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Full text of "Gouldtown, a very remarkable settlement of ancient date : studies of some sturdy examples of the simple life, together with sketches of early colonial history of Cumberland County and southern New Jersey and some early genealogical records"

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1570367 



GENEAL-OCY 



.L.:ZCTION 




N.TY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



1833 02248 3439 




William Stewabd. 



GOULDTOWN 



A VERY REMARKABLE SETTLEME NT OF 
ANCIENT DATE 



STUDIES OF SOME STURDY EXAMPLES 
OF THE SIMPLE LIFE, TOGETHER WITH 
SKETCHES OF EARLY COLONIAL HIS- 
TORY OF CUMBERLAND COUNTY AND 
SOUTHERN NEW JERSEY AND SOME 
EARLY GENEALOGICAL RECORDS 



BY 

WILLIAM STEWARD, A.M., 

AUTHOR OF "JOHN BLTE," " CBIP," "tHECHILD OF THE AU^ET,' 
"WAt/TEB GORDON," AND OTHER STORIES 

AND 

Rev. THEOPHILUS G. STEWARD, D.D., 

Chaplain U. S. Army, Retired 

AUTHOR OF "genesis REREAD," AND OTHER BOOKS 

^^H.HoXy PRESS OF 

G- 73 ^ J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA 
1913 



COPYRIGHT, 1913 

BY WILLIAM AND T. G. STEWARD 



1570367 



FOREWORD 



It has long been in mind to prepare and put in book 
form the oral traditions, as well as such authenticated 
facts, as could be collected from records and pubhc 
documents of the remarkable settlement of people of 
color, which has here been attempted. 

The study of the three original families herem set 
forth in this county (Cumberland) and a fourth famUy 
connected to a degree with them, of Salem county 
origin, is a subject of some interest. That it is of more 
than local interest has been shown by lengthy newspaper 
articles in many metropolitan journals durmg the last 

thirty years. , - i • ^ • i 

The settlement was made the subject of historical 
allusion more than three-quarters of a century ago ; and 
while many of those periodical articles have been based 
upon very insufficient information, the writers havmg 
been attracted to the subject by the historical allusions 
above referred to, they have been of a character in- 
dicating estimation. j i.- i. • 

To preserve these traditions, records, and histories 
as weU as some of more enlarged interest, is the object 
here had in view. W. and T. G. S. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTEE PAGE 

I. Gouldtown: Its Tradition; Its People; Its Gen- 
eral History 9 

II. Fenwick; English History; His Sailing and 

Landing; His Colony 20 

III. Fenwick Colony; Land Grants and Primary 

Government 35 

IV. Copies of Very Ancient Parchment Deeds in 

Possession of a Bridgeton Attorney 43 

V. Gould Traditions; Evidences; Descent; Benja- 
min Gould's Will 49 

VI. The Early Goulds and their Associations; the 
Pierces and Murrays; the Three Foundation 
FaiMILies 57 

VII. Origin of the Pierce, Murray and Cuff Families 62 

VIII. Importance of Genealogical Research; Some of 
the Original Family Genealogies of Salem 
AND Cumberland Counties; Compilation of 
Thomas Shourds 67 

IX. Rural Sociological Examples, Suggested in 

THIS Life of Simplicity 81 

X. Gould Genealogies; Probability of Origin of 

Name of Settlement 88 

XI. The Cuffs of Salem; their Probable Origin; 
THEIR Ultimate Connection with the Gould, 
Pierce, and Murray Families 113 

XII. Genealogical Sketch of John Murray's and 
David Murray's Families and Some of the 
Pierce Connections 118 

XIII. Family Eugenics and Longevity; the Gould, 

Pierce and Murray Estates 133 

5 



6 CONTENTS 

XIV. Organization of the Church; Early Religious 

Affiliations of the People 140 

XV. The People's Patriotism; Ready to Bear Arms 

for the Country 154 

XVI. Social Life; Some Typical Social Events; Two 

Golden Weddings; a Social Study 157 

XVII. Educational Facilities of the Neighborhood.. 170 

XVIII. Some Literary Efforts of Gouldtown Youth 

Thirty and Fifty Years Ago 180 

XIX. A Story in Blank Verse 193 

XX. Some Present Real Estate Possessions of the 

Inhabitants of Gouldtown 211 

Index 223 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

William Steward Frontispiece 

The Village of Gouldtown 10 

Lummis-Gouldtown School House 14 

Bishop Benjamin F. Lee 18 

Judge Lucius Q. C. Elmer 50 

Old Stone Church, Fairfield 84 

Tamson Cuff 90 

Abijah Gould 90 

Mrs. Lydia Sheppard 92 

James Steward 94 

Mrs. Rebecca Steward 94 

Anthony Gould 96 

Mrs. Sarah Gould 100 

Mrs. Hannah Gould 104 

Mrs. Sarah Dunn Pierce 108 

Jonathan Freeman Pierce 122 

Holmes Pierce 122 

Mrs. EUzabeth Stewart 126 

Gouldtown Graveyard 136 

Rev. Ethan Osborn 140 

Miss Prudence F. Gould 140 

Gouldtown A. M. E. Church 146 

Jonathan Gould 146 

Rev. T. Gould 150 

Group at Gould Family Reunion 158 

Steward Family 158 

Rev. T. G. Steward 162 

Mrs. William Steward 166 

Jacob Wright and Wife 166 

Absalom Wilson 172 

Gouldtown School House 172 

Bentley W. Rogers 176 

Horace Bishop 176 

A Gouldtown Woman and Her Driving Horse 214 

Cottage of Stephen S. Steward 214 



GOULDTOWN 

A VERY REMARKABLE SET- 
TLEMENT OF ANCIENT DATE 

CHAPTER I. 

GOULDTOWN; ITS TRADITION; ITS PEOPLE; ITS GENERAL 

HISTORY. 

In Judge Lucius Q. C. Elmer's history of Cumber- 
land County, New Jersey, written in 1865, occurs this 
statement : 

" Gouldtown — partly in the Northern part of Fair- 
field, and partly in Bridgeton Townships — although 
never more than a settlement of mulattoes, principally 
bearing the names of Gould and Pierce, scattered over 
a considerable territory, is of quite ancient date. The 
tradition is that they are descendants of Fenwick." 

Judge Elmer, a distinguished Supreme Court Jurist 
of New Jersey, was the son of General Ebenezer Elmer, 
who was an officer in the Revolutionary Army, first as an 
ensign, and shortly after as lieutenant in a company, and 
later, being a physician, serving as a surgeon ; he served, 
in all, during the war of the Revolution, a period of 
seven years and eight months. In 1814, he commanded 
a brigade of militia called out for the defence of Phila- 
delphia against the British, and was ever after that 
known as General Elmer. Judge Elmer was born soon 
after the close of the Revolution in 1793, and had ample 



10 GOULDTOWN 

opportunity and ability for research in his native county. 
He died in 1883. 

Much interest has always been taken in the com- 
munity of Gouldtown by the neighboring communities, 
and this was always of a friendly character; in early 
times because of its traditional descent, and later because 
of the ethnological features recognizable. 

General Elmer and his son were accustomed, on 
Sunday afternoons to meet in a schoolhouse and cate- 
chize the children of Gouldtown, in the neighborhood, 
in the years following the Revolution. These children 
and youth would not all be mulattoes (the term " mulat- 
toes " is used in this book in its general significance, 
applying to the people of color of mixed blood) how- 
ever, for in the conmiunity were pure white families 

as for instance the WoodruiFs, the Luptons, the Fullers, 
the Seeleys, and the Whites, and others; traces of whom 
are to be found only in the farms they left, which were 
known by their names as the "Fuller Fields," the 
" White Fields," the " Jay Fields "; the names remain- 
mg a century or more after their owners had vanished. 
Only one of these names has been perpetuated in a 
village, and that of recent date and several miles distant 
from the original location. This is Woodruffs, about 
three or four miles northward from Gouldtown. It is a 
wealthy farming settlement on the line of the Central 
Railroad, and has a Methodist Church and a school- 
house and post-office. 

Gouldtown is comprised in two sections— following 
the two family names of Gould and Pierce, which were 
always known by their separate names, Gouldtown and 
Piercetown, but both known comprehensively as Gould- 
town. It is remarkable in that it has perpetuated its 
family name in its locahty for nearly two hundred 
years ; also because it is a community of mulattoes who. 




The A'illage of Gouldtown. Sketched by 16-year-old Gouldtown 
School Girl. 



GENERAL HISTORY 11 

contrary to the pet theory of some astute ethnological 
scientists, have perpetuated themselves generation after 
generation for almost two centuries; remarkable, too, 
for the known longevity of its people, who do not begin 
to grow old, as is often said, until they come to three- 
score years, and a number of whom have reached the 
century mark, one of whom (Ebenezer Pierce Bishop) 
is still living, at this writing, who is one hundred and 
six years old, and one of whom (Mrs. Lydia Gould 
Sheppard) was buried in the year nineteen hundred 
and eleven, at the age of one hundred and two, in the 
Gouldtown Cemetery, and a number of others who are 
still living at ages between seventy and ninety-five 
years. 

Kellenberger's Pocket Gazetteer of New Jersey 
says ; " Gouldtown — a post hamlet in Fairfield Town- 
ship, Cumberland County, three miles southeast of 
Bridgeton, the county seat, which affords the nearest 
banking and shipping facilities, and is connected by 
daily stage (now by trolley cars). Here are two 
churches and a store. Population one hundred and 
fifty.'^ 

Formerly it had a post-office, but, since the opening 
of a trolley line, that has been abolished for lack of 
patronage, and its first postmaster, Seneca Bishop, 
whose mother was a Pierce, was, perhaps, the first 
colored postmaster in this country. At his death 
Mordecai C. Pierce was made postmaster; he was suc- 
ceeded by his widow, Mrs. Anna Gould Pierce, at his 
death, and she held the position when the ofiice was 
abolished. 

The actual village is situated two and a half miles 
east from Bridgeton, the county seat of the County of 
Cumberland, but, as Judge Elmer states in his history, 
it is " scattered over a considerable territory," extending 



12 GOULDTOWN 

in a line of contiguous properties owned by the Goulds 
and Pierces and their connections from the farm of 
William C. Gould (inherited from his father, Furman 
Gould, Jr.), on East Avenue, Bridgeton, eastward to 
the farm of Stewart Haines Pierce near Carmel (in- 
herited from his father, Adrian Pierce), a distance of 
almost seven miles; this long stretch of properties ex- 
tends in width from one to three miles. 

Several of the earlier Goulds and Pierces as well as 
Murrays intermarried with whites, and members of their 
immediate offspring went away and lost their identity, 
they and their descendants becoming white ; while, from 
those who still maintained their identity as people of 
color, there have come many who have reached dis- 
tinction, and in whom their native County shows merited 
pride, as, for instance, a Methodist bishop, a chaplain 
in the United States regular army, a physician, a 
lawyer, a distinguished dentist, teachers, writers, 
journalists; and in the industrial arts, carpenters, 
masons, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, painters, carriage 
builders, woolen spinners and weavers; brickmakers, 
machinists, engineers, electricians, printers, factory 
men, sailors, ministers of the Gospel, and farmers; in 
fact none of its sister villages has produced — taking 
equality of environment — more or better or more credit- 
able individualities than has this settlement. 

Surrounding Bridgeton and from one to seven miles 
distant are the post towns and villages of Roadstown, 
Cohansey, Shiloh, Deerfield, Carll's Corner, Wood- 
ruffs, Fairton, Gouldtown and Bowentown, the two last 
having no post-offices. 

The Bridgeton and Millville Traction Company's 
trolley line passes through Gouldtown, along the beauti- 
ful Bridgeton and Millville Turnpike; the distance 
between the two cities, Bridgeton and Millville, is ten 



GENERAL HISTORY 13 

miles, — Gouldtown two and a half miles from the 
former and seven and a half miles from the latter city, 
with hourly car traffic connection with each. The settle- 
ment is an ancient one, the inhabitants tracing their 
ancestry back to earliest colonial times. 

The commmiity possesses two churches situated 
about a mile apart, one a Methodist Episcopal, and the 
other an African Methodist Episcopal; the latter being 
in the village, the former in that part of the neighbor- 
hood now called Fordsville, the congregation of which 
is dominated by the Pierce family, while the Goulds are 
the dominating jTamily in the African Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

This settlement, comprising all the families and both 
churches, is important for many reasons other than 
those before enumerated. That it does not abound in 
wealth and culture is due in great part to the fixed 
habits of the people and to the fact that they have been 
aU these years domiciled upon poor, timber-exhausted 
lands. The same labor, economy, and thrift which they 
have practised here, employed in homes upon a more 
productive soil, would long ago have placed many of 
the industrious, sober, and self-denying families of 
Gouldtown in circumstances of substantial comfort, if 
not of affluence. They are not as slothful and back- 
ward farmers as one might presume from the neglected 
appearance of too many of their homes and their teams ; 
but their poor land, coupled with the increased cost of 
living, compels them to give their attention to pressing 
necessities, to the neglect of the things which would add 
to appearances. They are interested in agriculture, 
close observers, and hard workers; and considering the 
conditions, obtain from their fields fair crops. They 
have estates ranging from $1000 to $15,000 or $20,000. 

As far back as 1860, a large audience assembled to 



14 GOULDTOWN 

listen to a well-prepared paper on agriculture delivered 
in the Gouldtown schoolhouse by a young man of the 
neighborhood, who had not then reached his majority. 
In that paper he cited methods of cultivation practised 
in China; dealt with the pulverization of the surface; 
descanted upon the value of " compost," and spoke of 
utilizing mud and forest leaves as fertilizing agencies. 
A half century ago there was a Moral and Mental 
Improvement Society in Gouldtown, and it was from 
this society's library that the youth borrowed and read 
Dick's Works and by those books was inducted into 
the primary mysteries of natural philosophy. Many 
simple experiments were made by the boys of the com- 
munity after the models given by that interesting writer. 
This library contained many volumes of standard 
works. 

The " Saturday Evening Post " was regularly read 
by the principal families, as were also some of the early 
magazines. Such books as the History of England; 
Burns' Poems; Pilgrim's Progress; Robinson Crusoe; 
Josephus; Plutarch's Lives, Milton, and Shakespeare, 
were among those owned and read by the families. 
Perhaps few books were more highly prized by the 
devout than Baxter's " Saints' Rest " ; but works of 
fiction were eagerly read and, we might say, studied, by 
many inhabitants of Gouldtown two and three genera- 
tions ago. In my early childhood I heard the " Last 
Days of Pompeii " discussed by women of Gouldtown. 
Had they possessed the means and received the en- 
couragement, several persons of the community would 
have made commendable progress in literature. Despite 
their surroundings, the generations that have passed 
away contained within them several who could be 
classed as well-read. 

The principal institutions outside of the family were, 




Lummis-Gouldtown School House. 



GENERAL HISTORY 15 

and are still, the school and the church. Up to 1860 
these both occupied the same building, the circuit 
preacher getting around once every three or four weeks. 
In the interval the pulpit was supplied by local 
preachers, among whom was " Uncle Furman Gould," 
the first preacher of any kind known among the Goulds. 
The preaching, both of the circuit preacher and of the 
local preacher, occupied itself exclusively with the 
eternal themes of " fleeing the wrath to come," and 
securing a home in heaven. The hardships of poverty, 
and homes on earth, had no place in their sermons. 
They had no lessons to give save such as might tend to 
make the " souls " of their hearers " prosper." The 
preachers as such had nothing to contribute to aid the 
people in making their homes more attractive and sani- 
tary, or their farms more productive. 

The same with even more emphasis could be said of 
the school. The Gouldtown school was a typical 
" Districk " school with its own Board of Trustees. 
These trustees, three in number, with very little knowl- 
edge of school books or methods, hired the schoolmaster 
who, without examination or license, started in on the 
appointed day to " keep scliool." These schoolmasters 
never had one word to say as to the purpose of educa- 
tion, and never related it, except in " ciphering," to 
anything in the actual lives of the scholars. They were 
taught to spell, to read, to write, and to cipher; but were 
taught nothing on life, conduct, and character — nothing 
that might aid or inspire youth to advance materially 
or even intellectually. The idea of the general improve- 
ment of the student did not seem to be present. It is 
painful to say, but nevertheless true, that neither the 
church nor the school as they existed in Gouldtown 
under the old methods contributed anything directly 
to the material or moral growth of the community. 



16 GOULDTOWN 

That the church contributed powerfully indirectly, by 
the stress it put upon conscious spiritual life, must be 
admitted; and that the school did the same by its almost 
mechanical methods of teaching children to read and 
write; but both failed to enter into, to improve or 
brighten, the every-day life of the people as they might 
have done. Nothing that either taught had the slightest 
bearing upon their most burning question. How to 
wring a living out of poor land? Their actual situation, 
crying as it was, called forth no sympathetic response 
from either church or school. The teachers were almost 
always white men, and, it must be said, did their best. 
Nevertheless, the people have held on to their land 
from generation to generation; have bought and cleared 
land ; reared families and developed character. It must 
be said also that much of the land held by the Gould- 
towners of to-day is of but little more exchangeable 
value than it was fifty years ago, though more pro- 
ductive now than it was then. Thus, instead of rising 
on a tide of general increase in the values of real estate, 
their fate, through no fault of their own, has been just 
the opposite. Instead of an unearned increment en- 
hancing their holdings, there has fallen to them an un- 
merited decrement, taking from them as by the stealth 
of night the modest fortunes they had acquired. The 
changes in farming and living which have come over 
the country within recent years, and especially the de- 
velopment of market gardening, and market farming in 
the South with the cheap and abundant facilities for 
transportation, have very seriously affected the Jersey 
farmer. He has had to make the most thorough re- 
adjustment of both means and ends. In the early days 
the average Gouldtown farmer had but the one end in 
view, namely, to produce enough from his farm to fur- 
nish food for his family and provender for the stock that 



GENERAL HISTORY 17 

he kept. He managed usually to have tough horses, 
and fattened his hogs well; but his cattle were of the 
comparatively milkless wandering " breachy " variety 
that no one would have to-day. The corn, wheat and 
oats from his farm coupled with salt hay from the marsh, 
with potatoes, turnips and cabbage and a little clover 
hay ; a few by-products, with a fair sowing of buckwheat 
and rye, furnished rations for man and beast and fat- 
tened the hogs from which an ample supply of well- 
cured hams, pork and lard was made, and, with many, 
a fatted beef was annually killed and salted down. In 
some cases, wool from their own sheep made their cloth- 
ing, and rags from worn-out clothes were woven into 
the carpets that covered their floors. 

Modernism has compelled the farmer of Gouldtown 
to adopt different aims, and to farm for the market, or 
rather for the middleman who stands in the market 
gate. In some cases he raises tomatoes and other articles 
to be delivered directly to the canners on contract, but 
often his goods go to the commission man for whose 
labor and skill the farmer pays on one end, and the 
consumer on the other. Entering the markets the 
Jerseyman finds liimself, as has been previously inti- 
mated, in the presence of growers from the South; and 
their cheaper labor and earlier seasons, again call for 
readjustment of methods so that his goods may appeal 
to customers through their quality and appearance. It 
is to the credit of the Jersey farmer that it can be said 
he has weathered the storm and has not been crowded 
out of the markets. Jersey products and poultry hold 
the highest rank in our great Eastern markets. 

The people of Gouldtown, especially the Goulds, 
have never been very ardent lovers of money ; they have 
rather placed stress upon the development of the social 
and spiritual nature. Despite their very severe condi- 

2 



18 GOULDTOWN 

tion they have kept up from earliest times those customs 
of social enjoyment, indoors in winter and outdoors in 
summer, which have made them famous for generous 
hospitality. All the instruction which they received for 
generations both with regard to the work of their fields 
and the manner of entertaining guests, was that which 
came down from parent to child by oral tradition, 
until the coming in of modernism with its Farm and 
Home Journals and the like; yet they have maintained 
themselves well socially. 

Several years ago in the city of Washington an 
official from New Jersey in a public speech referred to 
the sterling character of individuals of Gouldtown and 
of their general good deportment. " I can remember 
well when a schoolboy there, that there was not a boy in 
school who swore; and I remember noting at one time 
there was not a child in school who could not read." 
[T. G. S.] Few inhabitants of Gouldtown proper, 
from earliest times, were actually illiterate, although 
none was highly educated. The following quotation 
from a recent Bridgeton paper will show in what light 
the community is regarded by its neighbors. 

GOULDTOWN HONORED. 

There is no section of our County more highly honored than 
is Gouldtown, from which men have .gone forth to become widely 
known and honored. 

Bishop Benjamin F. Lee was for some time, before he was 
made a Bishop, President of Wilberforce University at Wilber- 
force, Ohio, of which he is now a member of the Advisory 
Board. He is a man of solid piety, an able preacher and highly 
honored by all who know him, as well as by those of his own 
church. 

Another is Theophilus G. Steward, who, for many years was 
chaplain of the United States Army and now since being on the 



^^^^^^^^^^^|^^^j^r]pP^|PBiPT\7^^^^^'j^^^^^| 


^^P%^ 













Bishop Benjamin F. Lee. 



GENERAL HISTORY 



19 



retired list, ably fills a professorship at Wilberforce University. 
He is a preacher of far more than ordinary ability and able to 
acceptably fill any pulpit in the land. 

Yet another is Theodore Grould, who is a member of the 
Philadelphia Conference of his church and for several years 
has acceptably filled the office of presiding elder. He also is a 
man of noted piety and of much ability as a preacher. 

We doubt if there is another section of the County from 
which three more highly honored and useful men have gone 
forth. 




CHAPTER II. 

FEN WICK ; ENGLISH HISTORY ; HIS SAILING AND LANDING ; 

HIS COLONY. 

The restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660, was 
followed by the war with the Dutch during wliich the 
King, Charles II, granted to his brother James, Duke 
of York, all the lands the Dutch had held in America. 
The grant, as formally stated, included a large portion 
of the Province of Maine, and the country from the west 
side of the Connecticut River to the east side of Dela- 
ware Bay. This grant included Martha's Vineyard, 
Nantucket, all Long Island and the whole of the terri- 
tory of New Netheiiand. 

The next month after the grant was made a fleet of 
four ships, with a force of three or four hundred men, 
under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls, as the 
lieutenant-governor of the Duke, sailed from England. 
With Nicolls were joined as commissioners Sir Robert 
Carr, Sir George Cartwright and Samuel Maverick, 
with extraordinary powers for settling all difficulties in 
the New England colonies, as well as to take possession 
of the Dutch province and reduce its inhabitants to 
obedience. 

No sooner was the province fairly in English hands than 
new names were given to different portions, its boundaries were 
as far as possible defined, and grants of land were made to 
Englishmen. That region lying between the Hudson and the 
Delaware was named Albania, and grants and purchases were 
made within its boundaries from Sandy Hook to the mouth of the 
Raritan, and from the Raritan to the Achter Cul, now Newark 
Bay. But before Nicolls, in the name of the Duke of York, 
had taken possession of all New Netherland, the Duke, in 
20 



FENWICK; HIS COLONY 21 

anticipation of that event, granted in June, 1664, the whole 
comitrj, from the Hudson to the Delaware and from latitude 
41 ° 40 ' to Cape May, to two favorites of the Court, Lord 
Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. 

To the new province of New Cesarea, the name of New 
Jersey was given, in commemoration of Carteret's defence of the 
Channel Island of Jersey against the forces of the Common- 
wealth in 1649. 

Of this grant, however, Nicolls knew nothing till June, 
1665, when Captain Philip Carteret arrived as Governor of the 
new province. There was, of course, no alternative but to re- 
ceive with courtesy one coming armed with such credentials, 
though Nicolls represented to the Duke that he had hastily 
given away the fairest portion of his dominion. 

A storm had driven Carteret's ship, the Pliilip, into Chesa- 
peake Bay, but in July she arrived at New York, and a few- 
days later anchored off the point now known as Elizabethport, 
New Jersey, and landed her thirty emigrants. At the head of 
these people, Carteret, with a hoe over his shoulder, marched 
to the spot he had chosen for a settlement, two or three miles 
inland, and to wliich in honor of the Lady Elizabeth, the wife 
of Sir George Carteret, he gave her name. He found at the 
point where he and his people landed, four families who had 
taken possession of lands under the grant wliich had been made 
by Nicolls. The newcomers brought with them the title of a 
new English province, and though more than one settlement had 
been earher made by the Dutch on this side of the Bay of New 
York, this was the actual beginning of the State of New Jersey 
at Elizabeth. 

Four years before, the West India Company had discerned 
and sought to take advantage of the discontent and apprehen- 
sion felt by so many of the English, both at home and in the 
colonies, at the restoration of Charles 11. The directors invited 
them to settle on the Raritan, or in its neighborhood, and offered 
them most favorable terms. Three of the magistrates of New 
Haven, where this discontent was very .general, Matthew Gilbert, 
the Deputy Governor, Benjamin Fenn, and Robert Treat 
entered into negotiation with Stuyvesant upon the subject, on 



22 GOULDTOWN 

behalf of some New Haven people, and found no difficulty in 
getting from the Dutch Governor the promise that a hearty 
welcome would be given and religious freedom be secured to any 
Puritan Colony that should plant itself within the Dutch juris- 
diction. But the English asked also for political independence, 
and the negotiations were suspended. The question of civil 
relations Stuyvesant felt must be referred to his superiors at 
home. 

Even that concession, he was instructed, the Directors were 
disposed to make to almost any, provided that Dutch su- 
premacy was acknowledged in the last appeal. The New Haven 
people were the most eager to set up anew for themselves when 
the Winthrop charter brought them within the jurisdiction of 
Connecticut, and they would, perhaps, had there been time 
enough, have yielded somewhat in their demands. But while 
diplomacy hesitated events made no halt. Before any agree- 
ment could be reached satisfactorjj^ to both parties, New Nether- 
land ceased to be a Dutch colony, and the Duke of York had 
granted to its new proprietors the whole region from the 
Hudson to the Delaware.^ 

The land gi-anted by the Duke of York to Berkeley 
was soon after sold by him to John Fenwick, who in 
turn was obliged to part with nine-tenths of it to Wil- 
liam Penn, Gauen Laurie, and Nicholas Lucas, to 
satisfy certain serious obligations, leaving for himself 
but one-tenth, or " ten-hundredths," as it was called. 
This John Fenwick was the second son of Sir William 
Fenwick, Baronet of Northumberland, and had already 
attained a degree of celebrity. The story of his life 
as related by John Clements is as follows : 

He was second son of Sir William Fenwick, Baronet, 
who represented the County of Northumberland in the 
last Parliament under the Conmionwealth (1659), and 
one of four brothers, Edward, John, Roger and Ralph. 

* Scribner's History United States, vol. ii, page 320, et seq. 



FEN WICK; HIS COLONY 23 

In 1640 Sir William had his residence at Stanton Hill, 
of Stanton Manor, in the parish of Horsely, Cumber- 
land, where he had considerable landed estate. The 
mother, Elizabeth, was perhaps of one of the border 
families, and brought to her husband additional proper- 
ty, increasing his wealth and influence. John was born 
in 1618, at Stanton Hall, but the day of the month is not 
known. In 1636 he was styled Knight and Baronet, and 
five years after that time he married Ehzabeth, daughter 
of Sir Walter Covert, Knight of Slaughan, Sussex. 
This lady was mother of his children, and from her 
came the direct and collateral branches in New Jersey. 
The family was of Saxon origin, and formed a powerful 
clan in Northumberland. Their ancient fastness was 
in the fenny lands about Standfordham, a small town 
near the Southern boundary of the shire before named. 

The tower of Fenwick at Widdington, in Northum- 
berland, near the coast of the North Sea, shows its 
antiquity in its rude strength and scanty limits similar 
to those built by the Saxon invaders during the fifth 
and sixth centuries. Tliis was probably the fii*st seat of 
the family after their coming over, and whence it may be 
traced through many of the shires of England. 

In the ninth j^ear of the reign of Edward III (1334) 
an inquisition was had of New Castle, and Johannes 
Fenwick was twice appointed Sheriff. During that time 
it was much enlarged and strengthened, being an im- 
portant point of protection and defence against the 
Scotch. In those warlike times this place had no com- 
mercial importance, but had grown to be one of the 
largest ports in England. 

The enmities of former generations have passed 
away, and what was once a necessary appendage to 
every town is now visited by the curious to see the means 
of defence in a barbarous age. In the twelfth century. 



