two liberal concessions 
have been niade for mining explorations 
and the working of goM de)M«its in the 
territory of Lower California and the 
State of Chihuahua. 

Entire exeniption from taxation is 
granted for ten years, and it is especially 
stipulated that companies working mines 
under these concessions shall smelt three- 
quarters of all the ore mined in the Re- 
public, it being the policy of the govern- 
ment, as far as piissible, to keep the 
profits arising from the reduction of the 
ores in the country. 

The majority of the i)eoj)le seem to 
have become effectually alienatetl from 
their former state of servile obedience lo 
the priesthood, and to be acting and 
thinking for themselves. The Republic, 
we may well believe, has already gone 
too far in the path of freedom and en- 
lightenment to be in any great danger of 
again coming under the yoke of Rome. — 
N. Y. ObaeTver. 


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Book* un Itae falands Knd their Prot- 
estaat .'niMili>ns> 

Anderson. M. E. Scenes in the Hawai- 
ian Islands,— Am. Tract S<>c.,$1.00. 

Bickford, J. Christian Work in Aus- 
tralia (1878).— Weeleyan Book Booms, 

Bathgate, J. New Zealand.— Chambers. 
Is. Ud. 

Brassey, Lady. Tahiti. — Low, ais. 

Bigelow, J. Wit and Wisdom of the 
Haitaians (1877) — Scribner, $1.00. 

Bird, Isabella, Six Months in the Sand- 
wioli Islands. — Putnnin, $2.30. 

Bird, L Hawaiian Archipelago,— Mur- 
ray. 78. Od. 

Butler. A. R. (tliuipsi-s of Maori Land 
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Butler. Forty Years in New Zealand. — 
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Cheever, H. T. Island World of the Pa- 
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Oumming, Miss C. F. (}. At Home in 
Fiji (1883).— Armstrong, $1.25. 

Cumming, Miss C. F. G. Fire Fountains. 
The Kingdomnf Hawaii. 2 vols. (1883). 
— Blackwood, 25s. 

Carlisle, W. Thirty-Right Years' .Vlis- 
siou Life in Jamaica (1884). — Nisbet, 
38 6d. 

Chalmers. J. Adventures in New Guinea 
(188«).— Religious Tract S«»c., ft». 

Coan, T. Life in Hawaii.— Randolph, 

Chalmers. J. Pioneering in New Guinea. 

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Coote. W. South by East: A Four Years' 

Travel in Polynesia. — Low, 21s. 
Crawford. J. C. Travels in New Zea- 
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D'Albertis, L. M. In New Guinea. 2 

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De Ricei. J. H. Fiji.— Stanford. Os. 
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Wurthington, $1.50, 
Eden, C. U. The West Indies.- Low, 38. 

EUis, W. Three Visits to Madagascar 

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Ellis, W. Martyr Church of Madagas- 
car (1870). —Cong. Pub. Soc, $1.75. 
Forbes, L, Two Years m Fiji.— Long- 

niati. 8b. (id. 
Fornauder, A. The Polj-nesian Race. — 

Trubner, 7s. fid. 
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2s. 6d. 
Gill, W. W. Life in the Southern Seas, 

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lication, $2.35. 
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Gill. W. VV. Uems from the Coral Islands. 

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Murray, 42s, 
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Headley, P. C. Island of Fire — Iceland 

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Handbook for Australia and New Zea 

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Hutton, J. Missionary Life in the ScHuh- 

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Lindt, J. W. Picturesque New Guinea. 

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Murray, A. W. Forty Years' Mission 

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Mullens, J. Twelve Months in Madagas- 

car.- Carter. $1.75. 
Meiirs. J. W. The Story of Madagascar. 

— Presbyterian Board of Publication, 


McDougall. Mrs. Sket<-luts of our Life in 
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Murray. T. B. Pitcairn: the Island, Peo- 
ple, and Pastor.— S. P. C. K., 38. 6d. 

Russell, M. Polynesia, — Harpers, 75c. 

Rowe, G. 8. A Missionary among the 
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Book Concern, $1.00. 

Sinclair, A. C. Handbook of Jamaica. 
—Stanford, 89. Bd. 

Sibree, J. Madagascar.— Trubner. 128. 

Shaw, O. A. Madagascar. — Religious 
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Standing. H. F. The Children of Mada- 
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St. John, 8. Haiti (1884).— Smith. 78. 6d. 

Shortland, E. Maori Religion. — Long- 
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Steele, R. New Hebrides and Christian 
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Taylor, J, E. Our Island Continent, 
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Taylor, C, M. Island World of the Pa- 
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Thompson, H. S. Ponape, or Light on a 
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Tregance, L. Adventures in New Guinea, 
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Vogel, J. New Zealand and the South 
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Williamson, A. Life of John Williams, 
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Wallace, A. R. Malay Archipel.igc— 
Harpers, $2.50. 

Williams, Bishop. Christianity among 
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Wallace, A. R. Australia. Stanford, 


Books H«lpnil to the Stndjr or mit- 

Anderson, R, History of Foreign Mis- 
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Anderson, R. Missions of the American 

Board, 4 vols. (1875).— Cong. Pub. 

Soc, $6.00. 
Arnold-Foster, F. E. Heralds of the 

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Bainliridge. W. F. Around the World 

Tour of Christian Missions (1883). — Lo- 

throp. $2.00 
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Boat, A. History of the Moravians. — 

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Bird. 1. Bible Work in Bible Lands (1878). 

—Pres. Bd of Pub., $1 50. 
Bunson, E. de. The Angel Messiah of the 

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Burns, I. Memoir of Rev. W. C. Biims 

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Burton, I. Arabia, Egypt, India. — Mul- 

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Brightwell, Miss. Romance of Modem 

Missions.— Religious Tract Soc., 99.fl«i, 

Brown. J. P. Tlie Dervisbes, or Oriental 
Spiritualism. — Trubner, 148. 

Cbristlieb, T. PrDteatant Foreign Mis- 
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Niabet, 28. fld. 

Croil. J. The Missionary Problem (1888). 
— Wm Briggs, fl.OO. 

Clark. J. F. Ten (Ireat Religions.— 
Houghton. $3 00. 

Callaway, Bishop. Missionary Sermons. 
—Bell. 8s. 

Davies. E. Life of Bishop Wm. Tay- 
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Dorchester, D. Problem of ReligiouB 
Progress (1881 ).— Methodist Book Con- 
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Dobbinfi. F. 8. False Gods (1881).— 
Stringer, |3.75. 

Dobbins. F. S Foreign Missionary Man- 
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Daggett. L. II, Woman's Missionary So- 
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Ellis. H. W. Our Eastern Sisters and 
Their Missionary Helpers. — Religions 
Tract Soc.. 58. Ramlolpli. $1.2.5. 

Forde. H. Black and White. Mission 
Stories.— S. P. C. K., #1.0.5. , 

Iner. J. Heroines of Missionary En- — Blackwood, 2s. Od. 

Hauaer. I. L. The Orientand Its People. 
— Hau-ser. $1.50. 

House, E. MisBionary in Many Lands 
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Hanter. R. Missions of the Free Church 
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— Nelsons. $1.75. 

Harriman, W. Travelsand Ob«erirationfi 
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Houghton, R. C Women of the Orient. 
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Hendrix, Bishop. Around the World.— 
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Uins<lale, B. A. The Australian in Cey- 
lon, India and Egypt —Low, 2b. «(1. 

Isaacs, A. A. Biography of Rev. H. A. 
Stem. Missionary among the Jews 
(18S«).— NislH^t. Oft. 

Johnson, S. Orientid Religions. 3 vols. 
— Honghton. $10.00. Tnibner. 2l8. 

Jesaup. H. H. The Mnhnmmedan Mis- 
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Pub . aoc. 

Jud-Hon. E. Life of Adoniram Judson 
(1883) —Randolph. $9 00 

Japp. A H Master MiH.Hionarle8 — Un- 
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Kellogg. S. H. The Jews, or Prediction 
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Knox, T W. Bov Travelers in Egypt 
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Knox. T. W. Young Ximrods in Eurot>e, 
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Kinni-ley. Rishop. Round the World. — 
Methodist Book Concern. 2 vols., 
$2 50. 

lAnthem. J. The Macedonian Cry (1884). 
— Wm, Briggs, $l.fK>. 

T^we. J. MeilicAl Missions (188(5). -T, 
Fisher Unwin, fls. 

Lowrie, J. C. Missionary Papers (IWl). 
—Carters, $1.60. 

Lawrie. T. Contributions of our For- 
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Mackenzie. R. The Nineteenth Centxirv 
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Moister, W. Memorials of Labors in 
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(Miiisionaries) Mission Stories of Many 
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Muir. Wm. Mohnmmed and Islam 
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Muir, Wm. The Komn: Its Composi- 
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Morrison. J Missionary Father.s of the 
Loudon Missionary Society (1844) — 

Menzies. 8. Turkey Old and New.— Al- 
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Milman, Dean. History of the Jews. 3 
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Maurice. F. D. Religions of the WorM 
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Missionary Conference held at Oxford in 
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Piprson. A T. Evangelistic Work in 
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Carters. «1 50. 

Prime. E. D G. Around the World.— 
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Patterson. G. Missions. A Prize Essav 
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Pitman E R, Mission Life in Greece 
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PitmBn E R. Central Africa, Japan 
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Reid. .1. M. Mis-sions and Missionary So- 
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Rains Fannie L. An-stralia, China and 
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Seward. O. F. Chinese Immigration 
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Smith H. F. 3Iissionar»' Sketches. — 
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Smith T life of Dr. Alex Duff (1888). 
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Smith T Metlijcval Missions. — Hamil- 
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Stronc. J. D. Cliildren of Many Tianda 
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Smith, W, T. Missionrtrr Concerts for 
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Book Concern, 75c. 

Stephens, W. R. W. Christianity and 
Islam -Scribner. $1.25. 

Stobart, J.W. H. Islam and Its Founder. 
— Y"oung, 76o. 

Samuel. 8. M. Jewiah Life in the East. 
— Paul. 38. 6d. 

Strong. J. Our Country (1888).— Baker 
& Taylor Co., 25c. 

Thompson. A. C. Moravian Missions 
(1882).— Scribners, $2 00. 

Thoburn. J. M. Mv Missionary Appren- 
ticeship (laSO).— Methodist Book Con- 
cern, $1.50. 

Tavlor. B. Egypt and Iceland. — Put- 
nam, $1.50. 

Thoburn. J. M. Miisionary Addresses.— 
Methodist Book Concern, 40c. 

Thomson. E Our Oriental Missions: In- 
dia. China and Bulgaria 2 vols. (1870). 
—Methodist Book Concern. $2 50. 

Tupper. H. A. Foreign Missions of the 
Southern Baptist Convention (1880). 
$3 00. 

Tucker. W. H. Under His Banner — 
Young, $1 50. 

Vincent, F., Jr. Through the Tropics in 
Oceanica, Australasia and India. — 
Harpers. $1.50. 

Wnlsh, Bishop. Heroea of the Mission 
Field(1882).— Hurst. 5b. T. Whittaker, 
f 1 25. 

Walsh. Bishon. Modem Heroes of the 
Mission Field(is83) — Hodder& Stough- 
ton, «s T Whittaker. $1.. 50. 

Wilson A. W. Missions nf the Methodist 
Epi-scojial Church. South (1883 V -South - 
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Wi.w, D. Our Missionary Heroes and 
Heroines (1884).— Methodist Book Con- 
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Wameck. O. Modern Missions and Cul- 
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Warren Wm. These for Those: Our In- 
debtedness to Foreign Missions (1870). 
— Hovt, Fogg* Breed, $1.50. 

Wheeler, M. S. First Decade of the 
W*onian*s Foreign Missionary Society 
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Waterbury. J. B. Memoir of Rev. John 
Scudderl 1870). -Harpers. $1 75. 

Walker. T. Wanderings in Egypt, Asia 
Minor, Syria, etc. (1886).- Partridge, 

Warner, A. B. A Bag of Missionary 
Stories. — Carter, 75c. 

Walrond. F F. Christian MisHions Be- 
fore the Reformation. — S. P. C K.. 28. 

Whately, E. J Hindrances to Missionary 
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Wliately. E. J. Home \\'orkers for For- 
eign Missions.- Religious Tract Soc., 
Is. fid. 

Wilberfon-e. Bishop. Speeches on Mis- 
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Webb, Bishop. Miseion Work.— Gard- 
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Wyse. J A Thousand Years, or Mission- 
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C.K.. 28. rtfl. 

Young. R. Light in Lands of Darkness 
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Young. R. Mwlern Missions: Their 
Trials and Triumphs (1882).— Cassell, 
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Yonge. C. M. Life of John Coleridge' 
Pattison. 2 vols, (1878).— Macmil Ian, 
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Yonge C. M. Pioneers and Founders, 
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Field .— "Mac wWv\ . ^. 




ComparisoQ of Protestant Christian Workers in 

the United States with those in the 

Foreign Field. 

BT WM. X. BLACKSTONE, of Oak Park, 111. 

Populmtion of the United States (est. 1886) 60,000, cxio 

Total Protestant Ministers in the U. S., (1886) 78,864 

Average I Minister to 760, or in round numbers. ,. 800 

(Heathen , .. 856,000,000' 
Mohammedan. .. 175,000,000 
Catholic countries V 1,181,000,000 

like Italy, Spain 
S. America, etc., 150,000,000 , 

Total of &U Ordained Protestant Missionaries in the 

Foreign Field (1886), 5,983 

Arerage I Missionary to 404,036, or is round num- 
bers 400,000 

Proportion Home to Foreisn, 500 to i. 

These figures are quickly read and one does not appreciate this dif- 
ference of 500 to I, The eye may not catch it, even from the dia- 
gram. But stop and count the 500 dots in the Home Field, and then 
glance at the on* dot in Foreign Field, and think how it must look to 
Him who said " Go into all the world." 

And if we compare the total Protestant Christian workers in the 
United Stales with those in the Foreign Field, the disproportion is 
even greater, vit. : 

MinUt«r» (1886) 78,864 

Lay Preachers 31.991 

Snnday-tchool Teschen 1.107, 170 



Total Protestant Workers in the U. S 1,318,035 

Population, 60,000,000, an average of one worker to each forty, 
tight persons. 

Ordained missionaries, 2,923; Lay, 763; Women, 3,I30; Ord. na- 
tiTcs, 3,316; all other workers, 38,383. 

Total workers in the Foreign Field, 37,704. Population, 1,181,- 
000,000, an average of one worker to each 31,323 persons. 

Proportion of Home to Foreign, 650 to i. 

In 1886, there were in the United States 11,560, 196 Protestant 
ministen and church members, or nearly one in five of the entire 
population. These are so thoroughly distributed throughout the 
country that the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ could be preached to 
the whole population every week. 

In 1886, in the Foreign Field there were 37,704 missionaries and 
Christian workers, and about 716,364 native communicants (not in- 
cluding those in Protestant Germany, Sweden, etc., which countries 
are not reckoned in our Foreign Field), a total of 754,068, in a pop- 
nlation of 1,181,000,000, being an average of only one Protestant 
Christian to each 1,566 persons. 

These native Christians, instead of forming the powerful dominat- 
ing class, are mostly gathered in little weak churches about the centers 
of evangeliiation, and are scarcely able to sustain themselves. 

Vast areas of country have not a single Christian in them. Whole 
nations, and millions upon millions of people, VaMtntvtr ytt htard one 
*nch proclamation of the Gospel as is practically given to the entire 
population of the United States every week. 

How can they hear without a preacher? Rom. 10 : 14. 

And yet, while we have 78,864 ministen in theU. S., there are 
only 1,033 ordained missionaries frwn the U. S. in the Foreign 

So, notwithstanding this disproportion of workers, only one minis- 
ter in 77 goes to the Foreign Field. 

And bow can they go except they be sent. Rom. 10 : 15, 

7!^^«nDna] expenditure of Protestant church members in the U. 

S. for church work at Home is *^8o,0OO,0O0, while the annual ex- 
penditure of the same for Foreign work is only (4,000,000. 

Proportion of Home to Foreign, 3o to t. 

That is, while the need is from 500 to 650 times greater in the 
Foreign Field, we spend 20 times u much in the Home Field. 

This (80,0000,000 is expended for the evangelization of 60,000,000 
people— $1,33 each. 

While the $4,000,000 is expended for the evangelization of I, iSi,- 
000,000— one-thiid of a cent each. 

Proportion of Home to Foreign, 400 to i. 

If Paul had gone East instead of West, Asia might now be the 
Home Field, and we the Foreign. Let us not forget to do by them 
as we would wish them to do by us. 

Remember that the Field is the Whole World. Jesus came unto 
" His own," the children of Israel. They were, so to speak. His 
Home Field. Had He confined the Gospel to them, we should not 
have it. Had He said begin and stay at Jerusalem, we should have 
been pagans still. But He said, "Beginning from Jerusalem." 
Luke 34 : 47., R. V. 

God loved the WORLD and gave His Son for it. John 3: 16, 

Jesus came to save the WORLD. John 13 : 47. 

The Holy Ghost came to convince the WORLD of sin. John 
16: 8. 

The disciples are to go into ALL THE WORLD (Mark 16: 15), 
making disciples of all nations (Mat. 38: 19), preaching the Gospel 
in ALL THE WORLD. Mat, 34; 14. Nol/or/of the world, but 
all of it. 

How shall we overthrow intemperance, and the curse of opium, the 
social evil, paganism and idolatry, ignorance, vice and crime, social- 
ism, atheism and anarchy ? 

How shall we terminate all the evils that curse the race ? or in a 
word, how shall we do our part toward destroying Satan's dominion 
and bringing in everlasting righteousness? Just in one way fiy preach- 
ing the Gospel in all the world, for then shall the end come (Mat. 34 •' 
14), and the Lord will cut short the work in righteousness. Rom. 
9 : 38. 

Notice that Mat. 34 : 14 says "in all the world." Preaching the 
Gospel completely and continually in one nation or a dozen nations 
will not answer. It must be a witness unto all nations, then, as surely 
as the walls of Jericho fell, shall Satan's reign on earth come 10 an 
end. Satan knows it, and would prevent it if he could, b; 
keeping all mi«sionaries at borne. 

And now, beloved, do yoti say that too much money and loo many 
workers go to the Foreign Field ? Think of it. One missionary to 
400,000 souls. That would be two ministers for Chif:ago, or five for 
New York City, or ten for London, or 150 for the whole United 
States, instead of 78,684. But this 400,000 is only the average num- 
ber. Whole countries like Afghanistan, Tibet, Honan province, the 
central Soudan, and Ecuador, with millions of Chrisiless souls, are 
utterly destitute. Shall we do less in the Home Field? No I But 
more, a hundred times more, in the Foreign Field. Can we do il? 

If we had a tenth of the income of church members it would fully 
suffice for all Gospel work at home and abroad. Or, if we had, for 
Foreign work, a tenth of their annual savings after all home expenses 
are paid, we could put 13,000 more missionaries in the field at once. 

The diagram on the next page, showing the wealth of Protestant 
church members, is based upon the statistics given by Dr. Strong in 
" Our Country." 

I/, tktrtfcrey ye have not been faithful in the unrighteout mam' 
mon, who v.<Ht commit to your trutt the true riches f 

How will II ftare Willi the atewarda when the 
natter comciif 

* Soma of ihU is eitimated, but the moit of it hat been carefully (leaned from 
Church year books, aed other authorities. Of the (4,000,000, a large proportion 
it spent for publications, schools and hospitals. If these items were added to the 
Home work the disfrofertion would be greatly increased. 


Sl C0MPARATIV£ view 

— OK — 

Home and Foreisfn Christian Work. 

The Field is the World." 

DiAGf^AMS Showing 

The unequal distribution of Protestant Christian Workers 

IN THE Field. 

1 MurisTKR TO 800 Soru«' in thr Cxitet) Statbs. 1 Mishionary to 4<K),000 Soclb. 

— 2.———— -F" ■ ■ I- 1 

■■——— ■■■■■— w 


Ther« are wa small squares in each of these diagrams, 
and each smaLrsqunrc rcprescnti 800 people. 

The dots re!>r»etil ministers. 

Proportionately there are five hundred limn at many 
Protestant Christian workers in the Unired States as in the 
Foreign Field. 

This diagram represents 400,000 people, being the aver- 
age number of uncvangelized to each Missionary. 

The little white square represents 335 persona, being (he 
proportionate numbei of native converts 10 each initsioo- 
ary. The small dot represents the Missionary, 


Wealth of Protestant Church Members in the United States. 


2769 SauARCS, - $11,078,840,000. 

i " : ~ " " ^ — : :::":::::::::::::::::::::::::::::_--::::::::::::x- 

x::::::" " _" ," : : _: : :::::*::" :'::::::::::::::::::::::. 

X :■- — - :__: __ : 

X : :::::..:_ _:_.,:-:: _ 

„ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. _„ 

~ " 

■■■■■■ " ----------------------------- - -^ 


::::::::::::: ::_:::^:::~:::::::::::::::::±::::::±:::±::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 







1 , 





I 1 



I U 





124 SQUARES = t4BT,230,000. 


"i I SHOP TA\ 





— FOR— 

Mr. Samuel C. Pullman liaa been elected 
a member of the Board of Managers of 
the Missionary Society, in the place of 
the late Mr. Stephen Barker. 

Rev. J. M. Keid, D.D., Missionary Sec- 
retary, ia in Mexico, in attendance uj>on 
the Union Missionary Convention. He 
id expected to return by the lost of this 

Mr. J. M. Phillips, Treasurer of the 
Missionary Bociety, has been appointed 
by the Board of Managers to ret^'eive and 
forward any coutributionH made in he- 
half of the Chinese Buffering from ti»e 
destructive overflow of the Hoaiig Ho 
River iu China. 

Chaplain McCabe has iesued a small 
pampldet of Missionary Hymns for use 
in Conventions and Anniversaries. Price 
ten cents each ; three copies for 25 cents ; 
one hundred copies for |5.00. Bend 
orders to C. C. McCabe, d.d., 806 Broad- 
way, New York. 

Mr. Stephen Barker, who has been for 
many years a member of the Board of 
Managers of the Missionary Society, died 
in New York on Januury (J, in the "rnh 
year of his age. He was the fatiier-in- 
law of Rev. Dr. Vernon, of our Italy Mis- 
sion, and has always taken a great inter- 
est in the missionary enterprises of the 

On [uiges 92 and 98 are given some 
diagrams and facts prepared by Mr. E. 
Blackstonc, of Oak Park. Ill , that are 
very forceful and effective. They are 
printed on a four- page leaflet, and fur- 
nished by Mr. Hlackstone at thirty cents 
per hundred. 

We go to press with the last form of 
this magazine about the time that the 
Missionary Convention convenes in Me.v- 
ico. We expected to give late Trottstant 
statistics of our work in Mexico, under 
the heading of our Monthly Concert, but 
they have not yet been received, and we 
shall probably be able to do bo next 

The Pearl of Days, edited by our friend 

Rev. Dr. J. 11. Knowles, is now issued 

monthly by Mr. Wilbur B. Ketcham, at 

7/ Hiblp I/outw, .Afen- York. It is lie- 

'otett to tbo securing and maintaining 

the sanctity of the Christian Sabbath. 
It is a most excellent publication, and its 
general circulation must result iu great 

The Misition Field ia the new Mission- 
ary Magazine of the Reformed Church 
in America, and is published mtmthly by 
the Board of Publication, at 20 Reade 
street, New York, at 50 cents a year. It 
is a most excellent periodictd. Send 
Ave cents for a specimen copy. 

A Jewish Mission has been opened in 
Chicjigo. as a branch of Rev. Jacob 
Freshman's work in New Y'ork City. It 
is interdenominational. and under the care 
of a committee comj)OBed of rei)re8enta- 
tive clergymen and laymen. The Mis- 
sion has a Reading Room at 264 W. lath 
street. Mr. Wm. E. Blackstone, of <!)ak 
Park, 111., is Secretary and Treasurer. 

We have in the first part of this maga- 
zine given some account of the present 
comlition of Protestantism in New Mex- 
ico, but said nothing about its introduc- 
tion. The first Protestant church in 
New Mexico was organized in Septem- 
ber, 185H. It was a Presbyterian church, 
and was iu Santa F^. The first Protest- 
ant church building erected was in |H5a. 
It was a Baptist church in Sauta Fe, and 
was built of adobe. In i860, the Presby- 
teriaTi Board of Domestic Missions sent 
Rev. D. M. McFarhmd, who purchased 
the adobe church, then in i-uins. It was 
put in repair and occupied until 1882, 
when it was torn down, and :v handsome 
brick church erected. 

We have devoted ten pages of this 
number to a list of books helpful to those 
who wish to study the .niibject of mis- 
sions, and to learn what they can of the 
countries and peoples where missions are 
being carried on. The list ia not com- 
plete, and we shall supplement iL iu 
some number to be issued hereafter. 
Where we could, we have given the year 
of publication. When the price is given 
in shillings and pence, the books are 
published in Ureal Britain, and can be 
ordertnl tlirough some New York house 
tliat imports books. The price will be 
from 'At) to 40 cents per shilling. Fre- 
quently wo have given only the first 
name of the firm puhliehing the lx>ok, 
but this is a sullicienl indication to those 
fauiilinr with books. We trust that the 
giving the list will greatly increase the 
interest of our reiiders in missionary 

Blaliop Tuylor'n Arrlca.n Work. 

We have l>eea asked by several " What 
of Bishop Taylor's African Missions in 
view of the fact that over forty of those 
who went out have died or returned, and 
that those returning have brought such 
unfavorable rejiortsV 

BisJiop Taylor is expected in the \3mted 

States in April, anti will then probably 
reply to the charges made ng.\inst him 
and his wtjrk. 

The Bishop went to Africa and cried 
"Come to the redemption of Africa,'' 
Many ajiswered the crj- wlio were not 
fitted for the life to which they lielieved 
thetjiselves called. In some the disability 
was physicrtl ; in others, s|iiritual. The 
uubealthiness of the country, and the 
slow jirogress made toward self-support 
has l>eeu disheartening. Who wonders 
that there were those who preferred liv- 
ing in .America to dying in Africa'^ 

Bishop Taylor is ready to die for Africa 
and he wishes others of like spirit. lie 
promises no immunity from great hard- 
ships or from a sjjeefly death. He proba- 
bly expects much expenditure of money, 
and many deaths before his missions are 
fully established. He says to those who 
follow him : " It is as near Heaven in 
Africa as Ln America." 

To those who are strong and hearty in 
body and in soul the (^all from Africa 

Let strong men heed the call and let 
them leave the women and chil- 
dren here until the stations have tieen es- 
tablished, and tliure is a reasonable pros- 
pei't of a good shelter and suitable food 
for the loved dependent ones. 

Hume for Ihe Children uf ITIlBMlun- 

A home for the children of Metlu^ist 
Episcopal Missionaries ha.s been estab- 
lii^hed at Newton Centre, Mass,, and Rev. 
B. K. Peirce, DD., is President of the 
Board of Trustees. A letter from Dr. 
Peirce written January 3il, lt*88, in re- 
sponse to a letter from us, fui-nishes the 
following interesting information re- 
spuctiiig the Home : 

" A little dying girl, the daughter of an 
English Wcsleyan working man, now in 
Taunton, Mass., left some money for a 
t'hildren's Home. The announcement of 
the fa<'t awakened much interest. After 
a time, the Hon. Jacob Sleeper placed in 
my liands |10,tOO as a fund for the sup- 
{>ort of such an institution. 

*' lion. Alden S])eare then gave a house 
worth $8,000 for the Home, and Mrs. Chas. 
W. Peirce furnished it at the expense of 
over |1,0<J0. BrotberS]X'are,when he gave 
the house, expressed a desire that it 
should be devoted, as fiir as required, to 
U.n care of the ynuug children of our for- 
eign missionaries, it being situated so as 
to oftwr the best possible educational 
training in the excellent public schoolsin 
the city without cost. We have five of 
such children now under the care of the 

"The institution is supported by the 
proceeds of the fund, contributions so- 
\.Wvt«s<l lti>m out viVvuvtilve* aud individual 

memben, and the small sums which our 
missionaries pa}- toward the expenses in- 
curred by their children. Brother Speart- 
aod hiB family take a lively, practical in- 
terest in the sustentation of the Home 
and it8 success. " 




Onr maalona.rl«a and RIIa«lona« 

Rev. W. C. Davidson, who lately arrived 
in Japan, h&a been obliged to return to 
the United States on account of the pro- 
tracted illness of hiu wife. 

The North India Conference elected 
Rev. D. W. Thomas a delegate to the 
Oeneral Conference, and Ex-Gov, R. E. 
Pattiaon, of Pennsylvania, a lay-delegate. 

Rev. D. W. Thomas, of the North India 
Conference, haa been appointed by the 
Board of Managers of the Missionary 
Society, the Treasurer for the North 
India, 8outh India and Bengal Confer- 

Hiss Sarah Lauck, missionary of the 
Womans' Foreign Missionary Society at 
Moradabad, India, was married Decem- 
ber IS to Rev. Joseph Parsons, of the 
Wealeyan mission in Lucknow. 

Rev. Hejiry Jaoksou, of the New York 
Conference, has been transferred to 
India. He and his wife wer« formerly 
missionaries in India where they were 
very successful, und their return will be 
gladlj welcomed. 

Rev. E. 8. Staekpole, of the Maine Con- 
ference, haa been appoint«d as a mission- 
ary to Italy. 

Rev. J. H. Correll has Ixecome the edi- 
tor and publisher in Yokohama, Japan, 
of the Metluxlist Advocate, a four page 
paper, the first page being in English and 
the three following in Japanese. 

President Hoyt. of Albuquenjue College 
New Mexico, reports 15(1 students en- 
rolled. More students are applying tlian 
be can accommodate, and hu asks fur 
contributions to aid in furnishing rooms, 

Rev. C. E. Scott, who has been in 
charge of the mission in Copiupo, Chili, 
South America, has returned to the 
United States, and will probably engage 
in mission work in New Mexico. 

Rev. I. O. Robs, who went laat July 
from the New England Confeience as a 
missionary to Concepcion, Chili, has re- 
turned to the United States for the pur- 
pose of enlisting a greater intereot in 
mission work in that Held, and to Sii'iire. 
if poeaible, some change in the " govern- 
ing principles." So far as we can iearn 
there is needed a practical oversight 
which shall prevent conllicting orders 
respecting both the general management 
and the details of work. The sooner the 
missdon work can be brought into har- 
mony with our regular church goveru- 
it the more likeJ^- it is to accoinplitih 

From ■ SpsBiah niBBlonarjr, 

The Kev. O. Forres, a t;panish Metlio- 
dist Episcopal Missionary in New Mexico, 
writes to Chaplain McCabe from Espun- 
ola. New Mexico, Dec. 30, 1887: 

" I preach at Huichipanguc, Espanola, 
Santa Cruz, Cuarteles, Chi mayo, Las 
Truchas, Charmita, Plaza del Alcalde, 
and Fierra Amarilla. We have in these 
places congregations of from 25 to 800 
persons, besideH Sabbatb-Rchools. The 
distance of these appointments is from 
three miles to eighty miles from my home. 

" In. the town of Santa Cruz, my wife 
has a school with fifty children who are 
poor and needy. Mrs, Forres endures 
many persecutions through Father 
Romano, besides having to walk six mUes 
a day. 

' ' I also walk much in the pursuit of 
my pastoral labors, and our clothing is 
very limited, but nuthing of this kind 
troubles us as the work is for Christ. 
Pray for us and for the people of this 
Territory of New Mexico, for many are 
opposed to the Wospel." 

Letter from HIroMakis Japan, 

Rev. Gideon F. Draper writes from 
Hirosaki, Japan, Nov. 3: 

" When I was appointed at our last 
Conference Presiding Elder of the 
Aomori District, I was also reiquested to 
occupy, until January, the p<j9t of Eng- 
lish instructor in a largeprivate academy 
here. This school offers a grand oppor- 
tunity of Christian work. There are 
about three huiidre<l Imys in tlio inslitii- 
ticin. and full liberty is given for relig- 
ious imstructiou 

" Foreigners have been here in years 
gone by, but not for the past six or seven 
years. Among the results of their labors, 
especially those of Mr. lug, niity be 
counted nine members of our Confer- 
ence. If our policy of educational work 
is juMtiHalile anywhere it must he here, 
for greater possibilities it would be hard 
to tind. 

"There ia also a wide field for woman's 
work here. The ladies of the W. F. M. 
S. have a day school for girls, and nnu-h 
Biiile work might be done in connection 
with Enelish und knitting cla-sses. The 
latter, Mrs. Draper, will take up, cconi- 
ing to her strength. Her efiicient Bible- 
woman, O Hama san, is a great help to 

" I go abimt as I can in the neighbor- 
hood. Last Suuday was spent at Kuroi- 
shi, ten or twelve miles away. Here our 
church is small but growing, for the 
blind i*a«tor, a local ])reacher. is a zeal 
ou.H wotker. There has l>een some |.)er»e- 
cution for the place is strongly heathen. 

"At our Saturday evening vneelVng 
there were two addresses. Many VxBlened 
attentively, but the ' small boy ' wasverj 

noisy and offensive. When some of these 
boys saw me coming down the street 
they cried, 'Jesus is comet Jesus is come! ' 
by way of ridicule. 

" At present we share a large Japanese 
bouse with a native family, and every 
morning we hear the clear tones of a bell 
announcing that the idols on the hotise- 
bold ' kamidana ' (god-shelf) are being 
worshiped, while in the next room we 
are reading the New Testament of our 
Lord and Savinr, and ottering in unLson 
the prayer He taught His disciples." 

Flood and Droucbt In Central China. 

BY THIt arv. C. p. KITPKR. 

We are at present in the ntidst of a 
m<«t distressing scene. At the most 
afHueut times there is enough of poverty 
and misery in this part of China to pain 
the heart of every human being ; but dur- 
ing the past few weeks this scene baa 
been intensified to an almost indescrib- 
able degree. 

Over 6 000 refugees have already 
pas.sed through this city, coming from 
the north of the Yaiig-tae, where the high 
water destroyed the Spring crops and 
the Autumn crops have been a failure 
on account of the long c^jntinued dry 
wiMither. No other alternative ia left 
this people tluin to leave their homes and 
beg. One man in each hanUet remains 
at home to look after the property while 
all the others, men, women, and chil- 
tlren emigrate to the southern provinces 
whijre Providence has dealt more bounti- 
fully in supplying the necessaries of life. 
Some of these people are quite resigned 
to their fate and keep cheerful and happy 
even with half enough of the dry meal 
prepared of beans and millet, while 
others seem deeply pained and grieved, 
but all of tliein are most orderly. 

While going to my country work last 
Sabbath morning my attention was 
drawn to groups of refugees sitting by 
the way -side taking their breakfast of 
dry meal and tea. Among them was a 
fairly well dressed family. Two men, 
who were brothers, carrying the bedding 
and whatever else they had, two women, 
each with an infant strapped on her 
back, an elderly woman, and three fine 
loi)king lads of about ten to twelve years 
of age. I stoppe<l to entiuire about their 
actual needs, and found them indee<l in 
Krvat distress, pining away for want of 
nourishing fooil. In fruitful seasons they 
had just bad enough to eat and drink ; 
but this double calamity ha^ brought 
them with thousands of others into ex- 
treme want. 

This famine-stricken district embraces 
the Hicnttg Met circuit wlv«t% *. ^}s«aiiJe^ 


If the calls for help are not too many 
at present I herewith make an 


to the church for the aid of these pover- 
ty-stricken fanailies. We have five day- 
schools and over one hundrnd members 
in this section of the countiy. The 
schools are almost broken up and the 
inembers are becoming scattered. After 
this reaches the readers in America there 
will be yet six months before they will 
have a crop or anything to live upon ex- 
cept what they beg, unless some kind 
hearted persons should send us some- 
thing for their relief. 

Donations will reach me safely through 
the Setiretaries of the Missionary Society, 
806 Broadway, N. Y. Care shall be 
taken to distribute the money judiciously. 
There may be many demands upon the 
church at home, but certainly there can 
be no more needy cause than to feed a 
starving Christian. Though they are 
your antipodes they are your neighbors 
in Christ Jesu«. 

Kiu Kiang, Dec. 10, 1887. 

Pooehoiw Methodlat Conrerenee. 

The Foochow Methodist EpiscoiMU Con- 
ference was held in Foochow in Novem- 

Rev, N. J, Plumb reports as follows : 

"The reports of the presiding elders 
showed progress on most of the districts 
in nearly all important items. There has 
been an increase of nearly two hundred 
in the membership, and more than that 
number of probationers. 

" The missionary contributions are 
much in advance of those of the previ- 
ous year, as were also those for church 
building. We are much beyond the 
Million dollar line. There was some fall- 
ing off in self-sxipport, but there was an 
advance of more than Aire hundred dol- 
lars over the previous year on the sum 
of the contributions for all Church pur- 

" It having been four years since a 
Bishop presided at the conference, the 
number elected to orders and ordained 
was unprecedented ly large. There were 
nineteen deaeona and twonty-one eldt-rs 
— forty in all. Two of these were made 
both deacons and elders. The ordina- 
tion services, which took place on Sali- 
bath evening, were very impressive, and 
witnessed by a crowded house. 

" In the election of a large numlM«r of 
local deacons there seems to be an indi- 
cation of greater dependence nn local 
help, and mi-isionary efforts are being put 
forth in some directions. On one circuit 
on the Hok-Cliiang District about |r>0 
was contributed over what was neces- 
sary for the support of their preachers, 
and they decided to use this for support- 
J^M preacher during the enstung year .; 

and at one place on the Ku-Cheng Dis- 
trict a local missionary society ban been 
formed, and quite a sum raised towards 
sending a preacher to a distant village. 
The opixwilion to the work of preaching 
the (Jospel has been very small during 
the year. In one or two instances some 
of our meml>er8 have endured severe 
persecution from their own people, but 
there has been no general disturbance. 

" The election of delegates to General 
Conference resulted in the choice of Sia 
Sek Ong, one of our oldest and most in- 
telligent native ministers, and Itev. O. li. 
Smyth, now in the United States, as re- 
serve. The lay electoral conference 
elected Mr. T. Ahok delegate to the Gen- 
eral Conference, and for reserve Lau Ing 
Sieng. The former is the head of a Chi- 
nese tirm, and the latter foreman of our 
mission press. 

"The summary of the statistical re- 
ports is as follows : Missionaries, .'3 : as- 
sistant missionaries, 4 ; W. F. M S. mis- 
sionaries, 4 ; native workers W. F. M. S., 
5 : other helpers, 7 ; members, 3,217 ; 
probations, 1,334; adlierents, 3.150; av- 
enige attendance at worship, 3,5W) ; 
adults baptized, 38(5; baptized children, 
094 ; number of churches, 77 ; value, 
f 19, 271) ; places rented, 21 : parsonages, 
38 : value, $4,90n ; missionary money 
contrilmted, $34(1; other benev<ilence8, 
$398 ; self-support, $y-.>7 ; church build- 
ing, $890 ; local purposes. $03.86." 

The appointments of the missionaries 
were as follows : 

Foochow District, N. J. Phmili, Presi- 
ding Ehler. Biblical Institute, J. H. 
Worley, President. High Scho<il, N. 
Site-s, Principal. Anglo-Chiiu'Si' ('(dlege, 
M. C. Wik-ox, Presidt:-!!! : Wm. H. Lacy, 
Vice-President ; Mrs. Wilcox and Mrs. 
Lacy, Instructors. BiMjk Concern, N. J. 
Pimnb. Snj>erintendent. Fuhkien Church 
Gazette, N..1. Plumb, Editor. Wnmeti's 
and Girls' High Schixnl, O, I. .lewell and 
MalK'l Hartford. Medical Work Wo- 
man's Foreign Missionary S<x;iety, Kate 
A, Corey, m.d. , M. E. Carleton. h.d. 
Lay Training School, N. Sites in charge. 
Yen-Ping District, J. H. Worley, Mission- 
ary. Ku-cheng District, M. 0. Wilcox, 
Missionary. Hing-h wa District. N. Sitt-s, 
Missiiinury. Hnk-Chiang District, J. U, 
Worley, Missionary. Ing-chung Dis- 
trict, N. Sitef, Missionary. 

Black Hilla miMion of ttse n. E. 


Black Hills is the name of n group of 
hills in 8. W. Dakota. They are called 
black because of the dark tinge of the 
pine forests which cover them and well 
described in Longfcllows, "The song <>f 
Hiaw^atha." The hight-st point is Lar- 
amie Peak which is p,000 feet al)ove the 
sea. There are about 25,000 people in 

these hills, 2,000 of whom are engaged in 
mining. The largest stamp mill in the 
world is at Lend City. 

The mining for gold, silver and lead is 
%*erj' prcifitable; much excitement h»s 
been canned of lute by the discovery of 
tin near Custer City of which an expert. 
Lord Thurliivv, by name, treating of tha 
Black Hills tin, November 10. 1>*87, says: 
•' Within twenty miles of where the rail- 
road now runs, tin exists on the surface 
of the Black Hills in unlimited quanti- 
ties and of remarkable purity. " and 
further on he says, " .\merica will 
(|uarry itsown tin-stone out of Dakota 
hill-sides. These things are as certain 
as night follows daj-." In a few months 
$150,000 woi-king capital for the tin 
mines, will, it is expected, open another _ 
great industry in these hills. ■ 

The climate thus far through the win- * 
ter has been delightful. Xo sleighing ; 
only five days which has not been warm 
enough to thaw. A warm wind called a 
Chinook, st^ts in and tempers the climate. 
Hoi-ses, and usually cattle, pick a good 
living throughout the winter on the 
ranges, requiring no care. The soil is very 
rich and in the last few years more at- 
tention is given to farming, though as 
yet the crops do not supply the home de- 

The special barriers against our work 
is the prevalent and most universal Sab- 
bath desecration. The immense power, 
the saloons, gambting-ilena, dance-house 
and ail intense worldly spirit. It nmst 
be confessed-that " God saw the wicked- 
ness of rnan that it was great" in these 
parts, But the worst is past and the 
character of the people is rapidly chang- 
ing for the better. 

Wf ran report for our mission here a 
good growth and a pro.sperous condition. 
Our Hrst ordained preacher in the Hills 
was Henry W. Smith, who l>egau preach- 
ing here May 7tli. 18711, at Custer City, 
in a log-house with sawdust tlijor. He 
earneil his living by phynical labor, and 
went jtreacliing from place to place until 
on Sunday, August 20th, 1876, while at- 
tempting to go to Crook to preach, was 
killed by the Indians. 

We now have elev«^ri ministers, one of 
wluiin, James Williams, of Spearflsh. is 
our loved Supt.; nine churches worth 
$3ti.200; seven parsonages; twenty-four 
Sabbath-schoolH with 1,000 pupils. Thus 
it is seen that the Methiwlist EpiscniwI 
Church with characteristic energy, is 
sounding the Gospel call and battling 
and building to make the entire country 
ail empire for Christ, its best and rightful ■ 
King. I 

To all our Christian jjeople thinking of 
coming to the Hills the writer will gladly 
correspond, and to those who come 
cordial welcome will be given 

Slurgis, Dakotn. 




ome ^M 

Eugene R. Smith, 


MARCH, 1888. 

80B Szx>Gw3.'-wa7-, 

Ne« York City. 





Coiiintry and P«*(>[>h' of Arg;riit1iia, Irut^uaj', 
and rara!i;ua.v. 

The Argentine Republic is composed of a group of 
fourteen provinces or states and nine territories formerly 
known by the name of " Provincias Unidas del Rio de 
la Plata." The executive is a president who is elected for 
six years, and the legislative authority is vested in a 
National Congress, the Senate of which has 30 members 
and the House of Deputies S6 members. Both president 
and vice-president must be Roman Catholics and natives 
of the Re[niblic, anil cannot be re-elected. The present 
President is Dr. Miguel Juarez Celman, who was installed 
in office October 12, 1886. 

The Constitution is very similar to that of tlu- I'nited 
States. It recognizes the Roman Catholic religion as 
that of the State, but all other creeds are tolerated. 
Much attention is paid to education. In 1885 there were 
3,253 elementary schools with 168,378 [)U]>ils, 15 lyieums 
with 3,189 jiupils, I universities and 15 normal schools 
for females with 3,596 students, and 6 normal schools for 
males with 1,784 students. 

The Republic comprises the city of Buenos Ayres; the 
provinces of Buenos Ayres, Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Cor- 
rientes, Rioja, Catamarca, San Juan, Mendoza, Cordova, 
San Luis, Santiago del Estero, Tucumaii, Salta and 
Jujuy, and the territories of Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, 
Pampa, Rio Negro, Neuquen. Chiibut, Santa Cruz, and 
Tierra del I'uego. with an area of 1,125,086 square miles, 
and a population in 1886 of 3,100,000, including 400,000 
foreigners. Of the foreigners 130,000 are Italians, 
60.000 Frenc:h, 60,000 Spaniards, 20,000 English and 
10,000 Ciermans. 

The capital is Buenos Ayres with a population of 400,- 
000, Other towns are Cordova with 49,600, Rosario 42,- 
ooo,Tucuman 26,300, Mendoza 18,200, Corrientes 15,500. 

Cattle and sheep breeding constitute the most import- 
ant industry, and the chief exports are mutton, wool, 
hides, tallow, horns, bones, and wheat. 


Uruguay was at one time a province of Brazil, but de- 
claring its independence in 1S25 it was recognized by a 
treaty made in 182S, and its constitution as a republic 
was adopted in 1830. The Roman Catholic is the State 
religion, but there is rom]ilete toleration. Primary edu- 
cation is compulsory. 

In 1884 the University of Montevideo had 29 profes- 
sors and 1,148 students, and there were 320 public 
schools, with 576 teachers and 27,331 pupils. 

The President is Maximo Tages, who was elected in 
November, 18S6, for four years. 

The area of Uruguay is 73,538 square miles, and it had 
a i>opulation in 1884 of 593,248. The country is divided 
into 18 provinces. In 1884 the capital, Montevideo, 
with suburbs, had a population of 104,472, of whom 
about one-third were foreigners. The jirincipal exports 


are animals, preserved meat, skins and hides, tallow, and 
wool. The raising of cattle and sheep is the chief in- 


The Republic uf Paraguay gained its independence 
from Spanish rule in 181 1. The President is General 
Escobar, who was elected September, 18S6, for a term of 
four year.s. The Roman Catholic Church is the cstah 
lished religion, but the free exercise of other religions is 
permitted. In 1885 there were 96 state public schools, 
with 3,676 pupils ; 50 private schools, with 1,424 pupils; 
and a national college, with 150 students. 

The area of the republic is estimated at 91,970 square 
miles. The census t)f 1S79 gave a population of 346,048, 
exclusive of 60,000 semi-civilized and 70,000 savage In- 
dians. The population in 1879 of the capital, Asuncion, 
was 16,000; of Villa Rica. 12,570; of Concepcion, 10,697; 
San Pedro, 9,706; Luque. 8,878. The chief articles of 
export are the ytrbo mate, or Paraguayan tea, and 

The year in Paraguay is divided into two seasons, — 
"summer" lasting from October to March, and "winter" 
from April to September. December, January, and Feb- 
ruary are generally the hottest months, and May, June, 
July, and August the coldest, The most temperate 
month is .\pril. 'ihe mean temperature for summer is .— 
81°, for winter 71". It is estimated that the wind blows ■ 
from the south on 118 days, and from the north on 103: 
while from the east it blows 44 days, and from the west 
3 days in the year. The south wind is dry, cool, fresh, and 
invigorating; the north wind is hot, moist, and relaxing. 



The Southern Portion of South Anu'rica. 


For a people so boastful of our enterprise and intelli- 
gence, we are shamefully ignorant of what is going on at 
the other end of the heuiis]jhere, although transactions 
there are of much greater concern to us than the struggle 
for home rule in Ireland or the invasion of Afghanistan. 
We shall be roused from our indifference presently, how- 
ever, when we meet the rs/a/uuros of Uruguay and the 
Argentine Republic in the markets for bread-stuffs and 
provisions which our fanners and ranchmen have been 
Mcu&iomcd to consider a permanent possession of their 
<"i*-R. It is said to cost fifty dollars to jilace a carcass of 
Chicago dressed beef in the markets of London. The 
etiuuieros of the Argentine Republic are now shipping 
from seven to ten thousand carcasses a month, and those 
of I'ruijuay almost as many, at one-half that sum. Five 
irars ago these countries imported their bread-stuffs from 
Chili and the United States. In 1884 they commenced 
to export cereals, and during 1886 wheat, corn, and rye 
to the value of nearly seven millions and a half of 
dollars were shipped to Brazil and Great Britain. It is 
Kiimated, from the increased acreage under cultivation, 

[that the surplus product for e\|j<)rt in the Argentine Re- 
imblic in 1887 will amount to the value of ten million 
slLars. and that of Uruguay about one-third more. We 

lare sending from four to seven million dollars' worth of 

[flour annually to Brazil. Mills are now being erected 
to reduce the wheat of the Argentine Republic, and 

fit will not be many years before the latter country vvill 
jcpnve us of our markets for bread-stuffs on the east 
St of the Americas and the West Indies, as Chili has 
upon the west coast. 
The valley of the Rio de la Plata — and by that term is 

[indicated all the temperate zone of South America except 

|Chili — will ne^'er compete with us in manufactured goods, 
luse there is no fuel or water-power there, and the 
Dative* have no taste for mechanical industries; but at 
tie present cost of production and transportation in the 

[United States they must ultimately drive us out of the 

luurkets for provisions and bread-stuffs. If ocean ships 

Iviuld load at Denver and Minneapolis, if we could de- 
iver beef cattle at tide-water at ten or twelve dollars a 

[bod and wheat at sixty cents a bushel, then we might 

[cnmpete with them; but with an area one-third the size 
the United States, a very small portion of which is in- 

' capable of production, an extensive system of internal 
navigation, the value of which is enhanced by the depth 
of its rivers, supplemented by a net-work of railways, the 

Itotions of the La Plata have advantages surpassing those 
»{ any other nation on earth. In climate, in topograijhy, 

land in resources they resemble the United States. The 
pu^)as are similar to the prairies of our own West ; the 
'bleak and uninhabitable wastes " of Patagonia have de- 

1 veJoped into the richest of pastures, like the " Great 
American Desert" which used to lie between the Mis- 

I souri River and the mountains. The pampas are of rich 
deep loam in the lowlands, and rise in mighty terraces to 

the west, where upon the uplands millions of cattle can 
be fed and sheltered. The foot-hills of the .Andes are 
similar tu the mountains of Colorado, and are practically 
unexplored. In the north are thousands of square miles 
of timber, and beyond it a soil that will produce sugar, 
tobacco, coffee, cotton, and rice. Within 1200 miles of 
Buenos Ayres can be grown every jilant known to the 
liotanists, and nature has provided the facilities for get- 
ting the results of that growth to market with a most gen- 
erous hand. 

During the last twenty-five years the po[3ulation of the 
Argentine Republic has increased 154 per cent., while 
that of the L'nited States has increased but 79 per cent., 
and the city of Buenos Ayres is growing faster than Min- 
neapolis or Denver. Last year it received 124,000 im- 
migrants from Europe, and the natural increase is very 
large. The new-comers are mostly Italians and Basques, 
with a sprinkling of Germans, Swiss and Swedes. To 
tempt the immigrants into the agricultural districts the 
government has enacted land laws even more liberal than 
ours. Each head of a family is entitled to 250 acres 
free, and as much more as he desires to purchase, to a 
limit of 1500 acres, at about seventy-five cents an acre in 
our money. Or the settler may acquire 1500 acres free 
after five years by planting 200 acres to grain and twenty- 
four acres to timber. Free transportation from Buenos 
Ayres to the place of location is granted to all settlers 
and their families, exemption from taxation for ten years, 
and colonization societies are organized which issue 
bonds guaranteed by the government, the proceeds of 
which are loaned to the settlers in sums not greater than 
$1000, for five years, with interest at six per cent., upon 
the cultivation of a certain amount of land and the erec- 
tion of a certain amount of improvements. The results 
' of these beneficent laws are conspicuous. In r886 nearly 
nine hundred thousand acres of wild land were ploughed 
and planted. One firm in Buenos Ayres sold 1200 reapers 
manufactured in the United States, and other firms a 
lesser number; elevators are being erected upon the 
banks of the rivers, from which wheat is loaded into ves- 
sels for Brazil and Europe, and the average crop was 
twenty-two bushels of wheat to the acre. 

