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Catechism on India. 184. 

Temple of Parvati at Poona, 185. 

Dialogue on Hindu Women, 185. 

Outlook in North India Conference, 187. 

North India Confcrcncre, 1889, 188. 

Bengal Conference, 18B9, i8q. 

South India Conference, 1S89, 1B9. 

Story of Bhajirihij ajo. 

At trie North India Conference, ajS. 

Luck now Christian College, afo. 

North India and Retrenchment, 313. 

Haifa Day at Gurrah, 318. 

Starving itanchals, 334. 

Ltghti on the Gauces, 368. 

ConveT«ions in LucKnow, 361). 

The Tiger and the Missionary, 370. 

Story of Jadu Bindu Ghose, 37a, 

The Story of Banbee, 374. 

Power of the Bible, 374. 

Rev. Dr. T. S. Johnson, 416. 

The Villages of India for Chrut, iiS, jfa. 

Vernacular Sunday-schools in Inaia, 448. 

Uncle Underwood s Unpacking (Caste), 448. 

Gospel Work on the Budaon Circuit, 453, 

Wanted, Volunteers for India, 463. 

Work in the Khandwa and Hanlwa Circuits, 464. 

The Reigning King of Nepaul, 468. 

A Native School in India, 471. 

India Legend About Dying for Others, 473. 

Sukia, [he Hindu Girl, 473. 

Central Conference in India, 478. 

Jawahir Lai, a Hindu Convert, 507. 

SermoD on Love by a Native Preacher, 509. 

Diary of a Native Bible Woman, 501. 


Gospel Society in Japan, 108. 

Revival at Nagaski, 190. 

Death of Rev. A. Kenjiro, 305, 

Japan's New Constitution, 213. 

Notes from Yokohama, at6. 

Aid for a School in Nagoya, 336. 

A Stranger from Japan, 183. 

A Remarkable Japanese Convert, 336. 

Kites and the Golden Fish of Nagoya, 387. 

A Temple in Nikko, 389. 

The Japanese at Play, 389. 

The Japanese Tea-DnnkinR Ceremony, 345. 

Tokyo, the Mecca of Japan, 400. 

The New Year in Japan, 40). 

The Ainos of Japan, 403. 

The Indications of To-cay in Japan, 403. 

An Eight-day's Trip in Japan, 404. 

What a Testament Did, 406. 

Nagasaki District. Japan Conference, 408. 

Tokyo District, Japan Conference, 40> 

Dr. G. F. Vetbeck on Japan, 410. 

The Wife of Matsuoka San, 41a. 

Statistics of Missions in Japan, 413. 

The Buddbbt Religion, 413. 

Catechism on Japan, 424. 

Changes in Japan. 4j6. 

Reading in Japanese Primers, 470. 

Annual Meeting of the Japan Conference, jaj. 

Methodist Union in Japan, 570. 


Bishop Kowler in Korea, ^s. 
Methodist Episcopal Mission, t^i. 
Testimony of a Korean for Chnst, 433. 
The Royal Family of Korea, 433. 
The Koreans at Home, 434. 
Characteristics of the Koreans, 441. 
A Korean Magistrate, 4^. 
The Girls and Women of Korea, 471. 
Catechism on Korea, 475. 
The Sec-Saw in Korea, 475. 
Hair and Hats in Korea, 475. 
English Church Minion 10 Korea, 510. 
Pioneering in Korea, 516. 


Africa Methodist Episcopal Conference, 190. 

Missionary Tour in North Africa, aoB. 

Summary of Protestant Missions in Africa, 343. 

Roman Catholic Missions in Africa, 345. 

Cardinal Lavigerie, 346. 

Methodist Mission in Liberia, 348. 

Bishop Taylor in Central Africa, 349. 

Stanley and Emin. 351, 353. 

Story of Little Kinona, 353. 

Africa Shall Rise, 355. 

Africa's Call. 357. 

Frederick Stanley Araot, 357. 

The Situation in Africa, 363. 

A Glance at Africa. 365. 

The Mission Field of Africa, 371. 

Catechism on Africa. zSo. 

Facts About the Dark Continent, 3S8. 

African Jottings, 388. 

Hobeana of Africa, 334. 

The African Slave- Trade. 339, 

Liquor Traffic Among African Races, 338. 

Garenzanze. or Pioneer Work in Central Africa. 36a. 

The Maiange Mission, 363. 

African Idioms 373- 

Miss Whately's Work in Egypt, 437, 

Tidings from Mount Olive, Libcna, 463. 

African Girl and a 1.03king-glass, 469. 

Tipo Tib and Emin Bey, 473. 
Methodist Mission at Kimpoko, 478. 
Methodist Missions in Angola, 47B. 


Methodist Mission in Singapore, 33, 387. 

The Loyalty Islands, 35. 

The Solomon Islands, 115. 

Malaysia and Its Missions, 39a. 

Methodism in Malaysia, 393. 

Mission Progress in Dutch East Indies, 393. 

Rev. Henry Lyman, Martyr of Sumatra, 395. 

New Guinea. 396. 

Rev, James Chalmen, of New Guinea, 398. 

Rajah Brooke, of Sarawak. 399. 

Rev. James Calvert, of Fiji, 303, 

Father Damien, of Hawaii, 304, 386, 533. 

Catechism on Malaysia, 338. 

The Dhobies of Singapore, 340, 

The Malaysia Methodist Episcopal Mission, 380, 431. 

A Week With Our Missionaries at Singapore, 44a. 

Singapore and the Straits Settlements, 444. 

Return of the King of Samoa, 453. 


Procuring Fire, 3, 

Missionary Ships, i. 

Money for Chnst's Work, 8. 

Progress of Nations as Affected by Religions, 8. 

Religious Condition of the World^ ij. 

Sources and Cultivation of the Missionary Spirit, iS. 

The What and Why of Christian Missions, 33. 

Two Millions for Missions, 97. 

Growth of the Church. 34, 

Religious Outlook of the World, 34. 

Glance at the World, ^. 

Missionary Force and Results, 43. 

Notes and Comments, 46, i39,a34,B84, 339, 376, 436, 

4>6, 566. 
Expenses of Our Missionary Society, 46. 
Compftrisoo of Christian Work at Home and Abroad, 

Cost of Converts at Home and Atmtad, 46. 

Liberality of Christians at Home and Abroad, 47. 

Our Connectional Societies, 47. 

Deaconess Train ing-Schools, 47. 

Missionary Literature, 48, iga, 337, 43a, 480, 57a. 

Giving for Missions, 78. 

Home Investments for Missions, 88. 

Catholic and Protestant Converts, 93. 

Heroism for Christ in Texas, 93. 

John Milton Phillips, 94. 

Claims of the Heathen, 98. 

A Ptcy for Barbarism, 103. 

Protestant Missions Among Catholics, io<|. 

Relations Between Hume and Foreign Missions, 109. 

Proportionate Giving, 134. 

Woman as a Missionary, i8o> 

The Missionary Cause, 18^. 

Investing Money for Missions, 184. 

Missionary Sunday in a Grand Rapids Sunday- 
School. i36. 

Head of List of Methodist Church Givers, 187. 

Meeting ihc Deficiency, 187. 

Average Giving in New Mexico Mission. 187. 

Death of Dr. Otis Gibson, 101. 

Mission Notes on All Lands, 193, 339, aS8, 336, 381. 
430, 479, 5»6. 

How Our ratners Became Christians, aoi. 

Characteristics of Ethnic Religions, aio, 366. 

Miss Mclinda Rankin. 319. 

Development and Resultst of the Missionary Idea, aao. 

The Cradle MLssionary Roll. 334. 

Growing System of Methodist Episcopal Educational 
Institutions in the South, 331. 

Nellie's Gift to Missions. 381. 

The Missionary's Call, 309. 

The World-Wide Command, 311. 

A Sabbath Rest for Saints, 31a. 

Byiantinism in Church and State, 330. 

A Course of Missionary Reading, 337. 

Moravian Missionary Giving. 339. 

Countries Not Open to Missionaries, 339. 

The International Missionary Union, 3a9, 384. 465. 

A Syrian Colony in New York, 335. 

Roman Catholic and ProCestani Missions Compared, 

Comfort of Missionanes, 365. 

Heathen Piety, 366, 

Sue's Tithe. 371. 

Three Notable Things, 373. 

The A B C of Mission*, 373. 

The Outlook for Missions, 376> 

The Salvation Army. 376. 
The Missionary Year Book, 377. 
Contributions of the Unitea States to Foreign Mis- 

sions. 377, 
Problem of a Universal Language, 379, 
A New Missionary Order, 419. 
Disparagement of^Missionaries, 4a£. 
(rheap Missions. ^36. 
Methods of Mission Work, 436. 
The Missionary Spirit, 437. 
Securing Missionary Liberality, 437. 
Circular Letter to Methodist Pastors, 438. 
Pierson, the Missionary Apostle, 438. 
I'he Shadow of a Great Rock. 446. 
Miss Mary L. Whatcly, 457. 
Old Patriarch Jacob. 468. 
Seven Ways of Giving, 471. 


Missionary Thistles, 473. 

A Little Girl's Talk About Giving, 474. 

The Chureh of Christ. 476. 

Criticisms on Missions and Missionaries. 476. 

God's Providence in Mission Work, 495, 

Benefits of Missionary Agitation, 49S. 

Missionary Efforts, 500. 

Only Man is Vile, 509. 

A Sermon on I^ve, 50a. 

Organirine a Chinese Sunday-school, 517. 

For Chrisfs Sake. sao. 

The Evangelical Missionary Alliance, 533. 

Tribute to Bishop Thobum, 533, 

Tribute to Dr. J. M. Keid, 5*3, 

The Chinese Question, 530. 

The Deaconess and Her Work, 540. 

What We Can Afford, 545. 

The Creek Church, 554. 

The Field and Work of Christianity, 556. 

Council of Friends of American Indians, 558. 

A Missionary Campaign in Massachusetts, 568. 


Oceanian Producing a Flame, i. 

Gaucho Getting a Light, t. 

Eskimo Getting a Light, i. 

Indian Producing Fire, i. 

Missionary Ships, 8. 

Missionary Steam-shipt, 5. 

A Chinese Official, ^9. 

Group of Chinese Girls, 51. 

A Chinese Family, 54, 

A Chinese House, 55. 

A Chinese School, $7. 

Chinese Wedding Procetiton, 6o> 

Scene on a Chinese River, 60. 

Gathering Tea in China, 63. 

Chinese Woman of Hong Kong, 1 

John Milton Phillips. 94. 

A Scene in Mexico, 97. 

Meharry Medical College, 13J. 

Boys' School at Orizaba. 13& 

Girls' School at Orizaba, 137. 

Interior of a Hindu Tempfe, t^s. 

Maharajah of Dharbhanga, 1^8. 

Palace of Maharajah of Dharohanga, 149. 

Threshing Rice in India, 153. 

Preaching at a Mela, 153. 

A Tamil Woman, 156. 

A Woman of Ceylon. 157, 

Temple of Parvati, 185. 

Rev. Dr. Otis Gibson, 191. 

Burmese Men, 193. 

Sketches in Burma, 106. 

Among the Shans of Burma, 19S. 

Group of Burmese Women, aoo. 

Graves in Cemetery Near Foocbow, 904. 

Door Gods of China, aaS. 

Medicine God of China, 338. 

Dr. Fox, of China, 338. 

Goddess of the Sea, aa8. 

Thousand- Handed Kwanyin, 339. 

Western China Paradise, 339. 

Stars of Happine-s, Office, and Age, 339. 

Human Sacrifice to an African Idol, 341. 

Traveling on the Gold Coast, 345. 

Cardinal I -a vi get ie. 347. 

View on Congo Kiver. 350, 

King Leopold 1 1 .. of Belgium, 353. 

Congo Family Group, 353. 

Twu Boys of the Upper Congo, 354, 

African Village Sorcerer, 355. 

Victims of King of Dahomey, 356. 

A Malay Woman, aSo. 

Native of Caroline Islands, 393. 

Natives of New Guinea, 397. 

Rev. James Calvert. 303. 

Scene on the Yellow River, 337. 

Peking University, 344. 

.Methodist Episcopal Church at Milan, 346. 

City of Florence, Italy, 349. 

The Cathedral in Florence, 353. 

Ix^gia de Lanxe in Florence. 355. 

Fontana dclla Ammanati, Florence, 357. 

Pilgrims to Mount Fuuyama, 3S5. 

Owari Castle at Nagoya, 388. 

A Street in a Japanese City. 390. 

The First Railway in Japan, 393. 

Mount Fusiyama, Japan. 396. 

Map of Southern Japan, 399. 

Dr. Tsao Vung-knei, of Cnina. 415. 

Rev. Dr. T. S. Johnson, of India, 417, 

King and Queen of Korea, 433. 

Natives of Samoa, 456. 

Miss Mary L. Whatcly, 457. 

I'he Reigning King of Nepaul, 468. 

A Japanese Horse and Rider, 471. 

Tipo Tib of Africa, 473. 

Kmin Hey of Africa, 473. 

Scenes in Peru, 481. 

Natives of Terra del Fuego, 483. 

Natives of Patagonia, 490. 

New Methodist Orphanage at Rangoon, 505. 

Scenes In and Near Stanley Pool, 511. 

A Yejiidee of Asia. 518. 

Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Chuicll, 539. 

City of Sofia, Bulgaria. 5^8. 

City of Rustchuk. Bulgaria, 1)49. 

City of Philippopolis, Bulgana, 55a. 

City of Tirnova, Bulgaria, 553. 

Prince Ferdinand, of Bulgana, 565. 

EuQKNfc R. Smith, D.D. 


JANUARY, 1889. 

806 Broadway, 

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poelrg and SottQ. 


Forget not the Toilers. 

or I. ■. DICKK»GA. 

Oh, friend] as you etaorl in this New Year's glad lime, 

And hear the bflLn riogini; io echo and chime. 

Forget not the toilers bo far from rour land. 

On Africa's hill sides or Indin's strand, 

Oo CIudb's straajft- soil or ihv isles of the sea, 

In every far country wherever it. he. 

Think how fitr they Unve^nne from the homeftof tlieiryoulh, 

To carry gUd ttilingtt nf light nod of truth. 

And will you not i>c!nd them glad tidiags as well 

To cheer them and help triem their story to tellf 

They loog fur a ML;ht flf their own native »hoic. 

But they feel that perlmjw tlity may sec it no more, 

And a inr.tMi^e nf invf frnni ihiit far diflxnt home 

Will gtudden ti-eir bcjirts and uiiiy lig]iteD their gloom. 

Then treat ihcm with kindness and not with neglect ; 

'Tis little they ask and 'ris lo*i they«-xpect; 

And <(cnd them their jiortiou of goodness and cheer. 

With prayers and with blessing this Hippy New Tear. 

VIorlOt Viorkt StorQ. 

Procuring Fire. 

an easy matter for vis to obtain a fire by the aid 
of matches that ai-e with us so common and cheap, but 
with our ancestors and with many people in different 
portions of ihc world it is much more difTicull, and the 
ntethods used are interesting. Friction or concussion are 
the usual methods. 

The Aleutians and Alaskans cover two pieces of quartz 
with native sulphur, then by striking them together they 
ijinite the sulphur, and so fire a heap of dry grass and 
feathers previously made ready. The Eskimo knocks 
quartz and iron pyrites together. Broken china and 
bamboo, or even two pieces of bamboo are used in Burma 
and Cochin China. 

The Oceanian b>s a piece of wood on the ground, and 
rubs a blunt-poirts-d stick up and down on it. Much 
depends upon the quality of the wood andtheexpertness 
of the manipulator. Others make a stick rotate rapidly 
in a round hole in a stationary piece of wood, a method 
which has been denominated that of the fire-drill. 

The Gaucho of the Pampas of South .'\nierica takes ai? 
clastic stick about eighteen inches in length, ijreises one 
<nd to his breast, and the other into a hole in a piece of 
wood, and then rapidly turns the curved part like a car- 
penter's centre-bit. 

The Eskimo winds a cord round the drill and pulls 
alternately at each end of the cord causing it to rotaie 
rapidly, and steadies the drill by letting the upper end 
turn in a socket of bone or ivory held in the mouth. 

The North American Indian applies the principle of 
the bow-drill, and in a short time obtains the desired fire, 
and in China the burning glass is in common use. 

The Missionary Ships. 


I follow the example, and make use of the labors, of 
our German brethren in the " Mission Zeitschrift," and 
chronicle the history of the successive mission-ships. No 
.small interest attaches to them, for they have carried the 
good tidings, the merchandise of great price into many 
regions, and their weapons, though not carnal, have won 
great victories. Moreover, they have been the homts of 
good and holy men, both British and native, who have 
devoted their lives and not been afraid to die for the great 
cause of the extension of their Master's Kingdom. 

Among the first, though after the Moravians, was the 
Duff, which in 1796 was chartered by the London Mis- 
sionary Society to convey the Gospel to the mysterious 
islands of the South Seas. The grandeur and novelty of 
the enterprise can scarcely now be appreciated. It is 
characteristic of that age, that the Vu£' was chartered to 
call at a South American port to take up supplies of good 
wine for the use of the missionaries; what would the 
present generation say to that? The Duff returned 
safely to England, but on its second voyage it was cap- 
tured by the French cruisers, and the missionaries were 
confined in a French prison, and the good ship disap- 

In 1821, the great missionary hero, John Williams, 
purch.ised at Sydney a ship which he named the En- 
iftavour, with a view of evangelizing and creating a legit* 
imate commerce in the Harvey Islands. He was ordered 
by the Home Committee to sell the ship. John H'illiams 
then undertook, though ignorant of shipbuilding, to build 
himself a ship, which he named the Messfnger 0/ Ptarty 
which for many years did him good service. In 1838, on 
his return to England, by his own personal exertions he 
got together enough money to purchase a larger vessel, 
the CamJft, on board which he safely returned to the 
field of bib labor, and which he left only to be murdered 
and devoured at Erromanga in the New Hebrides, in 
1S39, The Camden^ till 1843, did good service in carry- 
ing the Gospel from island to island. In i8.}4 it was re- 
placed by a larger and more convenient vessel. John 
Wiiiiams /., which sailed yearly backwards and forwards 
from England to the South .Seas, until, in 1864, it was 
wrecked on Danger Island. The new ship John Wiiiiams 
II., suffered the same fate in 1867 at Savage Island. 
John Wiiiiams III. then took its place, no longer to pro- 
ceed to England, but destined to keep up the communi- 
cation among the islands, and supplied with auxiliary 
steam-power. It is notable that the connected islands 
subscribed largely to the expenses of these last two ships, 
and, moreover, the mission-ship proved itself to be a 
necessity for carrying on the work of a mission spread 
over scores of islands scattered over a large area. On the 
side of the vessel is inscribed in gold letters on a blue 
ground. Peait on Earth and G(H>d'%vill imoards Men. 

The London Missionary Socirty had another steamer 
in the Torres Straits, the EUengowan /^the generous gift 

of Miss Baxter, for the service of the New Guinea Mis- 
sion. In iSSt the same lady presented a two-masted 
steamer, ElUngatvan If. The work of evangelization 
would be impossible without the assistance and the addi- 
tional help of smaller craft, given by kind friends for the 
same purpose. 

When Marsden had prevailed upon the Church Mis- 
sionary Society to send a mission to Xew Zealand in 
18:7, he purchased at his own expense a brig, the Actir.'e, 
to despatch the missionaries, and he followed them him- 
self. This ship was of a great use, and made the mis- 
sionaries independent of the precarious and uncertain 
accommodation afforded by merchant vessels and whalers. 
The necessity has long since passed away. 

At their Jubilee in 183S, a subscription was collected 
by the Methodist Church to send out a vessel to the 
South Seas, and in 1839 the Triton accomplished the 
voyage. Since 1848, the good ship, John Wesley I. ^ ha 
kept up the communic^ilion of the scattered Wcsleyan 
Missions, assisted by smaller craft. In 1S65 the John 
Wesley J. was wrecked, and was replaced by a John 
Wtstey II. (this also suffered so much that it had to be 
sold) and two smaller vessels, the Jubilee and John Hunt; 
and with the aid of cutters all the needs of the mission- 
aries are supplied. 

The American Mission Board of Boston, U. S., and its 
daughter, the Hawaii Missionary Society, kept up its 
intercourse with its mission in Micronesia, in the Caroline, 
Marshal], and Gilbert Islands, b)* the aid of a small ves- 
sel, the Caroline,\i\i\. [his proving too small, was replaced 
in 1851 by Morm'ng Star/., which, with the aid of 
smaller craft, did good service till 1867, when, being no 
longer seaworthy, it was sold, and replaced by Mormng 
Star II., which was wrecked in 1869. Its successor. 
Morning Star III, was also wrecked in 1884. The 
school-children in America and Asia Minor contributed 
so large a sum, that Morning Star IV. came into ex- 
istence, a large three-masted vessel with steam auxiliary 
power, three times bigger than its predecessor, Xo. i., 
twice as big as No. II. and No. III., a proof of the greatly 
increased work of the mission. 

When Bishop Sclwyn, of New Zealand, first conceived 
the idea of evangelizing the New Hebrides in t847, he 
purchased a small ship of twenty-two tons, the Undine, 
and in 1849 ,in this nut-shell, the hold skipper-b'shop 
navigated the sea with a crew of four men, and brought 
lads from the I-oyalty islands and New Caledonia to be 
educated in New Zealand. For his second trip he was 
supplied by the Church of Australia with a larger vessel 
of seventy tons, the Border Maid, and penetrated as 
far as the Solomon Islands. The returning lads were 
welcomed with joy, and the ship thus became a preacher 
of the Gospel. In 1S56 a friend presented the mission 
with a larger schooner, Southern Cross I., which, in i860, 
was wrecked. In 1 863, Bishop Selwyn's successor, Bishop 
Patteson, was enabled by the help of generous friends to 
send out Southern Cross II., larger in size and with 
auxiliary steam-power. As this was barely sufficient for 

the widespread work of the Melanesian Mission, the 
gift of a small additional steamer by a lady was gladly 

The same necessities produced the same results for the 
United Presbyterian M issions of the Free Church of Scot- 
land, Australia, and Canada in the New Hebrides. The 
lillle Columha was superseded in 1857 by the John Knox, 
which did not prove equal to the work, and gave way iti 
1864 to Day Spring /., a two-masted brigantine, but after 
having done excellent ser^'ice it was wrecked in 1S73. 
It was succeeded by Day Spring II., a three-masted 
vessel of 160 tons; after excellent service this is to be re- 
placed by a large sailing vessel, with a steam launch for 
the discharge of the internal service of the mission sta- 

In Sumatra the Rhine Mission supplied itself in 1 
with a small steamer, the Denninger, to communicate 
its stations in the island of Nias, 

The Hermansburg Missionary' Society launched 
first German mission-ship, the Kandate, in 1853, to take 
the missionaries to the mission-field in South Africa. I: 
1874 it was declared lo be no longer seaworthy, was got 
rid of, and the place not supplied, as it was found less 
expensive to send out missionaries by the numerous com- 
mercial steamers. 

The Norwegian Missionaries launched a mission-shtpr 
named Elieser, in 1865, a three-masted sailing vessel, 
which conveyed their agents to the coast of Zululand and 
Madagascar. After twenty years' good and profitable 
service it gave way to a new sailing vessel, named Paulus, 
and it appears to make money by trading, which is very 

The Swedish Missionary Association was not so fortu- 
nate with their ship Ausgarius, named after a Swedish 
apostle. It was built in 1873, a sailing vessel with 
auxiliary steam-power. It went to Massava in the Red 
Sea, and made expeditions along the coast of Sooth 
Africa; soon after it was recalled to Gothenburg, and, 
after a very short service, sold in 1879, for it was obvious 
that the commercial steamers could convey missionaries 
at much less cost. 

On the river Zambesi Livingstone first appeared with 
an iron steamer, the Ma Koberl, called after his wife, 
which went to the bottom, and was succeeded by the 
Fioneer, made of wood, with paddle, and was sold soon 
after, as the draught proved unsuitable to the navigation 
of the river Shire. Lady Nyassa I. succeeded, an iron 
screw, but which was sold at Bombay. In 1876, Cotterill 
appeared on the Nyassa with the steamer Ilerga on a 
commercial enterprise, and presented it to the Mission of 
the Scotch Free Church, in whose service it sank to the 
bottom. In 1875 Voung appeared with the Ildla, named 
after the place where Livingstone died; it was the first 
steamer which circumnavigated Lake Nyassa, and now 
belongs to the African Commercial Lake Company, wh 
in 1878 placed on the waters of the river Shire Ladj^ 
Nyassa II., a paddle- steamer. It was sunk by the hostile' 
natives. The company built at Greenwich anew steamer, 




the James Sttvemvn. The lUla passed from the posses- 
sion of the Free Church mission into the hands of the 
commercial company, which is on friendly terms with the 
mission. In 1 884 the Universities' Mission in East 
Africa placed the steamer Charles Janson on the Nyassa 
Lake, to be, as it were, the headquarters of that branch 
of the mission. 

In 1876 llie Church Missionary Society sent out the 
Highland Lassi< to run from Zanzibar to Mombasa, on 
the east coast of Africa, but it was not equal to ihe navi- 
gation at all seasons of the year. In 1S83 the steamer 
Henry Wright supplied its place: at that time there was 
no line of commercial steamers running betwixt Mombasa 
and Zanzibar; as there is such convenience now, it may 
be questioned whether a mission-steamer is required. In 
1875 the Church Missionar>- Society sent out to Zanzibar, 
and Ihencc conveyed by a land journey, the little vessel 
The Daisy to the waters of the Victoria Nyanza, which 
it reached in 1877, It navigated the lake to Rubdga, 
the capital of U-Ganda in the northwest corner, but was 
wrecked in 1S79. A sailing boat was then constructed 
by the missionaries on the lake, named the Eleanor ^ from 
the materials brought from England. It is a very serious 
matter indeed placing a vessel upon an inland sea many 
hundred miles from the ocean, as the expense of porter- 
age is enormous, and the hostile tribes on the shore may 
at any moment captureor destroy the vessel. A new boat 
adapted to machinery is now being constructed on the lake. 

The London Missionar>' Society sent a boat in many 
hundred ponions from Zanzibar to Vjiji, on Lake Tan- 
ganyika, in 1883, which was called the Morning Star, 
Soon after, they sent a steamer, the Good Aeit'i, built in 
l^ndon, which was conveyed to KiHmani on the east 
coast of Africa, thence up the Zambesi river; it was then 
conveyed on board the steamer f/dla across the whole 
length of Lake Nyassa, and thence by porters along the 
new road, constructed at the expense of James Stevenson, 
to the southern shore of Lake Tanganyika, where it was 
put together and launched in 1884. 

On the east coast of Africa the Livingstone Congo 
Mission in 1881 launched their small steamer the Living- 
i/y«c, at Stanley Pool, on the Upper Congo; it experienced 
great disasters, and after the bursting of its boilers is used 
as a sailing boat. It was succeeded by a second boat, the 
M0ffat,\n 1883, and by a third, the Henry Reed, in 1883, 
which has accompHsed a great deal of navigation of the 
Congo waters, and is now transferred with the whole 
mission to the North American Itaptist Union. 

The English Baptist Missionar}' Society, in 1882, sent 
out the steel boat, Plymouih, to Stanley Pool. To this 
followed in the same year the steamer Peace, which has 
accomplished marvellous voyages of discovery; it was 
launched at Stanley Pool in 1884. 

Bishop William Taylor, of the Scif-Supporting Ameri- 
can Mission to the Portuguese Colony of Ang61a in West 
Africa, collected enough money in America to send out 
a steamer to navigate the river Coanza and Congo, which 
he named Annie Taylor, after his wife. 

The American missionaries in the French Colony of the 
Gabi\n on West Africa have a schooner, the Albert Buih- 
neil, which serves the mission on the Island of Corisco. 

The Baptist Missionary Society, during its occupation 
of the Kamen'tn country, in West Africa, as a mission- 
field, in 1861 sent out a small schooner, the fVandercr, 
which sunk. In 1S71 they had a small steamer to keep 
up the communication between their stations; this was 
succeeded by another steamer. The mission is now 

The United Presbyterian Missionary Society on the 
Old Calabar river has a small steamer to navigate the 
river named the David Williamson, to communicate with 
the out-stations. 

On the river Niger, in 1857, appeared, for the double 
purpose of commerce and evangelization, the ship Day 
Spring, under Bishop Crowther, which ascended the 
stream as far as Rabba, In 1878 the steamer Henry 
yenn I. was placed by the Church Missionary Society on 
the Niger. It was worn out in the course of eight years. 
A second steamer of a different construction. Henry 
yenn //., was sent out in 1885, solely for the navigation 
of the Niger river, and not to navigate the sea from the 
mouih of the Niger to the Island of Lagos. The mission 
is thus independent of the service of the African Com- 
pany's commercial steamers. The steamer is furnished 
with steam launches to navigate the creeks. 

The Wesleyan Missionaiy Society has supplied their 
missionary with a boat fitted with awning and curtains 
for (he navigation of the river Ogan from the ocean to 
Abeokuta. It is named the Alafia, the Yoruba term for 

The Basle Missionary Society on the Gold Coast in 
"866 purchased the schooner Palme to carry its mis- 
sionaries to the African field. It was got rid of, as the 
commercial steamers supijlied regular and belter means 
of communication. A small river steamer has been 
supplied for the navigation of the river Volla. 

The North German Missionar)* Society, on the Slave 
Coast, since 1857 made use of a ship, the Dahomey, which 
is now engaged in commerce, though formerly belonging 
to the mission. The commercial steamers have removed 
the necessity of this or other ships. 

The " United Brethren in Christ," a missionary society 
from Ohio, in the United States, have a small steamer, 
the John Brcmn, to serve the stations of their Mende 
Mission, in West .\frica. 

In the American Province of Alaska the Moravians 
have a sailing boat, the Bethel Star, to navigate the rivers 
of that desolate region. 

Following the American coast southward, we find our- 
selves in the interesting mission settlement of the Shimshi 
Indians at Metlakatla, belonging to the Church Mis- 
sionary Society. The head of the Mission, Bishop Rid- 
ley, of New Caledonia, bas a small two-masted steamer, 
the Evangeline, built in England. Still farther south, 
but belonging to the same mission, is the steam launch 
Eirene, for the navigation of the Frazcr river. 

In the Diocese of Algoma, in Canada, which skirls the 
nothern shore of Lake Superior, the Bishop has started 
a steam-ship, the Eimniirline, which enables him to visit 
his numerous stations lying at great distance, and establish 
new ones 

In the famous Labrador mission-field of the Moravian 
Mission, the mission- ships have a longer and more ro- 
mantic pedigree.extending over one hundred and eighteen 
years. In 1770 the Jersey Pa,krt led the way, but was 
superseded by a large vessel, \\\t Amity. In 1777 followed 
the Good Inlenl^ which was captured by a French vessel, 
and released by an English cruiser In 17S7 the Amity, 
which had done ^oo^ service, was replaced by the 
Harmony I , a much larger vessel, which lasted till 1S02. 
Like its predecessor, the Rtiolutian. had narrow escapes 
ffrom capture by French cruisers, and worked on till 1S08. 
[ts successor, the Hector, after only two months, was 
replaced by the Jemima. This vessel ran many risks 
from the icebergs and the perils of the North Sea, but 
'■went backwards and forwards from Labrador to England 
till 1817. Harmony //. was specially built for the work 
in 1818, and kept on till i8;ji, in which year Harmony 
If I. was launched, and h^d a wonderfuUarcer, till 1851, 
when she was replaced by Harmony IV., which was 
launched in 1861, and is stiilaHoat. This vessel traverses 
the Atlantic, but for keeping up the communication in 
the mission-fields we hearof missions-boats, named Meta, 
Union, Amity, and the schooner CortieHa: this last was 
run down in the course of a voyage to Europe in 18K1 
by a steamer in the Thames, and was replaced by the 
Gieantr, which is stilt aHoat, and carries freight. In the 
inhospitable clime of Labrador the missionaries and 
their flocks depend upon the arrival of the mission-ship 
for their provision and very subsistence. This places 
the service of these boats upon a distinct category from 
those of other societies. 

The following lines from a Moravian source indicate 
the spirit with which the successive voyages of the 
Harmony arc watched: 

ThitUcr, while to luid fro she steera, 

Lord, guide our annual bark 
By night anil <l)iy. throtiirh hopes and fears, 

While lonely lu the Ark, 
Along her single track she braves 
OulK wliirlpoolK, icefields, winds, aad wave«. 

To waft glad tidiogH t<> the shore 

Of longing [jibrador. 

How welomt' to the wa*chcr*s oyo, 

From mom to evening fixed, 
Tlie Hrst faint speck, thnt aIihwa her nigh, 

Wl>erK auri:t; sod sky art- mixdj ! 
Till looming large, arid larger yet. 
With bounding prow, and ftaila full set, 

She speeds to nnchur on the shore 

Of jojful Labrador. 

In Newfoundland the Hishop since 1865 has had a 
church-ship called the Hawk, but this is used for pastoral 
rather than missionary purposes. The Bishop of Nassau 

for the same purpose in 1885 had a ship, the Messenger 
ej Peme: there is another ship, Ibc Red Cross, and a 
third ship was sent out in 1880, the Baynes, by the Hap- 
tist Missionary Society, but its occupation is pastoraL 

On the Moskito Coast the Moravians have had for 
many years ships for their mission-work. In 1858, Mes- 
senger of Peait I . was launched, and lasted ten years, 
and was then replaced by Messenger n/ Peace //., which 
was lost in a storm in 1873. In 1875 the Herahi ^z.% 
afloat. It is interesting to note that a large portion of 
the cost of these ships was collected irom the children in 
Germany. Great Britain, and the United States. 

In their mission stations in Dutch Guiana the Moravians 
are compelled to use boat-i, among which the Dove is 
worthy of special mention. 

Passing downwards to the region of the Lone Star 
Mission in i'ierra del luego, we find in 1854 Allan Gar- 
liiner /., which has made important geographical dis- 
coveries in the course of the prosecution of strictly mis- 
sionary work. It has had the mournful honor of being 
plundered by the natives, but escaped burning. In 1884 
A//an Gardiner If. replaced the old vessel, and was a 
steamer, but has since !>een converted into a sailing 
vessel, which sufficiently answers the requirements of the 
mission-field, and is much less expensive. 

The Roman Catholic Missionaries are generally found 
among the steerage-passengers in the ordinary passenger 
steamer, after the manner of St. Paul in his famous 
voyage from Syria to Italy; he had no cabin atcomraoda- 
lion like the Protestant missionary and his wife in modern 
times. Even the negro missionaries claim first-class 
accommodation, though travelling for their own pleasure. 
The Roman Catholic Missions appear to have a ship, the 
Christopherus, for the navigation of the river .Amazon; 
on the Lake of Abbitibi, in Upper Canada, ihey have a 
new boat. In Occanica the mission to the Pauroolu Island 
has a boat with the name of the Vatican. The Mission 
of Ragamoyo near Zanzibar has a boat, and on the Nile 
above Khartilm the Austrian missionaries once had a 
Morning Star, but their mission has ceased to exist, and 
the Star has disappeared. The missionaries are still 

A great many considerations arise from the review of 
this secular 'side of mission-work. 

Let us consider the objections; 

1. The dangerous encouragement given to men of 
enterprise to become geographical explorers, and get a 
repute as such to the neglect of their proper spiritual 

2. The temptation offered to secular men. like Henry 
Stanley, to seize mission steamers for the transport of 
troops, weapons of war, gunpowder, etc. 

3. The temptation on the part of the missionaries to 
use the steamers for the purpose of commerce. 

4. The temptation on the part of the missionaries to 
make their ship the refuge of runaway slaves, or to oppose 
the slave-dealer in a way that may lead to bloody re- 




5. The danger which the ship, laden with valuable 
stores, runs of being boarded, captured, or sunk by armed 
bodies of natives; and the inexpediency of placing a mis- 
sionary under the necessity of taking away life to protect 
hii own and that of his companions. 

6. The great expense of purchasing or building, of 
conveying it by sea or land to the mission-field, of re- 
pairing, replacing, and maintaining it. This last remark 
applies specially to steamers. 

7. The danger of transgressing the customs or police 
regulations of a civilized country, and being suspected of 
being smugglers, or refuge of criminals, as in China. 

The mission-ship may appear in several forms. 
I. The sea-going steamer, or nuxiliaty steamer, as in 
the South Seas. 

3, The river-going iteamcr, as ou the Niger 

3. The sailing sea-going vessel, as in the South Ameri- 
can Mission. 

4. The steam-launch, as on the Niger. 

5. The European boat adaptable to steam engines, as 
in preparation for the Victoria Nyanza. 

6. The European boat with sails and oars, as the 
Wesleyan boat at Lagos. 

7. 'I'he native boat, as at Port Said, for the Bible So- 
ciety's agent. 

It is clear that a mtssionar)' society should think three 
times before buying a steamer, and weigh the advantages 
and disadvantages, the profit and loss; it is not a simple 
problem, nor of universal application. In the South Seas 
the steam mission-shijis have been an universal blessing: 
their course from island lo island has been marked by a 
track of light on the waters. Without a mtssion-ship of 
some kind mission-work in the Northern Sea would be 
impossible. Independent of the risk from the dangers 
of the sea and fire, experience has shown that a steam- 
ship has a very short career. The Henry i'fan /, steamer 
on the Niger lasted only eight years, owing to climate 
and local causes. Hut there is another contingency: 
after an expensive steamship has been placed on the 
water to connect certain places, commercial steamers 
may occupy the line and the nn"ssion-ship is no longer re- 
quired. It is not expedient for a mission-ship to make 
profit by a, carrying trade, even of legitimate merchandise, 
Rxclusivc of liquor and materials of war. This opens out 
a great many serious questions. Our safest course is to 
keep our missionaries to the work of evangelizing, educa- 
tion, and heating, and try to relieve spiritual men, as 
much as possible, of secular work and cares. Perhaps, 
on Lake Nyassa, the happiest solution has been found, 
where a commercial company has undertaken the duty 
of navigation on terms of strict amity, but entire inde- 
pendence of the missionarief. 

Money for Christ's Work. 

RV REV. JA.MCS L. rtllLLU'S. M.D.. D.U. 

One every side we are hearing the cry for more money. 
Our schools are calling for larger endowments, and our 
missionary enterprises at home and over the seas are 

pleading most pathetically for funds for enlargement 
From the human standpoint the very life of these enter- 
prises seems to depend upon money, and it Is but fair 
that we should look facts squarely in the face. The prin- 
cipals of our schools are in some cases devoted chiefly to 
money -seeking, and the treasures of our benevolent so- 
cieties give their strength and time lo begging for money. 
This is hardly creditable to the Christian Church so near 
the end of her nineteenth century. Must the consecra- 
tion of property be postponed to the twentieth? 

Amid much that is disheartening we find some tokens 
of cheer well worth our serious study. One is the grow- 
ing tendency to invest money during one's lifetime instead 
of leaving it by will for heirs and lawyers to wrangle 
over. 1 say tendency advisedly, for we can hardly risk 
a stronger word yet in this place. There are a very few 
Christian men who arc beginning to think that they might 
as well have the pleasure ihcmsclvesof seeing their money 
do good, instead of leaving it all to those who come after 
them. May the number of such be increased a thousand- 
fold and more before the last decade of this nineteenth 
century is gone. 

Another very cheering token is the increase of system- 
atized giving. The other day I heard of a church that 
has just taken hold of the weekly offering and is delighted 
to find how well it works, how easily it gathers up the 
letters from the whole congregation, how much more it 
brings in than any of the old methods, how the money 
comes in steadily and is always on hand and how every- 
body likes it. May many other churches find this out, 
too, by actual experience! 

Let us all learn the joy of self-sacrifice. During these 
winter days we may deny ourselves pleasures for the 
sake of helping on the work of Christ. Self-gratification 
yields no sweet satisfaction, like that any one may ex- 
perience in giving up something held dear or counted 
precious, for the benefit of others less favored. We all 
need to pray and strive for that mind which was in Christ 
Jesus, and when that takes possession of us all, of the 
whole Church for whose redemption He freely gave His 
life, how abundantly and how cheerfully shall we bring 
our offerings to His temple. 

Progress of Nations as AfTerted by Religions. 


1. " Religion " : h<m' Um/erstood. 
\Vc use the terra "religion " in no narrow or exclusive 
sense. While firmly convinced that the Christian religion 
is the only true form of religious belief and worship, and 
personally attached to the strictest sect of Protestants, we 
gladly recognize elements of divine truth in all the great 
religions of the world. It would be not only a satire up- 
on humanity but a censure on the Creator to suppose 
that any farm of religion could generally, and for any 
length of time, be believed and practised, if there were 
not in it something which appealed to the higher part of 
the nature of man, and to some extent met its wants and 




cravings. Not only so, but il is this elcmeni of irulh in 
false systems of religion which makes men cling to the 
forms in which they have been born and educated, in 
preference to truer and purer forms when presented to 
them ; so that the more of truth there t!t in a false system, 
the greater the difficulty in convening men to a higher 
and better religion. 

We believe with the Aposile Paul that God "has not 
left Himself without a witness "in any nation, but that 
He has used means for preserving the religions of the 
world from the effects of thai tendency to formalism and 
corruption to which every religion is liable. This truth 
applies not only lo the purer forms of religion in Chris- 
tendom, but to the heathen systems of Asia. The most 
remarkahle proof of this is seen in that mysterious wave 
of religious in the sixth rentur)' hc, which moved 
the mind& of men from the extreme west and east of the 
then known world. 

Four men were raised up almost simultaneously in 
China, India, Persia, and Greece, whose teaching and 
lives did much, not only to purify religion, but to pre- 
serve and perpetuate the human race. Not that they did 
this by mere personal effort. They were representative 
men and leaders, hut there was a preparation in the 
sentiment infused into the men of the age they lived in, 
or their personal efforts would have failed. The benefi- 
cent influence of Confucius has only been exceeded by 
that of the founder of the Christian religion. That .of 
Buddha, for a considerable period, arrested the destruc- 
tive influence of Brahminical corruption and caslc. 

Zoroaster puriticd Babylonian idolatry, and Pythagoras 
raised a higher standard of religious thought and moral 
feeling in the degenerate Greek race, which lasted as a 
theory of morals, and to some extent helped to prepare 
for the introduction of the practical leaching of Chris- 
tianily. It seems more philosophical to trace these move- 
ments, so beneficial to the human race, to the overruling 
iniluencc of a superhuman power than to the fortuitous 
coincidence of simultaneous movements, or the undis- 
covered connection with a common origin, affecting as 
if did so many different minds and masses of population. 
3. Religion and Race. 

In giving the numbers of the population of the 
world under the different religious creeds, hoth in Chris- 
tian and heathen lands, we shall be struck by the fact 
that creeds are, to a very large extent, coincident with the 
races of the human family. So much so, that it will be 
difficult to say, in regard to the increase or decrease of 
|>opulation, whether it was the religion or the race which 
had to do with the movement of population, or whether 
it was a combination of the two. We shall not here dis- 
cuss this question, which, after all, is not so important as 
it seems at t'irst sight tu be. In fact it ts not at all ma- 
terial to the subject, fur cither it was the religion that 
made the race what it is, developing those spiritual, moral, 
mental, and physical characteristicf; which distinguish it, 
or it was the race distinguished by such characteristics 
rhich chose that religion, because it preferred it as that 

which commended itself lo its higher instincts, and satis- 
fied the cravings of its spiritual nature. It would not 
affect our inquiry even if we admitted that religion was 
the outcome of the natural workio]^ of the human mind, 
rather than, as we believe it is in its higher forms, an 
emanation from a superhuman source. 

We do rot treat of ihe question of comparative num- 
bers to be classed under the different religious systems. 
That would be no test of their tendency lo promote or 
retard the increase of population. It is not only where 
ihe religion is that of the government, and has a direct 
or indirect influence on its laws and administration that 
it can have any material influence on population. 

We shall begin with those races which are under those 
forms of religion which we find to be the least progres- 
sive in population, and rise to those which arc productive 
of the highest results in this respect. 

I. Fetichism * is unquestionably the least productive 
form of religion. Taken as a whole, the populations 
under its influence are probably stationary, or on the 

In the Equatorial and Southern Africa they are on the 
decrease, although capable of rapid self- propagation if 
left free from intestine wars or taken under the protec- 
tion of some civilized power ; but left to themselves, 
having no restraints in morality or religion, they mutually 
destroy each other, and the contact of modern civiliia- 
tion, if not accompanied with its control, is apt to in- 
tensify the work of destruction, by the spread of new 
forms of disease, and the introduction of spirits and 
powder increases and intensifies their passions and 
powers of mutual destruction. 

In Northern Africa they arc on the increase, and as 
that probably includes two-thirds of the population of 
the continent, ihe increase in ihe one may be left lo 
counterbalance the decrease of the other, especially when 
we lake into account the arrest of the decrease and in 
some casei the positive increase under the protection of 
Britain and other European powers in the south and 
west of Africa. 

Other races under this Fetich religion are not only de- 
creasing, but arc apparently in a slate of hopeless decay. 
In the Pacific Islands, including Australia and New 
Zealand, and in both North and South America, they are 
dying out ; but in the Straits of Malacca they are on the 
increase, under the protection or hiflucnce of Britain and 
Holland, but are rapidly adopting the monotheistic re- 
ligion of Islam. Tiiken as a whole, therefore, we may 
regard this portion of the earth's inhabitants as on the 
decrease, especially those who are independent of the 
humanizing rule of some monotheistic government. 
These independent tribes of Fetich worshippers in all 
parts of the world may be roughly estimated at about 130 
millions. None of the peoples who adhered to these 
forms of religion could be said to have risen to a state of 

■ Wp «ore|it tfa« word, tltousb un«cl«Dllfle botil (o lea origin and 006. 
At Ant UMd br ttw Poru]J^>•^w. >( sprawl tu Frauofi and OvmiMijr, Hid 
has comti lu tw iwmI u practically tba acoepced namu T'ur Uie lowMt 
form ot rellffloua worablp. 


civiluation, or to have formed a system of laws or a 
ritual of worship. Some of thera show traces of having 
sunk from a. state of semi-civilization, and hold tradi- 
tions of a hif^her form of religion than that which ihey 
now practise. 

II. Poi.VTHiisM IS no longer the religion of any self- 
niling independent power in any country. 

Buddhhm, though professed by a large number of 
people, is not the religion of any ruling race in the world 
worthy of beins called a nation. The only apparent ex- 
ceptions arc such countries as Siam, Japan, Thibet, Korea, 
and the states on the southern peninsula of China. But 
these exceptions are only apparent. Japan, as a nation, 
is much more under the dominion of Shintoism than of 
Buddhism, and Korea is more under the influence of the 
Chinese Ancestral worship than that of Buddha, while 
the same could be said of the southern stales which are 
now being brought under the protection of France, as 
formerly they were under that of China. In the case of 
Siam, we know so little of what it was before it came to a 
large extent under British influence (as seen not only in 
its commerce, but in the employment of many English- 
men in her service, especially in her army and navy), 
that we cannot tell what the effect of Buddhism is on the 
increase of the population. From the nature of Che 
system, it is not likely lo favor the increase of popula- 
tion. It discredits marriage, by treating it as an inferior 
state to thiit of the monk or nun ; and though it treats 
life as sacred by attaching as much importance to thai of 
an insect as of a man, it lowers the latter, rather raises 
that of the former, and life in any form being an evil only 
to be endured, its tendency is not favorable to the increase 
of the human race. 

Brahmaniim, the only other great religious system of 
Polytheism, is no longer the religion of any independent 
nation. The nationalities of India which still maintain a 
separate existence arc not independent. They exist by 
sufferance, and the greatesl of them have received their 
self-government from the hands of Great Britain. Edu- 
cation by the schools .ind press has given new ideas to 
both rulers and people. Sanitary rules as well as the ad- 
ministration of law are entirely remodelled on modern 
principles, under which the natural rate of increase is 
almost as high as it is in the British poisessions in India; 
entirely different from what it was under the native rule, 
before British authority was established. 

III. Of Monotheistic religions we find only two out 
side the Christian systems that claim our attention — those 
that bear the names of Mohammed and Confucius. The 
former takes the lower place — immeasurably lower as re- 
spects the increase of population. 

Mohamtnedan powers are all on the decline. The 
principal of thera. Turkey, Persia, and Afghanistan, have 
all lost both territory and population during the century. 
■ Turkey and Persia have suffered from the encroachment 
H of Russia, the representative of the Greek Church, and 
H Afghanistan has been hemmed in by Russia on the one 
H side and by England on the other, while she has suffered 

from the cffcctsof war. In the present century, with the 
exception of the North of Africa, Mohammedanism has 
not increased except under the protection of Christian 
powers like Great Britain, the Netherlands, Russia, and 
France. Even Russia has improved the condition and 
increased the number of Mohammedans in her eastern 
possessions. Of Egypt with its joint protection we can- 
not speak as an independi^nt power, and it is impossible 
lo Icll the movements of the population in Morocco. 
The estimates vary from a little over to as 
many as nor can the increase in the Soudan 
and neighboring territories under petty chiefs be accurate- 
ly estimated. It is only known to be considerable. We 
shall therefore set down the population of the independ- 
ent Mohammedan powers as stationary or retrograde. 

The following is the nearest approximation to the 
present state of the independent |K>wers now professing 
the Mohammedan religion : 


Turkish Empiru .... 48.000,000 

Persia 7,e00,(K)O 

.\rghanistau and Smaller Staleit . .^.ISOO.OOO 

Morueco and Smaller Slftlcs 9,000,000 

For Soudaa, &c., say ... 29,000,000 


00, too. 000 

Co'i/udanism, the other great non-Christian syslemt i» 
that which Confucius may be said to have petrified as a 
religion and perpetuated as a moral force, of which he 
was himself the impersonation, by which he moulded the 
social and political relations of society in the largest 
Empire in the world's history. The person,ility of Con- 
fucius not only dominates the millions of China; Japan 
and Korea have been moulded under his influence, and 
Cochin-China to a less extent, all these states being for 
the greater part of the hundred years tributary to the 
Emperor of China. 

J. The Population of China. 

From the earliest limes the vast population of China 
has formed the subject of inquiry and speculation, and 
as might have been expected it has led all kinds of writ- 
ers to theorize upon it, many of whom had no special 
qualification for such work. As many of these writers 
can plead that they have visited the country, or passed 
through it, or lived in it. they are supposed to be compe- 
tent judges of tbe number of its inhabitants, and to speak 
with an authority which overawes the judgment of the 
multitude. One result of recent discussions of this sub- 
ject is that it has become the fashion to set aside the 
census returns of the poptilation of China as if they were 
of no more value than the thin paper on which they are 
written. The opinion of a man who has travelled 
miles on some of the highways of a country which is 
about a,ooo miles long and nearly as many broad is set 
up in opposition to systematic census returns of the 
whole of China, made by tens of thousands of officials, 
who are less or more accustomed to the work from year 




to year. For, be it understood. China has from a very 
early period made a fre<)ucni census of her people. In- 
deed, the theory is that a census should be made every 
year, and specially verified every five years. And yet we 
find able men attempting to settle the question by 
observation of a few districts, or by scientific methods, 
or by the inner consciousness of theorists in Eng- 

But if the Chinese GovRrnment has been in the habit 
of making a census, why all this uncertainty ? The reason 
is not far to seek. Most of those who have written on 
the subject have approached it with ideas derived from 
the scientific met^^ods of recent times and a slate of society 
similar to our own, in expectation of finding the census 
of China drawn up on the same model, and with as great 
accuracy as those of Europe or America. If they had 
approached the study of the question with a little ex* 
pcricncc of the difficulty of ascertaining the population of 
England in the days of the Conqueror, with nothing but 
Domesday-Book to guide them, they would have been 
more likely to arrive at a correct conclusion.* With a 
little ejcperience of this line of inquiry, and some knowl- 
edge of China and other old-fashioned countries, let us 
see if we cannot get a fair conception of the po|}ulation 
of that wonderful land. Absolute accuracy is, as a matter 
of course, not to be looked for. 

To understand the census returns of China, we need 
to have a distinct idea of the objects for which the gov- 
ernment have from time immemorial tried to ascertain 
the number of the people. These are, first, for pur- 
poses of taxation, as in alt other countries ; but a second 
object, and one highly honorable to the humanity of the 
government, was to ascertain the number of the people 
for whom provision was to be made in case of famine, 
by laying up store in each district according to the extent 
of its population. This was the theory of the ancient 
Emperors of China, unhappily little attended to of late. 
Another object, which was only aimed at occasionally, 
was to know the number of men capable of bearing arms, 
for which a census was made at irregular intervals of all 
the men over sixteen years of age. A fourth object was 
to enable the Emperor, as high-priest of the nation, to 
present the number of the people on the attar at the 
yearly sacrifice. 

To carry out these four objects, the government has 
from time immemorial taken a census of the population. 
For the purposes of taxation they counted the heads, and 
for provision ai^ainst famine they counted the mouths. 
The former meant only the heads of famiUes ; the latter 
was the whole population. The "mouths " were gener- 
ally made out not by enumeration, but by calculating the 
number of persons in the family, and from this has arisen 
a great cause of uncertainty and a fruitful source of 
error. The census in China may be said to be an esti- 
mate based on a return of the heads of families. The 

*Tb«o«wuilii Cbliui luu DO r»actnblMiD» ta DomewlvBook, UCOtfpI 
fn ao Cat m» that ilocunu-nt ilwb wllti po/tulaf fon, and la thla rMped tb« 
Obtn«M MiMui la Ika nu>r« shnple and ayittentaUa. 

number of the family is an uncertain quantity.* It 
differs not only in the minds of different enumerators, 
but it differs in various provinces, so much so that you 
may find Chinamen employingany number from 3 to 8 as 
a numerator for finding the population from the family. 
But it is, we believe, x.\\q, general rule to take 6 as the 
numerator. In earlier times it seems to have been $• 

It would be unreasonable to expect perfect accuracy in 
ascertaining even the exact number of families in a vast 
country like China, with an imperfect executive, corrupt 
officials, and a population ingenious in evasion ; but it 
was in former times the interest of the official to make a 
correct return of the heads for the sake of keeping up the 
taxes of his province, and it was also his interest and 
that of the people to keep up the full return of the mouthi 
for the sake of provision in times of famine when that 
provision was made, as it was more or less until a recent 

Another source of difficulty in arriving at a correct 
knowledge of the population of China lies in the wars, 
and still more the rebellions, which have been so frequent 
in that country, generally supposed to have been so- 
peaceful and monotonous in its history. It is said that 
sixty successful rebeUhus can be counted, and no man 
knows the number of the unsuccessful. These rebellions 
have affected the census in two ways — first, by the actual 
destruction of the people ; and second, and to a much 
greater extent, by cutting off entire provinces from the 
possibility of enumeration, just as three provinces were 
left out of account in Domesday- Book. 

That China is capable of and actually supports a popu- 
lation of 380 millions is quite wilhin the range of proba- 
bility when we consider the extent and nature of the 
country, its climate, and the' character and habits of it» 
inhabitants. This estimate is not only based on the most 
trustworthy statistics, but is supported by the testimony 
of the most reliable witnesses, and the highest authorities 
in Gcimany and this country. The following considera- 
tions will, we trust, satisfy any reasonable man that the 
land is fully able to support 250 or 260 or an average to 
the square mile, (a) The population live almost entire- 
ly on vegetable diet, so that the ground supports many 
more than it would do if they ate animal food. (*) The 
Chinese arc perhaps the most skilful cultivators in the 
world, making the most advantageous use of all kinds of 
manures, which are collected with the greatest care, and 
applied with the utmost skill, as in a system of gardening, 
to every patch of ground on the hillside, or that can be 
made available by rude terraces. Sea-weeds are collected 
on the shore, and the sea is dredged for shells to be 
burned for liming the little fields, (f) The harvest of 
the sea is gathered with a diligence unknown in any other 
country. Rivers are fished by every method by which it 
is possible to catch the prey by fraud or force, and 
estuaries are turned into farms for pisciculture. (*/) 

> We an awara that an accurate llK of Uie cumber of rat-'h famllj la 
tuppoaetl to l>e placed ac th« door of e-acfa bouw In Cliina ; but aa Ihla list Is 
mado by Ihe parent, not by Uie enutnarator by pcf«oi>al obarrratlon. It* 
aomiraoy In a country lll<« China is quite cnrollablv. 


The only kinds of animal food in which they indulge is 
that of animals which feed on refuse or chance food, such 
as the piR, the dog, the duck, ihe fowl, and the goat. In 
fact they arc a people to whom rats arc .i rarity.and ''kitten 
cutlets" and "puppy pies*" a luxury; even the fish is 
chiefly used as a flavor to the ri»e, which is the staff of 
life, (f) The climate of most parts of the country is 
such as to allow of two and in some cases three crops be- 
ing gathered in the year by their admirable system of 
irrigation and farmin^, or rather gardening. 

We do not count on any great increase in the depend- 
encies of the empire. The form assumed by Buddhism 
in Thibet is unfavorable to increase, and the nomadic 
habits of the Mongols and Manchus are not favorable, 
though they are not so much under the blighting influence 
of Lamaism. 

It would weary the general reader to go over the 
process of proof by which wc arrive al Ihe conclusion 
that the population of China is not far from the high 
figure which is claimed for it by the Government — a claim 
which is allowed by the highest authorities in this coun- 
try and on the Continent and in America. It is vain to 
expect anything like absolute accuracy in such a case, or 
even such a mcisure of accuracy as we find in the recent 
returns of European countries. 

4. TAe Religion of China. 

The religion under which the population of China has 
grown up is that for which we can find no better designa- 
tion than that of Monotheistic-Ancestral religion — a cor- 
rupted form of the Patriarchal religion of which we have 
examples in the earlier chapters of the Bible, in which 
the father of the family or the head of the tribe acts as 
both ruler and priest. In China this system never 
underwent the modification to which it was subjected 
under the Mosaic system, which provided for the separa- 
tion of the priestly from the kingly offices, and intro- 
duced a body of Levites, or subordinaie religious func- 
tionaries, who could act as the teachers of the people, 
and keep up religious worship throughout the country, 
us was eventually done in the synagogues of the Jews. 
The want of this modification of Ancestral worship has 
led to a twofold evil in China. First, it has spread 
throughout the empire the impression that no one has 
the right of direct approach to the Supreme Being by 
sacrificial rites or public worship except the emperor, as 
the head and high-priest of the nation, when, amongst 
other religious acts, he lays the census of the population 
on the altar ; and second, it has prepared the way for 
the introduction of Buddhism, as a supplementary re- 
ligion, suited to the wants of the people, who must have 
some form of external worship. It is only in this sense 
that Buddhism can be called the religion of any large 
number of the people of China. It has never supplanted 
to any appreciable extent the Old Ancestral worship, 
although it has partially modified and added to it. It is 
great injustice, and a gross misrepresentation of the 
Chinese people^ to say that Buddhism is the religion 
of that country. So far as we know only one emperor 

ever professed to believe in it, and even he dared not in 
the smallest degree interrupt the old form of worship in 
his orticial capacity. The number of Chinamen who 
have actually r/noutued the Ancestral for the Buddhist 
religion is not greater than that of professed atheists in 
Christian countries — only a fraction. 

It is impossible to separate the Chinese into two or 
three definite sects. All are what is vulgarly called Con- 
fucianists, but probably more than two-thirds of the 
people practise Buddhism less or more, especially the 
women. So far as the subject under consideration is 
concerned, wc may ignore both Buddhism and Laoutzism. 
Neither materially influence the government of the 
country or the increase of the population. Did lime per- 
mit, we might show how well this Ancestral worship is 
filled to promote ihc increase of a population. 

The rate of increase in this, the only religion outside 
the Christian system which can be called the religion of 
a ruling race, is, as far as we can make out, about .60 
per cent, per annum, reckoning over the whole period, 
and may be represented thus for the hundred years.* 

Mmothtittie Amxttral WorAip. 








China proper 















Koreu . 







5. TAi Greek Church Powers, 
The changes which have taken place in the relations 
of Russia and Turkey to the populations of Southern 
Europe during the century, and the expansion of the 
former in .A,sia and the contraction of the latter in Europe, 
make a comparison extremely difficult, and we do not 
expect much unanimity in regard to the following num- 
bers. They are the best wc can frame in view of the 
past as well as of the present anomalous state of these 







Russia & Depeadeocies SO 








■ •■ 

Smaller 8ute«* 





*Iii ftU the e*tlRtftlD!i for popuIaUooa outside oC Enropelt must b6ii>- 
dertcood Uutt wp Uo not prwUud to fttMtoluM «ooui«cj. Bt«ii thow la 
Europv arc lUbln to considernUti' (.Trors ; bat I Am not «wKr« of IwTfnv pvt 
down uiy witbout k r4M«inat>l« urouod for the «etliii&tO. knd those lor 
Europe sn all bucd on lh« beit retcrtw. Btxly per cent. U tbe r«l« ot tn- 
urvnw^ (iver Uie wHoIk period, not Um oompauud rate rrooa jOBr to rear 
wbict) would be srMitljr tow«r. 

t BfthiK all lubject to Turlcer. (be represenutive o( IilUtt. 





A.tifltri& anil Hungar; 




Porttigul . 
Colooio . 






0.5 leu. 

6. Roman CathMu Powtrs. 
The increase of the Roman Catholic powers of Europe 
we found to be about 50 per cent, per annum. To these 
we must add the Roman Catholic states of America. In 
these the increase seems to have been considerable since 
the establishment of (heir independence, but as that does 
not cover the period, and still more owing to the un- 
certainly of the census in successive years we cannot 
raise the rate of increase tor the hundred years. They 
may fairly be put down thus : 

Affinan C<tOv^ic I\>itert. 

tns. 1H88 

MilUoac MiuiDiu. 

France ... 28 88 

Coloaiea & DBpeodoncica 2 S6 



10.8 17 

90 8 


B.8 4.9 

12 6.0 

14.8 11.4 S.9 less. 

Belgium ... 5.0 2.4 

Amertcaa Slates 80 48 13 

154.8 217.5 78.0 

JV*. B. — Political chaugvs entirely alter the relation of this to 
former tables. 

7. Pra/es/anii'sm. 

The increase of the populations under the power of 
Protestant States ts not relatively so great as under those 
of the Greek Church. This is owing not only to the 
rapid increase of Russia by conquest as well as by natural 
increase, but also to the emancipation of the Greek 
States from the dominion of the Mohammedan power of 
Turkey since the commencement of the hundred years. 
But for that, the increase of the Protestant and Greek 
powers would have been nearly equal in ratio, but the 
former vastly greater in extent, as we shall see from the 
following table. Here also territorial changes make 
accurate comparison with former tables impossible : 

PtfAtaiant Church PbtCfra. 

Oreat Britain & Ireland 
Prateeted States 

German Empire 


Sweden and Norway 


United Btatasof America 













820.3 204.8 







4« 41.5 







408.1 811.7 

IV. It is impossible to separate our view of the in- 
crease of these religions from their connection with race. 
The Mongolian, the Slav, and the Saxon are the three 
most clearly marked of the races which are progressive 
in respect of population. The professors of the Roman 
Catholic religion are more mixed, though the Latin and 
Celtic races predominate. The Slav has a great ad- 
vantage in respect of territory, which gives encourage- 
ment to increase, but the Saxons are making up for this 
defect by emigration, which will give the advantage ii> 
the long run. 

The effect of the increase of population in giving in- 
crease of power leads us to consider the important ques- 
tion of the bearing of the conquests of these growing 
powers on the increase of population in the countries 
conquered. This is most clearly brought out in the con- 
nection of England with India. We have seen that the 
effect of this conquest has been to add greatly to the 
population of that country — even although the exact 
figures we have given may not be accepted, the fact can- 
not be dented. The same may be said on a limited area 
of the Dutch possessions in the East. The rule of France 
in Algeria has increased the population not only in their 
own territory, but has influenced the surrounding tribes 
to some extent, and the semi-warlike propaganda of islam 
in the Soudan has led to more of peace and prosperity 
among the uncivilized tribes, and a consequent increase 
of population. 

The populations of the world, in so far as they can be 
classed under the heads of the principal religions, are 
fairly represented in the following iable, from which, 
however, we exclude the following : 

Fbtichism, — The estimates of numbers now, and still 
more a century ago, arc too uncertain to form a basis of 
comparison, the only certainty being that the numbers are, 
taken as a whole, slmvly on the decrease where not pro- 
tected by some power professing a higher form of re- 

Buddhism, which is not now the prevailing religion 
of any really independent power, unless Siam be reckoned 

Brahmamsm, which only exists and increases under 
the protection of Great Britain. 

A Comparative Vieia of the Pitjrulnlum of th« JtuUnff i^iMra 
under th» Different Dominant JMiffwn* {in miUioiu). 

BelirtOB*. )7M. 1Sr«. IncnmM In I)Mreu9f» 

100 YeBrt. 100 To»ra. 

Greek Church 80 120 00 

Christian. ^ Rorann Catholic 154 217 OS 

Protestant 157 469 8H 

w«„ ( Confucian life f „,„ ^qa 

N«°- ^ Shinto ;• 2'^ ■*'^^ 

8D 8« 

70 none 

175 180 

o [ChmUan.)j^,^^ 

Fetichism , 




If to these we add 15 million which we have not been 
able to classify under any of the above heads, such as 
Siam and some smaller states in Asia and Switzerland in 
Europe, we shall make the population of the world at 




the present lime about 1,437 millions, which may be 
represented thus : 

Th« PhpubUioH 0/ tht W^rld under tht R-ding Pou tra repnwnt- 
inff ths Principal lUlujiaiia, with t/u itutwue dufitii; CA« 
eenturjf (in millionit). 


iitic < 



ISM, Inerea*e. 
805 464 



363 487 
I'uljtbouJtJc .... 70 nnn« .,, 70 

Fetich 176 130 ... 45 

N. B. — None of tbMe fi^nrM give the numbers belooguig to 
tho differi^ut religiouH. That \ft a difforoat question, and gives 
•very diilereDt results. 

8. Effect of BrUhh Rule. 

The effect of British rule on the population of the 
whole world Is a most important factor in the future of 
the world's history. Not only does her influence extend 
over the peoples directly governed, but over the tribes 
bordering on her colonies and dependencies. The fol- 
lowing figures win give an idea of the extent of this in- 
fluence in its different forms at the end of 18S6, calcu- 
lated at the rate of increase from the and the preced- 
ing census : 

Great Dritaiu and Ireland . . 87,IS00,000 
_ Colonial Poi^seuions . 10,fiOO,000 

\ lodian Poa»easion« 408,000,000 

\ Nativo Statef .... ft7.t»00,000 





If this enormous aggregate of human beings under one 
powerful government were congregated in one compact 
region of the earth it would be something to be feared — 
a power that might dominate and enslave the world ; but 
scattered as it is over the whole habitable globe, its 
power to benefit the human race is much greater than its 
(tower to oppress. Peace is the condition of its pros- 
perity, freedoro and liberty are essential to its develop- 
ment, and beneficence or philanthropy tlie justification 
of its existence. 

If we merge the distinctions which separate the three 
divisions of the Christian Church, there are only three 
religions in the world which are the dominant belief of 
the ruling race in any country which has any pretension 
to civilization even in its most crude form, i^eaving out 
of account savage tribes, with their unformulated beliefs, 
2II the rest of the human race, with a few exceptions, 
which are more apparent than real, are governed by races 
which believe in ChrisU\iaiiy, Mohammedanism^or Cort/u- 
.cianism, anu all the threk are monotkbistic. The 
other systems are dethroned. The reins of government are 
taken from the hands of all idolatrous religions by races 
holding the higher and purer faith. Hinduism, an in- 
-dcfinite expression for the countless forms assumed by 
the Brahminical religion, has lost all rule in India. About 
four-fifths of its professors are under the direct govern- 
ment of our Christian queen, and those under the ad- 
ministration of native princes are influenced and con- 
trolled by the Imperial Government of India. 

Buddhism is Dot the religion of any really independ- 
ent State. All iis votariesace directly or indirectly under 
the sway of Christian or Confucuui governments. Ceylon, 
Burma, Assam, the Malay Peninsula, and even such a 
State as Nepal, ruled by the Hindu race, has its British 
resident. The apparent exceptions, like .Siam, .^naam, 
Tonquin, and others, are lessor more under iheinHuence 
of England or France. The Buddhists of China and the 
dependent states to the north and west are entirely sub- 
ordinate to the Ancestral religion of the country, which 
is not only the religion of the ruling and educated classes, 
but in one sense the religion of the mass of the people. 
Throughout the length and breadth of China, with the 
exception of its dependencies, there will not be found 
more than a few millions, including Jews and Moham- 
medans, who do not profess and practise the Confucian or 
Ancestral system of worship, even though a large propor- 
tion of them take advantage of the rites and prayers of 
the Buddhist ceremonial on important occasions in 
domestic and social life. The three religions of China 
are mutually supplementary of one another : the system 
of Confucius is based on human reason and history, that 
of Laouize appeals to the imagination and the super- 
stitious elements in our nature, while Buddhism rests on 
the emotions and sentiments of the man. But while in 
some degree suited by their combination to meet the 
wants of humanity, they fail to satisfy it, and thus tend 
respectively to scepticism, mysticism, and ritualism. 
You will often find a Chinaman practising all three with- 
out any sense of impropriety, but usually he gives a 
precedence to that which appeals most to the prevailing 
tendency of his natural disposition, and will give a pref- 
erence to the religion of Confucius, Laoutze, or Buddha 
as reason, imagination, or feeling predominate in his 

There are two things which give an overwhelming pre- 
[londerance to the Ancestral worship of China. First, 
the Chinaman is essentially conservative, and to relinquish 
the faith of his fathers is contrary to his nature. Second, 
reason or common sense is the basis of his character ; in 
imagination and emotion he is essentially weak. Hence 
the mass of Chinamen are Confucianists. The other 
more modern systems are only subordinate, and are not 
so used as to interfere with the old creed. Japan is no 
exception, for there, though Buddhism is more potent 
than it is in China, yet even there the Shinto religion 
occupies somewhat the same place that Confucianism does 
in China, but has nut the same firm hold of the less con- 
servative and more versatile race. Buddhism, as modi- 
fied by the Shinto and Confucian systems, may be allowed 
to be the dominant religion of Japan ; but having so 
limited a sphere of direct control as it exerts in Japan, 
Siam, and the neighboring slate of that southern penin- 
sula, it cannot be classed as one of the principal religions 
of the world in so far as our present inquiry is concerned. 
It has exerted and does still exert an influence on other 
religions, and thereby on the country in which it exists, 
and to that extent afTects pupulalion. A very small sect 







may in this way exert a powerful influence. No student 
of English history can doubt that the Quakers have 
exerted an influence on the moral tone and on the Icgis* 
lation of our country far beyond that which thctr limited 
numbers would have led a mere statistician to expect. 

We have not time to draw the many lessons suggested 
by the facts 1)rouglit before us in this chapter. We would 
only call attention to the responsibility in the position 
now held by the Christian stales of the world, and espe- 
cially that of Protestant states to which Providence has 
assigned such a lar^e preponderance of power and in- 
fluence. A third part of the population of the entire 
wurld is under the dominion of Protestant powers. How 
difTercnt from the condition of the world a hundred 
years ago. How much more does ic dilTer from that 
before or even after the Reformation. 

We may add what a hope it is fltied to inspire in ihe 
Protestant Church. The natural law increase of popula- 
tion is in her favor. If only true to her family religion 
she will make rapid way as compared with other re- 
ligions, whether in the unreforracdchurchesor in heathen 
and Mohammedan systems while the conquests of Prot- 
estant nations have added vastly to the influence they 
may exert, if only true to God and their own profession. 
Kut everythini; depends on this, and this is the great 
source of anxiety. There is, however, much ground for 
hope. With all our faults there is much that i^ good and 
true in our social, political, and religious life, and with 
Ihe vast amount of light now filling the world, and with 
the Bible as a hand-book in every land, it n'-cds only the 
descent of the Spirit of God in His quickening power to 
tarn the streamsof moral culture and religious knowledge 
into the good wine of the Kingdom of God. — A Century 
«/ Christian Progress. 

The ReligioiiK ('onditioii or the World. 


The human race is estimated by the most competent 
authorities to number 1,430 millions, and the forms of 
religion most prevalent are Christianity, Muhammedan- 
ism. Buddhism, and Hinduism. An analysis of these will 
show what an immense proportion of our race is without 
any satisfactory form of religion, and reveal clearly this 
principle, that under the influence of pure Sctipiural 
Christianity mankind has reached its highest point of 
civilization, power, and hopefulness; and that precisely 
to the degree by which Christianity is corrupted or for- 
saken is the civilization lowered, the state of society more 
defective, and the outlook kss hopeful. 

The following analysis will illustrate this principle, and 
it could be sustained by the amplest evidence: 

Protestantism is professed by 130 millions of our race, 
and is the prevalent faith of England. Scotland, Holland, 
Prussia, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, British North 
America, the United States, and the Colonies of South 
Africa, Ausiralia, and New Zealand. It divides with 
Roman Catholicism the cantons of Switzerland and the 

minor states of Germany, All its oldest possessions lie, as 
will be observed, in regions not most favored by nature; 
nevertheless these are the seats of the highest civiliza- 
tion, the noblest forms of political and social life, and 
the most extended commerce the world has ever seen. 
Defects and evils there are among these states, but if 
their general condition be compared with that of alt 
others, it will be seen how far they have advanced be* 
yond them. The progress ihey have made in discovery, 
science, art, civilization, wealth, power, freedom, during 
the past 150 years — since their position was fairly estab- 
lished — has never been attained by any other states in 
twice the lime. 

If we attempt to define what principles, institutions, 
and habits of life are good for individuals, for families, 
and for society, we find these in their highest perfection 
in Protestant countries. Jf there is ho[>e anywhere for 
the world's welfare and elevation surely it is in these. 

Jioman Catholitism is the religion of 190 millions of our 
race, chiefly in France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria, 
Belgium, Ireland, and South America, The political, 
social, and moral condition of these nations is lower than 
that of their Protestant neighbors. Their civilization is 
inferior, their governments are less stable, their resources 
are more limited and less varied, and their progress is 
far slower. The two have been now side by side for 300 
years, and the advance of the former ov^x the latter in 
all that constitutes human progress, at the close of each 
fifty years, and that, too, with accelerated speed, suflS- 
ciently proves that where the pure leaching of God's 
Word is forsaken, the deviation brings its own curse and 
punishment. The poverty and factiousness of Ireland; 
the political unrest and social laxity of Krance; the man- 
ner in which S])ain and Portugal, once so splendid and 
powerful at home and abroad, have sunk to abject weak- 
ness; and the low, unhappy condition of the South 
American States when contrasted with the strength, pro- 
gress, and hopefulness of those in North America, clearly 
prove this.* 

The Greek Chureh has seventy-five million adherents 
in Russia and Turkey; and the related Ahyssiniatt, Coptie, 
Syrian, Nestorian, and Armenian Churehes have about 
ten millions more. The errors of these Churches are 
almost as great and pernicious as those of the Church of 
Rome. The ritual of the first-named and most important 
of these is imposing and gorgeous, but intensely formal 
and lifeless. Ignorance, superstition, and apathy prevail 
under all these forms of Oriental Cliristianity. They an- 
swer but too truly to the Saviour's description of the 
Church at Sardis: " I know thy works, that thou hast a 
name that thou livest, and art dead." 

Mohammedanism has 185 million adherents. It is the 
dominant faith of Arabia, Persia, Turkey, the states of 
Centr.1l Asia, and Northern Africa; it is widely diffused 
throughout the other portions of Africa, and less Influen- 

* Tbii wu ooDOl'iBlTelr promd aoms rcart *kc> In a book too IlKle kDO«ni, 
" CXbolicand ProtvsUtit Natluna t.iiinTArt-<l in their (tir«vrrld relations to 
Wealth, KiMiwIeditC. Bod Moialltjr," \ty Nkpoleoti ItoiUMl. 6e« tXvi "Im, 
QuettloD Romaiue," br EdmQn4l About. 




tially to the eastern borders of China and the southern 
limits of the splendid, populous, and fertile islands of the 
Indian Archipelago. In India alone there are fifty mil- 
lions, being onc-fiflh of the entire population. 

No Muharotnedaa countr>- has ever risen above semi- 
barbarism. There is not one which has a form of gov- 
ernment under' which Englishmen would be satisfied to 
live. Nor arc reforms and progress possible, without 
violence being done to its principles and traditions, since 
it petrifies whatever it touches. Its intolerance far ex- 
ceeds even that of the Papacy; and, beyond ancient 
Mosaism, it is political as well as religious. The Koran 
is its statutes of the realm, as well as its theological and 
spiritual guide-book. Hence arises the danger and diffi- 
culty of introducing reforms into such Mohammedan 
countries as Turkey and Egypt. Not only docs it cling 
with wonderful tenacity to political power, and hate and 
resent change and progress; it has also marvellous power 
to mould the disposition and character of its adherents 
into likeness to Mohammed himself — an evil type, the 
most intolerant, sensual, unamiable, and hostile to Chris- 
tianity which the world anywhere presents. 

Buddhism is the prevalent superstition of Ceylon, Siam, 
Burmah, Thibet. China, and Japan, and numbers not less 
than 420 million adherents. The whole of south-east Asia, 
with its teeming population.accepts this religion: and the 
history of its rise and diffusion constitutes one of the 
most remarkable and suggestive episodes in the religious 
history of mankind. In these it is in striking contrast 
to Mohammedanism, and in accord with the peaceful 
principles and most consistent incidents of Christian 

But its leading features and general influence only can 
now engage our attention. It has been the most power- 
ful religious factor for more than 1,200 years among 
gifted races, dwelling compactly in regions of the earth 
most favored by nature — yet with what results? It has 
a certain amount of civilizing, elevating power, which, 
however, seems incapable of expansion; for no Buddhist 
race has advanced beyond semi -barbarism, nor, until 
roused into life by contact with Western civilization, has 
exhibited any desire for progress for hundreds of years. 

If no Buddhist race is barbarous, none is civilized. It 
is the vaguest and loosest of all systems of religion; for 
scholars have not decided whether, fundamentally, it is 
monotheistic or atheistic, and whether its Nirvana be a 
future conscious existence for the soul, or annihilation. 
Its moral teachings are singularly pure, but it has very 
little power over the heart and life. No religion has ever 
so pliantly lent itself to the idiosyncrasies of humanity, 
for wherever it has gone it has adopted the pre-existing 
superstitions, rather than subverted them, — like the ivy, 
taking the form of whatever it covers.* 

* In Tblb«t It t«ke« the form of Lntnitliim. wiUi k sappowd InckniaUan of 
Ihr ttolty; In Japan it i-ual^scen wUti 8blntoltuii; In Chin*, wllh demon and 

Idol worahip on Cli« ooe baniJ. and ratloDalitim and ancMCraJ worahip or the 
otber; lo Nepaii) atid Ox''^- I'Lih IlindulftRi: aiitl in Utirma, Sium. and 
AniiAin. will) UiH Idolalrteit wlitcli nnvedrd 11, If. tlierBfont, lc« nuiniirical 
atrrRjcih he cl[>«'ly amUy/ml, il will lie dimliilriliBi] liy aoniif U-l^ ipf millliiti 
Cblae«e Confuclanlata and TaolaU, and a larE". thouKh Imlrllnablr, multl 
tadft of Japanese SblotolsU. 

Hinduism is the profession of 190 millions of our fel- 
low-men, who are, for the most part, also our fellow- 
subjects. Of all the su[>erstitionB which have ever held 
sway over great masses of mankind, this is the most in- 
congruous, strange, and tyrannical, and exercises a singu- 
lar power over the imagination and the life. Intellec- 
tually, it leans toward pantheism; popularly, it is a gross- 
system of polytheism, but transcendental monotheism, 
triiheism, and atheism also find in it a home. It has 
myriads of temples and shrines for one or other of the 
335 million divinities it recognizes, but only one in all 
the vast empire for the supreme Bramho, " the one with- 
out a second." It is without those traits of grace and 
beauty which characterized the superstitions of Greece 
and Rome; yet it treats the people of every race but its 
own with grotesque and supercilious contempt. The 
stale of opinion and society it has fostered are among 
the most extraordinary that have ever prevailed among 
a numerous race. A typical Hindu supposes that hl& 
caste-rank is the consequence of something done in a 
previous state of existence, perhaps thousands of years, 
ago, and that in consequence of what he does in this life 
he may become at death a reptile, a quadruped, or a bird. 
He believes that this may turn on the quality of a single 
meal, or the caste of the person with whom he eats, or 
the trade he follows, or the place where be resides. He 
supposes that women are inlcUectually and morally in- 
ferior to men, and that, therefore, very early marriages, 
the seclusion of women from general society, the inabiltty^ 
to read or write, their absolute subjugation to their hus- 
bands, or other male relations, and the strict prohibition 
of widow marriage, are customs not only wise but neces- 
sary. He supposes that his destiny depends on caste laws 
far more than on theological belief or moral conduct; so 
that, while he will allow himself without compunction to 
violate almost every moral law, he will starve or die 
rather than eat with the man who is as superior to him 
socially as the earl is to the day-laborer, but who has no 
caste, or one lower than his own. * 

In addition to these great religious systems, there arc 
about 230 million other idolaters, scattered almost exclu- 
sively throughout Asia and Africa, whose superstitions 
are too rude and vague to be systematized. They are al( 
barbarians, though in various degrees of degradation and 

It is not necessary to do more than indicate the other 
religions of mankind however interesting they are. 

Judaism, the oldest faith in the world, older even than 
Hinduism, is the profession of seven millions. 

Panetism, the purest and most elevated form of idola- 
try — if indeed it may so be called — has not a million ad- 
herents, found exclusively in Persia and on the western 
coast ol India. 

Shintoism in Japan, and Confudanism and Taoism in 
China, are closely associaied with Buddhism, and subtract 
greatly, in any careful analysis, from its numerical force. 
The same remark holds good of Deism, which prevails so 
extensively in some Roman Catholic countries, and, in « 

strict an-ilysis, ko materially diminishes the numerica 
strength of the Papacy. 
■ Companng these religions with each other, we find the 
H following startling and suggestive results: 
H Protestantism is the profession of only i in ii of our 
Hrace; Romanism of i in 7 3-3; the Eastern Church of 1 
H in 17; Mohammedanism of i in 7 1-3; Buddhism of 1 in 
B 3 )-2; Hinduism of 1 in 7 5-6; other Polythcists are 1 in 
H 5 j-4. Thus it appears that Roman Catholicism, Mo- 
"^ hammedanism, and Hinduism arc each numerically 
stronger than Protestantism. Buddhism has three times 
as many adherents, and the unsystematized polytheisms 
of barbaric r«ccs almost twice as many. Buddhism 
numbers as many disciples as all forms of Chrisiianity 
united. The latter is received by less than one-third of 
the human family. Thus 1.035 niillions of our race are 
without a true Revelation, ignorant of the Supreme 
Being and of His purpose of redemption through Christ. 
This heathen and Mohammedan population is forty times 
that of England and Wales, or twenty-nine times that of 
Great Britain and Ireland! If. then, wc arc moved to 
effort when we hear of a village or sumc district of a large 
town destitute of the Gospel, what should be our emo- 
tions, as we survey this inconceivably large mass of our 
fellow-men without a true knowledge of God and of a 
Saviour ? The highest reason for seeking their evangeli- 
H zation is found in this great fact; but there are certain 
Haspects of their state, even> in thib life, whicli prove how 
Bgreatly they ar** in need of Christianity as a purifying and 
^elevating power. 

1st. For instance, If the state of man be carefully sur- 
veyed, this fact will he seen: wherever there is Christian- 
ity, there is civilization and progress; and the civilization 
ts high, and the progres:< great, in proportion to the 
purity of the Chriiitianity. But beyond the bounds of 

(Christendom we meet with no state of society that strictly 
can be described as civilized. And they arc without it 
just to the extent that they deviate from the fundamental 
principles of the Bible, 
ad. We discover, if we carefully study history, and 
the mental and moral t.|ualitie$of various races, that these 
^varieties of civilization and barbarism, of progress and of 
HTetroccssioD, are not the results of geographical position, 
of natural advantages, or of intellectual force, but mainly 
of religious belief. This might be proved by a great 
Bvariety of facts, from which take the following: Syria 
and the neighboring regions are among the fairest and 
I most fertile on the earth. They were once the seats of 

I civilization, peopled by races of great intellectual power; 
but for more than 1,000 years, under the blighting 
dominion of Islam, they have made no advance. Again, 
the Chinese have, in some directions, great mental gifts 
as well as much practical skill and force of character, 
through which in former ag«s ihcy made great progress; 
but it is questionable if they have made any real advance 
during several hundred years. The Indo-Aryan race is 
ooe of the most gifted, and. when Christianized, will 
probably be one of the saintliestand most illustrious; but 

for 3,000 years it has almost been as quiescent as its su- 
preme divinity Bramho during one of the great cycles of 
his imagined being. 

Thus Islamism, Buddhism, Hinduism, alike prove how 
deadening false religion is; and, to complete the illustra- 
tion, reference may be made to another capable poly- 
.theistic race. Madagascar is no .sooner touched and 
inspired by Christianity than it wakes out of the night- 
marc of ages, and rapidly advances on the pathway of 

3d. False religion not only checks the nobler aspira- 
tions of mankind, tt also degrades, demoralizes, and im- 
poverishes. The least advanced Protestant race, for 
instance, is far higher than the most advanced pagan 
one. That Is, the people are better housed, clothed, fed, 
educated, live longer and more securely, have more wealth, 
and are less likely to lose it by fraud, violence, or national 

4ih. There are operative, all over heathendom^ evil 
principles, usages, and customs, which produce a fright- 
lul amount of misery. Turn, for instance, to Central 
Africa. There arc to be seen races, greedy, mean, and 
degraded to an unspeakable degree, whose pastimes are 
slave-hunting, the burning of villages, and the slaughter 
of human lieings. The states of Northern Africa are 
chiefly known to us by their despotism and piratical 
proclivities. They, and all other Mohammedan States, 
recogniiie slavery, polygamy, and forms of government 
so despotic and corrupt that no body of Englishmen 
could live under them. Among the states of Central 
Asia the bigotry and lawlessness are such that no Chris- 
tian dare venture to dwell there. In India caste, female 
degradation, and perpetual widowhood, produce more 
misery year by year than slavery ever produced in the 
British colonies. In China infanticide is common. In 
all Buddhist lands human life is imperilled by great out- 
breaks of violence, and unnatural, a^ well as natural vice 
is common. In the island world of Asia, theft, violence, 
and ignorance are almost as general as they can be, whilst 
infanticide, cannibalism, and human sacrifice have been 
customary in many parts. And through all these vast 
and varied regions, truthfulness, honesty, and honor are 
rarely to be found. Who can estimate the unhappiness 
and unrest which all this engenders? for the Psalmist's 
words are as true now as they were 2,800 years ago: 
"Their sorrows shall be multiplied that hasten after an- 
other God." 

5th. It is a striking and pathetic feature of heathenism 
that it is far more fruitful of evil than of good, and seems 
generally impotent even to encounter the abuses and 
evils from which its victims suffer. This arises from its 
very general lack of moral principle; and since Its ad- 
herents are usually without moral indignation, they have 
little revulsion from crime, and neither motive nor cour- 
age sufficient to attack it. In England, if a great crime 
be perpetrated, or a great evil be brought fairly before 
the public view, the moral indignation is so sensitive and 
strong, that numbers willingly incur expense, trouble. 



and danger to detect the perpetrator of the former, or 
unite for the suppression of the tatter. But it is not so 
in any heathen communily. Thus slavery, polygamy, in- 
fanticide, suttee, perpetual widowhood, and analogous 
evils exist here and there as great national institutions 
for hundreds of years, with only a timid voice now and 
again lifted in protest against them. Everywhere 
heathenism presents a low, hopeless, and joyless level of 
humanity, in strong tonlrast to the hopeful, elevating, 
and benefueot qualities of evangelical Christianity. The 
instances in which, during the past thousand years, it has 
waged war on vice and crime; subverted evil, unUss by 
the introduction of other evils; reformed and regeneraied 
any large proportion of society; inspired men with noble 
and beneficent impulses; striven to mitigate the misery 
produced by such calamities as famine, pestilence, and 
war; erected hospitals for the diseased, and schools for 
the young; asylums and refuges for the forsaken, the un- 
fortunate, and the helpless — have been rare indeed. The 
Psalmist's words have been true of almost every age since 
they were penned, because of reasons inherent in human 
nature, "The dark places of the e.irih are full of the 
habitations of cruelty." 

This is a dark picture, but it is a strictly accurate one. 
Heathenism is of all human evils the most offensive to 
God, and the most injurious to mankind, and the marvel 
is that we can read what the Bible says about idolatry, 
and have a general idea of the poverty, ignorance, vice 
and misery common in all heathen lauds, and yet view it 
with such inditference! 

The Sources and Cultivation of the Mlsslouary 



Missions have strong claims on the aid and sympathy 
of philanthropists, merchants, and statesmen; on all, in- 
deed, who are interested in human progress. They 
further the legitimate aims and the highest aspirations of 
such classes. They aim at the repression of every form 
of cruelly and wrong. Their success always creates or 
develops traHe and rommerce. Good government and 
peaceful aspirations follow where they prevail, and iheir 
triumph is as surely followed by a rapid growth of civili- 
zation, as spring is by warraih and fruitfulness. The 
principles which underlie missions necessarily lead in 
these directions, and their history offers a continuous 
series of facts illustrative of human progress in the re- 
pression of evil, and the growth of true civilization. 

Il is surprising, therefore, and only to be exijlained on 
the ground of want of acquaintance with the facts, that 
ihe clusses in question, unless imbued with the Christian 
spirit, regard missions with indifference or prejudice. It 
is religious people only who originate and sustain mis- 
sions with any vigor. Obviously great resources of faith, 
hope, love, and zeal are required, as well as of money; 
and the former arc found among Evangelical Christi.nns 
to a greater degree than elsewhere. Il is a fact, illustrated 

in every age of the Church of Christ, that where apostoIic» 
pietist, or evangelical views, as they have been variously 
named, have prevailed, missionary ardor has been in- 
flamed, and where these have died down or been absent, 
the missionary spirit has declined. In a few instances in 
which it has been otherwise, the exceprion admits of 
explanation; but the fact, and the rule, cause all deeply 
interested in missions, to be anxious for the conserva- 
tion and spread of this earnest, spiritual form of Chris- 
tianity, and to view with apprehension any essential de- 
viation from it. 

Even when it is recognized, the missionary spirit is not 
as prevalent and powerful as it should be. We joyfully 
hail its fuller diffusion throughout Protestant Christen- 
dom, with all the liberality it evokes and the agencies, 
both at home and abroad, that it sustains; and we are 
persuaded that the cause is a growing and not a declin- 
ing one. But, when we think of the empires, kingdoms. 
and tribes still pagan; of more than one thousand million 
souls outside all forms of Christianity, the vast majority 
of whom have never once had the great truths of the 
Gospel respecting God and Christ, and sin and salvation, 
presented to them; and when, on the other hand, we 
think of the immense resources of the Church of Christ, 
in men. and wealth, and influence; of her freedom from 
any such stress and strain as have in past ages taxed the 
energies and absorbed the resources of the true servants 
of God, and the marvellous facilities now afforded of 
preaching the Gospel to every creature; the truth is forced 
on our minds that the want is not so much in the means 
as in the will to enter on this work, stupendous as it is, in 
a fitting manner. 

Three things are requisite. Two of these constitute 
our pari, the third is with God; and if we fulfilled ours, 
which are after all only true features of the genuine ideal 
Christian character, the third would be given. These 
are — 

I. A true conception of the work which is yet needing 
to be accomplished. 

II. Wise, strenuous, and adequate endeavors to accom- 
plish that work. 

III. The outpouring of the Spirit of God to give effect 
to human endeavors. 

Here we have sketched the outlines of such a book 
on the philosophy of missions as is greatly wanted. Only 
a partial contribution to so noble a subject can now be 

1. Christians, generally, utterly fail in forming a con* 
ception alike of the magnitude and the importance of the 
aims contemplated by the missionary enterprise. No 
one indeed can adequately comprehend what it signifies; 
but through want of imagination, knowledge, thought, 
and sympathy with the mind and purposes of God, our 
conceptions are far lower anfl weaker than they should be. 

Who, for instance, understands, or even tries to under- 
stand, what ihe attempt to convert a million, or a hun- 
dred million, or a thousand million Pagans involves; or 
to understand what is meant by the evangelization of 



Mitral Africa, or New Guinea, or India, or China? How 
!w have any adequate idea, or feeling, relative to the xg- 
irancc of all heathen races of essential religious truth, 
the crimes and sufTerings engendered by this heathen- 
1, or of the vice and immorality prevalent among them. 
How few Christians even seem to understand what 8 
misfortune, or calamity, or loss, it must be to be a heathen, 
^d to be without the beliefs aod hopes which irradiate 
nir own lives and destinies. How few sympathize with 
what must be ihc thought of God, as He surveys the dis- 
honor dune to Himself, and the evils inflicted on man- 
Hind, by the prevalence of heathenism and its attendant 
crimes and vices; or the purposes of love and beneficence 
which the Saviour cherishes toward our race, and which 
|pe died and reigns to accomplish. How few, again, in 
Bieir comfortable and even selfish enjoyment of Chris- 
Ipan ordinances, and in their efforts to give the Gospel to 
those, who, with rare exceptions, have had it offered to 
them, and have turned from it a hundred, nay a thousand 
times, think of the multitudes of the heathen who are 
perishing with hunger whilst they have bread enough 
^nd lo spare. Our selfish neglect of those most needing 
^nr aid, and the fallacy of one of our excuses for neg- 
lect, — that we have heathen enough at our doors to 
absorb our efforts, — is forcibly and admirably put in the 
following extract. Will the reader give it the attention 

t merits ? 
" Among the members of the various sections into 
lich the Evangelical Protestant Church in America is 
divided, there are at the present time laboring in word 

rid doctrine, no less than 78,853 ordained ministers. In 
le fifteen principal denominations of Great Dritain and 
reland there are 39,746 more, making a total of 118,599 
ministers set apart, who are, week by week, preaching 
Khrist to a small section of the human family constitut- 
ing not one-twentieth part of the whole — say seventy 
pillions, out of the world's population of more than 
>aneen hundred millions. 

On the other hand, these countries have 2,900 or- 
dained missionaries witnessing for Christ in heathendom. 
So that in these two countries there are considerably 
more than a hundred thousand ministers engaged in in- 
structing seventy millions of intelligent, educated Protes- 
tant Christians, while they send less than three thousand 
missionaries to evangelize the rest of the world, including 
Bie thousand millions of heathendom ! To reduce the 
Bombers so as 10 make this state of things more con- 
ceivable, a hundred ministers are set to teach seventy 
thousand Christians, and three missionaries are sent to 
instruct a thousand thousand utter heathen — a whole 
llion of Pagans ! 

But the case is really far worse. America has, in 

Idition to these ordained ministers, 35,000 local preach- 

s, and probably quite as many more lay-agents of other 

kinds, including Sunday-school teachers; and England 

^Us. at the lowest computation, as many more. The 

Hotal number of Christian laborers in the home field in 

these two countries, it would be hard in these days lo 

estimate, so numerous are the volunteer forces. Three 
hundred thousand Christian workers, however, is far 
nearer the fact than one; while if we count not only the 
lay-agents, but the female missionaries in heathendom, 
the total is only 4,533. The proportion of Christian 
workers absorbed by the home field is therefore more 
than ninety-nine per cent. Not one out of a hundred 
of the ministers and lay-workers of the Christian Church 
is laboring in heathendom, though in contains ten times 
more souls than Protestant Christendom, and though it 
is in such an unspeakably needy condition ! Two 
groups are before us. Seventy fat and well-fed people 
in the one, and a thousand starving creatures in the 
other. To the former we give a fine batch of large 
loaves, and to the latter we accord one crumb to divide 
between them. Do then those who know the Gospel 
perfectly well already, whether they obey tt or not, need 
instructing or evangelizing a thousand times more than 
those who have never even heard of God or Christ? 
Ought the agency available for the world's evangelization 
to be thus unequally distributed ? Are the Protestants 
of England and America so dark and ignorant that they 
really require more than ninety per cent, of the preachers 
of the truth for their own enlightenment and salvation ? 
Is it the genius of Christianity to look every man on his 
own things, and forget the interests of others? In the 
natural world some roll in luxur)', while others die of 
starvation; but cm it be pleasing to God that the bread of 
life should be thus unfairly distributed — God, who would 
have all men to be saved, and come to a knowledge of 
the truth ? 

"And the tardiness of the Church in sending her fishers 
to launch forth into the deep, and let down their nets for 
a draught, is all the more strange when we note how 
much better mission work pays — to use a familiar word 
— th.-in the ministry at home."* It is clear evidence of 
this that, whilst the average increase of members through- 
out the Protestant Churches of the United States was 
last year but 3.10 per cent., in the Foreign Mission 
Churches it was 7.75. The average mission contributions 
of the former wasonly thirty-two cents — one shilling and 
fourpence. But if the sums contributed be apportioned 
among the attendants on public worship, or the adult 
Protesrant population, the average amount is not half this 
small amount. 

If in any adequate degree we realized the stale of Ihc 
world, and what the Church of Christ is giving and doing 
for its conversion, surely the measure of our zeal and 
liberality would be immensely augmented. 

II. How are appropriate thoughts, purposes, and re- 
solves to be more generally formed in Christians ? They 
will come wherever the Spirit of God comes in power. 
But there are certain means which, if conducted wisely, 
vigoroasly, and devoutly, will receive the blessing of 
God. Let me indicate at least some ot these. They re- 

• "TbA Wld* World And our Work tn Ik." By Mm OnUan Uulmcaa 
Hoditor £ gknifhton. 



ist. To Missionary Societies. 

3d. To churches and individuals at home. 

3d. To missionaries and individuals abroad. 

ist. Where the missionary spirit is deep and true, 
agents, money, and whatever is requisite for the vigorous 
prosecution of the enterprise, will be given. But it is 
not generally so strong as to be independent of much 
care for its nurture. Too often it is so sensitive as to 
be easily depressed, and therefore it is of the first impor- 
tance that all associated with the management of societies 
sustain and strengthen the missionary' spirit where it 
already exists, develop it where it is not, yet ought to be, 
and avoid whatever would create prejudice, which is 
only too ready to spring into being. Are not the follow- 
ing suggestions important ? and it would be but too easy 
to give abundant evidence that the want of thought, or 
courtesy, or good sense, or a careless or proud indilXcr- 
ence, if not contempt for the opinions of the outside 
world, has brought much detriment to the good cause, 
and given its detraciors, and even its friends, but too 
much occasion to withhold from it their support: 

1. The affairs of a society should be conducted with 
the most rigid economy; and this should be seen in home 
management as well as in foreign affairs. 

2. It should provide or encourage the production of 
literature, suited to the young, the intelligent, and the 
general mass of Christian people. 

3. Care should be taken that the pecuniary features of 
the society do not prevail over its spiritual aims — that 
the desire to manage its affairs on "sound business 
principles" does not cause the diminution of religious 
fervor and enthusiasm, which after all is its life and soul. 

4. Care, too.'should be taken that regulations and niles 
do not strangle free, fresh, and spiritual impulse and 
movement. A mission board has to administer affairs, 
perhaps in countries as diverse as China and Kaffraria; 
among races varied as Hindus and Kingoes; in slates of 
society as extreme as those of Japan and Patagonia; and 
among races as far apart and unsympathetic as Arab 
Mohammedans, Mahratta Hindus, Siamese Buddhists, 
and New Guinea fetich worshippers. It has to select 
men for these various spheres; to co-operate with them 
in their general work, and in the very peculiar circum- 
stances into which they may be thrown. It has to rein- 
force their number, to supply them with the means of 
prosecuting their enterprise In very various directions, 
and generally to advise them as to the policy they should 
adopt, and the methods they should pursue. Clearly all 
this, and a great deal more, requires much wisdom, ex- 
perience.-sympathy, considerable respect and deference for 
the opinions and wishes of those on the spot, and an 
elasticity of administration which, judging from the his- 
tory of many missionary societies, has been by no means 

5. Missionaries should be very carefully selected. 
Their spheres should be as carefully chosen. A due 
amount of freedom should be accorded to them, and 
especially to those of proved temper and ability, and to 

such as arc in new or peculiar spheres. And respect and 
honor should be accorded, not only to the office of a 
missionary, but to every one who is or has been k mis- 
sionary, if they have borne themselves even fairly and 
honorably well in the good fight. 

6. .AH associated in administering the affairs of a soci- 
ety need ever to remember that they are trustees only, 
representatives of the Christian community appointed 
for a special purpose, the friends and fellow-helpers of 
the men who do the actual work, not their superiors and 
masters; and that the popularity of a society, the en* 
largement or diminution of its funds, and the happiness 
and efficiency of its agents abroad, depends greatly on 
their wisdom, impartiality, courtesy, and Christ-like zeaL 

7. Organization is important, and, perhaps, expresses 
better than any other word what should be aimed at in 
the conduct of a society. But it should be organizing 
for purposes beyond merely collecting money. It should 
see 10 the formation of new auxiliaries, the best arrange- 
ment of annual services, the circulation of literature, the 
appointment of suitable collectors, and the cultivation 
generally of confidence, enthusiasm, and devotion to- 
ward the sacred cause. Next to the one or two secre- 
taries of a society, ministers, carefully selected, can most 
efficiently and economically do this around their own 

2d. Christian societies, however organized, may well 
be urged to give Foreign Missions a very high place in 
their aims. Their place in relation to other objects we 
will not attempt further io define, than to say it is second 
to none. If Sunday-schools, mission halls, and Home 
Missions, to say nothing of other wise and holy agencies, 
can claim a large share in the zeal and liberality of 
Churches, surely Foreign Missions can claim a larger. 
Their field of action is most vast and varied, and it is 
given up to unspeakable ignorance, vice, crime, and 
misery. It is helpless and hopeless in itself. Yet it is 
also the most remunerative and reproductive In converts, 
agents, and pecuniary resources. It is not unrea* 
sonablc, then, to ask that it have a far higher place in 
the thoughts, prayers, energies, and gifts of almost every 
Church than it now has. Instead of this, is it not, in 
most Christian societies, feebly supported, little heard of, 
and soon set aside? May we offer an ideal of what is 
fitting to represent missions in every Church ? 

1. A missionary committee appointed by those in 
authority, and made as nearly as |>ossible representative. 

Its work should be definite, and inclusive of such de- 
tails as the following — 

The cultivaiion of the missionary spirit. 

The diffusion of missionary information. 

The collection of missionary funds. 

The arrangement for missionary services. 

%. A monthly missionary prayer meeting, at which a 
brief address should be given, to direct the prayers 
offered to a devout and intelligent appreciation of the 
missionary problem, and to special cases where prayer 
may bring the blessing most needed. Pains also should 





be taken that the meeting may be made stimulative of 
prayer for the same great objects through the month. 

3. A minister may well be expected frequently to re* 
fer, in public prayer and in preaching, to missionary 
topics. Butat least once a year missionary services .should 
be held. 

4. A missionary anniversary should be held in every 
place of worship; and it should be made much of by 
■adequate adveriisemeDl and notice, by private invila- 
tion, by the presence of neighboring ministers, and, 
wherever practicable, by more than one service. A 
week-night sermon, a breakfast, a tea, a meeting for 
ladies, a service for the young, or a lecture, may well be 
added to what is usually called the public meeting. 
Whenever practicable the services of a missionary should 
be secured, but if not, a meeting should still be held. 
The importance of the enterprise demands this, and it 
would be a grave reflection on the intelligence and zeal 
of any minister if, on the subject so vast, varied, and in- 
teresting, he could not, with a very moderate expenditure 
of time, prepare an address which for half-an hour or 
more should interest and inform any kind of audience. 
Sermons that are missionary in either their principles or 
facts, and not merely in name, should be preached, and 
whilst at a meeting the missionary should have the 
larger measure of lime, it adds to its importance and in- 
terest if both laymen and ministers take a part In the 

5. At least one collector should be appointed, who, 
from social position and age, will give weight and authority 
to all applications for subscriptions and donations. If 
others are appointed to collect smaller subscriptions, 
weekly, monthly, and quarterly, to suit the convenience 
of donors, equal regard should be paid to suitability, 
punctuality, and reliability. 

6. Care should be taken, by circulars and announce- 
ments, to foster a true idea of the importance of mission 
services. The majority of those even who attend places 
of worship form their estimate of the relative importance 
of an object from the manner in which it is announced, 
by ministers and office-bearers. Too often, such an- 
nouncements are as brief, bare, and cold as it is possible 
10 make them. The missionary anniversary should be cer- 
tainly the second, if not the first, event in the annual his- 
tory of every Church, and should be treated accordingly. 

7. Endeavors should be made to interest Sabbath-school 
scholars and others in this enterprise. 

(a) A box should belong to each class, and be handed 
round once each Sabbath. 

{b) The lessons now and then should be of a mission- 
ary character. 

{e) Some missionary magazine should be circulated as 
widely as possible. 

(<f) A missionary address should be given at least once 
a quarter. 

(<) Once a year the whole service should be mission- 
ary — f.r, the school should have its missionary meeting 
ai well as the congregation. • 

The importance of these suggestions will be endorsed 
by all really acquainted with the history of missions and 
the biographies of missionaries. A very large proportion 
of the latter, and the best home helpers, come out of 
schools where Foreign Missions are made prominent. 

8. Every Christian family, and ever)' person claiming 
to be a Christian, may reasonably be expected to take an 
interest in missions. Our ideal of how that interest should 
be shown, is — 

(a) A missionary box in every house, which, beside 
being privately used, should be placed on the table once 
a week. 

{b) .\ subscription weekly, quarterly, or annually, from 
every professing Christian. 

((■) A missionary magazine in ever>' family. 

3d. Missionaries, more than any class of persons, 
elevate or depress the missionary spirit in tlie Church of 

They are responsible for methods of evangelization, 
and for the public opinion of Christianity, as a religion 
and a life, that is gradually formed in their spheres of 
labor. They gather the converts, and are to them what 
shepherds are to sheep. They affect the degree to which 
native Christian communities become strong, self-reliant, 
self-supporting and aggressive. They select and train 
all native agency. They disburse the funds of the soci- 
ety which they represent. The influential Europeans, 
who as traders, merchants, travellers, and civil servants, 
are found in almost alt I'agan lands, derive their ideas of 
missions from a close, and too frequently unfriendly, ob- 
servation of missionaries themselves. The letters, 
reports, and books which missionaries write, and the 
addresses they deliver, when at home, shape public 
opinion, not only respecting themselves but of the cause 
they represent. How much the interest, the ardor and 
the liberality of a Christian society depend for a whole 
year, nay for many years, on a sermon or an address at 
a missionary anniversary ! Who can measure or describe 
the widespread and abiding influence of an Egede, a 
Schwartz, a Carey, a Williams, and a Moffat ? Such men 
are greatly wanted now. Never were so many, wide, open, 
and promisin)^ spheres of labor ready for men of the 
highest ability, in the various directions of genius, elo- 
quence, and zeal ! 

But splendid work awaits the willinghood of men less 
richly endowed. Two classes of such may be indicated 
— the wealthy and the enterprising. 

There are a few — some associated with societies, others 
not — who give gratuitous service; a noble example, worthy 
of wider imitation, and calculated to tell powerfully, not 
only in favor of missions, but Christianity itself, both at 
home and abroad. 

Respect and confidence are due to the general policy 
of our missionary societies; but through them, or as eti- 
tirely independent agents, it would be interesting to sec 
a large class of free, self-denying missionaries, acting 
somewhat on the methods of the New Testament evan- 
gelists, or the Mohammedan missionaries in ,\frica, of 



whom we hear so much and know so little. We do not 
forget thai both these classes have moved among races 
tt-ith whom they have had affinities, such as no European 
or American can have among Asiatics or Africans, and 
thai in some cases the attempt would prove unwise and 
disastrous. But since some missions are conducted with 
elaborate and burdensome expensivcncss, it would be an 
interesting experiment to see other methods tried that 
were more economical, primitive, and direct. African 
and Asiatic converts might, in many cases ought, thus lo 
act, for the method is quite in harmony with native pre- 
cedents; but converts are not likely thus to act, unless 
stimulated by European example. 

III. But apart from methods, that which is wanted is 
men of power, full of the Spirit of God. Should we not 
pray that God would make such men ? One such in Cen- 
tra] Africa, 'in Japan, China, Burma, or one of our 
splendid Indian provinces, might turn the current of 
popular thought and sympathy in favor of Christianity. 
This is no mere dream. Oriental gregariousness justifies 
the thought. Events are preparing for such a revolution 
of religion; and if Sidharia-Sackya Muni in India. Con- 
fucius in China, Choitunya in Bengal, Mohammed in 
Arabia, and Lnihcr in Germany, profoundly alTecIed the 
behefs of millions even whilst they lived, and have 
permanently formed the religious thoughts and feelings 
of vast empires, nations, and tribes, it is surely within the 
reach of probability that some one proclaiming ihc true 
message of God in the method of St. Paul, and wiih the 
love and power of ihe Saviour of mankind, may be hon- 
ored lo produce revolutions as widespread, but far more 
important and blessed. 

The great need — that which would give whatever is 
lacking — is the power of the Spirit of God, as it was 
promised by Christ, as it may be had by holy living and 
ardent desire,and as it hasintluenced afew hereand there- 
This would make all Churches possessing it intensely 
missionary in spirit and aim; would constrain the gift of 
whatever wealth was required, and lead far more to offer 
their services than could even be accepted. This would 
elevate and direct the motives and aims of all who re- 
ceived this power from on high; would indefinitely add 
to thewisdom. love, and energy of Mission Boards; would 
go out to create in pagan minds a desire for something 
higher, better, truer than their superstitions, and awalicn 
an eagerness to welcome the Gospel when it was offered to 
them. This would give power to increase a thousand-fold 
the converts to Christianity, and would make them 
individually, as zealous, as holy, and as Christ-like, as 
were Apollos, .Aquita, Priscilla, and Polycarp, and our 
churches as pure as those at Philippi and Philadelphia. 
Then the highest flights of prophecy shall be realized, 
"and the wilderness be turned into a fruitful field, and 
the fruitful field be counted a forest" {Isa. xxxii., 15-20; 

" Come, btcued Lord, bid every shore 
And answerioff inland sing 
The pruiiKi) uf Thy royal nKme, 
And own Tbee as their king.'* 

The What and Why of Christian Missions. 


Christian Missions need defining as well as defending. 
The word missions has come to be ambiguous because 
used in two senses. There is a use which makes it sub- 
stantially synonymous with all Christian work, and which 
makes every Christian disciple worthy of the name a 
Christian missionary. Is he not one sent forth, it is said. 
to spread the Christian religion, sent forth, not neces- 
sarily into a foreign land or lo a great distance, perhaps 
only from his own town or home? Me may be sent, it is 
added, not only to Christianize those in utter ignorance 
of or antagonism to our system of faith, but 10 get men 
to accept practically what they already accept in theory, 
to turn them from nominal Christians into real ones. In 
this sense every Sunday-school teacher, every colporteur, 
every earnest, living, witnessing disciple, whatever be hts 
sphere or method of activity is a true missionary going 
about to tell the good news to those in some sense unac- 
quainted with it. 

But this treatment of the word too greatly broadens its 
meaning, and renders it really worthless for any practical 
purposes. It becomes emptied of all special significancet 
and destroyed by the throwing down of its barriers just 
as a river is destroyed when its banks are removed and 
all its waters are spread over the plain. It is no defini- 
tion of a flower garden to say simply that it is a piece of 
cultivated ground. So it is no deBnition of a Christian 
missionary to say that he is one who. somehow, some- 
where, is actively engaged in promoting the Christian 
religion. This includes too much. If a missionary is 
made everybody in general, he becomes nobody in par- 

An attempt has been made to mend matters by putting 
before missions thus broadly taken the qualifying words 
'' home " and " foreign," apparently with the hope to 
limit in this way the too widely diffused term, and at the 
same time e.xtend to tabors for the upbuilding of the 
Church in Christian countries the same prestige which 
pertains to the more heroic enterprise of establishing 
Christianity among the heathen. But this is very unsat* 
isfactcry and insvifticienl. It can hardly be regarded as 
either legitimate or logical. If all Christian work is mis- 
sion work, then foreign missions are simply Christian 
labors in a foreign land, and an American who goes to 
England and accepts the pastorate of a church there be- 
comes a foreign missionary. In like manner an evan- 
gelist, like Mr. Moody, remaining in his own land is a 
home missionary, but if he goes either fur a season or 
permanently to other Christian lands he becomes a for- 
eign missionary. Evidently, this will not do. 