24 GOULDTOWN 

Sir Robert Fenwick of Northumberland endowed the 
Abbey of New Minster, in the same shire, with two 
parts of his villa of Irdington, in Cmnberland, thus 
showing his liberality towards, and his adherence to, 
the CathoHc Church. 

John Fenwick having passed through liis law studies 
at Gray's Inn, London (1640), abandoned Ms pro- 
fession for a season and accepted an appointment in 
the Parliamentary Army. His first commission reads 
as follows: 

You are hereby ordered and required as Major under Colonel 
Thomas Barwis in his regiment of cavalry which was raised in 
the County of Westmoreland to assist the garrison of Carlisle, 
and to exercise the officers and soldiers under his command 
according to the discipline of war. And they are hereby re- 
quired to yield obedience unto you as Major of said regiment. 
And all this you are authorized unto, until the pleasure of the 
Parliament of the Lord General be known. 

Given under my hand and seal at Bernard Castle, 27th day 
of October, 1640. 
To John Fenwick, Major, These. O. Cromwell. 

In the same year he was ordered by the Parliament, 
with horse and dragoon to relieve Holy Island Castle in 
Durham. It was besieged by the royal troops and 
well nigh captured, when he appeared and defeated the 
enemy. He was an active and efficient officer, having 
the confidence of the Parliament and the Protector. 
After the trial and sentence of the King, he was detailed 
as commander of cavalry, in conjunction with the foot 
troops under Colonel Hacker, Colonel Hanks, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Phayor, to attend the execution. 

The order ran in this wise: 

These are therefore to will and require you to see the said 
sentence executed in the open streets before Whitehall, upon 



FENWICK; HIS COLONY 25 

the morrow, being the thirtieth of tliis instant, month of 
January, between the hours of ten in the morning and five in 
the afternoon of the same day, with full eiFect. And these are 
to require all officers and soldiers and others the good people of 
this nation of England to be assisting unto you in this service. 
Given under our hands and seals, etc., etc. 

This warrant was signed by all the members who 
sat as judges upon his trial, and the most of whom 
witnessed the carrying out the sentence. In the dis- 
charge of this important and delicate duty the most 
reliable officers and the best disciplined troops were 
selected, which placed John Fenwick among the first 
of those in the army about London at that time. 

The religious status of John Fenwick during this 
period is doubtful and contradictory. While he was 
with the army he became a convert to the opinions of 
George Fox, and by a certificate dated February 11, 
1649, he is shown to have been a member of the Inde- 
pendents, a denomination of Christians more Presby- 
terian than Quaker. Be that as it may, he eventualty 
adopted the principles and practices of Friends and 
adhered to them until his death. The narrative goes on 
to recite what has already been stated as follows: 

After the restoration, Charles II granted to his brother, 
James, Duke of York, " All that main land with several islands 
near New England called New Cesarea or New Jersey in 
America " and James granted the same lands and premises unto 
John Lord Berkeley, Baron of Stratton, and Sir George 
Carteret, Knight and Baronet. Berkeley soon after sold his 
half of the lands to John Fenwick, and Fenwick, as has been 
said, was obliged to part with ninety one-hundredths of this land 
to William Penn, Gauen Laurie, and Nicholas Lucas, keeping 
to himself but ten-hundredths of the original purchase. After 
having relieved himself from his pressing debts he set out to 
occupy these possessions. 



26 GOULDTOWN 

There was a want of unity in his family, growing out of a 
second marriage, and so deep rooted was it that his wife was not 
willing to go with him beyond the sea. His daughters, not 
realizing the perils incident to the settlement in a new country, 
but filled with the spirit of adventure and buoyant with the 
prospect of a change, required no persuasion to follow the lead 
of their father, and join heartily in the work of breaking up 
their homes and leaving their native land forever. The parent 
had infused the children with liis notions of success and they 
were proud to know he was head of such an enterprise; that his 
anticipations and promises were not visionary, but would be 
more than realized, and that he would in the future be held to be 
a public benefactor. The letters of his wife, though generally 
of a business character, show some attachment to him and re- 
gard for his affairs, which were in much confusion after his 
departure. No mention is made of the daughters, with whom 
in all probability the bad blood existed. Her advice to him in 
his business relations is good, and if followed more closely, 
would have saved him much vexation. 

In making preparations for his departure it was 
decided that " only such articles as were actually 
necessary to supply the wants of the emigi'ants could 
be transported, leaving those of convenience and luxuiy 
out of the question. Implements of husbandry, tools 
for mechanics, material for building, medicines for the 
sick, and sustenance for the healthy, together with a 
scanty supply of furniture and household goods, must 
find a place in the ship. The ship Griffin, Robert 
Griffith, master, was chartered and brought to London 
for repairs and to receive the cargo and passengers. 
An entry made by John Smith in one of the books of 
record (Salem No. 4) in the office of the Secretary of 
State, Trenton, N. J., shows part of the persons that 
came at that time: they were John Fenwick, his three 
daughters, Elizabeth, Ann, and Priscilla ; John Adams, 
husband of Elizabeth of Reading, in Berks, weaver, 



FENWICK; HIS COLONY 27 

and three children; Elizabeth, aged eleven years, Fen- 
wick, nine years, and Mary, four j^ears; Edward 
Champneys, husband of Priscilla of Thornbury, Glou- 
cestershire, joiner, and two children, John and Mary. 
John Fenwick brought ten servants, Robert Twiner, 
Gervis Bywater, William Wilkinson, Joseph Worth, 
Michael Eaton, Elinor Geere, Sarah Hutchins, Ruth 
Geere, Zachariah Geere, and Ann Parsons. 

Besides these he was accompanied by Mary White, 
the faithful nurse of his children, who had lived in his 
family several years before coming to America. Her 
attachment for the three daughters showed itself in her 
resolve to share their good or bad fortune in a strange 
land. Their father's house was her home, where she 
had entire charge, and so continued until his decease. 
These traits of character were fully appreciated by the 
Patroon, as he gave her a title in fee for five hundred 
acres of land, and five days before the date of his will 
executed a lease to her, as " Mary White, late of the 
parish of Bromble, in the County of Wilkes, spinster, 
now of Fenwick Grove," for Fenwick Grove, con- 
taining three thousand acres ; to continue during her life 
and the life of her husband, " if any she have when she 
decease." In his will he makes frequent mention of 
her name, continuing his liberality and always ex- 
pressing the utmost confidence in her honesty and up- 
rightness ^ . . . 

' " To say that he [John Fenwick] was not a half brother to Charles 
II, king of England, would perhaps be assuming too much, although nothing 
appears to prove the affirmative of this assertion. The gallantries of the 
king were proverbial; hence the plausibility of the story and which by 
many came to be accepted as true. If, however, the royal blood colored his 
veins and infused into his character and disposition the idea of exclusive- 
ness and authority, so palpable in many of his acts during life, it came 
from the first and not the last of these monarchs. The chance of such a 
story being true is too apparent to be denied, but may be accounted for in 
this wise. The first son of Charles Second, not recognized by law, was 



28 GOULDTOWN 

The effect of the coming of this ship up the Dela- 
ware is thus described in Clement's Life of John Fen- 
wick. The account shows that the local political affairs 
were somewhat mixed. 

While thus contemplating' the development of his enter- 
prise, a cloud, darker and more portentous than any before, 
showed itself; and from a direction not altogether unexpected 
by the chief proprietor or those who had accompanied him 
across the sea. The coming of a ship into the Delaware River, 
in 1675, was not an event to pass unnoticed by the Conunander 
at New Castle, who, with the Justices, represented Governor 
Andros and his council, appointed by the Duke of York under 
his second patent from the King. The instructions to the 
Commander were to keep strict watch over the interests of His 
Royal Highness on both sides of the river, and, if anything 
should occur, to report at once to the authorities at New York. 
The ship in question proved to be the Griffin, anchored at Fort 
Elseborg, with English emigrants from London under the 
leadership of John Fenwick, who held the title to part of the 
territory on the Eastern shore, with the right of government 
derived through John Lord Berkeley and the Duke of York 
from the King. Further inquiry developed the fact that these 
people proposed to occupy the land on the Eastern side of the 
river, and establish a government for themselves under the 
right before named. This being properly brought to their 

James, Duke of Monmouth, beheaded 1685, whose mother was Lucy Walters. 
James married Anne Scott, heiress of Buccleugh, whose second son married 
Elizabeth Fenwick, thus connecting the family with the blood royal, but 
several removes. Nothing short of a careful examination of the family 
genealogy in England will settle this point, which for the neglect may always 
remain a mooted question." 

The above is quoted verbatim from John Clement's Life of John 
Fenwick. Charles II was born in 1630, at which time John Fenwick was 
twelve years of age, he having been born in 1618; hence Charles II is 
eliminated from the ancestry of Fenwick. The remark : " The gallantries 
of the king were proverbial, etc.," refer to Charles II, and hence have but 
little bearing upon this question. By " the first " and " last " of these 
monarchs, the writer evidently means Charles I and Charles II. To be a 



FENWICK; HIS COLONY 29 

knowledge, a court was convened in the fort at New Castle, and 
after due deliberation it was decided to forward, by express, the 
necessary information to the authorities at New York, and 
await orders therefrom. The express was no doubt a swift- 
footed Indian, selected for the purpose, who forded the river 
at the falls ( Trenton ) and continued by land through the forest 
to Conmiunipaw ; thence by water to the fort at New Amsterdam, 
where the message was dehvered to his excellency, Governor 
Andros. The information was received December 5, 1675, and 
somewhat stirred the bile of the new executive, who held his 
commission direct and fresh from the Duke of York; and 
following the spirit and letter of his instructions, could not 
recognize any equal, or superior authority, within the limits of 
his jurisdiction. The Governor consulted his council, and an 
order was returned that John Fenwick and his followers be not 
recognized as having any rights, but be allowed to remain and 
occupy suitable portions of land under this government. The 
same express carried the reply, which the Commander at New 
Castle soon forwarded to John Fenwick and the adventurers 
and emigrants who were with him ; intimating very strongly 
that they were regarded as intruders and enemies. That the 
title to the soil of New Jersey and the right of government 
as well, which was claimed to have passed by the grant from the 
Duke to Carteret and Berkeley, and under which John Fenwick 
held, was, by the Dutch conquest rendered inoperative and void ; 
that the second patent of the King to the Duke restored the 

half-brother of Charles II, Fenwick would have to be a son of Charles I. 
Charles I was born in 1600 and hence was eighteen years of age when 
John Fen^vick was born. So far as I have seen there is no trace of 
relationship existing between him and the mother of Fenwick. John was 
the second son of Sir William Fenwick, baronet, the brothers being 
Edward, John, Roger, and Ralph. 

The testimony of historians generally is to the effect that Charles I 
was a man of "strict decorum of conduct"; a man in "his private 
character of cultivated mind, kind, and of irreproachable life," and that 
"Ills personal morality was of the highest." To assume that Fenwick 
might be the illegitimate son of Charles I because Charles II was dissolute 
is altogether gratuitous. Besides, if it were so, Fenwick would have become 
the executioner of his own father, which is preposterous. 



30 GOULDTOWN 

original elements of title and government as by him held in the 
first patent, and that like grants must come from His Royal 
Highness, as in the former case, to make any rights good on 
the Eastern shore of the Delaware River ; that the government, 
as by Governor Andros and his council administered, was the 
only legitimate one within the boundaries given in his commis- 
sion, and that he should expect all persons living therein to 
submit to the laws or suffer the penalty of transgressing them. 
To all this the Chief proprietor, as the owner of the terri- 
tory, made a dignified response, showing whence he derived his 
title both to soil and government, which he regarded as suflScient 
and by which he determined to stand or fall. He insisted that 
his right to establish methods of government and the enact- 
ment and enforcement of laws, emanated from the same fountain 
as that of Governor Andros, had the advantage of priority in 
date, and needed no confirmation or endorsement by Governor 
Andros as the representative of the Duke of York. That these 
prerogatives had been before exercised and not questioned by 
the Crown, and, therefore, had nothing to concede or rehnquish 
touching the demands made by the government at New 
Amsterdam.^ 

After two years of wrangling, in which the judg- 
ment of the courts were at first against Fenwick, the 
controversy finally subsided, leaving him in control of 
the land he had purchased and the colony he had 
founded. His recognized independence dates from the 
latter part of the year 1677. 

Thus far he had continued to reside at Fenwick 
Grove until Salem County was organized, and indeed, 
until his death, which occurred in December, 1683. Mr. 
Clements has the following remarks and reflections 
upon the concluding period of his life: " On the second 
day of the third month, 1683, John Fenwick was re- 
turned as a member of the Colonial Assembly from the 

• Clement's Life of Fenwick. 



FEN WICK; HIS COLONY 31 

Salem tenth; but on account of ill health, which con- 
tinued until his decease, he never sat as a member of 
that bod5\ In this act is shoAvn the complete absorp- 
tion of the political rights and franchises, incident to 
the estate held in the ten lots, by the colonial authori- 
ties of West New Jersej% and which appears to have 
been brought about peacefully and for the evident good 
of all concerned. This end was foreshadowed in the 
previous signing of the concessions and agreements by 
very many of the land owners, who held titles from Fen- 
wick, and who had heretofore given their adherence to 
his government as established in 1675, but joined their 
fortunes with the more numerous colony and made 
common cause in advancing religious and political 
equality; to be enjoyed by all who ventured across the 
sea and fixed their homes within the limits of West 
New Jersey." 

Here terminated the first form of a representative 
government established by the people. Rude and ill- 
defined as it was, sufficient appears to show that only 
time and occasion were wanting to develop its several 
parts, and secure to all the blessings to be derived from 
like institutions. The government established by the 
owners of the ninety parts was like in substance, but 
yielded to the people no greater privileges, nor more 
enlarged rights. This cannot but be interesting to 
those who care to trace the beginning of our present 
political institutions, and study the gradual but positive 
development of a system that has its foundation in the 
hearts of the people; to discover that no retrograde 
step had been taken in the fundamental doctrines of 
private or public rights and that a jealous care had been 
exercised that none be infringed. 

The Patroon, in his manner of living, was more 
pretentious and aristocratic than any of his neighbors. 



32 GOULDTOWN 

His houses at Ivy Point and at Fenwick Grove were 
well appointed; proving that he had an eye to the 
creature comforts as well as to dignity and exclusive- 
ness. The day had not come for wheeled carriages in 
the Salem tenth, but his stable included good saddle 
horses, with everything complete for the equestrian. A 
favorite road animal, " Jack," he makes special mention 
of in his will, and puts him in care of his trusty servant, 
Mary White, " who I desire to take care of him and 
see that he be not wronged as long as he liveth." His 
education as a cavalry officer in the army of the Com- 
monwealth now served him, and however much he may 
have wished to discard the memories of his fighting 
days, yet in the saddle his grace and confidence as a 
rider could but be noticed. The library of books at 
each place he regarded with much interest, and directed 
their preservation after his decease; and touching his 
private papers he charges his executors with their care, 
and especially that they be not taken out of the colony. 
His agreement with the resident purchasers he wished 
to have religiously carried out and was anxious that his 
executors should see to the discharge of every obliga- 
tion. His plantation at Fenwick Grove had many 
attractions for him, it being several miles from Ivy 
Point, where he could enjoy his leisure and look after 
his farming interests. He was systematic in his business 
affairs and always knew from his accounts whether a 
matter in hand was profitable or otherwise. For the 
day in which he lived, his agricultural operations were 
extensive and yielded a fair return. He does not 
appear to have had any slaves, but employed several 
persons about the estate, the whole being under his 
general superintendence. In the autumn of 1683, his 
health failing, he accepted an invitation from his favor- 
ite daughter, Ann, and placed himself under her care 



FEN WICK; HIS COLONY 33 

at Hedgefield, where he died in December of the same 
year. Her devotion to him remained the same through 
all the vicissitudes of his life, and with filial affection 
she cared for him on his dying bed. 

Although in the depths of an American forest, and 
far from the land of his nativity, yet there were those 
around him in whose veins flowed his own blood, whose 
sympathies were enlisted for his welfare, but who were 
soon called upon to mourn his death. In liim passed 
away one of the most remarkable men of his day and 
generation. His early manhood was spent in the ex- 
citements and participations of a war that overthrew 
the govermnent, and well nigh destroyed the nation; 
while his middle life and latter days were occupied 
in an enlarged philanthropy to benefit his fellow man, 
by giving scope to his energies, with the certainty of 
reward to himself, and through him to his descendants ; 
with the title of his land freed from the tenures of the 
feudal system, and without restraints, save those based 
in equity and good government. 

In relation to the final disposition of his remains, he 
requested in his will that they be interred at Fenwick 
Grove. For some reason this was not complied with, 
as he was buried in " Sharp's family burying ground," 
long since abandoned for that use, and now nearly lost 
sight of. It is located near the present almshouse 
property of Salem County, overgrown with briers, and 
known to but few as the last resting place of the founder 
of Fenwick Colony. 

Nearly two centuries have passed away, and not the 
rudest monument has been placed to show where his 
bones are laid. Generation after generation of his kin 
have neglected even to preserve a mound of earth to 
show his grave, and at this day " no man knoweth the 
place of his sepulchre." But a more enduring monu- 

3 



34 GOULDTOWN 

ment has survived him. His landed estate is covered 
with an industrious and happy people, in the enjoyment 
of free institutions, with no religious or political re- 
straints ; advanced in agriculture, commerce and manu- 
factures, and participant in a degree of civilization that 
has no parallel in the world. 

In his will, which is a curious and characteristic 
document, and bears date the seventh day of August, 
1683, John Fenwick makes no mention of his wife, who 
was living in London at the time it was executed, and 
who appears to have had a separate estate which she used 
for her own comfort and convenience. This separation 
produced an indifference toward each other, which 
ended in a complete estrangement of feeling, and 
mutual disregard. Neither is there anything to show 
that she made claim on his estate or received from his 
executors or devisees any money arising therefrom. 
Nothing more is known of this relation, the lapse of 
time having obliterated every tradition in regard to it. 




1570367 



CHAPTER III. 

FENWICK colony; LAND GRANTS AND PRIMARY 
GOVERNMENT. 

The extensive grant of territory made by Charles 
II, the English king, to his brother, the Duke of York, 
was by royal charter dated twentieth of March, 1664. 
Upon the twenty-third of June in the same year, the 
Duke conveyed a portion of this territory to two other 
persons — John Lord Berkeley and Sir George 
Carteret. The conveyance to these individuals was 
made by an instrument in form as follows : 

This indenture, made the three-and-twentieth day of June, 
in the sixteenth year of the Raigne of our Sovreign Lord 
Charles the Second, by the Grace of God, of England, Scotland, 
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith — Anno 
Domini, 1664, between his Royal Highness, James, Duke of 
York and Albany, Earl of Ulster, Lord High Admiral of Eng- 
land and Ireland, Constable of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of 
the Cinque Ports and Governor of Portsmouth of the one part, 
John Lord Berkeley, Baron of Stratton and one of his 
majesties' most honorable privy Council and Sir George 
Carteret of Sattrum in the County of Devon, Knight, and one 
of his majesties' privy Council, of the other part, Witnesseth 
that said James, Duke of York, for and in consideration of the 
sum of ten shillings of lawful money of England, to him in 
hand paid, by these presents doth bargain and sell unto the said 
John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, all that tract of 
land adjacent to New England, and lying and being to the 
Westward of Long Island, bounded on the East part by the 
main sea, and part by Hudson's river, and hath upon the West 
Delaware Bay or river, and extendeth Southward to the mam 
ocean as far as Cape May at the mouth of Delaware Bay, and 
to the Northward as far as the Northermost branch of said bay 

35 



36 GOULDTOWN 

or river of Delaware, which is in forty-one degrees and forty 
minutes of latitude, and worketh over thence in a straight line 
to Hudson's river, which said tract of land is hereafter to be 
called bj-^ the name or names of Nova Cesarea, or New Jersey.^ 

Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, thus be- 
coming the proprietors of New Jersey, formed a consti- 
tution for the colony, and this was the first constitution 
of New Jersey. This instrument was entitled, " The 
concessions and agreement of the Lords Proprietors of 
the province of New Cesarea or New Jersey, to and 
with all and every of the new adventurers, and as such 
as shall settle or plant there." ^ 

Lord Berkeley, soon becoming dissatisfied with his 
adventure, offered his share for sale, and this, as before 
stated, was purchased by John Fenwick and Edward 
Byllinge, members of the Society of Friends. The 
conveyance was executed to John Fenwick, in trust 
for Edward Byllinge, for the sum of one thousand 
pounds, and the tract thus purchased was afterward 
known as West New Jersey. 

Besides the emigrants before mentioned, who arrived 
in the ship Griffith with John Fenwick, were also 
Edward Wade, Samuel Hedge, Samuel Wade, John 
Smith and wife, Samuel Nichols, Richard Guy, Richard 
Noble, a surveyor, Richard Hancock, also a surveyor, 
John Pledyer, Hipolite Lufever, and John Matlock. 
These came over in this, the first English ship that came 
to West Jersey and none followed for nearly two years. 

From this little group descended many, whose 
families are scattered over this part of the State, but 
who can now hardly trace their descent back to them. 

*This appears to be the first instrument in which the bounds of New 
Jersey are regularly defined. — Historical Collections of New Jersey. 

"Printed in Salem Records, in N. J. archives from the original parch- 
ment brought over from Europe by John Fenwick in 1675. 



LAND GRANTS 37 

John ^latlock is said to have been the son of Abram 
Matlock, founder of ^latlock College in England, and 
from him descended the 3iatlock families of this and 
Gloucester Counties. In Gloucester County some of 
the members still retain the name of Matlock, while in 
this county the name is spelled Matlack. E. L. Mat- 
lack, an auctioneer and farmer of Cumberland County, 
is said to be a lineal descendant. 

Fenwick and Byllinge, becoming sole proprietors, 
were styled " Lord Proprietors," and when Fen wick's 
tenth was set off to him and his connection with Byllinge 
became dissolved he became " Lord Proprietor " of 
West New Jersey, and was so styled, and the Goulds' 
tradition a hundred years ago was " We descended from 
Lord Fen^vick." [The writer of this, now over three- 
score and ten years of age, has heard the words from 
his grandparents, and other of the Goulds who were 
born and lived in the close of the eighteenth century.] 
That there is pretty conclusive ground for giving 
credence to this tradition, will be shown later. 

The proprietors, increasing in numbers by purchase 
of land from trustees under arrangements with William 
Penn, Gauen Laurie, and Nicholas Lucas, agreed upon 
a form of government comprising many of the pro- 
visions of the instrument formed by Berkeley and 
Carteret, together with others originating with them- 
selves. This was styled " The concessions and agree- 
ments of the proprietors, freeholders and inhabitants 
of the province of West New Jersey." An extract from 
this instrument (Chapter III) reads: 

That hereafter upon the furthest settlement of the said 
province, the proprietors and inhabitants, resident upon the 
said province, shall and may, at or upon the first and twentieth 
day of the month called March, which shall be in the year, 
according to the EngHsh account, one thousand six hundred and 



38 GOULDTOWN 

eighty; and so thence forward upon the said day, assemble 
themselves together, in some public place to be ordered and 
appointed by the Commissioners for the time being, and upon 
default of such appointment, in such place as they shall see 
meet, and then and there elect of and amongst themselves, ten 
honest and able men, fit for government, to officiate and execute 
the place of commissioners for the year ensuing, and until such 
time as ten more, for the year then next following shall be 
elected and appointed; which said elections shall be as follows; 
that is to say, the inhabitants each ten of the one hundred 
proprietors, shall elect and choose one, and the one hundred 
proprietors shall be divided into ten divisions or tribes of men. 
And the said elections shall be made and distinguished by 
balloting trunks, to avoid noise and confusion, and not by 
voices, holding up of the hands, or otherwise howsoever, which 
said commissioners, so yearly to be elected, shall likewise govern 
and order the affairs of the said province (pro tempore) for 
the good and welfare of the said people, and according to these 
our concessions, until such time as the general free assembly 
shall be elected and deputed in such manner and wise as is here- 
after expressed and contained.^ 

The Swedes and Finns had settled in what became 
Salem and Gloucester Counties long before the arrival 
of Fenwick, superseding the Dutch, who had largely 
disappeared from the section. There was, no doubt, a 
considerable sprinkling of this population occupying the 
territory before Fenwick arrived. Johnson, in his 
History, says " The Swedes and Finns arrived in 1627, 
the Dutch having left the country. In 1631 they built 
a fort at Finn's Point." Judge Elmer states in his 
History of Cumberland County, " A few of the New 
Haven people, who as early as 1641 made a settlement 
on the creek called by the Dutch Varchen's Kill (now 
Salem Creek), may have wandered into the limits of 

• Historical Collections of New Jersey. 



LAND GRANTS 39 

Cumberland, thus becoming the pioneers of the con- 
siderable number, who about fifty years later came from 
Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Long Island." 

Fenwick arrived in 1675 in the English ship, 
" Griffith " bringing with him the persons some of 
whom have been already named, as follows: "Arriv- 
ing after a good passage, he landed at a pleasant, rich 
spot, situated near Delaware, by him called Salem, prob- 
ably from the peaceable aspect it then bore. He 
brought with him tliree daughters and many servants; 
two of whom, Samuel Hedge and John Adams, after- 
ward married his daughters. The other passengers were 
Edward Champness, who married Priscilla, Fenwick's 
third daughter (this name Champness will appear in 
connection with the Goulds), Edward Wade, Samuel 
Wade, John Smith and wife, Samuel Nichols, Richard 
Guy, Richard Noble, Richard Hancock, John Pledger, 
Hipolite Lefever, and John Matlock. This was the first 
EngHsh ship which came to West Jersey, and none 
followed for near two years, owing probably to a differ- 
ence between Fenwick and Byllinge." — Historical Col- 
lection of New Jersey. 

Before the arrival of the second ship from London, 
the " Kent," Gregory Marlow, master, the constitution 
or form of government before referred to was made, 
which was entitled: "The concessions and agreements 
of the proprietors, freeholders, and inhabitants of the 
province of West New Jersey." This constitution is 
witnessed and signed in the following manner, according 
to " Historical Collections ": 

In testimony and witness of our consent to and affirmation 
of these present laws, concessions, and agreements, we, the 
proprietors, freeholders, and inhabitants of the said province 
of West New Jersey, whose names are underwritten, have to the 
same voluntarily and freely set our hands, dated this third day 



40 GOULDTOWN 

of the month, commonlj' called March, in the year of our Lord, 
one thousand six hundred seventy-six. — Gawen Lawrie, Wm. 
Penn, Wm. Euily, Josh. Wright, Wm. Haig, Wm. Peachee, 
Rich. Matthews, John Harris, Francis Collins, Wm. Kent, 
Benj. Scot, John Penford, Tho. Lambert, Tho. Hooten, Henry 
Stacy, Edw. Byllinge, Rich. Smith, Edward Thelthorp, Dan. 
Wills, Thomas Olive, Tho. Rudgard, William Riddle, Robert 
Stacy, John Farrington, Wm. Royden, Rich. Mew, Percival 
Towle, Mahlon Stacy, Tho. Budd, Sam, Jennings, John Lam- 
bert, Will. Heulings, George Deacon, John Thomson, Edward 
Bradway, Richard Guy, James Nevell, William Cantwell, Fospe 
Outstout, Machgijel Baron, Casper Herinow, Turrse Psese, 
Robert Kemble, John Corneliesse, Gerrat Van Jumne, William 
Gill Johnson, Mich. Lackerouse, Markus Algus, Evert Aldricks, 
Hendrick Everson, Jilles Fonieson, Caas Jansen, Paul Doequet, 
Aert Jansen, John Surige, Tho. Smith, James Pearce, Edw, 
Webb, John Pledger, Richard Wilkinson, Christe Sanders, 
Renear Van Horst, William Johnson, Charles Bogler, Samuel 
Wade, Thomas Woodruff, John Smith, Tho. Pierce, William 
Warner, Joseph Ware, Isaac Smart, Andrew Thompson, 
Thomas Kent, Henrj^ Jennings, Richard Wortsaw, Christopher 
White, John Maddocks, John Forrest, James Nickory, William 
Rumsey, Richard Robinson, Mark Reeve, Thomas Watson, 
Samuel Nicholson, Daniel Smith, Richard Daniels, William 
Fenton, William Darine, Robert Zane, Walter Peiterson, 
Anthony Page, Andrew Bortheson, Wooley Woollison, Anthony 
Dixon, John Derme, Thomas Benson, John Pain, Richard 
Brillington, Samuel Lovett, Henry Stubbins, Wilham Willis, 
George Hazelwood, Roger Pedrick, William Hughes, Van 
Highst, Hipotas Lefever, William Wilkinson, Andrew Shen- 
neck, Lanse Cornehcus, Samuel Hedge, William Mossier, John 
Grubb, John Worlidge, Edward Meyer, Thomas Borton, Robert 
Powel, Thomas Hording, Matthew Allen, Bernard Devenish, 
Thomas Stokes, Thomas French, Isaac Marriott, John Butcher, 
George Hutchinson, Thomas Gardner, Thomas Eves, John 
Borton, John Paine, Eleazer Fenton, Samuel Oldale, William 
Black, Anthony Woodhouse, Daniel Leeds, John Pancoast, 
Francis Belwicke, William Luswall, John Snowdon, Richard 



LAND GRANTS 41 

Fenemore, Gruna Jacobson, Thomas Scholey, Thomas Might, 
Godfrey Hancock, John Petty, Abraham Heuhngs, John New- 
boald, John White, John Roberts, John Wood, John Hosling, 
Thomas Revell. 