Until within a few years the chief source of wealth was 
cattle and sheep. In 1885 there were forty -one million 
sheep in the United States, seventy-two millions in Aus- 
tralia, and one hundred millions in the Argentine Re- 
public. We have two-thirds of a sheep to every inhabi- 
tant; in the .Argentine Republic there are twenty-five" 
sheep, and in Uruguay forty sheep, to every man, woman, 
and child. We have forty millions of horned cattle to a 
population of sixty millions; the .\rgentine Republic and 
Uruguay have thirty-eight millions of cattle to a popula- 
tion of four and a half millions. In Uruguay, with a 
population of five hundred thousand souls, there are eight 
millions of cattle, twenty millions of sheep, two million 
horses, or sixty head of stock for each man, woman, and 
child. Fifteen million dollars has been invested in wire 
fences in Uruguay alone, and more than twice as much 



in the Argentine Republic. In either of the countries a 
cow can be bought for five dollars, a steer fattened for 
the market for ten or twelve dollars, a pair of oxen for 
twenty-five dollars, a sheep for fifty or sixty cents, an 
ordinary working-horse for eight or ten dollars, and a 
roadster for twenty-five, a mule for fifteen dollars, and a 
mare for whatever her hide will bring. Mares are never 
broken to saddle or harness, but are allowed to run wild 
in the pastures from the time they are foaled till they 
cease to be of value for breeding, when they are driven 
to the saUikros. or slaughter-houses, and killed for their 
hides. A man who would use a mare under the saddle 
or before a wagon would be_considered of unsound mind. 
There is a superstition against it. 

Though we of the United States have little to do with 
the Argentine Republic nowadays, the pioneers of the 
prosperity of that country were citizens of this. In 1826 
William Wheelright, of Pennsylvania, was wrecked on the 
-Argentine coast,and 
made his way to a 
small town called 
Quilmar, hat less, 
coatless. bootless, 
and star\ing. He 
remained in the 
place because he had 
no means to pay his 
passage elsewhere, 
and forty years later 
constructed the first 
railroad in South 
America, from Quil- 
mar to Buenos 
A)Tes. He built the 
first railroad in Chili 
also, and is the 
founder of the Pa- 
cific Steam Naviga- 
tion Company, 
whose vessels run 
twice a week from 
Liverpool to Pan- 
ama, through the 
Strait of Magellan. 
Both Chili and the 
Argentine Republic 
have erected monu- 
ments to the mem- 
ory of Mr. Wheel- 
wright in their pub- 
lic squares. Another 
citizen of the United 
States may be given 
the credit of estab- 
lishing the first 
ranch in the Argen- 
tine Republic, and 
laying the founda- 

Irfinyllit.lp Wwiif 6y from Oryihwlch 




FUklalul U. 

tion of the wealth of the nation. This was Thorn; 
Lloyd Halscy. of New Jersey, who in 1826 introduces 
improved stock from the United States, and com 
menced the business of raising them. Both Mi 
Wheelwright and Mr, Halsey are dead, but M 
Samuel B. Hale, who went down from Boston in 1828 
and established the first commission-house in the repub 
lie, still lives to enjoy the esteem of the people and thi 
great wealth he has accumulated, being recognized as thi 
pioneer of the foreign commerce of the country. 

From the herds Mr. Halsey imported have sprung tb 
millions of sheep that now graze upon the pampas, an( 
single ranches exist there which for the area inclosed b| 
wire fences and for the number of cattle branded an 
larger than four of the largest in the United States com 
bined. As in this country, the cattle business is becoming 
monopolized by vast corporations. Rich Englishmen 
and Scotchmen and Irishmen are combining their interfl 

ests, leasing or buy- 
ing empires of terri- 
tory, and stocking i 
with the best breeds 
Companies with fiv« 
million dollars capi- 
tal are common, and 
those with ten mill- 
ions are not rare 
The governments of 
.Argentine and Uru- 
guay subsidize thel 
business of export* 
ing frozen meat, and 
the Germans as well ' 
as the English and 
Scotch are taking 
advantage of the lib- 
e r a I con cessions. 
.The government*] 
will guarantee divi- 
dends of 5 per cent 
per annum upon an 
investment of five- 
hundred thousands 
dollars or more, pro- 
vided the annual ex- 
ports amounted 
twenty "thousan 
carcasses of beef for 
every one hundred 
dollars invested. J 
The Liebig Extract^ 
of Beef Com]>any 
has fifteen million 
of dollars investe 
at Fray Bentos, 
little t^wn on th 
Uruguay Rivt- r, 
where it consum 




4 i if 





half a million head of cattle a year, and pays dividends 
of twenty-four per cent. The London and River Plate 
Frozen Meat Company is becoming as great a commer- 
cial octopus as the Standard Oil Company, and is now 
shipping seven thousand carcasses a week to England on 
refrigerator ships constructed for the purpose. 

There used to be a place called Patagonia. It appears 
on our geographies now as " a dtear and uninhabitable 
Haste, upon which herds of wild horses and cattle graze, 
that are hunted for their flesh by a few bands of savage 
Indians of immense stature." I am quoting from a 
school-book published in 1886, and in common use in 
this country. The same geography gives similar informa- 
tion about " the Argentine Confederation." It makes 

sea, and the Argentine Republic the pampas, the archi- 
pelago of Tierra del Fuego being divided between them. 
Since the partition ranchmen have been pushing south- 
ward with great rapidity, and now the vast territory is 
practically occupied. There are no more wild cattle or 
horses there than in Kansas, and the dreary, uninhabited 
wastes of Patagonia have gone into oblivion with the 
"Great American Desert." The remnant of a vast tribe 
of aborigines still occupies the interior, but the Indian 
problem of the Argentine Republic was solved in a sum- 
mary way. There was considerable annoyance on the 
frontier from bands of roving savages, who used to come 
north in the winter-time, steal cattle, rob, and ravish, and 
the outposts of civilization were not safe. General Roca, 


the .Argentines roar with rage to call their country " the 
Argentine Confederation." It would bejust as polite and 
proper to call this the " Confederate States of America." 
A bitter, bloody war was fought to wipe that name off 
the map, but our publishers still insist on keeping it there. 
It is not a confederation; it is a Nation, with a big " N," 
like ours, one and inseparable, united we stand, divided 
we fall, and all that sort of thing — the Argentine Repub- 
lic. To call it anything else is an insult to the patriots 
who fought to make it so, and a reflection upon our own 

Several years ago Patagonia was divided between Chili 
and the .\rgentine Republic, the Ministers of the United 
Stales to those two countries doing the carving. The 
summits of the Cordilleras were fixed as the boundary 
lines. Chili took the Strait of Magellan and the strip 
along the Pacific coast between the mountains and the 

the Sheridan of the River Plate, was sent with a brigade 
of cavalry to the frontier to prevent this sort of thing. 
East and west across the territory runs the Rio Negro, a 
swift, turbid stream like the Missouri, with high banks. 
Fifty miles or so from the mountains the river makes a 
turn in its course, and leaves a narrow pathway through 
which everything that enters or leaves Patagonia by land 
must go. .\cross this pass of fifty miles General Roca dug 
a ditch twelve feet deep and fifteen feet wide. The In- 
dians, to the number of several thousand, were north when 
the work was done, raiding the settlements. As spring 
came they turned to go southward as usual, in a long car- 
avan, with their stolen horses and cattle. Roca galloped 
around their rear and drove them night and day before 
him. When they reached the ditch they became bewilder- 
ed, for they could not cross it, and after a few days of 
slaughter the remnant that survived surrendered, and 

were distribxited through the army as soldiers, while the 
women were sent into a semi-slavery among the ranch- 
men they had robbed. The dead animals and men were 
buried together in the ditch, and there has been no 
further annoyance from Indians on the frontier. 

The few that remain seldom (.ome northward, but re- 
main around Piinta Arenas, the only .settkmcnt in the 
Strait, hunting the ostrich and other wild game, trading 
the skin.s for whiskey, and making themselves as wretched 
as possible. The robes they wear are made of the skins 
of the guanaco, a species of ihe llama, and the breasts of 
young o,striches. There is nothing prettier than an 
ostrich robe, but each one represents the slaughter of 
from si.xteen to twenty young birds, and they are getting 
rare and expensive as the birds are being exterminated, 
as our bufifaloes have been. 

The Gaucho (gowcho) of the pampas is the most in- 
teresting character on the continent. He is the descen- 
dant of the aristocratic Spanish don and the women of the 
Guarani race, a species unknown to any other part of the 
world, whose nearest likeness is the Bedouin of Arabia. 
He is at once the most indolent and the most active of 
human beings, for when he is not in the saddle. devouHng 
space on the back of a tireless broncho, he is sleeping in 
apathetic indolence among his mistresses or gambling 
with his chums. Half savage and half courtier, the Gau- 
cho is as courteous as he is cruel, and will thrum an air 
on the native mandolin with the same ease and wrv;- 
chalame as he wili murder a fellow-being or slaughter 
a steer. He recognizes no law but his own will and the 
unwritten code of the cattle range, and all violations of 
this code are punished by banishment or death. Who- 
ever offends him must fight or (ly, and his vengeance is 
as enduring as it is vigilant. He never shoots, or strikes 
with his fist, and his only weapons are the short knife 
which is never absent from his hand or his belt, the lasso, 
and the " bolas," imijlements of his trade, offensive and 
defensive. \ fight between Gauchos is always to the 
death, and it is the duty of him who kills to see that his 
victim is decently buried, and the widow and orphans 
cared for. The widow, if she [(leases him, becomes his 
mistress, and the orphans grow up to be Gauchos under 
his tutelage. As superstitious as a Hindu, peaceable 
when sober, but regardless of God and man when drunk, 
as brave as a lion, as active as a panther, with an endur- 
ance equal to any test, faithful to his friends, as im- 
placable as fate to any one who olTends him, he has ex- 
ercised a powerful influence upon the destiny of the 
Argentine Republic, and retarded civilization until over- 
come by an increased immigration of foreigners. 

The Argentines once had a Gaucho Dictator, Don 
Manual Rosas, "The Eternal," as he called himself, who 
ruled with a despotism of iron and blood for twenty-two 
years — from 1830 to 1S52. He was the son of a wealthy 
Gaucho of the same name, and commanded a regiment 
of his kind in the war for independence. So powerful 
d'ld he become that it was an easy step from the chief- 
tatnsJiip of the Gauchos to the Presidency of the repub- 


lie, and finally to the head of an absolute despotis!n,j 
which existed for nearly a quarter of a century, in defi-B 
ance of the constitution and the laws. 

Rut the day of the Gaucho is passing. Immigration 
and civilization have driven him to the extreme frontierj 
Like the North American Indians, he decays when d 
mesticated, and a tame Gaucho is always a drunkard, 
loafer, and a thief. • 

Silver ornaments for bridle and saddle are legal tende 
in exchange for anything saleable wherever the Gauch 
goes, and what is his seat by day and his pillow by night 
he uses as a sort of savings-bank. I have seen saddles 
worth a thousand dollars with solid silver stirrups, ponv 
mels, and ornaments, weighing as much as a man 
pair of silver spurs are worth anywhere from $50 to $100, 
according to size and workmanship, and stirrups of solid 
silver in the form of a heelless slipper the belles of .\r 
gentinc consider essential to a riding costume. Th< 
same are often made of brass, and when highly polished 
add a uniipie fe.Tture to the accoutrements of an Argen- 
tine caballero. 

The .\rgentine poncho is a great institution, and i 
some fashionable swell in New York would set the styli 
by wearing one, it would add greatly to the comfort of 
our people as well as to their convenience. There neve 
was a garment better adapted for out-of-doar use, and 
particularly -for plainsmen or those who are much in the 
saddle. It is a blanket of ordinary size, with a split in 
the centre through which the head goes, and the foldt- 
hang down us far as the knees, giving free use to thea 
arms, but always furnishing them and the rest of the 
body shelter. In summer it shields the wearer from the 
sun, in winter it is as warm as an nlster, and in rain 
days takes the place of an umbrella. The native 
never without it, summer or winter, afoot or horseback, 
at home or abroad. It stays by him like his shadow, 
and gives him an overcoat by day and a blanket by night. 
Ponchos were formerly made of the hair of the vi< ui\a, 
a sort of cross between the llama and the antelope, found 
in the Bolivia Andes, Before the conquest vicufla wa» 
the royal ermine of the Incas, and none but persons of 
princely blood were allowed to wear it. A vicufla pon<.h» 
is as soft as velvet and as durable as steel. You can find! 
plenty of them in Argentine and Chili that have been in' 
the old families for two centuries or more, and have 
been handed down with the family jewels as heirlooms. 
They never wear out,\, like lace, improve with age. 
But genuine vicufia jtonchos are hard to get, and very 
expensive, costing as much as a camel's hair shawl. The 
color is a delicate fawn, and will not change when wetj 
which is a sure test of its genuineness. Most of the fine 
ponchos worn nowadays are made of lamb's wool in Man- 
chester, England, and cannot be distinguished from 
vicuna except by experts; but tons after tons of lhe« 
common sort, made of cotton and wool of gaudy color^^ 
are now imported annually, which answer the purpose of 
the Gaucho just as well, while the bright tints please his 
taste better. 





But the Gaucho. the [jomho. the solid silver stirrups, ' 
and the other lostumes as well as ciistuins of a mmanlit 
past, are being dissii)ated under the new rf^intf. Mod- 
em ideas and modern inventions are seized hy ihe Argen- 
tines with an eager grasi), and are enjoyed with great 
gratification. The tstancifro now goes to his camp on a 
Pullman car instead of a silver-laden saddle, he talks \ 
over a telephone with the superintendent of his ranch, 
and slaughters his cattle hy electric light. The people 
are now a hundred years ahead of any other Spanish 
American city. Buenos .Ayres seems more like Chicago 
than any place south of Mason and Dixon's line. Five 
railroads radiate from it in different directions; 122 
miles of street-car tracks furnish conveyance within its 
limits; there are more telephones in use in ))roportion to 
the population than in any other city on the gloiie : the 
electric light is in more general use for streets, dwellings, 
and business houses than in New ^■o^k or Boston ; nine 
theatres are constantly open : Italian opera i,s given 
twice a week for six months in the year, with, tickets at 
six dollars ; and there are twenty-one daily newspa|)ers, 
two of which are published in the Knglish language, the 
editor of the most enterprising being Winslovv, the fugi- 
tive Boston forger. There are banks in Buenos .\yres 
larger in capital and volume of business than almost any in 
the world, and occupying (>alaces of iron, glass, and marble. 
The bank of the Provime has a paid-up ca|)ital of $37,- 
000,000, a circulation of §22,000,000, deposits amounting 
Ito $56,000,000, and $67,000,000 of loans and discounts. 
I'he National bank has a c:tpital of $20,000,000, one-half 
of the stock belonging to the government, and it pays divi- 
dends of twenty-two per cent. There an- nine banks 
with more than a million capital, and the average amount 
of de|30sits per capita of population is sixty-four dollars, 
while it is only forty-nine dollars in the United States. 

Where the rivers do not run, the government is build- 
ing railroads, and on the ist of January, 1887, there were 
4,200 miles under operation, with contrai ts for an exten- 
sion of the system amounting to nearly fifty millions of 
di»llars. All of the roads are either owne<I by the gov- 
ernment or subsidized by it. 'I'he common method is 
for Congress to give a tract of land as a gratuity, and 
guarantee interest to the amount of four or five per cent, 
upon the actual amount of money in\ested in construc- 
tion. It is a singular fact that the government has never 
been called upon to make good any of the several rail- 
road guarantees. It is < laimed that the capital invested 
in railroads in the Argentine Republic gives a larger 
return than in any other country, the dividends for the 
entire system averaging over si.x per cent. Nearly all 
the capital is Englisii, while most of the employes arc 
Irish or Scotchmen. Baldwin locomotives and Pullman 
cars are generally used, and constitute, with agricultural 
machinery, the bulk of the imports from this country. 
There are very few [leople in the United States who are 
aware that Pullman sleeping cars are running across the 
pampas from the Atlantic Ocean to the foot-hills of the 
Andes, and it will be a surprise when i say that within a 

year or two those w ho desire to cross the southern con- 
tinent from ocean to ot ean may have a choice of railway 
routes. One line, now completed with the exception of 
a hundred miles or so, runs almost directly from Buenos 
.\yres t(> Valparaiso, Chili. The other is to connect the 
|»ort of Bahia Hlan< a, two hundred miles south of Bueno.s 
Ayres, with the coal-fields at Conception and Talca- 
huano, on the Pacific coast. These roads will save com- 
nierce five thousand miles of ocean navigation aroiind by 
the Strait, and revolutionize the trade of the continent. 

But an enterprise of still greater magnitude and im- 
portance to the world at large is the railway that is being 
l)ushed into the heart <jf the continent northward from 
Buenos .\yres. Let whoever is interested in the subject 
take a ma]) and trace a line northward through Santa F6 
and Santiago to Tucimian. where the railroad now ex- 
tends; then to Jujuy, to which point it is under con- 
struction ; thence northward to Potosi and the lake of 
rili( aca, on whose islands the empire of the Incas was 
born. There is a railway now fnjm the Pacific coast to 
Lake Titicaca, oijeralcd by a Mr. Thorndyck, of Boston, 
and all the produce of Boli\ia reaches market by that 
route; but having once reached the Pacific, it must be 
transjiorted througJi the Strait or around the Horn, or 
by the Isthmus, which route shippers avoid. 

Bolivia is d<juiitless the richest in minerals of any land 
on the globe, and millions upfm millions of precious 
metals have been taken out of her m'iocs by the primitive 
jirocess which still exists, and tmret exist till Railroads 
are constructed to carry machinery there. Every ounce 
of ore that finds its way out of the Andes is carried on 
the back of a man or a llama, and the quartz is crushed 
by rolling heavy logs upon it. By this' niethod Bolivia 
exports from twelve to fifteen millitms of gold and silver 
i annually, and the output would be fabulous if modern 
I machinery could be taken into the mines. '^I'he distance 
j from Jujuy to the farthest mining district of Bolivia is 
seven hundred miles, and it is no farther to the diamond 
fields of Brazil. Bolivia offers a grant of twelve square 
leagues of land and forty thousand dollars a mile for the 
extension of .\rgenline Northern to Sucre, and English 
capitalists are ready to continue the work as soon as ihe 
Argentine government drops it at the boundary line. 
When it is l)uilt the own«r of this road will hold the key 
to a country which has excited the cupidity of adven- 
turers since the New "World was discovered. It has fur- 
nished food for four centuries of fable, and armies of 
men have dii;d in se.frt;h of its treasures. A territory as 
large as that which lies between the Mississippi River and 
the Rocky Mountains remains entirely unexplored. On its 
borders are the richest of agriiultural lands, immense 
tracts of timber, diamond-strewn streams, and the silver 
and gold deposits of Cerro de Pasco and Potosi. What 
I lies within is the subject of speculation. The tales of 
I explorers who have attemjited to ))enetrate its mysteries 
read like the old romances of (lolconda and the El Do- 
rado of the -Amazons, where the women warriors wore 
armors of solid gold ; but the swam[)s and tlie moun- 


tains, the rivers that cannot be forded and the jungles 
which forbid search, the absence of food, and the diffi- 
culty of carrying suffirient supplies on foot, with the 
other obstacles that have prevented exploration, will be 
overcome eventually, and the secret that has tantahzed 
the world for four centuries will be told by ambitious 

Hinton R. Helper, who wrote ;i book that hastened the 
-\merican civil war, is considered a lunatic because he 
goes about advocating the tonstruction of a railway from 
the city of Mexico southward to the capital of the Argen- 
tine Republic, but his arguments and the answers to 
them are the same that were used when Thomas H. Ben- 
ton advocated a transrontinental line in the United 
States. Mr. Helper anticipates events, that is all. He 
may not live to see through trains running from New 
York to the Rio de la Plata, but they areas certain as the 
movement of the stars, and to doubt it is simply to assert 
that the coming generation will not be as enterprising as 

It is expected that the railway to the northern boun- 
dary of the republii: will be completed by the end of the 
present year, and the shippers on the Faeific c(jast will 
not have to wait mm h longer till two lines of track are 
open to the .Xtlantii-. *'I"hen Iluenos Ayres will be the 
London, the New York, of South Ameri«:a, the entrepot 
of the south half of the continent. .\ll merchandise 
sent to and from the Pai ific must pass through its ports. 
and the enterprising government is preparing to handle 
it. When Pedro Mendozo, in 1533, came to establish a 
colony on the Rio de la Plata, he selected about the 
worst spot he could have found for his city, althuugh he 
had half of South .\merica to choose from. But. as was 
the rule with the Pickwick Club, Spanish explorers went 
out at their own expense, and Don Pedro stuck his stakes 
where he landed. The site of the tity has been repeat- 
edly changed on the map, but no influence has been suf- 
ficient to induce the people to move, until now they have 
accumulated to the number of four hundred thousand. 
and such an act cannot be expected of them. The river 
is about sixty miles wide, and the water tjorrespondingly 
shallow. The erosion of forty thousand miles of swift- 
flowing current is dumped in front of the [ilai e where 
docks ought to be, and vessels have to anchor from seven 
to ten miles out to find water enough to float. There 
they are loaded and unloaded by means of lighters, and 
in the winter season, when that dreadful pest the "pam- 
pero" (a prairie wind) blows, they often have to lie for 
a week at a time waiting for the water to go down so 
that they can land their luad and passengers. Nor can 
the lighters reach the shore, but the freight has to be 
unloaded into water wagons, with wheels about seven feet 
in diameter, drawn by mules that are driven into the 
stream till only the tips of their noses are abo\e water. 
Passengers who arrive are given the choice between a 
cart and the back of a sturdy Italian, who never fails to 
swear by all the saints and the Virgin that the man on his 
back is the heaviest he e\er carried, and demands more 

than the usual fee for extra baggage. Lacking confi- 
dence in the sincerity of the eargador, the passenger will 
promise him heaven and earth it he won't drop ihm into 
the water, and fights for fair treatment when he gets 
safely on shore. .A.11 freight has to be handled at least 
three times between the steamer and the, and 
the cost of loading and unloading is double the trans- 
portation to Hamburg or Liverpool. 

To reinedy this the government has tried \ arious means 
and expended a large sum of money. Finally a contract 
has been entered into with an English firm for the con- 
struction of a harbof — a pocket of piers with the mouth 
down-stream, which it is believed is practicable, and will 
allow vessels to be docked. The cost is to be ten mil- 
lion dollars, and the time of construction limited to five 

The magnitude and the increase of the foreign com- 
merce of the valley of the River Plate are remarkable. 
In 1876 the Argentine Republic imported thirty-six mil- 
lions worth of manufactured merchandise; in 1885 the 
imports reached eighty-four millions. In 1875 the for 
eign e:ommerre of Uruguay amounted to twenty-five mil- 
lions ; in 1885, the last figures obtainable, it had jumped 
to over fifty-two millions. One-third of the imports 
are furnished by England, and about one-fifth each by 
l''ran<e and Germany, while the United States comes in 
at the tail of the list, along with Sweden and Hungary. 
We buy a lot of cari»et wool and many hide.s, for we 
must have them. They buy of us such goods as they 
cannot get elsewhere — agricultural implements, railroad 
cars and engines, a little lumber and petroleum, amount- 
ing to less than half of what we buy of them, huring 
the last ten years our exports to the River Plate valley 
have increased about three million dollars. Those of 
England during the same period have increased over 
twenty-two iDillions. 

Fifty-seven steamers arrived at Montevideo and Buenos 
•A-yres each month last year. There is not a city of any 
importance on the .Ktlantic or Mediterranean coast of 
Europe that has not direct lommunication at least twice 
a month, and most .it" them have steamers going back 
and forth weekly. In 1S86 there arrived at these ports 
309 steam-vessels from England alone, and not one from 
the United States. This great progressive nation was 
represented by two |)er cent, of the vessels that arrived 
under canvas, and yet there are those who wonder why 
we have no trade with the River Plate I 

Nearly all of the steamships which enter the mouth of 
that river receive subsidies from the nation under whose 
flag they sail. England. France, Germany. Belgium, 
Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, all encourage 
their ship-owners to furnish transportation facilities for 
their tradesmen. The English government spends five 
hundred thousand dollars a year for mail transportation 
to the River Plate, and the commerce she enjoys is the 
result. For several years there has been a standing offer 
on the part of the .\rgentine government of a subsidy of 
one hundred thousand dollars a year to any company 

that will establish direct steam communication with the 
United Slates, notwithstanding the fact that she has the 
benefit of twenty-one direct lines to Europe to whi( h 
she [lays no subsidies. There is. however, one serious 
condition attached to the offer whii h has [ircvented its 
acceptance. 'I'he government of the I'nited States must 
pay as much. 

The people of the River Plate countries are amazed 
and humiliated by the attitude of the United States 
toward them. They look at this as the Mother of Re- 
piihlics, they dispute with Chili the honor of being esti- 
mated " the \'ankees of South America." They study 
and imitate our methods, and in many instances have 
ini]iroved iipon them. They want intimate jjolitical and 
I ommeri ial relations; they want a reciprotiiy treaty, 
under which they agree to admit free of duty our pecu- 
liar products, provided we will admit free their caqjet 
wool. No protection will be removed from our indus- 
tries, for we do not produce the wool they sell us — the 
heavier, coarser varieties, used for making carjiets alone. 
They offer to give us ten to one. and we now discrimi- 
nate against this friendly neighbor by the classifuation 
in our custom-houses. To be the I'nited States of South 
America is the ambition of the Argentine Republic. 
While Brazil has the greater population, and Chili is 
exulting boastfully over her devastation of Peru, the 
Argentine Republic is enjoying the greatest jirosperity, 
and laying the most solid foundation for national great- 
ness. Its credit is gcKjd among nations, its l>onds are 
above par. Its people enjoy civil and religious liberty to 
a greater degree than any other of the Spanish American 
nations. Its next generation will wipe out all the old 
traditions of Spanish domination, for the young men and 
women of the republic are being educated as ours arc, to 
be useful citizens. 

The foremost citizen of the .Argentine Republic, till 
his recent death at a ripe old age, was Francisco Do- 
mingo Sarmiento. He was once Minister to the United 
States, and while here be< ame imbued with the spirit of 
our institutions. Being elected President, his first exec- 
utive act was to organize a school system similar to that 
of the State of Michigan, ^^•hich he most admired, and 
the university of that State rctognizcd the compliment 
by honoring him with the degree of Doctor of Laws. 
Through the co-operation of the widow of Horace Mann, 
he imported twenty or more teachers from the United 
States to organize a grouj) of high-grade normal schools 
for the education of instructors, which are still in oi<era- 
tion, and have ])roved a great success. Between thirty 
and forty ladies are now engaged in the work, most of 
them graduates of our highest institutions of learning. 
Their influence has been wide-spread. Their example 
has widened the spheres of the women of lh.-?t country, 
and broken down the old social restrictions inherited 
from Spanish times. Not long ago one of these ladies. 
Miss Clara .Armstrong, of Minnesota, was rebuked by 
the papa) envoy for teaching heresy in her school. He 
compia/ned of her to the Minister of Education, and the 

charges were investigated. Miss Armstrong was sus- 
tained by the government, and the papal envoy was ex- 

]iellcd from the country by order of the President for 
interfering with civil affairs. 

The annual ajjpropriations for the support of the 
school system are four millions a year, which is $10.20 
annually per pupil — ^a larger sum than any other govern- 
ment devotes. The average in the United States is 
$8.70, in (iermany $6, and in England $9.10. Educa- 
tion is compulsory, and seventy-two per cent, of the 
chilflren of school age in the re[iublic are enrolled. Not 
only arc the schools free, but books and apparatus are 

I furnished by the government. Teachers are paid larger 
salaries than in the United States, and are sent once a 

I year at the expense of the government to Teachers* In- 
stitutes, where they are instructed in the duties they are 
expected to perform. Those ]>upii.s who attend the nor- 
mal schools arc paid thirty dollars a month for a course 
of three years, provided they will sign a pledge to teach 
three years at salaries not less than $1480 a year. The 
two national uni\ersities at Cordova and Buenos Ayres. 
like the common schools are free lo all who enter them. 
The former has a faculty f>f twenty i>rofessors, and 
two hundred and ten students ; the latter a faculty 
of forty-two, and over four hundred students. The 
instructors are mostly Germans, but the director of 
the National Observatory is an .American, Mr. B. 
.A. (iould. 

There are a Church of England society, a Scotch 
Presbyterian, an .American Presbyterian, a German Evan- 
gelical, three .Methodist chun hes, ,tnd a Jewish synagogue 
— the only one in all Spanish .America. In some of the 
countries Jews are not allowed to live, but in Argentine, 
where religious as well as civil liberty is protected, they 
are numerous, and worshijt every Saturday in their own 
way. In 1884 the Methodists celebrated the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the first Protestant service held in the 
country, and it was emphasized by an incident Avhich 
attracted a great deal of comment, and was .significant as 
showing the religious toleration that exists. Formal invi- 
tations were sent as a mark of courtesy to the President 
and ail the prominent officials, but there was no expec- 
tation that they vs ould attend, as the great majority of 
the people are Catholics, and officials are sworn to sup- 
port that faith. Just as the services were about to com- 
mence, however, the managers of the affair were aston- 
ished to see the President, followed by his cabinet, walk 
into the church. Conspicuous seats were given them, 
and they seemed to take great interest in the exercises. 
.After the Rev. Dr. Wood, the Superintendent of Mis- 
sions, had concluded his address, in which he reviewed 
the history of Protestantism in .Argentine, he invited 
President Roca to s|>eak. The latter promptly responded, 
and the audience, knowing he had been born and reared 
in the Catholic Church, were amazed at the eulogy he 
pronounced upon the Protestant missionaries, and the 
enthusiasm with which he complimented the work they 
had done. To iKevr it\fluence he attributed much of the 

progress of the republic, and he urged them to enlarge 
their fields and increase their zeal. 

The term of office for which President Roca was 
elected expired in September, i8S6, and he was suc- 
ceeded in office by his brother-in-law, Juarez Celman, a 
gentleman of great learning and ability, who has served 
in various positions of distimtion, and was a Senator in 
Congress ai the lime of his inauguration. Roca was a 
soldier born and bred, frank, firm, positive, with a high 
ambition for the future of his country, and the true spirit 
of progress. Celman is a man of greater culture and 
experience in statesmanship. Roca sprang from the 
saddle into the President's chair. Celman comes ripened 
by long experience in |)ublic affairs, atid with (juite as 
broad views as his predecessor. He may not have the 
energy of Roca, but has better judgment. The six years 
for which he is elected will see great progress in the Ar- 
gentine Republic, and if the same degree of peace can 
be obtained in Uruguay, there will be a corresponding 
development there. 

The twin cities of Buenos Ayres and Montevideo are 
distant one hundred and ten miles, the former being on 
the right and the latter on the left bank of the river, 
which is sixty miles wide. Two lines of magnificent 
steamers conne<;t them — just a night's ride — and people 
go back and forth as they do between New York and 
Boston. The larger business firms and several of the 
bankers have houses in both cities, and the social as well 
as commercial conditions are similar. But the political 
history of Uruguay is a story of revolution and tyranny. 
The two political ])arties are "the Colorados " and "the 
Blancos," but I have never been able to find out what 
either represents, or wherein they differ, General Santos, 
who has been President most of the time since 1882, gave 
them an issue to fight over in the war of extermination 
he waged against the Catholics; but while the Church 
has always stood in the path of (irogress. and the priests 
have always been engaged in political conspiracy, Santos 
adopted extreme measures, and by his tyranny and ex- 
actions created a party of the opposition that was finally 
strong enough to overthrow him. 

The inhabitants of Uruguay are known as "Orien- 
tals " with a strong accent on the last syllable. Although 
it is the smallest of the South American states, its agri- 
cultural and pastoral resources ;trc believed to be the 
richest, with undiscovered possibilities in a mineral way. 
In the time of the Viceroys considerable gold and silver 
were obtained from placer washings, hut during the long 
struggle for independence, and the sixty years of internal 
wars that followed, the operation of the mines ceased, 
and their localities were forgotten or obliterated by the 
people, who were mercilessly robbed of the wealth they 
gathered from this source. No country ever suffered 
more from war than Uruguay, as for the last hundred 
years a bloody struggle, under one excuse or another, 
has been going on within her borders, and until Santos 
came into power, there was a new government, or an 
attempt to form one, aJniost every month. 

It is said that there is not an acre of unproductive 
land in Uruguay. The soil and climate are such that 
almost any grain or fruit in the list of food products can 
he raised with a minimum of labor. "I'here is plenty of 
useful timber, and the grass is so luxuriant and nutritiou.<; 
that more cattle can be fed upon a given area than in 
any country in the world. All Uruguay needs is peace 
to become rich and powerful. Her population has 
doubled within the last ten years, not from immigration 
alone, but from natural causes, for her statistics show a 
larger birth rale and a smaller mortality than any civil- 
ized nation. It is t]uite remarkable, and the fact is de- 
serving of attention from .scienlist.s, that of every 1,000 
births in Uruguay, the ratio for several years has been 
561 males to 439 females. In the United States the ratio 
was 506 males to 494 females by the last census, in Eng- 
land 485 males 10515 females, and on the continent of 
Europe 492 males to 508 females. Another remarkable 
fact is that the ratio of insane in only 95 per 100,000 of 
population, while in the United States it is 329, in Great 
Britain 322, and on the continent uf Europe 248 to the 
100,000. But what is equally interesting to home-seekers 
is that food products are cheaper in Uruguay than any- 
where else on earth. Beef, mutton, and fish cost fron^ 
three to six cents per ])ound, eggs seven and ten cents 
per dozen, partridges and similar game birds ten cents 
each, domesti< fowls from ten to fifteen cents each, with 
other articles in proportion. Labor is very scarce and 
wages are high, consequently the public wealth is in- 
creasing very rapidly. A few years ago peons were not 
paid more than five or six dollars a month, while thirty 
cents a day for odd jobs was considered exorbitant. Now 
no native can be hired for less than a dollar, and the 
Italians, who compose the laboring class for the most 
part, will demand and often get more. The tatter are 
thrifty, economical, and save their earnings. The wealth 
of the country in 1884 was $580 per capita of the popu- 
lation, while the foreign commerce amounted that year 
to $240 for each man, woman and child. The 
since has been rapid. With a popidation of 500,000 in 
round numbers, Uruguay produces 5,000,000 bushels of 
wheat annually, an average of ten bushels per capita, and 
this with only 540,000 acres of ground under cultivation, 
including gardens and parks. I believe no other land 
can show such an average. 

The aborigines of Uruguay, who were an intelligent, 
industrious race of Indians, and had some of the simpler 
arts, have been entirely exterminated. Their civilization 
was complete. Of the 500,000 population, nearly one- 
third are of foreign birth. Italy furnishes the most and 
the best of the immigrants, but the arrivals are not so 
large or so regular as in the .\rgentine Republic, because 
the government is not permanent, and the new comers 
are afraid of the conscription sergeants. 

Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay and its chief city^ 
is as favorably located as any place in the world. On a 
narrow tongue of limestone ToeV:l\^«.vV^'e.V."i.O«.c\ >a.^»4V^<i... 
it stretches ovw Itoto vVe coa^V, nnvCc^ ^^^t K<\a.-^\\'^ v^^kt^t-^XN 


on one side and the Rio de la Plata on the other. The 
jitreets are like a series of terraces, not only giving the 
most perfect natural drainage, but furnishing nearly 
«very residence with a vista of the river or the sea. 

When it isn't June in Uruguay it is October — seldom 
too hot, and never too cold. There isn't such a thing as 
a stove in the entire rountrj*, and the peons wear cotton 
garments the year round. But the thorn in tlie side of 
Uruguay is the pampero, a cold westerly wind that is 
born in the Andes, and sweeps across the pampas with 
the violent-e of a hLirricane. Then the ships in the har- 
bor pull up their anchors and run out for sea-room, and 
the inhabitant of the city wraps his poncho about him 
and says "Carambal " What Montevideo most needs is 
a harbor, and it hopes soon to have one, a French com- 
pany having been given a contract to construct a bjeak- 
water that will cost nine millions of dollars. Around the 
curve of the bay fronting the river are a large iiunil)er of 
beautiful villas, or "quintas," as they are called, built in 
the ancient Italian style, with the most lu.turiant display 
of gingerbread work and plaster of Paris mouldings. 
The gardens which surround these villas are full of fruit 
and flowers summer and winter alike, and give the place 
the appearance of perpetual spring. During the summer 
season the people of Buenos Ayres come over for the 
sea-bathing, and the city is very gay. .\ prevalent taste 
which inspires the owners of these villas to paint them in 
gay colors — red, pink, purple, green, and orange — is be- 
ing .somewhat modified by foreign travel, and of late 
years the quintas as well as the city houses are taking on 
more sombre hues. There are more beautiful and costly 
residences and business blocks in Montevideo tlian in 
any other South American city except Santiago, the capi- 
tal of Chili. Considerable carved niarble is used, hut 
the standard building material is sun-dried brick, and 
the walls are usually from two to three feet in thick- 
ness, fire-proof, and impenetrable to heat and damp- 

The government buildings are cheaji looking struc- 
tures of two stories, without architectural adornment or 
impressive appearance, and much inferior to the best 
private dwetling.s. The Church of the Mother, the 
cathedral of Uruguay, is the largest and finest budding 
in the country. There are three theatres; an Italian 
opera subsidized by the government; a bull-ring which is 
crowded every Sunday afternoon, under the patronage of 
the President and the aristocracy; a number of clubs; a 
jiublic library with thirty thousand volumes, mostly 
Spanish historical and political works; a museum; a uni- 
versity which is the summit of a free-school system; and 
all the et-caeteras of modern civilization. The ladies 
dress in the height of the Paris fashion, the shops con- 
tain everything that can tempt the taste of an extrava- 
gant people, there are dinner parties and ba Is, and the 
time is improved or wasted as it is in Paris or Madrid. 
The gentlemen go to their counting-rooms at .seven in 
the morning, when their wives and daughters go to mass. 
At eleven they return to their homes for a breakfast of 

seven or eight courses, then take a siesta, go back to 
their business about three, work until six, and dine with 
great formality at seven. The ladies of Uruguay are 
famous for their beauty and rtne complexions — the bless- 
ing of the atmosphere; but after thirty they lose their 
symmetry of form, which is doubtless owing to their in- 

Street-cars run everywhere and pay big dividends, for 
no Spanish-.^raerican ever walks when he can ride. Even 
the beggars are literally on horseback, and the stranger 
is often startled by a ragged and dirty creature galloping 
up to him and asking, in a piteous voice, " Vot the love 
of Jesus, gentleman, give me a farthing to buy bread." 
The national drink, for which he will undoubtedly spend 
this, is called canu, and is made from the fermented juice 
of the sugar-cane. It contains ninety per cent, of alcohol, 
and is sold at two cents a goblet, .so that a spree is within 
the reach of the poorest man. All goods are delivered 
from the shops by horsemen, for there is not a cart in 
the town. When you hire a carriage, for which you are 
expected to pay one dollar an hour, a peon, called a 
" chancadero," runs along beside it the entire distance, 
no matter how great, so that he may get a fee for open- 
ing the door when you reach your destination. He is 
actually a footman, and is never allowed to ride beside 
the driver, who is of better caste, and regards himself as 
a superior being. No hackman will ever get off his box, 
and if you refuse a Mr</ifl (six cents) to the " chanca- 
dero," you are a miserable sponge. 

The cemetery, which overlooks the sea, is one of the 
finest in all .\merica, and fortunes have been expended 
in erecting tombs and monuments to the dead. There 
may be single sejuilchres in Greenwood that surpass in 
costliness any that are to be found in the Campo Santo 
of Montevideo, but nowhere is so great an assemblage of 
costly and beautifid tombs. 

One of the customs of the country, which I have not 
observed elsewhere, is for the dead to be carried to the 
tomb by the hands of their friends. 

The city is lighted by electricity, and more than three 
hundred telephones were in use in 1885. Gambling is 
the national vice, and men, women, and children selling 
lottery tickets are as thick as newsboys in the cities of 
the States. The porter at the hotel infonns you that he 
is supplied with tickets for all the drawings; the clerk at 
the store where you trade invites you to invest the 
change he hands you in his favorite lottery, and tells you 
that a lady who bought a ticket of him drew a prize of 
ten thousand dollars last month. 

One of the curious customs is the manufacture of but- 
ter. The dairyman pours the milk warm from the cow 
into an inflated pig or goat skin, hitches it to his saddle 
by a long lasso, and gallops five or six miles into town 
with the milk sack pounding along on the road behind 
him. When he reaches the city his churning is over, the 
butter is made, and he peddles it from door to door, dip- 
ping out the quantity desired by each family with a long 
wooden spoon. 




Antonio Ouelfi, 

Jos* M. Castro, 
Juan Bscande, 
Frederick Fletcher, 
Francisco J. Lemos, 
Juan Roblefl, 
G. H. C. Vineys. 

The city of Montevideo has n population of about 
125,000 souls, and twenty-three daily newspapers. — Har- 
per's Magazine. 

Methodist EpfRCopal Mission in Argentina, 
rniffiia.v, l'urat;iiu.v, ami Vicinity. 

I'nilril Mtair* .fllaslotiarlea. W. DreE!3, SupirinUndent. 
1%. Wood, John F. Thomson, Tlioinas H. Stockton, 
Charles W. Miller, John M. Spangler. 

Wlvck of t iillvd Klale* J*Ii*«loiiarleii. 

Mrs. C. W. Drees, Mrs. T. B. Wood. Mrs. J. F. Thomson, 
Mrs. T. H. Stockton, Mrs. C. W. Millir. Mrs. J. M. Spangler. 

ITnlled SlBtes nUmionarlv* ur llir W. F. n. N. 

Miu J. M. Chapin, Miss L. B. Denning. 

Prcarhrra Furnlnlird by thriraiaiiluii. 

Daniel Armand I'gon, 
Lino Abeledo, Tludolfo Gerber, 

George P. Howard, Andrew M. Milne, 


Juan Correa, Itamou Blanco, 

Silvio Espindola, JustoCiihilo, 
A. M. Hudson, Luis Ferrurini, 

Francisco Penzotti, Carlos Lastrico, 
James Triggs, B. A. Prichard, 

R. WeiLmftller, Juan Villanucva, 


SuprrinUndnit and Dirtdiir of PuHicatioM. T. B. Wood, till 
August 1— then C. W. Drees. Address No. 214 Corrientes, 
Buenos Ayres, Argentina. 

MonUrtidto, Ut Chanie, A. Gueld. Montevideo, 2nd Charge, 
C. W. Miller. Monleoide** Circuit, J. Cubilo and J. Robles. 
Canelonet Circuit, C. Lastrico. Colonia Circuit, D. A. Ugon. 
Central Uruguay Circuit, W. Tallon. Taeuareinho Circuit, 
F. J. Lemos. Rio Orande Circuit, J. Correa. Rio Uruguay 
Cirruit, to be supplied. 

Butnot Ajirti, \»t Charge, T. U. Stockton. Buenot Ayret, 
2itd Chargt, O. P. Howard. Bm:fu>ii Ayrts Circuit, J. F. 
Thomson. liarrucas, to be supplied. 

RoMrio, Ut Charge , G. H. C. Viney and J. M. Spangler. 
Roiaruf, 2nd Charge, F. Penzotti. Romrio Circuit, R. Gerber. 
Maidoza, to be'supplied. Smi Carlo* Circuit, R. WeihmOller. 
Eiiftaind Watt Jtntre Rio» Circuit; L. Abeledo. Rio Parana and 
Corrirntit Circuits, to be supplied. Paragvay Circuit, J. 

Afff/U 0/ American Biblf Society, A. M. Milne. Address, No. 
214 Corrientes, Buenos Ayres, Argentina. 

Prrridcntnf Theolxjieal Imtitui*., T. B. Wood. Address, No. 

214 C«irrientes, Buenos Ayres, Argentina. 

iThe followiDg are extracts from the report made by Her. Dr, Tbonias 
B. Wool, and which will appear In full In the Annual Report of tbe UIkIob- 

ary Society j 

The work in South .\mcrica commenced in December, 
1836. That was the hot season in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, leaving the effective beginnings of the work for 
1837- Thus the statistical year closing in the midst of 
1887 closes the half century. 

This half century of labor and expectation was open- 
ed by no less a man than John Dempster, followed in 

succession by William H. Norris, Dallas D. Lore, Gold- 
smith D. Carrow, William Goodfellow, and Henry G. 
Jackson, all men who had ni.ide Iheirmark in the service 
of the Church at home before coming to South America, 
and who proved after their return, by still more eminent 
services and successes, that it was no fault of the workers, 
that the work in South America did not meet impatient 
expectations. The ditficulty was in the field, and not in 
the men. 

Pioneers from other lands succeeded no better thai* 
ours. The able and zealous Dr. Kalley, from Scotland,, 
spent the best of a long life founding two churches in 
IJra/.il. The heroic .Allan Gardiner, ,from England, 
compassed half the continent to get a foothold, settling 
down on the inhospitable islands about Cape Horn, where 
he perished a martyr to his /.eal, having but little result. 

(iod has seen fit to dcveloplin .South America itself his 
own methods and raise up his own men for overcoming 
the peculiar difficulties of this field. Tomake this mani- 
fest has taken fifty years. 

The difficulties referred to grow out of the following 
combination of elements found together here and no- 
where else on earth. 

1. Temperate zone civilization with culture and refine- 
ment up to the highest levels in Christendom, for the last 
three hundred and fifty years, with improvements on 
Southern Kuro|>e, just as North America has improved 
on Northern Europe, 

2. Rank barbarism, down to the levels of the aborigi- 
nal ra<:es that were enslaved antl perpetuated on the 
ground by the Europeans in South America, instead of 
being suppressed, as in North America. 

3. Moral enervation, the result of centiirics'of Jesuit- 
ism absolutely dominant^ in all the vital relations of 
humanity, with no Protestantism nearer than the opposite 
side of the world to hinder its poisoning and blasting 
work, going on generation after generation, and all in the 
tiamf (>/ Jfsus ATiA under the teaching and sanctions of 
our holy Christianity perverted to justify every iniquity. 

4. Political enervation growing out of the moral enerA'a- 
tion, and developed under every conceivable form of 
misrule, from bloody tyranny on one extreme to hopeless, 
anarchy on the other — and all in the name"of liberty and 
under the best constitutions and laws that were ever 
maiic, being copied from those of the most advanced na- 
tions, with improvements. 

5. The omnipresence of a dominant priestcraft holding 
the u'holr truth oj God in shameless unrighteousness, 
cloaking with hypocrisy the deformities that it finds most 
likely to open the eyes of its votaries, and managing with 
diabolical wisdom to keep their eyes closed so as to save 
itself the trouble of < loaking its'deformities. Each new 
generation is born with eyes shut, and being taken in 
hand by this mighty system of evil before bom, is kept 
in hopeless subjection to its power. 

To introduce the Gospel into such a state of affairs, in 
so vast a field, might well require half a century of ex- 
perimenting and waiting~for God's methods to transpire. 

The result may be roughly sketched in the following 
analysis of the history of this mission : 

1. The «iirect and indirect work must be sharply dis- 
tinguished. Working in a foreign language has no ten- 
dency whatever to evangelize the masses. Schf»ol-tea<h- 
ing without positive evangelistic effort in connertion with 
it is equally powerless. Go ye into all the world and 
teach arithmetic to every creature is not the Gospel com- 
mission, and Paul's principles about unknown tongues 
apply to English in lands where other languages are 
dominant. We experimented for decades in this mission 
with preaching in English and carrying on prosperous 
Protestant schools, accomplishing relatively nothing in 
comparison with the results of the diifit mrtlunh, which 
date from 1864. We have then, 

(1) 1837— 1864. The epoch of imiircit ivor/c — all in 
English except self-supporting schools. 

(2) 1864-1887. The epoch of r/iVrr/ awr>f — operation in 
the language of the country, commencing in the form of 
personal effort from house to house, from town to town, 
from province to province, from nation to nation, till we 
have compassed the whole continent and reached nearly 
every important centre 

The key that opens doors is the Scriptures offered for 
sii/f. The key to hearts is the living Icsiimony to God's 
written word. 

2. The direct work once thoroughly opened, above de- 
scribed, develops into stated preaching, Sunday-schools, 
aggressive day-schools, temperance organizations — all 
the forms of progressive evangelization. This divides 
its epoch into two jjeriads. 

(1) 1864-1867. The period oi pioneering, when nothing 
was heard in the language of the masses, save the voice 
of the peripatetic evangelist, books in hand, arguing, ex- 
horting, pleading with individuals, families, occasional 
grouj)S and small audiences. 

(2) 1867-1887. The period of occupatuy, when the 
public preaching re.sounded from established centres, 
calling all men to repent and believe and obey the 

The wide-spread sale of books before attempting to 
establish preaching-places or mission-schools is one of 
the distinguishing features of South American evange- 
lization. On this line the continent is to be conquered. 

The dates given above apply strictly to our oldest 
■centre at Buenos Ayres. Every other centre has its own 
history, but all have the same type of history. 

(3) The direct operations in this field, though promis- 
itig from the start the long-wished-for success, failed to 
command the confidence of the Church till as late as 
1882. The trouble was that the previous decades of 
non-productive indirect work had destroyed confidence 
as to any good thing ever coming out of South America. 
But in 1882 the General Missionary Committee decided 
to re-enforce the mission and back uj) a policy of aggres- 
sive evangelization on the direct lines. The American 
Bible Society had previously been planning new depar- 
tures in the same direction. In 1883 the new movements 

began. Thus the entire history of the mission divides 
itself into, 

(0 iS37~i883. Yoxiy-s\\ yeax^oi fort-holding. 

(2) 1883-1887. Four years of /rtf/>ytf«/. 

There has been no failure in this mission, nor what' 
could be called poor success. 

The fort-holding was a grand success, as such, and it 
must never be judged as any thing else. 

The beginnings of the conquest are already beyond all 
the expectations of those who knew this field when it 
was inaugurated^in 1883. 

In this state of progress comes our year of jubilee. 
We thank God and take courage, and invite the whole 
Church to join with us. 

The Work of 1886-87. 

Our work prospers all along the line. The advancing 
year has witnessed victories at points where its beginning 
found us barely holding our ground, under the trials of 
an epidemic. ,\mid those trials I wrote a report which 
appeared in the Gdsi'EL i\ All Lands for .Aipril, 1887, to 
which I beg to refer for the state of affairs produced by 
the cholera, and the prosperity realized up to the time of 
its invasion. When it left a new period of prosperity set 
in, whose details I now briefly sketch. 


Brother Guelfi has held the old centre, amid the growth 
of the new ones all around the city. Members have 
been added to the Church. The new converts are re- 
peating the old old story. Baptisms have grown notably 
more frequent. Children's Day has been celebrated, for 
the second time in the history of this mission (the first 
time being last year by this same charge), with great 
success. The Ju%'enile Missionary Society methods have 
been introduced into the Spanish Sunday-schools and 
made to work well, beyond all expectation. Improve- 
ment in church organization, new activity in self-support, 
and growth in financial strength have taken place. A 
preaching j)I;Ke near the centre has contributed liberally 
toward the support of Brother Castro, a local preacher 
who has given it separate service. Some converts who 
cannot attend evenings, on account of home opposition, 
keej) up a week-day afternoon service, where peculiar 
blessings have been realized. 

The aggressive work in and around the city would re- 
quire a whole report to do it justice in detail. A new 
convert in the city has opened his house for services 
twice a week, that he and his neighbors may grow in 
grace and knowledge. .-Vt a point in the suburbs a room 
was hired for services and soon filled. The mistress of 
the house was converted, refused to take rent for the 
room, and offered to enlarge it by removing a partition 
wall, 'i'hen came persecution from a neighboring priest, 
scattering the timid ones, but leaving the firm ones firmer 
than before. Children from that neighborhood w^alk a 
league to the nearest mission school and pay tuition. At 
Sayago, a suburban village, where we held services for 
months in the Catholic church, till driven out of it by 
the treachery of the man who had assured us that we 

khould be protected in possession of it, our dislodgment 

luas celebrated by our enemies with great ado, led by the 

tnearest priest with a procession of school children from 

parish to take possession. The school-mistress that 

Chelprd lead that triumphal march against us has been 

converted, her mother, alsi>, and is nuw at the head of 

>ar mission school in the village, while the neighbors 

tare subscribing money to buy a lot and* build a church 

liind school-house, hrotlier (luelfi is in charge of this 

rnteqirise, and is aided hy bretliren in the city who will 

lot rest till it is consummated with a trium]ihai march 

>n our side. 