Nor can these terms, home and foreign, be given any 
fitting or permanent place in the vocabulary of Christ's 
kingdom. They do not touch any vital or essentia] 
points. They do not help us in getting at fundamental 
distinctions. Arbitrary national lines do not rule Chris- 
tian duty nor deiine Christian work. What important 
dlETereitce is there between working for Jesus among the 



Spanish-spL-aking Roman Catholics of New Mexico just 
north of our national boundary, and working among pre* 
cisely the same class of people in old Mexico just south 
of that boundary? What is gained by calling the work 
among p;tgan Indian tribes in Alaska on one side of a 
boundary line home missions, and exactly the same work 
among pagan Indian tribes, in British America on the 
other side of that line, foreign missions ? It is not sim* 
ply or chiefly the place where work is done, whether in 
some part of our immensely extended country, or in an 
adjacent country, or in a country across the sea that 
best classifies it. Rather is it the kind of people that 
are worked upon that should differentiate our nomen- 

There is a dilTcrcnce very plain, important, and scrip- 
tural, between the planting of a sclf-sujjporting Church 
in a country and the indefinitely extended processes by 
which that Church takes more and more complete pos- 
session of every vilLige and family and person in it. The 
former has been from the beginning and by common con- 
sent called missionary work in distinction from the gen- 
eral Christian work which has the latter for tts object. 

By Christian Missions, then, we should understand the 
attempt of the Christian Church lo plant Christianity in 
all non-Christian lands, or the measures used lo disciple 
those nations not already discipled. It is the tabor which 
culminates in the overthrow of idolatry and of all faiths 
opposed to the true faith. A country ceases to be a 
mission field when a living Church has been so thoroughly 
established therein, that its own people who are already 
Christians can cope with the task of enlightening and in- 
structing such of their neighbors as are still without 
knowledge of our Saviour. 

The perfecting and polishing of communities or nations 
already in the main Christian is a work which, apparently, 
will never be completely done. But the totally different 
work of destroying non-(3hrislian systems and making 
Christ lord of every land we firmly believe will one day 
come to an end. Then will the work uf missions properly 
80 called, the work to which William Carey summoned the 
slumbering millions of Protestant Christendom, the work 
of rescuing the perishing heathen and overturning the 
idol temples, be gloriously accomplished. 

Taking missions in this more accurate and restricted 
sense, It becomes a matter of interest to inquire what is 
their true rank, what place ought they to have In our 
thought and ex|icnditure.^ Tlic least that we can say is 
that they constitute the chiej work of the Church, its 
most comprehensive and fundamental, its most inspiring 
and attractive department. Beside it all other things 
are small. * For moral dignity and grandeur it is unsur- 
passed. Among the glories of the present century there 
is none so great. It is truly an enormous undertaking, a 
task of unparalleled boldness and gigantic sweep. It 
combines within itself the elements of all that is sublime 
in human achievement and reaches the loftiest level of 
human purpose. The very contemplation of it kindles 
enthusiasm, enlarges the mind, and strengthens the spir- 

itual powers. Its prosecution calls out whatever is heroic 
in man. It requires the mightiest faith, the largest love, 
the most unwearied patience, supreme wisdom, extremest 
self-deolal, and dauntless courage. It has no equal for 
simplicity of means, arduousncss of execution, and mag- 
nitude of result aimed at. It proposes to transform the 
whole world by preaching Christ crucified. Out across 
the continents and down through the centuries it rushes 
with words that hum up sin in the purifying fires of un- 
selfish affection. From an insignificant beginning that 
awakened only contemptuous indifference less than a 
hundred years ago. it has become one of the great ruling 
ideas of the age so pervasive and powerful that it stands 
in the front rank of the agencies that are changing the 
face of the earth. It Is the true crusade of the 19th and 
aoth centuries, not for the rescue of an empty tomb but 
for the universal enthronement of an all-conquering 

The local or home work, to which so many mistakenly 
restrict their sympathies and exertions, should be re- 
garded as important mainly for i/ie sake of the larger un- 
dertaking, deriving its authorization from such principles 
and commands as make it Impossible to stop with the 
home work or consider that chief. Labor in the local 
parishes, among those already more or less acquainted 
with Christ, is needed to give a strong base of supplies, 
and to keep the ranks full at the front. Il was not Christ's 
design that His Church should conduct a defensive war, 
massing her forces at her fireside. He calls her to an 
aggressive campaign in which the line of battle against 
the organized foe far in advance is tlie principal thing, 
and the homes in the rear are expected primarily to sec 
that the line is strongly, constantly reinforced. 

Alas, how far in practice has she departed from this 
ideal. She will never reach it unless some of our present 
customs are reversed, and a very much greater, if not in- 
deed the larger, share of our expenditure of God's work 
Is devoted to non-Christian peoples. The nations will 
not learn of their Messiah, the heathen will not be saved 
until the Church gets ready to rise in her might and make 
the conquest of paganism her ruling passion, until she 
hurls herself upon the foe en masse instead of sending so 
paltry a detachment. The captains of the little squad 
who constitute the storming column, finding themselves- 
confronted with the vast hosts of heathendom in solid 
ranks cry back in agonized entreaty to the commanders 
at the rear, " Bring on the whole army." But that army 
lolls in its entrenchments or saunters idly by tlie way, and 
most of its officers seem quite content to have it so, 
wholly Indifferent whether the enemy be vanquished or 
not. Great God, what a spectacle ! How long, O Lord, 
how long! 

Proceeding now from the What to the Why we pass to 
consider the motives which urge us to missionary activity. 
First should come those derived from God, next those 
derived from our fellows, and last those derived from 
self. We offer the following classification: I. The com- 
mand of Christ direct; II. The command of Christ indi- 


reel; III. The needs of our fclluw-nicn, spiritual; I\'. 
The nccda of our fellow-rocn, temporal; V. Our own 
pro6t, both spiritual and temporal. 

1. The direct command. This is put in such a way as 
to leave room for no honest difTerenre of opinion as to 
what was meant. Prominent in position, filling the final 
verses of the first Gospel, unutterably solemn as to lime of 
announcement, being the last words of the Lord before 
He went to Heaven, most emphatic and affecting in mode 
of statement, and reiterated with variety of form by all 
the evangelists, — nothing seems to have been omitted by 
the Master for i>roducing upon His followers the most 
profound impression, and their subsequent conduct 
abundantly shows how thoroughly He succeeded. Matt, 
xxviii.. i8-2o, Mark xvi., 15, Luke xxiv., 47, John 
xvii., iS, and Acts I., 8, all contain this great, farewell 
commission, couched in such language as to make it en- 
tirely clear that it applies not only 10 those to whom it 
n-as first delivered but also to all who should receive 
through them the tidings of salvation. The provision is 
at all points complete. His authority is declared to be 
paramount and perfect, precluding .ill thought of defi- 
ciency in their prerogatives, and they are assured of His 
abiding presence so thai no one need ever be deterred by 
difficulties in the execution of the precept. In the face 
of such unmistakable orders and such ample equipment 
with power we are relieved from all concern about the 

Whether these should be satisfactory to us or not 
would make no particle of difference with our duty. In 
such a case simple implicit obedience, not learned dis- 
cussion, is demanded. There is no option. The ques- 
tion is closed. " Go " dues not mean stay, nor does 
"preach the tiospel to the whole creation '* mean keep 
repeating it over and over to a few while the most have 
never heard it. Nor is it possible that direct disobedi- 
ence to so clear a command can be lightly condoned. 
Condemnation rests surely and heavily on him who, by 
calling himself a Christian, says, "I go, sir," and then 
goes not Whoever refuses lo obey this word, so plain, 
so pathetic, so peremptory, so simple in its terms, so 
solemn in its associations, shuts himself outside the pale 
of Christ's flock. Nothing can excuse him but unavoid- 
able ignorance. And however this may avail for the 
past, when the Bible was a sealed book and when the 
eyes of even good men seemed to be holden as to much 
of its contents, it is difficutt to .see how such a plea can 
possibly be received now in these dayii of open vision. 
Love and loyalty admit of no other response but immedi- 
ate compliance. 

This then, is our simple impregnable position. The 
whole matter is decided here. Did this command stand 
entirely alone as a motive for missions it would be quite 
enough. All else is secondary and subsidiary. This lifis 
the whole subject to the highest possible platform. It 
shows that missions are not simply a scheme of man's de- 
vising for the amelioration of suffering and the civiliza- 
tion of savages, but a divine arrangement for the salva- 

tion of the race. By all our love to Christ, by all our re- 
spect for His authority, by all our hope of receiving at 
last His ** Well done," we are pledged to render accessi- 
ble to all men this treasure committed to our trust. 

n. The indirect command. Christ's general teach- 
ings, His example and spirit, are scarcely less significant 
expressions of His will than the explicit orders. The life 
Jesus led, were this all He left us, would compel us to 
the missionary enterprise, for we could not otherwise 
be true to Him. Ministry in the broadest sense filled 
His entire career. He stretched a gr.tcious hand of help 
to all that were in need, and perpetually went about do- 
ing good. He was emphatically the model Christian 
niissionar)', even as He was the first, filled with soul-con- 
suming zeal for souls, intent on doing all the Father's 

The example of His apostles, who were deputed to 
carry on the work from the point where He left it, power- 
fully confirms His own. They went into all parts of ihc 
then known world, amid circumstances of greatest hard- 
ship and danger, to preach and leach the good news of 
the kingdom. In this fact alone there is a strong com- 
mand for us, especially in the life of Paul, the man who 
next lo Jesus Himself represents the true spirit of our 
holy religion. The whole Christian Church indeed was 
evider>tly designed to be an embodiment and expansion 
of Christ, doing in all parts of the earth what He person- 
ally could no longer accomplish. This makes it of ne- 
cessity missionary, pledged to the diffusion of the bless- 
ings of the Gospel- It has for mottoes such words of the 
Master as " Freely ye received, freely give," " Ye are the 
salt of the earth, the light of the world," "The kingdom 
of Heaven is like unto leaven which a wriman took and 
hid in three measures of meal till it was all leavened." 

The prophecies also both in the Old Testament and in 
the New, together with the promises and prayers pertain- 
ing lo the worid-wide extension of the Gospel, too numer- 
ous to be quoted here, constitute of themselves a virtual 
command. So does the New Testament view of man. 
This view is wholly different from anything seen in the 
world before. It makes all men brothers, equally chil- 
dren of the one Father who is no respecter of persons 
but gave His Son *' a ransom for all." Hence comes the 
obligation to seek all, as well the distant as tlie near, to love 
our neighbors, thai is all who need us, as ourselves, and to 
give to others such treatmt^nt as we would like to receive 
from them were we in their place and ihey in ours. We are 
bidden to do good unto alt men, to honor all men, as 
made in God's image and purchased with the blood of 
His Son. It is written, " We that arc strong ought to 
bear the infirmities of the weak," thus making it impos- 
sible for us to treat inferior races with the haughty scorn 
so common among those more enlightened and powerful. 

The Christian view puts the strong under bonds to the 
weak and gives them a debt of kindness and help to dis- 
charge, wliich cannot slop short of the importation of the 
good news. Thus, were there no direct command of 
Christ at all we should have enough and more than 




enough in these thoughts, in the principles He laid down, 
the pMyers He offered, ihe prophecies and promises He 
uttered, and the liTe He led, to make an obligation, to 
evangelize the world, of most binding force upon every 
follower of Jesus. 

HI. The spiritual needs of the heathen. It must be 
admitted that injustice ha» Rometimesbeen done by state- 
ments concerning the moral and religious condition of 
pagan peoples that have not been suRici<?ntly lemperU« 
or cognizant of all the facts. A very bad ca^ecan be made 
out for any person or nation by taking its worst etemeflts 
or features and dwelling thicny. if not exclusively; on 
them. But this is manifestlv unfair, as wc ourselves are 
quick to maintain when America is thus treated by Eng- 
lish travellers. 

The people who from remote antiquiry have filled the 
regions of the East are certainly not fiends in human 
form, as might be supposed from some overdrawn one- 
sided descriptions, nor yet grovelling beasts from which, 
all distinctive traces of humanity have been cOfjccd. 
They are nol, as a rule destitute of all natural affection 
and natural piety, nor are they without many admirable 
qualities and virtuous traits. For industry, frugality, 
temperance, hospitality, politeness, peaceablencss. obedi- 
ence to authority and respect for elders, they stand high 
even in comparison with the best nations of the West. It 
should not for a moment be supfiosed that the terrible 
portraiture of heathen morals in the first chapter of 
Romansapplies equally without mitigation to all races, all 
classes, and alt individuals in non-Christian lands, or is 
to be regarded as a sufficient description of the greater 
part of the human family. This would be to turn earth 
into pandemonium, to ignore the restraints of con- 
science and the presence of the Holy Sisirit, and to 
make national or social prosperity, if not existence, im- 

On the other hand, starting with the postulate that 
selfishness is universally prevalent and thit human na- 
ture apart from the regenerating grace of God is every- 
where substantially the same, remembering also the de- 
privations as well as the depravations of the heathen, we 
can but see that their condition must be very bad. They 
are without the Bible, without the Sabbalh, without the 
revelation of divine love, without the example of Jesus 
Christ, without the disclosure of future hapjiiness, of as- 
surance of reward for virtue; nay more, religion itself, so 
potent a factor with us in helping toward goodness, ts in 
their case a hindrance, a minister to vice. Judging from 
what the state of communities here would speedily be if 
these good influences were entirely wanting or turned 
into evil, we can form an idea what it must be tliere, 
where for thousands of years the bent has been wholly 
the wrong way. 

The state of the heathen world, though not so black 
ai it is sometimes painted, is black enough to appeal very 
Strongly to ihesympachtes of all who know the farts, and 
to fill their souls with sorrow. Even those who take the 
most favorable view of it are obliged to concede that ly- 

ing and licentiousness are fearfully prevalent in the east- 
ern and southern nations, that the standard of morals is 
frightfully low, that public opinion does not greatly rep- 
robate but rather winks at many outrageous practices, 
that things which would be forced to slink into obscurity 
there Saunt themselves with impunity, that lewdness, 
cruelty, and crime are even counted means of securing 
the divine favor, and that natural depravity unchecked 
for centuries by the many ameliorating influences which 
0)>erate both directly and indirectly in Christian lands 
has attained a breadth and depth of development most 
deplorable and portentous. 

And how little aid they have to stem this terrible tor- 
rent. They have cither no god or a god worse than none 
so far as comfort and help arc concerned. Prayer is 
practically a thing unknown. They have no Christ in 
heart or home. The light which comes Irom the cross 
has not reached them. Their dwellings arc darkness; all 
is dark when they are smitten with a sense of the hard 
conditions of their days, dark when pierced by the pangs 
of poverty and famine, dark in the hour of swift bereave- 
ment, dark in the valley of death. Words can but 
faintly indicate the soreness of their need. Only the ston- 
iest souls can remain, in view of it, unmoved. 

And if it were that in this life only they had no hope, 
! while they would be indeed ot all men most miserable. 
one could endure the thought with comp-irative calmness. 
But it is not till we take into account the future life also 
that the full measure of their wretched lot bursts upon 
our view. Not that all who have never heard of Christ 
are necessarily swept into hell. It seems probable that 
some, we know not how many, because of their large 
loyally to the highest truth they have learned and their 
steadfast resistance to the temptations around them, 
through the blood of Christ to them personally unknown, 
and by the action of the everywhere present Holy Spirit, 
in spite of their scanty degree of outward conformiiy to 
what for us would be the standard of righteousness, arc 
accepted of God, with whom is no respect of persons, 
and when Jesits is revealed to them in another state of 
being will adoringly ascribe to Him the glory of their sal- 

But, granting this, the sad fact remains that the vast 
mass of the heathen are perishing. It may be replied 
that the same affirmation mu^t be made of the great 
majority in Christian lands, and this we cannot deny. 
But we should state the difference to be that there, where 
the light and help are so much less, a much larger pro- 
poTtion throng the broad way, and it is there that the 
world's population is mainly centred. There are ten 
hundred millions of non-Chrislians. .-Vnd so far as we 
can see, nearly all of them habitually do those very things 
against which has been pronounced the severest sentence 
of God's wrath, things which they themselves acknowl- 
edge to be wrong. They are grossly wicked. They are 
not sorry for their sins. They cling to lhem» and run 
riot in their evil pleasures. If the heathen are not lost 
the human race is not lost and our faith is vain. Thev 



must forsake their, iniquities or reap the fearful harvest 
of eternal death. 

And there is every probability that many more can be 
induced to turn to God by our sending them the preached 
and printed Word. It is on this principle that we always 
operate with reference to our friends and neighbors. We 
hold that by increasing their light, and strengthening or 
multiplying the good influences around them we increase 
their chances of being saved. So will it be with the 
heathen. Surely this is enough for us to know, enough 
to indicate our duty. We should not turn aside for spec- 
ulation when the path of action is so plain. Mystery may 
hang over some parts of the problem, but the Judge of 
all the earth will do right, and our part is to exert our 
influence to the utmost, as widely as possible, in swelling 
the number of the redeemed. 

IV. The Temporal Needs of the Heathen. No one 
who realizes the vast difference which the Gospel 
makes even in the temporal condition of a land can lack 
interest in its diffusion. It is probably impossible for 
any one to fully realize this who has not been an eye 
witness of the facts. The poverty of the East can scarce- 
ly be described. It is habitual and hopeless, due to no 
personal faults, avoidable by no industry. It keeps scores 
of millions on the close grip of hunger nearly all the time 
and with starvation hovering just at hand, while other 
hundreds of millions are only a trifle better off. It is 
only the few who are in comfortable circumstances. The 
ignorance of the masses is dense, and leaves them a help- 
less prey to every species of spoliation and extortion. 
Unscrupulous officials rob and oppress without mercy. 
E^ftravagant social customs compel the squandering of 
their paltry earnings and plunge them hopelessly into 
debt at exorbitant interest. Epidemic diseases sweep 
them off in myriads, famines are frequent, and wretched- 
ness, with little to alleviate, rules. 

To roll back this tide of human misery one agency, 
and one alone, avails. It is the Christian religion. In all 
ages and countries wherever this religion of Christ has 
gone, with its new conceptions of God and man, its new 
conceptions also of man's duty to his fellows, it has grad- 
ually transformed and eventually revolutionized the pre- 
vious, low, inhuman condition of affairs. From the first 
it has done it. In apostolic tiroes as well as in medieval 
and mod'^m days this has been the uniform result. 

In our own age, both in Africa and in all the South 
Seas, Christianity has been the pioneer of commerce and 
trade, an instructor in agriculture, a dignifier and en- 
nobler of every kind of honest work. And on all shores, 
with its handbook of truest culture, the Bible, it has 
proved a powerful refinement society. The purely secular 
influence of commerce and civilization, so far from hav- 
ing any power or tendency to uplift the lowly, have oper- 
ated for the most part in just the contrary direction be- 
cause animated by avarice and selfishness. They have 
been maleficent instead of beneficent in their effects. But 
the mission has been everywhere the mother of the school, 
the founder of hospitals, the ameliorater of suffering, the 

promoter of liberty. It has not wasted its efforts in the 
production of any mere external change without perma- 
nent value, but has put into the nation a new life from 
which abundant streams of blessings have spontaneously 

Therefore they whose hearts are touched by the tempo- 
ral needs of the non-Christian nations, which must mean 
all who have any drop of the milk of human kindness, 
will make haste to send them the Gospel. Looking only 
at the temporal benefits that must accrue from its diffu- 
sion, our outlay of men and money, time and strength, is 
repaid tenfold. Leaving out of the acpount the future 
state altogether, very many missionaries have been free 
to say, and all true missionaries, we think, must feel, that 
they would gladly devote their lives to the work of 
preaching' Christ to the heathen simply for the sake of 
the unspeakable gain to them in this present life. 

V. Our own Spiritual and Temporal Profit. The 
vast temporal profit accruing to Christian nations, 
in the directions of trade and commerce, literature and 
science, and also political affairs, from the prosecution of 
missions, is well known to all who have investigated the 
matter. At least two goodly ^volumes, the Ely volume 
on "Missions and Science" and "These for Those, or 
What we Get for What we Give," are occupied with the 
details which the brief space here at our disposal forbids 
us to set forth even in the most summary manner. Suffice 
it to say that, judged from the standpoint only of this 
world, missions have made a most magnificent return for 
the funds expended upon them, and the outlay, instead 
of being a useless folly and waste, as ignorant scoffers 
are fond of saying, is one of the very best paying 
investments, temporally speaking, that has ever been 

Yet this, of course, is only incidental. The spiritual 
gain to Christian people and churches from what they do 
to extend the Gospel is far more vital and central. It has 
become fully evident to those examining the subject that 
all the qualities essential to vigorous spiritual life are in- 
cluded in and best developed by devotion to missions. 
What more quickly strengthens faith, arouses hope, and 
kindles love than labor in this cause ? There is no mightier 
foe to selfishness than missions, no enterprise surer to 
bring us into close contact with the loftiest, purest prin- 
ciples, and stimulate us to absolute reliance on the power 
of the Holy Ghost. 

To act upon the maxim " Charity begins and ends at 
home," to devote all strength and time and interest to 
local conveniences and adornments, is to choke the chan- 
nels of benevolence and shrivel up pity without fail. It 
is they who bless others that are blessed; they who water 
are themselves watered. To export religion is the best 
way to increase the amount on hand. An army held 
within its entrenchments and kept at spading, loses heart. 
The sword itself well wielded is the most efficient shield. 
History shows that the Church has flourished in proportion 
as it has been true to the farewell command of its Master. 
When it has lost sight of this it has lost ground. When- 

ever it has gone forward aggressivt^ly in otKdience to this, 

• His Spirit has been with it, and all has been well. 
Missions form the grandest possible protest against the 
world's tmbelief. and are by far the best reply to the 
assaults of infidelity. This bitter, subtle foe is dishearl- 
■ ened and silenced by nothing so efTcctually as by vigorous, 
successful efforts to spread Christianity. Missions art the 
most unanswerable apolcgetics. The story of their suc- 
cess makes the sceptic and the scoffer tp gnash his teeth, 
and drives him to the invention of wholesale falsehoods 
concerning them. He realir-es that there is no hope 
whatever for his side unless this thing can be stopped. 

If, while he can only detach a paltry dozen from their 
allegiance to Christ, missionaries can bring a thousand to 
bow at the cross, his case is desperate. New nations and 
tribes swinging into line and keeping step to the music of 
redemption's song, carry consternation of the deepest sort 
to all opponents of our faith. Infidelity would utterly dis- 
appear did the Christian Churches do in the way of world 
evangelization what their avowed beliefs logically compel. 
A religion which is changing the face of the world and 
making the wilderness to blossom as the rose, is giving 
unanswerable, overwhelming evidence not only of its right 
to be, but of its universal prevalence in the not distant 

Nor is there anything which does more to increase 
unity among Christians and lower denominational barriers 
than hearty engagement in the salvation of the heathen. 
The various churches easily forget their unimportant dif- 
ferences when face to face with the gigantic foe that 
threatens them all with destruction. Minor variations 
sink out of sight in comparison with the great truths In 
which they all agree. The work of missions has certainly 
a direct tendency to broaden the sympathies of the labor- 
ers, and to simplify systems of doctrine. There comes to 
be a wider range of interest, a larger grasp of trtilh, and 
an inclination to fix the thought on the great essentials. 
Surely this is a service of no small magnitude. 

Of other ser>-ice rendered by the missionary enterprise 
to the Church — such as supplying it with must inspiring 
examples of Christian devotion and sacrifice in the per- 
sons of its heroes and martyrs, and also furnish- 
log it with an illustrious opportunity to pay its debt of 
gratitude both to God the primal giver and to men of past 
ages who evangelized our pagan ancestors — of all this 
and much more, there is here no space to treat. Nor is it 
perhaps needful even to sum up the motives which have 
here been summarily set forth as constituting the Why 
of Christian Missions. When all are united, those derived 
from divine command and human sympathy and reflex 
personal benefit, they form an argument of overwhelming 
force before which it would seem that every candid mind 
must obediently bow. Be it then our part as pastors lo 
get filled with these thoughts ourselves and press them 
home upon the hearts of our hearers, so thai if the 
churches continue in their present apathy lo this mo- 
mentous cause, no part of the heavy guilt for such crliu- 
inal indiRerence shall rest at our doors. 

How to Raise Two Millions for HUslons. 


The writer began his ministry in the Canadian Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, .then was five years in the United 
Slates ; now, is pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
(English-speaking) in Calcutta. In all three places dif- 
ferent methods are used for raising missionary money. 
By selecting and combining the best from each, we can 
approach the ideal. 

The distinctive features in Canada were a week-night 
platform meeting, with visiting ministers giving addresses, 
taking a subscription, appointing lady collectors, with 
authority to Increase the subscription from absentees, 
which they often doubled. 

In the United States I found the missionary collection 
usually taken on a Sunday, after a sermon on the sub- 
ject, but sometimes without even the sermon, and some- 
times In the rush of making up local and benevolent de- 
ficiencies just before Conference. In Calcutta I find a 
subscription taken to be paid monthly, and an annual 
mitsionary collection as in .\merica. 

What are the results in Calcutta.' Take the year 1887; 
the collections have been larger some years, but this will 
show the principle. There was raised at the regular 
annual collection Rs. 88. The Sunday-school gave 
Rs, 27. Total Rs. 115. (A rupee is the largest silver 
coin, and though not worth as much, still it represents to 
the {>eople about the same as the American silver dollar.) 
If the .-American custom of one collection a year for mis- 
sions were in effect here, Rs. 115 would have been the 
total and a good average one for a church of two hun- 
dred members. But what arc the facts.' The total given 
by this charch for missions in 1887 was Rs. 1,383. What 
is the philosophy ? Krom people who have a regular 
monthly income, the annual collection Is often just what 
can be given out of the month in which it is taken. 
The annual missionary subscription system, from many, 
only secures the gift of the month in which it is given» 
and the eleven months are lost to the Missionary Society. 

The following Is the selected method suggested : 

1. From India, take the suggestion of there being a 
monthly subscription instead of an annual one only. 
But lake your annual collection also and " Gather up the 
fragments that remain, that nothing be lost." 

2. From the United Stales, lake this monthly subscrip- 
tion the first month of the Conference year, and the 
annual one, at the best time during the year. Take both 
on the Sabbath day after a sermon on the subject of 

3. From Canada : Appoint in every congregation care- 
fully selected lady collectors with special reference lo 
their interest in missions and ability to make the monthly 

How can this be worked ? 

I. Let the pastor the first month of the Conference 
year, or the new year, or any month, preach on the sub- 
ject and take from his people a subscription to be paid 





3. Appoint his lady colleclors with aulhorliy to in- 
crease the number of subscribers, and to collect monthly. 

3. Take a monthly collection in the Sabbath-schools. 

4. Have it al! go into ihc Conference minutes as the 
annual contribution of the Church. 

5. Let every pastor take his regular annual collection 
and many will find there are many comparatively poor in 
their congregations, who have given twelve dollars or six 
dollars, who in former years only gave one-twelfth of it. 
That the richer members will be ashamed to give less 
than the poorer, and the annual collection will exceed 
other years — besides, many who gave good annual sub- 
scriptions will make the same roonihly. 

The writer hopes many presiding elders and pastors 
will introduce this. For 

I. It can do harm, as it does not interfere with any 
method now in operation. 

3. It is working admirably now in India and is equally 
suited to America. 

3. It is nearer scriptural. 

4. It systematizes the giving for the people, and is a 
prophecy of the golden age of missions, when the Church 
shall give as much monthly as it does now annually. 
What pastor in Methodism would receive his salar>* f rom 
an annual collection only ? How much more shall not 
the heathen nations be Christianized by an annual col> 
lection only ? 

If the Bishops, Missionary Secretaries, Editors, Pre- 
siding Elders and Pastors, will accept this humble sug- 
gestion as coming from the Lord viii India, and get as fast 
as possible alt our people giving monthly subscriptions, 
we believe that, when all due allowance is made for those 
whose methods are " immutable," the gjin from having 
twelve collections each year, instead of one, will soon 
swell our missionary income to two millions per annum, 
and later go far beyond it. 

^^H The American Bible Society. 

^^^K BV REV. K. W. OILMAN, D.D. 

^^^This Society was formed in New York in the year 1816, 
' and has occupied for thirty-six years the spacious prem- 
ises known as the Bible House, situated on 4th Avenue, 
New York, at the corner of Aslor Place. 

Its officers are Hon. Enoch L. Fancher, LL.D., Presi- 
dent ; Rev. Edward W. Oilman, D.D., Rev. Alexander 
» McLean, D.D,, Rev. Albert S. Hunt, D.D. Corresponding 
Secretaries ; William Koulke, Treasurer; Caleb T. Rowe, 
General Agent. 
Its total issues at home and in foreign lands have been 
more than fifty million Bibles, Testaments, and Portions 
B of the Bible, in about eighty different languages. 
■ Issues for the year ending March 31, 1888, 1,504,647, 

of which 535,807 were circulated in foreign lands. 

Force Qf labor trs: jo District Superintendents and 126 
colporteurs in the United States and Territories, in con- 
nection with the officers of about 2,000 auxiliary societies. 
Results reported last year: families visited, 533,350; 

found without the Scriptures, 59.S85; of these 42,422 
were supplied, and 26,503 destitute persons in addition. 

/« foreign lands three hundred and eighty-seven per- 
sons were employed in 1 8S7. for a longer or shorter period, 
in distributing the Scriptures, the average term of service 
being somewhat more than seven months. Besides these 
Bible distributers, the following Agents are in the employ 
of the Society: 

Levant, Rev. Isaac G. Bliss, D.D, Constantinople, 
since 1857; Levant, Rev. Marccllus Bowen, Constantino- 
ple, since 1888; La Plata, Rev. Andrew M. Milne, Buenos 
Ayres, 1864: China, Rev. Luther H. Gulick, M.D.. 
Shanghai, 1875; Mexico, Rev. H. P. Hamilton, Mexico, 
1879; Persia, Rev. Wm. L. Whipple, Tabreex, 1880; 
Japan, Rev. Henry Loomis, Yokohama, i88i;Cuba, Rev. 
Andrew J. McKim, 1884; Brazil, Rev. H. C. Tucker, Rio 
de Janeiro, 1887; Peru, Rev. F. Penzolti, Lima, 18S7; 
Venezuela, Rev. Wm. M, Patterson, D.D., Caracas, 1888. 

Assistance in circulating the Scriptures is also cheer- 
fully given to missionaries in various parts of America, 
Europe, .\sia, Africa, and the Islands of the North Pa- 
cific Ocean. 

Some account of the foreign agencies of the Society is 
given in the following paragraphs, and for further in- 
formation about the Society's work reference is made to 
the " Bible Society Record," published monthly at 30 
cents a year. 

Donations intended for the Society nnay be sent to Mr. 
Wm. Fouike, Treasurer, Bible House, Fourth Avenue, 
New York. 


Special organized effort for the circulation of the 
Scriptures began in the winter of 1882-83. 

The Rev. Thomas L. Gulick made a tour of explora- 
tion in 1883. and another in :884, and Bible colporteurs 
have been constantly employed since that time. Begin* 
ning in December, 1884, Ri:v. A. J. McKim Was been to 
the extreme parts of the island, with house to house visit- 
ation, offering the Scriptures in Spanish for sale. .A.bout 
30,000 Bibica, Testaments and Portions have been sold 
since January, 1883. The circulation of the Bible was 
immediately followed by the opening of Sunday-schools 
in Havana and Matanzas, and by org4nizations for 
Protestant worship, and several churches have since been 
formed in different parts of the islands. 


The attention of the American Bible Society was 
turned toward Mexico as early as 1826, at which time 
Mr. J. C. Brigham expressed the opinion that in the 
whole republic, comprehending a population of seven 
millions of people, not more than 2,000 Bibles had ever 
been distributed. In 1829 a gentleman, who had (ravelled 
extensively in Chihuahua, was convinced that among the 
121.000 people in that State, there could not be found 
eight copies of the Bible in Spanish. 

Frequent grants and consignments of Scriptures were 
sent to both eastern and western ports and to the interior 

of Mexico from 1S26 onwards. In 1834 Mr. Sumner 
Bacon was appointed agenl for what was then the Prov- 
ince of Texas. In 1S48 Rev. W. H. Norris was sent as a 
special agent to the capital, then occupied by United 
States troops. Miss Mctinda Rankin's labors on the 
border, from 1852 onwards, led to the introduction of 
many Bibles into Mexico, and were followed in i860 by 
the appointment of Rev. R, I'. Thompson as agent. Rev. 
James Hickcy succeeded him in 1863, and after his 
death in 1866 Mr. Thomas M. Westrup held the same 
office for three years. Noagent had a pcrmancill rest, 
dence in the capital until Dr. Arlhur Gore went there in 
1878. He was followed the next year by Rev. H. P. 
Hamilton, during whose agency about 130,000 volumes 
of Scripture have been put in circulation; and it is esii* 
mated that since 1861 no less than 300,000 Hibles, Tesla- 
mcnis and Portions (including those sent directly from 
London and Madrid) have found their way into the hands 
of the people. Bible colporteurs have been employed in 
every slate of the Republic. 


Interest in the Spanish colonies of America led the 
Society as early as 1818 to procure plates and print the 
New Testament in Spanish, and in subsequent years 
large numbers of books were sent to various corropon- 
dents in South America. They were received with such 
favor that the demand often exceeded the supply; mer- 
chants bought for their customers, and statesmen and 
officials favored the circulation of ihe Hible and its use 
in common schools. After a time revolution, political 
dissension and the exclusion of the apocryphal books 
caused this welcome to abate. 

Between 1833 and 1836 Mr. Isaac W. Wheelwright 
visited the principal towns along the western coast of 
South America, as the agent of the Society. From 1854 
to 1S57 Rev. R. Monisalvatge served the Society in 
Venezuela and Granada. Rev. David H. Wheeler was 
sent to Nicaragua in 1856, but unfortunately soon lost 
his life. In 1857 Rev. D. V. Collins visited the southern 
part of South America, but became discouraged after a 
few months. In 1876 Rev. J. de Palma made a tour of 
exploration in Venezuela. 

In 1864 Mr. Andrew M. Milne became agent for Uru- 
guay and the Argentine Republic, and the field under 
his charge has been extended to include Paraguay, Bo- 
livia and the South of Brazil. In 1866 he visited the 
other republics and sold 7.812 volumes of Scripture (of 
which 1,628 were complete Bibles] in Venezuela, Co- 
lombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Since June, 1864, Mr. Milne 
has distributed, chiefly by sale, more than 200,000 vol- 

As one result of his journey around the continent, the 
Rev. F. Penzotti who was his companion in travel, has 
been stationed at l,ima to look after the West coast; and 
the Rev. Wm. M. Patterson, D.D., long a devoted mission- 
ary in Mexico, having been appointed agent for Vene- 
zuela, has taken up his residence at Caracas. 


Though Scriptures were freely sent to Brazil, no agent 
was commissioned for the Empire until 1 855, when Rev. J. 
C. Fletcher, who had been a resident of the country, was 
deputed to visit several of the provinces, After circulate 
ing many volumes of the Scriptures in Portuguese, he 
resigned the next year and was succeeded by Mr. Robert 
Nesbit, who spent several months at Para, where he 
found the people eager to buy his entire slock. 
From there he went up the Amazon, intending to go 
as far as Peru, but died of fever before bis purpose was 

Rev. A. L. Blackford was appointed agent for Brazil 
in 1876, and Rev. Wm. M. Brown in 1880. The latter 
resigned in 1S87 and was succeeded by the Rev. H. C. 
Tucker. The total circulation of Scriptures during the 
last ten years exceeds 60,000 copies. 


The operations of the American Bible Society in Turkey 
and adjacent lands are directed by the Levant Agency, 
which was established in 1836 by the appointment of the 
Rev. Simeon H. Calhoun. He resigned his post in 1884, 
reporting that during his eight years of service 55,000 
volumes of Scripture in seventeen languages had been 
circulated, and calling special attention to the Armeno- 
Turkish Uible, and the Hebrew-Spanish Old Testament, 
which had been printed for the Bible Society. The Rev. 
Chester N. Righter was appointed to succeed him in 
1854. In the course of his short term of service he visited 
Greece, Turkey, the Crimea, Egypt, Palestine and Meso- 
potamia. He was taken ill on a journey from Mosul, 
and died at Diarbckir in December. 1856. He was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Isaac G. Bliss, who has been in 
charge of the work since January, 1858, Rev. Edwin M. 
Bliss was associated with hiui from 1877 till 1S88, and 
the Rev. Marcellus Bowcn has taken his place. 

The last half century has been one of great activity in 
all the departments of Bible M-ork, in translating, printing 
and circulating the Scriptures. Old translations have 
been revised and new ones made; the completion of ver- 
sions in Arabic, Armenian, Turkish and Bulgarian has 
brought the light of the Gospel to nations that sat in dark- 
ness; Jews, Mohammedans and nominal Christians have 
been supplied with our sacred books in their own vernac* 
ulars; and colporteurs have carried the Gospel along the 
coast and into the interior to innumerable homes where 
the Bible was a book unknown. 

The field of the Levant Agency at the present lime in- 
cludes Roumelia. Syria, and Egypt, as well as Turkey prop- 
er. Persia is under a separate agent, and Greece and the 
Greek islands are left to the British Society. About 50,- 
000 volumes arc annually circulated in this field by the 
American Bible Society, and it is estimated that the 
combined work of both Societies from the beginning 
makes an aggregate circulation of more than two 
and a quarter millions of books in thirty different 





The Syriac, as spoken around Lake Oroomiah, was an 
unwritten !ang\iage when American missionaries went to 
labor among the Xestorians in 1833, and no complete 
Bible in ancient Syriac could be found in the province. 
The reduction of the language to writing and the tiansla- 
tion of the Scriptures into it, were achicvcmenls which 
prepared the way for the Bible Society to print the entire 
Bible in both ancient and modem Syriac. 

This remote field formed part of the Levant Agency 
until Rev. William L, Whipple was appointed Agent in 
1880. More than 30,000 copies of the Scriptures, prin- 
cipally Syriac, Armenian, Persian and Turkish, had then 
been circulated, and 30,000 have been disposed of since, 
about thirty colporteurs being employed, with the earnest 
cO'Opcratton of the missions at Oroomiah, Tabrecz, Te- 
heran, and Hamadan. 

The Gospels in Azerbijan Turkish are among the issues 
from this agency. 


Until 1876 the work of the American Bible Society in 
China was done entirety through the various missionary 
societies, to which grants of money in large amounts 
were made from time to time to promote the publication 
and distribution of the Scriptures. Of late years more 
discrimination has been observed, and sales at nominal 
prices have taken the place oftgifts. The publications 
in Siam include the whole Bible, and in China. Bibles, 
Testaments or Portions are furnished not only in the 
Classical, but in the Mandarin and seven other colloquial 

Rev. Luther H. Gulick, M.D., became agent forChina 
in 1876. His field then included Japan, which has since 
been detached, while Siam has been added. In 18S7 he 
had 76 colporteurs employed, who reported the sale of 
305,918 volumes. The actual circulation for the year 
was more than a quarter of million copies. The printing 
in that year and the preceding amounted to 585,955 
volumes or more than sixty million pages. 


On receiving information in 1872 that a Japanese ver- 
sion of some of the Gospels was nearly complete, the 
Society promptly made a grant to promote its publica- 
tion. It subsequently assumed the support of Drs. S. R. 
Brown and D. C. Greene, and bore a considerable part 
of the expense of translating the New Testament, which 
appeared in parts and was completed in 1880. That 
same year it published also an edition of the New Tesla- 
roent in Roman letter, having issued a bilingual edition 
of the Gospel of John seven years before. In 1878 the 
Gospels, in 1880 the New Testament and Psalms, and in 
1883 the entire Bible, were issued in kunten or Chino- 
Japanese. In 1875, by request of native Japanese, apart 
of the Gospel of John was issued experimentally in raised 
Roman letter. The Old Testament has been printed in 
instalments in connection with other Societies, and the 

first edition of the complete Bible appeared in 1888. 
Another edition with full references is now in the print- 
er's hands. 

Rev. Henry Loomis was appointed agent in 1881, suc- 
ceeding Dr. Gulick, who started for Japan in 1875. He 
employed 115 colporteurs in 1887, and the circulation 
that year was 72,936 copies. In fourteen years the Agency 
has circulated 474,531 volumes of Scripture, amounting 
■to 125.925,000 pages. 

The Nethodlflt Kpi8C0p»l Hliidiistaiii MiHSiou, 
in Hyderabad. 


The State of Hyderabad is the largest, wealthiest and 
most influential of all the native states of India, and this 
city, Hyderabad, is the stronghold of Islamism in India, 
and is situated on the right hand of the river Musi, 
surrounded by a stone wall six miles in circumference. 
The street architecture of Hyderabad is not imposing, 
for, with the exception of some buildings, there arc few 
which have pretensions to much merit. The palaces of 
some of the nobles are'an exception. Many of them are 
very handsome buildings, and are furnished with every- 
thing that luxury can suggest. 

But it is not the city, or the public buildings, or bazaars 
and public thoroughfares of Hyderabad that present so 
many attractions as the people who throng them. 

The city is famed for having the most warlike popu- 
lation of any town in India. In past years it was the 
custom with many to go about armed to the teeth. This 
was simply the result of the unsettled slate of the place 
when street fights and disturbances were the rule. All 
this has now changed, and Hyderabad has had a quarter 
of a century of peace and prosperity, such as it nerer 
before experienced. 

Still the custom of carrying weapons has not altogether 
died out, but is now confined to the watchman class and 
the military, and when otherwise is a mere matter of 
form or ceremony. To show the peaceable state of the 
city now in comparison with past years, I may mention 
that we can walk through the city distributing or selling 
tracts or Gospels unmolested. This was an impossibility 
a few years ago. 

Another striking peculiarity about Hyderabad is the 
mixed nature of the population. There is probably no 
other city in India which contains so many varieties of 
the human race. 

Here we find the Arab, the Sikh, the Rohilla, the 
Paihan, the Afghan, the Rajpoot, the Persian, the Turk, 
and even tlie Chinaman, and of course the European. 
Here fluck the ambitious Mohammedan politician from 
the northwest, the intellectual and learned Bengali from 
Bengal, and learned Moulviea from al] parts of this vast 
empire seeking to distinguish themselves in this wealthy 
capital of the Deccan. 

Two years ago our mission opened a school in this 
city in order that it might become a basis for evangelistic 



work. We opened with twenty or twenty-five boys and 
have now one hundred and seven. The school has all 
along been scir-supporling, and is much appreciaied both 
by Brahmins and Mohammedans who freely send their 
boys 10 be educated. The Bible in this school is not 
taught as a clasi-buok, hut is taught by the missionary 
in charge occasionally by way of short lecture or Bible 

We have also a second school in a populous suburb 
of the city which has ninety-seven boys attending, making 
a. total of 304. The head-master in this school is a 
Christian who teaches the Bible daily as a class-book. 
This school is also self-supporting. Daring this year I 
have raised for the schools no less than 2,560 rupees, 
five-sixths of which liave come from Mohammedans and 
Hindus, the remainder from Christians of all denomina- 

We hold on an average two services each week in a 
populous bazaar in a suburb of the city, the average 
attendance at which has been one hundred. The inter- 
est is good and this ivork very encouraging. At the 
dose of one of these services in April last a Hindu 
** Habrim," or physician, followed and told us that he 
had for some time back been attending our services 
regularly and was much impressed with the simple story 
of the Gospel. 

He became a candidate for baptism, professed faith in 
Christ and was baptized in our mission house on May 6, 
[SSB, and received at his own request the name of 
Moses. His heathen name was Parthasarthy Vaidoo and 
he was professedly a worshipper of Vishnu. Previous 10 
his coming to Hyderabad he travelled from south tn 
north and from east to we&t, visiting all the sacred 
shrines and bathing in all the sacred rivers, seeking rest 
and finding none, trying to get rid of his burden of sin, but 
{he burden became greater. During these many pil- 
grimages he spent his all. namely, Rs. 500, which, lo the 
ordinary Hindu, may be regarded as a fortune, as many 
of them live on less than the interest of this amuunt. 

He, also, like the woman mentioned in the Gospel, 
''touched the hem of Jesus' garment and was made 
whole," finding peace, real and joy. He worked with us 
earnestly and faithfully for three months, impressing all 
with the genuineness of his conversion and boldly testi- 
fied in presence of both Europeans and natives to the 
saving power of Jesus. 

Two months ago, much to our sorrow, he suddenly 
left for parts unknown. We were all much grieved and 
<lisappointcd. and pray that whether he return lo our 
mission or not, he may be kept by the power of God 
through faith, faithful unto death. 

On another occasion after our bazaar service, we were 
followed by a young Mohammedan named Ahmed .-Vli, 
son of the late Hyder Ali, a Munshieof Hyderabad. He 
also was impressed with the truth and became a candi- 
<iace for baptism. At the end of one month, seeing his 
ch&Dgcd life, and feeling we could no longer deny him 
the privilege of being baptized, he received baptism on 

the tyth June, t83$, in the presence of the congregation, 
in our English church. This man is now in the employ- 
ment of a native Christian as a general servant, who 
speaks highly of his faithfulness and obedience as a 

Shortly after the baptism of Ahmed AH the news 
reached his friends in Hyderabad City, and they sent 
three or four armed Arabs lo lake him away by force, 
giving out as their reason for so doing that he had been 
stealing (this is a common trick). The native Christian, 
in whose employment he was, seeing they were deter- 
mined to take him, had to let him go, but took the precau- 
tion of sending to the superintendent of police giving par- 
ticulars and becoming surety for the convert, if, as alleged, 
he had stolen, and hinting that if any evil befell him, he, 
the superintendent, would be held responsible. 

The police superintendent took the hint, and evidently 
exerted himself, for after an absence of twelve hours he, 
Ahmed Ali, turned up all safe, and we rejoiced greatly. 
They threatened him and coaxed him to come back to 
Istamism but he stood fast. 

Last Sunday morning we met at the mission-house for 
prayer as usual previous to our bazaar service, and then 
went forth in Jesus' name to preach His Gospel. After 
singing a bhajan 1 began to preach Jesus, His death and 
resurrection. This stirred the Mohammedans, and one 
uf them cried out that what I said about Jesus Christ be- 
ing crucified was not true, and rot in the Gospel. (The 
Quran teaches that Jesus did not die, but that God took 
Him up to heaven and substituted some one like Him 
whom the Jews crucified.) 

I very promptly handed him my Hindustani New 
Testament and requested him to show nie what was not 
true. After muttering a little, he said, " How can I .* I 
am not learned." I then suggested the propriety of his 
keeping quiet, which he had the good sense to do, and I 
cunlinucd preaching. But the Mohammedans did not 
relish being quieted in this way and brought forward 
another champion. 

1 was holding up Jesus as the living water ind living 
bread, and showing the necessity of eating and drinking, 
when this would be champion cried out, " In what special 
place is God? and how can Jesus Christ be the Son of 
God ? how can God have a Son ? " I looked him fully 
in the face, and without noticing his questions, said : 
"There is but one God, and just as repentance is obliga- 
tory on me so is it on you. You are a great sinner ; 
Repent ! If you do not repent quickly God will call you 
to judgment." 

The word was with power; he kept quiet, and in a little 
while walked away and no one after that durst ask us 
any questions. 

My native assistant. Rev. Antone Dult, always accom- 
panies me to these services, and frequently has done the 
greater part of the preaching, and preaches very effect- 
ively and acceptably, and is an able worker. Besides 
his work in the bazaar services he goes daily into the 
bazaars with tracts to distribute and sell and to preach 

icri ^^ 




the Gospel by the wayside in conversation with any one 
willing to listen or talk. 

We have sold or given away during this year about 
3,000 tracts or Gospels, and have had a fair number of 
enquirers. We have not found Sunday-school work 
among the Mohammedans a practicable thing on account 
of their bigotry, and because the Hindus here areTelugu 
and Marathi people, and our mission is Hindustani. 
Consequently the little work we did attempt in this line 
had to be given up. 

On the whole the outlook is encouraging both in re- 
gard to our day schools and bazaar preaching. The 
latter is full of encouragement and hope. Regarding the 
former there is some doubt, although they have been 
highly successful as schools up to the present time. Un- 
less we can send a Maralhi-speaking missionary, not 
much can be done to bring the power of the Gospel to 
bear upon the pupils, as the schools are Marathi and our 
work and mission as previously stated, Hindustani. 

We require mission property here immediately as we 
are paying high rents for mission-house, native assistant's 
house, and two school-houses, which makes a constant 
and heavy drain upon our limited resources. In addi- 
tion to this we must also rent at once a hall for preach- 
ing and sales of Bibles and tracts. 

The field here is wide. Hyderabad contains 300,000 
inhabitants, 75,000 of whom are Mohammedans. 

The field is needy. There is no more needy field in 
all India than Hyderabad. And we are the only mission 
working among the Mohammedans and the only mission 
that has gained an entrance into the city proper. Let 
the Church at home continue to hold us up in prayer be- 
fore God and by His grace we will be faithful unto death. 

Hyderabad, Oct id, 1888. 

Bishop Fowler in Korea. 


The visit of Bishop Fowler to Korea has done much 
to strengthen and encourage the missionaries there at 
work. The timely admonitions, the valuable suggestions, 
and words of encouragement and commendation have 
greatly refreshed and cheered all hearts. 

The present period is one of " first things " in Korea, 
and so, the morning after the Bishop arrived, we inaugu- 
rated '' Chapel Services " in the new chapel in " College 
Hall," which has now reached completion. Immediately 
following this the Mission met in annual session. Ur. 
W. B. Scranton was re-elected Secretary; Geo. H. Jones 
was elected Statistical Secretary; and F. Ohlinger 
Auditor. The different sessions were occupied largely 
in listening to and discussing the various reports pre- 
sented. These need no comment, for they speak for 

Superintendent Appenzeller told how, one year ago, a 
house was purchased in Seoul for Church purposes; and 
here in a room eight feet square and six feet in height 

was held the first formal service of Methodism in Korea. 
In this same room, on October 9, 1887, we baptized the 
first woman to receive that ordinance from the hands of 
Protestantism in the Hermit Nation. Soon we had to 
find a larger place, and the house next door was purchased 
and services held in it until May when we were ordered 
to stop. 

During the year we have sent a number of colporteurs 
into the country, where they have done noble service for 
the Master. Their trials were many, but not one flinched. 
One was robbed by highwaymen; one was cast into 
prison and another was beaten by proxy, his host being 
seized because of his escape. They were mobbed in 
some places, "but fleeing thence, they were found in 
another city " teaching and preaching the Lord Jesus. 

Brother Appenzeller then spoke of his own trip into 
the interior with Rev. H. G. Underwood of the Presby- 
terian Mission. Everywhere they were received with 
marked attention and cordiality; so that when the trouble 
arose in Seoul, and Minister Dinsmore was compelled 
to issue a recall, it was received with great surprise. 

Last June our Seoul colporteur visited the ex-regent. 
The old warrior, patriot, ruler, persecutor, his fiery spirit 
softened by age, received from this Methodist colporteur 
a Christian book, and after reading it exclaimed, " Whyt 
what is this? This is good doctrinel Such reports about 
this religion never before reached me." 

The visit lasted long, and he has since manifested 
great interest in us. This Saul of '66 may not have 
reached Damascus yet, but God is working on his heart. 

In the school sixty-three students have been enrolled. 
College Hall is nearing completion, and is an ornament 
to our work and the city. This fall we open a printing 
establishment which will provide work for needy students. 
Brother Ohlinger began teaching in January, 1888; 
Brother Jones, in May. We must not forget that also, 
the first Christian marriage among Protestant converts 
was performed this year. Seventeen souls have been 
baptized and ten received into full membership in the 

Dr. Scranton's report was equally encouraging. 

The medical work has been instrumental in God's 
hands in paving the way for, and giving a prestige to the 
other departments of our work which otherwise they 
might not have had. The medical work is established 
upon lasting foundations among the Koreans, and is 
sure to hold its own through all opposition and trial. 
We have just passed the third year of our history; the 
first year we had no hospital, but Soo patients were 
treated; the next year the hospital was opened, and at 
the end of the year the record showed 1,970 sick ones 
attended to. 

In October, 1887, Miss Dr. Howard arrived, and the 
medical work among women passed to her care; but this 
resulted in no decrease to us, and at the end of this, our 
third year in Korea, the record shows a grand total of 
5,500 patients. At the present time openings are visible 
on every hand for the extension of our medical work. 



and should reinforcements arrive soon, otir power for 
good win be increased many fold. 
B Mrs. M. F. Scranton in her report of the Woman's 
^ Work, said: " The Girl's Home and school has accommo- 
dations for thirty-five girls and is so arranged that with- 
very little additional outlay, room can be made for double 
that number. The first pupil came to us May 31, 1886, 
since then twenty others have t}een enrolled. I'or vari- 
ous causes five have heen called from onr circ, and the 
sixteen who remain are making good progress in their 
studies. When they first came, not one knew even a 
letter of their own language; this can be said no longer, 
and besides ihey are acquainted with the Chinese and 
■ English, and ore beginning to write. Miss Rothwcilcr 
came to us October 29, 1887, and this work has been 
almost entirely in her hands since, 
^b ** Each Sunday they gather for Bible study, and the truth 
, sinks deep into their hearts and minds. They have 
learned to pray, and in the privacy of iheir rooms many 
a petition goe» up to the God of nations, from these first 

■ fruits of Korea's women. 
" Formal work among women was organized last Febru- 
ary, and regular Sunday evening services carried on. 
These were necessarily discontinued during the excite- 
ment, but were resumed September i. Theyhavcbcen 
largely attended, and on two occasions fifty were present. 

*' During the summer two native Bible women were con- 
dnually at work among their sisters. By the kindness of 
Mrs. C. A. Miller of Joliet, III., wc were able to purchase 
a house and place it in charge of one of these women. 
Here during the summer while the missionJiries were 
compelled to hold their peace, a few women gathered 
each Sunday evening to listen to God's Word and re- 
ceived such instruction as this woman could give. Recent- 
ly three have been baptized and others will soon follow. 

" Our medical work has opened well. Dr. Howard ar- 
rived October 29, 1887, and commenced practice at 
once. On September 5, she reports 1,385 patients 
treated. She has made quite a number of visits in the 
homes, and appears to be winning the favor and con- 
fidence of the people." 

Such are the salient points of last year's work. 

The check mentioned in the reports was a request 
from the King to refrain from Christian teaching, because 
it was objectionable to the government and not authorized 
by the treaty. 

We rejoice that though a King's mandate may interfere 
with human agents, it cannot reach the work of the ever- 
present Spirit, who is working on many hearts with 
wonderful power. 

Already we see a thousand encouraging features, and 
feel assured the increase this year will be ahundredfold. 

The following appointments were made by the Bishop: 

Rav. H. O. Appenxeller, Sup«riDtttadent of Misaion, Priactpal 
o( school. 

Dr. W. B. Scranton, SupcrialeodeDt of Hospital. 

Rev. F. Ohlioger, Sup«riDtencleDt Hisuon Pree^ Teacher in 

Rev, Geo. E. Jone», Teacher In school. 

Mr». 3!. F. Srrantoa. SuperiDteodent Woman's Bible Work, 
Principal GirM' school. 

Miss Dr. Meta Howard, Soperintendent Woman's llospilal. 

Miw Louisa C. Rothweiler. Teacher in Girl's school. 

Assi^taut Hisaionaries, Mrs. U. G. AppeDzeller, Mr». F- 

AwutanC ]d Ho^tal, Xrs. W. B. Scranton. 

S€(ntl, Korea, October ^th, 1888. 

XethodUt Mission in Singaporo. 


We read with so much profit of other fields from time 
to time, doubtless others will he interested in our field of 
work. The Mission at Singapore progresses visibly and 
though the times of ingathering from heathendom and 
Isiamism may yet be far off, I rejoice to know that the 
track is being fast laid for the gospel car. 

The first missionary on the field has been so absorbed 
in ministering to the needs of the English-speaking and in 
the upbuilding of what is now the largest Chinese school 
in Methodism, and the second in alt the Methodist schools 
among the heathen, that he has attained to but a fair 
acquaintance with the colloquial. The younger mission- 
naries. however, though teaching in the school, are making 
the acquisition of the language their chief pursuit, and in 
consequence of this I rejoice to report the beginnings of 
street preaching in the Malay quarters of Singapore. 

A party of three ladies, headed by sister Blackmore 
(W. F. M. S.), and three men, Dr. West, Rro. Munson and 
Captain Shellaheare, a godly officer of the British Army, 
proceed to " Kampong Rochore " or " Telok Blanyoh " 
and commence to sing *' Kila belaycr, etc.." " Through 
the Ocean wc arc Sailing.' K crowd gathers, the Cap- 
tain reads a portion of Scripture, the natives listen- 
ing in great admiration of the "Orang pootay's " (white 
man's) correct accent (a very rare accomplishment). 
He then addresses them; Dr. West, who progresses 
grandly, follows. Sister Munson, a born linguist, adds a 
few sentences. " Nyanyi logi " (sing again), cries the 
crowd, and another hymn is sung in the dusk, the broad, 
tawny faces exhibiting keen enjoyment of this unwonted 

"They'll pass the hat for money now," whispers one. 
'*No, no; they're 'Orang halus ' (men of refinement) 
says another, "they're come to teach us the 'injil* 
(gospel)." A few concluding remarks from the Captain. 
Meanwhile the ladies are invited into the neighboring 
houses where endless questions are poured into them. 
Who are you ? What do you want ? Which is your hus- 
band ? And which yours? "O poor thing, you're not 
married and you're so grown up!" (this to Miss Black- 
more, who is 5 feet 8 inches tall). -\nd with difficulty 
the party gets away from the hospitable hearers. 

Pray for Singapore. As they get the language better 
these missionaries will make it hotter for their audience 
and we may expect the Holy Ghost to convince these poor, 
darkened ones. Xioyou pray while we preach. 




Method Utii, 



LuthcrAnii, . 

















The Growth of the Church. 

No one who is familiar with the fads, questions that 
the! Evangelical Church is making most encouraging 
progress in ihc United States. We now have 107,200 
churches, 82,723 ministers and 1 1,869,000 members, 
distributed as follows : 








The increase is shown according lo the Toitowing 
table. The membership of ihc Church was in 

1800, one in 15 of the popnlntion. 
1850, one ia 7 uf l)ip population. 
1870, one in of the populttiun. 
1880, one in S of the population. 
18H8, one in 4.5 of tlie pnpulntion. 

According to this rate of growth we may reasonably 
expect it to stand in 1900, one in three of the popula- 
tion. Of course, this growth is made to depend largely 
upon the activity of the existing Church, according to 
the teachings of God's Word, 

The Evangelical Protestant Churches of the United 
States since 1800, have contributed to 

ForpigD 3IiB8ioaB f 78,000.000 

Home Mifwions. 100,000,000 

Religious Publishiog Huusvu, . . . 150,000,000 

They build ten new churches every working day. 

In their colleges in 1884 they had 79 per cent, of all 
the college students. 

They have a church (or every one thousand of the 

SabtMtb-BchooI acboLara in United States, . 9,1S6,7S9 

Sabbath Bcbool schnUm In the world, 18,41S.961 

Totr»o ukn's chribtias ahbociatiohb. 

No. in Uuitcd States 1.840 

No. of Member*, 180.000 

Building*, etc. (valuej, $7,262,000 

These statt'\tics are taken from the exhibit made in 
the Cincinnati Centennial Exposition, and are, we pre- 
sume, approximately correct. Surely such figures should 
encourage the Church to more zeal and effort for the up- 
building of Christ's kingdom in our beloved land. — Her- 
ald ami Frtibjter, 

The Religious Ontlook of the World. 


Gross darkness is everywhere save among the nations 
of Christendom, and there the prevailing tint is sombre 
enough. The heavy pall of papal darkness covers en- 
tire kingdoms, .md is spreading into lands where'* the 
true light shinelh."' like the rolling clouds of an on-com- 
ing thunder-storm. 

As smoke from the pit, the infidelity of France has 
crossed the Channel, and the Rationalism of Germany 
has passed over the X^orth Sea, and from England has 
been carried westward and southward to the other Anglo- 
Saxon peoples. From the mouth of the dragon have 
come forth the frogs of modern Spiritualism for the 
masses, and Theosophy for the cultured. 

In that which bears the name of Christ the ontlook is 

In the Church of England the tide sets Romeward. 
Among Dissenters " modern thought " comes in like a 
tidal wave. "Science, falsly so called." builds its nesis 
in the very seats of Christian science, and teaches, as the 
truth of God, the germ errors of that apostasy that will 
soon say of God and His Christ, " Let us break their 
bands asunder, and cast away their cord^ from us." 

More alarming than all else is the worldly conformity 
that not only nileii the nominal, but that obtains all but 
universally among the true. The maxims of earth, the 
rules of human expediency, have everywhere displaced 
the simple and fearless obedience of faith, so that all re- 
ligious institutions, including that of foreign missions, 
are largely founded and conducted on the principle of 
prudential foresight rather than living faith. 

When the eye is turned abroad, a vast column of ten 
hundred and fifty millions of souls is seen moving steadily, 
blindfold, into the pit. The head of the column is ever 
disappearing, irrevocably lost, They have not yet heard 
ol Christ or seen the face of one of His witnesses. How 

Of these, something like one hundred and eighty mil- 
lions are not heathen but Mohammedans, adherents of 
that false faith which God permitted to come as a scourge 
upon Eastern Christendom, as the Papacy came upon the 
West. While through the centuries the Church has been 
sleeping, her vocation forgotten, this formidable power 
has been spreading itself by its armies and its mis- 
sionaries, until now its blight is upon those lands where 
the Gospel once triumphed. 

Not only much of Asia, but in Africa all ihe northern 
countries are solidly Moslem, while its white mosques 
gird the entire continent on the coast, and the vast in- 
terior is rapidly yielding to its propagators. It finds its 
apologists among the dignitaries of the Church of England. 
even as Buddhism has its growing societies of avowed 
converts in Christian lands. 

Mohammedanism is Christianity's greatest foe. Let 
us not be deceived by the thin coating this pill of poison 
wears. It is one of Satan's masterpieces. It was in sach 
trances and fits as come upon modern mediums, that 
Mohammed received from time to time the Koran. It is 
little wonder that it degrades Christ to the level of an 
ordinary prophet, and far beneath Mohammed, and 
denies both His deity and His death. 

The regions over which the fire of its fanaticism has 
passed, to all human appearance, yield no promise of 
fruit to the messenger of the Cross. But faith looks not 
at the outward appearance, nor sits down, like Hagar, in 

supine hopelessness, saying of Ishmad's seed, "Let me 
not see the death of the lad," but perceives the spring of 
the water of life, and would lift even these seemingly 
hopeless ones in her arms and give them to drink. 

^^_ The Loyalty IsUndn. 


■ The Loyalty Islands consist of a group in the South 
Pacific ocean, about sixty miles east of New Caledonia. 
They are of coral formation, and are said to be of quite 

B recent formation. Lifii, one of the group, is about 6fty 
miles long and twenty-five broad, being much larger than 
any of the other islands of the group. 

■ Mare is about twenty-five miles long and ten broad. 
" There are a large number of small islands, and they all 

together make about S^o square miles, and have a popu- 
H lation of about fifteen thousand. These islands have no 

■ harbors. They rise in some places, and quite generally 
about two hundred and fifty feet above the water, and 

I are thickly wooded. The soil is very ihin, but very 
A large quantity of yams, bananas and many other 
kinds of fruit arc raised in great abundance. The cotton 
plant does well, and is cultivated to a considerable ex- 

■ tent. 

■ There are some targe caverns on these islands, and 
W what is quite singular the water in them is fresh and 

good to drink, and rises and falls with the tide. An 
abundance of good fresh water is found on all the islands 
by sinking wells to the surface of the water of the sea. 

I The inhabitants of these islands are classed as Melan- 
esians, but the inhabitants of the different islands have 
a separate language. The tribes living on the island of 
Unea use the Samoan language, and some others the 
New Hebrides language. These different languages have 
to be acquired to accomplish any successful work among 
the dififerent tribes. These islands belong to the French, 
and the French authorities have at several times interfered 
with the English missions, and violence was used to drive 
them away. It created great indignation in England and 
^ also in .\merica. A strong protest was made by Lord 
B Shaftsbury and others, and the Emperor Napoleon granted 
I free liberty of worship to the Protestant missions. In 1875 
B farther persecutions of the native churches was begun, 

■ but a strong protest of the English government was 
B again effectual. 

B The I^ndon Missionary society began work at Mare 
B in 1854, in Lifu in 1S59, and on Uneain 1865, and prose- 
^ cuted the work with vigilance and success until the 

• people were evangelized, and now there is not a single 
idolater on these islands. They are all Protestants ex- 
cqn about a thousand, who are Roman Catholics. The 
gifts of the Protestants in ten years have been over $30,- 
000, beside more titan $3,000 expended for Christian 

I Scriptures. 
At the beginning of the work of the missionaries the 

ized. and worship in comfortable churches, and are self- 
sustaining. Something more should be said of the 
Christianity of the people of these islands. When the 
Ch/istian missions were begun in New Guinea, the native 
i^iristians from Marc and Lifu went to aid the work 
amo>s the cannibals of New Guinea, and two of them 
were among the first that were murdered, but the native 
Christians were not disheartened by the murders, but 
others volunteered to take the place of the martyrs, and 
they did it several times. They were brave men and 
did not hesitate to lay down their lives for the Master. 

The native ministers are indispensable, and some of 
them occupy positions as preachers and pastors equal to 
any of the missionaries. They are very acceptable to 
their own people, and are ready to go to any of the 
islands. .Some of them have a good knowledge of the 
Scriptures, and are c.imest, rlcvotcd men. They are in- 
valuable to send to the small islands, and on many of them 
the work has been done almost entirely by these de- 
voted natives. They preach the Gospel with great force. 
These native teachers and preachers meet once or twice 
a year in council presided over by a missionary, and dis- 
cuss the manner and effect of the work in the various 
villages, but the natives have proved so faithful and 
so efficient that the control of the missionaries has been 
relaxed, and in many cases entirely given up. These 
meetings of the workers .produce harmony 06 action 
among all the pastors. 

The plat» has been adopted of sending the more promis- 
ing youths in the schools of the islands, of the school at 
Norfolk Island for a few months in the year, to receive 
reUglous instruction. The great want here is, as it is in 
most of the heathen countries, more natives highly edu- 
cated 10 occupy the more important sutions that are 
generally filJed by the missionaries. Wlien schools of 
that character are established and the native educated, 
the whole field can be left to them and the work will be 
entirely self-sustaining. 

It is quite remarkable to notice the advance of com- 
merce and its great increase when the people become 
civilized. The natives who receive the Gospel seem to 
be taking on a new life, and their wants are increased, 
and they are willing to labor to supply them. 

There is a very noticeable change in the clothing and 
appearance of the natives within a few years, and since 
they have generally received the Gospel. They wear 
clothing and live in houses. They are becoming more 
and more self sustaining every year, and it ts believed 
there that if the missionaries should all retire the work 
would be carried on by the natives. 

There are now only four ordained foreign missionaries 
on the group of islands. There are fifteen ordained 
native ministers and forty-two lay workers. There are 
fifty-eight day schools and more than two thousand 

It is estimated that in March, 18S7, the population of 
India was 268,137,044. 



Annual Meeting of the South America 
Mothodlst Episcopal Mission. 


The Seventh Annual Mccling of this Mission, just 
closed, will be memorable as the occasion of a wonderful 
and glorious outpouring of the Divine Spirit upon its 
members and the Church in Montevideo. 

The meeting opened in this city (Montevideo) on the 
fourth of October and continued in session until the 
eleventh. All the missionaries and ministers connected 
with the Mission were present with the exceptions of 
Misses Chapin and Denning, Mrs. Wood, Mrs. Thomson 
and Mrs. Robinson, who were unal>le to attend. 

From the opening Communion service, in which we 
were joined by a large congregation composed of the 
membership of our Montevideo churches, it was manifest 
that there was in those present a common spirit of con- 
secration and faith. 

The presentation of reports of the work was attended 
with great interest. There have been many genuine 
conversions and a notable growth of spirituality during 
the year. Four of our pastoral charges are entirely self- 
-supporting. The funds contributed by our people and 
friends to different departments of the work during the 
year, will reach an aggregate of not less than $25,000. 

The rising tide of spiritual power in our meeting be- 
came most manifest when on the third day of the se.s.sion, 
in the midst of our business, the ijoly Ghost came upon 
us in melting, refining and. we trust, empowering, in- 
fluence. This baptism came suddenly and seemed to fill 
every heart with unutterable emotion. The rumor of 
this manifcstatiun of grace went forth amon^ our people 
and greatly stimulated their desires and anticipations in 
connection with the Sabbath services. 

The preaching both in English and Spanish on the 
Lord's Day wa.s characterized by unction and power. 
The Love Feast held in the afternoon will be remenibAcd 
by many, if not by all, present as a most wonderful season 
of blessing. Every heart was moved and it seemed that 
every tongue was loosed to speak the praise of our Saviour. 
Within the brief hour and a quarter, scores of testimonies 
were given. The people said: "We have never seen 
anything like this before." Those longest connected 
with the mission declared it the best meeting ever held 
in the history of our Church in South America. 

This divine influence pervaded all the proceedings of 
the meeting to its close. 

Special interest was awakened on behalf of the Freed- 
men of Brazil, many thousands uf whom dwell within the 
limits of our fitld in the southern province of that Em- 
pire. They are in great ignorance and degradation, ex- 
posed, almost without restraint, to the evil tendencies 
certain to manifest themselves. They have no such 
moral and religious influences within and about them as 
those which have largely saved the freed race in our own 
land from the dangers and excesses incident to sudden 
emancipation. At the same time it is to be said that 
social and race prejudice will offer less barriers to the ele- 
vation of the black man in Brazil than in North America. 
A gift of money for work among the Brazilian Freed- 
men was placed at the disposal of our mission. It comes 
from the venerable and beloved mother of Dr. Thomas 
B. Wood, so long Superintendent of this mission. Who 
will add to this little fund until it shall be sufficient to 
provide for efficient work ? 

Romanism has been the foe of emancipation in Brazil, 
the Encyclical of Leo XIII. to the contrary notwith- 
standing, and the Roman priesthood will do little for the 
elevation of the ex-slaves. 


Our attention was also called lo the needs of the In- 
dians of our great interior plains and forests. Here is 
another field of the greatest interest and importance. 

During the year our work has spread to the West Coast 
in Northern Chile and Peru under the earnest labors of 
our Brother Penzotii. 

Bolivia wjits fur the (rospel at our hands. 

Under a very manifest feeling of solemn responsibility 
to God and the Church, our meeting entered upon the 
consideration of the attitude which should be assumed, 
in view of the action of the late General Conference 
authorizing the organization of this mission with that in 
Chile into an Annual Conference. 

All views and interests were subordinate to the one 
desire to know and do the will o' God. After careful 
discussion and with perfect unanimity, it was resolved to 
petition the Board of Bishops to provide for an episcopal 
visit at the earliest possible moment, and to request the 
immediate execution of the plan authorized by the Gen- 
eral Conference. 

We feel that the plan referred to, and which was adopt- 
ed without solicitation or suggestion on our part, is provi- 
dential and opportune. Put into practice it will greatly 
stimulate the progress of our work. 

Our meeting closed in the midst of great rejoicing, and 
its members have gone forth into this continent-wide 
field with victorious faith and hope. 

Let the whole Chunh rejoice in the era of blessing 
which, long waited and prayed and labored for, has come 
to the South America ^lission. 

The appointments for the South America Mission for 
1888-1889 were as follows: 

C. W. T>ree«i. SuperintendcDt. 

ITirU Vhurch of UuenoK Ayrt»: T. U. Stockton. (8. TrigRft.) 

Bueiun Ayret Vireuil: J. F. Tbomeon, J. G. FroKKs't- 1^- 
T. Robinnin, R. Blanco, 8. klspuiUoli, L. FermriDi, A. M. 
TIudsDn. R. Vuqiiiez, J, AfloD.) 

ItMorio and Cartarana: J. M. Spaaglcr. (B. A. Richard, G. 
n. C. Viner.) 

llatario Circuit : (J. Roble*. I. Poza y Merino.) 

Ctntrai S-tnta Fe Cirattt.' R. Oerber. 

San Oarlot Oircuil: R. WeihmlOler. 

Mtndofi: {J. Domtnguez ) 

Entre Jiuj) Circuit : I.. Alicledo. (C. Loatrico.) 

Mmteri'Uo Cirmit: G. P. Howard. iZ. Cubil6, J. Escaode.) 

Jfotttetitifo A^cond Chftrth : C. W. Miller 

Afftiada Circuit: A. Uuetfi. 

Oinelontt Cireuit : To bu supplied. 

Colonia t'ireuit: 'V • be Aupplitd. 

Ctutrai (kvifuay Circuit : W. Tullon. 

Taeuartmh't Circuit : F. J. dc Lt;mo8. 

Paragvay Circuit: J. VilUnuefn. 

Hio Orande do Sul Circuit: J. C. Correa. 

Theologictd School : T. B. Wood. President. 

Oetmrai AtjenC 0/ America i* lObU tior.iety : A, M. Milne. 

Agvnt of Amtrricau BiUe Sociartj in I'tru^ ftc: P. Penxottl. 

Jiwk ComrnittM: T. B. Wood, J. F. Thomson, G. P. Howard, 
A, M. Milne, J. *r Sp»ngler. 

Boiik Agent : W. T. K)bJnBOD. 
Wornnfi.*A Forrlgn Mi»gioi>nry Soeitty : 

Iiueno» Ayrti: Kleanura Le Humy. 

Rfuaric: Jennie M. Cbapiu, Luuiaa B. Denuing, Mary B. 

Montevideo: Minnie J, Uyde. 

The Btutiatics reportvd H United States miMioaAries, 6 assist- 
ant mi&^iouuries, United States misflioDBrics of the Woiuau's 
Foreign Missionary Society, 42 nallvc pn-achers, 26 native 
IcacberB, foreign teafiher.>i, 717 raembBrs, 618 probationers 1 
theologlcRl school with 2 teachers mid 12 students, SO dn; 
schools with 2,290 acholArs, 3^ Sun day -schools with 1,416 
scholftTs, ] 1 churches valued at f IST.OOO. There were reported 
170 conversions during the year and the collections were $558 
Tor Missionary Society, P<>W for other Benevolent Societiee, 
$13,776 for self-support, $4,^9 for church building, $8,01S 
for other local purposes. 




Compiled by RUV. JOHN MITCHELL. B.D. 

X70'X' Ji;. — Bjr Individual MlwJon is mnuit a MImIoo h«Tiiij{ bo reapouKible oxecottve Coundl or CriinintttM>. 

The i«rfn Ceneril HpeclABa OrfntnlsUtons ibnt kund out adiI NUpport MlMionarlM In difr«r«nt Qunrtvn of Uiv Qlobe. 
Tn« tortn Special ■iH-cilli>« OrmuiatlODt that Mod outmd support MIsatonarlM to A pATtkular place. 
TA«t«rm Aid spvclfWOnranizAl ions that do notMndour Vnition an r«, but give aid Jo«>tu« Ut-nfiraJ orfip«olaI 
31lM>liMiarj UiKAiiizatiau, «tth«r lO; f^i>wiru»ai (Oraala of Miinpyli Ibi /^i/n-arir (Bible*. DooIck. TnurU, Tratw- 
latimw); ir) /i:<7u»i(i<»utJ {Medical or MlaiBt«rlal): or (rll Phf/nnfirnni-c (Strong Moral Support). 

Thoap iDArked will) an asterisk (■) are higb Charch or ultra -rltuailittlc. though profrawdlj Protenant. 

BHvlalon f.«>D«nonilnallaiial, 


1701 •Society for the PmpfcgMion of Ibe 
Gospel : Sec, Rtiv. 11. W. Tucker, 
M.A., 19 Delflhsy Street, WcsU 
raitiiiter, Lonttnn, S.'W. 

186S •Ladies' AsaoctBtion in connection 
with BP.O.: Hec, MIfs I^iiifia 
Buliock. 10 Delabay Street, West- 
mlQiter. LoudoD, S.W. 

1799 Church MiasioDarj Society: Tlie 
Secretaries, Church MiRsion 
House. Salisbury Square, Flwet 
Street, LontluD, E.C. 

1860 Church of Englaud Zcuaaa Mis- 
sionary Society: Sec, Mr. Jaoies 
Stuart, 9 Salisbury Square, I^on- 
doD, £.C. 

Id09 LoodoD Society for ProniotiDg 
Christianity among the Jews: 
Sec., Rev. W. Fleming, LL.B., 
10 LiDcolo's-ino-Delde, London, 

1851 Colonial and Continental Church 
Society: Sec., Rev. D. L. Mc- 
ADalley. M.A., B Serjeants'-inn, 
Fleet Street, London, E.C. 

1870 ^Parochial Mission to the Jews Fund : 
Sec., Re7. John Schor, Arundel 
House, Victoria Emliankment, 
London, W.C. 


1844 South Ameiicno Missionary Soci- 
ety: Bee., 0>%pt. E. Paulden,RN., 
1 Clifford's Inn, Fleet Street, 
London, E.C. 

1960 *Univeraitic9*Misrion to Centra) Af- 
rica: Sec, nev. W. H. Penney, 
M.A., \\ Delahay SUcet, Wt-at- 
rainater, London, S.W, 

1806 "Delhi Female Medical Mission: 
Sec., Mr. Robert L. Hunter. 51, 
St. George's Square, London, 

1874 •Cowley Rrotherbood: Sec,, Rev. 
Father Superior.Cowley St. John, 

1878 •Misfliooarv Ouild of 8t. John, in 

Aid of the Ikfission Work at 
Poona, India: Sec, Miss H. M. 
Wyldu. Cowtey Bt. John, Ox- 

1880 *A11 Saints' Bombay HIs^loniLry As- 
sociation ; Hoc., Mrs. F. Duodas, 
10 ChosterTerrace, Eaton Square, 
London, S. W. 

1879 •Oxford Mission to Calcutta: Sec, 

Rev. J. O. Johnstone, Principal 

of St. Sipphen's noiise, Oxford. 

l«81 •St.Donys'Punjaub Mission Associa- 
tion : Sec, Hon .Margaret A'Oourt, 
Heytesbury, Baih. 

IBSS 'Association for the Furtherance of 
Christianity in Egypt: Sec, Rev. 
R.M. Blakiaton, M.A., F.R.O.S., 
It Dean's Yard, Westminster, 
London, S.W. 

IBSe 'The Arcbbishop's Mission to the 
Assyrian Chrittiuns: Sec, Same 
as preceding. 
Church Army: Sec, Rev. W. Car- 
lile, 126 Edgware Road, Lon- 
don, W. 

Aid: (rt) I^inanf^^%l, 

lOiJl Christian Faith Society: Sec. Rev. 
H. Bailey, D.D.. West Tarring 
Rectory, Worthing, Suseex. 

18SJJ Ladies' Society lor Promoting Ed- 
ucation in the West Indies: Sec, 
Miss A. M. Barney, 16 Lupus 
Street. St. George's Square, Lon- 
don. S.W. 

1648 Coral Mii^iouary Fund: 8ee., Edi- 
tor of The CoTfA Mmvmary Mag- 
JUM0, 2 Pftterooster Buildings, 
London, G.C. 

tS54 'AnglD-Continental Society: Sec, 
Rev. F. Mtyrick. M.A., Blick- 
Itng. Aylsham, Norfolk. 

1860 '"The Nut" Collections: Treas., 
Miss Eliza Wigram, Moor Place, 
Hordhara, Herts. 

1968 "Missionary Leaves'* Association: 
Sec. Mr. H. G. Malaher, 20 
Compton Terrace, Upper Street, 
TsUnffton, London, N. 

1660 Spanish, Portuguese, and Mexican 
Church Aid Society: Sec, Rev. 
L. 8. Tiigwell, 8 Adam Street, 
Strand, I>ondon, W.C. 

1874 •Wanninster Missionary Union: Sec, 
Mies M. E. Cruse, St. Denys' 
Home, WHrminster. Wilts. 

1888 "Ki^eDtml Agency for Foreign Mis- 
sions: Sec, Mr. Q. Hayncs, 54 
Oresham Street, London. E.C. 


Board of Missions of the Province 
of Canterbury: Sec, Gen. Mac- 
lagan, 4 WeHt Cromwell Road. 
Kensington, London, S.W. 

Dioeemin ifimann. 
Of the twelve Missionary 
Bishops, the following have or- 
ganisations in England for col- 
lecttng aid. These are iudepen> 
dent organizations and the aid 

received is dlsttnot from that 
which is furnished by any of the 
foregoing Bocietios: 

1861 Melanesia. 

1861 •Honolulu. 

1873 MId-Cblna Fund. 

1874 *HadagHscar. 
1880 North China. 
1683 Japau. 

Of the sixty-dre Bishops in In- 
dia and the Colonies, a consid- 
erable proportion have indepen- 
dent organizations in England. 
Colonial Bisboprics' Fund: Sec., 
OlEce of the S.P.O. 

[The names and addreai B softbe Com- 
mbsarlfs or all the HtaloDarr and 
OolODlal Bhihopt are to be found la tbe 
S rO' Repon, or Iti aor Dloceaan Cal- 
endar or Id tbe Yoar Book of the Cbarch 
oC Hog land-] 

Aid: (l) Edwational. 

Mi*K>oRary CoUegtt: 

18*25 Church Missionary College, Isling- 
ton : Rev. T. W. Drury, M.A., 

1848 *3t. Augustine's College, Canter- 
bury: Rev. 0. F. Maclear, D.D., 

1860 'St. Boniface, Warminster: Rev. 
Sir J. E. Phitipps, Bart., War- 

1676 *St. Paul's, Burgh, Lincolnshire: 
Rev. W. A. Bnuneld, M.A., Prin- 

1876 •St. Stephen's House, Oxford: Rev. 

Chas. Meyers, M.A., Principal. 

1877 •St. Alphege, Southwark: Rev. A. 

B. Oouldea, B.A., Wurdco. 

1878 •DorckesUr. Oxon. : Rev. H, P. Car- 

rie, M.A., Principal. 
Mtntouary StvdenUhipt Auocia- 
(itfni'.— Twenty-five Dioceses have 
these. See Year Book. 

Aidi (e) Literary. 

1608 Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge: Sec, Rev. W. H. 
Orove, M.A. North umWrl and 
Avenue, Charing Cross, Iiondon, 

1860 Church of England Book SJMiicty: 
Sec, Mr. John Sbrimpton, 11 
Adam Street, Strand, London, 


1673 'Scottish Episcopal Church Central 
Board of Foreign Missiotis: Sec, 
Rev. C. R. Teapv, D.D., Find- 
horn Place, Orange, Edinburgh. 


1876 *Cbiirch Womea's AssociatiDU of Ibo 
Scotliah Epi«copal Clmrcb : Sec., 
MiM F.. M. Hope, 7 Torpkicliaa 
Street, Edinburgh. 
8cvc-ml English Societies bare 

Atutliiirios Rod colluct funds in 



Seven EngLiab Societies have 
Aiucillariea and collect funds in Ire- 



1641 WeUb Calvinifltic Methodist For- 
eign MiBsinns: Sec., Dr. J. 
Thnma*, 38 Brickfield Koad, S. 

1B47 PresbjterisQ Church of England 
Foreign Missions: Sec., Mr. John 
Bell, 13 Feachurch Avenue, Lon- 
don, E.G. 

1807 .fewish Misaioo of tlic Presbyterian 
Church of England : See, Rev. 
John Edmond, D.U., 60 Bcres- 
ford Road, Highbury, London, 

1879 Women's Miflsionar; Association of 
the Presbyterian Church of Eng- 
land: Sec, Mrs. A. Stevenson. SS 
Ladbroke Grove, London, W. 

Aid: Financial. 

1647 CoDtineDtal Evangelization Com- 

miUeo of the Proaby terian Church 
of England: Sec. Rev. R. H. 
Luodie, 6 Beech Street, Liver- 


1670 Studentn' MisBionary Socivlv of the 
Prcttbyteriati Citiircli uf England : 
Sec, Mr. R, C. Hillie, M.A., 
Preflbyterian College, Guildford 
Street, RusaoU Square. London, 
W. C. 

0( 8C0TLAKD. 

1639 Church of Scotland Committee for 
the Propagation o( Gospel in For- 
eign Parts: Sec, Mr. J. T. Mac- 
lagan, N. St. David's Streot, 

18B8 Church of Scotland Ladies* Asso- 
ciation for Foreign Miiuiioiis: Sue, 
Miss Rcid, 33 Queiii Street, 

1648 Church of Scotland Committee for 

Conversion of the Jews: Sec, 
Mr. Jolm TftW8c W.8.. 21 St. 
Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. 

1643 Free Church of Scotland Foreign 
Missions : Sec, Mr. Geo. Smith, 
LL,D.. C.I.E., is N. Bank Street, 

1648 Free Church of Scotland Ladtea' 
Society for Female EducatioD in 
India and South Africa: 8«c., 
Rev. Wm. Stevenson, M.A., Free 
Church Offices, Edinburgh, 

1848 Frve Church of Scotland Commit- 
tee for Conversion of Jews: Sec, 
Rev. Wm. Affleck, B.D., Auoh- 1849 
termuchty, N.B. 1 

1846 Church of Scotland Ladies' Asso-' 
cistiou for the Christian Educa- 
tion of Jewish Females: Sec, 
Mr. John Tawse, W.S,, 21 SL 1859 
Andrew's Square. Edinburgh. | 

1647 United Presbyteriau Church of ' 
Bcotland Foreign Missions: Sec. 
Itt'v. Jan. Rurhannn, College 1887 
Buildings, Castle Terrace, Edin- 

1880 United Presbyterian Church of 
Scotland Zennna Misaton: Bee, 
Same as preceding. 

1843 The Reformed Presbyterian Church 
of Scotland SyriHn Mission: Sec, 
Rev. Robert Uunlop, Blackhill, 
Paisley. N.B. 

1871 United Original Secession Church 
Siiulh Indian Mission: Sec, Rev. 
Wm. B. Gardiner, Pollokabaws, 

Aid: {a) FinaneiaL 

1700 Society in Scotland for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge: Sec, pro 
tern., Mr. C. Nisbet, 23 York 
Place. Edinburgh. 

1821 Glasgow University Alisaiouary So- 
ciety: Sec, Mr. R. Kilgour, 
M.A., 1 Osborne Place, Govau, i^^q 

1S21 Glasgow Free Church Students' 
Missionary Society : Sec, Mr. 
Charles R. Ramsay, M.A., Free ^974 
Church College, Glasgow. 

1823 St. .\!idrew'« University Missionary 
Society: Sec, Mr. Alfred Mac- 
farlaoc. University. St. Andrew's, 
N.B. 1842 

1829 Edinburgh University Mi»Hionary 
Association: Sec, Sfr. D. J. Moir- 
Porteous, M.A., Nnrth Mansion- 
house Rood, Edinburgh. 

1885 * New College Missionary Society 

(Free Church of Scotland): Sec, 18Sil 
Mr. R. 8. Andcrsun, M.A., New 
College, Edinburgh. 

1885 United Presbyterian College Mis- 
sionary Society: Sec, Mr, David 
Christie, M.A., United Presby- 
leriau Hall. Castle Terrace, Edin- 

1636 Aberdeen University Missionary As. 
sociaiion: Sec, Mr. William 
Thomson, M.A., University, Ab- 

1644 Free Church of Scotland Continen- 
tal Committee: Sec, Rev. James 
G. Mackintosh, M. A. , Free Church 
Offices, Edinl>urgh. 

1617 United Prvsbylcriao Church of 1878 
Scotland Contiuental Committee : 
Sec, Rev. Jauies Buchanan, 
United Presbyterian Church 

Officea, Cutle Tertmoe, Edin- 

The China Miftsion in connection 
with the Presbyterian Church of 
England: Sec, Mr. R. R. Simp- 
son, W.S., 92 Bill Street, Edin- 

Church of Scotland Continental 
Committee: Sec, Mr. A. T. 
Nivcn, C.A., 16 Young Street, 

United Presbyterian Church of 
Scotland Aid to the Jewish Mis* 
sion of the Presbyterian Church 
of England: Sec. Rev. James 
Buchanan, United I'rcsbyteriaa 
Church Officea, Castle Terrace, 

Aid: (() Bdvfatumal. 

Free Church of Scotland Bursaries 
Scholnrships and Grnnls for Stu- 
dents prcjMiring for Foreign Mis- 
sion Work. 

United PrcBbTteriBii Church of 
Scutlaiid Btirsaries Scholarships 
and Gr«nl8 for Students prepar- 
ing for Foreign Mission Work. 

Medical and other Bursaries for 
Students prc|>aring for Foreign 
Mission Work. 


Presbyterian Church of Ireland For- 
eign klissions: Sec, Rev. Geor^ 
McFartand, 12 May Street, Bel- 

Presbyterian Church of Ireland Fe- 
male At<!iiH;iBtion for Promoting 
Chnsliauity among the Women of 
the Esst: Si-c. Mrs. Park, Fort- 
william Park, Uelfast. 

Presbyteriur Church of Ireland 
Jewish MiMioa: Sec, Rev. 
George McFarland, 12 May 
Street, Belfast. 

Piesbyterian Church of Ireland Con- 
tinental Mission: Sec, Re v.Oeorge 
McFarland. 12 May Street. Bel- 

Rt-formed l^resbytcrian Synod of 
Ireland Syrian Mission act with 
Scotch Synod: Sec, Rev. J. D. 
HouMon, B.A., ColeraJne. 

Original (^cession Congregations 
in Ireland act with the Scotch 
Synod in the South Indian Mis- 

Students' Theological Society of 
the Belfast College: Sec, Theo- 
logical Society, The College, Bel- 

Students' Missionary Association of 
Mftgce College, Londonderry: 
Sec, Mr. Junies Kecrs, Mage« 
College, Londonderry. 





1814 WcslejSD Methodiftt MitMionary 
Society : The Seor«tarie«, Centan- 
My Hall, Bishofuigmle Street 
WitluD. LuiidoD, B.C. 

1850 LiMlic»' Aiixiliriry of tho Wesleynn 
Melhodifit Miiwionarj' Riuriety: 
Sec., Miv. Wtscmun, 3 B^ftitba 
VillM, Bsnisbury, Loatlon, N. 

1858 United Miahocliitt Free CtnirchM 
Foreign Missinn: Sec., Rev. J. 
Adc(M!k, 448 Otouop Koad, 

(859 Methodist New Connexion Mli^ion- 
M-y Botioty: Sec, Ilev. W. J. 
Towiisend. Richmond Hill, vVsh- 
tOD'iiiider Lyne. 

1883 Central Chinn Wcfleyan Lay Mia- 

a'on: Sec, Itev. W. F. Moulton, 
D.D., The Uya School, Cam- 

1870 PrimttiTe Mettindlfit Miiuionary So- 
ciety: Sec, Ilef. .lofao Atkinson. 
71 Freegrove Ruad. Hollnwnj, 
London. K. 

1885 Bible Chriittiaii Foreign HiMion&ry 
Society: Sec, Itev. I. B. Van- 
stooe, 78 Herbert Ri>Hd, Plum- 
»tead, Kent. 

IS (»roTI.ASI). 
The Wcaleyan Melhudists have Aux- 


The Wesleyaa Methodistn have Aux- 

The New Connexion Methodists 
have Auxiliaries. 



1708 Ba{>tl8t Mii4iii<>oary Society: Sec, 
Mr. Alfred H. Baynea, P R.A 5 , 
3B Furnival Street, Holborn, 
London, E.C 

1867 Liulieii' Aiuiociutioa for the Support 
of Zetiiiim Work and Bible- wo- 
men in fndiii in connection with 
the Baptist Missionary Society: 
Sec. Mr». Antius, The College, 
Begem'* Park, London. N.W. 

1816 General Baptist MUiiioaarv Society: 
Sec, Rev. William Hill, Mis- 
■ion Houic, tJO Wilfton Street, 

IFAl Strict Baptiiit HIsBion: Se.T., Mr. 
Josiah Brincre, 17 Arlington 
S<|uare, Isliogtoii, {.locdan, N. 
Aid: {«) Financial, 

1884 G<^nnao Unplist Mission: Sor., Kcv. 

F. Horace Newton, 11 Bismarck 
Road, Highgatc Uill. Londuc, 

1848 Toung Men's Association in Aid of 
the Baptist Miii^ionary Society : 
Sec, Mr. C. llolliday, HissioD 
House, 19 Ptirnivnl Street. Hol- 
born, London, E.G. 

Aid: (ft) fAterary. 

1840 Bible Transtation Society: Sec, 
Rev. J. Tmfford, M.A.. 88 Lord- 
ship Park, Stoke Neningion, 
London. N. 

1641 BaptiBt Tract and Book Society: 
Sec, Rev. George Siitimoaa, 
Maiden Villa, Granville Rood, 
Sidcup, Kent. 


TheBaptist Missionary Society have 

171 inr.i.AXD. 

The Bfiptist MiMionary Society have 




Aid: Finaneiil. 

183(1 Colonial Missiooary Society: Sec 
Rfv. W. S. n. Pielden, Memorial 
Hall, Farringdon Street, Lon- 
don, E.(J. 



Aid: Finaneial. 

1884 Evaugelical Union Aid to the Lon- 
don Missionary Society: Sec, 
Rev. George Oladatooi;, 4 Auu 
Street, HiUhead, Glasgow. 



1867 Friendi' Foreign Mission Associa- 
tion: Sec, Mr. Cliaries Lioney, 
Hitchio, Herts. 

1869 Fricads' Mission to Syria and Pales- 
tine: Sec, Mr, R, Hingftion Pox, 
43 Fiosbury Circos, London, 

1877 Pricndb' Women's Cumuiittee on 
Christian Work in France; Sec, 
Miss M. S. Pace, 5 Warwick 
Road, UpperOUpton, London, E. 

1861 Medical Mti^tioii, iimong the Arme- 
niarsi Ri^c. Mrs. W. C. Bralth- 
waite. 312 Camden Road, Lon- 
don. N. 

Aid: Liltrary. 
1674 Depot Central, Paris, and Free Cir- 
culation of />' Ami d« la ifaijton, 
etc.: Sec, Mr. J. R. Brail hwatte, 
818 Camden Road, London. 

The Friends' Foreign Mission has 

The Friends' Miwiou to Syria and 

Palestine hat> Auxiliaries. 






Aid: FinaneiaL 
Sierra Leone Mission Society for 
the Spread of the Gospel at Homo 
and Abroad: Sec, Rev. Tbumaa 
Dodd, WorocBter. 

Aid: Fiitaneiid. 
London AsM>ciation in Aid of the 
Moravian Mission: Sec Mr. 
OeorgoE. Roberts. 29 Ely Plaoe, 
Holboro, Lfindon, E.C. 


London Association baa an Auxil- 


London Asswiisliim has an Auxil- 

DIvlHloti l|.*-Vadeno«lnallonal. 











The London Miaaionsry Sodety: 
Sec, Rev. Edward H. Jonoa, 
London Mission !Iouse, Blom* 
field Stivct, London, E.C. 

Ladies^ Committee of the London 
Misnionary Society: Sec, Miaa 
Bennett, 32 Cavendish Square, 
London. W. 

British and Foreisn Sailora' Soci- 
ety: Sec. Rev. Edward W. Mat- 
thews, Sailors' Institute, Mercer 
Street, Shadwell, London, E. 

British and Foreign Bible Society: 
The SecretaritB, Bible House, 146 
Queen Victoria Street, London, 

Society for Promoting Female Edtt- 
Ciitiou ill the East: Sec, Miaa 
Webb. 267 Vauxhall Bridge 
Road, London, S.W. 

The British Society for tho Propar 
gatioii of the Gospel among the 
Jews; Sec, UfV. John Duniop, 
flfi Great Russell Street, Blooms- 
bury, London, W.C. 

New England Com|Mi"y: Sec, 
Mr. Wm. M. Penning, D.O.L., 
M.A.. 1 Furnival's Inn, Holborn, 
London, E.r. 

Udy Mico Charity: Sec, Rev. O. 
W. Gedge, 1a St. Helen's Place, 
Bishopsgate Street Within, Lon- 
don, EC. 

Indian Female Normal Srhuol and 
Instruction Society, or i^enana 
Bible aud Medical Mistitou: The 
Secretaries, 2 Adelphi Terrace, 
Strand, London, W.C, and 1 
Erakine Place, Edinburgh. 




IBBBJf^Chrijttmn Vfruftciilar Education So- 
ciety, for India: Sec, Mr. Henry 
Morris, 7 Adiun Street, Adelpht. 
London, W.C. 

1800 British Syrian School iind Bible 
Sliislon: Sec., Miba A. Poiilton, 
18 Homcfield Road, Wimbledoo, 

1864'"»SHnday»chooI Union Continental 
Miuiuo: S<?c.. Hr.W. II. Millar, 
Se Old Bailey, London, E.C. 

1876 Birmingham Yoiinf; Hen's Foreign 
MiMinnary Societr: Sec, Mr. W. 
IL Silk. Y.M.C A., Needle* 
Alley, New Street, BinniDgharo. 

1881 NorlU Africa Miasion: 8cc.. Mr. 
E. H. Olenny, 21 Linton Road, 
Barking, Baeex. 

Aid: ias Financial. 

1889 Foreign Aid Society: 8m., Re». 
H. Joy Browne, >f.A., vicar of 
Cliriit Phurch, Bamet, Herta. 

1B4B Evangelical Continental Society: 
S^rc. lUv. R. Stoni'Aahtou.B.A., 
U' Blointield Street, London 
Wall. London, E.C. 

18GS Turkish MifsiocB Aid Society: Sec., 
Rev. T. W. Brown, D.D., 88 
The Avenue, Bedford Park, 
Chiswick, I^ndon. 

1867 The London Bible and Domeitic 
Female Mission: Sec., Mrs. Belfc 
Leonard, 3 Adelphl Terrace, 
Strand. London, W.C. 

IMS Waldensian C'liurch Miseiona in 
Italy: Sec, Major M. Frobisber. 
USPftIi >U11. London, 8.W. 

1800 The Italian ^liulonary Bociifty in 
aid of the Free Italian Church: 
Sec., Rev. R. 8. Ashton. B.A., 
13 Blomlicld Street, Loudon 
Wall, London, E.C. 

1871 Evangeliatic MiBeion in France, 
known aa The McAll Miaaion: 
Sec. Rev. Robert McAll. 17 
Trensilltan Crescent, St. John's 
London, fi.E. . , 

1873 Foreign Evangelization Society: 
Hon. Sec, Rev. Horace Noct, 
Woking, Surrey. 

1674 Chlldren'i Medical ^lifsioo: Sec, 
Mias Annie R. Butler, !()4 Peth- 
ertoD Road, Loudon, N. 

1878 Medical Missionary Aasoclalion : 
Sec. , Dr. .Tames L. Maxwell, 
M.A., 104 Petherton Road, Lon- 
don, N. 

1870 Prcedmen'a Missions Aid Society: 
Sec, Rev. J. Gwyone Jotiea, 
U.D., 18 Adam Street, Strand, 
London. W.C. 

1888 Helping Hands Zeonna Misaion : 
Sec, Miss Beynoii, 25 Ashburn 
Place, Loudon. S.W. 

1885 Breton Evaogvlicul Minion: Sec, 
Mr. J. Watcs, 4 Princes' Road, 
Ijewisbani, Kent. 

1888 Rubtnowitcb Council in London: 
Sec, Mr. James £. Mutbiesont 




Conference Hall, Hildmay Park, ' 1882 
London, N. 
Aid: (b) Sducatianal. 

1838 Institution for the Education of 
the Daughters of Missionfini's; 
Sec. Mrf. Pye-Smith. St. Kattl- 
erine's, Scvcnoaks, Rent. 

1843 Konae and School for the Sona and 
Orphans of Miasionar'tea: S«c, 
Rev. R W. ThnmpsoD, London 
MiB»iou House, 14 BlumGeld 
Street, London Wall, Lon- 
don, K.C, 

1880 The Zenana Medical College: Sec, 
Dr. G. de O. Griffibh, 58 St. 
George's Roid, London, S.W. 

1883 Young Men's Foreign Missionary 

Society: Sec, Mr. John H. Put- 
terill. Y.M.C.A., 188 Aldersgate 
Street, London, E.C. 

1884 Miasionary Training College, Puer- 

to Santa Maria, Spain: Sec, Mr. 
Douald Mathe^on. t'iO Queen's 
Gate. Loudon. S.W. 
Aid: (c) LUrrarp. 

1790 Religious Tract Society: The Sec- 
retaries. 56 Paternoster Row, 
I,ondon, EC. 

1880 Trinitarian Bible Society: Sec. 
Rev. E. W. Bullioger, D.D.. 7 
St. Paul's Churchyard, London, j 

1854 Pure Literature Society: Sec, Mr. 
Riritard Turner. 1 1 Bucking- 
ham Street, Adelpht, London, 
W.C. I 

L882 Bible Stand, Crystal Palace: Sec, I 
Mr. W. Hftwke, Bible Stand, | 
CrysUl Palace, Sydenham, Loo- ^8** 
don, 8,E. I 

1800 Children's Special Service Mission : I 
Sec, Mr. Henry Hankinson, Id 
Warwick Lane, Paternoster 
Row, London, E.C. iggg 

1874 Association for the Free Dittribu- 

tioQof the Scriptures: Sec, Mrs. 
A. E. Hobertion, 1 Oak Hill 
Park.Hampstcud.Loodou. N.W. |g72 
Aid: id) PhilttiUhrojiic. 

1886 Aboriginei Protection Society: i 
Sec. ;'ro lem., Mr. H. H. Idle, 8 
BroadKay Cliainben*, Westmin- 
ster. London, S.W. 1887 

1830 British and Foreign Anti-Slavery 
Society: Sec, Mr. Charles U. 
Allen. F.H.G.S.. 05 New Broad 
Street, I^mdon, E C. 1826 

1846 Evangelical Alliance (British Or- 
ganiiUitioni : Sec, Lieut-Gen. 
Field, C.B., 7 Adam Street, 
SUnd, London. W.C. 1866 

1875 Society for the Suppreuiun of the 

Opium Trade: Sec, Mr. Edwin 
Arthur Williams. R.A., Broad- 
way Chamberp, WeM minster, 1B74 
London, S.W. 
1878 The African Lakes Company |limit- 

ed): Sec. Mr William Ewing, 1877 
7 Royal Bank Place, Glasgow. 

Society for Relief of Persecuted 
Jews r" Syrian Colonization 
Fund".: Sec. Mrs. E. A. Finn, 
41 Parliament Street, Westmin- 
ster, London, S.W. 

Anti-Opium Prayer Union: Sec, 
.Miss Mary S. Whiting, Regent 
Villaa. Headiogly, Leeds. 

Jewifth Refugees Aid Society: Sec, 
pro tern.. Hev. Uerlwrt A Birk*. 
JLA., Bowls. Chigwell. E*»bcx. 

United Committee for the Preven- 
tion of (he DemoraliMlion of 
Native Races by the Litiuor 
Traffic: Sec, Rev. J. Grant Mills, 
M.A., ISft Palace Chamber*, 
Weatmiiister. London, S.W. 

Missionary and Evangelistic Bu- 
reau : Sec , Mr. John M. Pam- 
ment, 186 Aldersgate Street. 
London, E.C. 

Movement for Educating and Stir- 
ring up Public Opinion against 
our National Opium Trade: Sec, 
Rev. Goodeve Mabhs, F.8.S., 
78 Godolphtn Road, Shepherd'a 
Bush, Loudon, W. 

The Christian Union for the Sever- 
ance of the Uonnectiiin of the 
British Empire with the Opium 
Traffic: Sec . Dr. J. L. Maxwell, 
M.A.. lOl Petherton Road. Lon- 
don. N. 

The Mission to Lepers in India hu 
nn Auxiliary in England. 

IN 8C0Tt.AKD. 


Edinburgh Medical Miasionary 
Society: Soc. Rev. John Lowe. 
F.R.C.8.E., 56 George Square, 


Tabeethfi Mission at JafTa, Pales- 
tine : Sec. Miss E. Walker- 
Amott. 24 St. Bernard's Cres- 
cent, Edinburgh. 

The Ijelianon Schools for Children 
of Mohammedans, Druaes, Mar- 
ouitci«. and (Jrccks: Sec, Mr. 
Andrew Scntt, C.A., 2 York 
Buildings, Edinburgh. 

Missions to theCbineac Blind: Sec, 
Mr. William J. Slowan, 224 
West George Street, Glasgow. 
Aitt: (a) FintiieiaL 

Glasgow and West of Scotland 
Continental Society: Sec, Rev. 
William Boyd. LL.D.. K Wind- 
aor Terrace, W., Glac^ow. 

Indian Home Mission to the San- 
thals: Sec, Dr. Archibald Gra- 
ham, 1 OiamherUiii Road, Edia- 

Mission to Lepers in India: Sec, 
Mr. Wellesley C. Bailey, 17 
Olengyle Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Evangelical Mi&sion to the Upper 
Zanibeu: Sec, Mr. Richard H. 








Hunter, 37 Jamnicn Street, Olas- 

Book luid Tmct Societ/ of China: 
Sec.. Mr. A. Cuthbert, 14 New- 
ton Terrace, Glugnv. 
Aid: (&I Liltrarti. 

Religion)) Tmct and Rook Society 
of Scotland : Sec., Uev. George 
Doufflas, 00 George Street, Edin- 

Nfttionfti Bible Society of Scol- 
Iwj<i: Sc. Mr. W. J. Sh>wBa. 
321 West Goorgt* Straet, Gloa- 

The following Socielies hnve 
Auxiliaries in Scotlau<] : 

London Misuonarv S<iciety iind the 
Ladies' Society of »amt. 

British and Porvignflnihjrs' Society. 

Suciety fnr Promoting PeiOBle Edu- 
cation in the Eiut. 

Britivli Society for the Propagation 
of the Guspel ninung the Jews. 

ladinn Pemale Norninl School and 
Infltructinn Society. 

Chrialian Vernacular Education 
Sueicty for Indin. 

British Syrian Schools. 

Turkish Hiaslons Aid Society. 

WaldeaBian Church Miuioni in 

Free Church of ItAly. 

EvaogeliBttc Mission in France 

Bonn and Orphans of Miaaionaries' 

Society for Relief of Persecuted 


The following Societies bare 
Auxiliariea in Ireland : 

London Missionary Society. 

Society for Promoting Female Edu- 
cation in the Ea»t. 

Tndian Female Normal Scliool tind 
Instruction Snciety. 

Turkish .tli.ssiona Aid Society. 

Waldensiau Church Miaiioiu in 

Missions to liC|>en« in liulin. 

Sods and Orphans of Misttionarius' 

Bt vision III.— Individ ■«!. 



Mildinay Mimion to the Jew.t: Sec., 
Rev. J. Wilkinsou. 70 Mildmay 
Road, London, N. 

The Salvation Army: Internal ion al 
nead(|iiarterA, [01 Queen Vic- 
toria Street. London, E.C. 

Evangelical Mission to Israel; Sec, 
Mr, D. C. Joseph, care of Mr. R. 
Morgan, 188Clifden Road, Clap- 
too, I^ondon. E, 

"Joyful Newa" Foreign Missions: 
8«c.. Rev. Thomas Chamiiucss, 
"Joyful News" Home, Roch- 

' Spegial. 

1858 Portamouth aud Qo^port Seamen's 
Mlas. (French Mission Schooner): 
Sec, Mr. Henry Cook, Oosport. 

1856 Misaion to Jews in Paris: Sec, Mr. 
Alex. Donaldson, fl Rue Malhar, 
Parif, France. 

16(t3 English Egyptian Mission. Cairo 
(Mif>s M. L. Whately): Sec. Hiss 
Jonrdan. 31 Westbonrue Park 
Villas. I/indon. W. 

1869 ChimUnland Mimon: Sec.. Mr B. 

Bruoralmll.SPyrlnndRoad, Mild- 
may. London, N. 

1666 Bpc7,ia Miiuion for Italy and the 
Levant iRov. Edward Clarke): 
Sec.. Mr. Eliot Howard, J.P., 
Wahhamntow, Essex. 

1871 Belleville Mission, Paris : Sec.. Miaa 
de Bro^^n S Kue Clave], Belle- 
ville, Paris. 

1S71 Evangelical Mission known &■ Mr. 
Piucoe's Work in Mexico: 8eo.. 
Mr. John Mercer, 2Q Cj;ueen*« 
Road. Southiwrt. 

1871 Miftsiou to the Ilnlian Soldiers: 
Sec . Miss Annie M. Stoddart, 66 
Denniogton Park. West Uamp* 
Blead. Lundon, N.W. 

1875 Bethel Santhal Mission: Sec., Miss 
M. C. Oiirney, Grnnvllte-road. 

1875 Highways and Hedges Miaaioa, 
Cuddalure, India: Sec, Miu C. 
M. 8. Lowe, Vi Dailorue Road, 
Upper Tooting, London. 3,W. 

1676 pBjitor Lopez Ho<lriguez's Mission 
in Figueras (North East Spain): 
Sue. Rov. J. C. 8. Malthioa, 
Aldringham Vicarage, Saxmund- 
ham. SuCTolk. 

1870 The Golar Mission, Mysore, India 

(Hiss Ansteyl: Sec, Miss Helen 
James, Fair View, Sevenoaka, 

1877 Jaffa Medical MisMon: Sec, Miu 
Cooke. 68 Mildmuy Pikrk, Lon- 
don. N. 

1879 Mission to Kaffirs at Rock Foun- 
tain. Ixopo, Natal (Mr. Elbert S. 
Clarkei: Sec, Mrs. E. Fother- 
gill, Picrremont Crescent, Dar- 

1881 Church of England Women's Mia- 
flionary An&ociation: Sec, Miss 
M. A. Lloyd, 143 Clapham 
Road. London, 8.W. 

1688 Methodist Mission to Palestine (Mr. 
W. Utiiahy. Kurak. Kir-Moab>: 
Sec, Rev. G. Picrcy, 876 
Biirdett Rofd, London, R. 

1B8S Normandy Protestant Evangelistic 
MiisiOQ (Rev. A. Monchatre, 
director, Muutaure. Fiance ,i: 
Sec, Rev, Rantlolph E. Healy, 
B. A., Lower Crumpsall Rectory, 

1387 TonjoroS's Cottage Hospital and 
Mission at Philippopolis: Sec, 

Mr. M Braithwsile. 812 Cam- 
den Koad, Loudon, N. 
Aid : {a) FinaHchl 

George Mftller's Scripture Knowl- 
edge lusLilution for Home and 
Abroad; Sec. Mr. George MQllor, 
The New Orphan House, U Ash- 
ley Down, Bristol. 

Dr. Comandi's Orphanage and 
Work. North Italy: Sec. Dr. 
Comandi, 6, Via Aretina, Flor- 
ence. Italy. 

Nestorian Orphanage t Deacon 
Abraham): Sec, Mr. Henry 
Tasker, Broukside. Andover. 
Aid: (A) Kdttentioiial. 

Missionary training Home: "The 
Willows." Sec, Mrs. Penne- 
folher. 68 Mildmay P^rk, Lon- 
don. N. 

Mrs. Boyce's Work at Bordighcra 
I Italy): Sec, Miss Kennedy, 4 
Onslow Creacenl, London. S.W. 


Spanish Evangelization Society : 
Sec, Mrs. Maria D. Peddie, 8 
Granville Terrace, Edinburgh. 
Aid: (a) Financial. 
Associaliiin for tht* Support of Miss 
Taylor's Moslem GirU' School 
(Beyr«iit(: S<'C.. Mr. Wm. Fer- 
guson, Kinmundy House, Mint- 
law, Aberdeen, N.B. 
Soul-Winning and Prayer Union: 
Sec , ifr. J. C. Smith, Newport- 
on-Tay, N.B. 

Aid: {b) Liteeary. 
Rliriing Tract Enterprise: Sec, 
Mr. John Mncfarlane, Drum- 
mond's Tract De(j6t, Stiriing, 

TliL- Spetia Mission has an 
Auxiliary in Scotland. — Tht 


IfttK ar* wt u iaerMM our inttrett in 
Mitioumt We must seek an intelligent 
and definite acquaintance with the past 
history and present operatiouft of miuioni. 
We must adopt rational means to foster 
our interest in them. Now, how much 
missionary literature have we in our 
horacA t And what place does it hold jn 
our rending? .^lissionary histories, biog- 
raphies and magazines ought to imve the 
place of honor iu the literature of our 
houaehokls. We should make such read- 
ing the tirst ourselves. We should teach 
our ehililrcn to make it tha firut. We 
shouUl make them feel that we reckon an 
interest in tnis.'iionary intelligence aboTe 
all proficiency in teaming and all distlnc- 
tiuc in tbeir schools or univcreities. We 
should inspire thtm with revtrence for 
our missionaries, as our greatest and 
noblest men. 













WmX^mx^ (fonrert. 


" Febniftrr, 

" March, 

" April, 

" May, 

" June, 

" Julj. 

'' AufniBt. 

" September, 

" October, 

" November. 

■' December, 

Tbb Woklh. 

Grin A. 











In additibn to the matter on the follow- 
ing three pages, see several articles on the 
previous pages. 

A Glance ■( the World. 

The great divisions of the world are 
North America, South America, Europe, 
Asia, Africa, and Oceanica. There are 
probably in these countries a population 
of 1,500,000,000, divided about as follows: : 

North America 80,800.000 \ 

South America 32.000,000 I 

Europe 8a».000.000 : 

Asia 824,000.000 

Africa 220.000.000 

Oceanica 5.200,000 


The populations of the countries of ; 
North and South America are as follows: 

Greenland 10,000 ' 

Newfoundland 201,000 

Canada .(,000,000 

Unitt'd States 03,000,000 

Mexico 10,500,000 

Costa Rica. 
Honduras. . 
Salvador. . 