These numerous signatures clearly show that there 
was a considerable population already in the country, 
but with regard to the lands of Salem County, if not of 
the major part of this section of west New Jersey, 
Fenwick was doubtless the sole proprietor. He made 
deeds and sold lands in the province, both before and 
after his arrival in the country. An original parch- 
ment deed, now in the possession of Orestes Cook, Esq., 
of Bridgeton, New Jersey, shows that he either executed 
this deed in England, or else he arrived in America 
before June, 1675. This deed, a copy of which follows, 
was written and executed jNIay tenth, sixteen hundred 
and seventy-five, and it was signed and sealed with 
FenAvick's own hand and before the witnesses named. 
This deed was for five hundred acres of land contained 
in " all that Moyetie or half part of the tract of land 
called New Cesarea or New Jersey," which Fenwick 
bought of Lord John Berkeley by " Indenture bear- 
ing date the eighteenth day of March, sixteen hundred 
and seventy-three," and conveys the said five hundred 
acres to Richard Hancock (who became Fen wick's 
surveyor general at first). This deed does not locate 
the land sold to Hancock. 

It is a curious manuscript, beautifully written and 
well preserved. 

Out of this tract Richard Hancock sold one hundred 
acres to John Denn, by deed dated February twelfth, 
sixteen hundred and eighty-two; this land is located 
by butts and bounds, as will be seen, and is along Allo- 
way's Creek. This original parchment is also in the 
possession of Mr. Cook. 



4^ 



GOULDTOWN 



Both deeds are given in full in Chapter IV. They 
will probably find their way soon into the Cumberland 
County Historical Society. 

There is also still in existence a deed of Fenwick's 
son-in-law, John Adams, to Samuel Bacon for two 
hundred and sixty acres of land, in Bacon's Neck, made 
by Adams in sixteen hundred and eighty-two. This 
John Adams was the father of Elizabeth Adams, the 
mother of the original Gould, the founder of Gould- 
town. He later purchased one thousand acres in AUo- 
way's. The deed, Fenwick to Hancock, and Hancock 
to Denn, follows in the next chapter. 




CHAPTER IV. 

COPIES OF \TERY ANCIENT PARCHMENT DEEDS IN 
POSSESSION OF A BRIDGETON ATTORNEY. 

DEED. 

John FENW^CK ^ 

to > May 10, 16T5. 

Richard Hancock. ) 

To all people to ■whom this present writing shall come: 

John Fenwick, late of Binfields, in the County of Berkshire, 
within the Kingdom of England, Esquire, and Chiefe Proprietor 
of the Moyetie or half part of the tract of land within the 
Province of New Cesaria or New Jersey — in America — sendeth 
greeting. 

Whereas, the Honorable John Lord Berkeley of Stratton, 
one of his Majesties most honorable Privy Counsell, by his 
Indenture bearing date the eighteenth day of March, one thou- 
sand six hundred seventy and three — did grant, bargain, sell, 
alien and enfeoff and confirm unto the said John Fenwick, his 
heirs and assigns forever, all that Moyetie or halfe part of the 
tract of land called New Cesaria or New Jersey, and also the 
rivers, rivolets, mines, mineralls, quaries, woods, royalties, 
profits, franchises, conditions, comodities and other heredita- 
ments whatsoever, in the said Indenture, particularly mentioned, 
as in and by the same rela^on being thereunto had may appear. 

Now know yee, that for and in consideration of the summ 
of Sixty Shillings, lawfuU money of England to him, the said 
John Fenwick in hand paid by Richard Hancock, of Bromley, 
Neer Bow, in the County of Midd'x, upholsterer at and before 
the ensealing and delivery hereof, the receipt whereof is hereby 
assured, bargained and for other diver considerations, him, the 
said John Fenwick hereunto moving, he, the said John Fenwick, 
hath granted, bargained, sold, aliened, enfeoffed and confirmed 

unto the said Richard Hancock and ^his wife, and the heirs 

43 



44 GOULDTOWN 

and assigns of the said Richard Hancock forever, Five Hundred 
acres of land, to be taken out of, sett forth and surveyed out of 
all such part of the said tract of land within the Province of 
New Cesaria or New Jersey, the said John Fenwick hath re- 
served to him and his heirs forever, hereafter to be called Fen- 
wick Colony, and alsoe all river, rivolets, mines, mineralls, 
quarries, woods, proffits, commodities and hereditaments, what- 
soever, to the said Five Hundred Acres belonging and all the 
estate right, title, interest, property, claim and demand what- 
soever of him, the said John Fenwick, of, in, or to the said five 
hundred acres, and premises herein before men9oned or intended 
to be bargained and sold or any part or parcell thereof and the 
rendition, renditions, remainder and remainders thereof to have 
and to hold the said Five Hundred acres of land and all and 
singular the premises herein before men9oned intended to be 
granted, bargained, sold, ahened, enfeoffed and confirmed, with 
the appurtenances and every part and parcel thereof, unto the 
said Richard Hancock and Margaret, his wife, and the heirs and 
assigns of the said Richard Hancock forever to the only use 
and behoof of the said Richard Hancock and Margaret, his wife, 
and the heirs and assigns of the said Richard Hancock forever, 
yeeilding and paying therefor the yearly rent of ears of Indian 
com on the nine and twentieth day of the seventh month, called 
September, and the said John Fenwick, for himselfe, his heirs, 
executors, administrators and assigns, doth covenant and grant 
to and with Richard Hancock and Margaret, his wife, and the 
heirs and assigns of the said Richard Hancock by these presents 
— that they, the said Richard Hancock and Margaret, his wife, 
and the heirs and assigns of the said Richard Hancock, shall 
and may hold and enjoy the said Five Hundred acres and 
premises and receive and have the rents, issues and proffits 
thereof from time to time without the let, erection or disturb- 
ance of him the said John Fenwick — John Lord Berkeley — 
Sir George Cartaret — Knight and Baronet — Chief Proprietor 
of the other Moyetie of the said tract of land or any or either 
of them, their or any or either of their heirs or assigns, or of, 
or by any other person or persons claiming or to claim by, from 
or under him, them or either of them and for and in respect of 



ANCIENT DEEDS 



45 



any right or interests which he or they or any or either of them 
shall or may have or claim unto said Five Hundred acres of land 
soe granted as aforesaid, or any part or parcell thereof, and not 
otherwise freed and discharged or otherwise suffitionly saved 
harmless of and from all incumbrances whatsoever done or 
suffered by him, them or any or either of them in the meantime. 

In witness whereof, the said John Fenwick hath hereunto 
set his hand and seale this tenth day of the third month called 
May, in the year of our Lord Christ, One thousand six hundred 
seventy and five and in the twenty-seaventh year of the Reyne 
of King Charles the second, over England, Scotland, France and 
Ireland, &c. 

{Fac simile) 

BACK. 

Signed, sealed and delivered 

in the presence of us John Elridge, 

Edward Wade, 
Edmund Warner, 
Thomas Anderson, 
Edward Bradway, 
Richard Noble. 

Enrolled in the Register Book of Deeds and conveyances 
belonging and Fenwick Colony in the Province of New Cesaria 
or New Jersey in America, in the third month called May, 
MDCLXXV. GARFIELD. 




DEED. 



February 12, 1682. 



Richard Hancock and ' 
Margaret, his wife, 

to 
John Denn and 
Margaret, his wife. 

To all people to wJiom this present writing shall come: 
Richard Hancock of Alloway's Creek, in the Province of 
West New Jersey, Yeoman, sendeth greeting. 



46 GOULDTOWN 

Whereas, John Fenwick, late one of the Proprietors of the 
said Province by his Deed PoU, bearing date the tenth day of 
May, sixteen hundred and seventy-five, did grant, bargain, sell, 
alien, enfeofFe and confirme unto said Richard Hancock, late of 
Bromley, County of Midd'x, upholsterer, to five hundred acres 
of land to be taken, set forth, and surveyed out of that tract of 
land, which he, the said John Fenwick had referred to him and 
his heirs forever. Within the said province and also the rivers, 
rivoletts, woods, quaries, mines, minerals, profitts, commoodies, 
hereditaments, whatsoever unto the said Five Hundred acres of 
land belonging in the said deed particularly mentioned as in 
and by the same relation being had may appeare. 

Now know yee, that for and in consideration of sum of Five 
pounds, warrant pay of Delaware River to him, the said Richard 
Hancock, in hand paid by John Denn, of Allowayes Creeke, at 
and before the ensealing and delivery thereof, the receipt 
whereof is hereby acknowledged and for divers other causes and 
considerations him, the said Richard Hancock thereunto mov- 
ing, the said Richard Hancock, hath granted, bargained and 
sold, aliened and enfeoffed, and confirmed unto the said John 
Denn and Margaret, his wife, and to the heirs and assignes of 
the said John Denn forever, one hundred acres of land, part and 
parcel of the said five hundred acres, butted and bounded as 
foUoweth, (viz) Beginning at a great Tree standing neere 
Munmouth River, alis Alloway's Creeke aforesaid, mark't with 
R. U. K. and J. S. from thence by North and by East upon a 
Strait lyne and by the markt trees that leads to a tree with 
J. D. three hundred and twenty pearches ; from thence upon a 
straite line West and by North to a tree markd J. D. fifty 
pearches; from thence South by West by the marked treese 
that leeads to the middle of the highway or lane the parte of 
the plantations and so downe the midle of the highway to the 
said creek or riverside, three hundred and twenty pearches, 
from thence Easterly up the said Creeke or river to the first 
mentioned tree fifty pearches, within the bounds are contained 
one hundred acres of fast land, marish and swamp, be it more 
or lesse as by a certificate and in the hand of the said Richard 
Hancock, bearing date eighth day of February, last appear. 



ANCIENT DEEDS 47 

And all the house, improvement, woods, rivers, creeks, quaries, 
mines, mineralls, profitts, commodities, and hereditaments what- 
soever, to the said one hundred acres belonging and all the 
estate, right, title, interest, property, claime and demand what- 
soever of the said Richard Hancock and Margret, his wife, of, 
in, or to the said one himdred acres of land and premises herein 
before mentioned or intended to be granted, bargained, sold, 
aliened, enfeofed and confirmed, any part or parcel thereof. 

And the rever9on, rever9ons, remainder and remainders 
thereof to have and to hold the said one hundred acres of land, 
house, improvement, woods, rivers, creeks, quaries, mines, 
minerals, profitts, comodities, and hereditaments, thereunto 
belonging herein and hereby granted, bargained, sold, aliened, 
enfeoffed and confirmed every part and parcel thereof unto him 
the said John Denn and Magret his wife, and to the heirs and 
assignes, of him, the said John Denn forever, to the only use 
and behoofe of him, the said John Denn and Margret, his wife, 
their heires and assigns forever, yeilding and paying therefor 
yearly and every yeare unto the said Richard Hancock, his 
heires and assignes, the yearely rent of one eare of indian come 
on the nine and twentieth day of September, if demanded, and 
the said Richard Hancock, for himselfe, and Margret, his wife, 
and for his heires and assignes, doth covenant and grant to and 
with the said John Denn and Margret, his wife, by these 
presents, that he, the said John Denn and Margret, his wife, and 
the heires and assignes of the said John Denn, shall and may 
hold and enjoy the said one hundred acres of land and premises, 
and receive and take the rents, issues and profits thereof from 
time to time without the let, erection or disturbance of him, the 
said Richard Hancock and Margret, his wife, and the said John 
Fenwick or any or either of them, their or any or either of their 
heires or assignes or of any other person or persons, claiming 
or to claime by or under him, them or any or either of them 
for or in respect of any right, title or interest, which they or 
any or either of them shall or may have or claime upon, or to the 
said one hundred acres of land, house, improvements and 
premises so granted aforesaid, or any part or parcel thereof 
freed and discharged or otherwise well and sufficiently saved 



48 



GOULDTOWN 



harmless of and from all incumbrances whatsoever, done or 
suffered by him, them or any or either of them in meantime. 

In "witness whereof, the said Richard Hancock for himself 
and for Magaret, his late wife, deceased, hath hereunto set his 
hand and seals, this twelfth day of February, sixteen hundred 
and eighty-two. 

Signed Richard Hancock. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of 



James NEViLii 
Edward Wade. 



Comr's. 



endorsed 
John Denn's deed for 100 acres from Rich'd Hancock. 

This deed indicates the location of Hancock's five 
hundred acres conveyed by the first deed. 




CHAPTER V. 

GOULD traditions; evidences; descent; benjamin 
Gould's will. 

Extract from Fenwick's will: " Item, I do except 
against Elizabeth Adams of having any ye leaste part 
of my estate, unless the Lord open her eyes to see her 
abominable transgression against him, me and her good 
father, by giving her true repentance, and forsaking 
yt Black yt hath been ye ruin of her, and becoming 
penitent for her sins; upon yt condition only I do will 
and require my executors to settle five hundred acres 
of land upon her." (Lucius Q. C. Elmer, History of 
Cumberland County, N. J., 1869.) 

Judge Elmer was born in 1793 and died in 1883; 
he was the son of General Ebenezer Elmer, who was 
born in 1752 and died in 1843; he was the youth who 
accompanied his father. General Elmer, on Sunday 
afternoons to the little school house in Gouldtown 
which was also used as a church, in which the Goulds, 
Pierces, and Murrays, mulattoes, and Woodruffs, 
Westcotts, Seeleys, Batemans, and Fullers, white, held 
religious worship. The house is still standing, though 
moved to another locality. The children were cate- 
chized here; and Judge Elmer has often related how 
he once asked Othniel Murray, one of the small boys, 
what was the first thing he did when he arose in the 
morning, and the boy replied, " I go to my traps." 
The expected answer was an allusion to his morning 
devotions. 

In Evarts and Peck's " History of Salem, Cumber- 
land, and Gloucester Counties," published a few years 
ago, a sketch of Gouldtown appears which says : 

4 49 



60 GOULDTOWN 

Gouldtown is a settlement of colored people, many of them 
nearly white, about three miles east of Bridgeton. The families 
there mostly bear the names of Pierce and Gould. Some of 
them are active, industrious farmers, and have accumulated con- 
siderable property. A tradition believed by many is, that they 
are descended from Elizabeth Adams, the granddaughter of 
Fenwick — who directed in his will that his executors settle 
five hundred acres of land upon her on conditions stated. Fen- 
wick made his will and died in 1683. The tradition among the 
inhabitants of Gouldtown is that Elizabeth married Gould from 
whom they descended and that the five hundred acres of land 
was settled upon her and they inherited it. 

From these statements it will be seen that a per- 
sistent and well spread " tradition " prevailed that the 
Goulds were descendants of Fenwick. 

John Adams who had married Elizabeth Fenwick 
had a daughter Elizabeth, who was eleven j^^ears old 
at the time of the arrival of the family in Jersey and 
who consequently was nineteen years old at the time 
Fenwick made his will excepting against her having 
any share of his property unless she should repent of 
her sins and forsake " that Black that hath been the 
ruin of her." 

Johnson's History of Fenwick's Colony, written in 
1835, and published in 1839, says: "Among the 
numerous troubles and vexations which assailed Fen- 
wick, none appear to have distressed him more than the 
base and abandoned conduct of his granddaughter, 
Elizabeth Adams, who had attached herself to a citizen 
of color. By his will he deprives her of any share in 
his estate, ' unless the Lord open her eyes to see her 
abominable transgression against him, me and her 
good father, by giving her true repentance and forsak- 
ing that Black which hath been the ruin of her and be- 
coming penitent for her sins.' From this illicit con- 




Judge Lifius Q. C. Eliiek. 



TRADITIONS; DESCENT 51 

nection has sprung the famihes of the Goulds at a settle- 
ment called Gouldtown, in Cumberland County." 
Later, this same liistorian in a memoir of John Fen- 
wick wrote: " Elizabeth Adams had formed a connec- 
tion with a negro man whose name was Gould." ^ 

This John and Elizabeth Adams continued to live 
in what is now Cumberland County after the death of 
Fen wick; but the historians give no further mention 
of Elizabeth Gould, if indeed she ever took the name 
of Gould. John and Elizabeth Adams possessed land 
in what is now Bacon's Neck in Cmnberland County 
acquired through John Fenwick and in the year before 
the death of the latter, sold two hundred and sixty acres 
to Samuel Bacon, a Quaker and seaman from Wood- 
bridge, New Jersey; hence the name Bacon's Neck. The 
deed for this property is still in existence among the 
papers of the late Mrs. Kate Knight and now in the 
possession of Ephraim J. Cook, of Port Norris, N. J. 

John Adams appears to have been unable to write, 
as all the public documents signed by him are by " his 
mark." Then Elizabeth Adams, senior, according to 
this will, was living in 1682, although John Clements 
supposes she had died before her father's will was made 
in 1683. This supposition is based upon the fact that 
she is not mentioned in the will and that the devises 
therein made are directly to her children. John Adams 
died in 1700. 

The name of the Gould whom Elizabeth married is 
not known, nor is the date of her death, or the place 
where she is buried. We have the record of only one 
son, and of him we have but two authentic records. 

In the oldest register of the Gouldto^vn graveyard 
the spot is marked where is laid away the remains of, 

'R. G. Johnson, Memoir of John Fenwick, in New Jersey Hist. Soc. 
Publ., 1849. 



52 GOULDTOWN 

" Benjamin Gould and Ann, his wife." Swedes and 
Finns had been settled in some parts of what is now 
Salem and Gloucester Counties before Fenwick's 
arrival, and this Benjamin Gould's wife, Ann, was a 
Finn. 

The following is his will. The name is spelled Gold, 
Goold and Gould, in the records. 

WILL OF BENJAMIN GOULD. 

SECRETAEY OF STATe's OFFICE, TRENTON, NEW JERSEY, 
BOOK 18 OF WILLS, PAGE 516. 

In the Name of God, Amen, the ninth day of May, in the 
year of our Lord, 1T77. 

I, Benjamin Gold, of Fairfield, in the County of Cumber- 
land and in the State of New Jersey, yeoman, being sick and 
weak in body, but of perfect mind and memory, blessed be God 
therefor, calling unto mind the Mortallity of my body and know- 
ing that it is appointed unto all men once to die do make and 
ordain this my last will, that is to say, principally and first of 
all give and recommend my soul into the hands of God, who gave 
it and for my body I recommend it to the Earth to be buried in 
a Christianlike and decent manner at the discretion of my 
executors, nothing doubting but at the general Resurrection I 
shall receive the same again by the mighty power of God and 
as touching such worldly estate wherewith it hath pleased God 
to bless me in this life I give, devise and dispose of in the 
following manner and form: 

Imprimis : It is my will and I do order that in the first place 
all my just debts and funeral charges be paid and satisfied in 
some convenient time after my decease by my executors. 

Item: I give, and bequeath unto my well beloved wife, Ann 
Gold, the one-third part of all my moveable estate to her and 
her heirs forever and also the third part of the profits of my 
plantation on which I now dwell at the West end of my land. 

Item: I give and bequeath imto my daughter, Sarah Goold, 
one small feather bed to her and her heirs forever. 



TRADITIONS; DESCENT 53 

Item: I give and bequeath unto my eldest son, Anthony 
Goold, the sum of Fifteen pounds to be paid to him out of nty 
moveable estate to him and to his heirs forever, and I do order 
that a Vendue shall be made of all my moveable estate and when 
my debts are paid out of it and my wife has got her thirds out 
of it as aforesaid, the remainder of my moveable estate to be 
equally divided between my two sons, Samuel Goold and Abijah 
Goold. 

Item: I give and bequeath unto my two sons, Samuel Goold 
and Abijah Goold One hundred and thirty-six acres of my land 
on the East end to be equally divided between them. I give it to 
them and to their heirs forever. 

Item: I give and bequeath unto my youngest son, Elisha 
Goold, all the remainder of my land to him and his heirs for- 
ever. And I do constitute make and ordain Thomas Joslin with 
James Hood my only and sole executors of this my last will and 
testament and do hereby utterly disallow revise and disallow all 
and every other former testaments, wills, legacies and executors 
ratifying this and no other to be my last will and testament. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal 
the day and year above written. 

Benjajon Gooi-d. (Seal) 
Witnesses 

James Sayre, Joshua White, 

her 

Anna X Sayre. 

mark. 

The date of probate is not given, but the preceding 
was proven June 27, 1777. The account of the execu- 
tors was approved February 13, 1779 (Book 22, page 
69). It amounted to £ 148 5 s., personal. 

Anthony Gould left a will (Book 40, page 508), 
dated June 23, 1803. Witnesses, Jeremiah Smith, 
Abner Smith. It directs all property to be sold — ^to 
daughter Phebe Gould $6. Remainder to be divided 
between two daughters, Christiana and Martha. Jona- 



54 GOULDTOWN 

than Bowen, Executor, and guardian of daughters, 
Christiana and Martha until they are eighteen. Will 
proved September 27, 1803. Anthony Gould was 
Benjamin's oldest son. 

From these four sons, mentioned in the above will, 
descended all the Goulds of Gouldtown, and from them 
the place derived its name. 

When Benjamin Gould, the founder of Gouldtown, 
grew up, it is quite probable there were no girls of his 
own color with whom he could associate had he desired 
to do so; that he had brothers and sisters to grow to 
maturity has not been established, but the tradition 
handed down through his sons is that his parents had 
five children, one of whom was a son named Levi; all 
the others died young, and all trace of Levi was lost 
before the death of Benjamin. It was held that Levi 
was older than Benjamin. 

Benjamin married a Finn, whose name was Ann; 
he got none of the Fenwick land, nor any of the lands of 
his mother's father, John Adams, so far as can be 
learned. 

There were other descendants of both Fenwick and 
Adams, for Samuel Hedge and Edward Champness, 
as well as John Adams, married daughters of Fenwick. 

Judge Elmer, in his history of Cumberland County 
says: "Benjamin Champneys (thus he spells the 
name) a descendant of Fenwick, studied with Ebenezer 
Elmer in 1793, and, after a few voyages at sea, married 
a daughter of Colonel Potter, and settled as a physician 
in Bridgeton. He was much esteemed, but died young 
in 1814." 

The "Widow Champneys," mother of the Dr. 
Champneys mentioned, kept the Pole Tavern, one of 
the ancient landmarks of South Jersey; Dr. Champ- 
neys was her son. Colonel Potter's sons, whose sister 



TRADITIONS; DESCENT 55 

Dr. Champneys married, kept a general store in Bridge- 
ton, at which the Goulds, as well as the general pubHc, 
dealt. One of the sons of a member of the firm has 
often repeated this little incident as showing that the 
claimed descent of the Goulds from Fenwick was known 
then as the common and undisputed tradition. He said 
that Dr. Champneys was connected with the store, and 
among those who had become indebted to the store was 
Benjamin Gould, second, the grandson of the founder 
of Gouldtown. This Benjamin Gould was a dealer in 
cord-wood and hoop-poles, to a considerable extent. 

The firm sued him for the amount of an indebtedness 
which he had contracted with them. This made him, 
Gould, very angry, and he hastened to the store in great 
wrath that he should be treated with such indignity. 
After he had given vent to his feelings and had cooled 
off so he could be talked to in a pacific manner. Dr. 
Champneys said: " Well, Benjamin, we knew it was a 
mean thing to do, and we hated to do it, but we need 
money very badly and we've got to sue people to get it 
in, and we didn't know who to begin on ; so we thought 
we would begin on our o\vn relations fii'st, then other 
people wouldn't mind it so much." 

The explanation was entirely satisfactory and the 
account was settled. This incident was told to the 
writer by the son of the member of the firm alluded to, 
who, at the time of relating, was the acknowledged 
historiographer of local events and traditions, and a 
reliable local genealogist. The Benjamin Gould, 
second, was the grandfather of the writer; he was born 
in 1779, or two years after the death of his grandfather, 
Benjamin, first, and was, at the time of this incident, 
about thirty years old. He was the son of Abijah 
Gould, who died in 1806, who was born about 1730 
or 1735. 



56 GOULDTOWN 

Benjamin Gould, the founder, was born between 
1700 and 1705; his mother, EHzabeth Adams Gould, 
being then a little more than thirty-five years of age. 

Comparatively nothing is known of his early life; 
it is believed that he was the youngest of the five chil- 
dren. He must have been a hardy man of thrift, and a 
man much nearer white than mulatto, as indicated by 
his descendants. His will shows that he had accumu- 
lated considerable property, which is still in the hands 
of his descendants, who have added to it. The in- 
ventory of his personal property, consisting of cattle, 
sheep, oxen and the like, aggregated £ 148 5 s., which 
was quite a sum for those days. 

His will left £ 15 to his oldest son, Anthony. Why 
this was so does not appear, unless it was because he con- 
sidered him already provided for, or had previously 
helped him, for all records in the County Clerk's Office 
show that Anthony Gould owned property on the road 
from Bridgetown to Beaver Dam, or Maurice River 
Bridge, which he had purchased from John Page, by 
deed bearing date 1767. 

Benjamin Gould had three other sons and one 
daughter ; the other sons, as given in the will, and whose 
descendants are all easily traced, were Samuel, Abijah 
and Elisha; the daughter, Sarah, died unmarried, 
shortly after the death of her father. The early life 
of these four boys was not altogether monotonous, they 
had plenty of companions among the hardy woodmen 
of those times, for the country was forest-covered, the 
principal source of industry being the cutting and haul- 
ing of logs, rails for fencing, cord-wood and timber. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE EARLY GOULDS AND THEIR ASSOCL^TIONS ; THE 

PIERCES AND MURRAYS; THE THREE FOLTNDA- 

TION FAMILIES. 

In " Historical Collections of New Jersey," it is 
related that Fenwick made three purchases from the 
Indians of the lands included in the tract out of which 
Salem and Cumberland Counties were made; the first 
and second purchases included all the country between 
the Cohansey and Salem creeks, and the third purchase 
included all which lay between the Cohansey and 
Maurice River. These purchases were made in the 
years 1675 and 1676. " Emigrants were now arriving 
and Fenwick, having become sole proprietor of this 
large tract of country, which he called Fenwick's colony, 
sales were rapidly made of large, as well as small tracts 
of land, and so continued until his death." 

The following is extracted " From the First General 
Order, as agreed upon by Fenwick and the first 
purchasers " : 

And as for the settling of the town of New Salem, it is like- 
wise ordered that the town be divided by a street; that the 
Southeast side be for the purchasers, who are to take their 
lots of sixteen acres as they come to take them up and plant 
them, as they happen to join to the lots of the purchasers 
resident, who are to hold their present plantations, and aU 
of them to be accounted as part of their purchases, and the 
other part, on the North and by East and by South is to be 
disposed of by the chief proprietor for the encouragement of 
trade; he also giving, for the good of the town in general, the 
field or marsh that lieth between the town and Goodchild's 
plantation; . . . and lastly, we do leave all other things 

57 



58 GOULDTOWN 

concerning the setting forth and surveying the said purchases 
unto the chief proprietor, to order as he sees fit. 

Signed accordingly, the twenty-fifth day of the fourth 
month, sixteen hundred and seventy-six. 

Fenwick. 

Edward Wade, John Smith, Richard Noble, Samuel Nichol- 
son, John Adams, Hypolite Lefevre, Edward Champness, 
Richard Whitacar, William Malston, Robert Wade. 

John Fenwick held much the same relation to this 
section of New Jersey — especially to Salem and Salem 
County — as William Penn did to Philadelphia and 
that portion of Pennsylvania. 