The English Work al AfciitniJi-o. — Ktiw Charles \V. 

I^liller arrived from the United States, to re-enforce the 

|li)ission, in February, 1887. While preparing for work 

[in Spanish he was appointed to labor in English. A 

(separate charge was formed of the English elements of 

>ur community, with Quarterly Conference and complete 

forganization distinct from the Spanish work. He has 

[awakened in them new courage and strength. Several 

[have been added to the Church; sjjirituality has revived, 

llinances have improved, and formal efforts toward full 

self-support for an English (barge have been commenced 

Vkiih great success. Children's Day service in English 

[has been held for the first time in South America, and 

[the Juvenile Missionary Society continues to flourish. 

Brother Miller has been especially assisted by Brothers 

.Milne and Tink, both in organizing his work and in 

public services. Weekly services in English are held 

'at two places in the most populous parts of the city. 

Krother Miller has also brought new aid to our English 

temperance work — a work more urgently needed here 

than in England or the United States. 

Caitelones Circuit. — Urolher I^astrico has extended his 
activities in spite of a spell of sickness that he had to 
suffer since last report. Much of his work has been 
done on foot, from house to house, and from one rural 
wrttlement to another — a hand-to-hand struggle with 
ignorance and fanaticism. He cut the bonds of 
priestcraft from multitudes of hearts and homes that now 
vrclcorae him as a messenger of (iod whenever he comes 
round; faithful converts from centres of growing groups 
at various points. The old centre at San Ramon is sus- 
tained as heretofore by iJrother Eiilogio Harbier, who 
kccr** "P weekly services in Brother Lastrico's absence. 
Th« same will take place at a score of points on the cir- 
cuit when the present laborious plowing and sowing 
come to harvest. Brother Lastrico has worked at no 
cost to the mission since last report. 

Colonia Circuit. — In 1880 I received a petition from a 
number of heads of families residing in the Dciiartment 
of Colonia asking for a Spanish preacher. I sent them 
Brother Penzotti, taking him from secular employ. 
They supported him and his family up to the time of my 
departure for the United States in 18S1. To secure 
Uus, required experienced supervision. On my departure 
it was found necessary to place the new work under the 
super\'ision of a Waldensian minister residing in an 

agricultural settlement in that region, compo.sed largely 
of Waldensian emigrants and their descendants, to whose 
communion many of Brother Penzotti's sup[iorters be- 
longed, and whose services were all conducted in French. 
So Brother Penzotti joined that church by letter, the 
Spanish work became nominally Waldensian, and services 
in the two languages were held as opportunities opened. 
0\\ my return in 18S3 Penzotti wassent at once to Bolivia, 
and since then has been kept at our hardest pioneering 
and exploring work, only returning occasionally to his 
Colonia field. .-Vll this while the Spanish work begun by 
him there has been growing: but though he rejoined our 
Church that work remained nominally Waldensian. 
Meanwhile the Waldensians have come into close har- 
mony with us. They see, as we do, that the great enter- 
prise of evangelizing these lands is [«r(>\identially ours. 
The minister referred to Rev. Daniel Armand Ugon, 
entered the employ of the mission in 1884, and opened 
a theological school to train the most promising of his 
and Penzotti's converts for our work. He is a graduate 
of the W'aldensian Theological School of Florence, and 
this fact, with his years of experience here, makes him 
singularly competent. 

Brother Ugon's old work consists of Sunday congrega- 
tions at two points, with 6 Sunday-schools, 5 day-schools, 
and about 450 church members. One of the centres has 
almost all its 5er^•ices in French. The rest have them 
largely or entirely in Spanish. The organic form is 
I mainly Waldensian, but in methods there has been great 
assimilation with ours. Brother Ugon has trained and 
set to work a number of lay helpers exactly on our lines, 
and can leave on them the whole burden whenever neces- 
sary. The new work is larried on chiefly by a young 
W^aldensian minister. Rev. Pedro Bounoiis. at seven dis- 
tinct points in regular Methodist circuit fashion, just as 
Brother Penzotti inaugurated it, with almost nothing of 
Waldensian organization. Nearly all the services are in 
Spanish, with 2 day-schools, 3 Sunday-schools, and some 
350 church members. None of these figures enter into 
our statistics. 

I count, however, in the list of our lay preachers two 
of Brother Penzotti's converts, mature and e.vperienced 
men, especially developed liy him, namely, Juan Pedro 
Geymonal and Carlos .\ppia, also eight of our theological 
students who have begun to hold public services under 
Brother Ugon's direction, whose names appear below. 

The Theological School. — We have had under instruction 
in 1886-1887 ten students in three classes, namely: 

1. The Advanced Class. — Rodolfo Griot, Bartolo Gilles, 
Ernesto Klett and Juan Bouisse. 

2. The Middle Class. — Juan Pedro Long, Juan Daniel 
Roland, David Rivoire. 

3. The Commencing Class. — Juan Pedro Gonet, Jost 
Gonet, Manuel Dalmas. 

All but the last three have had experience in conduct- 
ing public services. Daniel Berton, a former student, 
has also commenced to preach occasional!)'. 

None of the students are beneficiaries. No mission 




funds have ever been exjiended for the school save 
Brother Ugon's salary. 

At the rlose of the last summer session. March, 1887, 
I took Rodolfo Griot to re-enforce our work in 'I'acuar- 
embo, and arranged with Bartolo (jilles to take new work 
before long. Lack of f\inds is all that prevented me 
from arranging to take uj^ both the other mt^mbers of the 
advanced class. As the mission could not take them at 
once they entered the employ of the Government as 
teaihers. Thus they have limited opportunities to do 
good at no expense to the mission. But such cases show 
the urgent importance of having an ample allowance for 
new heijiers at the disposal of the superintendent, to 
thrust men into the work when ready for it. 

The demand for teachers this year has been such that 
four of the remaining students also took schools for the 
winter, arranging to carry on studies separately and re- 
turning to their class work during the summer. 

Others who should have pursued stu<lies were drawn 
completely off by the Hibie work as colporteurs. 

So pressing are the demands for the excellent stamp of 
workers this circuit produces that we can hardly keep 
them in training long enough to get them ready for full 
efficiency, or till we can arrange to support them where 
they would be of most service to the cause. 

No less than 20 co-laborers have been gained from 
his region for the work of .Spanish evangelization since 
our operations were introduced here, namely, the 8 
student preachers and 2 older preachers named above, 
and the 10 following teachers, colporteurs, etc.: Gaydoii, 
Wilson, t^ionel, Janavel, Arnzet, Davyt. J. D. Berton, E. 
Revel, Peyronet and Allensi)ach. 

Scores and hundreds will follow where these have led 
the way. 

Brother Ugon, during the winter months, has started 
on a most important new work, \isiting the scattered 
sheep ot the Waldensian Israel all over the interior. 
Blessed results have come from these visits. In one 
place, an agricultural settlement called Belgrano, in the 
Argentine Province of Santa F^. he raised over a thou- 
sand dollars by subscription to build a church and a 
school-house, and prepared the people to support as 
pastor one of the students to be sent to them ere long. 
Everywhere his ministrations have drawn into closer 
sympathy with us the best of the Waldensian elements that 
are penetrating into these countries in all directions. They 
are not numerous enough to do any thing of themselves, 
so that if not connected with some stronger body they 
will become lost sheep. But with us they will become 
nuclei for new work in many places. 

In an agricultural settlement near Brother Ugon's resi- 
dence, where he and Brother Penzotti have done much 
to stimulate religious life, the people have built a church 
and undertaken to support a pastor of their own. We 
could not supply them with an ordained man, and they 
would not be satisfied with a licentiate, much less a 
student. So they have got an independent minister 
from Europe. 

This mission needs an ejiiscopal visit to^ordain 
the preachers for such places as those described above. 
This, with more ample funds in the hands of the superin- 
tendent, to seize opportunities as they arise, would enable 
us to push self-supporting work in many places where we 
have done the hard plowing and sowing and are ready 
now for the harvest. 

Central UrugUay Circuit. — brother I'allon ha> 
increasing success. The important city of Duvazno, 
that long proved impenetrable to our work, has at last 
yielded, and now gives large audiences to welcome the 
preaching, and demands the opening of an evangelical 
school, Cireat encouragement also attends the preaching 
in the city of Florida, contrasting >trongIy with San Jose 
where the ground remains hard and dry and seems still 
to offer no encouragement. 

In Porongos all goes well in spite of the works of the 
devil. The school-master proved unworthy, had to be 
discharged, set up an opposition school, tried to destroy 
our work, ignominiously failed, and thus did us more 
good than harm. .\ new master was employed, proved a 
good teacher, Init broke down through dnmkenness. 
Hnjiher Talhm has to go right into the .school him- 
self, which, while hindering his work on the circuit, lets 
the public see and appreciate the value of moral trust- 
worthiness. His hold on that community is stronger 
than ever l)efore. He has come to be recognized as an 
important public man all through the interior of the re- 
public The cities named are all capitals of civil depart- 
ments, and each will one day be a separate centre of 

Tiuitaremln) Circuit. — Brother Lemos had a long spell 
of sickness last year which destroyed his school. Re- 
stored to health he fountl his services as an evangelist in 
greater demand than before. 

Rodolfo Griot was sent to his aid, leaving him free to 
extend his operations. Invitations come from far and 
near, utore than he can attend to. The columns of the 
principal local paper arc open to him, and with able pen 
as well as tongue he is stirring up all the northern parts 
of the republic. 

His work is made exciting by hostility from ihe domi- 
nant priestcraft. 

In the capital of the Department there have been circu- 
lated large numbers of copies of a lying pamphlet 
printed in Montevideo, written on purpose to prejudice 
people against our mission. Many timid souls fear to 
accept the (iosjiel who nevertheless listen and read and 
ponder with growing interest and sympathy. Among 
these there is a singularly large proportion of the high- 
class women — precisely the class that priestcraft succeeds 
best in keeping away from us in most places. 

Hiu Grande Circuit. — Brother Correa has widened and 
strengthened his work. His journeys have reached to 
the Uruguayan frontier on one side and far into the 
interior on the other, w here two new classes have been 
formed. The school at Porto Alegre has developed into 
a group of three schools, the large boys being organized 

apart, and a night-school forming a se^iarate work of 
special importance — more evangelistic than scientific — 
for poor women. The head teacher. Miss Carmer Chacon 
(trained in the W. F. M. S. schools at Montevideo), in- 
creases in efficiency. She and Brotlier Correa have 
proved tireless lahorers, with day-school and night-school 
through the week and religious service on Sunday. 
Lately re-enfurcements have been sent them — Brother 
Brandi for the general work, and Miss Paulina Ladevese 
(trained in the \V. F. M. S. Home at Rusario) for the 
school work. 

The schools are all agencies for religious instruction. 
Before opening our work in Brazil I had two interviews 
with the emperor and also consulted with two of his 
ministers, establishing the understanding that in our 
schools in Brazil, religious instruction is to be freely 
allowed. The emperor had it understood, when the 
Taylor schools were introduced into the empire, that 
the Bible was to be excluded from them. I urged that 
the Bible be admitted. The emperor i onsented. urging 
on his part, that we .should show respect for the religion 
of the empire. Brother Correa has made no controversy 
with the established religion, but has opened many eyes 
and hearts to the more excellent way. A converted 
priest is among his recent trophies. 

Systematic Bible work is carried on by Brother Correa 
with the aid of Brother Samuel Elliot, who also assists 
in public services. 

Bufttos Ayres, \st Charge. — Our old English charge 
has entered up<m its second half <entury stronger than 
ever before. 

Brother Stockton has made a brief visit to the States, 
and returned with fresh vigor, giving his work a new im- 
petus. Congregations increasing, new elements gather- 
ing. menilH:rs joining, spirituality deepening, influence 
widening, young men loming forward, finances strong, 
success in all departments — such is the state of this time- 
honored charge. Its promise for the future of Method- 
ism's grand mission on this continent is greater than at 
any former period in its history. Our hold on the Eng- 
lish community at large, and the co-ordination of our 
English and Spanish operations for the highest results, 
have shown much progress since last report. The 
Juvenile Missionary Society continues to thrive. It alone 
has raiscil the million dollar quota of the entire mission. 
It is educating the youth of the English community on 
this subject as was never done before, preparing workers 
as well as givers, for the future. Brother Stockton is al- 
ready surrounded by a phalanx of young men, among 
whom Brothers Triggs, Bradford. Ballantyne. and others, 
are mature for aggressive work. Tak-nt. sjiirituality, 
missionary zeal, and thorough organization, on our estab- 
lished and approved lines, characterize the youth that 
Brother Stockton has now in training for great things in 
the future. 

The circulation ot our North American church litera- 
ture continues to increase. 
Our English temperance work goes steadily forward. 

All oar English operations in Buenos Ayres are and 
have long been entirely self-supporting. 

Buenos Ayrcs, 2d Charge. — This is our Spanish work at 
the old centre. Brother Howard has continued in charge, 
completing his second year with triumphant success. In- 
crease of attendants — both young and old — addition of 
members, edification in spirituality, improvement in or- 
ganization, widening of activity, development of new 
workers — su<"h are the prominent features. 

Brother Howard has thrown himself into the vanguard 
of the temperance work, helping in the first .Spanish 
temperance organization in .\rgentina. Brothers Vere 
and Aflon have been of great assistance in this depart- 
ment, and Brothers .\iion and Fletcher, in other branches 
of Brother Howard's work. 

The difficulties that have been overcome in the success 
of this charge, have developed an unusual degree of 
moral strength in its members, and especially in Brother 
Howard, who has worked entirely at his own cost, and 
carried his abnegation to the pitch of heroism. 

Buenos Ayres Cireuit. — Brother Thomson has been 
plunged into deep waters of affliction. His eldest 
daughter, Louisa, died in January, 1887; his little Annie, 
in February; his third daughter, Maud, in March, and 
his aged father, in April. These waves of bereavement 
brought w ith them a tide of sympathy from the English 
community of Buenos .Ayres in which Brother Thomscm 
was brought up, and from all the adherents of our mis- 
sion. Notwithstanding his afflictions. Brother Thomson 
has gone on with his work, keeping up the operations in 
the city, and pushing them forward at outside points. 
The i)urchasc of a theatre in the city of Mercedes, 
authorized by the Missionary Society, was thwarted by 
the unreasonable demands of the owner when he saw we 
were on the point of closing the bargain. But better 
arrangements have been consummated. A lot has been 
purchased and we intend to build. 

The Ragged School continues to flourish under the 
protection of the Argentine National (Jovemment, whiih 
gives $too a month for the rent of its premises. Brother 
Blanco remains in charge. He and Brothers Espindola, 
Crovitto and Hudson, have continued to labor with 
efficiency in the city, and Brother Ferrarina, in Mercedes. 
Brother Vasijuez has developed notably, both as a 
preacher and as a writer. .\ll these have worked at no 
cost to the mission. 

Mr. Nicholas Lowe, of Mercedes, is a notable promoter 
of our work, though w member of another Church. 

Barraeas. — Brother Underwood held the fort at our 
little chapel in Barraeas, in the suburbs of Buenos Ayres, 
until circumstances made it untenable. The place is so 
unfavorably situated that no one would attend there wfao 
could find a more suitable place to go to. New English 
work started by the .\nglican Bishop in that neighbor- 
hf>od, and new Spanish work started by Brother Celestino 
Fernandez, not far off, divided the attendants between 
them. Brother Fernandez's work is part of the Buenos 
Ayres Circuit. 

The Cholera in Buenos Ayres. — Our cause gained much 
by the heroism with which some of onr brethren distin- 
guished themselves in the struggle with the pestilence in 
Buenos Ayres. The way in which they cared for the sick, 
the dying, and the dead, contrasted with the heartlessness 
of the public authorities and the pusillanimity of the repre- 
sentatives of the dominant religion. The dying testi- 
monies of those we lost were a gospel to many, as was 
the calm resignation of the bereaved, in comparison with 
the wild manifestations of grief common among the peo- 
ple and worse than usual under the excitement of an epi- 

Jiosario, is/ Charge: — Brother Viney rallied the work, 
after the trials of the cholera, with greater success than 
ever. The Spanish work was detached and he kept on 
with the utd English work, nobly assisted by Brother 
Frit hard, l)oth working at their own tost. 'I'he preach- 
ing, Sunday-school, class-meeting, prayer-meeting and 
pastoral work, all developed new life and i)ower. 

Rev. John M. Spangler and family arrived from the 
United States to re-enforce the mission, in .August. 1887, 
Brother Spangler was sent temporarily to Rosario, and 
later on was a|>pninted in charge of the English work, 
leaving Brother Viney free for a long-needed vacation. 

Bosario, 2d Charge. — Brother Penzotti removed to 
Rosario with his family in February, 1887, and took charge 
of the Spanish work. It has developed grandly under 
his labors, i'reaching in .Spanish has been carried on at 
two points every Sunday, our old chapel and the new W. 
F. M. S, Head-ipiarters, on opiiosite sides of the city. 
Souls converted, believers quickened to new activity, and 
over $500, raised for Brother Penzotti's support, are some 
of the results. 

He has conducted an extensive Bible work though 
several colporteurs operating under his direction. 

Ri'sario Circuit. — This blessed work has made steady 
progress under Brother Gerber's continued ministry. 
He and his wife have been fully supported by the regular 
contributions of his people. Membership increased, 
organization perfected, self-support a comidete success, 
influence greatly extended — such are his victories. 

San Carios Circuit. — This embraces the heart of the 
Province of Santa Fe, a rural district containing the oldest 
of the agricultural settlements in these countries, the 
starling-point of the great change from grazing to agri- 
culture now going on over vast extents of territory. 
Some European Protestants of various nationalities and 
denominations residing there, have long had self-formed 
independent religious organizations among them on a 
small scale, all attem]jting to follow European methods 
utterly unadapted to their circumstances, and all failing 
to harmonize divers elements or secure any satisfactory 
result for their own members, and much less for the irre- 
ligious and priest-ridden elements thai surround them. 
At last the representatives of a populous rural centre 
called San Carlos, reache<l the point of sending me a 
formal petition to take them under our auspices and 
organize them on our lines, promising to supjwrt a ])astor. 

This was in 1886. Early in 1887 Brother Weihmtiller 
decided to abandon his secular pursuits and accept the 
charge. While he was winding up his affairs. Brother 
Ugon was sent there to encourage the people and strength- 
en the situation. He jirepared the way for success from 
the start. Brother Weihmilller in due time niooved his 
family to San Carlos, and is developing both himself and 
the work with blessed results. It is a full-fledged four- 
weeks' circuit. The preacher makes his rounds on horse- 
back or in a buggy. North American fashion. His extreme 
points are nearly fifty miles apart. The development of 
the two ends of the circuit has already reached a degree 
that demands its division into two, and it is already 
arranged to form the lielgrano Circuit out of its western 
[lart, where the peoj)le have a new chapel and school- 
house well advanced in construction, and agree to support 
a pastor of their own next year. 

Mfm/vsa. — Brother Borsani and his little charge came 
out of the cholera like gold out of fire. The death of Cingi- 
ali left his name like ointment poured forth, and the hero- 
ism dis]>layed by him and Borsani, dignified them and the 
humble work they had beguu as nothing else could have 
done. .-\ moral power accomi)anies that work that is 
manifestlv divine, and is marvellous even to eyes familiar 
with (jod's wonderful ways. The changes from sin to 
righteousnes.s, from slavery under priestcraft and super- 
stition to the liberty of the children of God, taking place 
in an isolated inland region, where no one was looking 
for such things, are a fresh revelation of the power of 
God untf> salvation. All our members there are converted 
j Romanists — most of them .\rgentines — some Chilians 
I from over the Andes. The work is germinal in its charac- 
ter, promising to spread among the masses of the common 
|)eoplc, up and down the mountains, and over the pampas. 
Uur cause has won the favorable attention of the governor 
and other authorities, and the influential classes both 
I Argentine and foreign — also the wrath of the dominant 
priestcraft. The press of the province has been filled 
with discussions of our questions, awakening echoes on 
the margin of Ea Plata and in far-away Paraguay. Thus 
from the Andes to the sea and to the heart of the con- 
tinent is throbbing the new life of the Gospel. 

Ertire Rios. — Brother Albeledo, up to early in 1887, 
continued his work in and around Villa Urguiza, develop- 
ing the West Eiitre Rios Circuit, and living almost entirely 
on what the people gave him. The importance of his 
work demanded a better head-quarters, so I moved him 
to Parana City, capital of the Province of Entre Rios. 
h new railway had just been opened, crossing the province 
connecting the two great water-courses, Parana and 
L'ruguay, and making our East Entre Rios Circuit 
accessible from the west. So I added it to Brother 
.\lbeledo's charge. 

This made him our missionary for all the large and 
inviting field embraced in the Argentine Mesopotamia. 
His visits to the new parts of his work have given soul- 
cheering results — considerable sums of money, demands 
for constant ministrations, offers to build chapels and 


-school-houses, enrolment of lists of families desiring to 
be organized under our auspices, and the like. 

In Parana the friends gave him a welcome in the shape 
of $150 worth of things for himself and family on moving 
thither. This was doubly welcome after the many diffi- 
culties experienced in getting a house for residence and 
meeting-place, due in part to the hostility of the domi- 
nant priestcraft. 

Brother Miranda continues in' East Entre Rios as 
school-teacher. Brother Penzolti, who had previously 
made repeated visits to the Mesopotamian regions, re- | 
visited them this year, and the colporteurs under his direc- | 
tion have done good work here. Compared with for- | 
over years there is a great whitening of the harvest. 

Itiv Uruguay Circuit. — The margins of the Uruguay] 
River have not yet been occupied as they require. The \ 
.\nglicans have done something for them, and a Scotch 
Presbyterian minister from Buenos Ayres, has made visits 
to some Scotch agricultural settlers. But our calls from 
that part of the field (formerly worked up by Brother 
Correa, and later by Brothers Tallon and Penzotti) have 
been more urgent than ever this year. It has been visit- 
ed by Brothers Abeledo and Penzotti, who found many 
eager for us to take them in charge, and ready to help 
support a preacher. Repeated calls for an organized 
temperance work have also come from that quarter. 

Rio Parana Circuit. — The margins of the Parana River 
above our organized circuits, were formerly worked up 
by Brother J. R. Good and the colporteurs, and now re- 
quire permanent occupancy. There, too, the .Vnglicans 
have done something among English settlers. But the 
need of our operations is recognized more and more 
throughout that region. A self-supporting day-school 
founded at Helvreia is the only visible result of our pre- 
liminary work, but a welcome has been prepared for our 
preachers at many points, 

Paraguay. — In last report I dwelt, all too briefly, on 
the opening of our work in that ancient stronghold of 
Spanish Jesuitism, Paraguay. The subsequent record is 
full of trials and triumphs. 

Brother Villanueva has kept up his rounds on the 
circuit, with increasing attendance at the preaching and 
increasing proofs that prejudice is giving way. But 
the fires of prejudice are still fanned by malicious hos- 
tility. A public employ^ has declared that the foreign 
religion may be tolerated for foreigners, but that we 
ought to he punished ioT doing any thing to convert the 
people of the country, A prominent lawyer has 
said we ought to be burned! \ cabinet-maker has de- 
clared that if Protestants were killed by order of the 
clergy they would be righteously kilted. Brother Villa- 
nueva has been repeatedly warned that he should go well 
armed, to guard against assassination. But he goes every- 
where unarmed, speaking boldly against priestcraft 
and superstition. He told me once that if they killed 
him I must make haste and send another man to carry 
on the work. His brave wife, too, said on one occasion 
that she did not know but that it would require his death 

to teach the people that the Gospel cannot be killed by 
killing its champion. 

The authorities have shown tendencies increasingly 
favorable to our cause. Last year they guaranteed us lib- 
erty of .action, but allowed Jesuitism to hit us stunning 
blows by holding up our marriages as illegal, and painting 
us as charlatans coming there to get money out of the 
scanty Protestant immigration. The question was spnmg 
on us in connection with the enrolment of our marriages in 
the Civil Regisfer, kept for that purpose. The authorities 
should have decided at once to enroll them. But our 
enemies raised opposition, secured delay, and spread 
doubts that brought into question all our proceedings 
and the whole matter of the rights of Protestants in that 
ultra-Catholic country. Of course we could quote no 
precedent in Paraguay to show that Protestant marriages 
were legal there, as ours were the first ever celebrated in 
that den of priestcraft, where poor Protestant settlers 
have found it impossible hitherto to get married without 
turning Catholics, though the rich could get the clergy to 
relieve them from that necessity by paying large sums of 
money and binding themselves that their children should 
be brought up Catholics. But the law. in the absence 
of all precedents, was plain enough to show that our 
marriages must be legal, and ample previous consultation 
with native jurists left no room for doubt. Yet technical 
quibbles were raised, and re-enforced with barefaced 
misquotations of the law, and pretended understandings 
said to lie back of the law, till the public mind was 
completely confused. In this state of affairs the author- 
ities evaded official decisions on the subject, till we were 
left in a lamentable attitude, as pretending to know more 
of the laws of the land than its own lawyers and author- 
ities. The question passed from one official table to 
another till it landed in the national Congress. There 
it was kept asleep in a committee of the House of Depu- 
ties till the closing days of the session, when a resolution 
was introduced from the committee that would have 
crushed us if adopted. We were on the alert, and at the 
critical moment succeeded in getting the House to go 
into Committee of the Whole and let me argue the matter 
before the entire body. By God's help I was able to 
clear up the subject completely, meet all objections, and 
summarily st.ive off the crushing blow. The House re- 
jected the cunningly-devised resolution, and left us with 
the presumption in our favor and nothing against us. 
With that the Congress adjourned. Our enemies still 
tried to throw the presumption against us by falsifying 
the published reports of the action in Congress. Then I 
published in pamphlet form a complete showing of the 
facts and principles of the case, filling columns in all 
the daily papers of Assumption for many days with the 
discussion. Thus things remained till this year's Con- 
gress assembled. They have set the matter at rest by 
ordering our marriages enrolled on the Civil Register on 
a par with Catholic marriages. A bill to that effect 
went through both Houses and is now the law of the 




Thus arc we triumphantly vindicated, and our cause 
is advanced by the villainy of its enemies. 

Our mission school has had some victories all its own. 
. It was opposed at first, not only by priestly influence 
generally, but particularly by a rival school founded at 
the same time with it by teachers who were like ours 
from Montevideo, and pretended to do every thing that 
we roukl do, and teach the Catholic religion instead of 
heresy. That competition has fallen to the rear, and 
our patronage gains by the reaction in our favor. Our 
school has been visited and specially praised, as no other 
in the city, by influential persons, such as the Baron von 
Rothenhahn, German Minister Resident at Buenos .\yres, 
accredited to Paraguay; the Hon. Mr. Bacon, United 
States Minister Resident at Montevideo, accredited to 
Paraguay; also the greatest of Argentine statesmen and 
educators, ex-President Sarmiento, and others. These 
distinctions have silenced lies invented against it and 
helped break down the prejudices that hinder its pro- 
gress. In the midst of a hostile situation we collect 
tuition fees, and that for a school that is an every-day 
Sunday-school, and has over its door a conspicuous sign- 
board saying: Evangelical School No. i, 

Maiio-Grosso. — Our work in Paraguay is felt in all the 
regions beyond it up the great water-courses. Those 
regions are as yet without an evangelist, We have done 
preliminary work with books in all the towns for over a 
thousand miles above Assumption. Some of them are 
ripe for the jireachers and teachers. They have not been 
visited this year. 

£olivia. — We continue to ret civc letters from our con- 
verts, and dem.inds for our i)ublications, from Bolivia. 
The capital, Chuquisaca, the famed mining <entre Potosi, 
the bigoted and fanatical Cochabamba, and other jilaces 
where we have done faithful })ioneering, contain hearts 
that are anxiously waiting for our return. La Paz, the 
most populous and progressive city in the republic, would 
admit of all our customary operations except the open 
public worship, which is prohibited by the national con- 

stitution. We had hoped to revisit Bolivia this year, but 
could not get to it amid the exigencies of the older] 
work. How long, O Lord, how long ? 

Peru. — Brother Penzotti has been appointed to Peru,] 
to work up thoroughly the pioneering of that benighted 
republic. He takes with him a staff of experienced col- 
porteurs, to compass the whole land and reach Bolivia ■ 
on the south and Ecuador on the north, with head- 
quarters in the old Viceregal capital, Lima. Thus at 
last the dawn has come for those darkest parts of South ■ 
America. This movement, in conjunction with the Chil- 
ian workers on one side and those in Columbia on the 
other, will occupy the entire Pacific Coast. 

He takes with him his eldest daughter, Adela, educated 
in our W. F. M. S. Home at Rosario, to found School 
No. I, on our aggressive evangelistic plan, in that 

Venezuela. — Last year 1 received a formal jietition 
from a group of families in Caracas, capital of Venezuela, 
asking for Brother Penzotti to be sent to them as perm.v 
nunt missionary, or some one else capable of preaching | 
in Spanish, as he and Brother Milne had done while 
making a first canvass of that region with books. .\n 
arrangement was almost consummated for Brother Pen- 
zotti to go there instead of to Peru. But the latter des- 
tination was finally given him, and we had no one ready 
at once for Venezuela. Thus that Macedonia is left 
with its cry unanswered as yet. 

/'tf/aiftfniM. -^Passing from the extreme north of the 
continent to the extreme south we find another Mace- 
donia crying to us. Letters from an agricultural colony 
called Chupat, on the Patagonian coast, call for our 
work to be introduced there. The people are Welsh 
immigrants and their descendants, the majority of whom 
know no English, and must look to the language of the 
country (Spanish) for the gospel work and temperance 
work that they sadly need. 

O Lord, send forth more laborers for this vast harvest. 


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In considering such a momentous question as the 
evangelization of the world we want no glittering general- 
ities — no poetical, theoretical castles of airy fancies and 
imagination ; but a practical answer to a practical ques- 
tion. Looking at reality Paul asked, " How can they be 
saved by Him on whom they have never 'called,' in 
prayer? " And amid the array of modern plausible, poetic 
theories — there stands one practical fact. They cannot. 
But if these theories were ever so true, we must remem- 
ber that they would apply only to exceptional cases of 
individuals, and not at all to the great masses of heathen 
society. Were it undoubtedly true that here and there 
were to be found occasional seekers after truth who rose 
from among the lower life of degraded heathenism and 
struggled upward toward God and heaven as mountains 
rise from dark damp plains to seek the smile of the morn- 
ing sun, still a true Christian philanthropy must tenderly 
regard the welfare of the common millions who do not, 
will not or cannot rise above their degrading associations, 
save by help from without. And so we still return from 
all our theoretic fancies to Paul's plain practical question 
respecting the masses of the heathen world, and with him 
conclude they cannot be saved without the knowledge 
of Christ. 

We use the word cannot relatively. No one wilt ques- 
tion God's ability to convert the heathen en masse, directly. 
But this is not consistent with His designs or doings. We 
see Him everywhere following the order of succession. 
Mark this in nature, cause works effect and that effect be- 
comes an incidental cause to another effect. No one 
questions God's ability to touch a seed, nay, even a lump 
of earth, and transform it into a flower, instantaneously. 
Yet He does not. He sends the warm sun and refreshing 
rain and they prepare the earth to bud and blossom with 
trees and flowers. Then the earth nourishes the young 
stalk and prepares it to expand and blossom. Then the 
sap courses through hidden channels to the leaves and 
there breathes in life from the atmosphere and returns it 
to the bloom, and so the bloom produces the fruit and 
the fruit the elements of a harvest by and by. So in 
moral causes. God has undoubtedly the moral power to 
control every human soul and bend it irresistibly to holy 
courses of conduct. He could undoubtedly overleap 
the chasm between the heathen idolator and the Christian 
disciple and make them one, immediately and directly. 
But He does not work thus. He works through a chain 
of moral causes, He employs natural means, He pro- 
ceeds step by step, providing a redeemer, causing Him to 
be proclaimed by human preachers, causing the heathen 
to hear by the preaching, to believe by the hearing, to call 
by the believing and lo be saved through the calling. 
This in reality is the natural way, the actual way, the only 
in which the heathen ca,ri be saved ! By calling upon 

God, that is, in prayer, or perhaps calling upon themselves 
the name of God. as followers. This is the attitude of 
every true seeker, this is the method of communion, this 
is the saving approach. 

This brings us as it brought the apostle to the second 
inquiry. How shall they call on Him in whom they have 
not believed ? As calling was essential to being saved so 
believing is necessary to calling. He that cometh to 
I God must believe that He is and that He is a rewarder, 
of them that diligently seek Him. To believe that He is 
or exists, lives, means to have an intelligent appreciation 
of Him as a spirit, infinite, eternal, etc. To believe that 
He is a rewarder, etc., is simply to trust His own word 
with hearty confidence. In order to true prayer then 
there must be a measure of intellectual belief in His re- 
ality and existence and of spiritual faith in His truth and 
goodness. This carries Paul and us with Hira another 
step up the staircase of the divine process, or rather let 
us say, down, for we began in salvation where its last step 
ends, in heaven, and are now going down to see where 
God has rested the whole as a foundation. And so we 
now come with Paul to the next step, and ask too, How 
shall they believe in Him of whom they have never 
heard ? And again the implied answer is They cannot. 
Faith cometh by hearing, and so does knowledge or in- 
formation, which differs from faith in referring to the 
mental faculties exclusively, and without hearing of God 
it is plainly impossible they should believe upon Hira 
either with the head or the heart. And so it is but a 
very short step which brings us to the question : 

How shall they hear without a preacher ? The word 
"hear" is used figuratively of any method of receiving in- 
formation. The word preacher also is employed generally 
of any one who proclaims the Gospel, be he apostle, 
prophet, pastor, teacher, deacon or common layman. 
Indeed we must remember that in those primitive ages of 
the Christian Church every believer was a preacher. The 
distinctions of clergy and laity which in the interests of 
law and order sprang up later, when the growth of the 
Church seemed to demand it, were then happily unknown. 
To put the question then in its meaning, we may ask. 
How shall they learn without one to teach them, or pro- 
claim the Gospel to them.' 

There are three ways in which God might teach men 
the truth about Himself, i. By a Theophany or divine 
manifestation in person. 2, By a written revelation or 
divine manifestation through a book or record. 3. By an 
oral proclamation or divine manifestation through the 
living voice of a messenger. He chose the first as the 
means of communication with our first parents in Eden, 
the second in the writings of prophets and apostles, the, 
third in the modem ministry. Sinai exemplified all three. 
For first God appeared and thundered forth His glory 
till the people could not bear it; then He spake through 
Moses, and for long ages through tablets of stone 
graven by His own finger. The first method has dis- 
appeared from history as a present means of divine com- 
munication. God no more in creation, crucifixion or 

transfiguration or ascension or resurrection makes Himself 
personally known. Nor will He ever so appear till the 
end of the world. Then once more in history every eye 
shall see Him. The other two methods are both in use, 
for we have the Bible and the living ministry. Why then 
does Paul, making no mention of the written VVord of 
God as a means of conveying the truth to the heathen, 
ask, " How shall they hear without a. preacher t" Why did 
he not add, "or without a Bible ?" 

There were two reasons, i. A specific and local one. 
In those days the Bible being in manuscript could not as 
now be multiplied. Individuals could not pay the price 
of its costly transcription. It was well if each congrega- 
tion had one. If the people heard it, therefore, it must- 
be through the living voice of him who read it aloud. 
It was impossible therefore to think of putting it into the 
hands of every heathen. They who sought their salva- 
tion were driven to the necessity of resorting to the 
human voice, to depend on oral proclamation of the 
Gospel which included reading the Bible aloud. And so 
the message went from heart to lip and lip to ear; be- 
lieving they spake and speaking were heard. 

2. But had Bibles been plenty there is still a general, 
universal reason why the main dependence must be on 
the preacher. In the first place the world is full of 
people speaking many various languages and dialects. 
To translate the Bible into all these principal tongues 
has already proved a long and very arduous task, .-^nd 
then were this perfectly done, the great masses could 
not read the translation even in their own vernacular, for 
they are ignorant even of their own native tongue. 
Beside the long labor of translation, you have the longer 
labor of education, before the written Word becomes 
actually a revelation. Without translation the book is 
sealed even to the learned heathen, and even with trans- 
lation sealed to the uneducated masses. Add to these 
considerations the fact of the power there is in human 
sympathy, the charm even of the human voice, the 
longing in the human soul for practical illu.slr,ation and 
embodiment of truth, the slowness of the natural man 
to receive abstract teaching from volumes and the readi- 
ness to learn from personations of truth, and we can see 
why even in our day with our multiplied copies and ver- 
sions of God's Word our main dependence is still on the 
living voice of the preacher. We may still ask, how shall 
the masses of heathendom hear without a preacher? White 
Bible Societies are important auxiliaries they can never 
lead the way in the world's evangelization. To accom- 
plish this the Gospel must be orally proclaimed to the 
world as rapidly as possible. God has commanded this 
as the way : "Go ye into all the world and preach, pro- 
claim the Gospel to every creature." He has blessed this 
way more than any other. Reading can never supersede 
hearing and preaching. And so we are brought down to 
the last great question : 

**How shall they preach except they be sentf" Few have 
the means to go, very few, who have also the impulse. 
They must therefore be sent. Here is the grand con- 

clusion. God has practically laid upon the shoulders of 
the Church the weight of the hundreds of millions of 
souls now sinking to death eternal in every generation. 
The beginning upon which, as a platform and base to the 
great staircase of several causes leading to the salvation 
of the heathen, the whole rests, is simply the sending out 
of the preachers. The Church must send them. But who 
are the Church? You and I. Wemust send the preacher. 

1. By going ourselves unless we can show satisfactory 
reasons exempting us from the duty and privilege. The 
presumption is that we ought to go, not to stay; we must 
show that our duty is to remain, the burden of proof lies 
upon us. 

2. We must preach by substitute, by proxy, sending our 
own children if they will go, sending out others who feel 
it their duty and privilege. The Gospel means glad 
tidings; let us send some one to proclaim them to the 
millions who have never heard of them. 

A Visit to the Foochow Conference. 


It was our privilege recently, while on our way back to 
China, to visit our mission work in Foochow. 

Having spent several years in the new field of West 
China, we had long desired to sec something of this our 
oldest China work. The mission was begun in 1847. 
The first missionaries, Collins and White, arrived in Foo- 
chow on September 5th of that year. Ten years passed 
before the baptism of the first convert. During that 
time eight missionaries had been sent out, of whom three 
had buried their wives, and one had gone home to die. 
What a sad tale the records telll 

Mrs. White died in less than nine months after their 
arrival. In the fourth year Collins returned home, where 
he died the following year. Mrs. Wiley lived but two 
years and four months, and Mrs, Wentworth only four 
months after coming to the field. The first seven years 
of the second decade witnessed two deaths. Mrs. Bald- 
win, after two years in the field, died and was buried at 
sea while on the way home, and Martin, after a service of 
four years and five months, died of cholera, just seventeen 
years to a day from the arrival of the first missionaries. 

Six deaths in seventeen years. Surely the bishop, who 
said that " what we needed was more missionary graves," 
ought to have been satisfied with this record. What a 
trial to their faith those years of sorrow and weary wait- 
ing must have been. How apparently fruitless their 
labors. Protestant communicants then numbered but a 
handful in all the empire. At every turn the mission- 
aries were met with the assertion that their work was 
hopeless. It was said that the Chinaman was wedded to 
his ideas, and could not be made Christian. They had 
for their reliance the promises of God, but could not 
have their faith strengthened, as we can, by looking back 
upon a body of 30,000 Chinese Christians. 

But from those years of patient sowing is already be- 
ing reajjed an abundant harvest. Twenty years after the 
baptism of the first convert, Bisho]) Wiley, who had been 



a medical missionary there in the early days, organized 

the Foochow mission into a Conference with six districts, 
each with a native presiding elder and a goodly number 
of native preachers. And now after another decade is 
passed let iis make a note of the results. 

Al the Annual Conference recently held in Foochow 
there came up from all parts of the work, some by a journey 
of many days, the little band of workers so lately rescued- 
from the toils of heathenism. Unce more a Bishop had 
come out from America to visit them. None had been 
there before since Bishop Wiley came out three years 
ago to die and be buried in their midst. The first 
Bishop to visit them was Bishop Thomson in 1864. Then 
came Bishop Kingsley in 1869, Harris in 1874, Wiley in 
1877, Bowman in 1881. Merrill in 18S3, Wiley again in 1 
1884 and Warren in 18S7. 

Even as at our home conferences, many of the | 
preacher's wives came up with their husbands, and to- i 
gether with the missionary ladies, held a Woman's Con- 
ference simultaneously with the other. There were 1 
papers on a variety of subjects and discussions of best ' 
methods of work. In the moral regeneration of China, 
women must have an imjiorlani place. 

Some forty or fifty preachers answered to their names 
on the opening day of Conference. The names of many 
of them had long been f,imiliar to me, and it was a great 
pleasure now to look in their faces. As Dr. Gracey 
would say, 1 had been acquainted with them a longtime, 
but had never met them. Bishop \\arren opened the 
I onference with a short and appropriate address and 
then the routine work began. With the systematic and 
business-like way in which all the business of the Confer- 
ence was cDndu<:ted we were greatly pleased. 

If all the missionaries had been absent but an inter[ire- 
ter it would apparently have made but little difference. 
Evidently there had been an irnportant training in 
self-reliance, and development of the feeling of res])onsi- 

The average (^hinaman has a man-fearihg spirit. He 
is sadly lacking in indejiendence — backbone. But these 
men had evidently improved in those respects. This [ 
was well illustrated when it came to admitting men into 
Conference. There were seven men on trial. The char- 
acters of these men had previously been considered by 
the Bishop, together with the presiding elders and mis- 
sionaries, and it was thought best that four of the seven 
should be discontinued. 

When the question i anie before the Conference the 
presiding elders and some others were not afraid to stand I 
upon their feet and give their reasons why such action 
should be taken, and the Conference sustained them by 
a large majority. The remaining three men were then 
railed up and asked the disciplinary questions. Quite a 
ripple was caused when the Bishop asked them to jirom- 
ise not to use tobacco. Chinamen who do not use 
tobacco are about as plentiful as white blackbirds. The 
Bishop had to waive that subject, and content himself 
with saying that he hoped the time would come when , 

the Conference would not admit a man who used 

Inquiry was then made as to their standing in their ex- 
aminations. The standing of two of them was not satisfac- 
tory, and the Conference, by a large majority, refused to 
elect them. They were left on trial and given an oppor- 
tunity to do better next year. Thus, four men were out 
of the race altogether, two were left on trial, and only 
one of the seven succeeded in getting into the Conference. 
If this is the way the native preachers guard the doors of 
the Conference, it will be nearly as difficult for an unfit 
man to get in as for a rich ma*n to enter the kingdom of 
heaven. Verily, strait is the gate and narrow is the way 
into the Foochow Conference. 

This conservative spirit promises well for the future of 
our work in this land. It points to the time when the 
Chinese Christians need not longer be in leading strings 
to the home churches. They are beginning to realize 
that the Church is theirs, and not an exclusively foreign 
institution. The religion of Jesus Christ ought not 
longer to be regarded as an. exotic, but a tree that is 
rapidly becoming naturaliiced in the soil of China. May 
its " leaves be for the healing of the nation." 

On Sabbath evening Bishop Warren ordained nineteen 
deacons and twenty-one elders. At the close he re- 
marked that he had never seen so many men ordained at 
one time before. This large number was due to the fact 
that there had been none ordained since Bishop Merrill 
was present four years ago. There are now fifty-three 
native members of <.onference and one hundred and four 
local preachers. .May these prove but the vanguard of a 
great host, who shall preach the Gospel throughout the 
length and breadth of this vast empire. 

This year, for the first time, the Conference has elected 
native delegates to General Conference. The clerical 
delegate is Sia .Sek Ong, a presiding elder and for twenty 
three years a member of Conference. He was elected on 
the first ballot by a vote of thirty out of forty-four, and in a 
modest speech thanked the Conference for the honor they 
had done him. The lay-delegate is Mr. Ahok, well- 
known for his gift of $10,000 toward an Anglo-Chinese 
college. Th'e home chunh will doubtless be greatly in- 
terested in the coming of " these from the land of Sinim." 
So far as we know they will be the first Chinamen to 
come to .-America on such an errand. We trust they will 
be permitted to enter, but blush to think of the reception 
they may meet in Christian .America. 

One of the most interesting faces among the preachers 
was that of the veteran Hu Yung Mi. now going with 
consumption. He is pastor of Tien Any Tany, where 
the congregation is mainly composed of students. He is 
too feeble to preach much, but is valued forliis personal 
influence over the students. His fine spiritual face be- 
tokens a beautiful character. His daughter is in Dela- 
ware, Ohio, preparing herself to be a physician to her 
countrywomen. When Hu Yung Mi met Mrs. Warren 
he asked if she had ever met his daughter. " Yes," she 
replied, " I sat at table with her for several days. We 

could not speak, to one another, so I only sat and smiled." 
IJut only to " sit and smile " may have been worth a great 
deal to this lonely Chinese girl just entering a strange 

They are sadly in need of reinforcements at Foochow. 
Some years ago, before they began iheir educational 
work, they wrote home that they would never need more 
than six missionaries. At present they have six men, but 
one is at home and another newly arrived. Their force 
ought to be doubled at once. The growing work de- 
mands a more efficient superintendence than our brethren 
are able to give. There oi^ght to be four men for our 
educational and publishing work, and several more to 
live in interior points. Living in the interior the mis- 
sionary would be more conveniently situated with re- 
spect to the country work, which is our main work, and 
his personal influence would be a more powerful factor 
than it now is. We are losing oui character as pioneers 
in this j>rf>vince. Our sister missions have missionaries 
living in the interior, some of them two liundred and fifty 
miles away, while our missionaries are all living iu Foo- 
chow. Let there be an advance. 

The record of the i):isi year has been an encouraging 
one. There are now 2,214 f^^H meml)ers, a gain of 182, 
and 1,188 probationers, a gain of 179, or a total gain for 
the year of 561. This is a net increase of about twelve 
per cent, after having deducted 57 deaths and 56 expul- 

The collection for missions is $350.74, a gain over hist 
year of $69.42, or about 25 per cent. Total collections 
for all purposes $2,659.94, a total gain of $509.49, or 
nearly 24 per cent. There is in this a hopeful looking 
toward self-sup[>ort. The .\ng1o-Chinese College has 60 
students, the theological sohool, 21, the high school 20, 
and the girls' school, 43. A college dormitory to accom- 
raodate 70 students is in process of erection. 

We leave Foochow thoroughly persuaded that our 
brethren and sisters here are doing a great and glorious 
work. Let us hold up their hands that they faint not in 
the midst of the battle. 

Home Persecution in (.'hiiia, 


The two instances I desire to mention here will 
give the readers a faint idea what the native Christians 
have to endure in China, and also with what heroism 
they meet these persecutions which are inflicted upon 
them by their own people. 

About two years ago our native preacher at U'u chtn, 
one of our inland stations, brought a fine looking lad of 
about fourteen years of age, asking admittance into the 
Fowler InstUute. Being fairly well on in his studies and 
having the appearanc e of coming from a good family, I 
received him on condition that he would remain .seven 
years in the school. I at once set him at work studying 
the Gospels, which were explained to the students daily 
by our native local deacon. 

On the first Sunday in June, 18S6, when I announced 

that four candidates for baptism were present and asked 
them to come forward, this young lad came forward ask- 
ing me to baptise him. Although he had not been a 

I probationer, yet in consideration of his knowledge of the 

, Scri]>tures, I admitted him to this Holy Sacrament 
without a moment's special preparation for it. 

j The following seven or eight months no possible fault 
could be found with him. He really gave every sign of 
becoming a genuine Christian. But Chinese New \'ear 
came, to which all students will go home if they possibly 
can, and Wan^ chia'hung (for this is his name) was no 

1 exception, although his home was eighty miles distant. 
Instead of returning to school in due time he tarried 
for several xveeks, until i had to send for him, and finally 
had to go to his home to tell his parents that the rules of 
the school could not be violated in that way. The poor 
boy finally returned to school all unsettled, unhappy, 
apparently finding no pleasure in taking an active part in 
religious exercises or in his daily work. In a short time 
he deserted. I then made no effort to bring him back, 
thinking he was a hopeless case, and if ever I had made 
a mistake it was when I baptized him. 

But will the reader condemn me when I tell him what 
this boy had to endure for Jesus whom he loved I A 
missionary passed through this town a few days ago and 
found the boy bound with iron fetters. His parents hav- 
ing heard of his being baptized gave him no peace nor 
rest, but tried to force him to become a Tavist priest, 
spent 40,000 cash teaching him Tavist theology. But with 
what success? They drove him mad. 

With his feet in iron fetters he followed the missionarj' 
all through the streets of the town, hopping on hands and 
feel. In his sane moments he told the missionary that 
he did love Jesus and did not wish to liecome a lavist 
priest. When the i>arents saw this they only drew the 
shackles closer, until all the skin was chafed off his 

.\nother case is a boy about sixteen years of age, at 
present in the Institute. For a long time he resisted the 
influence of the Holy Spirit, battling against conviction, 
always contending that worshipping idols was of as much 
avail as worshipping Jesus, quoting many instances of 
effectual prayer to idols. His parents being staunch 
heathen this was not to be wondered at. About two 
months ago, when he saw sixteen of his classmates bap- 
tized by Bishop Warren, he yielded to his convictions and 
decided to be bai>tixed and become a follower of the 
Lord Jesus. But no sooner had he taken this step than 
Satan set to work making his home a place of terror 
His people being in fair circumstances had the advantage 
over him. 

After threats and abuses proved of no avail they re- 
sorted to the old plan of disinheriting their son. " If 
you will come to us and do ancestral worshi|) you shall 
have all the clothing you need, and when your uncle dies 
you are to have all of his property, besides what you will 
receive from home : but if you worship that Jesus you 
need not come to us for anything." 

The reader will doubtless be glad to learn that this boy 

taking a different course from the one described above. 

le is not allowing himself to be driven mad, but frankly 

>ld his people to keep their earthly goods. " I will not 

ido ancestral worship, I have learned to love Jesus and 

rith Him I have all things." 

The foreigner in China is hated for his nationality, but 

ihe is not persecuted for his religion. But if he adopts 

|lhe Chinese costume and hajjpens to have a somewhat 

'celestial " physit]ue he will have the same scoffs and 

idicule to endure a native has. 

What, and you also sell the foreign devils' book ? 
jAnd what has induced you to become a ])roseIyte to the 
foreign devils' doctrine ? All such questions are asked 
rhcn in the interior of this province." 

Proteittaiitisni in Mexico. 


The most remarkable event in the history of Protes- 

M missions in the Republic of Mexico has just taken 

ce. It was a general assembly of the representatives 

the different missions which convened in this city on 

he jist day of January, and closed on the evening of the 

jd day of February. 

The statistics gathered from the rej)resentatives present 
E>n said occasion show that there are eighteen different 
missions, representing eleven distinct denominations, 
working in the country. 

Much preparatory work was done through colporieurs 
of the American Bible Society, who came into this 
country in the wake of the American army ('47 and S), 
and later days also by a devoted medical man of the 
Presbyterian church. Dr. I'revost, now of Zacatecas, who 
bej^an Christian work in the Villa de Cos about the year 
1850. as well as by Miss Rankin, a devoted American 
Udy, who settled in Brownsville, Texas, about 1853, and 
soon after began the distribution of tracts, and the send- 
jingof Christian workers on this side of the line till the 
I year " '59," when she came herself into the country as far 
1« Monterey. Organized missionary effort was com- 
menced in the country as follows: 

First: The Baptist Mission (Northern convention) was 
commenced in May, 1869, and is now working in si.x dif- 
ferent States of the Republic. 

Second: The Episcopal Mission, which for several 
years was known as the Church of Jesus, was established 
to the same year, but was received as a regular Mission 
nj the Episcopal Church in 1886 by the General Conven- 
tion of said church, which convened in Chicago at that 

Third: The Friends' Mission was established in 1871 
and works through the State of TamauHpas. 