Total North America. . . 

Argentine Republic 











1,005. 000 



Total South Ameri(!a 32,000,0(1(1 

or the entire 112,000,000 about 55 mil- 
lionp, chiefly in the United States and 
Canada, are adherents of the Prntt-stant 
Church; about 12,000,000 in the United 
States and Canada are Roman Catholics, 
and the 40 millions in Me.\ico and South 
America are almost all adherents of tin- 
Roman Catholic faith. The huallien ]>rob- 
ably do not Duml)er over one million and 
these are found among the Eskimo and 
Indians of Canada and Alaska, and the In- 
dians of Central South America. 

The Moravians have miesiuna in Oreen- 
laad and Labrador. 

In Alaska are missioDariea from the 
United States representiDg the Presbyte- 

riftn, Prote^tani Bplo- >>i 
MoFftvian Cluiichef. 

The PriHeWjujtOhm. '. 
Bome of the E.uij;:li£h U 
have missions amoni; t!i' 
wett and north of Ciininiit. 

The Protectant Cliur<.'lii.'- 
States have missions ann.'!.^ 
in the Weet, the Frecdim :■ 
and the foreign burn pt>i" 
large citiep. 

Among the Romin Ctitli"-. 
are missionaries from the M--: 
copal Church, Methiiiii- 
Church South, Proti'?i:< 
Church, Pri'-jbytcriiiii i. i: 
and South, Baptist rhup-li-. 
South, Cumberland Prc-bu.' 
Friends, American Bnarc]. A- ' 
formed Church. 

In Central America i ii- 
Church North has inis^ii>iiutmi_ 
mala, the Moravianfi :\\\'\ V,'.. . 
Anglican Churc"h have i:,. ;_. 
Honduras and on the Mop","'" 

In South America tii-- . . ., 
Church North haa miminnnr* 
bia, Brazil and Chili: rlic .^_ 
Church South in Brasil: t^ „ 
Episcopal Church in A 
Paraguay, Chili : 
Church South in Bm 
tist Church in Bra/ 
American Missionary - 
other Britiirh socieli' 
chiefly among the Ei^, 

The Methodist E| ■ 
Mexico and South '■ 
Kteady progress, and ' . 
cessful work was Dt^ti ■ 

Europe has a popiilntlor< 
000,000, divided as UW-'-k- 



Great Britain and Irclnnd 





Austria-Hungary. . . 



' Rouiiiania 

Scrvia - 


I Greece 

Turkey in Europe. . 

KusMa in Euntpe. ... 

Sweden . 49^ 

I Norway 

I Montenegro 

San Marino 


' Monaco 

Total 3;js.L 

I Under the heading of Turkey in i 




Mte Iloud of 

n^ Aid and 

'- held in 

W, Oniy, 

■ nre, and 
Mil! New 
-1-1=1 ants 

t millDg' MCr«- 

-■I jear \ 

•cet) em- 

7 ear, and 

'■ ix-en con- 

rr- 7 oliiir- 

. loU and 


in ttitw 

• « unci 4,600 

'•la and 

») 6,4ai 

^ Oa., a 

■ ! im- 


■ '.li 

1, 1808. waa|l»M07 13- Of Ibis amount 
$47,1)50 beloogfl to the Anonity Fund, 
the interest upon vhirh must Ii« piud 
dariti^ the life of the aoDuitaats, the 
prraci]>al ituiog to the society at their 
decease. The board rc-comin ended that 
in addition to the collectiooti for current 
expenses, a apecia) ap|>eal be made to the 
Church for $70,000 to pa; the debt. 
Mr. Crnig, a momber of the Board, said 
he would give 91,000 to Bcciire the 
amount needed. 

Kcsolutions were adopted bjr the Board 
of Directors l>y a rising vote, cxpreM- 
ing the directors* high appreciation of 
the labnn) of Dr. R. S. Ruf^t, for tirent; 
years the elficicut correspond iog secretary 
of the society. A coromilloe vras ap- 
[lointed to prepare an hiilorical sketch of 
the origin and development ol tlie society. 

The action of the executive committee 

00 the imificatioo of Chattanoogn and 
OranlMemorialtTiiiTer8itie& was approved. 
A fiuggefttion that the annual meeting of 
the board be held in September instead 
of December wat conBidered, and re- 
ferred to itiu executive committee. The 
executive committee were rfqiiested to 
employ such additional help as may be 
deemed necessar; fully to represent the 
work of the Bocicty before the Church. 
Thej were alao lequeated to hold the 
next flcflsioa of the board at Chattanooga 
or Indianapolis, ami that the next auni* 
vuraary mcvtiu;,' of the society be held at 
the NAme time, provided they And no 
Kerious etnbarraAsment in carrying out 

1 his request. 


\\\ Appeal nn BrhHlf of BUhop 
Tarlor** Svlf'SapporilniE niHlona. 

(I^rom tb«) (JonunlltM' ) 
Whoth«a U wllllns Co confM«r»t« libs wrvloe 
D'ta daj' uiitti Ux^l^rd !--!. OimoK xxic, ft. 

Ttio work of miaeiooB is progressing 

iitrccsHfully onall lines. A great deal has 

Ill-en done and yet the call for more men 

.kt:>I means is loud and beseeching. Q<k1 

-• in it. Trace Bia footprints. Africa 

mrchet forth her handfl and Livingstone 

. '^plorer responded at the sacrifice of 

- lift.'. Again «he called and Stanley 

I' vxjiIorLT and the founder of a stntt- 

r : n i-mr at the risk of bin li fe. St.ill agiin 

< -tn trhd forth imploring handd, not 

i< It for civilixation, as for the Gospel, 

-Sop Taylor springs to his feet 

>i IS declined and says " Here am 

■ i-'i me." 

Ami now after four years of toil and 

<v'_->-r, he goes back with imiwircd 

I'l I'lit luidaunted. Tbv Tnintiit and 

i'litid Committee itend Hftettn 

■■■■-■ ^ Id accompany him and to 

!;il><irs and perils. And since 

'■■. l<t»t the commiltuc Lave seal 

utiles to Chili and atiU ttie call 

MUM-h entreaty for more. We 

' - more and that too at the 

. e moment. The needs of 

I this work in Chili, Braxi) and other Sout 
' American states, are even greater jt 
' now than in Africa. 

I Komauism, which in those oountries la 

{nothing but heathenixcd Christianity, has 

I r«igned there for three hundred yean). 

: The true light la jnst breaking in, and a 

j powerful reaction in favor of liberty, in- 

, telligence and religion lias commenced. 

Hence the serious question recurs, " Wbo' 

is willing to consecrate his service this 

day unto the Lord t *' Do you not hear, as 

Isaiah did, the voice of the Lord saying 

" Whom shall I send, uiiil who will go for 

Ufl ? " Who answers as d id he. Hem ani / 

. find me. We say to such, as David said 

to Bolomon, " Arise and be doing, and the 

Lord be with thee.*' 

' Those who cannot go, can do the next 

' best thing. Tbey can contribute to send 

I some efficient person. Though we pay 

' no salaries, yet to ttcnd twenty-five mis- 

, sionaries in so short a time to distant 

fields, and surround them there with fficili- 

, ties to work, has cost us do iDconsiderabU 

j sum, 

Let those who contribute, send their 
offerings direct to Richard Orant. Treas- 
urer, No. 181 Hudson Street, N«w York 
City, or tbr(;ugh the editor of any re- 
sponsible paper, official or unofficial, wbo 
shall l>e willing to receive such funds. 

At) the General Oonferonce baa put it* 
sanction upon self-supporting missions, 
we claim all the pap«ni of the Church, 
and all iudcpeudcut periodicals as our 
organs, who have shown themselves 
frU-ndly to this cause, or shall Imreafter 
do so. And we are glad and grateful to 
know that the ofiicisl cditom kindly open 
thuir columns for iutelligeuce on thia 
su bject. 

We need fifteen misaionariefl at once 
for Chili. Ten teachem, an art teacher, 
a music teacher and two or three 
preacht^rfl . 

We want men and women of oducatioa 
and culture, who are full of faith and the 
Holy Gho,^t. We want persons who can 
readily acquire the Spanish language, the 
language of the country. 

Scud your communtcationa to Rer. 
Bidwell Lane, D.D.. No. S»8 West 4Sth 
Street, New York City, N. Y. 


Rev. Dr. Cliadwick of New York City 
baa accepted ihi.- appointment of assistant 
wcrctury of the Freedmen's Aid and 
Southern Education Society, and will en- 
ter upon his dislie-H Fpliruary 1. For the 
preaent his oflit-e will be at rt05 Broadway, 
riicso societies art- in the habit of cnlllug 
men to their aid who cannot lie spared 
from the work in which they are already 
engaged. The excuse they give Is that 
only such raeo are the kind they need. 
We regret losing Dr. Cliadwick from the 
pastorate. Wc welcome him to the 
larger tleld. The Society he will rep- 
resent deacTves our sympathy and fullest 



5ftlissionary lesson (fxfrrlst 

JPor Chllilien'a Band* Suaday-Sclioa) ClMKes 
and Famlllia. 

(Thia paga npmani in " LIUla lUtsioattrr " for 
Clirlatlftn. Awake: 

Up through the miflia at fleeing night, 
The trumpet penis fmm eunrise land, 

And glad fgre-gleams of heareol; light 
Proclaim tho da; of Qod nt band. 

Ho, slumbering sons of earth, awnkel 
The King descends tu claim His own; 

lleH'H broken ranks in t«rror quake. 
And fl; frnm Jeaiu on the throne. 

On to the fray for God and right. 

While shouts of victory rend the sky! 
All liuil, Immanuel, King of Light I 

All glory be to God moat high I 

Tbr World n«.S«en In llip HIble. 

Rm)>orailr<i Eiprrliw-. 

What 18 th« DHtural condiltun of the 
world ? 

"Thero is none thnt doeth good, do 
not one.'' 

What are the heathen without ? 

"Without fhvX in llie «t.rld." 

Who then can Iw saved ? 

" WhoHOPver nhall call upon Iho narov 
of the Lord sUaJI U? miv«J.'' 

Why did JeHUt< cTome into (tie wraldV 

" To seek and t^ aave that which was 

From what can Ji>aus tnni the heiitheii ? 

" From diirkneHe to light, and from the 
power uf tjutan unto Gud." 

Who is to tell them of Jcxus? 

"Let him thnt lipareth aay come." ' 

What are we to entreat the heathen? ' 

" We [jray you in Christ's )>tead, Iw ye i 
reconciled unto t-Jod." 

Can tilt' heathen be reconciled to Ood ? 

" Whoeoever will, let hini take the 
wat«r of life freely." 

Wliat slioutd lie our prayer f 

*' Pray ye therefore the Lord of the 
harvest that He will send forth laborent 
into Uis harve»t." 

What command is given to ni? 

"Go ye into all the world, and prcadi 
the Ooapel to every creature." 

Iicarn to Ulvr. 

Learn to give, and thou tthnit bind 
CouDtlesH treaeurestotby breast; 

Learn to love, and tlioti flbalt tind 
Only they who love are blest. 

Learn to give, and thou fihnll know 
They the poorest ar© who ho-trd; 

Learn to love, thy luvf shall How 
Deeper for the wealth outpoured. 

Learn to give, and learn to lov«; 

Only thun thy life can be 
Foreta«te of thi* tife above. 

Tinged with immortality. 

Give, for God to thee hath given; 
Love, for He hy Utve i« known; 
Child of Ood. and heir of heaven, 
Let thy parentage he nhown. 

:o: — - — • 

nilldrtMl'* mNNlonarj- Ex«rcl»». 


u. m. 

rv. V. 

VI. vn. 

(Lm Moh oo* eooin torwartl I n turn ■« Ui sy bpmUe 
uid uk» Ui«lr plaoM m doalgoMlsa by ibe abov* 

Worit for llic n«»l<*r. 

What can we do for the Master, 

We who are childlikt and tvcakt 
Some work in thv dear lord's vineyard 

Our willing liandH now wek. 
But the purpled, ripened rlUHters 

An- hanging so very high 
That we cannot reoch to pluck them. 

No matter Imw hard we try, 

There is work in the Stiviour's vineyard 

For the fimulleai band to do, 
Errands of love and mercy 

Awaiting jufit surh ha you. 
Oo gntber the /ore/// clusters. 

^\^n■Mrllle vine trai!« ctow to the earth, 
This hiddrn fruit, tu tlie blaster. 

Is preciouH and full of worth. 

What can we do forttM Master, 

In Bis world-wide hiirvesi field? 
Uow can iff hp imcfiil 

When He gamers this golden yield ? 
We cannot reap, m>r bind the sheHvea. 

Nor witinow the garnered grain; 
What |>oninn of helpful lalmr 

Can our youthful powers attain t 

There is work in Ood's great harvest-field 

For each littl^^ haiul nnd henrt, 
8ou]b which none but a child can l^ad 

To accept that better part. 
Sloop Utw, and nh-mi where the reapers 

Rave wEHted the wondrous i*eud> 
Knough you can always gallier. 

Home hungry sotils to feed. 

A hai'vcst great, the laborers few, 
Lord, what wilt Thou have me to do ? 

Oo out into the highways 

And hedges /u^f of fiin; 
Seek out the erring wanderers, 

O^niprl them to come in. 
Work for Jesus. 


A harvest great, tlie laborers few, 
Lord, what wilt Ttiou have me todo? 

Be patient, tendi-rhearted. 
Be gentle, kind and true. 
Forgiving one nnotlter 
As Christ forgiveth i^ou. 
Work for Jeawi. 

A harvest gr«at, the laborers few. 

Lord, what wilt Thon have me to So? 

Tour bread u|M)n tiK- water''. 

O vtKut with prayer and praise. 
For truti/ you will Und it 
Aft«r many days. 

Work /or Je*u*. 

A barvegt great, the laborers few, 
Lord, what wilt Thou have roe to do ? 

Go viHit the atHicted, 

The sick and thotie In grief; 
Telt all of the Physician 
Whoee helm aifords relief. 
Work for Jesus. 

The harvest great, the laborers few, 
Lord, what wilt Tliou have me to do? 

"Shall we, whose souls are lighted 

With wisdom from ou high; 
Shall wf to *out» heniffhted. 

The lamp of life deny ? 
Solvation, O salvation. 

The joyful souitd proclaim. 
Till earth's remotAttt nation 

Has learned Messiah's name." 
Work fur Je^Ai?. 
Let each one here, then, ask Rim too, 

"Lord, what wilt Thou liavemetodo?" 
And when an answer falleih 

Upon you from abovf. 
Obey the voieo that calleth 
Your ht-arl** to dee^U of love. 
Uo. work for Jesus. 

(Olrls fco out St Me door. At ortui «iansl girk 
Mter front doar, sftdi with sfaftat of wboKt Usd 
toffectwr with brl^t colored ribboa. liagtag, 
"BrUixiDK tn the 8b««v««," abd Uiiiii tak« aaiM 
plsroes oa plairorin as befors.} 
"Take my life and let it he 
Con**ri"ate<i. Lord, to Thee." 

(Ko. I. plocM •li««f ou platf'ircn and oUtkrs fol- 
low In tb« order of recltAtion. foTuiluc a rfiooh.) 
••Take my handw and let them move 
At the impulse of Thy love." 
"Take my feet and let them be 
Swiff nod beautiful for Thee." 


"Take my voice and let me sing 

Pmisef ulwuyiito my King." 


"Take my lips and let them be 
Fllle^l with me«MMi£es for Thee." 


"Take my silver and my gold, 
Not a unit would I withhold." 


"Take »«^i»rf/and I will be. 

Ever. only, all for Thee." 

(Alt thii •even ■arrouod tbe afaock wltb botred 


"He that goelli forth and weepeth, 
bearing precious H.-ed, stiall douhClen 
ooaie again with rejoicing, bringing his 
flfaeavea with him." 

^CoDitregiaUon Join lu *' Ootalogr") 


^rffdmrit's ^id and .^outhrrn 
(Sduratiou ^^orlrtii. 

Bkv. J. C OiHTKKu.. I>.D . (jorrecpoixllAcr Seore- 
tWT, ita Wmt Fourth St.. CiaclDtiBtl. Ohio. 


Aanti»l ne««lni{. 

Tbe KoauRl meoliog of tbe Boird of 
Diroctors of the Precilraen'fl Aid sod 
Hotithem Educatjon Society wm held in 
Cincinnati, Ohio. lie*. George W. Graj, 
D.D., of the Arkanstts Conferenct;, and 
Her. J. S. CUdwick. D.D.. of lli»! New 
York Conference, were elected aaAintftntn 
to Dr. Hartz«ll, the corrcspondiiig svcre> 

The report of the corren ponding «ccre- 
tftt; ihowed that during the paftt year a 
larger number of leachers bod been em- 
ployed than io any preceding year, and 
mkoy of tbe students bftve been cod- 

Among the colored people are 7 char- 
tered institutions. 12 nurraal schools sad 
•eminary, 1 medical college, 1 biblical 
institute, 1 theological acbool. In these 
institutioas are 134 teachers and 4,006 

Among ihe whites are 12 chartered iii- 
stitutioDs, and 22 normHl schools niid 
semiaaries, and 304 icachors and 6,451 

At Clark Coivcrsity, Atlanta. Ga., a 
19,000 industrial hall And hlscksraith- 
shnp has tieeii erected. At Clatltn Uoi- 
Tcrsily, Orangeburg, 8 C. large addi- 
tions have been made to the iudustriul 
and agririiltural departments by grants 
from the State. At New Orleans Uni- 
Tersity a carpenter shop has bten put up, 
and some of the wurk uo the new build- 
ing is heini: done by siudont.4. A print- ; 
ing-otfice has been added to Philander 
Smith College, at Little Rock, Ark. The 
iodustrial work at Rust University has 
been enlarged, and » $6,000 building for 
the School of Dentistry at XashvUle, 
Teoo., is being erected. A traiaing 
school fur miuioQaries (or Africa has 
been established at Nashville, and at Gil- 
bert Seminary, Louisiana, a $5,000 dormi- 
tory has been erected and paid for by 
special donations. Tbe foundatious of a 
new building nl Austin, Texas have l>een 
laid, and the property at Chattanooga 
has been improved. 

Tbe receipts fur current expeuses for 
th« past year were $171,152.44. Of this 
amount the annual conference gave $B5,- 
423. In addition to this there were 8pe> 
cial coutributiuus for the endowincul uf 
Gammon School of Theology at AtlaiilA, 
Ga., amounting to $180,000. The society 
does not receive the income from this 
until tbe death of the donor, Hr. Gom- 
aioo, but Mr. Gammnn Ia every year ex- 
pending a large sum in buildings for the 

Tbe iodobtedoesB of the society, July 

1, 1888, was $190,467.12. Of this amount 
$47,900 belongs to the Anouity Fund, 
the interest U|>on which must be paid 
during the life of the annuitants, the 
principal going to tbe society at their 
decease. The board recommended that 
in addition to the collections for current 
expeDS<?8, a special appeal be made to the 
Church for $75,000 to pay the debt. 
Mr. Craig, a member of the Board, said 
be would give $1,000 to secure the 
amount needed. 

Resohitinns were adopted by the Board 
of Directors by a rising vote, express- 
ing the directors' hitfh appreciation of 
tbe labors of Dr. R. S. RuM, for twenty 
years the efficient corresponding secrutary 
of the society. A committee was ap- 
]>ointed to prepare an historical sketch of 
the origin and development of the society. 

The action of the executive committee 
OD the unification of Chattanooga and 
Grant memorial Universities wasapprored. 
A Bugge-ilion tlial the annual meeting of 
the board be held in September instead 
of December was considered, and re- 
ferred to the executive committee. The 
executive committee were rctiueslcd to 
employ such additional help as may be 
deemed necessary fully to represent the 
work of tbe society before the Church. 
They were altto requested to hold the 
next session of the board at Chuttanonga 
or Indianapolis, and that the next anni- 
versary meeting of the society be held at 
the same time, provided tbey lind no 
serious embarrassment in carrying out 
this rt-quost. 


An Apponl «n Belialf at Klkhnp 
Taylor^M Seir-Happorllne ni»«loii*. 

(From thr Ctmimltiiir. j 
Who Ihrin la willing U) oiiniuicraUt Hi* Hrrlce 
tbifl d*y unlti (he Lanl ?- I. Oiiin'^' xilx.,5. 

The work of missious is progressing 
successfully on all lin««. A great deal has 
been done sad yet the call for more men 
and means i^ loud and beseeching. God 
ia in it. Trace His footprints. Africa 
Btretche.1 forth her hands and Livingstone 
the explorer responded «t the sacrifice of 
his life. Again nhe oal1i-d and Stanley 
tbe explorer and the founder of a state 
answers at the risk of his life. Still agnin 
she strdehea furth imploring handtj, nut 
BO much for civtli/ation, as for ttiL* Gospel, 
and Bishop Taylor springs to his feet 
when others declined and says " Uere am 
I, send me.'' 

And now after four years of toil and 
danger, he goes back with impaired 
health, but undaunted. The Transit and 
Building Fund Committee send Hfteeo 
nii.isionaries to accompany Lim and to 
share his labors and perils. And since 
about May last Che committee have sent 
tcu missionHrius to ChiU and still the call 
comes will) much entreaty for more. We 
have promised more and that too at the 
eailiest posaible moment. The De«ds of 

this work in ChiH, Brazil and other South 
American states, are even greater just 
now than in Africa. 

Romanism, which in thoso countries ii 
nothing but heathenized Christianity, has 
reigned there for three hundred years. 
The true light is just breaking in. and • 
powerful reaction in favor of liberty, )n- 
telligenoe and religion haa commenced. 
Hence the serious question recurs, " Wha 
is willing to consecrate his service this 
day unto the Lord 1 '' Do ymi not hear, as 
Isaiah did, the voice of the Lord saying 
*' Whom shall I send, and who will go for 
usf" Who answers as did he. ITerf am J 
Kfiut me. We say to such, ss Darid said 
to Solomon, " Arise and be doing, and the 
Lord be with thee." 

Those who cimnot go, can do the next 
best thing. They can contribute to send 
some efficient person. Though we pay 
no salaries, yet to send twenty-five mis- 
sionaries in so short a time to distant 
fields, and surround them there with facili- 
ties to work, has cost us no inconsiderahle 

Let those «bo contribute, send their 
tiflerings direct to Richard Grant. Treas- 
urer, No. 181 Hudson Street. New York 
City, or through the editor of any re- 
sponsible paper, official or unofficial, who 
slmll be willing to rec^-ive such funds. 

As the General Conference has put it» 
sanction upon self-supporting missions^ 
we claim all the paiH-rs of tbe Clitirch, 
and nil independent periodicals as our 
organ*, who have shown themselves 
frk-ndly to this cause, or shall hereafter 
do so. And we nre glad and grateful to 
know that the officis] editors kindly open 

I their columns for ictelligetice on this 

', subject. 

I We need fifteen missionaries at odcq 

I for Chili. Ten teachers, an art teacher* 

I a music teacher and two or throe 

\ prcachem. 

' We want men and women of educatioD 
and culture, who are full of faith and tbe 
Holy Ghost We want [tendons who can 
readily acquire tlie Spauish language, the 
language of the country. 
Send your communications to Rev, 

;nidwell Lane, D.D., No. SaO West 45th 
Street, New York City, N. Y. 


Rev. Dr. Chad wick of New York City 
has accepted the appointment of asaistant 
secretary of the Kreedmen's Aid and 
Southern Education Society, and will en- 
ter upon bis duties February I. For the 
Present his office will be at 405 Broadway, 
hcae societies sru in the habit of calling 
men to their aid who cannot be spared 
from the work in which llicy are already 
engaged. The excufte they give is that 
niily such men are the kind they need. 
We regret losing Dr, Chadwirk from the 
pastorate. We welcome him to the 
larger field. The Society he will rep- 
resent deserves our sympathy and fullest 








Tho receipts of ttie Mitj-ionary Society 
in November were ouly ♦0.685. 58 iw 
against $10,295.S-1 in November 1867. 
Let the pastnrR aroiiso Ihu Cburcli. Kiiig 
out the mf saa^e "Preach the Gospel tu 
every creature." HeatbenUm is growing 
faster than Prnte^tantism. Awake to 
ruipouflibility and opportunity. 

Our IndiaD exclmugCR note that Dr. J. 
L. PhiUiiw will become the paator of the 
Union Church at Simla for three years, 
but this iii a mi»Uke, hb a note to iih from 
Dr. Phillips ou Jnuunry 1. 1889, eays, " I 
mm leaving Hhode latand to begin work 
at Philadelphia as General Secretary to 
the Evangelical Alliance of Pbiladclpliia 
and vioinity." Dr. Phillips is obliged to 
remain longer in the United Htatci on ac- 
count of tho health of bis wife, and we 
should not be surprised If the appoint- 
ment he now takes becomes permaneat. 
In it be can accomplish gn^t guiid, and 
i*e know of no one better fitted for ibe 

A Methodist Episcopal preacher in Iowa 
who has been in the effective work for 42 
«ODUCUtive years but wad granted a su- 
paimnnuated relation Inst yearwntts: "It 
baa always been my practice to send the 
^}oapRi. IN Am. La^ds after reading it to 
wordly minded »ud wealthy members of 
our Church, especially among the fitrmers, 
who mny be unwilling to subscribe for a 
Church paper. I find the Gospel ik All 
Lavoa opens their eyes more than any 
other periodical I can put Into their hands. 
I give it as a result of a long experience 
and observation that the grealesl hin- 
drance to missionary zeal and libemlity, 
especially among our country [leople. is a 
waotof missionary intelligence and know! 
edge. Our country people will read that 
which many are too covetous and worldly 
io pay for. Would that sonte method 
could be devised to give them more light." 


MIsDioiiMrjr MorleCy RK|>ei»e». 

A missionary, who has labored in India 
for many years but who is now in this 
oountry, writes us that in travelling among 
the churches he has to meet the charge 
that it takes one dollar to send ten cents 
to Che heathen. 

In 1887. ninety five cents of every 
dollar expended by the Missionary Society 
of tho Methodist Episcopal Otiurch were 
sent directly to the mission ticlds and 
there expended for mission work. 

In 1888, ninety four cents of every 
dollar received by the Missionary Society 
of the Methodist Kpisoopal Church were 
sent directly to the mission fields and 
there expended for minion woik. The 
one cent less in I8d8 arose from an extra 
araounl being psid for interest. 

Btn6 vta*. th» tix o-hta apfndfd t About 
two and one luilf cents were expended to 
pay salaries and travelling expenmrs of 
three Corresponding Secretaries, i he salary 
of a Recording Secretary, and book- 
keejjersand clerks necessary for the tnitiB- 
aclioo of the business, and lu pay for the 
publication of the Annual Report and 
such other published matter as may be 
needetl in the prosecuiioo of the work. 

About two and um- half cents was ex- 
pended in paying the travelling extieneea 
of our Bishops when visiting our foreign 
mission?, and the travelling expenses of 
our miesionaiios who are taken nick and 
obliged to return home, and the travelling 
expenaes of the members of the General 
Missionary Committee, and paying legal 
expenses connected with Uc^ucsta made 
to the Society. 

About one cent waA expended in paying 
interest on annuity bonds which con- 
tinue during the life-time of tho docora, 
and in paying interest on money borrowed 
tu mott expenses at tlie missions. 

The expense of administratioD is about 
two and a half percent., and other ex- 
penses generally fmm two lo three per 
cent., and these are met in part by rents 
from the Missionary and Publishing 

A new building is being erected by aid 
of funds contributed for this purpose, and 
the time is not f'tr distant when all the 
expense will be met from the rents of 
property belonging to the Society, and 
every cent of the dollar will be sent to the 
mission field. 

CiiMipHrUita i>r<;hrlalln» Work at 
Home mad Abroad. 

A brother writes: "lam frequently met 
with the assertion that it payHmuch better 
to carry on Christian work In this country 
than in heathen lantU, Is it truet" 

The work done, espectnlly in foreign 
lands, CBuuot be tubulated. Still the Bgnres 
may give uh nnme idea respecting it. 

We take the annual minutes of 1 887 
which are the latest available. Thire are 
14,185 preachers connected with the con- 
ferences. Of these 2,1)IS are supernumer- 
ary and superannuated, leavingaworking 
force of 11,520. The member! and proba- 
tioners in the Churcli increased that year 
106,559, anincreaaeof9i to each preacher. 

We find that the increajw is greater in 
heathen lands. 

In our four missions in China there were 
S9 male foreign miasionaries and there 
was an increase reported of 981, ao aver- 
age of 32 to each missionary. 

In Japan were 15 male foreign mission- 
artcs, and the increase of members and 
probationers reported was 289, an average 
of 19 to each missionary. 

In India were 66 male foreign miasion- 
artcsand themcmlwrsand probationers in- 
creased 082, an average of 16 to each 

The Methodis*. Episcopal Church i« 
piogrcBsing much faster in heathen lands 
in proportion to the number of workers 
employed than in the L'nited States, and 
yet we are frecjuently complimenting oar- 
solves OQ our marvellous growth here. 

We Hcnd no missionaries to Denmark, 
Norway, Sweden. Germany and Switier- 
land, and our Misfrionary Report for 1887 
reported but one worker llierc as a mission- 
ary from this country sent by the Society. 
There are two others, however, who went 
there an mitsionarica. We are aiding the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in thoae coun- 
tries. The minuU-8 of 1887 reported the 
luoreaae of members and probationer* for 
the year as being 1,796 and the effective 
preachers and preachers on trial number 
a78. the iDcreaae Iwiug 6 \ to each preacher, 
uotwithstnndiug the great losses occa- 
sioned by the steady emigration to the 
United States. 

The work among the Roman Catholics 
in Italy, South America, and Mexico and 
among the membem of the Greek Church 
in Bulgaria shows progress, and especially 
in South America. 

Wo have no reoKon to be discouraged. 

Compare the work of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in the United Htates, 
and that of our Church beyond the United 
t>tates, even Including that which shows 
the least progress, and we find that onr 
numerical increase is greater beyond the 
United .States in what wo call our foreign 
millions in proportion to the number of 
workers employed, than in the United 
States, and that the comparative coat of 
the increaae is no greater. 


Coat of Convvrl* «t Home and 

73o« it not cant mueh more to obtain a 
contcrt in/orngn lands than at homrt 

We take the General Minutes of tbe 
Methodist EpiHcopjil Churt-h for 1887 and 
Hud tliat the increase in members and 
pnibationer.H reported tlrnt year was 1.06,- 
509, and that during the year there was 
paid for 

Ministerial Support... $8.5I7.18(> 

Cbureh Building B,«i5.75l 

Current Ex]>en9e8 1 ,905,831 

Total •l6,ie8,96S 






An avprage of yifil.78 for each member ' 
and prnbarioDer Rilded. 

We take (lie report of tlie MiRHiimary I 
Society for ihe (Wiiio year ami Umi thnt 
the inirreBW of memb^rn ami prol>fl(ionent 
WBB A.T8& aud llmt the Missionary Society 
[•aid to its foruign niiiiinutis thiit yt-ur for 
nunlst^rinl BupiMirt.cliiircti Imilding, cur- 
rrat expenite!). and edticntion, $57(1,914.74. 
aa averajte of $tt0.6d for each Dieinber aad 
prohaUoDer add»l. 

These roreiRii missionR Also collected for 

MiRsionnrr Soripty ♦10,232 

Oth^r Beuevolent SocieLies 1'2,172 

tteirsuoporl d5.773 

Church BuildiDg 4^,029 

Other Local Parposes fl5.5S4 

ToiBl fSUl.759 

DiHJact the $10,382 poid by the foreigu 
-mifinona to the M iwiuiiary Socioty from 
the amount expended by ihe Missionary 
Socieiy.and add the am<iui)t raided by the 
iiu for wlf -support, church building 
other local purposes, and yuu havo a 
total of $.i«rt,fl'i3.74 \iakl by the ilisMonary 
Society, and ^ilW.ll.'Vo niifle<l by (he mis 
aioDB for thfir own work, a total of $776,- 

Hite giv*w U6 no average of $l8il.5}t for 
each niemher and probationer added on 
the foreifcn field, and of thie. over $8){ in 
paid by the converts io llie foreign Held. 

Our work in llie foreiftD field jiays brttfr 
Ifaan the work in Ihe home field when 
we consider the amount of money ex- 


Llb«r«lll>- orchH*ilan« at HoMe 
■ nil Abroad. 

The Qeoernl Miniitt-fl of the McthodUt 
Rpiflcopal Church for 1SS7 reported 3,- 
003,033 memben and prubatioQcra. Thej 

PorUiMtoDs $1)10,924 00 

PofHiniflterlal Support H,517,180 00 

For Current Expi-nsea 1.995,881 00 

Or Church ProiMirty 5.055.751 00 

The average for niifisions was 44 conta; 
for mIniAterial support and current ex- 
peases, united, $3.02; for chutch prop- 
erty, $2.23. 

The MiMionary S'Kiiety reported, in 
1687, in its foreign delds, 60 208 mem- 
ben and probalioDiTB. Tlicy jnivc 

PorMiwiooa $10.3;12 00 

Por Self-support and Local 

Purposes 161.327 IKl 

On Church Property 48.038 00 

The average for Missiona wa« 17 cents; 
For minintcrial support oud current ex- 
penses, $2.6(t; for church properly, 79 

When we consider the contpsrativt; 
abilitj of the mombfcrs of the Church in 
the Uuited States and in fort^i^u lands, 
WD niust ffivc thi- foreign churches the 
credit of surpassing the home churchsi 
in Ubemlitj. 

Onr ronnrflloBal Horl^lr*. 

Over two millions of dollHrs are needed 
to carry on the home and foreign mission 
work of the Methodist Episcopul Church. 
There are eight Methodist dcicieties in 
charge of this work, the collections for 
which are reported id the minutes of the 
Annual Confereocee. The following are 
the societies and th'* amounts they ask for 
during 1889: 

Pamnl MImtonatT Soolply (I.SiAOXI 

Bo&nl of r'tiiircli KKeiwlaD 400,000 

Fn>«-()riier>'s Aid nndS. E. aoolety VBUfiSb 

8ui)ila}'-&'bo4>l Union .. fiO.OOO 

Tr«oi Bocl*tj- BD,O00 

Board at EilucttUon SO.flOO 

Womui'ariarelsnHlHloMrrSoelet}-.... £«,«|i> 

Woiiiau's Homa HIvloiMrr Boclety. IgO.OW 

TtKol K»)0,m 

These societies received Itst'year. 

E^rBDt UtaaloiinrT SoolKjr fLOOlUMl »l 

[loanl of Cburcb Bxlrtudan «A,liU 07 

Freeilinea'iiAiOiUKl S. K. SooMy.... ITt.IB 4% 

HuiKtajr HcliDul Uiiiou 10.468 90 

Tnicl Siwlrty 17.n8 78 

HoMnl uf FjJucAlion 4T,0(h) 00 

WiiiunT|-K Pnrvlfin MUkIObiut SoelMy *»,SaB • 

WiiiTiKii'K Humn Miminnnr)' SocMj . . 5l,nB CO 


.. »l,781.7f»0l 

It will be seen that tbeae societies feel 
that they need an advanc;e of over one-half 
million of dollars to meet the wants of 
their work. We have no doubt that this 
mouey, if given, will be wi«ely and profi 
tahly expended. 

The names of the ofBcera of 'Kir Mis- 
sionary Society will be found on thf cover 
of thin magHziue. We give below the lo- 
cation and officers of the other societies: 

/hard of Churfh Exlenaiou, 1020 Arch 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa, Kev. A. J. 
Kynell, D.D.. Corresponding Secretary, 
\ Mr. JamM Long, Treasurer. 

Freedmrit's Aui and ■"'oitthtrn Btlucation 
Society, 190 W. 4th Street, Ciuciouati, 
Ohio; Hev, J. C, Hartzell. D.D., Corre- 
spondint; Secretary; Itev. Earl Cranston, 
D.I)., Treasurer. 

Stind/ti/- School Union, 805 Broadway, 
New York; Rev. J, L. Hurlbut, D.D., 
Corresponding Secretary; Hr. Daniel Den- 
ham, Treasurer. 

Tract Socirlj/, 805 Broadway, New York ; 
R-;v. J, L. Hurlbiit, D. D.. Corresponding 
Secretary; R«v. Sandford Huot^ D.D., 

Board t>f Educatioft, 805 Broadway, Nen 
York; Riv. Charles H. Payne, D.D., Cor- 
resjKinding Secretary. 

Wvmau'i I/erne Mif-ionitry tixietj/^ Mtp. 
it. a. Uust, Correspondmg Secretary, 339 
W. 4lh Street, Cincinnati. Ohio; Mrs. A. 
U, Clark, Treusiirer, 10ft York Stre«t, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

Womttii^g Kvrt.igii Munianar^ Soeitfy. 
The S iciety in diviiied into Branches and 
the following are the Corresponding Sec- 

Mrs. M. P. Atdorman, SI EvereU Street, Mfde 
Park. Mam. 

Mrs. W. B. Skldmoni, lOO WeM Mhb Street^ New 
T«k, M. Y. 

Mn. J. F. Keen, I3» Areti Straet, P1)IIadel()bla. 


Mrs. B. R. Cowno. 1 Crmvsnl Plaoe. Walnut Hills. 
Clnctniistl. Ohio. 

Mrs. E A. B Home. Albion, MIob. 

Mrs. H. 8. Huston, Burilnpoo. lowo. 

Mrs. Mmrr C. Hind. lU Hif litaod A«(Min«. Minne- 
apolis. Minn. 

HIot Matilda WaUon. Bellwood. Veb. 

Mrs. Obarloue O'KeAl. PoMdena, Col. 


Woaian^a PorclKuraisaloDarrSocSAtr. 

The Pacific Branch of the Woman's 
Poreign Missionary Society of the Matho- 
dist Episcopal Church w&s organized 
Dec. 5, 1888, at Los AjigeleK, Cal. 

The following officers were elected : 
MrA. J. P. Early of F.incoln Park, Presi- 
dent; Mr!>. Charlotte O'Neil of Pasadena, 
Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. M. M. 
Bovard of Los Angeles, Treasurer; Mrs. 
Laura C. Spencer of Los Angeles, Record- 
ing Secretary. 

The appropriations for the year closing 
October 1, 1889, for the Pacific Branch are 

The Society has adopted the following 
as the subject for uniionn study for the 
year 1880: 

Jii««(iry,— The World; the Work; Tho 
Instrumentalities; How may we Beit do 
the Work of Bringing the World to 

Prftniiirv.— History and Work of the 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Kpin- 
copal Church. 

Jfiir^A.— The Twenty Years' History of 
the Woman's Poreign Missionary Society 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church; 
Thanksgiving and Thank-offering Service ; 
School tn Fo*K:how and College in Luck- 
now objects of Thank-offerings. 

April. — Vfiirk of Woman's Miosionory 
Societies in Foreign Lands. 

Mai/. — Orphtinag«j and Boarding 

Jum. — Bible Women; Deaconesses; 
Training Schools. 

Julj/. — Day Schools, City and Village. 

.iTi^u^.~IlineratiDg and Evangelical 

Sqitem&er. — Mite-box Service; Peast of 

October. — Bulgaria. 

Uovfrnhfr. — Me x ico. 

Deetmher. —South America. 

Deacone**** Home and TralolOK 

A meeting of the General Executive 
Board of the Woman's Home Missionary 
Society was held in the parlors of the 
CinciniiatL Wesleyan College, Wednes- 
day afternoon, Dec. Iflth, for the consid- 
eration of a series of resolutions on 
deaconessea* work, presented by Mrs. 
HcClellao Brown at one of the ses-iions 
of the late annual meeting of the board 
of managers held in Boston, Mass., and 
after discuiiviou by this body, referred to 
the general executive board for action. 


The subject iDRtler embodied in tlicse 
rewilutioas was fiirthor dlncussod with 
reference tn ita relation to the Cliurcb 
ftod tht.' pruviaiou which hiu been tunde 
by the OenemI Conference- for the man- 
agcineol of the work, and culmlaated in 
the crystallization of the lentimcDts of 
the board in the foUowiDg rewlutioo*. 
which were uoaoimousl; adopted: 

Srtotftft. 1- Tbat Uio WoniM> Homa Hlakion- 
arr Socletr eatabllsb. am aoon m praeUaal>le. la 
MKh of our cttias a D«ac«»nw"» HonB «im1 Train- 
Ins ■cbool for nilavlnnarieii, under the pmrMoog, 
of tb« law Oet»«rml OoafcrMtcs. (DtBcipllDa, 
paCM a07 to n* loelatlTe. > 

t. That to ordar to ncLtimpllah tlita objMt m. 
m>*cUI oomnltMw b* appolDieri, conalaUnii or 
Miss Jaov BaBcroft, MiH EllMbelfa Pleroo. Mr«. 
Blabop Slmpwm. Hr«. BUhop A^d^pwt^ Mrs. Dr. 
Ooucber. Mra^ ZIba BennaU, Mm. B. Royer mnd 
W. O- Wi1Uama.wboa« datr thall b«to«)operat«> 
wlUi ladln Id aaoh city tod9*ek>p tntereit In tfal* 
work, anil recnnm^iKl a local t>oar(l which atiall be 
k|)polDt«d br th« 0«n»ral Ex*;iitlv« Board. 

3. That the work, prorid^d f^r In tb« fort^fcolns 
ra«oluth>iu, BbaJl bvarrsoiTBd io 9»rb locality in 
harmony irltt»tb» ruJca o( ibv buraaa for local 

(.'urdial invitatioQi were received from 
Columbus, 0., and Tadianapdlis, Ind., 
for the oczt aonual meeting of the board 
of mAnagem. and a majority Toto decided 
!q favor of acceptiog tha iavitation from 

Mr«. p. a. Aikrn, JUe. Stt'y. 


riiielnnati U«mcoiit>»«*a Home. 


The Cincinuaii DoaconeM's Home is 
beiDfc furnished, by the goneroiu friends 
of the ni>w projc-ct, with all that is neces 
sary for comfort or convenience, and in a 
few days mure itfl rooms will be ready 
for occupatinn. \ amall family already 
call the bouse horns, and a few others 
have applied for places ia the lu:g6r circle 
that 18 tu be. 

But if these applicants should be 
accepted, there is still room for more — 
room in the Home, and in the by-ways 
and hijfhways of this city, where presa- 
iDg work waits to be done. VTiin will 
come ? 

Will you not, my sisters, who sit empty- 
handed iu somu country villa^ where 
health and comfort and nei.ghl>orly kind- 
ness have made want of human help un- 
known, and you who look from warm 
city firesides on the weary coming and 
going in the homeless streeta, if you have 
no binding home duty, will you notcome 
and help us t 

You who have abundance, come and 
share with those who have ool ; you who 
have been poor or sick or t>ere&ved, come 
and find happiness in sympathy with 
those who suffer. 

But am I c]im1iQcd t you ask. Yos. if 
you have good heatth, a fair ediictttinn, 
and a consecrat«d heart. Whatever else 
may be lacking can be supplied by ex- 
perience and study. 

Two kinds of workers are needed — 
mirsea and mission&rieB — and yet tho 

nurse should be a missionary, and there 
are times when the missionary must be a 

If you wish to apply for a place in this 
Home and work, write to the snperin- 
t^Ddent, Ko. 50 York Street, Cincianati. 

Our niwilonarlea and BllsMloiia. 

Rev. Dr. B. H. Badlcy wrilps from 
Lucknow, India, Nov. 27: "Our work 
prospers. The Lord is with us. Nearly 
S,000 baptisms during the year ending 
Nov. 1. Surely the Church should be 
jubilant with us. We stand at the l>e 
ginning of a mighty work." 

The faculty of Lucknow Chrisiian 
College consiAls of Rov. B. H. Badley, 
D.D.. Principal, and Rev. J. H. Schively, 
B.A., Mr. R. C. Rose, M.A., Mr. B. N. 
Binerjea, B.A. Mirzo, Mohammed Hadi, 
Pundit I. C. Ganguly, Mr. S. S. Day. 

The .Vakhttini-if'uiM says: " We are 
glad to hear of th« bright prospects of the 
Mission College at Lucknow. opened re 
ceotly under the untrgclic leadership of 
Dr. B-^dlcy. The Methodist brethren are 
pushing every department of iheir work 
with characteristic energy. While no 
Mission in the N. W. P. seeks more earn- 
estly to win to Chriftt the tower castes, 
they are fully alive to the importance of 
reaching the higher classes. Their high 
schools and now their college at Luck- 
now for bolb sexes attest their wis- 
dom and forealghtednesa. Their work 
among the lower classes in a few years 
will fill their colleges with Uhriatian 

Rev. ,T. H. Johnson, formerly of the 
Norway Conference, is now Presiding 
Elder of the Minneapolis District, Norwe- 
gian and Danish Conference. Hisaddresa 
i»l&3] NineteCDthHt,, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Rev O. W. Woodall, of the Central 
China Hiuion, is now in the United States, 
and has prepared u lecture on China which 
he is ready to deliver for the Iwnefit of 
churches and Sunday-school s. The lecture 
is illustrated by stereopticon views and 
has iMscn welt received wherever delivered. 
For term» nddresn him at the Missionary 
Training Institute, comer of Willoughby 
and Raymond streets, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The school for Chiueee boys of the 
Methodist Episcopal Mission at Singapur 
is an extraordinary instance of tuccesa. 
In three years it has become an established 
institution, with throe hundred pupils, 
both boarders and day -.scholars being 
Chinese, and the value that is set on it by 
the ChiDamcn of Hingapur is illustrated 
by the fact that they have just bought a 
Dew house fm the iwarding depnrtmeat. 
Tlie policy of the Mission is not to conceal 
at all the main intention of striving for 
' the conversion of the boys. The mission- 
aries (Oldham. Muuson and West) Uke 
opportunities to introduce religion into 
their general teaching, and Or. West holds 

a finnday-school which is attended by s 
number of the day-scholars as welt as the 
boarders. The boarders have th«ir nieaU 
at the »Bme table with Ibe missionariat 
and their wives, and have family prayera 
with them twice a day. The boys are 
quite susceptible to religiotii teaching, and 
several of tliembaveexprcMed willingneea 
to be baptized. The parents understand 
the position and take a manly altitude 
with respect to it. One or two have gone 
as far as to say : Do not baptize our boys 
now: if. when they are a little older, tbey 
really wish to become Christians, we 
promise you not to hinder them in any 
way.— JJ/or 9/ India. 

niKnloiiarjr l.llPrMtnrv 

" The Atonement and the Heatlien " is 
the subject of an article in the MethiKRlt 
Review for January. It is written by 
Rev. G. W. King of Providence, R. I. 

" The Bijou of Asia " is a new English 
periodical piiblishLM] in Japan for the pro- 
pagation of Buddhist doctrines in Chris- 
tian countries. 

Rev. H. E. iSenoit. formerly in Bishop 
Taylor's African work, is editing and pub- 
lishing Lf iirlhoiliait Franco Avurica in at 
Fall River, Mass. 

"A Century of Christian Progress and 
Its Lessons" ia tbo title of a new Ux»k by 
Rev. James Johnston, F.S.S., and pub- 
lished by James Nitttiet & Co. of London. 
It is filled with valuable facta. We have 
copied one of the chapters, tbat on the 
" Prijgrws of Nations as affected by Reli- 
gions. " Hnd there are eight olh(-r chapters. 

"Protestuiit Missions in Pagan Lands," 
by Rev. Edward Storrow wai issued laat 
year by John Snow &Co., lyjadon. Itgivea 
much valuiible information concerning 
the missions. We have transferred to our 
pages the first chapter on '*The Religious 
C>Ddirinn of the World ''and thcelcvonib 
chapter on "ThR Sources and Cultivation 
of the Mbtaiouary Spirit.*' 

We are indebted to Dr. Badley of India 
for a Hymn Book fur the usn of the natives 
in India. We are uiiiihle to judge of lis 
merits, hut the M<ilhgan-i- i/a*ihi pub- 
lirhed in Allahabad says: "Anew Hymn 
Book in Roman-Urdu has Iwen issued by 
the Methodist Publishing Uou»e, Luck- 
now. The compilation h»s been carefully 
madf by Dr. Badley. It is th«j largest of 
ita kind yet pubished in North India. It 
contains 40S Hymns, Bhajans and Gazals. 
Each Hymn is followed liy the initials of 
the author or trao6latr>r. The Bliajans 
and Gaznls in Mrs. Bate's 'North India 
Tune Book ' and in Mm, Kcott's ' Hin- 
dustani Choml Bnok ' are included in the 
collection. Many of Sankey'i * Songs and 
Bolos' translated by Rvv. I. Fieldbrave, 
are also given. We are glad to welcome 
this book. It witt meet a fell want and 
go far to supply it. It may l>e had for 
three annaa." 


FEBRUARY, 1889. 

805 Broaowav, 

Nm« YoiIi CHr- 






Prayer for Missions. 


N'ighL wraps the rfalm whore Jesus woke. 
Ko guiding mar tb«> maiii;t m>f. 

And beavj! hangs oppreKsif>u's yoke- 
Where y»rW the Ou«>|)el 98id, " be free." 

And where the bar|ni uX angels bor(< 
Hiffh HK'PsaRe to llit- shepherd -thronff. 

" ()<Mx)-win and peaf'p " are ht^nl no more 
Tu munuur Bethlehem's vales along. 

Hw»rth India, uilli her idol'train. 

Bends law by Oan^ref-* wntshipp'd tide. 

Or drowns the suttee's sliriek of paiu 
With lliunderinK Ronf!: and pagan pride. 

On PeriiiaV hilltt the Soplii grope ; 
Dark Burniah grcclii talvaiion's ray : 

Even jraloua China's door of hope 
Unbar*, to give tlw Go-pel way. 

Old Ocean, with his i&les, awakes. 

Cold Greenland feelit unwonted flame. 
And humble Afric woniierinK takes 

On her bad lip« a Saviour's name. 

Their slept* the fi>n*l i-hildren stay. 

Bound to obliviou'8 voit-elee* shore. 
And lift their red brnwii to the day, 

Whieh fnim tht- ujiening ttliies duth pour. 

Then aid with prayer that holy light 
Whieh from eternal death can «ave, 

.\nd hid (Christ's beraldti speed their flight, 
Cre niilliiint» tind a hofiele^s grave. 


Our Missionary Opportunity In China. 


C IY w»iil«*l of n« AnnwU 3tttUna of th9 Amtrioan BoQnt at deveiand. 
Okta. October t,iaHi.] 

The Church of Christ draws her inspiration for ag- 
gressive service from two distinct sources. She looks to 
the past, and from the great and momentous deeds of 
Christian history' derives the unwavering assurance of 
success in fresh and onward movements. She also looks 
to the unerring Word of God, and from the majestic 
sweep of prophecy and promise is taught to expect a 
growth and power far beyond all that ihe past has 
achieved. Nothing can be proposed that seems to her 
too difficult to attempt ; for eiiher something like it has 
been already accomplished, or the task proposed lies 
clearly in tbc line of Christ's advancing kingdom and all 
obstacles must at length give way. The past alone, 
though full of cheer, is never the measure of the future. 
Christ's kingdom broadens with the flowing years and is 
ever attempting new problems and greater tasks. The 
lever that turned the old Roman world from paganism 
and persecution to faith and devotion, and that bfted 
barbarian Europe to Christian civilization and liberty, is 
able to bear a greater strain. He who has made it and 
who wields it is divine; and by this token we conquer. 

I. Probably no greater or more dithcult task has 
been attempted by modem missions than the Chrisiian- 
ization of the Chinese people. It is doubtful if any 
graver problem lies before the Christian Church in the 
coming years. The contrast here between the forces at 
work and the difhcullics to be encountered is acute in the 
extreme. A rapid survey of the facts in the case will 
make this evident. 

I . The Chinese arc at once the oldest, the most 
numerous, the most exclusive, the least understood 
people on the face of the earth. The interval between 
the thoughts, the traditions, the tastes, the aspirations of 
this people and those which make up our inner life is 
nearly as great as can well be conceived. Here in the 
centre of the Oriental world, facing the sea along a coast 
of above three thousand miles, in a territory, the natural 
seat of empire, which exceeds the whole continent of 
Europe in extent and constitutes one-tenth of the habi- 
table globe, amid natural conditions of climate and soil 
which have made intercourse with the rest of the world 
needless, and which have sustained a teeming population 
for a period far outrunning the entire history of the 
longest lived states of ancient or modern times, — here 
this nation has dwelt since Abraham went out from Ur 
of the Chaldees, and here it abides to-day with unfailing 
numbers and unbroken strength. It is the only spectacle 
of the kind which history presents or the world has ever 

8. The capacities of the land, the resources of its soil, 
its mines, its rivers and lakes, not only are not exhausted, 
they have scarcely yet been fairly explored or put to the 
test. There is no reason, drawn from these considera- 
tions, why A more numerous people for a thousand years 
to come should not occupy this imperial domain and 
enjoy still increasing wealth. Its great alluvial plains are 
as fertile and inexhaustible as the valley of the Nile, its 
mountains are rich in iron and precious metals, its coal- 
beds would meet the present demands of the world for a 
thousand years, and great rivers open a highway to the 
sea from every province for the commerce of the land. 

The numl>er of the people is even more wonderful and 
inconceivable than the extent and resources of the land. 
A sober and careful estimate makes the present popula* 
tion of the empire about 400,000,000, or one-fourth of 
the human race. No one can fully realize what these 
figures mean: words can only suggest the vast propor- 
tions of this fact. The Chinese outnumber the citizens 
of this land as six to one; three empires as populous as 
the Roman sta'e under Augustus would not equal this 
naiion; the entire continent of Africa contains scarcely 
half as many people; Europe, including England and 
Russia, falls behind this tremendous host. To attempt 
the Chrisiiani/aiion of such .1 populous nation, enjoying 
a common literature and history, living under one govern- 
ment, and peculiarly bound together by the ties of blood, 
of religion, and of custom, is a sublime undertaking, 
fitted to awaken the profoundest interest, to inspire the 
most ardent zeal, and to call out the mightiest energies 




of the Christian world. The conversion of ihc Roman 
Empire, a splendid achievement of the early Church. 
pales before such an attempt. The conversion of the 
European States, a deed full of meaning and vast conse- 
quences, was not so great a task. 

3. The civilization of this people is at once an obstacle 
and a source of encouragement in missionary work. It 
has been developed in the closest relations with the 
moral and religious system taught by Confucius. The 
philosophy of life and the doctrine of the world and the 
theory of government which he inculcated arc inwoven 
with the very tissues of Chinese thought and life and 
worship. With many features that are interesting, wilh 
many truths that are valuable, as a whole it is an 
inveterate obstacle to the discernment and welcome alike 
of the Christian faith and of Western thought. 

At the same time the native powers which have devel- 
oped and applied and preserved this wonderful civiliza- 
tion are by this very fact proved to be of no common 
order; they are fully equal to the comprehension, the 
welcome, and the enthusiastic propagation of the high 
truths of the Gospel. Such a people give rare promise 
for the future, when once God and redemption and the 
powers of the world to come have taken full possession 
of their hearts and lives. How clearly they can discern 
the truth; how steadfastly they will hold to the truth ; 
how tenaciously will they defend it; how boldly will 
they spread it abroad to the ends of the earth! 

4. The characteristics of this people promise the beat 
things when once they ha\-c been touched and transform- 
ed by the power of Christian faith. It is the standing 
complaint against the Chinese, whenever they come into 
contact with other peoples, that they supplant all other 
races, that they absorb labor and all gainful callings, that 
they amass wealth where others could scarcely find a 
livelihood, that they thrive even under obloquy and 
persecution, and much more to the same effect. Thi% 
is not said in their praise, neither is it the testimony 
of prejudiced friends. But what a compliment is thus 
paid to them! Industry, thrift, enterprise, persistence, 
endurance; why, these are the very qualities out of 
which great nations are built, and noble histories are 
enacted, and the world's progress is advanced. 

That selfishness, and conceit, and exclusiveness, and 
pride, and other moral defects are found in conjunction 
with these traits is not strange in the least, and makes 
nothing against the substantial basis of national great- 
ness laid in the qualities enumerated above. They show 
the need this people have of the Gospel and its renewing 
power; they rather impel us to more active labors in 
their behalf than dissuade us from them. Set individual 
character on a new basis, let the life of this people be 
permeated with the Gospel and made instinct with Chris- 
tian love, and into what splendid forms will it not 
organise itself, and of what great deeds and wide benefi- 
cence will it not prove itself capable! The Chinese 
have never yet been understood; they are an enigma to 
every other people on the globe; they never will be com- 

prehended until sought out by Christian love and re- 
created in the image of the Lord. The worth of every 
soul and the significance of every nation are freely con- 
ceded; the argument for missionary work among every 
people and for every human creature is clear and resist- 

But the number and character of her population, and 
the greatness of her power and promise, do add a 
distinct and powerful emphasis to the argument for 
China's evangelization, and make the attempt seem one 
of the grandest and most commanding in which the 
Church of Christ has ever been engaged. The existence 
of this great people, with their peculiar genius and gifts, 
and their wonderful preservation through so many 
centuries and such violent revolutions, and their position 
and relations to other nations of the earth, these all arc 
so many providential proofs of a great and as yet unful- 
filled mission, which must deeply impress every 
thoughtful mind and powerfully appeal to every Chris- 
tian heart. The greater the territory they occupy, 
the more widely they scatter themselves among the 
islands of the sea, the neighboring peoples, and the 
distant nations of the earth, the more momentous the 
problem of their evangelization, the richer and wider the 
blessing their faith can bring. 

5. China has been known to the Western world for 
nearly three thousand years; never has she quite sunk, 
below its horizon. She has been visited, and something 
of her vastness exposed, but the effort at comprehension 
and permanent communion has been but fitful, and has 
often died away. It is not a little significant to note 
how Providence is compelling the great Christian powers 
of 6ur day to face this problem; how active and persistent 
the Chinese question is becoming in America, in Australia, 
in the South Sea, in the policies of Great Britain and 
Russia. ''The Chinese be upon thee," is the haunting 
dread of many a land, and ihc trouble will not cease 
until Christian love has had its rights, until this people 
have been won to an abiding-place in the kingdom of 
Christ. This is a question beyond the composing of 
armies and ironclads, which neither treaties nor em- 
bassies^ neither congress nor parliament, can solve. It 
is the debt of Christian love which we owe to the great- 
est empire and the most populous nation of modern 
times, a debt which nothing but the Gospel of our Lord, 
freely given and exemplified in thousands of lives, and 
held up to their view till its wonted miracle is wrought, 
can ever quite discharge. 

Let the Chinese, sought out with patience and won 
with Christian love, become a new creation in Christ 
Jesus; at once all jarring collisions, all violent antipa- 
thies, all divided interests, will cease, and the Christian 
Church will be doubled in volume and in power. Words 
are powerless to convey, the imagination fails to compre- 
hend, the meaning and grandeur of such a miracle; and 
yet this is the very task which God appoints to our times, 
and by a thousand voices is bidding us to attempt boldly 
and at once. This is not the only great enterprise to 





which the age is summoned; at home and abroad, many 
another august undertaking lies immediately before this 
generation and cannot be neglected. But this, also, is 
upon us, in all its vast dimensions and itnfaihomed 
meaning; God does not permit us either to ignore it or to 
evade it. And it becomes us to face our whole duty and 
measure the unspeakable privileges of our limes by the 
unparalleled opportunities God has set before us. The 
sun has looked on nothing tike it since Saint Paul and 
his companions were ted forth of the Holy Ghost to the 
evangelization of the Roman Empire. And uv are the 
chosen of God for this august service. 

U. The work is not new. A glaoce at its history 
will be in place. 

1. It is eighty-one years since the modem missionary 
movement began in China with the heroic labors of 
Robert Morrison, of the London Missionary Society; it 
is almost sixty years since the American Board sent out 
Messrs. Bridgman and Abcel to lay foundations in 
Canton. Step by step other societies have been drawn 
to this field, until to day they number thirty-three; and 
their stations are planted in hundreds of cities and towns 
scattered through seventeen provinces. These fourscore 
years have yielded large results, among which we may 
name the translation of the Bible into the classic lan- 
guage of the empire and into many dialects, and the 
preparation of no inconsiderable Christian literature; the 
gathering of numerous churches; the opening of many 
schools of higher grade; and a great and most impor- 
tant medical work, and work for women. 

2. Morrison and his associates, Bridgiran and his 
compeers, for many years had no legal rights in the 
empire, and no liberty to teach the Gospel to any of the 
people. By wonderful steps, including unjust wars and 
unequal treaties as well as nobler means, the nation has 
been opened, and its people made accessible to the 
foreign teacher; until to-day the uiissionary has a rec- 
ognized lej^al standing everywhere in the empire, and is 
at liberty to visit every province and pity ard home and 
preach the Gospel lo alt these hundred millions of souls, 
Within two years the peaceful nature of the missionary 
work and its wholesome influence have been recognized 
by official proclamation, and the people have been sum- 
nioned to accord to these foreign teachers of virtue the 
courtesy l>elonging to welcome and valued guests. 

3. Other striking proofs of change also appear. The 
traditional worship is shaken, and is losing its hold even 
where it has not fallen into utter neglect. A movement 
toward the introduction of the Western arts and sciences, 
answering to the moral stir just named, is gathering 
force, has already brought the ielegra[ih, and is bringing 
the railway, steam machinery, the Western school, and 
the press, to cooperate in hastening the overthrow of the 
old and the rising of the new age. In this period of 
transition and change peculiar facilities are offered, and 
peculiar needs exist, for the introduction of that faith 
which is the cherishing atmosphere of all those other 
gifts from the Western world. We speak here not of any 

desire the people have for the Gospel, but only of certain 
external conditions which favor its coming. This re- 
markable situation is not directly traceable to the influ- 
ences which have originated with missionary labors. It 
is the result, rather, of more general tendencies of a 
wider range, which, under God's providence, have been 
a long lime working toward the same end. In a negative 
way there is thus a preparation for the coming and 
spread of the Gospel which also is God's voice to the 
Christian nations. 

4. Protestant missionaries have been in the field long 
enough to make their characters and errand known; 
they are no longer dreaded as the forerunners of political 
intrigues and wars; they are generally respected, often 
trusted, sometimes loved. The difference between 
Jesuits and Protestants is seen and understood, and this 
fact has relieved all missionary operations from a heavy 
burden of suspicion and obloquy, and has much facilitat- 
ed their success. 

5. In the view of some, Protestant missions in China 
seem to be slow of movement and scanty in results. 
The table of statistics, while really hopeful and encourag- 
ing, have a lean and barren look beside those from some 
other mission fields. But these fourscore years since 
Morrison, single-handed and alone, entered the empire, 
like David with sling and stone daring the mail-clad 
giant of Gath, have necessarily been filled with the work 
of laying foundations and bringing the field and the 
work to view. A most difficult language must be mas- 
tered; a strange and complex literature must be studied; 
an ancient and unique civilization must be comprehend- 
ed; the most rigid barriers, sacred by centuries of usage 
and venerable by timeless prescription, must be over- 
come and broken down; the Bible must be translated, 
and a Christian literature produced. It is not strange 
in the least that twoscore years passed before any notice- 
able impression had been made, or that even now the 
number of communicants is no larger. In spite of all 
this, however, a great work has been accomplished; the 
foundations of Christ's kingdom have been laid deep and 
strong. The fathers have not toiled in vain, even 
though they have toiled out of sight. Everywhere m 
China to-day the results ol this hidden, heroic work begin 
to appear; and lo the instructed eye the success appears 
glorious beyond all praise. Augustine,- of England, 
closed his eyes to earth ere one small kingdom of the 
heptarchy was fairly Christianized, and he might well 
have regarded his mission as of doubtful success. But 
on the very foundations which he laid his successors 
])atiently buiU, and the glorious structure of the English 
Church arose through the centuries and still remains 
the joy of the whole earth. This preliminary work is 
fairly done in China. Not every province is occupied, 
nor every city is possessed; but the Church of Christ in 
China emerges to view, and nothing insurmountable 
hinders its rising to fairer, larger proportions in every 
city and village from the Chinese Sea to Turkestan, 
from Siberia to the Himalayas. 

6. The difficulties of the language and the hardships 
of the w ork, it may be thought, excuse us in a measure 
from this field. But a moment's thought must correct 
this view. 

We are here in the earth, as Christ's disriples, for the 
healing and help of the world, and the debt of Christian 
love inrliides without partiality every nation and every 
soul. Our part is service, full of self-denial and hard- 
ship and toil, and not unmixed with sorrow and with 
loss, li is a shame for us lo choose this part of the 
service God appoints because it seems to us easy and 

ago there were 14 ordained men under the Board m 
China; ten years ago the number was 17 ; in the same 
missions there are to-day 24 ordained men; a gain of 
five men for each decade. Bui the total number of 
communicants in China in the lasi ten years has increas- 
ed from 13,500 to 32,100; all the work has more than 
doubled, and the opportunities are immeasurably greater. 
At such a rate wc shall never finish our part of the work, 
in this great empire. Matched with the rapidly opening 
opportunities in these fields this essentially stationary 
condition of the force is a humiliating fact to confess. 

*,*■.•': t : 


attractive, and to pass fAose parts by because they are 
unwelcome and bard. Many an easier path lay before 
the nation when treason sought its life than that which 
ted through Vicksburg and Gettysburg and the Wilder- 
ness to Appomatox ; but there was no other which it 
was worth her while to choose. Such heroism is the 
very atmosphere not of specially favored souls, but of 
Christian discipteship itself. " If any man follow Me, 
and hate not father and mother, and wife and children, 
and brothers and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he 
cannot be My disciple." The question of ease we may 
not raise ; the question of duty alone Is ours. 

7. The missionary force now at work in China bears no 
comparison with the needs of the field. Twenty years 

We seem but playing at the evaiijielization of this. 
people. The latest staiistics show a total foreign force 
of 489 ordained men, and 271 sin^^lc women engaged in 
the work, supported by 1,491 native helpers. Considered 
in themselves, this seems like a goodly array of mission- 
aries. But when we recall that 400,000,000 souls receive 
all their Christian teaching from this body, the situation 
changes at once. VVe know nothing in this countr)' that 
begins to suggest the facts: here you must go far to find 
a region where every family and every soul does 
not have some tolerable knowledge of Christ and his 
salvation. Wc arc more than 60,000,000, with an evan- 
gelical church for everj* 600 people in the land. In 
China not one in 400 ever heard the name of Christ, or 







as yet had the opportunity of hearing that name. 
Under such comparisons, how the number of Christian 
laborers in China dwindles and comes to seem as noth- 
ing compared with the need I No one deems the mis- 
sionary force in Micronesia too large, and ycl in a total 
population of 100,000 seven men arc at work, or one to 
every 14,000 souls. In China the rale is one to every 
818,000 souls. 

Let any one visit Constantino|>le, a city of 800,000 
people, where Christ i.ins real and nominal number 
several thousands, and 
consider the standing and 
prospects of the Gospel 
there. If he can at all 
realize the facts which 
surround him he wilt he 
sensible of an overpower- 
ing feeling of hopelessness 
and dismay as 10 the ulti- 
mate evangelization of 
that vast population. But 
what if he were the only 
one in all that countless 
multitude who knew the 
Gospel or honored his 
Lord! And yet that is 
virtually the situation of 
each one of the Christian 
preachers now in the Chi- 
nese Empire. Can it be 
that this crying need and 
the sublime opportunity 
are understood and appre- 
ciated by the Christian 
Churches to-day ? Is the 
remarkable conjunction of 
open doors and accessible 
millions M^nr, with increas- 
ing wealth and unexam- 
pled multitudes of highly 
educated Christian youths 
kert, seen and its meaning 
understood ? 

So vast an cnterpri«;e 
as the Christianization of 
China would have hewil' 

dered and oppressed our fathers. Bui step by step, 
through such events as the conversion of ihe Sand- 
wich Islands, of the Fiji Islands, of Madagascar, 
and Ihe great triumphs of the Cross in Burma and 
India, the faiih and the courage of Christendom have 
been tested and enlarged. And now this supreme task 
is offered to our zeal. It will draw heavily on our re- 
sources as nothing before has done; but the wealth in 
the hands of Christian people is increased beyond ail 
conceptions of our fathers. It grows ten times as fast 
as it is applied to Christian uses. Nothing but the most 
liberal giving continued through long periods can deliver 


us from the perils which are induced by our enormous 
wealth and aggravated by its hoarding. It will call for 
great numbers of our youth, of the choicest and the best 
.imong them all. 

But the land is full of young ^en and women, thor- 
oughly competent for just such tasks, needing high 
enterprises and heroic deeds in order to apply their 
youth and culture and power to worthy ends, who can 
be spared from all other places for this splendid service 
without loss to any interest or any cause; nay, with infi- 
nite gain to the spirit and 
life and aggressive power 
of all the Churches of the 
land. They have come to 
the kingdom for such a 
lime as this. That deep, 
sad need, which no tongue 
can tell, and that glorious 
field, on the one hand, and 
this array of blooming 
youth on the other, are 
mated by the wise and un- 
erring hand of Providence. 
What is needed, what 
is plainly demanded by 
Christian duty, is that 
young men and women 
should go to these fields 
by scores and by hun- 
dreds, and throw their 
young lives with calm and 
unfaltering enthusiasm in- 
to the scales that are to 
lift China and its millions 
out of selfishness and vain 
conceit into the liberty 
and light of the children 
of God. They should go 
to China as Judson went 
to Burma, as MofFatt and 
Livingstone went to Africa, 
as Logan went to Micro- 
nesLi, choosing to spend 
life and strength to build 
there the kingdom of peace 
and truth, and joyfully 
staking their all upon that. And the consecrated 
wealth of our Churches should be dedicated to the same 
high end ; .md all .American Christendom should be 
touched and glorified by the sublime purpose to win 
China to the Lord, whatever it may cost and however 
long Ihe victory maybe delayed. 

The familiar story of the Roman monk, who became 
Pope Gregory the Great, and the inception of the mis- 
sion to England has a deeper meaning than at first ap- 
pears. Touched by the sight of the fair-haired, sweet- 
faced English boys in the slave market, and moved to 
seek their salvation, he inquires after their people and 


land and king. When told that Uicy are Angles from 
Deira, and that Aella is their king, he makes a happy 
play on these names, declaring that they shall become 
at^els and, snatched /ri?^ Go^s wrath, shall sing forever 
the hailelujahs of heavey; and gives himself no rest until 
the Gospel is borne lo England and the germ of English 
faith and liberty is planted there. It was the happy in- 
spiration of Christian love thai quickened his vision and 
opened hts heart to forecast the future of a great nation, 
and to lay its deep foundations in the Christian faith. 

Would that tlie same divine gilt might come to hundreds 
and thousands of our youth, unvailing to their view the 
greatness of China's future in the counsels of heaven, 
and firing their souls with the quenchless purpose lo 
plant her soil thick with Chiistian institutions and to fill 
her hearts and homes with the light of Cod. 

Some Problems Solved by Methodism In China. 


It is the purpose of this article to call attention to some 
of the problems encountered by Methodism in China, 
and the manner in which they have been solved. 

In ^•'*45' 3- young local preacher in Michigan, a grad- 
uate of the University of Michigan, wrote to Bishop 
Janes, offering himself as a missionary to China. When 
the Bishop answered him that we had no mission in 
China, and no provision had been made for commencing 
one, his answer was: "Bishop, engage me a place before the 
mast, and my own strong ami will pull me to China, and 
support me there! " Arrangements were soon in progress, 
however, for opening a mission in China, and it was not 
necessary for the heroic Collins to go before the mast- 
In April, 1847, he sailed from Boston, for his chosen field> 
with Moses C. White, an unostentatious, but most faith- 
ful and efficient missionary. 

The VVcslcyan Mission had a similar origin. A young 
plowman in Yorkshire became deeply impressed with the 
needs of China, and made his way to William Arthur, 
the Missionary Secretary, who at that time could give 
him no encouragement as to the Society's undertaking a 
mission to China. He was so deeply impressed with his 
duty to go, however, that he took the money he had 
saved from his wages, and paid for his passage to Hong- 
kong, where he spent some lime, studying the Chinese 
language, and at the same time preaching to the British 
soldiers and sailors, and such other persons as he could 
get to listen. He then pushed on to Canton, and began 
preaching to the heathen. After some progress had 
been made, the Wesleyan Missionary Society adopted 
him as its missionary, and sent others to assist him. As 
he was at a rather inconvenient distance for the Confer- 
ence to ordain him, they sent him out written permission 
to administer the sacraments, which seems to have an- 
swered every purpose, although it must appear terribly 
irregular to some of oor high church Methodists. 

But what were the problems Methodism was called to 
meet in China .' It was an impetuous form of Christianity, 

always Impatient of delay, and demanding immediate re- 
sults. Could it "learn to labor, and to wait "? This was 
the test to which It was now to be put. Let us see what 
it had to meet. 

1. Intense bigotry. For ages the people had been 
trained to consider China as the great central kingdom 
of the world. Its emperor being the august Son of Heaven, 
and all foreigners being " outside barbarians." Their 
maps of the world were upon a square piece of paper, in 
side of which was drawn as large a circle as the square 
would contain, and this circle, taking up nearly the whole 
of the space, was labelled — "China," or "The Middle 
Kingdom." .\ll the rest of the world — Kurope, America 
Africa, and the remainder of Asia — was crowded int 
the little corners that were left. And this represented 
the general idea of the Chinese people as to the relative 
size and importance of their country, as compared with 
the other lands of the earth. As might be exiiected un 
der the circumstances, bigotry of the most aggravated tyj»e 
had complete possession of the minds and hearts of the 
people. With an arrogant as.sumptlon of superiority wa«! 
combined a thorough-going contempt for the barbarians 
who were so unfortunate as to have been born outside 
of the Chinese Empire. Such a people could not be ex- 
pected lo take readily to a new doctrine introduced among 
them by the despised barbarians. 

2. As was natural, this bigotry was mingled with deep 
seated prejudice against foreigners. The idea that any 
one could be prompted by sinii)le benevolence to come 
to them, In order to make known the precepts of a pure 
religion, was to the Chinese mind absurd and incredible. 
Some other motive must therefore be looked for. It w 
easy to suppose that the missionaries were spies sent out 
lo ascertain the resources of the country, to become ac- 
quainted in a clandestine way with everything their 
sovereigns might desire to know. They were accordingly 
regarded with suspicion. Their professions of good will 
were looked upon as a hypocritical cloak to hide their 
evil designs. The course of foreign trade, and of the 
dealing of Western governments with China, had done 
little to remove, but very much to intensify this prejudice. 
In defiance of right, and in utter conflict with the teach- 
ings of Christianity, the trade in opium had been forced 
u[>on China, against the earnest opposiiion of her rulers, 
and was pouring its death-dealing streams through all 
the avenues of trade. Multitudes were being ruined by 
it, households were broken up, property abandoned, sui- 
cides frequently couimitted; and everywhere misery and 
degradation marked the path of the accursed traffic. I 
it any wonder that prejudice deepened into hatred against 
the foreigner in the Chinese breast ? 

3. SupentitioH is a natural ally of bigotry and prejudice, 
and ibis too the missionaries must encounter. The 
subtle theories of Fung-shuy, which teacfi that currents 
of good and evil are in motion in the atmosphere, and 
may be deflected by certain structures placed in their 
way, were continually in the way of progre.s8. No build- 
ing could be erected for dwelling cr for church withou 





somehow becoming a cenlre to attract evil influences, .so 
that malaria, pestilence and death were to be appre- 
hended by its presence. Buildings must be abandoned 
after the foundations were laid, because mobs of excited 
natives drove off the workmen, and the authorities pro- 
fessed themselves unable lo control these popular up- 
risings. New locations would be selected, only to repeat 
such experiences. When a girls' boarding-school was to 
be opened, and invitations were sent for parents to send 
their daughters, and weeks went by without a pupil's 
appearing, it was ascertained that the people believed 
that our purpose was to scoop out the girls' eyes, in order 
to make opium out of them ! 

Such bigotry was not to be overcome in a moment. 
Such prejudices were not to yield in an hour. Such 
superstitions were not to be banished in a single day. 
But this work must be done in some con.sidcrabIe degree 
before Christianity could get a fair hearing. .\ difficult 
language must be learned. Dictionaries and other helps 
must be made. The seed-sowing must be protracted and 
patienl. The harvest would be long delayed. Can this 
impetuous Methodism consent to such an order of things? 
Such was the problem when llic work began. All these 
difficulties wereencouniered. Sickness and death depicted 
the mission ; and there was one period of eighteen 
months, six years after the opening of the mission, when 
but a single family was left upon the field. Had Dr. and 
Mrs. Maclay then been withdrawn, it is quite possible 
that the subsequ*^nt history of our mission might not have 
been written. Through these early years of sickness and 
disaster, of sad disappointments, of condicls and trials, 
with noapparent results in actual conversions, Methodism 
proved its power to "hold on," to obey the divine com- 
mand, and to wait for results. There was much impa- 
tience in some quarters at home, but no doubt or hesita- 
tion on the field. The workers believed the divine prom- 
ise, " In due season ye shall reap, if ye faint not." 
Knowing that the determination of the *' due season " 
was with Him who sent them forth, they labored on in 
faiih, heartily sustained by the Missionary Board. Nearly 
a decade had passed when the first convert was received, 
in 1857. 

And now that converts began to be received, the next 
problem to be solved was, 

IViU the peculiarities of Methodism be adapted to the 
Chinese character ? 

For Methodism has its peculiarities, which differentiate 
it from other farms of Christianity. Methodism is emo- 
tional. It has insisted on free play for (he emotional 
nature in religion. How will it succeed in a nation whose 
people are noted for repressing the emotions, whose clas- 
sics teach them to hide their feelings, whose chararler is 
stoical? Will it retire from the field in confusion ? Or 
will it demonstrate that the Chinaman, beneath his calm 
exterior, has a warm heart that may be touched by the 
love of Christ ? 

See the young landscape painter, Kiu-taik, when 
awakened to a consciousness of his sin, and of his need 

of a Saviour, bowing before God, and pleading with tears 
for pardon and salvation. Hear him: "I cried to the 
Saviour for help in my distress, and, blessed be His name! 
He heard and delivered me. I was a condemned crim- 
inal, exposed to the punishment of hell, and had I been 
sent to that place of torment the sentence would have 
been just. But the Saviour did not seal my guilt; He 
gave me grace to repent, granted me, through faith, a 
confident hope of eternal life, changed all ray purposes, 
and opened the eyes of my understanding, so thai I 
could dig for the hidden pearls, and search in the Script- 
ures for the words of life. Truly the Saviour has loved roe 
with an unspeakable love in enabling me to become His 
disciple; and how can wc exjjress that love wherewith 
He has loved the world ? " 

See the native preachers of the Foochow Mission in 
their closing session with Bishop Harris, when Sia Sek 
Ong gave voice lo the feelings of the brethren, and the 
fast-dropping tears from many eyes gave evidence uf the 
depth and genuineness of their emotions. And after the 
Annual Meeting has adjourned, at a lale hour of the 
night, what arc those sounds which attract the attention 
of visiting .\merican brethren ? The voices of native 
preachers, pleading earnestly and with tears for clean 
hearts, and for a deeper consecration to their work. Look 
in upon the Quarterly Meeting at Kia-sioh, in the Hing- 
hwa District. At the invitation of the Presiding Elder, 
the native preachers kneel in earnest prayer for the 
descent of the Holy Spirit, and plead for purifying power. 
The Presiding Elder retires at loo'clock, but is awakened 
at 12 by the earnest pleading of the brethren, dresses 
himself and goes out to the chapel-room, and for an hour 
or more prays with them, and tries to help them into the 
full light, retires again, and at 3 awakes, and still hears 
(he voice of prayer, and as the gray dawn appears there 
are yet kneeling and pleading disciples, genuine disciples 
of Wesley, who could ^Jy.■ 

•■ With Thee all night 1 mean to stay, 
"And wrestle till the break of dav I " 

Methodism has vindicated its emotional character 
among the Chinese. 

But again, Methodism had always insisted on the 
preaching of tlic Gospel to bring sinners at once lo ChrisL 
But here was a country in regard to which men were say- 
ing, "You can't expect to do much with the adults of 
such a land; you must begin to train up children under 
Christian teachings, and look to the next generation for 
results." How will Methodist theories work here? 
Well, the missionaries preached immediate salvation for 
all. The first convert was a man 47 years old; and of 
the first eight, one was 69; two were over 50; two between 
40 and 50; and three between 30 and 40. And of the 
three thousand members now gathered, the large majority 
are adults, who have been brought to Christ through the 
preaching of tlie Gospel. Father Hii, the military man- 
darin, tells his two sons to go and listen to the preaching, 
which he feels will help them to a true life, although he 
thinks it is too late for him, with all his sins, to find for- 





giveness. When the young men have found the Saviour, 
they persuade their venerable father to come and seek 
Him, too; and the old man, yielding to their entreaties, 
finds that Jesus can save him, as well as his sons. Chlng 
Ting, a sorcerer, an opium smoker, a man of vile life, 
beyond middle age, hears from the pulpit, " Jesus can 
save you from all your sins"; the wonderful message 
attracts him; he becomes an earnest inquirer. By and by 
he comes to the missionary with a radiant face, exclaim- 
ing, "I know- it! I know it! Jesus can save me from all 
my sins: for He has done it already! " The opium pipe is 
banished; sorcery is abandoned; vile habits arc forsaken; 
and Ching Ting goes forth to lead hundreds of his coun- 
trymen to Christ. 

And Methodism reports from China, as from every 
other field — " Yes, the Gospel saves men, and saves them 
now! " 

But Methodism has a way of taking converted men, 
and making exhorters and local preachers of thcni, and 
sending them out to save other nien. How will this work 
in China? Will men just out of heathenism be able to 
preach? Let Kiu-taik. the painter, an.swer, as he sells out 
his tools and stock in trade, and goes out over hill and 
dale with the simple message of the tJospel. Let Po Mi, 
the young soldier, answer, as he gives up his chance of 
military promotion, and becomes a herald of salvation! 
f.ct Yu Mi answer, as he puts his Testament by the side 
of his anvil, and studies it between his strokes, and then 
when Sunday comes goes out to proclaim its saving truths! 

Hear this man who graduated from the anvil to the 
pulpit comparing the Hible to medicine: 

"The last chapter of Revelation tells of a river of life, 
with trees on its banks, whose leaves arc for the healing 
of the nations. This is the medicine that comes to us. 
Why are we able to be here as Christians to-night ? He- 
cause this medicine has saved us. Otherwise, we might 
have gone to destruction. W'e were dying — nearly dead; 
but, thanks to God! this medicine has saved us. It is 
more precious to us than gold. Last night, when the 
missionary report was read, and it was found that over 
$300 had been contributed the past year, somebody 
thought we ought to thank our members for the large 
contribution. I don't think so. They haven't paid 
enough to be thanked for it. Three hundred dollars 
can't pay for this medicine. Go home and tell them that 
a preacher here said that this medicine was more precious 
than gold. Put the globe in a pawn-shop, and it wouldn't 
pay for this medicine. Some say they will not contribute. 
Tell them tlod's medicine is precious. If a sick man 
will not pay money for medicine, he will have to pay for 
his coffin. The poor people will not pay for this medi- 
cine; their souls die, and they have to pay for idolatry, 
which is their coffin. Now you liave eaten this medicine, 
you ought to pay for it. We don't ask you to pay its 
value. You couldn't do that if you had all the gold in 
the world; but we do ask you to give enough to pay its 
freight, and send it to other prefectures and provinces, 
where the people are dying for the want of it." 

Listen to Sia Sck Ong, the proud Confucian, humbled 
at the foot of the Cross: 

*'Wc must not try to meet Jesus in the dark, when 
nobody can see us, like Nicodemus; but we mjsl follow 
Him openly. We must not follow Him. like the five 
thousand, for the loaves and fishes; not like the sons of 
Zebedec, for worldly honors. We must not follow Him 
to dwell on the mountain lop; but follow Him because 
He has the words of life, and there is no one else who 
can give them to us. If we follow Him, our enemies 
will be those of our households; but we must still follow. 
Whether the road be smooth or rough, or if it carries ua 
into the waves of Ihc sea, still we must follow. Wc can't 
go on the mountain top, and build three tents, and stay 
there. We must follow Him out of the city into thc 
Garden of Gethsemane, to the mockery of the soldiers^ 
to being spitten uiwn, to Calvary, to the cross! We must 
hear Him exclaim, * Why hast Thou left Mc, O My God ? ' 
and still follow Him— follow Him to death, to the grave. 
And shall wc stop here? O no! Who can keep Jesus in 
the grave? Nobody! Nobody! We will follow Him in 
the resurrection to life. But wc will not stop there. The 
Head has ascended to Heaven; so shall the members. 
There is no help for it, but they must follow their Head. 
Then we will look back over the way, sec the dangers, 
the unnumbered trials we have passed; and as we trem- 
ble. Gad Himself shall wipe away the tears from our 
eyes. Then, when we think upon the means of our 
salvation, we will find it has not been by our good works^ 
or deeds of merit, but just by following Jesus wherever 
He led, until all the dangers of the way have been sur- 
mounted. Fathers, brethren, sisters, up and be doing. 
Gird yourselves for the work. You may not be able to 
bear others' burdens, or to exert strength in other direc- 
tions ; but you may bear the great burden of the Cross^ 
for Jesus is your strength. And when we have followed 
Him into Heaven, we will rejoice, and shout. Glory to 
God and the Lamb forever! " 

Methodism has proved itself in China able and ready, 
as of old, to bring man from the farm, the anvil, the 
workshop, the teacher's desk, into the ministry. 

But Methodism has a peculiar system of ministerial 
supply — the itinerancy. How will this work in China, 
where attachment to home and kindred is very strong, 
and where the people are opposed to change ? It is no 
uncommon thing, when you ask a man how long he has- 
lived in the village in which you find him, to be answer- 
ed, " Five or six hundred years! " by which he means of 
course that his family or clan has been there for that 
period. Some said, we must give up this feature of 
Methodism here; and 1 well remrmber that I was 
thought to be unnecessarily radical when I said, "If 
Methodism can't work the itinerancy here, it has no call 
to be here!" 1 recall now, with a sense of amusement, 
the departure of Hu Yong Mi from Foochow, when he 
was appointed to a station twelve miles away up the 
river. His friends gathered around him at the dock, 
and wept, as they said good-bye. You might have sup- 






posed that he was going into same wilderness of savages. 
Hut he has since as Presiding Elder travelled districts ex- 
tending over hundreds of miles; and objected to being 
cominued the fourth year on the Ku-chcng District, 
because the Ku-cheng circuit was attached to the district 
of which he was Presiding Elder before, and he had 
therefore been stationed over a considerable portion of 
the district for four years, and he thought that the 
j/iViVof the discipline required that he should be moved! 
An example of fidelity to the spirit of the little book, on 
the part of a Presiding Elder, that may well be com- 
mended to the fraternity in the United Stales! One of 
our preachers was so enthusiastic over our itinerant plan 
that he said to a Bishop of the Church of England that 
he had no doubt that the Chinese Government would 
yet model its civil service after the Methodist Discipline, 
so exactly was it adapted to the Chinese character! 

With abundant experience, we can now affirm that the 
itinerancy works well in China. 

But Methodism has its peculiar meet ings and 
ecclesiastical gatherings. How will class meetings and 
quarterly Conferences and .Annual Conferences work in 
China ? Well, I remember that as soon as we had mem- 
bers enough to form a class, Dr. Gibson organized one, 
and led it himself until a leader could be found and 
trained among the natives; nor did he neglect to train 
the members in that excellent Methodist means of grace 
the taking of a collection! And as Methodism has grown, 
class meetings have increased; Quarterly Conferences 
have come In naturally; Love Feasts are enthusiastic. 
So well adapted are all these Methodist institutions to 
the Chinese that our brethren of the Church of England 
have found it well to adopt them. I remember calling 
once upon a missionary of that Church, and finding upon 
his table two packages of blank forms. One of them 
bore the title — " Rxhorter'a License " ; the other, " Local 
Preacher's License! " Think of that in the Church of 
England. Why, If the fathers of this Episcopal mission- 
ary in the last century had been as wise in their day, we 
might all have been in the Church of England yet, and 
much to the benefit of that venerable institution. 

The Annual Conferences are thoroughly Methodistic 
in spirit. They open with "And are wc yet alive?" 
They close with. "And let our bodies part!" The 
examination of character is rather more thorough than 
in our home conferences, A brother's character is under 
consideration. It is complained that he is hardly up to 
the mark as a preacher ; but some one remarks that his 
wife is a very excellent and useful woman, and the 
preacher is allowed lo keep hts place on his wife's merits. 
Is there not a family likeness to our home conferences 
here? When Bishop Kingsley was with us, it was men- 
tioned as against a certain brother that coming to one of 
his appointments, the family with whom he was to stay 
having ducks' eggs for dinner, he demurred, and insisted 
upon having hens' eggs; whereupon Ching Ting pro- 
claimed to the conference with some vehemt-nce that 
who wasn't n-illing to eat ducks' eggs when 

they were set before him wasn't fit to be a Methodist 
preacher. When another candidate was praised as being, 
a good scholar, Ing Kwang, himself an excellent scholar, 
said, ** Yes ; but what we want to know is, has he * gifts,. 
grace and usefulness'?" When another was accused of 
having serious faults, one of the preachers responded,. 
" So have we all faults. If having faults is to stop a man- 
from being a preacher, we will all have to leave the 
ministry, and go home." Our first preachers were 
ordained by Bishop Ringsley in 1869, and others by 
Bishop Harris in 1875. Our annual meetings were theiv 
held in the form of conferences, in order that the preach- 
ers might be trained in our methods ; but the Faochow 
Conference wa.«t not formally organized until 1877, when> 
Bishop Wiley, who had been a missionary there a quarter 
of a century before, in the days of hard toil and much 
discouragement, was permitted to organize the first con- 
ference of Chinese Methodism. The Bishop wrote home : 
" If it had not been for the strange language and dress, I 
could hardly have noticed any difference, so well pre- 
pared were these native preachers for all the business of 
a conference. Vou would have been surprised to see 
with what accuracy and good order everything went for- 
ward." In another letter he said: "There was nothing. 
that so impressed me with the reality, strength and per- 
manence of our work here, as the men whom it has 
pleased God to give us as native preachers. There are 
now thirty of them in the conference. At the head stand 
the five Presiding Elders, staid, thoughtful, pious, ex- 
perienced men. Behind these arc the five newly-raade- 
elders, younger men, yet fine looking, educated in the 
Chinese sense; pious, earnest, devoted to their work.. 
Behind these again are the five deacons, another class^ 
which will be fully qualified by a few years of experience 
to come forward to leadership. Then, behind these, are. 
fifteen probationers, all having had experience in preach- 
ing, and all promising men; and then behind these 1 see 
a class of bright, pious, hopeful young men, students in. 
our theological school, who are hastening to take their 
places in this young conference; and then, outside of alt 
these, about thirty or forty local preachers of very fair 
ability, whom we are using as supplies." How affecting 
that this man of God, who had such a deep interest in 
this particular field, should have made a second episcopal 
visit to it, only to lay down his life on the spot of his 
early missionary labors, and be laid to rest in the mission, 
cemetery, under the olive trees, where he had walked ia 
the shadow of a great grief twenty-one years before! It 
is well. The good Bishop's grave will be a sacred shrine- 
to Chinese Methodism; and will weld the Methodism of 
the Orient and the Occident in indissoluble bonds! 

Methodism has proved that her ecclesiastical arrange- 
ments are adapted to China. 

But another peculiarity of Methodism is the liberty it 
has always given to women in its services. How will 
this operate in a land where woman is repressed, and 
held in low esteem? It was found difficult to get women 
to come to church, and it could only be done by having. 

a partition to shut off the women from the men. It 
<lidn't like the partition; but it said, better to have the 
women with the partition than not to have them at all; 
and after all, this was only giving a little extra emphasis 
to the ancient Methodist rule, "Let the men and women 
sit apart" But as the Gospel was preached, a gradual 
emancipation was going on. \Vhen the (irst women were 
received as converts, it was actually a question whether 
they should have a name in baptism — it being the Chinese 
idea that a married woman needs no name. But mother 
HU settled the rjuestion by saying, "Of course we arc to 
have names. Women have names in Christianity, if they 
don't anywhere else." In August, 1866, I baptized her 
little granddaughter, Hu King Eng, and twelve years 
later had the pleasure of receiving her into the Church. 
Four years ago I met her in New York, on her arrival 
from China, to study medicine in this country, and go 
back qualified to bless and benefit her countrywomen. A 
strange step for a young Chinese girl to take, and which 
was not without its perils, but which shows nevertheless 
how woman is being emancipated by Christianity. 
During her course at Delaware, Ohio, she led several of 
our American young ladies to Chri.^t, She is now pursu- 
ing her medical studies in l*JiiladcIphin. Women are 
speaking in our class-meetings and love-feasts, and enjoy- 
ing the same liberty that they enjoy in our services here. 
The partition is already gone from nearly all our churches, 
and will soon be entirely extinct. 

Methodism gives to its women in China the same 
privileges it has given in America. 

It is not out of place here, certainly, to pause a mo- 
ment, and give a just word of tribute to the noblewomen 
of Methodism who have toiled with heroic devotion for 
the elevation and Christtanizalion of their heathen 
sisters. From the first, the wives of the missionaries 
have given themselves with diligence to this work; teach- 
ing in day-schools, visiting the women in their homes, 
and welcoming them at their own houses, always on the 
alert to embrace every opportunity to tell them of Christ. 
But it soon became evident that there was a need for 
Christian ladies, unburdened with family cares, lo enter 
into this special 5eld. According to the need has been 
the supply. Who can measure the results of twenty-five 
years of unselfish devotion to the training of Chinese 
girts in Christian knowledge, and in earnest effort to 
lead them to Christ, such as that shown by the Misses 
Beulah and Sarah Woolston, for that long period in our 
Foochow Mission? Daughters of our church-members, 
girls from heathen families, and foundlings saved by the 
mission from destruction, were alike trained by these 
godly women, with unceasing patience; until they went 
forth as Christian women to wield a mighty influence for 
good — many of them as wives of our preachers, intelli- 
gent, pious, devoted, standing easily at the head of the 
women in the places to which their husbands were sent, 
because of their education. 'I'he elder sister entered 
into rest a few years ago and the younger is now in 
this country, not able to return to her field. But their 

work is going on, in the persons of their pupils, and will 
continue lo prosper while their blessed inHuence upon 
Chinese society is felt with increasing power as the years 
roll on. And when the history of the work of missions 
in China is written, the modesty and reticence of these 
devoted Christian ladies shall not prevent a graiefnl 
Church from writing their names high up on the scroll of 
honor. Nor will the devotion of such untiring and 
assiduous workers in the medical department as Dr. 
Combs (now Mrs. Strttmattcr), Dr. Sigourney Trask of 
Foochow. and Dr. Leonora Howard of Tientsin and 
their worthy successors in their successful efforts to heal 
the physical maladies of Chinese women, and to lead 
them to Christ for the healing of the soul, fail to win a 
high place in the grateful memory of (iod's people. 

I mention only one more feature of Methodism, and 
that is its constitutional habit of pusAi'nj; an. No sooner 
is one place fairly occupied, than it reaches out for 
another. With an ambition tike Alexander's, only that 
it is holy and unselfish, it is ever longing for "more 
worlds to conquer." Its history in China is no excep- 
tion in this respect. From Foochow it reached out, 
rather timidly at first, to Ngu-kang, twelve miles up the 
river; then to Kan-chia, a few miles further; then to Sieu- 
meh-ka, across the river ; then up to Min-chiang and 
Ku-cheng, and on to the Western prefectures of Yen- 
ping and Kieng-ing ; and down loHok-chiangand Htng- 
hwa, and out into the islands of the sea — to Kong-ing 
and Lam-yit. 

In 1867, though laborers could itty he spared from the 
rapidly developing work about Foochow, it sent Bros. 
Hart and Todd to Central China; and before the end of 
1868, they reported 37 members on probation. 

In 1869, it entered the capital, sending Bros. Wheeler 
and Lowry to Peking. Within a few years, it has entered 
the westernmost province, its missionaries ascending the 
Yang-tsc River nearly 1,500 miles to reach their distant 

In 1870, the Foochow Mission urged the Church to 
enter the opening field in Japan, and in 1872 gave up its 
honored superintendent. Dr. Maclay, that he might enter 
upon the work in that empire. And now the Church 
has pushed on from Japan into Korea^the last grc.1l 
nation of the world to open its doors to Protestant Chris- 

Methodism in China has lost none of its characteristics 
as an aggrmwe form of Christianity. 

So the message of Methodism in China to American 
Methodism is, hold on to your emotional character. 
The hearts of men need to be touched, and are suscep- 
tible of being touched, by the Gospel, in China, as every- 
where else. Preach the Gospe! for the immediate salva- 
tion of sinners ! Stout-hearted, obdurate heathen have 
yielded to its saving power, and have been created anew 
in Christ Jesus. Schools have their places, and every- 
where Methodism uses them for all they are worth. But 
the divine instrumentality for the salvation of men is the 
preaching of "Christ crucified, unto the Jews a slum- 



bling block, and unto the Greeks foolishness ; but unto 
them which are called both Jews and Greeks, Christ the 
power of God, and the wisdom of God." Chinese 
Methodism still insists upon this, and convening power 
wails upon its faith. It has to say, keep on licensing 
converted men, who have "gifts, grace, and usefulness,'' 
to exhort and to preach. God honors such men on the 
other side of the world, as on this, in the salvation of 
aouls and the advancement of His kingdom. It has to 
say, keep up your class-meetings and your love-feasts. 
The weak Christian is helped, and the strong Christian 
made stronger through these agencies^'in China as welj 
as in America; and if you become cold and indifferent 
to class meetings, if you come to have no religion to 
speak of, and therefore don't care to speak of it, it shall 
still be said of Chinese Methodists, *' Then they that 
feared the Lord spake often one to another." It has to 
say, Quarterly Conferences and Annual Conferences and 
itinerancy work just as well in the Orient as in the Occl. 
dent. It has lo say, woman needs and can appreciate 
her liberty in the Church of the East, as well as in the 
Church of the West; and Christianity emancipates 
woman wherever it goes ! It has to say that the spirit of 
its founder dwells in the breasts of his Chinese children, 
whose motto still is " The world is my parish ! " and 
who do not feel that Methodism has reached its last 
5eld of triumph as long as there is another field beyond. 
Finally, Chinese Methodism is not bigoted. This 
article may seem intensely Mcthodislic; and it is inten- 
tionally so; for it is intended to show the adaptation of 
Methodism to the conditions of mission work in China, 
and not to eulogize Presbyterianism or glorify Congre- 
gationalism — which, however, can easily and gladly be 
done on proper occasion. But Chinese Methodism 
hardly believes in the necessity of a j«(7#i/ Centennial of 
our Church; for it expects that before 19S4 the other 
denominations, after the example of our Episcopal 
brother at Foochow, will have adopted all our good 
features; and that if we have any bad or useless ones, we 
will have grace to get rid of them; so that instead of 
celebrating the Second Centennial of Methodism, all 
Methodists and Presbyterians and Itaptists and Congre- 
gationalists and Friends, and all other Christians, no 
longer able to discern any differences among themselves, 
will join in celebrating the jubilee of universally triumph- 
ant Christianity 1 

Report on the Anglo-Chlnese College. 

IAda|rt«d by Ui« Poocbow Canfantiira, Use 8. IMi } 

This institution has been favored with another pros- 
perous year. The largest attendance at any time has 
been nearly ninety — an increase of about thirty over last 

The work of the students has been very satisf actor)'. 
In addition to the Chinese Classics, they have pursued 
such studies as arithmetic, gcogiaphy, grammar, chem- 
istry, algebra, geometry, etc. Had our teaching force 

been larger, other subjects would have been taken up. 
At no time during the year has the number of missionary 
instructors exceeded four — Rev. and Mrs. W. H. Lacy, 
Mrs. Wilcox and myself, though Rev. and Mrs. T. 
Donobuc kindly assisted after their arrival to October. 

Although our teaching force has been so smalt, it has 
been necessary for mc to make several quite lengthy 
trips on my district, during which absences my part of 
the work has had to be divided between the other in- 

Too much can not be said in praise of the Dormitory, 
which came into use at the beginning of the spring term 
and which has rendered possible a more careful oversight 
of the students, the good effects being already apparent. 
In this connection we must not fail to acknowledge the 
generous deed of Rev. Nathan Sites, D.D., of this mis- 
sion, who became responsible for nearly $2,000, without 
which the $2,500 appropriated by the Missionary Society 
would have been inadequate to build such a Dormitory 
as the needs of the College demanded. 

Systematic religious instruction continues to be re- 
ceived with favor, and what was compulsory attendance 
upon the services of the Sabbath has become largely a 
matter of preference. Of the present number of students 
36 arc church-members, 10 probationers and 9 others were 
l)apti7ed in infancy. 

Fifty of the students are members of the Ticng Ang 
Tong Sunday-school. All attend daily chapel exercises 
at 8:30 A.M. and evening prayers at 9 p.m. At present 
all devote a part of each day to the study of the Cate- 
chism, " The Life of the Saviour " or " The Correct Doc- 
trine for the Uninstrucled," according to each student's 
advancement. The College Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation holds regular meetings, which arc managed en- 
tirely by the students. 

During the year there has been quite a number of con- 
versions. Last summer one of the most devoted students 
died, leaving the testimony of a beautiful Christian life 
and a triumphant death. 

At the close of the spring term an enthusiastic temper- 
ance meeting was conducted by Rev. Charles Harlwell, 
of the American Board Mission, and nearly forty of the 
students pledged themselves to abstain from opium, to- 
bacco and all forms of alcoholic drinks. Twenty or more 
had already taken the same pledge. 

Four of our very choicest young men have accepted 
license as exhorters, which indicates the probability of 
their becoming preachers of the Gospel after graduation. 
It is our earnest prayer that God will call to this work 
numbers of these young men, who. in a sense, arc being 
specially 6tled therefor by acquiring a certain degree of 
Western knowledge, which with the help of the Holy 
Spirit and the Holy Word may be used effectually in ex- 
posing the hollow absurdities of Fung Shu! and other 
forms of superstition and in proclaiming the truths of the 

We rejoice at the success of Rev. G. B. Smyth and Rev, 
Sia Sek Ong, D.D., in their efforts to secure philosophical 







apparatus, of which the College has stood greatly in need. 
Our hearty thanks arc due to H. B. Chamberlain, Esq.. 
of Denver. Colorado, Professor Frederick Merrick, D.D.. 
of the Ohio Weslcyan University, and to others who have 
thus remembered this institniion. Our gratitude for 
special favors is due to Hon. J. C. A. Wingate. U. S. 
Consul at this port, and to J. H. Love, Esq., of Sydney, 

I desire also to Ihank the gentlemen of the Board of 
Trustees, who have constantly encouraged and sustained 
me. I am sure that Rev. G. B. Smyth, who is soon ex- 
pected to resume charge of the College, will receive the 
same kind consideration. Much credit is also due to my 
associate instructors, who have done faithful work, and to 
Rev. Ding Meng Mi. the efficient moniior of the Dormi- 
tory, whose vigilant oversight of the students has been 
productive of such good results. 

This institution if properly sustained, will under God 
prove a very iiii(K)rlant factor in the Christianizalion of 
China. It is generally known that from time immemorial 
aspirants for culture and literary position have devoted 
long years to theparrot-like business of learning to repeat 
vtrbatim et literatim the wise (or otherwise) sayings of 
Confucius, Mencius and other sages of antiquity. Hence 
the extraordinary conservatism which strenuously opposes 
the slightest departure from "old custom." 

But a better day is breaking in the East. The Sun of 
Righteousness is about to rise. Gradually His rays begin 
ID dispel ihe gloom of ages. Many Western institutions 
and inventions are already here and exert a disenthralling 
influence. Those who, in the years to come, would attain 
10 official position — civil or military — must be something 
more than parrots. There is an increasing demand for 
men instructed In mathematics and the physical sciences 
— men who are practical rather than wholly theoretical. 

Bui Christian Education is the great desideratum. The 
proper work of thisCoUege istoinsiill into the hearts and 
minds committed to our care ''the truth as it is in 
Jesus," and at the same time to impart useful knowledge 
and mental training. 'I'hiis equipped, these young men, 
whether entering the ministry or some secular profession 
or employment, may become centres of light and power, 
exerting, as some of them already do, an elevating and 
saving influence. 

In concluding this report, let me urge the friends of 
Christian education to remember in their prayers and 
benefactions this Anglo-Chinese College, which has al- 
ready accomplished more than enough to demonstrate 
the wise foresight of Rev. K. Ohlinger and others who 
founded it, and which with the divine blessing, has before 
it a career of untold usefulness. 

The Foochow Conference. 

t>V REV. U. C. WILCOX, B.D. 

The session of this Conference, which began Nov. 
19, and closed IJec. 4, was undoubtedly the most im- 
portant in the history of our work in the Fuhkien prov- 

ince. The reports show an advance in nearly every 
item, the increase in our missionary offering being es- 
pecially gratifying. The interest manifested at the meet- 
ings held in behalf of temperance, education, Sabbath 
observance, Sunday-schools, etc., shows that this infant 
Church is wide awake to everything in the line of Chris- 
tian progress. 

Rev. Sia Sek Ong, n D., our delegate to the General 
Conference, was heartily welcomed by all. His address 
concerning America and her institutions was listened to 
with much interest. 

Rev. T. Donohue was transferred to us from Dakota, 
and Rev. F. Ohlinger from us to the Japan Conference. 

Bishop Fowler's presidency of the Conference gave 
universal satisfaction. Painstaking, thorough, patient, 
impartial, his wise counsels and decisions before, during 
and after the Conference cannot fail to result in untold 
good for the cause of Christ in this part of China. 

The Bishop strongly emphasised the importance of 
street chapel preaching (for outsiders), and arranged to 
have our three chapels in Foochow city and suburbs 
opened daily from morning till night for this purpose. 
He recommended that ground for a mission residence, 
chapel, schools, etc., be purchased in the native city as 
soon as the money can be had. He also heartily endorsed 
our plans for making Kuchengand Hinghua cities mission 
stations, and urged us as soon as possible to buy and 
build in healthful and convenient locations. It is our 
earnest desire that before another Conference convenes 
we may have at least one family at each of these impor- 
tant centres. 

To this end it is hoped that more medical missionaries 
may be soon sent to us. The recent news concerning 
missionary collections in America is very depressing, but 
our prayer is that God in His love and wisdom will 
soon open up a way by which these and other advance 
steps may be taken and the progress of His kingdom 
thereby accelerated. We await with keen anxiety the 
report of the General Committee meeting. 

Another important part of Bishop Fowler's work was 
the unification of our interests in this place 
under the name of the Foochow University, which at 
present consists of the Anglo-Chinese College of Liberal 
Arts, the College of Theology and the Preparatory De- 
partment. Colleges of Medicine, Science, etc., arc to be 
incorporated with the iiniverstty as soon as possible. 

A keen observer, the Bishop has with remarkable ac- 
curacy discerned the present needs of China and our 
relations and duties in the premises. It is imperative, 
that the men .ind means necessary to push ihis grand 
undertaking be forthcoming. No one who is at all 
posted as to the trend of recent events in this empire 
can doubt the necessity of an advance in educational 
matters. In this connection the attention of the reader 
is respectfully directed to the report on the Anglo- 
Chinese College, adopted by Ihe Conference and sent 

The Bishop's sermons and addresses delivered while 


in Foochow will produce rich fruitage in ihe years to 

Other plans and interests connected with our work 
deserve but cannot receive attention now. Let inc. how- 
ever, anectionaleiy urge the Lord's chosen servants, the 
ministry and the laity in the home-land, to aid us with 
our prayers and appeals and money, that wc may be able 
to carry forward these missionary enterprises which are 
so dear to God's workers and to Htm who shed Kis 
precious blood to redeem these sinful, dark-minded 
Chinese, who with the blessings and help of the Gos|>e], 
posse&s untold possibilities for the good of all nations 
among whom they are already so widely distributed. 

O that scores, yes hundreds, of consecrated men and 
women, including graduates in medicine, may be led by 
the Holy Spirit and constrained by the love of Christ to 
offer themselves for this vast and needy fieldl O thai the 
Church of God in Christian America may be swept by a 
holy crusade whose object is to send forth an army of 
soul-winners to these raultiiudes who sit in darkness 
and the shadows of death ! 

Fo9chow, China, Dec. 15, 1888. 

Our Methodist Missions in f'hina. 


Whether we consider the vast extent of her territory, 
the antiquity of her history and government, or her myr- 
iad population, China must ever be included among 
the greatest kingdoms of the earth, 

We sometimes call China "The Celestial Empire," or 
" The i'lowery Orient," but the Chinese themselves pre- 
fer "Chung Kwoh " — " Middle Kingdom." This arises 
from their conceit, supposing that China is the hub or 
central nation of the earth and that all outside nations 
arc barbarian. 

During the early intercourse of England with China, 
the officials insisted upon addressing the English Govern- 
ment as "The Barbarian Eye," which, of course, was 
resented as an indignity and insult. It nearly resulted 
En serious complications between the two nations, for the 
English refused to receive those documents which were 
so addressed. The Chinese are justly proud of iheir 
great country; for it is larger than our own United Slates 
even including Alaska. In physical features ii is unsur- 
passed. Her mountains seem to pierce the sky and have 
familiar intercourse with the stars and planets. Her 
river systems arc great arteries and veins irrigating and 
refreshing the entire land. The Yang-tsze Kiang, which 
means the "Son of the Ocean river," is greater than our 
own Mississippi and when its great length and volume 
of waters are considered one cannot feel that the Chinese 
are conceited in giving it a name of so much meaning. 
Her valleys and plains are exceedingly rich and fertile, 
quickly responding in rich produce to a mere scratching 
up of its surface. It is not rare to sec three crops taken 
from the same field in the same year. Her climate is so 
various that animals and products of all climes could 

find congenial subsistence and growth in some of her 
valleys, hills or streams, 

But, it is not nature's endowments that attract the eyes 
of the Christian Church toward this great empire — it is 
rather its myriad population — cities and villages teeming 
with human beings who have souls — souls for which 
Christ died — souls for the salvation of which the Chris- 
tian Church is responsible. It is safely estimated that 
there are four hundred millions of people in China. It 
means that almost one-third of the population of the 
globe are found there. It would take twelve long years, 
night and day, to take the census of this vast empire, if 
you count one for every time your watch ticks! 

Go to your porch and "look now toward heaven and 
tell the stars, if thou be able to number them"; with no 
less difficulty could you take the census of China! It 
behooves the Christian Church to ask some questions 
about these people. How do they liv«? How do they 
die ? What is their prospect beyond the grave ? What 
hold have they upon eternal life ? Until we begin 
to ask such questions as these we shall not realize our 
responsibility for their salvation. 

Does our Methodist Church realize her responsibilily .^ 
Is she grappling with this great problem .' A sketch of 
what she has done and is now doing for China will 
answer these questions. 

Does the reader know how many tnisshns the Meth- 
odist Church has organized in (^hina ? Not simple mis- 
sion stations, but large misswnt including within their 
limits many millions of people } 

There arc now in China under the direction and care 
of our Missionary Society four fully organized missions, 
ofwhich we will now give a sketch in their historical 

I. The Fooihow Mission. At the date of its organi- 
zation, 1847, there was not a representative of Methodism 
in all Asia ! but the gates of China had been so provi- 
dentially thrown open to the world, that our denomina- 
tion could not help seeing the index finger of God direct- 
ing their attention to this great field *' white unto the 
harvest." Together with the " open door," circum- 
stances at home combined to convince the Church of its 
duty. In the spring of 1 835 the '^ Missionary Lyceum " 
of the VVesleyan University, at Middletown, Conn., 
thought seriously of establishing a mission in the in- 
terior of .\frica, but before coming to any decision, the 
discussion assumed broader proportions, and ihey asked 
'* Wiiat country now presents the must prurnising field for 
missionary exertion .' " Immediately the claims of Africa 
seemed eclipsed by the magnificent opportunity to enter 
the gates of the Chinese Empire. It was resolved that 
our Church should at once enter this field with both 
missionaries and a press. 

It was resolved aEso to appoint a committee to prepare 
an address to the Church on the subject. B. F. Tefft, 
D. P. Kidder, and E. VVentworth were selected. Their 
work was well done. Their paper, three columns long, 
appeared in the Christian Advocate of May 15, 1835. It 








set forth most vividly the field, its claims upon the 
Church and the prospects of rich harvests to be 
garnered into the Kingdom of God. In the same month 
in which the article appeared the anniversary of the 
Missionary Society was held, and Dr. Fisk, as by inspira- 
tion, made a most impressive and eloquent speech, 
recommending a mission to China and proposing aa im- 
mediate subscription for the purpose. 