We have now to do mainly with the lines of the tliree 
families whose names are mentioned in the opening 
chapter of this book. The beginning of the Gould 
family has been outlined sufficiently now to introduce 
the beginning of the two other families already named — 
the Pierces and the Murrays. 

The Pierces were next in point of early intelligence 
and importance to the Goulds. Benjamin Gould and 
his four sons showed considerable broad-mindedness, 
and intelligence, as will appear in further detail; they 
accumulated property, and maintained a life of inde- 
pendence, self-reliance, and manhood for the times in 
which they lived and the naturally poor soil and country 
which they inhabited. The white people who inhabited 
the contiguous localities fared no better than they, and 
those of them who achieved any greater success in life 
than did the Goulds of those early days, changed their 
locality before changing their mode of living. Before 
the material advancement in life and standing of these 
families now detailed, the entire country between what 
is now Bridgeton and Millville, had been surv^eyed and 
cut up into smaller holdings. 



FOUNDATION FAMILIES 59 

Judge Elmer's history shows that Richard Hancock, 
who was Fenwick's first Surveyor-General, came to what 
is now called Bridgeton in 1686 and erected a sawmill 
on the stream then called and ever since known as Mill 
Creek, which runs along bj'' the Dix ^vrapper factory 
and is the outlet of East Lake and the Indian Field 
Run. This land, covered, as it then was, with hea^y 
cedar, pine, and oak timber, was included in an eleven- 
thousand-acre survey, located about this time for the 
West Jersey Society. This Society was formed by 
several large proprietors living partly in London and 
partly in the provinces. Probably Hancock obtained 
title to his holdings from them, says Judge Elmer. 
Continuing he says : " It does not appear that he ever 
lived here, his residence being at the place in Salem 
County named after him Hancock's Bridge, where 
there still remain some of his descendants." From 
Hancock's sawmill much lumber was sawed up and 
sent away — for Thomas, a historian, states, says Judge 
Elmer, " a goodly store of lumber went out of the 
Cohansey to Philadelphia." 

Writing of the eleven-thousand-acre survey, before 
mentioned, and as appears in Elmer's History, the 
records show that " on the east side of the Cohansey a 
large tract of eleven thousand acres was surveyed by 
Worlidge and Budd for the West Jersey Society in 
1686, and this was resurveyed and recorded in 1716. 
East of that tract a large survey was made for the heirs 
of William Penn, which extended to the Maurice 
River. It has been asserted that the holdings of 
Benjamin Gould and his compatriots came originally 
from the West Jersey Society out of this eleven- thou- 
sand-acre survey. Elmer's History declares : " It may be 
safely said that four-fifths of the land included in Cum- 
berland County was covered by surveys before 1700." 



60 GOULDTOWN 

The first proprietors of the land within the bounds 
of what is now Cumberland County were principally 
Friends; but few of the actual settlers, however, were 
Friends ; these people being mostly confined to Green- 
wich, and later, a few on Maurice River, about Buck- 
shutem and vicinity and finally about where Millville 
now is. 

It requires some stretch of imagination to under- 
stand how those hardy people, those pioneers and early 
settlers, made a living, — yet those who are now ad- 
vanced to near the fourscore mark of their years can 
form a pretty good conception of their modes of life, 
as they gathered it from the traditions and conversa- 
tions, jokes, anecdotes, and pleasantries of their own 
gi'andsires and granddames. The grandsires would tell 
about their daily life in clearing their lands, burning the 
logs or hauling them to the sawmill with their oxen; 
about sowing the rye for the rye bread, or the flax to 
grow their own clothing; instruct how to pull the flax, 
heckle it, spin it into thread and weave it into coarse 
tow cloth; how some raised sheep, sheared the wool, 
spun it, and had it woven into the coarse " linsey- 
woolsey " cloth, from which the granddames could make 
the heavy warm clothing of " homespun " and " bobin- 
ette." They would tell also of the leather breeches of 
calfskin and the under jackets made of deerskin; and of 
splint chairs, home-made, bottomed with the deerskin, 
the splint brooms with which they swept the floors of 
their humble homes, many of them mere cabins; the 
" noggins " and the " piggins " with which to measure 
small commodities; some would tell how they reaped 
the grain with the sickle, walking their oxen over it, 
treading out the grain on the threshing floors to winnow 
out afterward in the winds. 

All these things I have heard related, and so have 



FOUNDATION FAMILIES 61 

you, who have lived your threescore and ten years in 
Cumberland County. Such as this was the hardy and 
independent life of the early inhabitants of Gouldtown. 
The great forests fell beneath the strokes of their axes ; 
the logs were hauled to the sawmill and the cord- wood to 
the landings on the Cohansey River, whence they were 
taken in vessels either as lumber or cord-wood to Phila- 
delphia ; or the wood was burned to charcoal and taken to 
Philadelphia and New York, in those early days. There 
was but little charcoal, however, shipped from the land- 
ings on the Cohansey; most of tliis commodity was 
hauled to the landings on the Maurice River and 
shipped to New York, as that was the better market. 
There were landings on the Cohansey known as " The 
Bridge," afterward called " Cohansey Bridge " — now 
Bridgeton. " Free Landing," a point between the 
Dailey farm and the Donaghay farm, and also at 
" Bumbridge " — now Fairton. Hundreds and thou- 
sands of cords of wood were hauled from the country 
east of the Cohansey to those shipping-points and 
freighted to Philadelphia. 

The ring of the woodman's axe was heard all winter 
long through the forests, and the year around teams, 
both of oxen and horses, were seen upon all the roads 
leading from the forests to the river-docks. The people 
who did all this work were not all Goulds, Pierces, and 
Murrays, but there were Garrisons, Elmers, Clarks, 
Woodruffs, Batemans, Lummises, Facemires, Pages, 
Steelings and hosts of others, whose names are still 
prominent among their descendants in this county. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ORIGIN OF THE PIERCE, MURRAY, AND CUFF FAMILIES. 

Tradition says that the Pierces originated from two 
mulattoes who were brought here in a vessel from the 
West Indies, w^ith which the Colony had early trade, 
vessels from the West Indies arriving at Greenwich 
and also coming up as far as to what is now Bridgeton. 
These two men were Richard and Anthony Pierce, 
brothers. It was the custom in those early days for the 
landowners to pay the passage of immigi'ants who came 
to this country and were unable themselves to pay, 
and those immigrants would be indentured to the land- 
owners for a term of years, or if they were females, the 
landowners might make wives of them.^ 

Anthony and Richard Pierce paid the passage of 
two Dutch women, sisters, from Holland; their names 
were Marie and Hannah Van Aca. The last name 
speedily degenerated into Wanaca, and was made the 
Christian name of a son of one of them. From these 
descended all the Pierces of Gouldtown. They came 
to the colony of West New Jersey before the middle of 
the eighteenth century. 

The Murrays originated in Cape May; they claim 
an Indian ancestry. The first Murray of whom there 
is trace in the vicinity of the earliest settlements of 
Gouldtown, was Othniel Murray. He claimed to be 
a Lenapee or Siconessee Indian, and came from Cape 

* Professor Kalm, writing from Rancocas, N. J., December 18, 1743, 
relative to the powers of a clergjTnan respecting the performance of the 
marriage ceremony, said: "He cannot marry such strangers as have bound 
themselves to serve a certain number of years in order to pay their passage 
from Europe, without the consent of their masters." — New Jersey Archives. 
62 



FAMILY ORIGINS 63 

May County. The Lenapees resided in the loeahty of 
Cohansey (or Bridgeton) and had quite a settlement 
at what became known as the Indian Fields, at a run 
still known as the Indian Field Run. This Othniel 
Murray married Katharine (last name unknown), a 
Swede. They had five children, three sons and two 
daughters, INIark JSIurray, David Murray, and John 
Murray, and JMary Murray and Dorcas Murray. From 
these descended all the Murrays of Gouldtown. 

We have now outlined the three chief families of 
Gouldtown, viz.: Benjamin Gould and Ann, his wife 
(they had Elizabeth and Benjamin, Jr., who died 
young). TJieir other children were Sarah, Anthony, 
Samuel, Abijah, and Elisha; Sarah died unmarried. 
Anthony Pierce and Marie (Mary) had many children; 
their sons were Menon Pierce, Richard Pierce, Anthony 
Pierce, Jr., Jesse Pierce, 1st, John Pierce, Benjamin 
Pierce, and Wanaca Pierce, and two daughters, Hannah 
Pierce and Elizabeth Pierce. Richard Pierce, Sr., and 
Hannah, had but one son, Adam Pierce, but they had 
four daughters, viz.: INIary, Rhumah, Hannah, and 
Elizabeth. 

These four families — ^the children of Benjamin and 
Ann Gould, the children of Anthony and Mary Van 
Aca Pierce, the children of Richard and Hannah Van 
Aca Pierce, and the cliildren of Othniel and Katharine 
Murray, rapidly intermarried before the Revolution. 
They also intermarried with white people. ' 

Benjamin Gould's oldest son, Anthony Gould, 
married Phoebe Lummis, a white girl — one of the 
Lummises, before named. Her father is believed to 
have been James Lummis. Benjamin Gould's second 
son, Samuel Gould, married Rhumah Pierce, daughter 
of Richard and Hannah Pierce. Benjamin Gould's 
third son, Abijah Gould, married Hannah Pierce, 



64 GOULDTOWN 

daughter of Richard and Hannah Pierce. Anthony 
Pierce's daughter, Elizabeth Pierce, married Josiah 
Hicks, of Gloucester. Benjamin Gould's fourth son, 
Elisha Gould, married Elizabeth Pierce, daughter of 
Richard and Hannah Pierce. Hannah Pierce, born in 
1767, married Reuben Cuff, of Salem, the minister. 
These all lived in colonial times ; Adam Pierce, the only 
son of Richard and Haimah Pierce, and Richard Pierce, 
Jr., and Anthony Pierce, Jr., served in the Revolution- 
ary War; they were Revolutionary pensioners until 
their deaths, between 1836 and 1850, at a great age. 

One of the sons of Othniel Murray and Katharine, 
his wife, was also a soldier of the Revolution and was 
a deserter. It is told of him that an officer from Gen- 
eral Joseph Bloomfield's command came after him, and 
he refused to go. The officer drew his sword and said : 
" I demand for the last time that you go with me and 
return to your company; will you go? " Young Mur- 
ray saw determination in the officer's attitude and he 
reluctantly replied, " I will go." He returned to the 
army and served till the end of the war. 

Wanaca Pierce, son of Anthony and Mary Van 
Aca Pierce, married Mary Murray, daughter of Othniel 
and Katharine Murray. Adam Pierce, son of Richard 
and Hannah Van Aca Pierce, married Mary Murray's 
sister, Dorcas Murray. 

In the early days the settlements, Gouldtown and 
Piercetown, were somewhat like those of the Jews and 
Samaritans about which we read in the New Testament. 
Each settlement had its own church, its own school- 
house, and its own family and social customs. The 
differences in appearance, in manners, in pronunciation 
and in their general habits and views were marked ; and 
there was no small degree of antipathy or at least 



FAMILY ORIGINS 65 

mutual disregard existing between the two races. 
Happily, with the blending of the schools and the 
general advance of intelligence, much of this mutual 
disregard has passed away and the people are now 
much nearer unification. 

Not to go at length into particulars, we may re- 
mark that in the early times the Pierces exhibited 
greater fondness for flowers, for bright colors in dress, 
amd for music than did the Goulds. They cared less 
for home, were more given to hunting and fishing and 
evinced greater love for amusement. While among 
the Pierces the old time " fiddle " survived and frolics 
were held in some far-away cabin of a home where men 
and women performed some kind of dance, during the 
same period there was not a musical instrument or 
musician among the Goulds. It is doubtful if there 
was a Gould of Gouldtown who could dance a step. 
Many of the Pierces also had fine musical voices and 
good ear for music, while the Goulds were markedly 
defective in both respects. 

The Pierces were more devoted to working in the 
woods and in the marshes, caring less for farming; 
while the Goulds in the earliest times manifested strong 
interest towards farming, raising hogs and securing 
good horses. In manners the Goulds were usually 
brusque or blunt; the Pierces suave and plausible. 

There was a stronger belief in signs, in ghosts, in 
witches and " conjurors " among the Pierces than 
among the Goulds, to be traced to their Dutch origin 
in part; the Goulds, however, were not entirely free 
from these superstitions. But the great regard for the 
moon and the deviation of the wind in relation to sow- 
ing and planting was usually found coupled more with 
the Pierce or Murray element of the population than 
with the Gould. 



66 GOULDTOWN 

The Pierces and Murrays had more of the elements 
which go to make musicians, poets, orators, and singers, 
than the Goulds. The congregation which assembled 
in Piercetown, a century or more ago, would produce 
much better singing and was much more eloquent in 
speech and prayer than the congregation in Gouldtown. 
The older Pierces and Murrays could sing, making 
melody with their voices, while the older Goulds could 
not. Indeed one of the earliest circuit preachers who 
came to Gouldtown reported that there was not a man 
there who could sing " Praise God from whom all 
blessings flow ! " 

The Goulds ranked well in sturdy and steady-going 
ways. They knew how to work from year's end to 
year's end. They were persevering and frugal, with a 
commendable zeal for learning. What they lacked of 
the showy talents they more than compensated for in the 
homely virtues. 

The Goulds of the early generations, as well as the 
Murrays, were fair-skinned, ^vith blue eyes and light 
hair. The Pierces were darker complexioned with 
black hair and black eyes. The young women were 
noted for their good looks and regular features. The 
Cuff family origin will be given later. It properly 
belongs to Salem County. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

IMPORTANCE OF GENEALOGICAI. RESEARCH ; SOME OF THE 

ORIGINAL FA^IILY GENEALOGIES OF SALEM AND 

CUMBERLAND COUNTIES ; COMPILATION OF 

THOMAS SHOURDS. 

TiHE "Magazine of American History" says: 
" The gi*owing interest in ancestry indicates that 
Americans are fast coming to believe that it is of some 
consequence to know from whom they are descended. 
Long lines of ancestry are revealed in every person. 
Pride in ancestry deserves encoiu'agement. One can- 
not know too much about himself. Genealogy is the 
most fascinating branch of history." 

The late Thomas Shom'ds, liistorian of Salem 
County, nearly forty years ago compiled a long line of 
Salem and Cumberland County genealogy, which well 
deserves to be put in permanent form. With that end 
in view, a portion is given here, wliich relates to some 
of the most prominent families in Cumberland County. 
It embraces the Sheppard family, from which came the 
first Mayor of Bridgeton, the Bacons of Bacon's Neck, 
the Wheatons of Greenwich, the Mulfords, the Bate- 
mans, the Holmeses, and many more. He wrote: 

The Sheppard family is the most numerous of any, except- 
ing the Thompsons, in the ancient County of Salem. There 
were three brothers, David, Thomas and John Sheppard ; they 
came from Tipperary, Ireland. On their arrival in America 
they resided for a short time at Shrewsbury, East Jersey. In 
1683 they settled in what is now Cumberland County, on the 
south side of the Cohansey, it being a neck of land bounded on 
the north by the Cohansey River, on the south by a small 
creek, called Back Creek. It is not improbable that they gave 

67 



68 GOULDTOWN 

it the name of Shrewsbury Neck, after the township in East 
Jersey where they first settled. The Sheppard family, I have no 
doubt, were English; their name implies as much. The Shep- 
pards were members of the Baptist Church of Cleagh Keaton, 
in the County of Tipperary, Ireland. They were also among 
the few persons that organized the First Cohansey Baptist 
Church, in 1690, at Shrewsbury Neck. David Sheppard's first 
purchase was fifty acres of land of Captain William Dare; he 
afterward purchased one hundred and fifty acres, on which he 
lived and died. I have no doubt he became the owner of a large 
quantity of land in the Neck. 

The Sheppard, Westcott and Reeves families, during the 
last (eighteenth) century and the fore part of the present 
(nineteenth), were the principal owners of Back and Shrewsbury 
Neck. David Sheppard, Sr., agreeably to the most authentic 
account, had six children: David, bom 1690; John, Joseph, 
Enoch, Hannah, and Elizabeth Sheppard. Hannah married a 
young man named Gillman. She died in 1722, leaving one son, 
David Gillman. John, the son of David Sheppard, Sr., died 
about the year 1719, without issue, leaving his property to his 
brothers and sisters. David, the eldest son of David Sheppard, 
the emigrant, was born about the year 1690, and inherited the 
homestead property of his father, in Back Neck. He married 
in 1719. The children of David Sheppard, Jr., and his wife, 
Sarah Sheppard, were Philip, bom 1720 ; Ephraim, bom 1722 ; 
David, 1724 ; Joseph, 1727, and Phoebe Sheppard. Philip, the 
eldest, inherited a large landed estate in Back Neck, on which 
he resided. The property is now owned by one of the heirs of 
the late Ephraim Mulford. Philip was twice married; his first 
wife was Mary, his second Sarah Bennett. He was considered 
one of the largest and most successful farmers in that neighbor- 
hood. Tradition has it that he was the first, in that section, 
that owned a covered wagon. I do not suppose that it was 
an elliptic spring carriage, but plain as it was, I have no doubt 
it was considered by the inhabitants a great innovation. It was 
then the custom to travel on horseback. Philip died January 
5, 1797, aged seventy-seven, leaving a large real and personal 
estate to liis children. His widow, Sarah Sheppard, married 



GENEALOGIES 69 

John Remington, in 1801. Philip was buried in the Baptist 
cemetery, near Sheppard's mill ; he was a deacon in the cliurch, 
and was considered one of the most prominent citizens in that 
section of Cumberland County. The inventory of his personal 
property at the time of his death amounted to £580 6s. His 
children by his first wife, Mary, were Amos, Hannah, Mary and 
Naomi Sheppard. By his second wife, Sarah B. Sheppard, 
Ichabod, Henry, Phoebe, and William Sheppard. Ephraim, the 
son of David Sheppard, Jr., born 1722, was married three 
times. His first wife was Kesiah Kelsey ; his second was Sarah 
Dennis ; third, Rebecca Barrett. He lived in Hopewell Town- 
ship, on the road from Bowentown to Readstown, and was 
owner of a large landed estate in that section, leaving at his 
death large farms to all four of his sons, all adjoining one 
another on the straight road from Bridgeton to Readstown. 
He was a highly respected citizen, and like his brother Philip, 
was one of the deacons of Cohansey church. He died May 8, 
1783, aged sixty years, and was buried in the Baptist yard 
adjoining the church, near Sheppard's mill, by the side of his 
wife, Sarah Dennis, who died 1st mo. 21st, 1777. She died in 
her fifty-first year. His third wife, Rebecca Barrett, survived 
him twenty years. She was buried at Shiloh, being a Seventh- 
day Baptist. Ephraim had ten children, all by his second wife, 
Sarah Dennis. The oldest was Joel, bom 1748, Abner, bom 
May, 1750; James, born December 25, 1752; Hannah, and 
Rachel. Phoebe married Wade Barker, who was the grandson 
of Samuel Wade, Jr., of Alloway's Creek. She died young, 
leaving no issue. Wade was buried in the old Baptist yard at 
Mill Hollow, near Salem. Sarah, Elizabeth, and Hope Shep- 
pard, who afterward married Reuel Sayres, were the other chil- 
dren. Sayres subsequently moved to the State of Ohio. Eph- 
raim's youngest child was Ephraim Sheppard. David, the son 
of David Sheppard, Jr., was born in the year 1724. He married 
Temperance Sheppard, daughter of Jonadab and Phoebe 
Sheppard. They lived in the Township of Downe, Cumberland 
County. He was a member of Cohansey church, as was also 
his wife, and both became constituent members of the Dividing 
Creek Baptist Church at its constitution, May 30, 1761; at 



70 GOULDTOWN 

that time he became deacon of the church and afterward a 
colleague of the pastor, Samuel Heaton. David Sheppard died 
June 18, 1774, aged fifty years ; his widow subsequently married 
a man by the name of Lore. She was born in 1731 and died 
July 28, 1796, aged sixty-five years ; she and her first husband, 
David Sheppard, were buried at Dividing Creek Baptist grave- 
yard. The following are the names of David and Temperance 
Sheppard's children; Hosea, David, Owen, Jonadab, Tabitha, 
Temperance and Mary Sheppard. Joseph the son of David 
Sheppard, Jr., was born in 1727 ; he married a Say re. They 
lived in Back Neck and owned a large quantity of good land^ 
which he left to his children. 

I have been informed that most, if not all, of said land has 
now passed out of their possession. He also left a large per- 
sonal estate for that time, amounting to £647 12s. He and his 
wife were members of the Cohansey church. It seems he was a 
prominent man in that section. He was chosen December 22, 
1774, one of the committee of safety for the County of Cumber- 
land, to carry into effect the resolution of the Continental Con- 
gress, and on whose hands rested the supreme authority after 
the war commenced, until the formation of the new State Govern- 
ment gave an organized power in New Jersey. He died 1st 
mo. 8th, 1782, aged fifty-four years, and was buried on his own 
farm in an old family burying ground, now long disused. His 
wife, Mary Sayres Sheppard, was buried in the same yard. She 
died in 1819, aged fifty-eight years; their daughter, Lydia, 
also lies there; all three of them have tombstones at the head 
of their graves. This family graveyard is an exception to the 
general rule. It was the practice in the early settlement of 
Fenwick's colony, to have family burying grounds, but the 
plough has passed over nearly all of them, so no man knoweth 
where many of our ancestors la}^ I have been informed that 
the ancient Swedish family, the Sinnicksons, cleared their old 
family graveyard during last year, in Obisquahasett, and their 
intentions are to keep it in good order — a noble deed. Dr. 
George B. Wood has likewise recently caused to be erected a 
monument to his great-grandfather, Richard Wood, who died 
in 1759, in the family graveyard in Stoe Creek Township, 



GENEALOGIES 71 

County of Cumberland. Joseph Sheppard, the year before his 
death, built a large brick house on his property, and died sooii 
afterwards; the house is still standing, and the place is now 
owned by that enterprising citizen, Richard Laning, the son of 
John Laning. The following are the names of Joseph Shep- 
pard's children : David, Ijpm 1758 ; Lydia, 1760 ; Ruth, Isaac, 
Mary, and Lucy Sheppard. 

Lucy, the daughter of Joseph and Mary Sheppard, born 
November, 1773, married Isaac, son of Isaac and Judith 
Wheaton, in 1792 ; Isaac was born September, 1769. By that 
connection there were seven children — Joseph, the eldest, born 
in 1795, died March 3, 1871, never married. Their second son, 
Providence Ludlam Wheaton, bom April 21, 1798, died 3d mo. 
1st, 1867 — his wife was Ruth Foster — they had one son, Andrew 
Evan Wheaton, who resides at Greenwich with his mother, Mary 
Sheppard Wheaton. The eldest daughter of Isaac and Lucy 
S. Wheaton was born November 20, 1799; she was the second 
wife of Henry Mulford. Their three oldest children were Anna 
Maria, Hannah, and Isaac W. Mulford. William Wheaton, 
the son of Isaac and Lucy Wheaton, was born April 18, 1801, 
is living in Hopewell Township, and has a large family of chil- 
dren. Isaac Wheaton born February 26, 1803, died July 6, 
1846, leaving no children. Hannah, the daughter of Isaac and 
Lucy S. Wheaton, born in 1805, married in 1823 Gabriel Davis 
Hall, of Bacon's Neck, son of Ebenezer Hall. Gabriel and his 
wife had several children. She died August 31, 1849. Amos, 
the son of Philip Sheppard, bom about 1750, subsequently 
married Hannah Westcott, and died in 1788, at middle age; 
his widow married John Mulford. Josiah, the eldest son of 
Amos and Hannah W. Sheppard, born September 14, 1778, 
his wife was Charlotte Westcott, daughter of Henry and Jane 
Harris Westcott. He died October 4, 1850. His son, Henry, 
was born June 3, 1808, married and lives in Stone Creek Town- 
ship, near Jericho; they have a family of children. Jane, the 
daughter of Josiah, born in 1811 and died a young woman in 
1828. Hannah, the daughter of Josiah and Charlotte W. Shep- 
pard, bora 10th mo. 23rd, 1813, married Ephraim Glaspey; 
they have a family of children, and reside near the city of 



72 GOULDTOWN 

Bridgeton. Harriet, the fourth child of Josiah and Charlotte 
W. Sheppard, bom February 19, 1816, married James Shep- 
pard Kelsay in 1837; they have seven children. Martha, the 
daughter of Amos and Hannah W. Sheppard, born in 1780, 
subsequently married Charles Westcott, of Sayre's Neck, 
Cumberland County. She and her husband afterward moved to 
Covington, Kentucky, where she died in the winter of 1868, 
having children. Hannah, daughter of Philip and Mary Shep- 
pard, married Ephraim Shaw; they had three children, 
Harvey, Mary and Lydia. Lydia, the youngest, in 1810, 
married Henry Whitaker. They reside at Millville and have a 
large family of children, most of whom are married. Mary, 
daughter of Philip and Mary Sheppard, never married, and 
died May 17, 1799, aged about fifty years. 

Naomi, daughter of Philip, married William Conner; they 
had three children, Abigail, the eldest, born August 31, 1754, 
married Thomas Brooks in 1789; they had ten children. 
Thomas died September, 1829, and his widow, Abigail Brooks, 
died August 19, 1841, aged seventy-seven years. Prudence, born 
1766, whose first husband was James Sheppard, son of Elias 
and Susanna Sheppard (James was a nephew of Mark Shep- 
pard, who was one of the first of the Sheppard family that 
became a member of the Society of Friends). Prudence had 
one child by her first husband, James Sheppard, which died in 
infancy. Her second husband was William Johnson, William 
and Prudence Johnson had eight children. She died 9th mo. 
5th, 1869; her last husband, William Johnson, died 2nd mo. 
17th, 1831. Ichabod, son of Philip and Sarah Bennett Shep- 
pard, bom December 11, 1769, married Ruth Sheppard, 
daughter of Joel and Hannah Jenkins Sheppard (Joel was a 
cousin to Ichabod, being the son of Ephraim Sheppard). 
Ichabod and his wife had two children, Phoebe and Naomi. 
Ichabod died April 22, 1799, and his widow, Ruth Sheppard, 
married David Bateman, a minister in the Baptist denomina- 
tion; they had three sons, Isaac, Daniel and David Bateman. 
Ruth, their mother, departed this life July 29, 1806. Soon 
after that event, David Bateman and his three sons, Isaac, 
Daniel and David, removed to Ohio. Phoebe, daughter of 



GENEALOGIES 73 

Ichabod and Ruth Sheppard, married on March 28, 1819, John 
Reeves. There were two children by that connection — one 
daughter living at this time in the city of Bridgeton, and a son 
residing near Shiloh. Naomi, second daughter of Ichabod and 
Ruth Sheppard, born September 17, 1800, and in 1817 she 
married Jonathan Young, who was afterward drowned at sea; 
they had five children, all of whom died young, excepting Lewis 
Young, who is a resident of Bridgeton and was the old Court 
Crier. 

Harvey, son of Philip and Sarah B. Sheppard, married in 
1797 Hannah Smith of Greenwich, daughter of Isaac and 
Cynthia Smith; he had one daughter, Hannah, by his first 
marriage. She married in 1818 John Test, the son of Francis 
Test, Jr. John and his second wife, Hannah S. Test, removed 
to Indiana. He studied law, and was elected to Congress during 
Andrew Jackson's administration. He was an uncle to Joseph 
Test, who resides in Salem. The wife of Harvey Sheppard, 2d, 
was Ruth Ogden, daughter of Elmer and Charlotte Ogden, of 
Fairfield Township; they had three children, Philip, Abbie and 
Ruth. The wife of Harvey Sheppard, 3rd, was Amelia Davis, 
of Shiloh; he and his last wife went West in 1818. Phoebe, 
daughter of Philip Sheppard, married Joseph Newcomb, they 
lived in Back Neck, and had two children, Joseph and Sarah 
S. Newcomb. William, son of Philip Sheppard, born November 
29, 1778, married in 1802 Matilda Westcott, daughter of Henry 
and Jane Harris Westcott; they had six children, Ichabod, 
William, Sarah, Harris, Phoebe, and Elmer Ogden Sheppard. 