Fourth: The Central Prestiyterian Mission was estab- 
lished in 1872 and is working in the Federal District and 
seven States. 

Fifth: The Presbyterian .Mission of Zacatecas was 
established in the same year, and is operating in five dif- 
ferent States. 

Sixth: The Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South was established in 1873, has a conference divided 
into six districts, and extends operations through sonic 
fifteen different States, 

Seventh: The Mission of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church was established in the same year; is working in 
the Federal district, and seven States. 

Eighth: The Mission of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South also has a frontier conference established 
in 1874, and is working in seven frontier States. 

Ninth; The Presbyterian Church South established its 
Mission in 1874, and is operating in two States. 

Tenth: The Reform Presbyterian Church established 
its Mission in rSSo, and is working in two States. 

Eleventh: The Baptist Church of the South established 
its Mission in 1881, and is working in four States. 

Twelfth: The Congregational Church established a 
Mission in the State of Chihuahua in 1S82. 

Thirteenth: The same Church established another 
Mission in the .State of Jalisco in 1872; abandoned the 
work, but finally reorganized it in 1882. 

Fourteenth: The Friends Mission of Central Mexico 
was established in 1886. 

Fifteenth: The Cumberland Presbyterians established 
a Mission in Aguas Calientes in 1886. 

Sixteenth: The Congregationalists established a Mis- 
sion in Sonora in 1887. 

Seventeenth: The so-called '" Church of Jesus." This 
is a small work under the direction of Bishop Riley in 
the central States of the Republic, and has refused to be 
received as a mission of the Episcopal Church. 

Eighteenth: The Independent English Mission oper- 
ates in the State of Mexico, under the direction of the 
converted English Miner. 

These missions together milke up the following statis- 

Numljcr of centres in operatioQ 86 

Congregations 303 

There are congregations in all the territories and all the 
States of the Republic, except Chiapas and Campeche. 

Ordained FnreigTi Missionaries 48 

Assistant Foreign Missionaries 44 

Foreign lady teachers 48 

Total number of Foreign Workers 136 

Ordained Native Preachers . . 88 

Unordained Native Preachers 65 

Native Teachers 96 

Other Native Helpers 49 

Total Native Workers 800 

Grand total of Foreign and Native Workers. . 455 

Organized Churches 177 

Church CoiDoiunicants 12,444 

Probable AdherenU 30,000 

Theological Classes . . 10 

Theological 8cholar8 06 

Boarding Schools and Orphanages 15 

Scholars in same 687 

Of these 100 are supi>orted by indigenous re- 

CoQunon Schools TV 


J- . ><•« .«.-: 


Scholars in Same 2,187 

Total under lastruction 2.'516 

Sunday Schools 199 

Teachers and Officers 367 

Scholars 4,817 

Total membership of Sunday SchooU 5,256 

Publishing Oouses 8 

Papers issued 10 

Most of which are monthlicii, though there is 

one weekly and two Hemi-monthlics. 
PagPB of all kinds of rtliginu^ liternlure issued 
since the establishment of the Mission 
Preeses (one half of which were from our 

owu Press) 40,471,295 

Number of Church Buildingi' 73 

Approximate value of same $833, 400 

Number of Parsonages 3I> 

Approximate value of same |03,260 

EductUiuaal BuildiogB 16 

Approximate value of same i!>l47.200 

Value of Publishing Houses 39,500 

Total value of alt Missionary Properly 604,260 

Of the chapels and churches, we find that sixUcn were 
built without aid Jroin the Boards at home, and nineteen 
received only partial aid. 

There have been 59 martyrs, who have given their 
lives for the cause. 

Two of the native preachers are sons of former workers 

in the field; three of the foreign missionaries are children 

of foreign missionaries in other fields, and nine of the 

missionaries are children of ministers in the honu- field. 

Mexico City. Feb. i. iSS.s. 

( "hildreii of South Africa. 

Dr. Livingstone tells us that the 1 hildren of South 
Africa have merry times, especially in the cool of the 
evening. In one of their g5.mes a little girl is carried on 
the shoulders of two others. She sits with outstretched 
arms, as they walk about with her, and all the rest clap 
their hands, and stopping before the door of each hut sing 
pretty airs, some beating time, and others making a curi- 
ous humming sound between the songs. 

The girls also skip rope and play at housekeeping and 
cooking, in imitation of the work of their mothers. The 
boys play war with small .shields and bows and arrows, or 
build little cattle pens for the cattle, which they form of 
clay. Livingstone's looking-glass was ever a source of 
entertainment to them. They often borrowed it, and the 
remarks they made were very entertiiining to Livingstone 
as he was apparently engaged in reading and not hearing 
them. "Is that me.'" 'What a big mouth 1 have!" 
" My ears are as big as pumpkin leaves." " I woulil have 
been pretty, but am spoiled by these high cheek-bones." 
All this while laughing heartily at their own jokes. 

While they seem thus conscious of their own defects, 
they have no great admiration for the beauty of white 
people, though one woman remarked, '* They are not so 
ugly after all, if they only had toes!" She evidently 
thought that the shoe was the foot itself, and was only con- 
vinced of her mistake when she saw the covering removed. 

Snake WorHhip. 
.A missionary in Central Afrit a tells us that once, 
when out for a walk, he came to a town where he saw a 
man carrying a sheep upon his shoulders, and marching 
round and round the town, followed by several peoj)Ie in 
a procession. Upon his asking what they were doing, 
they replied, " We are going to offer a sacrifice to the 
snakes, and after we have carried the sheep several times 
round the town, we shall kill and eat it. Then no snakes 
will come into the town or hurt the people." 

The Kitchen (Jod of China. 

The gods of China are legion. They are the great 
images in the large temples and the odd fragments of 
idols in shrines ; the local deities, of which e^ ery village, 
field and mountain has its own ; the invisible controllers 
of the thunder, the rain, the harvest, and the elements ; 
the sjjirits of all the dead, and especially of one's ances- 
tors ; and, besides these, every strange object, and the 
sight of every inexplicable phenomenon is w-orshipped. 

Oddly shaped stones, queerly gnarled roots, fantastic 
bits of wood, waifs brought on the tide, are all gods ; but 
whatever else may be absent from a pagan household, Su 
Meng Kong is not. He is the God of the Kitchen, and 
none would dare set up housekeeping without him. He 
has been a god for hundreds of years. In some fam- 
ilies he has no image set up, and the incense sticks burned 
in worshipping him are stuck in the crevices of the range 
chimney. Many jnit his image in the main room of the 
house. His birthday is the fourteenth of the seventh 
month, and on that day every family worships him, each 
in its own house. 

On the twenty-fourth day of the last month of the year, 
when the gods are supposed to go off for a ten-day's hob' 
day, a paper horse and other travelling equipments are _ 
burned for his use during his journey to make his annu.1l I 
report lo the superior gods. .\ lamp is kept constantly 
burning during the first days of the new year, to indicate 
that the family are waiting to welcome him whenever he 
returns. When children have been away from home, 
after greeting their parents, they worship Su Meng Kong. 
If the house-mother rears fat pigs, she credits her success 
to his good will, and makes suitable thank-offerings to 
him. — A. M. Fielde, in Missionary Link. 

Chinese Proverbs. 

The top strawberries are eaten the first. 

The error of one moment becomes the sorrow 
whole lifetime. 

Disease may be cured, but not destiny. 

An empty mind is open to all temptations. 

If the roots be left, the grass will grow again. 

A bird can roost only on one branch. 

You cannot take two skins off one cow. 

One lash to a good horse; one word to a wise man. 

Let every man sweep the snow from before his own, 



Jncibent anb ^arratinc for lloung 

" We're a Band of Little Workers." 

Tunc, "Battle Hymn." 

Te're a band of little workers in the service of oor King; 
Our hearts, our hands, our voices, our pennies, too, we bring; 
We'll make the earth beneath us and the heavens above us 

While we go marchmg on. 


Glorji g'^ry, hallelujah, 
Glory, glory, hallelujah, 
Glory, glory, hallelujah, 
While we go marching on. 

WeUl live and work for Jesus, this is our battle-cry; 
We'll live and work for Jesus, all the children shall reply; 
And we'll help the Gospel heralds in regions fur and nigh, 
As they go marching on. 


Glory, glory, etc. 

♦'I Am Not iMj Own." 

"I wish I had some money to give to God," said Susy; 
"bul I haven't any." 

"God does not expect you to give Him what you have 
not," said papa; "but you have other things besides 
money. When we get home I will read something to you, 
which will make you see plainly what you may give to 

So after dinner ihey went to the library, and Susy's 
papa took down a large book and made Susy read aloud: 
"I have this day been before God, and have given myself 
— all that I am and have — to God; so that I am in no 
respect my own. I have no right to this body, or any of 
its members; no right to this tongue, these hands, these 
feet, these eyes, these ears. I have given myself clean 

"These are the words of a good and great man, who 
is now in Heaven. Now, you see what you have to give 
to God, my darling Susy." 

Susy looked at her hands and at her feet, and was 
silent. At last she said in a low voice, half to herself, 
"I don't believe God wants them." 

Her papa heard her. " He does want them, and He 
is looking at you now to see wlielher you will give them 
to Him or keep them for yourself. If you give them to 
Him you will be careful never to let them do anything 
naughty, and will teach them to do everything good they 
can. If you keep them for yourself they will be likely to 
do wrong and to gel into mischief." 

"Have you given yours to Him, papa?" 

"Yes, indeed; long ago." 

"Are you glad.'" 

"Yes, very glad," 

Susy was still silent. She did not quite understand 
what it all meant. 

"If you give your tongue to God," said her papa, "you 
will not allow it to speak unkind, angry words, or tell 
tales, or speak an untruth, or anything that would grieve 
God's Holy Spirit." 

"I think I'll give Him my tongue," said Susy. 

"And if you give God your hands, you will watch 
them, and keep them from touching things that do not 
belong to them. You will not let them be idle, but will 
keep them busy about something." 

"Well then, I'll give Him my hands." 

"And if you give Him your feet, you never will let 
them carry you where you ought not to go; and if you 
give Him your eyes, you will never let them look at any- 
thing you know He would not like to look at if He were 
by your side." 

Then they knelt down together, and Susy's papa prayed 
to God to bless all they had been saying, and to accept 
all Susy had now promised to give Him, and to keep 
her from ever forgetting her promise, but to make it her 
rule in all she said and all she did, all she saw and all she 
heard, to remember, "I am not my own." 

The Gospel in Fiji. 

The Missionary News tells a story like this: 

"The people of Fiji had at one time cooked and eaten 
thirty people; and it was said that at the next meal they 
were determined to have some Christians. Just then, 
the king went to the mission-house; something had hap- 
pened to make him cross before he went, and when he 
found the missionary was not there, he was very angry. 
The missionary's wife offered him some tea and some- 
thing to eat. He drank the tea, but flung back the food 
angrily. At that moment a chief came in, and crawled 
submissively toward ihe king. 

"The king cried out, 'Split his head with an axe!* 
Just then the missionary came in, and the man was saved; 
but the king declared he would kill the next Christian 
natives he should meet. Two who were near by said to 
each other, ' Heaven is near,' and then they went behind 
a bush near by to pray for themselves and for the king 
and for their persecutors; but they were not killed. The 
followers of the king said, 'If you missionaries would go 
away, these people would be in the ovens. Your being 
here prevents our killing them. We came to kill them, 
but we cannot lift a hand. The Christian's God is too 
strong for us.' " 

Now there is a church on everyone of the Fiji Islands, 
there are schools everywhere, and in a great many houses 
the first thing you hear in the morning and the last at 
night is the sound of prayer and the singing of hymns. 
People can go from island to island in perfect safety, and 
the days when men and women and even little children 
were eaten are passed away. 

This is what missionary work has done for the South 
Sea Islands. , 




**I Want to go to Jesus.*' 

I am going to tell you about a little girl who is in one 
of the mission schools in India, whom we will call Lachme. 
She was only about six years old when it happened. 

The teacher of her school was a kind lady who had 
left her home to go out to India and tetl the children 
there about Jesus Christ, She was very fond of little 
Lachme, who loved the teacher dearly. Little girls in 
India are very quick in finding out if the missionaries 
who come to teach them really love them or not ; 
and if they find they do, they love them very much 
in return. 

Little Lachme had been in school about a year when 
her kind friend and teacher was taken ill. She was very 
unhappy and 1 have no doubt prayed to God »o make 
her well. But for some good reason God did not see 
fit to restore her to health. 

When the teacher knew she was dying, she called little 
Lachme to her. 

"My child," she said in a very weak voice, "I am 
going to Jesus." 

The little girl looked at her friend's face in astonish- 
ment. Could it be that she was going away from them 
all ? That would be very dreadful. 

Seeing she did not speak the teacher said again: 

*'I am going to the good Jesus I have told you about, 
You must learn to love Him and come too, Lachme." 

The child threw herself on the bed, and bursting into 
tears cried: 

"Oh! take me with you now ; I will be so good, Miss 

The teacher was too weak to say any more, so little 
Lachme was taken away. Her heart seemed bursting. 
Every one was so occupied, no one thought especially of 
her. She was one among many. Soon afterwards came 
the news that the kind friend and teacher was dead. 
Many were the heavy hearts and weeping eyes, but poor 
little Lachme seemed to have lost her very best friend. 
Who would ever be so kind to her again ? 

Presently a sudden thought struck her — why should 
she not go to Jesus too I Had not her teacher told her 
to come ? She had been too ill to understand what she 
meant when she had asked to go with her. It was too 
late for that, but she would go by herself. 

Drying her eyes, she got a clean white chuddar (the 
large piece of cloth the i^irls in India wear instead of a 
hat) and started off upon her journey. 

Nobody saw her, and so she got safely out of th 
school-room and out of the compound. Now her heart 
began to fail her, for she had never been outside the 
school gates alone before, but she drew her chuddar 
tightly around her and started off for the railway station. 
Of course she must go in a train. Everybody did that 
if they wished to go anywhere, and of coarse she must 
go to the station first. 

When she came to the station she found a train just 
going off. There were a lot of people coming and going 
She got pushed on the platform and then she shrank 

away into a corner. She saw the train move ofT and 

wondered if that was the right one for her to go in. It 
didn't matter much ; she would be sure to get to the right 
place some time or other. 

By and by the station became empty, and as the 
station-master came up the platform, he caught sight of 
a little white-veiled figure standing all alone. 

" Who is this ? " he asked in surprise, for in India it is 
very strange for little native girls to be seen at railway 
stations, especially alone. 

Lachme began to feel very much frightened, the gen- 
tleman spoke in such a big voice. However, she gath- 
ered up her courage and raised her dark eyes to the 
station-master's face. Perhaps he did not look very 
severe, for she found voice to say in very meek tones : 

" Please, I want to go to Jesus." 

" Where ?" the station-master asked in surprise. 

" To Jesus," said the child, her eyes fast filling with 
big tears, and her little chest heaving with sobs. " The 
Miss Sahiba has gone and she said I might go, but she 
hadn't time to take me." 

Then the poor child's courage gave way. I don't think 
the station-master's eyes were quite dry as he tried to 
comfort the child ; I only know that he soon found out 
where she came from, and sent a message to the school 
(where she had already been missed), and poor little 
Lachme to her great disappointment found that she 
could not go to her friend who was with Jesus, after all, 
not until Jesus called her Himself. 

She could not understand this at first, but other kind 
Christian teachers at the mission school are teaching her 
more about Jesus every day. Let us hope she will grow 
up to be a good Christian worker, and that before she 
receives her own call lo go to Jesus, she may have told 
the wonderful story of Christ's love to many of the 
women and girls in India, and have led them to Him for 
their Saviour. — Indian Female Evangelist. 


A Queer Ride iii <'hiiia. 

[Sect, with Li«Jc Heiptr*. by tbnelght-jear-old daughter of one < 
the mlMlonariea In Cblna.] 

Oae time, papa and mamnia and Willie and Katie Qoddord 
and I went to a temple among the mountains to spend a few days. 
Tliia temple waa fifteen miles away from Ningpo, We went 
twelve mltea in a boat, nod three miles \\\ diaira. When we were 
ready to go home, there were no chairs at the temple, to take 
ua tu the boat. Pupa, mamma, and Katie were going to walk, 
but Willie had ague snd was not able to walk, and I was too 

A Cbinaman said he would carrv us down in his rice baskets. 
So he brought out two large baskets tied fust to the ends of a 
strong bamboo pole. Papa put a little chair in each basket. 
Willie climbed into one, and papn put me in the other basket, 
and away we went, donn hill, as fast as the ChioamaD could 
trot, as snug as two bugs in two rugs. There were many 
beautiful flowers in bloom, which papa picked and tossed into 
our baskets for us to enjoy, as we rode swinging along in the 
air. Our locomotive moved along so fast that mamma and 
Eatie couldn't keep up with us. 




The People of Korea. 

BY R. D. J. 

If my young friends will lake the trouble to look in the 
eastern part of the map of Asia they will there see China 
holding on to a piece of land with her left hand to keep 
it from falling into the sea. Have you found it ? Well, 
that is Korea. If China should let go it would fall into 
the waters of the Yellow Sea and thus become an island 
instead of a peninsula. You see it is not a very large 
country, only about as large as the State of Minnesota, 
but it is quite full of people, having about one-sixlh as 
many as we have in the United States. 

This country was formerly called Chosen, which means 
" fresh morning " or Land of the " Morning Calm *' be- 
cause it is so far east. It is also called the Hermit 
Nation, because like an oyster it has kept its doors so 
tightly shut that no foreigners could get in, and if by 
accident any persons were cast upon its shores they were 
never allowed to leave the country. 

Many years ago. some Dutch sailors were shipwrecked 
and kept there eight years, and were so homesick that 
they were always watching for an opportunity to get 
away. So one day finding a boat they entered it and 
escaped. They found their way to Japan and from there 
they were sent home. What strange things they had to 
tell of the people, their customs and manners ! 

One thing seems very strange to us. They do not 
allow the women to go out in the daytime, but some time 
in the evening they ring a bell when all the men and 
boys have to hurry home as fast as they can until not one 
is seen on the streets, and then the women and girls go 
out to walk. 

I have not time to tell more of their strange ways and 
habits, but you must read for yourselves. I want to tell 
you, however, that it is no longer a hermit land, for a few 
years ago they opened their doors and now they will 
allow us to visit them the same as other nations. 

You will be glad to know that the present king, Bo Kei 
Ju, desires to be friendly with other nations and has 
aided the missionaries in their work. You will also be 
glad to know that some of the Koreans have already be- 
come Christians and are calling to us to come and help 
them win their land for Christ. Within the last two years 
several missionaries have heard this call and have gone 
to this far-away land to declare to them the "good 
tidings " of great joy which you remember the angel said 
should be unto all people. 

Dear children, will you not help send the Gospel to 
Korea ? Will you not pray for the king and His people 
and the dear missionaries who have gone to carry the 
means of healing for their bodies at the same time they 
tell them the old, old story of Jesus and his love ? 

Conrersion of an Iiuliaii Oirl. 

A missionary among the Indians tells of a poor little 
Indian girl who attended the mission school. She saw a 
picture of the crucifi.xion and wished to know what it 

meant. The teacher told her in very simple words the 
story of the Cross. As she went on with the history, 
tears streamed down the face of the little girl, who did 
not speak for awhile. Then her first words were, " Me 
never want to do bad any more." Her heart was so 
touched with the love of the Saviour who died for our 
I sins that she resolved never to grieve Him, but desired 
j to please Him perfectly. From this resolution she never 
wavered, but became her teacher's right-hand girl, always 
ready to do her bidding, and she exercised a powerful 
influence for good at the mission. She afterwards mar- 
ried; and is now foremost in the work of improvement 
among the Indian women. When they become real 
Christians they begin to take pleasure in making their 
homes neat and pretty, and they hang texts and mottoes 
and pictures on the walls. They try to make home the 
dearest spot on earth to their husbands and children. 
The names of the children are very curious : Mechanda, 
or Throw-fire; Yadoushroutok, or Door-knob ; Tuqueni- 
huta, or Sail through the heavens ; Tahahainty, or Go-a- 
head ; Dochtermarax, or Fly over a town ; Yarouyhe, or 
Hold up the sky ! 

**A-Ho!! A-Moi!" 

Sitting in my study one day, I noticed the beating of 
a Chinese gong; and when I went to the window I saw 
two boys with a gong between them, and at the time the 
gong was being beaten one of the lads was crying out, 
"A-hoi! A-hoi!" 

I asked my teacher what was the meaning of this; and 
he said, " The first boy has lost some one, probably his 
brother, and he has got this other boy to go with him, 
according to the usual custom, through the streets, 
sounding the gong in the hope that they may find the 
little one and bring him back again." 

I listened, as the sound retreated, as the boys went 
down the street, until the sound was lost, and I went 
back to my work again. But soon after I heard them re- 
turning ; and now the little boy who had been calling out 
"A-hoi!" appeared to be trembling and quivering, and 
he seemed to think it was doubtful whether he would find 
his little brother or not. Still the gong was beating, and 
still he was calling out most pathetically, " A-hoi ! A- 

Now, I think that here we have an exact illustration of 
what Jesus is doing. He is going in search of the lost. 
He goes through the streets looking after them and call- 
ing out their names, and He wants you and me to labor 
with Him in seeking that which is lost ; and still, we are 
going about beating the gong, and calling out the names 
of the perishing ones, and asking them now, ere it be too 
late, to come to Jesus. — Rev. H. Friend^ China. 

Little givers, do your part 
With a glad and williag heart, 
For the angel voices say, 
" Little givers I give to-day." 

Image Worship in Japan. 


In Japan, the land of poetic names — the " Sunrise King- 
dom," the " Gate of Day," the land whose emperor's crest 
is the chrysanthemum — we have seen the little children 
taken to great heathen temples to worship, they knew not 
what — great images of wood, stone, and bronze, gods 
made by men's hands. For years the sound of the ham- 
mer of idol-makers rang in our ears. We have become 
heart-sick in seeing the great demand for them, and the 
sums of money that would go to their purchase. The 
little children there have been taught to reverence such 
images and daily worship them. 

The first place to which a child is taken when he comes 
into this world is the temple. Here he receives his name ; 
here he is to come with all his childish sorrows, and at 
each recurring birthday bring a handsome present. 
Around the temple eaves are flocks of pigeons, and in the 
barren yards are sacred water tanks and various shrines. 
Hither the children often came in troops to play during 
vacation hours. Nearby, perhaps on the same lot, stands 
the theatre and other sensual attractions. Their idol- 
atrous surroundings are made just as attractive as possible, 
so that in the earliest days of childhood the seeds of false 
religions are sown. 

In these yards they are taught to pray to other gods 
than those of their own household. If they are sick they 
go to a red-painted image carved out of wood, and rub 
the part of its body that corresponds to the painful region 
of their own bodies. If they have a pain in the head 
they rub their own head and the head of the image and 
say their prayer for healing at the same time. If it is a 
stomach pain they rub theirs and the image's stomach. 
When drought, or pestilence, or accidents come they pray 
to various gods. Sometimes for fear they may not get 
the right one they go on long pilgrimages to pray to all 
the gods they can hear of with the hope of getting the 
right one. Of course they have no means of knowing 
that they are heard or will be answered. The ingenuity 
of the priests, however, has met this state of things. 
Before some temples stands a large bird- perch. It 
generally consists of two upright stone pillars, across the 
top of which is a large flat stone. When a man prays he 
pitches a stone upward. If it lights on the cross stone 
and stays there he supposes his prayer will be answered. 

In other temple-yards they have large wooden images 
before which they pray. They stand opposite these and 
taking a piece of paper chew it until it becomes a pulpy 
wad. They say their prayers and throw this wad of paper. 
If it sticks to the image they think they will get a favorable 
answer, but if it falls off they do not expect to receive 
that for which they have prayed. It is in the credulous 
years of childhood that the priests and parents try to fix 
most firmly these heathenish errors. 

What a ripe field there is here for the children of 

America to work ! What a privilege it is to be permitted 

to aid in sending those who shall work directly among 

tAesff heathen children and give them a. knowledge of a 

Father in Heaven who hears prayers, and the worship of 

whom is a joy and a help in right living ! To teach them 
of a Saviour who was born into this world as a babe, and 
who grew up through all the little trials of childhood, and 
who is still full of sympathy and love for them — is not 
this a work in which you are rejoiced to be a helper? — 

Japauese Babies. 

A littte bird sings from over the sea, 
" I've been to a land that pleases me; 
'Tia a fabulous land where babies don't cry 
From the time they are born till the time they die." 

*' You queer little baby, way over the sea, 
Tell us, oh, tell U8, how can it be, — 
Are not Japanese babj-clothes ever too tight? 
Don't Japanese babies wake up in the night? 

" Do Japanese teeth come through without pain? 
Or Japanese children tease babies in vain? 
Don't Japanese pins have points that prick? 
Won't Japauese colic make little folks sick? 

" You queer little baby, if secret there be. 

Send it, oh, send it, 'way over the seal" 
" There is no such secret. Far off in Japan 

Some babies can cry, and they'll prove that they can I*' 
— Amuk C. Vincent, in St. NichoUufor OeUbtTm 

Babies in Cliiua. 

Mr. Thomas Stevens thus describes in Babyhood, a 
curious sight that he saw in China: 

"One day when travelling through China on my 
bicycle tour around the world, I came upon a very novel 
and interesting si>^ht. It is the first thing of the kind I 
ever saw or heard about. My overland journey led me 
through many out-of-the-way districts where the people 
are primitive and curious in many respects. In one of 
these obscure communities, in the foot-hills of the Mae- 
Ling Mountains, I saw about twenty Chinese infants 
tethered to stakes on a patch of greensward, like so many 
goats or pet lambs. The length of each baby's tether 
was about ten feet, and the bamboo stakes were set far 
enough apart so that the babies wouldn't get all tangled 
up. Each baby had a sort of girdle or Kammerbund 
around its waist, and the end of the tether-string was tied 
to the back of this. Some of the little Celestials were 
crawling about on all-fours; others were taking their first 
lessons in the feat of standing upright by steadying them- 
selves against the stake they were tied to. 

"What queer little Chinese mortals they all looked, to 
be sure, picketed oul. on the grassland like a lot of young 
calves whose mothers were away for the day [ In this re- 
spect they did, indeed, resemble young calves; for I 
could see their mothers at work in a rice-field a few hun- 
dred yards away. All the babies seemed quietly con- 
tented with their treatment. I stood and looked at them 
for several minutes from pure amusement at their 
unique position." 



The Ainos of Japan. 

Rev. O. H. Gulick, a missionary in Japan, writes about 
»e Ainos as follows : 

■' The Aino of Japan is a very interesting savage, if 
ideed so mild-mannered a man can be called a savage. 
Iter thirty years of age he begins to produce a very 
leavy beard, which is unshaven through life ; his breast 

d legs are covered with hair, and at thirty-five or forty 
ears of age he is doubtless the most hairy human being 
the world. This feature of the bearded Aino has 
;iven rise to the Japanese legend that the Aino is a cross 

twcen a human being and a dog. The men are said 

be, as they appear to be, very strong, of stalwart figure, 
[rave, and rather slow of motion. There is an almost 
>athetic air of gentleness and kindness in the manner 
ind tones of this grim and silent savage. 

"His hut is made A reeds, the roof thatched in single 
engths of straw^ giving it a terraced appearance. The 
ides are of bunches of reeds tied on in handfuls. The 
ncn and women are all clad in a coarse wrapper, made 
"A sackcloth, which the women make from the bark of a 
tree, twisting each thread by hand, and weaving these in 

very simple loom. 

" In infancy, and til! ten years of age, the children are 
not supposed to need any clothing whatever, certainly 
not in summer time. But later in life all are clad. 

'Their huts are hovels, lacking all furniture beyond a 
pot, a pot-hook suspended from the smoky rafters, and 
>ossibly a shred of a mat, and some fishing tackle, with 
perhaps a bundle of sea-weed. Poverty, dirt and smoke! 
Men and women wear their hair long ; the men's un- 
combed and shaggy, the women's parted in the middle 
and reaching to the shoulders. This race of people is 
copper-colored, darker than Japanese, but yet a shade 
lighter than the darker liawaiians. They tattoo the lips 
of all their girls, giving all women a strange and unat- 
tractive appearance through life. The women, on meet- 
ing a stranger, often cover their tattooed lips and mouth 
with the hand, as if ashamed of the mark. A Japanese 
theory regarding this is, that the Ainos thus tattoo their 
girls, in order that they may not be stolen or betrothed 
to Japanese, and lost to their own race. 

" I am told that hundreds of the Ainos come to the 
shore to fish and gather sea-weed, during the summer 
months, and retire to their mountain homes in the fall, 
depending there upon the bear, deer, and other game 
that ihey can secure." 

A Japanese Bo}- at Breakfast. 


It is breakfast time, and Hideosabe sits down, together 
with his father, mother, and two little sisters, on a thick 
raat spread before a low table, while a servant comes in 
to wait upon them. Do not suppose there is hot coffee, 
beefsteak, and eggs for this meal. They have what they 
like much better. A good sized bowl of cold boiled rice 
is set before each person, and then a dipperful of steam- 

ing tea is brought in, and the rice saturated and heated 
by having the tea poured over it. 

Hideosabe begins to eat this now palatable dish with 
two long straight ivory sticks. These are chop slicks, and 
if you would know how difficult it is to use them, just 
take two new and slender lead pencils, hold one between 
the first and second fingers, the other between the sec- 
ond and third, and try to carry food to your mouth with 

But our Japanese friend knows no such difficulty, and 
would find the use of a knife and fork infinitely more 

After the rice the Kuku family have another course, 
consisting of slices of very large and coarse pickled rad- 
ishes, which are considered a delicacy. These are fol- 
lowed by more tea, and then the meal is ended, Some- 
times stewed sweet potatoes are added, but the Japanese 
families do not care for much variety. — Christian Union. 

What One Dollar Did. 

It was a very little dollar, a little shiny gold dollar; and 
because it was put in the hand of the Lord, it did a great 
work. It was like the five barley loaves that the little 
boy had. Do you remember about it ? If he had kept 
them in his basket, instead of giving them to Jesus, they 
would never have fed all those hungry people. And if 
the owner of the gold dollar had kept it rolled up in cot- 
ton, in a box, it would never have helped to build a 
church. The pretty little coin belonged to a little girl ; 
it was all her own, she could do with it just what she 
pleased. What would you have done with it ? She 
meant to keep it always, and she probably would, if it 
had not been for her mother. 

One evening her mother came home from a meeting, 
and told her about a little band of God's people who had 
no place to hold their services but a blacksmith's shop, 
and that money was needed to build a little church for 
them, I don't know alt the mother said, and I don't 
know what passed through the mind of our little maiden. 
I only know how highly she prized her treasure; and 
yet the next day she wrote this letter : 

Dear Sir : — A few weeks ago. I had this gold dollar 
given me to spend as I choose. It was so pretty, I rolled 
it up in cotton and put it away in a little box, and 
thought I would keep it always. But last evening mother 
came home from the association, and told me about the 
little church you were trying to build. She said you had 
to hold your meetings in a blacksmith's shop. I want to 
help build that church, and thought I would send you 
my gold dollar. Please accept it, from a little girl who 
loves Jesus. 

The gold dollar left its hiding-place, and started on its 
mission; and many people heard how "a little girl who 
loved Jesus " had given the very best thing she had, to 
help His kingdom on earth. Her generous act touched 
their hearts and opened their purses, until over %ioQ was 
subscribed. And it was the little gold dollar that did it. 
This is a *' really-truly " story, too; just as true as the 
Bible. — Lutheran Mia. fournal. 

Tillage Schools in South India. 


A thatched building with mud walls on three sides and 
a sanded floor — about twenty noisy, dirty, black children, 
nothing bright about them but their eyes, nothing clean 
about them whatever — constitute the average school. In 
a little niche in the wall opposite the open side of the 
room, or else on a little raised platform of mud, sits the 
little mud Ganesha, or god of wisdom, who is supposed— 
and rightly enough, too, if one judge by results — to 
tnlighten the minds of the pupils. 

The boys all bow to him with folded hands of prayer 
as they enter school in the morning; his name is the first 
which they write upon the sanded floor, and his name is 
at the top of each page of palm leaf which they study 
with monotonous droning sound. 

A little writing, ability to read the old (palm leaf) 
books of doubtful morality, which constitute ilieir heroic 
songs; or to make out the title-deeds of their future in- 
heritance; and a smattering of very peculiar arithmetic, 
constitute the course of study to which they aspire. The 
writing is to be done with an iron point, or stylus, which 
they are to use by holding it perpendicularly in the right 
hand, and guiding it by a niche cut yi the thumb nail of 
the left hand. The narrow strip of palm leaf is held in 
the left hand and cleverly moved along in the hand by 
the movement of the thumb and forefinger of the left 
hand, as the scratching with the pen in the right may re- 
quire. A page, when written, is smeared with cow-dung, 
or charcoal, or turmeric (yellow), as may happen to be 
most convenient, till the scratched lines show distinctly. 
A round hole is cut in the left-hand end of the leaf to 
put a string through, and the whole thing is done. 

Their hemic songs consist mostly of the clever (■*) per- 
formances of Ganesha or Vishnu or Siva, as the case may 
be, in stealing or lying, or doing some dirty, low-lived 
trjpk which a decent party would be ashamed of. 

Their tables of arithmetic consist of multiplication 
tables in tens — "ten times one are ten, ten times two are 
twenty," etc., with the units used successively in place of 
the one, till they get to the second set of tens, and begin 
over again — "ten times eleven are a hundred and ten, 
ten times twelve are a hundred and twenty," etc., till the 
third set of tens is reached, when they begin again — 
"ten times twenty-one are two hundred and ten," and 
SO on. The same thing all over again in fractions — "ten 
times one tenth is one, ten times two tenths is two," etc., 
etc. When they want to multiply they do the units 
separately and the fractions separately and add the re- 
sults; e.^.^ '' how much is eight times 4^ " would be, 
''eight limes four is thirty-two, and eight times one half 
is four — thirty-two and four more Is thirty-six." It seems 
a very stupid way, but they get to do it very cleverly, 
and can do in their heads what no ordinary American 
boy would think possible. 

They come to school in the morning before six, stay 

till about eight, when they have a recess of about two 

Aours t(j run home for their food; they come again and 

stay till about one, with another recess of varying length 
according to the teacher's convenience ; and then they J 
stay till about dark. 

They pay fees according to their ability ; sonae more,| 
some less, but all have to bring the master fire-wood on 
Mondays, curry stuffs on Wednesdays, and tamarind, o<i 
else dried fish, on Fridays, besides some entrance fee ofl 
rice, plantains, or cocoanuts, when they first enter thej 

The discipline of the school is mainly one of bullying 
and fear. If a boy fails in his arithmetic the teacher 
names some boy to punch the head of the olTender, and 
every other boy in the class is privileged to follow suiifl 
and get in at least one good rap, which very likely be ■ 
has been wailing for a chance to do as a quit for some 
private grudge. J 

What do they learn of gentleness, or love, or obedience, ■ 
or loyalty ? Nothing. The average boy hates school, 
and the average parent lets him go, or not go, about as 
he likes. The teacher must make his living out of the 
boys, and so has to hunt them up or send some bigger 
boy to do it for him. That they should learn anything 
is little concern of his. He hates the boys and the boys 
usually hate him. ■ 

All this is very different in mission schools, of course ^ 
but the heathen schools far outnumber the Christian 
ones. — Miision Day- Spring. 

OYcr the Ocean. 

BT MR. WM. F. SHBfiWnt. 
Tune. " I am 90 glad." 
Over the ocean, from Innds far away, 
Coracth the pleading of millions to day : 
" Send us the light of the GoBpel we crave; 
Tell us of Jesus, the mighty to save!" 


Hearken, children! hear the sad cry 

Crimini; to joii, coming to you. 
Surely the Lord will h(>l[., if you try 

SoriU'thing for Him to «lo. 

Perishing children by thnu«iiiidB an' there, 
Raving nn Sabbnth, 110 Bihli', or priiyer; 
Fathers nod mothers no Saviour have ktiowQ, 
Bowing to idols of woud and of stone. 


Hearken, children! henr the sad cry 

Coming to you, coming to von. 
Suri'ly the Lord will h«lp, if you try 
• Something for Him to do. 

Gladly the cliililren respond to the cult. 
Bringing their offerings, something from all; 
Forming their Mission Bands, " workers with God," 
Sending the news of salvation abroad. 


Come, then, children, hasten to be 

Earnest and true, earnest nnd true; 
Tell the poor lost rmes over the sea, 

Jesus will save them, ton. 


The South Aniericnii MIsHionary Society. 

Rev. R. J. Simpson is the Secretary of this Society. 
The Missionary Revino for StjitembtT, 1H87, gives us the 
last attainable statistics. 



Lay.. . 
" Women 






Income |74,(ll'( 









Gain or loaa. 







The intomc of this Society, being derived from perma- 
nent rents and endowments, is much the same every year. 
The work of this Society is supported mainly by the 
Church of England. 

In the Argentine Republic it has stations at Patagones, 
Rosario, (Jran Chaco, Cordova and Buenos Ay res. In 
Uraguay it has stations at Montevideo, Fray Bentos, 
Salto and Concordia. In Brazil it has stations at Sao 
Paulo, Santos. Morro Velho and Rio de Janeiro. In 
Chili it has stations at Santiago, Lotto, Puchoco.Chauaral 
and Valparaiso. 

Some of the work of this Society is exclusively among 
the Indians living in the valley of the Purus, a branch of 
the Amazon, where an attempt has been made at civiliza- 
tion, but with little success : thoiigh it is feared that the 
lack of success is mainly due to the wrong course adopted 
by those placed in charge of them and in the exercise of 
quite arbitrary authority over them. 

The monthly organ of this Society furnishes evidence 
of most self-sacrificing labor in both the Southern Mission 
and Northern Mission on the Amazon and its branches, 
and the intermediate stations throughout the continent. 

In its work in South America this Society has a two- 
fold purpose: one. To care for the English-speaking 
residents scattered over the continent ; the other, To 
carry the Gospel for the first time to the superstitious and 
degraded aborigines. .\ lay-missionary writing from the 
field says: "The South .American Missionary Society 
deserves our warmest gratitude for taking up our cause so 
thoroughly, and our prayer is that God's countenance 
may be lifted up on its noble aims, and that the dew of 
His blessing may rest upon its faithful missionaries, now 
laboring to extend the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ 
in this great continent." During the year the Rev. Mr. 
Bridges, who has done the most of the translating of the 
Scriptures for this Society, has resigned his connection 
with the Society, and Mr. J. Lawrence has taken his 
place, and has already proved himself competent for the 
responsible position. 

" Mr. Bridges will continue to work for Christ among 
the Ona Indians. During his long service of thirty years 
in the Mission Work of the Society most encouraging 
has been the advance from heathenism to Christian civ- 
ilization of the natives of Fireland ; while not only have 
the Yahgans, by the industry of Mr. Bridges, a complete 
dictionary of their hitherto unwint^n language, but by 

the translation of St. Luke's Gospel, and more recently 
that of St. John and the Acts of the Apostles they are 
enabled to read in their own tongue the wonderful works 
of God." 

" The Committee greatly regret that they have not 
yet seen their way to start with prudence a mission 
to the Indians of Paraguay. They have a good hope 
that if the means be forthcoming the men are ready. 
This is a great step. They trust God may speedily move 
the hearts of one or more to take up the support of this 
special work, and enable the Committee to set it on foot 
with a good hope of success. .\t least _;^2,ooo would be 
required for this purjjose." 

The AnK'ricaii Bible Society iu South America. 

Since the publication of the annual report of the 
.American Bible Society, Mr. Milne has been transferred 
from Montevideo to Buenos Ayres, and his associate, the 
Rev. F. Penxotti, has been released from charge of the 
Spanish Church at Rosario de Santa Fd, and sent to 
Peru, where he is to reside permanently as assistant to 
Mr. Milne in the prosecution of the Society's work. This 
is in pursuance of long cherished plans, which have 
hitherto been obstructed, but are now likely to be accom- 
plished. .Since the commencement of his agency in 
June, 1864, Mr. Milne has distributed in the republics of 
South America, chiefly by sale, about 200,000 volumes of 
the Scriptures. This work is in the best sense missionary 
work, in fact, lays the foundation for all other missionary 
work. The sale of the Scriptures to these populations 
indicates a vastly more healthfu and hopeful religious 
condition than free gifts would. They value what they 
pay for. 

Missionary Recitation. 

fThp fnllowInK wan prepared for a missionary festival giTen by tli« 

• LUzle Meirs* Mlsalonary Society," at PrattTillc, Ala] , • 

Kiuil frifnds, we arc glad Ihatyou'vp como here to-night, 
And if yu win listen t'> whnt we recite. 
You will not be surprised that we children delight 
To Idbor for Christ, our Master. 

Fur over the ocean — so far, fnr away, 
To where the bright tsiinl-K-nms roll on with the day, 
And BcroH- to the we*t where the poor heathen stay, 
There is work to he done for the Master. 

To the north wliere the iceberg mountains appear, 
To the rock-bonnd capes of the soutli liemispbere, 
To the hearts of all heuthendnm, diBtnnt and near. 
We must send the good news of the Master. 

They ask for our pennies, they csk for our prayers, 
They wV that the light of the Gospel be theirs. 
Tlii'V ask that with Jesus they tniiy be made heirs, 
Joint heirs wiih Christ, our Master. 

Then we'll clieerfully answer to all the demands. 
That are made for the labor of our weak hands, 
For we know our Father in readiness stands. 
To l)les9 our work for the Master. 

(Prayer the lUtI« i^irl utters, lookinf; up with hands cbwpedO 

Our Father in Heaven, we hallow Thy name. 
Let Thy will work in us. as in Heaven the same. 
Whatever we do. give us hearts in right (r«.<ccv«. 
To do for lh« 8&V.C ol \.\ift "W-ftsXAT , k.\s\«tt. 
Amen, ioT t\xe %«kV.e ol tV^ >IImXct . 

Working for Missions. 

A writer, io the JV«te York Obterter 
gives an intereslini^ account of bow oue 
pastor cultivated the missionary spirit in 
his Sunday-school. Eurly in the year he 
■went to the banic and procured a roll of 
two hundred new cents. He went through 
the school on the next Sunday, and gave 
to each one present one bright cent. He 
explained the psrable of the talents, and 
asked all who had received a cent to use 
it during the yeur in such a way as to in- 
crease the amount. At the end of the 
year each person was to make a report of 
the result and Imnd in the amount gained 
or the original cent, to be given to pur- 
poses of benevolence. When the report 
was read, it was n very surprising and 
touching recital of work, self-deniul, 
and. I might almost say, inventive genius, 
in the department of financial transjic- 
tions for sacred ends. One account read 
somewhat 03 follows: "I took my cent 
and bought woollen yarn. With tluH I 
knitted a pair of garters, which I sold for 
ten cents. With the ten cents I bought 
two pieces of perforated cardboard and a 
piece of ribbon with which I made two 
bookmarks, which I sold for fifty ceut.x. 
The fifty cents I invested in white and 
colored twino with which I matte three 
tidies, which I sold for fifty cents each, 
and am able to hand in oue dollar and 

Another wrote: "I bought colored 
paper and made a bouquet of paper dowers 
which I sold for five cents. I took the 
five cents and bought more colored paper, 
made more flowers, anil had twenty-five 
cents aa the result. Then I bought a 
small liquarc of silk and some thread, liud 
worked ii little tablecloth which I sold 
for half of adollar; this is my gift." Yet 
another wrote: "Isold my bright cent 
for two dirty ones. With these two cents 
I bought tiit^ue ]>Hper and made lamp- 
lighters, which I sold fur tea cents. 1 
took the ten cents mid bmight ice cream 
in the sunnner, nnd sold it to my com- 
pauicms for twenty-live cents; with the 
twenty -five cents 1 purchased some cheese 
cloth and embroidered four pieces in 
pretty patterns, making mats which I 
sold for a quarter of a dollar each. With 
the dollar thus gained I bought cardboard 
and painted two pretty mottoes, which I 
had framed, and sold for a dollar and a 
half each. With the three dollars 1 
bought books which 1 sold for five dollars, 
and tlien I made some more mottoes and 
got more liooks to sell, uud I am able to 
give ten dollars to night." This was a 
reuiurkabic return indeed, from the 
capital! Ojc little fellow bought a cent's 
worth of ra<lish seed, and the result wr$ 
twenty-five cents. A little girl bought a 
remnant of cloth and offered to wipe 
d/s/jes /a tbe pnntiy and earned ten cents 
n-it./, her towel. Two Jittle fcllova weat 

into partnership with their father, who 
put in a cent, nnd from this three cents 
there came out a dollar and a quarter 
profit whioJi was credited in equal parts 
to each of the partners. 

One little one having earned enougli by 
trading with her cent to buy a bottle of 
gum, some white paper and pictures, 
made a pretty album, which added a 
dollar to the fund. Another bought mo- 
lasses and made randy, which operation 
repealed often enough, enabled him to 
give thirty cents. One cent was invested 
in old postage statnjw, which were ex- 
changed nnd I old, the money re-invested 
and another sale made, and twenty-five 
cents rewarded his industry and invention. 
Some .srnlinj; wax and chicken-bones and 
bits nf cloth, enabled another to make 
pen-wijier-, which netted him enough to 
contribute handsomely. Another cliild 
cut stories out of old papers, bought some 
colored paper nnd made little story-books 
which retailed to the eager buyers at a 
large price, while others invested in a 
lemon and did a profitable business in 

Of the whole two hundred only five or 
six returned the cent without any addition, 
and they had nut kept it wrapped in 
II napkin, but had trieil to nivtkc it increase 
and failed. The total amount returned 
witli the records of investment was more 
than sixty dollars, and it is doubtful 
whether any New York merchant could 
show such a percentage of profits for the 
business year of 1887. When the gifts 
were all in and the story had been tohl, 
the whole bundle of coins was loaded 
upon a ship that stood with sails all set 
upon the stngc. nnd the ship sailed away 
by mesns <if nn icvisil)le cord, to curry 
the children's Cliristmns gift to heathen 
lan<ls, or wherever the officers of the 
school might steer its useful voyage. 
The children had learned some useful 
lessons during the year and enjoyed the 
blessedness of doing good to others. 

A Heathen Woman's Frleinl. 

It was years ago, and I was in a New 
England country town, called there to 
speak for the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society. Resting at a farm-house, a little 
fellow, in the glory of his first pauts, 
came into the niom, and after looking me 
over, announced, " I've got the heathen 
woman's friend, I have." Of cotjrse. I 
thought at once of the pu])er of that nanu^ 
so 1 replied: "Do vou like tbe little 
paper, the Jhnthtn }\o)naii'» Friend f " 

"Of cour>e I like her; sheMongslo me, 
and she ain't pnper, neither." 

" What is she, then; come and tell me 
nbcnit her ? " 

" Well, you just comtMiut o' doors, and 
I'll show her to you," and he led the way. 
Through a long yard, n gateway nnd an- 
otier jardhe hurried me, till, pausing be- 

side a stake to which a cord was tied, he 
pointed: "There, don't you see her, 'the 
heathen woman's friend ' ? " 

My eyes followed the cord, and the 
other end was tied around the leg of a 
silver-gray hen, which was clucking ai]d 
scratching in most motherly fashion for 
the chickens around her. 

" Don't she look like the heathen wom- 
an's friend ? " asked my little entertainer, 

"I don't think I quite understand; you 
will have to explain this to me," I said. 

" Well, you know 'bout mission bands, 
don't you? You see I'm in one of 'em, 
nnd we are going to get a lot of money. 
Jimmy Lnke and .lohn Jones have got a 
mi-isionary heu, and papa gave me one. 
My Aunt Ftinuy, she said I'd liettcr call 
mine 'the heathen woman's friend,' and 
so I did. Wc set her on some eggs, and 
how many chickens do you think she 
hatched f " 

It seems impossible to count the restless 
little things; but looking at Benny's beAm- 
ing face, I said, " Oh, a dozen, I hope." 

"Oh, she did better than that; we set 
her on thirteen eggs, and she hatched every 
one. Don't you think she's * the heathen 
woman's friend '?" he asked triumphantly. 

Further questions drew out the state- 
ment that " piipa is to buy all thechicketis 
that grow up. and I'm going to put all the 
money into mamma's raite-box. Don't 
you gue.«s 'twill burst the top out, and 
maybe the botlora, to ? " 

In talking with the mother, I learned 
that criii!-idernlile influence would be 
bruuijht to bear by older brothers, to test 
Benny's missionary zeal, and she promised 
to write me the result, which I give in 
brief. The " friend " brought up the 
brood, with the loss of only one chicken, 
and when the dozen were sold they made 
a nice sum, and Benny wiia told that he 
was under no obligations to give more 
than the price of one to missions. How- 
ever, Benny was firm : " I promised 'em to 
the Lord, and I won't be mean enough to 
cheat Him," and thou|>b he wan teased 
and taunted, he held on :" I can't lie to 
the Lord," and every cent was given ba 
promised. — Mr». J. K. Barney. 

Miss S. F. Gardner writes {una India: 
" The rain in Calcutta is coming down in 
torrents, flooding evirything. Little dark, 
bright faces are |)eeping out of the doors 
of the (■chool-room, nod if they catch a 
chuuce unobserved ihey will dart out, 
take a run under the ueaie8ls[)Out or wade 
in the nearest jniddlc and be back drench- 
ed before you cnn say a wonl. I u-ed to 
be anxious about it for fear they might 
take coll), btit I find it doesn't hurt them. 
They have much the nature of ducks in 
that resjiect, nnd fortunate it is. too, for 
it rains so much at this season it would 
be impos.sible to keep so many children 
out of it nllogether." 


iHontlilu Cdiucrt. 

rNl>IA itt the subject of the Missionary 
Coucert for April. 

Prat for Txdia. 

Pray that the many millions o/ Iv-dia may rvfrptchere wel- 
tome On Story «/ Jesus and gladly receive the only one who 
can surf. Pray that Protestant Missionaries may be irustaitifd 
and »tren'jthened and enrouraged in their labors. Pray that the 
English Oove.rnment may cense encouraoinu the cullirafion of 
ti/itum in India. God ijuide the newly appointed Viceroy of India. 

Aborigines of the Central Provinces, India. 


Of the numerous aboriginal tribes found in the Central 
Provinces the Gonds are the most important, numbering 
more than two miIlion.s, or about one-sixth of the whole 
population. The tribal divisions and sub-divisions are 
so bewilderingly complicated and numerous that mission- 
aries and Government officials have given up all hope of 
thoroughly classifying and enumerating them. 

There are at least two main divisions — the Gonds 
proper and the Gonds common. The former are divided 
into two main sects, those who worship six gods and 
those who worship seven. These sects again are sub- 
divided into numerous tribes called Go/s. All the Go/s 
of the six-god worshippers forbid intermarriage. If a 
six-god worshipper wishes to marry, he must select his 
wife from among the family of a seven-god worshipper, 
and vice versa. While, however, the divisions or Gois of 
these sects may not intermarry, they eat together without 

The worship of the Gonds consists of that of the sup- 
posed powers of evil, their local village deities, the spirits 
of ancestors, the weapons and animals of the chase. The 
%'iUage gods are generally one or more stones placed at 
convenient distances from the village, under the shade of 
an appropriate tree. Household gods are more numerous, 
with a tendency constantly to increase. For instance, 
should a man be fatally bitten by a cobra, the latter 
becomes a god for many generations. It not infrequently 
happens that a set of household gods falls into disgrace 
for some cause or another and is then ruthlessly dis- 
carded to make room for a new set that, it is hoped, will 
work more satisfactorily. 

The common worshipping place is called a Deo Kulla, 
at which women are not allowed to worship ; nor may a 
six-god worshipper worship at a sevenrgod Deo Kulla, 
and via versa. The names of the gods are Legion — the 
battle-axe god, the god of mischief, the animal repre- 
scniaiive, the cow's tail, and Palo, or a piece of rudely- 
embroidered cloth, chiefly used to cover the spear heads 
of worshippers, are among the most common and popular. 
The Gonds in recent times have shown a disposition to 
adopt gods from the Hindu Pantheon, and the more am- 
bitious even aspire to be classed among Hindus. A dis- 

tinguishing characteristic of these hill people is the sacri- 
ficing and eating of bullocks ; but contact with Hindus 
is leading them to abandon the practice of cow-killing. 
Among some of the Gond tribes caste has as deep roots 
as among the Hindus, and their marriages are equally 
burdensome financially. A true Gond is a man after 
Gladstone's own heart : he loves nothing better than his 
axe, except it be a tree to fell therewith. 