One gentleman offered to be one of ten to give $10,000 
for the inauguration and suppoit of the work; $1,450 was 
actually subscrilied, and on May 30 the Board recom- 
mended, on the strength of this, that the Bishops select 
and appoint a suitable man to go and organir.e a mis- 
sion in the Kmptre of China, Strange to say, ten years 
«lapsed before the field was really entered. Difficulties 
arose that seemed insurmountable. From lack of faith 
or ardor or the means or the right man, the Church 
hesitated and vacillated. It was at this point that Jud- 
son Dwight Collins, who had been converted in the 
great revival at Ann Arbor, in 1838, at the age of four- 
teen, and had afterwards entered the first class of the 
Ann Arbor University, Mich., presented himself as a 
candidate for work in China. He had twice written 
to the Mission Secretary, Dr. Durbin, but had been told 
that as we had no mission in China, his application could 
receive no official action. He then wrote to Bishop 
Janes, but received no assurance that he would be ap- 
pointed. The sublime faith of this young hero then 
came to the front, and he wrote again, " Bishop, engage 
me a place before the mast, and my own strong arm will 
piiU me to China and support me while there." It is 
oeedless to say that the Bishop made the appointment or 
that the Board confirmed it, for with such an inviting 
field coupled with the great faith and zeal of the right 
man, the Church would seem to be Bying in the face of 
providence if they had refused him. Rev. M. C. White 
and wife were also appointed, when again months of de- 
lay ensued, for the Board were uncertain at what point 
they should locate the mission. They were necessarily 
restricted in their choice to the five open ports. Finally 
the preference of the committee on location was given to 
Foochow, the capital of the Fokicn province, situated on 
(he Min river, thirty miles from its mouth. It was a 
field of no ordinary character; in the city itself and 
suburbs could be found half a million souls thronging 
their hillsides, lanes and rivers. As the capital of the 
province it was the political centre. The literati thronged 
to its examination halls, and it has since become the 
commercial centre of a population of twenty six millions 
of inhabitants. With what a sense of responsibility and 
with what anxiety that little missionary band must have 
approached the shores of that vast field ! The entrance 
at Foocliow was to be the " Open Sesame " to the whole 
empire, for from this mission were to come the founders 
of the central, north and west China missions. 

Upon their arrival they knelt in devout thanksgiving 
to the God who had so safely brought them over the 
deep, and in sincere prayer that He would make them 

messengers of light and peace to the myriads of be- 
nighted souls around them. Thus, after eleven years of 
prayer and hesitation, Methodism found a foothold in 
China and so firmly are we now planted there that every 
probability is in favor of our staying there forever. In the 
river, just opposite the native city, is a small Island, but 
densely populated, called " Middle Island." It is joined 
to the city by the celebrated " Bridge of Ten Thousand 
Ages," constructed upon thirty-eight solid buttresses. 
Upon this island the missionaries were able to secure 
premises for their occupation. Chinese dwellings they 
were, of course, and needed much repair and remodel- 
ling. This done, they were safely housed and they then 
.ippltcd themselves with great devotion to the study of 
the language. Only those who have been to China can 
appreciate what the study of that language means. 
Abbe Hue said that "it was invented by the devil 10 keep 
the missionaries out." And the Rev. Mr. Milne, col- 
league of Rev. Robert Morrison, the first Protestant 
missionary to China, claimed " that to acquire the 
Chinese is a work for men with bodies of brass, lungs of 
steel, heads of oak, hands of spring steel, eyes of eagles, 
hearts of Apostles, memories of angels, and lives of 
Methuselah." Even without much of the language they 
could administer out of their little stock of medicine to 
the sick, and were often very successful in treating some 
cases that the native physicians had failed to relieve. 
They could also distribute tracts and portions of Script- 
ure, which had been translated by Dr. Medhurst, which 
they did by the thousand with great zeal and earnestness. 
" In time the Kiao San house, beautiful for prospect, was 
erected, and afterwards the Kalang orchard house, on the 
same range, south of the river. In the course of a year 
our mission began to be fairly at home in Foochow." 

On October 14, 1847, Rev. Henry Hickok and wife 
and Rev. Robert S. Maclay embarked from New York 
in the " Paul Jones," to reinforce the mission. From 
this time on through the next decade, the history of this 
mission presents many pictures of sadness. As Mr. 
Hickok was approaching Foochow, he was taken sick 
with inflammation of the bowels, which continued in a 
chronic state, exciting great apprehension. He became 
so feeble that he was compelled to abandon the field 
early the next year. In the same year Mr. Collins was 
attacked with typhus fever, from the effects of which he 
never recovered. In about three years, drooping and 
wasted to a skeleton, he also was obliged to retire from 
the field. But the ranks were filled up by the arrival of 
Rev. Isaac W. Wiley and wife, Rev. James Colder and wife 
and Miss M. Seeley. In 1855, Rev. Erastus Weniworth 
and wife, and Rev. Otis Gibson and wife were sent out. 
In less than four months Mrs, Wentworth was called away 
to her heavenly rest. Others, too, have since sickened 
and passed away. A walk in the little mission cemetery 
would reveal many names that are familiar to the Church, 
among them Mrs. I. W. Wiley, the early wife of our late 
Bishop, who, by a strange providence, while on his 
second episcopal visit to China, died at Foochow and is 

buried beside her. But the pictures were not all of 
hardships and sadness. 

In 1857, the day seemed to be dawning for China. 
On Sabbath, July 14, of that year their first convert 
was baptized. A few months later his wife and two 
children were also convened, and during the year thir- 
teen adults and Ihrte children wcrt; baptized. This 
filled the hearts of our missionaries wilh joy and hope. 
The Christiana were joined into a class. Sunday-schools 
were formed and a Methodist Episcopal Church was 
organized, the first in the Empire. 

These were but the drops before the shower. New 
reinforcements kept arriving to take the places of those 
who had either died or returned to tlie United Stales 
on account of their health, so that the work, kept on 

We have not space in this article to relate all the 
pleasant and interesting incidents of the rapid growth of 
this mission, but a review of the statistics reveals grand 
results of great labor, many trials, and a devotion and zeal 
of which our Church should be proud. The statistics of 
last year show that this mission has six Presiding Elders' 
districts ; ninely-six native preachers, of whom thirty- 
six arc ordained. The membership is 2,217: i.iroba- 
tioners 1.229; average attendance on Sunday-worship, 
3.560; adults baptized, 386; children, 594 ; number uf 
Sabbath-schools, 104; number of Sunday-school schol- 
ars, 1,821; collected for Missionary Society, $34631 
and for other benevolent societies, $398.20. These 
statistics represent no small amount of activity through- 
out that province. 

We have not space to give any account of the work of 
the Women's Foreign Missionary Society at Foochow 
which would form a most interesting paper by itself; 
nor yet to tell of the grand work that is being accom- 
plished by the Foochow College, the gift of a Chinese 
merchant. Mr. Ahok, still residing there and taking a 
great interest in the affairs of the mission and the spread 
of the Gospel in his native land. 

What the influence of the Girls' School and the Col- 
lege will be as they send out Christian women into the 
homes of China and Christian men into the pubtic 
offices and business hongs, only the future can tell, but 
we can safely predict that they will be no small factor in 
the moulding of the Chinese Empire of the future, 

a. The Central China Mission. In the year 1867, the 
superintendent of the Foochow Mission informed the 
Board that plans were maturing for pushing on with the 
Gospel into Central and North China. Rev. V, C. Hart 
and Rev. E. S. Todd were selected to ex]jlore the region 
of the Vangstze Valley in Central China. Kiukiang, at 
the mouth of the Poyang lake, was selected as the most 
available site for the headquarters of the new mission. 
The field was divided — Mr. Hart taking the western 
half, extending 70 miles, and Mr. Todd the eastern half, 
extending 60 miles. A chapel was opened at once about 
40 miles north of Kiukiang where they soon had a num- 
ber of enquirers. In less than a year, November, 1868, 





Mr. Hart reported that they had received thirty-seven 
on probation. From such an auspicious beginning the 
mission has passed through many vicissitudes, and. in 
spite of them, is to-day one of the missions of our 
M. E. Church. 

The cities and villages surrounding the Poyang lake 
were frequently visited, the people preached lo and large 
quantities of tracts and Scriptures distributed. This 
early pioneering north of the river and in the lake regions 
has had most gratifying results. On three of these out- 
lying circuits, in 1887, there was reported a memberships^ 
of 16S, and probationers 187. ^H 

The mission has been largely extended and now reaches i 
400 miles along the banks of the Yangtsze river. Besides 
Kiukiang there are three other central stations, IVuhu, 
Nanking, and Chinkiang. Each of these stations has a 
population surrounding it reaching into the millions, and 
we believe that at no very distant period the whole mission 
will be divided into four missions and afterwards organ^^J 
ized into as many conferences. ^| 

Kiukiang has its "Fowler Institute," which is doing 
much toward breaking down the prejudices of the peopli 
of the province, for parents are not apt to speak ill 
the institution where their children are educated. Ni 
will the students themselves be opposed to their Ah 
Mater. Nanking has its Philander Smith Memorial 
Hospital that is a Christianizing power in the city and 
surrounding country. It is patronized even by the fam-^^ 
ilies of the highest officials, and has done more towar^H 
opening up our work on that conservative district than^i 
any other agency could possibly have done. It was 
Christ's own plan to heal both soul and body, and it h. 
proved to be great wisdom to follow our Master's exani' 
pie in planting our Church in the Chinese Empire. Ai 
all four of our stations the W. F. M. S. goes hand in hand 
with the parent society, strengthening our hands and ofi 
proving to be our strongest auxiliary. 

3. The North China Mission. About one year after 
Central China was entered by our Church, the Board 
approved of a further movement to the north and appro- 
priated the nccessarj- funds. Peking, the capital, was 
selected as the headquarters, and Rev. L. N. Wheeler 
the pioneer. He was soon followed by Rev. H. 
Lowry, now the superintendent. " Hoth of our mission- 
aries immediately set about the work of acquiring the 
Mandarin dialect, spoken in North China, at the same 
time instituting a rigorous search for suitable premises 
for the mission centre. ... It was not till February 
12, of the following year, that they succeeded in securing 
the excellent site which now constitutes the Mission Com- 
pound." This site was well located, just inside of one of 
the city gates and not far from the residences of the for- 
eign legations. 

The next year the mission was reinforced by Messrs. 
Davis and Pilcher. It was a year of severe trial to the 
young mission. On June 21 a massacre occurred at 
Tien Tsin, 80 miles from Peking, in which, besides a 
targe number of Catholic and Protestant native 






ative Cliri^H 

ticiDs, 23 foreigners lost their lives. Our missionaries 
trembled lest it should btcomc general, but providential- 
ly further atrocities ceased and our little bands were 

The experience of the North China Mission during the 
next two decades very much resembled that of the two 
sister missions. Constant contention with the officials 
over the possession of property, depletion of their ranks 
by sickness or death, opposition by the Chinese to the 
occupation of new points; but over these and all difficul- 
ties, through Christ, the mission has been more than 
conqueror, constantly gaining in membership, always en- 
larging its borders and increasing in chapets, schools and 
hospitals, 50 that to-day it may be regarded as one of the 
strongest Christianizing influences upon the Chinese Em- 

The following brief extract from the report of the 
Superintendent for 1887 shows this mission to be In a nor- 
mal healthy condition: 

"The North China Mission is well-nigh an ideal mis- 
sion in the harmony and unity of its working force and 
in its equipments of hospitals, dispensaries, schools, and 
chapels. The sixteenth annual meeting of this mission 
opened September z6, in Asbury Chapel, Peking. 

"Bishop Warren, who arrived on the 24th, opened the 
session. The reports show the best year the mission ever 
enjoyed. The total of members and probationers is 810 
— an increase of nearly forty per cent. The missionary 
collection is $50 over the million line," 

4. TA£ IVest China Mission. In the year 1881. Dr. L. 
N. Wheeler, the pioneer of the North China Mission, was 
again called out from the ranks of his conference, to 
which he had returned on account of ill health on the 
mitision field. 

The vast field, comprising the western half of China, 
was a great attraction to our Church and in this year it 
was determined to enter it with the Gospel. Dr. Wheeler 
was selected to take the leadership and Rev. Spencer 
Lewis was to be his associate. 

After spending a year of preparation and study within 
the Central China Mission, they proceeded up the rapids 
of the Vangtszc — a tedious and dangerous journey of five 
or six weeks, and finally arrived at Chung King, which 
was to be their headquarters. An excellent property was 
offered for sale to the mission, which was purchased and 
speedily remodelled to accommodate our foreign mission- 

The services were attended by large numbers of 
Chinese and the outlook was most hopeful, but alas! the 
health of Dr. Wheeler again failed and he was obliged 
to return a second time with his family to the United 
States, his daughter. Miss Frances Wheeler, remaining 
in the field under the auspices of the W. V. M. S. Rev. F. 
l>, Gamewell was then appointed Superintendent, and 
G. B. Crews, M.D., and wife and Miss G. Howe joined 
the new Superintendent to reinforce the mission. Again 
the outlook was fair and for several years success attended 
Iheir labors, when suddenly the whole enterprise was 

brought to an untimely end by a riot, instigated by the 
military students who were gathered there for the tri- 
ennial examinations. All our property was razed to the 
ground and our missionaries narrowly escaped with their 

The following extract is from the Missionary Society's 
Annual Report; 

" This mission, recently driven out from Chung-king, 
1,400 miles from the sea, and its property destroyed by a 
mob, has been re-established. Rev. V. C. Hart, Super- 
intendent of the Central China Mission, was appointed 
to visit, inspect, and take steps toward the restoration of 
this West China Mission. Brother Hart's long experience 
in China, his knowledge of the people and of their cus- 
toms, and his thorough acquaintance with their language, 
rendered him eminently fit for such a service. It in- 
volved great labor and sacri6ce on his part, and yet he 
entered upon and performed it most successfully. To 
him the re-establishment of our work in West China Is 
very largely due. As indemnity for property destroyed 
has been paid, no fear of further disturbance is felt. The 
field in Western China is immense, and once fairly occu- 
pied will yield a vast return for the labor bestowed upon 
it. Two good men and true are already there, and they 
should be followed by others as soon as possible. This 
little one will yet become a thousand." 

Thus briefly have we sketched an outline of our mis- 
sions in China. Volumes could be written abounding in 
incidents and facts that would be of great interest to our 

Evidently the hand of God is in this movement, and as 
surely as He has promised, these heathen will be given to 
our Christ as an inheritance. 

Nethodist Episcopal Bliaslons in China in IS88. 

The history of our missions in China during the past 
year gives much evidence of success ; and the outlook 
for the future is cheering. The pressure for higher edu- 
cation is exceedingly strong ; and Bishop Fowler's visit 
has resulted in preparing the way for the organization of 
universities at the three great centres of Foochow, 
Nanking and Peking. The introduction of Western 
science into the regular curriculum of studies, examina- 
tions on which are the basis of promotions in the civil 
service of the Empire, will increase the desire of native 
students to become acquainted with English and the 
stores of knowledge which will be opened to them in oar 
language. The construction of the railroad from Tien- 
tsin toward the capital, the extension of the telegraphic 
service, the opening of mines to be worked, by Western 
scientific methods, are all hopeful signs of the times ; and 
our missionaries arc planning to keep step with the most 
progressive men and measures of the times. 

We give a brief review of some of the most important 
matters connected with the work of 1S88, gathered from 
the forthcoming Annual Report. 










The Rev. N. J. Plumb, Presiding Elder of the Foochow 
District, says : 

" When appointed to this district last year by Bishop 
Warren there was some doubt as to the advisability of 
foreign missionaries being made presiding elders, after 
this position had been filled exclusively by native brethren 
ever since the organization of the Conference. The 
native presiding elders unanimously favored the change 
in the cabinet, and after due consideration the experi- 
ment was decided upon. 

"It is, of course, quite too soon to say that the ques- 
tion has been settled ; but, as far as our experience goes, 
we think the step was in the right direction, and that for 
some time in the future this position will be held by 
foreign missionaries more frequcnily than it has in the 
past. During the year the district has enjoyed a fair 
degree of prosperity. For many years several of the 
circuits have been at a standstill or decadence, and 
only an outpouring of the Holy Spirit can bring them 
into a really prosperous condition." 

He pays the following well-deserved tribute to the 
faithful labors of Rev. Hii Yong Mi : 

" Tieng Ang Tong, the principal charge on the district 
has been blessed with an unusual degree of harmony, in 
strong contrast with many preceding years. This has 
been due largely to the influence of the saintly and de- 
voted pastor. Rev. HU Yong Mi. Through patience and 
perseverance, and his noble life and strong faith in God, 
his efforts have been rewarded with a good degree of 
success, and Urother Yong Mi is to be congratulated on 
having made this, his last year, his best one. Owing lo 
his poor health he was an.xious to be relieved East year, 
and at the close of the Conference he was much sur- 
prised to hear his name read in the appointments for 
Tieng Ang Tong again. 

" Were it possible for him to do the work I should 
strongly plead for his continuance for the full term of 
five years ; but we must release him. He has done grand 
service for the Church, and may well be allowed to spend 
the remainder of his days in quiet. No more honorable 
name, I am sure, has ever been entered upon the super- 
annuated roll of Methodist ministers." 

From the other charges on the district we take the fol- 
lowing items of interest ; 

At Chin Sing Tong the Church has had some pros- 
perity. The pastor, Sia Sek Ong, has been away since 
spring, on his mission as delegate lo the General Confer- 
ence in the United Slates. During his absence Wong 
Seu Chiong, a local preacher, has efficiently supjilicd his 
place, attending his bookstore during the week and 
preaching on Sunday. 

There has been an increase in the membership, and the 
collections are a little in advance of last year.' 

Rev. HU Sing Mi is the pastor of East Street, the only 
charge we have inside the city walls. No increase in 
the membership has been made, but in the contributions 
there has been an advance of more than half. Dr. Carle- 

ton carries on dispensary work there, visiting once or 
twice each week, and a great number of women and 
children come for treatment, thus affording good oppor- 
tunities for preaching. 

The Yek Yong Circuit, one of the oldest, is composed 
of three classes. The village of Yek Yong, twelve miles 
from the city, is the home of Sia Lwang, the father 
of Sia Sek Ong. our General Conference delegate, now 
so well known in the home Church. He has just passed 
away, and his death will prove a heavy blow to the 
Church there, as he was its main stay. 

In the civil district of Ming Chiang there are a num- 
ber of .small charges, divided into two circuits. The 
oldest is Lek-tu, where work was commenced more than 
twenty years ago by the heroic pioneer, Rev. H(l Yong 
Mi, who has left a deep impress on the people of that 
vicinity. His son is the present pastor. Owing to the 
almost constant emigration of members, to Foochow and 
other places to engage in business, it has been almost 
impossible for years past to reach any great increase in 
the numbers. Some interest exists at a village in the 4th 
Township, and the prospect is encouraging. 

The other circuit is composed of the ?d. nth, and 
15th Townships, where we occupy rented property. The 
work here is newer and more interesting than at some 
other points. Many of the younger members manifest a 
deep interest in Bible study, and for want of time during 
the day walk long distances to the chapel and return at 
night, in order to study with the pastor. 

The Mission Press at Foochow continues to be a very 
powerful arm of the great work. It printed over t6,ooo,- 
000 pages of Scriptures and tracts during the year. 

The Anglo Chinese College has prospered under the 
temporary presidency of Rev. M. C. Wilcox, who now 
returns lo the evangelistic work of the mission, while Rev. 
George B. Smyth reassumcs the work of the College. 

Rev. J. H. Worley reports the Biblical Institute as en- 
joying .1 good degree of prosperity, and says : 

" Seven students were graduated la^t June, A more 
promising class was never sent out from tlie Institute. Si.Y 
of them immediately took work under the presiding 
elders, and all will come up for admission to Conference. 

"A deep religious Influence has prevailed throughout 
the year, and the responsibility and sanctity of the min- 
isterial office are realized by the students as never before. 
They feel that without the Spirit's power all efforts will 
be futile, and in answer to prayer God is giving them the 
desire of their hearts. There are now twenty-one 

Rev. M. C. Wilcox, Presiding Elder of the Ku-cheng 
District, reports : 

" It is pleasant to report that the year's labors have 
been crowned with a good degree of success, that there 
has been no persecution and the people everywhere 
manifest an increasing friendliness, for all of which our 
gratitude is due to the ' Giver of every good and perfect 
gift.' As a rule the newer circuits have enjoyed the 
);reater prosperity. One circuit is supported by the 

preachers and members of the district with a little 
foreign help. In a few weeks a good-sized church is to 
be dedicated on the IvO-kang Circuit. The members 
have done nobly in this enterprise. 

" We have unanimously asked for an appropriation to 
purchase land and to build a mission residence at Ku- 
cheng City, which is about one hundred miles nearly 
norih-west from Foochow, Hence we hope before many 
months to have a family living at that central point of 
the district." 

Rev. J. H. Worley says of the Hok chiang Dis- 

"The present has been another successful year, not- 
withstanding the many obstacles. The great persecu- 
tion begun nearly two years ago was, through the [ver- 
sislcnt efforts of the United Stales Consul, satisfactorily 
settled several months ago. But two weeks Later it broke 
out with increased violence, and several families have 
been driven from their homes, some escaping only with 
their lives. The most influential member was caught 
and seriously Injured. During these months of severe 
persecution several families have joined the Church. 

" Every circuit has prospered in some or all depart- 
ments of work. Comparing the present with two years 
ago, there is great reason fnr thanksgiving and encourage- 
ment for the future." 

Rev. \V. H. Lacy says of the Hing-hwa District : 

'• In some respecis this is a most promising field, and we 
are in hopes that at the coming session of our Conference 
one of our number may be appointed as resident mis- 
sionary, and give his whole time to evangelistic labors 
and careful superintendence. Providence seems to have 
been preparing the way for (he accomplishment of our 
hopes in relation to this work. The English Church 
Missionary Society, which has been occupying this terri- 
tory conjointly with us, has decided to withdraw, tlial it 
may slrengtlien and consolidate its works in other parts 
of the province. They have a small foreign residence 
in the city of Hing-hwa which can be occupied imme. 
dtatcly. Here our missionary can live at least tempo- 
rarily, and while he is carrying on his work can quietly 
lay his plans for such purchases or erection of buildings 
as may be deemed necessary. 

" Under the presiding eldership of Hu Po-mt this district 
is making steady progress. Although this brother has 
lometimes been called the Apostle Paul of the Confer- 
ence, he has no sympathy with the teaching that the 
women should keep silence in the Church, and under his 
leadership ihc Christian women of one circuit have so 
far broken away from all Chinese customs as to maintain 
a service of their own in which God's Word is regularly 
expounded from the sacred desk. 

" I have compared the last report with that of two years 
jigo and find there has been a marked advance along im- 
portant lines. In membership there has been an increase 
tof 15 per cent., in probationers 27 per ceni., in self-sup- 
port izoper cent., and in missionary contributions 165 
per cent. The presiding elder reported over 100 bap- 

tisms during last year. Truly the Lord is blessing this 
work and owning it as His own." 

Mr. Lacy also sends the following from the Ing-chung 
District: « 

" Although there arc but six circuits in this district, it 
is probably the largest in the Conference. 

"The work here is especially difficult, as the country 
is extremely mountainous and the dialect is so different 
from the Koochow as 10 be unintelligible to a native from 
this part of the province. 

" In one village, where there were but ten Christians, 
some thirty or forty of the literati had banded together 
to prevent their having worship. They claimed there 
was a large guild behind them, with a thousand dollars 
available to prosecute and persecute them to death. At 
one time they irterrupied the services, drove the Chris- 
tians out, and heid a feast in the house where the Chris- 
tians worshipped, 

''One of the Christians was so severely beaten about 
the head that the blood flowed from the wounds. When 
spoken to comfortingly about it he replied: * I can easily 
endure this for Christ's sake, as they severely beat my 
Saviour." This little band of Christians, unable longer 
to hold service in their own village, now go regularly on 
every Sabbath to a village nineteen miles distant, and 
there, with a band of devout worshippers, receive God's 
blessing on their faithfulness. This is the material 
which is largely being used to build up the Church of 
Christ in China." 

Rev. J. H. Worlcy says of the Ycng-ping District: 

" This is one of the hardest districts, because it is diffi- 
cult of access, requiring several days to reach the nearest 
point from l-'oochow, and because of the differences df 
languages, there being no less than four distinct dialects, 
and each different from the Foochow dialect. The people 
arc not so much given up to idolatry as they are in 
some other places, but in their insolated mountain homes 
they are deaf to every thing beyond the affairs of every- 
day life. 

"This great field has never had proper foreign super- 
vision, but we are expecting that a missionary will be 
stationed in Ku-cheng. from which centre Yeng-ping will 
be more accessible. This person, relieved from teaching, 
and devoting his whole time to evangelistic labors, will 
be enabled to visit the work several times a year." 

The statistics report 2,297 members, and 1,267 Pro- 
bationers. Total, 3,564. This is an increase over last 
year of 80 members, and 38 probationers; or a total in* 
crease of 1 18. 


Rev. Edward S. Little says of the Church at Kiu- 

" I have been greatly pleased to find an improvement 
in the members' praying; instead of generalisms they 
now pray quickly and to the point. There is never a 
pause between the praying, but they follow on one after 
the other, and it is gratifying to find that they plead 
earnestly with God for specific objects, mentiot^ixL^ 



persons by name, and various special work in which we 
may be engaged. VVe have one and all been praying 
that God would gLve us an increase of fiTty before the 
new year comes, and we are receiving answers, for wc 
have already received twenty, and have several more on 
the 'inquirers' list.' 

"As long as life lasts 1 shal! never forget the glorious 
times we have had together during the past year in the 
evening service. An interest has been awakened in this 
service; people know the hour at which we worship and 
come from their shops or otherwise, enter the chapel, 
and sit down to listen intently, and many have waited 
after the service to have a word with me. 

"All departments of the work have shown an increase. 
There are 9 new members and 8 probationers; tota! net 
Increase, 17. Three have been removed by letter and 
one has died. The attendance at Sabbath worship has 
been splendid, rarely below 100. often considerably over 
300. Two hundred and forty-five dollars have been 
raised for self-support, and about 20,000 books and 
tracts have been sold and distributed." 

Rev. C. P. Kupfer says of the work in Kiukiang city: 

"Although much faithful labor has been done in this 
city during the ])ast twenty years, much hard-earned 
money expended, and many earnest prayers ascended, we 
are not beyond the general preparatory work. There are 
yet hundreds and thousands who know little or nothing 
of the claims of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

"The work of the year has not been characterized by 
many conversicAis.but rather by the edification of believers. 
After the Week of Prayer spontaneous meetings were con- 
tinued all through the winter and even through the hot 
weather to the present time, and the softening influence 
of the Sun of Righteousness has not been without effect 
upon their hearts," 

Of the Hwang Mei Circuit, he says; 

'* On the Hwang Met Circuit the work is of a di^ercnt 
character. It is purely country work. The people are 
poor and simple-minded and live tog^-ther in small hamlets, 
so that an audience of men, women and children is easily 
gathered in any of these places. The work of grace 
among them has been very encouraging this year. The 
statistics show an increase of eighteen members and 
seventy-four probationers. We have just completed a 
beautiful building 24x50, containing a chapel, school- 
room, and two small rooms for the missionary's use. 
The building was erected with funds sent me by some of 
our German Methodist friends," 
Of the Fowler Institute he reports: 
" The spiritual condition of the school is very encourag- 
ing. The great majority of the older students are 
Christians, many of whom we have reason to believe have 
experienced a change of heart. Among themselves they 
have organized a little praying band which meets morn- 
ing and evening in the library fur prayer. These meet- 
ings, at which often thirty to forty are present, are con- 
ducted by one of their own number, and give a religious 
tone to the whole school." 

Rev. J. R. Ilykes says of the Shui-chang Circuit: 

" The year just closed has been a very distressing one 
for the people of this district. Last autumn drought 
killed most of their crops, and many fairly well-to-do 
people were in consequence reduced to beggary. The 
suffering among the poorer class, who at best lead a hand- 
to-nmuth existence, was very great. They subsisted 
largely during the winter on roots and wild nuts, and, as 
may be imagined, the mortality was very great. I saw 
whole mountain-sides which presented the appearance of 
plowed fields, so completely had they been dug over in 
the search for food. At the end of .August, when some 
of the rice had been harvested and the rest was ready for 
the sickle, a cloud-burst inundated the most fertile part 
of the Shui-chang valley to a depth of from eight to 
twelve feet. The garnered ncc was swept away, and be- 
fore the waters subsided what was standing in the fields 
sprouted and was a loss. Whole villages were swept 
away, and it is estimated that at least five hundred lives 
were lost. One of our school-buildings, with its contents, 
was carried aw^y, and, as the flood occurred in the mid- 
dle of the night, the teacher barely escaped with his life. 

" Our work has been visibly affected by these calamities. 
The Chinese regard them as punishments inflicted by 
Heaven, and what more natural than for them to find a 
cause in the erection of Christian chapels and the propa- 
gation of a foreign faith? The work in this district is 
entering a crucial stage, and our members will be tried 
as by fire. Much dross will be burned out, but we be- 
lieve there are some who would not count their lives dei 
if they might finish their course with joy. 

" Every thing considered, we have made satisfactory 
substantial progress. We thank God and take courage. 

" Work has just been opened at the large and important 
market-town of Fan-kin Pu, fourteen miles west from 
Shui-chang, and before the close of the year we expect to 
add another station still farther west to this circuit. Be- 
fore many years we hope to penetrate the very centre of 
the now hostile tea district. When this is accomplished 
there will be no finer circuit in China." 

Miss Franc Wheeler and Miss Gertrude Howe say of 
the Woman's Work at Kiukiang: 

"We have prosecuted our work during the year accord- 
ing to the modest scale we had marked out as the right 
one for us. At times ambition would suggest something 
more than our judgment of right principles would ap- 
prove; but so far we have kept pretty well within the 
scope of these principles. Our school was small, only 
twenty-four having been admitted, and closing with 
twenty-two pupils. Yet we think more good was accom- 
plished wiih the few than might have been the case had 
we received all applicants promiscuously. Our hope is 
to rescue our school Irom the social slums of the Chinese 
city. We take in only such as are connected with pro- 
fessedly Christian families, and require them to be to a 
certain degree self-supporting. We h.ive been encouraged 
with our school-work, having seen marked changes in 
the character of some of our pupils." 

be- ' 



k Rev. John Walley reports for the Wu-hu Circuit: 
B " Wc had the great joy of opening the new chapel on the 
■first of January, in which worship has been conducted un- 
interruptedly ever since, the chapel often being crowded, 
" We have also this year made an attempt to open work 
in the city, and though for several months we were pro- 
hibited, and for a still longer lime were not allowed to 
hold reh'gious service on account of the opposition of the 
■literati, yrt wc eventually succeeding in rentini; a place 
for school-work on condition that there should be no re- 
ligious teaching, and tliat no religious services should be 

■ '' This opposition has no-a- been withdrawn, and we are 
KtkUowed to do pretty much as we please, ihouj^h we have 
Bhought it advisable for the present only to introduce into 
Khe school portions of Scripture and the Catechism." 

P Rev. W. C. Longdcn says in regard to the work at 
Chin-kiang : 

^" Many features of the work give cause for encourage- 
ent. The attendance and the attention at the preach- 
ing services have been all that could he desired ; several 
have expressed themselves as seriously thinking of 
'entering the doctrine ;' some have been deterred by 
finding that there was no pecuniary profit in it, and some 
are still lingering on the outer edge uf the circle unde- 
cided how to act. 

*' Forty-five boys have been under Christian instruc- 
lion in our schools during most of the year, and have 
made good progress in the Scriptures and Catechism." 

tRev. John C. Ferguson, writing also from Chin-kiang, 
"After the Annual Meeting of last year my appoint* 
ent was changed from Nanking to Chin-kiang by Bishop 
Warren. At the end of about three months I took 
charge of a day-school for boys, overseeing the work of 
Ihe native teachers and imparling as much Christian in- 
struction as I was able. In this school the boys study 
their own classics in llie morning and Christian books in 
Ihe afternoon. There ha;, been an average attendance 
of about twenty-four." 

Many a new niissiunary can sympathize with the fol- 
l^kiwing paragraph of Bro. Ferguson's report : 

The first year in the mission field has been to me 
lore than I had expected. 1 have not found it a place 
)f loneliness and sadness, but have often found it a Bethel 
in the midst of the weary waste of heathenism. I cannot 
but think of future years and wonder what joys of service 
they wilt bring lo me ; fur if this year, when my hands 
have been so tied by ignorance of this people's langgage. 
has brought mc delight and profit, what of the years to 
come, when the cord sliall have been snapped asunder? 
■I rejoice in the prospect." 

Miss M. E. Robinson says of ihe Girls' School in Chin- 
kiang : 

■ "The school as a whole may be said to be fairly out of 
^ts primer stage, beginning its present course with Evi- 
dences of Christianity, Political and Physical Geography, 

'ractical Arithmetic, Porter's Physiology, etc. Bible 

study has the largest place, while, as readers, Bunyan's 
Pilgrim's Progress, illustrated leaflets, and other publica- 
tions serve an excellent purpose. 

''There are eight foundlings who for three years have 
been living in the sight and the hum of the school-room. 
They have thus imbibed a familiarity with ideas that 
were once a sore mystery to their older sisters. The 
surprising rapidity with which these little ones have ad- 
vanced during the past year of their first regular work 
strikingly shows what environment does for the human 

" The school is rarely favored with a devoted native 
Christian teacher, herself the result of a girls' boarding* 

" The oldest member of the school married early in 
the year and has since Caught a three-months' day-school. ' 

Rev. James Jackson says of the Memorial Chapel at 
Nanking : 

'_' The work at this chapel has been carried on as last 
year, and not without result. The Sabbath services 
have increased in interest and have been well attended 
throughout the year. The chapel has been well filled on 
most Sundays, and the congregation as orderly and 
attentive as could be desired We have had during the 
year several inquirers and four baptisms." 

Of North Nanking, he says : 

'* \ very well-attended woman's meeting has been 
conducted in the small school-house adjoining our com- 
pound. Our Bible woman, Mrs. Lu, has rendered very 
efficient service in this kind of work, both here and at 
the hospital. The women listen to her with interest and 
attention, and her addresses to them are marked by great 
intelligence, and Scripture knowledge. Would that we 
could multiply the number of such helpers, both male 
and female ! 

" A very interesting event of the year is the opening of 
the work of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society in 
this part of the city. The Ladies' Home has been com- 
pleted and the Girls' Boarding-school opened with a few 
scholars. We trust that the work thus inaugurated will 
be greatly prospered, and that it will prove to be a valuable 
aid to our general work." 

For South Nanking, he reports : 

" The Sin Lang chapel is in a populous locality in the 
south of the city, only a few minutes' walk from the 
South Gate, the most crowded portion of Nanking. 
Regular services have been held here on the Lord's day, 
as well as preaching on other days of the week, and a 
day-school has been established, which, so far as num- 
bers are concerned, has been a success." 

Brother Jackson ably sums up the outlook at Nanking 
in the following paragraph : 

" We feel greatly encouraged by the present outlook 
of our work here. Nanking is indeed a great and a 
wicked city, but we feel that the Lord is working in our 
midst, and when He arises who can hinder ? Satan is 
bestirring himself, it is true. There seems to be areviva 
of Buddhism in the city. New temples are rising on 


every hand. Far more money has been spent during 
the last year in rearing idol temples than has been spent 
on the three missions working here. Yet we are by no 
means discouraged. Greater is He that is for than all 
they who are against us. A spirit of hearing and inquiry 
is manifest among the people, and the knowledge of the 
, Gospel is becoming widely diffused, and, though preju- 
'dice is deeply rooted in this stronghold of officialism and 
conservatism, yet we are making an impression upon the 
public mind, and we look forward with confidence to a 
large ingathering, for we feel assured thai the Lord has 
' much people in this city.* We must enlist all the forces 
that can be brought to bear upon ihis stronghold of the 
enemy ; preaching, hospital, schools, the press, all means 
must be employed ; and, above all, let our people at 
home join iheir supplications with ours that this fortress 
of heathenism may speedily Ijj; captured for the 'Captain 
of our Salvation.' " 

Miss EILi G. Shaw says of ihe Adeline Smith Home 
at Nanking : 

" I roowed into the new Home in April, and six girls 
were brought lo me from the Wuhu School in May. We 
have only received one pupil from Nanking, but are hop- 
ing more will come ere long. 

*' The girls all furnish their own clothing. Two of 
them have bound feet and two of them have taken off 
their bandages since coming here. 

"We have had half-day sessions of school during the 
warm weather, and have paid much attention to the in- 
dustrial department, hoping to train the girls to be a 
help to us when new pupils entered, also for work in 
their own homes. 

"They all seem interested in religion, although none 
of them have publicly confessed Christ." 

Rev. D. J. Nichols also reports from Nanking : 

" Eight months ago we landed at Nanking, where we 
were cordially received. As soon as wc were comfortably 
fixed in our home i began at once the study of the lan- 
guage. By the blessing of God I have been enabled to do a 
little itinerating in (he line of sellingbooks and distribution 
of tracts. 1 have been greatly rejoiced at the willingness 
of the people to buy copies of the Gospels. I also 
Rsvstcd in the distribution of 15,000 copies of the Bible 
and works on the Bible among the scholars that gathered 
here to the great examination." 

The Central China Mission reports for 1888, members 
305; probationers, 304; total, 609 — being an increase of 
43 members and 97 probationers, and a total increase of 
140 over last year. 


Rev. H. H. Lowry, Superintendent, reports as follows: 
"It is with devout thanksgiving that we forward the 
report of the Master's presence and blessing during the 
past year. A little study of the reports and statistical 
table will show that gratifying success haii attended the 
labors of the mission. The increase in members and 
probationers over la^t year is 218, making a total of 
1,02$, or more than double the number reported two 

years ago. Revival services were held during the year at 
several of the principal stations wltli encouraging success. 

" All departments of our work have advanced. During 
the year we have entered new districts, property for 
chapels and residences of native preachers has been 
secured in important and desirable centres, and our out- 
look for the future is full of promise. A new chapel in 
Tientsin has been built, and nearly paid for by local sub* 
scripHons* A new parsonage has been built at Tsun-hut» 

"The missionary collection is $517.15, or over fifty 
cents for each member and probationer. The amount 
collected for self-support, church-building, and other 
purposes is $1,044.41. Other lines of advance, especially 
educational, will appear from an examination of the 
reports from the districts and stations, 

" The presence of Bishop Fowler has been a very great 
blessing to the mission, and his work will tell for good 
through all our future history." 

Rev. L. W. Pilcher, Presiding Elder of the Pekiag 
District, reports; 

"As yet only three Quarterly Conferences exist on the 
district, but three more should be organized imraediatety. 

"On the Han-tsun Circuit there has been a large 
increase of membership .\t Huang- tsun we have 
secured a good foundation in the small but earnest com- 
pany of men and women now composing the little church 
in that town. 

"In the region of Yang-ko-chuang, lying north-east of 
Peking, several families have professed faith in Christ, 
and a work giving much promise has been begun. Rep- 
resentatives of several of these families arc at present in 
Peking, and are ready to testify to the grace of God in 
their hearts. 

"In Peking the churches have more than held their own, 
but growih has not been so rapid as on the other circuits. 
Circumstances have prevented our taking up more work 
in the Southern City at the place known as the Hua-erh- 

" As to the general work, the outlook was never so full 
of promise as now. There are more openings for suc- 
cessful evangelistic labor than at any time in our histor)- 
as a mission." 

Rev. W. T. Hobart, preacher in charge of the Tartar 
City station, says: 

" During the year 16 have been received by letter and 
from probation; additional probationers, 29; removed 
by letter, 9; died, 6; probationers dropped, 6. This 
makes the present number of probationers 50 and raero- 
bers 101. 

" We have had a colporteur at a place thirty miles 
northeast of Peking called Yang-ko-rhuang. He has 
stirred up quite an interest there, and 17 have been 
received on probation. Since Brother Taft returned 
home, I have also had charge of Chang-ping-chou and 
Niu-lan-shan. At the former place there is a small class 
of 7 members and 5 probationers." 

Rev. Frederick Brown reports from the Southern City 


Dcaih has made its mark on our membership, yet we 
K glad to report a slight increase. Our membership is 
5 and 14 on probation. 

"There have been some spiritual triumphs, and we 
ijoice over some added 10 the Church this year. Much 
isdom is needed here. The powers are miKhiy, the 
Rjudices real. \Vc are moving slowly, but surely; it is 
K our privilege to move rapidly in the cities; the pride 
id prejudice seem more deeply rooted than In the coun- 
y, nevertheless 'China moves' toward God, and we 
joice over the deepening and widening of a great 
liritual revolution." 

He also reports for the Han tsun Circuit: 
" We have much pleasure In reporting our second year's 
iH-k on this circuit. Our advance this year has been 
eady, both numerically and spiritually. H'c have had 
I do a little ' pruning,' whii:h has had a consolidating 
pTect on the work. Death has made inroads among our 
^mbershtp and has left its grim shadow on some of our 
'Our membership is ri8 and 71 probationers — a net 
reate of 23 members, 31 probationers — and 12 chil 
pen baptized. 

We thmk we perceive a deepening of spiritual life 
Dong our members; they arc grasping Gospel truths 
ore thoroughly." 

Rev. L. W, Pilcher makes a most excellent report of 
'iley Institute, from which, just now, we can make only 
c following brief extracts: 

'* During the years i887-i!t88 ninety-five students 

ive been under instruction in the inslituie. Of this 

unber three were removed by death. Several raorc at 

examination immediately preceding the summer vaca- 

sn were dismissed because of their inability to keep up 

rith the prescribed course of .study. Kighiy are now in 

tiendance. Twelve of these are in the college proper, 

>ursuing the studies of the freshman and sophomore 

ear. Twenty-nine comprise the preparatory department. 

!Tie balance are in the primar> school. 

"The growth in spiritual Life of many of the pupils is 
he most encouraging result of our work, and one's heart 
Imost thrills with the thought that here are being pre- 
pared the men who shall become the leaders in the 
;!hurch of the future; boys now, but then men, thor- 
lUghly cultivated in mind and heart, firmly grounded in 
he failh. and filled with the Holy Ghost. I think we may 
ruthfuHy say that for satisfactory results in the immediate 
resent as well as in the distant future no work can sur- 
>ass that of Christian education in heathen lands." 

Dr. George B. Crews is doing a grand work in the medi- 
al department, from the report of which we extract the 

'*The number of patient.s treated in the dispensaries 
ras 3,177 last year, while the number treated during the 
resent year was 5,273 — an increase of over 65 per cent, 
"he number of hospital patients last ypar was 28, that of 
lis year 67 — an increase of 140 per cent, 
"Four different pUces for the treatment of the sick have 

been opened daily except Sunday. At each of these 
places a record is kept which shows the name, age, sex, 
occupation, duration of disease, and treatment of every 
patient treated. 

" The attendance at the dispensaries, while less than wc 
should expect, is gradually increasing. An interesting 
and significant fact is that many patients continue their 
attendance until cured. 

"A large majority of our patients belong to the laboring 
class, a considerable number to 'he literary class, and a 
few are mandarins. Women funa about one-fourth the 
entire number of applicants." 

Of the Girl's Boarding-Scbool, and other woman's 
work in Peking, Miss Clara M. Cushman reports: 

"Reaching Peking in August I looked in vain for the 
little old home and the companions of former years, but 
found instead a large commodious home, new workers, 
with school-buildings greatly improved. 

"Miss Ketring reached Peking May 4, and almost from 
the first took the detail work in school and a class of be- 
ginners in English. She now has three English classes. 
1 especially appreciate her kindness and unselfishness in 
taking the books and treasurcrship. 

** Miss Green was appointed last year to the woman's 
work, and she says of it, "The woman's work in Peking 
has been largely house-to-house visiting, teaching the 
women to read and telling of the doctrine. Generally 
wc have been well received. The number of visits made 
is J15. The attendance of the women at service and 
class-meeting has been good. .\ Bible woman was em- 
ployed during the winter months who worked well, and 
through her homes were reached which were closed to 

"School opened the ist of September, and now numbers 
forty-nine, with one more to enter soon. Miss Green 
has three classes in school besides the drawing. We 
have so arranged the classes that one missionary teacher 
may be present in the school-room during the entire ses- 

" The day-school in the Southern City has been re- 
opened with Clara Wang for teacher. 

''Before leaving home, Mrs. Davis, of Boston, placed 
$500 at my disposal to be used as seemed best in the 
work. I have used it toward part payment of a place 
for day-school and woman's work. The whole cost is 
about $1,000. A day-school has now been opened and 
is taught by a former pupil of our boarding-school." 

Rev. G. R. Davis, Presiding Elder of the Tientsin 
District, reports: 

"The work throughout the entire district has without 
serious interruption been carried on after our usual 
methods: preaching to our regular Sabbath congregations 
in organized churches; preaching in street-chapels, at 
markets :md fairs, and in the streets of small towns and 
villages; in the distribution of Christian books and 
tracts, by work in hospital and dispensary, by work 
among women and girls, and in day-schools for boys and 

"Our work in the rity of Tientsin, embracing Wesley 
Chapel, East Gate Street Chapel, and at the dispensary 
in the northwest suburb, in charge of Brother Walker, 
ably assisted by the native elder, Tc Jui, has been pro- 
gressing favorably. Each quarter has shown an increase 
in the raerabership. 

" Dr. Gloss, in charge of the Isabella Fisher Hospiial, 
had her hands more than full of work, and Mrs. Jewell 
has been doing valuable work among the women at 
Wesley Chapel as well as at the north west suburb. 
More room in connection wiih our new East Gate Chapet 
for dispensary work is most desirable, and would greatly 
help in building up a Christian congregation there. Our 
work in Tientsin has never been on so solid a basis, the 
outlook never brighter. 

" In connection with the An-chia-chuang Circuit an 
interesting work has been opened, and a small class of pro- 
bationers formed at a village called Msu-chia-Chuang, 
twj days* journey north of An-chJa. It is in the village 
of the man Hsu, spoken of in Brother Hobart's report of 
last year, .^s yet he is the only baptized member. Ten 
others, members of his lamily and neighbors, have been 
received on probation. The helper has visited the place 
repeatedly. I have been there twice, I think it is the 
nucleus of a little church, and one that will break the 
monotony of the long distance between Nan-kung and 
An-chia-Chuang. Self support has been persistently 
urged upon the minds of the members throughout the 
district At Tientsin the entire salary of the native elder 
has been paid without help from the society; seven-tenths 
of said salary was paid by the native church, the rest by 
the foreigners resident." 

Rev. J. H, I*yke reports for the Tsun-hua District: 

"This district embraces a large territory with a dense 
population. The opportunity for preaching the Gospel 
has been better this year than ever before. One result of 
our residence and work among the people is a perceptible 
giving way of their prejudice against us as foreigners, 
and propagators of strange doctrines. Wherever we 
have gone we have found the common people ready to 
give us a heaiing, and seldom is the Gospel preached in 
the chapels or on the streets but some give assent to its 
truth. During the autumn and winter we travelled quite 
extensively, making one tour as far east as the sea, visit- 
ing several large cities and spending some days at a large 
fair. Several large tovms near Tsun-hua were visited 
frequently by both foreigners and natives. The sick 
were treated, the Gospel preached, and hooks were sold. 
In the meantime the regular work was not neglected. 
The work in the hospital and dispensary, in street-chapel 
and the churches, received a due share of attention All 
the churches had regular Sabbath preaching, and Sunday- 
schools were conducted wherever it was possible. 

" At present there are four Quarterly Conferences in 
the district. The statistical results of the work have not 
been as great as we had hoped. Death, dissension, and 
persecution have been at work. Though we have 
baptized and received forty-eight into Cull membership 

we report only three more members than last year. We 
have, however, a large increase of probationers. 

'' Brother Willits has labored earnestly and persistently. 
He was instant in season and out of season, multiplying 
services and protracted meetings. He has been a faith- 
ful pastor and has not shunned to declare the whole truth. 

" During the spring and summer both Dr. Hopkins and 
myself have been chiefly occupied in building. The 
labor and care have been great, and we are glad the 
work is finished. We can now give our whole time and 
attention to the work of preaching the Gospel and heal- 
ing the sick." 

Many interesting details arc given of the work on vari- 
ous stations and circuits, as the faithful uork of Bro. 
Willits at Tsun-hua city, and of Liu Te-hsin on the Yu* 
ticn Circuit, Dr. N. S. Hopkins has carried on the medi- 
cal work successfully, while Miss E. G. Terry, M.D, 
gives a good account of the beginning of the dispensary 
work of the Woman's Foreign Missionar}' Society, and of 
the treatment of 175 patients. 

The North China Mission reports 655 members and 
373 probationers; an increase of 84 members and 134 
probationers over last year. Total, 1,028 — an increase 
of 218. 


Our work at Chung-king has been reopened, under the 
superintendency of Rev. Spencer Lewis, who reports: 

"After vacation home we returned in January last to 
our work in Chung-king. Brother H. Olin Cady had been 
living here since the previous May and studying the 
language. During the months of January and February 
two preaiching trips were made and a considerable quan- 
tity of gospels and tracts distributed. In the meantime 
chapels had been rented, and early in March Sabbath ser- 
vices and street-preaching were begun and a boys' school 
was opened. Thus we had the joy of preaching the Gos- 
pel again where for twenty months the Word of God had 
been bound. Curiosity drew large congregations in the 
beginning, and we have continued to have a good average 

"At first there was a large attendance of women, but 
their number gradually fell off when they found there 
were no missionary ladies present to receive and talk to 
them. However, a dozen or two have been quite regular 
in attendance. 

" It is greatly to be regretted that the Woman's Board 
should have indefinitely deferred re-entering a field with 
so many promising openings for woman's work. 

*' The street-chapel i? in a new place on a busy street 
and uniformly crowded. For several months we have 
opened it on the Sabbath as well as on week-days, and 
several of the church members have taken turns in speak- 
ing a few minutes each. The effect has been good upon 
themselves and upon others. 

*' The boys' day-school, which is reported as having 
twenty-three pupils, has had a much larger enrolment; 
but, as is common with schools of this character, many 
have dropped out since the beginning of the year. The 



ages of the boys range from seven to fifteen. Several of 
^ the older ones arc former pupils. 

I " The riot has scattered our tnembership somewhat, so 
we do not report as many members as two years ago. 
Then we reported ten rr-.em hers and eleven probationers, 
and now nine members and seven probationers. Three 
former members have backslidden, and their places taken 
by three probationers received as full members. One 
member has been dismissed with letter. Of the eleven 
probationers three have been received in full, two have 
been dismissed with letter, one has become a member in 
another mission, one has died, and the rest have removed 
or backslidden. None have backslidden on acconnt of 
the riot, though many have suffered more or less perse- 
cution. The seven probationers now on the roll have 
all been received since the work was reopened, and 
several others are inquirers, The prayer and cate* 
chetical meetings and the meetings for Bible study and 
daily prayers have had a good^and increasing attend- 

Nine members and seven probationers are enrolled. 

The summary of members and probationers in our China 
Missions for i88S is as follows: 











BtblrBi China, 






North China, 

. , 





West Cbiua. 










The Workers in the Bulgaria Misflion. 


There is apparently great lack of information in regard 
10 our missionary work in Bulgaria. It is really older 
than that of Italy, Denmark, Sweden or Norway. Be- 
cause of the political disturbances in the country the 
mission has been twice broken up. Witlj real Methodist 
grit, grace and faith we have continued to hold nn upon 
this field. There have been many discouragements, but 
there have also been many encouragements. There can 
be no doubt that wc are now upon the eve of a more 
prosperous era. 

There are many omens of good. It is worthy of notice 
thai our force is well organized there and we have evety 
department of mission work well provided for, The 
personnel oi the mission was never stronger, never more 
efficient than at the present time, as the following 
schedule will abundantly prove: 

Missionaries. — Dewitt C. Challis, John S. Ladd, Elford 
F. Lounsbury, T. Constantine. 

Missionaries of the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society. — Miss Linna A. Schenck, Miss Klla K. Fincham. 

Bulgarian preachers. — Stephen Thomoff, J. I. Kcono- 
moff, Gabriel ¥A\tfi, Stephen Getchoff. 

Assistant Missionaries. — Mrs, Irene L. Challis, Mrs. 
Rosa D. Ladd, Mrs. Adclla 5. Lounsbury, Mrs. Theodora 

Probationers in Conference. — Peter Tichcff, Peter 
VasiiofT, Ivan Todoroff, Mindo G. Vulcheff, Bantcho 
Todoroff, Ivan Dimitroff. 

Local preachers acting as supplies. — K. G. Palimidoff, 
Yordaky Tswetkoff. 

Literary and Theological Institute. — Principal. J. S. 
Ladd; teachers, J. I. Economoff, M. G. Vulcheff, G. V. 

Loftcha Girls' High School.— Teachers, Miss Schenck 
and Miss Fincham. 

AssiriUnt teachers. — Miss Dobra Koomanova, Miss 
Anka S«tkova. 

Primary school teachers.— Miss Mary Tcrgieova, Miss 
Nikla Malcheva, Mrs. Vulcana Papagova. 

Bible Women. — Miss Schenck, Mrs. Clara Klaia, Miss 
Todora Todorova, Miss Sicca Dimitrova. 

Colporteurs. — Petka I. Stoicheff, Todor A, Nicoloff^ 
Spas Dimitroff. 

Any one can see at a glance at this list n( names that 
there is at present a good force in the field and that it is 
well arranged and distributed. Bro. Challis, who has 
been acting for sometime as the superintendent and has 
done much excellent service.wishes to be relieved of the du- 
ties of the position and assigned to regular mission work. 

Hence the present imperative need of the missions is 
a thuioughly qualified superintendent. So soon as hfr 
can be found he will be sent out, and we may then 
expect to see the most cheering results. Let the Church 
bear on its heart and remember in its prayers this 
distant field, and with God's blessing it will not be long 
before the desert places of Bulgaria shall blossom and 
rejoice with abundant fruitage. 

The Bnlgaria HIshIod. 


By the action of the Episcopal Board, at its recent 
session in New York, I was put in charge of the Bulgaria 

I desire to secure immediately a superintendent for 
our work in that country. I wish a graduate of a 
Methodist college and a Methodist theological school. 
He must not be more than thirty-five years old. 

He ought TO be able to speak German or French, or 
both, and have a natural aptitude to acquire languages. 
He must be healthy and strong in mind and body. He 
must be a man fertile in resources, with tact and business 

He must be a good preacher, with a gift for winning 
souls to Christ. He must have a clear, definite and 
pronounced experience of personal salvation. 

If married, I desire that the wife should be like him, 
in gifts and graces, and in perfect health. 

Somewhere in the Church there must be the man who 
can go to Bulgaria, and, in the office of siiperintendent, 
lead on our toilers in thatfield toaglorious ingathering of 
precious souls. The fields there are white lo the harvest. 

Write me at 1428 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, La. 

A Natire ProteHtant Worker in Bulgaria. 


I send you the following account of an encounter one 
of our workers. Uantcho Todoroff, rerently had with the 
enemies of the Gospel in this countrj' — the priests. I 
translate as literally as is consistent with clearness. 

"November 22, I left my home — Orchania — to travel 
•over my circuit with books and Scriptures. In four days 
I visited thirteen villages. The last day, as I entered a 
certain village, I met tlie schoul-teacher and after much 
persuasion succeeded in selling him a book. 

"According to my usual custom I also called on the 
village priest, who received me with great apparent 
■cordiality. As I entered his house I found three other 
priests and two monks — among whom was the Protosingel 
<Vice-Bishop) of Loftcha. 

" I at once engaged them in a conversation on the Bible. 
They questioned me regarding prayer and intercession of 
the saints, the deification of the Virgin theory, auricular 
confession, etc. They maintained that the Bishop is the 
vicegerent of Christ on earth and the priests are his 
messengers or apostles. 

"I invited the priest in whose house wc were to buy 
books, but he declined saying that the Prot0ii»gel\\zA 
burned those he had already bought. As I answered 
their questions, showing them how far they were or 
were not in agreement with the Bible, their counte- 
nances changed and they began at once plotting to have 
me beaten, but did not succeed this time. 

"Toward evening, as I was passing through another 
village, I fell in with the same priests and wc passed out 
of the village together. About fifteen minutes beyond 
the village, as we were passing through a lonely valley, 
they reined up their horses so as to stop my progress, 
and the Protasingel %3\^ to me: 'Your work is against 
me and therefore \ am opposed to you; 1 will not permit 
you to travel with me, for your presence compromises 
my dignity. You must take another road.' 

*'As soon as I turned into another path, a man came up 
vith a club in his hand and passing in front of me began 
to beat me. My horse jerked away from me and dis- 
appeared. The man continued beating roe till I had 
received* nearly a dozen heavy blows. While this was 
going on the priests looked on at a distance of about two 
minutes. I escaped with the loss of my kaipak (cop) 
and mshl&ek (capote), running two or three miles across 
the plowed fields. 

"Just before reaching the next village I found ray horse, 
to my great joy. The stirrups had been taken off the 
saddle. The priests stopped for the night in another 
village near by. It can be readily understood who was 
the chief offender in this atrocity. 

'■ During these four days I had visited thirteen villages 
and hamlets with 30 to 200 houses each, among the 
forests along llie northern slopes of the Balkans. .Mthough 
most of the people are illiterate, I still succeeded in sell- 
ing 32 levs' (about $6) worth of books and Scriptures. 

*' This success in scattering the Word — not to mention 

the religious conversations I had^shows clearly that 
there are everywhere people hungering for the Word 
But their so-called spiritual pastors neither carry to theto 
the spiritual food they need nor will they leave us free 
to do so. . . . But shall the workers be discoanged 
by such attacks? O, not at alll Although Jesus said to 
His disciples, ' Behold I send you forth as lambs among 
wolves,' He said in a another place, ' Be of good 
courage! I have overcome the world.' " 

December 28. A letter just received from Brother 
Todoroff contains encouraging news, "I have been well 
received everywhere, and have sold books in every 
village. Some teachers bought Bibles and allowed their 
pupils to buy books. Priests thanked me for bringing 
the Scriptures to them so cheaply. The school inspector 
in the city of Vratza said: ' Instead of opposing your 
visitation of the villages, I am thankful to have you doit, 
for I know that your object is to enlighten the villagen 
by furnishing them with good books' " 

Giving for Hisslons 


*' It woh't do, Cynthia," said Mr. Amos Parker to his 
wife, as they reached home afier attending the regular 
Sabbath morning service. Regular service, we said, yet 
something out of the usual order had happened to dis- 
turb him. 

" What won't do, Amos .' " 

"This everlasting cry of, Give, give. A man no more 
than shuts his purse before he must open it again. There 
is something to give to all the time — if it isn't one thing, 
it is another ; and just so long as a man will stand this 
sort of thing, just so long he may. Just now it happens 
to be missionary money that is wanted ; next Sunday it 
will be something else." 

" Why, you have not gi/en anything to the mission cause 
this year. Of course you meant to give something?" 

" Well, 1 gave pretty liberally last year, and I thought 
I would skip over this time. I'd like to know how a nun 
is to lay up money for his old age if he can't keep a dollar 
by him." 

" Now, Amos I " said Mrs. Parker, reproachfully. 

" Now, Amos, what ? " 

"Just this : be a little more consistent when you speak; 
you gave only two dollars for missions last year, and you 
laid up a thousand." 

"Well, if I manage to save something, that's ray own 
bus.iness. If I am more saving than other folks, who but 
myself should be the gainer ? " 

" Say, rather, that if God has blessed you with more 
means than others you are under greater obligations to 
Him than others are." 

" You always go against me, Cynthia. Suppose I gave 
all that you and the parson think I ought to give, who 
knows if the money sent to the mission cause ever 
reaches its destination ? " 

" Amos Parker ! are you not ashamed of yourself .' I 




never thought that I would hear you bring forward such 

Pan excuse." 
I " Why nol ? Money has been kepi back, and once in 
a while we hear of it Who can tell how often it hap- 
pens when we don't hear of it? " 

■ ** Wilt you please tell me of any investment that is per> 
fectly secure against loss ? Yet you do not lock up your 
money for fear of losing it, Now 1 calculate that if a 
man wants to invest his money where it will bring him a 
large interest he will do well to lay it out in the cause of 
Christ. 'There is that scattereth, yet increaselh ; and 
there is that withholdeih more than is meet, but it tend- 
cth to poverty.' Poverty in this life is bad enough, and 
while [ would pray to be delivered from it, I would pray 
much mote earnestly to be delivered from poverty in the 
life to come. You spoke about laying iipmoney for your 
old age. You may not live to be old, and then you will 
not need it ; but if you lay up your treasures in heaven 

rou will surety need ihem sooner or later." 
" I'll warrant that I give more for missions than Deacon 
White does, and he is a richer man than I am." 

"That does not prove that you have done your whole 
duty. I suppose a man might get along without paying 
anything if he were mean enough. Indeed, I have heard 
of a man who was recommending religion in a meeting, 
and he said by way of argument, ' Religion is a good 
thing, and ii does not cost anything. Here I have been 
A. member of the Church for ten years, and it has not cost 

rie one cent' The minister followed this speech with the 
pproprrate remark, 'God bless your stingy soul ! ' 
"But, Amos, I was not speaking about giving to our 
own Church, though yon give less than you should. You 
ought to do more for the support of missionary work. 
We don't realize the privations and needs of our own 
home missionaries. Even if we give to the best of our 

» ability, we do little in comparison with those who leave 
tkome and friends and brave hardships and dangers to 
proclaim the Gospel of Christ." 

Mrs. Parker spoke very earnestly, and her husband's 
manner softened as he replied, — 

»" Well, well, Cynthia, if you feel so badly I suppose 
you must have two dollars to give :o the mission cause 
this year." 

His wife brightened a little, then said, "Look here, 

tAraos. I want you to multiply that two by five." 
Amos Parker shook his head, saying, ** No, no, Cynthia; 
now you are going beyond all bounds." 

"All bounds of what, Amos ? Not the bounds of your 
ability, not the bounds of Christian love, not the bounds 
of the Church's need, and certainly not beyond the 
bounds of the command, ' tio ye into all the world and 
preach the Gospel to every creature.' " 

" Since you quote that text, Cynthia, I must say that I 
think the support of foreign missionary work more bind- 
ing than the support of home missions." 
L " Well, give to both. We are able. Let us not de- 
Bceive ourselves by proposing to substitute one duty for 
another, and then, perhaps, neglect both. Give me ten 

dollars for home missions, and then give to foreign mis- 
sions just as much as your heart prompts you." 

"No, Cynthia ; you ask too much. Why are you so 
unusually anxious to give this year ? I can't understand 

" I will tell you why. I have had my eyes opened. The 
day before mother died we talked of the duty uf giving. 
'Cynthia,' she said, 'do you remember how you used to 
griidge your pennies to the missionary box ? * I smiled ; 
and she went on. ' How is it now, that you can give dol- 
lars instead of pennies ? ' I wim ed a little, for I had paid 
almost no attention to your contributions. She saw my 
embarrassment, and she said. ' I fear you have forgotten 
what I tried to leach you. I am sorry that my words 
did not make a more lasting impression. I gave the 
little 1 had, and gave it cheerfully ; but, my child, as I 
lie here 1 feel both sorrow and shame because I did not 
do more for the cause of Christ. Yes, I might have 
done more ; I see it now. How often I think of that 

*' I gave My life for thee: 
What ha«t thou given for Me \ " 

That is the question, Cynthia : What have I brought to 
Him, what have I given to Him ?' 

''She was very sad, and 1 wanted to comfort her, so I 
said, ' Perhaps eternity wilt show that you have brought 
more one soul to Him ; and you have given Him 
your own heart. Surely He will not despise that gift. 
The Lord knows that you had no opportunity to give 
liberally. He knows that you have borne privation with- 
out murmuring, and tried hard to do right. He will not 
withhold from you the praise He bestowed on another, 
" She hath done what she could." ' 

"'Perhaps He will accept my poor endeavors. I 
hope so, I hope so. But, Cynthia, this view of the case 
will not answer for you. You have means, and you can 
do much more than I have done.' 

" I did not reply, for I was thinking of you. Mother 
read my thoughts, and she said, ' Amos wilt not hinder 
your giving it if he knows that your heart is set upon it. 
Besides, he needs only to be convinced of his duty, and 
he will do it. Promise me that you will give to the 
spread of the Gospel as the Lord gives you strength and 

" It was a good deal to promise, and I hesitated a 
moment. Great tears stood in her dim, faded eyes, and 
1 answered, ' I wilE, mother, I will.' 

" ' God bless you, Cynthia, for I know if you give me 
yuur promise you will fulfil it,' said mother, and she 
looked so satisfied that I repeated the promise in my 

" You may easily imagine how her words came back 
to me the following day as I stood beside her helpless 
form. ' How could she have done more ? ' I said aloud. 
I remembered all her little sacrifices, and I thought if 
she had reason to reproach herself because she had not 
done more for the spread of the Gospel there was no ex- 
cuse for me. I made a solemn vow that from that day I 


would do more for the Master, that I would not be like 
those of whom He spoke when He said, ' I know thy 
works, that thou hast a name, that thou livest, and art 
dead.' I thought of all our means, that we have not 
■even the excuse of laying up wealth for our children." 

Here Mrs. Parker stopped suddenly and wiped her 
eyes, and Mr. Parker's head bent low, for both were 
thinking of the bright little son who had onre been their 

A moment later Mrs. Parker roniinued : " Since 
mother's death I have saved as much as possible of the 
niuney you have given me. I shall give it to the mission 
fund, lo>;elber with the sum you give me now ; and 
please, Amos, let it be no less than I asked for." 

Amos Parker cleared bis throat to take away its huski- 
ness, then asked, " How much have you saved ? " 

Very slowly came the words, " Fifty dollars." 

"Then I will not be outdone by yon, Cynthia ; I will 
odd fifty dollars more." 

In her joy and surprise Cynthia Parker put her arms 
around her husband's neck and gave him a hearty kiss. 
He was not a little touched by such an expression of her 
gratitude, but wishing to appear unmoved, he said, 
"There, there, Cynthia, that will do. Ain't we going to 
have any dinner to-day ?" 

Giving to the Home and Foreign Work. 


In the popular mind there is, and always will be, a 
clear distinction drawn between the home and foreign 
work. The two essentially differ, and will differ to the 
end. The only safe, righteous, and permanent adjust- 
ment of the (|uestion that can be made ts to create two 
missionary organizations — one home, and the other 
foreign. A great stride was made in the direction of 
such a division at the recent meeting of the General 
Committee, although not many perceived it, and every 
year will bring it nearer, and make it more inevitable. 

Our people have a right to give their money according 
to their individual convictions. Many of ihem are be- 
ginning to demand a more liberal provision for home 
evangelization, and they will press their demand till they 
get a hearing. No six-penny appropriaiion will meet 
iheir wishes, and no raid upon the revenue of our foreign 
work will ever yield enough to carry on the gigantic 
enterprise which God is setting before the Church. Those 
who begin to insist on a reduction abroad for the sake of 
meeting such a crisis as this at home, manifestly do not 
comprehend the crisis, and do not perceive what they 
are doing. A man can not give vigor to his left hand by 
crippling his right. 

A powerful Home Missionary Society is the demand of 
the hour. It would be immensely popular, and would hold 
its own against all the men from abroad who could be 
imported. It is very probable that, for a few years at 
least, the foreign work would suffer by the change; but 
the loss would be but temporary, and with a sound basis 

on which to build, the Missionary Society of our Chuti h 
would speedily advance to the leading position of all the 
great missionary societies of the age. May God speed 
the day when this change of policy shall be effected! 
Let men, and vested interests of all kinds, count for 
nothing while the broad question is under review, and 
very soon a general conviction will be reached that the 
money given by our people must be distributed accord- 
ing to the convictions of the givers, and that the immense 
and rapidly expanding work at home shall receive the 
representation before the people which it so richly 

The Programme for a Missionary Concert. 


There should always be a well prepared programme. 
As a rule, a meeting uf this kind, left to the iospiration 
of the moment, grows dull and heavy, and ceases to 
attract and interest people. I have no pet theory about 
conducting these monthly concerts, and what I shall uy 
is the fruit of experience in the churches where I have 
labored, two on this side and two on the other side of 
the globe. Perhaps my brethren may be able to get a 
little help from these brief hints, and I shall be happy to 
answer questions anyone may wish to ask. 

1. This is a meeting for prayer. The full naine by 
which it is known is this: The Monthly Concert of 
Prayer for Missions. There should be much camesi 
prayer during the hour allotted to the service. At 
Midn.-iporc and Bhimpore, our dear boys and girls, the 
children of the Church, used to join in prayer with their 
elders: a long prayer to begin with and the benediction 
at the end are not enough. Much belter, several short 
prayers at the beginning and mure or the same sort 
further on, after tht: news comes in from the different 
fields. The Bible verse to keep in mind here is Matt. 

ix., 38. 

2. This is a meeting for communicating mtssionaty 
intelligence. It will help men pray to have the facts 
before them. The special news from some foreign field 
has been known tc stir up a church to earnest and im- 
portunate prayer in its behalf, and great blessing has 
come down upon that field, and upon those who prayed 
for it, too. Now. there is a right way and a wrong way 
of bringing facts before people. I had seen the working 
of both ways, before undertaking to conduct the monthly 
concert myself. 

Reading page after page from missionary magazines 
may bring out a load of fiicts, but they fail of interesting 
the congregation. The monthly concert of a New Eng- 
land church I frequently attended, was dreaded by not 
a few of the members, because the able and eloquent 
minister invariably adopted this course. Observation 
and experience have taught me several things about this 
missionary service, and I will cite some of them now. 

(i) The programme should be changed every month. 
Not only the topic, but the way of bringing out the 
topic, should, if possible, be different from that of the 




last meeting. It works well to announce the topic one 
month ahead, so that all may know what lo expect, and 
some may volunteer to brinfj In items of infonnation. 

^(2! It is well to appoint two or three or four persons 
A month in advance to look up information on the sub- 
ject announced. The pastor should assist them in 
selecting what is appropriate and instructive from books 
on current missionary literature. It is ea$y in these days 
to findn host of attractive fact'* bearing upon the Rreal 
fields occupied by the Church; e. g., Africa, Burma, 
Xhina, India, Japan, etc. 

■ (3) The more congregational we make this meeting 
the better. Let ihe Lord's Prayer (and what a mission- 
ary prayer it is!) be r<rpeaied by the whole congregation 
at the beginning. Let the singing be such that all the 
people can join in it. not forgetting the children; for 
jhls missionary concert should always come at an hour 
rhen the children can conveniently attend. 
(4) And the children of the rhurch should be encour- 
jed to lake a pare in this service. At Auburn, our boys 
id girls have done admirably by reading brief extracts 
luslrative of life and work in pagan lands. This 
feature of the service always attracts parents and friends, 
and the missionary concert has steadily grown in attend- 
ance and interest. And, while others are pleased and 
profited, the children themselves are deriving great good 

rrom this service. 
3. The monthly concert is alsi a meeting for bring- 
ig in our offerings for carrying forward Christ's work. 
The collection at the close was a marked feature of this 
acting in New York years ago. What a good lime and 
•place for bringing in the weekly offerings! Like that 
Roman Christian of Caisarca, our alms and prayers 
should go up together. And the more we think and 
learn and pray on this great theme, the more shall we 
Drish to give and do for the coming of the kingdom. 

^^^ Good News from South Aiiiertca. 


W The annual report of Or, Drrcs, Supt. of the South 
■Imerican Mission, is recctved, and is full of information 
|ftnd incidents of thrilling interest. The nations of that 
country are in a formative period and are susceptible of 
nng molded by Protestant Christianity. There is an 
sence of the violent fanaticism that is so often found 
Roman Catholic countries, which shows that the 
rtesthood of that apostate Church does not exercise un- 
imited authority over the masses, and that they are 
within comparatively easy reach of evangelical Chris- 

A review of the work of the year exhibits encouraging 

igress in eveiy part of the territory now occupied. 

lere have been 176 clear conversions and a general 

eepening of experience in the hearts of believers. 

lany of the workers have received special baptisms of 

Holy Ghost, and an enduement of priwer never be- 

rc realized. Several pastoral charges are now self- 

supporting, .^nd others will soon reach that point, while 
many are contributing to the pastoral support, and all 
with a good degree of liberality to the current expenses. 

The schools have afl'oided an income of $5,250 and 
several liberal donations of money and lands have been 
made by residents of the country for .school purposes. 
The aggregate sum collected in the field for all pur- 
poses is $26,000 gold. 

In the older portions of the work a vigorous, aggress- 
ive church life is manifest. Week-day and Sunday- 
schools are founded and maintained without financial 
aid from abroad, and even in some instances in the 
absence of pastoral supervision. In carrying forward 
the work, the Spanish, Portugese, Knglish. German, 
Ftench, and Italian languages are employed. 

The moiher church of the Mission in Buenos Ayres 
enters upon the second half of her first century under 
the most favorable auspices ; additions to the member- 
ship occur frequently; the fmances are sustained on a 
generous scale, and all the benevolent causes of the 
church receive generous contributions. A Young Men's 
Association connected with this church is vigorously sus- 
tained, from which .several young men full of conse- 
crated zeal, go into the .Sundayschool and other depart- 
ments of church work, where they render effective 
service for the Master. 

The increase of English-speaking people in suburban 
graces gives rise lo a demand for the establishment of 
preaching services, a demand that is being met as widely 
as resources will justify. 

Buenos .\yrcs Circuit has had a year of signal pros- 
perity; the conversion of souls has been made the 
standard of success. To this end the preachers have 
consecrated themselves unieservedly, and a blessed 
harvest has been gathered. The year was opened with 
two weeks of prayer with services at 7 a.m. and 8 p.m. 
each day. In the month of August another series of 
meetings was held, continuing for three weeks. The 
result of these special efforts was an increase of 70 in 
the membership of the church, and a general revival of 
the spiritual life in the entire membership. Persons of 
ail ages were reached; one patriarch of 100 years of age 
and another of 70 were genuinely converted. One 
small chapel has been erected in the southern pari of 
the city of Buenos Ayres, and an eligible site for another 
has been secured. 

In Mercedes a new church has been erected, and is 
probably dedicated by this time. In Rosario a faithful 
band of Christians, led by a devoted pastor, have had 
encouraging success. Attendance uixm public preaching 
is large, the Sunday-school is prosperous, and the testi- 
mony of new converts is frequently heard. At Car- 
carana a pledge has been given to build a church at a 
cost of $10,000, which will doubtless be fulfilled. Cen- 
tral Santa Fe Circuit is in the midst of a German popula- 
tion, is entirely self-supporting, and is enjoying a good 
degree of prosperity. San Carlos Circuit also has a self- 
supporting work; has had a year of trial, but there has 






been steady improvement, and 
success of the work are assured. 

In the beautiful city of Parana, the house in which 
services were held is too small to accommodate the 
people who desire to hear the Word of life, and an 
American gentleman has given a property worih $4,000, 
which is likely to yield sufficient revenue to ertcl a 
comfortable church edifice. 

At Mendoza, an important city, a large hall erected 
for the Italian Mutual Aid Society has been secured, 
reconstructed, and is nearly ready for dedication. From 
Mendoza as a centre, San Juan northward and San Luis 
eastward, both principal capitals, are easily reached. 

At Montevideo, the year has been marked by a notable 
revival of interest and activity on the part of the Church. 
As a result, a number of clear conversions have been 
witnessed. The schools at this point, fourteen in 
number, with an enrolment of about 800 pupils, have 
;ittracted the attention of many persons not otherwise 
drawn to our Church, This is seen in the generous 
donation made by Senor Pedro P. Diaz of a lot in the 
new portion of the city as a site for a school and chapel. 

On the Central Uruguay Circuit the work is progress- 
ing encouragingly. The ease with which a respectful 
hearing can be secured, the absence of fanatical intoler- 
ance, and the spirit of inquiry that obtains, constitute an 
open door for the Gospel. 

In Paraguay, there have been encouraging results at 
some points; attendance upon the preaching of the Word 
has increased and a general spiritual interest has been 
awakened. The work among the German colonists has 
been specially interesting, some of whom go long dis- 
tances to hear the Gospel. Paraguay is evidently waking 
to a new life in material matters, but the moral and 
spiritual condition of the masses is deplorable. Igno- 
rance of (he simplest truths of religion, degrading super- 
stitions, blind subjection to an arrogant and corrupt 
priesthood, disregard of the claims of truth and virtue, 
are characteristic of the people. Here our mission 
greatly needs reinforcement; the opportunity is great, 
the initial battle has been fought, and a conquest should 
speedily follow. 

In Southern Brazil, an interesting work has been 
opened. Here the freedmen claim our sympathy and 
earnest effort. To meet the emergency, a special dona- 
tion has been made by the widow of the late venerable 
Dr. Aaron Wood, of Indiana, mother of ex-Superintend- 
ent Wood, of the South American Mission, for the inau- 
guration of work among these degraded people. Who 
will add to this fund a sum sufficient to carry the work 
forward successfully? 

The West coast is an inviting field, but, alas, our means 
will not allow us to occupy it. 

The Theological School has made some progress, but 
has been hindered by embarrassing surroundings, which 
it is hoped may be overcome at an early day. A crying 
need of the mission is a school in which to train a native 

The mission press has sent forth 850,000 pages of 
religious literature, including The Standard (El Es- 
tandarte), a weekly paper of eight pages, an edition of 
the Spanish Hymnal in use in the mission, and 35,000 
copies of tracts. 

This is but an imperfect outline of our work in South 
America, but is sufficient to give to the reader some 
idea of its magnitude and importance. 

The annual report of Dr. Drees, of which this article 
is a summary, should be read by every Methodist, and 
particularly by all our pastors. It will be found in full 
in the Annual Report of the Missionary Society for 1888. 
That great country is ready for our evangelizing agencies, 
and we ought to take it speedily for our King. 

The Work in Norway. 


It would perhaps be of interest to you to hear some- 
thing about our work here in the ''Land of the Midnight 
Sun." As you know, it is about thirty-four years since 
the first Methodist minister was sent to Norway from 
America — our dear and venerable brother. Rev. O. 
P. Petersen. He had a hard work to commence here in 
his old fatherland against oppositions of every kind, but 
the work he began prospers to this very day. Glory to 
God ! 

The fruit of Methodism is not to be seen only in the 
handful of native Methodist preachers or in the mem- 
bership, but we must be acquainted with the religious 
and moral condition of our country before the Method- 
ist mission was opened here, to be able to see something 
of what Methodism has done. Our doctrines of the* 
witness of the Spirit and of Christian perfection met 
with very much opposition from ministers, teachers and 
people of the Lutheran State Church, but now the same 
doctrines are preached, believed and experienced by all 
religious people in our country. They have Sunday- 
schools, prayer-meetings, open-air meetings and all 
things like the Methodists. 

As to our present condition, it may be said, that our 
societies are in good condition. We have large congre- 
gations and our pastors work with zeal and success. 
Souls have been saved in my district everywhere. 

One of our difficulties is to get the converted to unite 
with our churches. Our country is visited by preachers 
who teach that all Church relations and organizations 
are to be abolished. They call themselves "free Chris- 
tians." And so have we here also the Salvation Army. 
All these tend to draw the converted off from the 
churches. Thus you will see that the least of the fruits 
of our labor comes in as increase to our Church mem- 
bership. Add to this, our people are poor and the debts 
on our Church property are heavy, and you will under- 
stand that we have much that hinders us in our work. 

Last conference year we collected in this country 
90,293 crowns, which amounts to 24 crowns from each 
member. Thus you see that we, poor as we are, do 
something to promote the good cause. 



TheJChinesft New Tear may ocrnr as 
early an the SOih of January, or a» law as 
the l3th i}( February. lostead of liaving 
All inlercaliiry (1ii>- odcu in four voars tijs 
w« do, th*y Kave an intpri'nlnry montli 
ixiiisionally : and «lu-n thm (Kirunt. the 
Xew Yt'Br day cuinei* correspondingly 
lit** till* next year. This year, il. fell nn 
the 30th of January : and onr Chinene 
friendii celebrated it nitb fsrvni enlhtmi- 
jisin. Feasiing sod hre-cnckerswcri* the 
order of the day aud night. Om' cotn- 
ui**ndah]e hnhit of the ChinoM is (o pay 
np all dfhlx at the dtwe of the y«nr. 


Boy* and filrli* In Cblna. 

>V MRV. d CUCSBTHX, ICdASfl, l.-Bllt*. 

Ther« i» not much lu nay alxmt the 
girln, for they are never wnt. to whoal. 
and are all ohut up in their honspfi when 
they are eijclu or tfu years old. Siatera 
ore not much tliuti^lit of. mid I HUppriw 
the tintt thing tlioy can ri-mi^nilx-r it huv. 
infc their ft^t liound. In xome partes of 
China only ladies havu aruall fei^t. ai* a 
sign uf gvntility: but at Ichang. no wo- 
man has hors of ihe nattiral size. If she 
had, she nroiild be lanj^hed nt and not 
considered ronpectable. They mmmence 
by binding the soiall toes under the xole 
of tbe fnot, and then put on the bandages 
in another way to make tl shorter. Tbe 
foot i» broken at the innt^^p, and the point 
•tF th« i^al toe brought nearly to tho heel. 
It takcy year> to Hniiih tbe proceat. which 
makett the girl a cripple for life, with feel 
only thre« inchett lonj;. If yon have ever 
had small boots you may imagine how 
painful the proccas is. The CbineNe con- 
-nder small feet great marks of lieauty, 
and call them "golden lilieA." 

It tvill l>e a grand day when they wi>ih 
to have their girla taught to read and 
write and look upon Hniall feet a» a 
<Tuel deformity: Init if you afik a heathen 
Chinaman whnt he thinks about it, he 
will tell yuu he is afraid if u-oiuen i-ouid 
r««d that they would sjteud all their liiue 
oTer norelB, and if tliey cnuld wjJk 
properly that they wnulil never ^tay at 

When boys fall aick there are two very 
c-orioiu cuBtoms. SometimfMi tlip little 
f«Uow ii made a prieet and dresfted in 
prieat's clothes. H)» pureatii think tbe 
godi nrill not make him die when he is 
dedicated to their service. But they may 
oot want him to b« a priest as he would 
bare Ut chuuge liia name and leav^ his 
fuuily. After a time they tuke him to u 
lenple and get the priest m liurn in<«ntie 
tl) the idvts and chant prayeni. When he 
hu finished he take^ a Itesoru and chaMiii 
the boy out of the temple, who c^omes 
bome and puts on ordinary clothes. 

Others try to cheat the gods. They 
pal a silver wiro round tlie boy's neck 
■and leave off mentioning his name, call- 

ing him a pig or dog. They imagine tbe 
god, who la looking for a Imy, will not 
search their house for one when he bean 
them speaking <ml)r to a dog. All the 
children liavo old coins and channa tied 
to their clothes to keep off the evil eye 
and drive away wiekt-il spirila. 

Perlmpti ynii think tbe (.'hin'fse a stupid 
people to believe in uucb things, hut tli^y 
ha%-f lit-en taught no htMler. They are 
just as clever as we arc.and.wbat is more, 
they all try t<i give their hoyti a good 
education. Learning im held in great 
esteem, for tbe magiatrates are cbiisen 
from among their famous ccbolnrs. They 
hive B story about a poor hoy who becaiDO 
a very great man. Yet he had no time 
to etudy hut at uight. and could not af- 
ford a lifthl. Sill lie bttred u linte in the 
mnd wall of his house, and was able to 
read by the light Ihat came in from his 
neighbour's lamp. Another one caught 
fire-flies, and ptired over his iKKiks by the 
light which the*e creatures «end forth. 

" If you do not learn when you are 
young." tbe Cbinese ray, " what will you 
do when you are old T' But tlK*ir lessono 
are very different from yours. Thero is 
no alphabet and no spRlltng. I^ach word 
ia a Sf-parate character: wj a boy never 
gets done with the letters. There are no 
less than 40,000 of Ibt-m in the Iiuperiiil 
dictionary. They nitver learn geography 
becuui>« they think all people but them- 
selves barhartans— not worth knowing 
Quylbing about. All they study 19 the 
history of Ohira and the writings of their 
own wise men, which they commit to 


fliury nr ■ nilue«ft 4ilrl. 


Bkfokk me lien a paper covered with 
Btraugo Chinese characiert, the translation 
of Driuch would read something like 

" A contract made at salo of a daughter. 

"A man, AK-Chong by name, and Wvt 
wife, Stiiff»i, living in the village of Knntj- 
tha\t, because of poverty nnd debt, con- 
sulted together, and decided to sell their 
third daughter for thirty dollars. The 
daughter, up to this time called Ah-I{te^) 
is eight years old, and not ;et betrothed. 
The relatives and neighbors not objecting, 
they engaged a ^go-bctweon' to Qnd a 
family wishing to buy n female slave, and 
willing to pay the eum attked. Such a 
family was found, and on the day named 
in this contract, the money wiu paid over, 
and tbe little girl given to her owners. 
According to the custom in such casca^ 
her name was changed, and the purchase 
woa completed. Tbe parents proiniau not 
to entice her away, and if she runs away, 
they will be held responsible, and muse 
And and restore her to her owners. Thif 
isabindingagrecmcat, from which neither 
party can draw bock. 

"Lest there be no endenca of the 
agreement which the mouth haft uttered, 
this paper ha*9 I>een drawn up a.i evi- 

Then follow the nacneaof the contract- 
ing parties, with their thumb marks, 
made by dipping the end of the thumb 
into ink and pressing it upon tbe paper. 
— a sort of a stamp which the Chineie 
say can never be counterfeited, as no two 
thumbs will leave the same impress. 

Ah-I was afterwards redeemed, and the 
paper given up. Ucncc, we find that the 
thumb mark* of those who brought her, 
and that of tbe go-between, have been torn 
out, just ai in civtlixed lands, when a note 
is paid, the name of the one who gave the 
note is sometimes torn off, so that it can- 
not be tiroiight as evidence ngatnst him. 

Ilut how TAme Ah-t to be redeemed, 
and bow came this "contract " into my 
bands } It soon became known that little 
Ah 1 was very unhappy. She was half- 
starved and had to search the filthy gut- 
ters for her food. Ona of the cruel 
puQishments which her mii>tress inflicted 
on her, was to heat a pair of pincers red- 
hot, and pinch the poor child's flesh un- 
der her jacket. 

In the meantime her parents liod be- 
come ChriKliaiis. When they heard of 
her condition they were sorely grieved, 
and the mother having llrat got a Uttle 
money from her two married daughters, 
laid tbe case before the Baptist mission- 
lu-'tes, who made up the sum required to 
redeem her child. As they gave the most 
of the money they asked to have the con- 
tract giren to them. Some years after. 
one III them came across it among his 
papers, and gave It to me as a curiosity. 

As aooQ as Ah-I was redeemed she was 
brought by her mother to the mission 
ecliool, where she won the love of her 
teachers and school-fellows. For a year 
or two she assisted in the teaching. At 
eighteen she was married into a Christian 
family, where she has a kind mother-in- 
law and a good husband. Thus, hor life, 
which at the beginning promised to be so 
sad, is now one of the happiest in China. 
The name by which she has been known 
since she entered the mission school Is 
"Light Follower," and to the Ught of the 
Qospel she owes all the brightneai that 
ho) come into her life. 

Do We Oivi> Anrtblnxlo mastonaf 


lUnole Hed, Cbariei, Qkotipb. "ittLvrj.) 
Ukclb Nbd (enters). — "I missed you 
at the Uissionary Society, boyB^ and am 
told that neither tif you intend to join; if 
that is so I am sorry. I thought I would 
nm in and hear all about It Charles, 
what is tbe matter 1 " 

Ch&klks. — "Of course, Uncle, when 
Vm a man I expect to give yearly to the 
cause as all who are interested in religion 

ought, but jou we I intend to be a 
merchant bo there ii really do need for 
me to studj missions, for they haw nu 
cooDectioD with busiiiCM life, you know. " 
Ukclk Ned.—" I am not so sure about 
that, Dcpbcw: on the cootrary I (hink 
that you as a busiocM man will owe niucb 
to mission work." 
CUAHLKB. — " I don't see why." 
Uhclk Nku. — '"One rcftjwn is that it 
has opened many foreign ports, msking 
it possible for our merchants to carry on 
buaineev with neighbors over the sea. A 
&tames« king said that his country had 
been opened up by ProtestaDt mission- 
aries. Again, for iJI the money wc spend 
(or foreign missions we receive an equivH- 
leot and often mon. As the hi-athen 
are converted and forsake Mirage customs 
tbey clothe theroaelves, thus mtikitig a 
dewaod for fabricfl for garments; tbey 
learn what home is and how to tnaku it 
comfortable; then comes the demand for 
furniture, and do you know that some of 
this furniture is made here in the United 
States and sent ovtr >he seat They are 
taught to work and there is a demand for 
implements, and it is a fact that every 
year Zulu pays the city of Boston more 
for plows than our country sfKinds for 
missions. Is not that an advantago tu 
business life and brought about by the 
efforts of miasionancs? From the Saud- 
wich Islands, since missioonries have 
entered Ihcre, we receive yearly in trade 
three limeA the amount of money !>|ifut 
for raissions in the world; is not that a 
[good return I The trade between New 
England and Britiab Africa i» consider- i 
able and due to miasiun labor. C'ln you 
then say that missions do not help com- 
mercial life f Do you not see that Itoside 
the opening of portti fur trade, as people 
are Christianizetltheirdemnnd fornrtirles 
of iodnstry ts inr.n>ased and manufacture 
receives ma impetus ? As a business man 
you will owe much to the humble, self- 
■aoriflcing men and women who are dc- 
Toting their lives to the Gospel work in 
far-off lands." 

CnAai.Ba. — " I am wrong, Uncle, and 
you 10*6 right, as usual. Tou give me a 
new phase of ihe question unthought of 

Umclb Nsd. — " And have you a reawm 
too, George t " 

OvoROE. — " I am not opposed to mis- 
■ions, and, like brother Charles, I intend 
to contribute largely when I grow up, 
but I have decided to make literature my 
profession and cannot see where I shall 
gain by giving much time to the subject.'' 

Umcle Nbd. — "Tou will have to be 
set right, too. Do you think literature 
owes nothing to Cliristlao missions f *' 

Gkobob. — "I never knew that it did, 

Umn^ Ned.—" Let us see about that. 
There's geography; years ago the mis- 

lionariea gave ub our best map of (Jhins, 
and Kilter, the great geographer said he 
could never have dune his work without 
the aid of materials gathered by mission- 
aries. A prominent magazine recently 
said, * Our missionaries have rendered 
more real service to geogrnphy than all 
the geographical societies in the world.' 
Our knowledge of Greenland, Africa, 
Australia, Iceland, New Zealand and 
several other countries lias bi-en givtrn to 
u^ by missionariefl." 

Okorob.— "That is very true, of course. 
Uncle, but geography is not to be my life 
work. I shall spend my dnys learniug 
and leaching the languages." 

Ukcle Ned. — ''Then your interest 
should be even greater. The missionary 
goe« to a foreign Inud, bis (iTnl task is the 
study of language; he puts it in writing, 
tniniilateR their legends into our tongue 
and our books into theirs. Language is 
tL% much a minsionary science as geography. 
The Bible has been tran^tlated tnio many 
different tongues; the literature of other 
nations bas yielded her wealth of story to 
us. One of our recently popular Ameri- 
can novelists tA telling uo in Kiigtisli some 
of the legends of South Afrirji. I wonder 
how many who enjoy his stories ever 
think that Afiica was brought nearby the 
Gospel. In other itiDd» our missinnuries 
are establishing schools and colleger, 
giving education a grander test and 
broader field. Botany, geology and 
astronomy owe more to missiona than I 
can tell you. Do you think, George. 
that, as a literary man, you can put this 
great topic aside, saying ' you are of no 
use to me i ' " 

Groror. — " No, sir, I cannot, after 
knowing these facts. I never looked at 
it in this light before. Uncle." 

Unci.8 Nbo. — "Certainly not, and now 
Harry, let me know your objection, per- 
haps I can help you." 

Harrt.— "I cannot say that I really 
object, Uncle, but I have not been en- 
thusiastic, for ray ambition is to be a 
statesman, therefore the affairs of our 
country aecmcd lu me the mr>st important. 
but I HUpj)ii»e you will prove me to be iu 
the wrong by allowing me a wonderful 
connection botween the two. 

Unclb Ned.— "Veu, Harry, tliat can 
be done. United States owes Oregon to 
a missionary. In 1832 the Hudson Bay 
Company had broken up our trading 
posts in that section of the country and 
Cfltablifllied British colonies; they were 
fast gaining control; four years later Dr. 
Whitman and his co-workers established 
two miHsiuu stations there; one day the 
griod doctor hp-ard aome British oSicera 
boasting of their entrauce and posoc-snion, 
saying ' the Americans may whisile, for 
soon their country will be ours,' He 
croased the country to Washington, en- 
during all the severity of the oold irinter; 

he gained President Tyler's attention, 
sent circnlarn over the land, and after a 
time started westward with one Ihouaand 
colonists, and Oregon waa saved to the 
United Stales. Ought not a statesman 
to thank the missionary enlerprise for 
so much at least f You muat also re- 
meml>cr that thi^ work luis made friendly 
relations between govcrnmcnta; that i» of 
great moment to a statesman^ surely." 

IIarrt.—" Uncle Ned has ahown as 
our errors su plainly that we stand con- 
victed, and should let this new light 
guide us into werulneas." 

Qkorge. — " Yes. Uncle, count ua ma 
every time," 

Cbarlkb.— " And on me too." 

Unclu Ned. — "That's right, l>oya; we 
need your energy and life. Timothy was 
young, bnt the Lord used him as He will 
use you if you ' study to shew yourselves 
approved unto God, workmen that need 
not to be ashamed.'" 

ThrCbln4>a«< Brllef In the S|»lrll 

A rnifwionar.v of the C'liinn Inland MiA- 
sion writes: "Tht> ('hirH-«ie think that 1 lie 
spirit world is nn fxact counterpart of 
thii, and that what a man hafi doii« bere 
he will do there. At thedentb of a per- 
son, b<>»utifully made papir thin^a tn 
burnt, from the f«up)K><tUi(>u that in hein^ 
eoiiPiiiiM'tl tlifv will t>fH.-onie realities mai 
uiiuiMU-r tu Ihf tiecvtftititw nnd the pleaii- 
ure of the departed spirits. All imn^to* 
abli^ thingx, in |Uip(*r — Iiouik-h, gardeof. 
muleH, chairs, money, etc. — are burnt 
ac'contioK to what a man's trade or pro- 
fosftion lia» been~e.ff., for a tailor, gar- 
menttt, srb«tioi8, etc. Some of tl»em can- 
didly say tbey do not really bellevi* in all 
this, but -Our itoce^tuni did it. and why 
should not we?' 

" One of tln*ir mmt extrnorrtinary ide«6 
about KpiritH is tthown by the mnrriagf- 14 
two corpoeii. That actually hap()oned 
lately at Ningbai, a place near herv 
where Mr. ('. U. Judd ii working, and 
efen horrilied wjme of the [leople. TI>e 
first death wsit thatuf a young woman of 
twenty, wim for ncnw rcawiu bad never 
been bptroibwl. A nmn who bad nol 
l>een married died about the samo Ijnie, 
and his frieuds tbought. ' What would 
this (HHtr lonely spirit do in the olber 
worhl, with no one to wash his clothe* or 
cook his food ? * ,So they brooght the 
dead bi>dio8. laid tbeiu side by side, aiHl 
went tbroitgli the performancve, feast, 
etc., in the morning;, and in the evfuiog 
bad funeral rite!<. Then tlio spirflA were 
supiHMed to be uuitod for evt-r '. " 


The millions of tlw various races of 
east and Miutb ^V^ia who are unable to 
write, attest written dooutnentA with 
synilKjIu of llieir trades, etc. Many of 
the uiilitary ni*.-o«) make the mark of a 
dagger, mercantile races, a.faaluDce. 



Missionary Cfsson (^xfifisfs 

'or Cbtldraa'a Baodi, Sunday School ClaaiM 

mnd Fatntllca, 



TnK WoKU*. 




Max ICO. 




















Rr«ponNlv« Bible Kraillnic. 

The carnal mind in enmity against Out). 

Vvr it u not mihjeel to the laic of Ood, 
»WM*r, intltvil. ran lie. 

Why do the heflthen ra^e. and the peo- 
f)It' imagine- a vain thin>t? 

AaK- of Iff, and I nhall give ihee the 
Jteathen for ihinv inheritance. 

This Goftpel of Ihe Kingdom shBll be 
preochetl in all the world. 

for « tcitiKss unto alt nationtt. 

For (loH Mj loved the world, that Ho 
jare Ilia only begotten Son, 

That wtioaoever beliewtfi in Him »hould 
Mot perish :bttt have ftxrf ant ititj Hfe. 

Go yp then-fore and teach all iialinns. 

Baptizing the7n m the name «/ the 
Fattier, and of the Son. aii>l of ttic JJoiu 

FIlMKOnilhr Baniivr. 

Fling out tho tanner ! let it rtoat 
Skyward and ^award, high and wide: 

Th* Bnn ehat li^jhtH itf« shining; foldH, 
The cToeA on which the Saviour died. 

ning out the bannvr ! heathen landx 
Shall SM from far (Jk* glorious sight; 

And nttlii>n», crowding to be l(Orn, 
Baptize their spirits in lt» light. 




Calrrblani on rhitta. 

QnealiOD. Where is China : 

Answer. In Asiu. 

Q. ITow large i.i it ? 

A. It occupies one-third of Afia. 

Q. What is about one-half of 
Chinese Empire ealted? 

A. China Proper. 

Q. What was built north oF China 

A. A great wall. 

Q. When was it built? 

A. More than two thousand years ago. 

Q. Bow high 18 it? 

A. From Qfieen to thirty feet. 

Q. How wide iit it? 

A. Wide enough for six horsemen to 
ride side by aide on the top. 

Q. Why was it built? 

A. To protect the Chinese from their 

(J. How many (teople live in China? 

A. AUnit four huitdrcd million. 

Q. What is tlieir ap[»earBn'.'e? 

A. They have yellow ek in, black hair, 
oblique eye«. 

Q. What is the principal article of 

A. Rice. 

Q. What kind of feet do many of 
women have? 

A. Very small feet. 

Q. Whnl m8kt^?) Ihem so ^n in 11? 

A. Binding the feet when they 

Q. Dx% nat this hurt them 7 

A. It does, very much. 

Q. How do the men wear their hair? 

A. They ttbave the head, except the 
crown, and what i^ left u braided and 
forme what bs sometiiiiee calk-d a ''pig- 
tail " 

Q. Whatifl thpir emblem of monrning? 

A. White. 

Q. How do children treat their par- 

A. With great rprerence. 

Q. How do parents feel when a boy ia 
bom ? 

A. Very joyful. 

Q. How are girUi considered ? 

A. As a trouble and expen&e. 

Q. What do the Chinese worship? 

A. IdolP. 

Q. What great temple is at Canton f 

A. The Temple of Five Hundred Of>d(i. 

Q. What grvat temple is at Peking? 

A. A temple where they offer sHicriftcee 
to the memory of their dead emperors, 

Q. How many relij^iuiw have the 
Chinese ? 

A. The chief religions are Buddhifim, 
Taoii>m and Confucianism. 

Q. What retigion do the rhioeve need ? 

A. The Chrit«tinn religiou. 

Q. Who was Ihe flrst Protestant mis- 
sionary in China? 

A. RolM-rt Morrison, who was sent out 
by the London Missionary Soeiety in 1907. 

<l. What great work did he do? 

A. He liaDKlat^-d the Bible into the 
Cbineae language. 

Q. ITow many Protestant foreign rais- 
Hionariefl were in China the first of 1888? 

A. There were l.fl40. Of these. 48& 
were men, 820 were wiveB of mis^iona- 
rles, and 231 were single women. 

Q. How many cQaimunicantH ? 

A. 32,260. 

Q. When did the Methodist Kpiscopal 
Church commence its China Mi<'ttion? 

A. In 1H47. 

Q. How many ii>is»ionarie» and mem- 
bers has the Methudiat Epiflcopal Church 
in China ? 

A. The tJrstof 1888 it had in iU four 
China Missions, 30 male niisaiouuries, S7 
wives of misftidnaries, and 14 single 
female misiiionariet), a,IMO tnembera, and 
1,086 probatiouera. 

BIblr nrapoii««a lo Clno*tlona. 

What do the heathen worchip ? 

"All the gods of the naliooB are idols." 

What does Owl say about such wor- 

•'Thou siialt have no other gods before 

What is the command about worship- 
ping God? 

"Thou Shalt worship the Lord thy God, 
and Him only shalt thou serve." 

Throngh wbom can the heathen be 

"By Ihe name of Jesus Christ, for Ibere 
is none other n.irae under heaven given 
among men, whereby we must be saved." 

What are tlrnw commanded, who bare 
heard of and received Jesus? 

"Go ye Into all the world and preach 
the Uoapel to every creaturv." 


V««r or Jnblltts, 

JeouR, our great High Priest. 

Haa full aiotietiteut made: 
Ye weary spirits, resl; 

Yc mournful i<ou]s. be glad: 
The year of jubilee is come I 

Return, ye rHnsomed sinners, home. 

Extol the Lamb of Ood. 

The all-atoning Lamb; 
Ilcd4>u)pl ion in Hik blixtd 

Tbrtmghout Ihe w<irld prir^claiin: 
The year of jubilee is come I 

Return, ye ransomeii sinners, home. 

Bua-TOYS. — " The children in China 
are having great fun, iti these days, with 
hvg-ton» Nearly every child in the street 
has one ; and one can luirdly walk very 
far in this city without mwliug some 
gray-headed old man, with two boxes 
full of these funuy tblugs for sale. Tliey 
are very cheap, too ; just a little bit of 
money, less than Ave cents, would buy 
your arms full of them. 

Just think of buying a curious Chioese 
cart, llie earl-body (ask mother what 
that is) made of jiaper colored lo repre- 
sent the blue cloth which they use here 
to eover carts, the wiieela and the thills 
(ask mother, Ujo, wlmt tboi^ are) made 
of very tiny liitH of woods, or of the 
tough outside of cornstalks, and har- 
nessed in between the thillij. a big, black. 
lite btttU-hvy. 

" Take my life and let it be 

Consecrated, Lord, to thee." 
" Take my luve. my Lord. I (lOUr 
At they feet its treasure store." 
" Take myself and I will be. 
Ever, only, all for thee." 

:o:— — — 

When converts were first baptijicd in 
our Foochow Mission, it waa a q\ii»tiou 
whether Ihe woiuea shoidd have names. 
Mrs. Ru, the mother of three of our 
preachers, eettled it by sayiag: " Woman 
baa E name in the Christiao Church, if 
she hasn't aoywheie else!" 


A fltorr oniie Law >Bd the Soaprl In 

" Well. Paochitu, "said old Dim Manual 
to bu little ^randtlniiKhleT, "what did you 
learn at the Frote^iani Suuday-scboul to- 

" Ah, papacito, sec mv cateeUmo tbut 
the i«nora gave me ! 1 nhall get a lemon 
in it every Sonday. Then she will Rive 
me a prettjr canl for a premium. Go 
witl) me next Stind»y. dear grandpa. I 
want you to hearthe prettr non^, and" — 

"We are CatholicB. Pancliita. and the 
pric8t lellH mi- that these Frul4-staiit4 are 
heretics; that they will leach you wrong 
thtngti. I mn«t take yoii to mafn next 

* ' No, no. grandpa I I think it cannot 
be wrong." 

" Well, child, mo and play whilel look 
at your book.** 

Hebeganut "Who made you 1*' JJolh- 
ing to criticize up to the Ten Conimanil- 
mentfl. Thefte. however, were very dif- 
ferent. " Tbou Khntt not make unto t]iee 
any graven image. Thou shall not bow 
down thjn-lf to them, nnr serve them." 
He had never heard this before. Hu read 
over the ten ae he found them in Pait- 
obita'B book, then quietly repeated to him- 
self the ten as he had learned them when 
a boy. TIiUb: — 

I. Thou ffhalt love God above all thin(!7«. 

II. Tbou &halt not take His Holy name 
in vain. 

ni. Remember the Xeaut dayt>. to keep 
them holy. 

IV. Honour thy father and thy mother. 

V. Tbou Shalt not kill. 

YI. Thou shall not commit adultery 
VII. Thou sbaJt not steal. 
VIU. Tbou sbalt not bear false witnevs 
againat tby neighbour. 

IX. Tbou tihalt not covet tby neigh- 
bour's wife. 

X. Tbou ^halt not covet thy neigh- 
bcur'H goodn. 

"Can that second commandment, as 
given by the Protestant*, lie in La JSanIa 
Biblia ?' be eaid to himself. Don Manuel 
bad a great reverence for the Bible, 
though he bud never read it for himself, 
and had only l>een taught mutilated por- 
tiont>. Ui6 thougbtd were busy with 
"Tbou ehalt not make unto thee any 
graven Image. Thou shalt not how 
down to them," etc. At last he decided 
he would find out for himself. "For." 
said he. " if Ood'n Word docs teach that, 
then tee are wroug." 

Sundny dawned bright and clear. Pan- 
cbita didD*t go to mutM, an her grandpa 
bad threatened. In most Mexican fami- 
lies Die children's wishes and wills carry 
the day. Partly no it was in this case. 
Anyway. Pancbita'a wishing his coni|iany 
to the PrcteHtant6' Church, gave him an 
excuse lor showing himself Uiere. 

An earnest young Mexican preacher 
wa» helping in the servic*^, bidding wel- 
come to newcomers, and te/iching the 
RJble-leMon. Don Manuel #al with the 
learnenr. He also slated hid desire to 
know how liod'it Luw was written in the 
Bible, telling his surprise to we the 
second commandment as it waa in " the 
child's book." 

" That sweeps all I know about religion 
away,'* he said, after seeing it complet« 
in a Catholic Bible. 

The little girl led him to church every 
Sabbath. Ue found to his joy that not 
only was the law difTerent, hut «ii was 
the goBpel. For did not the Good Book 
tench him to go directly to Christ in con- 
fession ? "There iit one mediator be- 
tween God and man — Christ Jewus. " So 
bis old coure»tion to the priest was given 
tip. It hod been thus :— 

"I, a sinner, confess to Almighty Cod 
and to the Blestied Virgin; to 8aint 
Michael, oruhaDgel: to Saint .Tobn the 
Baptist: to Saint Joseph; to .Saint Peier 
and Saint Paul; to all the saints in heaven; 
and to thee, spiritual father (the priest), 
that I have grievously sinned in thought, 
word, and work. Therefore I l*j*eerh all 
the aliove-nauied HainlH to intercede for 
me with Cod our Saviour." 

The old man grew in knowledge and 
in grat'c. He (xintinue^l in the joy of 
Cod's salvation. After a lew years of 
8«n-i(.« in the little congregation of 

Protostauta in the city of M , Cod 

called him home to heaven. The little 
child had led him. — WriUjirinff. 


BT IDA aurron coue. 

(1iMiulr«r sod rppKwrnutlvn ot CoofucUnlmi, 
BoddbtOD, ZoroaaDiADlBiD, Qrafamaotna. ibe 
drpdui. OraeUo, and CbriaUan reHxtoos. If 
drsMed In cxxtDinw ot th« oouatir iIhv rspre- 
•«nt U>B •ffect will b« prslir kD<l Invtructivo.i 

Lnijuikkk. — My Boul cries out for some. 
Uiing luftier than ituelf, Mjmething purer, 
witter; a guide nho cuu ttiich me what 
life is. where deintb tends, and how to rid 
me of these doubts and feara which till 
my days wilh unrest. Somewhere there 
must be peace of mind, rcet of h>uI, and 
one for whom humanity is nlretehing 
forth its hands in earnest entreaty. 

CuiMCsB (enters). — 1 come from a people 
who knew much of iu%-enCiun and art 
before the modem nations were foniidett; 
printing, gunpowder, and the compdu^s 
of the mariner were first Iieanl of in my 
country. A people exi»erit.'uced in these 
things can point yim to tbe teacher who 
willdoall yoii dusise: niir grcntConfueiu!*, 
the Holy Master Kung, beloved by all the 
loyal of my race, our leader, guide; his 
intluciice was great and to him we uwe 
mm-h which suntains our inirtiiulioriH and 
our government*. A man who can mould 
tbe minds of milbons and shape their 

lives is great. He undenitood oor needs 
and told us all that man should know— 
our duty to our parenta and our children, 
how to !t*>lect our bouies and conip«nioi». 
whom to marry, how to bury and niuBm 
for our dead, how to give and receive 
pre««ent)t. nhen to take office, nod all 
things relating to cuuK and aorlal eti- 
quette. Is not Ibis enough? I>* you 
wonder thai we revere him and in hi« 
mem<)ry build our coeUy temple?, ami 
twice a year still keep his sarrvd fi«t)val«. 
Here arelour^Sacrefl number Ave; 
take them. I beseech you, and thereiu find 
the tnith you Keek. (Offerv books). 

Lnqviker.— Ah, no, good friend, Con- 
fucius 1 i-aunot follow. When aAed 
" What is^deeihr " Know you doI." he 
replied, ■ ' When I know not the nalunf of 
life, how ehail I inform you wliat death 
ist" Xu, no; life is strange and death 
e'en more mysterious; tltese are tbe nues- 
tions I would solve and your great teaclier 
cannot aid. 

BCDDnit*T lenteni).— lam told that hew 
I shall find one seeking the truth. I 
bring thee tidings glad and tell thee ul 
Lord Buddha, who will guide thee into 
blest Nirvana. "mouUuss, sinlesa re^t." 
or high estate and royal family, yet be 
became |Ktor for our sake and wandered 
far and wide relieving human woe; to 
him we pray and offer praise. Here ar« 
our Kuored Iiuoks, the precepts of Lord 
Buddha, take them and learn how to live 
that you may attain Nirvana. (Offen 

bKji-iBKa.— Nirvana I State'of bliss and 
peace ' Hy soul knows neither, fain it 
would know both. Ue lella me how to 
live, but life is not all, what sa>-b lhi« 
prophet then of death V 

B.^TIirough countlesH ages we live on 
in tnuiKmig rat ions, in man, beast, bird or 

In. — And after these where shall tbe 
soul go tlien ? 

B.— Alas, I cannot tell, but is not sweet 
Nirvana enough to know? 

In. — Your Buddha will not do. he can- 
not L-arry me lieyond myeelf nor tell nie 
how to rid myself of this great burden of 
my sin. Here is anotlier. Good friend, 
whence couivst lliou? 

pEHsiAK (enters).— From Persia, a fol- 
lower of Zoroaster, wltose magic, the great 
Platosaid. "comprehended all the wisdom 
of lliugods." Toearth. moon. sun, Breand 
water we sacrifice. Two gods are there, 
the good and Iwid, follow the fintt, ap- 
]>ea^e the lost. The great Zoroaster taught 
justice, holiness, tlie right and wrong; be 
found all life a liattlu 'twist the good and 
bad, and urged his followers to fighl for 
thegfKxl. Itead the words of wisdom from 
our Zend-Avesta and learn the way. 
(OHers hook.) 

In. — Zon)iister had a hope of auother 
and a greatt-r prophet. 1 would find 



faop9 fultflled and kiuiw the kin^ him- 

BRAinilN(ent^nt). - [ ivprewiil D<i phBiw 
of one Disn's thuuj^htA grown to a creeH, 
hut lln' great syiiU'fn of the Brahminn: 
from th« Burred GongeH, the land of tlw 
rice fields, pnlms, of the Juggernaut and 
etepbant, I vaaw. to tell th«« of our faith. 
The pardon of our s\d% we enrn by merit; 
I have seen my ciniutrymeu pierce tlie 
flmh with kniveo and forks and bruiM* the 
txNJy, enduring all the pain mtist willingly. 
Are they not hrave who aulfer thus that 
tbey may (wy. '■ I am Brahm, I am life, 
I am ererlaiiting, pcrfwt. srlf t-xiftent, 
undivided, joyful"? The Veda teaches 
us tlie way, take, leirn and live. (Offers 

Is. — Ah, m>; how vague if< your eternity, 
your idea of tho Spirit: th(M« thti^s 1 
must know, and I have heard that some* 
where there is One who pnrdon»sin. Him 
I fM>ek. 

EovrriAM (enters).— From the far off 
bome of science and religion I c-otne. 
Art, inediclDe, muflio, chemistry, agricul- 
ture and archileclnre were known hi us; 
Ef^pt, the home of ancient culture and 
witidom. There Pythagoras. Herodotus, 
Plato, and Mohus learned the law. Surely 
we can tell you of the gorin, for did not 
wise Herodotus aay of us, "Tbuy are of 
all men llie must excveaively attentive t<i 
the wonthip of thi? godn," and "aro be- 
jDnd mcaiiuri.^ scrupulous in mntt^rtt of 
religion." Tlien hear me pray. Tite soul 
Ib immortal; when the body decays the 
«ouI iH-gtim ita transniigrattonii, fur Ihnw 
tbciuoaud yean it lives in animals, insects. 
birdH, and then r<>-fiiters niun. Three 
'Orders of gods ore there.eightof the tlrst. 
twelve of the second, and Ht^ven of Die 

In. — Hold, good friend: you wmh nie 
well no doubt. Imt your religion L-uniiot 
satisfy my weary snid liinging for nsi. 
There Is, I Ivave bo^-n told, a cDinmand. 
Thou sbalt hare no other gods before 
Mf," and this great God I would ttnd. 
XOieek enters.) 