Joel, son of Ephraim and Sarah Dennis Sheppard, bom in 
1748, married Hannah Jenkins, who was born in 1749 and died 
in 1807; she left seven children, Dennis, Ruth, Sarah, Lydia, 
Amy, Elizabeth and Reuben Sheppard. Joel's second wife was 
Letitia Platts, widow of David Platts and daughter of David 
Gillman ; they had no issue. His third wife was Sarah Davis, 
of Shiloh ; they had no children. Joel was a deacon in the old 
Cohansey Church, and was a large farmer, living in Hopewell 
Township, and was a prominent citizen. Dennis, son of Joel 
and Hannah Sheppard, married a young woman by the name 
of Ayres. They moved to one of the Western States in 1817. 



74 GOULDTOWN 

Ruth, daughter of Joel Sheppard, married Ichabod, son of 
Philip and a cousin of her father. Sarah, daughter of Joel and 
Hannah J. Sheppard, bom 1774, married in 1799 Samuel 
Bond Davis, son of Elnathan and Susanna Bond Davis. 
Elnathan was the greatest surveyor in his generation in this 
section of the State for many years after the Revolution. The 
late Josiah Harrison, of Salem, who died aged over ninety years, 
who was a surveyor in his early life, told me a short time 
previous to his death that he regarded Elnathan Davis as 
captain general of the surveyors of Salem and Cumberland 
Counties. Samuel B. and Sarah Davis had several children, 
one of whom, Jarmin A. Davis, lives in Shiloh, and is a Justice 
of the Peace. Lydia Sheppard, daughter of Joel, married in 
1804* Oswell Ay res ; they had children but they are all deceased. 
Amy, daughter of Joel and Hannah Sheppard, born February 
15, 1780, in 1803 married Oliver Harris, son of Robert Harris. 
Oliver and Amy Harris had four children — Hosea, Hannah 
S., Mary, and Eliza. The latter was born October 14, 1808, 
and in 1826 married Hezekiah Johnson ; they moved to Oregon 
and are still living. One of their children is Franklin Johnson, 
D.D., pastor of a Baptist church at Newark, N. J. He is the 
author of several commentaries on the International Sunday- 
school Lessons, now in general use. Samuel, another son of 
Oliver and Amy Harris, born November 24, 1813. Elizabeth, 
daughter of Joel and Hannah Sheppard, in 1805 married Eli 
Beveman. Soon after their marriage, they moved to Highland 
County, Ohio ; they had issue. Reuben, son of Joel and Hannah 
Sheppard, married Elizabeth W. Dare, Reuben and his wife 
moved t'> Ohio in 1817 ; they had one son, William Alfred 
Sheppard, who was a physician at New Vienna, Clinton County, 
Ohio. He died in 1871, leaving children; Henry A. Sheppard 
is a lawyer at Hillsboro, Ohio ; Abner, second son of Ephraim 
and Sarah Dennis Sheppard, born May 28, 1750 ; his first wife 
was Mary Dowdney, who died about fifteen months after their 
marriage, leaving one child. Abner's second wife was Ruth 
Paullin; she died 1797. His third wife was Mary McGear, 
widow of John McGear; she died in 1809, and his fourth wife 
was Elizabeth Fithian. Abner was a farmer, and lived in Hope- 



GENEALOGIES 75 

well township the greater part of his life. At the time of the 
American Revolution he was in the militia, and was in Colonel 
Hand's regiment at the fight of Quinton's Bridge and took 
part in the battle ; he died March 2, 1824. The following are 
the names of his children: Mary, Ephraim (who died young), 
Henry, Temperance, Phoebe, Prudence, Delanah, Lafayette, 
Ruth, Mary, and Ephraim Elmer Sheppard. James Sheppard, 
the son of Ephraim and Sarah Dennis Sheppard, was bom 
December 25, 1752. His first wife was Hannah Brooks, whom 
he married January 23, 1774; she died in 1777. His second 
wife was Keziah Barber; they were married in 1778, She died 
June 11, 1824 and James, her husband, June 3, 1825. He was 
a deacon in Cohansey Baptist Church, a farmer and a large 
landowner in Hopewell Township, and had an excellent char- 
acter for uprightness in his dealings with his fellowmen, and 
was greatly respected by all who knew him. He had eleven 
children. 

The children of James and Hannah B. Sheppard were David 
and Phoebe Sheppard, and by his second wife, Keziah Barber 
Sheppard, Hannah, Rachel, Mary, Joseph, William, Prudence, 
Rebecca and Phoebe. Most of those children lived to grow up 
and marry. William, the son of James Sheppard, bom July, 
1785, married, March 3, 1808, Ann Husted, daughter of Henry 
and Ann Sheppard Husted, of Shrewsbury Neck. William was 
an ordained minister of the Baptist denomination, but never 
had charge of a church. He was a farmer, and preached as he 
had opportunity. They had tliirteen children. Hannah, the 
daughter of Ephraim and Sarah Sheppard, born about 1754, 
married Daniel Moore; she died in 1784. Rach>il, another 
daughter, born in 1761, married James Sayre, who was wounded 
at the massacre at Hancock's Bridge in 1778. Ephraim, son of 
Ephraim and Sarah, moved to Salem, and married Elizabeth, 
widow of John Challis, and mother of John and James Challis ; 
(the latter afterward became an ordained minister among the 
Baptists). Elizabeth Milbank, mother of these children, was 
bom at Waltham, England, May 2, 1770. Ephraim and his 
wife, Elizabeth M. Sheppard, had one daughter, Mary W., 
bom in 1809. 



76 GOULDTOWN 

David, son of Joseph and Mary Sheppard, born 1758, 
married in 1783, Phoebe, daughter of Providence and Sarah 
Ludlam; she died in 1799, leaving six children. Sarah, the 
eldest child, married in 1803, William S. Walker, a resident of 
Upper Alloway's Creek, Salem County ; they had three children. 
Phoebe Walker, their eldest daughter, married Thomas Bilder- 
back, of Allowaystown ; they left children. William Sheppard, a 
son, married Ann Stow, and lived on the homestead farm until 
his death; since that event his widow and his daughters have 
resided in Salem. Charles H. Walker owns and resides upon 
the homestead farm. 

Joseph, the son of David and Phoebe L. Sheppard, born 
January 9, 1786, was elected pastor of the First Baptist Church 
at Salem, in 1809, and was pastor of said church until 1829, 
and then removed to Mount Holly, where he continued as pastor 
seven years, but his health failing him, he resigned his pastoral 
charge and moved to Camden. He never took another pastoral 
charge, but preached occasionally when health permitted; he 
died in Camden in 1838, in the fifty-second year of his age. 
His wife was Hannah F. Budd ; they had four children, Mary, 
Phoebe Ann, Hannah and Josephine Sheppard ; they all married 
but Hannah. Phoebe Ann lived in the State of Georgia. 
Josephine lived in Washington, D. C, but died about two 
months since. David Sheppard's second wife was Miriam 
Smith, widow of Isaac Smith; she died in 1815, and David in 
1827. He was a deacon of Cohansey Church, and was a 
prominent citizen. For many years he lived on the homestead 
farm in Fairfield Township, but in later years he moved to 
Bridgeton, and built a large brick mansion on the west side of 
Cohansey, where his son, Isaac A. Sheppard, lived and died. 
The dwelling is now known as Ivy Hall Seminary for ladies. 
Providence Ludlam, son of David Sheppard, born February 
21, 1788, married Mary Letson, of New Brunswick, New Jer- 
sey. One of their children, Ebenezer L. Sheppard, lives in 
Pittsgrove Township, and is a member and clerk of the Pitts- 
grove Baptist Church. He has recently written and published 
a historical sketch of that church. William and David Ludlam 
were twin sons of David Sheppard, and were born June, 1790. 



GENEALOGIES 77 

William died in 1823 and never married. David, his brother, 
studied for a physician, but died suddenly about the time he 
was ready to commence the practice of his profession. 
Ercurious, the son of David, married Martha Lupadius, of 
New Brunswick. She is still living, but Ercurious is deceased. 
He left two children, Mary and Martha. Ebenezer, the son of 
David, bom July 23, 1798, died June, 1814. Mary, the 
daughter of David and Miriam Sheppard, his second wife, 
married in 1824 Jonathan J. Haun; they had two children, 
Maria and Mary Haun. The latter married Joseph Moore, 
homoeopathic physician, of Bridgeton; she died in 1860. 
Isaac A. Sheppard, son of David, bom in 1806, married, 1st 
of April, 1828, Jane H. Bennett; she died 1839, aged thirty- 
five years. Isaac's second wife was Hannah B. McLean, whom 
he married in 1841, but she only lived a little over a year. His 
third wife was Margaret E. Little, who is still living ; they were 
married in 1850. Isaac A. Sheppard died suddenly in his 
office in 1863, having been found sitting dead in his chair. He 
was a deacon of the First Baptist Church of Bridgeton. His 
oldest son, Isaac A., born in 1829, died April 11, 1832. Jane 
B., daughter of Isaac A. Sheppard, born in 1821, married, in 
1868, Horatio J. Mulford, the eldest son of the late Henry 
Mulford, of Bridgeton. Horatio, with his brother, Isaac W., 
and his sisters, were the originators and principal benefactors 
of the South Jersey Institute, a school for both sexes, located 
in Bridgeton. The cost of the building has been estimated at 
$60,000. It has a fine corps of teachers, and has been in 
operation four years, during which time it has established a 
reputation equal to the best educational institutions in the 
country. Horatio's wife, Jane Mulford, like her father, died 
suddenly, and was found dead sitting in her chair, on the 
evening of February 9, 1874. She was a woman of great 
usefulness in the church and in the community, and her loss 
was deeply felt by all. She left one child, a son, Horatio Jones 
Mulford, bom 1869. There were eight other children of Isaac 
A. Sheppard's, Miriam, Theodore, Francis, Charles, Eliza- 
beth, Frank, Frederick, and LiUian, widow of Mayor Smalley. 
Isaac, son of Joseph and Mary Sheppard, bom in 1776, 



78 GOULDTOWN 

married Sarah, daughter of Jeremiah Bennett; she died in 
1797. Isaac's second wife was Jane Harris Westcott, the 
widow of Henry Westcott, and daughter of Ephraim and 
Jane Harris, of Fairfi)eld Township, His third wife was 
Abigail B. Husted, widow of Henry Husted, and daughter of 
Ichabod Bishop. Isaac Sheppard died December 16, 1815. 
He had five children : Isaac, the eldest, never married ; Henry, 
the second son of Isaac and Sarah Sheppard, married, March 
27, 1811, Eunice Westcott. Soon after their marriage they 
moved to one of the Western States, and Henry died there. His 
widow returned to her native State and died in 1868. They 
had a family of children. Sarah, daughter of Isaac and Sarah 
Sheppard, bom November 23, 1797, married, March 17, 1819, 
Elmer Ogden ; they live in Greenwich, and have several chil- 
dren. Ephraim, the son of Isaac and Jane H. Sheppard, bom 
August 15, 1801, married, in 1819, Jane, daughter of Jehicl 
and Mary Westcott; she died in 1823. His second wife was 
Mary, daughter of John and Mary B. Westcott, of Fairfield; 
she died in 1842, and Ephraim Sheppard died July 9, 1848. 
His children by his first wife were Ephraim, the eldest, who 
went West, and died there; and Ehas Sheppard, who died 
young. Mary Jane, daughter of Ephraim and Mary Shep- 
pard, married Charles Campbell. Isaac Alpine Sheppard, son 
of Ephraim and Mary Sheppard, went to Philadelphia to live, 
and subsequently was elected a member of the Pennsylvania 
Legislature for several sessions. Isaac is the head of the great 
stove fimi of J. A. Sheppard & Company. Joseph, the son of 
Ephraim Sheppard, married Sarah Flanagan, of Sculltown; 
they now live in Camden County, between Haddonfield and 
Camden. Henry, son of Abner and Ruth Sheppard, was born 
in 1787, and married, the first of December, 1815, Margaret 
Lummis ; she died in 1817. Henry's second wife was Sarah B. 
Ogden, widow of John B. Ogden. They were married in March, 
1819; she died in 1858, and her husband, Henry Sheppard, in 
July, 1867. He was a hatter, and followed the business many 
years in Bridgeton, where he settled early in life. He was 
postmaster for several years in that town. All his children were 
by his second wife, Sarah B. Ogden. Jane Buck, daughter of 



GENEALOGIES 79 

Henry and Sarah B. Sheppard, born December 11, 1819, 
married in 1840, to Lorenzo Fisler Lee; he died July 17, 1848, 
leaving a widow and four children. Henry Sheppard, Jr., 
born November 8, 1821, married April 3, 1845, Rhoda S. 
Nixon, daughter of Jeremiah Nixon. A short time after their 
marriage they moved to Springfield, Green County, Missouri; 
and he has prospered there. For many years he and his 
brother, Charles, did the leading mercantile business of the 
place, but both have now retired from active business. Henry 
commanded one of the regiments of the militia of the State 
and was out several times during the Rebellion. That part of 
the State suffered much from the war. They have six chil- 
dren, Francis, Henry, John Nixon, Mary Thompson and 
Margaret Sheppard. Charles, son of Henry and Sarah Shep- 
pard, born September 5, 1823, married November 5, 1856, 
Lucy Dow, daughter of Ira and Mary Dow, of East Hard- 
wick, Vermont. Charles and his family are living at Spring- 
field, Mo. ; he being cashier of Green County National Bank. 
There are three more children of Henry Sheppard, Sr., Sarah, 
Margaret, and Joseph Ogden, who I believe reside in Bridgeton. 
Joseph is a physician, and during the Rebellion for a time 
served as a surgeon in the army. Ephraim Elmer, son of 
Abner and Mary Sheppard, born October 2, 1804, married in 
May, 1828, Jane Elizabeth Dare, daughter of David and 
Rebecca Fithian Dare. They resided near Bridgeton. Ephraim 
was elected Clerk of the County of Cumberland in 1852, and 
served to 1857. He was appointed a Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas for said County in 1853, and reappointed in 
1868, and was elected Mayor of Bridgeton in the spring of 
1873. His term expired in 1876. Ephraim and his wife had 
eight children. Ephraim Elmer, Jr., born March 19, 1830, 
married in April, 1856, Linder^nlla Maxon Bonham, daughter 
of Hezekiah Bonham, of Shiloh. They have had seven chil- 
dren, four of whom are living. They reside at Elmer, Salem 
County. Elizabeth R. Sheppard, bom April 6, 1832, married 
in 1850 George W. Elwell. They live in Bridgeton, and have 
one son, Albert Sheppard, born March 17, 1853, who is a 
druggist in Philadelphia. Ruth N. Sheppard, daughter of 



80 



GOULDTOWN 



Ephraim, bom December 21, 1834, is not married. David 
Dare Sheppard, son of Ephraim, bom 1836, married October 
18, Cornelia Albertson, daughter of Amos Buzby, of Piles- 
grove. He was in the dry goods business in Bridgeton until 
1870, when he moved to Springfield, Mo., and went into business 
with his brother, William Sheppard. 

John Caldwell Calhoun, son of Ephraim Sheppard, bom 
in 1840, married in 1861, Jane Elizabeth Smith, of Philadelphia, 
and resides in that city. 

William E. Sheppard, son of Ephraim, born February 28, 
1842, married, March 18, 1869, Josephine M. Trull, daughter 
of Nathaniel Trull, of North Tewksbury, Mass. They moved 
to Springfield, Mo., in the fall of 1866, and he is in business 
with his brother, David Sheppard. 

Enoch Fithian Sheppard, son of Ephraim, bom August 
21, 1844, died is 1846. Charles E.,^ son of Ephraim and Jane 
Elizabeth Sheppard, born November 1, 1846. He is a lawyer 
and resides in Bridgeton. 

•At this day (1913) nearly everybody in Cumberland County knows 
Charles E. Sheppard, the lawyer, so prominently connected with the 
prosecution of violators of the law regarding the sale of intoxicants. 




CHAPTER IX. 

RURAL SOCIOLOGICAL EXAMPLES, SUGGESTED IN THIS LITE 
OF SIMPLICITY. 

John Murray, son of Othniel Murray and Kath- 
erine Murray, was born in 1751, or twenty-six years 
before the death of Benjamin Gould, 1st. 

His wife, T'abitha Lupton, a white woman, was born 
in 1763. They lived neighbors to Benjamin and Ann 
Gould. 

John Murray died in 1853, at the age of one hundred 
and two years, and his wife Tabitha died November, 
1859, aged ninety-six years. The writer of this wa^ 
born in 1840 and is the grandson of Benjamin Gould, 
2nd, and great-grandson of Abijah Gould, 1st, and 
great-great-grandson of Benjamin Gould, 1st. 

I have been many a time to the home of John and 
Tabitha Murray, when a boy; it was but a mile from 
the home of my great-great-grandfather. I was but 
thirteen years old at the time of the death of John 
Murray, and nineteen when Tabitha Murray died. 
Their great grandson, Eli Gould, became the husband 
of my sister Mary. 

The four sons of Benjamin Gould were associates 
of John Murray and his brothers and sisters in their 
boyhood and early manhood days. Ehsha Gould, 
youngest son of Benjamin, was born in 1755, but he 
died in 1804, aged forty-nine years. The other sons 
of Benjamin, as well as Sarah, the daughter, were much 
older than Elisha. Anthony Gould was the oldest; then 
came Samuel, and Abijah. The sons and daughters of 
Anthony and Richard Pierce were also companions of 
the sons of Benjamin Gould. 

6 81 



82 GOULDTOWN 

It is not hard to see how the tradition of Goulds, 
as well as the Pierces, could be handed down by even 
John Murray, who lived during the last twenty-six 
years of Benjamin Gould 's life, and well into the early 
lives of his descendants, as well as those of the Pierces. 

As I have related, I have seen John Murray and 
been to his house many, many times ; he was a brusque, 
eccentric old man, and had had both feet cut off. His 
farm was infested with sand burrs and working in his 
fields in his bare feet, he got the burrs in his feet, 
gangrene ensued, and both of his feet were amputated. 

He used to put himself in the third person much 
when talking and he " swore a little " in his general 
conversation. In those days surgeons did not use 
anaesthetics in their operations, and it was related of 
Mm'ray when Dr. Jonathan Elmer was cutting off his 
feet, that the patient became impatient and blurted out 
in anger to the doctor, " Hum, damn, if John had his 
old saw, I'd 'a' had them legs cut off long ago." 

I have myself seen him sitting in his doorway in the 
sunshine; this was his favorite place when the weather 
suited him. He would sit there and mark by the 
shadows cast in the doorway (marking on the bare floor) 
the ascension and descension of the sun during the 
seasons ; and also note the progression and retrogression 
of the moon, and the progress of the stars. As a little 
boy, I thought it a rare treat to go to see " Uncle 
Johnnie and Aunt Tabitha." She was a gentle, lovable 
old lady; and while I had heard stories of how " Uncle 
Johnnie " would fire his crutches across the house at 
Aimt Tabitha when angry, I never saw anything of the 
kind. 

He, like others of Gouldtown, owned a large body 
of salt marsh along the bay and river shores, where they 
would mow and gather the salt hay for their cattle, 



RURAL EXAMPLES 83 

oxen, and horses, and haul it the ten or twelve miles to 
their homes. 

It was the custom for those of Gouldtown to go 
upon the marshes on Monday and remain day and night 
until Saturday, where they would mow " shallop " loads 
of the salt hay and stack it up to haul home in the 
winter time. 

It was related of John Murray that he would go 
with his sons and the other men down to the marshes, 
where all would work in common, helping each other 
get the hay, each having his own body of marsh. Miu*- 
ray would stay upon the wagons and " load " the hay 
as the men would pitch it up to him, and when driven 
up to the stacking place, he would pitch it off the wagon. 

One time his ox team was proceeding to the hay- 
stack with a load of hay, when a savage bull, roaming 
over the marsh, made attempt to attack the ox team. 
The old man seized his pitchfork and hurled it into the 
animal's flank; the bull, in torture, dashed away across 
the marsh, the pitchfork finally falling from the beast. 
" Hum, damn," his favorite expletive, " Hum, damn, 
John made him fly! " he cried out to the men in glee. 

A study of the rural sociology of the times of this 
generation would be no less interesting, surely, than 
their ethnology; in the blood of these was the Celtic, 
Teutonic, African and Indian, with sundry subdivisions, 
as shown in the pure English, Dutch, and local 
admixtures. 

The Quaker solidity and quiet dispositions inherited 
by the Goulds may be traced to this day; the Dutch 
superstitions are still apparent in the Pierces; and the 
Indian love of " firewater " has been ever noticeable in 
the Murrays. The Goulds were never addicted to 
excessive use of liquor, while the Pierces and Murrays 
were more liberal in its indulgence. 



84 GOULDTOWN 

These branches had all large families; how they 
managed to support them is an interesting question; 
and yet they lived in comfort and in happiness, as com- 
pared to much that is seen in rural life nowadays. 
Money was an almost unknown commodity in those 
days and yet property was accumulated. 

Reared in the woods, as we look at it in these days, 
those people were almost "children of the forest"; 
they cut down the forests and made their farms; they 
populated the wilds and made a living. The times 
from the marriage of Benjamin and Ann Gould, about 
1725, to that of their death in 1777, were not as prosper- 
ous as they were in localities westward from the Co- 
hansey; the march of population had hardly proceeded 
from Salem across the Cohansey and northward from 
New England town; what population there was had 
been pushed out, as it were, from among those of the 
early settlers who had been at Greenwich, crossed the 
Cohansey at that place and stretched outward into Fair- 
field, Shrewsbury Neck, and about New England town. 

There were no schools in Gouldtown yet; there 
were, however, some sources for getting information; 
some of the Gould children learned to read and write. 
Anthony Gould, oldest son of Benjamin Gould, could 
write — for, to a deed made by him in 1802 for a piece 
of property he had purchased in 1767, he had signed: 
" At'ty Gould," abbreviating his name with his own 
hand. 

Fancy a gathering of the young people of the 
names of Gould, Pierce, Murray, Lummis, MuUica, 
Gates, Hand, and others, known to have populated that 
section of territory, and imagine, if possible, their 
occupations and recreations. 

Their nearest church was the " Old Stone Church " 
at New England cross-roads; they went to this church 




Old Stone Church, Fairfield. 



RURAL EXAMPLES 85 

when they went anywhere to meeting, and in its adjoin- 
ing cemetery some of them were afterward buried; 
probably they went to " meeting " there once or twice 
a year. It may have been oftener. 

Socially, they met in apple-cuttings, quiltings, and 
hog killings and beef killings. A favorite gathering 
with them was the " chopping frolic," where the men 
would show their prowess in felling and " logging " 
into cord-wood the primeval trees. These " chopping 
frolics " were attended with hard cider, or apple-jack 
drinking; while the wives and sisters of the choppers 
would gather at the home for whose benefit the chop- 
ping was made, have a quilting and spinning party, all 
to be topped off towards night with a big supper and 
plenty of doughnuts and pies. I have been told that 
these wood-choppers would vie with each other to be 
first at the chopping in the woods in the morning and 
often by noon the long tiers of wood would be ranked 
up, and the laughing choppers would wend their way 
to the homestead, where a substantial dinner would 
await them. In such cases the afternoon would be 
given over to sport and " waiting on the women." The 
boys and young men would have jumping, running and 
wrestling matches, and have as much of a good time 
as do the boys of the present day. Such are the pictures 
which have been handed down by my ancestors. 
Drunkenness was not countenanced, and the man who 
got too much apple-jack lost his respectability. 

How did these old men support their families? 
Benjamin Gould with his sons, Anthony, Samuel, 
Abijah, and Elisha, together with the daughter, Sarah 
— all these children born between 1730 and 1755, — and 
the many sons and daughters of Anthony Pierce; 
Menon, Richard, Jesse, Benjamin, John, Anthony, and 
Wanaca, together with the two daughters, Hannah and 



86 GOULDTOWN 

Elizabeth; and the son of Richard Pierce, Adam, and 
the four daughters, Mary, Rhuniah, Hannah and Eliza- 
beth; and the three sons and two daughters of Othniel 
Murray: Othniel, Jr., David and John (whose name 
begins this chapter), and daughters: Mary (Polly) and 
Dorcas, all born and mostly grown up before the 
Revolutionary War. Their home life as handed down 
in oral tradition is a study. The high price of food and 
clothing may have been felt by them then, as by us now, 
but a study of their habits and resources does not make 
it appear so. 

Take for instance, the crop-gathering time — the 
haying before alluded to, when the wife and daughters 
would bake up the great loaves of rye bread in the 
ovens, and the huge pies, and boil the " chunks " of fat 
pork and the big pot of vegetables, and bake the 
molasses cake with which to put up a supply of food 
for the men-folks to take to the marsh the next week 
to last them from Monday to Saturday — but this is all 
over with, when the time for gathering in the fall crops 
arrives. The cabbage, potatoes, turnips, apples and 
pumpkins are gathered and stored; the apples are 
buried in the apple-hole in the ground; the potatoes 
and turnips are buried in the same way; the cabbages 
are put in the cabbage-house ; a sort of shack made over 
an excavation a couple of feet deep, and eight or ten 
feet long, over which tent-like poles are placed, covered 
over with cornstalks and trash, and then all covered 
with earth, making an A-shaped shelter, open at the 
south end, and tightly closed everywhere else. In this 
the cabbages are stowed away, the door closed up 
temporarily, and everything is safe within for winter 
use. The rye and wheat have been stacked up or put 
in the barns, to be threshed out with flail in the winter. 

The fatted hogs are killed and the supply of pork 



RURAL EXAMPLES 87 

salted down; a fat beef slaughtered, and the beef 
" corned " ; and the family now has no fear of a shortage 
of rations during the winter. As for fresh food, the 
woods abound with deer, squirrels, rabbits, coons, 'pos- 
sums, quail, and pheasant, which are shot or trapped, 
at pleasure. There were no game laws. 

Fuel is no object of worry; it is had for the labor of 
chopping and hauling from their own grounds ; and the 
big fire-place uses up a large quantity during the cold 
weather. The great back-log, which has been hauled 
up to the door of the " cottage " — generally a log 
" cottage " at that — is ready to be put in place; a log 
chain is extended through the house from front door to 
back door, a yoke of oxen hitched to one end of the 
chain while the other end is fastened to the log; skids 
and round sticks for rollers are placed, and the word 
given: " Whoa-haw, Buck and Berry, Gee up, gee — 
whoa! " and the log is hauled by the oxen into the house, 
where it is now rolled into the back of the great fire- 
place. 

Everything is thus ready for the winter's coming. 
All that remains to do thereafter is to cut and haul logs 
and cord-wood to the landings for the spring shipments. 
Such was mostly the family life of the early inhabitants 
of Gouldtown. The women folk kept up their portion, 
in spinning, knitting, and making the garments for the 
household. 



CHAPTER X. 

GOULD genealogies; probability of origin of name 

OF THE SETTLEMENT. 

When Gouldtown was first given its name does not 
yet definitely appear. It was called " Gouldtown, an 
ancient settlement " many years ago, and records show 
that it was called " Gouldtown " when Bridgeton was 
called "Bridgetown" or "The Bridge"; old records, 
before 1800, make mention of " on the road from Gould- 
town to Bumbridge " — meaning what is now Fairton. 
A chronicle of the Gould families just before and just 
following the Revolutionary War discloses good 
grounds for calling the settlement " Gouldtown " dur- 
ing that period. 

The New Jersey archives at Trenton attempt to 
give the record, among other things, of the marriages 
in the State in colonial times, and in the times immedi- 
ately following the close of the war of the Revolution; 
but the reports are woefully inadequate, or else they 
are not published in those archives. Among the few 
dozen marriages recorded from Cumberland County is 
noted that of Anthony Gould and Phoebe Lummis, 
dated May 16, 1781. This is the first and only Gould, 
of Gouldtown, whose marriage is thus recorded. 

Anthony Gould must have been well advanced in 
years at this time — though not an old man. He was 
the oldest living son of Benjamin and Ann Gould, and 
their youngest son, Elisha, born in 1755, was twenty- 
six years old at the time of his brother Anthony's mar- 
riage, but Anthony was a man and had bought and 
owned land at least fourteen years before this, as is to 
be seen in the record of a deed he made to Jacob Steel- 

88 



ORIGIN OF NAME 89 

ing in 1802, the year before his death. This deed was 
made April 10, 1802, between Anthony Gould and 
Jacob Steeling, and recites the sale by Gould to Steel- 
ing of twenty-eight and a quarter acres of land for 
$113: " Beginning at a red oak corner standing by 
the present highway leading from Bridgetown to the 
Beaver dam or Maurice River bridge; thence . . . 
binding on (other) land of Anthony Gould to a black 
oak corner standing in the line between David Seeley 
and said Gould . . . containing twenty-eight and a 
quarter acres of land, be the same more or less, which 
lot or piece of land the said Anthony Gould purchased 
of John Page and Thomas Gentry as by Page's deed, 
dated the fifth day of November, 1767; as by Gentry's 
deed dated November the thirtieth day, 1796, recourse 
thereto being had may more at large appear." Anthony 
Gould had 34^4 acres besides, which was sold by 
Jonathan Bowen, his executor. 