The funeral customs of the Gonds are very peculiar. 
The young and unmarried, and also persons who die of 
cholera and small-pox, are always buried ; while old 
people and men of repute are almost invariably burnt. 
A universal custom is lo build a thapana, or sepulchral 
mound, to the memor)' of the deceased, and when it is 
made, a bullock must be sacrificed. The thapana is in 
the form of a parallelogram, with sides facing the points 
of the compass, and four stones are placed at the corners. 
The dead are buried naked, and the clothes they wore 
are thrown away. They come into the world naked ; 
why should they leave it clothed ? an old Gond philoso- 
phically remarked to one who interviewed him on the 

One of the smaller tribes of Gonds is the Ojhas, which 
in turn is divided into two sects — one including musi- 
cians, dancers, and beggers ; while the other sect is made 
up of fowlers ; but both sects intermarry and eat together. 
Ojha women, more sensible than many of their more 
civilized sisters, never dance. If a household god makes 
him.self too objectionable he is quietly buried, to keep 
him out of mischief, and a new god is installed in his 

The Kurkus are dirtier, darker, and withal more Hin- 
duized than the Gonds. They will drink but not eat from 
the hand of a Gond ; but will both eat and drink from 
the hand of a Brahmin. They are almost as averse to 
killing cows as the Hindus, and large numbers of them 
wear the sacred cord of Hinduism, The Kurkus, like 
the Gonds, are divided into Gois, of which the number 
is very large. The Rev. A. Norton, formerly connected 
with the South India M. E. Mission under Rev. William, 
now Bishop, Taylor's superintendence, established a mis- 
sion among these interesting Kurku aborigines in J 875. 

It may be of interest to philologists to mention that in 
the Central Provinces, with a population of about 1 1,000,- 
000, no less than otu hundred and sn>tn chief vernaculars 
and affiliated dialects are reported by the last census as 
being spoken. Of course some of the dialects have but 
very few representatives, and the confusion of the Babel 
is somewhat relieved by the fact that a few leading 
vernaculars form common bonds which make the evan- 
gelization of the thousands feasible. 

But what a work has yet to be done in India to civilize 
and Christianize its heterogeneous millions. Our Meth- 
odist Episcopal Mission in the Central Provinces is 
planted in Nagpore, the capital, and its sister city, 
Kamptee, ten miles distant by rail. Our earnest desire 
is to strengthen this missvotv ^.tvA. e'iLVie.Ti^ d>« ■«<a'tNfw\xs.^^>s. 
inviting and pTOTO\s\t\% ^t\^. 

Ganesh, the Uiudu Lord of Hosts. 

The Hindu god Ganesh, or Ganpati, in some parts of 
India called Puliar, is always represented as having an 
elephant's head and a very fat body, and sometimes as 
having many hands. He sometimes has four, and some- 
times eight, female attendants, some of whom have pea- 
cock feathers to drive oflT flies ; others offer him various 
gifts, and all wish to serve him. The umbrella over his 
head is to shield him from the sun and rain. 

Many stories are told of the way in which he came to 
have an elephant's head. One of them is as follows: 
One day his mother, Parvali, went into her private room, 
and placing her son Ganesh at the door, told him to allow 
no one to come in. Soon her husband, who has many 
names, such as Shiva, Mahadev, and Shankar, came and 
was about to enter her room. Gatiesh told his father 
that his mother had forbidden any one to enter. Because 
the boy opposed him, Shiva got angry and cut off his 
son's head. When Parvati came to know it, she was wild 
with grief. So to console her. Shiva said : "Do not cry; 
I will give him the head of the next living being that 
comes along." This happened to be an elephant. So 
the great god Shiva cutoff the head of the elephant, put 
it on his son's body and restored him to life. Then he 
said to Parvati : " Now, what a fine son you have. The 
elephant is wisest of animals, and your son shall be the 
god of wisdom." Ever since then Ganesh has been 
worshipped as the god of wisdom. In every Hindu 
school there is an image of this god, whom the school 
children worship daily. At the top of every sheet of the 
alphabet, and at the head of every copy which the school 
children write, are tlie words: "Shri Ganesh," that is, 
"The Blessed Ganesh." 

Little Katii and Her Mother. 

The other day a little girl of five stopped in the middle 
of her reading lesson, and looking up in my face, began 
talking about her mother. I do not always check them 
when they do this, because I wish to know what the little 
minds are thinking about. "Mem," she said, "do you 
know my mother says that I may learn about everything 
else in school, but I must not learn about Jesus Christ ; 
she says, ' Who is Jesus Christ, that I should learn about 
Him ? ' " 

I looked into the little face and asked," Katu,did your 
mother ever read with a teacher?" "Oh! no," she re- 
plied ; " my mother does not even know her letters ! " 
" Then, Katu, your mother does not know anything about 
Jesus Christ. If she only knew Him, she would not talk 
so about Him. Tell her I will come and teach her to 
read." Then I talked to the child of the love of Jesus for 
herself and her mother, too, She comes from a house 
where they will not even permit a lady to call upon them. 

I have been turned away from the door when I have 

tried it. They are wealthy, and live in a large house ; we 

hope that this little one and her cousin, who comes with 

her, may he the means of conveying some light within its 

fVM//s, and may be, of opening its doors to us. They are 

both remarkably bright and interesting children, and very 
greatly petted at home. Will the children at home pray 
for these two little ones and ask that their home may be 
opened to us ? — If. Caddy, of Calcutta, in Missionary 


^ ^1 ^ 

The Sacred Monkej's of India. 

In a temple in Benares in India there is a large image 
of Hanuman, the monkey god, who, with his army of 
monkeys, helped Ram to deliver Sita, his wife, from the 
demon god of Ceylon, who had carried her away. He 
has a mace \t\ his hand, with which he is about to strike 
the demon under his foot. Just think of anybody being 
sosltipiJ as to believe God is like a monkey I They do, 
and for that reason regard the monkey as a sacred animal. 
Nobody dares to kill a monkey. In Benares the monkey 
temple is crowded with these creatures. When the car- 
riage of a visitor appears, the priestscry out "So! ao! So!" 
— !>., " come ! come ! come ! " and monkeys large and 
monkeys small, come running from all quarters to pick 
the good things it is taken for granted the visitor will 
give. Anyway, they are pitched down, and he is expected 
to pay for them, as well ns to fee the priest whose business 
it is to care for them. They get so much they are not 
always hungry ; then they uiake such grimaces at the 
visitor that, if he happens to be as small as those I ara 
writing to, he gets afraid lest they should eat him instead 
of the parched grain. Many of them are very fierce, 
especially the big one called the "King." 

In Muttra there are vast quantities of them, and one 
day, when at work in the city. I saw a sight that would 
make you all laugh. A big fierce monkey had carried 
away a Iota belonging to a big fat Chaubi. The lota is a 
brass vessel for holding water, and of course, the Brah- 
min did not want to lose it. The monkey got on a roof; 
the Chaubi followed, armed with a big stick, and de- 
manded the lota: but the monkey would not part with 
it. When he went forward to try and take it the monkey 
got angry, and prepared to i)itch it at his head if he dared 
to move. As I passed, there stood the fat Brahmin, 
with the big stick over his head, threatening the monkey; 
and the monkey ready to pitch the lota at him if he 
attempted to use it. Much as I laughed I could not 
help sympathizing with the Brahmin, for only that morn- 
ing another monkey, intent on mischief, had tried to play 
rne a trick. I had been to school, and, while examining 
the boys, could not make out for some time why they 
were laughing. Following the direction of their eyes, I 
at last looked uj). and tliere discovered a monkey, with 
its long arm stretched full length through the trellis work, 
trying to get at my hat. Of course, when discovered, it 
hurried off, chattering its disgust at having failed. In 
Muttra, whatever Brahmins may do, Europeans must 
not molest them. Some years ago two soldiers killed one 
of them, when the people crowded round them, bound 
them hand and foot, and pitched them into the River 
Jumna, where they were drowned before assistance could 
reach them. — Rev. J. Eivan. 

Tiama of India. 

Mrs. Waterbury, one of our missionaries, was one day- 
visiting the hospital in Madras, and found there a poor 
Telugu woman, named Tiaina, who had been thereabout 
six months. She suffered so much that it moved the 
sympathy of a woman in the cot next to her. This 
woman had heard of Jesus, so she said to the other, " I 
know something that will help you when you are in pain, 
or feel sad." 

"Can I get it?" 


■'Oh, then, tell me what it is ! " . 

"Just say over and over, 'Jesus, Saviour !' " 

Tiama did so, and when Mrs. Waterbury called she 
told her about it. 

"And does that help you?" Mrs. Waterbury asked. 

"Oh, yes, it does! " she replied. "I know I am not a 
Christian, but I believe that 'Jesus' will help me when I 
call upon Him." 

Mrs. Waterbury taught her more about Jesus, and 
Tiama heard it gladly, until at last she knew what salva- 
tion in Jesus meant. She got well enough to leave the 
hospital, and Mrs. Waterbury took her home and taught 
her to read. Then she spent some time with Miss Day, 
another of our missionaries. They felt sure that Tiama, 
if she could recover, would make a very useful Bible- 
woman, going from house to house with her Bible and 
her Gospel message. But it was not s6 to be. She still 
suffered much, and finally was admitted to the Hospital 
for Incurables, in Madras. There, notwithstanding her 
weakness and suffering, she used to call around her the 
blind, lame, and deformed women and teach them of 
Jesus. They were very ignorant and dull, but the Lord 
so blessed her word that one believed ; then another, and 
another, until there were four that were Christians. 
Four souls won for Christ, who probably never would 
have been won but for Tiama. As she became weaker 
and weaker she could not meet them so often, and this 
was a grief to her. 

"I am sorry," she said to Mrs. Waterbury, "that I am 
so weak I cannot meet them as I used to." 

"Don't fear, Tiama," the missionary replied. "It is 
not so much that we can do a great work for Christ, — 
He knows our weakness, — but we must just do what we 
can." Her face brightened. 

"Oh, yes," she answered, "I know, and though I have 
only a little seed in my hand, I will sow it as far as I 


But her work was done, and she soon after died, The 
four believers she left behind are the hospital branch of 
the church. The native preachers visit the hospital once 
a week, to teach and pray with them, and they are helped 
to the chapel once a month, on communion Sunday, 
They give much satisfaction by their piety and steadfast- 
ness, and are patiently awaiting the time when in their 
home above they will meet Tiama. — Little Hdptrs, 

^1 ^ ^ 

" Go or Send." 

Letter from a Burmese Boy. 

A Burmese Christian boy writes from Burma : 
" More than three thousand years ago Gaudama, whom 
the Burmese people worship as God, was born in India. 
He lived eighty years. Before his death he told his dis- 
ciples to make idols in remembrance of him. The idols 
are made of gold, silver, alabaster, and bricks. Offerings 
are placed before them from morning till noon. People 
bow down before these idols and offer their prayers. In 
July and August is the time of the year when the Bur- 
mese are very religious. During this season, on full-moon 
and new-moon days, which they observe as their Sabbath 
days Jarge numbers of people maybe seen making their 
way to the various monasteries and idol houses, carrying 
offerings. They make a vow that they will fast half the day 
and keep all other thoughts away from their hearts, and 
spend the time in counting the beads, at the same time 
repeating in their minds. 'Death, misery, vanity,' to re- 
mind themselves of their helpless condition. A person 
who bows down before a priest or an idol is called a Budd- 
hist, and the shaven head and yellow robe are the only 
signs of the priestly order. I have gone through all the 
forms of worship) as described above, but the grace of 
God has now led me to see them very sinful. With five 
fellow-students I was baptized by the pastor in Maulmain 
on the fifth of this month. Will you, my friends, re- 
member me in your prayers, that I may he a true follower 
of the Lord? Pray also that the Burman people may 
learn of the gentle Saviour who came down to die for us." 

The Methodist Kpisroiuil Chwrch in India. 

The following are the latest official statistics, just re- 
ceived, representing the work of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in India. There are three conferences. South 
India Conference, Bengal Conference, and North India 
Conference. We also include in these figures the mis- 
sionaries of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Within the wide-ex- 
tended territory of these three conferent es, there are 151 
missionaries; the Church membership, including proba- 
tioners, now numbers 8,225, ^^ these all except about 
1,000 are native Christians. Adherents to the number 
of 10,000 are reported ; over 1,000 conversions are re- 
ported for the year ; the Sunday-schools number 655, 
with ^6,560 scholars in attendance; of high-schools and 
other day-schools there are 509, in which 16,060 scholars 
are taught. There are 98 churches and chapels. The 
estimated valuation of the jiroperty in churctes, chapels, 
school-buildings, hospitals, etc., is 1,110,311 rupees; 
there are .86 parsonages and " homes," valued at 383,479 
rupees. The contributions from these conferences for all 
purposes amount to 158,^29 rupees. The mission press 
has printed during the [jast year 6,563,122 pages. 

These statistics prove that the work of extending 
Christ's Kingdom in India through the agency of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, is moving on with the same 
vigor which has characterized it from the time 
Butler in May, 1857, lifted up the Cross in Bareilly. 


K«v. lieorge llowtMi. 

Tidings have recently reached this country uf the death 
of the Rev. George Bowen of the South India Conference. 

This will add peculiar ant! toin hing interest to the 
sketch of his remarkable life which we herewith present. 

He was one of the veterans of the missionary work in 
India, having gone thither in ii<4S, and having devoted 
himself unceasingly to his chosen service ever since that 

He was burn in this country in iSi6. 

When he was seventeen years of age he became 
sceptical. He was led to doubt the truth of Christianity 
by reading a chapter in C.ibbon's " Uet line and Fall of 
the Roman Empire." 

For eleven years he was in the <larkness of unbelief. 

His conversion was therefore not only a turning from 

»in to righteousness, but in the deepest sense a change 

from darkness to light. It was brought about in a way 

ihat was remarkable. His sce])ticism received its first 

blow from the triumphant death of a young lady to whom 

he was strongly attached. If Christ could in reality give 

to her such peace and sweet content in her dying hour, 

was it not possible, nay, likely, that he had nuulc a terrible 

mistake in rejecting Christ? Such questions could not 

be out a>j<le. He began to read the Bible but still did 

i»ot accept it as a revelation from God. One night he 

said aloud in his room, " If there is a God who notices 

the desires of men, I only wish that he woidd make known 

to me his will and I shall feel it my highest privilege to 

do it at whatever cost." It was hardly a prayer. But 

God was pleased to hear the cry of tfie bewildered soul. 

A few days afterward he went to a public library and 

, asked for a certain work, and supposing he had received 
it started homewards. When near home he discovered 
that it was not the book he had asked for but " Paley's 

I Evidences of Christianity." It was too late to return the 
book. He kept it therefore and began to glance it over. 
The more he read the deeper grew his interest. And 
before he was through with the volume his infidelity was 
gone. He was ready to accept the Scriptures and to 
accept Christ. 

His subsccjuent life gave the largest proof of the reality 
of his conversion. His father was a man of large wealth. 
But this young man at dnce resolved to give up friends, 
social position, and fortune, and devote himself to the 
ser\ice of Christ among the heathen. 

He went to India under the auspices of the " American 

. Board." 

I A year's experience in mission work led him to be- 

I lieve that his influence among the heathen would be 
greatly increased if he were not in receipt of salary as a 
missionary. He proposed therefore to inaugurate for 
himself the plan of self-support. 

This required not only diligence but great sacrifice. 

I He gave daily instruction as a private tutor. His income 
for years was thirty rupees, less than fifteen dollars, -i 
month. He was urged again and again to accept money. 

' also to visit his friends in .America. But he was 
absolutely a man of one work. He was made all things 
to all men if by any means he might save some. 

The work of William Taylor, now our heroic Mission- 
ary Bisho|i, arrested his attention. This was in 1871. 
He gave to this work his sympathy and co-operation and 
became speedily the leader of one of the '* Fellowship 
Bands" into which the converts were gathered for religious 
instruction and s])iritual help. The work in Bombay 
and vicinity was later placed under his charge. In 1S73 
he identified himself fully with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and was from that time one of our most zealous 
and useful missionaries in India. He gave not only his 
time and strength but as far as possible his means for the 
promotion of the work, 

The "Indian Witness," in an account of the South 
India Conference, recently said of him. " The veteran 
George Bowen still retains his place as the Nestor of the 
Conference, unchanged and vinchanging, unless perhaps 
a little more ripe for the rest which for twenty years he 
has seemed about to enter. With an appearance of feeble* 
ness he had an ama/ing reserve of strength and endurance, 
although carrying on his shoulders the triple burden of 
an Editor, a presiding Elder, and a missionary preacher 
in two languages to the natives," 

Mr. Bowen was connected for many years with "The 
Bombay Guardian" which has been under his editorial 
management since 1854. He was the author also of 
several devotional works among the best of their style of 

literature. Among them are " Daily Meditations, Fhe 

.\mens of Christ," " Love Revealed." He published also 
several volumes of .Scripture exposition, rich in spiritual 




AJmcre DiBlrirl, Bougitl C'unferouc-c, 

BY REV. C. P. HARD, M. A. 

At Mfldnts last February our bekived 
Bishop Nindeassigned to the Central India 
DiHtrict the territory stretchiuK around 
such priints as Nagpiir and Kaniptt to the 
south: an*) Burlianpore, Kliandwa, Har- 
da, ami Jabulpor to the centre and East ; 
and Mhow and distant Ajinere to ihe 
North. B^'ginning our work we were 
called a week later to the second meeting 
of the Central Conference, at wlik-h tlie 
Co lii mission on Buundarien paicelled this 
Empiric into three divi-iiniia, i-aqsing a 
lint' to fuiss through our Diitriel shearing 
the wMUhern part of the Central Provinces 
into the Houth India Conference, inrlud- 
ing our head quarters, the Nagpur— Kam- 
pti Circuit. 

This action was founded upon the ha'*is 
of languages, leaving tlie Hhulustani 
mainly to t)>e Nurtli of the line named, 
Nagjiur sUiying witli the Marathi terri- 

A result was our preference for trans- 
fer and residence among those speak- 
ing our vernacular. Coin<'iuent with and 
a fMirtial cause of this was the vacancy in 
the Ajmere Circuit fjccasloneil bv sicknca-s 
in the family of the ap|>t)int«e, making it 
necessary that lie shoiild seek to avoid 
change of residence from Calcutta. jVl- 
ready several important stations of our 
,work. old and new. had been left withoHt 
men, although the Uishuji, aided by the 
presiding elders, had done his 
to Hll them. A preacher for duly in tlie 
B<jmbay District was however on hi.n way 
out from America imd could lie phiceJ at 
Nagpur. Hence Ajmere \va.s made Ihe 
headquart<?rs of our District. Therefore 
its name in the pastoral supply as has 
been this year. 

It would be pleasant to cast a lingering 
glance at the section of our District which 
has gone under another banner and yet the 
same in name and spirit, for the plans 
adoptefl at the cloa* of last year and the 
measures inaugurated at the beginning of 
this have reHiilted long since in the tinal 
settlement of the ijuestiun which for a 
dozen years had lieenii burden to Ihe peo- 
ple at Nagpur and Kampti ; '■ How almll 
weget churchesandpnrsoiinges." Thanks 
mainly to Australian generosity and that 
_of the late MrSutherlaiul of WalerkHj, U. 
A., those who have read the WUnem 

ad (iiutniian recent months and weeks 
have seen how "goodly" and •' Iwautitul 
for situation" are the churches tind i>a8- 
tor's rooms in those twin cities. We can 
butadorethe wonderful Providence which 
has transformed condition of affairs with- 
in two years, st» that at Nagpur the native 
trustees have their ground and building; 
and the Europeans their vast site and 
large church with minister's ajiartments; 
also a separate pars<^>niige begun; while 
at Kampti the bungalow purchased has 

been shape*! into a church with some 
residenc<> spBce. In that circuit we se- 
cured ground at Bhurawal for our Mis- 
sion and the jiastor has taken over the 
same from tJovernment. 

With this brief allusion to delightful 
facts as to a field committed tous by Bishop 
Ninde at the last Conference, but now 
guided by more worthy and skillful liands, 
we sliut away the plea.sing picture and 
turn to our present t<?iritory, not niinute. 
a parallelogram having sides some four 
hundred mile^'i long, compass'ing many a 
nation, a mystery land, as to which we 
often wonder, " What dues it contain? 
What nre its poHsjbiiities for missionary 
success? What shall we plant and whence 
and whether should we presjs onward? 
Will we awake in heaven to look down 
and see facts which we ought to have 
discovereil that they might guide iis in our 
toil? Day and night ihe eye of those 
charged with gravere8|>i>n?ibilitie8 wander 
over the ninpof theCentral Provinces, Cen- 
tral India, Rajpatuna and up into the 
Pan jab ; and the slow iruins take one's 
b(xly through set^ticxns of these vast 
regions ; but, though one has travelled 
24,0IM) miles this yenr in Imlia for the 
Church (as last year 26,<)On out of India 
fur the same) who can overtake the task 
of discovery of the situation? One's 
heart is lorn between duties of pastor to 
ft Eurojjean congregation, to a native 
flock, tho<e to the district, and others of 
a wider range in Conference and Cluiich 

Planlefl here and there is a nucleus of 
strength, a fullcrum for the lever. In 
comparison with the past nebulosity of 
our .South India operations, the District 
is attaining ^ome couipactness, and two 
solid sections loom out of the mist, one 
along the line of the Nerbiiddu and Tapti 
rivers, from the Bombay border near 
Mhow and Burhanpur. to the edge of the 
North West Pnvvinres in the vicinity of 
Allahabad und Cawnpur, a vast region 
with .labuliKjre as centre. It is hojK-rt 
tlint this may now liecome the real and 
abidingly named Central District. From 
Jiihul[>i>re the swift tJ. I. P. engine hurls 
one U> BurhanjHir, the westward point, in 
one third the lime used in going from 
Ajmere. and Mhow. the Tiiost northwest 
place, is reached, three fourths the num- 
Ijer of hours consunaed in getting from 
Ajmere to this its nearest neighbor. 

Ajttvere is a worthy centre of a suf- 
ficiently huge district stretching in each 
direction, but especially to the East and 
North, including certain Kingdoms hav- 
ing no niissionaries and reaching to great 
and famous cities where we have a fol- 
lowing and where Methodism should 
station its imators to receive and guard 
and guide ito people. 


This aloDb gives the pastor 1,(KI0 miles 

of travel to visit his scattered flock and 
return: from Abu road to Delhi, Feroze- 
pore, Bandikui, Jeyjxire. Fiveandalialf 
years our jieople have here testified for 
Jesus. They have still the right to claim 
the promise which applies to the " littlf 
flock." but in their weakness they nre 
going up to pus.sess the land at last, and 
now for half a year they have had their 
own domain, and some buildings, accord- 
ing to whis|>ered giXKl news from afar, 
will lie standing upon it in a few weeks, 
at least the new mission house. Revival 
etTort has characterized the year. The 
special foreign evangi-listic aid has lieen 
given by Miss Isabella S. Leonard, with 
whom the Conference is so favorably ac- 
quainted. Hero as elsewhere throughout 
the entire district, as constituted at 
Madras, she has toiled with the skill and 
pciwer which have marked her fourteen 
years' ministry for the sanctiRration of 
btdievers and the conversion of sinners. 


This has become fully organized, co- 
ordinate with the European Church, hav- 
ing orphanage, schtxils. all forms of 
Methodist labor, with a promising niem- 
bersiiiii. It is a busy hive and has ju^t 
sent out its first swarm, to live and lalior 
for (jod at Burhanpur, besides supplying 
some to other points. The committee on 
missions, having natives and Europeans, 
has done noble work, spiriluatl}' and 
financially. They are cheered, as the 
year closes, vvitli the news from .\meric«» 
intimated above. A candidate from this 
church now stands at your dcRtrs. Two 
of its Ux^al preachers are students of the 
secon<l .year in our theological .seminary 
at Bareilly. 


It has the problem of too much and too 
little to do ; the Held is to<> large and loo 
pmall. One who cannot understund a 
HindustQui sentence may be content with 
garrison duty, with being a military 
chaplain, and others thus unlearned may 
think that it is easy to Ix^soenrployed and 
pleased. But those who give themselves 
up to such a task are writing on the sand 
or on the water, as far as permanent 
traces of influence in India, and aid in 
solving our Conference problems are con- 
cerned. One uhow hcjirt and speech run 
toward the nntive uuiltitude will sorrow 
that in addition to English evangelism he 
can do so little for the perishing throngs. 
The present pastor has both irons in the 
tire und is working away at fusing them; 
a hopeless tusk unless one of the " items" 
in •' Itinerant's" plan iti the last lVitite»s 
of 18S7 is adopted, perhaps the third, that 
one service on Himday and one mid-week 
should be given to the Eurojieaii congre- 
gations by a missionary employed chiefly 
among Ihe natives. Amid the year's 
blessings and trials the former have out- 
weighed the latter. It is believed that 



has Iteen ac^-omplixhtitl tliou^K it nr, 
littod tliat uot much visilile fruil i^i to 
be found. 

In the native spliere )ireacliing to 
crowiis in the bu7j>rs has l>een Hloadily 
carried on. Thou^'andH of veniarulnr 
tracts have Ix-eri diNlrihutod. These 
Sunday Seho-ilsareaclvanfinj?. The hired 
hall o{*[HMite the marliet place is n centre 
of light. 


l>as l>eeu superinlendeii hy the Mhow pas 
lor and hns Ijeen regularly visited. The 
uutk is very promising nt Harda. A Sun- 
day evening f^ervice has heen constantly 
nuiinlainet] and the attendance hns tieeu 
very encouraKing Our church and parsun- 
aiceslanii here repieseDlini;; the flrst evan- 
gelicalB who entered Harda. Flow long 
Hiiat) <ve t>c lacking a man for this region? 
Our Rnilway chaplain visiliiiK Khandwa 
and Burhanpur. our niLssinnarieH co- 
with him. Oh for the salvation of tl>ene 
railway comnumitiea still a.sleep in sin. 
Th*y might become Christian fortresses. 

The pastor eays •" we have great reawns 
to pmise G<xl for what He haa done for 
Bs." Our church treasurer testifies. "Re- 
garding our work here I may remark 
with a grateful heart that to myself it 
appears we never had such a Hrm hold as 
we have to-day. Having to worship in 
the theatre was a drawback to our 
work. Our church building enterprise 
boa helped to brmg it more prominently 
toTA'ard. The fart of our having obtaiinr-d 
the site under the circumstances we did, 
is of itself a proof thitlsoine interest has 
he«n awakened in thof=e who have 
authority. .More e8|iecial!y <i«>es this 
a['pe«r when we remember the dilhcullies 
that have for years stood in the way of 
■his atLaiunient. On liehalf of the 
Juhalpur Church I beg to otTer llianks for 
tlie gift of twenty-five hundred rufiees 
kindly donated by the Conference of 
18^6-87, Australian benefaction, received 
in full and fiiithfully applied to tlie pur- 
(xiaes for which it was given. It is with 
gratitude to Go<l that we can say that the 
church building is cr>tnple(eil and wa-t 
dedicated to His serVice on the '24th of 
(Xiober, free of debt. Already it has 
lieen the vpirilual birth()lace of several 
iind it is our fervent prayer that it may 
still lie M.«etl by God for furthering the 
work for which it has Ijeen built. We 
have been very uiudi eocouragwl and 
eireniKthened in faith as well sm in 
nunilK-rs by the vinit of Miss Leonard."' 

Referring to the failure of dear brother 
Cramer's health, ite says, "A better man 
tlukn brother Cramer we shall not get. 
Ho is blameless." He adds iiis tio(ie for 
» strong j»rencber and remarku, "It is 
niy Qrui o|iinion that if this want is met 
there will ne^'er be any difficulty regard- 
ing our finances. As to Mrs. Leavitt's 


\isit, I tnisl that much gtiod has In-en 
done and that our people may awake to 
tlif iiuporhince of the temperance t^use, 
and help to stay the great evil of strong 

In Jnlialpur we have a large comjiany 
of interesting young people, a aumljer of 
whom could become mission laborent un- 
der the guidance of a pa.sU>r comtnnnding 
both languages. This stiilion needs a 
mission house and that would conif>lete 
the building outfit all .Mlong through 
Uardu, Khandwa, Burhanpur an<l Mhow. 
How can we enough praise God for these 
homes and temples to which the multi- 
tudes and geNerations will come in giving 
and receiving blessing from Jesus our 
glorious Lord ! 


The CJirls' Oipbrtnage is worthy of ail 
conHdence and should lie increased at 
once, as should the Bo* s' Orphanage at 
Ajmere. so that not. ns nijw, fifteen in 
each case, but 151) in each should imitate 
the service of the Bareilly an\\ Shid».ijan- 
pur Orphanages iu the North India Con- 
ference, of which the rounder. D<K'tor 
Butler, in his Ixwk surveying a quarter of 
a century, says of the Girl's Orphanage, 
•'Think what would have been the i-on- 
dition of our Mirsion in India without 
that orphanage." Twenty-two years and 
a half from now may we be able to say of 
our two orphanages as he declares of the 
earlier two, "Both orphanage* have ful- 
tilled our everj' hope, and have heen of 
immense blessing, an<l are desrined to be 
far more useful in the days to come. For 
the results achieved and the hopes we 
cherish we render our devout and adoring 
thanks to ( J<hI ' (see pages 339 and 3«« of 
that impressing review "From Boston to 
Bareilly and Back "). 

There was a remarkable con^•ersion 
some live ronnlhs ago, that of a nominal 
Christian who came to Khandwa to do 
some I'ontract work, got delightfully 
saved, is now the native loi'al preacher, 
and is re<'om mended for the travelling 
connection. The missionary rep<jrts 
" progress in alnuu-'t every direction." The 
Girls' .School has twen(3', nearly us many 
lis there was of hoth boys and girls before 
we removed tlie Boys' Si-ho<^>l to the town. 
Though about that time ten l)oys left us, 
still the sclioid is increasing and we have 
thirty-tive on the roll at present. 

There has lM.<ena genuine work of grace 
going on in the hearts of the orphans. 
Scjme of the girls when they came to us 
were bigoted little heathens, and uaed to 
dispute with us. endeavoring to maintain 
that their religion was true. But we are 
glad to say that they have since lieen 
Ijrightly oonverte<l and have given evi- 
dence of a change of heart in many ways. 
Four have been baptized at their own 
request. Our class meeting Ls delightful. I 
We have had a very pleaeiog and to me, ' 

I tnist, profitable time in visiting villages 
and a mehi. Three of the places seen are 
important and should be taken up and 
fortified at once, bail we the men and 
money for the purpose. Pers<^>nally onr 
last trip in the villages has done us u 
world of good. We feel more hofteful in 
I'egard to the success of our Mission than 
ever l^)efore. Since returning we have 
had an encouraging report, leading us to 
lM.>lieve lliHi the word preached and our 
Ixxtks and tracts scattered had n guml 

We were the first missionaries that have 
ever vi^^iied and pre.Tched the Gosfs?! in 
these villages. The people were %'cry kind, 
urging us to visit their homes, and some 
expresse<l their disap|KDintuient when they 
found our stay to L>e so brief, and invited 
us to come again. Some of them livuig 
ten miles away from Khandwa have vls- 
itetl iLS. We feel that vve love the naliv(>8 
more and more the longer we bve among 
them. Private visitation in the homes of 
the peojile, liazar preaching, Ixjspital and 
zenana work are steadily continued. O; 
the whole we think we can humbly saj^i 
that the year has been a successful onet 
though we are sorry to state that the 
funds have not been nearly suiticient lor 
the needs of the work. 

Jacob, our converted policeman, has 
returned twice from his new dwelling 
phwe forty miles from Khandwa, bright 
and happy, trusting in the Lord. We 
look hopefully to the coming year for 
much gieater blessing upon our Mission. 
We have an escelleut helper in our native 
preacher, Fakbini. who is full of faith and 
the Holy Ghost, 


Our new Mission has had its first year 
of planting and sowing, with some reap- 
ing. The Hindustani school, uruler a 
leading man of the city, and the Marathi 
one taught by a Christian, are doing well. 
A convert from Hinduism and one from 
Mohainmedanism have been Itaptized. 
The missionary states that for three or 
four years past, the latter had travelled 
over the whole ground of conlroverey 
between Islam and Chiistianity. 

Tlirotigli the medium of such books as 
Doctor Pfander's Mizan-ul Haqq and 
Rev. Dr. hnad-ud-Din's various works, we 
formed a com periston of Islam and Chris- 
tianity, as well as an able defence of the 
latter. Prejudices were soon gone and con- 
viction of saving truth look their place. 
The narrative arrives at the baptism and 
says, "Job Jamman (Job is his new name) 
had to seek shelter in our Mission House, 
as his neighltors were up in arms. Fierce 
threats and Islam's curses were of no avail, 
and just as futile proved the strenuous 
efforts of the infuriated to keej) his wife 
and children lock. Job was firm. He 
prnyetl to his newly found Saviour, to 
give hiui his wife and children. Four 

days after sbe managed to effect her 

escape and came to her liushand. Tliere 
wa» no interference on our jtart in the 
e8ca|:w of his wife. Father, mother unii 
ohililren camp to us. Tliere was one 
gathered in from darknesB by the power 
of tlu' CtoHpel." 

The last (juarterly conference was a 
cheering time, faith and hope being stim- 
ulated by the reports of the teacherh and 
of the Bible coliKirteiir-evangeMst. Tlie 
niisaionarv'p extensive medicHi practice, 
even reaclitnic into the highest Moham- 
medan honifs, has seemed to givp him tlie 
afTectiotJOte regard of the people. The 
Gospel heriildinK in the city and villagea 
haH been constant. 

Our Burhanpur trusteeR are thankful 
to tlie Parent MiBeionary Society for this 
as well as for the purchase of the Mission 
House. We Lave now a solid baHis for 
advance and are lookiui; for large develnp- 
ment of city and village work here, as 
also in connertjon with the afljjicent 
Kbandwa miKsinn. 

North India itifortns us that of converts 
twenty come from villages to one from 
cities, and we feel that we should use 
their great exi>erience as a lamp liy which 
our feet are to \ie guidpd. 

January VSth, ISHf*. 

B4>n)£al JIIothotllMt l<:|>lK<-»|>nl 

The first Bessimi nf ihisConference wan 
held in Calcutta, Januiiry 13th- 17th. The 
eession was linrmoiiloug, conservative, yet 
progressive. The presidency of Rev. D. 
Osborne was hij^hly satisfactory to all the 
^ brethren, and the inimitable Rev, C. H. 
Hard shed "sweetness and light" upon 
every queHtion. The re[Kirtis of Llie presid- 
ing elders were encouraging. The follow- 
ing statistics were reported ; 

Native Sunday-Sc^hoola 11 

Scbi>lars H7;> 

English Sunday-Schools b'l 

Scholars 1,154 

Members and probationers (Eng- 
lish) 708 

Paid for Miiiist't-rial sup[iort by 

theiJLi English Churches Rn. 2!t,465 
For I<(R"al MiKsions by English •• 

Church<?s 4,231 

For Building, etc " -i.eOO 

Paid on Indebtedness " 1,468 

For Current E.vjieiises " 13, 18a 

Native Christians Full Memhere 211 
*• *' Proliationers. . 3+5 

Bapti^<l«os during the year (from 

HitiduiKui) , 46 

Baptisms (from Molniiumednnism) 81 

Baptized Native Children in Cou- 

ferHDfc 240 

The large proporliou of MoUanunedau 
baptisms wdl show that the followers of 
the prophet are not as inaccssible as 
pessimistic prophets declare. The inflexi- 
bility of the Moslem ia not as independent 

of cirtnimstances and surroundiogs as 
pseudo-historions affirm. The statistics 
of the Conference were collft.'ted with 
.some care, and the new order that requires 
pastors to report through their presiding 
elders to the Statistical Secretary, and 
tuakea the ecclesiastical year end with 
Octolier, will reduce inacc-uracies to the 
uunimuui. Two ministers were re*^-eived 
by transfer, four were received into full 
connection, and six were admitted on 
trial. America, Denmark, Germany, 
Canada and flengal have representatives 
among this half iti>zen of Apostles. But 
they are alilie in faith and devotion lo 
their great work ; their career will be 
watched with great interest. 

The Revs. A. G. Creamer and Ray Alien 
return to America, the fotnier on account 
of impaired health, the latter IxKrause oj 
Mrs. Allen's severe fiuil protracted illness. 
This last reniark will ^lr^ug sorrow to 
many Cidciitta friends, whose lieHrls have 
lieen touched by the peculiar devotion 
and consecration of this estimable Chris- 
tian lady. As a consecrated Missitmary 
she had few, if any, |x-era in the Mi.ssion, 
and corning to India to li\ e and die for 
the natives this ijuick recall ia peculiarly 

Dr. Thf>burn's election to General Con- 
ference WHS unal]illlou^4 and enlhusinstic, 
the secretary cas-ting tlie biillot of the 
Conference for him. We l)e]ieve that this 
ifl a " new thing under the sun," In this 
respect, we think that Dr. Thoburn is like 
Meh-hizedek without parentage or off- 
B[>iing. in receiving this highest honor 
within the gift of nn annual conference. 
In this res|)ect t<Mj. the Bengal Conference 
did ru>t follow in the wake of its chosen 
and wtirthy Northern exemplar. The 
election is sigiuticant. Everyone is happy 
over it and regards it as Tiropbetic. Rev, 
D. Osborne was elected reserve delegate, 
H. Laidlaw, Esq., lay ilelegate, with Mrs. 
Dr. Thobum, reserve. 

The Missionary meeting on Saturday 
nighl was remarkable and P[H;K-lial. While 
the progress of the work in Marlrjis. Sing- 
apore, Bombay, Ihirina, and the North- 
west Provinces was recited, very heart 
warmed with new love, and burned with 
a holy enlhusiastn to prosecute the divine 
toil to which the Master had called then). 
The zeal of the workers would not pale 
by comparison with any in Church history, 
while the logic of their facts would de- 
molish a wall of adamant. 'Stop our 
work among the Tamils ?" sjiid Dr. Itudi- 
sill, "Yes, when you luive chained up 
the sun and Kt<ip[ied the wheels upon 
which the planets roll." 

The Conference asked the fieneral Con- 
ference to establish an order of deiu'on- 
esses and lo give Ihem power to admin- 
ister the Sacraments in Zenanas. The 
discussion of this subject was warm and 
thorotigh, and the necessity for such a 

step was quite generally rega.rde<i as very 
pressing. The Bishop and Boundarj- 
questions, nnd the separation of Burma 
and Malaysia into a separate Mission, 
were also recommended to the Genend 
Conference, The scale of salaries recom- 
mended by the Finance Committee for all 
employed in Native work was adopted us 

follows : 

Per mcDaciiL 

During the first five years of aer- 
vice: Dnmarrieil Missionaries.. Ra. IW) 

Married Missionaries *' 15" 

Effective elders after five years ser- 
vice in India: UnmarritKl Mis- 
sionaries " '3'» 

.Married " 1*5 

A f ter ten j ears service, un married 
Missionaries " f ^^ 

Marrietl Missionaries " '•J**'! 

Special allowance for children, and 

Pundits in •■exceiitional cases." 
The following are the appointments of 

the Bengnl M. E Conference for 1888. 

Ajmkkb DiKTKH-r, C P. Hard — PrMidifip Kldn. 
Ajiiiere. EiiKllsli Circuit . E. JelTrifs. 

Nfttl»e Circuit and I C. P. Hard. F. J. 
Doyg Orphanage., f Blewitl. 

Village Work J, Samuel. 

Bhurlpore Mtuslon Paul Slnijb. 

Hiirhuiiiiore Mi»Hii>ii A. S. E. Vardou. 

Jiihtiiilpun: and Hallway Cir- 
cuit M. TIndale. 

ir, . >r._i I J. D. Webb. One to 

KUttUdwa Mission ] ^^^^ supplied. 

Uliow, English Otaurcli and 

Native Hiatlon .. T. E. F. Mortou. 

L. R. Jaauey Supernumerary. 

A. ((. Creamer Do. 

BvRMA DisTlilcT, W. F, OMham—Pi-tit(ding 
Raneoou, EnKll'b Cliurdi... S. P. Long. 
Touugbiw 1 Burmese 

MIsHion) L. H, Koep««fll. 

Seamen's Hisiion. To Iw Bupplird . 
Tamil and Tvlugu 

Mission Do. 

SiOfraporc, Kitk'lisli Ctiurvb I W. F Oldtuun, Uu» 
and Chluese Mission.. il to be supplied. 
" AhkIo- C'tilaeae 

8cbo<il B. W. MuDiou. 

Penang To l>e supplied. 

CiixrpTTA DISTBICT, J. M. Thobum, Jr—Preitidiujf 


Aaansol W. P. Byera. 

Calcutta, B^nRall Mi!»inD J. P Meilc, a N. 
and Pakimr Ciruull > Daai, P. C. Natb. 

CJalcutta. English Churcb. .. F. W. Wame. 

"■ Hliidu.stanl Missilun To b« supplied. 

'* Basting's Seameu's 

MIkkIod... Nells BUdaeo. 

Lai Bazar >... R. H. Craig. 

Agtuit Cond-reDce {Ou leave 

to America ) . J. M. Thobum. 

Editor Indian Witnet* F. L. HcCoj-. 

A^ent Metbodist Publishing 

UouHe C. H. Miller. 

Principal, Calcutta Boys' 

Reboot W. A. Carroll. 

Ray Allen . Supernumerary. 

Miiiuooiuc DismucT. D. Oaborue— fVe»irfiiii/ 
Allahabad, English Church F. D. Newbouse. 

Deoliand A. Qllruth. 

Ilardwar .....,, To be supplied. 

Lahore, English Cbarch ... E. S. Busby. 
HioduHtanl Mission C. H. Plonier. 

Multan C.O.Conklln 

Huaaoorie, Eugllsb Church.. To be supplli 
'■ and Kb j pore Mis- 
sion To be supplied. 

Rtorltce C.W.DoSouaa, 

Principal Philander Smith, j W. G. T. MuUlgan 
Mussoorle I (Lay MIsaionary.) 



Ajhkrc Dibtku-t 

: Mrs. Hard. 
Olris' School und Zemuis I Mr«. Blevrlit. 

Work, AJDiere lMr». Reb»cc* 

^ Saiiitiel. 
Zanao* Work. Burh&npore.. Hni. VardoD. 
Olris' 8c)>ool kihI Z«niui> 

Work. Klundwa Mrs. Webb. 

BruiA DixmicT. 
Rmiom Girl* (School , „i^ p,,^^ 

( Miss S. Black more. 
OhUiese Miaaioii. Singapore. - Mrs. C. Munaon. 
( Mrs. West. 

(UunrrrA Dunticn'. 

OalcutU Girl's ScbooL Miss M. C. Hedrick. 

fMrs. J. P. Mplk(Kd- 
Beocall Girl's School, Za- J itor BenKali Wo- 

Mkua Work 1 man's Frlendi, Mm. 

Is. X. Dass. 

MrstiooRii DisTsioT. 

Zeaaua Wi>rk, I)m>baud . . . Mrs. Gilrulb. 
all OlrU' Hc-bool and 
maoa Work. Lahore . . Mnu Plomer. 
Girls' 80I1U0I and 2e- 

. Work, Roorkee. . . Mr*. PeSoUM. 

— Vnlrntta WUmnH. 

"rite >urlli Indiu .n<-<li<>ilUt 
< <>lir«-ri-ni-<-. 

This Conference niet in fawniHirc Jan- 
nary 4tL. AtKiut fifty iiu-uiIhts were 
pre»ent, of wboui unly twn-aini-twenty 
were foreigners. Rev. J. H. Oill of Bare- 
illy »Ta8 chosen President, a well-deserved 
compliment to a faithful niissionary. Mr. 
Gill came to India in 1871, and retires to 
take up past<;ira] work in the United States; 
he will be greatly missed. Rer. B. H. 
Bmlley was re-elected tfecretarj*. Rev. C. 
L. Bare. Assistant, Rev. J. E. Scott, Sta- 
tistical and Kev. E. Joel. Vernacular Sec- 

Tlie reporfe presented hy the Prwiding 
Elders were full of encouragement. The 
statistical year closed October Slst. at 
which time the following statistics were 
reported : — 

Naiite Christian Comniuoit)-, AUiilu, 5,srs: 

Children. J.S31; ToUl 9,!H« 

Bapttsms: Adai(K.832, Clilldreo, tOU; Total 1,438 
C«otnbutlons from Cliurcbei. European 

M«mbcrH rupees 10,018 

Caoinbuttoiiii from Churches, Natire Mem- 
bora. rupees 4.0T4 

total amount of collections In India rupees 96,987 
Scboub of all grades ... 488 

Scbolars 1B,»8 

taoday S<.'>hools. .... M4 
Scholar* ^,M3| 

.VcDong' the adult accessions, as usual 
unlj a ainall part were from hiamiam, 
2T; all the others were from Uinduisra. 
Thi>( Mission Iteatows jjreat care upon its 
Kktiiitics, and the statiotical tables, too 
kngtliy for iDtnxluction here, hIiow many 
inlerestinji iiem«. Enquirers are not re- 
IwrteJ; and yet in several places these are 
Dumeru'js, and if the only object were to 
^nrell the statistical tahlee two thousand 
pec*ple could be at once baptized; the 
miMiouarieii prefer to move slowly and 
give jfreowr attention to the work of in- 
•truution. One Native preacher, Itev. 
Philemon, ordained by Bishop Ninde a 
year ago, has since baptized 2Ii people. | 

The day is not far distant when this mis- 
sion will report 10.000 baptisms in a year. 

As ucual there haH been an increase in 
the lay schools and Sabbath schools; in 
the latter the missionoriea now aim at 
30,000 scholar!) during the next two years. 
The work of colfiortage is not carried for- 
ward as vi(;orously as it should !«, simply 
because the inii^sionaries cannot obtain 
colporteurs. The funds of the North In- 
dia Bible Society are so limited that it can 
meet but half tlie wants in tbi^ respect, 
and thus far etforts to secure help from 
home have not succeeded to any marked 
extent. There are at least ten districts 
in the Conference without colporteurs: 
the Held is an attractive one, the books 
and tracts are available, money is lacking; 
the .>*uni of H*. UK> would HU|i|.iort a col- 
porteur for a year ; are there nut readers 
■ if the Indian WitnesH who wmild enjoy 
givinK tliix amount imd sending out a 
colporteur in their name, carrying the 
brea<.l of life to these millions? Let re- 
8|K>nsed be sent to the Editor Indian Wit- 

Rev. D. W, Thomas of Bareilly, now 
in America, the founder of the Bareilly 
Theological Seminary, was choten dele- 
gate to the approaching General Confer- 
ence with Rev. J. H. Gill, alternate. 
With the straightforward request of the 
last Central Conference (held at Bmnliay 
in February), backed by the growing sen- 
timent at home as to lIk* necessity of a 
Bishof) for India, the result can hardly he 
doubtful. If the dctiire of thf majority 
in the last Conference had lieen 
heeded, and a Resident Bishop had then 
been set apart for India, .Methi>tlism in 
this Empire wouhl to-duj' be much strong- 
er than it is. 

The Lay Electoral Conference was pre 
8ide<l over by Dr. Cond<in of Cawn|»ore; 
the bullot for cleleKate resulted in tbe 
electionof ex Governor Pattisou of Penn- 
sylvania, U. S. A., one of the ])rominent 
meml>ers of tbe last (Jeiieral Conference 
and well informed as to India Melho<lism; 
Mr. W. E. Blackstone of Oak Park. III., 
a generous layman, whose betiefactions 
to India are increasing every year, and 
whose heart is full of entiuisia.«>m for mis- 
sions, was elected alternate. 

KcuAON District, J. W. WauRh, P E. 

Dwarahat Harkua WUnon. 1 

Eastrrn Kumaon and Teral 

Schools S. 8. Dease. 

Oai-bwal (T. .1. MiMahon 

Xalni-Tal and Bbabar T. ('raven iPatras I.i. 

.Naini-Tnl. KiiKllsh Church. J. Baume. 

Boy^' Hiffli 8oh..ol J. W. WauRh. ' 

SuperiDCeiiileiit of Medical 

Work S.S.l>eaBe. 

OooH DiSTEicT. T. 8. Johnson, P. E. 

Allahabad W. R. Bowen. 

Bniralch W. Peters. 

Barabanki A.C.Paul. I 

r<.i.nnnr. j H. Maosell. 

*^'"»~"' •( I. rieldbra»e. I 

Casmpore, Bagnih Church G. F. Hopkins. 

Oondaaad Adjudla... 

I S. Knowie* 
1 8. Paul, P. U. UM7. 
E. Joel. 

'-"«'""'* ■( Chimman lil. 

Luplcnow, English Church. J. H. ftchively 
Lueknow, NatlTe Cburcb.. Matthew Stephen. 

Roi Bareilly A. T. Leonard. 

Sitapur ,-- J. C. Lawson. 

Luckimpore Kanhlya Sinfch. 

Unao J. W. McGregor. 

Principal. Metnorial High 

School, Cawnpore. . . . F. W. Foote. 
A^ent, Methodist Pubilih- 

inKHouae A.J.Haxweli. 

Principal, Centennial High 

School, Lueknow B. B. Badlaf 

S u p e r I n t endent NatlTS 

Christian Industrial 

i>cbool, (^wnpore H. Mansell. 

H. F. KsHtendieck. Supernumerary. 

AaaoBA DisTElCT. Zahur-ul-Haqq, P. E. 

Amroha H. B. Mitchell. 

Babukbera.. To be supplied. 


Bulandsliahr , " 

Dbanr&la. . " 

Dhanaura Warren Scott. 

Uasanpur LuoIOb Cutlt>r 

Joa To be supplied. 

Meerut C.Luke. 

Narantjra. To be supplied. 


Kasulpur ,...., " " 

Sambbul Zaburul-Haqq. 

Sbabpur. .,...,.. To be supplied. 


RoaiutrND Dktrict. 
E. W Pakkkr, p. E. iP. O. HoOAOAiUD). 

Agra W. RCaancy. 

Aonla N.R. Silas. 

Bareilly F. L. Neeld. 

_,, i N. L. Rockey. 

BIJ''""^ (DilawarSluKb. 

Bllsl Mahbub Khan. 

Blitaiill . . B. F. Cocker, 

„ , \V.7. Wilson. 

B"J»«" '(C.HhIpley. 

Chandausi To be supplied. 

Fstehgrunge West. . . . . A. Solomon. 

Jalalabad Tobesupplled. 

Kakrala James Jordan. 

Kaagunge Haaan Raza Kban. 

Maodawar YakubSbab. 

., . , . 1 J. C. Butcher 

Moradabad ( H, A, Cutthig. 

Multra J.E.Scott. 

Najibabad . To be supplied. 

Panahpur. , Fl. .1. Adams. 

Pllibhlt DP. Kidder. 

rR Hoakins, 
Sbahjebanpore and KberaJ F. PresKrare. 
Bajhrra I (iuUari Lai- 


Shahjehanpore Eaat. - ]^- Ha^^k. 

Sbabjehanpore East, Vb- 

tive Church 8«ikeca Falls. 

Bareilly Theologlcul Seminary and Normal 8chiK>I. 
T. J. Scotf, PrlncipBl. J. H. Messmore. Profes- 
sor of Exegesis and KcclesiasUcal Histor}-; H. 
L. Mukerji, Teacher. 

Principal, Central High 

School. Moradaiiad .. J. C. Butcher. 

Editor of Books and Tracts J. H. Messmore. 

D. W. Thomas, Supernumerary. 

J. T. Janvier, Superannuate. « 

J. H. Gill, tratwferred to Sew York Eaat Confer- 
Woman's Forkicik Misbiokabt Bocibtv. 
Ki'MAOH District. 

Nainl-Tal, Girts' H ig b ) Mist 8. A. Easton 
Scfaixil 1 MIsa O. Miller. 

Naini-Tal-ZenaDS, Work 

and Day Schools. . Mrs. C. Oraat. 

Dwarahal, Oirls' Biwrding 

School .£ Zenana work Ut». Waugh. 