Qbbbx. — From Greece came knowledge 
ynt w«; knew not this uue God. Three 
gpneraltons of godH have we. Our poet* 
aing of them in fjiutouM verse, in rt(>ul|Hure 
unsurjNused our aurli-itn show them to the 
World, and of their origin our grcul philu«o> 
phem di(MH>ur»e. Ai'cept this vohmiF! of 
wisdom and team for thyself. (OtTers 


K Tk. — It win not dt>; all your gods are 
"human. Your philosophy is rich'tistrue, 
but nowhere does it tetl me how |o tind 
peace or rid luyself of this grt.*at weight 
of »in. (Christian enttrti liearing llible.) 
Hetv is yet anotlier; friend, your face has 
aotnething of a peaceful light as if you do 
fDdeed bring tidings of sweet peace. 
Chubtux (tings).— 

" Would you lose your load of Bin. 

Fix your eye* upua Jmus; 
Would you know Ood's peac* witbio. 

Fix yaur«ye« upim JtMu«. 
J«fltta, who (iti Utti erom dUl dl*. 
JrflUK, wbo iivMi And fbIkim ou blfth, 
He alons qsd JuKlfj, 

Fix your eym upon Jomm." 

In. — And who i» this Jesus? Is Bethe 
King I BeekV 

CH. — The voice from heaven said of 
Him. "This is My beloved ^n iu whom 
I am welt pleased." 

In. — And will he give rest to one weary 
of wantiering? 

Cll.— Tliw is Hia promise: "Come unto 
Me, till ye that IntHir and ore heavy ladeu, 
and I will t^ive you reot." 

In. — That IB sweet indeed. My mind 
U vexed iind loaded with tumultDous 
IbuuichtM. will He still them? 

Ch.— Linlen lu His voice. '* Peace I 
leave with you, My peace I give unto you ; 
not as the world givelh, give I unto you. 
Let nut your heart be troubled, neither 
let it t>e afraid." 

In.— Ifl this Jeeus tlie Father whom I 
bear is over all ? 

Cu.—" Jesus saith unto Him, I am the 
way. the truth and the life: no man cora- 
eth unto the Father, but by me." 

In. — What does He tell me of my soul, 
Is there a life beyond and how can I de- 
serve it ? 

Ch.— "Ood Ko loved thi- world thai He 
ga^-e His only-begotten Son, that whoso- 
ever believeth in Him nhould not perish, 
but have everlasting life." 

Ik. — I would go to Uitn, I would be- 
lieve in Uim, but will He take me with 
my sin ? 

Ch. — He answers, ■■Whosoever believ- 
etb in Ilim nhall receive remission of 
sins." for " the blood uf Jesus Cluist Hia 
Son cleanseth us from all sin," 

In.— Perhaps lie will niit aotfpt me. 

Ch. — He will, for lie has told us " him 
that couieili to me I will m no wise cast 

In. — Wonderful wnrils! Give me thy 
book. (Take« the Bible. ) Let me leam 
more of myself and my duty to Uicu, 
more of Hioi and His great love for me. 
(Turning to others.) (*<iod friends, you 
meant to do me good, but you have not 
the truth- See you not the Way has come 
Bt loHt, the Light has dawned upum the 
wtirld? I pray >ou live no longer in the 
twilight of old ifU)ierstltion9, but come 
with me Into the sunlight of God's tier- 

(All bow beads reverently and sing) — 

" Juki »s I un. witbout one pl'e*. 
Bui thM Tbr blood wu Bbed for me. 
And [hat Tbou bldda^t aw coins tc Tliee 
O Lsmb of Ood, I comsl I comsl " 

In Cliina the undertaker's shops have a 
very bright appearance and tbe coffins 
are usually {minted red or some equally 
bright color; sonu; are decorated pro- 
fusely with gilding. 

A Cblnese Fravl. 


Having tieen invited to a Chinese feast. 

J attcudc<l and will give uu account of 

I what I saw and did. Having taken tbe 

ttent aoaigned me, I looked to s^e what 

was on tlie table. An American would 

have been litruck as much by what was 

not there as by what was. 

I Tltere WHS no table-cloth. The only 

I table linen used by the Chinese is a dtrty 

napkin, which i» dipped in but water and 

wrung nearly dry. and then H used by 

one or more of the xuef<t->t to wipe their 

faces and hands. This article is first in* 

trcluced wlieii the feast is about a liiird 


There were neither knives, forks nor 
plates. In front of each guest there were 
placed a pair of chop-sticks, a small 
cfaiuu cup. holding half ii gill or theiv- 
about. and a cbini Indie, holding about a 
tahles|>oonfuF. The cup was for wine, 
which was served hut. The spoon was 
for the bnnh and the chop-sticks for the 
Kolids, which e<im|>osed the various 
dishes. I was favored with a teacup and 
tea. Tlte cup had no saucer, but did 
have a cover to confine tlie aroma of tlie 
lea. which is a very sensible idea. 

There were on the table a number of 
small dishes containing the following 
relishes (which were to be eaten lietween 
i^rouises) viz, ; wntermelOTi seeds, sugared 
peanuts, water cbestiuits, san tso jHly 
(theeantfloisasort of crab-apple), orsnges 
in sections, sugar cane cut into small 
pie«.'et>, beboes, pickled plums, dried flsh, 
ham. chicken, liver and gi7,zards, vinegar 
and ginger and oil. Tlie jelly was in 
small diamond-sha|>ed blocks. The tish, 
ham and chicken were cut into small 

Rach course was brought on in a howl 
and set In the middle of the table. We 
helped ourselvi.« from this with chop- 
sticks tind ladles. It is cotiniilered polity 
to bflp ynm- neighbors with your own 
chop-sticks. The dishes are all c<K)ked 
pretty much alike, and were iK-lwecn a 
stew and a boiletl dish. Fncb iliRb had a 
rich broth which was usually good. 

BamlK)o was found in nearly every 
dish. Tbe edible bamboo consists of 
young 8prout<4, and I have found out that 
it it much l»'tter eating than I supposed 
it would he. 

Tlte following is the bill of fnre in the 
order of the courses, with my cfimmente 
thereon: Shrimtw (goo«l), chickeii (good), 
mushrooms (passable), sea-^lufts [I do not 
think much of thi^ di»h, which the 
Chine&e esteem a delicacyf, liani and 
chestnuts in syrup fpassably good), lish 
(good), san tso and chestnut Kauce (rair). 
This was au experimental dish, uping 
foreign cookery. San (»e Cvery good). 
This dish consists of ham, chicken, and 
bamboo cut into small strips. Duck 




(good). Thou came the dessert, whipli 
coneielod of ment and sugar dtimplmgfl. 
Ham (1 do not Ukp (.'hinenp hsni very 
much), satnli. a tiah reHcmblint; wJiite 
fifth, which was guwl: leg «.>r purk. which 
I did not like, and chicken, which I did. 
The whole conoluiltvl with a bowl or rire. 

flonii< InvpKtniPiilB. 

In ThA ChurrK at Ilmm arid Abrvad we 
idftpleuing illtiatratioD ot systematic 
beoevoleDce. The mother proposed in a 
familj council tlist L-nch one should invcHt 
a quarMr of a dolliir for the L()rd. 

" Capital I " was the fatbefn roRpotuie. 
"Qloriousl" shouted Fred. 
"Goody, goody 1" exclaimed Jennie. 
'• I want quarter, too," said litllo Grace, 
only six ycara old. 

Ralph, eight years old. also joined the 
company; so Ihcy started with a dollar 
andahair. Thefallier, licingabuukseller, I 
invented his quarter in that busincM; the 
raotlier bought ten centa' worth of paper, 
and wrote a story; ahe invested the other ■ 
fifteen cents in hop yea-jt to sell to her 
frienda. j 

Fred went into partaer^faip with a kind 
old gentleman who mnde blueing. One 
day he broke a bottle of it and ruined lii* 
■uter'a dress. Fred wjm ton honorable to 
do any leas tbao Vmy a new dreaa. This 
coat wilhin three cents uf three dollars and 
thirteen cents, to which the blueing buKi- 
De»s bud increased his quarter. But be 
fti'ld the remaining bottles, and soon had 
three doilara and eighty centa far hia con- 

Jennie spent her ijuiirter in Saxony yarn, 
and crocheted edging for a skirt, for which 
ahe received a dollar. Thia ahe invested 
in the name way, and increased it to four 

Ralph inveated in egga for a eittingbrn 
that he already owned. Bhct wa^i Atolen, 
and Raljih wua msnlvent. I'he next day 
he weeded a neigUbor'a garden, and earned 
some money to start ua again. Thia time 
he went into the newapaper business; every 
evening found him on his route, and three 
dollara wr» the result. 

Grace made her father a libavi eg- paper 
case, for which he paid her half n dullar. 
At the end of the stated time the " Home 
Tnveatmeut Cumpuny " reported as follows : 
Father, seven doilcmt and eighty-ftmr 
cents; mother, seven dtillaraaod one cent; 
Fred, tbrec dollara and eighty cents; 
Jennie, four dollars; lialph, three dollars; 
Urace fifty cenl«: total, twenty-sii dollara 
and fifteen centa. 


A Karen Weddliia* 
February 2a, I attended a Karen wed- 
din;; a few railea out from Ilenzudit. The 
bride wa^i a cousiu of Moung Kv An, a 
Christian Karen, and, with him as tmr 
guide, we travelled the winding, rough, 
and Minuy roads, protected but a small 
part of the way by the tall jungle grass. 

While tliebridal couple were putting the 
finishing touches to their toilets we rested 
in the welcome shade of n bamboo house, 
watching with eager interest the people 
B« they pusacd the door, till it was time 
to go to the place nhere the ceremony 
was to be performed. The plain hambtio 
props WLTc bidden by the pretty cocoanut 
leaves; the tbutchod roof was decorated 
with green, and in Ihe centre wnn an arch 
formed of orange-red flowers and long, 
flngec-liko pods, under which arch stood 
a long bench, uo which the bridal party 

While waiting for them, Ko Tyke, the 
Burman pastor, preached to the |>eoplc 
seated on the ground, some of whom 
seemed interested, and laid a.<iide their 
cigars to give the better attention. The 
preparations being completed, a sweetly- 
sounding gong was struck, and the party 
came in; last of all came the bride and 
groom, with two bridesmaids and grooms- 

The wedding gown wa« checkered red 
silk, which completely hid her bare toes 
from sight. No ornauienta decked her 
□cck or fingers, but a spray of pink blo8> 
soma wan fastened in her dark, luxuriant 

When all were seated, a friend went 
through the company with a bottle of 
perfumery, scattering il right and left. 
When the pastor had wiped it out of his 
eyes, he was ready to begin. 

A hymn was sung, a chapter read, the 
alliruporlunt question put to each, the 
words a]Kiken pmnounoidg the twain to 
bo one, another hymn sung, and the cere- 
mony WES over, performed in as concise 
and neat a mnnacr nt would do credit to 
an Amerirwn. 

The frii^nd with the vial of perfume 
made the rounds again, filling eyes and 
ears with its contents, and then Ihu newly 
married couple received the congratula- 
tions of their many friends. After par- 
taking of the bcmntifulbn^akftiEit awaiting 
us, we retraced ouratvps homeward, grate- 
ful to God for the changes wrought by 
Christianity. — Mi»B Wrib. 


HFinembrnilcr of Dr. Jiidnon In 
During our stay in Maulmain. every 
ChrlHtian home was viaitud. From the 
poorest to the richest, in every house, Dr. 
Judson'ft face waA tn be seen. Ilia pltoto- 
graph greets the eyes of the baby swing- 
ing in a cradle of cloth, the eiid» fastcmrd 
to the rafters by cords, or to the one in a 
box ofcarved wood, swinging by ropes trom 
overhead. The first and most prominent 
object upon the dull, brown wall for the 
eyes of all to rest up^n ia the dignified 
missionary, Bible in hand. In homes 
where to eke <jut a living the women and 
girls are buay making cigars. Dr. Judson 
in a wreath of cobwebs and dust bears 
them compacy. — Mrs. Bairibridpe. 

Tke Lllllc ninds Ctrl. 

Poor Mali sits alone and weeps, 

A gentle Hindu maid. 
Her graceful form in sorrow bent 

Beneath the aloe's shade. 
No loviog voice to soothe her grief, 

Or quell her rising fears; 
Iter nights are spent in restleas sleep. 

Her days in sighs and tears. 

She never knew a father'a love. 

Or niother'a tender care. 
Curs'd from the day that gave her birth, 

And doomed to sad dcinpur; 
No joy lights up ber wiatful eyes, 

Nor gla<lnc89 chtera her heart. 
Nei;lected, friendless, and despised, 

lu grief she sila apart. 

She never heard of Jeaua' love 

To little children given. 
And that He bids us come to Him 

And have i>ur sins forgiven; 
TTftd Mali known this Saviour dear, 

Hi-r heart had opened wide 
To Wt this gracious Friend come in, 

Her gods bad thrown aside. 

Uh happy tittle Christian girl 

Whoae heart is full of glee. 
Who bounds to hear her Father's atep, 

And ^ita upon his knee; 
Wbi^se home ia full of light and love 

Lit by the Ooi>|>era flume, 
Rindlen by the glad news tn men 

That came with Jeiiua' name, 

Will you not pray, and help to lift 

The poor dork Hindu girls, 
And bid the banner of our Lord 

Whose tJoapel light unfurls. 
To wave triumpbaully aud free 

O'er India's coral vtraud. 
And bring the heathen childreD in 

To fair Immanuel's laodf 

— Alice Oretfoiy. 


NhWBr-DacoK Pa«oda. 

Above all surrounding objecta, as oae 
approachoE Raug^ion, ia the golden spire 
uf Shway-Dagou Pagoda, cr«wned with 
its glittering filigree work. Since the re- 
building, in 1768, Ihe pagoda haa been 8SS 
feet in height. Surrounding it, upon the 
same platform, are smaller |>agodas, tem- 
plea, gilded ornamenta and trees, bearing 
every manner of tinsel and paper fruit and 
flower, huge griffins rcDcmbliog neither 
man or beast, sacred belU and idols and 
banners and mosaiework of rolored glasB, 
and before each alirine the various offer- 
ings, and wrapped about the idols gold- 
bordered yellow cloth— thegift of aaeeker 
after merit — while even the base of lb* 
great paguda itself is draped with tbfl 
aame material. Shway-Dagon is the most 
celebrated shrine both in Burma and Siam, 
and peculiarly sacred ax containing in the 
innermost rece&aes of its solid masonry 
eight hairs from the head of Gautama. 
On this sacred puvement. sixty years ago, 
stood two American mitiitionariea. bound 
and fettered, ready for the executioner, 
but l>eft)ri! the fatal detn) was accom- 
plished, the British suldiera burst in upOB 
them. The grandson of one of the two 
ia now in charge of one of the ninxt impor- 
tant distriots in Britiah Burma. —j 




A Hindi! gir! wan btolt-n from ber liotne 
and carried to Cilcutta, where she wna 
•old u ft ilftve. 

A rich Mohammedan lady botiKlit her, 
•od, aa she waa prclt;, brougbt Iior up as 
a compaDioti and pliiything. 

Sbe hud a happy liTe for ycarti, until 
one day it ciunu inro ber miud that slie 
waa a alaner, and needed tu be ftaved rroin 

Ber kind mifltreaa, lotake up her mind, 
•enl fcir ibe ruiw-daQcers. (lie jugglers, the 
■erp^nt charmers, and all tho ainu^cmenls 
which alie was fond of; but the girl wa^ 
U ead as ever. 

StDOG she hod lived in Calcutta she 
had become a Mohaaimedau instead of 
CDDlinulng a worship]>er of Brahma, 
Vi»hnu. and Siva, aad so the kind lady 
brought a Hohammedaa priest to comfort 

But tliough sbo recited long prayen in 

"«a iinknowo tongue ttve times a day, with 

her head bowed toward Mecca, ber Irou- 

ble waa not rrmoTed. 

I Aftci three weary ycara of w.iiting, the 

"girt weot to a Brahmin for relief, hoping, 

if flhe returned to the faith of her fathers, 

t, to find peace. 

At first the Hmhmin cursed her in the 
name of his god ; hut, as she offered him 
money, ho promised to help her. 

Every morning he told her she must 
brii>g to the temple an oflfering of fruit and 
flowers to Viahnu, and every week a kid 
of the goatJ for a sacrifice. 

At last she happened to pass a beggar 
Id the street one day. 

She had^DCver seen jiutt such a beggar 
before, and as ^he dropped a coin into his 
oodeu bow] she said, almost as if think- 
ing aloud, "Ah. if even you could but tell 
|De where to find Halvntion ! " 

"I liaTC heard that word before," he 


*' Where? where? " she asked. *• I am 
ick, and fear I am going to die, aod 
what will become of me?" 

llie man told her of a place where rice 
iras given to the poor. 

*• I have heard it there," he said, "and 
Ihey tell of one Jesus Christ, who can give 


" ITo must be the Oivc I want. Take me 
to nimi" she urged. 

I do not know where Jesus Christ 
lives," answered the beggar, " but I can 
tell you of a man who dues know; '■ und 
he told her of a Brahmin who had been 
brougbt to Je»u8 Christ, bad given up his 
gods, and was now a teacher of the new 

Weak and ill as she was, the Hindu girl 
— now a young woman — started on bar 
»earch that very eveulug. She went from 

use to hou9*, intjuiring, " Whure is the 
who will tell me where to 6nd Jesus 

No one knew, until, ns she was about to 
give it up. she was stiown into the howc 
she aought. and met the teacher on the 
veranda. She burst into tears as she 

"Arc you the one who can lead me to 
Jesus? Oh. take me to Him, for I am 
going to die; and what shall I do if I die 
without, salvation?" 

Aod how do you think the teacher led 
her to the Saviour, who she hoped was 
waiting for her in Ihnt very house? 

Ho knelt down Ix-nide her and besought 
the dear I^nrd tn open her eyes, that she 
might »eL' and believe in Him, who was 
ready to give the ealvatiun for which she 
longed. Aod. as he prayed, the truth 
was revealed. She saw the Son of God, 
and ilie Shepherd, who for so long bad 
sought Bis child, folded her to His bosom, 
and she was at reit. — Tht Cftililrvn*t 


A HIimIii PI«c4< of JndKniPnl. 

When you hear of a place uf judgment 
I ftuppoBe you will picture to yourself the 
court of a king, or at least a law court 
where the magistrate gives his decision on 
the Case brougbt before him after huariug 
the evidence on both sides. 

The judgment seat of which I write, 
however, w neither the throne of a king 
nor the bench of a judge. It is a large 
flat stone placet) in tht! often air. No one 
is seen sitting upon it, yet the Hindu priest 
telU the {Kople that it is occupied by the 
king of kings, their god, 

Before it ynu will see two goats, which 
have been presented by the )teople who 
have had the dispute, and have brought 
the case into court for jiidgmeut. A 
crowd of I'teople have gathered to see who 
will get the case. 

There is breathless silencu an the priest 
of the temple nenr by stiinds beftire the 
two goau, and then, holding some sand 
in each hand, sprinkles it upon thdr 
backs. The goats arc now let loose and 
the people watch them eagerly. 

By-ond-by one of tliem feeling the sand 
on bis skin uncomfortably begins to try 
and shake it off. As soon as the goat 
begins Io ^hake himself the cose is de- 
cided in favor of the person to whom that 
goat belongs. 

Tou will think Ihiia a funny way of ad- 
ministering justice. 3titl the practice waa, 
until recently, found in the hills of India. 
Thi'i is but one instance of many of the 
foolish supcrstitionct in India. 


Tortnre tor Pardorf, 


iHamma, Edith. Sadie. Ned, and Prank] 

E. — " Mniuma. that wicked Mr. Long u 
dead. What a dreadful thing to die with 
one't) sina un forgiven. " 

S. — "Do you euppKse, Maiuum, he knew 
that the blood of Chii.-il would nmlc« «ven 
bis Hcarlet fiins white as snow?" 

F. — "I wish every heathen had had 
Mr. Long's chauoea for salvation." 

Mamma.— '• The heathen »<aiily need the 
knowledge, my son. Many of tbem 
endure great phvi^icul paiti thinking to 
obtain panion. Iq India the niethiKts of 
self-tortun- prueticeil nre horrible." 

E. — ■■ What are tliey, Manama 'f 

Mamnia. — " Some throw theni.s«lvea 
frotn a tall baiuUiu platform upon a bed 
of knive«* nr thorns which nland upright: 
the blnden or sharp jwints cut and tear 
the Besb iu a painful uianner." 

S.— '- And du they Ihiuk that wiU par- 
don ai« r 

Mamma — " Yes; tbey hope thereby to 
gain "rneric" as they call it. Some 
thrust the knife blades into the Mesh until 
the Iiody Eft full of them." 

P. — " 1 Raw a picture of a Hindoo with 
a long iron rod through the end of his 
tougiie. Wiw that torture for sin? '* 

Mamma. — " Yee; that is one method, 
perhapA intended forgoesip or for untruth- 

N. — "Our Sunday-School teacher told 
ns about the Churrock. how they swiug 
upon it in the air for twenty miuutes or 
half an bourand then come down pardon- 

Mamma. — "The Chiurock resembles 
an old fashioned well-sweep, but inateud 
of a hticket at one end, it Iihh a pair of 
huge iron booke which are fastene<l In 
the hack below the shoulders; the 
victim i« then raised and as Ned says, al- 
lowed to awing in the air. Ah Ihis is a 
very painful operation some rich men 
biresutfetitule!" to (.uffer for them." 

S.— "They must really desire pardon 
to endure so much." 

F.— "Ithuik that reiiuir^.'^ luoro brav- 
ery than to forsake bad habits or >)tand 
the je«t* nf wi<*ked iissfH-iaiea. " 

N. — '^Are Uiese all the methods to 
receive pardon?" 

Mamma.—" No, indeed; sometimes 
several men tiland together in a row and 
through the liidcs of each is drawn a large 
bamboo rope." 

S.— " That is the worst of all. Mamma," 

E. — "la it not the Hindrnt who is run 
over by the Juggernaut V 

Mammo.— '* Yea; the Juggernaut is 
■the lord of the world' wilh tbem. He 
hast lUHuy temples and priests. Each 
year they celebrate a great festival in bis 
honor, about half a million people attend- 
ing. They send men out all over India 
to induce people to goon this pilgrininge; 
tbey start nut in companies of forty, Hfty 
and more to travel many miles; most of 
the pilgrims are women and childri-u: 
the inns are fen* and crowded »o uiOBt of 
them have to deep iu the ojk-u air; this 
festival always occurs in the rainy sea- 




Fon, BO fou can iniARint* how JDJuriotift to 
the health Ih*; joumpy is." 

N. — " I shriuid thiok Ihey would Hie." 

Mamiun. — " AiNiiit twouty thuiifianil of 
them do enrh Tear; it io Nifd tlinl. rroiii 
the sickuras anil tilth uf W\v^ Ja^gfr- 
nautic <:;xpvflition6 the Abialic cholera 

EI. — " It swm.t as if coinmoii wnw 
ouKbt to teach them hi-tter than U> throw 
away tweoty thoumnJ lives for a wooden 
idol Dot woith the paint upon him." 

Honiiiia. — "Our modical uiiMionaries 
foltow these procesf>ionH anJ aid the Bick 
and dyitiK wht'ii allowed: tlicy have wived 
many lives; while Uratin^ the patients 
tbey tell them of Jesun 'iniglity to sovi-.'" 

N. — "Are any converts made?" 

Uamma. — "Very often: acme 
of the best native tea'.'hen hu^e 
been cuuvertetl in ihismamier." 

S. — "Whnt is the car of the 
JuKK^rnauC, Mamma?" 

Mamma. — "At the great fes- 
tival huge cars with imaifeK of 
the go4 arc drawn abciiit and 
those desIrniiR of obtaining merit 
throw themselvea upon thy 
ground and the great wheels run 
over them." 

E. — " ITow flirange the fiimplp 
way of pardon thnmgli C^l^i^t 
must seem to them." 

Mammii. — " It iw hlessed news 
to many who heor and acce[ii. 
and it in cncijuroKing to know 
how many natives become preneh- 
ers and teachers of the Won!, 
pointiug out the Fount whieli 
cleanHetli sin. 

All sing one verae of 
"Then ia AfounMln flit»d Willi blood." 

BKCOMD cnn.D. 
They alt hare mouths, but can not talk ; 
They all have feet, but can not walk: 
Two e;vs that can not sec have thuy, 
A t^tngue that not a word can say. 

Two ears that ne'er a sound have beard, 
Hands that for work have never stirred ; 
Each has a nose that can not smell, 
A throat through which no note doth 



So every one that trustclh them, 

What priceless bleanngs tbua are given, 
By Utin who made botti earth and hearea; 
The earth for man to dwell on, gave; 
Id heaven He waits our souls to save. 


Tli« Idola of <he Heatliru, 

\An BriTciif for Afitioit CireUa 
Kith Jtfodong.] 


Children, do ytm the story know 
Of Idol gi>d«? And can yoti show 
What they are like, and hy whose 

Are foriued the gods of beatben lands? 

[Recitation by all uf Ps. cxv., 2-8 with 


King David, in his Psnluis, hath told 
Their idols silver are, and gold ; 
Only the work of Inimun httnds, 
Tbo gods of far-off heathen lands. 



These worthless idols wrought by roeo, 
They, too, who make tbem with their 

Are like these gods of heathen lands. 
j [Chorus.] 

[Recitations, with motions, of fsa. zUt. 

Now, folded be your little bauds; 

Then, all together, you may tell 
How unlike gods of heathen lands 

Fs our great God, wc: love so well. 


If we our love to llim confess, 


Our Ood is in the beavena above — 
We'll praise Hlro with full hearts of love; He will bo mindful us to bletts; 
We'll shout husaunuu tu Ilis name. He has enough to spare for all, 

WbUe heaven and earth His powers pro- nolds wide Tlis arms to great and small, 
claim. ' [Chorus.] 

<> let us pniisc Itim with each breath. 
Before our eyelids close in death; 
E'en now begin to sing His praise, 
E'en now to Him gUd songs we 'II raiae. 

—Mrt. W. a. Kmnt^, 

Hlrmuzf. Thlnaftln Cbliui. 

Men w(-ur lou^ jjellieoats and i-arry 
fane, while the wnuien wear short jacJcvt* 
and carry canea. 

A bachelor is likened to n 
eounlerfeit coin ; he is IooVpI 
upon with suspicion even by 
memhpfn of bis own household. 

They feed their friends aurop- 
tuoiisly when dead, but let them 
take caiv of theraiielvea the best 
they could while alive. 

Lovetiiaking is only done lbn<e 
days after marriage. It is not 
only considered the safeft way to 
get ahead of a rival, but the 
Hui-eflt way to get a wife witbwit 
toeing much time. 

To encourage honealy and «'.o- 
cority. confidentifll clerks ami 
salesmen in all branches uf in- 
duMry receive an annual net 
[jercenlRge of the firm's l.usinew 
iK'sidea their regular salaries. 

If a Chtnaman desires the 

■' i;)i of an enemy, he goes and 

111.,;-; biaiM?lf upon 'his neigh* 

U)r's ilotir. It is a sure cure to 

kill not only that perliculnr 

fnemy. but member* of his eo- 

tire family will lie in jeopardy 

uf losiug their lives. 

, _ ; A man could Iwrrow mooey 

^ ;^ an the strength of hitt having ■ 

bun, but no one would advance 

hini n cent if he bad a doun 

daughtorfi. The former in rwpon- 

sible for the debts of hia father for ihre** 

generutioutf. The taller is only re<t|»on- 

sihJe for the delits of her own husband. 

When a Cliinnnian meets another be 
!(bakes and sc^ueezeti his own bands and 
cdverb bis head. U great friends Itad 
not ^ee^ each oilier for a long lime, after 
the mutual handshaking they would rab 
shoulders until they became tired. In- 
stead or asking each other's heallb. tbey 
would say: " Have you eaten your rice? 
Where are you going ? Wliat is your 
bttidnesfl when you get there ? How old 
are you ? and bow much did you pay ti3t_ 
your shoes ?" 

One of the strangett things of all 
these jteople is that every man f^eeins to 
l)e ultending Ktrtctly to his own buaineas 

my '«^j 

Thv flea or thf Kalian*. 


fallowlDir ex«iT(i« requlmi clsht Klrli. all 
riM. or of twv siz'-ii, on« ot tb« Iftrver oii«e 
lb« part of A,mcrle«. Sbs sbould Uk» her 
ow«rd one mid of the ro«inun.partt7 ficloft 
tlicDw Am the otbon com* In lti«r thoxM 
m qtuner-drcle, uid eKch ooe AaorsM 
cft. Tber Bhould all carry the (lag of the 
r tbar reprewot. uad tb« natlra ooaiiune 
•)M add to Uie Intemt of tba exeralMt. 
un cao be made In the form of a liaaner, at 
QIC «xpeD«e. br ucInK camtirLc awl planing 
me of the eountrr across the tup [n oeiiar. 
America redbM her Brat part, Ui^n Japau 
mier and recite— theti Clih]n. atui ou on. 
ngiOK of the vrrM "Shall we whciv mmin 
hted, etc-," hnmedtatel]' aft«r the cxfTctim, 
rlaRO off Lbn raiitruiD,liaK agtiud pfTeot.) 



ica, bf loved home! 
lat happinea-) th; subjects kuow — 
tnaoifold the blewiiign are 
lich tbou upoD them doat bestow, 
rliile with patrlutic fire 
pulses thrill from thoughts of tliee, 
reatest cause Tor thaokfulnetB 
or th; CbrUtisDit;. 


Dme IB far across tlie a<»s — 
sa; my name is Japaoeae, 
iMfiet in this grand domain 
■e light and libert; doth reign-^ 
juBt a mesiiagc' \s my praver 
,nj to mjf i>eople there. 

^m (»iHA. 

9ine is too across the scaa — 
neighlioi to the Jajmuese: 
lie couotrjr broad and Tair, 
rich in ancient lore, and rare — 
fet the thrall of ignorance 
holda her captive is intCDse. 
»n joii tell me of a hnnd 
ccor now my native land ? 


Himalaya's lofty |>eak, 
D down to lovely Ceylon's side: 
e soft, spice-Uden breezes blow, 
d tropic waters gently glide: 
! 19 the 8pot that / call home, 
d nut tt fairer ouo iK-rchance 
I find if you shuiiUl travel o'er 
> whole of nature's vast expanse, 
ret the sun upon bis round 
DCS not upon more misery — 
learta are aching for relief 
3 India loudly calls for thee. 


ont the ftnlds of Africa— 

and with mystery shadowed o>r, 

e to tell to thee a tale 

tt if Dot merely passing lore : 

. tale to melt the heart, 

kle to make the blood nm cold, 

mes committed ia the name 

woKbtesB idols, grim and old. 

ark Iht* cloud of ignorance 

1 00 my country's horizon, 

Aiid we must suffer lilt the work 
Of white man brings a brighter dawn. 

Say, can you send a messenger 
To 14*8011 my dying people there ? 

Oh! send ub help for Africa — 

And send it quickly is my prayer. 


On soft and downy pillows, 

In bioidered vesture gay. 
My sisters of uiy native land 

Pmrr all their hours away. 
They know not of the ploasure 

or a life of usefuLopss, 
Thi-y know no luvio^ Saviour 

Who would their efforts bless. 
Ohi won't you come and lead them 

In the way that tbou hast trod i 
The way Uiat leads to hn]>pine9s. 

To heaved and to God. 


Down where the mighty Amazon 

Rolls on in grandeur to the sea^ 
Aod where the rugged Andes rise 

In all their lofty majesty. 
Where sweetest flowers and fnii la abound, 

Where agile t>easts and song-birdn roam, 
Where e'en the glistening diamond rests, 

There is the place tliat /call liome. 
But tnidht these blessings rich and rate 

Sin grows, and towers over all : 
And man alone- is liideous. 

While his nlxjde is beautiful. 
But can Iwnighlcd man enjoy 

A light that he has never t>een ? 
Oh I come aod lead us ia the way 

That thy own feet doth travel in. 


Hy traveU have been f»r and wide: 

Frnm Ilaly most dear lo mo, 
Througli every country of the globe, 

And all the islands of thu sea. 
Where'er the love of God's unknowo. 

And Jesus is no fireside theme, 
There are the haunts of nretchednesa, 

Brutality and suffering. 
What shall I say imto them, then, 

As I my journey still pursue? 
My light has very meagre been, 

And I hare come to learn of you. 


T« all have come to ask of me 
The way to light and liberty : 
Tou crave a message at my hand 
To carry to your uiitive land : 
This is the message I would send. 
Be it to either foe or friend : 

There is no light save light iu Christ, 

No |)owcr that can your wives remove 
Except the power that is the source 

Of light, and libeity, and love. 
Oh, learn to know the Saviour /icrt 

Where all these benellts abound, 
Thee go and tell thy people there 

What peace and joy thy soul hath found. 

' And you, my friends, will you not aid 
I A cause so worthy and so vast f 
I Will you not give a coin or prayer 
I To help some earnest soul lo Chriatl 
And "Thine shall Ik* the glory, Lord, 

If by some word or deed of mine 
The light that tills my life to-day 

lato some darkened soul shall shine." 

(Theftr*ipartof theresporiaeof A merlin ahould 
beaddroascd to tti« itirta— tbo tint four line* of the 
laalTvne to the audieoce, and the last four with 



Wlien the little fellow enters tin- 
BchtH)l-room for the tarnt lime, and han 
made his oljeiwiTice to Confncina, thvr 
pBlroti tuiiiit of education, and to lii» 
teacher, hn tak«« aa his Urst book what 
i9 called in English the " Three Character 
OlMSic," a sort of Chincae ilogg^rel 
arraogetl in lines of three characters 

His first duty is to cominit all thin lo 
meuiury, and to learn to rewd aod to 
write each character in it. It contains 
a sniatterinK of Cbinene history, monil 
|»receptB and wisp aayings. He commits 
each day's portion to memory by ahoul- 
ing it out, character by character, at the 
tup n( his voice, tf he kfe|M quiet he 
gets a whipping. A thoroughly studioua 
boy will almo!»t raise the roof u( the 
school-house with bis shuiit». 

When he Iiuh 'hGcked" all this book — 
recited it with liis twck lunied to the 
teacher- be is fjiven his second, which 
is "The Handn-il Family Namen." Thiw 
ctmtains iibrioluteJy no nense at all, but is 
merely a list, also arranged in a enrt of 
rhyme, of the hundred allowable sumamea 
Id China. When he has committed all 
these to memory, and can read aud write 
each separate character, ho is put into 
the ■'Clajsic* of Confucius." 

These fornk really the chief substaoctt 
of all Chinese education. 

When it is known that they were 
written at leant live hundred years before 
Christ, Ihelr Htness fur forming the entire 
educatiun of all olnsses in a nation of four 
hundred millions of people may ea&ily he 
judged. They contain much pure moral- 
ity, incLch idolatrous teaching, a little 
Chinese hlitory and geography, and many 
pages the meaning of which the ablest 
scholar of the pres^ent day utterly fails to 

Yet this ^Murse of study coniplete.H the 
education of the Chinese boy. and is sup- 
posed to lit him Iu guide the affairs of a 
great nation. 

He coni«* i>ut of school knowing 
nothing of any of the scierces; nothing 
of geography, ext^ept that heaven itv 
round, and the earth square, with China 
in the centre; nothing of astronomy, 
except that a comet is a sure forerunner 
of calamity, and that an ecli|j(*e is causeil 
by an attempt made by a dog to eat up 


the aim or moon; nothinf^of other nations 
beyond a raRup iden thai tlii-re are hordes 
of wandering. uncivHixed ra^alxmdfl 
acrom the wa-*, wIiq live in wrftchftint-tta 
and b»rl>nrittm. unltU-ss^d hy tht^ li);hl 
and Klorr of (,'hinfl, «nd Fspnrrd in \M\ 
hy the Euiporor: and nothing of religion 
hcyond a (issue of thp moat alMiird and 
childish superstitions. Such h a fair 
flummary of the rdueation of a Cliinesf 

— : o : 


Tt has been tiaid that thfrc are mure 
iKJoka published in Chinii, and mors 
people able to read them, than iu any 
other country in the world; and j-et the 
Chineae Ian(fuag« i'b sncb an exefeJinj,'ly 
dtfncult one that It takes a hoy the bwt 
pare of hw nchool life to learn to read the 
faumuK "Sacred Btioks," whicli evrrj- 
Chineao scholar in ex[nfled bi know 
alraoet by heart. 

Before any man {% alloweil to take 
office under the Cliini.'^ie Ki.ivemiiient. he 
is obligiHl to pa*ft certain exaniinatiuni- in 
the books wUirh are taught in the schools, 
and on some other HuhjectA. If he rioes 
not succeed at one exaniinaUon, he may 
try again and again, and it is no um-oin- 
mon Bight to see quit*- old men n-oniitig 
up for exaoiiualion side hy side with boys 
and young men fresh from coJlege. 

When a man has pa^jsed the examina- 
tion, be haA a right tu wear a particular 
kind of button on tin* top of bis L-up, and 
by Ibid button ht iii know lo I'verj one 
who !«;es biin as a scholar or learned man. 

This is an liouor very much coveted in 
China. They tell of i.ine poor hoy who 
hung his books lo the liorns of his buffalo 
that he might learn *vlii(e following Hie 
plow, and of another who. too poor to 
afford hiniscir IJghtH at night, txired a 
hole in the imrtition wall and studietl by 
help of his neiglihor'K light. 


The nfeB««Kt> on Iho Fan. 
av MKH. u. r iiaAti. 

More than fifty years »go a missiotiar>' 
to India was aitting on his verandn, 
Iang\)id with tllne.s!f and hard work, and 
longing for the opportunities to preach 
the GoiJ)M^t which his Im-k of Hlrength 
denied him. It was a rtunny ilay, hut the 
Tenuida was cool and shaded. The air 
was sweet with the iK-rfume of nuwei"*. 
and there were curious jtrople, nlrnnge 
sl^ta and ttoumlH vnougb to have etlraet- 
ed the attention of one not HccuHtomed to 
life in a heathen city, 

But the mi^isionary's lljoughI« wer<' 
buey with a little IianiJ of native Clirjs- 
lians who were ahout t'> gather for in- 
Klruction from the Word uf God, and 
with whum, alas ! he could not meet; and 
then with the crowds nf heathen on the 
streets, thronging the temples and the 

Day after day he had stood among 
these crowds, telling Ihetn the sweet 
story of a Suvioui'm love, selling i»r giving 
them (^iiiflian books and ports of the 
Uihie. How much they rememlwred of 
what he said, how many bad rend the 
little hooks, he did not know; yet be 
lored li> think that in this way the Gospel 
had found ilR way to many h«arta and 
homes. But to-day all this must be left 
to other hinds. Close Ifcside him was a 
palm leaf, large and chinit>y, hut a com- 
fort in a chmnte like that of India. 

" It« l»>auty is not in its tttiape." 
thought the mis-ionury. "hut I would 
like ti," send it on a incwBige. I lielieve 
ril try an eipertment." 

Taking an iron pen he traced on the 
bruaJ leaf the story of Clirist's life, of 
Uis death fur sinners and Hik gift of 
everlasting life. 

After the meeting was nverthe nativM 
cauie flocking in to see the teacher. 
Amutig them wa» a new-comer, ii utranger 
who had followed on into the compound, 
eager to gratify a. curiosity which had 
been awakened by the ringing of the 
bytnns. The mi»sionary was too weary 
tn talk, but he gave the fan to the un- 
known Tisitor. told him there was n meti- 
page on it fur bini. and hade biui come 
the next day for an exjilnnation. 

Tlie noul day came, bnt not thenativft. 
The misftionary gradually regained his 
strei)f;th, iipeiit his lire in India, and 
finally died. But lie never beard uguiu 
froui his unknuvi tj visitor or the message 
on the tan. For oil he knew to the 
contrary the " experiment " was a failure. 
Yet all the while that mesaage was doing 
Its work. 

Nut very long ago another mii%ionary 
! in India was surprised by a visitor who 
came not from cnriuaity, but with a tnes- 
I sage from one of the tril«-'& of Central 
India, wfiere few if any miwionaries brive 
ever gone. Thi- native was himself the 
chief or bead man of his trihe. and he 
presented uii earui-st plea that a teacher 
might come acid live with bis peoj^lc, to 
teach tliem the way of life. 

And what sort of a lelttruf introduc- 
tion do you think be brought with him ? 
It virati none intliHr than the palm-leaf on 
which, so many years before, the mission- 
ary had traced the story of Jvauit' love, 
worn aliiKrst to shrecls by frequent read- 

"■ Wheredid you get this t" inquired the 

•■ Tlie Most Holy sent it to ub," devout- 
ly replied the Hindu. 

And then f nlLowexl a story more strange 
than any romance, how a chief of a 
neightKU'iiig trilte bad given it to him 
with the assLirance that he had fleen a 
holy man, who had ]mt the message into 
his hands; bow he had kept it a long 
lime, bow the people bad given up idol 

worship, opium chewing and stnukiDg. 
and in T<ome cattes the u^e of intcxicaling 
drinks, till now tbey were ffeling the 
necessity of leading a holy life and i 
desire to know more of the true Ood. 

•'All the tribes alxiiit us," urged thp 
chief, "beg thai some one may come to 
teach our people about the Lord Jeani 
Christ and how we are to love and aem 
Him." All this blessing came fnam the 
mispionary*s experiment, the me«aenKer 
fan ttent out on its mis«lon so long aga 
You may have beard the story before, 
hut its meaning i», ever new. It is only 
another version of an older story, written 
tbousanrln of yearn ago, which reada: 

"My wor<l shall not return unto lie 
void, but shall accomplish the thfog 
whereunto I eeiit it." 

Hold Paat Till I Conte. 

j Who would like to hear a true stor^ of 

' a Hindu child 'i I will write rou one I 

heard the other day. And who doM 

"I" mean, do you ask? Quite right to 

FclLle that liefore the utoty. Well. I am 

the first Zenana worker sent out by tbe 

I New Zealand churches. You thou^it 

minioDaries needed togo to New Zealand, 

didn't you ? But now there are ao raanjr 

Euglitili there lliat they have not onlj 

missionaries for their own country, but 

are in their turn tiending them out la 

, India. 

I Now for the story. A Hindu was one 

day writing letters with tlie doors all 

;open, l>ecauKe of the beat, rnd I o let the 

'breeze come in. His little tioy, Uine 

lyearsiold, was playing near hi ui. Pre»- 

I ently a servant came to call the Hindn to 

I Aee a friend on husineisf). The Hindu ro«r 

I to settle the business, and, calling the 

little chil<] outside, tiaid lohiui: "Put 

your band over my pajierti to keep them 

I from blowing away, and hold them fast 

' till I couie liack." 

Many Hindu children are diKibedienl, 
but this child oanie at once and did what 
he was told. 

As be Htooil with hiit little hand on hi« 

father's papers, be counted first how 

many spldem he could see in the roof. 

Then bow many squares there were in 

the mats, and so on: hut us the minutes 

^ went by be got #a tired. Chough he kept 

changing the hand, that many a liUJ« 

sigh and big jawn said very plainly: 

■* I wish father would come back.'' Bot 

the fathtr ha<l to «toy more than an botn', 

I and though many a time be remembered 

I his ebi)d. he supptMed some servant 

I would go and [tut away bis papen. 

I When he came hack, at lust, and saw the 

dear little thin^ still there patiently 

standing, be snatched it up. feeling be 

could not love it enough for its obedience. 

Jesus has given us each wmelbingto 

hold fast till lie cumes. May each of us 

pruTe as faithful tu our trust as a Hindn 

heathen child did to bisV 

Your new friend, 

P^rrefdpore, E. Bengal. 

Soarb of Cfinrch Sxtrnsion 
' of tl^c 311ethoai$1 £piscO' 
! pat <rJiurrl|. 

KKv. A. J, mrvwrr, on.. u..i>-, coRHiMroxDiMa bkc- 


A,t ihe annu&l nieetitig of the Boards, 
held ill Pliiludclpbia in Xowuibi-r tost, i 
Bi«hop ViiiCL-ul SHiiI : 

"Thebfginningof ihe great miwionHry ^ 
tnoTcmcDt Uatea from Abram's call to ^o 
from Mestipotunin to the land of Canaan. 
When lie camv into Cmmnii ttiul wns be- 
tween EbftI and G«rizim. he built an altar. 
That wati the incipicDcy of Ihc Church 
Extvasiuu muvi'iiicut. Then, when he 
went Invrard the Mnitb. lio built nn iillur 
between Hclhel and Ai. When lie went 
toE^jptflic went fur tiiROwnooiivenicncc, 
and sot at the c<>m]naniJ of Qod. lie did 
some Iblugs there cot very crcditublf to 
hiin, and hv did not build nn nltsr. The 
Church ExtcDsioD Board ia iiiti-resU'd in 
the idea ol place. The early altar de- 
Teto|>ed ioto ihc tahernHClc, the tabLrnnclc 
iolu the tt'inpk*. In all of tliesc there wa^ 
the ideit of pWure. The idcti uf place Iihk 
little to do with ttie present dUpetiMtion: 
beac« I would em})hiBi/e the thought that 
our churches are places which provide 
iipportunities for gpiritual wurahip. The 
Board of Church Kxtcii^ioit haa douc a 
good W4irk ill imjiroving tlie church archi- 
Ltccture uf our country, itDr] 1 ant glad lo 
^; the Ik>ard haH very tittle to do with 
the Oothic architecture that takes <iur 
thought back to the darkness aii J super- 
rtlUoD of mediieval time^.'* 

■ReT. W. A. Spc-ncer. DD., AsfiiUant 
Torreaponding Secretary of the Society, 
presente the folluwiaR as au experiment 
worth trying: 

la 1881 the lale W. C. DcPauw, i»f New 
Albany, Indiana, whos« beaefactiona have 
ilded 8o many worthy causes, gave Chap- 
kin HcCabe fSSO for the Froutler Fund, 
lie did again and again before lii» 
death. The Chaplain suoq after visited 
WatertowD. Unkota, and lectured in a 
hall, OD --TUc Bright Side of Libby 
PrisoD," and hI the cloM of the lecture 
raised a eubhcription to build a church. 
By promifling them thia $320 from (he 

runticr Fund, mure thiiii u thousand doL- 
Iftm wiu secured, and the church was built 
fttAOMt of 11.700. 

Id five years the congregation had out- 
grown the church building, and was com- 
Jwlled to go to a hall for their servicer. 
They sold the old church, and under the 
leadership of Pastor Clough and I'residing 
Xlder Traveller, comcnencvd building a 
new and Inrger one. November llih was 
dedication day, and I took a journey of 
iristeen hundred miles to help this enier- 
prise. Its electric lights, cathedral gla>>8 
windows, carpets, pews, furniahinga, all 
were in the best of taste, and teslifl^d lo 
the courage oud refinement of paator and 

penplf, wh" have now, porhops, the finest 
Melhoiiisi. church in the territory. 

The rahic 'of the new church and the 
parsonage, practically rebuilt, was over 
fifteen thousand doltam. Four thousand 
remained to be raised on dedication day. 
The ]M»fltor hud n hlarkl>oard prepared 
with f'liir hundred numbered wjuares upon 
it, each square counling for ten dollats. 
Two or three former pastors were present 
to help us. and Pastor Clmigh and Elder 
TTaveller rendend invaluable Bervice. 
Governor- elect Meliette and otlier outside 
friends atsiatcd and eiK^uuraged us, and at 
the cUi»e of ihe morning service we had 
the debt wiped out. 

In the erening a revivnt service was 
crowned with divine bless-ing. and twenty 
persona naked for prayer, and some of 
(hem Were converted at I he newly dedi- 
cated altar. 

Brother DePaiiw's gift of $830 stnrtPil 
the cutcrprifie that now hns sixty times the 
value of that first investment. Where el m 
will money multiply itself sixty-fold in 
seven jears ? 

Arc there not onu hundred generous 
givers who will send Dr. Kynett^^JJJOeach 
for our Frontier Fund, lo plant one hun- 
dred new churches immcdiatelv i 

More than one hundred applications are 
on tile in our oflice. and four hundred 
plarrvs are wailing for hel]>. where $2JJ0 
would cause » chiiroh to be built within a 
jear. We have a thousand preachiiig- 
places in Dakota nlonc, and over sewn 
hundred are without a church. Shall we 
have help for our needy West and South t 

('mbolle Htid Prateaiant Convert*. 

Dr. Warneck, wiio also is a leading 
authority on miSBJon matters, has cum- 
piled Some statistics on the number of 
converts reported frutu Catholic and from 
Protestant societies. His summary is 
that the former reports 268,700 converts 
in Africa 2,000,000 in Asia, 59,000 id 
Occanica. ^30,000 in America, or a tolal 
uf 3,053,700. Protestant M>RieLie& reiiort 
577,000 in Afrie* 700,000 in Asia. 280.000 
in Ocejintca. and GSB.OOO in America, or 
a total of 3.245,700. l>r. Waroeck re- 

" I must confess that these figures sur* 
prised me, Cimsidering the grand aud 
imposing organization of thu CalhuUc 
Church, the larger number of its mission- 
aries, their rapid method of receiving 
into the church comiiumion larger ouni- 
ber» and the great advantage enjoyed 
by the fact that they liiive been at ihe 
work many centuries before our work 
began, I had thought that numerically 
their mission auecessi would vastly exceed 
that of the ProteAtants. 

" I..eaving out of consideration Asia, 
where chiefly those who are dvcendants 
of coverts of earlier centuries in China 
and India hwcU the number in the Homnn 
Catholic reporta, it must he seen that 

everywhere else the mission work of tlie 
Evangelical Church is far iu advance oC 
Hiat of the Rotnnu Catholic." 

— :o:- 

■forulMisi ror ClirlMl. 

UT RKV. J. •!. fKltS. U.D. 

In the Austin Conference I heard thin 
thrilling incident. It parallels the hem- 
ism of the fathers of Mtthodiom. Kev. 
(j. W. Ki':hardson. a one-armed Method- 
ist minister, sixty years old, was sent last 
year to Clarendon, away up on the fron* 
tier. Theie was no church, no parsoniige, 
no house even where lie enuld hire a riKim 
In sleep — not even in a hotel. He founri 
that he must do something. There was 
nn retreat in this one armed, gray haired 
hero He de|Hiflited his household ^oods 
on the open prairie. Tneu ho found a 
second-hand tent and tiou^ht it for a 
home. lie pitched it on the prnirie, and 
tbn>ugh the cold wintt r of \iiiiS this in- 
vincible Mctho'list minister lived in that 
tent and suffered for Jeeiui' wike. He 
could tind nu plncc to pn-aeh and so he 
threw open his lent for divine Services; 
giitht-red the people and pretiched lo Ihem 
the gliiriouH Go«.pel (hat is no suited to 
pioneer hardships. He inspired the peo- 
ple with hiA own 7.ealous Hpiril, He said 
tliat they miiAt and should have a rhurrh. 
HeranTtL5Ked the place aud nroused a little 
handful of MethodJHts to give out of their 
deep p<jverty. Then the noble B'>ard of 
Church Kxteusiuu was npjiealed t<i, and 
sent them a donation of $'i!}0, and a loan 
of I'^-^O more. They built thuir beautiful 
church with this hel|>, and ihitt venerable 
hero reported the above fuels in open 
Conference, cloBtng by sayitiK that the en- 
tire ost was 1^,033, and there was only 
;>75 debt remaining. Hulleluiat There 
are heroes yet among us. And it waa 
missionary money, only a little, that en- 
abled this mari to capture ibis new town 
for the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
.\nd, this year, besides building the 
church, they gave $10 to mission!!. And 
what caused a cheer to break from these 
broD/ed veterans was that the Austin 
Conterfuce voted to hold its next session. 
in this new town aud church. Tliank. 
' God for the grand Board oE Church Ex- 
' tension! Help it with nuire money, 
Itlesfied be God for the Mirsionary Bociety 
that puts bread and l«,con into tliesaddlo- 
I bags of these frontier heroes that capture 
new towns! 

Brethren, tell this story in every pulpit 
of .Methodism just Iwfore ihe .Missionary 
Collection. Itoiiae the [Hople with lis 
clarion ring. Demand that there tvhall be 
heroic givers in the pewa to match these 
heroes in the saddle, Olory to God ! 
Methodism is on the skirmish line still 
with lur invincible veterans. There ara 
an hundred new towns w« will take in a 
year if you give us the funds. Young 
ministers of pluck and piety, come on. 
Win your spurs on the frontier; don't 
hang around the old fields. Come up 
and create new things. Make great cua- 
ferences uu uew ground aud be great men 
by dinog somelbiiiu' yreat. 

Give us the 11,300,000 quickly, and give 
us nioie Richtirfl>ons In push out on the 
]iicket line. Push up Ihe collections. 
Hurrah for the herons on the field, and 
the givers at home who suslajn themi 


joHX .xriL roiV philups. 



Juhu milou PhlMliM. 

The Miaaionary Society Iika siiMMined a 
Iteavy losa in the death of its honored and 
Talued Tr(.>airuri:r. Jolm M. Pblllipn, which 
occurred ut his residence in Brookljn on 
the 15lh cif Janimrj, 1888. U had been 
orident for months that his health wns 
failing, and when, about thu clooc uf De- 
cemWr, it was kuowu that he was sttfTer- 
iog from a m&lignant cnrhiinoli-, it was 
Tery much reared that a fHtil result was 
to bv apprchcDded. Tlie prugrcaa of the 
■diaeue waa ao rapid that many mem1>tir?i 
of the Board of Managers wcro m>c aware 
of hia serious illness until they came to 
atteod the meeting of the Hoard on the 
afCeraoou of the day of his death, and 
found the space in the rear of the Presi- 
deat'a ch&ir drdped in mourning for the 
beloved TreiLSiirer, whose spirit had al- 
ready taken its Hight to the ctt.-riial world. 
IliJthnp .Vndi'cws conducted thedi-vntioonL 
eervires amid the deepest emotion and 
prof(iunde8t sympathy of the muinbuDi uf 
the Board, who tell the low of Mr. Phil- 
lips a» a personal bereavement. 

lli» funeral wiis attended at St. John'a 
M. K. Churcli. Drookiyn, on January 17tb. 
Threa hundred employees of the Book 
Concern occupied the spacious gaUcries, 
while ill ihe aiidilnrinTn, bexideft the 
family and perttimal friend)', were the 
Board of .Mmui;»er» of the Missinnsry So- 
ciety, the utiiciiiry of the cliurch,,it large 
Duml»er of ministers from New York, 
nrooklyn, and surrounding places, and 
many laymen. Tender and appntpriate 
addres»cs were made by Bishop Andrews 
and Rev. W. V. Kelley, D.D., the paHtnr. 
Ue». .1. Miley, IXD., of Drew Seminary, 
Secretary McCalK, and Kev. W. L. Phil- 
tips, a former piutor, also took part in the 

The remains were taken to Cincinnati 
for interment. Oeueral Clinton B. Fisk, 
Rev. A. K. Sauford, D.D.. and Mr. FI, 
W. Knight accompanied the family as 
representatives of the Missionary Society 
mid the Book Concern. 

FuulthI services were held in St. PauPs 
Church, Cincinnati, on Sunday, January 
SOih, and were participated in by Hev. 

Dr». fluat. Hail, Gardner, l^iltharr, Stowe. 
Van Clevc, Sanford, Cranaton, Biylias, 
Edwards and ilartzell. General Clintoo 
B. Kiak and Mr. H. W. Knighl. The io- 
terment was made in the Spring Grove 
Cemetery, where bo recently our brother 
hnd laid to rest the remains of his beloved 


The ChrUt'utti Advocate, in a very ap- 
pr«ciaiivc nrticle, says of Bro. Phillips: 

Tn ill I i>ea(' liable (Idelily mid honesty 
were prominent traits of hin character. 
As Treasurer of St. Paul's Church in Cin- 
cinnati, Ciishicr of the We*leni Book 
Concern, Treasurer of St. John'a Church 
ill Brooklyn, and of the Missionary Soci- 
ety, he lincdied mitUoits of money for 
Ibo Church, and during his tenure of 
th«M reaponsible ofBc-es do one. however 
diaposed to find fauli, ever breathed a 
suspicion of his integrity. His aocounu 
were dcvit confused, his statements never 
obscure. He whk not content with com- 
mon honesty. To receive and diabarse 
the funds intrusted to him with honesty, 
and account fur them with accuracy, did 
not satisfy him. He made it hia buainm 
to study with care the institutions id 
which he held otiice, and became thor- 
oughly informed concerning every depart- 
ment and eveiy detail of their opcrattoa^ 
and made wise and effective use of this 

Mr. Phillips wielded a potent influence 
in the iiiTairs of the denomination to 
which he belonged. It is no disparage- 
ment to others to aay that in the General 
Miuionary Committee, and other impor- 
lant occlcaiastical bodies of which he was 
a member, the opinions and statements of 
no other man posfioaaed so much weight 
OS his. He did not attempt to carry 
meavurea through by indirect or irregulw 
methods; but his thorough knowledge of 
the facts in each particular case, bis iter^ 
ling honesty, bis accuracy of statemeot, 
and his sound Judgment won for him a 
degree of deference which few Inymoo or 
miQisiers hare ever received. He poneae- 
ed those rare qualities of mind and heart 
which render one a safe counBellor. In* 
telUgent, pruduut, cuxeful, kind-hearted, 
and loyal to truth, he was capable of giv- 
ing prutltable iaetruc^tioa and advice to 
those who had learned to trust him. He 
possessed a large measure of that wisdocn 
which is from above, and which James 
describes as "first pure, then peaceful, 
gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy 
and good fruits without partiality, with- 
out hypocrisy.'' The Il«v. Dr. tCellOT, 
his pastor in St. John's Church in Brook* 
lyn, in an admirable biographical skelck 
published in the January number of the 
MethodiH Ji<tifv, says of Mr. PhiUipt: 
" From the foot of the ladder to the top 
he has mounted by the simple might of 
mecit and manline&s. without resort to the 
methoils by which men of lesa scrupulous 
honor seek Aelf- promotion. The market 
value of his coDscieDtiousneaa and aelf- 
deaying Sdelitymade himindUpeDaabla." 



t«llan at th(4 Kiimrd i>r naitnicfr* <»t 
tkr niBBlonarjr Nurlciy. 

Tbe Membcn of the Board rif MnnagcrB 
t ihr MiminDarj Sorici; of the Melbod- 
ft E)>i^ro[>Al Church, ns Ihor Aiuifmhle at 
hia titnetD iht^ir regular montlil; meet- 
Ig, aru mvie ^d bv the inouraful iDtcl> 
gfUrc- )jf the (k'cciuic. at uliotit 11 uVluL-k 
ElU morning, I'r Mr. Juhii Milton Phillipit. 
ht-' Trciipurer nf the Sucictj, and one of 
e A4ient8 of the Methodiat U(M>k CuD- 
rn at Nw York. 

It WAN known ibat brother Phillips had 
u for some dajrn confined to lilfl home 
wrioii^ i))D«r8s. but such was the im< 
rtaoci' of his it(;rrici><i tothe Society and 
the C'hurcb, ntid so nrdtnt the hope that 
bia valiiAhle life wouM b« spared, that 
«»«rj heart breathed fervent prayer that 
le prevttiliog auxict; iui({ht bu relieved 
tidin^^s of his convalew-criec. Yet it 
s neeintd riglu to the All-Wise DiBiwser 
erenta that the stroke should fall, and , 
r dear brother be removed from us , 
tnid bb niHnifold activities nod his 
kbundAot lalKirs for the Church. j 

He Slk'^l so Urj^e a space in his various 
itlutions. both to the Society and the 
Church, that. «it pause with eoucern and 
knxietjr for the future n^ wc cotitemplnte 
Uie vacancy his death occa.sir>nR. So 
levcre n lo»» has dcldoia, if ever, occurred 
tn tbe temporal affnirs of the Missiimary 
Bociety and to those of our beloved ' 

With irreprfsnible emotion we have 
^incd our rvbident Biohop in preliminary 
devotional exercise-s^ and now nitli t>(jr> 
iDWful hearts attempt a brief record that 
must terminate in our miouies the long 
ftod im|>ortaDt proceedings of our Board 
eoonect4Ml with the name of our Utncnted 
iVeftSUrer, John M. Phillips. No ulter- 
Incea rjin be too fervid touching his fidel- 
ity and competency in the custody aud 
disbursements of millious of dollars that 
came to bia handsnsMi&sionary Treneurer. 
ftod BS Agent of the Bonk Concern at New 
Tork; or conoerniDg his long-tried, in- 
flexible honesty, and his su|K.-rior business 
ability. No dollar wom by him ever mis- 
applied, and QD penny left unaccounted 
fur. Uis repututioit as a faithful steward, 
crowned by years of active «n<J devoted 
•crvice, is coDspicuoua for its perfect 

In anotlier placehi&buaines°t principles, 
icxemplary conduct, and Christian life niid 
CoQversatioD, have lately received es(>ecial 
notice. The January Dumber of the 
itfihodUt tinuif makes honorable nieution 
i^f these qualities of his clmraeitT. Wc 
Ibave, therefore, the Abridged duty at the 
present timu to refer to his connection 
ith our Minsiorary Society. 
For ten years he has been its Treasurer 
and a member of its Doard of Managers. 
There and in committees bis clear views, 
liis wise suggestions, and bis gcaial luaa- 

ncrs ever mnde him our valued, triisted, 
and cheerful colleague; whilst the ac- 
counts and showings of our treasury — in 
some corporations so much the source of 
discussion luid criticism — never, under 
the prHciised chnrge of John M. Phillips, 
needed explication or jierspicuity. The 
Board, tbfCienersI Missionary Committee, 
the (leneral (.'onfervnce. and the Church 
at large could read the pages of those 
iuipcirlant aci-ountK with full understand- 
ing and complete .-uilii^fBciinn. 

Beyond the duties of the Treasunr, 
Brother Phillips has. with his associate, 
L)r. Ssnford Uunt, given much intelligent 
tbougliL and urgent service in devising I 
tbe p^Ho and superintending the erection 
of Ibe new building ou Fifth Avenue and 
Twentieth Street for tbe Book C'oacorn 
Bod the MiNiiouiiry Society. Much of his 
iutf^l lel>or vran givcu to that important 
enterprite. It is further cause of regret 
that his exemplary life should be ended 
before the uew building — so much his 
pride and joy— could be (iaished. 

Hut a nobler mansion awaited him, and 
be has found a higher employ beyond the 
mondanc skies. He rests from earthly 
labor and bis works do follow him. Can 
we doul>t that he was Wtter capacitated 
for a higher sphere of ultimate perfection 
by the consecrated service that here, 
through divine grace, endued him with 
the traits nf benevolent usefulneas and 
Christian lidelityi 

We make this brief record of our de- 

' parted Treasurer, sorrowing most of all 

that wc* shall see his mauly face uo mure 

at bis accustomed place m our Mission 

I Ri-mms, and that hii helpful service for 

the Missionary Society he loved so well is 

! forever closed. 

We direct ibat this minute be entered 
on (be Journal of our proceedings, pub- 
lished in TUf f'hriitiaa Adeocate, and a 
copy be forwarded to the bereaved family 
of our departed lirother. 

Edwamo G. Andrews, Sandtord 
Hunt. Clinton B. Fisk, Knocb L. 
' FARCHRlt, C'ommitUe. 

JWk r.>H, Ja». 15, 1880. 

At the last Qenernl Conference, he was 
appointed to represent tbe Second General 
Conference District in the General Mis- 
sionary Committee, where he displayed 
great earnestness and ability, liis loss 
will be greatly mourned. 


It was a great shock to the racm)>era of 
tbe Board of Managers to bear that their 
genial fellow -member, whose delightful 
Christian spirit made bis presence in the 
Board a constant benedtclioo. had l>oen 
called suddenly to the eternal world on 
the 4th of December. The Board aa.wm- 
bled in special scMion at St. Paul's M. K. 
Church, New York, on the 7th, and aftvr 
passing appropriate resolutions, attended 
the funend services in that church, of 
which he had long been ao honored 
otTicial member. 

The Board of Managers, at its sesaioD on~ 
the IStb of January, unaaimuusly elected 
Rev. Sandford Hunt. D.D., Treasurer of 
the Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, to act until the Bishops 
make permanent appointment. 

Mr. A. H. De Haven, of 8t. Paiil'a M. 
K. Church, New York city, was clectod 
at the December meetmg of the Board, 

to Sit the vacancy occasioned by the 
death of Mr. John Elliott; aud was also 
appninted to the place on the C'ommttteea 
on Western Euiope and Finaace. Mr. 
I>e Haven was introduced to the Board at 
the January meeting, and entered upon 
his duties. 


Little did the members of tbe General 
MIssiounry Committee, wbt'U Iliey listened 
to the clear and ringing tones of Dr. 
Hare's voice, in November last, think that 
he would be the first of their number to 
fall beneath tbe blow of death. Yet so it 
was. Cut down by apoplexy, after a few 
days of unconsciousDesa, he died at bia 
home in Poughkeepsie, New York, Jan. 
0. 188^1. In a mluistry of more thau forty 
years, he filled poHiiions of great impor^ 
lance in the New York, New York East, 
New England and Newark Conferencei*, 
aud was Presiding Elder of the Pough- 
keepsie District at the time of hia death. 


Om- of the most faithful and xealoua 
Misaionariea on the honorable roll of our 
Society passed to hia eternal rest when 
Otis Gibsou closed bis eyes to all eirthly 
scenes on Friday, Jan. SSlh, at hishrjmcia 
San Francisco. 

Me graduated from Dickinson College 
in IdSd, and went iuimediately to oar 
mission at Foochow, China, where for 
ten years he rendered lieroic and faithful 
service at a very formative period of tbe 
Mission's history. Uis sound sense, prac- 
tical philanthropy and indomita-ble cour- 
age, were in constant requisition. Aa 
principal of the Boys' School, as preacher 
and claae-leader, as translator, aa itinerant 
evangelist, aa judicious counsellor, he 
proved himself "a workman that needeth 
DO to be ashamed." 

lu lt:l68, he took up Ibo dllBcult work of 
organizing our Chinese Miss'oii in Cali- 

i fornia, and for seventeen years did heroic 
work with unHinchin^ courage and devo- 
tion. Often in danger from mobs, 

I threatened with death, burnt in effigy, 



Ife held stcadilj od h» wht, orftatitzed 
maay ChioeAe Sua day -(ch cols, cstsbliabi'd 
a MiAaion ITumc, opened rhitpvl preailiing 
iu CbiDalown, acijniivd the nffuctirin of 
the OhiDew, who looked up to him as 
their protector, bqU coDiinaDded thv 
respect (if his (.-iiemicii. 

Thrci' 5eftrs ngo, he wm stricken with 
pAfRljsiii — \A% ntrnng frftine fcuccumhing 
tu the jeara of severe atraia tbruugti which 
be was called tu puss. 8iDce that tinie 
he \vM lingered in a eonditiuD n\ physical 
helple«8no9s, byt wiih Mrong devotion lo 
hin Maxter'tf catisc, serene faith, and pious 
resigoulion. Uia career is oae of highest 
buDur, aud be will bu hold in grateful 


MiM Mftry D. Urifilthe and MiM I<oiiifa 
Irabof leave Council Bluffs, Feb. 4tli, to 
aui] (roiu 8an Frnneiscu f<ir Japiin on the 
I8th lo4t. MiKs Aniift Steere and Itliss 
Frances (>. Wilson jstart at the enme lime 
for their work in China— all undt-r ap- 
pointment of tlie Woman's Foreign Slis- 
•ioDur; Society. 

Kev. ,T. I), Spencer isabntit to return to 
hift work in Japnn. He will protiably 
leave durtag Ibe present month, with his 

Rev. F. I), Qamewell hopes lo return to 
China within a few months. Mrs. Oame- 
well'a mother lias died during their stay, 
and the mother of Uro. Oamcwell is now 
very seriously ill. 

nualonary Concert. 

We do not give any specinl itcma under 
this head, because nearly the whole of \\w 
present [iuml>er is adapted to furnish mat- 
ter fur the February Concert. Keud at- 
tentively the admirable paper by Dr. 
Judson Smith, of the Amc^rinan Board ; 
the " Problems Holvcd by Methodism in, 
China," by Dr. Baldwin; the " Historical 
Sketch of Our Cliina Missions," by Rev. 
O. W. Woodall; and the review of 
last yearns work, gathered from the 
AuuuhI Keporl. Do not read any of 
these at the Monthly Concert, but fill your 
mind with the facts and incidents they 
present, and you will not fail to have an 
iotcQitely interesting meeting. 

Kacler Kxcreloea. 

Tbe Sunday -schools are responding 
Doblj to the call for making Easter tiuu- 
dftj t day of special olTcriugs Co the Mis- 
rionary Society. Let them all wheel inio 
line (hi& year, and make a glorious oSer> 
log, worthy of such an immense body as 
now constitutes our dvinday-school army. 

Some time since we received from tbe 
Kev. W. T. Smitli, of Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, an excelLeut RoBponsivti Service, 
prepared expressly for the Children's 
£astcr Missionary Service, and entitled 

"The Triumph." It i» admirably ar- 
ranged, and full of striking features. 
Where ftO or more art taken, they are 
furnished at 1 1-2 cents each. He has 
also a ueat card for collectors, which he 
supplies at 1-2 cent each. 

Recvnily we have received from nur 
Book Agra's at Cincinnati, Cranston jt 
Stuwe, a well prepared ** r.nfit4>r Mission- 
ary Service for the Sunday-School," which 
ihcy supply at 50 cents per hundred by 

Our SiiDday-school friends will find no 
dilltcuUy in obtaining good supplies for 
this interesting service. 

:o: — — 

An InlerfBlIni: Inrldeut fy»m 

About six wi^eks ago Brother L'liinft. 
bury of Hustchuck sent a young man 
from that place witb a note, saying the 
l»ean.>r li»d miended bis mi'tliiigs regu- 
larly for some time and bad expressed a 
desire to lead a Christian life. This 
young man had secured a good place in 
one of ibe hotels in Rustebuck, but wish- 
ing to be free on Sundays, and to attend 
the meetings, he had given it up and had 
applied to Brother Luunsbury for work. 
Tbe latter, a» stated above, then sent him 
to Sistof with a note of recommendation 
to Brother f^dd, who gave him work as 
cook iu the boarding department of our 
school. The young man showed bim»elf 
very faithful in Lis work and gave per- 
fect satlafuciioti. Hip attended the meet- 
ingi regularly and in every way showed 
he was an earueat inquirer after tbe 
truth as it is in Jeflus. About a month 
ago he joined the Student's Temperance 
Society of our school. Uis leisure hours 
he employed iu translating three Bul- 
garian tracts, " Knock, and it tthall be 
opeai'd unto you," "The Coming World" 
and "The Way of Salvation," into his 
own language — the Macedonian Rou- 
maniau. Scarcely, however, had we 
learned In knnw liim, when dcalb 
snatched bim from our midst. On tbe 
3d iijst. he hud a sore throat; the next 
doy he TeJl Uetler. but the following d»y 
he grew worse, and at o'clock, i*.m., 
that day, be died. lie was buried on 
the 6th inst. The funeral sermon in 
which was given a brief sketch of the 
de|tarted Imither, und in which the ex- 
ample hesel to the &tudentfi wan es])cciBl- ' 
1y dwelt upon, made a deep impri'seiou 
upou ull the students. Sp<!aking with i 
one ol them, the i»tlier day, on religion, 
ho expressed Uimwilf in the following 
manner: " I own I have led an indifferent, 
life thus far, but the il<-atb <if our cook 
impressed roe very dw.'ply. Return iug I 
from the funeral I was so ■llfcied that I , 
withdrew to my room, knelt down and 
prayed to God to accept of me and muke 
me His child. I huve mmle up my mind 
to live bcnoeforth for Christ." 

or cnurae very little is kaowo of th 
life of the departed brother. He wa» • 
native of KlisMturu. vilayet of Mnnastir, 
Macedonia, He lived in Scrvia before 
coming to Bulgaria, ll a|tpeArft he has a 
a brother in Servia, and u mother and 
two sisters living probably in the aaroe 
country. From li-ttcra found ntmut 
periton. at his death, it would sreml 
had met with seriouti revenws in busind 
but God had led him lo seek the 
which cannot bi- taken away from 
God's ways are unM*aicliable. We ki 
howerer, that lie doelb all things faf~ 
good, and may He grunt that IhiR sudden 
death may prove a loud call that shall be 
heeded by mnny. 

S. Thomoff. 

Hatof. Deetmber ZB. 1888. 

nanka and Nnn* In Rlsxlm. 

Formerly tlierc were many convents 
and monasteries in Mexico. Eighty yean 
ago, the provincva weredivid«-d amung the 
different order.* of monks; and there were 
150 monasteries with about 2.O0O monkSk 
Forty years ago, there were 50 cnnw 
witb buch a large amoout of real e*' 
that it yielded a net annual income 
500,000 piastres and they had a capi 
besides this, nf 4.500,000 piastres. All 
tbe female orders, except the Sister* of 
Charity, were suppressed by the govern- 
ment in I8tI8. Formerly these orderahad 
much to do with such education as there 
was iu the couutry; but now the pub- 
lic schools are under the control of thl 


Chusen Kinprv** uT Clilna, 

The D:jpartment of Slate has been 
formed by the Minister of the Cnitcd 
Btatea at Pokln of the following edict of 
the Kmprc«8 Dowager, published in the 
Pekin GateUe of Nov. 9, 1888: 

" The Emperor, having reverently suc- 
ceeded to bis exalted inheritance, aod 
increasing day by day in maturity, it is 
becoming that be should select n virtuoiu 
consort to aHt^iiit in the ad mi nisi ration of 
the palace, to control the Emperor's offi- 
cial household, and to encourage tbe 
Emperor himself in upright conduct. 
Let, therefore, Yen-ho-na-la, a daughter 
of Deputy Lieut. Gen. Knei llslane, 
whom we have selected for her dignified 
and viituous character, become the Em 
pvior's consort. A a]iecial edict." 

Alflo this further edict, same date: 

"Let Ta-ta-ln, aged tifteeu years, a 
daugliter of Chang UkQ, formerly a vicc- 
pre-^ident of a board, become the seoon- 
dHry consort of the first rank; and let 
Ta-ta-la, aged thirteen, also daughter 
of Chaug HbQ, formerly vice-preaidcnt of 
a boiird, become imperial concubine of 
the second rank. Respect this." 

It is understood that tbe Emperor ia 
about eigbteen yean of age. 



EuQfiNE R. Smith. 

MARCH, 1889. 

80s Broadway, 

N*«* York CUf, 



"Oucjjcxl-door neighbor," thcsubject of the Monthly' 
ConcLTt (or March, necessarily claims 3. large degree of 
attentia from the people of thiii country. 

With a territory stretching in lalilucle from 15° to 
31* north, and in longitude from S6° to 117° west, an 
area of 750.000 square miles, a population of 1 1,000,000, 
over 2,000,000 of whom arc wliite natives and European 
and American residents, 4,000,000 pure Indians, and 
the remainder half-breeds, and a republiran form of 
government, she presents some very interesting prob- 
lems, aad some not by any means easy of solution. 

The more intelligent part of the people arc to a large 
extent disgusted with Koinanlsin. esjiccially with its 

political manifestations in former years: and, having 
looked upon Romanism as Christianity, they have noi 
unnaturally been tending toward infidelity. The pres- 
ence of Protestant Christianity, in strong force, with all 
necessary evangelical and educational appliances, con- 
stitutes the best hope for arresting this tendency and 
leading this important class to the experience of evan- 
gelical religion. 

Another, and much larger, portion of the people is in 
bigoted adherence to papist forms and ceremonies, and 
we are bound to labor for their enlightenment and 
emancipation ; and there is also a wide field among 
the Indian and half-Indian population. 

There certainly seems to be an open field for Protest- 
ant Christianity tn this nation right at our doors. 





.poetry anb 3on0. 

MUsiouar.r 11,yihu. 


In the palace of God the board is spread. 

The house is ablaze with light — 
The harp and the flute and viol sound. 

The servants are robed in white. 

Gather my gutsis from the N'orth and South, 

From over the Western Sea ; 
Gather from under the rising sun. 

That full may my mansion be. 

There are deserts of snow and cruel ice 

O'crarched by an Arctic night. 
Where the shuddering savage sighs and wails. 

Expecting the coming light. 

Gather my guests, etc. 

There areacres of burning, barren sand, 

Where torrents are e^'cr dr^-. 
And rovers, for lack of cooling streams. 

Lie down in the dust to die. 
Gather my guests, etc. 

There are hunters in forest, mountam, moor. 

And divers in ocean's waves ; 
There arc miners for gold and diamonds 

That know not the blood that saves. 
Gather my guests, etc. 

From the hedge and the highway, street, and lane, 

We summon the sinners all— 
The hungry, the thirsty, the halt, the blind. 

To answer the gracious call. 
Gather my guests, etc. 

Till the house of the Lord be filled throughout. 

Till ordered the guests in place. 
Ill the wedding array of garments clean. 

Till the Master shall. show his face. 
Gather my guests, etc. 

inrl&, cidiorh, ^torii. 

The ClainiK of the Heathen.* 


The author of Missionary Addresifs has won his right 
to speak to the Church on this great theme by very nearly 
thirty years of most faithful service in the field. There 
is no need to enter here upon the details of those labors 
which have contributed so essentially to the present 
thriving condition of our Methodist mission-work in 
India. Some small fragment of them will be found in 
Bishop Thobum's previous book, modestly entitled My 

•A y.ty\<ii 1)% MtttUnttry Addrtut$.y)iy '9.^.1. M. Tholnim, U.D. Phillip* 
A Hiini. N'e« York, iBBS. 

Missitmary Apprenticeship, which the Church has so 
heartily welcomed. But by far the greater portion an- 
as yet unchronicled save as they are written on the 
memories of his deeply attached associates, and arc 
preserved in the archives which shall be opened only at 
the last great day. ' 

It is an unpretending little volume inclosing within 
quiet covers of simple brown ten lectures; five of them 
delivered at the Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston. in 
1877, and five at Boston, in 1888, before the students of 
the School of Theology. But many a large treatise 
contains less of meritorious matter. It is worthy of more 
than mere perusal. Its two hundred and twenty pages 
should be thoroughly studied by those who would put 
themselves in closest sympathy with the great thoughts 
and facts which underlie the mightiest movement of 
modem times. No one but a missionary of large ex- 
perience could, have penned these pages. None nill 
appreciate them so much as other missionaries, but 
all will enjoy them who take an interest in the speedy 
conquest of the world for Christ. They will do much. 
also, toward awakening and increasing that interest in the 
minds and hearts of such as may be led to look at them. 

The style is clear as a bell. Straight as a bullet to- 
ward the mark goes each sentence to its destined end. 
One is never in doubt as to tlic meaning, nor has he to 
read over a p.iragraph twice. There are no involved 
clauses, no elaborate parentheses and studied antitheses 
no newly-coined expressions or far-fetched figures- It 
is pre-eminently fl. spoken style which we find here, well 
adapted to an audience ; as might have been expected, 
since we have to do with addresses, not essays. It is 
never dull or commonplace, but terse, brisk, and hold- 
ing no little electricity. It is strong, as well as clear. 
Positive views are definitely and vigorously set forth. 
There is in it both weight and speed, giving, not heaviness, 
but power and force. The earnestness of the man reveals 
itself in every line. The sentences often throb and 
glow with a fullness of feeling which deeply stirs the 
heart. An evangelistic spirit warmly pervades the 

The general tone of the book is bright and breezy 
a most wholesome degree. Nothing more decidedly 
characterizes it than cheerfulness and hopefulness. Pes- 
simistic conceptions of the present stale or future fort- 
unes of the missionary enterprise receive not the 
slighlest/avor here. Strong faith, as well as feri|cnt love, 
animates all the pages. It is very manifest fnat the 
author cherishes high expectations of the sure if not 
speedy triumph of the Gospel by the energetic prose- 
cution of the measures already in vogtie. His plans 
.ire wide, his projects fnr-reaching. He advocates a 
truly imperial policy; one which looks toward a very 
much larger outlay of men and money for this cause 
[n the not distant future. His bugle-call to the 
Church for a mighty advance along the whole line rings 
loud and clear. If any one has become in the least dis- 
heartened at the slow progress of the work he would d 
well to read these inspiring addresses. 







In the first of them we have depicted the true mis- 
sionary spirit: made up of such high elements as ihe 
constraining love of Christ, implicit obedience to his 
command, intense devotion to his service, niorai heroism, 
and apostolic enthusiasm. 

The second lecture convincinglymainiains that amon>; 
the essential prerequisities to a successful missionary 
career is a special divine call; an unquestionable con- 
viciion, in some way arrived at. that this is the one work 
to which God sets him apart. .Among the chief quali- 
ncations and equipments arc nieniioned a high order of 
ability in practical life, a clear personal experience of 
salvation, some acquaintance with the art of soul-n-inning, 
well-grounded theological views, and settled habits of 

The third lecture takes up missionary methods and 
policies. Among other things it discusses dcprecal- 
ingly the often urged idea that missionaries should adopt 
the style of living of ilic ])eople to whom they go. 
Speaking for most ])arts of the tropical world, the author 
concludes, " The experiment has been tried but too often, 
and 1 think I may say that it has never been tried suc- 
cessfully. I cannot recall a single instance where such 
a style of living has been persisted in after more than a 
very few years of honest trial." The point is tli.Tt the 
gulf which separates the missionary from the heathen, 
.ind which he tries so hard by various expedients to 
bridge, is not mainly a social, but a moral one. The 
chief obstacle to the Chn'stian worker in China or India 
is the same which meets him in America; namely, sin. 
Differences of diet and dress are of very minor mo- 
ment. '* It will not do 10 assume that there is any 
royal road to success, or any secret art by which suc- 
cess may be achieved, or that any one man's success is 
to be accepted as proof that his method is necessarily 
the right one and all others wrong." 

The much mooted question of sclf-suppnn is discrim- 
inatingly treated as '"one girl about on all sides by 
formidable difficulties," and putting "a severe strain 
upon the highest wisdoui and strongest faith of the best 
missionaries in the field," one which ** has not vet been 
fully solved anywhere." The author is not disposed to 
look favorably ui)on industrial enterprises and other forms 
of personal or manual labor as a basis for missionary 
support. Wide experience shows that '' if they succeed 
ihey are very apt to be secularized, white if they fail 
their missionary enterprise is very apt to fail with them." 
It were well if this topic, which has aroused in some 
quarters during the past few year.'* .so much needless and 
unbecoming heat, could always be looked at in the light 
of history and handled with the broad dispassionate 
common sense brought to bear upon it here. 

In discussing, in the fourth lecture, the moral state of 
the heathen the author deprecates the extreme views 
on both sides which have been too frequently put forth, 
and especially protests against the horrible picture of 
them sometimes drawn on the basis of the first chapter 
of Romans; as though those terrible verses applied 
equally, without mitigation, to all races, all classes, 

and all individuals, or were intended to be a complete 
description of the greater part of the human family. 
His testimony is, *" The longer I have lived among the 
people of India the better I have liked them, and I can 
say to«day without any shadow of affectation that I love 
them perhaps better than the people of my native land. 
They have many noble traits of character ; they have 
elements of moral goodness and greatness which, when 
sanctified by grace, will give them a noble position in 
the great family of our common Father. Millions of 
them in their little hamlets live quiet, happy, and peace- 
ful lives, and exemplify many noble virtues in iheir 
humble little homes. I feel bound to maintain that the 
people of India are a more noble people, better ])eo- 
ple, and a more promising people than Ihc outside world 
have ever been disposed to admit. And yet, while con- 
ceding ail that I possibly can in their behalf, so keenly 
do I feel their need of a higher and purer life, of a 
brighter and more luring hope, of a better and nobler 
civilization, that if I had no knowledge of a future state 
of existence at all I would still gladly devote the best 
energies of my remaining days to the work of bringing 
the people of India to a knowledge of Jesus Christ for 
the sake of the unspeakable benefits which they would 
receive even during this present life." 

The fifth lecture sets forth alluringly the great possi- 
bilities of missionary service as a career for aspiring 
young men wlio are not content to build on other men's 
foundations, but wish for a wider sphere of inde])endenT 
administration and personal leadership. There is, no 
doubt, an important truth here ; but we hope no ambi- 
tious youth wilt be encouraged in the idea that the main 
object of life is to do something which never has been 
done before, or will be led to suppose that by merely 
going across the seas he can develop into such a man 
as Kishop Thoburn or Bishop Taylor. Men do not 
radically change their characters by changing their cli- 
mate; and a person who leaves behind him no name or 
work that the world or the Church can take much cog- 
nizance of may nevertheless have a very high seat in 

The " Farewell Commandment " is the expressive title 
of the sixth lecture, and the superlative importance of 
immediate unconditional obedience to ii is strongly de- 

The seventh lecture describes the deep temporal and 
spiritual poverty of the non-Christian world, their fester- 
ing sores and helpless condition, together with our 
abundant resources and Ihe obligations thereby imposed. 
In the eighth we are given some manifest marks of the 
new missionary era soon to dawn — an era which shall be 
characterized by greatly enlarged plans, more systematic 
labor, a very large increase of workers, a much greater 
outpouring of treasure, and an advance all along the line 
of the hosts of Christ's army upon the strongholds of the 
prince of darkness. The ninth address points out the 
hearing of I'entecost on the missionary enter[}rise ; and 
shows how all that is now needed for magnificent, over- 
whelming victory is the infusion of pentecostal ])ower 



into the hundred thousand little bands of b^ievers as 
available for conquest to-day in .ilmost all parts of the 
earth as was the little band at F.phesiis which, under 
Paul's leadership, shook that city and district. The final 
chapter of the book treats of the missionary as the mod- 
ern prophet to the nations, like Jeremiah or John of 
old, a forlhtetler rather than a foreteller, with a weighty 
commission, a vast audience, a glorious message, and a 
mighty work not only in pulling dou-n but in build- 
ing up. 

There are a few points, barely touched upon in this 
little volume, which we esjiecially wish the Church 
might be led to consider more carefully than she yei 
has done. One is the tjuestion, What is, properly speak- 
ing, a missignary, and what is true missionary work ? 
Bishop 'I'hoburn incidentally speaks of '* missionary 
work in the sense in which the whole Christian world 
understands the term " as contrasted with what is 
known as the work of home missions, which should 
rather, he says, be called home evangelization. With 
this in the main we quite agree, but we fear there has 
come to be, in the American part of "the whole Chris- 
tian world," and particularly in the .-Vinerican Methodist 
part of it, a custom of using the terms mission and mis- 
sionary in a very wide and general scnse> neither 
sanctioned by European and English usage nor promo- 
tive of clear thought and the best interests of the 

Il is true chat "missionary," if its derivation be alone 
regarded, msy be applied to any one s^nt to propagate 
religion, even if he be sent no further than the next town 
or the next street. It may also, on the same principle, 
be applied, not simply to those going to bring people out 
of a condition of uttermost non-djscipleship into a con- 
dition of friL-nds)iip and allei;ian(je, but also lu those 
going to make more complete and efficient disciples of 
those already partially or nominally so. But every one 
must see that, by this rule of liberal interpretation, not 
only every Christian minister, but every Christian disci- 
ple worthy of the name is a Christian missionary, and 
indeed all the legitimate work of the Church must he 
classed as missionary work. 

h. strong ohjection to this free, wide use of the term 
is that it so broadens the meaning of the word as to 
leave it really worthless for any practical purposes. It 
has been emptied of all special significance. It hus 
been destroyed by the throwing down of its barriers, 
just as a river is destroyed when its banks are removed 
and all its water is spread over the plain. It is no defi- 
nition of a flower-garden to say simply that it is a piece 
of ground. So it is no definition of a Christian mission- 
ary to say that he is one who is somehow, somewhere, 
eng-iged in promoting the Christian religion. This in- 
cludes loo much. Instead of marking off by the word 
a special portion from the great domain of thought, a 
carefully inclosed park, the gates and fences are all 
taken away, and the whole country side of field and for- 
est, rock and rill, is vaguely indicated. If a missionary 
is made every body In general he becomes nobody in 

particular. The currency by averexi»ansion has become 
so depreciated that it has no value. Our language ii 
cheapened an<l Impoverished by being robbeil of a very 
Important word, which ought not to be thus trifled with. 

The attempt is often made lo mend mailers by 
putting before "missions " thus broadly taken the quali- 
fying words "home" and "foreign." apparently with 
the hope to limit in this way the too-widely-difTuscd 
tenn, and at the same lime extend to labor for the up- 
building of the Church in destitute parts of Chnstian 
countries the same prestige which pertains to the more 
heroic enterprise of establishing Christianity among the 
heathen. But this is very unsatisfactory and Insufficient. 
neither legitimate nor logical. If it is understood that 
all Chribtian work is mission-work then foreign missioni 
are simply Christian labors in a foreign land, and an 
American who goes to England to accept for a lime the 
pastorate of a church there becomes a foreign mission- 
ary ; so does an who comes to America. 
In like manner a Christian mother remaining in her 
own land Is a home missionary, but if she goes to other 
Christian lands she becomes a foreign missionary. Thii 
will hardly do. A defmition which leads to such ah* 
surdities Is shown to be exceedingly imperfect. We do 
not sec how these tenns. home and foreign, can be given 
any filling or permanent place in the vocabulary of 
Christ's kingdom. They do not touch any vital or es- 
sential points. They do not help us at all in getting at 
fundamental distinctions. Arbitrary national lines do 
not rule Christian duty nor define Christian work. 
What important difference is there between working for 
Jesus among the Spanish-sjicaking Roman Catholics of 
New Mexico just north of our national boundary and 
working among precisely the same class of people in oM 
Mexico just south of that boundary? Wbal is gained 
by calling the work among pagan Indian tribes in 
Alaska on one side of a boundary line home missions, 
and exactly the same work among pagan Indian tribes 
in British America on the oihcr side of that line, and 
nearer, perhaps, to New York, foreign missions ? It Is 
not simply or chiefly the place where work is done, 
whether In some part of our own immensely extended 
country, or in an adjacent country, or in a country across 
I the sea, thai best classifies it. Rather is it the kind of 
people who are worked upon that should guide our 

There is a difference very plain and very important 
and very scriptural (neither of which things can be 
said for the terms home and foreign), between conver- 
sion and edification, between the planting or rooting of 
a good seed and its progress lo maturity — between the 
establishment of a self-supporting, self-governing, self- 
propagating Church in a country and ihe indefmilely 
extended processes by which that Church takes more and 
more complete possession of every village and family and 
person in it. The former has been from the beginning. 
and by common usage still is, railed missionary work, in 
distinction from Christian work in general which has 
the latter for its object. 

.1 IIMj 

By Christian missions, then, should be iinderslood 
)u: attcTn|it of the Christian Church to plant Christianity 
B all non-Chriiitian lands, the measures uucd to disci- 
>lic those nations not already discipled, the agencies 
unpluycd by peoples possessing the Gospel to impart its 
Uuwlcdgc and blessings tu those destitute thereof. It 
I the evangelizing of all uncvangclizcd countries ; it is 
the onset of Christendom as a whole against hcalliL-ndom 
in the mass, heathendom in itscompact, organized, defiant 
rm, as it still rules the majority of the population of 
c eanh. It is the overthrow of idolatry, and of all faiths 
posed to the true faith ; all systems that set themselves 
ainst the sovereign lordship of Jesus Christ. He is a 
issionary who is sent forth from some part of Christen- 
m to a non-Christian country to make disciples of those 
tot now in any sense followers of Christ. A country 
rases to be amission field when a living Church has been 
D thoroughly established therein that iisown people who 
re already Christians are able to cope with the task of 
nlightening and instructing sucli of their neighbors as 
re still without knowledge of ihe Saviour. Neither a 
ation nor a Church nor an individual is doing genu- 
K missionary work if it is only looking after its own 
teal or personal interests, however proper and impor- 
int that may be in its place. It is one thing to advance 
gainst an unbroken wilderness, full of wild beasts and 
ogs and rugged rocks, and subdue it, turning it into 
rtiitfnl helds. It is quite another, and a decidedly sub- 
rdinatc thing to make of these fruitful fields a garden 
r a park. The removal nf the excrescences and dis- 
guremenis on the otherwise generally fair face of 
Ihristendom is a task of quite dissimilar importance 
nd difficulty from that of breaking up the whole struct- 
n of heathendom and radically reconstructing tl. 
Iiis perfecting and polishing of communittes already in 
he main Christian, persuading them to do what they 
tnow, or easily might know, they ouglit to do, correcting 
ibuses, dispelling minor errors, reviving zeal, is a work 
»htch apparently will never be completely done. So 
I as we can see there will always remain the duty of ex- 
tnding gospel privileges more completely to remote 
neighborhoods, l.iboring for one's friends, restoring 
wanderers, inciting Inggards. Hut the totally different 
work of overthrowing non-Chrisiian systemsand making 
Clirist lord of every land we firmly believe will one day 
tome to an end. Then will the work of missions prop- 
erly so called, the work to which William Carey sum- 
moned the slumbering millions of Protestant Christen- 
dom, the work of rescuing the perishing heathen and 
P'llverizing the idol temples, be gloriously accomplished. 
Much belter is it every way to hold the words mis- 
sionary and missions as rigidly as possible to this re- 
sricled, specific meaning, and to do away as far as may 
be with the inexact, unsrriptural, crude, confusing dis- 
tinction of home and foreign missions. Instead of home 
Bii«sionar\' societies let us have church building and 
lustcntalion funds to aid feeble societies in the erec- 
tion of houses and the support of their ministers; 
freedmcn's aid and southern or western education 

commissions, to assist needy schools; Indian defense 
associations, to look after the wants of the aborigines, 
and as many other similar organizations as the various 
subdivisions of Christian labor may conveniently call 
for. But call them not missionary. Make a distinc- 
tion between the sphere of the pastor, who is a teacher 
and organizer of Christian work in a specific parish, the 
sphere of the evangelist, who is a preacher or herald of 
the (lospel in a wider di.strict, and the sphere of the 
missionary, who is a founder or planter of the Christian 
religion among non-Christian peoples. These depart- 
ments, although sometimes mingled in the same person, 
should be seiMirately designated and treated. They 
present different problems; give rise to different objec- 
tions; appeal to different sentiments. Much is lost in 
the way of clear, consistent thought, and also in the line 
of the largest practical results, by mixing them up and 
labeling them all alike with the word missions. We 
quite agree with Warneck and ChrJstlieb thai it is in no 
way fitting to s[>eak of the work our American Churches 
are doing in Prussia and Saxony in the same tenns in 
which we speak of the work in Central Africa or Eastern 
Asia. They should be put in a different category, and 
the Christtanization of heathen lands should be regarded 
as the one business of Christian missions. 

If this be correct it becomes evident ihat wli.u the 
Methodist Episcopal Church has thus far done under 
Ihe general name of missions and by means of its Mis- 
sionary Society has not been, for the most part, proper 
mission-work at all. It is not, we presume, commonly 
known, but a careful examination of the figures dis- 
closes the fact that of the twenty millions thus far raised 
by our Missionary' Society no less than eleven millions 
have been appropriated to the home field; and of the 
nine millions sent abroad the greater part, or just about 
four and three quarter millions, have been expended 
among people not heathen, but nominally Christian. Of 
our twenty millions of missionary money, so called, only 
four and a quarter inUIions have been expended for 
strictly missionary purposes. And had the balance 
been struck a few years ago it would have been far more 
deridedly against the heathen, for it is only within a 
comparatively recent period that the foreign missionary 
side of the budget has outweighed the other, and that 
the Asiatic or heathen fields have been receiving "more 
than the European or American. 

That there has been this steady enlargement in the 
proportion of funds voted for declaring the good news 
to those ignorant of it gives testimony to a gradual 
awakening on the part of the people to the fact of their 
past derelictions; and shall we not say also to a steadily 
strengthening conviction on the part of the authorities 
that it has not been in the highest degree honest to raise 
money for the most pan in the name of the heathen and 
then spend it chiefly elsewhere .' ilvit we have long given 
up expecting to see the Methodist Church do its whole 
duly by the p.igan world until it. has a society which 
is wholly missionary in fact as well as in name, or at 
least a society which is entirely occupied with the for- 


cign fields. As Bishup Thoburn says, " Our great 
Clitirch can never move forward in the career of uni- 
form aad M ide-spread conquest wliich might be rightfully 
expected from so powerful a body of ChrUtians until 
our missionary forces are cut loose from all other en- 
tanglements, and their undivided energies thus turned 
upon the spccifii; work which (jod has set before them." 

For at least fifty years this cry has gone up. Forty- 
one years ago, in the MdhvJiii Quarterly Raicw, Dr. 
<i\\i\ poured out his mighty soul with eharactcristic 
vehemence in deepest grief over ihc :>haiiicful fuel that 
near the close of the first fifty years of this missionary 
centur)' the Nfelhodisl Episcopal Church, though it 
had a mi>^ion<iry society for tweiuy-seven years, and 
was second to none in numbers and resources, had yet 
to send its first missionary to ihc heathen world across 
the se.i ; Iiad even to tleiermine the doubtful cjuestion 
whether it would take any decided part in the conver- 
sion of the world from paganism. He pleads passion- 
ately with the Church to attend to this long-neglected 
iluty. and overcome "the inherent and hitherto insuper- 
able re]jugnance of our existing missionary arrange- 
ments to the uncongenial work of evangelizing in dis- 
tant pagan kinds." He adds, "With me opinion has 
ripened into a settled conviction that wu must have a 
distinct bo ud of foreign misKi(ms, retiponsible to God .md 
the Churcli for ihe zealous, faithful prosecution of that 
one work." 

Seventeen years ago Dr. Wentworlh most earnestly 
urged the complete separation of the Foreign Mission,iry 
Society from the Domestic, saying, *' This is a measure 
upon whicli for t)ie [►ast twenty years I have had in- 
tense conviction.s and at tiuics intense fcelmg." He 
shows, as Dr. Olin also did, how thoroughly, almost ex- 
clusively, domestic our so-called Missionary Society 
was in its inception, and how jealously from the begin- 
ning any diversion of ihe funds (almost wholly raised by 
ap])cals for the heathen) from the home fields was 
guarded. The (leneral C^onference of 1856 lefused to 
grant the mem<)rial of the New F.ngland Conference for 
a foreign missionary society, gi%ing as the reason that 
*■ it would make an undue division of the receipts be- 
tween the foreign and domestic work in favor of foreign 
missions." 'Ihe (ieneral Conference of 1888 has re- 
affirmed this refusal, presumably for much the same 
reason, llul we wholly fail to see why the people in 
such a matter are not to be trusted, and why the donors 
of missionary money should not be allowed to say what 
disposition they wish made of their donations. How 
much longer must heathendom beg money to Christian- 
ize ChristendoDi ? Hr»w many more ytars must we wait 
before we see our beloved Church lake the place which 
belongs to her at the head of this column ? 

We do not forget the wonderful things which Meih- 
odism has accomplished on the broad plains of the 
Western World, nor would we minimize the importance 
of that magnificent service to Christianity. We remem- 
ber also that this has seemed to many minds so much 
our special work that we might be excused from all 

other. But we are persuaded that any such one-sided 
view of our calling proceeds from a thoroughly mistaken 
conception, and is bad philosophy as well as false the- 
ology. It is no proper obedience to " the farewell coni- 
mand " to confine our energies to one land, however large 
and important, out of the multitudes that come within 
its scope. We can admit that the order. "Go, preach," 
means Indiana as well as India, New Jersey or New 
Kngland as well as New Guinea or the New Hebrides, 
that the same broad authorization and the same con- 
straining motive covers the whole. But we cannot ad- 
mit that there is even an tifnality of ntcd, much less that 
there is any justification for the overwhelming prepon- 
derance of expenditure and the almost exclusive atten- 
tion given to this one favored country. The late editor 
of the Missionary Jift'itio, the lamented R. G. Wilder. 
wh<j was very careful aliout figures, claimed that less 
than two per cent, of the money raised in thift country 
for religious purposes, or only one dollar in fifty-eight, 
went to foreign missions. That was some years ago. and 
things are a little better now. Bui even if it should 
prove that only forty dollars, or even thirty, were spent at 
home to one abroad, when we add to this the immense 
amount of voluntary, unpaid labor given exclusively to 
this country it will be seen that in practice we do not re- 
gard .America as simply one of the nations, but as nearly 
ail the nations, which is a verj- different thing. Mr.Williara 
K. Blackstnne shows that while there is in the United 
States one minister to every eight hundred persons there 
is only one ordained Protestant missionary to four hun- 
dred thousand in the foreign field, or five hundred times 
as many proportionately here as there : and if the lay 
preachers and Sundav-school teachers be added there 
are six hundred and fifty times as many. Surely there 
is no cause for jealousy on the part of the home-work 
against the foreign. The furmer has had the lion's share 
and the latter the share of the mouse from the begin- 

Furthermore, the way to do the home-work most 
effectually is to engage with vigor in inission.s. It greatly 
helps, instead of hindering. We can best reach the 
West by way of the East. If we wish to strengthen our 
piety so thai it shall be able to save this country wc 
must imparl liberally to other lands. The more we 
give the more we shall have. The nation that obep 
God will prosper ; so wiili the Church. Our resources 
arc inexhaustible. They only need to be drawn out. 
And the hen method of drawing them out is to set fully 
forth this most comprehensive and fundamental, most 
inspiring and .-tttractive work, beside which all other 
things are small : the work of covering Mr ear/ft with 
the knowledge of the Lord. For moral dignity and 
grandeur it is unsurpassed. It combines within itself 
the elements of all that is sublime in human achieve- 
ment ; it reaches the loftiest level of purpose, touche* 
whatever is noblest in superior souls. The very con- 
templation of it kindles enthusiasm, enlarges the mind, 
and strengthens the spiritual powers. Its prosecution 
best calls nut the heroic in man- It is a ta&k of unpar- 

y/ PLEA 

alleled boIdne.<» and gigantic sweep. -It requirtrs the 
mightiest faith, the most unwearied patience, the largest 
love, untiring perseverance, supreme wisdom, exlremest 
9elf-dcnial, and dauntless courage. It has no equal for 
simplicity of means, arduousness of execution, and mag- 
nitude of result aimed at. A piety produced by the 
sincere endeavor to transform the whole world through 
the preaching of Christ crucified will be equal to any 
thing required of it at hmne. This is Bible philosophy 
-ind heavenly wisdom, though it may ap|>ear foolishness 
to the short-sighted, sin-blinded wisdom of men. 

In the new missionary era of which Bishop Thoburn 
so eloquently speaks it is safe to prophesy that the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church will take a far larger share than 
-she is taking now in the overthrow of paganism, and 
that ivithout retrenching in the least her noble work for 
.America. There will be then, and we hope the time is 
not far away, a society of huge proportions, grandly 
manned, whose exclusive province shall be beyond our 
national boundaries. Into its treasury millions will be 
/reely poured, and the other millions no less freely given 
10 objects nearer by will demonstrate how groundless 
were the fears of those who so long held back the 
Church from its true place and privilege by unworthy 
apprehensions as to the use it might make of larger 

A Pica for Barbarimn. 


Thai brilliant editorial writer, Charles Dudley War- 
ner, in the February number of Harper's Magazine 
adroitly and fascinatingly suggests a halt in the advances 
of civilization and as openly and argumcntatively ad- 
vocates a return to barbarism, or a restoration of charac- 
teristic primeval elements and conditions to the modern 
world. The working hypothesis of society has been 
that progress proceeded, or implied a process, from the 
simplicities, the ruggedness, and the brutalities of bar- 
barisra to the rermements, the ornamentations, and the 
humanities of c[vilii:ation ; but this writer ridicules the 
hypothesis and rebukes the law of progression, holding 
that a backward movemenc toward the rough and heroic 
life of savages is a necessity to save our ideal civiliza- 
tion from stagnation and wreck. In this statement of 
his position we employ our own terms, but have been 
careful to maintain his sentiment. On first reading wc 
were impressed that he was satirical; or tbal he was a 
bold trifler with the present age: or that he was posing 
as a pessimist for effect; or that, as a dramatic artist, 
be preferred for the moment to reproduce the forgotten 
eras of anarchy and bloodshed for the sake of variety ; 
but on reflection we have concluded that from mental 
dyspepsia or other infirmities he has failed lo perceive 
the nature, process, trend, and prophetic outcome of 
civilisarion, and therefore animadverts on its highest 

In general, the charge is made that civilization, what- 
tn^er may be its purpose, is losing in power to contain 

itself, and that the race under its dominion ts exhibiting 
signs of feebleness and sujwrannuation. In other words, 
there is less vigor, less efficiency, less stamina in civil- 
ized peoples than among those who live out-doora, feed 
on grass, and caie nothing for ideals. Civilization is 
like a machine that gains in time but loses in power ; 
but the time-gain is worthless If it tend to hasten its own 
extinction. Granting vitality, energy, and quickening 
purpose to modern life, it must soon, all the sooner, in- 
deed, run its course, and react upon itself in a demand 
for something less perfect but more substantial ; less pro- 
gressive, but more heroic ; less saintly, but more home- 
like, more tartarish, more flesh -and-blood expression. 

To this subtle suggestion, similar to the serpent's in 
Eden, wc reply that history teaches that the heroic, 
nomadic, root-ealing peoples have retired Into nothing- 
ness, and that the highly refined and self-disciplined 
nations have laid their hands upon time and have given 
evidence of long futures for themselves. The stamina of 
barbarism is the stamina of death. The out-door peoples 
have gained in power, but lost in lime, and their destiny 
is easily read in advance. 

Modern civilization has lost many things, and may 
lose many more without impairment or danger of decay. 
It ha.s lost the physical symbolism that distinguished 
the days of Nimrod, the reign of the Anakim, and the 
successes of the Vandal ; it has lost Ajax, Ghengis Khan, 
Nero, Henry VIII , and the man of the bow and the 
club; it has lost the spirit of the crusader, the honor of 
the chivalrous knight, and the proud menace of the 
Arab. It no longer glories in baitle-axe, or gun-powder 
plot, or deeds of physical valor, or the triumphs of brute 
force. Physical heroes are not in demand; the laurel 
is for other brows. There is a "remnant," however, of 
Homeric, feudalistic, and Elizabethan characters in 
modern prize-fighters, bomb-throwers, "White Caps," 
and the villains of all lands. These lower etementSp 
neither Heroic nor splendid in any sense, our civiliza- 
tion is quietly eliminating, and it is introducing the 
sway of the higher forces of culture and religion which 
are producing a race of moral heroes in whose presence 
the former should not be named. 

It would be unfortunate. Mr. Warner thinks, if our 
civilization, with its ideal processes, should continue 
until it should become universal, because general dis- 
satisfaction with it would prevail. He intimates that a 
perfect state of society, with perfect homes and a per- 
fect government, is very undesirable, because, once at- 
tained, man would cease to aspire, and he would perish 
from surfeit. The civihzation of all nations is viewed 
as a calamity because the end having been reached there 
would be nothing further to do. Barbarism, therefore, 
is proposed as the cure of a fatal inaction; it is the 
condirion of healthful life. Sin will prevent stagnation; 
therefore, sin. Wc need not the quickening power of 
virtue to which the Gospel points, but the rebellious 
power of vice in order lo develop the virtuous power in 
man. The theory assumes that ihe ennoblement of 
man is conditioned upon the antagonism of evil to his 


developrnt-nt, and ihat the elimination of obstacles which 
oiir civilization presupposes would render it incompe- 
tent lo discipline and develop man. Hence it is quite 
lime to restrain our efTorts at reform and repair, lest we 
overdo and at last find our civilization a burden to crush 
and not an instrument to perfect us. In its wildest de- 
lirium transcendentalism never ran so far from a true 
conception of the race and its mission. Certain it is 
that man will never attain to a moral condition beyond 
which it will be impossible to go: for as the mind 
enlarges the field of its activity enlarges, and as the 
soul more nearly affiliates with the eternal its life re- 
gains energy and presses on to still more exalted refine- 
ments and possibilities. In the gosi>el world there are 
no provisions for reartion.1, no liabilities of retrogres- 
sion, and no limitations either of activity or power. 
Even if, in the course of human development, a period 
should be reached when man couM proceed no farther 
and he must turn backward for employment, it is so re- 
mote in the future that it is a crime to suggest even its 
possibility; for modernism is not so free of hinderanccs 
and so smooth and easy in its workings as to justify tlie 
fear that it is progressmg too rapidly and will soon over- 
throw the world by its perfection. 

The proof that civilization is not as yet ideal in 
nature or process is the fact cited by Mr. Warner, that 
it seems not to have power sufificient to civilize the bar- 
barians in our great cities and eliminate evil among u». 
We seem to be able, with our missionary forces, lo d" 
more in Africa than in London or New York ; but this 
proves not the inefficiency of civilization, or the ideal- 
ism undergrounding it, but that we are trusting too 
much to secular elements which often are not even re- 
formatory, and not enough to the application of ethical 
or regenerating principles to the barbaric multitudes in 
these lands. By what process would Mr. Warner trans- 
form these city barbarians into perfect men and women ? 
Will the method of a red-bearded Saxon, or a hot- 
blooded Norman, or an idolatrous Egyptian king, or a 
I>olygamous Arab sheik purify of taint, exalt a taste or 
the beautiful, and in.spire a love of the tnie in the de- 
based masses of the republic' Is it more savagery, 
more Hottentotish brutality, more out-door force that is 
wanted? Must Shakespeare's tragedies be repeated or 
actualized in order to teach the untaught lessons of con- 
science and life ? Nay, verily. What is needed is the 
specific preaching of the Gospel lo all the people, that 
ihey may Icam the wisdom and righteousness of the 
Lord, and that the race may go forward to that con- 
dition of repose from sin that will insure a larger growth 
and a richer life, according to the manifest purpose of 
Christ which is revealed in the Gospel. The weakness 
of our civilization is not that it is ideal, but that it is 
coarse, rough, and semi-brutal ; and it will never ex- 
hibit its highest possibilities and its greatest strength 
until, separating itself from the savagery of the times, it 
aims at ideal ends through ideal processes carried for- 
ward by instruments in perfect sympathy with the gos- 
pel view of the outcome of history. 


Protestant Mis^ilons in Human Catholic Couu- 

Why should such missions exist.' Why, wiih the vast 
fields that arc open in heathen lahds, where millions 
live who know absolutely nothing of Christian truth, 
should Protestants expend any part of their missionary 
money and effort in lands that are known to the world 
at large as Christian lands ? 

There arc those who need no answer lo these qu 
lions. I'he fact that such missions exist and are zeal- 
ously supported shows, on the part of some at least,,- 
recognition of their necessity. 

But there arc others to whom a distinct answer may 
be of service. We live in times of religious toleration. 
Christians arc at present inclined to emphasize not so 
much Iheir difference on the things they hold in com- 
mon. This is a matter for great rejoicing. But it is 
not to be overlooked that in this amiable mood we arc 
in danger of losing sight of great essentials. Thus it is 
that Roman Catholics are commonly called Christians. 
Catholicism is very often named by Protestants as "a 
f(jrm of Christianity." And whoever raises a question 
at this point is st^re to be regarded as narrow in his 
views, wanting in historic insight, and wanting also in 
proper refinement of Christian feeling. Protestant 
missions in Roman Catholic countries, as well as efforts 
elsewhere to win Roman Catholics to Christ, are accord- 
ingly regarded by some as pitiable exhibitions of sec- 
tarianism, "proselytizing" efforts with which broad- 
minded Christians can have no sympathy whatever. 
With some the feeling is not so deep. It doe^ not 
amount lo aversion ; it is indifference. Such missions- 
appear to them rather tmralled for. 

It might be well for all persons holding such views 
remember that such missions exist, and that they exist 
by virtue of the fact ihat men of large wisdom, men 
justly prominent in Christian thought and activity, rec- 
ognize the call for them. But Protestants hold stoutly 
to the right of private judgment, even if it is .1 weak 
judgment, and especially if the judgment is their own. 
Appeal, therefore, lo the wisdom of Bishops and mis- 
sionary committees, missionary superintendents, and 
missionaries, and churches, ts not enough. Some^ 
measure of discussion is in order. 

It is to be admitted that Catholicism embraces c 
tain great Christian truths. It is not to he denied i 
among Roman Catholics there are devout Christians.' 
Nor have we any disposition lo deny what is sometimes 
so passionately asserted, tliat the Roman Catholic Church 
has performed in the past and is performing in the 
present certain great and valuable service.s. Let that 
stand to prove that we are not writing in the mood of 
purblind sectarianism. 

But still we find reasons for missions among Koin. 

Our most general reason most plainly stated is t 
Roman Catholicism is not " a form of Christianity," but 
a perversion and a corruption of Christianitv. 