There is no record of the date of Anthony's birth, 
but it must have been about 1735, for Benjamin land 
Ann were married and had two children before 
Anthony, as has been already shown. Anthony sold 
this land in 1802; his wife had previously died; he 
signed the deed by his own hand " At'ty Gould." 

He died in 1803, leaving a will which was proved 
September 27, 1803. He left three daughters, Phoebe, 
Martha (transcribed in the record in Trenton " Ma- 
thila ") and Christiana, or " Kitty " as she was known. 
The settlement was called Gouldtown before this, and 
as the venerable Judge Elmer, then a lad of ten years, 
said " is of quite ancient date." Martha was the 
youngest. Phoebe was over eighteen years old at the 
time her father made his will, for by his will Jonathan 
Bowen, who resided at the Beaver Dam, was made 
guardian for Chi'istiana and Martha only. These girls 



90 GOULDTOWN 

were very fair, and Phoebe shortly after her father's 
death went to Philadelphia, where she married a man 
who became mayor of that city, and she no doubt be- 
came the mother of children whose descendants have 
become distinguished. She, of course, lost her identity. 
* Christiana married first her cousin, Charles Gould, son 
of her youngest uncle, Elisha Gould, and they had three 
sons, Daniel Gould, Aaron Gould, and Anthony Gould, 
2nd. Daniel Gould was the oldest, and in early man- 
hood, went to Massachusetts (returning to Goiddtown 
but once, which was in 1852 or 1853) , losing his identity 
as colored. Aaron was born in 1810, and died in 1894, 
aged eighty-four years. AnthoRy was born in 1813 and 
died in 1891, aged seventy-eight years. After the birth 
of these three sons, Charles, the husband and father, 
died; a few years later, the widow, "Kitty," married 
Furman Gould, another cousin of hers, the son of 
Abijah Gould, 1st, her father's brother. They had five 
sons and two daughters. The sons were Jonathan 
Gould, Furman Gould, Jr., Alfred Gould, Theophilus 
Gould, and Charles Gould. Theophilus died a young 
man. Of the daughters, Martha and Christiana, the 
last is the only one now living and she is nearly ninety 
years of age. 

Samuel Gould, the son of the Founder of Gould- 
town, married Rhumah, second daughter of Richard 
and Mary Pierce. They had one son, Samuel, Jr., and 
two daughters, Hannah, and Anna. Anna became the 
last wife of Rev. Reuben Cuff. Samuel, Jr., married 
his cousin, Elizabeth, daughter of his uncle, Elisha, and 
had one son, Samuel, 3rd. Samuel, 2nd died early in 
life, and his widow, Elizabeth, married Daniel Siro, 
son of Simon Siro and Mary Pierce, oldest daughter 
of Richard and Mary Pierce. 

Samuel, 3rd, when a young man, went to Pittsburgh, 




Tamson Cuff, Daughter of 
and Phoebe Gould. 




Abijah Gould, Son of Benjamin Gould, and Grand- 
son of Abijah Gould I. 



ORIGIN OF NAME 91 

then counted to be in the far west, and all trace of him 
was lost. Daniel and Elizabeth Siro had one son, 
Andrew. Then Daniel died and Elizabeth was again 
left a widow. Hannah Gould went to Philadelphia, 
where she married an East India sailor, named Charles 
Gonzales Smith. They had two children, Ann Smith and 
another who died an infant, and was buried at Gould- 
town. The husband, Smith, was lost at sea. She after- 
wards became the wife of Thomas Wester. 

Andrew Siro went to New Bedford, and became a 
whaler, making many voyages to the northern seas. He 
came home annually until 1854, since when nothing was 
ever heard from him and it is supposed he perished at 
sea. He never married, so far as known. 

Abijah Gould, second son of the founder, married 
Hannah, born in 1756, the third daughter of Richard 
and Mary Pierce. They had five sons and one daughter, 
Sarah; she never married and died a young woman. 
The sons were Benjamin Gould, 2nd, born in 1779, 
Richard Gould, born in 1783, Abijah Gould, Jr., 
Leonard Gould and Furman Gould, the youngest. 

Samuel Gould, the third son of the founder, sailed 
in the privateer schooner, " Governor Livingston," 
which was built at Cohansey, and sailed in 1780. She 
made one successful trip, when Gould seems to have 
tired of the sailor life and left her. On her second trip 
she was captured by the British. 

Benjamin Gould, 2nd, married Phoebe Bowen, of 
Salem County, who was born in 1788. Their living 
descendants in 1910 are given in pages succeeding. 
Their children, nine in number, were Oliver, Tamson, 
Lydia, Jane, Abijah, Sarah, Rebecca, Phoebe, and 
Prudence. 

Benjamin Gould died in 1851, aged seventy-two 
years; his widow, Phoebe, died in 1877, aged eighty- 



92 GOULDTOWN 

nine years. Oliver Gould married Rhuhamah, the 
daughter of Mordecai Cuff, of Salem. They had a 
number of children, all of whom are now dead, except 
one, the youngest son, Abijah, 4th. The oldest son, 
Benjamin Gould, 3rd, went to Boston when a young 
man, and nothing was heard from him after the first 
year or two after he went away. Tamson Gould 
married William Cox, an Indian half-breed. They 
resided on a farm in Dutch Neck; and William Cox 
was the first dairyman to sell milk in Bridgeton. They 
had three sons, William, Jr., Isaac, and Levi. 

William, Jr., ran away and went to sea, and the 
last ever heard from him was a letter mailed from the 
Golden Gate, California. Isaac also, after growing up 
" followed the water " for several years, went to Europe 
at the outbreak of the Civil War and became a blockade 
runner, carrying English goods into the Southern 
States. Levi also went to sea and finally became 
boatswain on a ship trading between Liverpool and 
China. He died suddenly on his vessel's deck in Liver- 
pool. His effects were sent home to his mother, then a 
widow for the second time, and residing in Philadelphia. 

William and Tamson Cox had also four daughters, 
Mary, Hannah, Phoebe, and Caroline; the last died a 
little girl, and William Cox, the husband and father, 
died. When the children were all grown, Tamson again 
married — this time she married Reuben Cuff of Salem, 
son of the minister; they resided on a large farm in 
Salem County, and kept a big dairy. Mrs. Cuff was 
noted for her fine cheeses. This Reuben Cuff died in a 
few years (they had no children) and Mrs. Cuff re- 
moved to Philadelphia, where she became housekeeper 
for two Quaker women with whom she spent the rest 
of her life. She died in 1877, in her own house in Gould- 
town, which she had built, her death occurring three 




Mrs. Lydia Sheppard, Daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, Who Lived to be 
102 Years Old, and Was the Head of Her Son's Household Till the Last Day of Her Life. 



ORIGIN OF NAME 93 

days before the death of her mother, which was on May 
twenty-sixth of that year at the old Gould homestead. 

None of Tamson's sons ever married so far as 
known; the oldest daughter, INIary, married Thomas 
Almond, a barber, who removed from Philadelphia to 
Bridgeton, where he carried on the business for several 
years. He died in Philadelphia; they had two 
daughters, Caroline and Phoebe (Mrs. White), the 
latter still living as is also her widowed mother, both 
residing together in Philadelphia. Caroline is dead, 
one daughter surviving her. Mrs. White has no chil- 
dren. Hannah Cox married Charles Wilson, of Salem, 
who engaged in tenant farming, but died in a few years ; 
they had no children. Hannah then married Hiram 
Cuff, a cousin of her first husband who was also a Salem 
County farmer, residing as tenant farmer on a three- 
hundred acre farm for many years ; they had no children 
and Hannah died in 1907. 

Phoebe Cox married Tliomas W. Almond, of Phila- 
deljDhia, a relative of her sister Mary's husband ; he was 
an undertaker. He died suddenly and his widow and 
son, William, succeeded to the business. Phoebe in a 
few years also died suddenly, and the son, William, and 
his son, succeeded to the business. William died two 
years ago, and now his widow and their son succeed to 
the same undertaking business in Philadelphia. 

Lydia Gould, born October 22, 1809, the third 
daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, married 
David Sheppard, of Port Elizabeth; they made their 
home in Millville. There were born to them Tamson, 
who married Joseph Wilson of Salem, she died in 
1874, age thirty-five, leaving no children; Thomas, still 
residing in Millville; Sarah, wife of B. F. Pierce of 
Fairton, and David, born two weeks after his father 
died. David died about six years ago, aged sixty-two 



94 GOULDTOWN 

years, leaving no children. Lydia, the mother, died in 
November, 1911, a short time after she had passed the 
one hundred and second anniversary of her birth. 
Thomas has two sons and one daughter. Sarah has 
six daughters and one son. 

Jane Gould married Daniel Webster, and they had 
many children, all of whom are dead but one son, 
Charles. The father, Daniel, died many years ago, and 
the mother, Jane, died in 1868, aged fifty-six years. 

Abijah Gould, 3rd, married Emily Gould, daughter 
of Jesse Gould; they had three children, Elizabeth, 
Josephine, and Dr. Jesse Gould, of Philadelphia. 
Abijah died in 1892, aged seventy-seven. His wife had 
died a few years before. 

Sarah Gould married Abel Lee; they had six chil- 
dren; three daughters and three sons, B. F. Lee (Bishop 
Lee) , William Cox Lee, and Abel Lee. The daughters 
are Ehzabeth, Jane, and Isabel. Abel Lee, the father, 
died in 1852, his widow, Sarah, died a few years ago, 
over ninety years of age. Two sons, William and Abel, 
are dead. 

Rebecca Gould, born May 2, 1820, married James 
Steward in 1838; they also had three sons and three 
daughters, all still living. They are Margaret, William, 
Mary, Theophilus, Alice, and Stephen. Rebecca died 
three weeks after the death of her mother, Phoebe, and 
sister Tamson, in 1877. Tamson's house was but a few 
hundred yards from the home of her sister, Rebecca 
Steward, while the aged mother's home was nearly two 
miles from both. Mrs. Steward, dividing her time 
between the bedside of her mother at one extreme, and 
that of her sister at the other, was prostrated after the 
double funeral, and died three weeks after, aged fifty- 
seven years. 

James Steward was a man of sterling character, and 




James Steward. Taken when \'isiting His Daughter, Mrs. Felts, in Wilmington, 

Delaware. 




Mrs. Rebecca Steward, Daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, Wife of James 
Steward, and Mother of the Steward Group of Three Sons and Three Daughters. 



ORIGIN OF NAME 95 

of more than average intelligence, as was also his wife. 
He was a bound boy, indentured to a man named 
Reeves, in Back Neck, who ill-treated him so much that 
he ran away from him before he was nine years old, and 
went to live with Elijah Gould, the father of Rev. 
Theodore Gould. His parents had gone to Santa 
Domingo in the Bowyer expedition of 1824, leaving him 
with Mr. Gould, his only remaining relative here 
being a little dead sister lying in the Gouldtown 
graveyard. 

It was learned that his parents engaged in coffee- 
gi'owing in Santa Domingo, but in a few years no more 
was ever heard from them. 

James Steward, the husband and father, died in 
May, 1892, aged seventy-seven years and three days. 
He was a mechanic and had been employed in the works 
of the Cumberland Nail and Iron Company fifty-one 
years. The last thirty-five years he had been foreman 
of the sheet-iron mill. 

Phoebe Gould the next to the youngest daughter, 
married Nathan Gould, son of Abijah Gould, Jr., 2nd. 
They resided opposite where is now the reservoir on 
the Bridgeton and Millville Turnpike, on the farm now 
owned by George T. Pearce. They had three sons and 
two daughters. Two sons, Joseph and Clarence, are 
still living, and Nancy, the youngest daughter, wife of 
George W. Gould, still lives, residing in Atlantic City. 
The other daughter, Amanda, wife of Edward Cruise, 
is dead. The last daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe 
Gould, Miss Prudence F. Gould, ex-schoolteacher, and 
dressmaker for all the neighborhood, beloved by every 
one, dwells now at the old homestead where she was 
born, and which she owns — ^that land bequeathed by 
Benjamin Gould, 1st, to his son Abijah Gould, 1st, who 
was the grandfather of Miss Prudence. 



96 GOULDTOWN 

Richard Gould, second son of Abijah Gould 1st, 
married Charlotte Gould, daughter of Elisha Gould. 
They had five sons and three daughters. Richard Gould 
was born in 1783 and died in 1855, aged seventy- two 
years. His wife, Charlotte, was born in 1786 and died 
in 1876, aged ninety years. Their sons were Norton, 
Andrew, Elijah, Robert and Richard, Jr. The 
daughters were Rhumah, Sarah and Hannah. Norton 
died in 1892, aged seventy-eight years, and left a 
number of descendants, one of whom is Mrs. Ruth 
Tudas, of Bridgeton. Andrew Gould left a number of 
descendants; his two sons, Charles and Robert, reside 
in Bridgeton. His wife was Ann Smith, daughter of 
Hannah Gould and Charles Gonzales Smith, the East 
Indiaman. Robert Gould, the third son, went to 
Canada, where he resided several years, and afterwards 
returned to Michigan, where he probably died. Richard, 
Jr., died in Salem; his wife was Martha Emery of 
Salem. They left a number of children. Rhumah Gould 
married John Hammond. They had a number of chil- 
dren, some of whom still survive. Hannah Gould 
married William Jones. They had no children. Some 
of John Hammond's and Rhumah's children reside in 
Bridgeton, and two sons, Charles and Arthur, reside 
somewhere in the far West; Arthur at Saginaw, 
Michigan. 

Furman Gould's children were Jonathan Gould, 
Furman Gould, Jr., Alfred Gould, Charles Gould, and 
Theophilus Gould. Furman's first wife, the mother of 
these boj^s, and two daughters, Martha and Christiana, 
was Christiana or " Kitty," the widow of Charles Gould, 
son of Elisha Gould. TJiough " Kitty " was the mother 
of ten children, three by her first husband and seven by 
Furman, she died in 1841 at the age of thirty-seven 
years. Furman Gould, Sr., became the first local 




Anthony Gould. 



ORIGIN OF NAME 97 

preacher of Gouldto^vn. He died in 1855, aged sixty- 
nine years. His stepchildren were Daniel Gould, who 
went to Massachusetts, Aaron Gould, and Anthony 
Gould, 2nd. Aaron Gould married Catherine Pierce, 
daughter of Wanaca Pierce, 1st. They had four chil- 
dren, Timothy, still living; Thomas, dead; Lydia Ann, 
the wife of Job Cuff, of Hancock's Bridge, and Aaron 
Paul, still living. Catherine died in 1887, aged seventy- 
six years. Aaron died in 1894, aged eighty- four years. 

Anthony Gould, 2nd, born in 1813, married Almeda, 
daughter of Jesse Pierce and Christina Stoms, a Dutch 
woman from Salem County. (It is said Anthony re- 
sembled his grandfather Anthony, 1st.) They left 
numerous descendants, a grandson being Anthony 
Pierce, the well-known electrician and foreman of 
electrical wiring for the Bridgeton and Millville Trac- 
tion Company. The children of Anthony and Almeda 
Gould were Phoebe, William, Elizabeth, Christina, 
Christiana, and Almeda; the oldest, Phoebe, and the 
youngest, Almeda, still survive; all the others are dead. 

Phoebe is now nearing her eightieth birthday. Wil- 
liam was a soldier in the war of the Rebellion, and died 
two years ago. Phoebe married Francis L. Pierce, of 
Canton, who is dead. They had four daughters, 
Prudence, wife of Charles H. Pierce, engineer at the 
Ferracute Machine Works; Marietta, wife of Robert 
'Pierce; Dorothy, wife of Rev. Alex. W. Pierce, and 
Phoebe Jane, wife of Fenwick Wright. These last 
have a musical family, who unite in orchestral perform- 
ances by string or wind instruments. The sons of 
Francis L. and Phoebe Gould Pierce, are Anthony, the 
electrician, Francis, Jr., a barber, at Bristol, Pa. ; Amos, 
also a barber at Coatesville, Pa., and Harold, a hotel 
chef, now at Commercial Hotel, Bridgeton. 

William Gould married Hannah Caroline Gould, 

7 



98 GOULDTOWN 

daughter of Elisha Gould, Jr. They had two 
daughters, LueEa, wife of John Coombs, and Melissa, 
wife of George Cuff, of Salem County. William and 
his wife are both dead. 

Elizabeth Gould married Archibald Cuff, Jr. They 
have two sons and one daughter living. The sons are 
Edmund and Reuben, both married, and the daughter 
is Fanny, wife of Luther D. Gould, a former corporal 
in the Tenth Cavalry, U. S. Army, who served among 
the Indians and in Cuba, where he figured in rescuing 
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Rider regi- 
ment of Volunteers at Las Guasimas, Cuba. 

Christina Gould married Robert Dunn; they had 
two daughters, Estella and Almeda. Both Robert 
Dunn and his wife have passed away. Estella married 
Rev. Burgojnie Cuff, 2nd. He died early, leaving no 
children. After the death of her mother, with whom she 
resided many years after the decease of her father and 
her husband, Estella married Howard Stewart. They 
own a farm in Gouldtown upon which they reside, and 
have no children. Almeda Gould, the other daughter 
of Robert and Christina Dunn, married Joseph Gould, 
grandson of Rev. Furman Gould, who resides on the 
farm where once his grandfather lived. They have 
several children. 

Christiana Gould married Mordecai Pierce, a black- 
smith of Canton, N. J. They had two sons, Belford, at 
present a blacksmith in Bridgeton, and Warner K., a 
member of the Board of Education of Fairfield Town- 
ship. Christiana died early, and Mordecai later married 
Anna, daughter of Jonathan Gould. TJiey had two 
sons and two daughters, Mordecai, Sylvester, Lucette 
and Madge. Sylvester, a cigar-maker, died a young 
man; Mordecai resides in Pennsylvania; Lucette is 
principal of the Gouldtown public school, and Madge 



ORIGIN OF NAME 99 

is a student in the Bridgeton High School. Anna, the 
mother, was the postmistress at Gouldtown until the 
post-office there was abolished. 

The wife of Anthony Gould, 2nd, AJmeda, died in 
1844, aged thirty- three years. Many years after this 
he remarried — his oldest daughter, Phoebe, having been 
his housekeeper all these years, and characterized 
as the "Little Mother" of the family by the 
whole neighborhood. Anthony Gould at this time 
married Harriet Gould Cuff, daughter of Leonard 
Gould, and widow of Ephraim Cuff. There were born 
to them Ajithony Gould, 3rd, Preston Gould, Harriet, 
Cynthia, and Ida. Only Preston and Ida survive. 

Ajithony Gould died in 1891, aged seventy-eight 
years; Harriet Gould, his widow, in 1895, aged seventy- 
two years. She left children by her former husband 
Ephraim Cuff: three sons, Quinton Cuff, Lambert 
Cuff and Theodore Cuff; the last now dead. Quinton 
resides in Chester, Pa., and Lambert in Gouldtown. 

Furman Gould, Sr., the Furman Gould of whom 
we have spoken, was something of a blusterer in his 
early days. During the war of 1812, it is told he, to- 
gether with a man named David Cams, were chartered 
to take a four-horse load of commissary stores down to 
Cape May for the garrison located there. One of the 
lead horses, belonging to Gould, had the name of 
" Spaddle Ham " on account of being spotted on his 
rump. A British ship had got too far in shore at Cape 
May, where she grounded when the tide went out. As 
the commissary team was approaching the island, the 
man-o'-war fired a broadside from her port guns. The 
shot, of course, went way inland. " By Goose, 
Dave" (his favorite swear-word), "by Goose, that 
sounds wus'n thunder," said Gould, with some 
agitation. Driving on a little further, the ship blazed 



100 GOULDTOWN 

away with another broadside. This time the shot cut 
off the tops and branches of trees all around them. 
" Hold on, Furm; stop, I must get out o' here! " cried 
out David in terror. " Peddee — whoa, come about here, 
Spaddle Ham!" yelled Furm to his horses, and with 
lines and whip he brought the team to a right-about- 
face; and they tell to this day that Furm Gould and 
Dave Cams ran their horses from Cape May to Dennis- 
ville before they stopped them. Whether this tale is 
true or not, it is a fact that Furman Gould was given 
by the United States Government a quarter section of 
land (160 acres) in the State of Illinois, for serving in 
the war of 1812. This land was sold in 1855 to Henry 
Gould, who had gone to Illinois the year before. 

Furman Gould, Jr., married Hester Cuff, sister of 
Jonathan Gould's wife. They had four children, two 
sons and two daughters. The two sons, Albert and 
William C. Gould survive; of the two daughters. 
Prudence, who became the wife of Stephen S. Steward, 
died in 1890, aged forty- two years; Martha, the second, 
went to Illinois, with an uncle and aunt, lost her identity 
of color, married a wealthy farmer, and has an interest- 
ing family of distinguished westerners. Furman Gould, 
Jr., died in 1883 aged sixty-six years; his widow, Hester 
Gould, passed away in 1893, aged seventy- two years. 

Jonathan Gould married Hannah Ann Cuff, the 
daughter of William Cuff, of Salem, son of Rev. 
Reuben Cuff. They had three children, Lorenzo F. 
Gould, Hannah Ann, wife of Rev. Jeremiah H. Pierce, 
and Anna Rebecca, wife of Mordecai C. Pierce. These 
three are all living and have numerous children. Jona- 
than Gould the father died in 1893, aged seventy-seven; 
his widow, Hannah Ann, died a few years ago aged 
over eighty. 

Alfred Gould married Sarah, a daughter of Elijah 




Mrs. Sarah Gould, Widow of Alfred Gould and Sister of Rev. Theodore Gould. 



ORIGIN OF NAME 101 

and Hannah Murray Gould. Tihey had three children, 
Eugene Gould, Mary E. Gould and Alice Gould. Alice 
died of typhoid fever after graduating from the Second 
Ward public school, Bridgeton, and teaching school in 
Gouldtown. She was a young woman of high accom- 
plishment. Eugene and Mary are still living on their 
old homestead, a rich and beautiful farm, both unmar- 
ried, with their widowed mother, now in her ninetieth 
year. She is a sister of Rev. Theodore Gould, who is 
long past his eighty-second birthday. Alfred Gould 
died in 1902, aged eighty years. He was born May 13, 
1822. 

Charles Gould, the youngest son of Furman Gould, 
Sr., married Susan, the daughter of Abijah Gould, 2nd. 
They had a number of children, most of whom still live. 
Joseph, the second of their sons, resides at the old 
homestead of his father, which was also the home of his 
grandfather and a part of the original Gould tract; he 
is a thrifty farmer, and has an interesting family. His 
wife was Almeda, daughter of Robert and Christina 
Gould Dunn. Martha Gould, oldest daughter of Fur- 
man and " Kitty " Gould, married Elmer, oldest son of 
Abijah Gould, 2nd, and had several children, most of 
whom are dead. Elmer died in 1866. Furman, 3rd, 
their son, went West before the war of the Rebellion; 
lost his identity of color, became a thrifty farmer and 
at last lost himself to all his people in the East. 
Christiana Gould, the remaining daughter of Furman 
Gould, Sr., married Menon Pierce, 3rd, and is still 
living in Gouldtown. They never had any children. 
Menon, who was a carpenter, died in ( ) . This dis- 
poses of the immediate descendants of Furman and 
" Kitty " Gould; and " Kitty " and Charles Gould. 

Abijah Gould, 2nd, married Rachel Hicks, daughter 
of Josiah Hicks and Elizabeth Pierce; they resided on 



102 GOULDTOWN 

a part of the patrimony of his father, Abijah Gould, 1st, 
who had received it by will from Benjamin Gould, 1st. 
The house was located on the Buckshutem road, and is 
now owned by Joseph Gould, a grandson of Abijah 
Gould, 2nd. They had five sons and four daughters. 
The sons were Elmer, Nathan, Mason Mulford, Joseph 
and Moses ; the daughters were Elizabeth, Maria, Susan 
and Caroline. 

Elmer married Martha Gould (as shown on another 
page). Elizabeth (Betsy), married Adam Pierce, 3rd, 
and Maria married Smith Gould, as has been also 
shown, and Caroline, the youngest, married Timothy 
Gould, son of Aaron Gould. Caroline is dead, but her 
husband survives. They had two sons and two 
daughters, who are still living here. Susan married 
Charles Gould, as appears on another page. Nathan 
Gould married Phoebe, daughter of Benjamin Gould, 
2nd ; they are both dead, but two sons and one daughter 
remain. Their names are Joseph Gould, Clarence 
Gould, residing in Gouldtown, and Nancy, wife of 
George W. Gould, with a home in Atlantic City. Mason 
Mulford Gould married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard 
and Amelia Pierce, who lived on the road to Roads- 
town, owning the farm now owned by Gottleib Gos- 
man. They had seven daughters but no son. The 
daughters are all living and married, excepting one, 
the wife of E. P. Wilson, of Pleasantville, N. J. She 
died several years ago. Joseph died as a young man; 
Moses married Elizabeth, daughter of Adrian Pierce. 
Both are dead. Their only son, Mitchell H. Gould, is 
their sole survivor; Mitchell Gould has only one 
daughter, the wife of Smith Gould, Jr., of Bridgeton. 

Leonard Gould, the youngest son of Abijah and 
Hannah Pierce Gould, married Almeda, daughter of 
John and Tabitha Murray. They also resided on a 



ORIGIN OF NAME 103 

sixty-acre patrimony of the original Gould estate, just 
south from the farms of his brothers Benjamin and 
Furman and eastward and adjoining that of his other 
brother, Abijah, and southeast from his brother 
Richard Gould. They had three sons, Jeremiah Gould, 
Clayton Gould and Ephraim Gould. Clayton is still 
living, a very old man — of ninety-one. They also had 
six daughters, Eliza Ann, Rachel, Emeline, Mary, 
Harriet, and Clara. Harriet became the second wife 
of Anthony Gould, 2nd, as already shown. Jeremiah 
married Louisa, daughter of Richard and Amelia 
Murray Pierce; Clayton married Harriet Pierce, 
daughter of Anthony and Sarah Jones Pierce ; Ephraim 
went away and married among colored people; Eliza 
Ann became the second wife of Daniel Lee of Salem, 
and had several sons, among them being Benjamin F. 
Lee of Flemington, N. J.; Rachel married Jonathan 
CufF, and resided on a farm in Salem County; her hus- 
band died many years ago, and she resides with one of 
her sons on a large farm in Salem County. She is now 
eighty-eight years of age. Mary married Francis 
Cuff, of Salem; he was a son of Archibald and Lydia 
Gould Cuff. They were always successful Salem 
County tenant farmers residing on large, well-stocked 
farms among Quakers. They had a numerous family, 
and both are now dead. Emeline married Reuben 
Pierce, Jr., son of Reuben Pierce and Ann Cuff Pierce 
— they resided in the city of Salem, and had one child, 
but all three are dead. Clara married Jacob Coombs, 
and has always resided in Gouldtown. Jacob Coombs* 
mother was Elizabeth, daughter of Anthony Pierce, 
2nd, his father was William Coombs, a Philadelphian. 
Jacob and Clara Coombs had several children. Jacob 
died suddenly about two years ago, over eighty years 
of age. Clara, his widow, is living. 



104 GOULDTOWN 

The youngest son of Benjamin Gould, 1st, was 
Elisha Gould, who, as has been already shown, married 
Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Richard and Hannah 
Van Aca Pierce. Elisha was born in 1755, and Eliza- 
beth, who died in 1836, was a few years younger, being 
born about 1760. Their children were Pierce Gould, 
born 1785; Charlotte, 1786; Elisha, 1788; Elijah, 1790; 
Jesse, 1792; Elizabeth, 1794; Sarah, 1795. 