PlthoraKarb,Girls' Boardlt>g 
School & Women's Home Miss A. Budden. 

Pitboraiirarh, Girls' Day 

Schools & Village work Mrs. Deaae. 

Paori, GirU' Boarding 

School Mrs. W. 0. Whitby. 

MiM B. L. Knowlea, on leave to America. 




'BMVllly Oirla' OrphaoiLi^e. Migii F. M. Gagllih. 
" Chrbtian Women's 

School Mm. Scott. 

" Medical work. . .Miss M. Cliristiancy, M-D. 

" Zenana work Miss Lawson. 

Uoradabad.Qirla' Boardinir 1 .Mrs. Parker. 
School 1 Mrs. Butcber. 
Medical worlc. MIm K. McDowell, ii.d. 
Zenana work. Miiw l". Downey. 
Shabjebaapore, Zvinana 
work and Boarding 

School Urs. UMkloi. 

Shahjelianpore, Zv- 
nana work and Widows' 

Home Mra. Bare. I 

BudaoQ, Boarding; School ' 

and Zenana work Hrs. WUson. ' 

Ftljuour, BoardiDir School 

and Zenana work Mrs. Itockejr. i 

Aura, Home for Medical 

(Jirls Mrs. CSancy. 

Multra, Zenana work Mr*. J. K. Scott. | 


Lucknow,Womao'»CoUeKe Hiss T. J. Kyle. 

OlrU' Hlgli School Miga E. De Vine. ' 

" Uoiu« for Ilonie- 

lesH Womeit . . Mlas L. E. Blackniar. 

" Zenana work Miiw T. J. Ky le. 

" Uirlx' Sclioola Mrs. JobnaoD. 

"Editor Ko/fij-i-jViiU'an Mra. Badley. 
Cawnpore, Glrla' High 

School Hln E. L. Harrey. 
Zenana work.. MImH. Beed. 
Girls' School & 
Medical work Mra. MaoHell, m.d. 
Sitapur. Zenana work and 

Day School* Hlu D. A. Fuller. 

Sllapur, Girls' Boardiag 

School Mr». LawsoD. 

Oonda, airia' Boarding 
School and Evangelistic 

work HlBsP. Howe. 

Oonda. Zenana work I S*" ^- 0»>«lniore. 

Roi Bareilly, Zenana work 

and Schools Hra. Leonard. 

— Calcutta Witnew, 


DIaluKuc on India, 


(Aunt OellB. at home on a vliiit from her mtMioD- 
field In Soulbem India, In plied with queHdons rrom 
her nt-phewa and nieces, about the country and 
people auong whom she baa been living. So, to 
are time, she iurites her young relatives to visit 
' ker, at ClirUtnnaa, and gnlheriag them aritund her. 
In the sittiaK-room, after au early tea, the follow- 
tug ramiliar dialogue ensues: i 

Aunt C. — •■ Now, darlings, India, you 
know, is a vast dpmain, containing an 
L«reaof more thaii a tuitliun [iml a half of 
r^qoare miles, and n jiopulatidii of two 
hundred and fifty millions of jwoplt' of 
diverse tastes, habits, lUHiinLrM, and cus- 
ioaxs ; and you can 9«»e how imi>asaib!e it 
will be for ua, in a single evotiiiig, to take 
even a bird's-eye view of all these. 

"So you bad better take turns in ask- 
ing queationfl*; and each select tlie [larticu- 
lar subject upon whioli he especially de- 
sires information. For it is better to be 
ilwU informed on a few jMjints tban to get 

smattering of a Imiidred. Now, Ellie, 
ytui mar begin by telling us what you 
would like to knms' of the gorgeous East, 
that with richest hand, showers on her 
kings liarbaric, jiearls and gold," 

Elue.— " Tidl us,aunly,,whether 
these two hundred and fifty millions of 
people all speak the same language?" 

Aunt C, — "By no means. The larger 

projwrtion of them speak either Himlu- 
stani, Bengali. Tehigii, Mahratti, Punjabi, 
Tamil, (iuzerati, Canarese, itr Oriya; but 
there are twenty or more other languages, 
including the Burmese, Malay, and Assa- 
mese, spoken by large tribes, who under- 
stand no dialect but their own, 

"Religious iuatniction, therefore, 
whether oral or written, to l)e available, 
must h» communicated to each of these 
nations in their native tongue." 

Frajjk. —" By whom is this vast domain 
governed ? " 

Au?*T C. — "The governnifiit of India 
is mainly in the hands uf Great Britain, 
tbnugh the country is divided nominiiUy 
into Brilish ifrritory and native princi- 
palilie>:. The former are under the direct 
control of (Jreat Britain ; while the hitter 
are governed by native princes, with the 
help and under the guidance of an English 
•Resident,' who is appointed by the Vice- 
roy or Governor-Genenil of India. Some 
of these native rulers pay tribute to the 
English governinent, but a few of the 
more |M>werful, like the Tlmknurn of the 
Donngher Mountains, entrench themselves 
behind their strongly-built caslles that 
seeni a modern transcript of the old feudal 
fortresses of half-a-dozen centuries ago; 
and even the force of British arms has 
failed to effect more than a mere miidifi- 
cation of the iron rule and tierce brigand- 
age of these warrior-chiefs." 

Georoe. — "I supixjse these chiefs are 
wholly uncivilized, and that all approach 
to their fastnes.s«.s ie as dangerous as to 
attack a wild beast in his lair ?"' 

AcntC— "On the contrary, these des- 
pots form no exception to the rule of the 
dignity and courtliness of Indian princes 
generally. The Thakoura chief has his 
strongly- fortified castle built on a com- 
manding eminence, surrounded by a 
quaint medley of terraces and towers over- 
looking the precipices on all sides : and 
from his lofty jierch. fulminates his com- 
mands, and levies tribute on every tra\- 
eller who apiiroflches his domain. But 
despite his rapacious jiro^wnsities, this 
chief is a very raixlel of serened igni tied i-e- 
fineintmt, who receives and entertains his 
guests Willi H i>rince]y air tliat one, not 
' to the manor born.' would Hud it imiKis- 
sible to imitate. But hia blackmail instill 
levied on every caravan, though be calls 
it tribute and not plunder. Instead of the 
robber of travellers, be is their protector, 
furnishing guides and guards for a hand- 
some ' con.sideration ; ' and while every 
one passing over the road , must ' pay tithes 
of all,' this exemplary chieflaia ' taxes,' 
but (Joes not pUlaije their gowls." 

Asnie.— " Your mention of the mount- 
ain chiefs, reminds me. auntie, of an ac- 
count I read recently, of a (rip made by u 
party of touritits anumg the Ghauts 
mountains, which the writer deftcribes as 
■ having a formation peculiar to themselves, 

and in many respects different from any 
other chain in Asia. He says that each 
range of the Ghauts consists of only one 
rugged side, which always faces the watet, 
and forms an unbroken wall toward the 
sea. But here and there, it seems, there 
are defileB, with ste[»s descending to the 
shore — cut probably by pilgrims as an act 
of merit. t>ome of the hills are partially 
cleared of the dense jungle-growth, and 
are adorned with lovely little villas and 
bimgalows, half hid<len in shrubs and 
flowers. How beautiful they must lookl" 

Aunt C. — " Yes, and some of them are 
quite famous. On one peak of the West- 
ern G bunts, stands an ancient Hindu 
temple, once the abode of a noted Brah- 
min; another, Mount Bao MaUim, has its 
higbest peak surmounted by an ancient 
fortress, that is entered from the outside, 
by a flight of three hundred steps, cut out 
of the solid rock; and at the fo«rt of a 
third, ie prettily laid out the little village 
of Kainponli, which leads to the deBle of 
tlie Bhorc Qa»t, where an English rail- 
way goes direct to the famous Hanitarmm 
of Matheran." 

Annie. — "The party of whom I was 
reading stopped fur ibe night at the ' Dak- 
bungalow of Khandalla,' which tlie writer 
says, is half-a-milo below the Sanitarium, 
and he commeiitH most enthusiastically, 
upon the ' restful comfort " thai awaits the 
tired traveller al thej* wayside * Dofr».' 
What are they, and who is it that provides 
therti ?'' 

.\UNT C— "The Dak is an inBtitution 
peculiar to the East ; and those in British 
India are the proi)erty of the English gov- 

" In an intensely hot country like India, 
travel by night is often preferred to any 
very long exposure to the sun ; so that 
many tourists and others travel half the 
night. Uikitig only a few hours' rest wher- 
ever a suitable place can U- found. There 
being no hotels at all suited to the accom- 
modatiim of Euroiieans, the earlier Eug- 
lisl) residents instituted the " Duk,' where 
the weary find not only nece.saaries, but 
absolute luxury awaiting them, in these 
capacious, airy, one-story dwellings, 
shaded on all sides by long, covered 
verandas, where travellers may rest and 
lie refreshed for their continued Journey. 
Any one has a right to twenty-four hours' 
lodging, with the use of furniture, and 
attendance of servants, for the moderate 
sum of one rupee (forty-five cents*. Pro- 
visions, including fresh fruit*, and ex- 
cellent tea and coffee may also be obtained 
at reasonal)le rales, through the Dak ser- 
vants. Ditkn have lieen conptructed by 
the British government, at regular inter- 
vals, on the chief militarj' roads through- 
out the Fiiipire ; and on a long journey in 
that hot and unhealthy climate it is often 
a great kwnefit to the weary traveller to 
stop for a day and night, where he may 



oWtain B good bed, and Beveral comfort- 
able meals, before proceetlinjf on his way." 
Harry. — •* Are there many of these 
Sanitariums, with means for the accom- 
ruodation of all who desire to avail them- 
selves of their benefits, or are they ke(»t 
for the iK-nefit of soldier i and government 
otficialB only '/ " 

AfXT C. — " Upon the Mnnsoorr range 
of t\w Himalayas, the Bn>;lit>li gov- 
eminent have a famous iHttanic garden, 
that is a noted health resort ; and on the 
Sik-kim Hills, near the Himalayas, is the 
Sanitarium of Dharjeliug, sihiated seven 
thousand feet alntve the level of the sea, 
with A climate charmingly saluhriaiitt in 
contrast with the sultry atmosphere t»f 
till* plains, the thermometer rarely reach- 
ing Revcnty. even in the warmeni months. 
Plainly visible from the Sanilarium rise 
the snow-capped peaks of Mt. Dha- 
uvtltit/htri. and some fifteen othtTft, ranK- 
ing in heieht frim twenty-two thousand 
to twenty-eight thousand feet, while even 
at Dh.irjelia^, fires and thick clothing 
are needed almost the year nmnd. Be- 
Mid«>s the government liuildiagH, many 
C4»tl«tses and lovely villas are owned liy 
officers and citizens of Calcutta : and 
these are nearly always tilled by the fam- 
ilies ur friends of the proprietors, in 
constant rotation, especially during the 
hot montbB. The climate ba» Ix^en found 
to l)enefieial to invalid!?, that the aumber 
of viailors is generally timittid only by 
the measure of the accomuiod:ttions," 

Eddie — " I heard a uenlleiiuin i-ecently 
lecturing on India, allude especially to 
it«* templed hills and gorgeous shrines.' 
Oae he mentioned l)eing a thousand feet 
in height, and rising abruptly from a 
plain to the wmth of Mysore— forming a 
'natural o*>servatory ' whence may be 
riewetl some of the grandest scenery of 
Sodthern India. The hill, he nays, is 
Doted among the Hindus, aa the 8ite of 
two very famous temples, tL> which 
Uiousaods of pilgrims annually resiort, 
and also as ' the spot whence a colocwal 
Bait, an object of supreme reverence 
BiDODg the Hmdua, was cut from the 
•olid rook.* Have not these people other 
iuit4iral ahrinrs among the luagniflcent 
scenery of their mountain ranges '/" 

ACNT C. — '• Near VVandiwash, there is 
i»e dedicated to the elejiliiint-headed 
Ginesha. the architectuii' of wliich is 
ta«au(ifui and ingenious— resting ]Kirtly 
on plllarfi of rock, and partly on levelled 
portions of the peak. In the rock deep 
caritiett have iK'en hewn aa receptacles 
for the costly gifts brought hy thousands 
of pilgrims t«i atone for t heir sins : and 
rarried off by the portly Brahmins, who 
claim U) be the jiroru-i for the gods I 

" At Bha<lrinath, on the right bank ot 
the river Visbnu-gunga. is another fam- 
otu abrine — a temple of Vishnu e'aid to 
be very ancient, and containing an idol 

of black marbe rolied in gold and silver 
brocade. In front of the temple is a 
tank thirty feet aquare. where the pil- 
grims perform their ablutions, the water 
being supposed to be efficacious in wash- 
ing away sin. 8ach is the conscious 
guilt of these ixxir pagans who have 
never even henrd of Jetus. and their in- 
ward conviction that sin must be atoned 
for in some way, that large numbers 
visit this shrine every year, in the hope 
of easing their sin-lmrdened consciences : 
and every Utdfth jear, when the great 
festival of Kumhk-}lihi takes plBce, the 
number of pilgrims usually exceeds fifty 
thousnixL Many of these would no 
doubt gladly receive the Gospel of Salva- 
tion through oar blessed Re<leenier if 
they could hear it. But how filmll they 
hear without a preacher? And the 
number of missionaries sent out. i* still 
so small compared with the vast, teeming 
multitudes who are i/rt tutie h'l-l «f Je»u» 
for the firHt tiinr. that many die every 
year, without knowing that they might 
l>e saved. Dear young friends, are you 
iJuiiiy nil j/ou can, to send them the uooD 
NEWS y " 

Mary. — "Now that you have told as 
something, auntie, of the mountain 
shrines of the Hindus, won't you give us 
an account of their Holy River. :ind their 
ideas concerning its efficacy in washing 
away sins':"" 

AcNT C. — "This holy river, the Gaoges, 
has such a history as could l»e revealed 
by no other stream in the wide world. 
Descending from a level of fifteen thou- 
sand feet above the sea, and running a 
course of fifteen hundred odles, it re- 
ceives at every point the most <levout 
adoratiiin. The Hindu Shasters say that 
'•the touch of its waters, nay, the very 
sight of them, takes away all sin." 
Drowning in the holv river is deemed an 
act of supreme merit ; and thousands of 
sick people endure the fatigue of long 
journeys that they may die U[K>n its 
banks. Its very name is derived from 
their goddess (iunga, who, the Hindus 
say, was prtKlucwl by the moisture of 
Vishnu's foot caught by Brahma, and 
preserved in his alms-dish ; and Gunga 
coining down from heaven, frinn pit;/ fvr 
man. divided herself into one hundred 
streams, the mouths of the Ganges, Do 
you not see amid all this a<ludxtur»:> of 
error, souie faint gleam ol" the great truth, 
of Goii's love lo luan in sciiitiug His dear 
Son for the world's redemptionV I'ussibly 
9t>Mit' of the Ajjostles |>reached in India, 
and theie may have been a Christian 
Church planted here in the early times. 

'■ In Hindu courts of justice, the water 
of the Gaugtis is sworn uptai, as the Bible 
is in ours: and it Ls l>etieve<l iluit as inony 
as five hundred thousand |>e<>pte a?.semble 
nnminlly. ut certaiti points of the river, 
lo l>athe, at tA« moU propiliouD moment, in 

it« sacred waters ; and thousands are 
crushed to death, in their frantic attempts 
to i*res8 through the crowd. At the 
mouth of the Hooghly, one of the 
branches of the (iangea, is the great 
island of Sangor. another of the • most 
holy places ' of the Hindus. An annunl 
festival is held here, attended by thou- 
samls of jjeople, many of whom come from 
a distance of five or six hundred miles, 
and encamping on the banks, spend most 
of their time in bathing in the holy water,| 
spreading out their offerings lo lie home 
away by lb*' tide, and daul>ing their 
heads and breasts with the mud, that they 
regard as the panacea for all sin and 
suffering. Formerly, thousands usetl to 
throw themselves and their children into 
the river, from this island, to gain the 
favor of the goddess; hut this is no longer 
ftermitted by the British Government, 
and during the Festival an English offlcer 
with fifty sepoy soldiers is statione<i 
here, to i)revent these cruel sacrifices. 

"Are not these yesniings for |>ardon, 
a loud call to us to send the Gospel to the 
poor Hindus?" 

. ITiitiii. ( hluii, niid lis iHclhodlM 


Tiiiiiking that your numerous reader 
would lie Koniewhat interested to know a 
little of our work here, wc have taken thitt 
opportunity of a new era in its history to say i 
a little iiijout tilt- city of Wuhu and itssu 
roundingg. Wuhu is situated on the great 
river Yang-tsz, about half way tetween 
Shanghai, the port of entrance for Central 
China, nnd Hankow, the terminus of the 
ordinary lines of Kteamers, running on the 

Wuhu Inis a )H)pulation of some 70,0011 
souls, crowded together in narrow, dirty 
streets, and living in houses for the m08t 
part nearly as dirty. 

The surrounding country is thickly set- 
tled by ao industrious farming population: 
that are at least not unwilling to hear the 
Gosj)el. The jiort has only lieen opened 
some ten years. About half that time it 
has been occujiied hy our mission, with 
such good results that lust year it was 
thought advisable to erect a suitable place 
(if worship. A site w'jw selected and 
l«iught,and the work of building has been 
going on fur some mouths. On the 19th 
of Seplt'tnlH'r last the corner-stone was 
laid, and <>n the Isl of December, 1887, 
we had a very interesting ceremony, con- 
ducted by the Rev. V. C. Hart, assisted 
hy the Rev. S. Lewis and the imator in 

Before the ceremony the party inspected 
the new premises, consisting of chapel, 
native preachers' house and day-school. 

The chapel, which will seat alwut 200 
^►eople, was very comfortably filh?d, the 
audience listening to and seeming very 
much interested in the service. 







aaplain McCa>>e pleads that every 
tkodiat Episcopal Pastor and Superin- 
tendent observe Easter Sunday as Mittsion- 
ary Day. " Brethren. Help ! I helieve in. 
the Conversion of the World.'' 

Easter Sunday conies on April 1st. It 
has l>een set apart in the Methivdiet 
Episcopal Church as " Children's Mission- 
ary Day." It was observed by many 
schools last year. Can it not Ix'c-oine 
universal ? Denr pastor, and dear Bni»r- 
intendent, please help us in the great 
effort we are making to have all our 
children lielieve in and work for the con- 
version of the world. 

"Children's Missionary Day" is an Eas- 
ter Sabbath Service for the Sunday- 
schools of the Methixlist Episcopal Church 
for use on Stinilay, April Ist. 1888. It is 
preparetl by Rev. W. T. Smith, d.d.. 
of 309 Oakland Avenue, Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, and i3 sold by the author at the 
rate of one cent a copy. 'Collectort*' cards 
by the same are fur sale at one-half cent ' 
;.«ach. Let every Methodist pastor or 
iperintendent send for as many copies , 
of " SJervice " and cards as tliey have piipiils 
in the Snnday-^choo! and use them. 
They will l»e well repaid for the ex|)end- ' 
iture of the money. The author is a live 
Presidinijj: Elder iu Missiojiary matters 
and an adept in this line of work. 

Thanks to kind friends who prefiarcd 
for us the notice on the life of the mis- 
lionary hero, Oeorge Bowen of India, and 
the summary of the work of tlie Metho- 
dist Episcopal C^hurch in India, of tlie i 
American Bible St>ciety in South America, 
and of the South American Bible SiH'iety. 
Tlie two latter articles ^hniild have fol- 
lowed the other njatteron Smith AtixTica, 
hut the FIditor haslieen physicfilly unable 
to gise the needed attention to this num- ' 

The Rev. C. R. Rice writes us from In- 
defiendence, Kansas: "The Felirnary 
number of Gospel is All L4J«ds> is almost 
giving us New Mexico fever." They I 
would gladly welcome such helpers. 
Another brother writes only to complain , 
of the scanty apparel on a Navajti brave j 
in the 8.ame number, and says that " Com- ' 
stock is cominjs." Mr Comstock lives in 
New York and has shown no evidence of i 
a weak mind. 

We refer to the August, 1887, number 
of QosPKL IN All Lands for the latest 
attainable Protestant statistics for India. 
Tlie snniiriary ^ives 86 Missionary So- 
cieties with TBI foreign Miasionaries. 5;K> 
Native Ordained Agents, and 137,504 
Communicants. These statistics are for 
IbH.") and were carefully tubulated by Rev. 
Dr. Badley. 

The tylor of India, issued at Luckiiow, 
January 13, 18«S. says: " Rev. J. H. Gill 
sails to-day from Bombay on the mail 
steamer. His address will be 805 Broad- 
way, New York City, Rev. Dr. Stone 
and wife, of Bombay, expect to sail Feb- 
ruary 1st, Mrs. Neeld and son, Mrs. 
Craven and family, and Miss Knowlea, of 
NainiTal, sail at a later date. Miss Swain 
of Klietri, Rajputana, is called home by 
the illness of a sister." Brother (lill ar- 
rived in New York in February. 

In the re|K)rt we gave in our December 
issue of the niissionaries connected with 
our work in India we puqiosely omitted 
the names of those who, in 1887, returned 
to the Uniled States, and who we under- 
Ht(HKi did not exjiect to return to India. 
Among the names ontitled was that of 
Rev, W. Bowwr. He inforiiis iis that 
owing to the !*tate of bisheiiltli lie has not 
taken .steps Iu lie traiisfcrreil, and that he 
exp<»ils to lie continued iiv a su|jernumery 
relation in tlie South Imlia {Conference. 

Licttcr n-oni .nra. Baldwin to 
.^r«>. Todd. 

Dr. S. L. Baldwin, now of Boston, and 
Dr. E, S. Todd of Baltimore, were mis- 
sionaries together in China. Brother 
Todd, in loiiking over some old letters re- 
cently, found one from .Mrs. Baldwin to 
his wife which he dciMiieit of sufUcicnt 
interest to read at a joi-jsionary rm-eling. 

It was not written for publication but 
it depicts most vividly the sorrows f>f the 
heathen world. It is a Kliui]>se and only 
a glimpse. Like a tl.ash of lightning it 
shows the dark abyss. What must the 
steady gaze V)e of the missionary on the 
ground ? The letter bears date. Fooclioiv, 
June ITith, \M%. After speaking of the 
loss of her little May, Mrs. Baldwin 

*'S<) much of Htnishine has gone out 
of my life tliall sonietiiiies Ihiiik 1 mourn 
almost as the heathen motluTS iminnd 
me, and yet not so, for while I cannot 
ijuiet the longing or soothe the great 
aching at my heart yet I know that it is 
well with her and to m<' remains lhelio|)e 
of joining her if fiiithful. My old ser- 
vant woman has interested me much. A 
child of sorrow she has truly l>een and in 
the deep gloom of her affliction, lightened 
by no (*hristian r;»y. niine imleed is a 
cloud with a lK?autiful lining. 

" She has buried four little girls and 
one little boy . and. saddest of all, her hus- 
band drowned one little girl. 


I "I had a long talk with ber and in 

trying to give her a word of comfort and 
a realization of the Christian's hope, my 
own faith, so weak in every trial, wm 
somewhat strengthened. 

" She described to me the drowning of 
her little girl. Tlie mother's pang scarcely 
over, anil the little one just ushered into 
the world towards which her heart vva'i 
yearning, was taken hy its unnatural 
parent and drowned in her presence. Slie 
told how she plead for its life, how she 
shut her eyes from seeing the wicked 
deed. I have seldom seen a face of more 
anguish than hers while she described Ibe 
springing up of the child in the water 
and the gurgling of the water. 

" Three other little girls came and when 
they were 'so high,' they died, and they 
told nie that the Grandmother had taken 
them and that I must, lie careful to wor- 
ship her. Her husband has since died 
and now she is almost alone. 

" I tried to explain to her that her little 
ones were safe in heaven, and that if she 
tjelieved in Christ and olieyed His com- 
mandments she would go to them and he 
with them. She caught eagerly at the 
wonls. • go to them ' and asked me over 
and over again if she really could go to 
them, and when I assured her that she 
could it tvas almost pitiful to see her joy. 

"Mrs, Lowey's nurse hrjs her sorrows 
also and ever has a sad face. Her trou- 
ble is that she has had tworhihlren, Ixith 
girls. She i.-? young ami her husband i^ 
forty years old and she is afraid he will 
not Uke her b«?cau8e her children are 
girls; both of them were taken from her 
and given away. O I he sorrows of 
China's daughters ! 

"My wonder is how they live under 
them. Many of them are hanlened and 
careless hut the majority of them have 
mother's beart.s and natural affection."' 

What a ctirnnient is this letter upon 
the saying of the Psalmist, " The dark 
places of earth are full of the habitation 
of cruelty." 

The Korean niuilon, 


The history of the Korean Mission 
yet is short and can be told in a few 
words. The Rev. Dr. R. S Maclay. the 
veteran mis.siouary of the Japan Confer- 
ence, made a progt>«'f'l'ng trip to Seoul in 
June, 1884. MetlKKlism may he said to 
have entered the Hermit Nation then, as 
it was upon his recommendation that im- 
mediate steps were taken towards starting 
the work here. Rev. Wm. B. Scranton, 
M.D., and Rev. H. O. Appeoswller were 
appointed towards the close of the same 

In Dw-ember there was a coup *f ttai 
in the Capital. The leaders of the Pro- 
gressive j>arty, after killing some of the 
leaders of the Conservative party and 




l^iun in (jower two day*, were <le|M»ed 
Bud drivf-n (rum tlie country. All was 
IMilitical cbiiot), and the air waii full of 
rumore of wars It is not aurprihinf;, 
therefore, that the lir>t misaioiiaries wbeu 
Uiey reached Chemulpo, in April of 1885, 
wen? advised not to enter the Capital. lu 
May. under cover i>f his profesusion, Dr. 
SkraiitoQ entered Seoul, l>egan work in 
the Ooverunient Ho8pit;d, then juetestttb- 
lished, and succeeded in Ka)nin}>: a foot- 
hold. The other uiissi "inarie^ soon fol- 
lowed, houses were i)iirrhased, and repairs 
on them commenced. This was about 
two and a half years ago. 

Th»' proKTpss has been steady, healthy, 
eacouraging. Dr. Scranton, as WHin as 
be had purchased a house, began to see 
patients there. In June, 188(1, he moved 
into ibe boRpital. The beginning of Ihii) 
year the govemiiieut recognized the good 
work ilone by naming the hospital. It is 
more and more appreciated by the people, 
being visited by men from all parts of the 
king>lom. The attendance has Ijeen in- 
creasing rapii I ly, so that during the quarter 
I just ending ele»en bundrinl [lalieulH were 
««en. The jieople, tlxnigb pour, pay a 
nominal price for the uiiilici[ie«. Our 
hocspitnl is <loing great good nnd the jwo- 
ple have confidence in our work. 

Educational work was begun less than 
I month after the arrival of )lr. Appen- 
Eeller in Seoul. We have now a school ( hat , 
iiona solid footing, having received its: 
DBaie(Pcfi <'hai Hak dang— Hall for Rear- 
ing Useful Men) from His Majesty the 
King. This is our charter. During this 
je«r we erecte<l on »» commanding site a 
ttne brick college hall, seventy-six feet by 
(Ifty-two. in foreign style of architecture. 
It is the first and thus far the only bnild- 
iDg of Its kind in the country. " It dt>efl 
<in» good," said one of the bighe.-'t foreign 
nSeitils here. " to look upon sucli a neat, 
DulstAntial building like tlint one u[) 
there,' p(.>inting to the ball. 

The 8ch<i«il has over Hfty stuiteiu.s en- 
rolled. New one-i are entering all the 
time. I say "enrolled" lifcause some 
Hm all they nee<l of English in a fort- 
night and can hardly be calletl "students.*' 
Thdtie. however, are the exception. A 
ONnineodHble eeal is shown by the young 
mm ; they are in earnest, devoted, and 
ihow an aptness for the new language. 

The evangelistic work is ju^t opening. 
(Vi'itianily as represented by the Jesuits 
bhaK**!. The law makes believing in it 
* capital olfence. During the fearful 
persecution o( I8tt8 thousands of Catliolic 
Christiiins were beheailcd. The (M>i>ple 
h«»e not forgotten this and are Tialurully 
afraid. The law may be enforced, thoiigli 
lliie i» not likely, as the present ruler is 
kind-heHrt»Hl and favors opening Korea to 
fureign influences. 

But notwitbatauding the^e unfiivorable 
mflnenres Christian literature has In-en 

distributed, the tirst Korean convert ba])- 
tized last July, on Christmas day, the 
sixth. One coliwrteur. retumetl from a 
short trip int<i the country, reports three 
candidates for baptisiii and twelve seeker:;. 
Tlie other colporteur is still out, from 
whom I hope to hear even greater re- 

Services are held every Sabbath and 
once during the week. On Christmas I 
jjreached my first sermon in the Korean 
language in our " chajtel " — a room eight 
feet wide and sixteen feet long. Metho- 
dism baptized the first woman in a land 
where women are carefully setOuded. 
Others are studying the Word secrelly. 

The Woman's Foreign Missintiary Soci- 
ety entered Korea when we did. they 
liuili n large and l:>eHUtiful home, have two 
teachers, and thus far have bad fifteen 
girls under their instruction. The arrival 
of a lady doctor a short time ago is hailed 
with delight by the many suffering women 
in this land. 

This is the Ijeginning of our work in 
the Hermit Nation, now no longer so. 
The walls of isolation are underminc<l ; 
they arc falling. The |>eople are in a re- 
ceptivt- moiKl.dissatisfled with ibe luarren 
past, and reaching out for something new 
and better. If once the imlependence of 
the "Little Kingdom" is firmly estal»- 
lisbed. we may look for rapid Kteps for- 
ward. May that day come soon. 

Skoul, Decern l)er 27tb. 1887. 


.tiiiiual .WrrtlnK or lh<> <'piilr«l fhliia 
.ni»»lon, OtMohor 'i l-'i,l, I MS7, 


Another ecclesiastical year has rolled 
away, and another of those seasons so 
inlereetinif and imfxirtant to Methodism 
and- the Methodist preacher, namely, the 
AnnuAl Meeting or Conference, ])a» again 
come round. How swiftly hiia the yeai 
sped ! with all its u[ipc>riituities of doing 
good and l>eiug good it hiis receded into 
the past: it hah none but not the effects 
of the work accotuptished, to the end of 
time they will be muDtfest, how great 
tho-e elTects we shall know in eternity. 
Some have mourned because of the hard- 
ness of the work and the lack of visible 
fruit, others have rejoiced and beeu 
exceeding glad on account of the showers 
of blepsing that have fallen. 

As a mission we rejoice over substan- 
tial and marked increitse : God has beeu 
with us and given us a more prosperous 
year than has ever l)efore l>een enjoyed. 
We have had 139 conversions : this means 
in China a grand advance, a net increase 
over last year of 'i\, and in membership 
a net in rease over last year of 24, giving 
US now a total of 44.T menilx»rs and pro- 
bationers. Six additional Sabbath Schools 
have been opened with an increase of l.")! 
scholars: we have altogether l.j Snbbath 

Schools and W6 scholars. The members 
are also learning to give of Iheirautwiance 
to the Lord : a total of $1043, 13 has been 
raised on the Held in the direction of self 
support ; here has been an leap : 
— I)s4<l9.12 more than last year, a matter 
for great encouragement. With these 
succeBses then we went up to our annnal 
gathering to plan another year's work. 
The annual meeting was held in the 
Church of the Fowler Itistitute at Kiu 
Kiang, commencing on Friday, October 
21. 1887. 

We were pleased to liave Bishop War- 
ren with us to encourage, advise, and 
help, and prenide at the Conference. 
The first session was occupied in examin- 
ing the characters of the preachers, for- 
eign and native, and listening to their re- 
ports. The second sessiiju wag occupied 
much in tlie same way, the reports being 
first dispnsed of, and the following reso- 
lution passed, namely, " That we heartilj 
approve the appointment of a chaplain to 
the Foreign Comnuinity of Chin Kiang, 
and earnestly reijuest the Board of Man- 
ager* of the Missionary Society to make 
all suitable arrangements." Promises of 
sup|x»rt amounting to more than |7fK) 
yearly have Is-en obtained from the for- 
eign residents in the P^^uglish Concessiori. 
This is a step in the right direction. 

On Sunday morning a good congre- 
gation assembled in St. Paul's Church to 
! hear Bishop Warren preach from Mat- 
' thew vi.. verse 33, " But seek ye first tlie 
kingdom of God and Hi^ righteousness 
and all these things shall \)<i added unto 
you." We were all encouraged and 
blessed, the Master )>eing with us to cheer 
our spirits, and "our hearts burned with- 
in us " as We together partook of the Sacra- 
ment of the Lorti's Supper : to meet to- 
gether and in our native tongue solemnly 
celebrate the death of our blessed ,Saviour 
is a rich Immpiet. 

The rest of the day was taken up with 
spirited Chinese services, the Love-feasl 
lieing especially impressive. The chapel 
was crowded : scores of native Christians 
were present and gave clear and convinc- 
ing t°stimonie8 of their conversion. 

On Mon<liiy business was resumed : — a 
letter of encouragement was written lo 
Bpo. Cady, who is holding the fort alone 
in Chung King. The committee .to audit 
the Treasurer's Bo.ik8 presented their re- 
l>ort and congratulated Bro. J. R Hykes, 
the Treasurer, on the corret^tness and 
general keeping of the Mission Books and 
accounts : the following resolutions were 
passed netn. con., namely, Resolve<l : 1 
"That we appreciate the care and pains 
which Mr. Hykes has taken in all mattera 
pertaining to the Treasurer's office, and 
offer him our heartiest thanks for the 
manner in which he has discharged bis 
arduous duties, and for his kind and 
t'ourtcous letters ; and Resolved : 2. That 



this report be forwarded to the Board of 
ManaEfers of the Misoionary Society. 

We are anxious to cultivate fraternal 
relations with the otiier MetiimiiHt borties 
working ap ami down tlie river, namely, 
the Wesieyati MethcxiiRt anrl Blethodist 
Ei»lsco(>al Oliuroh. South ; two br(:'thren 
were therefore ap^iointed to visit tiiese 
miSHions at their next Annual Meetinf^ to 
convey our fraternal and kindly greetings. 
We look forward to the time when there 
will be one grand Methodist Chuich for 
(^hina, with native Conferences all over , 
the land. 

It was nnflnimously voted to request 
the Genera] Conference to pass an en- 
abling act whereby the Central China 
Minaion may be empowered to resolve it- 
self into an Annual Conference during 
the next four yearh. 

Comnilttees were apftointed on examin- 
ation in English and Chinese studien and 
to visit, examine and report <in the Hos- 
pital;^ and Educational Instit()tic>us with- 
in the boHndK of the Mission. 

Another important step was taken, 
namely, the apja>iiitment of a Publishing 
Committee to arrange for the erection of a 
printing press, l>otli Knglish ami Chinese, 
at N'inkin. This is (uuch ri'i|iilred in our 
mission, tind we hope tlif* outcome of the 
year's work in this direction will be a 
• Complete printing machinery able tt» do 
all lh»- work of the Misjion. 

Other local business was discussed and 
determineil ami many forward steps taken. 
The appoint uientH for 1S87-8 were then 
' read and we again separati'd for another 
year's luil. May Ood alximlantly jioiir 
out His Spirit on this Mission, making 
every man a fuithriil enmest laborer to- 
gether with Christ, and add to thet.'hurch 
many that shall be saved. 

A'ii( Kiati'j, Vhina. Xov.. 1887. 

X flunft-rtvu-it mi lliet'uiicro by Bishop 

The second annual meeting of the dis- 
trict Conference of tiie Upp)er C<»ngo 
District a-senibled at Vivi mission station 
I December 3d, 1887, at two o'clock I'. M., 
with Bishop Taylor in the chair. 

Fifteen meml)ers were present, includ- 
ing the Bishop, and sixteen were .unavoid- 
ably absent. Tlie Bishop repiited briefly 
as follows. 

'• Our disapfwintuient in not being able 
to get direct and prompt trans|H)rt of our 
steamer and other stulf lo Stanley Pool, 
and detention in Vi\ i, though trying to 
our faith and patience here, and liard on 
the hopes of our[>atrona at home, is work- 
ing for our goo«l nnd for the enlargement 
of our fielil of operations on the Congo : 

"Ist. In the unex{)ecte(l depletion of 
our trauhit funds, had the government <»f 
the State of Congo l»een able to transport 
our freight to Stanley Pool at a [lound (#5) 
per raiui-load, according to agreement. 

we could not have paid their transport 
bills. Here, in Vivi, our expenses are hut ' 
light and our trnnsport by steam will lie 
much cheajjer thnn by carriers alone, 

"2d. It has Iwen the means of a gov- 
ernment a tithoriznt ion to niK?n a line of 
mis.sion stations from Vivi to Isangala, 
,').■) miles, and thence to Manyanga, 88 
miles, thence on the south side of the 
Congo l(K) miles to Stanley Pool, 

'• ad. We are finding out as our 
acquaintance exteutts thai north of said 
base line of slations there is a densely 
populated belt of country belonging to 
Congo .State, extending back to the Loan- 
go Itiver, and that psiallel east a l>elt of 
about too miles or more. 

"Since our arrival here, about the tirst 
of July of this year of grace— five montha 
— we have under the mechanical general- 
ship of our dear brother Critchlow, ex- 
tempori/.e<l the construction of a new 
steam wagon dispitnilar from all other 
wagons in the world, of vast pulling 
jwwer, for the transiwrt of our heavy 
freights up the steep hills, by means of 
this wonderful wagon and a little man 
force. All ourcargiK»s have Ijeeii brought 
up the crooked, steep, rcK?ky hills, from 
the beach to Vivi toj). a distance of a1>out 
a luile and n half, sin<'e which nurpre.^cher 
and storekeeper, .1. C. Teler, htis mken 
stock of :ill onr storesand put theui under 
roof, lock and key. Our chief engineer, 
Silas W, Field, has rubbed up and painl- 
ed and oiled such parts of our steamer 
anil saw-mili *.tnfr ns were liable to rust. 
Brother Rasmusseu has given us a plan 
for a cheu[i buoyant raft for the discharge 
of our traction engine when she shall i)e 
brought up by the steamer. The mater- 
ials for siiid raft ure being prepare<l so 
that we hot>e we sluill vvitliin a few weeks 
I we our road enginetrs. llrotliers Clnilin, 
Rasmusseti, While and Bi igg'^ moving in- 
wiird with our steam wagon and irartion 
engine. BrutliMr Wrn. II. Arringdnle. 
our arcliilect and man of nil tuechaiiical 
work, bus been busy and etfeetJve in 
bcaise- building and repairs. 

•* Our dear sislers h;ive done the cook- 
ing for all our working force— a heavy 
task that is never finished Meantime, 
though I have wrought in our varierl 
work at Vivi three months out of the 
Bve of our sojourn here. I have explored 
the line to Isangala, and report the o|ien- 
ing of five stations — Ist, Vivi, the site of 
the former capital of the state. F<ir a 
little over seven acres of ground here and 
the buildings remaining we jmirl iilBU. 
2d. At Vumtomt>a Vivi, four miles dis- 
taeit, insight of the mountain, we have 
built an ndolje house and opened a sta- 
tion. :Sd. Sadi Kalvinza, al>out twenty 
miles from Vivi. 4th. Mataoalia. a()out 
twenty-nine miles from here, all on the 
caravan trail. 5th. Isangala, where our 
freights have to lie taken by boats up the 

river to Manyanga. We have not built, 
but our mi.ssionary, E. A. Sboreland. or- 
copies, rent free, the stalion-house of the 
Government. 6th. Natumba, near Ba- 
nana, we liave just received permtssioa 
from the Oovernor-tleneral to select n 
site, and I hofae to l>e able lo send in duly 
a sketch of the land selected, and to settle 
on the premises in a tent till we can get 
a small iron house ordered from Liver- 

Reports from various stations wer* 
then presente<l. John A. Newth stated 
what bad been done at Sadi Cabanzi. He 
sfiid that the natives, though willing tit 
be taught English, declined having any- 
thing to do w'ith the worship of God, 
Iwlieving that all joining in it will die. 
Yet Mr. Newth l>elieves there is ground 
for hope. The wilch-doctor, having Ijeen 
warned against his Ijarbarous pntctice, 
now brings all sick pntients to the Mission 
to receive meflical treatment. This is 
certainly a step in the right direction, for 
it will give the nativf s c-onlidence in the 
niissiimary. Mr. Newth thinks that whet» 
he is able to speak the Innguuge of the 
natives he will be able to reason away 
their prejudices. 

The re|>ort fnim Vuoitoniba. back of 
Vivi, liclniled the building oi>erution.s, and 
stated that the natives are very friendly, 
!in<i there is a dnily class of from eiuht to 
eleven to learn English. 

Miss Mary Kildare reported the result 
of her teaching in two rillages near Vivi. 
She Hrst gut good classes of children, 
taught tlietii lo sing Christian sings, juid 
to repeat the Commandments an<l the 
lx>rdV Prayer. The interest and atten- 
dance increased, and the parents began 
to come, and one man has given up idol 

The report from Mjitamha. by Charles 
Lfitfin, stated that thntstnlion »n* open)^! 
in Se|)tember The natives ai-e eager to 
be taught. 

The Bishop read the following appoint- 
Kjmpoko— Brad ley L, Burr, Dr. Harrison. 

Ilirani and Roxy Elkins. 
Li'LiABUKU— William R. Summers, M,D. 
Vivi -J. C, Teeter. J. S. Cutler. 
Transport Dkpt. Headquarters at 

Vivi-Silas M. Field, Etlwd. E.Claflin. 

Wm. Rasmussen, Wm O. While, Wni, 

S. Briggs, Wm. H, Arringdale, Mrs. 

.-Vrriiigilide, Mrs. Belle Claflin. 
\'t jtToMBA Vivi— Elizjibeth J. Trimble, 

Jlary B. Lindsay, Lyman B. Walker^ 

Mrs. Walker. 
•Sadi Cabanza- John A. Newth. 
Matamba— Charles Claflin. 
ISASOALA— E. A. Sboreland. 
NATtvMBA, VEAR BANANA — Mary Kildare, 

Susan Collins, 
Kabinda— J. L. Jiidson, Archer Steel, Jr. 
.Mamba— Archer Steel, Sr., Ai Sartori, 

Martha Kali. Walter Steele, Mrs. Anna 



EuaENE R. Smith, 


APRIL, 188B, 

a OB BaroaKi-oo-ay, 

N»»» York Cil/. 




Burma and Its Needs, 

Upper and Lower Burma include 260,000 square miles 

and nearly 8,000,000 inhabitants consisting chiefly of Bur- 
mese, Talaings, Shans, Karens, Kakhyens and Khyens. 

The various languages of Burma are derived from the 
Pali. The prevailing tongue is Burmese. 

The Burmese belong to the Indo-Chinese family and 
are warlike, gay and happy, contented with little and 
much more inclined to sport and idleness than labor. 

The first inhabitants were an unfortunate Indian tribe 
of the Solar race, who being driven Eastward, settled 
with their King in the valley of the Irrawady. 

They claim to be descended from the Sakya family 
which reigned in Oudc, and from which was born Gaud- 
ama Buddha in the sixth century before Christ from 
whom sprang the great system of Buddhism, the ruling 
faith of Burma. 

Up to the time of the annexation of Upper Burma 
little or nothing had been done by any Protestant body 
to evangeliae Burma, excepting the American Baptist 
Church whose pioneer is known to the world as the 
sainted Judson who sleeps in the Indian Ocean with 
Bishop Coke and Miss Nickerson. 

While the Methodist Episcopal Church has for over 
thirty years been sending men and spending money for 
India with most gratifying results; yet nothing has been 
done until now for the salvation of the native peo])les of 
this most important country. 

This has not been because the hearts of the noble men 
who have been at the head of our Missionary Society and 
Church were not large enough to take this needy country 
into their sympathies, but because money and men were 

Burma has been comparatively unknown to our ]>eople 
and but a vague notion of its extent and importance has 
existed in their minds. 

There is really no reason for further delay so far as the 
former are concerned, for the colYers of our Church and 
the hundreds of volunteers to foreign work forbid any 
such argument. 

The call for a " Million for Missions " has gone round 
the world and its echoes return from Burma, saying, "A 
million of souls for Jesus." 

So far as a want of knowledge of the country is con- 
cerned, we hope to remove any cause tluit lies in this 
direction, and we bespeak the sympathy and prayers of 
all the family altars and secret closets in the homeland, 
especially those who read this magazine. 

What is the present condition of Burma physically, 
politically and socially, and what are her needs.' 

Physically : Northern Burma abounds in valuable 
mines of precious stones and minerals, which are, with 
valuable teak forests, government monopolies. 

Lower Burma is fertile in the production of rice and 



many tropical fruits. In point of productiveness Burma 

far surpasses India. 

The people are a more hardy race and are capable of 
greater things as a whole than the people of India. 

The resources of the country are being rapidly de- 
veloped, and in business circles it is believed to be only 
a question of time when the Burma State Railway will be 
pushed on through China to Peking. Merchandize is 
now packed on mules for a distance of a thousand miles. 
When this is done Burma will rise higher yet in the scale 
of commercial importance. 

Great numbers of Chinese will flock into the country, 
and as the bulk of the wealth is now in their hands, the 
tendency will be to better the prospects of the people in 
creating a greater demand for the staples of life and thus 
accelerating both trade and labor. 

There is not only a very large foreign trade by the high 
seas, but an extensive home trade as well. 

The irrawady Flotilla Company, ninnaged by English" 
'men, with a stock capital (largely Chinese) of about 
^3,000,000 sterling and sixty river steamers similar to 
those on the Mississippi, valued at from §10,000 to 
$100,000 each, and with two or three new ones building 
all the time. 

With one hundred and twenty llats, which are towed 
on either side the steamers, carrying freight and often 
passengers, and thirty or forty steam launches, they do a 
stupendous business on the Irrawady and Rangoon rivers 
and their tributaries. 



Politically, Burma was never so favored as now, bar- 
g one or two exceptions. English rule in many re- 
lecls has given a great impetus to the industries and 
mmerce of the country. In an address before the last 
Annual Meeting of the Bunna Bible and Tract Society, 
Dr. Rose, of the American Baptist Mission, who has been 
in Burma for thirty years, said: 

■ ** It is a question which will long have a bearing on the 
'condition of the people, and on the evangelistic work of 

Burma: — What really is the Burmese estimate of English 

Rule? By the mass of the more intelligent and of the 

more industrious, both traders and cultivators, it is greatly 

preferred to Native Rule. 
K " For twenty years the Burmans have freely confessed 
Rhat ander the English Government there is for the most 
P^rt peace, safety, and protection; with all the personal 

liberty compatible with law and order. 
I "Taxes are heavy, but labor is high and trade good, 
■and the products of the soil command good prices, and 

the people as a rule can well afford to pay their taxes. 

Oppression and e.vtortion are reduced to the minimum. 

There are the means, the inducements, and ample safety 
L for amassing wealth. This could never be said under 

■ Burmese Government. Railways, tramways, roads, 
bridges, canals, telegraphs, postal arrangements, steam- 
boats, steam mills, etc., etc., would never have come, un- 
der Burme« Rule; nor would oppression and extortion 
have ceased under it. 

"But in the estimation of the best part of the natives 
of Burma, the introduction of opium is a heavy offset to 
the many benefits of English Rule. 

"The most moral and intelligent portion of the Bur- 
mese, Talaings, and Karens, regard it as a crime against 
their people. — a firebrand of discord and death hurled 
It every home. It is the prolific mother of idleness, pov- 
erty, disease, and misery. As a revenue measure it is, 
surely, a gross blunder. 

"And in whatever light, and from whatever stand- 
point viewed, it is a monstrous fraud on the wealth, and 
moral well-being of the Body-politic. It is deadly and 
damning everywhere; and ruined fathers and sons, and 
blighted homes are its fruits all over Lower Burma. 
This curse was unknown among the Burmans, Talaings, 
and Karens, before the coming of the English; and if 
l^lf the effort had been made to exclude opium from the 
country that was made to introduce and legalize it, it 
»ould have still been unknown." 

About the only sentiment against the opium trade and 
liquor trafllic is that of the missionaries, excepting that of 
the better class of natives. The English do not favor 
*Df crusade against these twin curses of Burma. The 
moraU of the heathen have been and are being corrupted 
by English examples and influence. The sites for dram- 
ihops in Rangoon are sold annually at auction to the 
highest bidder; some of the Chinese dramshop keepers 
have bef^n known to bid as high as ten and fifteen and 
fven twenty thousand rupees for a desirable location. 

Prostitution is licensed, and these two evils, supple- 

mented by opium, make the salvation of the English sol- 
dier as well as that of the natives seem an almost impos- 
sible thing. 

A strong sentiment prevails in England and India 
against all these agencies of sin, and it is growing. The 
time we believe is coming when they will be suppressed. 

Buddhism is not altogether without its redeeming fea- 
tures, microscopic though they be. It incites some am- 
bition for study, particularly amongst the men and boys, 
and is free from the licentious rites of Hinduism. 

Viewed only in the light of comparison the faith of 
Burma is noble and exalting. 

We have no barriers of caste to hinder us in coming to 
the people with the Gospel message. All are free and 
equal, and all willingly and even eagerly listen to the 
story of the Cross. 

In travelling on the railway and visiting native quar- 
ters of this city we find no difficulty in giving away or 
even selling large quantities of tracts. On one occasion 
they came running out of their houses to obtain a tract. 
Mrs. Thomas, a missionary at Sandoway, says; " There 
is a very general desire among the people of Burma to 
know about the Christian religion." 

Mrs. Ingalls, at Thongzai, makes the following state- 
ments concerning the hopeful prospect of the weakening 
of the Buddhist religion in its hold on the people, and the 
reception of the tidings of salvation by those who have 
read tracts and heard the preaching of the colporteur: 

" When they have gone the minds of the people have 
been so much occupied with fear and trouble, they could 
not get an ear for the message of God. In the beginning 
of the year the people were also in great perplexity about 
the Ruler of Burma, and the scales of argument were 
only used to weigh the question, ' Will the English gov- 
ern the country, or will Theebaw be put back on the 
throne?' The month of October has shown a different 
state, and our people find some who believe that the 
Buddhist religion is a false one. They have been taught 
to believe that it would flourish for a certain number of 
years, and before that term had expired, they say, ' it has 
been upset and the life will go out of it.' Some of those 
who have come to this decision have again opened their 
ears to the message of the preacher and the colporteur 
and they have had a better sale for the tracts. A few 
have lately come out and been baptized, and in some of 
these places there are a goodly number who call them- 
selves * Disciples of /aus Christ.' The system of selling 
tracts begins to commend itself to heathen as well as 
Christians, and in another year we believe we shall reap 
where we are now sowing. We have letters from Upper 
Burma telling us of some who know this way from the 
reading of tracts which they received in Lower Burma." 

In the same address quoted above Dr. Rose makes the 
following statement concerning the Poongyees and their 
influence upon the people, all of which is true : 

The priesthood looks upon the establishment of schools 
with growing apprehension. As light comes in, as educa- 
tion, knowledge, science and learning advance, the priests 



lose their power over the people. While claiming, and 
often reputed, to be learned and wise, the priests are, as a 
class, shamefully ignorant. Living in indolence, they 
encourage the boys in idle, if not indeed in vicious habits, 
Why are the Burmese men lazy, idle, and easily given to 
crime, while the women are industrious, hard working, 
2ad fairly well disposed? The boys enter the kyoungs 
It the age of from seven to ten years, and grow up with 
the priests ; the girls stay at home and work. The 
m-omen too, though not able to read, are about as intelli- 
gent as the men. The priests, while they pose as the 
educators of the people, really keep them in ignorance, 
»nd teach the men to despise work and to contract habits 
of indolence and vice." 