Catholicism holds great truths it overlays those truths 
vilh great faUehoods xvhich in a large measure nullify 
the power of ihe truth. If among Catholics thtre arc 
genuine Christians it is also to hn remembered Cathol- 
icism embraces great masses who are more like pagans 
than Christians; and the dc't^iadatiun of the people has 
most persistently remained where the sway of the Roman 
Catholic Church has been most complete. And if that 
Church has performed ^tcul services it has also stood 
and still stands as a powerful foe to Christian progress. 
It would be a healthful exercise for some I'rotesianls to 
read I^a's Hiitory of tht Inquisition^ or Prescoti's PhiUp 
the SetOHii, or Motleys Duhh Hepuhlic, or even to read 
more carefully the daily newspapers. 
The fault of Catholicism is fundamental. 
It is not merely a matter of outward forms, as the sign 
of the cross, or the use of hnly water, or the ringing of 
IkIU, and the burning of candles, and countin^r beads, 
nd repeating prayers in Latin. It is not t]}at Catholi- 
cism makes ap|>eals to the senses. .\ppcals tu the senses 
re no worse than ap|K'als to curiosity or to love of nov- 
Ity — things not exclusively Roman Catholic. 
Roman Catholicism is fundamentally wrong in that it 
holds a fundamentally false conception of Christianity. 
Catholicism regards Chriscianiiy as a law. Christianity 
is not a law, but a gospel. 

ng the various attempts to save men that the 
has .seen, this difference V>etween law and gospel 
constantly appears. All. with one exception, depend 
Urgely, commonly altogether, for their efficiency upon 
external restraints. Regulations minute and authorita- 
tive are imposed upon the conduct and upon the faith, 
Bnhminism is a law ; so is Buddhism, so Muhammed- 
anisni; so was Judaism, though it was a law having 
promise of somethinj^ belti'r that was to cume. When 
Christianity came it came not chiefly as a law, but as m 
gospel. It swept aside minute regulations. It laid is true, certain principles and precepts not only 
for tbc outward conduct but also for the hidden life of 
'he heart. Christ annoimces his own laws. But the 
gTtti glory of Christianity was not even in this law. 
but in the power it brought and offered freely lo men to 
)(cc|i this law. In other words, C'hristianity proposes to 
wvc men, not by external restraints, but by endowing 
rtiem with a new life. Men become Christians not 
Itirough a churchly rite, nor by .submitting to churchly 
""ulesof conduct, but by a new birth. The hope of men, 
according to the New Testament, especially, is not in 
'he power of outward restraints, but in the power of the 
Moly Spirit working within. 

Here we see one of the deepest distinctions between 
Catholicism and I'roteslantism. The one proclaims law. 
'he other the (lospel. It is a fact to be sorrowfully ad- 
milted that Protest.iniism has not always been true to 
ilielf at this |»oini. Rules for outward conduct, not 
ipthortxed by the word of God, have in some cases been 
Dflposed upon members of ProtL-stant cliurchcs. This 
'^Jewish or Caih<»lic nuher than Pnite.stani. But it is 
injc also that in the main the just distinction has been 

observed. The leading idea of Catholicism as lo Chris- 
tianity is that of law rather than gospel; and with Prot- 
estantism it is the reverse. On the one hand we have, 
therefore, as the watchword ''authority; " on the other 
" Christ." On the one h.ind the authority of the Church, 
on the other " Christ the power of God and the wisdom 
of God." We look in the one direction and we find a 
Church commanding ol>edience to itself in all things. 
Legal ideas of merit and demerit arc made prominent 
and controlling, and the law upon which they are based 
Va that of ihi: Church. Works of suiicrerogation arc- 
recognized. Indulgences arc procjiaimed and granted. 
Purgatory is a legal expiation endured by men destined 
to bliss, but first to be purified from their sins by its- 
fires. In all this and in many other things we see 
Christianity conceived of as a law. We look in tJie 
other direction and we find Protestantism proclaiming 
Christ, asking men to submit to Christ, to come di- 
rectly to him, and to find in him forgiveness for their 
sins, and the jmwcr to lead holy lives. We are justified 
freely by his grace. We say " not by works of right- 
eousness which we have done, but according to his mercy 
he hath saved us." The supreme motive of Christian 
life is not that of dread for the authority of the Church,, 
but that of love for Him who has loved us. 

But there is another great distinction between Catholi- 
cism and Proiesianiism. a distinction also between Ca- 
tholicism and Christianity. It relates lothe way in which 
Christianity is revealed. It is one of largest conse- 

Christianity was revealed by Christ. The work he 
began was carried on by Ihe apostles speaking and writ- 
ing under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. So far 
Catholics and Protestants are agreed. But at this point 
a separation begins. 

The aposiolate, Catholicism holds, is a permanent 
order in the Church. The bishops, not as individuals, 
but in the councils of the Church, are apostles. What- 
ever is determined by the councils is determined by the- 
same infallible authority which guided the original 
apostles, 'I'he apostolate centers in the pope. What- 
ever the pope speaks ^.r iothuira, is infallible. The 
New Testament does not contain the (omplele revela- 
tion of Christianity. The Bible is not the sufficient rule 
for the faith and practice of Christians. It iliust be 
supplemented by the decision of the councils and the 

As Protestants we hold that the apostolate expired 
with the disappearance of the last of the original apos- 
tles. From the nature of the case they could have nO' 
successors. Their position was unique, their work pe- 
culiar. They were the eye-witnesses of our Lord's min- 
istry. They were sent to declare what ihey had seen 
and heard. They were especially and infallibly in- 
spired. The writings of the New Testament liave there- 
fore a peculiar value. There can be no utterances of 
the Church (Assessing the same or equal authority. All 
creeds, all teachings, all opinions must do reverence to 
the Scriptures. 





These two great errors, one relating to ihc character 

of Chrislianiiy and the other to ihc way in which it 
is revealed, lie at the foundation of Catholicism, and 
have shown their power for evil throughout all itshislory. 
They y;o far toward explaining its history and its prac- 
lical effects among men. 

ihc Roman Catholic Church has been for centuries 
a dcspoltsni. It has claimed for itself supreme authority. 
It has suslained despots in their most cruel opprcrssicn 
if ihey would only acknowledge the authority of a des- 
potism greater than their own. It has never siood lor 
religious or civil freedom, and never can, as long as it 
claims the authority thai belongs only lo Christ. It 
may draw the velvet glove over its iron hand, but the 
iron hand remains unchanged. As long as it proposes 
lo save men through imposing regulations ui>on them 
instead of by enlightening them and leading them to 
Christ it will not represent Christ, but misrepresent him. 

The Roman Catholic Church, it is also lo be remem- 
bered, has been logical with itself in withholding the 
Hible from the people and in giving dogmas of its own. 
Luther was twenty years of age before he had ever seen 
a Hible, and the great bulk of Roman Catholics at the 
present day dare not read the Bible for themselves. 
Why.' Because the teachings of an infallible Church 
are substituted for those of the Holy Scriptures, 'i'each- 
ings of men are given in the name of Christ. Divine 
honors are paid to the Virgin Mary in words of ancient 
psalms which were written in honor and praise of Jeho- 
vah. Her intercessions are lauded as of equal if not 
greater value than those of the Saviour. 

The priest has power to forgive or to withhold for- 
^veness of sins. 

The privilege of direct access to God is replaced by a 
I'ancied access through sinful men. 

All this and much more has come through the idea 
that the Church, which claims supreme authority, claims 
also to be the fountain of continued infallible revelation. 

It should not surprise us to find that the C^hurch 
■which makes such claims not only fails in a large meas- 
ure to lead the people to a Christian life, but has so 
often exhibited undeniable and indescribable corrnption. 
and has aided worldly influences in corrupting the 
people. The truth that it teaches despite all errors has 
penetrated some souls, more, perhaps, than we sometimes 
imagine; but the abominations that have been sanc- 
tioned and fostered by the Roman Catholic Church are 
so well known by every reader of history and are so 
easily observed by every intelligent traveler in Catholic 
countries that no room is left for doubt as to the prac- 
tical tendency and effect of Catholicism. It is not 
Christianity, It must at last be replaced by the pure 
faith of the Gospel, "the faith once delivered imto the 

When that time comes, and an intelligent faith lakes 
the place of credulity and superstition, while '* relics " 
will lose thctr value, and jjriestly absolution be num- 
bered among the follies of the past, Christ will be e.\- 
jtlted and his name glorified. 

Progress iu North China. 


I wes much pleased on my last trip with the outlook 
on the Tsunhuaand Lanchou districts. I spent a week 
with Brother Pyke and Dr. Hopkins at the city of I-an- 
choii. It was during the semi-annual fair held in the 
city, and the chapel was crowded with listeners from 
morning till night. Dr. Hopkins treated the patients io 
another room, seeing from fifty to ninety each day. It 
is too early to report definite results, but the indications 
are hopeful. Several persons were much interested, 
and three young men — clerks in a store in the city- 
expressed their desire to unite with the church. The 
quarterly meeting services, held on the Sabbath, were 
interesting as indicating the progress of the past two 
ycirs, Some had come twenty miles to attend the 
meeting. The testimonies at the love-feast were free 
from stereotype expressions and indicated genuine ex* 
per ie nee. 

From I.anchou Dr. Hopkins returned to Tsunhiia, 
and Brother Pyke and I went on two days' journey 
farther, to Shanhai Kuan. This city is, from a political 
standpoint, the most important in all this ea.stcm part 
of the province. On a tablet over the ea.stern gate is 
the inscription in large characters, " The First Post un^r 
Heavni" (the last two words being a common dcsigan- 
tion for China). 

The ciiy is divided into three distinct sections, the cast 
and west suburbs being of almost equal importance with 
the city, and each surrounded by substantial brick wall*. 
The cast wall of the east suburb is part of the Great 
Wall, which extends beyond the city to the gulf, about 
two miles away. A camp of soldiers is situated near 
the terminus of the Great Wall, protected by strong 
earthworks. The soldiers arc drilled in foreign tactics 
by a German officer. The Great Wall mounts a high« 
precipitate hill a few miles west of the city and then 
turns abruptly la the north and disappears behind tlic 
mountains. We came in sight of it again several times 
on our return to Tsunhua. In one place its course was 
nearly in a straight line, and a section of many miles' 
length could be seen at one time. Kverj* peak or 
prominence was crowned with the towers of the Wall, 
giving the impression of a great saw stretched across 
the horizon with its huge teelh lurned toward the sky. 
In oihcr places we could only see a single tower, stand- 
ing as a lone sentinel among the mountains; and again 
a portion could be seen winding up the side of the 
mountain like an immense serpent. 

The Chinese Telegraph Company have a station in 
the city situated next door to our chapel premises. 
The agent and operatives are all friendly to us, and 
when approached by some of the neighbors to assist 
them in opposing 011 r possession of the premises we had 
purchased used their influence in our favor, saying wc 
were all right and they were glad to have us next to 
ihem. That seemed to settle the case, for we have 
heard of no further opposition. We had anticipated 


A A'E.\f/X/.SCKXCF. 


considerable difficulty in securing u place in tlie city 
and were a^rccahly surprised to find ourselves peaceably 
Incited in a good situation. The people on the streets 
treated us respectfully, and wc called on the officials at 
the city xate and informed them of our purposes and 
that wc had purchased a chapel, which fact we found 
they already knew. Thus another stake has been 
driven never to be removed — another station opened 
as a center of evangelistic work, two hundred and thirty 
miles east of Peking. 

On our return we spent the Sabbath at Funing, which 
city IS beautifully situated within an amphitheater of 
hills. We had visited this city several timvs before, and 
our helpers have been making periodical visits to It for 
some years; but we had no settled place for our work. 
We made arrangements for securing a building to serve 
as chapel and school-room. We met several inquirers, 
three of whom are literary men. The native helper 
enters upon the work on this circuit with commendable 
xeal and with hopeful prospects of success. 

I returned home by way of Tsunhua, where my family 
had been waiting for me, and wc reached Peking after 
an absence of 6ve weeks. 

The first news that greeted me on my return was a 
cablegram announcing the slaughter of our estimates by 
the General Committee. We must wait for the mail to 
learn the particulars, but no explanation can relieve our 
utter disappointment or avert the disastrous effect on 
our work. This is the only time in twenty years that 
this mission has suffered such serious reduction in our 
estimates. Never was our work more full of promise — 
our membership having doubled within two years — and 
never was ihcrc grea[er prospect for good results from 
enlarged plans and a vigorous advance on all lines of 
work; but this command to retreat crushes our hopes 
and discourages our plans. Publish it abroad that the 
great Methodist Church, with two millions of members, 
sends forth half a score of missionaries to grapple with 
the forces of evil in the heart of the greatest and most 
influential heathen nation of the world, and in the hour 
of their direst need withdraws her support and calls a 
halt! Rather than inaugurate a policy of retrenchment 
such as this diminished support indicates withdraw the 
mission and turn its work over lo one of our smaller 
»sters, and give the funds necessary to carry it on suc- 
cessfully to some of the weak churches in Christian 
.\merica; and then, as one after another of their doors 
are closed, write over the weather-stained boards," There 
is that withhcldeth more than is meet, but it tendeih to 

The discouragements incident to the work itself nre 
all we can bear, and wc are not prepared for this addi- 
tional burden of being deserted by our friends. The 
work of this mission cannot be successfully sustained 
on a smaller appropriation than it has had this year. 
We are willing and ready to do our best, but the re- 
sponsibility of failure when the support is cut off will 
not rest at this end of ihe line. 

.All members of the mission are in usual health. Dr. 

and Mrs. Curliss are rejoicing over the birth of a little 
daughter. Brother Walker is absent, visiting the work 
on the southern part of his district and in Shantung. 
Brother WilUts is holding special scr\'ices at Hantsun. 

A Kt^ininisreiK'e. 


Considerable discussion has recently taken place in 
the newspapers on the subject of foreign missions. 
Canon Taylor, of the Church of England, precipitated 
the wordy conflict by affirming in a magazine article 
that modern missionary enterprise had stamped itself 
with failure. Many valuable facts and figures were 
brought to light in the comment that imme- 
diately followed, both the secular and religious press 
rendering im[)ortant service to a movement that em- 
braces more nationalities, and a larger degree of success 
for the means and effort involved, than any other 
modern enterprise. 

The appointments of the North China Mission for the 
year 18SS-9 have to me a peculiar interest and meaning. 
On the i2lh day of March. 1869, I arrived with my fam- 
iiy in the city of Peking, after a stormy trip up the coast 
and a toilsome journey overland from Tientsin. Sev- 
eral of us had suffered much from exposure, and our 
only little boy died before we could secure a hired 

Six weeks after our advent in the great city Rev. H. 
H. Lowry and family joined us; and, having begun 
humc-life in temporary quarters, we addressed ourselves 
to the task of securing a permanent location. One year 
was spent in looking through that ancient capital, and 
many attempts were made by wily natives lo deceive us 
into the purchase of inferior properly at enormous prices. 
Hut we finally secured at a reason.ible figure very desir- 
able premises in the south-e.istern part of the Tartar city, 
made necessary repairs and improvements, and soon 
opened a domestic chapel, where we began to hold forth 
the word of life. At the end of four years we had 
a small native church, one native helper, a .day-school, 
and three preachinp-])laccs or chapels in the city, with 
only the beginnings of the woman's work; at which time 
I relumed to the United States. 

And now, as I read these appoinlments, I am ready to 
L-.xclaim, "What h.ith God wrought!" Within twenty 
years, including two or three years of little more than 
preparatory labor, we see a great mission with five 
districts and as many presiding eiders, a strong corps of 
native pastors guiding their flocks and persuading sin- 
ners, a university having a bishop for chancellor, a col- 
lege of theology, a college of medicine, together with a 
large girls' boarding-school and a well-equipped evangel- 
istic work among the women. 

In the conflict with Confucianism at its head-center, 
with Buddhistic fanaticism in every phase of develop- 
ment, with Taoism in its stronghold, and with a name- 
less legion of superstitions, our missionaries have 





already won Mihstanttal vicion*. Itinerant Methodism, 
proclaiming iheitoiipel ihroughoui the imperial province, 
and northward, southward and westward into other prov* 
incea, has planted churches in the centers of population 
over a vast area, forming llie nuclei of several Confer- 
ences in the near future. If this be not success I know 
not where wc are to look for it. Let us thank God and 
lake courage. And I am so glad thai I toiled at the 

The "(iospel Swiet^v " In Japiiii. 

BV W. *. WORDKN, M.D. 

One of the features of Christian work in Yokohaiua is 
iJie Fukuinkwat, or Gospel Society. This work was 
started in Yokohama the i iili of January, 1884, by eight 
persons, some of whom had been to San Francisco and 
wibhed to begin in Yokohama a work similar to that 
of the Japanese mission in that city. 

The objects sought for by those who founded this 
society were, first, lo gather together the young men 
who return from America and who may be wandering 
about in this port, homeless and friendless; to make a 
(.'hriscian home for their wliere they can (ind entertain- 
ment for a few days, if nect:ssary. and to assist them to 
procure eniploymt-nt, and to encourage them to attend 
church and come under Christian influence. Second, 
To gather together the young men of Yokohama; to 
give them 0[>purtunity for education and self-culture by 
neans of a night-school, and to instruct them in virtue 
and the Christian faith. 

The aim of the society is a gospel work in behalf of 
young men; to instruct ihcm in true manliness, lo be 
icmiKTance men, to abstain from the use of tobacco, 
and to give ii[> tlie worshijj of idols and become fc)l- 
loweni of Christ. The plans of these founders included 
education for the poor young men, a library and read- 
ing-room, and a dispensary and hospital. In fiict, every 
thing that would be for ttie good and profit of the 
young men. In their own words, "Such gr.ind things 
we cannot huild up of ourselves ; but we asked God 
10 bless us and to help us and to give us success in 
these objects." The work r>f the society was begun in 
a small Japanese house in Furocho, called a '* Ko- 
gisho," or ijrcaching-placc, the np-sCairs being used for 
a school. 

Owing to the cholera in the summer of tSK6 the 
school was moved lo Okinacho. In March of 1887 it 
was again moved to Tobe, and in .\ngiist of the same 
year it was moved to its present quarters in Furocho. 
The building is a substantial two-storied wooden Iiouse. 
A room occupying one hilf of the street frontage is used 
for a bookstore, where all the publications of our mis- 
sion-press are for sale, as well as other literature and 

The main body of the ground floor is U-ied for school 
purposes, and it is divided by J.Tpanesc p.irtitions into 
three rooms; tiiese partitions can be easily removed, 




thus throwing the whole into one large room with 
capacity for about three hundred. In the rear, raised 
a little above the school-room floor and spread with 
Japanese " latami," or mats, is the library and reading* 
room. The second floor is used by the W. F. M. S. fiq 
a day-school for boys and girls. 

The control of the Fukuinkwai is committed to sevi 
trustees, elected by our Chojamachi Methodist Epi^ 
copal Church. One of these. Mr. Ninomiya. the leader 
and chief spirit in the work of the society, represent* 
the .sotriety before the Government and is the acknowl 
edged head. 

The work carried on by the Fukuinkwai is varied an( 
extensive and entirely in harmony with its avowed ot 

Here, five evenings in the week, is held a night-schooTT 
where English, Chinese, Japanese, mathematics, book- 
keeping, etc., are taught. There are about sixty stu- 
dents, who are merchants, clerks, employes of the 
Government in the jiost-office, custom-house, and police, 
and other young men. ^H 

In the day-school, carried on by the W. F. .M. S^ 
there are almut one hundred and fifty scholars, and in 
the Sunday*school about two hundred and thirt^H 
scholars. ^H 

The Fukuinkwai is a great center for Christian work, 
and is a great help and feeder to our churches. The 
library and reading-room was opened last spring, and i» 
free to all. It contains nearly two hundred Engli^H 
volumes and about two hundred and eighty Chinese an^* 
Japanese books. The tiibles of the reading-room arc 
supplied with four dailies and six other periodicals in 
Japanese. I cannot close this article without a word of 
eulogy for Mr. Ninomiya, who has been the leader of 
this work. He has recently left remunerative employ- 
ment in a silk firm and refused a fine offer, that he 
might give his time to Christian work in connection with 
the Fukuinkwai and the Tobe church, which has recently 
sprung into existence, and of which he i?. the pastor. 
Great good is coming to our Church from the enter- 
]>rise and stirring up of new ideas which originate froi 
this Fukuinkwai. 

It is conceded we have no work in Japan whit 
has yielded, better results to the Church for the amoul 
of money expended than the Fukuinkwais of Tokyo ai 
Yokohama. They are also centers of spiritual powel 
as shown by the fact that the great revival of the fa 
and winter of 1887-1888 originated in the Fuk< 

It is feared that the work of these societies may Iw 
somewhat embarrassed, owing to the refusal of the 
board to grant the usual appropriation to help carry ok 
the work of the Fukuinkwais for 1889. We hope sor 
of our kind friends will remember our free library an( 
reading-room^ the only one of its kind In Yokohama, 
and send us books and papers. Will not some of our 
friends send us the illustrated magazines and our Chris- 
tian periodicals for the reading-room ? 

Yokohama, y*iff. 16, 1889. 

Relatiuiis Betwt^'ii Hunu' »nd K»ri>iKii MiNNinns. 

*Th« ((allowing xnw»tTiKti fiuni ^iipen rcjil, mJ fcnurk^ oiaJc lati llic alKiie 
%illii''l, at lh« Ccnieiury Conference on Miwij<iai> hclil in l^iulon id June, iSHS): 

Rxv. James Urown, D.D., (Paisley). 
Our special interest in this Conference is in Foreign 
Missions; but the two deparlments of missions arc 
mscparably connected. They were connected first of 
all in our ({real rommisslon. that repentance and remis- 
sion of sins should be preached tinto .ill nations, begin- 
ning at Jerusalem. And while we arc meeting here and 
striving to help each other in the work of preaching 
rcfKnlance arid remission of sins to all nations we of the 
<!irt'erent nationalities represented must be remembering 
each our Jerusalem ; for interest in Foreign Missions 
docs not by any means diminish interest in Home Mis- 
sions. Those who plead the needs of the home lieathen 
as an excuse for doing nothing to help the heathen 
■abroad have never been found to be more liberal or 
more active in rheir sen-ires on behalf of the heathen at 
home. Nor is it wonderful that it should be so. Our 
interest in all nations, and in seeking that repentance 
and remission of sins should be preached to them, ex- 
pands our hearts, opens our minds, and opens our pock- 
ets too for those that lie nearer to our doors. 

What can we do to make our country more thoroughly 
Christian in all classes of society, from the highest to 
the lowest of its population, than it is at present ? If 
our Foreign Mission work leads us to realize the press- 
ing necessity for home missionary work it also moves 
i:s, I think, and educates u.s, to <lt> that work better. 
l\ 1 may be allowed to refer to the history of tlie Church 
which I have the honor to represent (and I am sure that 
mjr friend. Dr. Taylor, who is the honored son of the 
same Church, will bear me out), I may say tbat the first 
thing that increased our zeal for home work was our 
Foreign Mission work. We began that work when we 
wwe a comparatively small and a comparatively poor 
Church. We were, I believe, in the van among The 
Churches of Scotland in our missionary work; we went 
up by leaps and bounds from ^500 in 1845 until we 
reached the sum of about ^40,000 a year. Well, did 
that impoverish us for our home work? No; for our 
foreign Mission Secretary, Dr. MacGill, used to be 
Vto\id to tell that it was Foreign Missions that had 
™s«d the stipends of our home ministers, that had 
l>Bik their manses, that had provided an evangelistic 
fund 10 send laborers among ihe masses of our i»opu- 
Ijtion. It is strictly trie that by work abroad, by the 
sponsion of heart and sympathy, and the habit nf libcr- 
^*y engendered on behalf of the Foreign Missions, the 
^'•^me Mission is greatly benL-fited, I will not enter on 
ihc subject further, because I do not wish to anticipate 
the gentlemen who have to read pajjers. 

Rev. Georck Wii.sox (Edinburgh). 
^^e Reaction of Missionary Effort Abroad on the Health 
and Prosperity of the Cbunh »t Home. 
In this paper I shall attempt lo open for discussion 
**o questions. !*irst, does the investment, on the part 

of the Church, of men and money, of faith and prayer in 

the mission field yield an ade«)iiale interest or return? 
Second, if this question is answered in the affirmative* 
how is the Church at home to be more fully awakened 
lo her own self-interest in the evangelization of the 

The first question can surely be settled without con- 
troversy. That the Church ha.s every thing to gain and 
nothing to lose by aggressive expansion over heathen 
lands is, we think, an elemental Christian fact. On 
what sure foundation do missions rest ? They do not 
belong to the order of free experiment, or reasonable 
expedient, or voluntary benevolence, or logical infer- 
ence, but to the order of positive and imperative revela- 
tion. And according to revelation it is the will of Christ 
that his Church be the evangelist of the world. In 
support of this we do not need lo quote missionary 
commands, missionarj- promises, missionary [iredictions, 
The whole of revelation, in its broad lines of tendency. 
in its dispensational developments, in its purpose and 
spiril, converges on this — that the Church of Christ, 
elected, selected, redeemed, and endowed, enjoys all her 
rights, possesses all her privileges, and holds all her en- 
dowments of grace for the evangelization of the world. 
The missionary enterprise i<i not a mere aspect or 
of Christianity ; it is ChriMianity itself. 

From this fact, that the Church of Christ is radically 
and essentially missionary, it follows: First, that the 
Church that is non-missionary is in a very grave sense 
non-Christian. It crosses a divine purpose, resists a 
divine call, ruptures divine order, and diverges from 
the great line of development in the kingdom of God. 
Second, that the non-missionary Church sins directly 
against its own self-interest. In the kingdom of Christ 
there is no law more clear than this — that disobedience 
to his will means spiritual poverty, that surrender 10 
his will means spiritual wealth. Third, that the spirit- 
ual vitality and vigor of the Church may always be meas- 
ured by its missionary spirit and enterprise. A Church 
is pure and strong according to the number of true 
believers which it contains ; believers are true accord- 
ing to their likeness to Christ ; and the sum of all the 
best which met in Christ met in his missionary charac- 
ter. The Church that is true must be missionary, for 
she has been redeefiied by, and lives in, exists for, and 
follows, or imitates, a missionary Saviour. 

In short, in the light of full scriptural statement, in the 
light of root Christian principle, in the light of the oj)era- 
tion of spiritual laws, there is this line of action and re- 
action in the kingdom of Christ — the Mission is the out- 
come of the true Church, and the pure, the strong and 
prosperous Church is the outcome of the Mission. As 
I read my Bible and study the conception of the Church 
which it contains I can find no provision in the great 
economy of grace whereby a home Church can be made 
healthy, strong, and prosperous where the evangelization 
of the worid is neglected or ignored. 

Passing from revelation to history, where the prin- 
ciples of grace are displayed, and where the new factor 


/u<'rir/:/:\ no.\ff': a\d foreigx .\nssiONs 


of providence emerges, we reach the same conclusions^ 
that missions abroad react on the self-interest of the 
Church at home. First, it is now historical common- 
place to affirm lha.1 the non-missionary Church decays 
Hod dies, thai tlie missionary Church lives and grows. 
Indeed, it is all round [rue ihat the Jnyituiion that has 
no power of self-propagalion has no resource of self-sup- 
pori. Second, it is historically clear that every great 
spiritual awakening in the Church at home has witnessed 
a fresh departure in the great field of missions. And 
the converse is true — that missionary epochs are always 
times of hlcssing to the Church at home. Third, it is 
historically manifest that where great church movements 
have not included the outward movement of missions 
the beneficence of the movement has been woefully 
marred. In the third and sixteenth centuries we have 
epochs of marvelous Christian activity without the out- 
ward enterprise of missions. They were movements in 
which the Church was mainly self-centered and 

I do not depreciate the .i]>Ienciid inheritance we have 
from these two periods. But there are two things about 
them to be deplored : (i) they gave us terminology for 
our teaching, abstract, abstruse, metaphysical, and largely 
unpreachable; (2) they brought into the Church that 
party spirit that by division and subdivision has so mu- 
lil.ated her fair form and shorn her of her strength. I 
venture to express the conviction if in these epochs the 
Church had readjusted her creed and reformed her con- 
stitution in view of her conquest of the world Pnr Christ 
her creed would have been more simple, more direct, 
and more speakable, and her spirit would have been 
sweeter, more brotherly, and Christ-like. As I read 
ihe history of the Church, and watch her in tlie 
hand of a testing Providence, marking where and wliy 
she is weak, where and why she is strong, noting lier 
health and purity, her sickness and shame, I am led, in 
view of all the facts, to the conclusion that missions 
abroad are the strength and glory of the Church at home. 

How can the Church at home be more fully awakened 
to the fact that her missions to the heathen react on her 
own sclf-iriterest .' 

First, the Churcli needs to learn what her self-inlerest 
really is. (1) That .she be clothed with the beauty of 
Christ's hotinesst as a bride adorned for her husband ; 
(2) that she be the organ of Christ's will, whatever that 
will may be ; (3) that she be endowed with the Spirit of 
Christ, as the great power of her service. A Church 
separated from the world ; a Church consecrated to 
Christ ; a (."hurch Inspired from on high — that is the 
Church which knows her self-interest. 

Second, the Church needs to make her look-out on the 
world the look-out of Christ her Master. When she 
sees the world with the Saviour's eyes, feels toward the 
world with the Saviour's heart, and stands on the thresh- 
old of ihe world thrilled witJi the Saviour's purpose, 
the whole landscape of the kingdom, at home and 
abroad, will fall into perspective, and the gold of both 
lands will become her own. 

Third, the Church needs 10 abandon her occasi 
missionary sermon and maJce missions the very fiber 
and 3ubstance of all her teaching. It is surely a sound 
and safe rule for the Church that general and 
subjects have the same proportion in her teaching which 
they have in the word of God. Now the Bible is m 
general drift, in dis|K*nsational sections, and in special 
detail a missionary book. 1 am not wresting it when I 
sum it up in an aphorism, " Christ for the world and the 
world for Christ." ■■ 

Fourth, the Church needs to learn the culture of'^'l 
simplicity. I do not depreciate architecture, music, fine 
form, '* sweetness and light " in the Church of Christ. I 
would not cast out of it one of " God's prophets of the 
beautiful." Uut let the Church keep her eye outward 
on that great heathen world, and upward on the will of 
her Master, and so build, and so decorate, and so wor- 
ship. Let her do this, and there will be more simplicity, 
more culture, more beauty — and more missions. 

Fifth, the Church needs to send the flower of her 
manhood and womanhood into the mission field and 
keep in living touch with thenv there. The influence of 
a faithful missionary on the Church he represents is uti- 
speakable. Think of the inheritance of the very namn 
of Carey, Martyn, Livingstone^ Duff, Paltcson, to the 
Church ihey represented ! But the influence of a faith- 
less, undertoncd missionary on the Church at home is 
appalling. Brethren from the mission field, we look to 
you ; to your character, your work, your fearless, faith- 
ful witness for Christ. Do not think you waste the 
aroma of your influence on the desert air. It rises to 
God as sweet incense, and it conies over ihe seas to us 
at home, the very breath of your hope and our hope 
the conquest of the world for Christ. 

Sixth, the Church needs sanctified money. I am na 
a Jesuit in pleading that money is sanctified by the pur- 
pose for which it is spent. I see God in his sovcreigr« 
grace and wisdom taking evil powers and transforming 
them into beneficent ministries. But in jjleading mis- 
sions for the sake of the Church at home we want the 
money sanctified by the motive which gives it. Lei us- 
have no missionary debt, no missionary taxes, no tricks 
of trade in missionary mnnigement. Let us fail for" 
Christ rather than succeed with a shadow on our policr. 
God-made missionaries and God-given money lo sup- 
port them ; God's gift of Christ to preach and God* 
gifted men to preach it ; God-opened doors and God- 
sent men to enter them; God's truth the seed, and 
God's glory the harvest — these arc the things thai blend 
all interests at home and abroad, and these are the 
grounds of our hope of the crowning day. 

Rev. Professor Aiken, D.D., (Princeton, U. S. A) 

The starting-point in all true Christian service at 
home or abroad is the clear recognition and the un- 
qualified acceptance of the lordship of Jesus Christ. 
We are ready for service neither at home nor abroad 
unless we have been taught by the Holy Ghost to say 
that Jesus Christ is Lord. Now when we as a Church, 


A'ELATJO.ys BETH' /:/■:. y jiomk axd fokligx .xu^itiJONii. 


or as individuals, have been taught by the Holy Ghost 
to say, "Jesus Christ is Lord," what aiiitiide shall ure 
take in regard to service? We break out at once — as 
i'aul did when the revelation wasi made to hiin on the 
road to Damascus that the Jcaus whom he had been 
persecuting was Lord; we break out with liim and say. 
'* Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ? " That first 
word of the future apostle after that revelation of the 
Christ, which, fur the tirae being, struck him with bod- 
ily blindness while it Ailed his soul with new and inde- 
«»ciibable ^lory ; that first word, " Lord," put him into 
new relations, and furnishes us with the interpretation 
of all that he was and did afterward. And when he 
had thus addressed Jcstis as his Lord what could he do 
but ask the question that followed. "What wilt ihou 
have me to do ? " If ("hrist is Lord we are to sene him, 
and we are to learn how we are lo serve him from him. 
"What will thou have me lo do?" If wc come to 
Christ with any reservation as lo the place where wc arc 
willing to serve him, as to the forms in and through 
which we are willing to serve him, we have not yet 
learned the lesson of full surrender and consecration to 
him. 1 am accustomed to say to my own students at 
home, in the conference- room and in private conversa- 
tion, ** If you are not willing to serve Jesus Christ any- 
where you are not yet ready to serve him anywhere." 

There are certain romantic and sentimental considera- 
tions that appeal very strongly to sumc minds in view 
Df the foreign work, and lead men and women lo conse- 
crate themselves to it. Hut if they are influenced by 
romantic views only they are soon spent, and do not 
continue long in the service of Jesus Christ in the midst 
of the difficulties of foreign service. On the other hand, 
in our consideration of home work, there are also self- 
ish considerations which have a certain influence. The 
danger is lest they should become loo important. Wc 
are led lo take part earnestly and persistently in labor- 
ing for the evangelization of the wretched and the poor 
of East London, and in the heart of the waste places in 
this country and in other lands, by the considerations 
that lead us to look after sanitary arrangements about 
our homes, and police and educational arrangements. 
Self-protection against the manifold and awful evils 
which threaten us from the vice and crime of these un- 
wangelizcd multitudes at home would lead us to do 
what wc can to carry tlie light and power of the Gosi>el, 
the only true reformer and elevator, to those about us 
whose present condition is one of evil and is threaten- 
ing to us. 

Foreign missionary work reacts in a most direct and 
powerful way upon the Church's recognition of the real- 
ity and the completeness of the lordship of Jesus 
Christ. "AH power is given unto me in heaven and 
upon earth. Go ye therefore unto all nations." In the 
foreign raissionary work is not a Church continually 
teaming the lesson that all power is given to Jesus 
Christ our Lord ? 

We also learn a new and simple lesson in regard lo 
the solemnity of the relationship of trustee in which we 

stand to this Gospel. Do we remember, Christian friends^ 
thai this is our relation lo this Gospel ? We are trustees. 
Now, very often the financial ruin that comes upon men 
here — the failure, for instance, of your Glasgow bank» 
and of our institutions on the other side of the water — 
grows out of the fact that those who are trustees have 
failed lo keep what they ought to have kept that was 
intrusted to them. But if wc are false in our trustee- 
ship it will be because we fail to give what wc ought lo 
have given. That is the difference between the failure 
of the Church in its (rnsteeship, in its relation to the 
Gospel, and the failures or common disasters of business- 
men in their service with reference to the things com- 
mitted lo their trust. They fail to keep that which they 
simuld have kept — that which was inlrusied to them ; 
wc fail to diffuse that which was given u.s not to be 
stacked up, locked up, and kept from possible use by 
others, but to be given with frecness and with prompt- 
ness, and in all loyalty and fidelity, to those for whose 
sakes in part Christ came to give this Gospel lo us. He 
gave that Gospel to us t6 be used as an instrument of his 
by which we his cho.sen servants may bring others lo 

A third reaction ui)on the Church life at home is its 
reaction upon the doctrine and order and method of the 
Church. If this Foreign Mission experience does not 
teach us in any thing to alter the terms of our creed 
(and it ought to teach us sonielhing there), it teaches u.s 
new things with regard to where we should put the em- 
phasis. .\\ home in our Conferences we sometimes have 
to magnify unduly the things that are .small and cover 
up the things that are great. But in the Foreign Mis- 
sionary work wc learn where the stress of Christ's teach- 
ing is lo he laid. \Vhat arc the great doctrines that arc 
to be held up? Not the things by which we may justify 
ourselves for mainiaining the position we hold. We are 
to lay the stress upon maintaining the truths we hold in 
common, and which as our common charge we arc 
to proclaim in Christ's name over all the earlh. 

This missionary experience will leach us in raaiiy 
things what measure of importance lo attach to extern:il 
things; and we shall learn whai things are mereiy exter- 
nal. This foreign missionary work reads in a most 
salutary and powerful way in regard to our belief as lo 
the oneness of the (Christian Church. When we come 
to make our motto, '* Christ for the world, and the world 
for Christ," then wc shall come to the recognition our- 
selves of the essential oneness of the Cliurch of Jesus 
Christ our Lord ; and this great problem of Christian 
unity, which is being pressed upon us in so many differ- 
ent ways in all lands^will be hastened toward a solution. 
.And 1 believe it is only in that way that it will ever 
come toward a solution. 

Kt;v. Professor Lindsay, D.D., (Free Church 

College, Glasgow). ' 

The Church which forgets that there is a differeme 
between Home Mission work on the one side and For- 
eign Mission work on the other will do both parts of its 



work the best ; both dc]}cnd ujion the same jKjwer of 
<J<id*s Holy Spirit working in the Church. Our Chris- 
tian Church was born in a rcvi%al; from revival to revi- 
val is the law of the Church's on-goiiij; ; and the modern 
history of the Church tells us that whenever God'b 
Holy Spirit shakes his Church mightily then home mis- 
sionary work and foreign missionary work are at ihe same 
level, and are prosecuted with ihc s.ime zeal. 

Let me call to mind th,n marvelous revival in Ger- 
many — the Pietist movement. Sjiencr, a child of the 
imaginative Rhincland. laid hold of Francke, a son of 
the old trading I.ubeck stock. The latter put into 
practical form the ideas of the former, and out of the 
whole came such home missionary work as in the Halle 
Orphan House and the Cannstadt Bible Depot, from 
whence went the first German missionaries to the 
heathen. The great Moravian Church, which more than 
any other forgets that Foreign Missions are a secondary 
ihing, came out of the Pieiist revival. In the VVcsIeyan 
revival the same thing is seen. That revival produced 
not merely the Methodist Churches, that marvelous 
birih of modern times, and the great evangelical raove- 
inenl in ihc Church of Kngland ; it also laid the great 
foundation of the great missionary associations which 
now are the glory of the Church of England and of Non- 
conformist Churches in England. In Scotland that re- 
vival of religion which had for its outcome ihc separa- 
tion of the Free Church from the Slate had for its one 
arm the home mission work of Dr. Chalmers, and for its 
other the foreign mission work of Dr. Duff. 

I do not care for theology if you mean by it little 
bundles of ideas wrapped up in appropriate propositions. 
Living theology is the rationale of spiritual forces, and 
the description of great spiritual events ; and I say that 
real living theology which takes hold of and teaches the 
great facts of man's sin and Christ's salvation, of the 
present and overpowering influence of God's Holy Spirit, 
can know no difference between home missionary work 
on the one hand and foreign missionary work on the 
other. The Church which neglects the one cannot 
prosecute the other, The Church which is the great 
home mission worker is the Church which sends most 
abroad to heathen brethren and sisters. 

I think I can put before you from home missionary 
work what is to my mind a most vivid [licture of what 
foreign mission work should be. I can recall a scene 
in a church in Glasgow where we were doing work 
among the lapsed. In one of our afternoon meetings 
I saw this : A woman in a battered bonnet, a faded 
shawl, and a great blue mark across her forehead ; a baby 
half hidden in a dirty shawl, and a little girl, shoeless 
and stockinglesss, by her side; and a young lady, gently 
cultured, highly cultivated, by her with one arm round 
Ihe little bairn and her hand on the woman's shoulder, 
striving to bring back to her that womanhood she had 
lost. Is not that a picture of the home Church, of the 
Church of Christ enriched by all the gifts that God's Spirit 
has given it, stretching forth and laying its hand on these 
heathen who are still beyond the fold of the Saviour? 

We are anxious, and rightly, to support our home 
Churches with money and with all kintls of support, and 
to make the congregational work go well. Kut if we think 
uf nothing beyond our congregation and our Church 
we belittle our Christian work. Nothing so takes us be- 
yond ourselves as an interest in foreign mission work. 
When we subscribe (ot the missionary and his work, 
when we read missionar)- intelligence, how that lifts us 
beyond ourselves and makes us feel that we belong, not 
to the small circle round about us, but to the great Cath- 
olic Church of God, which would fain fill the whole 
world I The one thing which more than any thmg else 
brings home to a congregation, and to individual Chris- 
tian men and women here — the one thing which brings 
home to them that communion of the saints, that com- 
panionship of liclievers, that great, mighty, invisible 
Church of God which has filled so much of the world's 
history in the past and has yet to fill the ages — is its en- 
thusiasm for foreign missionary work. 

Foreign Missions have taught the home Churches one 
or two practical things. Foreign missionaries, and their 
wives especially, have taught the home Churches the 
value of woman's work among women. They began ii, 
and we are only very slowly following in their footsteps. 

Another thing that foreign missionary .work hu 
taught us is how to use our converts to help their un- 
converted neighbors. The first idea of the foreign mis- 
sionary is how Co get some men whom he has beet 
instructing to stand by hts side and work along with 
him on their neighbors. We are only beginning to learn 
this in our home mission work, and unless we learn the 
lesson we shall not succeed as we ought to do. We 
must. learn to make workers out of the first converts in 
our district, and set them, who are in more thorough sym- 
pathy with the people of the district than any other as- 
sistants can be, to work among their neighbors. When 
that has been done marvelous work for Christ will re- 
sult. This is a lesson from foreign mission work. 

Then, lastly, Foreign Missions teach us that there may 
be united action in spile of want of iticorporate union. 
You know how we are divided ; but, somehow or other, 
all this son of thing disappears on the foreign mission 
field. I am persuaded that the one great thing which is 
going to fuse together the evangelistic Churches at 
home is their co-operation and work in the foreign mis- 
sion field. 

Rev. F. a. Nobi.b, D.D., (Chicago). 

First, iniere^l in Furei^^n Miishm helps to devfhp a 
comprehensive idea of ili%nne ialvation. In reading the 
gospels we find these two thoughts— first, the love of 
God individualized to every soul. We read of "the 
disciple whom Jesus loved." He loved Mary and Mar- 
tha. " He loved me," says the apostle, "and gave him- 
self forme." It isall individualized and made personal. 
Then, on the other hand, we read that this Gospel has 
broadened out until it takes in all the nations and all 
the generations of the world. " God so loved the world, 
that he gave his only begotten Son, that wbosoe\*er be- 




ieveth on him should not pen'sh^ but have ifverUtsting 
ife." Now It is this latter idea that it ts diffictilt In 
raiti a Church into the comprehension of. Very fre- 
|ucntly we find men intent upon ihcir uvvn salvation, 
nd full of joy in the ihouyht that llicy have found the 
*ord Jesus Christ, but who have not yet found their way 
Qto thai broad thought which comprehends that the 
alvation of Jesus Christ is for all souls, every-where. 
tut the influence of I-'oreign Missions, the influence of 
»ork by men whom we have known personally in Japan, 
n China, in India, in the islands of the sea, when they 
iome back to us and tell the story of their experience, 
fe, and work, always is to lift up the individual who 
in the membership of the Church into a comprehen- 
live view of the vastness — the length, and breadth, and 
iepth — of this blessed fiospel of Jesus Christ. 

Secondly, a^firr interest in Foreign Afissians helps in 
expressing a sense of feihnvship and unity in the home 
Church. As Professor Aiken, ihe brotlier who has pre- 
ceded roe, dwelt upon ihat point, 1 need simply indicate, 
4s we read that wonderful prayer of our Lord, that we 
find him crj'ing out that all may be one, and as we in- 
terpret the instincts of our own need we find ourselves 
<lrawn toward those who also love the Lord Jesus Christ. 
Here is the prayer of the Lord, here is the instinct, or 
inpalse of the renewed soul, drawing us all toward each 
ether. And yet, friends, how hard it has been in the 
inst for those who differ in thetr views of doctrine, or 
differ in their methods of Church polity, to stand to- 
j^ether and lock hands, and bring heart into sympathy 
with heart, and see eye to eye with reference to these 
great things. 

I first set foot upon this English soil at Liverpool. ] 
had a few days to spare, so I journeyed by slow stages 
to I^^ndon. 1 wanted to see some of the old churches 
and cathedrals. I went into them, and I noticed in 
■every church and cathedral and castle I eniered that I 
heard first of all the same story of restoration ; that they 
asked for funds to restore this or that. I speak with 
«mire respect of movements of this kind. At any rate 
I im rot hero to-day to utter any criticism ; but I was 
ii>«d at Stratford for a penny to restore the church 
vhere Shakespeare's bones are supposed to be placed. 

I thought of another restoration that was indeed neces- 
SIT)*. I remembfred that it came to me with an impress- 
Jfcness I never recollect to have felt before — that every 
/ace into which I looked was made in tlie image of God. 
But how marred, how deformed they were now ! .And 

II Seemed to me that any comparison between the res* 
ioration of a castle wall or a cathedral and the restora- 
xioD of a human soul into the image of God would be 
impossible. J meditated on this over and over as I was 
•cti my way to this great Conference, which should take 
in its .irms of faith and love all the nations of ihe earth 
JwdJift them up to the throne of grace. I seemed to 
«ec the Lord Jesus Christ with upraised hands bending 
down over the millions of Africa and whispering to 
OS, "Restore, restore in them the image of God." 
And I saw him brooding over the islands of the sea and 

saying, " Restore these to the image in which they were 
rnidc." And Japan, and China, and India, is he not 
bending over them to-day, and saying to you and to me 
and lo us all, "Give time, give tliotight, give substance, 
give sympathy, give every thing, that they may be re- 
stored and be the children of the Father.'" 

Thirdly, aetive interest in mission-work helps to ciiueate 
a Church in liberality. 

Let me tell of matters thai have come within my own 
experience. The testimonies that have come, and that 
we have heard from these brethren that have come from 
the fields in which chey have labored, have been of the 
highest value ; and if any thing that I am saying lo you 
now shall be of any special value it will be because il 
is aullienticated by what has actually taken place. 
About ten years ago the providence of God led me to 
the pastorate of my church in Chicago. The church 
had had a long and a severe struggle, but we were be- 
Hveen $50,000 and $60,000 in debt. The men who 
were in it had given and given. 'I"hey were compelled 
lo meet the current expenses of the church, and it was 
as much as they could do to meet the semi-annual inter- 
est of this vast sum. After years of discouragement 
they had decided they could not do any thing for 
Foreign Missions, nor much, if any thing, for Home 
Missions. I had been for days taking an estimate of 
things. I went into the pulpit one Sabbath, I announced 
the schedule of benefactions. I said, "Wc will give 
so much for this and so much for that. In two weeks 
we will take the annual collection on behalf of Foreign 
Missions. I tell you what I want you to do. 1 want 
you to give $600." They looked at each other and ihey 
looked at me. The sum was so vast that they had not 
any words of reproach. So I escaped. Next Sunday 
morning I repeated the announcement, and said, " Re- 
membernext Sunday you give this$6oo." I heard some 
remarks about the new minister thai had come. \Ve 
took our collection. What was it.' It was not $600. 
but $Soo. 

When I took my chair ihe next Sunday mnming it 
was the most astonished congregation you ever saw. 
What was the outcome ? They began lo have some sort 
of faith in themselves, some son of respect for their 
capacity ; they found their means were not exhausted. 
In six years we had paid every dollar of onr indebted- 
ness and raised our contributions up to nearly $t2,ooo. 
There is no church in this continent, or any otlicr, 
which, if the minister will put his heart into it, and say, 
" Our sympathies must be as broad as the sympathies of 
Jesus Christ, our interests must be as wide as the in- 
terests of Jesus Christ," cannot be brought to give of 
its substance for foreign missioniry work. 

Fourthly, interest in Foreign Missions helps to hold the 
Church to the simple evangelical truths of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ. If the reporters will do rac the kindness 
to take that down I do not care if they do not take any 
thing else. I will repeat it. Interest in Foreign Mis- 
sions helps to hold the Church to the simple evangeli- 
cal truths of the Gospel. I coined that out of some ck- 




pericocc we have had in America. I coined th:it because 
I believe wc are coming into the realizaiionof a vast irulh. 
We are having men at home — in America— and 1 suppose 
you have them here, and in France, and in Germany, 
who have su^sfitutfd in a large measure a ktmi oj pbiloiophw 
savored with a iiUU hody of Gospel frut/is, for the Gospel 
itself. What is the use of going to China, what is the 
use of going to Japan with a phiIoso])hy ? What is the 
use of going with an utterly godle^is science? What is 
the use of taking the richest literature you produce at 
Cambridge, or Oxford, and going to these pagan nations 
with it? There is nothing tliat lias in it the puwcr uf 
I'tod except the Gospel of Jesus ChYisl. 'Diose who 
come back worn and sanctified by the grace of God 
from the fields where they have stood face to face with 
godless races and nations do not come back with phi- 
losophies and sciences, falsely so-called, and all the arts 
and outcome of our modern literature, but they come 
back and say to us at home, " Preach the Gospel ; the 
simple Gospel of Jesus Christ." 

Rev. Principal MacVicar, D.IK, (Montreal): 

The precise question is, What are the benefits which 
the Churcli at home derives from Foreign Missions? 
These have been so admirably staled that I feel very 
much like rising simply to say " Amen " to what has 
already been presented. Five minutes will be quite suffi- 
cient for me to say what I desire. First of all, wiih re- 
gard to Foreign Missions, 1 take it that they help men 
and women to deeper insight into the nature of the 
kingdom of God and the mind of Jesus Christ ; and, 
therefore, they teach the home Church the true nature 
of her own work. Specially do they emphasize this 
thought — that none of us liveth to himself, and that 
the Church does not exist simply to take care of herself, 
but to be instrumental in the enlightenment and salvation 
of the world. I believe, too, that Foreign Missions have 
done very much to teach the Church how to do her own 

The question is very frequently asked. What arc we to 
do for our masses ? And the truth is that the masses in 
many of our great centers of population are chasing the 
Churches away from them. Now foreign missionaries 
have notliing to do with any other class than the masses. 
They arc not sent to occupy magnificent churches, well 
cushioned and equipped in every respect. They go into 
tile slums of human population, and they show us the 
great need that these men have to be loved, and the 
greater need that they have to be helped and saved. 
Foreign missionaries furnish a standing evidence of the 
value of Christianity. It is well enough to speak of in- 
ternal and external and collateral evidence of the truth 
of the Bible. It is well enough for some pundits to go 
into the British Museum and decipher obscure charac- 
ters and tell us fresh truths of the word of God. I sub- 
juit, however, that what is most convincing and most 
stirring to the home Churches is the effect of divine 
truth, presented in a clear and simple way. on degraded 
humanity, the power of Christ through his Gospel to lift 

heathen nations u]} into the light and liberty of the chil- 
dren of God. 

Foreign Missions, too. teach us emphatically the need 
of vastly greater liberality. We need to be taught m 
this respect. Parsimony is one of the glaring sins of 
Christian i>eopIe — downright meanness, and at the same 
time shameful abuse of that which God has put under 
our control in gratifying our own selfish ends. I wish to 
empliasize the fact that the unity of the Church is greatly 
promoted by this work, and that the time is come when 
it is felt thai the weakest pari of every man's creed is that 
which he holds alone, and thai the strongest part is thai 
which he holds in common with the whole of Christemlom, 

Rev. William M. Tavlob. D.D., (New York): 

I believe we are all of one opinion upon this matter 
here, and therefore there is no need to argue it out. It 
is because the objection has been made in other quarters 
that home missionary activity is neglected by those 
who prosecute the foreign missionary enterpri&e, that wc 
have to take the defensive. Some years ago, when there 
were great missionary gatherings in Exeter Hall, I re- 
member a cartoon in Punch which represented some 
clerical -looking individuals moving along the pavement 
with a little street arab looking up at them and saying. 
" Please, ain't I black enough f " That is the kind of 
antagonism we have been called upon to meet. It is 
indulged in mostly by those who do not know any thing 
about missionary work. One thing which has not yet 
been spoken of I should like to lift into the foreground. 
I refer to the influence in the home Churches of the 
biographies of foreign missionaries. I believe there 
have been missionaries at home quite as eminent for 
earnestness, piety, and self-devotion as those who have 
gone abroad ; but what these last have done has been 
done in the sight of all people. Their isolation has 
placed them like Aaron on Mount Hor. We have 
learned to know and to love them. We have seen them, 
or rather we have heard of tlit-nj, in all their enterprises 
and efforts. And so the reaction of their characters 
has come back upon us and has elevated our own Chris- 
tian life higher than it would have been if ihey had not 
gone into those missionar>- enterprises. 

I should like to say that we have in the successes of- 
our foreign missionaries an antidote to the assaults of 
infidelity, at tlie very moment when it is most needed at 
home. One cannot but admire the honesty and candor 
with which Charles Darwin acknowledged that he was 
wrong in supposing that the inhabitants of Terra del 
Fuego never could be elevated by the Gospel. I think 
that the success which attended the efforts made there 
was worth going into the field for if for no other reason 
than to have that acknowledgment from a man like 
Charles Darwin ; a man whose character for honesty and 
accuracy of observation was beyond all doubt, whatever 
might be said of his theory. Nothing could liave been 
more valuable at the time in which it came than the tes- 
timony which was furnished by the successes of Foreign 
Missions in our different stations. I ihink wc ought to 

THE soiOMoy /si.ia'ds. 


glorify God for them. The Fijians, for example, 
have come up from heathenism to ctvilizalion in a single 
genefatton. There has been no long process of develop- 
ment or evolution in their case, but a spiritual creation 
by God's Holy Spirit. 

Another fact I should like to stale because it refers 
to two young friends of my own. Wc have in New York 
two young men who are famous above most for earnest 
efforts on behalf of the masses of the people. The one 
is Dr, A. F. Schauffler ; the other is the honored son of 
an honored father, l>r. Judson, the son of Adoniram 
Judson. Both of these men are laboring in the slums 
of New York city, proving that home and foreign mis- 
■fionary enterprise is one. They have the raission.iry 
2eal by inheritance. iJr. Schanffler's father labored 
long in Turkey, and I>r. Judson'a in Burma. The sons 
are to-day, with the zeal of their fathers, laboring in the 
streets and lanes of New Vork city. I believe another 
son of Dr. Schauffler is labo^i^^ among the Bohemians 
in Cleveland. So. you see, the work is one. .And we 
can afford to treat, I think, with a good deal of contempt 
the cynical sneers of those who say, '' We do not care 
any thing about I*oreign Missions; we believe in Home 
Missions." Indeed, the best way to deal with such 
people is to say, "We have a Home Mission too. Will 
you give us a little for that?" I have always found 
that made them, as we say in the West, " Shut up." 

Rev. John Hewlett, (L.M.S., from Benares) : 

Foreign missionary work reacts powerfully upon our 
belief in Christian doctrines. Now I find great complaints 
made in this country that in the preaching of ministers 
and in religious writings the atonement of our blessed 
Lord is often kept in the background, .ind Christian 
morality and the example of our Lord are too exclu- 
sively put in the front and even substimted for the doc- 
trine of the atonement Well, now, as a missionary I feel 
that if it were not for the atonement «f t'hrist alt our 
efforts for the spiritual conversion of the heathen would 
be in vain. In lndi.i, when I have spoken to natives 
about our Lord as an example, and about his morality, 1 
have indeed seen proofs of their being much inicrested ; 
but this is not what has touched their hearts. It is the 
doctrine that our Lord loved them and gave himself for 
thera ; that they were sinners and could not be saved 
unless God's dear Son had come into this world and 
taken their gnilt lo himself and laid down his life for 
them, that has touched their hearts. 

There is another point which has been brought out 
in various ways. It is this: that participation in mission- 
ary work, or an interest in it, tells powerfully upon the 
whole life of the Church. Now we hear in this country 
of methods adopted to lead (o the higher Christian life. 
We heat of holiness conventions, and far Ue it from me 
to say a word against ihem. I thank God for every 
effort made to advance the Christian life, to bring peo- 
ple into closer union with God. to make ihein enjoy 
more of the love of Christ and of fellowship with him. 

But I believe it is not by mere meetings that we are 

to attain to the higher Christian life. I believe that it i$ 
when wc labor for the salvation of others, when our 
hearts go forth in love toward the whole human race, 
when we pray for the human race, when wc contribute 
of our wealth to bring the whole human race to Christ — 
it is [hen wc become more Christ-like : it is thus thai we 
feel bound to look lu Christ and lo receive life fruin 
him into our souls, and thus th.-!! we attain, better than 
in any other way, to the higher Christian life. 

BisHof EsHER, (Evangelical Association of North 
.\merica) ; 

The obstacles in the way of home and foreign mis- 
sion work are formidable ; to human possibilities simply 

The Church in general is still seriously lacking, her 
efforts jre comparatively lukewarm, and her offerings 
insignificant. But she is doing something, aye, a great 
deal ; she has at least begun to take hold of her work — 
the conversion of the world to Christ; and the result is 
.simply marvelous in both departments of her work, 
Hoth these departments go hand in hand. Their object 
is the same — to turn man from darkness lo light, and 
from the power of Satan unto (iod ; to receive for- 
giveness of sins and inheritance among them which are 
sanctified by faith in Christ ; to establish the righteous- 
ness of God among men. The value uf medical mis- 
sionary service cannot well be overestimated. Woman's 
help is of greatest importance, both at home and abroad. 
But the divinely-ordained principle, the great means, is 
the preaching of repentance and remission of sins in 
Christ's name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem, 
and this by men fully qualified and supported by a pure 
and prayerful Church. Nothing else will accomplish 
the great purpose of the mission of the Church of Christ. 
Her work is divine, and only by the power of the Holy 
Spirit carried in sanctified vessels, devoted for life and 
for death, can this work be accomjilishcd — it is being 
accomplished — at home and abroad. 

Wc ought to raise annually at least a dollar per mem* 
ber, say 50.000,000 evangelical Christians, You British 
Christians could easily do it alont-. Bui we all want to 
have equal shares ; and I for one am ready to give a 
pledge for my church for the amount stated, besides all 
other contributions for church purposes and good causes 
generally. The earnest prosecution of the work of tht* 
Lord in the missions among the heathen and the success 
there is the best me.ins I know of for the strengthening 
of the Church at home in her spiritual life and in all de- 
partments of her honit work, and also for the discomfi- 
ture of all her adversaries and opposing powers. 

The Solomou Islauds. 


The Solomon Islands are a large group in the Soulli 
Pacific Ocean, east of New Guinea. The islands form 
wh.1t may be called a double chain, extending si.x hun- 



drcd miles in a nortii-wcst and south-east dtrcrtion. At 
the north they arc within about one hundred initcs of 
Xew Ireland Islands, and about four hundred miles 
from New Guinea. 

There are seven large islands and a great number of 
smaller ones. Uougainvjlle is supposed to be the largest 
and most important. Choiseul, Maylata, Santa Isabella. 
New (leorgia. and Gaudolr.mnl arc ihc large islands. 
Moat of them arc from fifty to one hundred miles long 
and twenty-five to fift^ broad. They are estimated to 
contain ten thousand square miles, 1nit it is only an esti- 
mate, for no one has surveyed or measured lliem. It is 
well known that the coast is generally low and that the 
interior is mountainous; but it is far safer to sail along 
the coast, or around, than it is to undertake to land and 
penetrate to the interior. The islands were discovered 
in 1568 and awakened a great deal of mierest. There 
was an attempt made at exploration and settlement 
which failed on account of the savage character of the 
natives. From that time ihe islands were practically 
lost and were not visited again for two hundred years. 
In 1767 they were re-discovered and visited. 

The natives are a small sturdy rate of Mclancsians 
with a dark skin often called a black-brown. The hair 
is dark; they often color their hair red, sometimes a 
fawn-color. They are intelligent and quick to learn; but 
they are crafty and revengeful. The great .Spanish navi- 
gator sailed along the coast of the islands, and around 
some of them when the foliage of the trees was mag- 
nificent and a wonderful verdure had clothed hill and 
valley with a surpassing luxuriance and beauty. 

In the excitement of his enthusiasm he called these 
"Isles de Solomon," and gave names to some of the 
large islands, which have remained to this day. Bou- 
gainville is settled with a race larger than most of the 
otiiers, who have straight black hair, large features, with 
dark brown complexion. The interior is mountainous, 
and the natives .ire smaller and ruder than those along 
the coast. 'I"lie coast tribes and the mountain tribes are 
fierce enemies, and they are generally at war. 

The climate is very damp on the coast, the rainfall 
being very great, and is unhealthy to the natives and 
dangerous to foreigner.s: but it is said that in the inte- 
rior, on the highlands, it is salubrious. The dry season 
is from May to December. The water around these isl- 
ands is shallow, and so it is nrnnnd the .Admiralty Islands, 
and also nearly all the wav to New Guinea. 

The theory prevails that in the jiast there was a chain 
of islands all thi: way to New Cuinea, and that by some 
convulsion of the earth these Islands were depressed, 
and that now the waters cover what was once solid 
ground. These seas teem with fish and sup])ly the na- 
tives with food. The mountains and high ground are 
covered with a dense forest. The smdalwood, ebony, 
lignumvitx and many other valuable cabinet woods are 
abundant on most of these islands. 

The land seems to be well watered with a vast number 
of small streams running down from the mountains, and 
in the wet season these streams are swollen into torrents. 



The natives are broken up into numerous clans, and 
seems to be their natural state. In the past they have 
been cannibals, devouring their enemies and those taken 
in war. They were in tlie habit of preserving the head 
as a trophy. The skulls were often inlaid with shells in 
a very elaborate manner. They were very grotesque u^ 
well as curious. ^| 

They all have a fear of the spirits of the departed, be- 
lieving that they possess far greater powers than when 
living, and can torture them and bring untold mischief 
to their families. They propitiate them by building what 
they call spirit-houses in the villages and beside their 
mountain paths. They meet in these spirit-houses to do 
honor to the spirits and worship iliem. It is hard to per- 
suade them that spirits cannot harm them. They believe 
they know of many cases where spirits have done great 
mischief and where they have been the means of d^^ 
slroying whole families. ^H 

These islands were among the first discovered in the«!e 
great seas, but even to this day they arc less known thai 
the rest of the islands. 

The foreign mission work has met with wonderful 
success in most of the South Sea Islands and won great 
triumphs, and thousands of the natives have been con- 
verted ; but in the Solomon Islands the natives are 
substantially savages still. Within a short lime the na- 
tives attacked the crew ,in seamen on the boat sent out 
by her majesty '.s ship Satuifly for exploration, and 
large number were overpowered and murdered an* 
it is supposed, devoured. Many navigators have sail* 
around these islands and made many observations, but 
few have ventured to land to explore the interior. ■ 

Traders as well as missionaries have tried in vairr 
to occupy these fertile fields until quite recently some 
h.ive ventured to land, hoping to conciliate the nai 
lives, that have never returned to give an account 
their visit. Some French missionaries undertook 
found a station, and for a short time seemed to be suc^ 
cessful. Some of these missionaries were murdered 
soon as they landed, while the whole number were in 
constant fear of their lives, and after a little while thi 
station was abandoned. 

In the year 1856 John Coleridge Patteson, who after- 
ward became IJishop of Melanesia, entered the islands 
with trained native Melanesian teachers and succeeded 
in estahli.shing a station. A few traders followed 
this date in the yacht Wauterfa and cruised among thcs 
islands and were overpowered by the natives, and wci 
hot afterward heard from. Several war-shijjs sail 
among these islands and drove the natives buck froi 
the coast, but many that landed were murdered. Tlii 
natives are crafty as well as brave, and never fail lo at- 
tack any crew that they think they can overpower. The] 
believe that white men are their enemies, and the)' hav« 
some cause for their belief; for some that have visite< 
these islands have induced the natives to go aboard 
their ships, and then carried them away into slavery. 

More recently the Episcopal Melanesian Mission car-j 
ried on the work, and they have met with reasonabU 






shrine is a large ^/ewAi, where the ijilgrims tarry long at 
iheir devotions. This causettMy has fallen somewhat 
into neglect, having been turned to the practical piirposp 
of an embankment fur the use of the .Mexican railway 
line to Vera Cruz. Bui all the aame the pilgrimages gu 
on, and the shrine of Guadalupe i^ more worshiped by 
Mexicans than the true Gt/d, \y fact more sadly at- 
tests the deep degradation of the people. 


Or, in plain English, our Lady of the Remedies, has 
another shrine, which once was hardly less sacred than 
ihe one at Guadalupe, and is about twelve miles west 
from the city of Mexico and a little distance away from 
the Mexican national railway, over whi{:h we passed in 
going to 'I'oliica. It is situated upon a hit) l^ iiere the 
Spaniards, when driven from the city upon the famous 
Noche 'IriNle (sad ntghl), first found relief. Here a 
Spanish soldier, who had been wounded, hid an image 
of ihe Virgin which he had brought with him from Spain. 
It was afterward found in a maguey plant, when, l»y many 
signs and declared the Virgin's ]>leasure thai 
a temple should here be built to her. It was built, and 
this shrine became celebrated. L'nfortunately, however, 
in the Hidalgo rebellion our l,a<lyof the Remedies med- 
dled in poli[it:s ; took sides with the Si^anish ]>arty and 
against our Lady of Guadalupe, whu espoused the cause 
of the Mexicans. The result was that when independ- 
ence was secured, in iSii, the former lady came to be 
ho hated by the Mexicans that a decree was actually 
passed, but never executed, that she should be banished 
from the country- One wonders what would have become 
ct the latter lady if the sentence against the former 
lady had been carried uiu. ItwDuld have been ihu old 
conundrum over again ot the man who rebuked the 
bishop for his sins, and who, when the bishop pleaded 
that lie sinned as a man and not as a bishop, asked him 
where the bishop would he when the man was in the 
place of torment fur his ^iiuii. The story shows that 
strange things are apt to come to pass when ladies try 
their hands at politics. Our Lady of Remedies, whose 
precious image was not indeed attractive, since it lacked 
a nose, and like Polyphemus, described by Virgil, was 
minus an eye, was yei rich and splendidly bcjewt-Ued, 
having gems worth more ihan a million nf dollars. She 
h.iid, moreover, a temple to her worship, and pilgrims 
from near and from far sought her Hhrine ; they invoked 
her aid in time of drought, as the Virgin of Guadalupe 
was invoked when the rains were excessive; bui now 
her shrine is neglected, and she has fallen into dishonor 
because of her meddling in politics. 

How shall one write seriously of such unspeakable 
follies as these? And yet thev liave a verj' serious side 
to them, but for which I should not write of them at all, 
least of all at such length. One cannot understand the 
conriitian of the Mexican ])eople without knowing some- 
thing of the forces which are now, as for centuries they 
have been, potent in their influence over the lives of 
these i>eople. And nothing has been, ur is now. mort- 

potent, as the story of these shrines shows than a sense- 
less worship of the Mar)' who loves the Mexicans, coup- 
led with a hatred of the same Mary who was the friend. 
of the Spaniards! 



Sacro Monte. 

But the Mexiran-s have not only their shrines ; 
have also their sacred places. The chief of these is ih^^ 
Sacred Mount at Ainecameca. Take the cars at th^H 
San Lazaro Gale, Mexico, near to which the city's main 
sewer, a fragrant reminder of the Chicago River, flows 
with sluggish current toward Lake Tezcoco, and travel 
over the Morelos Railway thirty-five miles to the south- 
east, and you are at Amecameca, directly under the 
shadow of the mighty Popocatapctl. The station is 
called San Lazaro in honor of Lazarus, and because 
great numbers of filthy beggars here congregate to ply 
their trade. We did not see more of them here than 
we encountered at many, other railroad stations. Oui^^ 
route ky through the salt plains, which once wei^H 
covered with the salt waters of the great lake. Someof^^ 
the way the dust was nearly suffocating. To our left 
was Lake Tezcoco, the road running near the southern 
end of it. Kar away to the right could be seen the 
waters of Lake Xochimilco, and we passed along the 
northern end of Lake Chalco. Thus our trip to .\m- 
ecameca gave us a very good view of the lakes of the 
valley of Mexico. Our visit to this town was made on 
Shrove Tuesday. We had been assured beforehand 
that we should see gathered in that old town of ten 
thousand |>eople one hundred thousand Indians at tha^^l 
time. 1 have no means of knowing how many there^^ 
were. But there were immense multitudes thronging the 
streets, so that we could wedge our way along only \vith 
difliculty. The American travelers struggling in this 
vast crowd need to occupy Iheir thoughts with other 
things than contagious diseases and "crowlinferlie," 
Whether they did or not they at lea!.t survived the 
contact. The multitudes had come together both fc^H 
business and for religious purposes. In the streets o^^ 
the town and in the fields adjacent they were holding a 
great market. Every body had something to sell to every 
body else. Their goods, consisting of every variety of 
fruits, vegetables, and nuts native to the countr)', fabric* 
of v.Trious sons, and stocks that might have furnished 
forth mnumerable junk-shops, were spread out u|ion mats 
laid upon the ground. Around them were gathered men, 
women, children, and babies. The latter were sometimes 
held Ijv their niother> or fastened by rtbozos to their 
backs; but oftener they were laid upon the dry ground, 
the warm bosom of Mother Earth. Neither here nor 
anywhere else in Mexico do I remember ever to ha\c 
seen or heard a baby cry, though the babies were, lit;< 
the beggars, every-where, and a great more attraei- 
ive. That they were not sometimes trampled upon by 
the crowds surging along ir. a dense mass close beside 
them only shows that tht^ Mtxicans, like hens, know 
how to keep their feet off ine broo*i» oi li'tie ones, no 
matter how numerous. 


forward to cast their palms, and, as il slowly passed 
along, tlicy surged down m a mad struggle lo (;ain pos- 
session of the branches ihal contact with the wooden 
hoofs had rendered sacred. The music was excellent. 
Selections from popular operas, which, combined with 
the prancing charger, represented the triumi)ha! feat- 
ure of the orcaston. 

Aztec love of beaut/ is unalterable and npjmrtunity 
for its disjilay never neglected. The humblest and 
poorest at this season arrange attars for their patron 
saints, decorate them nith dowers, and deny themselves 
bread to supply the coveted candles. We saw these 
pretty altars in wretched huts, gained glimpses of them 
through half-opened doors, in \y\t pulquf shops, or noted 
the lasle dif^played by the porter in his dreadful hole of 
a lodge as we passed through the court to visit a 

During past days of Church rule no carriages were 
permitted in the streets on Holy Thursday or Good 
Friday, and even now hut few are seen. All Mexico 
are out, however, " her beauty and her chivalry," and 
with their *' Sunday clothes on," the gay dress donned 
by all on Thursday making marked contrast to the mor- 
row, when we meet a uniform garb of black. The in- 
terest of Holy Thursday Is reserved until night, when 
nil the church altars are illuminated; and it is the cus- 
tom to make a pilgrimage through the city, visiting the 
greatest number possible. We began with the cathe- 
dral and ended with Santo Domingo, the most interest- 
ing of all being the historic Church of the Inquisition. 
We managed to inspect about twenty, although the 
crowd was so great and the streets filled with such eager 
throngs that it was most exhausting work to elbow our 
way from shrine to shrine. Many of the altars were 
dazzlingly beautiful, being a flame of candles from rail 
to ceiling, decorated with tropic fruit and gorgeous 
flowers. Lovely effects were produced by placing 
oranges, stuck with innumerable fluttering little flags of 
gold and silver foil, among the soft lights of the wax 
candles, and :iprouting grain and grasses, grown by hot- 
house forcing, giving tender tints and delicate trans- 
parent leaves. This simple but effective decoration was 
produced by sowing the seed in porous pottery, artistic 
jars and pitchers, with a light overlay of moss. The 
siteps of the altar were hidden by pots of flowers in full 
bloom, glasses of colored water, orange-trees laden 
with fruit and blossom. Hidden among Ihera were 
rages of birds, adding iheir songs to the general praise. 
Hefore many of the altars was a representation of the 
Lord's Supper, in sculptured figures habited in Jewish 
dress of rich ^ituffs. Before every altar was a dreadful 
figure of our Saviour, life-size and life-like, dressed in 
purple robe and crown of thorns, the blood trickling 
from his wounds, and before this image of horror 
thousands devoutly kneeling to kiss the nail-pierced 
hands. In the Clrand ('athedral at a side altar 1 no- 
ticed a figure of the Virgin, dressed in a becoming robe 
of black velvet, with a large straight sword through her 
heart, and her eyes rolled up like a dying Cleopatra. 

Upon a table near her was arranged an infant Savioui. 
and it seemed a peculiar privilege for the elect " to ki» 
its feet." The figure was nothing more than an ordi- 
nary French doll, jointed, made of wax, with bead eyes, 
seated in a toy rocking-chair. The whole tould be 
bought at any dollar-store ; yet it received equal hom- 
age from the lepers in rags and the proud patrician in 
silkalttre. In several churches a most theatrical prison- 
scene farce was presented. .\ long cell being built near 
the entrance, a dim torch flared its yellow light from 
within, and directly behind the barred window stood an 
image of Christ, his eyes bandaged, his hands manacled. 
and a Jew as guard upon either side. A stream ot 
weird, plaintive music issued from the gloom, and a 
clanking of chains as if moved by the captive's hand^. 
Before the mute figure the faithful knell with streaming 
eyes, praying wildly, kissing the chains, and beating 
their breasts with the pitiful blows of contrition. This 
was the night before the crucifixion, and the last 
scene of the Holy Thursday. Good Friday morning 
"my friend, Mrs. '.\Tris " and I went to the Indian vil- 
lage of Ai/.capotzalco (don't stop to pronounce it) to 
witness the crucltixion, of which ceremony we could 
gather only the slightest rumors, our American friend> 
knowing nothing of it, and the Mexicans betraying re- 

luclance to give information; but llic enterprise born of ] 
our sex and nationality inspired the venture, and neces- J 
sity compelled us to fly in the face of the Mexican god ^ 
—Custom, and go unattended. The cars were packed^^ 
the roads lined with strange, picturesque crowds, In- — i 
dian women trudging through the dust, their little ma — -* 
liogany babies, like John Brown's knapsack, strappe<C3 
upon their backs ; rude carts trimmed with branchr-sa 
and garlands, drawn by knock-knefd donkeys, oflTere 
their hospitalities at small price ; ratuberos on hor 
back — all pressing forward to the same goal. 

The church was immense, artistic, and old. The v 
lage plaza was a perfect Donnybrook Fair of Mexicark. 
ty|K-. The inclosure around the church was crowde(C-d 
by at least ten thousand people, and among them all w&— i 
stood the sole representatives of the Anglo-Saxon racc_ | 
In a far-away comer, in what waR once one of the cloi*— 
ters of the old convent adjoining the church, we found^ 
the cell, with its patient prisoner, waiting the final scener^, 
of the play. A cloud of dust and the niurniur of ihe- 
crowd heralded the approach of the actors. .V troop o£^ 
horsemen dashed up in full theatrical costumes, person- 
ating the Pharisees, the Jews, the betrayer, and the 
mob. Roman soldiers with glittering helmets. Pontius- 
Pilate, with flowing white beard and huge green gog- 
gles, the despised Judas, with face hidden under a veil 
of crape. They entered \\\k patio, or court, which rep- 
resented the Judgment Hall, the sentence was pro- 
nounced and the prisoner led forth. By day the wooden 
image was even more hideous than by night ; nothing 
can be conceived more dreadful than the cadaverous, 
blood-stained face beneath its crown of thorns. The 
eyes were bandaged, the hands bound with thongs, bfid 
it was strangely life-like. Before the church was 


bfid J 


eyed daughter of Old Castile " graccruUy twirling her 
fan from the recesses of her balcony. 

Littk- could the traitor h-ive dreamed, when he sold 
his Master for the thirty pieces of silver, that, in the 
lapse of ages, lie would be held up to the execmtion of 
•in tmlcnown people in undiscovered countries beyond 
the seas: that the secret bargain, jierhaps made whisper- 
ingly in a darkened chamber with the fierce Jewish 
rulers, would float down through the corridors of lime 
and his name be shouted forth in tones of haired by a 
Mexican mob. — The I niieprntieni . 

The Lepenis, Pitons, and Kot^^ar^ of Mexico, 

Lfptros^ derived from thi* Castilian lepra (leper), is 
not pure Spanish, nor does it denote a class afflicted 
with the loathsome disease of leprosy; but it is applied 
to a class than which it would hardly be possible lo im- 
agine one more repulsive or disgusting. The traveler 
who sees tncm — and they are found every-where in the 
towns of this country— must fain hope that no human 
beings like them are to be found in any other lands of 
the earth. They wear little clothing, and that little, 
unless it is of leather, is apt to be in shreds and tatters. 
If i; is of leather it may have served to cover the wear. 
vrs as long as the children of Israel wore their garments. 
Their hair, if sometimes cut, is certainly never combed; 
it is long, and matted, and full of vermin. It is impos- 
sible, in looking at them, to imagine thai they ever 
washetl face, feet, or body. They are completely en- 
<:ased in a thick and hard crust of dirt. Their com- 
plexions are very dark, or that is the color of the dirt 
covering them, their teeth alone are clean and bright, 
and what with their wild eyes and famine-pinclied 
features, their expression is savage and altogether wolf- 
ish. If they are women they will often have two or three 
little lialf-naked, sometimes wholly naked, children trot- 
ting after them or fastened to their backs. They arc 
the most miserable-looking creatures I ever saw wearing 
ihe luiman form. To see one such creature would be 
shocking enough, hut to them by thous,ands is a sad 
sight indeed. Their haunts in the city of Mexico are 
the canals and the markets, and especially the pulque 
shops therp and in all towns. They live on ivhat a civ- 
ilized man would revolt at as no better than offal. They 
spend their lives in drinking pulque (which is as much 
the national drink of the Mexicans as lager heer is of 
the Germans), quarreling, and stealing. There is noth- 
ing on which they will not lay their thieving hands if 
(hey get a chance. The superintendent of telegraph 
construction f>n the road between Vera Cruz and Mex- 
ico told me that, despite all their vigilance, they not 
unfreqnently had the wire of their lines stolen and car- 
ried ofT, sometimes by the mile! How large a propor- 
tion of the ten millions of the Mexicans in the country 
are leperm I do not know. The numbers are certainly 
very large, and their presence in such numbers must 
greatly affect and depress the civilization of the country. 

Another and perhaps larger class of the population is 
made up of what are called peons. These arc day 
laborers, and while they arc industrious, and in general 
not morally base, they are in other respects about as 
degraded as the Upero%, They are ignorant, very poor, 
and in reality a servile class. Having often heard it 
said that ihey were slaves I took pains to make careful 
impiiry into the facts of their condition. While the 
wages of all of this class are very low — only about 
thirty cents a day — yet such of Ihera as are out of debt 
are virtually free, though they seldom care to leave the 
place where they have lived and labored, since Ihey 
have strong local attachments. But many of them are 
not out of debt, but all their lives long are in debt, 
and these are in a condition which lacks nothing but 
the name of being a condition of slaver)*. Indeed, the 
very definition of the word/^<j« is that of a laborer held 
in servitude until a debt is discharged, and. as often the 
debt is never discharged, the bondage ts life-long. Debt 
is often incurred through the tender sentiments. A young 
man wishes to marry. He has not a rent of money 
laid by. and hence to meet the necessary expenses of 
his wedding, a large item in which is the enormous fee 
of the priest, he must borrow money. He cannot do 
this without selling his labor in advance, which amounts 
to a selling of himself for the sum of the money bor- 
rowed until full payment is made. As he can earn 
htit a few cents a day, and must support himself and 
family out of this miserable pittance, it often happens 
that for years, and sometimes happens that for life, the 
debt and the servitude remain. The condition of the 
peon class is thus one of far greater ignorance, poverty, 
and hopelessness than that of the freedmen of the South. 
They are not likely to be raised above this ser\*ile con- 
dition until and only as the whole people are elevated. 
And when this lakes place it will doubtless involve the 
breaking up and the distribution among many oM-ncrs 
of the haciendas, or immense landed estates into which 
the countr)' is now divided. If it is the curse of Ireland 
that the land of the country is owned and held by a few 
j)crsons, much more is this the curse of Mexico. There 
are in Ireland but little more than five millions of land- 
less people, whereas in Mexico there are more than ten 
millions of such people. Or, to put the case in a much 
more striking way, of the more than five millions of Ire- 
land's population about nine thousand are land owners, 
while of Mexico's more than ten millions of people not 
more than six thousand, it is estimated, arc owners of 
land. It is no doubt true that there is much more waste 
land in Mexico than there is in Ireland, perhaps ten 
times more. Rut Mexico is twenty-six times larger than 
the Emerald Isle, and probably contains at least ten 
limes as much arable land. With ibis all in the hands 
of only six thousand kaciettdadm ot Xxd^t:^ proprietors it 
will readily be seen that the smallest estates must be im- 
mensely large, while the largest may very likely contain 
as many acres as the whole State of Connerticnt. No 
country can be prosperous in such ^ state of things, and 
so long as it continues so long the condition of the/«v« 



^ass must rematn praciically what it 15 now. Mexico 
needs one more revolution, not necessarily a hloodyone, 
to break up this huge land monopoly and rid the coun- 
if\" of the ali-pcrvasivc and blighting effects of it. 

Beggars — a word about these, for they meet the traveler 
ivcry-where. They press their suit sometimes with 
jTeot volubility, sometimes with merely piteous and 

Imultly appealing looks, and sometimes with cxjircssive 
and excruciating pantomime. Of words I learned to 
distinguish the fwr el amor tie Dtos, " For the love of 
Cod." Other and fre»iuent forms of adjuration, as I 
wji told, were " For the love of the Ulessed Virgin." 
*' By the precious blood of Christ," " Hy the holy mys- 
ter)*of the Trinity," Surely not Italy, nor even Sicily 
aa boast of so many beggars as Mexico: relatively 10 
the whole population it seemed to me as if they were as 
'lOc to ten. And such looking beggars ! They utterly 
Ai^fur description! It is said of Michael Angeto that 
hf often drew from beggars, and his biographer Fuseli 
•ayt of him that he "ennobled his beggars into patri- 
arclK and prophets in the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel." 
Mexican beggars would need a good deal of ennobling 
10 make them look like prophets, though some of them, 
en the score of age. and of a certain rugged and re- 
markably striking appearance, might well be considered 
[Kitnarchs. Many of them look old enough to be the Wan- 
tiering Jew. Now with these three classes — (he leperos^ 
the peons, and the beggars — present in such large num- 
tiCTs, it is safe to conclude that the higher classes can- 
not be ver>' high in the scale of civilization. Individual 
ftcepiions to this statement there no doubt are. and 
many of them. But, making all allowance for these, it 
will still remain true of the higher classes as a whole 
lint vice in many forms, and licentiousness in particular, 
t* very prevalent among them. And if tlic general con- 
•lition of the people morally is low, even lower yet is 
their intellectual condition. — Evangelist. 

Street Sights iti Mexico. 


The first things that strike a traveler in a strange land 
are the street .sights. They are evident and obtrusive. 
Thej' are the outcome of all the thrift or ihrifilessncss. 
«f all the inner life, and even of the modes of thinking 
■wd metaphysics of the land. They arc the outward 
Signs of an inward grace or disgrace. 

One is first struck with the odd and sometimes fan- 
twic appellations of the small shops. A grocery, in a 
Jwm 7x12 feet, parades the name of " The Philosophy." 
Shades of Socrates and Plato! " i'n what Ignoble uses 
*e nay come! Imperial Cjesar dead and turned to 
<lay. may stop a hole to keep the wind away," On the 
?f(^-shops may be seen the following very frank and 
wRnificant names: "The Charmes of the Sediictoress." 
"The Birth of Venus." "The Ki>H of Love." "The 
Tout of Bacchus," " The Life Klt-rnal " (better have 
Mid death eternal). "The Wsinius" (suggestive o{ 

fieiy floods), "The Shipwreck " "The Delirium Tre- 
mens," and "The Little Hell." So do men defy destiny 
and face the worst. They know they rush on ruin, and 
glory in their shame. 

.Associated with these blatant shops is the public 
traffic in pulque, the national intoxicant or slupefier. 
Long before reaching Mexico City one sees vast planta- 
tions of maguey plant, a species of cactus, from the 
center of which whole pailsful of juice are drawn, 
ivhicb, being put in hog-skins, ferments and becomes 
mildly alcoholic. It is a vile drink. It is said that one 
train comes into this city every day bringing pulque 
enough to make a charge of $3,000 as freight. It is 
distributed to the shops in the city in casks, from which 
it is drawn into the detestable hog-skins once more. 
The hog never looks worse than when his skin is full of 
this evil spirit, with neck and each leg tied up tu |ire- 
vent its running out, too drunk 10 stand, and lying round 
waiting (o have the evil spirit transferred from its inside 
to the inside of some man. 

Clothes are a street study in Mexico. The most vio- 
lent contrasts are every- where apparent. Here one 
meets half a dozen gentlemen in overcoats. Immediately 
behind come men who.«e trouser-legs are not more than 
six inches long and whose shirts arc assemblages of 
holes loosely attached together. Each party is season- 
ably clad for some part of every day. 

Pants are often gorgeous with silver buttons, a double 
row running up each outside seam, with a silver cord 
laced between the buttons of each row. Sometimes as 
many as one hundred and fifty buttons are required for 
a single pair of pants, and constitute no small part of 
one's fortune. The silver on one pair that I saw cost 
$1 20. These garments are cut so small that the buttons 
are a necessity. And yet in the diversity of styles it is 
not strange to see on the lower classes pants thirty 
inches in circumference at the knees. Occasionally 
both styles are combined, the tight pants being worn 
over the wide drawers, and, being a foot too short, di-«- 
play a flowing drapery in a most attractive manner. 
Pants are also made in sections, so that one can have 
simply a covering for the trunk, or a complete pair, ac- 
cording to the weather, taste, or the exigencies of em- 
ployment. The fundamental idea that lies at the base 
of a Mexican gentleman's dress is that he is a horse- 
man, Henre pants are often re-enforced with leather. 
as if for cavalry service, and worn by men who never 
vault into a saddle. Sometimes there is only cloth 
enough to connect the pieces of leather, and often none 
at all. Patched pants arc a sign of gentility here. 

.Another strange article of apparel is a long shawl, 
called a reboso, on the women, and a blanket, called 
itrape, on the men. The rcbozo is dropped on the head, 
one end falling in front of the left shouldet, and thr 
other end is passed in front of the face and thrown be- 
hind the left shoulder. It is head-dress, cloak, mantilla, 
basket, baby-wagon, and general rover for all things one 
desires to conceal. Sometimes a hole is cut in the mid- 
dle of the scrape and il is slipped over the head ; but in 


every case it is wrapped lighily about ilie arms if the 
weather is in the least chilly. What are the possibilities 
of a race the arms of which are wrapped in sliauls? 
It becomes ahnost an amiless race. Ii may be ques- 
tioned whether the Toga was not one great occasion of 
Ihe decadence of the Easieni, Grecian, and Roman 
peoples. Such swathing bonds of manhood and of 
manhood's most effective members must lend to reduce 
men to infancy. One often sees men stop and look 
t-a^erly at something on ihc ground, as if desiring to 
pick it up; but the trouble of unwrapping and of re- 
wrapping is too much, and they pass on. 

Shoes arc in equally great variety. Many, both 
women and men. wear none whatever. Many wear the 
sandal, which is simply a piece of leather pierced round 
the edge for strings to lace over the foot. People wear- 
ing these never have corns. Nearly all ihc shoes in the 
market here arc short as possible, have high heels, and 
are made to keep up the traditional idea that a Spaniard 
has a high instep. Hats are in equally great variety. 
The sombrero has a brim six or eight inches wide, ofien 
siitT with silver or gold braid. The hat-band affords a 
field for the play of creative genius: here it puts a .sil- 
vered inch rope three limes round the crown and orna- 
ments the ends ; there it puts a series of double cones, 
combined with other elaborate ornamentation, about the 
base of a crown twelve inches high. Hats frequently 
cost twenty or fifty dollars; and one gentleman showed 
me a hat for which he paid eighty dollars. To coun- 
terbalance this excessive bestowal of money and material 
on' the hats of a few many go with very little or no hat 
at all. I dismiss the subject of clothes with the remark 
that such extreme raggcdness is not to he found in any 
other country. The brown skins appear in sections 
amid the streaming rags of all colors, textures and 
shapes. It is not strange to sec a bit of fiery red carpet 
patched on to what was once white cotton. The whole 
effect produced is that of poverty; lack of taste, am- 
bition, and perhaps possibility of bettering their con- 

Lottery-tickets are offered with constant frequency 
on the streets. There are no savings-banks, but lotteries 
conducted by the Government. It is no wonder the 
people are poor. 

A striking peculiarity of street life in Mexico is the num- 
ber of burdens borne on human shoulders. The water 
carriers are very numerous. An enormous earthen jar, 
with three large ears, is slung on the back, supported 
exclusively by a strap over the forehead. To balahce 
this a .smaller jar is hung in front, supported by a strap 
over the top of the head. Seeing these men and women 
stagger along under their heavv burdens one longs to 
bring the melting snow of Poi>ocatcpetl down to the 
city in pipes, and set it leaping, singing, breaking into 
pearls in the sunlight, as abundant and free as God's 
gift of air. 

All sorts of boxes, trunks, and furniture are carried 
OQ the shoulders of men. One reason is, the streets are 
quite bad for carts, and another is, men are cheaper 

than beasts. These men carry enormous burdens, som 
actu.iUy walking off with nine hundred pounds. Nolhin 
cm be more expressive i>( strength and the beautifu 
play of muscle, now stiff as steel and anon pliable a 
lenderest flesh, than to see a man, with nearly ever 
muscle in sight, moving quickly under such loads. A 
Ihe burden shifts from one leg to the other in walkinj 
the lights and shadows play on the sliapcly limbs am 
the rounded or relaxed muscles more beautifully thar 
the flicker of sunlight through wind-tossed leave* 
Nearly all these burden-bearers move at a quick step 
scarcely touching the heel, thus giving an appearance o 
exfjuisite ease of movement. Their movement remindi 
one of that of the runners before the <:hariots of tb( 
kings of the East. The runners scarcely, if at all, toucl 
the heel to the ground, and have no diflicuUy in keej* 
ing ahead of the most spirited horses. But, seeing tbesi 
immortal men reduced to mere muscle, how one longs U 
cry aloud; "There is power enough in wind, steam, anc 
lightning to grind all this com, lift all these loads, carr^ 
all these burdens. These powers leap over the mount 
ain-tops, lift acres of lava in yonder volcano, and parad 
their swiftness in the daily lightning, trying to lelt mai 
thai they are servants, that he is king. They offer thei 
powers for the burden and reach the scepter towart 
his hand." KuC his hand is clutched on the means o 
his oppression, he puts by the scepter, and the force 
God has provided to work for the emancipation of hi 
children frolic and jilay on. 

One of the most striking things seen in Mexico is th 
perpetual suggestion of the customs, manners, and way 
of Ihe Kast. The houses, in the country, at least, ir 
mostly one-story high, made of mud, or sun-baked brick 
of adobe; they are entered by a front door into z pat* 
or open court. Here all the animals herd. One meel 
the same little donkeys as in the, bearing the sam 
burden of three hundred pounds. In the field are ih 
same plows and other agricultural tools. One of th 
oldest Aztec idols has a head-dress singularly like ths 
of the sphinx of Kgypt. One constantly sees the sam 
complexion and physiognomy as among ihe Kaslcr 
races. There Is the same style of dress. The peopl 
have the same patient, helpless look that belongs t 
contented slaves. Women wash by the stream in tU 
same manner. One may eat bread baked at the foot o 
Hermon and at the foot of the Cordilleras and no 
know the difference except by the material of which i 
is made. The scenes rail up the ideas from which the* 
striking resemblances spring. F.ven the Aztecs bclievct 
in catastrophic epochs; they traditions of the delugt 
of the ark, of the dove and the green spr.iy or leal 
The great religious structures of the country are pyra 
mids; the one of Cholula is in design and idea a repc 
lition of Babel. Further back they represent Eve a 
bringing sin into the world by the temptation of a sei 
pent, and as liequeathing to her sex the sonowa c 
childbirth. The ancient languages are exceedingl 
similar to those of the East in organization, but not i 
etymology. The astute argumems of Gallatin, Barto 



ind Valcr, drawn from analogies, easily 
(WTSUAde one that early Mexican civilization drew lis 
characteristics from Eastern and Western Asia by way 
olthc Hehring's Strait and by way of the lost continent 
of Atlantis ; but the more evident material scenes of 
t()-day thrust the same conclusion far more forcefully on 
ihe obser\-er whose steps have wandered around ihc 
))Iace5 of the changeless customs of the Orient. 

Street scenes in Mexico arc amusing at times; but the 
general impression is that of sadness that a race can be 
oppressed fur centuries till all elasticity has been wurn 
oiil, that men with immortal minds can become con- 
tented beasts of burden, and, saddest of all, that the 
most of this has been accomplished by what claims to 
be religion. — The Imitpindetit. 

In tht' Heart of Mexico. 


The center and focus of all things in the sister repub- 
lic IS Mexico City ; ^nd the core of this city is the great 
tMthedral. The Mexicans, like all Latins, are peculiarly 
Sregartous. The Saxon loves his own separate home, 
hii castle. The Frank never would live alone. Yon 
may travel France all over to-day, and you will find 
not a single farm-house. All the French farmers live 
tn ritlages. And so it is here. If a man must live in 
ihe country and beep cattle the first thing he docs is 
lobtiild a little city, hacirnda^ and fill it full of Indian!), 
scr\iUits, and followers. If he can do no better he will 
catch up and keep all the "tramps" that chance to 
tome his way; for (he Mexican will have a city of 
Hime sort, even though he has to build it and people it 
himself. And yet, to tell a very plain and unpalni.ible 
tntih about the Mexican, it must be frankly admit- 
ted that he is not a ver\" substantial builder of any sort. 
In (act, he built, of himself, little more than a mud 
hat, or a group of mud huts, called a hacienday for more 
ihaa sixty years. 

Investigation develops the fad that when the Mexi- 
f in became a freeman he ceased to build, or do any 
thing eUe but make war. to speak of. 

It is now more than sixty years since Mexico became 
independent of Spain. .And yet in all that time she 
has not built a single public edifice. The Mexico City 
"hich we find here to-day is entirely a Spanish city. 
So we must bear in mind, as we enter the heart of the 
fqiublic's heart for half an hour this morning, that all 
*c3«e is the work of the Spaniard. 

True, the splendid halls of justice have a modern 
l«ik ; but they are simply a convent with the monks 
turned out. The same may be said of the library. 
with its 200,000 volumes. The same may be said of the 
muwuro. with its strange and hideous .Aztec idols, won- 
derful calendar stone, sacrificial stone, and so on. All 
these, and dozens of other great buildini»s, were erected 
Ly the Spaniard. The Mexican did a good work in 
turning out the lazy monk, it is true; but he did not 

show half as much industry and enterprise in turning 
out the monk and remodeling hts convents to his own 
use as did the monk in building them. 

Yes, this is an ugly fact, and a discouraging statement, 
1 know, to make about the Mexican ; but the cold, 
clear truth is he has done but little, until within the 
past very few years, but fight and plunder. Why, this 
very hotel in which I write was a nunnery. The great 
iron bars which would make all escape im|)0ssiblc in 
case of fire, the double window and the deep ca>ienienl 
which shuts out half the light from me this bright Mexi- 
can morning, all this which shuts me in at my work, 
once shut in from the world and the light — light for 
body and soul — some poor little lady of rich and roman- 
tic New Spain. 

But now at last there seems to !>e setting in from some 
source or another a new current of blood and vitality. 
The old ruts and cuts in the streets, paved with mass- 
ive stone, after the early fashion of Rome, are being 
repaired. New and light pavement is taking the place 
of the old ; electric light illumes the chief places in the 
city now. Attention is paid to drainage and all the 
simpler sanitary uses; and the heart of Mexico is a 
lighter and a better heart to-day than it has been since the 
expulsion of the Spaniard. 

Yesterday J sat on the steps of the great cathedral 
and saw the Mexican.s cut down the bcatitiful Australian 
gum-trees {Eucalypfus) which had been set in the grand 
plaza by Maximilian. This plaza has been for centuries 
a place for beggars, cheap venders, tramp traders, and 
so on. But the new emi>eror planted it in trees and 
set up a music'Stand in the center ; and the music-stand 
and the musicians are there still : but the glorious trees, 
which in a few years had grown almost as tall as the 
cathedra!, were cut down yesterday. 

I asked an officer in charge, why? He looked hard 
at me, and at last he said it was because these strong 
and tall trees were taking all the strength from the finer 
and humbler plants and trees in the garden. But the 
secret and true reason is the hatred in which the mem- 
ory of Maximilian is held. The fact is, no man, dead 
or living, has been more bitterly execrated than this 
dead adventurer is to-day here in Mexico. 

And rightly. I think. He saddled the land with debts 
and trouble which will be fell for generations to come. 
And he left it nothing. liis carriage and his splendid 
silver-plate, which 1 saw this morning in the museum, 
show him to have been a foppish and shallow-niinded 
man, raring for his own vanities and display rather than 
for the bleeding and torn land he professed to want to 
help and heal. .And now let us pass from these perish- 
ing follies, and the petty revolutions and hatreds and 
heart-burnings, to that which forever will be the wonder 
of the New World, the ancient civilization of this city of 

After Cortez had been driven from the city with 
great loss, and had finally built a fleet and retaken the 
city after " three-months' siege, he razed the place to 
the ground. He utterly destroyed every thing which 


could be destroyed. The things which could not be 
burned, and yet were tot> heavy to l>c shipped out and 
thrown into the lakes surrounding ihc mined Aztec: city, 
he buried where they lay, after ha\'ing had ihcm bat- 
tered and broken so far as any humsn force could batter 
and break thera. 

And yet only last month a };ardener, in widcninx and 
(leaning up one of the little walks anion jj; the flower-beds. 
not fifty feet from the front-door of the cathedral, rame 
upon an obstruction which seemed, upon further exca- 
vation in the loose black loam, to be the head of an idol. 
The Government took the discovery in hand, excavations 
were ordered, and three immense images, each weighing 
more than a ton, were taken from under the very feet of 
the cardinal, where they had Iain since the days of Cortez. 

These hideous and nion.strous images arc at this mo- 
inenl lyin^ in the portals of the museum, with wooden 
framework about there, just as you see marble cornices 
or cosily bits of stone lying in the streets before unfin- 
ished houses in our new cities at home. They will be 
set up on pedestals soon, along with numbers of other 
idols of smaller size. Uut the two stones which will foi- 
ever challenge the awe and marvel of the world are the 
calendar stone and the sacrificial stone, both to be found 
here, in this remodeled convent and wing of the old 
Spanish palace, among the hideous half-Egyptian images 
of the Aztecs. 

h is the magnitude and weight of ihcsc atones that 
affects me and strikes me dumb with wonder as I stand 
before them. 

The calendar stone, with the crab and the fish, and 
other signs familiar to all who ever saw an almanac, is 
the most massive stone. I think, that has come down to 
us out of the past. 1 know of nothing nearly approach- 
ing it in weight or magnitude in the British Museum, or 
anywhere else in this world. The surface and the 
circles arc perfect in workmanship, although the ipiality 
of the stone Is very coarse; far below Ihc Egyptian gran- 
ite, yet, no doubt, quite as durable. The figures are 
very deep and distinct ; although you can that many 
a sledge-hammer blow was aimed at the images and 
figures by the fierce and frenzied soldiers of the cross 
t>efore ihe great stone was buried, as they hoped, for- 
ever out of sight. 

I must explain that this stone has only within the past 
few months been pcrmancnlly placed in the niuseuni, 
although it ha^ been discovered a century — another 
example of Mexican sloth and indolence. The sacrifi- 
cial stone is also waiting, along nith a whole lot of idols 
and curious creations with the Egyptian faces, to lake 
its place against the wall and up out of the dirt where 
it is now lying. The sound of the hammer is ringing 
all around you here as you stand amid these grim wit- 
nesses of the past. A dozen jack-planes in the hands of 
pious and half-clad Catholics are making the shavings 
fly, and you walk about among ihc prone and leaning 
and kneeling and prostrate idols knee-deep in dust and 
shavings — dirt of all sorts — al this moment if you wish 
to see the wondrous things in the museum. 


But T am assured, and I believe, that in less than ball 
a year order will be brought out of all this confusion, 
and that all the itlols :^nd curious things will be put in 
place, catalogued, weight, size, and ail information pos- 
sible given, to guide the student in his search for facih 
M present, however, I can only guess at the size and 
weight of these two greatest stones I ever stood before. 
The calendar stone does not seem to be so very thick ; 
only about five feet. I should think, in the thickest place. 
The reverse side, as well as all parts of the stone outside 
of the circles embracing the figures, is entirely natural 
The circumference of the calendar is about twenty feet 
possibly twenty-five feet ; but at a careful guess I shouU 
say that this calendar stone, the .Aztec .Almanac, wi 
at least twenty-five tons ! 

The sacrificial stone is a more complete piece of tt-or 
In this the sides, or rather the circle of the stone, is fib 
ished, and covered with hundreds of figures. The stone 
lying down in the dirt as before described, reaches n 
to my breast, The hole in the center, made to receir 
the blood, is about the size of a small bushel. TI» 
trench or channel through which the blood flows to th 
ground from the pool in the renter of the stone is h.ilf 
foot deep and several inches wide. I wish I could te 
you exactly how much this stone weighs and measure^- 
I cannot do this. A year from now, however, all lb 
information will be placed in the traveler's hand at 
trifling cost. Uut I think the sacrifieial stone, althoujg 
□ot nearly so broad as the calendar stone, may weif; 
within a few tons as much as the latter. h 

The on<- thing that amazes me most of all, afterfl 
magnitude and weight of those two stones, is the llk^ 
ness between the idols here — many of them ai least— an 
the idols of Egypt. The same head-dress, the beard, th 
singular flat contour of ihe face — all these are almoa 
identical with the thousands of Egyptian figures foun 
througlioui Europe, Asia, and Africa ; and yet thefl 
things have lain here for centuries almost unnoticed. 

The stupidity of a people that could not see the worl 
scattering its wealth and intelligence over its land i 
order to study these curious things in safety and com 
fort is to me astonishing; and speculation is bus 
guessing what may still be found and put in order fo 
the world to sec when it feels secure to come this vssl) 

For the present let us thank the heart and the hanc 
whether they be the president's or the people's, that ar 
beginning to do that which should have been done cent 
uries ago. But it is something to know thai, whatevc 
happens, these stones are loo large and hard and heav 
to be destroyed. Nothing short of an earthquake couli 
swallow them up or hide them from the face of roai 
much longer. As for the Idols, they are too ugly fo 
any one to steal— too hideously ugly for even lighlnini 
to strike, it seems to me. 

But liere one half hour — a whole hour, in fact — ha 
passed, and we have not even entered the president' 
palace or the great cathedral. Hat in hand let us ente 
the lofty doors of the latter, if only for a moment. Goli 
and silver, and silver and gold * Get a book and refti 




of this rathcdral, Alter that yon can better underst.ind 
the splendor and the squalor that come clashing 
lugcthcr inside these door» in awful contrast. 

Louk forward at the far, deep nave ! Fifty feet high 
and forty feet wide I You see nothing but gold and gold 
and jfold ! The image of (jod and hi^ .mgcls. Old, 
bald-headed Saint Peter }jatiently holding his keys, and 
ready to unlock heaven to the kneeling world. 

And now look down on the dirty floor before you. 
A thousand poor creatures crawling about, some blind, 
some lame, some dying of loathsome diseases, and all 
very, very miserable ; all naked and hungry and help- 
less ; yet a sea of glittering gold before them. 

The music is sublime ! Mass is being said for some 
dead Mexican robber of princely fortune, and so the 
Mngcrs, the priests, the little boys, and the btg boys, loo, 
are all doing their best. 

A good many of the cripples that crawl about over 
(he dirty floor have lottery-tickets to sell. Many an old 
uoraan with a b.iby on her back offers you a lottery- 
ticket by way of breaking the ice and getting well 
enough acquainted to ask you for a cent. Every day. 
c«ry hour, in church and out of church, you are im- 
portuned by the poor to buy lottery -tickets. A priest 
called on me the day I came to this curious town, 
imploring me to buy some lottery-tickets of him for the 
kncfii of his church and for his poor. These lotteries 
ire conducted by the Government, as in Italy. The 
Government gets a large per cent. Those who sell the 
tickets get a libera! conimis.sion. What I mean lo say 
is, you can buy your tickets directly from ilie Govern 
m«nt cheaper than you can in the stores or on the streets. 
Yes, indeed, it is simply awful. Every one expects 
to draw a grand prize to-morrow ; and so why go to 
"Tork to-day? 0, Mexico, Niexico, why will you persist 
m standing forever in your own glorious light \ 

Deeper and deeper the organ .sounds, and louder and 
louder the prayers for the dead. The people — the poor, 
naked and lazy and dirty people — all on their knees, 
join in the prayer for the departed soul. They fall on 
their faces, they spread their naked, dirty arms wide out 
OD the naked, dirty floor, and He there praying and 
mourning in the dust on their faces, their splendor of 
hair sweeping up the dusl. 

Here comes in a priest to pray. He is leading a 
little boy. I'erhaps this good priest is a sort of school- 
master also. He has a book or two in his right hind, 
lUoavery large sheet of lottery-tickets. He brushes 
the floor .1 little with his long greasy gown, Fft ]uus 
down the books, and then and there he places the lot- 
tery-tickets, so that no one may steal theu) while he 
[irays, and so he kneels on books and tickets, his head 
•idewisc, his eyes closed ; his fat and greasy hands are 
full of greasy beads. The little boy kneels on his robe 
bdiind. And the little boy, with beautiful eyes and 
checks like a rose, keeps looking roguishly about at 
some pretty little Mexicans with the mother praying at 
another altar. us go hence. I think God is out 
tide. — The InJfprtuiftH. 

Evinmelk'ul Alliance nt' Mexico. 

Mexic*}, January 28, 1889. 

Df.ak Doctor : Inclosed please And translation of 
communication which some of our native preachers are 
sending to our missionary boards. 1 thought it would 
interest your readers. Very truly yours, 

JnHS W. Bi:tlkr. 

The undersigned Mexican preachers, who signed on 
the iilh of Janu-ary, 1889. during the Week of Prayer, 
touching the matter of Home, Foreign, and City Mis- 
sions, in accord with their respective Churches, unani- 
mously agreed to extend a vote of thanks to the various 
missionary organizations which have for several ycan> 
jjasl generously assisted us with their large sums of 
money, and with what is even more, the company and 
efficient co-operation of our dear brethren, the mission- 
aries setil us, who came lo share courageously with us. 
the diflliculties, aflflictions. dangers, and even death itsell* 
which is apt to meet those who labor for the extension 
of the kingdom of Christ, our adorable Saviour. 

Yes. beloved brethren, we h.ive ever felt in the depths 
of our hearts most lively gratitude for what you have 
.accomplished in Mexico up to the present; building 
churches, sustaining orphanages, .schools, seminaries. 
establishing printing-offices, and all for the sole pur- 
pose that your fellosv-bcings might taste the joy, peace, 
and happiness which you yourselves possess in the 
faith and love of Christ, our only Saviour. Much, very 
much, is what you, by the goodness of God, have done 
and are doing in Mexico, and it affords us pleasure to 
have this opportunity to say so to you in the face of the 
whole world. 

Hut the magnitude of the needs chat surround us. the 
number of those who live and die in the midst of gross- 
est errorsf is so great that it seems as though we had 
done nothing as yet — that we arc barely making the 
first advances toward rescuing Mexico from a state m^ 
paganism as dark and as sad as that of any other of 
those countries which are not even nominally Chris- 
tian. O thanks be unto God th>it you do not 
know to what an extent papacy has diverted the people- 
from the only faith of life as revealed in the divine 
word ! We therefore beseech you by the tender mer- 
cies of our God thai you may continue aiding us more 
and more each day, until wc can say in truth that all of 
beautiful Mexico belongs to the King of glory, Christ 
our Saviour ! 

For our ]>art, we assure you that as far as in us lies wc 
are pledged to every pecuniary, intellectual, and spirit- 
ual effort for the advancement of a cause that embraces 
our life and our heart. 

Dear brethren, we trust that the great Master, who 
said, "Whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these 
little ones a cup of cold water only in the name of a 
disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose 
his reward," will recompense you according to the riches 
of his grace ; and that the peace, the love, and the com- 




miinion of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit be 
with you. Amen. 

ARCAPro Morales, 

PaiU>r vj tht Prtikyterian Chunk. 

C. A. Oamboa, 

Pastoroflfu AI. E. Chuith. 

Antonio Carrion, 

Pastor of tkf Epiitapat Church. 


Pasloref the Bpistffpfii Church. Uai.i.ejos, 
Pallor c/ tk* AI. £. Chunk, South. 

Ahcndio Tovar Y Bueno, 

Pailvr of the M. E. Church, Mirajhm. 

A. Blanlo, 
Pinlor of the M. E. Chunk. South 

Simon Loza, 

Pastor of the M. E. Chunky Purhla. 


Pa.itor of Ikf PreshytcrioH Chuirk. 

Teofilo Barocio, 

Past<>roftHc Baftitl Chunk. 

Pcdro Balderrama, 

Pastor of the At. E. Chunk, Oaxara 
ClTV OF Mexilo, January ii, 1889. 

The Perimlical Literature of Hexlco. 


There existed under the Spanish domination only n 
limited number of journals. They were entirely under 
the control of the clerical party. The aspiring class, 
awaiting liberty and hoping against hope, Jiad no u]?pur- 
tLinity far a regular expression of their varied aims. 
The most of the journals were the mouthpiece of llie 
priesthood, wlio, almost to a man, were favorable to the 
continuance of (lie Spanish sii])rem.icy. lUrt the friends 
of liberty had their mean« of girtting iheir longings be- 
fore the public. These were in the form of small pam- 
phlets, and often of broadsides. There were no litle- 
pages no blank spaces. If the first page could spare 
room for a title in capitals it was as much as could be 
ex|>ected. These were printed in oui-of-the-way places, 
very much as the first Brownist and Mar-Prelate tracts 
were printed in England. Happy the officer who could 
find out either the printer, the distributer, or the man 
who harbored one of the vile Mexican things. 

These irregular, but frequent, little pamphlets, printed 
on coarse paper and in poor typography, did mag- 
nificent service for the liberation of Mexico. They 
abounded on all sides. They were not only to be found 
in the larger places, as Mexico City, Zacatecas, Qucre- 
taro and Peubla. but in the obscure and dislani places, 
in the mountain hamlets, wherever Mexicans, of any 
race, could be reached. They did their work most suc- 
cessfully. The popular heart was stirred. Mexico's in- 
dependence was to no small degree the triumph of the 
patriot's hand printing-press. 

When the republic was established the journals were 
immediately converted into a jjowcrfid force for the dc* 
velopmcnt of the young nation. But while ihe Govern- 

ment had its organs the Clericals, neverthele&s, cor 
tinned a poorly disguised hostility. The entire politic; 
press of Mexico has always represented the two wing 
of political sentiment — the Liberal and Progressive part] 
of vvhich the presidents so far have been the champion: 
and the Conservative party, which is led by the clerg 
and the old and reactionary Spanish aristocracy. 

I'he distribution of the journals is divided belwee 
the city of Mexico and the Slates of the republic. 
The total number of journals, of every kind, is two huii 
dred and twenty- nine. Of these, seventy-two are pub 
lished in the ca]}ilal and one hundred and fifty-scvei 
in the different States. The distribution according ii 
Stales is as follows : Cahenlcs.,,. . ... . 4 

California iLower) 1 

Campeche 4 

Coahuila 9 

Colima 1 

Chiapas 3 

Chihuahua 3 

Ourango ... 3 

Guanajuata it 

Guerrero i 

Hidalgo. 3 

Jalisco 24 

Mexico (the Stale apart 



New Leon 



Querctaro .,~\ 

San Luis Potosi 1 

Sinaloa I 



Tamaulipas 1 . 

TlaxcaU : 

Vera Cruz li 

V'ucatan i 

from the city) : Zacatecas. 

.Morelos 1 



Ei Sigh> A/A* (The Nineteenth Century) is the oldesi 
journal of the Mexican daily press. It was founde<f 
about forty-six years ago by Ignacio Complido, and ha; 
been an ardent defender of the Liberal part)*. It fa 
vored the revolution by which Lerdo was put out of ih< 
presidency, and is a strong supporter of the prcscn 
(ioverninent. under President Diaz. The most popular 
iin|>ortant, and widely circulated of all the journals o: 
the republic is the £1 Monitor Hepttblu-am* {The Repub- 
lican Monitor), founded about forty years ago byGarci; 
Torres, These two papers control the hbera! sentimen 
of the republic. El Partido Liberal (The Libera 
IVirty) has upon its staff some of the foremost literar) 
men of the nation. Altramirano, Beiancourt, Cosmes 
Cuellar. Osorno, and other litterateurs are among it) 
regular contributors. Indccdi it may be said of thi 
Mexican press, far more than of llie New Vork journals 
thai the columns of the dailies are enriched by editorial! 
by the most prominent representatives of the later liter 
ature. Very little of the actual writing for the journal 
seems to be done in the offices. Nearly all the po«ti 
and other literarj- men have proven themselves most ex 
ccUent political writers. For intense feeling, for strong 
partisan writing, for slashing right and left, the dailj 
political paper is not only their favorite organ of exprcs 
sion, but their only one. 