Pierce Gould married Sarah Murray, widow of 
Menon Pierce, 2nd, who had one child, Maurice, who, 
when he grew up, went to Mount Holly. This Sarah 
was the daughter of John and Tabitha Murray. Pierce 
Gould and his wife, Sarah, had children, Elizabeth, 
Caroline, Augustus, Fanny, and Frederick. The latter 
is the only one alive. 

Elizabeth married Charles Cato, of Salem; they had 
but one child, Elizabeth, still living in Bridgeton, but 
who never married. Caroline married Robert Pierce, 
son of Jesse Pierce and Christina Stoms Pierce, and 
they had two children; one of whom survives and is the 
second wife of the aged Clayton Gould. Her first hus- 
band was Isaac Wood, a white man residing on a farm 
on the road from Indian Fields to Rosenhayn. Fanny 
married Elijah Gould, 2nd, son of Richard Gould, and 
had two daughters, Julia and Malvena. Julia married 
Andrew Pierce of Salem, and Malvena married Abijah 
Gould, 4th, now residing in Gouldtown; he is the only 
survivor of the family of his father, Oliver Gould, son 
of Benjamin Gould, 2nd. 

Charlotte Gould, oldest daughter of Elisha Gould, 
married Richard Gould, as has been already related. 

Elisha Gould, 2nd, married Mary Cuff, and their 
descendants have already been detailed in part, but it 
is well to say here that the present Smith Gould, the 
barber in Bridgeton, who is the only son of Smith 




Mrs. Hannah Gould, Widow of Elijah Gould, and Mother of Rev. Theodore Gould. 
She Was the Daughter of John and Tabitha Murray. 



ORIGIN OF NAME 105 

Gould, Sr., who was the only son of Elisha Gould, has 
one child, an only son, who might be called a complete 
Gould as to immediate descent. This boy, Lenhart 
Gould, is the son of Smith Gould and Beatrice Gould. 
Beatrice Gould's parents were Mitchell Gould and Ann 
Gould. Mitchell was the son of Moses Gould and 
Elizabeth Pierce, daughter of Adrian Pierce, while 
Ann was the daughter of Augustus Gould and Mary 
Elizabeth, daughter of Adam Pierce, 2nd. Mitchell 
was an only son, and Moses, his father, was the brother 
of Maria Gould, wife of Smith Gould, 1st, therefore, 
little Lenhart's mother and father were both Goulds; 
the mother and father of Smith Gould, 2nd, were both 
Goulds, and the parents of Beatrice, his wife, are both 
Goulds. 

Elijah Gould married Hannah, daughter of John 
and Tabitha Murray ; the descendants of these two were 
perhaps, the most distinguished of all in Gouldtown, 
in the times they lived. The children were Henry and 
Ann, twins. Henry married Elizabeth, daughter of 
William and Prudence Murray Cuff, of Salem. They 
went to Illinois in 1854. They never had any children 
to live, and both are dead. Ann married J. Freeman 
Pierce, son of Wanaca, and brother of Holmes Pierce. 
Both have passed away. 

The other sons were John, Theodore (Rev. Theodore 
Gould), and Eli Gould. John and Theodore married 
sisters, who were also sisters to their brother Henry's 
wife, Elizabeth. John married Sarah, and Theodore 
married Caroline, both daughters of William and 
Prudence Murray Cuff. Eli married Mary, daughter 
of James and Rebecca Gould Steward. 

The other daughters were Hannah (married Robert 
D. Stewart), Ruth (married Moses Pierce), Sarah 
(married Alfred Gould). All of these have left well 



106 GOULDTOWN 

known descendants. Of the two sons of Rev. Theodore 
Gould, one is a printer in Philadelphia; the other is an 
electrical engineer in Boston. 

When Henry and John Gould were young men they 
built an oyster schooner, and engaged in carrying oysters 
from Maurice River Cove — this industry then in its 
infancy — to Philadelphia, also from the Chesapeake 
Bay to Baltimore. After the close of the oyster season, 
they engaged in carrying produce and peaches from 
Delaware and Maryland to Baltimore and Philadelphia. 
This was long before the War of .the Rebellion, and was, 
of course, hazardous in those times, had their color been 
suspected. John Gould after this became a carpenter, 
and with his cousin, Enoch Gould, whose father, Jesse, 
was a carpenter, they employed a gang of workmen and 
erected many buildings. In those days it was the custom 
for a carpenter to build a house from cellar to roof ; they 
would do the mason work, laying the cellar walls and 
foundations, and lath and plaster the walls. All those 
trades were to be found in practice among the Gould- 
town men in those times. Abijah Gould, 2nd, was a 
millwright, an occupation for which there is now but 
little use. 

Jesse Gould, the carpenter, married first, Mary 
Lippincott, a Leni-Lenape Indian; they had two sons, 
Enoch and James, both of whom became carpenters, and 
one daughter, Abigail. Mary Lippincott died. Jesse's 
second wife was Hannah Pierce, daughter of Menon 
Pierce, 1st. To this union were born Emily, and Anson. 
Anson died young. Emily married Abijah Gould, 3rd, 
father of Jesse Gould, M.D., now of Philadelphia. 
Hannah, this wife, died, and Jesse's third wife was 
Hannah Pierce again — this time a daughter of Wanaca 
Pierce — who was killed by lightning in August, 1819. 

To Jesse Gould and this third wife were born 



ORIGIN OF NAME 107 

Matilda, who became the wife of Rev. James V. Pierce ; 
Freeman, who also became a carpenter and who married 
Miriam, daughter of Elisha Gould, of Salem ; Hezekiah, 
also becoming a carpenter, and afterwards a machinist, 
learning this trade with the Moore Brothers, who had a 
machine shop between what is now South Avenue and 
Grove Street. Hezekiah married Malinda, daughter of 
Ajnos and Jane Murray Pierce. In 1862-63, they went 
to Michigan, where Hezekiah became an organ manu- 
facturer; he left two children, and died in the West. 
His widow still survives, residing with her daughter and 
son-in-law in Canada. 

Hezekiah was born at the old Jesse Gould home- 
stead, now owned by John Stout, at the tollgate in 
Gouldtown. He and Matilda were the youngest. At 
their home the well from which they drew the water 
was very deep, and is still. One day Hezekiah, when a 
boy, drew up a bucket of water with the old style of 
^vindlass: leaning over to dump the bucket, the wind- 
lass broke out of the curb, and windlass, bucket, and boy 
went in a bunch down to the bottom of the well. Matilda, 
a half-grown girl, began screaming ; and Hezekiah, from 
the bottom of the well, hallooed up, " Till, you needn't 
cry; I'm a comin' up." — and sure enough, by bracing 
arms and legs to the sides of the well, he scrambled to the 
top, but little the worse for his terrific plunge. The 
writer of this looked down the well that night on the way 
home from school. 

Enoch Gould married Sarah Ann, daughter of 
Elisha and Mary Cuff Gould, of Salem; they had an 
interesting family of girls and but one son, Elisha, 3rd, 
who graduated from Lincoln University, but shortly 
afterward died. Two daughters of Enoch Gould are 
still living; Henrietta Shords and Olivia Dickinson. 

James Gould married Charlotte, daughter of Norton 



108 GOULDTOWN 

Gould, both have deceased, leaving no issue; Abigail 
married Seneca Bishop, and they had one child, Joseph, 
also a graduate of Lincoln University and who also 
deceased soon afterward, having never married. Lydia 
Gould, as has been detailed, married Archibald CufF, 
and afterwards Rev. Furman Gould, becoming his third 
wife, his second being Hannah Gould Wester. Charles 
Gould, 1st, married " Kitty " Gould and had three sons, 
as before told. 

Sarah Gould married Thomas Dunn, of Salem; 
their children were Sarah, who married Jacob Wright 
and has a large family; Elizabeth, who married a man 
named Green and left no children; Robert Dunn, who 
married Christina, daughter of Anthony Gould, 2nd, 
and left two daughters; and Ercurious, who left three 
sons and one daughter, one son is now a minister. After 
the death of Dunn, Sarah married Anthony Pierce, 3rd. 

Elizabeth Gould married Samuel Gould at first, as 
has been stated, and becoming a widow married Daniel 
Siro. This woman became blind, but she was a remark- 
able woman. Blind as she was, she knew all the news 
of the neighborhood, could detect any one whom she had 
once met, by their step, and could tell whether it was a 
man, woman, or child and whether a large person or 
small. She was a great plyer of the knitting needles 
and forever busy in darning and mending wherever she 
lived or visited. She stayed quite a time in the family 
of the writer's parents, and when we were all at home 
she was to us a source of pleasure and amusement, join- 
ing in our pranks with as much relish as if young and not 
sightless, but woe to us if we carried our sports too far. 

One night having been more full of fun and frolic 
perhaps than usual, we were sent off upstairs to bed. 
Our noise and laughter continued after we got upstairs, 
and soon " Aunt Elizabeth," as we used to call her. 




Mrs. Sarah Drxx Pierce, Mother of Mrs. Jacob Wright. 



ORIGIN OF NAME 109 

came to the foot of the stairs and called out " If you 
young'uns don't make less noise, I'll come up there and 
lick you like six ! " That was a new word to us then and 
" lick you like six " was passed around among us (but 
out of her hearing) for many a day. 

DESCENDANTS OF BENJAMIN GOULD, 2^D, OF GOULDTOWN, 

NEW JERSEY, LIVING AT PRESENT AND CELEBRATING 

THEIR Ai^NUAL REUNION ON THE ORIGINAL 

HOME PLACE, AUGUST 18TH, 1910. 

PEDIGREE OF BENJAMIN GOULD. 

1. Benjamin Gould, I, immediate descendant of 
John Fenwick, through his granddaughter, Elizabeth 
Adams. 

2. Abijah Gould, I, a son. 

3. Benjamin Gould, II, a grandson. 

CHILDREN. 

1. Lydia Gould Sheppard 2. Prudence F. Gould 
(Two children now living.) 

GRANDCHILDREN. 

1. Almond, Mary 13. Lee, Benjamin F., Bishop 

2. Cruse, Amanda B. Lee 

3. Felts, AHce S. 14. Pierce, Sarah S. 

4. Gould, Abijah 15. Pierce, Isabella L. 

5. Gould, Jesse, M.D. 16. Sheppard, Thomas 

6. Gould, Margaret S. 17. Steward, William 

7. Gould, Mary S. 18. Steward, Theophilus G., 

8. Gould, Joseph Chaplain Steward 

9. Gould, Josephine 19. Steward, Stephen S. 

10. Gould, Clarence 20. White, Jane Lee 

11. Lloyd, Elizabeth L. 21. Webster, Charles 

12. Gould, Nancy 

(Twenty-one grandchildren now living.) 



110 



GOULDTOWN 



GBEAT-GRANDCHILDREN. 



1. 


Almond, William 


37. 


Gould, Nathan 


2. 


Bond, Bert 


38. 


Gould, Viola 


3. 


Bond, Berne 


39. 


Gould, Phoebe 


4. 


Cuff, Thomson W. 


40. 


Gould, Eva 


5. 


Gary, Kate S. 


41. 


Gould, Carlton 


6. 


Dixon, Mary F. 


42. 


Gould, lona 


7. 


Drain, Florence M. 


43. 


Gould, Edwin 


8. 


Durisoe, Emma J. 


44. 


Gould, Milford 


9. 


Felts, Maggie 


45. 


Gould, Benjamin 


10. 


Felts, Leo 


46. 


Gould, Walter 


11. 


Felts, Justin 


47. 


Glass, Maud L. 


12. 


Felts, Phoebe, Teacher 


48. 


Gould, Jonathan 


13. 


Felts, Albertina 


49. 


Gould, Grace D. 


14. 


Gould, Rudolph 


50. 


Felts, Harriet Webster 


15. 


Gould, Marie 


51. 


Jones, Jennie 


16. 


Gould, Leander 


52. 


Jones, Sara L. 


17. 


Gould, Emily 


53. 


Lively, Lizzie M. 


18. 


Gould, Cleon 


54. 


Lloyd, Frank 


19. 


Gould, Elizabeth 


55. 


Lloyd, Henry 


20. 


Gould, Jesse, 2nd 


56. 


Lloyd, Leon 


21. 


Gould, Menon 


57. 


Lloyd, Arabella 


22. 


Gould, Filbert 


58. 


Lee, Sarah 


23. 


Gould, Lavinia 


59. 


Lee, Frances A. 


24. 


Gould, Percival 


60. 


Lee, B. F., Jr. 


25. 


Gould, Emily 


61. 


Lee, EfBe 


26. 


Gould, Ann E. 


62. 


Owens, May 


27. 


Gould, Jennie B. 


63. 


Pierce, Ethel 


28. 


Gould, Isabella 


64. 


Pierce, Cora 


29. 


Gould, Roberta 


66. 


Pierce, Tamson M. 


30. 


Gould, Edna 


66. 


Pierce, Clifton 


31. 


Gould, Luther D. 


67. 


Pierce, Myrtle 


32. 


Gould, Agnes, Teacher 


68. 


Pierce, Clara 


33. 


Gould, AUce 


69. 


Pierce, Hilda 


34. 


Gould, Sydney 


70. 


Pierce, Austin R. 


35. 


Gould, Edgar E. 


71. 


Pierce, Rebecca 


36. 


Gould, Leslie S. 


72. 


Pierce, Ella W. 



ORIGIN OF NAME 



111 



73. Sheppard, Floyd 

74. Sheppard, Ernest 

75. Sheppard, Lydia 

76. Steward, Charles G., 

Dentist 

77. Steward, Frank R., Law- 

yer 

78. Steward, Benjamin G., 

M.D. 

79. Steward, T. B. 

80. Steward, G. A. 

81. Steward, Clara 

82. Steward, Wilmon 

83. Steward, Fred K. 

84. Steward, Edwina 

85. Steward, Esther 



86. Steward, Thaddeus 

87. Steward, Charlotte 

88. Thoroughgood, Jane 

89. Wallace, Louisa 

90. Webster, Joseph 

91. Webster, William 

92. Webster, Louis 

93. Webster, Daniel 

94. Webster, Eli 

95. Webster, Frank 

96. Webster, Russel 

97. Webster, Gertrude 

98. Webster, Earl 

99. Wright, Lillie 

100. White, Phoebe 



(One hundred great-grandchildren now living.) 



GREAT-GREAT-GRANDCHILDREN. 

1. Almond, William, Jr. 19. Gould, Pearl L. 

2. Almond, Clarence 20. Gould, Clayton 

3. Almond, Thomas 21. Grould, Harry 

4. Almond, Maud 22. Gould, Eva 

5. Almond, Rosell 23. Gould, Leonard 

6. Coombs, Bertha 24. Gould, Leland 

7. Coombs, Elizabeth 25. Gould, Lester 

8. Coombs, Jacob 26. Gould, Martha 

9. Jackson, Justin 27. Gould, Sarah 

10. Jackson, Agnes 28. Gould, Charlotte 

11. Gould, Raphael 29. Gould, Sarah 

12. Gould, Constance 30. Gould, Elvira 

13. Gould, Rex 31. Gould, Raymond 

14. Gould, Madeline 32. Gould, Susan 

15. Gould, Douglas 33. Gould, Livola 

16. Gould, Stanley 34. Gould, Oscar 

17. Gould, Grace 35. Gould, Prudence 

18. Gould, Byrel 36. Gould, Clifford 



112 



GOULDTOWN 



37. Gould, Inez 

38. Gould, Elizabeth 

39. Gould, Helen 

40. Gould, Jeanette 

41. Gould, Eli 

42. Gould, Marie 

43. Gould, Herschel 

44. Gould, Lamont 

45. Lively, Lavinia 

46. Lively, Eliza 

47. Lively, Mary 

48. Lively, Walter 

49. Lloyd, Frank, Jr. 

50. Lloyd, Walter 

51. Lloyd, Raymond 

52. Lloyd, Harry 

53. Lloyd, Anna 

54. Miller, Leah 

55. Miller, Hannah 

56. Miller, Carl 

57. Pierce, Florence Lloyd 

58. Pierce, Cortland 

59. Pierce, Ashton 

60. Pierce, Lawrence 

61. Pierce, Lorenzo 

62. Pierce, Oliver 

63. Pierce, Margaret 

64. Pierce, Annabel 

65. Pierce, Dora 

( Ninety-four great-great- 



66. Pierce, Roy K. 

67. Pierce, Earl G. 

68. Pierce, Romaine I. H. 

69. Pierce, Jessie H. 

70. Pierce, Vernon Philip 

71. Pierce, Hartley Rupert 

72. Pierce, Terrance Claire 

73. Pierce, Irving 

74. Sheppard, Thomas, Jr. 

75. Steward, Stephen, Jr. 

76. Steward, Raymond 

77. Steward, Leon 

78. Steward, Harold 

79. Webster, Eva 

80. Webster, Ruth 

81. Webster, Oscar 

82. Wright, Ethel 

83. Wynder, Cora 

84. Webster, Virginius 

85. Cuff, Vivian 

86. Cuff, Grafton 

87. Cuff, Mildred 

88. Cuff, Russel 

89. Cuff, Gertrude 

90. Felts, Mary Alice 

91. Felts, Ruth 

92. Felts, George W. 

93. Jones, Elizabeth 

94. Lee, Benjamin F., Ill 

grandchildren now living.) 



To this list might be added the names of eight little 
great-great-grandchildren, who are living, — babies at the 
time of this writing, — making a total of two hundred 
and twenty-three from one grandson of Benjamin 
Gould, 1st. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE CUFFS OF SALEM; THEIR PROBABLE ORIGIN; THEIR 

ULTIMATE CONNECTION WITH THE GOULD, PIERCE, 

AND MURRAY FAMILIES. 

The Cuff family was of slave origin, though in a 
time quite remote; Cuff, a slave, was owned by a man 
named Padgett. Padgett had three daughters, and he, 
by some means, got into the Continental Army, in the 
French and Indian War, and was killed. 

Cuff took care of the widow, and she finally married 
him. He was called " Cuffee Padgett " ; they had 
three sons, and when these went to school they were 
taunted by the other boys as being the sons of " Old 
Cuffee Padgett; " so they would have their father drop 
the Padgett and take the name of Cuffee Cuff. The 
names of these sons were Mordecai, Reuben, and Seth. 
The grave of Cuffee Cuff is in the colored burying- 
ground at Canton, N. J., the land for which was given 
by his oldest son, Mordecai, and his is the first grave in 
it. Mordecai dug the grave himself for his father, and 
while digging it, his little daughter, Dorothy, was play- 
ing about; on the fence nearby she found a gold chain 
hanging, which it was supposed was lost by some young 
people from Philadelphia who had been there the day 
before. She kept this chain for years and before her 
death gave it to her son, Jacob B. Pierce, of Gouldtown, 
an old man now, who still has it at this time (December, 
nineteen hundred and twelve). 

These three brothers, sons of Cuffee Cuff, became 
farmers; but later, Reuben became a preacher in the 
Methodist Society, and organized a church in Salem, 
and was one of the founders of the African Methodist 

8 113 



114 GOULDTOWN 

Episcopal Church in America. Reuben kept a Bible 
record of his own family. The Bible is now in posses- 
sion of Wm. A. Cuff, of Bridgeton. 

This record shows that he was born in Salem, March 
28, 1764, and he left numerous descendants, for he had 
a large family. His brother, Seth, married, and had 
three daughters, Mary, Sarah, and Emma Ann; the two 
last died young. Reuben Cuff, the preacher, married 
Hannah Pierce, the record states. She was born Novem- 
ber, 1767. They were married March 3, 1790. She 
was the daughter of Richard Pierce, 1st, of Gouldtown. 
Their children were Anthony, born December 18, 1790; 
Jonathan, June 20, 1792; Reuben, April 4, 1794, died 
very young; Richard, March 28, 1796; Alley, 1798, died 
September 11, 1799, aged one year, nine months, and 
twenty-one days; Anna, December 29, 1799; Elizabeth, 
February 21, 1802; Reuben (named after the one who 
died), March 7, 1804. Hannah, the wife and mother, 
died April 23, 1804, a little more than a month after the 
birth of her last son. 

Reuben Cuff, the father, on November 28, 1805, took 
for his second wife, Lydia Her, widow of Morris Her. 
To them were born Burgoyne, October 12, 1806, and 
Archibald, date not given, also one daughter, Caroline, 
who married Daniel Lee, uncle of Bishop B. F. Lee, 
but she died early, childless. Lydia, the second wife of 
Reuben, the preacher, died May 2, 1814, and two years 
after this he married Ann Gould, daughter of Samuel 
Gould of Gouldtown, May 1, 1816. In this year Rev. 
Reuben Cuff attended the convention in Philadelphia 
as a delegate, in the organization of the African Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, as before stated. 

Anthony Cuff, the oldest son, married Martha, the 
second daughter of Anthony Gould, 1st, of Gouldtown. 
She was the granddaughter of Benjamin and Ann 



CONNECTED FAMILIES 115 

Gould, founders of Gouldtown. Their children were 
Mordecai, Anthony, and William CufF, and Phoebe 
Hannah, and another daughter, who died early in life. 
Their youngest son, Wilham Cuff, still dwells in 
Bridgeton and is now (1912) in his seventy-fifth year. 
He has one daughter living. Phoebe Hannah married 
Hosea Pierce, son of Reuben Pierce, and greatgrandson 
of Anthony and Mary Van Aca Pierce. Three 
daughters were born to them; she died early in her 
married life. Jonathan Cuff married Mary, daughter 
of John and Tabitha Murray of Gouldtown. Their 
children were Jonathan, Jr., Oliver, Margaret, Jane, 
Leonard, IVIary, Ai*tie, and Thomas. Richard Cuff mar- 
ried Rebecca Tliompson. Three sons and three daugh- 
ters are still living; one son, Hiram Cuff, a farmer, 
resides in Salem County, one daughter, Hannah, wife 
of Charles Cuff, resides in Salem County, another, wife 
of Jeremiah Harris, resides in Holly Beach, New 
Jersey, and the other two sons reside in East Jersey. 
Rebecca, the youngest, resides in Bridgeton. 

Elizabeth married William Wilson, a noted Salem 
County farmer in his day. They had several sons and 
but one daughter, all of whom are now dead, except 
William and Joseph, both over eighty years old and 
residing in Philadelphia. 

William Wilson, Jr., married Anna, daughter of his 
mother's brother, Archibald Cuff. Two sons and one 
daughter are also living, but Anna died many years ago. 
Joseph Wilson married Tamson Sheppard, daughter of 
Lydia Gould Sheppard (daughter of Benjamin and 
Phoebe Gould) , the woman who recently died at the age 
of one hundred and two. Tamson had but one child, 
which died an infant, and she deceased in 1874, aged 
thirty-five. 

Reuben Cuff married Tamson Cox, widow of 



116 GOULDTOWN 

William Cox, of Indian descent, if not a half-breed. 
There were no children born to them. She also was the 
daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, and died in 
1877 in Gouldtown. 

Burgoyne married Prudence, daughter of Benjamin 
Pierce, of Gouldtown. He was a well-to-do farmer near 
Quinton. They had but one child, Burgoyne, Jr., who 
became a preacher, but died early in life. He married, 
however, Estelle, daughter of Robert Dunn, of Gould- 
town ; they had no children. 

Mordecai CufF, brother of Rev. Reuben and Seth 
Cuff, married Margaret (" Peggy ") Thomas, sister to 
David Murray's wife, and had three daughters, Ruha- 
mah. Prudence and Dorothy. Ruhamah became the 
wife of Oliver Gould, oldest son of Benjamin and 
Phoebe Gould, and resided in Gouldtown. Prudence 
married Lewis Pierce, son of Anthony Pierce, of Gould- 
town, and resided in Harmersville, where he kept a 
general store. After Prudence's death Dorothy became 
Pierce's second wife and had children. She became the 
second wife of Elisha Gould, Jr., of Gouldtown, and 
died in 1894, aged eighty- four. They had no children. 
Archibald Cuff, Rev. Reuben's son, married Lydia 
Gould, daughter of Elisha Gould, and they had sons 
and daughters. Their sons were Seth, still living, and 
now over ninety years old; Elisha, Burgoyne, Reuben, 
Francis, Daniel, Ai'chibald and Charles ; and daughters, 
Anna and Caroline. Anna, Caroline and Francis are 
dead, all the others survive. Archibald Cuff erected a 
small home on land left to his wife by her father Elisha 
Gould, which stood in front of where the Gouldtown 
church now stands. It was burned down, and the family 
then removed to Salem, where he engaged in farming 
until his death. His widow, many years after, became 
the second wife of her cousin. Rev. Furman Gould. 



CONNECTED FAMILIES 117 

The Bible record has become so dulled by age that 
some of the dates are undecipherable. A son, William, 
one of the older children, but not the oldest, has his 
record entirely obliterated. He married Prudence 
Murray, daughter of John and Tabitha Murray, of 
Gouldtown, and became a tenant farmer in Salem 
County, residing on the same rich farm until he had 
raised a large family, when he died, and his son Job 
succeeded him on the same farm until he also raised a 
large family, and now lives retired in Hancock's Bridge. 

Five of William and Prudence Cuff's daughters be- 
came the wives of Goulds: one, Hannah Ann, was 
married by Jonathan Gould, residing in Gouldtown; 
Filizabeth, another, married Henry Gould, and removed 
to Illinois, where she died; another, Hester, married 
Furman Gould, Jr., and resided in Bridgeton; another, 
Sarah J., married John Gould, the well-known carpen- 
ter and builder in his day, and another, Caroline, is the 
wife of Rev. Theodore Gould, of Philadelphia. They 
had four sons, William, Jr., Joseph, Job, and David. 
William married Maranda Murray, daughter of his 
mother's brother, Oliver Murray, of Gouldtown; Job 
married Lydia Ann, daughter of Aaron Gould, of 
Gouldtown; Joseph never married and died an old 
bachelor several years ago, and David went away some 
thirty years ago or more, and lost his identity. 

Elisha Gould, Jr., married Mary, daughter of Seth 
CuiF; they had one son. Smith, who married Maria, 
daughter of Abijah Gould, Jr., and Rachel Hicks 
Gould, and four daughters, Sarah Ann, who became the 
wife of Enoch Gould, Miriam, who married Freeman 
Gould, Isabelle, who married Burgoyne Cuff, and 
Hannah Caroline, the wife of William H. Gould. 

Thus the Cuff family became united with the Gould 
and Murray as well as the Pierce families of Gouldtown. 



CHAPTER XII. 

GENEALOGICAI. SKETCH OF JOHN MURRAY^S AND DAVID 

MURRAY^S FAMILIES AND SOME OF THE PIERCE 

CONNECTIONS. 

John Murray married Tabitha Lupton (white). 
Their children were John Murray, 2nd, OHver Murray, 
Silas Murray (deceased — leaving no issue), Hannah 
Murray, Sarah Murray, Almedia Murray, Mary Mur- 
ray, Prudence Murray, Hester Murray, Jane Murray. 

Oliver Murray married Amy Murray, daughter of 
David and Sarah Murray; their children were Maranda, 
who married William CufF, Jr., of Salem ; Adeline, who 
became the wife of the Rev. Jehu Pierce; Tabitha, who 
married Jeremiah Pierce, of Salem ; Silas, 2nd, Wesley, 
and David Murray, Jr.; Sarah Murray, who married 
William Murray, son of John Murray, 2nd; Rachel 
Murray, who married Moses Pierce, 2nd; Cynthia 
JNIurray, who married David Pierce. Silas, Wesley, and 
David are dead. 

John Murray, 2nd, married Mary Hand (white). 
Their children were John Murray, 3rd, Zachariah 
Murray, Ebenezer Murray, Henry Murray, Hiram 
Murray, William Murray, Lewis Murray, and daugh- 
ters, Mary, Elizabeth, Julia, Harriet. All are gone, 
excepting Mary (Mrs. Frederick Gould), and Eliza- 
beth, who is single and resides with Mary, and Henry. 
Lewis never married, and died in Millville, where he 
had resided since coming home from the Civil War, in 
which he and three of his brothers served. These four 
boys served in the Civil War, as white soldiers. Three 
of them, Hiram, Henry, and Ebenezer, served in Co. 
B, 2nd Regt., N. J. Vol. Infantry. 

118 



MURRAY AND PIERCE 119 

Hannah Murray married Elijah Gould, as detailed 
in preceding pages ; Sarah Murray married first Menon 
Pierce, 2nd; had one son, Maurice, and after the death 
of Menon married Pierce Gould; Almeda Murray 
married Leonard Gould, youngest son of Abijah Gould, 
1st, as has been before shown. Mary Murray married 
Jonathan Cuff, of Salem, already detailed. Prudence 
Murray married William Cuff, Sr., of Salem. This 
has been before given. 