"1 cannot think that the present state of things is to 
continue long. The Burmese will learn wisdom from 
their own folly and crime, and soon be found in a more 
reisonable and hopeful state of mind than ever before. 
There is a deeper and wider feeling of doubt in the Bur- 
nifse mind to-day as to the truth of Buddhism than at 
»ny previous time. There will be a reaction ; the Bur- 
mese will denounce the crimes with which indamed pas- 
don for the time makes them sympathizers. They will 
see more clearly the character of their priests and the 
wickedness of their conduct. They will be more than 
erer willing to read our Scriptures and tracts, and to 
learn the great truths and facts of God's Word. The Bur- 
mese will yet see and confess the fulfilment in their own 
history, of that word — ' Thou shalt dash them in pieces 
like a potter's vessel,' ' For the nation and kingdom 
that will not ser\'e ihee shall perish ; yea, those nations 
ihiU be utterly wasted.' Happy shall it be for the Bur- 
mans, if the loss of their miserable king shall dispose 
them to look to the King of kings, — the King of grace 
jnd glory, with believing hearts and loving allegiance. If 
the loss of their earthly kingdom shall lead them to seek 
the kingdom of God and his righteousness, then their 
ftncied loss will prove infinite gain." 

At present the number of native Christians approximate 
15,000. These are chiefly Karens and are the fruits of 
the Baptist Missionary labor. 

The Burmese Christians number about 1,500. When 
these figures, the result of more than half a century of 
faithful work, are compared with the present population 
It will be seen how much remains to be done. The suc- 
cess of the coming fifty years will be vastly greater than 
Ihat of the last. 

Some most inviting fields have beeti laid open to us by 
the annexation of Upper Burma, but they must be oc- 
cupied soon or other more aggressive societies will take 
the best stations and we shall be compelled to accept the 
mlerior ones. Choice tracts of land are given by the 
Government for mission purposes ; the sooner these 
open doors are entered the better will be our chances of 
*«nring the most desirable property, for an equal chance 
'• given to all. 

The tiroes are propitious, We bespeak the attention 
^nd invite the study of the volunteers to the ranks of 

the missionary host. The climate is preferable in some 
respects to that of India. The nights here are always 
cool while in India many are compelled to sleep under a 
moving punkah and then get no relief. Beside, the cool 
months are fewer there than here. Sanitariums are within 
reach by steamer and railroad. Most of the provisions 
found at home can be had here, and there are not 
the difficulties of Caste in reaching the people, A man 
may become a Christian and in no way affect his relations 
with his friends. 

We have several important points in view, one of 
which will be certainly occupied soon, the others depend 
on the action of the Missionary Committee. We have 
confidence in their judgment and expect that the much 
needed relief for both native and English work will be 
sent us. Our Presiding Elder is about as far from us as 
Chicago is from New York, and if he were not, Singapore 
will undoubtedly and most properly be taken under the 
direct supervision of the Missionary Society. We sadly 
need a Presiding Elder whose time will admit of his 
looking after the important interests of this field. 

God has provided the power and here is the material 
to make a noble Christian people. Who will furnish the 
means and the men to accomplish the great work ? 

A dozen men would not begin to meet the present 
actual needs, notwithstanding we shall rejoice to know 
that one-third that number are coming. 

"There is a tide in the affairs of men which taken at 
its flood leads on to fortune." There is an important 
sense in which this saying aptly applies to Burma and the 
future of our Church. By the eye of faith we can see a 
flourishing Conference and a prosperous work of God in 
this land which with all the nations of the earth are des- 
tined to become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of His 
Christ, for He shall reign for ever and ever. 

While singing that grand old Missionary hymn of 
Bishop Heber's, the last stanza of which begins with 
"Waft, waft, ye winds, the story," do not do as hundreds 
and thousands have done heretofore by leaving the winds 
to do it all ; rather "come over and help us " in person 
or by your money and your earnest prayers. 

Interriews With Burmese Royalty. 


Shortly after the annexation of Upper Burma by the 
British, I was transferred from Rangoon, where 1 had 
been stationed for six years, to Northern India. Embark- 
ing with my family on the British India Steam Navigation 
Company's steamer Ethiopia, I was interested to" learn 
that we had for a fellow-passenger the dowager ex-Queen, 
Moyauk Shweyge, who, with her daughter, the Princess 
Kyouk Saney, and several attendants, was on her way to 
join her only surviving son, the expatriated Nyoung Oke 
Prince, at Calcutta. 

Queen Moyauk Shweyge was one of the superior wives 
of the Mindone King of Ava, father and predecessor of 
the lately deposed Theebaw. In common with many 

others of the court and royal family, she was placed in 
durance vile when Theebaw usurped the throne of Ava 
about nine years ago. She and the Princess were put in 
irons, but were not wholly cut off from intercourse with 
the outside world. It was at the most a restraint upon 
their liberty — a strict surveillance — through which, how- 
ever, both suffered much mental anxiety on account of 
their near relationship to the two brothers, the Nyoung 
Yan and Nyoung Oke Princes, the former of whom had 
an unquestionably better title U> the throne than Theebaw. 
Judging by the Queen's fairly well-preserved physique 
and by what transpired in conversation with her at vari- 
ous times, neither herself nor her daughter suffered much 
physical hardship. As I have said, their suffering was 
more mental than physical. The imprisoned ladies did 
not know but that at any moment the cruel fate which 
overtook so many of the unhappy palace inmates might 
overtake them. They providentially escaped, however ; 
and the Queen told me that she constantly prayed for the 
coming of the English to deliver them, and that she was 
very glad that the country had at last passed into their 

It may be remarked that, in person, Queen Moyauk 
Shweyge is above the average height of Burmese women, 
and must have been really good-looking — that is, for a 
Burraan — in the days of her young womanhood. She is 
a lady of much native dignity, which she maintains with- 
out effort and as if to the manner born. All her atten- 
dants treated her with the utmost respect, sAikoing pro- 
foundly on approaching her, and doing obeisance to her 
as if she were a queen-regnant. The Princess is by no 
means a beauty, the ravages of small-pox having deprived 
her of any that she might originally have been possessed 
of.. She appeared to be very shy, and much more reluc- 
tant than her mother to enter into conversation with for- 

On the voyage the Queen was very affable, sitting in 
the saloon betimes, a[jpearing on the quarter-deck occa- 
sionally, and watching the children play with evident 
pleasure. She was always ready to engage in conversa- 
tion. I was surprised to find her so intelligently inquisi- 
tive, remembering how secluded her life had been. She 
asked a number of questions about my vocation, home, 
family, nationality, etc. On Sunday evening she sat in 
the saloon and listened to the service of sacred sung 
which we held on the deck above. It was the first time 
in all her life that she had come in contact with the 
Christian religion. I hAd many opportunities of religious 
conversation with her, and she seemed very eager to 
learn all she could about Christianity. She was pleased 
to give me a token of her royal and personal good-will in 
the shape of an elegant silk handkerchief of many colors, 
and a perfumed gilt cigar, which I was assured had been 
made by the Princess Kyouk Saney herself. Not being 
a smoker, the quality of the cheroot has never been tested. 
I fear it would not be relished by our fastidious western 
lovers of the weed. 

The queen also showed me a jihotograph of her de- 

ceased eldest son, the Nyoung Yan Prince, which sh 
seemed to cherish with great affection. It was a carte Je 
v>site,AX\A, apparently the work of some third-rate Bengali 
artist. While writing on this point, I may mention that 
Her Majesty elicited a promise from me that I would send 
her a family photograph, she promising on her part thalj 
she would read some religious books in her own langua 
which I engaged to send her. 

Few of the European passengers will readily forget the! 
meering between the Queen and her son, the Nyoung 
Oke Prince, on the poop of the Ethiopia after arriving at 
Calcutta. The Prince, attended by a numerous and 
gayly-attired retinue of members of his household and 
servants, had come down the river in a barge convoyed 
I by a steam launch. As soon as the steamer had anchored 
the Prince caine on board. His royal mother awaited his 
approach on the after part of the saloon deck. She ros«l 
to meet him with impressive dignity, but it evidently reJ 
quired a great effort on her part to suppress the intense 
emotion of the maternal heart whi( h struggled for freo 
expression. She kissed her son with great tenderness oij| 
each cheek and on the forehead, and then affectionateljl 
drew him to the seat from which she had a moment befortf 
risen to meet him. The Prtn<e was very reverential in 
his manner and seemed to be much affected by the meet- 
ing. But all ( ould see that he was extremely ill at easd 
and tmder a restraint that, in view of the many pairs of 
European eyes intently watching the scene, was entirely 
natural. By the Queen's previously expressed wish, and 
a pleasant intimation at the moment, I had the pleasure 
of an introdurtiun to the Prince, whose manner was 
cordial, though embarrassed. He wore a rich brocaded 
white silk jacket, a bright plaid silk nether garment, and 
a simple fillet of white muslin round his head. \ 

The time to go a.shore having arrived, I bade farewell 
to the royal party ; before leaving, however, receiving a cordial invitation to call at the Prince's Calcutta 
residence, shtiuld my stay in the city allow me to do so^ 

.\ few days later 1 found my way to the large, but 
rather ill-kept, mansion on Upper Circular Road, ill 
which the Nyoung Oke Prince, by the favor of the British 
government, is domiciled. He receives, or was then in 
receipt of, an allowance of a thousand rupees per monthj 
which he com]>}ained of as being wholly inadequate-, hx 
the time of my visit I understood that he was in commu- 
nication with the Viceroy, with a view of having th6 
allowance substantially increased. On the occasion re- 
ferred to I was accompanied by two ladies, one of whom 
was an .American, the other, a resident of Rangoon, who 
fortunately spoke Burmese e.xcellently. 

The Queen and Princess received us most cordially, 
and at once entered into animated conversation about 
various matters. I will not tax my readers' patiem e by 
entering into particulars. Suffice it to say that very in4 
teresting information on several subjects was communi-^ 
cated to us. It was very difficult to realize that both of 
these ladies had been in close confinement for eighu 
years, and in unceasing anxiety as to their ultimate fati 



The Prince appeared on the scene after a short space, 
not, however, until summoned by a message from his 
mother. He was exceedingly affable and quite commu- 
nicative up to a certain point. More than once, when I 
reference was made to the meeting of the family after so 
long and eventful a separation, he warmly expressed his 
thankfulness therefor. On reminding him how happily 
situated he was, unburdened by cares of state, free from 
anxiety on account of designing courtiers, palace in- 
trigues, plots his life, etc., I ventured to add an 
inquiry as to whether he would be willing and pleased to 
return to Mandalay as the sovereign of Upper Burma, i 
In replying to this pointed, and. perhaps, too political i 
question, the Prince was noti< eably evasive and non-com- 
mittal. I relieved his embarrassment by laughingly re- 
marking : " Well, it is a nice thing to he a king : 1 don't 
know but I would like to be one myself." He smiled as 
if considerably amused. 

The NyoungOke I'rincc maintains that since his eldest 
and only brother's death, he and no other is or was the 
rightful heir to the throne of Ava. He very emphati- 
cally repudiated the pretensions of the Mingoon Prim e 
on two ground.'i : first, the latter was the son of an inferior 
wife of the late Mindoiie King ; and, secondly, the Min- 
goon Prince rebelleil against his father, thus, by the laws 
of the Buddhist religion, forfeiting forever all right to a 
share in the inheritance. Speaking of the personal a]i- 
pearance of his mother, who, though sixty years old, 
looks much younger, the Prince very frankly remarked ; 
" If you had seen my mother in her j>rime, you would 
wonder how she ever came to have such an ill-favored 
son as I." I could not but ailinirc the affectionate 
humility with which this appreciative triliuie was paitl tfi 
his mother. The Queen was not only immensely pleased 
but seemed to be much affected by it. 

Further interesting conversation that i an not be de- 
tailed took place. The Prince very kindly presented me 
with a handsome /<f//jr' (Burmese garment), a Burmese 
book in which he wrote his name and royal title, and a 
silver-mounted dagger of venerable appearance, which he 
assured me had been in the royal familj for a long 
]>eriod. He naively remarked that this was not the most 
suitable gift for Si phootigte (priest), but that if he were at 
Mandalay he would have been able to offer a more 
appropriate and acceptable one. I assured him that 
though I did not e.vpect ever to test the quality of the 
dagger, I would carefully keep it and the other presents, 
as mementoes of my ])leasant acquaintance with him. 
At the request of the American lady who had accom- 
panied me, the Prince readily furnished his autograph. 

On rising to take leave, the princess asked the lady 
from Rangoon, who had told of her intention soon to re- 
turn to that city, if she would be willing to take a letter 
for her to a friend residing there. On this the Prince 
laughingly interposed : " What a girl you are ! If you 
send it by post it will get there just as soon. You need not 
trouble the lady." Again, when the Princess seemed to 
be somewhat reluctant to shake hands with the departing 

visitors, he said : " Shake hands : it's the English custom, 
you know." The Queen was very cordial in bidding 
farewell, and kind enough to say that she woidd always 
regard me as her friend. Quite spontaneously she prom- 
ised to have her photograph taken and sent to me in my 
new Northern India home, a promise which she faithfully 
kept, 1 often think of the providential escape of the 
amiable Queen from the cruel fate visited upon scores of 
her intimate palace friends and courtiers, butchered by 
the orders of the tyrant Theebaw and his ruthless consort, 
the heartless Queen Soo-paya-lat ; and of the marvel- 
lous vicissitudes incidental to ea.stern royalty in gen- 

Dr. JudKoti And the Itiirnieso Boy. 

BV h. v.. FORBES. 

.\mong the means which iJr. Judson and his colleagues 
employed in their missionary work was the opening of 
Zayats, as the natives of Burma call places of public 
resort. In the case of the missionaries, these were some- 
times more substantial structures, but more frequently 
were tents. They were always, howe\er, on the side of 
a street — sometimes being occupied by a missionary, and 
sometimes by a native preacher. In these the sacred 
Scriptures, in the nati\e tongue, were read aloud, and 
conversation was held with such persons as chose to drop 
in for the purjjose. A good idea of Dr. Judson's work 
in the Zayat may be gained from the following narra- 

Let the reader conceive to himself tlie wayside preach- 
ing place. 'I'he sunhght falls aslant upon its fragile 
framework. In the centre of the building the missionary 
sits in a chair, haggard and worn. All day long he had 
(Hciipicd the same position, repeating over and over 
again, as he could find listeners, such simple truths as 
mothers are accustomed to teach infants on their knees ; 
and now his head aches and his heart is heavy. He bad 
been visited b) some scoffers, and some who seemed 
utterly indifferent, but not one sincere inquirer after 
truth. The mats were still invitingly spread upon the 
floor, but though persons of almost every description 
were continually passing and repassing, each seemed intent 
on his own business, and the missionary was without a 
listener. He thought of his study-table at home, of the 
books he had to read and the books he had to write. He 
xvas naturally an active man. of quick, ardent tempera- 
ment, and if it had not been from a sense of duty, and 
that, now and again, he dipped into a small book of de- 
votion which he carried in his pocket, he would have 
murmured at this loss of his precious time. His little 
book he resolutely thrust into his pocket — he must attend 
to the present duty — and he immediately began reading 
aloud a Burmese tract. The sounds caught the ear of a 
coarsely-clad water-bearer, and she lowered the vessel 
from her head, and seated herself afar off, just within 
the shadow of the low eaves. Many, however, hastened 
on. Finally the old water-bearer, with expressed de- 
rision, also left, muttering as she went, " Jesus Christ ! 

No nigban ! Ha, ha, ha ! " The missionary had sctn 
and heard the like before, hut, somehow, to-day he was 
particularly depressed and discouraged, and he was on 
the point of laying down Uie book. 

But the shadow of another passer-by fell upon the 
path, and he continued to read. He presently observed 
a tall, dignified-looking man leading by the hand a beau- 
tiful boy, whose bright eyes were in perfect keeping with 
his dancing little feel. 'Ihe gentleman — for gentleman 
he manifestly was — was nf a grave, staid demeanor, with 
a turban of aristocratic smallness, sandals turned up at 
the toes, a silken robe of somewhat subdued colors, and a 
snow-white tunic of fashionable length and unusual fine- 

" Father, father I " said the boy, with a merry 9,ki[>, 
''look, look I There is Jesus Christ's man. .\mai 1 how 
shockingly white I " 

m "Jesus Christ's man" raised his eyes from the book, 
which he could read just a.s well without his eyes as with 
them, and bestowed one of his brightest smiles uj^on the 
J boy, just as he and his father were passing beyond the 
corner of the Zayat,but not too late to catch a bashfully- 
pleased recognition. The father did not speak nor turn 
his head, but a ray of sunshine went down into the mis- 
sionary's heart, and he somehow felt that his reading that 
<ky had not been in vain. 

He had remarked this man before, and had endeavored 
10 attract his attention, but without effect. Now, every 
(Uy this tall gentleman passed by the Zayat, with his 
child. He had the same im|jeriurbable face, but every 
day the boy made some silent advance towards the friend- 
ship of the missionary, bending his half-shaven head, and 
taising his hand to his forehead, and smiling till his face 
»as dimpled all over. One day, as the two came in sight, 
the missionary beckoned with his hand, and the child, 
»ith a single bound, came to his knee. 

"Moung Moung!" exclaimed the father, in a tone of 
iurprise blended with anger. But the child was back 
"gain in a moment, with a gay-colored Madras handker- 
rhtef wound around his head; and with his blight lips 
parted, his eyes sparkling and dancing with joy, and his 
*hole face wreathed with smiles, he seemed one of the 
Jnost charming creatures in nature. 

"Tai hlah-thel" (Very beautiful!) said the child, 
touching his new turban, and looking into his father's 
clouded face with the fearlessness of an indulged favor- 

"Tai hlah-the ! " repeated the father involuntarily. He 
meant the child. 

" You have a very fine boy there, sir," said the mission- 
ir)*, in a tone intended to be conciliatory. 

The gentleman turned with a low salaam. He seemed 
to hesitate for a moment, as it struggling between his 
lutive politeness and his desire to avoid an acquaintance- 
ship «rtth the proselytizing foreigner. Then, taking the 
hand of his boy, he, hastened away. 

" I do not think that Zayat a very good place to go to, 
Moung Moung," said the father gravely, when they were 

well out of hearing. The boy answered only by a look 
of inquiry strangely serious for a face like his. 

" These white foreigners are — " He did not say what, 
but shook his head with mysterious meaning. " I shall 
leave you at home to-morrow, to keep you from their 
sorceries. " 

" Father, I think it will do no good to leave me at home, 
for the foreigner has done something to me." 

"Who.' Thekalah-byoo?" 

" I do not think he has hurl me, papa ; but I cannot — 
keep — away — no — no," 

"What do you mean, Moung Moung?" 

"The sorcerer has done something to me — put liis 
beautiful eye on me, 1 see it now." And the boy's eyes 
glowed with a strange and startling brilliancy, 

" Mai. Mai ! what a boy ! He is not a sorcerer, only a 
very provoking man. His eye — whish I it is nothing to 
my little Moung Moung. I was only jesting. But we 
will have done w ith him. You shall go there no more — " 

" If I can help it. father." 

*' Help it ! Hear the foolish child ! What strange 
fancies ! " 

"You will not be angry, father?" 

" Angry .' " The soft smile on that stern, bearded face 
was a sufficient answer. 

" Is it true that — my mother — " 

" Hush. Moung Moung I " 

"Is it true that she 'shikoed' to the Lord Jesus 

" Who dares to tell you so ? " 

" I must not say ; the one who told me said it was as 
much as life is worth to talk of such things to your son. 
Did she, father ? " 

" That is a very pretty ' goung-boung' the foreigner 
gave you." 

" Did she ? " 

" And makes your eyes brighter than ever." 

" Did my mother ' shiko' to the Lord Jesus Christ?" 

" There, there ; you have talked enough, my boy," 
said the father gloomily ; and the two continued their 
walk in silence. 

In a few minutes one of the native agents of the mis- 
sion entered the Zayat with his satchel, which was nearly 
filled with books. 

" Did you observe the tall man who has just passed, 
leading a little boy ?" asked the missionary. 

" I saw him," replied the catechist. 

" What do you know about him?" 

" He is a writer under Government, a very respectable 
man — haughty — reserved." 

" And what else?" 

" He hates Christians, sir." 

" Is he very bigoted, then?" 

" No; he is more like a Paramat than a Buddhist. Grave 
as he is, he treats sacred things sometimes playfully, al- 
ways carelessly. But does the teacher remember — it may 
be three, four, I do not know how many years ago — a 
young woman came for medicine — " 



The missionary smiled. " I sliotild have a wonderful 
memory, Shsway-hay, if 1 carried all my applicants for 
medicine in it." 

"But this one was not like other women. She had the 
face of an angel, and her voi<.e — the teai iier must re- 
member her voice — it was like the silver chimes of the 
pagoda bells at midnight. She was the wife of this Sah- 
ya, and this little boy, her only child, was very ill." 

And the Burman went on to teli lliat the medicine had 
cured the child, and that the ( jospel of Matthew, which 
the mission.ary had put into the hands of the mother, had 
proved ''medicine" for her. "Slie read it in secret," he 
continued, "and at night, but her husband, who was a 
stern persecuter. di-scovered the book and burned it. 
She was a tender creature, and could not bear his look, and 
as soon as the child got out i>f danger she took the fever." 

"And died?" 

" Not at once. Slie wanted her husband to send f<ir 
the missionary, but he would not. .\nd so she died, 
talking to the last moment of the Lord Jesus, and calling 
upon all about her to love him, and worship none but 
him. Her husband is not a hard-hearted man, and she 
was more than life and soul to him. This is her boy, her 
only child, and his father delights in him for his mother's 
sake. A wonderful boy, sir; he must have caught some- 
thing from his mother's face just before she went \\\> to 
the golden country." 

Several days passed, and the missionary remarked that 
the Sah-ya went by on the other side of the way, and 
without the little boy. He began to despond; but, after 
a very few days, when the ciiild was much in his thoughts, 
the boy sprang up the steps of the Zayat, accompanied by 
his father. Much to Dr. Judson's surprise, the father 
said, "Sit down, Moung Moung, sit down;" and address- 
ing the missionary, observed, " Vou are the foreign 
priest?" To which the re]>ly was made. "I am a mis- 
sionary." k long and interesting lonversation ensued, 
in the course of which the gentleman requested the mis- 
sionary to teach his child about the Lord Jesus Christ, at 
the same time avowing himself a " true and faithful wor- 
shipper of Lord tjuatama. But," he continued, "noth- 
ing can harm little Moung .Moung, .sir." 

The child by-and-by sprang forward and said, " Father, 
father, let us hear him. Let us both love the Lord Jesus 
Chris. My mother loved him, and in the golden country 
of the blessed she waits for us." 

"I must go," said the .Sali-ya hoarsely. 

"Let us pray," said the missionary, and the child re\ - 
erently prostrated hiitjself beside the teacher, while the 
father respectfully reseated himself on the mat and looked 
on. Ever after the .Sah-ya courteously saluted the mis- 
sionary as he passed, and the boy, with a tender, trustful 
affection, frequently looked in at the Zayat for a kind 
word or two or a look. 

Ere long cholera, that terrible scourge of the East, had 
made its appearance. The Zayat was closed for lack of 
visitors, and the missionary and his assistants busied 
thcmselve.'i in attending to the sick and the dying. 

One night about midnight the assistant inforrae 

missionary that he was wanted at the S.ih-ya's, ant 
went together, the Hurman remaining outside, for^ 
sake, under the shadow of a bamboo hedge. I 

No one seemed to observe the entrance of the fon 
and he followed a wild and wailing sound, which tej 
that death was already there, until he stood by thfl 
of a little boy. Then he |)aused in deep emotion. 

" He has gone to the golden country to bloom fc 
amid the royal lilies of Paradise," murmured ■ 
close to his ear. He was startled, and, turning 
saw that a middle-aged woman was the only pcrsoi 
him. She was a secret disciple, and had been the 
of the boy's deceased mother. She told the m 
that her master had not dared to bum the sacred 
Indeed he had frequently read it. She had read it 
and again to the chiUl, who had died full of Christi. 

Judson proceeded to another apartment, and 
there the noble figure of the Sah-ya, stretched v 
couch in the last stage of the fearful disease. By ' 
testing his consciousness, he remarked to the si 
" It grieves me to meet you thus, my friend." H 
stiffening lips stirred, but they could convey no 
He then made an effort to point to .something, but 
not. Finally he succeeded in laying his two han 
gcther and raised them to his The miss 
was uncertain for whom the act of worship was int 
and inquired, " r>o you trust in Lord Guatama at 
meiit like this?" There was a quick tremor in th 
eyelids, and the poor Sah-ya looked at his visitor v 
expression of disappointment and pain, and the m 
ary prayed, " Lord Jesus, receive his spirit." A 
joyous smile Flitted across the face of the dying rr 
pointed upwards, with a sigh-like breath, his boso 
tered, and he had gone to join his loved ones wl' 
departed before him. — Selected. S 

MethiMlist lipiscojMil i'liureli in Kaiigo 

The eighth annual meeting of the Rangoon Met 
Episcopal Church was held Dec. 8, lisSy. The 
Rev. S. P. Long, reported 92 members and 15 prol 
ers. The Sabbaih-school has 250 names on the n 
has been under the siqierintendence of Rev. R. W. 
son. The congregations are large and nearly ever 
during the year there were conversions. Last \ 
Methodist Episcopal Home for (trphan .^nd De 
cliildren was founded. 

A Methodist Seamens' Mission has been main 
with Gospel Meetings five evenings in every wee 
the Reading and Refreshment Rooms connected ' 
have been well attended. ■ 

The Missionary Society connected with the Chfl 
been supporting missions among the Telugus and 1 
and they report among the Tamils 15 full membe 
27 probationers, and among the Telugus 21 full mt 
and 13 probationers. Day-schools and Sabbath-s 
have also been regularly held. 

The Rev, R. E, Cully, Superintendent of the Telugu 
work, reported last October: 

" Though there has been no considerable increase in 
numbers over that of last year in the membership, which 
stood at 26, the members give evidence of a firmer faith, 
a more consistent life, and a more regular attendance on 
the means of grace. The Sabbath services at noon have 
been regularly maintained, the attendance ranging from 
20 to 25 persons. 

" Four persons who had been on probation from six to 
eight months were baptized during the year. Three of 
these were fruit of direct aggressive efTort, while the 
others were unbaptized adherents of Churches in India 
who preferred to unite themselves with us. The Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Sup|>er was regularly administered on 
the first Sunday of each month, and proved seasons of 
much spiritual refreshment, especially so on the last oc- 
casion, when there were 21 communicants including the 
Taniil members. Except during the wet weather, class 
meetings have also been held on Wednesdays and have 
been particularly helpful to probationers. 

" For the special benefit of the children of the Telugu 
people in this city an Anglo-Vernacular school was 
opened in July, 1886, the object of the Institution being 
to impart, through the medium of their own tongue, a 
practical knowledge of English as well as a sound Ver- 
nacular education on Christian principles. At first a 
room on the ground floor of the barrack nearly opposite 
this chapel was hired and the school started with seven 
scholars. At the close of the year there were 25, when 
it became necessary to take up better accommodation on 
the upper floor of the same building. Since then the 
number of pupils rose to 47." 

At the annual meeting last October, Mr. Ezra Peters 
Superintendent of the Tamil work, reported for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1887: 

" Every Sabbath, at noon, a preaching service has been 
held in the Methodist Episcopal Church during the year. 
The attendance has been encouraging. Sometimes the 
heathen friends of our converts have attended these ser- 
vices. There, has also been a meeting for prayer and 
fellowship held on Wednesday evenings, which have been 
a source of great blessing to the leader and the people. 

" The direct way in which the great masses of (he 
heathen are reached is by means of open-air meetings, 
which are held four times in the week during the dry sea- 
son and as often as the weather permits in the wet season. 
These meetings have been very interesting and hopeful. 
We rejoice in the fact that the Gospel has been preached 
to very large and attentive audiences of all classes and 

" We have had the joy of seeing three adults coming to 
seek the Lord Jesus from these audiences. They have 
been duly baptized and are now happy in the Lord, and 
continue to give evidence of their conversion. Several 
hundreds of leaflets in the Vernaculars have been freely 
distributed and cheerfully accepted. Sometimes, when 
we had none to give away, the people seemed sad and 

disappointed. Of late we have commenced to sell tracts 
after these meetings. 

" We have had, besides these three, four others brought 
to the knowledge of the Lord Jesus and His salvation." 

American Baptist Missions in Burma. 

The American Baptist Missionary Union, at their last 
annual meeting, reported that they had in Burma 15 sta- 
tions, 521 out-stations, 107 missionaries, of whom 56 
were men, 67 women, and 3 physicians. These were 
aided by 513 native preachers, 17 Bible women, and 51 
other native helpers. There were 510 churches, of which 
310 were self-supporting. The members numbered 
26,574. The Sunday-schools numbered 13S with 9,940 
pupils. There were 371 day-schools with 10,520 pupils. 
181 of the schools were self-supporting. In 1886 the 
contributions amounted to SjS-^pS. 

The work is divided into five missions. The Burmese 
Mission employs 43 missionaries atid has rS churches 
and 1.596 members. The Karen Mission employs 49 
missionaries and has 477 churches and 24.079 members. 
The Shan Mission has 9 missionaries, 2 churches and 53 
members. The Kachin Mission has 2 missionaries, 3 
churches and 37 members. The Chin Mission has 2 
missionaries, 9 churches and 205 members. 

The Karen Theological Seminary at Rangoon has had 
about 50 students, and the Rangoon Baptist College 100 
students. In the Medical Mission there were 957 dis- 
pensary patients and 41 hospital patients. In addition 
1,071 professional visits were made in 1886. 

At the Annua! Meeting of the Union last May the 
Committee on Missions in Burma reported: 

"Of our present work in Burma, we may say that the 
combined reports of our missionaries themselves afford 
encouragement to the givers and workers at home, in the 
steadily increasing number and in the increasingly effi- 
cient quality of our native ministry; in the enlarged na- 
tive support of their own churches, ministers, and schools; 
in the abandonment by native Christians and their fami- 
lies of filthy and degrading habits; in the enlarged pay- 
ment of school expenses in village and station schools, 
together with improved grading of mission-schools; in 
the striking superiority of native women trained in cur I 
schools over the heathen women; and in the delightful 
fact that the valuable medical mission-work of Dr. Ellen 
Mitchell in Maulmain was wholly self-supporting during 
the )'ear, the receipts having been sufficient to meet all 
expenditures, including even the salary of our medical 
missionary herself. 

"The reports of our village station- schools thoroughly 
establish the importance of our Christian educational 
work, both for males and females, and disclose a gratify- 
ing recognition of the fact, that, alike in the school and 
in the meeting-house, by the wayside and in the native 
home, the chief business of our missionaries is to bring 
the heathen of Burma to a full and joyous obedience to 
our Lord Jesus Christ. 

"Our work among the rapidly increasing and inHuen- 

tial Eurasian, Telugu and Tamil jjoijulations of Burma 
demands further encouragement and support from Bap- 
tists in this country. 

"While, therefore, our present work in Burma affords 
gratifying encouragement,, that work is, nevertheless, in 
imminent peril of being greatly weakened and retarded if 
not re-enforced at once. 

" As to new work, the immediate need of new stations 
and enlarged work is perhaos even more imperative than 
the re enforcement of the old work. For years we have 
proclaimed the strategical importance of Upper Burma, 
and our works have followed our prayers. Even while 
it was yet under the monster Theebaw, and other de- 
nominations would not touch the work, your missionaries, 
despite more than usual personal danger and self-sacri- 
fice, and after more than usual cost, firmly established a 
mission station at Bhamo, the head of Irrawaddy naviga- 
tion, and the only possible distributing point for the vast 
trade and travel of the Upper Irrawaddy valley, South- 
western China, and Southern Thibet. Since the days of 
Judson, your missionaries have considered the Irrawaddy 
valley the natural apjiroach not only to the heart of 
Burma, but to the vast populations of Southwestern 
China, the unreached populations between Burma and 
Assam, and the wailing ]>eople of Southern Thibet. 

" To-day all Burma is open. All can recall the marked 
providences which led the American Baptists to Burma. 
None need be ashamed of our record there. If others 
reproach us with the neglect of our great and special ob- 
ligations and privileges, and decline longer to consider 
Burma exclusively Baptist ground, and threaten to sup- 
plant us as unworthy, we ourselves must determine 
whether we shall now be last where we have so long been 
first; whether we ourselves shall complete the building 
we have begun, or allow more faithful workers to build 
on our own foundaiions. To him that overcometh is 
promised the victory. The work in Burma is not for a 
day, but for ages; it is not for single individuals, but for 
whole races; it is not fishing with a hook, but with a net. 
They who have choice of ])osilions in this new work will 
save the years of labor and the thousands of dollars which 
ihey must expend who come last, and must take the in- 
ferior and less accessible stations." 

Missions other than Baptist in Burma. 

The Rev. J. N. Cushing, L). D.,of the American Ba[>tist 
Mission in Burma, wrote from Rangoon last .-lugust to The 
Standard us follows; 

It is not perhaps generally known how many Christian 
bodies have already engaged in missionary work in Burma. 
Time was when the Roman Catholics and the American 
Baptists were the only representatives of Christianity in 
this heathen land. The Roman Catholics were the first- 
comers by more than two hundred years, but they had 
no success in proselyting the natives until Dr. Bigaudet, 
the present bishop, was appointed to the charge of their 
missions. Under his exceedingly wise and efficient 
administration the Roman Catholic church has become a 

power in Burma and reports about ten thousand Barman 
and Karen adherents. Its success has been due largely 
to its schools. To the natives of this country Mariolatry 
and some of the other tenets of Romanism are distaste- 
ful. In consequence of this there* were very few converts 
until the schools established years ago by Bishop Bigaudet 
had had the oiiportunity nf thoroughly educating orphan 
and other children in the Roman Catholic faith. As soon 
as these youth arrived at mature age, the bishop found 
himself possessed of a most valuable and successful hodv 
of workers. 

From that day Romanism has made steady progress. 
Its largest missions are among the Pwo Karens of the 
Delta and the Bghai Karens of the Toungoo mountains. 
Large convents and schools are found in all the principal 
cities. In Rangoon alone there are three native churches 
besides theCathedral and Cantonment church for English- 
speaking people. There are several boys' schools, of 
which St. Paul's has more than five hundred pupils, and 
two large convents with girls* schools attached. St, Paul'tv 
school, with its spacious new buildings, and St.. Joseph's 
convent occupy two squares of the most valuable land in 
the city, while the other convent has extensive buildings 
opposite the Horticultural Cardens. All this has been 
accomplished since the Lon<iuest of Rangoon in the second 
Burman war, by means of the broad plans, wise foresight 
and strong administration of Bishop Bigaudet. 

About twenty-five years ago the London Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts established 
its first mission in Burma at Maulmain. This society 
represents the ultra High church and Romanizing party 
of the Anglican communion. The intense proselyting 
spirit by which it is animated was well embodied in the 
words of an address by one of its missionaries, Rev. Mr. 
Trew, made before the Burma Bii)le and Tract Society: 
*'The Baptists have done welt as pioneers, but we have 
come to teach the native Christians church order." It 
has shown the same willingness to intrude into the Baptist 
mission fields of this country and draw all disaffected or 
disciplined native Christians to itself as in Chota, Nagpur 
and Madagascar. Its interference in the troubles among 
the Toungoo Karen churches in 1871, by which, with the 
help of M^s. Mason, of "good-language" notoriety, it 
secured control of about two thousand Baptist church- 
members, is a good illustration of its s|)iril and deeds. In 
spite of the efforts of Dr. Mason and the protests of the 
Baptist missionaries, and in face of the public acknow- 
ledgment of the S. P. G. missionary, Rev. Mr. Trew, after 
a long tour of inspection among the disaffected churches, 
that the Karens knew nothing about the Church of Eng- 
land, and if let alone would return to their .\merican 
teachers, the S. P, G. persisted in its interference until it 
was able to gain control of a large body of Christians. 
In consequence of its peculiar policy, the S. P. G, has 
hitherto, for the most part, established its missions at 
stations occupied by the Baptists and placed its churches 
and schools alongside theirs. 

The S. P. G. has strong missions in Maulmain, Rangoon, 

Toungoo and Mandalay, besides schools in several other 
places. Under the fostering care of the Bishop of 
Rangoon its stations are always kept well manned. There 
are two male missionaries at both Mauliuain and Man- 
dalay, and three at Rangoon and also at Toungoo. 
Maulmain has a fine church and large school. .\t Rangoon 
there are three Burman congregations, one in the Puzun- 
doung quarter, where there was once a native Baptist 
church, one in the Alone quarter and one in the Keinen- 
dine quarter. St. Michael's, Keraendine, has been built 
up largely of material which was the result of Baptist 
evangelistic effort that would probably have been saved 
had a Baptist church been formed at Keniendine before 
the establishment of St. Michael's. The S. P. G. theol- 
ogical school for the training of Burmans and Karens for 
the Anglican priesthood is at Kemendine. St. John's 
College at Alone, planted alongside the Baptist College 
and -the Karen Theological Seminary, has about six 
hundred pupils, a staff of European teachers, and is one 
of the foremost educational institutions in the country. 

After the capture of Mandalay in 1885, the S. P. G. 
regained possession of the fine church, clergy-house and 
school-buildings built for that mission by King Mindoon, 
after his repeated offers to .'Vmerican Baptists had been 
declined by them. Possession of this property, with tlie 
]»restige of once having had royal patronage, immediately 
placed S. P. G. in a most advantageous position, which 
has been improved to the utmost by the energetic Brothers 
Colbeck. These brothers are already preparing to open 
branch missions at Madera and Sagaing by the purchase 
of land at these places. Next autumn will see a number 
of new stations in Upper Burma occtijned by S. P. G. 
Dr. Sutton has been assigned to Shway Bo, but his 
departure is delayed a few months until the arrival of 
new men; for the Bishop, with his accustomed wisdom 
and executive ability, never denudes old stations of their 
workers to open new ones. As an instance of this, 
Rangoon has a permanent force of three Burman mission- 
aries where the American Baptist Missionary Union has 
only one man, advanced in years. 

The Presbyterian church in Rangoon was established 
in 187 1 for the numerous Scotch residents of the city. It 
has a self-supporting congregation with a church edifice 
and manse which cost not far from Rs. 50,000, The 
London Presbytery supplies the church with a mini.ster 
imd exercises great care in the selection of a man of cul- 
ture and power. Within a couple of years this church 
has turned its attention to the Chinese population of the 
city, and has a mission with about forty adherents already. 

Eight or nine years after the establishment of the 
Presbyterian Church, dissatisfaction arose in the English- 
speaking Baptist congregation on account of the refusal 
of those in charge of it to allow the church to have a 
pastor of its own, although between 400 and 500 rupees 
a month had been subscribed for that purpose. Con- 
sequently several of the principal subscribers, athough 
they were not Methodists, invited Rev. Dr. Thoburn, of 
Calcutta, to establish a M. E. church. The invitation 

was acted on without delay, and a year later the most 
energetic and successful Methodist minister in India after 
Dr. Thoburn, was appointed to take charge of the new 
interest. A goodly part of the Baptist congregation was 
drawn into it and so skillfully, were its finances managed 
that in a short time it became self-supporting. Under 
enterprising leadership, backed by strong sympathy and 
financial help from the Methodist missionary authorities 
in America, the Methodists have made constant progress, 
until now they have a large self-supporting Girls' School 
with a fine building, an Eura.sian Children's Home, a Sea- 
man's Rest and a Tamil and Telugu church. They have 
a missionary at Toungoo also. Early this year a man 
and his wife arrived to study Burman, preparatory to 
opening a Burman mission, which shall be the first of 
several missions to be established in the country. 

As many of the Tamil converts of the Leipsic Lutheran 
mission in India had emigrated to Burma, Rev. Mr. 
Mayer, a Lutheran missionary, came from India about 
ten years ago to care for them. A church was built and 
a school established. Mr. Mayer urged successively the 
establishment of Lutheran missions to the Burmans and 
to the Khyens, but after mature consideration the Luth- 
eran society declined to enter either field or work. 
.About a year ago Rev. Mr. Mayer was withdrawn and 
his place supplied by an ordained Tamil minister from 
the Madras Presidency. It is probable that this society 
will henceforth confine itself to Telugu and Tamil work. 

In 1S84 *^*o Danish Lutheran missionaries arrived in 
Rangoon. These men had read of the success of the 
Baptists among the Karens of Burma and were filled with 
enthu.siasm. Finding that, although the A. B. M. Union 
had twice appointed missionaries to the Red Karens none 
had ever gone to live among them, they determined to 
become missionaries to the Red Karens and work on a 
plan similar to that pursued by the Norwegian mission- 
aries among the Santhals of India. Accordingly they 
came out independent of any missionary society.iooking for 
support to the aid of friends and their own manual labor. 
It was supposed that these men were evangelical, but 
they proved to be Lutherans of a high sacramentarian 
type. They showed a most sacrificing spirit in plunging 
into the wilds of Karennee to carry out the true mission- 
ary idea of living among the people for whom they sought 
to labor. One of them succumbed to the hardships of 
his life, aggravated by undue personal labor which few 
white men can stand in a tropical climate. At the close of 
last year the survivor was reinforced by the arrival of 
his sister and a Danish man and his wife, who had spent 
some time in Michigan. These men have a fine position 
to extend their work far into the yet purely heathen 

The last society which has made its advent in Burma 
is the English Wesleyan. Attracted by the opening of 
Upper Burma through Wesleyan chaplains connected with 
the English army, and convinced by the past policy of the 
A. B. M. Union that it would not occupy U])per Burma 
with any adequate force, it took steps to establish a mis- 


Ion there. In pursuance of this object, letters were sent by 
Wesleyan missionary in Ceylon to Baptist missionaries 
n Rangoon, inquiring how they would regard the estab- | 
isliment of a Wesleyan mission in Upper Burma. These 
)rethren replied that they should prefer to be left to work 
he field themselves on account of the great differences 
if practice between VVesleyans and Baptists, but referred I 
he gentlemen to the Executive Committee at Boston as 
ihc only body which had authority to speak in the matter. 
K''ithout waiting to consult with Baptists any further, the | 
issionary broke up his home, arranged for his family to j 
follow him in due time, and with another Wesleyan mis- 
lionary as a temporary adviser, came to Burma and 
established himself in Mandalay with the purpose of 
opening a school as well as of doing evangelistic work. 
With great sang froid he requested some of our Baptist 
missionaries to supply him with Biirman catechists, — a i 
request which he deemed (ierfectly proper, for, as he j 
explained himself, he could see no hindrance to our i 
converts coming to him. This coming cold season, 
another family will join him at Mandalay, to be followed 
by other families, which will open missions at other 

Vet another mission is proposed. A Methodist mission- 
iry who had been working in Western China intends to 
open a mission among the Kakhyens near Magoung next 
i:old seaison, or as soon after as possible. The mission 
will not be under the ausjiices of any society. 

I have said nothing about the China Inland mission, 
established at Bhamo in 1875. It has confined itself 
thus far to Chinese work with very few results. Whether 
it* missionary at Bhamo intends to begin a mission among 
the Kakhyens. whose language he is studying, I cannot 

It is a fact worth noting that the principal reason 
publicly given by most of these societies for their presence 
Id Burma is, that the American Baptist Missionary Union 
tis not been doing, is not doing, and will not do what is 
necessary for the evangelization of this country. What- 
ever we may think of this reason, as jiertaining to a 
country of not more than 8.000,000 inhabitants when com- 
pared to China and India with their hundreds of millions, 
the reason has been acted upon vigorously. Perha])S 
Ihc hope of making use of Baptist material and building 

PUon Baptist foundations has had inlluence. Still, if 
Hitists either could not or would not take advantage of 
tneir grand opportunities, we cannot altogether complain. 
God's work must be done, and if one servant of his does 
not meet his requirements, he sends another. We have 
tertainly neglected this field, which was peculiarly ours, 
until other denominations have relieved us of longer sole 
responsibility While our converts, schools and 
other mission interests have increased many-fold and 
new fields have opened on every hand, the number of our 
male missionaries upon whom falls the principal labor of 
evangelization, has remained stationary for years. Glad 
IS the Baptist missionaries in Burma would have been to 
have been able, by proper reinforcements from home, to 

retain the control of the evangelization of this country, 
bequeathed to them by the fathers, they ran do so no 
longer. Burma has ceased tn be a peculiarly Baptist field. 
Our great effort now must be to conserve what we have 
got and continue to be the leading evangelistic body in 
this country. This, however, we shall be unable to do 
unless our reinforcements are jjroportionate to the large 
number of men which some of the Ta:dobaptist mission- 
ary societies plan to send to this country. We still have 
grand possibilities in Burma, but we must have mission- 
aries to plan and lead in the rapidly developing mission 
work of this country. 

Upper Burma as a Mission Fi^ld. 


Upper Burma — Extent, Boundaries, b't'. — Upjier Bur- 
ma has no sea coast, but is an entirely inland country, 
wedged in between India on the west, and China on the 
east; the old British Burma Provinces constitute its 
southern boundary, but in the north it extends indefi- 
nitely into a region yet unknown, where geographical 
and ethnological problems of groat interest and value arc 
still to be solved. 

The extent is, roughly speaking, 200,000 square miles, 
of which 100,000 belong to the Shan States, which lie 
chiefly to the east of Burma proper, and impinge upon 
the Chinese frontier. These States have never been morej 
than nominally subject to the rulers of Burma, and it is 
at all events the present policy of our Government to 
make them " friendly allies " rather than " dependent 

The Character of the Country. — There is one splendid, 
wide and fertile valley, running north and south, about 
800 miles long, through which flows the majestic Irra- 
waddy, the river of the country. A similar valley, but 
shorter, lies parallel on the west, watered by the Chind- 
win, which rises in the south-eastern spurs of the Hima- 
layas. On the other side, to the south-east of Mandalay. 
are a number of smaller and more irregular valleys, where 
are the upper courses of the Pounloung or Sittang, the 
Me Pon, and the Salwecn. Bhamo, the most northerly 
town of importance, is on the Irrawaddy, three days' 
journey from the western Chinese frontier (Yunan Prov- 
ince), 210 miles north of Mandalay, and 680 miles by 
river from Rangoon. 

In the fertile valley of the Irrawaddy, the Burmese 
race has from time immemorial had its seal; but trust- 
worthy, historical memorials are scanty till we come upon 
1 Aloungpaya,the hunter-king.and founder of the dynasty of 
' which ex-king Theebaw is the last monarch. Aloungpaya 
was a patriot usurper who, in 1751, drove out the Talenis 
or Peguans who had subjugated the kingdom of tAva, and 
taken its king away to Pegu, where he was shortly after- 
wards put to death. Moshobo or Shwebo, under the 
classical name of Rutinathenga, was made the capital 
city, and so remained until the death of .Aloungpaya, in 

The wealth of the country may be imagined when it i» 

known that since 1751 it has not merely had to bear wars, 
bad government, loss of province after province, and the 
building of 1 00,000 unproductive pagodas, but also the 
change of capital from Shwebo to Sagaing, Sagaing to 
Ava, to and fro between Ava and Anierapoora, and last 
of all 10 Mandalay, in 1857. Each change meant, not 
merely the transfer of the court and palace, but the com- 
pulsory removal of the whole population, the old city 
being razed to the ground. Mandalay, a city of thirty 
years, has a population of 175,000. 

Population. — The whole country is very thinly peopled. 
The Burmese race cling to the valleys of the Irrawaddy 
and Chindwin, leaving the rugged mountain country in 
the north for the Chins, Kachyens, and kindred tribes, 
and the hills and valleys of the east as the undisputed 
home of the Shan and Shan-Chinese family. 

No estimate has been officially made since the annex- 
ation, and no census was taken under the Burmese Gov- 
ernment, but the following is believed to be a fair ap- 

rtina, Kuchyens, <fcc. 200,000 \ ""'fe'"'^'"- 

The Kings of Burma reckoned their military and polict 
force at 40,000 men, and obtained this number by levy- 
ing ten men from every hundred houses. This, at the 
rate of five persons to a house, would represent a Bur- 
inese population of 2,000,000. Levies were not made in 
Shanland, and were impossible among the wild hill tribes. 
There would be large exempt classes to bring up the 
numbers to the total given above. If this should appear 
a small number for such a vast extent of country, it must 
be remfiiibcrcd that the number of large cities and towns 
is very small. After Mandalay. the following are the 
chief centres of population: 
(t) Mjingyan, 20,000, with a large rural population within 
easy distance; on the Irrawfiddy, ninety miles south of 
(8) Sagning. 7.000, ia a corn (wheal) produciug district; on 

the Irrawaddy, &ixte<;o miles south oF Mandalaj. 
(8) Eyouks^, 6,000, but with couliguoua villages 16,000; 
thirty miles ariuih of Mandalay, on the new railway. 

(4) Shwebo, 5,C00, with 10,000 more in a five mile radius; 

seventy miles north of Mandalay. 

(5) Bliamo. 3,000, fixed populaliuu, but the centre of trade 

and exchange for many tribes round about. 
Language and Religion. — The [>rcvailing language is, of 
course, Burmese, a monosyllabic agglutinative language 
akin to Chinese, and utterly unlike Indo-European lan- 
guages, and chiefly requiring accuracy of ear and strength 
t of memory for its acr^uisition. As being the court lan- 
guage, Burmese is widely known even among tht- Shans. 
The literature of the country is very extensive, but chiefly 
confined to translations of Pali works. Buddhistic, 
philosophical, and historical. \'ery few original works 
have been brought out of late, and that few of a very in- 
ferior order. The Burman is essentially imitative, not 

* The pnpiilalioD of Up|>er Burma U givra with all roierrs, eapedally 
that or Lhe Stiau 8i&t«s, but beat efforu bmv« been made to ttx correct lo- 


creative. Education, such as it is, is widely diffused 
through the length and breadth of the land, and dialectic 
differences are few and unimpurtant. 

The Shans have their iiwn language, which is siill more 
akin to the Chinese ; but, as they are Buddhists, they have 
doubtless received whatever they have of culture, as well 
as religion, from the Burmans. The better class of Shan* 
all know Burmese, and monastic education in Shanland 
is chiefly in Burmese : nevertheless, for the thousands of 
Shans who do not speak or read Burmese, the "Tripi- 
taka," " Bi-ta-gat-thon-bon," or Buddhist Scriptures have _ 
been translated into Shan. Other than this sacred and I 
historical translated literature there is a curious an<l 
motley collection of fables, songs, and folk-lore in the 
vernacular, written and unwritten, to repay the efforts of 
the scholar's jjatient research. 

The Chins and Kachyens, antl a whole host of barbarous 
tribes in the north and northwest, are untouched by Bur- 
mese influence, and have never been brought under re- 
straint. They have no written language, and retain their 
own aboriginal demon-worship and propitiatory animal 
sar ri fi cfs. 

It will he seen, therefore, that it is the Burmese race 
which must be the objective of our attack, and if the vital- 
ity of Buddhism in Upper Burma were equal to its uni- 
versality and completeness of organization, we might well 
despair of success. 

Religion.* — The following figures were supplied to the 
present writer 1)\ the " Tha-tha-na-baing"=Ruler of Re- 
iigion=the head of the Buddhist faith in Burma, 

In a report of forty-five jiagesof fool.scajj, bearing both 
title and seal of the Tha-tha-na-baing, as guarantees of 
its official accuracy, the ecclesiastical divisions of the 
country are shown, and the mandates for appointing to 
various offices are given. 

There are in the city and »ut>urbs of Mandalay [AuguM, 
1887] : 

(1) The Thu-thtt-na-baiag, or Buddhist Pope 1 

(2) The " Sadiiws," i.e. Hoyul jireccptore or eliaplnins, 
appointed by Buyal inaudiitc, and generally at the 
head of monastic comtnunitie.t 7ft 

(3) The "Bahans," or Pon-gyis, » c monks of over ten 
years' standing 3,447 

(4) The "Tha-mn-nes," or U-pa-zias and Ku-yius — i.e. 
monks under ten years 2,444 

Total ecclesiastics for Mandalay 5, 968^ 

These are divided into 121 "talks," i.e. communities or 
congregations, living in one precinct, and occupy no less 
than 985 monastic houses. [N. B. The original intention 
of Gaudama was that the " Rahan " should live alone. 
Mandalay numbers give an average of six to a house 
country monasteries average only two or three.] 