El Nacitinali The National) seems to be about raid 
way between the Liberals and Conservatives. It is 1 

* Caballen, l/itUrtit Blfii dt t» RrfmMitU .Vexlenmm, pp. 19$,^ 


moderate defender of President Diaz's adniini&traiiun. 
It was founded by Oonz-ilo Ksteva, a scion of an old 
iristocratic family. It is read by ihe upper classes and 
is a favorite among them. The poet and essayist, Uosa, 
is a contribmor to the A'adorta/. La Voz dt MexUo 
^The Voice of Mexico) is a great representative of the 
Conser\'atives. It is the moutlipiece of Ihe priesthood, 
and has a large circulation among them and the con- 
stituency which they control. It opposes the Govern- 
ment constantly. Among its editorial contributors arc 
Aguilar y Marocho, Otero, and the two Terceros. The 
7j(i/drAVf/isa1so Conservative, and on its cditorat staff arc 
Cordoba, Barcena, Rodriguez, .Segura, and Pcrcdo. El 
Umtor Republicatw ('I'he Republican Monitor), is 
friendly to the administration. El Instructor (The In- 
structor), edited by Cabellero, is published semi -weekly. 
li is without political bias, and exhibit!) a warm appreci- 
Ation of the United States. Cabellero has visited this 
tourtry, and, as we understand, organised the Mexican 
editorial excursion to the United States a few years ago. 
The foreign colonics in Mexico have also their organs. 
The Two Republics is a daily, and is edited by Messrs, 
Oarke and Blake. It is specially designed for citizens 
of the United States resident in Mexico. It contains 
(lisiiatches of all the important news and occurrences in 
the country, and also of events in foreign countries. 
The Mexican Financier, also in English, is devoted 
chiefiy to the development of larger commercial rela- 
tions between Mexico and the United Slates. The 
V«i({ of Sfiain reports Spanish and European events, 
and cultivates the growth of liberal ideas and friendly 
rebtions between the Spanish mother and the Mexican 
dwgSier. There are three French papers — I'/ie Treat)' 
»f Union^ The French Colony, and The Mexican Eeho. 

There are four illustrated literary journals published 
in Mexico, all issued in the capital. The Choriust of 
Mtxieo contains one or two reviews of new books in 
uch number ; The Rascatripas, a small illustrated 
[wpcr, belongs to the Conservatives or Clericals, and 
b$ political caricatures in each number: the Artistic 
MexicOy edited by Cumbas, has excellent illustrations, 
deflgned to improve the artistic taste of the country; 
the lUustrated Country is a well-edited weekly, and re- 
flects credit on the country which produces it. 

The following is the circulation of papers published 
in the city of Mexico : 

£/ Monitor Republicano ^jooocjempiares. 

£i Vnhfersat. 4.000 

£1 Tiempo 4.000 

jEV Sacional 2.500 

El Diario del Hagar 1. 500 " 

Lx Patri'a I .ocx> " 

Jit Stgh XIX 900 

la PoO'iica 3,000 

Ihario Estnihol. 700 " 

la Vfix de Mexico l,ooo 

El Partido Liberal 700 

U Trait d' Union 500 " 

B Monitor del Pueblo 2,000 " 

L» <V«rt'.i Yberia 500 " 

El Pabetlin EipaKol 700 

The Two Republics WO 

£1 Abcgado Christiano 2.800 

In Mexico the Sunday newspaper is as thoroughly do- 
mesticated as the bull-fight. The circulation is larger 
on that day than any other. A publisher gives the in- 
formation that the issues of the newspaper press on 
Sunday exceed those of any other day of the week by 
from twenty to twenty-five j)cr cent. 

We now come to the significant and steadily-growing 
journals published by the Protestants of Mexico. The 
invasion of Protestantism has been strong in numbers 
and aggressive in spirit. For the following list of Prot- 
estant periodicals I am indebted to the Rev. John 
W. Butler, of the city of Mexico ; El Faro, edited by 
J. M. Green, t).D., is the organ of the Presbyterians, 
and is published in Mexico. El Evan^elista is edited 
by the Rev. David Watkins, and represents the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. South. El Tcsti^o is under 
the editorship of the Rev. E. M. Bissell, is published in 
Guadalajara, and represents the Coiigregationalists. La 
Lus is the Baptist organ, is published in the city of Mex- 
ico, and Is edited by the Rev, Albert Steelman, D.D. 
El Rami) de Oliva is the organ of the Quakers, and is 
publibhed in Matamoras. The organ of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church is the Abogado Christiano Illustrado, 
edited by the Rev. S, W. Siberts, Ph.D.. and published 
in the city of Mexico. Even the International System 
of Sunday-school teaching has invaded Mexico. Both 
the Presbybytcrian and the Methodist Episcopal 
Churches issue thera. 

Every tourist in Mexico sees at a glance that Protest- 
ant influences are penetrating every part of the new re- 
public. The journal has been found to be one of the 
chief factors for successful work ever since the founding 
of Protestant missions in Mexico, in 1870. All the period- 
icals are ably conducted, and bring before the people 
especially the great religious movements of the Protest- 
ant world. .^11 these journals encourage loyalty to the 
republic. The editors are in excellent relations with 
the entire editorial fraternity of the country, and arc 
most highly respected, both for their ability and the 
cause which they represent. — The Independent. 

Mexico and Our Slethutlist Episiupul Mission. 

BY REV. J. M. REiD, U.D., LL.D. 

There are points of peculiar interest in respect to this 
mission. And first, it is the only foreign mission that 
can be, or by any possibility can become, our " next-door 
neighbor." For the Atlantic bounds our country on the 
east, the Pacific on the west, the Arctic and the " Do- 
minion " of Christian England on the north, in which, 
we need plant no missions, and our entire southern line, 
sofarasland isconcemed, is covered by Mexico. When 
the Mexico Conference shall plant itself, as it doubtless 
will, at Juarez (" El Paso del Norte ") it will then be, 
perhaps, only a mile from our beautiful home mission 
chapel, just erected at El FasO, and the one of the 
foreign mission in Juarez, Mexico. What is still more 
singular Mexico bounds no other country save Guate- 



mala, in the south, and there but to a small extent. In 
a remarkable degree it seems committed to our care as 
about its only " neighbor." 

On yotir way over to Mexico you will pass on every 
hand the mud-hovels and squalid poverty which are 
the overflow into our land from Mexico. Indeed, upon 
the immediate hanks of the Rio Grande there is little 
difference between the two lands, save that the wretched 
gambling and besotted pulque drunkenness of Mexico 
seem concealed and restrained within the United 

What can be clearer than that the ignorance, immoral- 
ities, and degrading religious faiths of our neighboring 
country must overflow into our own, and that, therefore, 
whatever we may do for Mexico we ourselves must in 
part receive the benefit of? All Texas. New Mexico, 
Arizona, and Southern California have a living interest 
in mission work in Mexico. 

Mexico Is a very wide mission field, about equaling 
in area India. In round numbers, it may be said to be 
2,000 miles in length and i. 000 miles in breadth, and 
there can scarcely be less than 6,000 miles of coast-line, 
with some harbors and many possible harbors. In the 
same general way we may aggregate the population at 
10,000,000 in all, not over one fifth of them pure Euro- 
peans, and they mostly Spanish, and, perhaps, four fifths 
natives, Indians, as we might call them, and fully the 
other half of mixed blood. The natives had a very 
high order of civilization — and we talk freely of the 
Aztecs and the Toltecs — and their relics are of exceed- 
ing interest. The Europeans who came to ihem were 
the most bigoted and superstitious of Spani^th Roman 
Catholics, and the mixed races inherit these features, 
but might be said to be very largely less intelligent and 
more superstitious. More than three centuries and a 
half of Roman Catholic teaching and influence had 
been expended there, and vast treasures and church ap- 
pliances accumulated and used ; but the visitor almost 
seems to himself, in wandering amid Its rural towns 
and the suburbs of its great cities, to be in India or 
Egypt— the same one-story, wretched, unfurnished 
adobe houses, and similarly ill-clad people. Vast wealth 
came to the Church in Mexico; vast powers were wielded 
by its dignitaries, even over life, liberty, and projierty. 
It may be doubted whether in great portion.5 of the 
country there is to-day any advance upon the civilization 
of the Aztecs as it was centuries ago. 

The great wealth of this land can be read in the 
cathedrals that equal in magnificence and costliness those 
of the Old World. They Iiavc been built by the unre- 
quited toil of millions, and their very altars, chancels, 
and choirs were solid silver, afterward confiscated for 
the establishing of a free government and institutions for 
the public good. One cannot stand and look up some 
of the rugged hill-sides, with their many open mines, 
without starting the conception that the very hills are 
piled up silver. Its silver mines have within the last fifty 
years produced but little short of $100,000,000,000, and 
we may add the annual product of gold is not far from 

$5,000,000. But the capabilities of its soil and climate 
are not less striking. 

It has been conceived that the country is shaped like 
a cornucopia, with its wide and open part turned toward 
the United States, into which its vast wealth and abun- 
dance would naturally be poured. 

The interior of the country consists of a vast table- 
land from 6,000 to 7,500 feet above the level of the sea. 
the mountains rising to 18,000 feet. From this lofty 
elevation it descends on every side to the sea. As it ex- 
tends to within fifteen degrees of the equator on the 
south the coast in general is tropical, both as to 
climate and productions, while on the lofty plateau 
the thermometer usually ranges between sixty-five and 
seventy.five. All possible variety of climate and pro- 
duction are found between these two points. Wonder- 
ful is the [>ossihle variety of fruits, grains, grasses, and 
flowers; and here may yet be a treasure more valuable 
than its mines. Vast fields to-day arc covered with the 
pulque plant, or Agave Americano. It is called "metl" 
by the Mexicans, and just before it blossoms the sap is 
caught, and when slightly fermented is relished, and, in 
the end, makes a horrid intoxicant, which can be dis- 
tilled into brandy. It is the rurse of the land, and yet 
is sold like milk. These countless acres cursed with 
this product should be made to yield their proper grains 
Of fruits. 

The first advances toward a better condition that were 
made by Mexico were amid the commotions of Nnpoleon, 
when the Spanish monarch was dethroned and Hidalgo 
struck at Guanajuato the first dec ive blow for inde- 
pendence; but commotion followed commotion for a 
dozen years, till in iSiz Iturbidc (pronounced Ee-toor* 
bed) became emperor, was exiled, and, returning, was 
decapitated. But in 1834 it became a republic, wiih 
Guadalupe Victoria president, an uncompromising enemy 
of Spain. Still there was no rest, and in a dozen years 
more came the days of Santa Anna, and Mexico begart 
to be dismembered- Texas became ours and a state nf 
war with the United States existed. As our army 
marched in toward the "halls of the Montczumas" 
Riblc agents and chaplains accompanied them, scatter- 
ing Bibles and tracts all along their route. Seed has 
doubtless thus been sown. With the treaty of peace 
came large cessions of Mexico to the United Stales, and 
some earnest discussion of questions of political and re- 
ligious freedom, In 1^57, amid the commotions. Com- 
onfort, the president, havirig fled, Benilo Juarer (pro- 
nounced War-rez), the Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court, became president, setting up his government at 

Now came our own unhappy civil war, and the inter- 
vention of the French in Mexican a^airs, and the set- 
ting up of the imperial power of Maximillian; the last, 
doubtless, in the interest of the Pope of Rome. But 
God set him aside. 

Now, (00, we have "The Three Years of Reform 
and Juarez's election as president, which, in fact, was 
the beginning of the present state of things. 'I'he power 

)f/:x/co AXD oim metuodist episcopal mission 


a Spain wafi desiroytd, the religious orders were abol- 
Bhcd and their vast endowments confiscated, the mon- 
steries and nunneries were closed, and freedom to the 
aissionary was allowed. 

Of the Anti-Papal Society. "The American and For- 
ign Christian Union," Dr. William Bntler was the cor- 
responding secretary. Perhaps the birth of Prolestant- 
m may be fixed at 1868, for that year Dr. Henry C. 
iley came to the City of Mexico, rallied the anti-papal 
hristians, and, aided by the above-named society, 
iormed them into a "Church of Jesus in Mexico." They 
irerc quite numerous and seemed to be prosperous. In 
Jie year 1872 the Presbyterians, the Congregationalists, 
nd the Baptism all entered this land, and at the meeting 
t>f the General Committee that same year it was resolved 
that the Methodist Episcopal Church should also enter, 
,nd Bishop Simpson promptly put Dr. William Butler 
under appoininient assupcrintendcnl of the Mission, and 
kc as promptly accepted the appuintuienl. Some little 
9clay was necessary in Dr. Butler's departure, to sur- 
render the office he held at the time and arrange for a 
«ay in Mexico. At Bishop Simpson's request Bishop 
3aven. however, immediately, in December, set out for 
this new field to make preliminary arrangements and, 
lerhaps, purchases of real estate. At this moment God 
ut it into the heart of Washington C. De Pauw to make 
specific j;ift of $5,000 for the purchase of property, and 
the General Committee had placed at command of the 
lishops Very promptly the Rev. Thomas 
Carter, of the New Vork Conference, who had been in 
)ur other Spanish field, was put under apj>ointment for 
Mexico. Dr. Butler reached the field before the close 
)f February, 1873, and Dr. Carter joined him the next 
month. In a litile while ihey were strengthened by the 
"mployment of Rev. William H. Cooper, D.D., formerly 
presbyter of the Protestant Episcopal Church, who had 
lome to Mexico in the employ of the .American and 
oreign Christian Union, and several Mexican laborers 
)f various ranks and relations were also employed. 

The religious orders were expelled from the country, 
uid the church properties, (they held what had been un- 
ustly usurped from ihe people and heaped vip in useless 
Ktravagance), having been secuL-irized, were for sale, 
tshop Haven had already visited Puebla and ex.imined 
(roperty there and upon the Superintendent's arrival they 
proceeded together to Puehla and purchased. This first 
tirchase was part of the property of the Inquisition, in- 
lluding chapel, cells, etc. On tearing down these cells 
Jie skeletons of those who perished for the faith were 
evcaled. Thence the Bishop and Superintendent pro- 
ecded together to the City of Mexico and purchased 
:he *' Circus of Chasinie " on the street Calle de Gante, 
'hich was nothing more or less than the cloisters of the 
real church of San Francisco roofed over and now used 
lor circus performances. This was the very spot on 
rhich stood the palace of the kz\tc sovereign, Monie- 
uma. For three hundred years it had been the head- 
quarters of the monks engaged irt Romanizing Mexico. 
The .Missionary Society has since then placed on it a 

permanent iron roof and built it out to a line with the 
street, and besides the chapel it furnishes two parsonages, 
a house for a native preacher, a printing-house, and a 

Dr. Carter, actpiainted with the Spanish tongue, hnd'l 
no sooner arrived than he opened mission services and a 
day-school in the lower rooms of a house in Calle de 
Lopez. His first congregation consisted of three per- 
sons from the outside added to their own household. 
The lease of the cloisters to the circus did not expire for 
some little time, and this arrangemcni continued until 
they could get possession of their purchase. A serv- 
ice in the English language was also commenced in 
the chajwl of San .\ndrcas, purchased for the Mission of 
the Methodist Church, South, and we even rommcnred 
Spanish services also here, which was handed over when 
the Church, Soutli, missionary arrived. The rioisters 
were not opened for worship till about Christmas, 

The Puubia property was also fitted up and planned 
for a theological school and orphanage as well as chapel 
and parsonage, and services begun. A chapel in a dis- 
tant part of the city was also opened. Thus the polit- 
ical and religious capitals of the countrj', its two greatest 
cities, were both occupied at once. 

The Superintendent stuck his next stake at Pachuca, 
Here he found a little congregation of F.ngHsh miners, 
and encouraged a native physician, Marcelius Guerrero, 
who was endeavoring to shepherd them. Dr. Butler 
also arranged to extend the work to Real del Monte. 
So that within the first quarter after landing in the 
country the indomitable energy of Dr. Butler had es- 
tablished four Spanish congregations, besides English 
services at Pachuca and Mexico, the English service 
in the capital being greatly enlarged by the union of Dr. 
C'ooper's with ours, when he betook himself to Spanish 
work. Dr. Cooper was assigned to Orizaba. But Dr. 
Cooper in the course of the year returned to ihc United 

At this juncture business in the United Slates became 
greatly deranged and the income of the Missionary So- 
cicty reduced. The needed appropriation could not be 
made. The Mission needed large re-inforccmenls 
and additional purchases of real estate. The door was 
wide and effectual. The papal hierarchy, moreover, 
raged, and incited their superstitious people to riot. 

We cannot in this brief article tell the story of the 
conspiracy to murder the missionaries; of the brutal 
midnight accomplishment of it in the case of Mr Ste- 
phens nf ihe Presbyterian Mission ; of the wounding of 
our people and the burning of our churches at Mix- 
coaex, of the assassination of nine Protestants at Aca- 
pulco ; of the deadly assault on the Re%-. Mr. Phillips in 
Queretaro ; of the mobbing of our own peofjle at Guana- 
juato and Puebla. and their wonderful deliverance in 
answer to the prayers of the faithful women, while 
the men stood guard, and the martyrdom of our native 
preachers. These, though at different dales, never- 
theless reveal the demoniacal spirit of those to whom we 
were striving to minister. 



Advances had to be measured with care for want of 
money. Only $14,000 was appropriated fur 1874, and 
but $18,000 for 1875, and $34,000 for 1876. But this suf- 
ficed to bring to their relief in the course of 1874 those 
noble workers. Rev. J. ^^'. Builer, and Rev. C. W. Drees. 
The Woman's Foreign Missionary Society also entered 
(he field, represented in the person of Miss Mary Hastings 
and Miss Susan M. Warner, the former at Pachuca and 
the latter in charge of the orphanage in the City of 
Mexico. In reporting this year the Mission claims to 
have five preactiing-plaecs in the City of Mexico and 
seven stations outside of the capital, Miraflores, IVleleo, 
Puebla. Orizaba, Cordova, Pachuca, and Real del Monte. 
At nine the work is Mexican, and there are four English 
congregations. There are also 4 day-schools with 62 
l>oys and girls; 3 Sabbath-schools, with 93 pupils, and 
there are 33 orphans — certainly a most encouraging re- 
sult for twenty months* work. There were about a dozen 
natives of various grades employed in the work, and 
almost immediately another son uf Dr, Butler, Edward 
C.» was put in charge of the mission press, with natives 
as printers and binders. The Mission was even now 
fairly established, though \x was waiting impatiently for 
re-enforcements, which came before the close of this year 
in the persons of Rev. S. P. Craver and Rev, S, W. 
Siberts. The superintendent rejoiced to report 68 
members, 149 probationers, 46 day-scholars, 243 Sab- 
bath scholars, and an average attendance upon public 
worship of 734 ; and the contributions in Mexico were 
$7,605 1 2. Certain ly the M ission was auspiciously 
founded, and the reader has a right to be hopeful for 
the decade that yet remains. 

Our work at Miraflores was opened in 1S75. The 
places for meetings were very unpropitious. A devoted 
Christian lady encouraged the workers, and upon her 
death-bed arranged to provide $500 for a little church. 
Her husband provided a large piece of land. Every 
member of the congregation contributed something, and 
so the first Protestant church in Mexico was built, with 
bell, organ, and all the requisites. It was dedicated by 
Bishop Merrill and T)r. Dashicll, on Sunday, February 
6, 1878. It is one of the highest places of worship on 
earth, being at an elevation of 7,800 feet, more than r,ooo 
feet higher .than our church at Nynee Tal, among the 
Htmalyas, which Dr. Butler also built. Here at this mo- 
ment the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society and the 
Parent Society have a great and thrifty work. 

On the 9th of February, 1876, the Rev. S. W. Siberts, 
accompanied by the superintendent and hia wife, entered 
Ciuanajuato and stuck a stake for Christ and Wesley ; 
afterward Mr. Craver and family also came. The city 
has 70,000 inhabitants and is the capital of the State of 
the same name. The bishop of the diocese issued a 
manifesto against them which was published in all the 
churches on Stmday, and the result was a riot, with its 
yells and stones, but the governor protected the mis- 
sionaries. The Spanish service was opened March 
30 by Francisco Aguilar and Jesus Ramirez, sent by the 
superintendent for the purpose. It was peaceful and 

nost I 

quiet. Bui there were after commotions and n 
Here it was that amid the commotions incident to the al- 
tempt to displace President Lerdo the Mission was again 
attacked, and while the missionaries barricaded the doors 
and defended the house their wives cheered them by 
singing, " I need Thee every hour," etc., and the I-ord 
delivered them from the hands of their enemies. In June, 
1876, the first baptisms took place, and in July the firvl 
ofiliciat boards were organized. In 1S77 a day-scbool 
was begun. The work here was fairly founded, most 
eligible property was purchased, buildings erected, 
it prospers to this day. 

In 1S80 A. W. Grecnman went out to the field 
was appointed to Queretaro. Here also Felipe X. 
Cordova, a Mexican elder, was serving. The enemies of 
Protestantism vented all possible tll-will upon both mis- 
sionary and native workers. Mr. Cordova's life was often 
in danger, and at last, as the outcome of a riotous as- 
sault on the Mission, Cordova n'as arrested and charged 
with murder. In the end it was thought best he should 
leave Mexico, and now he is in our New Mexico Mission. 
Here we now have excellent property, a good congrega- 
tion, and a fine prospect. 

Rev. Messrs. Barker, Umpleby and Kemble were 
shortly added to the Mission force, and the Misses 
Hastings, Warner, Swaney, Mulliner, and I^lliott, of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. Dr. William 
Butler had retired from the field and C. %V. Drees had 
become superintendent. The membership in 1880 had 
risen to 337, with 398 probationers, and an average at- 
tendance at public worship of 1,098. The Sunday scholars 
were 609. and the day scholars 544 ; and the contributions 
$4,069 45. This was an inspiring increase. The work 
had been planted at Cordova down toward Vera Crui, 
and Orizaba had also become the center of an impor- 
tant circuit, 'i'his decade also began with a general per- 
secution of Protestants and the martyrdom of Epigmenis 
Monroy at Apizaco. A wide expansion of the mission and 
a goodly increase every where crowned the work. The 
mission press had risen to be a great power. Ei AbogaAo 
Cristiano Ilustrado ("The Illustrated Christian Advo- 
cate") had been planted, and reached a circulation of 
2,500, and the Bcrean Ltax^cs, 1^800. A S[)anish hymnal 
had also been issued, with a tune-book. When the press 
had been but seven years in existence it had issued 
11,000,000 pages. The intelligence, life, and spirit- 
uality of the Church developed as it expanded, and the 
appointments of the circuits multiplied. The details 
of the advances our limits forbid us to give. The year 
1884 Rev, S. Loza received charge of the Orizaba Cir- 
cuit, the first Mexican to be put in charge of a circuit, 
and Lucius C. Smith came from our South America field 
equipped with a fervent zeal and also with the Spanish 
tongue, and the Misses Hugobooni.Le Huray.and Lloyd, 
carae to the work of the Woman's Foreign Missionarj* 
Society. The brevity of the stay of so many of the 
workers was greatly to the injury of the work. The year 
1884 also witnessed the fatal termination of another of 
the persecutions that aiflicted the Mission. It occurred 




in Silao the railroad station of Gaanajuato and a part of 
the circuit of that name. Donanico Saldana, our chapel- 
keeper, was shot and instantly kilk-d. Oamboa, our 
native preacher, whowas with him, was also shot through 
ih<: lung, but after great sufTering he survived, and is at 
present our native preacher at Calle de Gante, in the 
City of Mexico. 

The General Conference of 1884 erected this Mission 
into a Conference. In 1885 the work in the sierra 
region, that Switzerland of Mexico, the home o( the 
descendants of the Aztecs, a hardy and an independent 
race, speaking their own tongue, opened to us. From 
Xochiapulco as a center ^fanucl Fernandez, a native 
local preacher, explored the region and formed a circuit 
of sixteen villages, and as ^oon as possible Rev. G. B. 
Hyde was sent to take charge of tlic work, and has ever 
since kept his head-quarters at Xochiapulco. It is broad 
and most inviting, though the home of ihe missionary is 
somewhat isolated. It was such a poor field for Roman- 
ism that for many years the priests paid no attention 10 
this region; but our success has aroused them, and they. 
are there again in all the spirit of their ancient hate. 
We arc growing evcr>* day in favor and influence with 
the people. There is more hope for Mexico from this 
population than from the Catholic Spanish people of the 
great centers and coast. The missionary on this sierra 
work has now half a doj-en native preachers to aid him, 
aod is building chapels throughout the work. 

The sale of our old pro[h:rty at Puebla, of such inter- 
csting historical .issociarions, because it had become un- 
iuiiableand because of a market and still worse nuisances 
thai had come to fill the square and street in front of it, 
his interesting results, A much more available piece of 
prupcrly was purchased, and apartments prepared for 
theological seminary, the orjjhanage, ihc srhool, and 
public services. Rev. Levi B. Salmans was put in 
charge of the work, and Misses Warner and Ogden of 
ihf women's work. Scarcely had the building been fullv 
prepared before God oinrned the windows of heaven 
•nd poured out upon it an abundant blessing. The 
roiith of the schools were converted. Christians strength- 
ened, and the whole work enlarged. The women's prop- 
erty adjoins that of the Parent Society, and their work 
shared in these benedictions. At one time nineteen 
twentieths of the real estate of this city belonged to the 
Catholic Church, which was the Inmllord, emjiloycr, 
banker, etc.. of the city. In 1873 the first attempt to 
plant a Protestant congregation was utterly defeated by 
a mob. Our missionaries were warned not to come, and 
A mob actually greeted our first .-itiem[)t to hold open 
services. The Govemmeni has extended to us its pro- 
tection, and God has been with us. and it promises to be 
one of our great centers. 

Two years .igo Mr. Green went out from the New 
York Conference, and during the past year two young 
roeo, who years ago consecrated themselves to the work 
of God in America, and have been preparing for tt, 
oamcly, Messrs. H. G. Limric and F. D. Tubbs, have 
gone out into the field, and every way the work is 

strengthened and enlarged. There are 1,155 members, 
949 probationers, 2,078 average attendance on Sunday 
worship, 1,295 Sunday scholars, 1,579 day scholars, and 
the i>ecuniary contributions h.ive amounted to $6,164 3i- 
The country is being connected with our own iiy several 
new links, and up these railroads our work is gradually 
advancing. Popery and pulque are the two greatest 
curses of .Mexico. A free and a full salvation is the 
bnghtest beam that is penetrating its darkness. Our 
Conference now has appointments in seven of the cen- 
tral States of the Republic, but there are twenty Stales 
and two Territories that we have not yet entered. Our 
appointments are wide apart, it being 600 miles from 
(Guanajuato on the north to Vera Cruz on the south. 

Gosp«l Work in Peru. 


Herewith I Inclose a translation of two cuttings from 
a daily paper, £/ Callao, published in the cit" of Peru, 
from which it takes its name. 

First Notice : 

'* The Gospel. According to the advcriiscmenl in the 
respective section of to-day's issue, every body who 
wishes to hear .m explanation of the Gospel by the Ital- 
ian pastor, Penzotti, is invited to attend to-morrow at 
No. 35 Calle del Teatro at three and at eight o'clock 
P. M. 

" Persons who have listened to this able pastor assure 
us that his explanations of the .Sacred Hook satisfy the 
spirit and c\iltivate the intelligence. They take place 
on Sundays and Thursd.iys." 

Second Notice : 

'* Explanation ov thk Gospel. Yesterday we had 
the satisfaction of Listening to an explanation of the 
first eighteen verses of the Gospel of St. John from tht 
lips of Sir Penzotti, who, with an extraordinary elo- 
quence set in relief by his facility of expression and 
simplicity of language, explained well the sacred text, 
carrying conviction to the hearts of the hearers. Hlien 
the exposition terminated there was sung, accompanied 
by amelodeon, a beautiful sacred hymn, dedicated to the 
Supreme Being. 

"To the great grief of the audience Sir Penzotti 
announced that he would start on Wednesday for Tac- 
na, from which city he will return to this port nn his 
way to the south in about three or four weeks. The 
hearers manifested their disappointment at the prospect 
of being deprived of the enjoyment of listening to the 
sacred word as set forth by Sir Penzotti." 

Such notices appearing in a purely secular journal, 
published in a country so Romish that even toleration 
does not find a place in its constitution, are very encour- 

Sir Penzotti sailed from here just a year ago as assist- 
ant of this agency, to take the immediate charge of the 
work of the American Bible Society on the Pacific 
Coast, then just added to this field. On-ing to cholera in 




Chili, quarantine regtilaiion prevented htm for some 
months from reaching his destination. This time was 
chiefly spent in Arira and Iqiiique, and in both jilaces 
not a little spiritual interest was awakened. The impor- 
tant question now to Ix- solved is, Will the Church send 
men to garner the golden gram in tliest: and the other 
places to be visited, or is it to be left lo perish? 
Genuine conversions, Tollowed by reformed life, have 
taken place at each of those places sufficient to organize 
churches, but the liible-seUer has his own work, demand- 
ing his attention and strength. 

bUENOS AVKES, Dt(. \%, 1888. 

Propnrtioiiatt' (liihit?. 

While it is true that the value of a gift in God's 
sight is measured by the spirit in which it is given, yet 
it cannot be too strongly urged that the aposlnlic rule 
"as the Lord Iiath prospered " each one is the only just 
standard fur Christian beneficence. The large gifts of 
the rich, as well as the smaller gifts of the less able and 
the little which the poor can afford, should be made 
cheerfully. 'I'hcre is as much danger that the abun- 
dantly able will minimize their ability as that the less 
able will excuse themselves altogether upon the ground 
that their more wealthy neighbors should do all. 

Kountifu) giving carries with it a blessing which is 
more frequently enjoyed by the comparatively poor than 
by the rich. Giving at all is a grace in which the giver 
is in an especial sense a sharer in that grace of our l^ord 
which was his most distinguishing characteristic. Diffi- 
cult as it is at all times for one to persuade himself to 
part with a treasure, it is most difficult in an age when the 
passion for accumulation is rife, and hence the Christian 
who would learn the luxury of doing good must needs 
bring himself face to face with the apostolic nile with- 
out regard to what his neighbor does or neglects to do. 
Giving as to the Lord will lift a cause high above the 
incident of a moving appeal and make a man indifferent 
to what his fellow- man may do. — Spirit 0/ MissioHS. 

The Word of Uod. 

A native missionary in Bulgaria recently told of his 
father's conversion through the means of a little Bulga- 
rian Testament costing but a penny. At one time the 
leaves of the Testament were cut out, and scatteted 
throughout the country. A man found a part of a Ictf, 
on which were the words " God " and " love." He had 
never heard of a God of /wv, so he carried the leaf lo a 
missionary to ask the meaning; and through M/i /itt/f 
torn leaf he found the God who so lovfs us as to dif/ona. 

StBtistics Df Frutestant MUsions iii I'hlua— Dci'eiuber, 1888. 




Date of 

London UEMionary Sodttr 

A. B.C.F.M 

American Haptbl, North 

American Hnile»u»ni Kpitmpal. ....... . 

AinKriuaii Pre»byierian, Ni»ril> 

American Reforniprl ([Jutcti) 

Briliwh and Tortlgn Hibk Sockt}* 

Church Missionary Sodeljr 

Eneltsh R-i[iti«l 

M);ih<Kli>t K|ii».-i>inL 

Srverili'l'.!)' Haiiiist, 

AnirricAit HaplisI, SouUl 

Haftcl MiMlon .i 

Enelish I*ml>yiai« n 

KhrnUh MiwUm >■•>..•■ 

Melli'xli-it Kpisirofial, South ,. .... 

M«?r)ln Kuutt'lling lliupiul... 

We»]«yiii MUaioiiary Society 

Wotnnn's Unli'ti Mission 

MdhiHlKt Nrur (t<iiin«ctmii 

Society frDcncliuii PVmule Flducatloii. ,. 

Untied Prcsbytrrian. Sctrtth 

CtiiiuL InUn<t Mimloii 

.\niericJin Presbyterian, SuuiH 

Unitcil Mrthodint Frr«- Chwrrl 

Nali(jn«l Bible S^idrtjr irf SrollatMl 

Irish Presbyterian 

Caiudi^ui rTe«t>]-(enAii 

Sod«ty Propacstlon of the Gaji[)e| 

Aracrican Bible Society 

hJ.t.-iblL»h«l Chitrch of Sooiland 

Beilin Miuion 

Allcm. Etrjn. Wot. Missionary Gesfll... 

Bible Ciiriitians 

ForcifD Cbristian Missloiiajy Sociwy. . 
Soc'j Proii. I hrisi, and Gen. Knowtedj^, 

Sifii'ij lit FrieiiiU - 

.American Scandinavian C'nngTp|;alioital . 
Ch. Etig. ZciiAna Mi»tlonary Society.. . , 
Indepeadent Woritere 

Total, [leceniber, 18SS 

IticrcaM> over Dfloember, 18S7 . . . , 

Fowuuti MissioNAKiw 







1 8.1s 







■ 4 















• (47 


■ SfX 







■ 9(0 



























































• >5 






















(?) II 









C tnUtiird 























































16a i,37« , 34.565 


























(?) $14,4301* 


495 00 

«7 70 

9«9 86 

S.435 >o 

9> 00 

403 o» 

8 18 

101 00 

t?) ISO 0* 
450 «f 


491 B> 

$44,173 39 





^rcrDmun's Jlb;ni& ^outbcriittrDufationSocutg 

J. C. HARTZEIX O.O.. C«f. SKi«ta7. 190 W. 4tn SI.. Cincl/wiati, O. 


flefinrry Medical College at NaHhvIlle, Tenn. 

BV REV. J. t. HARTi:KU., O.D. 

The Meharry Medical College, the medical depart- 
ment of Central Tennessee College, the onlv school of 
ihe kind under ilie control of the Frcedmcn's Aid and 
Soutliem Educition Society, was organized in Octo- 
ber, 1876. It takes its name from the noble family 
whose name it bears. 

Since this school was organised about two hundred dif- 
ferent students have 
been enrolled; 90 have 
finished thcprescribcd 
course and received 
theirdiplomas; of this 
number about 85 have 
been mctnbersofsome 
Christian Church, ami 
10 have received a 
regular collegiate ed- 

Of the h4 living 
graduates 7 are teach- 
ing. 1 preaching;, t a 
home missionary, 1 an 
'editor, I clerk in 
t'nitcd Stales Pension 
Office, I agent of Sun- 
clay - school puhlica- 
lions, and 73 are prac- 
licing medicine. 

The States in which 
they reside are as fol- 
lows : Tennessee, 2,^ : 
Texas, ao : Arkansas, 
7 ; Georgia and Lou- 
isiana, 5 each ; Ken- 
tucky and Mississippi. 
4 each; Alabama and 
Kansas, 3 each; North 
Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, and District ot 
Columbia, 3 each ; 
Morida. 2. and Indi- 
ana and Colorado 1 

With few exceptions they have been well received 
and kindly treated by the medical profession of the 
South, who have frequently loaned them books and in- 
struments, counseled with them in dangerous cases, and 
assisted in difficult surgical operations. 

The success 01 our alunmi has surpassed our most 
sanguine expectations, and their record is one of which 
any college might well be proud. 

The four millions or more of colored people living in 
(he Mississippi Valley are looking to us to supply them 
with intelligent, well-educated physicians and dentists, 
to minister to their necessities. 

In the large cities of the South, where fllnne we can 
procure reliable statistics, ihe death rate of the colored 
people is about twice as great as that of the white. 

The principal causes of this excessive mortality are 
poverty, ignorance of the laws of health, superstition, 
and lack of proper medical attention. No one can do 
as much to remedy these evils as the educated Christian 


^'' .1 



colored physiciati, who is acquainted with iheir wants, 
is familiar with tlieir habits and peculiarities, and who 
can sympathise with them In Iheir distress. 

They can also direct them in regard to the location 
and construction of dwelling-houses, school-buildings, 
and churches, ventilation, sewage, suitable clothing 
and diet, pure water, cleanliness, and how to prevent the 
spread of epidemics. 

They can exert a powerful influence for good in the 
cause of temperance. 

The failure or success of prohibition in the South de- 
pends largely on the ignorance or intelligence of the 
masses. In the last contest in Tennessee prohibition 
was undoubtedly defeated by the igntirant colored 

voters, who were mis- 
led by designing dem- 
agogues working for 
the interest of the li- 
quor party. 

Two years ago last 
October, in order to 
meet a pressing want, 
we opened a School 
of Dentistrj", which is 
now in successful op- 
eration. We are great- 
ly indebted to \y. H. 
(lean of the Dental 
Department of Van- 
derbitt University, for 
his valuable assistance 
in this work. 

This school is now a 
member of the "Amer- 
ican Association of 
Dental Faculties," 
and has received the 
hearty indorsement of 
tlie "Southern Dental 

I'he medical faculty 
consists of 10 mem- 
bers, and during the 
[■resent session 53 
medical and 10 denial 
students have been 

The buildings, etc., 

are valued at $15,000. 

We have a graded course of instruction, and a good 

English education is required for admission. At least 

sevenly-five per cent, on a written examination in each 

study IS the requirement for graduation. 

We arc now needinf^ additional accommodations very 
much for carrying on our work. Plans have been pre- 
pared for a new building, the first story of which is 
already completed, and will contain a chemical and 
dental laboratory; the second a room for teaching 
pharmacy and n dental Infirmary, and on the third will 
be a large amphitheater capable of accommodating 
about iwo hundred sludenls. It is estimated tliat the 
cost of this building will be about $6,000. A httle 
more than one half of this amount has already been 
[jaid or pledged, and we are si 111 needing $2,500 lo 
enable us to complete it so that it can be ready lor use 
by October, 1889. 

We will then be able to furnish facilities to all who 
may desire to study medicine, dentistry or pharmacy. 

— -I 



In several of ihe previous pages will be 
founil considerable information rcspccling 
Mexico antl its people. 

The Missionary Calcchism on Mexico 
found in this number appenrs also in the 
Littli Missionary for March. 

On (hi& page will be &eenan illustralion 
of the boys' school in the Mcthotli&i Epis- 
copal Mission at Orizaba, Mexico, as il >ip- 
peared last year, the teacher, Senor 
Andres Cabrera, beiiijj on ihc left, the 
pastor. Rev. Simon Loza. and his «ifc 
being on the right. 

The illustration on the next page rcp- 
lesenls the girls' school of the Woman's 

Lfader. What can you tell us ahoui 

Ckiidnn. Mexico embraces a lai^c 
portion of the North American Continent 
south of the United States. It contains 
766,482 square miles, or .in .irea larger 
than the United States east of Ihe Missis- 
sippi River. Its ]iopu1ation In 1878 was 
10.012.000. Of these, U isrstimatec! about 
2,ooo,ocx) are of pure Spanish or European 
descent, 3,000.000 of mixe<t blood, and 
5,oc».ooo of Aztec descent. 

Leader. Who were the Aztecs ? 

War was their chief business, but. unlilce 
the Northern Indian irihcs, they sought 
lo capture rather than kill their enemies. 

Leader. What of their religion ? 

Children. They believed in a Supreme 
Creator and Ruler, but worshiped thirteen 
principal and two hundred inferior gods. 
Their worship was conducie<l in pyrami 
ten>])lcs. The patron deity of Mexico 
the god of War. In these temples were 
aliars for human sacrifices, whose number 
increased to 50,000 annually. The vic- 
tims were led lo the summit of their tem- 
ples, stretched on the altar, their heart* 
torn out by the priests and thrown at 




idols' feet, and the htidies devourficl by the 
people in a religious feast. Their religion 
w;is the most terrible thing in all thcii 

leader. What was the condition of 
Mexico alter its conquest by Spain ? 

ChihirfH, Its history was one of oppres- 
sion and wrong. Taxes, duties, and tithes 
were levied upon them until the people 
^oane<l under the poverty it imposed.. 
The human sacrifices and cannibalism of 
their old religion were orerthrown. but 

emment established. Fnr thirty years, 
however, llie land was convulsed by strug- 
gles between the Church parly which 
sought the rcstcnttion of the monarchy 
and the re-e5ti«bli$hiiicnt of the priestly 
power with its fanner exactions. In 1856 
Juaret led ihe liberal party in the ■• War 
of Reform," which ended in the establish- 
ment of "absolute freedom of all religious 
creeds." This opened the land lo mis- 
sion work. The Church party, led by the 
priests, maintains its intolerant opposition 

wake of the American army ('47 and '48), 
and later days also by a devoted mec^icaL 
man of the Presbyterian Church. Dr. Pre- 
vosi. now of Zacatecas, who began Chris- 
tian work in the V'dia dc Cos. about the 
year 11(50. as well as by Miss Kankin. a 
devoted American lady, who settled in 
nrownsville, Texas, about 1853, and soon 
;ifter began the distribution of tracts and 
ihe sending of Christian workers on this 
side of the line lit! the year '59. when 
she came herself into ihc country as far as. 





72 "*^ 


many of the supi-rsiltions of that oUI relig- 
ion were blended with the new. .inti an 
idolatry of saints and relics subslituled for 
their ancient iilolatry. The exactions of 
the Church drainetl the people of ilieir 
w-eallh until three fnuirbs of the property 
of the country was in possession of tlic 

Ltader. When and by whom were they 
freed from this oppression } 

ChildrtH. In 1810. Hidalgo, a country 
curate of Indian blood, was their first 
leader. He lost hi* iite in thf struggle. 
In 1S31 Ihe imIeprndcncA of Mexico was 
obtained and a republican form of gov- 


to cvangelkal Christianity. Protestantism 
has bren planted in Mexicoovcrthc graves 
of iilty-ninc martyrs who have given their 
lives for the c.nuse of Christ as willingly a^ 
did the early a|H>:^tk's. 

l.ettiUr. When and by whom were 
Protestant missions commenced in Mex- 

Children. A general assembly of repre- 
?eni,itive*i of flifferrnt missions met. Janu- 
ary. 1888. in Mexico. A report of the 
work furnishes the following information : 

"Mucli prcpnrAtory work was done 
ihrough colporteurs 01 the American Bible 
Society, who came into this country in the 

Monterey. Organized missionary effort 
was commenced in the country as fol- 
lows : 

■■I, The Baptist Mission (Northern 
Convention) was commenced in May. 
1869. and is now working in six different 
Stales of ihc Republic. 

" 2. The Episcopal Mission, which for 
several years was known as the Church 
of Jesus, was established in the same year, 
but was received as a regular mission in 
the Episcopal Church in 1886 by the Gen- 
eral Conveniion of said Church, which 
convened in Chicago at that time. 

"3. The Friends* Mission estab- 




llsbed in 187 1, and works through the Stale 
of Tamnuiipas. 

"4. The Cfnlral Presbylfrian Mission 
was established in l872,.ind is working in 
the Fwleral District anrl seven St.ite$. 

" 5. The Presbyterian Mission 0/ Zaca- 
tccas was established in the same year. 
and is operating in five ditferent States. 

•*6. The mission of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, Sonih. was estal>lished in 
1873: has .1 Corterence tlividcd into six 
■districrs, ami extends operations through 
seme fifteen ilifterent States. 

" 7. The mission of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church was established in the same 
year: is working in ihc Federal District 
and seven States. 

" 8. The mission of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, also has a frontier 
Conference, established in 1S74. and is 
working in seven frontier SlAtex. 

"9. The Presbyterian Church, South, 
«stablished its mission in 1874, and is op- 
«raiing in two States. 

" la The Reformeii Presbyterian 
Church established its mission in iSSo, 
and is working; in four States. 

'•II. The Baptist Church of the South 
established us mission in 1881. and is 
working in four States. 

" 13. The Congregational Church es- 
tablished a mission in the State of Chl- 
hu.-)huain 1882. 

"13. The same Church established an- 
other mission in the State of Ja)isco in 
1873; abandoned the work, but linally 
reorganised it in 1882. 

" 14. The Friends' Mission of Central 
Mexico was established in 1886. 

"15. The Cumberland Tresbyierians 
estalili>hetl ■.^. mission in .\guas Cahentes 
in 1886. 

"j6. The Congregationalisis estab- 
lished a mission in .Su>ior.t in 1887. 

"17. The so-calted 'Church of Jesus.' 
This is .1 small work under the dircciiwii 
of Hishop Riley in the central States of 
the republic, and has refused 10 be jc- 
ceiveil .IS a mission of the Episcopal 

" 18. The Independent English Mission 
operates in the State of Mexico, under ihp 
direction of the converted English miner." 

Ltader. How many missionaries anti 
helpers are at work in Mexico? 

ChihIreH, There are 48 ordained for- 
eign missionaries, 44 assistant foreign 
missionaries. 43 foreign Lidy teachers- 
making 135 foreign workers; 88 nrdainrd 
native preachers. 65 unnrdained n.itivc 
preachers, 96 native teachers, 49 native 
helpers— making 398 n.itivc workers, or a 
toul of 433 foreign an<l native workers. 

Ltader. What have been the results 
a .-hievcd ? 

t'AilJren. They report 177 organized 
churches; 393 congregations and 12.444 
communicants; 15 boarding- schools and 
orphanages, with 687 scholars; 71 com- 
mon schools, with 2,187 scholars; Sun- 
day-schools. 199; teachers and officers, 
637: scholars. 4.817. 

I fitter. What is the great need of (his 
field r 

Children. The missions greatly need 
an increase of missionaries; new 6elds 
ought to be opened, white the field occu* 
pied needs the presence of experienced 
ministers of the Gospel. Houses of wor- 
ship -mil homes for the preachers are 
greatly ritfded. of our preaching- 
places are in the homes of the people or 
in hired rooms. When we build churches 
the people will feel that wc have come to 

Leader. How are the missionaries re- 
ceived ? 

Children. Many of the people Itcar them 
gladly, but the priests of the Catholic 
Church, and many of their members, 
regard them with great bitirmcss. 
Often they worship God surrounded by 
lieicc mobs instig.iled by the priests. 
They have been beaten and stonetl, and 
in some places have planted the Gospel at 
the peril of ihcir lives. 

Leader. \Vh;it has been the result of 
this opposition i 

Children. It has called forth the faith 
and devotion of the missionaries and their 
people, and shown these adversaries 
the power ol the religion our people pro- 

Leader. What should we do for the 
missions in Mexico ? 

Children. Wc should make them the 
subject of earnest prayer. We should 
give lor their support as the Lord halh 
prospered us. 

6. Missionarj- song. 

7. Benediction. 

—Afisstanary Renter. 

If for Jesus ^-ou can speak. 

Do It now. 
Though yuur tones are low and weak. 

Do It now. 
Take the tcmpteil by the hand. 
Point ihem 10 the belter hnd. 
That awaits "beyond the strand "- 

Do ii now. 

Do II Now. 

There is work for one and all. 

Do it now. 
Hear the Master to thee call — 

Do it now. 
l.ead the young, ihe weak, the old : 
Woo the strong, the iirave. the bold, 
To the te;i{lcr Shepherd's fold — 

Do it now. 

C;in you help an erring one? 
Do it now. 

Slay not for '" i.n.niorrow's sun." 

Do it now. 
Bid them leave the paths of sin. 
And a better life begin ; 
If some wanderer you can win — 

Do it now. 

itlvsleo nrtbodlnl Kiiisfopal <*onl 

Hrid Jknwmry 17, iSft^ Bikbop Waldcn prcsidi: 

Cestiial DlsruicT— J. W. Buller, P. 
Ayapiingo Circuit, to lie supplied. 
Mexico and tsbacsilcu, C. A. Gainhoa. 
English Church. W. P. P. Ferguson. 
Mimflore» Circuit, Aliimdio Tovar. 
Pachucs Ciiciiil nnd EngliOi Chutcli, F. f). 

Pachucn, S. I. Lapet, 
.San Vicente Circuit, to be supplied. 
Twontcpec CircuiL P. V. Espinotn. 
TuUncingo Circuit. J. M. Knrura. 
Zacuallipan Ciicuil, to be MipplieH. 
Eilitor of book» and A6ogatl» ChHjtiaitO. K. 

\V. Stben*. 
Publisliiiig Agent. J. W. Buller. 

CoA-sT (Kasicni) UiiTKici— Wm. Green. P. E. 

Cordob.1, to )ic supplied. 
OiiJEiica Circuit. Jose Chavez. 
Orizaba. P. F. Valderrama. 
San Andrea Tiixlla, JiKti Kumbia. 
Tchuftcan. lo hi; ^upjilieil. 
TiiKpaii, Fiilcncio Anguiano. 

NORTMEIIN IllSTRlCT— S. W. Siberts. P.E. 
Clay.i, lo be supplied, 
Conajiar Circuit. Everardo Ca&tillo. 
Cweramere. l» he supplied. 
Cviannjuate, I.. C. Smith and A)>elarclo Re- 

Queretaro. H. 0. Limrie. 
.Salantanca Circuit, Domingo Kotnero. 
San Junn del Kio Ctrcuii, Melchor Ltdnres. 
Santiago Valley Circuit. Doroieu Garcea. 

Pl'kiiu* Dibimcr— S. P. Cravcr. P. E., 
ApeiacO, lo be supplied. 
Atlixco. I'hilarcw Betnal. 
Atzal.-!, t(j be supplied. 
Cholula. to be supplied. 
>'iiel>la. Sinuiii Ijwa. 
Tiaxcnla. lu l>c supplied. 
Teicla (Ic Ocampu. Mnnucl Fentandez. 
Tc/iiitlaii, to lie supplied. 
Xnchiapulco, G. It. Hyde. 
Theological Seminary and Training-School, 

Pre^'itient, I.- H Salmans. 
ProfcsKors. n. N. Velasco, A. W. Greenman. 

Galdino Guiicrrejr. 

\VoMA.v'8 Foreign UrssioNAHv Societi 
Mexico. Mary V. F. t«yd and Henrietti 

Pachuca. Mary IJastings. 
I'ucUla. .S. W. Warner and Nettie Ogden. 
Tetcla. Liiiic Hewett. 
Guuiajuito, Miss Rogers. 



It is reported that Cardinal Lnugerie, 
who has done much to quicken European 
interest in the suppression of tiie East 
African slave-lradc. is endeavoring to or- 
Rapize a force of 500 volunteers lo fight 
ngatnst the Arabs. His 6ghting on an 
imlependent line is not likely to meet with 
much success. 

Bishop Taylor, ever fertile in expetllents, 
has ^tarieil a ml5sionar\' magrizine, TAt 
African .Vrtt-J, published monihly at 
Vtneland. N. J., at %\ a year. The 
Church has dreidcd il will give Ihis mis- 
^onary hero all the nid nccessarj- to carry 
out his African experiment, and this pub- 
lication is expected 10 give full information 
respecting his work. 

Canon Taylor's attack on the Church 
Missionary .Society was reprinted in the 
form of a tract by the Salv.tiion Army 
Ijecause that attack contrasted the work 
of the Salvation Army with the work of 
the Missionary Society. We are glad to 
know that this tract has been recalled by 
General Booth, and destroyed. The sec- 
ond thought was much better than the 

The true reason for giving is not under- 
stood by many. By giving we rc<luce 
our earthly store, but increase our heavenly 
treasure. By giving our purse may shrink. 
but our soul e.tpands. Our earthly con- 
dition may soniclimcs become worse, but 
our spiritual conduion butter. Is it not 
better to become nch m character, though 
by so doing we become poor in purse ? h 
was Jesus who said, ** It is more blessed 
10 give than to receive." 

Our readers will find in this number 
the statistics of Protestant missions in 
China, as ihey were reported last Uccem- 
ber. It will be noticed that ihe Society 
for the Propagation of the Ciospcl in For- 
eign Paris have their statistics rpprescnted 
by an interrogation point. This society 
is so very High Church that it declines to 
co-operate with other missionary societies, 
and even declines to furnish its statistics. 
We fear that it is not accomplishing much 
in the foreign lield. 

We liave received letters asking us to 
return to the melhod adoplctl Last year in 
^ving matter for the Monthly Concert in 
the magazine published the previous 
month. We chinged the plan with the 
commencement of this year because we 
believe<l th.-it nr'-angements were made 
which insured the earlier issue of each 

numlKr. We have failed so far. but be* 
lieve siiU thai ihis can be accomplished. 
If we hnd it cannot we shall resume our 
former plan. 

The articles of Canon Taylor, of En- 
gland, criticising mibsionar)' operations In 
general, and the operations of the Church 
Missionary Society in particular, have 
awakened many rirplies. The effect has 
been good. Never before have there been 
exhibited so many well presented reasons 
why we should prosecute mission work 
and support the socinies that are now in 
existence. We have -not space at present 
to give these answers, but shall ere long 
present our readers wuh a condensed state- 
ment of them. 

Signor Atessandro Cavazzi die<l in 
Rome on January 9. 1889. He had 
reached his eightieth year, but was still an 
active, energetic and very successful 
worker in the Protestant Italian Church. 
He visited this country about twelve years 
a^o. and by his eloquent and forcible pres* 
entation of the claims of Italy greatly in- 
creased our interest in its Protestant mis- 
sions. Gavazzi was a patriot as well as a 
faithful missionary. He wrought well 
and died well. We trust he will have 
many successors. 

The destruction of the Mission of the 
English Church Missionary Society in 
Uganda. East Africa, by the expulsion of 
the missiunaries and the burning of the 
mission-buildings, is a severe blow, and 
one greatly to be regrellcd : but many of 
the converts made have shown a sublime 
Christian heroism. Some of them have 
died rather than give up their rtrligion, 
and it is probable that among the native 
converts left behind there will be those 
who will become the nucleus of a future 
Christian Church which sliall tinaily 
become victor over all the heathenish and 
Moslem superstitions of all the nation. 
I-et us pray for Uganda. 

The Christian AdvocaU pul>lished in 
Tokyo in January says : " The churches 
in Japan take very kindly to anything that 
will give the children pleasure, so that the 
annual Christmas festival, with its orna- 
ments, its trees, its presents, .ind surprises. 
is rapidly becoming an institution in this 
land. All the Sunday-schools of the 
Methodist Church had successful enler- 
lainments this past year. Particularly no- 
ticeable was that in Azuhu : the ornamen- 
tation of the rooms was in exceeding good 
taste, aside from two trees bearing an 
amazing x-ariety of fruit. Many recita- 
tions of the children were ailmirably done. 
After the recitations, gifts were distributed 

to all the scholars, rcfreshmenls were 
handed to visitors as well, and a very suc- 
cessful festival came to a close." 

We have been notiiicd that the JlfissiM- 
ary Year Book for 1889 and 1890 will soon 
be published. A Hand Book of Missions 
was published in connection with the 
World's Missionary Conference in London 
last June; hut this was defective in 
part, especially in that referring to the 
American missionary societies. This 
book will be corrected ami enlarged, and 
Rev. J. T. Craccy. D.D.. will prepare the 
matter relating to the missionarj' societies 
in the United Slates and Canada. Dr. 
Gracey is well qualilied for this work, and 
we may depend ufion its reliability. The 
American edition of the book will be pub- 
lished by Mr. F. H. Revell. 14S Madison 
Street. Chicago. III., and 12 Bible House. 
New York. _ 

All eyes are being turned toward East- 
ern Africa, where a war is going on for 
the extirpation of slavery, and an effort is 
being made for the finding of Mr. Stanley 
and the relief of Emin Pasha. We have 
no doubt that Stanley does not consider 
himself lost, and that he and Emin Pasha 
will be able lolny the foundation of a much 
more settled government for the natives, 
and open the way for the safe establish- 
ment of Protestant missions. The En- 
glish and German Governments seem very 
determined to do what they can to destroy 
the slave-trade in that section. We fear 
that iheir desire for enlarging their own 
colonies lies at (he base of all the efforts 
they arc now making, God often uses the 
selfishness of m:in to further the extension 
of his kingdom. 

All honor to Japan I The progress in 
Japan during the last thirty years has 
been unparalleled. She has gladly wel- 
comed ever)' thing calculated to increase 
her intellectual, spiriiual, and physical 
greatness, and has rapi<lty taken her 
position among the Ir^iding nations. On 
the I lib of February a constitution 
was proclaimed to go into effect in 1890. 
by which Japan becomes a constitutional 
monarchy, giving the control of affairs 
largely into the hands of the (leople. 
There will be two houses of govemmenl — 
the house of peers, consisting of heredi- 
lar)' nobles and others created by the 
emperor or elected by the people, and the 
chamber of deputies, elected by the 
people. The right of suffrage is given 
lo everj- native Japanese who pays taxes 
amounting to tweniy-fivc dollars a year, 


The Council Bluffs District of the Des 
Moines Conference re]K}rted for |8S{ an 

mverage of over one tlollar per member 
ContribLitett for missions. This riid nol 
rrsull from the large giving of a few, but 
, from the wise methods of Ihc presiding 
' elder. Vr. W. T. Smith, ably seconded by 
Ihc pastors of the district The c^brt was 
made to secure a contribution from every 
person connected with the churches and ions. That this was .1 success 
*ls seen in the long list of individual con- 
tributors publislictl m the Counctl Bluffs 
Dhtria MtthoiiisI for February. 18S9. 
the detailed report occupying thirteen 
pages in fine type. We wish that Dr. 
Smith could be transferred to same dis- 
tricts with which we are acquainted. 
Write to him if you wish 10 ascertain 
tnore respecting the plans by which he has 
bt-comc such a successful inissioaary 
worker. He resides at Council Bluffs. 

Sad tidings have reached us lately re- 
[spccting ihe wide-spread and disastrous 
famine in Northern China. The Yellow 
Kiver disaster and the terrible inundations 
in .Manchuria were lollowed by a great 
drought in the early summer, causing the 
failure of the rice crops, and in the month 
of August a deluge of rain washed away 
many houses and drowned a large num- 
ber ofpeople. Small streams have fornicil 
lakes and covered Urge tracts of coun* 
lr>-. Death by starvation is staring many 
of them in the face. Six provinces, all 
thickly populated, are sufTering at this 
lime front the cfTects of the drought and 
Hood. Contributions for their aid can be 
made through our different missionary 
societies. Money given for this purpose 
will be forwarde*! to our missionaries in 
China and distributed by them to the most 
needy. We sent help to Ircl-ind when it 
was suffering from famine ; shall we not 
do the same for China? 

The Gospel tn all Lands for Feb- 
ruary was an excellent number. Would 
it be allowable for us to say that if we 
had written a large portion of it? The 
sickness of the editor, protracted through 
several weeks, delayed its preparation and 
publication. ;md the editor was unable to 
prepare any matter for it. All articles 
and items nol otherwise credited were 
writien by Rev. S. L. Ualdwin. U.D., ant! 
ihe arrangement, reading of proofs, etc.. 
was under his direction. As much of thr 
matter about Chin.). an<l Dr. Baldwin 
was formerly a missionary in China, and 
now the Recording Secretary of our Mis- 
sionary Society, he was prepared to fur- 
nish a number peculiarly interesting and 
reliahle. The statistics of the 
missions in China were nol received in 
lime 10 be published last month, bui are 

given this month. They are copied from 
the Chiiuse Rec6rdtr for January, pub- 
lished in Shanghai, and are prepared by 
Rev. Dr. Gulick, its editor. 

The GoiiifH Rule, of Boston, in its issue 
of February 21. gives some most excellent 
reasons for giving to missions. Among 
these we note the following ; •' A requisite 
to a genuine interest in missions is a be- 
nevolent interest as well as an intelligent 
interest In them. Wc are likely to follow 
with our prayers and with our affectionate 
interest any cause or person to whom we 
gi\e our money. If wc have part in send- 
ing the Gospel to the heathen at home, or 
abroad, and give our own hard-earned 
dollars or dimes for thai purpose, wx can- 
not help being interested, and we shall 
follow the money with ouv prayers. The 
great reason why so few people care much 
about mis-sions is that su few people 
know much about them. Our Interest in 
missionary' work will be Justin proportion 
to our knowledge of it. Many societies 
might wisely assume some deftnile object 
of benevolence. Get into correspondence 
with those to whom the money goes. 
Consider them your missionaries, and the 
joy and interest in giving will be tncrciscd 

The Gnat Value and Success of For- 
eign MissioHs Prmttl by Distinguished 
Witnesses is a new book, of 250 pages, 
prepared by Rev. John Liggins, and pub- 
lished by the Baker and Taylor Company 
nf New York, at 35 cents in paper. 
75 cents in cloth. We have it with 
pleasure and profit. It is a most excellent 
summary of facts calculated to prove 
that Foreign Mis^irins are a success and 
a power in civilizing as well as Christian- 
izing heathen people, and that the world 
owes much more to Christian missions 
than it has been wont to acknowledge. 
Mr. Liggins was once a missionary in 
China, afterward the first Protestant mis- 
sionary in Japan, It is a trustworthy 
book and deser\'es a large circulation. 
Mr. Liggins has. however, made a mis- 
lake in calling our Dr. Gideon F. Draper 
a Presbyterian, as he is a mem- 
ber of the New York Conference. The 
inisLike is a natural one, as Dr. Draper 
frequently preaches in Presbyleri.^n pul- 
pits and is a frequent contributor to the 
columns of the New York Observer, 

The majority of books on missions have 
comparatively a small circulation, and 
their price is correspondingly targe. The 
Report of the Missionary Conference held 
in London last June is an exception in 
one particular, and we trust will be an 

exception in ihe other. Published in two 
volumes, e.ich containing over 600 pages. 
and furnished at %2, the very low price is 
greatly in its favor. 

These books contain carefully-prepared 
papers and discussions on the most im- 
portant questions connected with mission- 
ary work and a large amount of informa- 
tion respecting missions in all parts of 
the world. They will greatly aid every 
student of missions, and are calculated to 
increase the knowledge and interest of 
every one in missions. 

The first volume is devoted chiefly to 
an account of the mission-work in ail 
lands, and the second volume to the best 
methods for prosecuting the work. These 
books ought to be in the library of .-ill our 
subscribers. They wilt never regret the 
money expended in their purchase. Mr. 
F. H. Rcvcll, of Chicago and New York, 
is the publisher for the United States. 

Our readers have seen in the daily 
papers considerable relating to the Samoan 
Islands, and the correspnndcnce between 
the United .States and Germany respect- 
ing Ihe condition of affairs there. The 
king was removed by the German author- 
ities and another matte king in his place 
by them. The United Slates had pledged 
itsclt to uphold the king againsl the t 
surgent chief recognized as king by I 
Germans. The result h;ts been a bit 
civil war and the killing of a number 
German soldiers. The action of Germa 
caused a protest by Ihc United Stat 
Government, which protest has been 
accepted in good spirit and a conference- 
called for between representatives of iIh: 
United States and Germany, and there is 
reason (o believe that the difficulties will 
ere long be settled ; though we fear the 
result will not be to ihe advantage of t 
Samoans. The Samoan group was f 
mcrly known as the Navigators' Islands^ 
There are ten inhabited islands, with a 
[topulation of about 35.000 people. The 
group lies in the South Pacttic Ocean. 
nearly 25,000 miles south-west of the 
Hawaiian Islands. The abongmt^ are of 
the Polynesian type and are a handsome 
r.ncc. IVoiesKint missions have been 
carried on among them with considerable 


The Christian spirit is that whic 
prompts the glad giving for ihe benefit of 
others. Whenever we find that an effort 
is being made to use Christian methods 
(or the purpose of personal gain we arc 
likely to doubt that spirituality is the con- 
trolling spirit- We always regret any 
evidences of this in plans that are formed 
for the advancement of Christian work. 
We have before us a pamphlet of eight 




pages* cont.iining an ntWrcss delivered by 
Mr. William £. DoOt^e at the General 
Christian Conference held at Washingioti. 
It IS a. good adiJress, and any one wouUI 
supposT th^t iht Lvan^elical Alliance, by 
whom tt 15 published, would be glad to 
f>ee many copieti a( it circul.-ttecl ; but it is 
copyn'ghted. Again, we have a pamphlet 
of twenty pages on methods of to-opera- 
lion in Christian work, berng addresses 
i)eliverc<l liy Drs. Strong and Ru&mtII at 
the same Conference. This, too, is copy- 
righted, and will be furniahed at $5 per 
100. \Vc admire the spirit and work ol 
the Evangelical Alliance for the United 
Slates, but deprecate the assumption ih.1i 
it has the monopoly for proinoting Chris- 
tian liberality. We also litul that cards 
and other plans for taking up missionary 
collections are being copyrighted by some 
enterprising brother. Wc do not believe 
that such aids deserve commendation or 
use. We have even seen prayer-cards 
copyrighted. Wc arc glad ihat Chris- 
iijniiy c^n live and grow notwithstanding 
the apparent selfishness of some of its 
most active advocates. 

Although the Missionarj* Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Chuich is con- 
siderably in debt there is no reason (or 
(Jiscoumgement. The collections for 
November. December, January, and Kcb- 
ruary are always small, as but few Confer- 
ences arc held during thuae months, and 
none of them possessing much linancta] 
ability. The meetings of the larger Con- 
ferences commence this month, and wc 
shall anxiously await the missionary 
reports then made, hoping to hear of a 
considerable .idvance. A considerable 
advance is necessary in order to meet the 
existing appropri.itions. and these appro- 
priations are much smaller than our mis- 
sionaries declared u-ere necessary to an 
efficient prosecution of their work. 

We transfer to our pages tlie following 
earnest appeal addressed lo ilie supporters 
of the American Board, and which is 
equally applicable to our constituency : 

" Few can realize the injustice done our 
missionaries by withholding from ilicm 
the means of efficient service. It ought 
10 be enough for them to give their lives, 
their years of p.-itient preparation, their 
acquisitions of koowIe<lg;e, their home 
comforts, and other privileges of their 
native land, enough 10 make such sacri- 
ticcrs without being called lo the further 
trial of disappointed hopes and plans. 
and of crippled efforts and scanty returns 
where great results seem just within 
reach ; and all this for the want of a few- 
hundred dollars more to secure these 
results. Yet who contribute most to this 

cause? Is it those who give themselves, 
or those who give of tlieir wealth? Is it 

the parents who spend money on the edu- 
caiion of their children and then send 
them forth with their blessing to build up 
Christian institutions in other lands, or 
those who give of iheir abundance to 
supply them with needed food and cloth- 
ing. ;ind with such help as is indispensable 
for buildings and schools, and jKissibly to 
meet wholly or in part, for a tittle time, 
the small salaries of native teachers and 
preachers ? It is through these native 
agents that the missionary extends his 
work, multiplies his influence, and follows 
up openings for the Gospel. To limit him 
in these rcg.irds below his most careful 
eslim.-ite of what is necessjiry is to cut off 
and cut back the new growth of his work, 
to lose opportunities won, it may be. at 
the hardest, and lo sec a blight falling 
upon the work. This is the burden that 
weighs on the heart, the discouragement 
that pales the cheek, the injustice that too 
many in the Church at home arc doing to 
loved and honored misslonnrics in the 
foreign field. O for a union of sympathy 
and effort in the common cause as fellow- 
believers unto the kingdom of God." 

Our niMilonarle* rikI niMitloiih. 

We very much regret to hear of the 
death of Rev. Frank L. McCoy. Ph.D.. 
which occurred in Calcutta. Fcbruat7 12. 
For two years Dr. McCoy has been edit- 
ing the Induxit Witness, and has made an 
excellent editor. 

The Rev. C. P. Hard writes from India 
announcing the binh, on December 30. 
1888, in Jab.ilpur, ol Harriet Elizabeth 
H.ird. Her parents are very eflicicni and 
successful missionaries. We trust she will 
follow in their footsteps. 

Rev. D. C. Challis WTites from Loftcha, 
Bulgaria, January 11: "The week of 
prayer is being generally ohser\'ed, with 
good results thus far. Two new members 
were added last night in Tirnova. A new 
railroad has Iwen projected through So- 
phia. Plevna, Loftcha, Tirnova, Shuml.i. 
to Varna, and the money has been voted 
for it by the assembly. It will be a great 
help lo us." 

Rev. J. H. Worlej- writes from Foochow, 
China: "The Holy Spirit has for some 
lime been moving in a special manner 
upon the hearts of our theological stu- 
dents. Greater diligence in study, in- 
creased pleasure in street-chapel preach- 
ing, and a marked improvement in their 
sermons are manifest. Not long since, 
while delivering a lecture on preaching to 
a class, I especially emphasized the im- 
portance of prayer before entering upon 
the preparation or delivery of a sermon. 

and tried to show the utter failure of aQ 
attempts without the baptism of the Holy 
Ghost. Before 1 had finished one of the 
students rose up hastily and said, • Teacher, 
wont you pray that the Holy Spirit may 
come upon us now and help us } ' Before 
1 could speak the whole class were upon 
their knees. During prayer there were 
ejaculations such as are seldom heard in 
Chinese congregations. Let all who read 
this pray earnestly that the Holy Spirit 
may come in great power upon these 
young men." 

In a letter dated Peking. China, No- 
vember 23, 1888, Dr. C;eorgc U. Crews 
writes : " A good hospital here is needed 
and must come. I still hope that the 
Lord will direct some wealthy individual 
to our need, which indeed is his opportu- 
nity to put the Lord's money ' to the ex- 
changers.' The medical work is steadily 
growing. 1 made a trip to Huang Ts'un 
and Han Ts'un. a few days ago, accom- 
panied !)y Miss Cushman and Mrs. Crews. 
Very many people came to see us at both 
places and our supply of medicine gave 
out, with crowds outside asking for 
admission. Dr. Corliss has ihc medical 
classes this year, so I am free 10 make' 
countr)' trips. . . . Alvin {a native Chris- 
tian graduate in Western medicine) goes 
to the jehol silver mines to hold the place 
until a new doctor comes." 

Rev. J. P. Larsson writes from Linkop- 
ing, Sweden, January- 7; " In the name 
of ihc whole Swedish Conference I heart- 
ily and humbly thank our dcir and 
beloved fathers and brethren in America 
tor the allowance granted us for 1889, 
although we feel afflicted because they 
were not able lo give us the sum asked 
for as needful for the carrying on of the 
work. Tlie decrease will cause us trouble 
and difficully. As far as 1 know ail is 
well in all the districts, and God is bless- 
ing the labors of the brethren with 

<*ood Kewn Ooai Lnliore* 

Bv irv. c. c. ri-OMeii. 

It has been my privilege lo work for 
the Lord for rnany years, and I have often 
felt. Just what you wrote about, that the 
kind friends in America arc tired o( hear- 
ing of ihc customs of the people and the 
rites and ceremonies of the different relig- 
ions of India, and thai they would be bet- 
ter pleased wiih/ac/s from India, as 10 
what good is really being done by us. who 
arc being supported by you all. 

Well, my health of late has not privi- 
leged nic to be as active as 1 desire to be. 
but I will tell you of a visit from one of 
my pupib. The wife of a native doctor 
of good standing came over with lier sister- 





in-law to st:e me. Mtss Leonard, the trav- 
eling evangelist, was with me and was»l lo src ihem. After a lilllc while 
spent in ordinary conversation I asked 
the woman, at Miss Leonard's request, if 
she loved Jesus. She said " ye«." Tlien 
I aiiked her why she drew back after once 
expressing her wish to be baptized wiih 
the rest of the fa.'nily. She said that they 
were Kitidercd by public opinion, and the 
opposition they received, and added. 
" though I .im not brave enough to make 
an open confession of my faith in Christ 
he who see* my heart knows how truly 1 
love him. anil Ikjw firmly I believe in him. 
anil how earnestly I pray lo him, and he 
will accept me notwithstanding my want 
of faiih in his power to uphold mc in the 
midst of severe persecution and opposi- 
tion, which must come if 1 openly confess 
him. " After a little more talk we ad- 
monished her, and I know she is deeply 
impressed. I visit her and .ilways show 
her her duty. She came to see me Ijst 
month, and the day after to-morrow I 
have promised (D. V.) to spend a little 
time with her in her own house. Her 
niece has openly confessed her faith in 
Christ to me, but I am sure, if the family 
comes out and are baptized, she would he 
baptized also. This is but a single case of 
the many such in the closed zenanas. 

My husband has been encouraged by 
seeing a genuine case in the conversion of 
a Mohammedan. He was working in a 
native press, and when his awn brother 
found out that he wasa secret inquirer he 
reported him to his superior, thinking that 
the fear of losing his situation would turn 
his thoughts away from Christ. Not so ; 
he was (lisinisscd. We heard of his dis- 
missal and his persecutions, and told him 
to hold fast the laith, He came daily for in- 
struction for more than a month, and when 
we were quite satisticd that the case was a 
thorough one we baptized him on Sunday, 
the 23d of December. 1 le is now a teacher 
in our day-school for the heathen hoys. 

Another very interesting case was that 
of a Hindu who earnestly sought and 
found Christ. He prayed for forgiveness, 
and we prayed with him. He went away 
happy in the knowledge of sins forgiven. 
His wife persecuted him and turned him 
out of the house ; his friends did the same 
because he told them what great things 
the Lord had done for him. He left the 
station. We were grieved to hear of his 
departure, and lost sight of him for a 
time. The other day he met my husband 
and promised to attend the native service. 
but did not. Further persecution and 
trouble which may come hinders him from 
identifying himself vvith Christians. 

In Lahore, where the heal is so great in 

the monlhs of May. June, and July. Brah- 
mins sit by the way-side with watcrto give 
to thirsty travelers. Such an office is pay- 
ing, for in return money or is given 
to ihem, and there are Brahmins (the 
priestly class of Hindus) here who find a 
livelihood in this way. Such a one came 
as an inquirer; but when he found that by 
being a Christian he would have to hon- 
estly work for his living he drew back 
and has not been heard of since. 

Our own native church is being roused. 
and wc know that when the burden of 
souls presses heavily on their hearts they 
will he up and doing. 

Knowing the interest you take in raising 
money for missions you will be glad to 
know that in this station we have raisetl 
$325 lor our native work. 

•edlrallun of n i'liurrlt ml OdriiaF* 


The 3d of February was a great day 
for the Meiliodist Episcopal Churcfi in 
Odcnse. On that clay our new and splen- 
did church, the Dollncr Memorial, was 
dedicated to the service of Almighty Gotl 
In the presence of a ver\- large concourse 
of people, among whom were found both 
the city mayor and marshal and a number 
of city aldermen, together with prominent 
citizens and friends from our neighboring 

The church is situated in the western 
pan of the city, on the corner of Odius 
and Thors Streets, a new and populous 
part, and only a few minutes' walk from 
the South Railroad station. It is a be.iuli- 
ful Gothic siniclure in the form of a cross, 
with a tower ninrty feet high at one cor- 
ner. It is of a new conitruclion. not for- 
merly used in churches here, the whole 
frame being of heavy double T iron. 
raised from thcvcry foundation, extending 
up through the walls .ind joinc<l at the 
lop of the arch ; this strong iron frame, 
however, being entirely hid from siirht by 
the walls and ceiling. The walls are of 
red pressed bricks, with a number of fac- 
ings, columns, etc.. of cement castings 
and the roof is covered with state, the 
spire with zinc and lead. In the lower a 
lirgc bell is hung, the sound of which can 
be heard far in over the city. 

The building is 63 feet long and 36 feet 
wide; the transept 33x43 feet, and the 
insiile height 28 feet. The tower is to 
feet square at the base, and an entrance 
hall extends along the front of the church 
of the same wi<lth. A gallery extends 
across the church at the entrance, on 
which the organ is placed and where 
about too persons can be seated. The 
floor can seal 300 persons. .Al the three 

services on dedication tlay between %ix 
and seven hundred crowded inlo ihe 
church each time. 

The morning service and dedication were 
conducted by the superintendent, the after- 
noon service by Rev. C. Thaorup, of Fred- 
erickshavn. and the evening service by 
Rev. O. Olscn, of Copenhagen. These 
services were greatly blessed of God. an^j 
the visitors expressed their satisfaction wf^ 
different ways. A merchant, for instance, 
who had formerly given me 300 kroncrs 
toward the church, gave 300 more the 
day after dedicalion. and the city au- 
thorities agreed at their meeting the day 
after to give us a lower clock as soon as 
their funds for such purposes would allou' 
it. which would be in two or three years. 

On an adjoining lot the society has built 
a school, in which are also rooms for the 
teacher and the janitor's family, and on 
that lot is reserved room enough for a 
parsonage, whenever wc are able to erect 

Toward the building of this be.iuttfol 
church the Missionary Board agreed, two 
years ago. to give of the Dollner 
funds, left the society at Mr. Dollner's de- 
cease, without which gift ihc poor society 
would not have been able to undertake 
this enterprise. A marble slab in the 
church will bc;ir the name of Mr. Dollner, 
the benefactor of Danish Methodism, 
down to coming generations. 

The completion of this church 
mark a period in Odense Methodism 
which will prove to he a beginning of a 
new era for our work here. May GjmI 
soon enable us to a suitable church 
in each of our large cities. Pray for \ivn-_ 
mark and our Church in this land. 


AMbodUt niMlon Ik Kor««. 


Another year has rolled by, and records 
three years and a half of our Church's 
work in Korea. At our Annual Meeting 
in September Bishop Fowler and family 
were with us for five short and busy days. 
These visit,itions are always very helpful. 
Our interest in the work does noi flng in 
the interim, but they put new life inlo us 
and redouble our interest. It was espe- 
cially pleasant for the first missionaries lo 
Korea (as well as to all I to have a visit 
from Bishop Fowler. It was he who. in 
behalf of the Bishop in charge of our Mis- 
sion, ordained and sent them out to iheir 
work, .ind has ever since had special in- 
terest in us in con&equerK:e. His personal 
and general sympnthy. his valuable sug- 
gestions and kinilly inlcrcst, will all show- 
very practical and good results. He has 
encouraged us all greatly. ait<l what we 
prize very much is thai he adds one lo the 








number of those who hA^T seen Korea 

and can jucl^e it more nccuratdy. 

Outside of Korea, even in Japan and 
China, and also al home, it seems as 
ihough erroneous ideas of this land took 
looi more readily than ihc correct ones. 
Korea is not standing still. The mi<iston- 
ary efforts arc not void of effect. It was 
worth while to begin work here. Our 
hands are not tied. The workers are not 
discouraged, nor have they reason (or so 
hcing. As far as we feel and know we 
are not in physictl ieopardy every hour, in 
spite of the false rumors of notsthc news- 
papers seem 10 delight in reporting. We 
have never but once in our three and a 
half years felt any uneasiness for our safety, 
and that lasted for a couple of days only. 
and resulted in no harm of any sort. Lei 
us look a little and see if this is not all so. 

Our new foreign brick school-building 
stands high up in a prnminrnt place in the 
city, and is the wonder of all from north 
to south. They seem never to tire with 
talking about it. In 1887 it enrolled 31 
pupiU, and this year has 45 on its lists. 
Prayers are held there daily in the mom- 
tng, and nine of the number have been 
converted to Christ. The school is 
Thoroughly pervaded with a Christian 

By the arrival of much-needed help, tn 
the persons of Brothers Ohlingcr and 
Jones, its efficiency has been much in- 
creased. Think what we may, it is very 
(liflicuU (or one man. with zeal all on tire 
and mind never so active, to teach even so 
small ;i number of men from A B C lo ihe- 
'I'ogy. some in English, but mostly in 
Korean ; to study the language profitably. 
hok) religious services among them, and 
among rhc Japanese on Sundays, besides 
attending to the necessary translations 
and the many calls of a new and opening 
work. Brother Appenzeller had his time 
and strength hard taxed before the ar- 

riral of help. 

We highly prize the presence of Broth- 
er Ohlinger amoung us. His previous 
labors and valuable expcncncc, in China 
are, from time to lime, very useful in their 
fruit of ftugge&iinns and help. 

Brother Appenieller has made two 
evangelistic trips into the interior to the 
north this year. During his last one 16 
persons were bapliicd out of 32 who prc- 
wnled themselves, tl w.-u thought best 
that the others should wait and study a 
little longer. During this trip, too, the 
future work was laid out and so planned 
for in four large cities of iKc north that 
i[ can be intelligently cotilroUed and man- 
aged hereafter from the Seoul center. 
Our Church has baptized up to this time 
37 persons. Foi»r colporteurs go through 

the country spreading the news, teaching. 

and distributing the word and tracts. 

The woman's work is looming up in 
grand proportions. In the school forgirls 
last year it were enrolled. This year 
there are 17. The Koreans from iheout* 
side say their progress is wonderful, and 
not to seem too extravagant in our conceit 
we will merely accept iheir views. Many 
a little pray^rr goes up from there in 
broken attempts in Lnglishand in ignorant 
attempts in their own language, but from 
hearts that already see a beaut)' in holi- 
ness they long for. 

A Bible work for women has great 
promise. Every Sunday evening they 
gather at the Liidics' Home to hear the 
word read and expounded. The attend- 
ance has several times been as great as 
50, and the average is about 35. Three 
women have been alre.idy baptized, and 
several more are soon 10 he. Two native 
Bible women .ire employed. One m-ir- 
riagc has been soleinniz«l tluring the last 

The hos|>itaI has been steadily increas- 
ing in usefulness, directly and iiuUrccily. 
It was medical work that was the great 
force in opening Korea, ami it is to this 
work still that we have to look for a great 
deal of our present success and progress. 
Medical work is increasingly highly ap- 
preciated by the Koreans, anil the oppor- 
tunities in this line are fast opening. The 
skill our Western medical science displays, 
and (to their eyes) (he often menial acts 
that necessarily accompany our endeavors, 
open their hearts to us ami recommend 
the purity of our inolives. One of our 
men at the hospital says: " Before I was 
a believer in this Jesus doctrine I would 
not have done the disagreeable things for 
the sick. But now 1 don't care, for I do 
It for Christ's sake." 

During the first year of medical work 
there were Soo patients treated; during the 
second year 1.970. and the last year 5,500. 

We have four men enrolled as stu<lents 
in medicine. They arc acting as assist- 
ants at the same time. A very hopeful 
thing about them is that they think it is 
nrcc*i5ary to know of the '■Jesus doc- 
trine" and to study thai as well as medi- 
cine in order lo make them good physi- 
cians. May it always be so in our me<li- 
cal profession in Korea ! 

Though hastily, have t not brought 
prools enough lo dispel all doubts about 
Korea? Itave we not all rcison lor 
thanksgiving ai the marvelous things that 
are being wrought ? 

The appointments for the ensuing year 
are : 

H. G. Appenieller. Superintendent of Mis- 
sion and Principal of School. 

W. B. Scranlon. Superintendent of Hospi- 
tal and Ucdical Work. 

F. Ohlingcr, Su|wriiilcmlenl of Miu.ioa- 
prc»« and Teacher in School. 

G. H. Jones, Teiicljcr in Scliiml, 
A?i»iatam >[tuionari<'4, Mn>. 1^. D. Appcn- 

«eilci- and \frs. B. S. Olilingcr. 
Asiibunt in lioKpital, Mri. L. A. Scranton. 

Woman's Foubign Missin>iAitY Sociktv. 

Mrv M, F- Scranton. rriiKipnl of Gills' 
School and Home, and Superintendent of 
Bible work fur WtiTncn. Mi«. L, A. Knih- 
wcilcr. Teacher in Girls' School. Mi»^ M. 
I-IowaH, SupcTtntciident of Ho»pilal of Wo- 
man's Work. 

Sroul, Die. 8, 1888. 


air K«v. u. L. TAPT. 

Railway fkum Decemuek 16 until. 
Further Notice. 




I 30) 



Toni^hui. . . d^. 

11 ToOK-^KIg ** 

leU-lai..... " 

»«|Hiin-ku. . ...... ** 

.U'Peh-taiix " 

40 'l*on(-ku . , .. arrive 

. . Tunic-kii d«p. 

41 Sin-Ko.. 

( j . C bun ■ ) iu itf -chcn ^" 
oslTicft-irin Mrnvc 

Ur TraIh^. 


Fab<9 mow 


,?i Ij 





1 iS 



Twn-thin dap, 

■ ■ ChHti-lung-chcng 

31 Sin-hi 

asTong-liu .»fTfw 

.. Tong-ku d«pL 

30' Hili-taeiK "* 

4] HiLM-ku " 

47 l.>i-Mi '* 

!4 Tong-fong. .... '* 
«j Sii«k<xbwiiiig,. 

DOWM TlAtNlt. 



T.** II 45 

.»*! ij.oSI 
«.4*l 13. S! 
«.4J| *4J» 
_ _ , l».l«, 15 «4 

it] Ti>ng-*haii . . . arritV' 11. im is.4S' 

Railways.— It is understood that con- 
tractors have been %'ery active in their 
efforts to secure the making of the Tung- 
chow-Tienlsin line, and it is reported 
that the French have been promised the 
Tungchow- Peking section when that has. 
been derided upon. Il is to be hoped 
this will be .soon, as the road from Peking 
to Tungchow will be more intolerable 
than ever when the railway has brought 
civilized traveling to within twelve miles 
of the City Gate.— T"^*^ Chituse Times, 
Dec. 23, i«88. .. 

Active Preparations for Exten- 
sion. — Preparations for the new railway 


work are already going forward. The 
<lirectors, accompanied by the chief en- 
gineer, have proceeded to Tungchow to 
view the ground and decide on the gen- 
eral lay of the line. After ihis the regular 
survey will be proceeded wiih. and nego- 
tiations for purchase of latid and other 
arrangements of a political character made 
during the winter. On the breaking up 
of the frost the earthworks will probably 
he hpgun, and with good Itick the raits 
ni,iy be ready lo he laid <luring the winter 
of 1889-90.— T*^*: CAifUStf Timrs, Dec. 
22. 1 888. 

Imperial Wedpino-Chair. — The 

imperial household has given instaici ions 
to ihc manufacturing department of the 
Board of Works to have four sedan-chairs 
made in preparation for his majesty's mar- 
riage : one phcnix-chair, one cercmonial- 
ch.iir, and two yellow ceremonial-chairs. 
The Imperial Equipage Department have 
directed that sixty-four of the most expe- 
rienced chair-lwarers be selected, and 
Ihcse are to practice carrying the imperial 
wedding-chair once every three (lays until 
the dale of the marriage, so that no acci- 
dent may happen on the happy occasion. 
— Shih 1*a«, Tienisin, Dec. 25, 1888. 

Chinese Dir.NrrARiE.s in HoNn.— 
The following telegram from Ottawa. 
Canada, appeared lately in the New Yorlc 
papers : " Considerable excitement was 
ciusetl here to-nighl over the arrival Irom 
the United States of two Chinese tiigni- 
taries in bond. The dignitaries are Y. L. 
Fu, Secretary of the Hoard of War. and 
H. K. Ku, Secretary of the Board of Pun- 
ishments. His imperial majesty's com- 
missioners were in charge of a puliceman, 
who accompanied them to the leaiJing 
hotel, where he watched them at dinner 
And until the Minister of Customs could 
be consulted .is to what disposition could 
be made of them. Even after this cab- 
inet officer had been talked with he could 
nnt .illow their release from bond until an 
officer of customs been consulted. 
Considering the high position they occupy 
and the fact that they come here to learn 
Ihe manner of government in the Domin- 
ion, the)' feci their humiliation keenly." 

Deckefs C^ranted to Aged Candi- 
dates,— A memorial presenie«l by the 
Governor of Shantung states that it is the 
custom for the emperor, under certain cir- 
cumstances, lo grant the degree of Pro- 
vincial Graduate to aged candidates who 
have been unsuccessful in the examina- 
tion. The persons to whom this favor is 
accorded must be not less than eighty or 
ninety years of age, and must have pre- 
sented themselves at the triennial exam- 

ination not less than three times. Among 
the candidates who were examined this 
autumn there were seven uf the .ige of 
ninety and twelve of eighty years and 
more, all of whom have fulfilled the con- 
ditions mentioned above. The memorial- 
ist, moreover, has had their essays exam- 
itted, and 6nds them to be both lucid and 
coherent. He therefore requests that the 
emperor will be ple.ised to confer the de- 
sired degree on these aged scholars. 

The succeeding memorial in the same 
Gazette is presented by the Governor of 
YQiinan. who states that al the recent ex- 
aminations in that province there were 
two candidates over eighty years of age 
who had appeared before the examiners 
three times, and whose compositions were 
found to be meritorious. He therefore 
makes the same request on their bch.ilf. 
The emperor's i^scripi orders both me- 
morials to be handed to the Board of Cere- 
monies for its report thereon. — The Pe- 
king Gazette. Dec. 11. 1888. 

China Moves.— A talented artist, after 
having carefully explored Japan, was 
studying Chinese architecture at the West- 
ern Hills, near Peking, a few years ago. 
In Tply 10 a question concerning modern 
profTfessive ideas affecting China, he said. 
" When China moves she will move the 

Miss Adele M. Field states in TAe Pop- 
ular Sciem-f Monthly as her opinion of 
the influence of Kuropean sciences on llie 
Chinese Civil Service Exatntnations that 
these new departures, with other forces, 
indicate that Chma is to follow japan in 
the course of progress m Western sciences, 
though perhaps with the slow step that 
accords with the magnitude of the nation. 

Rev. W. A. P. Martin. D.D,. M..D.. 
one of the ablest Sinologues, who is now 
residing at Peking, in charge 0/ the Tung 
Wen Kuan, slated the same opinion in 
reference to education. "Though the ed- 
ucational tide- wave is later to rise in Chma 
than Japan, its mass and farce will bi 
incomparably greater here than there." 

RIOTING IN China.— "The whole 
of the foreign community of Chinkiang, 
with the exception of a dozen customs 
and consular ofTicials. have arrived in 
Sh.inghai safely. They report the 
Foreign Concession has been almost de- 
stroyed, that the American Mission Chapel, 
outside the Concession, has been burned, 
and that t^ie place is in the hands of the 
Chinese. It is slated that the Chiticsc 
officials and soldiers abetted the conspir- 
acy. American and llriiish men-of-war 
have arrived there." The foregoing tele- 
gram, dated Shanghai, Feb. 7, was pub- 

lished in the A^ Y. Times of Feb. 8. 
quiry at the Chinese Consulate in N 
York and at newspaper offices has failed 
to elicit further infornialion. There are. 
were, two .American mission chapels o 
side the " Foreign Concession " at Chi 
klang. one iKlonging to the Soutb 
Baptists and the other lo the Methodist 
Kpisco|ul Mission. We await fun 
panicul.irs with interest. 

iled , 




Calamitol's News from Chika 


Starvinc— San Francusco, Feb. 23.— 
The Chrna ste.imer which arrived last 
night brought news of a greai snow-storm 
in Chee Foo. Over a million ami a half 
people in the province are starx'ing. nnd 
riots occur daily. Missionaries have been 
attacked by mobs of Chinese, leil by the 
gentry.— A'. K Tribune. Feb. 23. 1889. 


Hon. Yun Wing.— It is reported that 
Hon. Yung Wmg is to visit China next 
spring in order lo confer with some influ- 
ential Chinese ofticials concerning the 
adc3ption of certain American inventions 
and improvements. 

Wiley Institute of Peking. China, writes 
Rev. L. VV. Pilcher in a letter dated Dec. 
8, 1888. "IS growing in inleresi and num- 
bers every day. We have cighly-ntne m 
attendance. The buys are better graded 
than ever Ijtfore. and the classes arc com- 
mg along in line order. . . . The train- 
ing class this year numbers twenty-five. 
There are some fine men among them, 
including several who will lake the rcgu* 
lar theological course. 

"The Woman's Training- School is di- 
vided this year, MissCushman and Mrs. 
J. each have large classes of women under 

•• Here in Peking our chapel holds a good- 
sized audience every morning when the 
schools are assembled for chapel services. 
and on Sundays we have no room for out- 

" The Chinese preacher. Te Jui, is doing 
tiiiely as pastor ; is popular with and ver)' 
useful among the training-class men. His 
sermons are splendidly arranged and well 
wrought out : so, also, arc his prayer- 
meeting talks. They all give c\idence of 
study and thought." 

PERSONALS.— Rev. and Mrs. G. B. 
Smyth arrived at Shanghai Dec. 31. 1B88, 
en route for Foochow, 

Dr. and Mrs. Beebe were presented by 
their friends at Nankin, China, with a fine 
cabinet organ on last Christmas. 


^octr^ aiib j^oug. 

Sowing and Rt'apiiig. 

TbEy that tow in Icon •faall nap in jojr." P». 116. 5. 

Sow with a generous hand ; 

Pause not fur toil or pain ; 
Weary nol tlirough the heal of summer ; 

Wcar>' not through the colcl spring rain ; 
But wait till the autumn comes. 

For the sheaves of jjoUIcn grain. 

Scatter the seed and fear not — 

A table Mill he spread ; 
What matters if you are 100 weary 

To eat your hard-earned bread ? 
Sow while tlie earth is broken. 

For the hungry must be fed. 

Sow while the seeds are lying 
In the warm earth's bosom deep, 

And your warm tears fall upon it : 
They will stir in their quiet sleep. 

And the green blades rise the quicker. 
Perchance, far the tears you weep. 

Then sow, for the hours are fleeting. 

And the seed must fall to-day. 
And care not vyhat hands shall re-ip it, 

Or if you shall have passed away 
Before the waving cornlields 

Shall gladden ihc sunny day. 

Sow, and look onward, upward. 
Where the starry light appears. 

Where, in spite of the coward's doubting. 
Or your own he-irt's trembling fears. 

You shall reap in joy the han.-cst 
You have sown to-day in tears. 

—Adelaide Proctor. 

JMorlb, Morii, .Storg. 

The Nizam's DumiiiionH. 


Let the reader spread out before hini a larye map of 
India, and, drawing an imaginary line alon^ the courite 
of the Nerbudda River eastward to Calcutta, divide ihe 
country into two somewhat unequal parts. The penin- 
sula south of this line was anciently called the Dcccan 
(south country), in distinction from Hindustan (the 
Hindu country) on the north. In modern usage, how- 
ever, the latter name is often applied to the whole of 
India, and the former restricted to the table-land in the 
nonhem part of the southern peninsula. In this more 
limited Dcccan lie the nizam's dominions, a tributary 
native state, having the general shape of a triangle, with 
the seventy-sixth meridian for iti> base, and the Krishna 
and Toongabudra Rivers for its south-eastern and the 
Godavory and Mahanuddy Rivers for its north-eastern 

The ruler of this country is a Mohammedan prince, 
called by Europeans " the nizam," which stands for 
" Nizam-ul-Mulk " (regulator of the counlr)'), one of 
Ins many ofHcial titles. He ranks first among the native 
princes in alliance v,-ith the British power in India, and 
hia '* dominions " arc Ihc largest of the tributary 

. The nizams trace their lineage back to a certain 
Khajeh Abeed, who came from Saroarcand to India in 
the middle of the seventeenth century, and entered the 
service of the Mogul emperor. Shah Jehan, founder of 
Delhi and builder of the famous Taj Mahal in Agra. 
The Moguls had already invaded Southern India as 
early as the beginning of the fourteenth century, and 
pushed their way down into the center of what is now 
the nizam's dominions. By 1323 they had reached and 
subdued Warangal, six miles from Hanamaconda, the 
ancient capital of Tellngana, or the Telugu country. 
These conquered districts were left in charge of military 
governors, some of whom acquired large territory and 
great power, and were .ible at length to defy the emperor 
himself. Thus it happened that in 1347 one Hoosan 
Gunga, taking advantage of a moment of weakness in 
the power at Delhi, revolted and eslabtished at Goot- 
burga what was called the " Bahming dynasty," which 
held sway over a large part of Southern India for a 
hundred and seventy-one years, when (1418) it was 
broken up into several independent Mohammedan 
governments; these continued until the early part of 
ihe seventeenth century, when the Mogul power .it 
Delhi determined upon a re-conquest of the Dcccan. 
The work was begun by Shah Jehan, the then reigning 
emperor, and completed by his son, the great Aurung- 

During these wars Khajeh Abeed, founder of the 
nizam's family, his son, and grandson each rendered hts 
sovereign important services, and was rewarded by ap- 
propriate gifts, titles, and power. The grandson, Asoph 
Jab, after the death of Aurungzebe, in the struggle be- 
tween that emperor's sons for the throne, managed to 
obtain the favor of the successful competitor, Bahadoor 
Shah, who invited him to court and made him governor 
of Oudh and Lucknow. The next emperor, Fcroke 
Shah, made him " soubador " of the Deccan or " viceroy" 
of ail the imperial dominions in Southern India, with 
the title of " Nizam-ul-Mulk." This was the first 
"nizam." He had an eventful life and varied fort- 
unes. In less than two years he was su]}erscded by a 
satellite of the emperor. This and other acts of the 
weak and corrupt Feroke Shah irritated and alienated 
Asoph Jah so that he raised the standard of revolt. By 
intrigues and money he won over to his cause several 
of the principal local rulers, successfully engaged sev- 
eral detachments of imperial troops sent against him, 
and thus laid the foundation of the future power of his 
house in the Deccan. 

The next emperor wisely made friendship with the 
nizam, and, recognizing his talents, invited him to court 
and made him his prime minister. But he was too pro- 




grci^bive in his ideas for the wrak and Apathetic em- 
peror ; and, afrer several iinsiiccessful attempts t© 
rcfumi the administration, he resigned and wiihdrtw to 
his provinces in the Ueccan. Trom this time (1723) the 
nizams though governing in point of form a^ delegates 
or viceroys of the emperors, were practically independent 
sovereigns until the complete destruction of thccouitof 
Delhi by the British in 1857 made them really such. 

The relations of tbe nizam with ihe British began in 
the last half of the ei>;hicenth ct-nlury, when the French 
and English were striving for the supremacy in Indta. 
Both these powers at different limes made treaties with, 
rendered military assistance to, and obtained concessions 
from, the Hyderabad Court. But as the French power 
in India declmed. the nizain found it to his advantage 
to strengthen and be faithful to his alliance with the 
British and to abandon all others. A British resident 
was permanently located at Hyderabad. In rnnsidera- 
Iton for military services rendered to the nizara, the 
British obtained concessions of territory on the cast 
coast, and a British contingent force was quartered near 
the capital, for the maintenance of which the revenues 
of a certain portion of country were applied. When the 
nizam's extravagance involved him hopelessly in debt, 
the British would come to his rescue, receiving in return 
for the payment a new portion of his territory. Thus 
it happened that, although the first nixam's "dominions" 
embr.ired nearly all of the central plateau of SolI^hern 
India, by these concessions. ind by iinsucressfiil contests 
with their neighbors, piece after piece, on all sides, was 
lost or relinquished by him and his successors until the 
state was reduced to its present limits. 

The present niz;wi is a young prince of about twenty- 
one years of age. He rules over a territory of about a 
hundred thousand square railes, or about twice as large 
as the State of New York. The population is over 
twelve millions, or equal to that of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Ohio combined. 'I"he surface is an undulat- 
ing table-land dotted with barren, rocky hills, often 
rising very abruptly from the level surface of the inter- 
vening plains. It is generally fertile, and well-watered 
by a remarkably well-arranged system of artificial ponds 
or '* tanks." Had not the country been for centuries 
under the blighting influences of Mohammedan rule, its 
agricultural and mineral resources would h.ive made it 
one of the most prosperous and wealthy portions of 

The inhabitants of the nizam's dominions are com- 
posed of different nationalities. At least one half are 
Telugus, a fact not so well known as it should be ; of 
the remainder the Mohammedans form a large propor- 
tion, located mostly in the cities and larger towns. On 
the south-western boundary there is a slight admixture 
of Canarese, and on the north-west a good many Mah- 
ratiis. Here and there are found also small collections 
of Tamil, Marwadi, Mahratci, and Boudili imigrants; 
and among the nizam's mercenary troops are also many 
Rohillas, Sikhs, Sindhis. and Arabs, and some of the 
most enterprising merchants of the country are Parsees 

from the vicinity of Buuibay. The one languiige of 
common intercourse among all these people is the so- 
called " Hindustani," which the Motir.mmcdan invaders 
brought with them from the North. Persian is also 
uwd considerably in official business at the court in 

No missionary society seems to have entered the 
nizam's dominions up to 1S72, when a native catcchist 
was sent by the Propagation Society to labor among the 
Tamil-speaking people of Secundeiabad. In 1875 Rev. 
W. W, Campbell, of our own society, opened up work 
among the Telugus of Secunderabad, where there is 
now a flourishing church of eighty-three members, a 
station -school for boys and girls, with industrial depan- 
mcnts, and two interesting out-slations. In 1878 the 
English Weslcyans came to Secunderabad. Their at- 
tention is mostly devoted to the ronducling of school 
and zenana work, and they have opened one or two oul- 
stations. In 18H0 the American Kpiscopat Methodists 
began what they called a "Faith Mission" in Secun- 
derabad. They have an ori'hanage for natives and 
Eurasians, and preach in the bazaars daily in Telugu. 
They have stations also at Linsuogoor and Goolburgar, 
where they work among (he Canarese. In January, 
1879, the work of our own society was extended to Han- 
amaconda, eighty-six miles north of Secunderabad, 
where Rev. A. I^ughridge and wife succeeded after 
much difficulty in obtaining a permanent foothold. The 
church there row number> nineteen members. In 1S84, 
Rev. E. Chute and wife began work in Palmur, sixty- 
seven miles south of Sectmderabad. The work on this 
field lias developed with remarkable rapidity. Already 
a church of one hundred fifty-eight members has been 
gathered, and baptisms arc constantly occurring. We 
hope also soon to see a missionary located at Nalgund.a, 
fifty or sixty railes south-east of Secunderabad, where 
Mr. Campbell has already begun work, and located some 
native preachers. But all these agencies of our own 
and other societies do not begin to reach the niillions of 
Telugus buried in ignorance and heathenish supersti- 
tion in this large native State. Hindrances to the loca- 
tion of missionaries are now much less than formerly. 
New railways are rapidly opening up the countr)-. The 
people every-where are willing to listen. Let us not. 
while considering the loud calls of Africa and Upper 
Burma, neglect to heed the claims of these nizam's 
dominions. — Baptist Afissionary Magazine. 

The I'arsis of India have great faith in evil spirits; 
and you may often see a Parsi woman shaking out her 
thin net jacket in the morning, lest demons should have 
got in during the night. They believe in a resurrection, 
and a judgment to come, and a place of reward and pun- 
ishment, but have no idea of an atonement for sin. The 
bodies of the dead are immediately taken away lo a 
round tower built for the purpose, and well named 
Tower of Silence, and left upon one of the ledges which 
are all around it, to be food for the hideous vultures. 





An Indiau PriiiCL* at Uoniu. 

The Maharajali of Dharblianiia, whose territory lies on 
the frontier of Bt-ngal and borders the Nepal Tcrai, is 
among the premier nobles of British India and one of 
the weallhiesL and greatest princes of the Indian Em- 
pire. The maharajah is in rclij^ion a strict Hindu, aiKl 
boasts of an illustrious Hindu linejge of princely rank 
from the earliest Mogul tinie";. the firtt prince having 
received his "raj *' 
from the great Akh- ^H? 
bar himself, but 
bears the character 
and possesses the 
acquirements, the 
taslest, and the 
" form " of an ac- 
complished Enghsh 
gentleman. Though 
still young — he 
came of age in 1879 
— he is one of the 
most respected In- 
d i an statesmen, 
while his reputation 
is no less as a phiU 
anthrnpisl, his re- 
corded contribu- 
tions to public 
works of utility. Eu 
charities, and himi- 
lar objects of benev- 
olence amounliog 
at the present lime 
to lialf a milhon 
sterling. Indeed, 
white his published 
accounts show :><, 
expenditure o: 
^16,000 on purely 
Hindu ceremonies 
and charities, ihey 
also exhibit »ums 
of ;^i7,ooo on free 

dispensaries for his villages, of j^i9,ooo on free and aided 
schools, ^20,000 on public charities. ;^230,ooo on ac- 
count of remissions of rent, and ;^3, on famine 
relief, drainage, and otljer public works. 

In the jubilee year the maharajah w.i«i nominated a 
Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire, 
and to celebrate the event he distributed j£j'io,ooo in 
various forms, and remitted to his tenants one-eighth of 
their rent to enable them to wish long life to the 
empress. The maharajah was the first to make a loyal 
offer of help to the government on the occasion of the 
Penjdeh incident, when a war with Russia was thought 
probable ; and placed j^ at the viceroy's disposal 
to form the nucleus of an Indian Patriotic Fund to be 
applied to the relief of the widowj and the children of 





soldiers killed or wounded in the carapai^i. \ he 
maharajah, who was presented to ihc Prince of Wales 
'during his visit to India, nut only contributed 50.000 
rupees to the Imperial Institute, but wrote a letter 10 the 
other princes of India on the subject. He has aUo 
taken part in Lady DufTerin's work by erecting a hospital 
for women. The maharajah, who speaks English 
fluently, was selected by Lord Ripon to sen'c on the 
Viceroy's Legislative Council, and was re-appointed for 

a second term by 
Lord Duffcrin. 

The maharajah's 
new palace,ofwhich 
we give an illus- 
tration, was com- 
pleted in iSSj. at a 
cost of ;^ 1 00,000. 
It is handsomely 
furnished in the 
En^jlish style, the 
Grand Durbar Hall 
and the three large 
dr;i wing-rooms be- 
ing especially richly 
decorated. T h e 
maharajah, Iiow- 
ever, is particularly 
proud of his library, 
which is stocked 
\v i th all standard 
works, and Mudie 
lias a standingorder 
10 send out every 
month all new 
works as they ap- 
].ear. The exten- 
sive gardens have 
been well laid out 
under the superin- 
tendence of an En- 
glish gardener, Mr. 
Maries. The ma- 
harajah has a stud 
of about a hundred 
horses, with some well-bred English tearaB and pairs, in 
which he takes much interest. He is reckoned one of 
the first sportsmen of India; near the Nepal frontier he 
owns some of the finest tiger haunts imaginable, and 
last year entertained Lord Dufferin at several grand 
tiger hunts. The stables, coach-houses, etc., arc fitted 
up in the most approved English style, while an English 
stiid-groom forms a prominent jjersonage in the estab- 
tishment. — London Netvs. 

Hinduism says "sin is straw ; works of merit are the 
fire which utterly consumes it." The Bible says that 
sin is a great offense against God and is expiated only 
by the Divine atonement. 




The YaeruopATita; or» Sacred ThrniU of the 

The Sacred Tliread is the sij^ii of the second or spir- 
itual birth, and is therefore worn by the twice-bom in 

" The sacred cord of a Urahman must be of cotton, so 
as to be put over his head, in a coil of three threads ; 
ih.1t of a R-shatriya, of hemp ; that of a Vaisya, of wool.'* 
Hut this law is not adhered to. Many others besides 
these three castes wear the sacred curd in our days, and 
ihcy all wear skeinii of cottuii-lhrcad only. Guldbiniths, 

*' Let Us meditate on that excellent glory of that 
Divine Vivificr. May he enlighteii our understanding." 

The cord ts then put on the boy so that It hangs over 
Che left shoulder, down across the body to the right hip. 
Then, jjirt with the thread, the boy goes round and asks 
alms from the people assembled, to indicate thai lie un- 
dertakes to provide himself and his teacher with food. 
The priest then initiates him into the use of the daily 
sacred prayer, ijuoted above, whiirh is preceded hy three 
suppressions of breath, the uiicrance of the mysiiral 
syllable "Ohm" and the three mystical words " Bhur, 
Bhovah, and Svar," and admits him to llic privilege of 




carpenters, weavers, fishermen, and other castes, wear 
the thread. Some of them have a.ssumed this privilege 
onlawfully, and chough their custom is not interfered 
with no set upon it by orthodox Hindus. They 
are not allowed to read ihc Vedas. oreven hear them read ; 
a privilege conveyed lo the lawful string-wearers only 
by the ceremony of investiture, called (//>anayanit. 

This rite is generally performed in the eighth year of 
a Brahman, in the eleventh year of a Ksyatriya, and the 
twelfth year of a V'atsya. 

The ceremony begins by shaving the head, except the 
** Jatta," or "Kudimi," as the sacred top-knot of hair 
is called, .\fter this has been performed, with niantrains 
and ritual ipiiie elaborate, the young man is placed op- 
posite the sun, and must walk three times round the 
holy fire. The Guru, or priest, then consecrates the 
string by repeating the Gayatri ten times. So they call 
the following verse of the Rig-veda (III. 62 : 10) ; 

repeating the three Vedas, and of performing other re- 
ligious riles, none of which is allowed before investiture. 
A Brahman cannot be married until he has been invested 
with the holy cord, but he is often married a few days 

A new string must be put on every year, at the fnll- 
moon festival in the month of Sravana (July-Augusl). 
Should the thread he broken during the year, and should 
the wearer be defiled by touching a Pariah, etc., a new 
string must be put on at once, as he is not allowed to 
eat before this is done. 

In case of defilement he goes home and sends for a 
new cord. He cannot touch it himself until he has 
bathed and purified himself from the defilement. But 
this ended, he takes the new cord, dips it into water, 
spreads it out on two brass vessels, touches the cord with 
some of the paint which he uses for pulling the sacred 
marks on his forehead, and walks round the vessel three 


limes, from right to left, repeating the Gayalri prayer. 
Then he takes ihe cord, skein by skein, and puts ii on, 
saying ihe ftillowing mantram : 

"May the most hallowed Yagnopavita. the elder sister 
of Brahma, author of longevity, the incomparable and the 
purifier, become my strength and glory." 

He then takes the old cord — repeating a manlram — 
and rolling it tip. throws it on the top of the hoiise. that 
it may not he trodden on and defiled. 

The thread is an aU-iinportant thing. Without it the 
Ttrahnian is no Brahman, he cannot perform any ceremony 
or partake of any food ; he may birathe, and that is 
about all he can do until the lost or defiled cord is re- 
placed with the proper ceremony. — H. C. SiAmtii/- 

Matcli-niakiiig in India. 


It is early in the morning ; a Hindu gentleman is 
sitting in his parlor, surrounded by his friends, when a 
a tall, handsome stranger cnitrrsthe chamber. His com- 
plexion is light ; upon his features, which are regular, 
his five-and-forty years have made no unfavorable 
impression. He has a long, thin face, a high forehead, 
hrge meditative eyes, though betraying a sly expression 
in their comers, finely-turned eyebrows, an aquiline 
nnsc, and a ttmooth chin. .\ confident half-smile, cvi- 
flcntly a^'.sin^ from a knowledge of his own talents and 
iibilities, h perpetually playing on his beautifully curled 
lips, and his countenance has a great prepossessing 
charm. His handsome features, and the simple wliite 
robe flowing around his wdl formed limbs, indicate 
that he bclonjis to the highest order of the Hindus. 

Upon his entrance, the master of the house and his 
friends stand up, saluting the Urahman, who offers them 
his blessings. After all being sealed and the stranger is 
served with a fine pipe, the master of the house politely 
asks the Brahman whether every thing is all right. The 
latter, with his winning smile, answers : 

'■ Yes, sir; every thing is all tight. She is indeed a 
beauty. Her face is as serenely radiant as the full moon 
in autumn ; even the moon has spots, but she is spotless 
and peerless. Nobody can stand still under the be- 
witching glances of her bright black eyes ; her teeth are 
sparkling white, like the snows on the mountains ; her 
gait is dignified and ^^raceful, like that of a young ele- 
phant ; and as to her figure, she is an angel herself. 
She is intelligent and wise, like Minerva ; her voice is 
sweet, like that of the cuckoo, and she pours honey as 
she talks. Her starsare the most auspicious known, she 
will certainly bring fortune to any family she may be 
connected with. Your noble son cannot have a better 
m.itch, sir," 

'* Indeed," responds the master of the house, glancing 
at his rnmp.inions, who all exclaim, in rather a queer 
tone, "A wonderful young lady she must be ! " A sup- 
pressed smile and a significant exchange of glances 
on the part of the genllenicn assembled betoken a 

strange misgiving in their minds. With a twinkle in his 
eye, the master of the house asks the Brahman whether 
the girl really is handsome and intelligent. A sudden 
change passes over the usually placid countenance of the 
latter, .is he bursts forth : 

" By all the gods in the heaven above ! by all that is 
holy and s.icred I is it possible, sir. that you would hes- 
itate for a second to put faith in my words ? .\ man like 
me, whose ancestor was directly descended from Brah- 
ma, the supreme deity himself, whose very touch is puri- 
fying, whose curse can in a moment wrap the whole 
world in flames ; t say, a man like me never swerves 
.1 jot from the truth — from the barest truth ! Remember 
our motto, sir. "Truth is ever victorious.' Lord bless 
you, sir, you are rich, you arc prosperous, you arc 
learned and wise. Why, sir, you would not find such 
a perfect match for your noble son <bless his soul !) in 
Che whole universe. .-Vnd then look here, sir ; the girl's 
I>arents are immensely rich ; they have promised to be- 
stow a whole mass of things as her dowr)' — things that 
will fill up your beautiful house, large as it is. Take my 
word, sir; you cannot have any better." 

It is evident, from the manner and matter of the 
Brahman's speech that he is a professional maich-inaker. 
He belongs to that class of people whose services arc 
engaged by Hindu parents when they judge that thetr 
son or daujihter has arrived at am.irri.igcablc age: mat- 
rimonial matters in India being entirely manage<l by the 
parents, who seldom consult the feelings of the young 
man or the young lady about to be married. 

The Indian match-maker is a man of apparent learn- 
ing, very affable in manners, of an amiable disposition, 
and invariably of great tact and persuasive powers. He 
has a collettinn of learned phrases and commonplaces 
securely stored up in his memory, and these he spurts out 
in so masterly a fashion that it sets his patron<^ agape at 
him. Genealogy and pedigree are hh/arfe ; he can trace 
every body's ancestors up to the twentieth generation, 
and will at a moment's notice give details to their trib«, 
quality, and position. But liis knowledge counts litile 
with him whose principal merit unist consist in the fullest 
display of his art. And he is unrivaled in this — the* art of 
varnishing — morally, I mean. His business being of a 
delicate nature, some hitch is sure to arise in the uiidsl 
of the negotiations in which he is engaged ; and this he 
will smooth over by his inimitable polishing powers. The 
match-maker's tongue runs as smoothly as the Scotch 
Kxpress ; it glides over all difficulties as easily as the 
hitter does over the burnished rails. His imagination is 
always ready to back up his memory or knowledge ; and 
no exaggeration shocks his carefully-brought-up con- 
science. He will swear by all his deities, as we have 
seen above, that he never dreams of uttering any thing 
but the barest tnith. 

The conversation reported above goes on in that style 
until theglib tongue match-maker surreeds in convincing 
his patron of the perfect eligibility of the match. He 
then departs for the young lady's house, where he reprc* 
resents the young man to be handsome as the god of 



beauty himbclf, affable and courtly as a prince, stainless 
in character, possessed of fitie talents, and intensely 
studious — in short, a model of a young man, the glory of 
his country. Pressed on some particular point — for 
instance, whether the young man has successlully en- 
tered into any profession or passed any high examina- 
tion — the ready intermediary at once replies to the girl's 
father : 

"My dear sir, nobody has finer prospects in life than 
this young man ; and even if he has not entered into 
any profession, or passed any high examination yet, what 
does that roattcr ? A gem he is. He will pass all the exam- 
inations under the sun in two years, God bless his dear 
soul ! And look here, sir, his parents are enormously 
rich, and have promised to give a whole heap of orna- 
ments and jewels to your little angel. Now, think well 
of that, sir." 

Perhaps some dtffiruUy arises on account of the 
young man's not having pas.sed all hts examinations, or 
perhaps his mother has heard from a neighbor that the 
girl squints a little and has rather a turned up nose. 
The clever intermediary, well prepared on these points, 
runs from one house to the other; and by dint of exer- 
cise of all his glozing and fabricating powers manages 
so bring the negotiations to a successful termination, but 
not until after a little higgling over the settlement of 
the dowry. 

The match-maker is pretty well paid for his services, 
receiving about ^3 at a middle-class, and J^h at a 
grand wedding, besides presents ; and if he can secure 
an educated and well to do young man for a poor, r.onv 
mon-louking girl, he receives an extra reward from the 
parents of the latter. But in many cases life-long curses 
of both iheparties concerned form hischief reward ;.and 
at some weddtngs all the ren^uneraiion he receives is a 
shower of cuffs and blows. He sometimes does great 
mischief; if not quite satisfied with his promised re- 
ward, or through professional jealousy, he will contrive 
to break a good match. Meverthess, the Indian match- 
maker forms a useful member of the community in a 
country where all the marriages are brought about 
through intermediaries. — London Navs. 

< m^m » 

A Jlelft Near Khiiiidwa, IteuKal Coiifereuce, 


Leaving Khandwa for the me!a at eleven .\. M., we 
arrive two P. M. by railway train at the Molakka station, 
where we alight, and step into a longa or bullock-carl 
(kindly put at our disposal by the civil surgeon of the 
Nimar District) to ride six miles over a rough, rocky 
road that leads us to the banks of the Narbudda River, 
and the temples and town of Unkar Mandata. Entering 
a fine grove on the south side of the river we find a 
comfortable tent pitched for us by our friend and oblig- 
ing civil surgeon, Dr. Cullen. 

An hour later our caiechist, Fakhiratinday, arrives in 

another cart. Instead of getting out at the back of the 
carl, our catcchisl very unwisely gets out at the front, 
just behind the bullocks, which take fright and bolt, 
throwing our unfortunate fellow. worker violently to the 
ground, and the wheel of the cart passes over his body. 
Running to his assistance, we find him insensible. Cold 
water applied to the face and ammonia to the nostrils 
revive him. Thank God I he is not broken, but badly 
bruised, and unable to work tor several days. At first 
we feck that the work for which wc have come to this 
place will be much hindered. But, leaving our bruised 
brother in the tent, well-cared for, come with us and let 
us behold what we can see and do. 

.\ few minutes' walk brings us into the midst of the 
meln, into the midst of buzz and bustle ; of barogics and 
bullock-carts crowding around an ancient Hmdu temple. 
Passing on, we see a huge unfinished stone temple, being 
built by the Raja of Indore at a cost of a lac of rupees. 
In a temple near by we see a number of Brahmans 
busily engaged in making little balls of mud, on wooden 
trays two feet square, and placing one grain of rice on 
each of these balls, all of which when finished are to be 
thrown into the river to feed the sacred fish (a work of 
merit), which at that place are not allowed to be caught. 
We ask these Brahmins what they are doing, and one of 
them replies : " Ham tarndshi karte hain " — we are 
making sport, or, in other words, we are making fine fun 
for ourselves. Such is their idea of religion. These 
same Brahmins are supported at the expense of the 
Indore Raja. 

Descending the stone steps leading to these temples, 
wc pass on either side bories (shop-keepers) and banyas 
(merchants) in abundance, bending all their energies to 
make the best bargain possible, and have Utile time for 
religiuus things. In fact, we find the whole mela, con- 
sisting of about ten thousand people, more taken up with 
merchandise than the interest of their immortal souls. 
How forcibly the scene reminds us of the story of Christ 
casting the money-changers out of the temple. Human 
nature has not changed since that time. Men are to-day 
more largely lovers of gold than of God. But how vain 
are earthly possessions ! 'l"wo days later we are in- 
formed that a boat on this same river, two miles from 
the mela, is capsized, and forty of its passengers, pil- 
grims to the sacred Unkar, are drowned. Many of the 
forty lost are people of wealth (much of which they 
wear on their persons), and their gold jicrishes with 
them. The arms of one little girl, when her lifeless 
body was taken out of the river, were found to be cling- 
ing around the neck of her dead mother, who had gone 
down beneath the waters with her. 

Passing on down the pathway to the river we stand 
upon ils banks and preach the Gospel of the Son of 
God and scatter tracts to the moving multitudes as they 
cross and recross the river to the temples on the opposite 

"The common people" listen attentively and hear us 
gladly, and we feel they are indeed misguided souls, 
''sheep without a shepherd." who might be much more 




easily led into the light of the Gospel truth were it not 
for the superstitious influence of their ilrahman priests 
and ceachers. 

Taking a boat wc cross over to visit the temples on 
the north side of the river. Here wc find, as on the east 
side, hundreds of inroplc baihmjj in the sacred stream, 
while hundreds of the sacred fish, from two to tluec 
feet long, astonish us by their swimming about amont; 
the bathers, constantly touching the bodies of the latter 
as though they had been miraculously infortnt-d that 
there was nothing for them to fear, while ihcy devour the 
seeds thrown to them. 

On this side of the river is the palace of a descendant 
of the kings of the Bhecl iribt-'s. The present king is 

and walls are in ruins and the sacred monkeys rule the 
place unrivaled. 

The Narbiidda River at Unkar forms itself into a deep. 
broad basin, and the rocky hills and palace and temples 
on cither side make the whole place picturesque. 

Returning to the east side uf the river we sit down in 
the elevated veranda of a palace of ihc Indorc Raja tu 
talk with our friend, Mr. Balkrishua Martund Samarth, 
an intelligent and enlightened Hindu of Khandwo, re- 
garding the present social and religious state of the 
Hindus, the advancement of education and Christianity 
in India. This Hindu gentleman received his educa- 
tion in the Free t'Inirch Mission College at Poona, 
under the Rev. Dr. Murray MiirJiell. He has given up 

a boy only twelve years of age, hut a brifiht, fine-looking 
boy; so kind and affable that wc feel quite at home in 
his presence. His very face has an expression of good- 
ness; we fuel that if he has proper training he will 
grow up to be a truly noble king. He has a good 
mother. His present teacher received his education in 
a Nagpore Mission School. The king meets us at the 
door of bis palace and, after shaking hands, gives us a 
warm welcome into his audience-hall. Our pleasant 
conversation ended, " pan supari " (a small green leaf 
containing beelel nut and other spices) is served, accord- 
ing to custom, in court style, the king first wiping his 
hands on our handkerchiefs and then passing the leaf 
and its contents to us. We bid the king good-moming 
and ascend the hill, on the side of whi<h the palace is 
placed, to other temples and a large piece of ground 
that evidently, hundreds of years ago, formed a beauti- 
ful park to the pal;ire of the king, but now the walks 

the worship of idols and caste prejudices. In the course 
of our conversation he says to us : " When I reflect upon 
the history of India, even during the past twenty-five 
years, I have to exclaim : The changes for good intel- 
lectually, socially, and religiously have been gigantic .' 
gigantic!" This native gentleman is at present one of 
the assistant magistrates of Khandwa. 

Leaving this palace we repair to our tents for a while, 
scattering tracts on our way, which are gladly received. 
Then the raja's elephant is ordered, and we with our 
Hindu friend, Mr. S-imarth. mount the mighty animal 
and start in the cool of the evening for the railway 
station, six miles westward. The ride is delightful. 
Fields of grain spread out on either side of our path- 
way, and the people, when asked, testify that they have 
this year an abundant harvest of "jawree" (a small 
grain from which cakes are made), and we long for the 
time when the harvest and seed-gathering of their pre- 



cious souts will be as abundant. That tliat delightful 
time will come we have not the least doiibi. Wc who 
live and work here deeply feel the force of the above 
thought ; feel what we cinnot explain to those living in 
a distant land. 

»The sun has gone down behind the western hills 
before we reach the Mdtakka, station, and in the dim 
twilight we await the arrival of trains to carry us homc- 
I ward. The train bcinjj overcrowded with passengers 

■ we arc put into the first-cla.'^s carriage. The daughter 

■ of our Hindu Brahman friend, who accompanies her 
B father, rides in the same carriage wiih us unveiled, 

because her father has passed out of the power of the 
^^tda system. We might say more, but our pjper is full. 

place when she is still quite a child. From the age of 
cij^ht or nine, then, the women of the higher and middle 
classes are doomed to a life of seclusion and ignorance, 
and. as in the case of widows, very often also to degra- 
dation and miser)*. The more enlightened native 
gentlemen :tre now anxious to change thi^i state of 
matters. They are not only willing to let their wives 
and daughters be educated, but they earnestly desire 
that they may be trained so as to become iiilclligcnt 
companions for themselves. The younger ladies, too, 
arc eager for knowledge, and wish to be taught to read 
and work and eilipluy themselves as wc do. Tlicy have 
longings and desires after change, and seem to be seek- 
ing for something, they hardly know what. But they 



Our Khandwa Mission, though young, has in it 'most 
all methods of missionary work: day-schools and Sun- 
day-schools, an orphanage, zenana, and evangelistic 

Kha.suwa, December m,, 1888. 

The ZeniiiiaK of India. 

(A request having reached us for information reganling the 
Zenanas of India we cannot do better than print an extract 
from ihal allr-ictive and inlerrsting volume by Mr-;. Murray 
IGtchcIl iJn India), which will, wc arc sure, fully answer 
aad satisfy the inquirers.] 

"The word 'zenana' [zenan-k/iana) simply means 
*lhe house of llie women.' As soon as a woman mar- 
ries, etiquette, or rather bard custom, requires that she 
must then retire within the zenana, never more to come 
into the outer world ; and you know that her marriage 
—or betrothal, which here is held as marriage — takes 

cannot come out 10 schools and colleges to receive the 
training they wish for. We must carry it to them, and, 
by the visits of (nialified teachers to their secluded 
homes, give them the blessing of a good Christian edu- 

" There i.s no use in beginning our visits earlier than 
eleven o'clock, as the women are engaged in the earlier 
part of the day with cooking, eating, and household 

" Wc must drive, of course; as walking under this fierce 
sun is out of the cjuestion. You observe the gharree is 
a very narrow one, and cool, with cane-bottom seat, and 
no cushion. As we drive down the narrow lanes — 
which can hardly, even by courtesy, he called streets — 
you will perceive the advantage of the small conveyance 
as we shall manage to thread our way through the long 
strings of bullock-carts we are sure to meet en rmite^ 
whose drivers arc cxasperalingly slow tn getting out of 
the way. 



"We soon come to a small arched door-«'ay in a high 
blank wall, and here we stop. Tlu- diinvan admits us; 
and wc lind the unpromising exterior belied by what is 

" We find ourselves in a i|uadrangu]ar court, paved 
with marble, open to the sky. Round this the house is 
built, and balconies and verandas on all the stories face 
inward, off which the rooms open. On the side oppo- 
site, as we enter, you observe that instead of the veranda 
there is a pillared chamber, with a low flight of hand- 
some steps leading up to it. This is 'the god's room.' 
ID which worship — ' pooja,' as it is called, is performed, 
and where at the different festivals the images are set up 
and offerings made. During the ' Doorgapooja,' for 
«xample, it is here that the image of the goddess will be 
fashioned, and in this court the different ceremonials 
connected with the worship u-ill take place. Every 
respectable Hindu dwelling has a family temple such as 
this. Of course we shall not enter the roam — we shall 
nui be .illowcd to go nearer to it than the foot of the 
steps; and even if it were right to look at what we are 
not meant to see, the 'dim religious light ' inside would 
prevent our perceiving any thing further than the line of 
handsome chandeliers which hang from ihe ceiling. 
Opposite to the god's house you notice there is a veranda 
carefully screened off with Venetian blinds. This Is 
where the ladies of the family tome during the celebra- 
tion, whence they can see what goes on below without 
the possibility of their being seen. 

" We shall now be conducted up stairs and through 
the house, probably by one of the Babus, who always 
receive us with great politeness and cordialily. The 
rooms we pass through on the first floor arc very hand- 
some : one, at least, is furnislied in European fashion, 
with mirrors and pictures and chairs and sofas set down 
as thickly as possible ; and the next to it in Eastern 
fashion, where handsome Persian carpels are spread, 
and large thick cushions are placed against the wall. 
Here the Babus will recline and have their chat when 
their days* work is done. The English apartments, I 
fancy, are purely for show ; but all the rooms contain- 
ing this comfort and grandeur are sacred to the lords of 
<:reation. Yoii would never find a lady of the family in 
one of them. 

" Leaving these, then, behind, we go <m through 
some more verandas, cross one or two courts — where 
one feels the sun rather uncomfortable, even though 
you arc protected by the novel and rather unbecoming 
head-gear called a sun-topi — and finally we stop at a 
door in the wall where the Habu hands us over to a female 
servant ; for this Is the boundary which closes in the 
zenana from the outer world. We ascend a short stair; 
and lo ! wc arc in 'the house of the women." .\l tlie 
top we are met by a gentle, timid-looking, rather pretty, 
and wonderfully fair young creature, dressed in an airy, 
wavy costume of purple gauze, spangled over with gold. 
Her beautiful glossy black hair is plaited into a large 
knot behind her head, in whtcb prelty silver ornaments 
dangle. She has a large nose-jewel, with pearls and 

emeralds, ear-rings and necklaces, bangles and heavy 
silver anklets : and round her waist she wears a beauti- 
ful 2one of massive silver. She receives us rather shyly, 
but with evident pleasure, and takes hold of our hand 
to lead us to her room. Doubtless you would expi 
that this room should resemble somewhat tho.>se we h 
seen in the Babus" quarters. On the contrary, this is 
bare and comfortless in the extreme. The walls have 
once been whitewashed, but now are ding}* and spotted 
and liberally garnished with cobwebs; for it is con$td> 
ered a sin lo kill a spider. A liny window, high up, 
and grated with iron statichions, looks on to the tiled 
roofs of other houses, There is some malting on the 
Roor and a cot at the upper end covered with a while 
sheet and some round bolsters; there is also a box of 
some sort. And this is the furniture of the apartment ; 
there is really nothing else. This, and many other 
rooms like it, open off a veranda which looks into a 
court — or garden, rather; for there are three or four 
sickly-looking trees and a well, or tank, which seems 
stagnant, for it is covered Over with green slime. This 
melancholy garden and the tiled house-lops make up 
the whole view which the poor women who dwell here 
from year's end to year's end have of the ouicr world. 
And this is only a type of other zenanas, where the sur- 
roundings are very much the same. 

"Chairs will be brought for us, as we do not tai 
kindly to the floor ; but the lady in the spangled gauze, 
and her teacher, will deposit themselves on the matting. 
And now the lesson proceeds. Not, however, before an 
old, hard-looking woman has taken up her position on the 
doorstep, eyeing us very suspiciously, and keeping jeal- 
ous watch over every word the lesson contains. This is a 
very orthodox and most bigoted widowed aunt, whom 
no courtesy or kindness on our part can tempt (|uitc 
into the room while we pollute it with our presence. 
The pupil, however, docs not seem to mind her much. 

"The reading, which is from the Bengali version of 
the Ptep of Day, proceeds in the most steady manner 
in spite of the duenna. The young creature asks ques- 
tions which show much intelligence and deep interest in 
what she is taught. She is naturally very quiet and shy ; 
but it is pleasing to see how her eagerness forknow*ledge 
overcomes the timid shrinking which she showed at 
first, and which is natural to her. 

'* The scene in the next house we go to is quite a con- 
trast to this. Wc are received with a storm of delight 
by six or seven bright young girls, who throng round my 
companion as if they would eat her up, so demonstrative 
is their joy at seeing their teacher. She chatters Bengali 
as fast as they do, and makes me envious — who can do 
nothing but smile and shake hands and reciprocate in 
expressive pantomime their kind greeting. I avail 
myself, however, of my friend's Bengali tongue, and 
have nice little chats with each as she is presented by 
name. These are the daughters and d.aughters-in-law 
of the house. The mother soon makes her appearance 
— a pleasant, clever-looking woman, wonderfully young 
and fresh, hut evidently a widow, from the plain gar- 







menc& she wears and her shaven head. She has i]0 
clothing on the upper part of her person, and is simply 
enveloped in .1 coarse while chudder, or sheet, edged 
vith a black border. She wears no ornaments of any 
sort. This is the *bow-m.i,' as the head of the 
house is called ; and she is a ])crson of great indu- 
once in her family. She has a number of sons, and 
these young creatures whom we see are their wives, and 
are called 'bows.' The eldest son is in England, which 
is a great concern to the old lady, as she fears he may 
be too ' high ' for them, as she expresses it, when he 
returns, and will not fall in with the old ways. She does 
not seem to fear liis becoming a Chrisiian, and does 
not mind his losing caste ; she only dreads hisafTcclion!) 
becoming estranged from her and the family. 

" I had seen his young wife on a former visit, when she 
touched me much. She then brought her books and 
her work and sat doA'n by my side. She displayed a 
gay cap she was crocheting for her absent lord, and a 
pair of slippers she had finished. She read a few verses 
in the Bengali Bible distinctly and well, and seemed to 
understand the meaning of the passage, which was 
about the sower sowing seed in the diflerent aorts of 
soil. She said she feared her heart was one of the 
stony places ; but she xvished that the return should be 
'an hundred-fold.' Then, as the crowning accomplish- 
ment, she brought out a small English primer, in which 
she spelled out a few words wiih great pride ; and then 
she looked up in my face and said so wistfully, * Don't 
you think he will care for me now?' 1 felt a tear 
come to my eye ; I hope he will care for her. But she 
is not pretty. They were betrothed, of course, as mere 
children, and don't know each other in the least. 

" You will be quite astonished at the number of 
women who will pour into the room in this house ; they 
seem counilcss. One of thciii told me that she thought 
there were about fifty females under this roof-lrec, in- 
cluding aunts and cousins and all manner of relations. 
They are indeed a gregarious people, and live together 
in this patriarchal way— grandfathers and sons and sons' 
sons, sometimes to the fourth and fifth generation, all 
dwelling in the same family house. 

" Of these women only six are pupils. .All the six are 
married, and some of them have tlieir bahies in their 
arms. They had known of our coming and are decked 
in their finest clothes and glitter with jewels. Their 
curiosity regarding every thing we wear is most amus- 
ing. It is the same wherever you go; and I suppose 
every one who visits among these ladies for the first 
time finds herself unexpectedly an object of much in- 
terest and curiosity. They question me always about 
my clothes, my 'sahib* (husband), my object in coming 
lo India, and especially my children! 

" Here, as in the former house, the teacher squats 
upon the floor, and is soon surrounded by a ring of eager, 
attentive pupils, each with a small pile of books before 
her and a little bundle containing h<:r work. Most of 
these can read the Bengali Bible. Even the old lady 
aits down with her spectacles on ; and though she can- 

not quite read herself she is a most attentive listener. 
They are reading steadily in the New Testament, and 
the beautiful narratives of the gospels seem to interest 
and touch them. Their teacher hopes and believes that 
the truth has come lo some of them. ' not in word only, 
but also in power and in the Holy Ghost.' 

" I was exceedingly taken with this interesting family, 
and they are among my friend's favorite pupils. They 
seem to be a happy household too, which every family, 
I am sorry to say, is not. The secret is that this 'bow- 
ma' is kind and good. If she were the contrary she 
could make the lives of the younger women bitter to 

"We shall visit another family equally interesting, 
who are very poor but of very high caste. A friend 
comes in, rich, but of a lower caste, and she bows before 
the head of the house, a gentle, sweet-looking woman 
— making obeisance and touching the high caste woman's 
feet with her forehead. This woman was once taken 
from her home in a sinking condition, as it was thought, 
to die beside the holy Water of the Ganges. Happily, 
however, she revived, and was rescued before exposure 
and the holy mud which is pul into the mouth and nos- 
trils had done their work. 

"The position of the young Hindu lady is sometimes 
hard enough. After marriage, while still quite a child, 
she must live in a strange house, among strange women. 
and must not even visit her own mother but by the will 
of her mother-in-l.Tw. She must yield the most unques- 
tioning submission, not only to her husband, but to this 
muther-in-law, and indeed also to her elder sisters-in- 
law. If she is a woman of character and some strength 
of inind this changes as she grows older, especially if 
she becomes the mother of sons. Bat while she is 
young she must not speak in the presence of the older 
women unless sfjokcn to; she must not unveil herself: 
she must not eat with them, nor even sit down unless 
exjircssly permitted to do so. 

"The simple truth is this — the life of millions of 
women in India is one lasting cruel wrong from their 
birth to their death. One of their own nation has thus 
described it : 'The daughters of India are unwelcomed 
at their birth, untaught in childhood, enslaved when 
married, accursed as widows, and unlamented when 
they die." I am afraid this is too true a jiicture. They 
are the slaves of tyrannical and absurd superstitions, 
which lake away their freedom both of mind and lajdy, 

" In the outer life of the nation, then, the Hindu lady 
has no part, no recognized position at all. And what 
has she to fill her own every-day life? Alas! little in^ 
deed. She has no knowledge nor cultivation; she has 
nothing to do; so the dreary hours are spent in sleep- 
ing, or cooking, or making garlands for the gods, or 
looking at her jewels, or braiding her hair. This is her 
condition at the best; but if she be a widow then woe 
to her ! She may have been betrothed as a mere child 
lo a boy who sickens and dies; or she may have been 
married to an old Koolin Brahman with one foot in the 
grave, who may have fifty wives besides ; but he is of 



the highest priestly caste, &nd therefore an alliance with 
him is highly honorable. But he dies. She may not 
have known him, hardly seen him ; nevertheless she is 
now a widow for life. She is thenceforward held as one 
forsaken of God and man and fit only to die. British 
law has done this fur lier, that she cannot now be burned 
on the funcraj pile with her husband's dead body ; but 
I am not sure that this is not the more merciful faie — 
to endure the real rather than tlie life-long dying. She 
is stripped of her good clothes and jewels ; her hair is 
cut off; she must 5lcc[>, not now in a bed, but on a mat 
on the floor ; she must 
cat rmly one me;il in 
the day, and that of the 
co&rsest food and by 
herself, not with ihu- 
family; she must fast 
oftea besides; and 
while the fast continue^ 
she must not drink a 
drop of water, even 
though she should be 
dying. She must do iht 
meanest work of th- 
house and be the serv- 
ant and drudge of every 
one. And worse than 
this — henceforth no 
love nor sympathy can 
come into her life. No 
one must say a kind 
word to her, nor ever. 
give her a pitying look : 
for their superstition 
tells these women that 
if they are kind to th<_ 
despised widow they 
will probably he visited 
by a like calamity 

'* Now, we want to 
change all this; and by 
(lod's blessing on zen- 
ana work all this is be- 
ing changed. 

"The zenana is hardly an institution of Hindu orlgin. 
The Hindus owe to their Mohammedan invaders this 
blemish on their social system and family life. In olden 
times Hindu women were not the victims of »ui>erstilion 
they now are, nor hidden away and duwn-trodden and 
enslaved. Some of the more intelligent among the 
men will tell you this, and add with pride that the time 
was when mothers and sifters had position and freedom, 
and were reverenced nearly as women are in Christian 
lands. Indeed, a few of the Bengalis would advocate 
* female emancipation ' in the sense of now opening the 
cage-doors and tetlini; the imprisoned inmates take wing 
and go free. But this sort of emancipation would be 
no boon. A preparation is needful before freedom can 


safely be given. Let us make haste and give the educa- 
tion and Christian training which will bring mental and 
spiritual emancipaiion ; and then the other will of neces- 
sity follow. The more one knows of zenana work the 
more important it will appear. The arguments for it 
are drawn usually from the slate of the poor neglected 
women, and too much cannot be said from this point of 
view. Their condition is as sad and sorrowful as can 
possibly be pictured. A Hindu lady once said of the 
life they lead: ' It is like that of a frog in a well ; every- 
where there is beauty, but we cannot see it; all is hid 

from us \ ' There could 
not be a more apt illus- 

*' But there is also 
another side, where the 
arguments are eipialiy 
cogent, namely, the in- 
fluence on the men 
which the elevation of 
the women would ex- 
ercise. At present they 
are a hinderance tu 
progress among the 
men. There is no ob- 
stacle the missionary 
has to dread so much 
as the inBuence of 
mothers over their sons. 
It is a great mistake to 
suppose because the 
women are shut up 
within their zenanas 
that they have no influ- 
ence. .\ wife has not 
much power with her 
husband, but a mother 
has unbounded influ- 
ence over her son. She 
says to him, 'Take all 
the geography and his- 
tory, all the learning 
the padre can give 
you ; but when he 
speaks to you on relig- 
ion do not believe a word he says.' His teacher 
hopes he has made an impression on the heart of a 
young man who has left him seemingly thoughtful and 
solemn. He goes home; his mother's keen eye detects 
his state of mind^ and she speedily counteracts the 
whole. It is the older women chiefly who uphold super- 
stition. In many cases where the men of a family, being 
educated and enlightened, do not care for the observ- 
ances of their faith the women do; and all the more 
that the men are IndiflTerent (thereby grievously offend- 
ing the deities, as they suppose) they zealously perform 
all that the Shastras enjoin. Their religion is all they 
have ; and they cling to their superstitions and their 
goddesses and their Brahman priests. They arc jealous 


[of innovation, and are the props of urthoJoxy and 
I'cDstom.* Indeed, the zenana may be said to be the 
stronghold of Hinduism. 'I'hercfore let us attack the 
citadel if we would fully vamiuish the foe. 

" Let us leach the women equally with the men. Our 
great missionary societies equip their colleges and send 
forth their missionaries and set up the mosi perfect or- 

The CoDTernion of a Zenana PopU. 


The Hindu community of Bangalore has during the 
last month been thrown into a state of alarm and cx- 
citenient such as no conversion to Christianity has 
aroused for some years past. Had the convert been gf 


guiiations, but chiefly for the men. Until in tquai 
measure the great undertaking is faced of giving Chris- 
ii«in education to the women generally we cannot enter- 
tain any reasonable expectation of evangelizing India." 

The Hindus have three hundred and thirty millions 
of gods, of many of whom the roost revolting stories arc 
ttlatcd. and these are the tales which are often told in 
■he Zenanas to the children. 

the male sex it is probable that with a little gpssip and 
perhaps a few threats the opposition would have ended ; 
but, as far as we know, this is the first instance that has 
occurred in this place of a caste woman renouncing 
home and kindred in order to ally herself to the Chris- 
tian Church. As the circumstances of the case have 
been reported with varying degrees of veracity in 
several local papers, and as innumerable false reports 
have been freely circulated, wc deem it desirable to pub- 
lish a simple statement of facts. 



Muthulutchmi is the daughter of a respectable citizen 
of Bangalore, residing in the suburb of Alsftr. Her 
father is a Telugu Natdii, 'i'he sub-division is one of 
the higher branches of the Sfidra caste. As is custom- 
ary among Hindus of the higher castes, Mnthiihitchmi 
was mairied in childhood, but she has never lived with 
her husband as his wife. On two separate occasions 
she spent short periods in the house of her husband's 
parents, but for more than five years now she has 
never left her father's care. The explanation which 
she gives of this fact is, that her husband is an imbecile 
in the care of his parents at some distant place, which 
she believes to be Trichinopoly. Before her marriage 
she attended for a short time the mission school, near 
whi#h her parents were then living, in the Hroadway. 
She was very young at the timt', and lias little or no 
recollection of the lessons she learned there, though she 
ran recall the person of the missionary lady, Mrs. 
Symons, also the teachers, and one or two of her fellow- 

About a year ago, Miss Dunhill, a lady engaged in 
zenana work in connection with our Tamil Mission in 
Bangalore, made the acquaintance of Muthulutchmi in 
a house which was partly occupied by this girl's parents, 
and partly by another fafnily who had invited Miss 
Dunhill to visit and instruct them. Muihutntchnit 
began to receive lessons with the other women living in 
the house, but her studies were interrupted in the early 
part of this year when her father removed his family to 
AlsOr. The interruption was only temporary, however, 
as Miss Dunhill soon found lier pupil again, and the? 
visits which she and her assistants paid were gladly 
received. The gospels were from the first adopted as 
a text-book, and the ladies soon discovered that their 
pupil had some previous knowledge of the subject. 
This, she told thein, she had gathered from a native 
Christian woman whom she had known some years 
before; we have not been able as yet to obtain more 
precise information as to this first instructress. The 
girl learned all her lessons with avidity, but from the he- 
ginning inanifcslcd a specially keen interest in the his- 
tory of our Ixjrd. This was so remarkable as to lie 
brought to our notice by her teachers, on more than one 
occasion, and it induced us to ask her a few questions 
as to her studies, when, with her step-mother, and a few 
other women from .Alsflr, she visited the mission house 
several weeks ago. She then spoke of her deep interest 
and belief in the New Testament, but nothing more 
was said at the time. Even before that date, however, 
and frequently afterward, she spoke to the ladies who 
visited her of her determination to be a Christian, and 
on one occasion Miss Dunhill ventured to hint at the 
subject to her father, saying that as she seemed so fond 
of the Christian religion, it was a pity (hat he and his 
family should not embrace it. This roused suspicion, 
and for a time there was some fear that Muthulutchmi's 
study of the Bible might be interrupted; but her father 
is not naturally a harsh man, and he soon yielded to her 
request to be allowed to continue the lesson in which 



she most delighted. Thenceforward, a Scriptural ei 
presssion will accurately describe her daily approach 
the kingdom of Christ: she grew "in the grace ant 
knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." 

On Thursday. October ir, the decisive step was taken. 
It is important that wc should emphasize the fact that 
no inducement was held out to licr. or assistance given 
to enable her to leave her home. It was nearly eleven 
o'clock at night, and the mission family, who had been 
detained away from home until about that lime, were 
chatting with a guest, when a footfall was heard in the 
veranda, and Muthulutchmi stepped inside the door. 
She did not appear agitated or alarmed, and was quite 
ready to respond to our anxious questions, as to hov 
and why she had ventured upon such an unusual course. 
She stated that she had come alone, and that she had 
"come for God," which she explained to mean to be- 
come a Christian. We set before her in the plainest 
terms the difficulties which would assuredly rise if she 
persisted in her request. We spoke of her father' 
grief, warning her that he would certainly come for he 
and that so far as her relatives were concerned she 
would mieet with nothing but the most bitter opposition. 
Wc told her that she would be denounced by her cas 
people, that we had no worldly advantage to offer her, 
that as a Christian she would hav^ to earn her own liv- 
ing, and probably for some years her life would be sur- 
rounded by dangers and troubles. To all this she had 
but one reply : at any cost she would be a follower of 
the Lord Jesus. We offered to take her hack to her 
house at once, and proposed that she might come to 
terms with her father, so that she might worship Christ 
in her oi\ti home; bu she replied. "Their gods arc 
different ; ihcy will not allow mc to worship Jesus. 
We told her of an instance known to us in which 
young woman alone In a Hindu household was a pr 
fessed dtsciple of Christ, but Mulhulutchtni, as 
might have expected, at once put her finger ujK)n the 
weak point of our illustration and said that that could 
not be in a caste house. We were compelled to agree. 
Sx last we suggested that if she refused to return home 
her father might bring the police. She smiled, and sai 
God would take care of her. We asked about her a, 
She said she was eighteen, and we are fully convinc 
that she is not a minor in the eyes of the law. We then 
said her father must be informed of the step which she 
had taken, and she not only assented, but expressed her- 
self willing to write and tell him what she had done. 
We did not think that such a letter would be accepted 
by the father as her voluntary act. but told her that in 
the morning we would see him and teil him the circum- 
stances. Uuring that night she remained with a Bible- 
woman on our premises, and at five o'clock in the morn- i 

ing we saw her again, and repealed our proposal for heofl 
return home. Her answers were the same as before, " " 
only that she expressed her pleasure that we were go- 
ing to see her father. 

A few minutes later, accompanied by the native 
minister and another Christian, we went to her father's 







house. The gate of the outer yard was locked, and 
when, in response to our call, the old man came and 
opened it, it was evident that he was not aware that any 
thing unusual had happened. His wife, however, had 
apparently missed the girt, for H-e had seen her looking 
up and down the road as we approached the house, and 
she entered the yard as we were talking. M. Vciiketa- 
sawrai Naidu would not at first believe that his daugh- 
ter was away from her home, and when he did realize 
the fact he seemed simply to regard it as a foolish es- 
capade. ** the result." he said, ''of the ladies coming to 
teach needlework." He thought it quite unncccssar)" 
to come himself and talk with Miithultitchmi, hut told 
his wife to accompany us to tlie mission-house, and to 
be sure not to tell their neighbors about it. Then fol- 
lowed a long interview between Muthulutchmi and her 
mother. To the invitations, threats, and entreaties, 
which were freely used. Mulhulutchmi's replies were 
%ery brief. She declared that she mmt be a Christian 
and that she would not return home. Some hours later 
her mother returned with several other relatives, bul we 
felt that the time had come lo bring the matter to a cri- 
sis, and we refused to have any communications except 
with her father. He wa.s accordingly sent for, and 
arrived about midday. The interview between parent 
and child was very painful, and when the young convert 
was unmoved by his advice and persuasions, we almost 
began to hope that he would yield to our arguments, 
and if not accepting Christianity himself, would yet 
allow his daughter to remain with us in peace. At last 
the flame of his wrath burst forth, and he did not leave 
without uttering strong imprecations upon her and us. 
The next incident took place that night, when, soon after 
nine o'clock, Mr. Vcnketasawuii Naidu returned with a 
chief-constable and a sergeant of police. Muthulutcliroi 
was called and her deposition was taken. Several 
persons were present, every one of whom expressed 
astonishment and satisfaction at the lucidity and self- 
possession which characterized her answers, " How," 
said her interrogator, "did you manage to find the 
house.' ** " I knew it," she replied, " because I had been 
there before with my mother and some other women." 
With calm and careful answers sliepassed the ordeal most 
successfully, and it is not surprising that the police author- 
ities felt that there was no case that they could take up. 
No further action was taken until the following Sun- 
day. Muthulutchmi had requested baptism when she 
first came, and evidently expected to receive it at once. 
We did not, however, immediately accede to her request, 
and when the Sabbath came we were still doubtful as to 
whether it would not be desirable to postpone the ad- 
ministration of this sacrament. In jirivate conversation 
wc had thoroughly satisfied ourselves as lo her faith and 
sincerity, and when her request was repeated on (he 
Uwd's Day, we only waited lo see if her relatives would 
illempt to prevent her reception into the Church. Hut 
^ no sign of opposition was shown up to the hour of 
our midday service, we publicly catechised her, in the 
presence of a congregation of more than two hundred 

l>er-,rtn>, .unl having received a clear avowal of her faith 
we baptized her by the name of" Lydia Muthulutchmi." 
Ten minutes after this interesting part of the service was 
concluded, her mother and some other women appeared 
at the door of the chapel, and we soon learned that men 
were waiting outside. They were persuaded to keep 
quiet until the close of the service, and then, while they 
were watching one of the doors, Muthulutchmi was 
safely conducted by another way to the mission-house. 
Her people caught sight of her as she passed, aud in ihe 
violence of their anger, they made a disturbance which 
threatened to become serious. Our native Christians 
had ])0iired out of chapel and gathered round in a great 
crowd, and until police assistance arrived we were under 
apprehension lest any of our warm-hearted adherents 
should resort to an un-Christian like mode of settling the 
dispute. At length the crowd was dispersed, and 
Muthulutchmi was left alone with ber protectors. She 
had been more agitated with the fear that her angry 
relatives might seize her forcibly than with all that had 
transpired previously. 

The rest of the story may be told in a few words, 
though more may have to be added in another issue. 
Lydia Muthulutchmi remains with us, and we are daily 
more and more convinced of her intelligence and piety. 
Various efforts have been made by the people of her 
caste (o gain possession of her, the last being by means 
of her younger sister, who, while we have been writing 
this account, came lo see her. The sisters were left 
alone for a few minutes, and wc were startled by the 
hasty return of Muthulutchmi into the room where wc 
were sitting. She said that her sister had proposed to 
call in other persons who were waiting outside the gate 
of the compound, and she would stay to hear no more. 

The intense excitement and opposition that have been 
aroused present formidable hinderances to our work 
among the Hindu population generally. The girls' 
school at .MsOr, which was only just recovering from the 
shock which it sii/Tered by the introduction of a Chris- 
tian teacher nearly three years ago, has again been para- 
lyzed, and almost emptied. Our other two schools for 
caste girls have also suffered, and our zenana work is all 
but suspended, most of the houses being absolutely 
closed against our agents. Even many educated native 
gentlemen will not believe that we did not fetch Muthu- 
lutchmi, or provide means of conveyance from her 
father's house. Meetings have been held almost nightly, 
resolutions of determined opposition have been passed, 
and other measures are threatened. To our Hindu 
friends we can only reply that Muthulutchmi is perfectly 
free. She has voluntarily taken this unusual step that 
she might obtain religious freedom, and it would be con- 
trary to our principles of religion to interfere with that 
freedom by forcibly ejecting her. May the dawn of 
religious liberty, which is only just beginning to break 
on benighted India, develop rapidly into the brightness 
of the perfect day, and may the glad illumination appear 
in every home. We ask the sympathy and prayers of 
all God's people. — Harvest FteltL 



There are four principal castes among Hindus, and 
of them all I tlitnk the third caste, the Kaitcs, to which 
] bclcing, make tlieir widows suffer tnoi^t. 

All are treated badly enough, but our customs are 
much worse than those of some others. In the Punjab 
they are not always strict in enforcing their customs 
with widows; but though we live in the Punjab ojr 
family comes from die North-west, and as we are rich 
and well to do our customs are kept up scrupulously. 

When a husband dies liis wife suffers as much as if 
the death-angel had come for her also. She must not 
be approached by any of her relations, but several 
women, from three lo six (wives of barbers, a dass who 
arc kept uj> fur this object), are in waiting, and as soon 
as the husband's last breath is drawn they rush at the 
new-made widow and tear oif her ornaments. Ear and 
nose rings are dragged off, often tearing the cartiUagc, 
crnamcnts plaited in with the hair are torn away, and if 
the arras arc covered with gold and silver bracelets they 
<io not take the time lo draw ihem off one by one, but, 
holding her arm on the ground, they hammer with a 
■stone until the metal, often solid and heavy, breaks in 
two; it matters not to them how many wounds they 
inflict; they have no pity, not even if the widow is but a 
child of six or seven, who does not know what a husband 

At that time two sorrows come upon every widow; 
one from God and one from her own people, who should 
cherish and support her, but who desert and execrate 
her. If the husband dies away from borne, then, on ihc 
arrival of the fatal news, all this is done. At the funeral 
all the relatives, men as well as women, have to accom 
pany the corpse to the burning ghat. If they are rich 
and have carriages they must not use them, but all go 
on foot. The men follow the corpse, the women (all the 
ladies well covered from sight) come after, and last the 
widow, led along by the barbers' wives. They lake care 
that at least 200 feet intervene between her and any 
other woman, for it is supposed that if her shadow fell 
on any (her lormentors excepted) she also would become 
a vyidow; therefore no relative, however much symp.ithy 
she may feel in secret, dare look on her face. One of 
the rough women goes in front and shouts aloud lo any 
passer-by to get out of the way of the accursed thing, as 
if the poor widow were awild beast ; the others drag her 

Arrived at the river, tank, or well where the body is 
to be burned, they push her into the water, and as she 
falls so she must lie, with her clothes on, until ihc body 
has been burned and all the company have bathed, 
washed their clothes, and dried them. When they are 
all ready to start for home, but not before, they drag 
her out, and in her wet clothes she must trudge home. 
It matters not what the weather is, in a burning sun or 
with an icy wind blowing from the Himalayas. They 
care not if she dies. O, I would rather choose the suttee ! 

Many are happy enough to die in consequence of 
these sorrows ; for, however ill they may become, no care 
is taken of them or medicine given. 

1 once went to a funeral (before 1 was myself a widow) 
where fhe burning ghat was three kos (about six miles) 
from the city. It was the hottest month of the year, 
and though we started at sunrise we did not reach the 
house again till three V. M. I shall never forget how 
much we women suffered from the hot blasting M'ind 
that blew on us like fire and the blazing sun. Wc were 
almost worn out with heat and thirst, though we had 
stopped often to rest and drink. The poor widow dared 
not ask for a d rink, or she would have lost her character ; 
the women with her might have given her water if they 
had liked, but they would not. 

At last she fell, but they pulled her up again and 
dragged her on ; told her not to give way, s/te was not the 
only widow, and taunted her. when she wept, with want- 
ing a husband.* When she had no strength left even to 
crawl they dragged her along like a bundle of clothes. 

On arrival at the bouse she was flung on the floor in 
a little room ; stilt, though they knew she was almos 
dead with thirst, they did not give her a droo nf wat( 
and she dared not ask for any. She was a relative 
mine ;.but none of us dared go near her, for it wouI<^^ 
have brought down maledictions on the hcaO of aq^H 
who tried it. At last one young woman, after watchin^^ 
a long while, saw her opportunity and slipped in with a 
vessel of water. The widow ran at her like a wild 
creature. I cannot describe how she behaved ; at first 
she did not recognize her friend — she drank and drank 
till life and sense came back to her. Then she fell down 
at the feel of her who had brought the water, and, em- 
bracing them, said : " O, sister ! I will never forget what 
you have done for me I You are my God — my second 
creator ? But go away quickly, I pray, that no one may 
ever find out what you have done, or we shall both 
suffer. I promise I will never tell of you." 

I'"or fifteen days after a funeral the relatives must eat 
and drink only once in the day (twenty-four hours) ; 
but the widow must keep up this for a year, with frequent 
fasts. When she returns from the funeral she must sit 
or lie in a corner on the ground in the same clothes she 
had on when her husband died, whether still wet or by 
this time dry. Now and then one of the barbers* wives 
comes and looks after her, or, if she is poor and not able 
lo pay for their further iiftd attentions, she must sit 
alone. O, cruel place ! Each widow knows you well, 
and remembers you with bitterness. Separated from 
her husband, though she lives she is not alive ! Not 
only is she deprived of comforts, but her friends add to 
her misery. Though she is in her comer alone and must 
not speak to any one, they are near and talk at her in 
this way: Her mother says, "Unhappy creature! I 
can't bear the thought of any one so vile — 1 wish she 

* Thvtr logic ii«enit to b« cliu*; A wtdwr U ai MuchguUly of het hH*bkml'» 
drtuh Ki if the hail killed him. IT %\tv ihcnkin tihawi torrvw il » Mily iMCama 
khe winu to be mxrricd intt«>'! ff temaininic lingle, Evrry launt and indlsiuty 
they CAH invest it heaped t»p9a hec. »ni ihe L( tuppoMil lo be loo vil« hi any to 
hold IntercoTine whh. 





had never been born." Her mother-in-law says, "The 
horrid viper! She has bitten my son and killed him; 
now he is dead, and she, useless creature, is left behind." 
And this even though the speakers may themselves be 
widows ; every indignity that the tongue can sp^ak is 
heaped upon her, lest the sianders-by, or perchance the 
^ods, should think they had sympathy with her. 

O, God ! I pray thee let no more women be born in 
ihift land \ 

The sister-in-law says, " I will not laok at or speak to 
such a thing," They comfort the dead man's mother, 
and say, *' It is your daughter-in-law, vile thing, who 
has destroyed your house ; curse her ! For her sake you 
have to mourn for the rest of your life.'* To the widow 
they say, "What good are you? Why are yon still liv- 
ing in the world?" If she cricsand shows her grief they 
all say, '* How immodest, how abandoned ; see, she is 
crying for a husb:ind ! '* They have no pity. Only 
those who have been through this know what it is; you 
must feel this grief to prove it. Whose fool has the 
chilblain feels the pain. For thirteen days the widow 
oust sit and bear this. 
Ob the eleventh day comes a Brahman, and like a 
eman who comes for a culprit orders money and 
and other things to be given him. However jioor 
lie widow may be, money or the promise of it must be 
Kivcn, from the ver\- poorest at least 13 rupees. Other 
Bfihmans make other demands, and if the family is rich 
icir demands are very high. ,\ poor widow has often 
to labor hard for money at grinding, or sumc other work, 
to earn enough to satisfy their claims. 

0, Lord ! Why hast thou created us to make us suffer 
ikos? From birth to death sorrow is our portion. 
While our husbands live we are their slaves ; when they 
die we are still worse off. But they have all they wish 
h«rc and promises for the life to come. 

The thirteenth is a bad day, though then the widow 
•nay take off the clothes she has worn ever since her 
husband died and may bathe. The relatives all gather 
and lay rupees before the widow, which arc supposed to 
be a provision for her for life. They do not spare their 
reproaches. If the rupees given amount to any large 
sum it is taken charge of by some relative who doles it 

Now again the Brahmans come for more money. The 
widow's head is shaved, and there is another Hrahman- 
ical tax. Then the barbers' wives have to be paid. 
Six weeks after the husband's death the widow must 
once again put on the hated clothes she wore for those 
thirteen days (abhorred garments ! if a widow by chance 
catches sight of them she shudders as if a fresh widow- 
hood were hers), and then, if possible, she must go on 
a pilgrimage to the Ganges, and, after bathing there, the 
clothes may be thrown away in the river. 

After a year has passed away a widow who is living 
with her father and mother may wear ornaments again. 
But why is this? If you ask the parents they say: 
*' Poor girl ! she has rot seen much of life ; if she can- 
not wear jewels now while we are with her she can 

never wear them ; and how can she pass a long life with- 
out jewels? We can't bear to see her naked; how 
could we wear jewels and she sit before us bare?" 

The widows who have no parents are still more to be 
pitied ; they have to serve as servants to their brothers' 
or sons' wives. Every one knows that if there are 
widows in a house servants need not be hired. A sister- 
in-law rules over a widow, and they quarrel night and 
day. If a widow remains in her husband's house it is 
the same ; she is hated by mother and sisters-in-law 
and beaten from place to place. If for the sake of peace 
she would like to live alune she loses her character. If 
she has children she works for them while they are 
young ; when her sons marry she becomes their wives' 
servant. If a widow is childless and rich (by the money 
given her after her husband's death) her relatives choose 
some boy to he her heir and tn be provided for by her. 
She may bring him uji with love and care, but when he 
gets big he takes her property and only allows her food 
and clothes while she wails on his wife. A widow has 
no power over property supposed to be her own. It is 
happier for a widow to be poor and earn her living by 
grinding corn ! 

.■Vmong us women can inherit no cowry of their 
father's wealth, it all goes to their brothers. Neither do 
they inherit what their husbands leave. They only have 
what may be given them, and if it is a lump sum per- 
haps they are silly and spend it foolishly ; they arc not 
taught to take care of it properly. If a wife die she is 
buried in her best clothes and jewels, hut a widow's 
corpse is wrapped in white cloth. It is supposed that if 
she came to her husband in the next life without a show 
of monminghe would not receive her. 

Why do the widows of India suffer so ? Not for re- 
ligion or piety. Il is not written in our ancient books. 
In none of the .Shasires or in the Mihibharal is there 
any sign of this suffering. What Pandit has brought it 
on us ? .Mas that all hope is taken from us ! We have 
not sinned; then why are thorns instead of flowers 
given us ? 

Thousands of us die, but more live. I saw a widow 
die, one of my cousins. She had been ill before her 
husband's death. When he died she was too weak to 
be dragged down to the river. She was in a burning 
fever; her mother-in-law called a water-carrier and had 
four large skins of water poured over her as she lay on 
the ground, where she had been thrown from her bed 
when her husband died. The rhill of death came upon 
her, and, after lying alone and untended for eight hours, 
her breath ceased. Kvery one praised her, and said she died for tove of her husband. 

1 knew another woman who did not love her husband, 
for all their friends knew that they quarreled so much 
(hat they could not live together. The husband died 
suddenly away from home, and when the widow, heard 
the news she threw herseU off the roof and was taken up 
dead. She could not bear the thought of the degrada- 
tion before her. She was praised by all. K book full 
of such instances might be written. The only difference 



ryn/A: its xeed axd orpoRTuyrrY. 

for us since sutiee was abolished is that wc then died 
quickly, if cruelly, but now we die all our lives in linger- 
ing pain. 

We are aghast at the great number of widows. How is 
it there arc so many ? The answer is that if an article 
is constantly supplied and never used up il must accu- 
mulate. So it is with widows ; nearly every man or boy 
who dies leaves one, often more; so. though thousands 
die. more live on. 

The English have abolished suttee; but alas ! neither 
the English nor the angels know what goes on in our 
homes. And Hindus not only don't care, but think it 
good ! 

What ! do not Hindus fear what such oppression may 
lead to? If the widow's shadow is to be dreaded why 
do they darken and overshadow the whole Kind with it ? 

I am told that in England and America they comfort 
the widows' hearts ; but there is no comfort for us. 

India : Its Xeed and Opportunity. 


\Frut»(e4 at tht Axnual Muting tf iht Amtriean Saard at Clrvftamd, 

Okio. October 3, iSSg.] 

India has been and still is the great mission-field of 
the world. It has an area as large as that of the United 
States east of the Rocky Mountains, and a population 
five times as large. Its climate ranges from the slopes 
of the snow-covered Himalayas to the heal of Madura 
and Travancore, and its productions are as varied as its 
climate. It has peoples of diverse speech separately 
outnumbering the population of Spain, Italy, France, or 
Germany. It has one hundred and fifty langtiages and 
dialects, written and unwritten. It boasts of a literature 
that dates back a thousand years before the revival of 
letters in modem Europe, of sacred boobs and epic song 
of an antiquity not surpassed by the Pertaleiu:)i or the 
book of Job. It had a reputation for wealth and luxury 
that tempted the Macedonian conqueror, whose glory 
lingered in the traditions of Europe ; stirred the adven- 
turer of Portugal and Spain, and illumined the verse of 

The origin of the different races that spumed the 
mountain barriers of the North, and one after another 
swept over the great peninsula, neither history nor the 
researches of philology can explain. Wc call the rude, 
uncultured peoples that seem to have been crowded 
back into the hills and jungles the aboriginal inhabitants, 
and are satisfied in a general way in noting the .\ryan 
invasion centuries before the Christian era, the Moham- 
medan conquest in the eleventh century, and the estab- 
lishment of the Mogul Empire in the sixteenth. It is 
enough for us here to note a great variety of races 
struggling with one another in fierce and devastating 
wars, with little security for life or property, and that 
the right to rule was oftenest the right of him who was 
the strongest or the most unscrupulous in wicked device. 
Such was the political history of India for twenty cent- 

uries prior to the battle of Plassy, in 1757, when Clivc 
asserted England's right to rule — a right confirmed on 
many a hard-fought field, and often by expedients that 
will not bear too close a scrutiny, but a right at last 
•icknowledged by the prevalence of order and good 
government before unknown in her histor)-. ' 

In an estimate of the population of India we may 
class asHindus, 160,000,000; as Mohammedans, 45,000,- 
000; as belonging to the rude native tribes, 50,000,000, 
and a little over 2,000,000 as Christians, of whom nearly 
one third are Protestants — largely the fruit of missionary 
labors during the present century. The character of 
these different populations has been recently defined by 
Sir William Hunter, whose wide acquaintance with India 
and special opportunities of observation have made hira 
an authority. The term Hinduism has within a few 
years attained a specific character. It no longer admits 
of the old popular conception as the synonym of the 
lowest debasement of intellectual and moral character. . 
As defined by Sir William, " Hinduism is asocial organ- 
ization and a religious confederacy. As a social 
organization it rests on caste, with its roots deep down 
in the tribal elements of the Indian people. As a re- 
ligious confederacy it represents the coalition of the 
cultured faith uf the Brahmans with the ruder rites and 
materialistic beliefs of the more backward races. In 
both aspects Hinduism Is a deliberate system of com- 

Il has the widest possible range of religious doctrines 
and practices ; monotheism and lofty conceptions of 
morality for its highest minds, shading down to the 
grossest forms of idolatry for the multitude, and it has 
a ritual carefully adapted to every condition of life, from 
the cradle to the grave. When Protestant missions first 
entered India they found that the Hindus had religious 
schools in their temples and nominally in every village; 
that the Mohammedans had their schools and colleges ; 
so too the Parsees and the Sikhs, and though these had 
fallen largely into decay, more than 30,000 such schools 
with over 400,000 pupils were reported in the census of 
1881 and 18&2. 

The material results of the religious and educational 
systems of India are best seen in the general ignorance, 
poverty, wretchedness, and hopelessness of the great 
mass of the population. If there are a few men whose 
wealth vies with that of the VanderbiUs and Rothschilds, 
it has 40,000,000 so poor as to lie down hungry at night 
on the bare ground; while but one man in 43 and one 
woman in 858 can read or write. The energy and enter- 
prise of this vast population have been so stifled and 
dwarfed that the average income per individual is less 
than that of any other civilized race : barely $ij 50 per 
year, against $20 even for the Turk, $165 for the En- 
glishman, and $200 per annum for each man, woman, 
and child in the United States. Such is heathenism in 
one of the richest countries of the world. 

The missionary enterprise of the early Church did not 
neglect India. The traditions of the Syrian churches 
of Malabar and Travancore date back to the first cent- 



Mohammedanism is better than no religion, and deems 
it wise to make grants-in-aid to insttlucions established 
by Hindus and Muhammedans, as well as by Christians, 
rather than to continue the present system. So disas- 
trous to moral character has high education wiihout 
religion proved, through the breaking down of all moral 
and religious restraints, that Hindus of high caste and 
Mohammedans are beginning to place their children in 
Christian schools, with a view not only to their belter 
education, but for the moral results anticipated. This 
change of sentiment on ihe part of the government of 
India, and beginnlrg among the higher classes, best 
acquainted with missionary effort, is one of the most 
hopeful signs of the time. The moral influence of young 
men educated in government institutions is not satisfac- 
tory. Constructive agencies must l>c employed as well 
as destructive ; and thoughtful men, tu use the language 
of Sir William Hunter, are coming to realize that "the 
missions do really represent the spiritual side of the new 
civilization and (he new life of India." 

A higher wisdom than man's is directing the thought 
of India. f)r. Duff, in 1830, and Lord Macaulay, in 
1835, acted more wisely than they knew in favoring the 
introduction into the schools generally of the English 
language, now read and spoken by three millions of the 
people, who are thus brought in contact with the intel- 
lectual and moral life of the Anglo-Saxon race. Teach- 
ers of Western materialism and skepticism may have 
their day, but the deeper sentiment inspired by the Gos- 
pel of Christ through the teachings of missionaries and 
through the lives of tens of thousands of native Chris- 
tians is true to the divine pUn. Within the last few 
years the feeling of a common brotherhood such as 
Christianity only coutd have awakened, rising above all 
distinctions of race, language, and even caste, has found 
expre.ssion in three national congresses ; and, what is 
more remarkable, among the six hundred delegates, 
representing the various races, languages and castes, con- 
vened last December at Madras, there were forty 
Protestant Christians aud Christian ministers, sent^ as 
the best men to be liad, mainly by non-Christian com- 
munities. India is moving ; a new life is stirring not 
yet the masses but the leading influential nnnd<i ; and 
all this is but the providential aid granted to the Church 
of Christ in its sublime mission of bringing India into 
the kmgdom of God. 

The Indian Empire of Britain is the standing miracle 
of modem history. As remarked by an English writer 
in a recent number of The Contemporary Rcviav (June. 
188&), "it is something that cannot be accounted for 
by any process of reasoning founded on experience ; " 
and so statesmen who recognize no intervention in 
human affairs in the interest of the kingdom of God may 
well be at fault and tremble for the permanence of the 
imperial power. With profound insight, not without 
something of patriotic pride, Kcshub Chunder Sen de- 
clared that "it is not England, with her trained soldiers, 
but Christ, that rules India." It is the moral power de- 
veloped by the Gospel in the English character and ex- 

pressed in beneficent Christian institutions that i otnpcls 
the obedience of tHw hundred and Bfty millions of men. 
The fact is a revelation of the divine purpose on a grand 
scale that has no parallel in the records of history — a 
sublime fact that imposes on the Church of Christ its 
grandest obligation and offers it its highest privilege. 
Every step in the transition, from the factory of a trading- 
company to the proclamation of the empire of India, is 
marked by a corresponding growth of moral sentiment 
on the part of English rulers, and by the awakening of 
the Christian Church to its duty and privilege. 

It is now seventy-five years since missionaries were 
permitted to reside in the British dominions of India. 
This [>eriod. therefore, is the period of organized mis- 
sionary effort among its varied races, in which nearly 
all the principal missionary societies of Europe and 
America have had a share. Beyond the translation of 
the Scriptures into more than twenty languages by- 
Carey and his associates, and some acquaintance with 
the country and the peculiarities of its different races, 
but little remained to mark the results of former e 
deavors. As late as 1830, though 13 different missio 
had been established and 140 missionaries put into the 
field, the number of communicants was only about 
3,000, while 40,000 children and youth had been gath- 
ered into schools of various grades. In 1851 the num- 
ber of missions had increased lu 38, and of missionaries 
to about 500, distributed over 222 stations. The num- 
ber of communicants at that date, according to the best 
authority, was 14,661. 

Down to this time, and for some years longer, the 
work was prosecuted against great odds : against the 
unfriendly attitude of the government, the contempt 
brought on the Christian name by its avowed neutrality, 
and even support of idolatrous worship, the education 
of thousands in the government institutions without the 
Gospel, as if religion were unnecessary to the highest 
civilization ; and then there was the prejudice against 
missionaries as belonging to the same race as their con^^ 
querors, to say nothing of the thought and interest of ^^| 
people of strong religious sympathies, fast bound in ih^^H 
meshes of caste and a multitudinous ritual, the most 
elaborate, the most corrupt, the most debasing ever de- 
vised by mortal man. 

Yet a vast preparation had been made by a wide 
acquaintance with the people, with their languages and 
creeds ; by the translation of the Scriptures and the de 
velo])ment of a Christian literature in many tongues; 
the respect won for the character and motives of mis-' 
sionaries, and by the changed lives of thousands of be- 
lievers scattered through the land who gave proof th 
the Gospel of Christ is indeed the power of God unttii 

The next thirty years, though the number of mission- 
aries wa:s but little increased (from five hundred, say^ 
to six hundred), were to witness a great advance ; a fivi 
fold increase in the number who avowed their accept- 
ance of Christianity, from 91,092 to 492,882, and a ten- 
fold increase in communicants, from 14,661 to 138,254. 


IS- I 







There was alfto a threefold increase in the number of 
pupils in mission -schools. The most remarkable prog- 
reMt» however, was in the development of a native 
agency as the right arm of the missionary force. The 
21 ordained native ministers in 1851 had increased to 
575 in 1S81. 

The last seven years, if wc may judge from a partial 
examination of statistical returns, have not been less 
fruitful, aod the number of communicants cannol now 
be less than 175,000, nor the recognized Christian ad- 
herents less than 700,000. But the great results of mis- 
sionary effort for the last fifteen years, and especially 
for the last seven years, no statistics can measure. 
Notc» for example, the enlarged opportunities for 
woman's work in Christian schools, in house to house 
visiting, now as never before reacliing all classes, till 
thousands of high-caste women arc brought under the 
instruction of Christian teachers, or visited in their 
homes. In keeping with tins, as expressing the change 
of sentiment already referred to, is the number from the 
higher classes who place their young men in our Chris- 
tian schools, defraying a large part, if not all, of their 
expenses, save the salaries of their Christian teachers. 
One such institution, begun five years since at Ahmed- 
nagar in our Marathi Mission with fourteen pupils, now 
numbers between three and four hundred. More than 
five thousand such youth, young men and young women, 
are to be found in the institutions of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society in Southern India. Another marked 
advance is to be found in the growth of self-support and 
a worthier sentiment of independence and Christian 
manliness on the part of the native churches. 

The poverty of some of these native Christians has 
abounded unto the riches of their liberality till, in many 
churches, the average contributions for the support of 
schools and churches, if reckoned at the value of tbc 
days* labor thus devoted, quite exceeds the average in 
the churches of our own favored land. A fourth con- 
sideration is the generous sympathy on the part of the 
government, as shown in its support of (Christian institu- 
tions for education, and the changed sentiment of the 
higher classes toward Christianity, not wide-spread as yet, 
bat begun. Nor should we here fail to recognize the 
vigorous efforts made in behalf of Mohammedans by 
the Church Missionary Society of England. It already 
has missions in ten different languages, and reports a 
church at Amritsar which includes 253 Mohammedan 
converts, out of a membership of 555. 

Such is the vantage-ground now won, the vast prepara- 
tion now made for enlarged effort in behalf of this great 
countrj* containing one sixth of the population of the 
gk)be. The time draws near, waiting [Hrrhaps on uur 
fjiith and Christain endeavor, for great religious changes 
in India. Hitherto the great accessions have come from 
the low-caste or no-caste population, and from among 
tHe aboriginal tribes, as the Karens of Burma, the 
Khols of Central India, the Shanars of Tinncvelly, and 
tHc Tclugus ; but individuals of all castes, from the 
lowest to the highest, have been attracted to Christianity 

enough to demonstrate the power of the Gospel over all. 
From the peculiar habits of the Hindu mind, the great 
movimenls may be expected to be of thousands within 
the line of some one caste and then of another, ijot by 
slow processes of disintegration. Such movements may 
he nearer than we think. The preparation has been 
made, Have we faith to expect them ? 

India was the first foreign field to he entered by 
American missionaries, and in the great work accom- 
plished this Board has had a limited but worthy part. 
Its three missions are well-organized, and have had a 
success that compares favorably with other missions to 
the more civilized races. The names of Scudder, Poor, 
Spaulding, Winslow and Tracy. Hall and Ballantine, 
and others, have an honored place in missionary records. 
The devoted men and women now in the field arc in the 
forefront of progress in all lines of missionary effort : 
evangelistic, educational, woman's work, and pre-emi- 
nently in the development of self-supporting churches. 
The population of India that may be regarded as wholly 
dependent on the American Board for religious instruc- 
tion is not far from six million — four million of Mara- 
thas, of Aryan origin, and over two million of Tamils, 
belonging to the Dravidian stock. The limits of mission- 
fields are well defined, and have Iveen generously re- 
spected, save in the Marathi Mission, which lost a few 
years since one third of its best-cultivated and most 
promising field, at a time when the mission was so re- 
duced in men and means as to be unable to care for its 
legitimate work. Foundations have been laid ; the insti- 
tutions of the Gospel, churches, and Christian scJiools 
established, A native pastorate Is largely sustained by 
the churches, colleges, and liigh-schools for both sexes 
offer the advantages of higher Christian education ; 
while mission-schools of lower grade serve a double 
pur]30se, in leaching the elements of primary education 
and in opening the way to new places for the preaching 
of the Gospel. AI! this org.inization is complete. The 
results are such as to encourage, and opporluniiies on 
every hand are open and inviring to large effort. Vet 
pow the sad fact confronts us, there arc not men and 
means to carry forward the work we have begun. Mis- 
sion-houses stand empty; imjjorlant centers must be 
neglected ; double duty is assigned to missionaries 
whose hands are already full ; open doors cannot be 

This is no time for retreat or for diminished effort. 
Other — newer — fields may seem more attractive, but in 
none is the need of help more urgent to gather in the 
har\'esting of years of prayer and toil. Evil influences 
are rampant; the enemy notes the weakness of our 
lines. Just as a better day seems dawning the liquor 
traffic is starting up afresh, to blight and blast the nc<» 
civilization by the ruin of thousands of the educate 
classes no longer under the moral restraints of tliei 
old faiths. As if recognizing the inadequacy of existing 
Christian agencies, Hinduism and Islamism are waking to 
new energy and, re-enforced by Western infidelity, are 
using our own weapons to drive us from the field. The 




printed page charged with sophistries and falschuuds, 
seldom seen in Christian lands, is widely scattered by 
colporteurs and turned 10 account by tlic apostles of 

In spile of all that has been done during these 
scveniy-five years, ii remains a sad fact that since Gordon 
Hall entered Bombay, since freedom given the 
Christian Church to push forward the work of evangel- 
ization under British protection, not less than six hun- 
dred millions of our fellow-men, capable by the grace of 
Christ of Christian manhood and womanhood, have 
gone down to the grave without God and without hope, 
the larger part degraded, debased, beyond expression by 
human speech. And to-day, in spite of all tliat h bcinj^ 
done by Christian missions, two hundred millions more 
arc following on in the same sad procession. To these 
must be added we dare not say how many millions more 
who have no just conception of the redemptive work 
and the new life in Christ. Contrast this, if you can, 
with the kingdom of God set up and realized in Chris- 
tian homes and Christian institutions for the spiritual 
culture of this vast population. 

The pending issue in India is of the gravest moment. 
The benign influence of English rule, the progress of 
Christian civilization, and the spiritual destinies of two 
hundred and fifty millions of souls are at stake. Shall 
the work accomplished at such a sacrifice of treasure 
and of life, shall the vast preparation now made and the 
vantage-ground now won, be lost ? Shall the index of 
progress be turned back for a century? Or shall ihe 
tlhurcli arise, accept the great opportunity, grasp the 
l>rize now within her reach, and place It as her offering 
<if love in the diadem of her risen Lord .* 



Hinduism is a social organization and religious con- 
federacy. As a social organization it rests on caste, 
with its roots deep down in the tribal elements of the 
Indian i^eople. As a religious confederacy il represents 
the coalition of the cultured faith of the Brahnians with 
the ruder rites and materialistic beliefs of the more 
backward races. In both aspects Hinduism is a delib- 
erate system of compromise. For the highest minds it 
has a monotheism as pure as, and more philosophical 
than, the monotheism of Islam. To less elevated 
thinkers it presents the triune conception of the Deity 
as the Creator, the Preserver, and the Destroyer — with 
the deeper doctrine superadded that destruction and re- 
production are fundamentally one and the same proctrss. 
To the materialistic multitude it offers the infinite 
phases of divine power as objects of adoration, with 
calm indifference iis to whether they are worshiped as 
symbols of the unseen Codhead. or as bits of tinsel and 
blocks of wood and stone. It resolutely accepts the 
position that the spiritual needs of races differ in each 
stage of their development, and thai man most naturally 



worships what for the time being he most rcvercnccS'^^| 
most fears. On this foundation Hinduism has built d|^ 
the enduring but ever-changing structure of Indiaa_ 
ritual and belief. 

As a social organization Hindtiism is even ni( 
fundamentally based upon compromise. It declares, 
under solemn sanctions, the immutable ordinance of 
caste, and il asserts in lofty language the unapproach- 
able, God-given supremacy of the Brahmans. But it 
skillfully adapts these doctrines to the actual facts. It 
finds in India a vast number of communities more or 
less isolated by geographical position, by occupation, or 
by race. It accepts the customs and internal life of 
each of these communities as the proper and nornaal 
status of that individual community or caste. 
holds out to all an ascending scale to a higher life 
life of ceremonial purity, of self-discipline, and 
ligious restraint, which is the ideal life of the Brahman. 

If any community or caste is to cise in the social 
scale, it must be by an increase of ceremonial purity. 
Accordingly, when any caste becomes rich or influential, 
its first ambition is to draw tighter its internal discipline 
and its religious restraints. In some cases they have 
abandoned their laborious low-caste occupations for 
higher employments. In others tliey have assumed the 
sacred thread of the "twice-born." But in addition to 
such individual examples, the constant presentment of 
a higher-caste life tends to a general upward movement 
in religious restraints as the wealth of the population 
increases. The backward races outside the pale of 
Hinduism set up a Hindu priest and a Hindu god. and 
become recognized as low-caste Hindus. The more 
energetic or more fortunate of the low castes within the 
Hindu |jale gradually raise themselves to higher stand- 
ards of ceremonial purity. There is, therefore, a ph 
ticity as well as a rigidity in caste. . . . 

Brahman theology declares that later customs, or later 
doctrines, are less binding than the older sacred books, 
and has always allowed an appeal back from the Puranas 
of medixval Hinduism to the ancient Veda. This 
appeal has been lioldly made by the educated Hindus, 
under British rule, and it is found that the most trksoi 
ceremonial restraints of modern Hinduism derive 
support from that venerable scri[)ture. Kven the ortho- 
dox educated Brahmans now perceive that those re- 
straints rest upon mediaeval custom and nut upon V'edic 
inspiration ; and they are gradually admitting that 
custom, although not lightly to be changed, must, in II 
end, adjust itself to the conditions of modern life. 

In regard to widow-burning, to infant marriage, to 
widow remarriage, to crossing the Black \V.ner, and to 
various inhumane rites, the appeal to the Veda has been 
successfully made. In some cases the custom has been 
piven up; in others it is seen lo depend on religious or 
domestic usages, which, however binding, are yet sus- 
ceptible of change. Hinduism has solved the social 
problems of the new Indian world or is gradually find- 
ing solutions for them. It has frankly accepted English 
education and the modern methods of success in life. 










And when once Hinduism fairly incorpnrates a new 
idea the new idea becomes an enduring part of its own 
ancient structure. Me.iowliilc, for the few who pass 
from its higher castes to Christianity, many rise in tlie 
^ycalc of ceremonial purity within its own body, and 
multitudes of the backward races enter its pale. 

1 ■■- 

^^p Hindu Ghost riiarms. 

^^^The dread of ghosts is common to all ihc aboriginal 
traces of India, from which it has been very generally 
adopted by their Aryan conquerors, and even by the 
lower classes of Mohammedans. All ghosts are believed 
to be mischievous, and some of them bitterly malicious, 
and the only means employed to oppose their rancor is 

tto build shrines for them, and to make them offerings of 
a fowl, a pig or, on grand occasions, of a buffalo. 

Any severe illness, and more especially any epidemic 

» disease, such as smatl-pox or cholera, is attributed to 
the malignancy of certain of these spirits, who must be 
propitiated accordingly. The man-tiger is, perhaps, the 
most dreaded of all these demon ghosts ; for when a tiger 
■ has killed a man the tiger is considered safe from harm, 
^ as the spirit of the man rides upon his head and guides 
him clear of danger. Accordingly, it is believed that 
"the only sure mode of destroying a tiger whohas killed 

I many people is to begin by making offerings to the 
spirits of his victims, thereby depriving him of their 
valuable services." 
The ghosts most propitiated are of those who have 
met a violent or untimelydeath, whether by design or by 
accident, including poison and disease. Even women 
who die in the <:hildbed pang, or wretches who are 
hinged for their crimes, are believed to have the same 
[ravers of causing evil to the living as those who have 
been killed by tiger or by lightning, or by any other 
violent cause. 

All these deified spirits are often distinguished by some 
lenn denoting the manner of their death ; thus, the 
"Toddy Ghost," the ghost of a man who was killed by 
falling from a loddy (palm) tree,; the "Tiger Ghost," 
the ghost of a man who was killed by a tiger ; the 
^Lightning Ghost," the ghost of a man who was killed 
by lightning ; the '* Snake Ghost," and so on. 

Most of the deceased persons whose spirits are now 
Worshiped were the ancestors of some of the aborigines ; 
4nd,as General Cunningham, the head of the archaolog- 
ical survey of India, says, their worship is generally 
iocal, and confined to the limits occupied by the re- 
spective tribes to which they belonged. 

The ceremonies observed in propitiating the ghost 
consist mainly of the offerings of goats, fowls, or pigs, as 
•ell as flowers and fruits, of the recitation of prayers, 
snd of the singing of certain mantras, or charms, the 
l»8t being the most important of all. These charms, 
which are always sung by men at the different shrines, 
wc of two different kinds ; ** the Sahara charms " (Sa- 
bwa being the name of one of the aboriginal tribes) and 
the "mystical incantacions; " the former arc addressed 

to the deified ghosts of the dead, the performances being 
generally carried out in the country, at the place where 
the corpse was burned ; and the latter are used to com- 
];el spirits to appear and receive ihc orders of the 
performer. — London Gniphic. 

Ajmere District, Bengal Conference, India. 


In reviewing the year we are thankful to our loving 
heavenly Father that he has been pleased to prolong 
the life of each of our ministerial brothers during twelve 
more months of faithful missionary toil in the midst of 
the twenty-five million souls of our district. 

Each has been walking in the light of the Lord's 
countenance, bearing testimony to the joys of pardoning 
grace, advocating and seeking to illustrate that holiness 
without which no man shall see the Lord, building up 
the people of God on their most holy faith, holding 
forth the word of life among the few of hundreds of 
Europeans and the tens of thousands or scores of thou- 
sands of the non-Christian population of the respective 
cities and regions occupied. 

Some in loneliness have been brave ; some in pain 
have been trustful, some in bereavement have been sub- 
missive; all in labors have been abundant. Every one 
has met difficulties, and every one has had successes. 
Each of those who are ordained has baptized persons 
into the Christian faith. All the preachers have taken 
courage amid interesting developments of evangelism, 
and as effectual doors have been opened by the Divine 
hand. But all, pressed by the multitude, have cried in 
heart, "Who is sufficient for these things?" 

While hoping to take advanced ground in lines of 
effort in 1889, and strengthen the things that arc ready 
to perish, the shadows have deepened with the closing 
of 1888 in that our honored Parent Missionary Society 
informs our Conference that it must give less financial 
aid than in the past year, and the Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society, while sending out thirty ladies to 
the ends of the earth, has not given our district one, and 
appears to have overlooked all our requests.* 

This interior district, far from the presidency cities 
and sources of maintenance, in a special lime of need 
sees itself one of several divisors of only 52,386 rupees 
from the Parent Society for the Bengal Conference, with 
its unparalleled throng of 131,732,036 in India with Bur- 
ma, while the North India 45,726,005 get fur beyond 
200,000 rupees, in addition 10 several phases of endow- 
ment, in a territory largely equipped with buildings, and 
the South India 84,975,592 receive 60,00c nipecs; while 
both of these, our good companion Conferences, as also 
our new little sister, the Mal.iysia Mission, are gener- 
ously regarded by the elect ladies of the Woman's For- 
eign Missionary Society. 

But the steamer that brought eastward the depressing 
news — which we know, in the kind words of the Mission- 
ary Secretary having special care of India, our dear 


Church was sad in sending — bore among its passengers 
a longed-for leader, the blast of whose trumpet is worth 
many a man and more than many a bag of rupees; and 
as the railway-train carrying him first through his field 
came within the territory of the Bengal Conference, 
representatives of the district were at the out-post to 
welcome Mm in the name of all our Conference roll; 
and cheer has grown daily in the hearts that had prayed 
for the safe arrival of Ilishop Thoburn. God bless our 
Bishop ! 

Tht residence of a Bishop in India for purposes of 
minute and unremitting supervision had been univer- 
sally desired by our people, and they were gratified 
when he who had been foremost presiding elder, Con- 
fcrcncc evangelist, and president, was set apart by our 
great Church for autlmrilative leadership of its widely- 
stationed forces throughout the empire, and when it 
made him free to be, at any critical hour, at any point 
in the swift advance of the Indian column of the soul- 
saving legions of our triumphant Zion. In consecra- 
tion to the purfwses of our beloved Church we would 
repeat with him, as we know his full heart says of India 
daily and hourly : 

" For her my tears shall fall. 

For her my prayers ascend, 
To her my cares and tails be given. 

Till toils and cares shall end. " 

Jabalpur. — This city of 75,000, as counted in the 
census of iSSi, is chief among the 4,000,000 who are 
on the north side of the mountain range which, techni- 
cally, separated us from our South India Conference 
brethren in the southern portion of the Central Prov- 
inces. These 4.000,000 live in 867,524 houses grouped 
in 14,667 villages, towns, and cities, throughout the two 
commissionerships of the Jabalpur and Narbada Divis- 
ions, each having five deputy conimissionerships. There 
arc many rumors that Jabalpur will become the capital 
of the Central Provinces in due lime, after the comple- 
tion of the splendid government buildings that are to 
be ready for occupancy at the end of this year. How- 
ever that may be, this beautiful civil station and military 
cantonment and railway center and eiuerprtsing city 
is making great advances and wielding a far-spread 
and rapidly-growing influence. Just between the city 
and the Sudder Bazar, equi-distant, arc the head-quar- 
ters of the church-life of which Brother Tindale, vig- 
ilant over every interest, says in a late report, "The 
Church now numbers 40 members. 20 probationers, with 
150 adherents, and is actively engaged in advanced 
work. Three preaching services, two cottage prayer- 
meetings, & class-meeting, and a children's service are 
held weekly; the English Sunday-school, with its 65 
children, 14 officers and teachers, with band of tract 
distributers and willing workers, has held regular ses- 
sions every Sabbath. The Ladies' Church Aid Society 
is active. Twenty conversions in the church and five in 
the Sunday-school have rew.irdcd us this year." 

Brother Tindale super\'ises the native work, which has 

been taken up for permanent endeavor, as wc believe. 
There has been organized a native church with Quar- 
terly Conference, having its books of record from our 
Lucknow Publishing House ; and Brother Jacob Sam- 
uel, a probationer of this Conference, is assistant native 
pastor. Beyond the usual means of grace and preach- 
ing method, ** Our plan,*' says Brother Tindale. "' em- 
bodies open-air Bible school teaching by the way-side, 
in the field, and the street. One hundred such open-air 
gatherings arc held weekly by our four native workers, 
who are busy all the days of the week but one in the 
city, suburbs and adjacent villages. The children are 
taught for half an hour at each session the Catcchism>, 
hymns, and the simple way of salvation in Jesus. Our 
work in this direction has been supported by local 
contributions from the church and Christian friends 
beyond." Brother TJndale's faith and that of his as- 
sistants is strong on this tine. 

The Jabalpur section of the Central Proirinces is 
happy in having during half of the year the presence 
of that noble Christian gentleman, Mr. A. Mackenzie* 
C. S., the Chief Commissioner. When laying the cor- 
ner-stone of our Jabalpur Mission buildings (which are 
now being roofed, and will be as useful, locally, as though 
the trustees were bearing any financial responsibility in 
addition to allowing erection and superintending their 
adopted plans), this true observer, in a remarkable tes- 
timony to the power of Indian Missions, let drop such 
phrases as these : " I conceive it to be the duty of every 
Christian man in India at the present time, when the 
cause of missions is being decried and misrepresented, 
to show that he, at least, will be no traitor to the trust 
committed by the Master to his Church." "Ignorance 
is the distinguishing characteristic of the ordinary 
despiser of missions at home and abroad." " No fear 
of the dollars not being accounted for in the American 
.Methodist Kpiscopal Connection." "I could refuse 
nothing to an ambassador coming to me in the name of 
Dr. Thoburn." *' I was particularly interested with the 
description of your open-air Sunday-schools. That 
idea might prove fruitful among the iai)sed masses of 
our English towns." "Your local record is, I am glad 
10 hear, most creditable to you as a community. It is 
clear that you are in earnest, and instinct with Christian 
life." He closed with this golden sentence (worthy of 
Sir Robert Phayre, K. C. B., a man never to be forgotten), 
'*Am/ now. friends, I prtneed tv lay the eonuistem of 
this, your littie range of prophets' ehambers, and in doing 
so let me breathe the prayer that the sons of the prophets 
may, indeed, djuell here ; men fuH of the Holy Ghosl and 
of faith, and that you and all this neighborhood max de- 
rive much blessing from the eounsrl, the admofiidon, and 
the life cf those jvho may inhabit these rooms." 

To such words all our (Conference will from the heart 
say, " Amen ! " and " Long reign the Chief Commis- 
sioner of the Central Provinces! " 

Before leaving the name Jabalpur, I have thought to 
record my gratitude for the spared life of my precious 
wife, as to which I had been weighted with grave fears 






through many peculiarly trying months. As I know not 
how far it «*ouId be appropriate for me to allude to her 
co-operation, without which the present status of the 
district, as originally cut out by Bishop Hurst, would 
have been from my stand-point impossible; and as 1 
could not as an a<lniinii;trator thank her sufficiently, and 
as I cannot find words for my joy that, in place of two 
voices that are heard only beyond some oceans, a softer 
music now breaks up the silence of our home, I will say 
nothing about it ! 

Haroa. — For some months Brother Tindalc visited 
throughout the railway circuit. Our cause at Harda 
was considerably revived. Brother Gillett and other, 
mainly outsi<lc, friends improved and refurnished our 
church, and renewed the roof of our parsonage and 
church. During the last third of the year Brother 
W. H. Grenon has done faithful service. The people 
desire a missionary to reside among them. Ours was 
the first church built in Harda, and ours the first ministry 
giving evangelical teaching. With the Midland Railway 
just opening to Agra and Cawnpore rm Jhansi, debouch- 
ing upon the G. 1. P. Railway, a little east of Harda. and 
in central cultivation of our field throughout the Nar- 
bada Valley from Jabalpur to Mhow and Burhanpiir, it 
IS most desirable that we give a missionary to progressive 
Harda and all that fertile region of waving wheat-fields. 
Kkandwa. — liarly in the year sickness in the preach- 
er's family made the parents anxious. Medical skill and 
ceaseless vigils did their best, but within a few days 
after the depanure of the first beautiful son the other 
was also carried to the cemetery, leaving Brother and 
Sister Webb chiktlcss. How can words detail the heart- 
break of that lime ; how light went out save thai which 
shines from the throne, in the open vision of which our 
glorified stand and |!a/.e and sing : how the pleasant 
rooms of th^ Khand» a home grew terrible to the crushed 
mother, while the stricken father had the task of bear- 
ing up against his grief and of supporting the wife with 
constant presence, tilted with sympathy in equal woe I 
But through raining tears they said to God, "'Thy will 
be done." 

The phases of missionary exertions have not difiFered 
much from those fully stated a year ago. Preaching in 
the city, in villages, and at melas ; teaching children of 
both sexes; increase of Sunday-school numbers, and of 
the excellent Girls' Orphanage, and devoted culture of 
these young people can be gratefully recorded. The 
two female teachers of the two girls' schools arc no 
longer with the Mission, and substitutes have not been 
obtained, though sought. Sister Webb has bravely kept up 
the Orphanage School. We recorded our thanks in the 
Quarterly Conference Journal for this toil, and our ap- 
preciation of the management of the Mission for three 
years by Brother and Sisttr Webb. 

BuKHANPUR. — Brother Vardon has been steadily 
gaining in influence over the city, using the persuasives 
of medical practice, a day-school for boys and one for 
gills, bazar-preaching and personal approach, and dc- 
TOting a man to Scripture schools in the villages. He 

has a field worthy of highest talents and is contented. 
Privately he says. " I am just beginning to be a mission- 
ary, and Burhanpur is making roe one." He writes of 
'* the exceedingly pleasant year," and hopes that "we 
m.iy have ten more such," even though he hassufTered in- 
describably "Ji body, and his wife and children have been 
very sick. He closes the year with happy memories of 
souls won. and glad that of the two Hurhanpiir repre- 
sentatives iu the Barcilly Theological Seminary (the dis- 
trict has already four), one in his examinations has stood 
far ahead of all his fifteen classmates, and the other, 
baptized from Mohammedanism last year, was sixth. 

Mhow. — The garrison chaplaincy has been about as 

A wonderful advance in native lines has been made 
under Brother and Sister Morton's hands. 

There is as much reason why Mhow should be ad- 
ministered as a Mission, the chaplaincy being an .iddi- 
tion, as that many places in the North India Conference 
having a garrison and two or three families of our Church 
should be Missions. 

A day-school for native boys, one for girls, preaching. 
in bazar and villages, a great open-air Scripture-school 
organization, several baptisms, brave collecting for 
maintenance of all, have marked the year. The one- 
local European official brother whom we have, Locomo- 
tive Porcman Laker, bears warmest testimony to the- 
character and prospects of our native He has. 
just written, ''The native work has grown to such a 
large proportion it ought to be maintained, every inch 
of it, and well supplied." 

AjMERE. — Brother Jeffries, having returned to this his 
first charge, is still much loved and is giving a spiritual 
ministry. Miss Julia Purves, of large experience and 
high esteem in mission circles in Allahabad, became 
Mrs. Jeffries in September, to the joy of all who wish 
well to the circuits which Brother Jeffries may serve. 
She has charge of the zenana department, with an. 

Brother and Sister Blewitt have been tolling with in- 
creasing courajse in this interesting city, the brain-center 
of Rajpatana, he giving his strength to preaching and 
Scripture schools and social means of grace, and she 
having aided in various ways, but especially in the Boys' 
Orphanage and Girls' Day School. 

In the first half of the year one thousand persons, 
equally European and native, donated to our subscrip- 
tion book, which we carried, with gospel preaching, 
throughout Rajpatana and further; and so our Mission 
building, two-storied, having twenty rooms, and now 
receiving its roof, is about to supply preaching-hall, 
school-room, orphanage, and native preacher's quar- 
ters down stairs, and residences of missionaries above. 
Ground is reserved for a separate church when it cm 
be. The growth of this solid and noble structure seems 
to be running a race with that which is alike worthy, 
though different, in Jabalpur; and with the early occu- 
pancy of each the doxology may be sung over the dis- 
trict outfit. 


BHAKiia'R. — Into this kingdum of the once conquer- 
ing Ja(s, among its 650,000 unblcsl with the sound of 
the Gospel, went our banner-bearer, Hrother Paul Singh. 
Essential to Ajmere, he opened the way for the faithful 
Brother Jacob Samuel, and returned. After tlie death 
in September of the sweet Christian Rebecca, Hrrjther 
Samuel's wife, Brother Paul, with family, removed from 
Ajmere to Bhartpur, and has been even inside the city 
walls heraldirig the kingdom of (iod^ and has organized 
Scripture schools. He has continued the acquaintance 
which wc formed in May with his highness Mahardga 
Jaswant Singh, G. C. S. I. In a second interview, 10 the 
question. "What are you doing here?" Brother P.iul 
told his highness that he was preaching the Gospel of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. Silence gave consent. 

An open door is set before us in this city of 66.000, 
nnd throughout the kingdoms of Hharipiir, Kerauli, and 
Oholpur, an inviting unevangelized territory of more 
than a million souls. 

Xtsslon Tidln^H from Lahore. 


Another year has rolled by us, and blessed be the 
Lord ("whose compassions fail not") for keeping us 
still together in this distant field. And now as another 
year dawns on our world allow me to extend a hand of 
greeting toward you, praying the Holy Ghost to bless 
the labor of your hands. May you be long spared for 
the Master's work, and God grant that the nirw year 
may see your very interesting and instructive periodical 
placed in many more homes. 

Gratitude and joy well up in our hearts as we look 
l)ack on the past year's work. Though liltle accom- 
plished, and that, too, imperfectly, yet the blessed abid- 
ing Spirit has been pleased lo convince and satisfy us 
that our labors have not been vain in the Lord. 

We did not permit the old year to close without 
jifTording some encouragement lo our Sunday-scho(»l 
scholars. On Saturday, the sad of December, they 
■were marched by our native Christian teacher to our pri- 
vate residence. Tliey all appeared in their best. Their 
little faces were lit up with delight while their eyes be- 
spoke great expectations We seated them in our hall. 
Since they came before the appointed hour, and white a 
few more had to arrive, we cheered our hearts with holy 

Our exercises began precisely at two P. M. A hymn 
in the vernacular, " When He Cometh," was sung. 
Prayer followed, after which some among them repeated 
verses from God's word. Another song of praise, then 
the yearly gifts of clothing and useful books, contrib- 
uted for so liberally by friends, both European and na- 
tive, were distribiucd. These were followed by Christ- 
mas cards. Last of all the little ones were made to 
stand in line in our veranda witli their kerchiefs well 
open to receive equal shares of sweets and fruit. .\11 
made their Sunday-school superintendent and his assist - 


ants a cheerful salam, appearing very grateful for the 
nice things. The few friends who came over to see 
how this small band looked were highly pleased. 

The next day, the Lord's day, after the usual gospel 
address, a young man of the Mohammedan religion, who 
had received regular instniction from me for the spact^^ 
of one and one half months, and who had given me tli^H 
assurance of the pardon of his sins through Christ, wa^^ 
called to the front. After going through our ritual and 
once more testing the man's decision, I admitted him 
Into the Church by the appointed rite of our adorabl 

It must not be understood that the aforesaid man sud^ 
denly decided to be baptized. He had the holy Script- 
ures in his possession and was in the habit of reading 
them in secret. Losing his hold on his former creed he 
began to speak of The change of his views to his father, 
who is a maulvie (a learned man). This led to a dis- 
pute and the forfeiture of his books. Lcanng 
his parental roof he came to Lahore and took up work 
as a compositor in a native press. Here he was kept on 
for months, but the superintendent (a Mohammedan), 
having come to know of this young man reading the 
Testament (given by the writer), summarily dismissed 
him. \Vhile yet without work, and with no money t^^ 
fall back on, he came daily to know more of the Lor^^| 
This evident proof of his sincerity continued for a whol^^ 

He then wished to take up such work as would n< 
interfere with the sanctity of the Lord's day. I told hi( 
that if he would go forth and establish a school I might 
assist him. He did so immediately and has now sij 
teen boys under his charge. 

On the said day of his reception into fellowship he 
answered the disciplinary questions very clearly and de- 
cisively. He keeps cheerful. Praise God for his pres- 
ence with us! 

On Christmas Day we had a large gathering of 01 
native Christians at the place kindly afforded us by our 
fellow-laborers of the Presbyterian Mission. The gos- 
pel service over, the pastor handed each one present a 
Christmas card, when followed a cheerful shaking of 
hands. At 3:30 P. M. the congregation collected at 
their pastor's residence to partake of sweets and tea. to 
engage in iHrcoming talk, and to sing. The one and a 
half hours were greatly enjoyed. Three of our sisters 
in Christ cheered our souls with a favorite piece, called 
" Saw Ye My Saviour." We parted with prayer. ^H 

During laiil year I had another inquirer, a Hindu (^^ 
the Brahman caste. This poor man had a very easy life 
of it, as all of tiiis kind do. He had been accustomed 
to supply water to passers-by in the hot months near 
one of the temples here. Besides, he had also been en- 
gaged in instructing families in the fanciful stories of 
their gods, for which he obtained one rupee per headj 
This man came to me to know something of Christ, 
faithfully listened to the Scriptures, joined us in pray< 
also, for about a fortnight. On being prompted to wril 
and apprise his wife of his intended step, to forsake 





heathenism, he did so with diffidence. Imagining many 
pcrtccutions that would now follow ilils disclosure the 
poor man by degrees began to get indifferent, and finally 
kept away. I cannot trace him. May he yet see the 
great mistake he has made in so suddenly casting away 
the little light which dawned on his soul ! The Good 
Shepherd wiU yet find him and bring him to us, we trust. 
There arc others inquiring, to whom the gospel mes- 
sage is taken, but who, lor want of time, cannot always 
find it convenient to come in the days. So soun as the 
nights become warmer they have promised to come be- 
tween the hours of eight and nine. 

Our Sunday-SL-hool children have begun well ; we 
have begun the new year with fifty. During that week 
I spoke to them of the blessings of getting pice from 
their parents and giving [he same for the Lord's cause. 
Considering how poor these children's parents are they 
nevertheless gave four annas on the first Sunday. We 
thank God and take courage. 

Having no place of worship of our own in this large 
and important city we are greatly inconvenienced. Help 
from the home Board is much needed, and we do hope 
and pray that this desire may be speedily met. 

Mrs. P. has a Bible woman under her immediate 
charge, who visits compounds, carrying the Gospel to 
the wives of servants, who receive her gladly. She also 
delights in selling books among those who are visited, 
and distributes tracts whenever given to her. 

I'ray for us that the Holy Spirit may break down the 
numerous barriers to the spread of the truth. 

Notes from Budaon i'ircuit. 


On November 15 we were off to the Kakara mela, or 

fair, fourteen miles distant, which is held annually on 
the Ganges at the full moon in October or November. 
Some two to three hundred thousand people were llierc 
for purposes of bathing, worship, trade, and social in- 

Most of the native ministers and exhorters of the 
Bddaon circuits were present. So, too, Mrs. Wilson was 
usisled by three Bible women in talking to the women, 
•ho listened attentively. 

Thursday evening Mrs. Wilson showed the magic- 
Untern views, which was done every night during our 
«ay, with lectures from che brethren. Large audiences 
were in attendance. Mornings and afiemoons we all 
preached by turn. Thousands, must have heard the 
»ord, and leaflets in Urdu and Hindi were given to such 
ts could read. Our colporteur also sold many portions 
of the Scriptures. During our slay here we baptized 
four inquirers. 

Returned to Budaon on the 19th and on the 20th 
pitched our tents one day's march toward Ualaganj. M 
night had a magic lantern service. On the 2isl readied 
Dataganj, seventeen miles from Budaon. This sub-circuit 
is in charge of a worthy local preacher, Cheda Lall. In 

the evening walked to Parra, a village near by, had a 
service, and baptized 3 men and their wives and 4 
children, in all 10 ; returned to the tent and had a 
magic lantern service. On the morning of the sad we 
went to a village, Kashpitr, two miles distant, had 
services, and baptized 7 adults and 6 children, in all ij. 
Returned, and in the afternoon had services in both 
Christian mohallas in Dataganj and examined the 
Gourher Schools. At night had a magic-lantern service. 

On the 23d wc found that a watchman present during 
the night was an inquirer, and was a son of one we bap- 
tized the day before, and finding him anxious for bap- 
tibm the rite was administered. Drove out to Bakesheina, 
about six miles, where we have a few Christians; after 
service baptized 2 children of Christian parents and i 
adult from Hinduism. Went on several miles to an- 
other village and had a service with a few Christians 
and baptized one of their children ; returned to our 
tent and baptized an adult, a Hindu ; at night had the 
magic-lantern service. 

On the wc sent our tents to Husanpore, some 
six mites distant; but we drove out in another direction 
to Batauli, where we held a service and baptized 8 
adults and 5 children. 13 in all ; going a little farther, to 
a village, Dareli, wc had service and baptized 4 adults 
and I child. Then wc retnrned to Dataganj and set 
out for Husanpore. We had to ford the river Uryal r// 
route, and reached the above jjlace about two P. M. 
Our tents had not come and wife got some breakfast 
ready, and some time after this we heard that the carts 
with the tents had failed to cross the river, so we forded 
the river again and found our tenis at Haihuibhoor. 
Had a magic-lantern service at night. On the 25th 
went a few miles out to hold a service with some in- 
quirers ; baptized 5 adults and 4 children. Had service 
with Christians in two villages and had at night the 
usual magic-lantern service. It rained in the night so 
that we deemed it prudent to return to Budaon. So on 
the 26tli we struck tents and set out for home through 
the rain. Eh route stopped at one village, and after a 
short service with inquirers baptized 4 adults and 2 
children; in all 6. We reached Budaon about two P. M. 

During these thirteen days we have been permitted 
to baptize 66 persons, 63 of whom were from Hinduism. 
Not one of these persons expects us to help them finan- 
cially ; they wish 10 be taught; their cry is, Give us 
teachers. My native brethren and ray wife have shared 
in the toil incident to village and camp life. God is 
with us, and we reap with rejoicing where others have 
gone forth weeping, sowing the precious seed. 

■ II ^ II » 

The corner-stone of the new building in courtc of 
erection for the Fort Methodist Episcopal Church, Bom- 
bay, was laid on February 2, by Bishop Thoburn. It is 
to be called the " Bowen Memorial Church." It is to 
cost 30,000 rupees, and will ronsisi of a ground floor 
building to sear 300 persons, while the upper story is 
to be the minister's residence. 


The Methudist Church in Jabalpiir, India. 

On the lolh of December, 1888, the corner-stone of 
the Methodist Episcopal mission buildings at Jaba.Ipur, 
Central Provinces, India, was laid by Mr. Mackenzif, 
Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces. From 
the remarks made by Rev. M. Tindale, pastor in charge, 
and by Mr. Mackenzie, wz make the foltowbg extracts : 

Mb. Tindale. — Soon after the arrival in India of 
Rev. VVilliara Taylor, now Missionary Bishop of Africa, 
the Methodist Episcopal Church got a foothold in Jabal- 
pur. In the early days of the work Jabalpur was a 
Bombay Quarterly Conference station, aided with regular 
funds from that body ; but as soon as the people became 
educated in the ethics of self-help and support, they 
gratefully relinquished this foreign aid, and have ever 
since maintained the work on their own account. 

At first the congregation met in a hired house, but 
about twelve years ago the local theater was leased for 
services, and they wursbipt-d there till the end of 1887. 
In May, 1887^ through the courtesy and help of the 
government officials in this station, a valuable site from 
the military authorities was secured. A suitable plan 
was designed by a member of a Bombay firm of archi- 
tects— himself, not many years ago, a promising lad in 
our theater Sunday-school — and at sunset on the 1 2th of 
May, 1887, the corner-stone of the first Methodist Epis- 
copal church in Jabalpur was laid. The building cost 
5,518 rupees, of which a sum of 2,500 rupees was col-- 
lected by the Rev, C. I*. Hard, M. A., during an ardu- 
ous lecturing tour in Australia, and generously donated 
to the building fund by our Conference, as in another 
instance at N.igpur. 

The church now numbers 40 members, so probation- 
ers, and 150 adherents, and is actively engaged in ad- 
vanced work. Three preaching services, two cottage 
prayer and exhortation meetings, a class-meeting, and a 
children's service are held weekly ; ihe English Sunday- 
school, with its 65 children, 14 officers and teachers, 
with band of tract distrihiiters and willing workers, 
has held regular sessions everj- Sabbath. The Kadies' 
Church Aid Society works actively. Faithful pasioral 
visitation, pointed Gospel preaching, and an emphasis 
on the demands and privileges of the higher ('hristian 
life have all been attended to. Twenty conversions in 
the chuPLh and five in the Sunday-school have rewarded 
us this year. 

Keeping in view the object of Bishop Taylor, that the 
English Methodist Episcopal Church in India should be 
centers of missionary effort, vernacular work has been 
carried on from time 10 time. It assumed more definite 
shape this year under the encouragement and assistance, 
financially and personally, of Rev. and Mrs. C. P. Hard. 
Briefly, our plan embodies open-air Bible school teach- 
ing by thi; way-sidc, the field, and the street. One hun- 
dred such open-air gatherings are held weekly by our 
four native workers, who are busy all the days of the 
week but one, in the city, suburbs, and adjacent villages. 
The children are taught for half an hour at each session 



the Catechism, hymns, and the simple pUn of salvation 
in Jesus, Our work in this direction has been supported 
by local contributions from the Church and Christian 
friends beyond. 

This building, 117^ feet long, 64 feet vride (besJd 
porches), and 30 feet high, the corner-stone of which 
is now to be laid, consists of 24 rooms, arranged for the 
accommodation of the presiding elder and the pastor, 
with apartments for Bishop Thoburn, when, in the many 
railways journeys he will be called to make, he desires 
to rest by the way. The building consists thus of two 
houses, exact duplicates, and the cost, with the large 
duplicate out-building, will probable reach 10,000 rupees, 
which amount has been generously advanced by Mrs. 
Hard from intrusted funds, the interest on which will 
be met by rents, to be paid until combined local efforts 
and the Missionary Society at New York shall relieve 
the donor by purchase of the buildings. ,An upper stor)* 
may soon be added at the expense of the Woman's For- 
eign Missionary Society, and a separate home for zenana 
workers in the vicinity. 

M». Mackenziic. — In ray experience those who 
prcciatc mission work arc generally people who know 
nothing, and care to know nothing about it. Ignorance 
is the distinguishing characteristic of the ordinary de- 
spiser of missions, at home and abroad. There are no 
doubt, however, critics who take more patns, and still 
arrive at unfavorable conclusions. We must not refuse 
to listen when these men point out what may be weak 
spots in our armor. Fas est ab hoste doteri — and if we 
may learn from our enemies, we certainly may do so 
from those who style themselves our friends. For the 
rest, however, I detect in most of the criticism of these 
so-called candid friends— (candor, by the way, is gener- 
ally a synonym for caustic) — I delect, I say, in most of 
thcin a one-sidcdness of view, and a certain absence of 
sympathetic touch, which would in any other sphere of 
thought stamp them as quite unfit for the criti 

It may perhaps be true that the affairs of some mis 
sionary societies are not conducted with strict business 
accuracy — though so far wc have heard only one side 
of that *]uestion. Well, if defects of this kind exist, it 
is easy to remedy them. There is nothing in Christian- 
ity detrimental to accuracy either in accounts or statis- 
tics. It may be that direct results, in the shape of 
conversions and baptisms, are not so startling as the 
Church at home would like to see them. But this is 
only a superficial estimate of the situation. No man 
who studies India with a seeing eye can fail to perceive 
that the indirect results of missionary enterprise, if it 
suits you so to call them, arc, tu say the least, most 
pregnant with promise. The Dagon of heathenism is 
being undermined on all sides. To careless by-standcrs, 
the image may loom as yet intact In all its ghoulisli 
monstrosity, but its doom we know is written. And 
great will he its fall. 

I have often given it as my opinion that, ere manjr 
years are over, we shall have in India a great religious 

lie. 1 



(upheaval. The leaven of Western thought, and ihe 
leaven of Christianity together are working on the inert 
|keap of dead and fetid superstitions, and by processes 
which cannot always be closely traced, are spreading a 
regenerating ferment through the mass, which must in 
time burst open tlic cerements that non' enshroud the 
Indian mind. It may nut be in uur time. It may not 
be in the lime of our iiiimediale successors. But it will 

^be when He sees fit with whom a thousand years arc as 
One day. My own belief is, that it will be sooner than 
the world, or even the canons of the Church suppose. 

What the Indian Church of the future will be, by 
what organization governed, to what precise creeds 
affiliated, I, for my parr, do not pretend to foresee. It 
is being hewn otit now by many hand.s, furnished from 
many countries. But the main burden of the growing 
irork must ere long be taken up by the children of the 
Indian soil. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility 
that the native church may in time produce its own 

I apostle, destined to lead his countrymen in myriads to 
the feet of Christ. The story of fiuddha may renew itself 
within its pale. 


Are Cliristiau Missions in India a Failure! 

Within the last few days such eminent men as Sir 
William Hunter and Canon Taylor have expressed their 
opinions on Christian Missions in India. We regret to 
bnd that enemies of Christianity are taking unjust ad- 
vantage of some of the sentiments expressed by these 
distinguished men. We feel it our duty to bear testi- 
nony to what we believe to be the truth. The question 
now before us is, Has the Christian Mission, after so 
nuch cost of money and labor of so many years, proved 
a &ilure ? Let us see what our minister said on the 
subject : 

" If unto any army appertains the honor of holding 
India for England, that army is the army of Christian 
(nis.Monaries, headed by their valiant Chief, their invin- 
cible Captain, Jesus Christ. Their devotion, their self- 
ahneg.iiion, their philanthropy, their love of God, their 
iitachraent and allegiance to the truth, all tliese have 
found, and **ill continue to find, a deep place in the 
inutudeof our countrymen. Therefore it is needless, 
perfectly superfluous, for me to bestow any eulogium 
upon such devoted friends .ind tried benefactors of 
our countr)'. They have brought unto us Christ. 
They have given us the high code of Christian ethics^ 
and their teachings and examples have secretly influ- 
enced and won thousands of non-CUristian Hindus. 
Let England know that, thanks to the noble band of 
Christ's embassadors sent by her, she has already sue- 
ceeded in planting his banners in the heart of the 
natioD. God's blessing and India's gratitude will for- 
ever belong to men such as these — men of character, 
men of faith, men who, in many instances, have been 
found ready to sacrifice even their lives for the sake of 
bearing witness unto the truth." 

We, too, do firmly hold chat the Christian missionaries 

are the best and most disinterested friends of India. 
The honored names of St. Francis Xavier, Drs. Carey, 
Ward, Marshman, Duff, and other valiant soldiers of 
Christ. India will never forget. History will ever pro- 
claim how the embassadors of Christ with fatherly ten- 
derness gave us many things good and needful. It was 
the Christian missionaries who first manufactured in the 
counlrj' good paper for us ; il was they who introduced 
printing into this country. They printed books for us and 
laid the foundation of the Bengali Hieratureof which we 
are now so justly proud. Who can ever forget what 
Duff, the father of educationists, has done for this roim- 
try? He that knows something of the time in which he 
labored would tell that he not only achieved wonderful 
success in the matter of education but brought about a 
moral revolution among the people. We all know what 
the Christian missionaries, assisted by a band of noble- 
hearted ladies, are doing for educating our women. 

Had il not been fof the philanthropic labors of the 
Christian missionaries, India would have been to-day a 
century behindhand. The work of a missionary is two- 
fold, namely ; (i) Direct communication of the Gospel 
of Christ to men; (2) the enlightening and preparing of 
[heir minds for the reception of the high tniihs of re- 
ligion. So far as the latter is concerned we can assert, 
without contradiction, that the Christian missionaries 
have been raarvclously successful. As for the former. 
we believe that only the precious name of Jesus and the 
simple account of his life and death possess a talismanic 
charm tliat can really enchant a nation. India's deepest 
gratitude is due to Christian missionaries, in spite of 
their many shortcomings, for presenting ihe« sacred 
things to us. 

But we can assure our English benefactors who have 
sent these embassadors of Christ to us, that were the 
Christian missionaries recalled to-day in a body from 
this country, and all the copies of the Bible and other 
Christian books that are in circulation here were lost, 
the name of the Son of God alone would yet do a mar- 
vel in this country. Our Christian friends may not be 
aware of this: that Christ has begun to exercise a mighty 
influence in this country, not only over the hearts of 
Christians, but over Hindus and Mohammedans as well ; 
even those who outwardly hate his name are uncon- 
sciously moved by his example. 

We do firmly believe that |he embassadors of Christ 
have been sent here with a high mission by the very 
God of providence, and we cannot, therefore, bear to 
hear it said that their mission has been an absolute 
failure. To us such a view is rank skepticism and unbe- 
lief. We confess we have no faith in statistical success 
of Christian missions, of which so much is now and 
(hen made by our Christian brethren. Christian con- 
verts may fill half the country and yet the cause of true 
Christianity, in spite of these numberless converts, may 
be a failure. Viewing the question from the stand- 
point of statistics alone, we are afraid Canon Taylor and 
others like him are to a great extent right in their re- 
mark that the Christian mission has been a failure in this 



country. We believe Christ is a mighty power, and it is 
a pity that missionaries should be mindful of teaching 
creeds and dogmas to their converts rather than seeing 
that the spirit of Christ is really infused into their hearts. 
Hence it is no wonder to find that real Christianjife 
is so much at a discount atnong their disciples, whose 
lives, in many cases, arc nut superior to those of their 
non-Cbrislian brethren around them. The number of 
native Christians in the country is not insignificant, and 
yet, with only a very few honorable exceptions they 
exert little or no infiucnce for good over the country in 
which they live. An almost inseparable gulf separates 
ihcm from their countrymen. They are almost as nonen- 
tities to the society at large. Then again, what we de- 
plore moat is, that independence in thought and action 
is sadly wanting in them. What greater pity can there 
be than that the European missionary should be still 
looked upon by them as their all in all. 7'here is, we 
believe, as yet no independent mission supported by 
native Christians, and a National Church for Christ is 
yet far from being :i fait tueompH in the country. Time 
has now come when the Christian mission should be thor- 
oughly reformed and remodeled to make it more com- 
patible with the spirit of Christ. — Liberal attd JVew 
Dispemation {BraArna.) 

Mathura and Vicinitf. 


The district of Mathura, of which the city of 
Mathura is the capital, is one of five into which the 
Agra division of the North-west Provinces of India is 
divided. It is an irregular parallelogram in shape, and 
about forty-five miles long by thirty miles wide, through 
the midst of which Bows, from north to south, the sacred 
river Jumna. The dintrict has an area of 1,453 square 
TTiiles, or 929,737 acres, with a population of 671.690 
soulis living in 8S7 towns and villages. Of this popula- 
tion only about 60,000 are Mohammedans. The dis- 
trict is sandy, level, and monotonous, and, compared with 
other parts of India, rather barren and sparsely wooded. 
The absence of mango groves is noticeable. The 
Delhi and Agra Canal, opened in 1874, irrigating annual- 
ly more than 350,000 acres, and the light railway, opened 
in 1875, have been a great help to the district. 

But from the stand-point of the missionary, the points 
of interest center In the sacred character of the district 
and the peculiar make-up of the population. Mathura 
and vicinity abound in sacred temples, shrina, ^Aa/s, 
tanks, mountains, groves, and gods, and the population 
is almost entirely made up of Brahmans, pilgrims, dev- 
otees, and such classes as make the subjects of religion 
the chief theme for study and thought. BrJndaban, 
Mohaban, and Gobardhan, Mathura. Baladeva, and 
Barsana — these are only a few of the places of peculiar 
sanctity which might be named in this district. Only 
three of the more important of these can be briefly 
sketched in this paper. 



The city of Mathura has a popularion of 55,763 souls, 
almost entirely Hindus. It is situated upon elevated 
ground, overlooking from the left the river Jumna, and 
is about thirty miles above the city of Agra, From 
time immemorial .Mathura has been reputed a sacred 
city. In early times, before the rise of Buddhism, j| 
was the second of the great capitals of the Lunar rs 
And the Greek philosophers in their time called il 
stronghold of Brahmanisin. Wlien Buddhism arose, 
Mathura soon became one of the chief Buddhist cities 
in India. It was visited by Gautama himself, who, 
tradition affirms, would have been born there had not 
the ruler of the place proven unfriendly. Says a recent 
authority: "The city of Mathura has been a place of 
note from the most distant antiquity. In Buddhist times 
it was one of the centers of that religion, and its sacred 
shrines and relics attracted pilgrims even from China, 
two of whom have left records of their travels." These 
two were Ta Hian, who came to Mathura about A. D. 
400, and remained in the city a month, and Hwen Thsang. 
who visited India in 600 of our era, remaining sixteen 
years. The Cirst of these pilgrims describes Mathura as 
entirely given «p to Buddhism, with 20 monasteries, 
3,000 monks, and 6 relic towers, one of which was built 
in honor of the great s.aint, .Sari-putra. In Hwen 
Thsang's time, Mathura, as a Buddhist center, had con- 
siderably declined, but it was still a city four miles in 
circumference, containing twenty monasteries. 

The museum contains many interesting Buddhist 
monuments, and many others have been sent elsewhere, 
while any one with a little search tould exhume others. 
General Cunningham, in 1853. made the first discoveries 
at the neighboring town of Kaira ; in 1866 a number 
of valuable relics were found under an old mosque, and 
in 1871 a group of figures, inscribed with the name of 
King Vasii Deva, was dug up. Recently IJr. Burgess, 
of the ArchsEological Survey, showed me a crystal casket 
containing the ashes of some celebrated Buddhist, who, 
he had reason to believe, died at Mathura before the 
time of Christ. ^H 

But the celebrity of the modern city of Mathura 1^ 
due to the fact that it is the birthplace of the popular 
demi.god, Krishna, the eighth incarnation of the second 
person of the Hindu triad, Vishnu, and the most 
human of all the gods. Upon the importance of 
Mathura from the Vaishnava stand-point, Mr. Growse, 
in his Mathura Memoirs, rcmark.s : "Of all the sacred 
places in India, none enjoys a greater popularity than 
the capital of Braj, the holy city of Mathura. For nine 
months of the year festivjj follows upon festival in rapid 
succession, and the ^/m/s and temples are daily thronged 
with new troops of way-worn pilgrims. So great is the 
sanctity of the spot that its |>anegyrists do not hesitate 
to declare that a single day spent at Mathura is more 
meritorious than a life-lime passed at Benares." 

But who was Krishna.' His life is hidden beneatli so 
much unrecognizable rubbish that it is difficult t