.As we have estimated the population of Mandalay at 
175,000, there is one monk to thirty people. King Min- 

*The UunniinH are Ru<1illil»t<<. but tliJsrelfKion is erideutly only ■■eoood. 
whicb tia8 come h< a varnlHh oter tticir atwrlglnal deraooolalry. Propftia- 
tory offerinRti are mnde ilnily to avert the anicer of Bprltes, who own erery 
tre«, hill, and dale, and Inhabit OTery cave, well, aud rWer. It U nu«, how- 
ever, for these to be " bloody " offeriogx. 


dohn, Theebaw's father, a most zealous Buddhist, used to 
boast that in his capital he had 120,000 people and 20,000 
monks. If so. there has been a great decrease since his ' 
days — the golden age of modern Buddhism. This is, 
however, likely enough, for the old king's practice was to | 
choose a " Sadaw " or chaplain for each of his queens 
and daughters, and these royal ladies were held responsi- I 
ble that the wants of their "Sadaw's" monastery or com- , 
miinity were well provided for. In Theebaw's days the 
lady-patrons lost their property and position, and were 
no longer able to continue their pious duties. Many of 
the monastic buildings were used as barracks for our 
troops during 1885 and 1886 ; and now, not only are many 
of the smaller buildings deserted and in ruin, but the 
larger societies, which once numbered 400 to 800 brethren, 
can count only 50 to 250. 

The capital naturally feels more acutely than the pro- 
vinces the change of regime, and the evil days of Thee- 
baw's reign gave no time to prepare for the heavier blow^ 
of disestablishment. 

Turn now to the country. 

Apart from the capital, which was not only the royal 
city, but also the ecclesiastical centre and the seat of learn- 
ing, and leaving out the Shan States, which are at present 
too disturbed to furnish returns, the Tha-tha-na-baing's 
report gives the following numbers of "dignified" 
clergy: — 

Thatha-na-baing or Pope [as before] 1 

Ounf|;-chokes or Archbishops 18 

6»ing-okes or Bishops 133 

Oting-douks or Archdeacons 388 

KyotlDg^-a chokes or Abbots, rulers over siagle monas- 

"tericB 16,825 

Add the rulera of the Mandala; moDasteries 085 

Total 18.840 

This huge number represents what may be called the 
'"beneficed" clergy, i.e. such as are in actual possession 
of a house with religious supporters. There is hardly a 
village or even a hamlet throughout Burma which has not 
its pretty, well-built monastery in some retired nook, where 
the " Pon-gyi" passes his days in meditation and the 
study of the law; where the placid-faced images of 
Gaudama stand, before which the pious Buddhist breathes 
forth his aspirations for " Neibban" [Nirvana]; and where 
the youngsters, in the course of two or three " Lents." 
get through their sjielling book and first catechism.* 

In lyower Burma, a population of 31736,77 1 is dispersed 
JD 16,583 towns and villages; so that for its Burmese 
population of two-and-a-half millions, Upper Burma may 
well give a beneficed monk to each village, and yet have 
to spare for great ecclesiastical centres. 

But besides the " beneficed" there are the *' unbene- 

*E<JiM:ation in Upper Burma meAOs only readliiK and wrtclnif. Aiithmi'tic 
It pnictlcailf a rorblddenacienco lu the mona8ter)r;beDcethe wild liiipofwlhle 
■mmbrrs and chronology of Biinneae records. Id ouUJde town*, education 
li>l« *t<r7lo« ebb iDd«««l , and uowliere luu: tbe wrUerae«na well conducted 
uhI vell-at(«(ided nionoUlc school. 

ficed," i.e. the Ko-yins, U-pa-xins, or Tha-ma-nes — the 

: junior members of the order of the yellow robe, who 

' daily go forth with the mendicant's bowl, and help in the 

routine of the monastery under their house superior, 

I They have no right of residence, and can be told to leave 

at any time. The average of inmates of city monasteries 

I was six; that for the country is about three; so that 

, 18,340x3, or say in round numbers 55,000, will represent 

the Buddhist " religious" in Upper Burma proper. 

Popular reports used to put the whole body at 100,000, 

but this was probably only a guess, and included the 

Shan country as well. 

There are a few " Me-thi-la-yins," or nuns, here and 
there: but they are not held in high repute, nor have they 
any practical influence in religion or education. 

In the face of this host, Burma Missionaries have 
indeed need of faith. Humanly speaking, it would be 
impossible to dislodge the national religion; but we know 
we are in the army of the living God, fighting under the 
victorious banner of His Son. strengthened and guided 
by the Divine Spirit, so that our love and labor will not 
be in vain. 

What are the strong points in the walls and ramparts 
of Buddhism? 

(1) It ia the ancestral religion, and has all but universal sway. 
No Dhsenters. 

(2) All the boys and young men at some time wear the robe, 
and live in the monastery. 

(3) The women are more devout Buddhists thaji the men. 

(4) It is the one honrt of national life. 

(5) S(!tence, art, knowledge, are all saturated with Buddhism, 
(fl) The coercive power given to the religion by its union with 

court and crown. 

[N.B. — This last is no longer a fact, but is put in to 
show the normal condition till now.] 

The writer has had friendly and familiar relations with 
prince and peasant — Tha-lha-na-baing, Sadaw, and Pon- 
gyi — during the last fourteen years, and feels confident 
he is not merely giving reins to his imagination when he 
predicts a dissolution of these walls and ramparts in some- 
thing like the following order: — 

(0) The crown and coercive power has gone, and the monks 

will now form independent corporations.* 
(5) Westtern art, science, knowledge, and trades will under- 

miDi' and supplaot the old system. 
(4) The national life separate from decaying religion, 
and find newer and more vigorous life, with civil and re- 
ligious freedom under the fostering care of England. 
(8) Women will (ind t>righter, nobler hopes and work under 
the Gospel and their devotion become fixed on Christ, 
not Gaudama. 

* "Tht' monks wlU rorm Independent corporations." After this senteoce 
bad been written (be TliathK nabAlnK, at tbe requeiit of ourGoTemment, 
callt'd tofi;«ther tbc 8ada«-ii und cbirf nblKits of the Mandalaj monostertea to 
warn Ibem Rirnlu«t KlTlnK aid. sbeller. or coocealment to reli«li< or losor- 
recUonl8ti. Tbe tjodaws were unwiUiug to (rive more tban a Kuamnteo of 
perMoiiul loyally, OS tfapj eould not be answerablfl for tb«ir sutxirdinntes. 
The Tlia-tbn>Da-bainK hiut. however, made a stroke for primacy. Ho baa 
cited an Incrlmlnnted i^taw to appear before him wltbln twenty dayii, 
clear himself i>f suspicion ; otherwise he will be declared excommuni 
and degraded, and will be arrested by the civil ^vemment on an ord; 
warrant ai a rebel (Sept. », 1887 ] 






(2) More aotiv^e, intellectual life will buret moniuttic boada; 
and the youth of the country become no longer willing 
to submit to its irksome restraints. 

(1) The miignitudc and extent of the old religion will hurry 
it on to destruction when once decay has set in. 

Where does modem Buddhism show recui>erative 
power or evidence of Divine life .' 

By " canon " law, as contained in the " Parazi-kan," 
Buddhist monks are only liable to degradation and ex- 
pulsion from the order for Ibe crimes of murder, theft, 
and incontinence; and discipline over them was main- 
tained through the Tha-tha-na-baing. He held his court 
of inquiry, and signified to the king the result. Even 
for the crime of abetting rebellion the incriminated 
monk was merely ordered to join a monastery at Mogoung, 
Theinnee, Mone, or some other penal settlement; and for 
slighter offences he was ordered for a long or short term 
to become — still wearing his robe — a hewer of wood, a 
drawer of water, or sweeper either of his in\n or some 
neighboring monastery. 

But now the " Royal proctors " no longer exist; abbots 
do what they please in their own houses, and the Tha- 
tha-na-baing complains that the " Sadaws " settle their 
own affairs without reference to him. He says, " British 
officers treat us kindly enough, and as a rule respect our 
property, but they look upon us as an idle unpractical 
set of narrow-minded drones, and their subor- 
dinates follow fn suitt." 

In the recent campaigns our officers expected much 
help from the POn-gyis, and Sir Frederick Roberts show- 
ed particular respect to the Tha-tha-na-baing, hoping 
thereby to conciliate the whole order, and enlist their 
active co-operation in quieting the country, and spread- 
ing far and wide the pacific and benevotent intentions of 
the British Government. It cannot be said that the 
"order" rose to the opportunity; and it is an undeniable 
fact that in several of the recent attempts at rebellion 
the monks have had a prominent part.* 

The chief title to respect on the part of the whole 
ecclesiastical body is certainly not learning or intellec- 
tual activity, but rather simplicity, gentleness, and quiet 
ob.servance of their rule. " Incuriositj'-" or " indiffer- 
ence " is reckoned a great virtue, and as an instance of it 
the writer remembers a case in which, after a copy of the 
Burmese translation of our Bible had been [)resented to 
a distinguished monastery in Mandalay, and jnit in a good 
place in the well-arranged library, it remained for years 
unopened; and the abbot gravely asserted that the book 
was printed in English, giving that as the reason why he 
had not opened it. Here was an intelligent, well-read 
monk brought into contact to some extent with English- 
men, and yet without the slightest curiosity as to their 
religion, although a copy of their sacred Scriptures had 
been put into his hands, 

* The Comnutnder-lD'Chief o( lodla, Sir Fredarlok Roberts, eacoura)j:ed 
tte hope tliAt the Tha-iba-nnbaing; and Tba-g</l» would prevail upon tli« 
notorioua ICIa-u and otber dacoit leaders to give thenuelvM up, lint to the 
clergy, and thijuon Kood lerni8 to the civil powers. But the dacoit leaders, 
with verr iiuUrniflcant exceptions, fuught ihjr of the scheme. 

In 1878, speaking about the state of religion in the 
country. Prince Nyoungyan — a favorite son of the late 
King Min-dohn — said, " No man and no king eve<^ did 
more for the [Buddhist] religion than my father did, and 
now he has gone to the country of the Nats [Anglice 'is 
dead '] the religion will lose ground, and by-and-bye we 
shall all come over to your [Christian] side." His opin- 
ion was that Theebaw would do nothing for religion, and 
in this he was not mistaken. 

The Pon-gyis will probably care little what disintegra- 
tion takes place in Buddhism, or what progress is made 
by Christianity so long as it does not affect their own 
circle of supporters; and if it does conie near and touch 
1 them, they will probably only throw off the gown and re- 
turn to the world again. To fight for their religion, or 
actively propagate it, is not in them. 

The people are happy, friendly, careless, indolent, and 
pleasure loving; but have a very high regard for religion 
«of every kind, especially if its teachers show an ascetic 
life. It was this feeling that led King Min-dohn not only 
to build a church for the English, but to give liberally 
to the Romanists and to the .\rmenians, besides provid- 
ing for Brahman Gurus, and helping Mussulmans. A 
celibate Christian Priest is to the Burman a " P6n-gyi;" 
and there seems no reason why, if Christian Missions are 
strongly manned ivith regular and stately daily worship, 
rules of life and leaching power, they should not easily 
supplant the Buddhist monasteries in their immediate 

There is no " caste." The women are free from the 
absurd restraints of the Zenana and Purdah. English 
men and manners are in high favor, and recognized as 
superior. Even as to music and religion, in which the 
people used to feel conscious superiority, they have now 
their doubts. 

.'\ Bitrinan is very angry if a son or friend becomes a 
Christian, and under native rule active preventive meas- 
ures would have been taken had any appreciable number 
been converted. But the anger is only transient. The 
renegade is cut off from society, and denied " fire, food, 
and water," i.e., all friendly ceases ; but he 
soon finds his way again among friends. Fatalism and 
the belief in metempsychosis step in, and say, "The pres- 
ent is but the result of the past, and in the myriad of 
existences to be lived this is but one ; so what does it 
matter, it cannot be helped ; let him please himself, and 
take the consequences." 

Burmans are a reading nation ; and there is no doubt 
a " levelling up " process is going on. The belief in the 
existence and operation of a supreme living God, good 
and holy, far above Nats and Demons, has already gained 
firm ground, and will never he displaced. The Shway 
Pyee Wungyi Ko Po Hline, the chief instructor of the 
members of the Embassies to Europe from the Court of 
Ava, studied the religion of those countries and wrote a 
bonk to prove that after all these religions and the Budd- 
hist were but one. Burmans, who have read his book, 
say the logical outcome should have been his conversion 




to Christianity, but " Court " influence was too much for 
him, and fear overcame conviction.* 

When the nation has parted from the spirit of Budd- 
hism, though clinging to its external form, mass conver- 
sions may be expected if the Christian Church will do her 
Juty and put forth her strength ; for there is a remarkable 
anticipation of the coining of Arima-da-ya, the fifth great 
incarnation of the Buddha. 

[l»t, K«D-kR-tban; 2d, Gaw-na-gobn; 3il, Ka-tha pa; 4tb, 
OaU'da-ma; 5th, Arima-da-ys.] 

Among the wise and ancients his advent is expected 
within the next seventy years. Before he comes every 
vestige o£ Buddhism, whether monk, monastery, or writ- 
ing, will have disappeared, and Arima-da-ya will come as 
the restorer of all things to more than former glory. What 
a text for the missionary I 

Buddhism is doomed. It remains for us Christians, 
particularly of the Church of England, to rescue all that 
is good, noble, and pure in the country's system, and to 
give it what it lacks, till it becomes one with the faith of 
cur Lord Jesus Christ. Otherwise the last estate of this 
nation will be seven times worse than the first. 

Christian Missions in Upper Burma. — Let us see what 
forces the Christian Church sends against this stronghold 
of Buddhism, and its 55,000 official defenders. 

1. The Roman Catholics were first. For over two hun- 
dred years there have been Roman Christians here, and 
priests ministering to them. From A.D. 1600, to A.D. 
1613, Portuguese Pegu, round its capital Syriam, flourished 
at the mouth of the Irawaddy, and on its downfall many 
Christian captives were carried to Upper Burma. It is 
the progeny of this stock which composes the of the 
Romanist community of the present day. The priests 
have not been so much missionaries to the Pagans as 
pastors ofChristians,and their unaggressive attitude gained 
for them toleration under the Aloungpaya dynasty. 

In 1873 Monseigneur Bourdon was consecrated in 
Rangoon, and Upper Burma was made a missionary juris- 

There are now at work eleven European (French) and 
two native Priests, one native Deacon, and two or three 
Sub-Deacons. In Mandalay there is a convent of eight 
sisters, and the Burmese-speaking community in I'ity and 
country numbers about 2,000 souls. Bishop Bourdon 
has just retired to France broken down in mind and 

2. The English Church [S. P. G.]— The Rev. J. E. 
Marks, the pioneer of our Church in Upper Burma, came 
hereon the invitation of King Min-dohn in 1868, The 
King built a handsome church, clergy house, and schools, 
and sent some of his own sons, and a number of young 
nobles for education. But the time for aggressive mission 
•ork was not yet come. Even as late as 1878 Burmans 
*crc warned against foreign politics and foreign religion. 
From October, 1879, to December, 1885, the Mission was 
closed, but was re-opened again after the taking of Man- 
ilalay, and before the annexation. 

*KoPDHUn«<Uedln 188S: hli book licnUed " Wlmo-ti ya-thaelian." 

The church was found comparatively uninjured, and 
was re-opened for Divine service — English and Burmese 
— in January, 1886, the school was re-opened in .April, and 
under the altered circumstances the mission showed more 
life than ever. Thirty adult Burmans have been baptized 
since July, 1886, and the school numbers 150 boys, in- 
cluding thirty boarders, among whom are one son and two 
ncjjhews of the old King Min-dohn, two sons of the 
" Sawbwa," or Prince of Theebaw now reigning, four 

I sons of less important Shan princes, and twelve sons of 
Shan notables. All these receive regular Christian in- 

I slruction, and th^re are abundant proofs that it is having 

' and has bad effect. 

An out-station has been established at Madaya,* eigh 

I teen miles north of Mandalay ; others are proposed at 

, .A.merapoora (seven miles) and Sagaing (sixteen miles) 

1 south of Mandalay. 

j The writer had the pleasure of going with the Rev. F. 

I W. Sutton, M.R.C.S.. Lond,, in July last, to help him in 
establishing a Medical Mission in the old capital, Shwebo.f 
some sixty miles due north of Mandalay, which station 
will, in due course, throw out offshoots into the surround- 
ing country. 

These two missions, with one Priest and two Deacons, 
represent the attacking forces of the English Church ; for 
though there are three other priests in Upper Burma they 
are attached to British troops, and find full work in min- 
istering to them. Should the troops be withdrawn one or 
more of these chaplains will follow. 

The number of Burmese members of our Church in 
Upper Burma is about seventy-five. 

Other bodies. — The China Inland Mission has held a 
post at Bhamo for some years, but its efforts are directed 
for the benefit of Chinese rather than Burmans. There 
is one missionary only. 

The IVesleyan Society has a young chaplain attached to 
the troops here, and has sent up an experienced mission- 
ary from Ceylon, who is now learning the language, and 
has bought a large plot of land in Mandalay for the site 
of his mission. [There are now three, the Rev. J. H. 
Bateson, W. R. Winston and A. A. Bestall.] 

The American Baptist Society has made many attempts 
to settle a mission in Upper Burma, but except at Bhamo, 
has not succeeded till now. Their Bhamo Mission has 
worked with some success among the Kachyens, and is to 
be further strengthened. The Society has one missionary 
and three missionary ladies in Mandalay, and their work 
seems now to be growing, and likely to be permanent and 

Total missionary clergy or ministers — Roman, 14 ; 
Anglican, 3 ; others, 4^21. 

The Future. — The Bishop of Rangoon has already 
made two visitations of the upper country as far as Bhamo, 
and would gladly place two clergy there to work among 

* According to IbeTha-lba-Da'balng'f report Madaya ba* 00m Buddbiiit 
Bishop, thre« Archdeoooii*. ninety seVeo Abbots add Monasteries. 

t According to the ThA-tfaii-tia-biiiDft'a report Shwebo bss one Buddhist 
Biiibop, eleven Arcbdea«oua, MS .\bbot« and Mooosterles. 


the rude Chins and Kachyens, and eastwards to the 
Chinese frontier. He will probably be able to extend 
the Karen Missions in Tounghoo, so as to bring Pyim- 
mana (Ningyan), an important centre just over the old 
frontier, under missionary influence, but he wants both 
means and men. 

The country lies before us. We members of the Church 
of England have a duty and responsibility which we 
cannot depute to other churches or communities. Is it 
too much to hope, to beg, to pray for the establishment of 
at least three additional missions, with t\yo clergy for each 
post, viz.: 

(i.) Myingyan, on the Irrawaddy, ninety miles south 

of Mandalay, a growing town of 20,000 people, 

with a fertile district about it. 

Pyimmana (Ningyan). which lies north of the old 

frontier, on the Tounghoo side, and which will be 

on the railway equidistant from Mandalay and 

(iii.) Theebaw, an important centre in the Shan States, 

ninety miles east of Mandalay. 
There are sixteen pupils from Theebaw State, now 
pupils in the S. P. G. Royal School, Mandalay, and the 
writer has had a pressing invitation from the ruling prince 
to visit his capital next cold weather. The Bishop of 
Rangoon has given his consent, and, all being well, the 
Shan pupils will accompany, and make the visit happier 
and more useful. 

Even after these three missions are well established 
there will be the whole of the extensive Chindwtn Valley 
untouched, and the Church cannot rest long without an 
effort for the northern tribes. 

May our good God put it into the hearts of the faith- 
ful to offer of their substance, willingly and liberally, for 
this great work ; and may He move earnest and devoted 
souls, both men and women, to give themselves self-sac- 
rificingly for the task of subduing Upper Burma, and 
making it a fruitful, fertile province of the Holy and 
Apostolic Church. — Mission Field. 

Work amonff EngliN^h-Speakinier People in 
India aud Burma. 


Much is said in your magazine about native work in 
India. Permit me to mention a few facts in regard to the 
work among English-speaking people. I will be com- 
pelled for the sake of space to confine myself to Ran- 

After eight years' work Rangoon Methodism can show 
the following statistics: Church members, 95; Proba- 
tioners, 25, and one of the largest congregations in the 
city ; Sunday-school with 250 names enrolled ; Girls' 
school with 210 children as total number in attendance 
for the year. 

.\n Orj)h;inage for Anglo-Indian and Eurasian chil- 
dren, with 30 inmates. The Sailors' work is in a most 
flourishing condition. For this we occupy a fine, well- 

located building, containing Refreshment, Reading and 
Meeting rooms, the rent of which is paidby the Govern- 

The church, parsonage and school building are free 
from debt, and we hope by the aid of the Missionary Soci- 
ety to be able to record the same of the Orphanage before 

The members of the Church are not rich in gold and 
silver, yet they are able to meet all expenses connected 
with the Church, amounting to $1,500 per annum. ; to 
give $500 to missionary work among the natives, to sub- 
scribe or collect $100 per mensem for the Orphanage, 
beside caring for the poor in the Church. 

The following are a few characteristics of the Eurasian 
people : 

I St. They are exceedingly generous, giving most lib- 
erally to all the demands of the work. 

2d. They are loyal to their Church. They love and 
take pride in it and do its bidding willingly. 

3d. They make good Christians in every sense of the 
word, devoted to Christ, self-denying for His cause. 
Their testimonies and prayers, so free from stereotj'ped 
phrases, so fresh and vigorous are a delight. There is 
no field in the world that gives better opportunities for 
the development of the abilities of a young preacher than 
work among the Eurasian people of India. 

To have charge of a Church among this people re- 
quires a considerable amount of knowledge of the busi- 
ness of a clerk, financier, committeeman, school manager, 
business man and preacher, and several other calling* 
that I have not space to mention. 

The many splendid openings in India for young 
preachers among the English-speaking people present a 
field sure to be productive of the most blessed results, 
and at the same time a most excellent training school for 
the one who enters it. I 

I am certain that if young men in our colleges and 
seminaries, could see the needs of this class of persons 
alone, not mentioning the millions of natives, there 
would be far less hesitancy in entering the foreign 

Rangoon, November i8th, 1887. 

A missionary in Burma writes: "There are schools' 
among the Burmans where boys are taught to read and 
write a little by the priests, and you will find but few 
Burman men who cannot read a little; but formerly fl 
there were no schools for girls, and it is rather a strange 
thing to find a heathen Hurman woman who can read. 
Now that it has been proved by our mission schools that* 
girls can learn, and they are encouraged by the Eng- 
lish government to learn, and become teachers, there 
are a few schools taught by heathen laymen where girls 
are taught as well as boys. The boys attending the 
priests' schools are fed by the people just as the priests 
are, daily. The Karen children had no schools whatever j 
in their own tongue till the missionaries went there ant 
put their language into writing." 






How a Missionary Society was Orf;aiiized. 


" We are talking of organizing a Missionary Society and 
I «allecl to see if you would join it," said Mrs. Edwards, 
hesitatingly. When she had first started out that after- 
noon she did not speak hesitatingly, but had been full 
of hope and energy, never dreaming but what she would 
find plenty who would be interested in the subject. But 
now it was different. She had met with so many rebuffs 
that she was nearly disheartened. And it was not much 
wonder, for not one word of encouragement had she heard 
during the entire afternoon, and now the sun was setting 
as she made her last call, expecting as a matter of course 
to be told that there were plenty of heathen at home, no 
need to go away off to India or Japan to find them, and 
then there were poor at "our own door" too. It was 
wonderful how many poor there were in the little village 
that day. Worthy poor too. 

" A missionary society! Do you think we need one 
htreV And Mrs. Knolton's tone betrayed her amazement 
at her caller's mentioning such a thing. 

" Why, yes, I think we do," answered Mrs. Edwards. 
her face brightening a little, for she had actually found 
one lady who would ask if they needed a society. We 
have never done scarcely anything for foreign missions; 
you know almost every other village has its foreign mis- 
ionary society, and 1 thought we ought to have one." 

"OhI it's for foreign missions, is it? I think it would be 
better to have one for home missions." 

" Would you join such a society?" asked Mrs. Edwards 

"I hardly know," began Mrs. Knolton; then seeing the 
smile on her caller's face she roused her lagging energies a 
little and added, "yes, I think I would." 

During the short speech of her friend, Mrs. Edwards 
had been doing some hurried thinking and was ready 
with a prompt reply. 

" There will be a meeting at my home next Friday 
afternoon for the organization of a Home Missionary 
Society. I hope you and many others will be present." 

" I will certainly be there," Mrs. Knolton answered as 
promptly, and then she laughed. " You have got ahead 
of me this lime, Mrs. Edwards." 

It was nearly tea-time when Mrs. Edwards reached 
home, for she had called at every house, inviting the ladies 
to meet at her home on Friday to organize a Home Mis- 
sionary Society, where she had called earlier in the after- 
noon inviting them to a Foreign Missionary Society. She 
hurried her preparations for tea and when her husband 
came in and asked, 

" Well, wife, how about that meeting Jriday afternoon. 
Did you find one woman ready to join you?" 

" Not to work for foreign missions. There are a great 
many very poor people in this village who need help far 
more than " any foreigners." Why, just think of it. 


Robert, there are lots and lots of children at our very 
doors who are unable to go to Sunday School, because 
they have no clothes .suitable for this cold weather. 
Isn't it dreadful? So we are going to have a Home 
Missionary Society." 

" Wonders will never cease. Here you start out deter- 
mined on starting a foreign society, and come home as 
fully determined on a home society. What does it mean?" 

" I found every one on whom I called pitying the poor 
of our village and saying they would never join a Foreign 
Missionary Society as long as they knew so many needy 
ones at our own doors. When I made my object known 
to Mrs. Knolton she said she thought we needed one for 
home missions the most, although before I mentioned the 
foreign part, she seemed greatly surprised that I should 
mention a missionary society at all. I made up my mind 
then and there we'd help the poor at home first, and ■ 
maybe after a time the heathen would come in for their f 
share of help. You can't think how surprised some of 
the ladies seemed when I called the second time, and _ 
told them we were going to have a Home instead of a. I 
Foreign Missionary Society. But none dared refuse to 
join it, because they'd talked so much about the poor all 
around us. It was really laughable to see how queer 
some of them looked." 

" I should have enjoyed seeing -the look on old Mrs. 
Ames," said Mr. Edwards, laughing. 

Friday afternoon came and with it nearly a dozen ladies 

" I brought an old dress of Jennie's that I thought we 
could make over for some little girl," said Mrs. Knolton, 
unrolling a bundle and displaying a dress which had onre 
been a very pretty school suit. It was out at the elbowi 
and had several rents and grease spots on the skirt. 

" And I brought a coat which my Willie had outgrown," 
said Mrs. Benton. 

So they went on. Each had brought something, which 
she unrolled with rather a sheepish air, for every one felt 
that they had been fairly caught. 

After some discussion a society was organized, by-laws 
and constitution drawn up, and the Home Missionary 
Society of Cedarton was finally started, with Mrs. Knolton 
as president. They were to have weekly meetings at the 
homes of the different members. A committee was 
appointed to look up the most needy people, Mrs. 
Knolton's dress ripped up and other work laid out before 
the closing hour. 

At the tea table Mrs. Edwards gave her husband an 
account of the meeting and commented thus; 

"And so Mrs. .^mes really came. I really didn't expect 
her. You have done an amazing amount of good in get- 
ting her started in any work for others." 

"O Robert! don't talk so." 

" If you'd been to her as many times as I have to col- 
lect her subscription for the minister, you wouldn't 
wonder at me. Hope you'll manage to keep her interested, 
and get a lot of money out of her," 

Well, the .society flourished. It ought to, for Mrs. 
Edwards was determined it should, and one energetic 

woman can do wonders. A great many little garments 
were made, stockings and mittens knit, shoes and caps 
and hoods bought, till one day the society suddenly woke 
up to the fact that they had notliing to do. 

"We ought to meet once in a while, or we'll lose our 
interest," said the president. 

"That's so," said Mrs. Benson. Suppose we have a 
Foreign Missionary Society." 

The suggestion met with approval from ail. So another 

;iety was organized, to meet only once a month how- 
ever, and Mrs. Edwards went home jubilant, from that 

" It has come, Robert," she said to her husband. 

*' What has come ?" 

*' The Foreign Missionary Society. Mrs. Benson pro- 
posed it too. I only had to wait three months for it. 
How glad I am. We arc going to do wonderful things 
for the cause." 

Sprague Mills, Me. 

Missions and Woman's Work in Them. 


** But jre »hall receive power, atter ttmt the Holy GliuU is come iipoD you 
and yt ■b&II t>e witnesses unto me both at Jerugaleni, &nd io all Judea and 
in Samaria aod unto tbe uttermost parts of the eartb."— Acts i., 8. 

I wonder if the people who have no time or inclina- 
tion for foreign missionary work, saying there are 
heathen enough at home, I wonder if they ever read 
that verse I if so how can they utterly ignore the claims 
of those to whom Christ sent his disciples, saying, "Ye 
are my witnesses — unto the uttermost parts of the earth." 

I wonder if that other class who think the heathen 
must be saved, and there is no need of work at home, for 
here every one has the privilege of the Gospel if they 
will only use them, — I wonder if these people ever read 
that verse. If so, how is it pos.sible for them to ignore 
Christ's last commission on earth, " Ye are my witnesses 
at Jerusalem." 

There is still another class who believe in letting other 
towns and States take care of themselves. Do thty for- 
get the commission reads "both at Jerusalem and in at! 
Judea and in Samaria and unto the uttermost parts of 
the earth! " It seems Christ has irrevocably joined the 
work of witnessing for Him in all places, and "What 
God has joined together let not man put asunder." 

This witnessing, as you notice, was to be "after the 
Holy Ghost shall come upon you," and if we read still 
further in the same chapter we find the company whom 
Jesus commanded to "wait for the promise of the 
Father," gathered in an upper room, the apostles and 
other disciples " with the women; and then on the day of 
Pentecost when the sound of a mighty rushing wind 
came frum heaven "they were all filled with the Holy 
Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues as the \ 
Spirit gave them utterance." What a powerful witness- 
ing that must have been that "in that same day there 
were added unto them about three thousand souls." 

Have'nt we as women a part in that commission direct 

from our Lord to be witnesses " in Jerusalem and unto 
the uttermost parts of the earth? " He tells us in John 
iii. 14, 15, that "as Moses lifted up the serpent in the 
wilderness, so must the .Son of man be lifted up, that 
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish but have 
everlasting life," and in the 12th chapter, jad verse. He 
adds, ".And I, if I be lifted up will draw all men unto 
Me." Is'nt it a grand fact, sisters, that we may have a 
part in the uplifting of our Saviour that he may draw 
the world unto Him ? 

\Ve remember in the account of the woman at the 
well talking with Christ we find " she left her water pot 
and went her way to the city and saith to the men, Come, 
and they went out of the city and came unto Him, and 
many of the Samaritans believed on Him for the saying 
of the woman." Acts v„ 14 tells us " that believers were 
the more added unto the Lord, multitudes both of men 
and women," and the yth c hai>ter and 2d verse shows 
how "Saul desired of the High Priest letters that if he 
found any of this way. whether they were men or women, 
he might bring them bound unto Jerusalem." 

Paul in his letter to Timothy says that "Women should 
adorn themselves in modest apparel, not with gold, 
pejixls or costly array, but (which becometh women pro- 
fessing godliness) with good works," and what better 
work is there than doing the will of God, and seeking, 
directly or indirectly^ to save souls ? 

Christ Himself put a great honor upon womanhood as 
such, when after His resurrection he appeared first of all 
unto a woman and gave her commission to carry glad 
tidings to His disciples. Just why we cannot tell, but 
may it not have been in remembrance of the fact that 
when he was innocently accu.sed and tried, " Amid all the 
Scribes and Pharisees, and devout Jews, among all the 
disciples who were at Jerusalem at the Passover, in al! 
that e.xcited multitude, which seemed hungry for the 
blood of the captive Christ, there was only one voice 
publicly lifted up in behalf of that just man, and that 
voice a woman's. The apostles were affrighted. Bold Peter 
acted the craven and the coward. The Marys' and the 
Marthas' fell themselves impotent lo help. But one 
woman, the wife of the heathen governor Pontius Pilate, 
boldly petitioned for the life of the innocent, and this act 
was deemed worthy a record in the Gospel." May not 
Jesus have remembered this and honored woman for her 

Over in Ex. xxxv., 22-29, '^^ learn that when the tab- 
ernacle was building "both men and women, as many as 
were willing-hearted, came and brought the Lord's offer- 
ing, and the children of Israel brought a willing offering 
unto the Lord, every man and woman whose heart made 
him willing." 

We read in Matt, xxvii., 55: " Many women were there 
— which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto 
Him," and in 25th ch., v. 40, " Inasmuch as ye have 
done it unto one of the least of these ye have done it 
unto Me." Have we not our commission ? Can we not 
share in, " Ye shall witness of me ? " 


And now let us see what else we can do beside witness- 
ing and ministering? In Rom. 15th, Paul tells the Church 
at Rome, that when lie goes to Spain he will go to them 
also; but he adds : " Now I go to Jerusalem to minister 
unto the saints, for it hath [ileased them of Macedonia 
and Achaia to make certain contributions for the poor 
saints at Jerusalem. For if the Gentiles have been made 
partakers of their spiritual things, M«> duty is a/so to min- 
ister unto them in carnal thin^^s." Isn't that Home Mis- 
sionary giving ? 

Then again, if we turn to Acts xi., 27-29, we learn 
that when prophets came from Jerusalem and Antioch 
and signified by the spirit that there should lie a great 
death throughout all the world, which came to pass, then 
the disciples, every man according to his ability, de- 
termined to send relief unto the brethren, which also they 
did. Wasn't that a genuine Home Missionary spirit ? 

In Paul's letter to the Cor., xvi., 1. he commends them 
to take a collection for the saints, and tells " every one of 
you (that includes the women), to lay by in store as (lod 
has prospered him." In Rom. xii., 13, he tells that 
Church to "distribute to the necessity of the saints." In 
Deut. XV., 7-8, we read, " If there be among you a poor 
man of one of thy brethren — thou shalt not harden 
thine heart, nor shut thy hand from thy poor brother, l)ut 
thou shall open thy hand ivide unto him." 

And now let us turn to Paul again. In the second 
letter to the Corinthian Church, 8th chapter, we find the 
summing up of the whole, the reason for liberality and the 
possibility of being truly liberal in the sight of (lod. He 
says, " Moreover, brethren, we do you to wit ot the grace 
of God bestowed on the churches of Macedonia ; how 
that in a great trial of affliction, the abundance of their 
joy, and their deep poverty, abounded unto the riches of 
their liberality. 'For to their power, yea, beyond their 
power, they were willing of themselves; i>raying us with 
much entreaty to receive t!ie gift and take upon us the 
fellowship of the ministering to the saints; and this they 
did, not as we hoped, \\y\\. first ga-'c their oivn selves to the 

If all should do as the Macedonian Church, first give 
their own selves to the Lord, there will be plenty of 
money to carry on God's work of all kinds. Now let us 
go back to where we began, " But ye shall receive power 
after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you and ye shall 
be witnesses, etc.," and change it just a little to suit our 
own times and work — ye shall be witnesses unto me in 
your own town, and in all the United States, and in Alaska, 
and unto the uttermost part of the earth. 

Sisters, shall we take our commission ? 
^^^ Clinton, Afass. 

^^^- >'aiiii Tal, India. 

^^^^^P DV PROF. T. A. CLIFTON, K.\t.NI X.\\... 

H There is no scenery that so sublimely impresses one 

■ as mountain scenery. 

■ Especially is this true up among the Himalayas, the 

■ marA-ed feature of which is their ruggedness. You climb 


to the summit of some favored peak and a great, wide, 
wonderful world breaks suddenly into view upon every 
hand. At your feet is a craggy precipice of a thousand 
feet, too abrupt even lor the creeping grass blade or the 
climbing vine. Upon your right hand waves upon waves 
of white fleecy clouds roll away, a spotless canopy of the 
level stetching landscape far below. Upon your left hand 
the rock-land rises like a billowing sea, as range succeed* 
range, their rugged outlines softened in the distance into 
the gentle curves of nature, up to snowy peaks whiih 
seem dove-tailed into the sky. 

Here and there the scene is softened by a carpeting of 
tall mountain grass and a vesture of giant oaks and blaz- 
ing rhododendrons; or the cultivated steppes, yellow with 
the golden grain. 

\'ou say the scene is com])lete as you catch a glimpse 
of the mountain rivulet as it dashes from rock to rock 
down the valley; and you trace it until it unites its waters 
with those of the clear and sparkling lakelet that fills a 
distant basin. About you a gentle breeze, fresh from the 
eternal snows, moves the long grass or rustles the dark 
green foliage, which, save the distant mountain bird's song, 
is the only sound that breaks the stillness. You are face 
to face with nature. 

Need I tell you, when I say that it is situated on one 
of these Himalayan lakelets, more than 6000 feet above 
the sea, that Naini Tal is beautiful for situation? But it 
is interesting. Interesting because it occupies a place in 
both the history of the country, and of Methodism. 

Naini Tal is one of the three principal hill sanitariums, 
the value of which is only known in India; and is entirely 
of modern growth. It is purely European in its origin: ■ 
the first house being built by a Government official, 
named Wilson, of Moradabad, about the year 1847. 
Wilson with a party of huntsmen had previously visited 
the place and being charmed with the beauty of the 
situation and invigorated by the mountain air decided to 
build a summer house. He was soon imitated by others, 
until at present its population is over 2,000; which, for a 
hill station, tells how popular a summer retreat it has be- 
come. It occupies a mountain basin in the centre of 
which is a beautiful lake, about a mile in length, and a 
half in width, named Naini Tal, from which the station 
takes its name. 

About thi.s unfathomed, sparkling lakelet, fed by 
mountain rivulets and |)otent springs, whose crystal 
waters give back the reflection of whitened dwellings, 
passing clouds, mighty boulders and wooded slopes, the 
Pharee (hill man) had for years unnamed watched his I 
flocks and herds. At one end of the lake stood a rude 
temple, attended by a Fakir, sacred to the goddess Nynee; 
from which the lake (Tal) takes its name. The temple 
with one or two rude native dwellings were the only j 
buildings that doited the mountain sides until some forty \ 
years ago. On either side of the lake mountain ranges 
rise several hundred feet above it; while at the head of 
the basin, like a mighty pillar, Mount Cheena rises eight 
thousand feet above the sea. The summit of this peak 


is reached by a winding path of ftiH three miles. Once 
(here, you are above the clouds. A world is at your feet. 

This delightful mountain station is the summer resort 
of the Government of these the North West Provinces; 
convalescents from the army, rest and pleasure seekers 
generally. Each year, when the heat of the plains be- 
comes almost unbearable, and hot winds from the Eastern 
desert search everywhere, the lieutenant governor, 
attended by the heads of the various departments with 
their subordinates, leaves Allahabad,the capital, and comes 
"To the hills." 

Here offices of the various departments are opened 
and business carried on to October. During lliis period 
also the Hospital and depot are filled with sick and 
convalescent troops, whose care-worn looks and paled 
cheeks soon give place to smiles and roses under mediral 
aid and mountain air. Many pensioned government 
ser\*ants, and those on leave, with pleasure seekers come 
for rest, health and pleasure. 

The ruling passion seems to be to have a good time. 
From this it follows that hill-stations in India are very 
gay places, and not always the most religious. They are 
also the Athens of India. There is seldom less than half 
1 dozen schools, all generally well filled, the climate being 
well adapted to both mental and physical development. 

Naini Tal is sacred to Methodism in India, and there- 
fore no less dear to the Church at Home. Dear because 
it was here, amid the humblest circumstances, that our 
Mission began — we may say — its work. Dear because it 
was here that our missionaries found peace and security 
during the political storm of 1857. Dear because of the 
marked vitality it has shown here; and dear because it 
is likewise a quiet resting place, where our Missionaries, 
when worn with toil amid the scorching heat of an Indian 
summer, may receive new energy and strength. 

The early history of Naini Tal Methodism has been 
too well told by Dr. Butler in his " Land of the Veda," 
for us to attempt or need to recount it here. The child 
of the Church in later days seems not to have departed 
from its early training, but is marked by the same spirit 
of vitality. 

The Mission at present owns large, desirable lot.s at the 
head of the lake, which have been improved by a 
sanitarium, parsonage, mission house, native school build- 
ing, chapel and two other cottages. 

The lots were purchased, and some of the improve- 
ments made by Dr. Butler. They are worth much more 
than their cost to the Mission; and much is due to his 
prudence and foresight. 

The Lord has blessed our Missionary efforts in Naini 
J'al, and the work both English and native has greatly 
prospered. The English work has naturally taken the 
lead, and has for many years been self-supporting. 

In 1880 occurred the terrible land-slip, which resulted 
in the loss of over 150 lives, European and native, and 
the loss of much property. The avalanche of shale and 
earth swept down only a few paces beyond the west line 
of our property, carrying away all in its path The 

mission buildings were so filled with shale and water as 
to be uninhabitable for months, or until repaired. 

The old chapel, now greatly damaged, had grown too 
small to accommodate the English congregation, so imme- 
diately after the land-slip it was decided to build. A site 
at the opposite end of the lake, where it was felt the 
church would be secure, was selected, and a beautiful 
stone structure, after American model, was erected in "82, 
ata cost of $1 j,ooo; of which about one half was received 
from America. The membership is necessarily not large; 
but many of other denominations worship with us, and 
the society has many warm P^nglish supporters. 

The native work is developing rapidly. Two day 
schools are now kept open, which are well attended by 
over two hundred boys and girls. The old chapel is now 
almost exclusively given up to their services, which are 
held regularly, and precious souls are being saved. In 
addition to these, services are held during the season in 
the bazaars. There is regularly appointed, by the Con- 
ferences, a native minister; and a missionary to super- 
intend the work. 

The old Hindu temple formerly stood near the chapel; 
but it witli the goddess was carried away by the terrible 
land-slip. Their goddess could not perish, so the be- 
nighted people are told that after Naini had swam to the 
lower end of the lake and returned she landed on the 
opposite side of the lake, where ihey have erected anotiier 

Here, as elsewhere all over this benighted land, under 
the very shadow of God's house they bow to stocks and 
stones. But " Our Ood is marching on," to victory; and 
will have the " uttermost parts of the earth for a possess- 
ion, and the heathen for an inheritance." 

A District Conference and Mela in India. 


I send you a few notes from our District Conference 
and Christian metcl. These were held at Chandausi from 
the 6th to the 12th of Dec. '87. Over 200 workers as- 
sembled in Conference to report another year's labors. 
Between 1,100 and 1,200 were in attendance at the melii. 

1 Many of the reports of native brethren, fresh from the 

I field, were soul-inspiring.- One reported 211 baptisms 
this yeah It was a rare thing to hear from a man that 
there had been no baptisms on his circuit during the 
year, and rarer still to hear that there were no inquirers 
after the truth. As one sat and listened to the reports, 
he could not but conclude that people everywhere — in 
some localities more, in others less — were talking about 
this new religion, while scores are convinced of its truth- 
fulness and would accept it publicly but for family and 

. caste ties. But these must give way — are giving way 

I already. 

There has been no turning to Chtistianity of large 
numbers from any one caste, as last year among the Tha- 
rus ; and yet the Statistical Secretary, Bro. Gill, reports 
between 1,400 and 1,500 baptisms this year. This item 
of course is for the whole NoilVs. Itvdva. 0«s,^«acw:.^, 

The Rohilkhand District Conference is growing in 
numbers. Some cif «s remember when it was cause for 
rejoicing that the Conference roll contained an even one 
hundred workers. This was just six years ago ; but 
during these six years it has doubled its numbers. This 
rate of increase must go on ; for large fields are opening 
up and old ones are demanding more men. A very 
weallhy English gentleman, owning an estate within our 
Conference bounds, of some i6o villages, wishes us to 
throw a force of Christian workers at once into that field. 

The Lord is giving us these Provinces and will do 
great things by us as we are able lo enter in and lake 
them for Christ. Never had the Church at home grander 
opportunities to consecrate her youth and her wealth to 
this mighty work. She must do it. The day has come. 
" It is time for thee, Lord, lo work." And if our Church 
docs not do this work, the Lord will raise up some other 
body to do it. The Church of the future will be a force 
everywhere in the field, not in camp. 

The business of the Rohilkhand District Conference is 
increasing every year. Besides the work of the Confer- 
ence proper, some twenty odd committees were busy out- 
side of the sessions holding examinations, or inquiring 
into and adjusting difficulties, or collecting facts and sta- 
tistics and writing reports. As these committees were 
gathered here and there in groups under the big tent or 
the leafy shade of the great sissu and mango trees, they 
presented a busy scene one does not soon forget. 

The work of the Rohilkhand District, under the wise 
and vigorous administration of Presiding Elder Parker, is 
advancing all along the line. Goucher schools are doing a 
great work among poor boys and girls. The time is 
coming when our Mission will get many a first class 
worker from among these boys. For generations their 
ancestors have been kept down under the iron heel of 
caste oppression. But the day of their deliverance has 
come. .\nd, as in the Madras Presidency, Christian 
boys of low caste origin are now competing for honors 
in schools alongside haughty Brahmans, and carrying off 
the honors too, so will it be here. 

The Christian melh this year at Chandausi was the 
best, in some respects, we have ever had. It was more 
spiritual. A deep and earnest desire seemed to pervade 
the entire encampment to get rid of sin and its power 
over them. Miss Isabelie Leonard was present and 
spoke most forcibly, through an interpreter, on the sub- 
ject of holiness of heart and life. In the special services, 
held at noon each day, many sought and obtained this 
precious blessing. The Love Feast on Sunday morning 
and the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper Sunday evening 
were seasons of great spiritual blessing. In the former 
258 spoke in the space of two hours ; and it seemed that 
almost the entire audience of a thousand people or more 
partook of ihe sacrament. 

The benefits of such melas or camp meetings in our 

Mission work are very great. The first is a social one. 

Here Christians meet and become acquainted with each 

other. OJd friendships are renewed and new ones 

formed. Relatives, separated for a year, postpone their 
visits till the rrnr/a at Chandausi. Another benefit is 
one growing out of the «/>/// Je corps of such an assem- 
bly. Most of the workers have been toiling single handed 
in the midst of Hindus and Mohammedans not at all 
friendly to Christians. And it is not to be wondered at 
if now and then a worker, all alone in some remote 
village, should lose heart and say that there are no 
Christians or at least very few. 

These mtlas bring all these workers together from near 
and far. Here they see that they are not such an insig- 
nificant number after all. .^nd they hear that these hun- 
dreds gathered here but represent a multitude at home 
that already aggregate thousands. So they take heart 
and again rejoice that they have become Christians. 

But the greatest benefit derived from such melas is a 
spiritual one. Here the hosts of God are led up out of 
much wilderness of thought and experience respecting 
weighty matters about sin and deliverance from it. Many 
too whose heads only have been reached with the truth- 
fulness of our Christian religion, here for the first time 
experience that marvelous operation of the Holy Spirit 
upon the heart, and hence they return lo their fields of 
labor with another set of proofs for the divinity of Christ. 

These melas afford excellent opportunities for preach- 
ing to Hindus and Mohammedans. Some of our services 
were attended by from three to four hundred who listened 
most attentively to the preaching of the word. It often- 
times occurs that per.tons are found in very remote 
places, who first heard the good news at one of these 
melas; and He who doth not permit a sparrow to fall to 
the ground without His notice, will take care of His 
word that it does not return unto Him void. 

Hok Chiang District Conference of China. 


Heretofore the District Conference has not been very 
successful, owing to the expense incurred by those who 
attend. But this year each class appointed an official 
member to represent it at the Conference and agreed to 
pay his expenses. This is a very encouraging movement. 
There were about forty members present, and each one 
gave a report of the year's work — the number of sermons 
preached to Christians, the number preached lo heathen, 
the number of books sold, tracts distributed, the number 
baptized and received into the Church, &c. 

Most of the circuits have had a prosperous year, there 
being over two hundred accessions on the whole district. 
The island of Hai Tdug reports over one hundred access- 
ions; besides repairing their chapels, paying what was as- 
sessed for preachers and presiding elder, they have laid 
up about fifty dollars, enough to support a single man 
for next year. They now ask the Bishop to appoint such 
a one to visit villages where the Gospel has not been 
preached. They propose to support this man from year 
to year. This is the most encouraging movement that 
has ever been inaugurated in this Conference. 

At Tang Tan, the largest village on the island, several 



shopkeepers and millers have been converted. The 
weekly prayer meeting is held in turn at their shops and 
mills. They are lighted, and with the open front to the 
street, passers-by are attracted by the singing and come 
in and attend the meeting. When the room is tilled 
others stand on the street and listen. These meetings 
have attracted so much attention that the people expect 
them and inquire where the next meeting is to be held. 
They have grown into a preaching service in which there 
is an opportunity to preach to an interested audience of 
unbelievers. The chapel on Sunday is also filled to over- 
flowing with those who wish to hear the Gospel. 

One practice common throughout the district has been 
carried to great extremes on the island during the pres- 
ent year, i. e. casting out devils and healing the sick by 
prayer. The Chinese are firm believers in the power of 
prayer to heal the sick. They pray about everything 
with great simplicity and trust. We have a few members 
in Hok Chiang in comfortable circumstances who have 
not become Christians because of calamity, sickness or 
possession of devils, hut many have entered the Church 
to get rid of some misfortune or supposed possession of 
evil spirits. When calamity overtakes them they suppose 
their idol is displeased. They make offerings to appease 
its wrath, and if the misfortune still continues the offer- 
ing is repeated until houses, lands, and sometimes chil- 
dren are sold to meet the expense before they lose faith. 
It is in this condition that many come to God for relief. 
When I was in Hok Chiang this time a nife boy of ten or 
twelve years was offered for sale to me. You will not be 
surprised that these people are unable to give much to 
support the Gospel. After becoming Christians some go 
to the opposite extreme of stinginess. As one preacher 
at the Conference said ; before they became Christians a 
silver dollar was no larger than a cash (a thousand cash 
worth a dollar), but now a cash is larger than a silver 
dollar. Sometimes people ask the preachers to pray 
for them, and when the sickness is passed and the evil 
spirit exorcised they give up their religion. In order to 
prevent them from turning away the preachers have 
agreed not to pray for such persons until they have paid 
something to sujiporl the Gospel. Some have paid as 
much as two or three dollars before the preacher would 
go to pray for them. In this way much of the money 
for repairing chapels has been raised. Now when they 
are tempted to give up their religion they say, "We hav- 
ing invested in the Church cannot afford to turn back 
and lose our money." 

The preachers have told me of many wonderful 
answers to prayer, such as resurrection from death, heal- 
ing of serious illness and casting out devils. The other 
day a young lady came out to the road to greet me and 
the preacher said, "just about three years ago I went to 
pray for this young lady. To all appearances she was 
dead. I prayed for her, and she revived, and ever since 
has been well and strong." I have not witnessed any of 
these answers to prayer, but only give you what the 
Christians tell me. 

The Chinese preachers are paid according to their own 
calendar. About every three years there is an intercal- 
ary month, making thirteen months in a year. This 
year there was an intercalary month and the Missionary 
Society therefore paid one-twelfth more than last year to 
the support of the native ministers. Nearly all the 
preachers receive part of their support from the native 
Church and part from the Missionary Society, But the 
Presiding Elder of the Hok Chiang District is entirely 
supported by the native Church ; so according to their 
reckoning of time he should receive one-twelfth more 
this year. The Ahen circuit, of their own accord, raised 
one-twelfth more on the Presiding Elder's salary, and 
paid this and all other claims in advance. 

For a number of years there has been an attempt to 
prohibit Christian parents from betrothing their daugh- 
ters to heathen boys, and from getting heathen girls for 
wives for their sons. The moral sentiment has not been 
able to enforce such a law until the present year. It is 
now accepted throughout the district and will, I think, 
be enforced. One woman has already been expelled for 
violation of this rule. 

The Easter Missionary Service, prepared by the Mis- 
sionary Secretaries, was translated and distributed 
throughout the Conference with an exhortation to hold 
the service and take a collection in the Sunday Schools. 
This raised considerable discussion ; some said it was a 
scheme of the Presiding Elder, others said it was a trick 
of the Missionaries to get money. " There being but one 
Missionary Society, how can there be more than one col- 
lection ?" This talk was indulged in by the more ignor- 
ant members and did but little harm, so the programme 
was generally carried out and resulted in a fair collec- 

One preacher told how the last of his salary was raised. 
When his two daughters returned home for the summer 
vacation from the Boarding School at Foochow, their 
mother, learning how much they had given at the Mis- 
sionary collection, rebuked them for allowing the young 
ladies in charge of the school to influence them to give 
so much. She said, " Since your father is a minister the 
Missionary Society