Hester Murray married Jacob Pierce, son of 
Wanaca Pierce. They had a numerous family. One 
of the sons was Jacob Pierce, who went West before 
the war; went to the war, rose to the rank of Captain 
in a regiment from the State in which he resided. After 
the war he married, and became owner of several large 
farms. In a letter received from him by the writer, 
some sixteen years ago, he stated he and his boys were 
in the height of their wheat harvest ; the letter set forth 
that he was running eight wheat-headers, four horses 
each in his wheat-field at home, harvesting their grain. 
He said the price of wheat at that time was ninety cents 
per bushel. Of course, he and all his family were white 
people. He died about three years ago. 

The other sons were Jehu, a Methodist minister; 
Israel, now deceased, leaving one child; Freeman, who 
married a daughter of Mason M. Gould; Ephraim, who 
married Mary Pierce, daughter of Moses Pierce, 1st; 
and Fayette, who married Anna Billingsly, of Phila- 
delphia. The daughters of Jacob and Hester Pierce 
were Elvira, who married Aaron Pierce (both are dead, 
but left several children) ; Hester, who married William 
Coombs, Jr. (she is dead, leaving two sons) ; Hannah, 
who married Leonard Cuff, of Salem, who left several 
sons; Eliza Jane, wife of Horatio Pierce (dead, no 
children surviving) ; Almedia Jones — now a widow with 



120 GOULDTOWN 

one son; Cynthia, who married Robert Pierce, who died. 
She is now second wife of William Coombs, Jr. 

Jane Murray, the yoimgest daughter, married Amos 
Pierce, son of Anthony Pierce, 2nd. Their children 
were Malinda, who married Hezekiah Gould; Gideon 
Pierce, the well-known boss carder in the East Lake 
Woolen Mills, in their palmy days; Robert Pierce, the 
boss spinner in the same works, and Lorenzo, twin 
brother of Robert, the " picker " in the same business; 
Ruth Pierce (Mrs. Valentine) ; Sarah Jane, wife of 
William Cuff, 3rd (she is deceased) ; Margaret, widow 
of Eh Lee, of Salem, and now the second wife of 
Stephen S. Steward, and Elizabeth, widow of Phineas 
Pierce of Salem. 

John Murray and Tabitha Lupton, his wife, were 
born and lived between the years of 1750 and 1852, John 
dying at a little over one hundred and two years of age, 
and his wife at ninety-six. The youngest of their 
descendants named in these preceding pages is Eliza- 
beth, the youngest daughter of Jane Murray — youngest 
daughter of John and Tabitha Murray. 

There has been but little of drama in all the lives of 
these generations, above that of hard struggles to make 
a living; but as it can be traced, there was much of 
romance, some pathos, and plenty of humor throughout. 
John and Henry Gould, the oystermen, had much fun 
among themselves when they would arrive home from 
carrying peaches and grain from slaveholding territory; 
they would regale their friends at home with their ex- 
periences and relate to them the possible consequences 
should they be discovered to maintain a trace of the 
colored people's blood in themselves. Isaac Cox, when 
penetrating into the heart of Georgia, as far as Augusta 
during the Civil War, as an English blockade runner, 
found much romantic food to feast on when taken into 



MURRAY AND PIERCE 121 

the homes of those proud Georgians and feasted as an 
Englishman. Another, who had been a clerk in his 
father's country store, and later in a Salem city store, 
went to a large western city and became, and is, a lead- 
ing dry-goods merchant. But these bits of romance 
carry their terrors. This same merchant, now very old, 
sent his children (he had married there) to the fashion- 
able schools. One day his children came home and in 
their lively prattle, related how some new scholars had 
come to their school and said they had come from Salem, 
New Jersey, where they knew people of the same name 
as theirs, — " But papa," said the children, " they said 
these people were colored people." Instantly terrified 
at a possible discovery, the father made immediate 
arrangements to have his children placed in an advanced 
and more select school. 

Tliis American prejudice is a terrible handicap to 
intelligent aspirations and effort. For people of the 
conditions herein attempted to be described to amount to 
anything of recognized worth and escape the galling 
effects of this trait of the American character, — to 
escape humiliation and even insult and injury, unfair 
and even brutal treatment, — they must leave this 
country, their home for generations and go to some 
Latin country to the southward or else to Europe. None 
can appreciate this situation, except those who have 
lived in it and felt its stifling atmosphere. " Where 
ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be wise," is a saying that 
goes ; these early children of the woods and forests knew 
but little of this ill thing in the early days. It has come 
with the advance of civilization; where they were in 
ignorance of the outside world they were not hurt by its 
rough edges. To chop their logs, plough their grounds, 
live on their own lands and dig their sustenance, meagre 
as it may have been, from their own forests, they lived 



122 GOULDTOWN 

in peace and simple happiness, undisturbed by those 
things which, with education and culture, civilization and 
accomplishments and increasing sensitiveness, become so 
galling and unbearable. It is only the clannish love of 
" the old home " which keeps such people here. To be 
distinguished, they must go to Paris, like H. O. Tanner, 
or to Berlin, like J. G. Bias, or to Rome or Naples, like 
others connected with these people this book aims to 
describe and illustrate in their humble, simple lives. 

In 1802 Wanaca Pierce purchased from Abraham 
Sayre forty-five and a half acres of land out of the 
Abinadab Westcott estate, out towards the Beaver 
Dam, for which he jjaid <£ 70. John Pierce, his brother, 
purchased from the David Westcott estate out of the 
Pamphylia Tract, fifty acres near Wanaca's tract, for 
which he paid £ 100. This was in 1802 also. Abraham 
Sayre also bought of Benjamin Pierce a tract of land 
in the same locality, which Benjamin had purchased of 
his brother John. Menon Pierce, another brother, pur- 
chased of Jacob Steeling, administrator of Anthony 
Gould, 1st, in 1803, thirty- four and one-quarter acres 
of land of which Anthony Gould died seized; this was 
contiguous to other lands which Menon Pierce owned 
and also adjoining lands purchased by his brothers, 
Wanaca, John and Benjamin. These lands went out 
towards the Beaver Dam, in what was long known as 
Lebanon Neck. Richard, their brother had purchased 
land just north from Gouldtown. Another brother, 
Anthony, 2nd, had already owned a measure of land 
close to the lands of Benjamin Gould, 1st. 

From these six brothers descended that branch of 
Pierces, the progeny of Richard and Hannah Wanaca 
Pierce. They were born between 1750 and 1770. 
Richard and Anthony were in the Revolution. They 
intermarried mostly with the Murrays and Goulds. 




Jonathan Freeman Pierce, Son of Wanaca and Mary Pierce. 




Holmes Pierce. 



MURRAY AND PIERCE 123 

Wanaca Pierce married Mary Murray, daughter of 
Othniel Murray. They had children, Adrian, born in 
1802, Peleg, Jacob, Jesse, Wanaca, Jr., all older than 
Adrian, and Isaiah, J. Freeman, and Holmes, all 
younger than Adrian; and daughters, Hannah, 
Catherine, Lydia, and Mary. Wanaca and Mary — 
father and daughter — were killed by lightning while 
standing in the door of their home in August, 1819. 

Adrian Pierce married Rachel Stewart, daughter of 
Cato and Elizabeth Stewart. Rev. Jeremiah H. Pierce 
was one of their sons. Stewart H. Pierce of Carmel, 
who resides on the old homestead of his father, is the 
only one of the family now living. Jacob Pierce 
married Hester Murray, and their descendants have 
been given in preceding pages. Jesse Pierce married 
Ruth Pierce Duck, a widow, who was his cousin, and 
daughter of his uncle, Benjamin Pierce. They had no 
children, but Ruth had two children, Amos and Pru- 
dence Duck, by her former marriage. Peleg was un- 
married. Isaiah married Jane Pierce, daughter of 
Richard Pierce, 3rd, and had one child; Mrs. Jane 
Keen, residing in Bridgeton, is a granddaughter. 

J. Freeman Pierce married Ann Gould, daughter of 
Elijah Gould, 1st; one daughter and one son are still 
living. Holmes Pierce married Mary BaraclifF, a Ger- 
man woman; they left several children, prominent of 
whom is the enterprising farmer and wood-dealer, 
George T. Pierce, or Pearce as he spells his name. 
Holmes always spelled his name in the same way, de- 
claring that was the original name. Holmes Pierce was 
an energetic and enterprising man and left quite a for- 
tune when he died a few years ago. Hannah Pierce 
became the second ^vife of Jesse Gould, as previously 
related, and Catherine married Aaron Gould; Lydia 



124 GOULDTOWN 

married Rev. Henry Davis, and left no children; both 
died years ago. 

Adrian Pierce owned about seven hundred acres of 
woodland and farm land — ^most of it woodland, but it 
has nearly all been sold off by his heirs. Holmes Pierce 
left much property in farm land and woodland, besides 
several houses in Bridgeton; he left each of his sons, 
Peter, John, Holmes, Jr., and George a farm, and his 
only daughter, Sophia, a portion in cash. 

George, the most enterprising of the sons, has added 
largely to his patrimony, both in woodland and in city 
property. He also owns the homestead farm, where 
his father resided before retiring and moving into the 
city. George also owns his father's city home, on East 
Commerce Street, near which he has recently purchased 
the seventy-acre farm and residence owned by the late 
Nathan Gould, now within the city limits of Bridgeton. 

Wanaca Pierce, 1st, left considerable property, 
mostly timberland, which was divided by his adminis- 
trators among his children. Jacob Pierce, J. Freeman 
Pierce, Wanaca Pierce, Jr., as well as Adrian and 
Holmes, all added considerably to their original patri- 
monies, but the others did not. Wanaca Pierce, Jr., 
purchased a farm eastward from Fairton, where he 
lived and died, and after his death the farm was pur- 
chased by John Gould. 

Holmes Pierce was the youngest son, and seemed 
to have inherited the shrewd instinct of his father for 
progressiveness, more than the others, judging by the 
traits of his father's character as handed down. Holmes 
early started out to make money, as his father's death 
occurred when he was quite young. Having a fair 
education he taught school for a short time, and then he 
became a medicine peddler, but this was too slow to suit 
his notion of making money, and he went into buying 



MURRAY AND PIERCE 125 

and selling cattle; purchasing a farm, he went into 
horse-breeding. Soon he became one of the heaviest 
dealers in the county in cord-wood, hoop-poles and salt 
hay. No man around the county employed more men 
in these enterprises than did Holmes Pierce. Next 
to him in the cord- wood and hoop-pole business in those 
contemporary times, however, were Oliver and Abijah 
Gould, 3rd, who engaged many men and teams in these 
industries a half century ago and more. The salt hay 
which Holmes Pierce dealt in was mostly used for 
packing hay in the glass-works in South Jersey and in 
Philadelphia and in the pottery works at Trenton, 
where hundreds of tons were sold annually. 

SKETCHES OF THE DAVID AND SARAH MURRAY FAMH^Y. 

The children of David and Sarah Thomas Murray 
were Othniel, 2nd, Jeremy, Amy, Sarah, Patience, 
Charity, Hope (the last three were triplets), Elizabeth, 
Amelia, Nancy, Enos, Mary, Margaret. 

Othniel Murray, 2nd, married Angeline Pierce, 
daughter of Richard Pierce, 2nd, and Tabitha Pierce, 
daughter of Adam Pierce, 1st, the Revolutionary 
soldier. Othniel and Angeline had several children ; one 
daughter and one son are still living, and one of the 
son's sons, Othniel, 3rd, is now in the United States 
Army, stationed at Fort Reno, at this writing. The 
daughter and son who survive, reside in Bridgeton. 

Jeremy lived a bachelor until quite an old man, when 
he married a widow, who came from Tennessee ; both are 
long dead, leaving no children. Ajmy Murray married 
her cousin, Oliver Murray, and had a number of chil- 
dren, who have been heretofore enumerated. Sarah 
Murray married Charles Lloyd, a manumitted black 
slave, who used to drive a team in the great gangs of 



126 GOULDTOWN 

freight wagons which conveyed merchandise from 
Baltimore to Pittsburgh, before the days of railroads. 
Their children were William, Adelia, Sabia, George, 
Charles, Lydia, Emily, Amanda, Alexander, Jonathan, 
Lewis, and Albert. Of these Charles, George, Jona- 
than, and Albert of the boys, and perhaps Lydia, 
Emily, and Amanda, are still living. 

Patience Murraj'^ married Clement Pierce, stepson 
of Wanaca Pierce, 1st. They had many children; all 
are dead or gone away. Charity married a man named 
David Baily, and resided in Salem County. They had 
two children, David J. Baily and Nancy. Nancy be- 
came the wife of Levi Harmon, of Back Neck. Both 
David and Nancy are dead. Hope Murray, the last 
of the triplets, was drowned when a young man. 
Amelia married Richard Pierce, 3rd, son of Richard, 
2nd, and Tabitha Pierce, and resided on a farm which 
they owned on the Roadstown road — now owned by 
Gottlieb Gosman. 

Elizabeth Murray married John Keen, a white man. 
They were married by the venerable Ethan O shorn, 
pastor of the " Old Stone Church " in Fairfield, in 
January, 1839. Their children were John Keen, Jr., 
who became a shoemaker; Joseph and Levi, who went 
to Virginia and settled after the war, as white men, and 
Jacob Jones, who died in Gouldtown; Marietta, a very 
beautiful girl, long dead, and Margaret, wife of Aaron 
Paul Gould, now living ; Marietta was the wife of Jacob 
B. Pierce — she left no children. 

Nancy Murray married a colored man in Salem. 
Enos died young. David married a daughter of Simon 
and Mary Siro, but died without issue. 

The children of John and Tabitha Lupton Murray 
have been enumerated. The children of David and 
Sarah Thomas Murray have also been enumerated. 




Mrs. Elizabeth Stewart, One of the Organizing .Members of Gouldtown Church. 



MURRAY AND PIERCE 127 

Mark Murray married Hannah Gates, August 23, 
1810. All of these women were white. Mark resided 
on what was long called " The Mark Fields," which are 
beyond Gouldtown and a little northward from the old 
Dick farm on the Millville trolley-line. The Mark 
fields are now owned by George W. Coombs. Mark 
Murray ran away; what became of his wife is not 
known. They left no children. The children of the 
sister, Mary Murray, who became the wife of Wanaca 
Pierce, 1st, have been given with their descendants. 

Dorcas Murray, the remaining sister, became the 
wife of Adam Pierce, the Revolutionary soldier, who 
was the only son of Anthony and Mary Van Aca Pierce, 
as has been stated. 

The children of Adam and Dorcas Pierce were 
Matthias, Andrew, Asa, and Adam, and three 
daughters. Asa died young; Matthias went as a sailor 
in a vessel belonging to John Trenchard of the original 
Trenchard family, of Fairfield, and in one voyage, on 
which a son of Trenchard, the owner, was a sailor, the 
vessel was lost with all on board and nothing was ever 
heard from her or any of her crew. 

Andrew Pierce got in a scrape by cutting the spokes 
out of the wagon wheels of Benjamin Gould, 2nd; and, 
to avoid arrest, ran away and never came back. 

Adam Pierce, the youngest son, was born in the year 
1800; his wife was Juliann, daughter of Cato and 
Elizabeth Hicks Stewart. They had six sons and two 
daughters. The daughters were Mary Elizabeth, wife 
of Augustus Gould (both now dead) ; Sarah Rachel, 
^wife of the present writer; Edward, who married 
Rebecca Bustill, of Philadelphia; Alexander, who went 
West, and died several years ago in TIacoma, Washing- 
ton, leaving a widow but no children ; John C, who died 
in Bridgeton, leaving two sons ; Calvin B. and Warren 



128 GOULDTOWN 

W. Pierce; Benjamin F., who resides at Fairton and 
whose wife is Sarah, second daughter of Lydia Gould 
Sheppard, who died recently in Millville at the great 
age of one hundred and two years. Charles Jones, the 
next of the brothers, died in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, leav- 
ing a widow, but no children. Hosea, the youngest 
child, died a youth. 

Edward Pierce left three sons, one daughter, and a 
widow still surviving. Two sons, the daughter and the 
mother reside in Philadelphia, while the oldest son, 
Edward Pierce, Jr., resides in Washington and has 
been for many years in the Government employ. Benja- 
min F. Pierce has six daughters and one son, all living ; 
one daughter resides in Tacoma, Washington. 

The daughters of Adam and Dorcas Murray Pierce 
were Sarah, who married John Flemmings, of York- 
town; Violette, who married David Pierce, son of 
Richard Pierce, 2nd, and Louisa; and Tiabitha, who 
became the second wife of Richard Pierce, 2nd, the 
father of her sister's husband, David Pierce, and 
Hannah, who married Abram Winrow, of Stowe Creek. 

David and Violette Pierce lived on a farm in Dutch 
Neck, where they reared a large family. Their sons 
were Adam, 3rd, Moses, Asa, Hosea, and the daughters 
Matilda, Hester, Caroline, and Priscilla. 

Adam married Elizabeth, daughter of Abijah 
Gould, 2nd, and Rachel Hicks Gould, and had numer- 
ous children, many of whom are still living; Moses 
mai'ried Ruth, daughter of Elijah Gould, 1st, and 
Hannah Murray Gould: Moses lived on a farm he 
owned out near where Rosenhayn is now located; he 
had several daughters and two sons, most of whom are 
yet alive; Asa Pierce died, leaving no issue; Hosea 
married Sarah, daughter of Robert Anderson: Hosea 
was a soldier of the Civil War — ^he and his wife are both 



MURRAY AND PIERCE 129 

dead, but numerous children and grandchildren survive 
them ; Matilda became the wife of Norton Gould, son of 
Richard and Charlotte Gould, and many of their chil- 
dren still survive; Hester Pierce became the wife of 
Smith Pierce, of Salem; she had one daughter and two 
sons, still living; Caroline Pierce married a man in 
Bushtown and vanished from her relations; Priscilla 
never married and died an old maid. David and 
Violette Pierce were married, July 12, 1811, the cere- 
mony being performed by Squire James Clark of Fair- 
field; in the same year David's father, Richard Pierce, 
married his second wife, Tabitha, who was Violette's 
sister. This marriage ceremony was performed by the 
venerable Ethan Osborn, of the Old Stone Church. 

WANACA Pierce's (2nd) family. 

Wanaca Pierce, 2nd, married Margaret, daughter 
of Richard and Tabitha Pierce. He resided on the farm 
he bought eastward from Fairton ; he had sons, Wanaca, 
3rd, Cornelius, Richard, 3rd, and one daughter, Mary. 
They are all dead. 

Wanaca's wife, Margaret, died and he again 
married; this time an English woman, Fanny Horton; 
they had two daughters (one of whom is dead) , and one 
son now living. 

THE BENJAMIN PIERCE (3rd) FAMILY. 

Benjamin Pierce's (3rd) wife was Margaret Mur- 
ray. They had a numerous progeny; their sons were 
Elam, John, Henry, Benjamin, Jr., Leonard, and 
Charles; and daughters Margaret, Mary, and Ruth. 

Ruth and Mary died unmarried; Margaret married 
Stratton Hicks, son of. Andrew and Sarah Pierce Hicks 
(one son, Andrew, lives) ; Elam Pierce, growing up 



130 GOULDTOWN 

into a fine large man, over six feet tall, went away and 
was lost to his family; John Pierce married a daughter 
of Clement Pierce, and resided in the vicinity of Seeley's 
Mill ; they had several children, most of whom have left 
this part of the country; Henry married and resided in 
Elmer; his children are in Camden, Philadelphia, and 
Salem County; Leonard and Charles, the remaining 
sons, died unmarried. 

MISCELLANEOUS BRANCHES OF PIERCE FAMILIES. 

The Pierce families scattered about Salem County 
are the descendants, mostly, of Anthony and Marie 
(Mary) Pierce. They are spread about Salem City, 
Canton, and Quinton; also formerly in Penton and 
latterly in Seeley and Elmer, New Jersey. Those who 
descended from Anthony, through Anthony, 2nd, were 
those about Canton, the descendants of F. Lewis and 
Reuben Pierce, sons of Anthony, 2nd. 

Reuben had three sons, Reuben, 2nd, Smith, 
Thomas, and one daughter, Elizabeth. Reuben, 2nd, 
married Emeline, daughter of Leonard Gould, of 
Gouldtown ; they had but one daughter, Emeline : they 
resided in the city of Salem, where they had a pretty 
home. Both Emeline and her daughter were of re- 
markable beauty, and Reuben, the husband and father, 
was a handsome man, both in form and features; his 
appearance was that of a Spaniard. They were a 
devoted family to one another, and their happy home 
was the subject of comment among their friends a half- 
century or more ago. Death, it is said, loves a shining 
mark, and all these died young; and in the sixties the 
entire family was obliterated, leaving no descendants. 

Smith Pierce married Mary Cuff and left several 
children, Jeremiah, a Salem carpenter being the princi- 



MURRAY AND PIERCE 131 

pal one now living. Thomas Pierce, the other son of 
Reuben, Sr., married in Camden; but they left several 
children surviving, some of whom lately removed to 
Bridgeton where they, now reside. Elizabeth married 
a man named Bond, in Camden, where she still resides, 
though advanced in years. She was a beautiful girl when 
young. Her husband is dead. 

The children of John Pierce, at least some of them, 
settled in Salem, about Canton and Quinton. From 
these came George Pierce, who married Julia Noble, 
and Andrew Pierce, who married Lydia Cornish. 
Anthony Pierce, 3rd, son of Menon Pierce of Gould- 
to\Mi, also went early into Salem County, where he 
married and had several children, one of whom is Menon, 
4th, and from this branch came William H. Pierce, the 
well-known express carter of Bridgeton. 

Benjamin Pierce's ^vife's name was Ruth (last 
name unknown) , a German woman. She was of a very 
lovable character; devoted to her family and generally 
beloved by the neighborhood in which she lived, and 
familiarly called " Aunt Ruth." Their children were 
Benjamin, Jr., Andrew, Ruth, and Sarah. Benjamin, 
2nd, married Margaret, daughter of David Murray. 
Ruth married Charles Duck, and Sarah married An- 
drew Hicks, son of Josiah and Elizabeth Pierce Hicks. 

The children of Sarah Pierce and Andrew Hicks 
were Catherine, who married Hiram Pierce, and this 
family is now extinct; Rachel, who married a colored 
man of Salem; Sarah Ann, who went blind; Stratton, 
who married his cousin, INIargaret, daughter of his Uncle 
Benjamin Pierce, his mother's brother; and Isaiah, who 
became a city barber in Philadelphia, and if he ever 
married it is not known, as he died a young man. 

The youngest of the children of Andrew and Sarah 
Hicks was Prudence, who became the wife of William 



132 GOULDTOWN 

Hendrickson. Both of them are dead, leaving only an 
adopted daughter, to whom they left their little home 
on South East Avenue, Bridgeton, N. J. Andrew 
Hicks of Bridgeton is the sole survivor of the family of 
Andrew and Sarah Hicks. The family of Ruth Pierce 
Duck is extinct. 

The families of John Pierce (who married a 
daughter of Clement and Patience Pierce) resided 
about Seeley, and have drifted away; Henry resided in 
Salem County; his descendants are all white. 

There is another branch of the Jesse Pierce and 
Christina Stoms Pierce family not yet mentioned. That 
is the family of their son, William Pierce. Jesse and 
Christina Pierce had three sons and two daughters ; the 
daughters were Almeda (wife of Anthony Gould, 2nd) 
and Mary, who left the neighborhood and vanished from 
the community; the sons were William, Ephraim, and 
Robert. The descendants of Robert were mentioned. 
James R. Pierce, of Burhngton Avenue, and Ephraim 
Pierce, Jr., of East Commerce Street, are sons of 
Ephraim and Louisa Pierce. Thus two sons and two 
daughters of Jesse and Christina Pierce are accounted 
for. William Pierce, the remaining son, married Char- 
lotte Ogden, of Hopewell Township. They had numer- 
ous children but there are only one son and three 
daughters of that family now living : the son Jesse, 2nd, 
lives alone in a small house of his own, while of the 
daughters, one, Elizabeth, the widow of John Murray, 
3rd, resides with her daughter in Fairton. Another, 
Roseann, lives at Bayside, the wife of Emanuel Pierce ; 
and Mary, the last remaining daughter, is domiciled in 
Greenwich. She is the widow of the late Jedediah 
Pierce, and has one son, Isaac Pierce, and one daughter. 
Rosette, now widow of Clayton Gould, 2nd, and residing 
in Greenwich. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

FAMILY EUGENICS AND LONGEVITY; THE GOULD^ PIERCE^ 
AND MURRAY ESTATES. 

The hygienism of the Goulds, Pierces, and Murrays 
was of the most simple kind, and, it may be said, the most 
effective for the preservation of their health and the 
promotion of longevity; as has before been stated, all 
three of the families were noted for their natural length 
of life. Families of six to ten children would live to 
reach mature j^ears, and, in many cases, all would live 
to reach old age. Hereditary disease was unknown 
among them, except as will be stated further on, unless 
it may be here and there in sporadic character, and not 
in direct heredity. 

All the common infantile and youthful ailments were 
prevalent, such as measles, whooping-cough, chicken- 
pox, and such like, which were almost always treated 
with such domestic remedies as herb teas, called *' yarb 
tea," and poultices — according to the nature of the ail- 
ment. So far as can be ascertained, no case of smallpox 
or other virulent disease was ever known in the com- 
munity. They took no sanitary precautions ; their main 
treatment was to keep cool in summer and warm in 
winter, with plenty of solid and wholesome food, but 
little or no luxuries or high living. The woods afforded 
them the chief ingredients of their home-made medicines 
and salves and ointments, which were used, internally or 
externally, for all manner of complaints with which, in 
their simple lives, they were attacked. 

Pulmonary troubles, except as will be explained 
later, were unknown; bad colds were treated with *' yarb 
tea," fevers were dosed with home-made " yarb " febri- 

133 



134 GOULDTOWN 

f uge ; measles were helped by infusions, and the patient 
kept out of a draft; for whooping-cough emetics and 
syiTips of molasses and onions were given. Consump- 
tion, now and always such a dreadful disease, was only 
known sporadically, until intermarriage with one branch 
of the Cuff family. Its heredity seems to be positively 
traced in this branch, but its origin seems to be obscure. 
The Goulds, Pierces, and Murrays intermarried into 
the Rev. Reuben Cuff family, and also the families of 
his brothers, Mordecai and Seth Cuff — these two last 
had married white women. No tuberculosis has been 
traced to the Rev. Reuben Cuff family directly, except 
in one instance, but from the families of Mordecai and 
Seth the trace is apparently well marked, and the infer- 
ence leads to the opinion that, if hereditary, it must be 
by way of their marriage. Oliver Gould married a 
daughter of Mordecai Cuff, and had a large family of 
children; all but one grew to maturity and all but one 
died with consumption. One is still living. Elisha 
Gould, 2nd, married a daughter of Seth Cuff. Con- 
sumption afflicted his children and carried off many of 
his grandchildren, especially the family of Enoch Gould, 
who married Sarah Ann, the oldest daughter of Elisha 
Gould, 2nd. Some sporadic cases, with two or three 
deaths, came through the family of Anthony Cuff, 
whose wife was Martha Gould. 

THE GOULD ESTATES. 

The original Gould estate, as given documentarily 
in the will of Benjamin Gould, 1st, was devised to his 
three sons, Samuel, Abijah, and Elisha. The oldest 
son, Anthony, was devised his portion in cash. To 
Samuel and Abijah, the founder gave one hundred 
and thirty-six acres of land to be divided equally be- 
tween them, and to his remaining son, Elisha, he gave the 



LONGEVITY; ESTATES 135 

residue of his land. The surrogate's office does not show 
any division of the lands left by Samuel Gould, though 
he left considerable. Abijah and Elisha added to their 
patrimony by purchase. 

The estate of Elisha Gould was divided among his 
ten children, by order of the Orphans' Court in 1808, by 
three commissioners, Jedediah Davis, Jonathan Coney, 
and Enoch Burgen. The sons and daughters were 
Charles Goidd, Pierce Gould, Jesse Gould, Elijah 
Gould, Elisha Gould, Jr., Charlotte Gould, Elizabeth 
Gould, Sarah Gould, Lydia Gould, and Ajina Gould; 
the last being a minor, and dying before coming into her 
patrimony. The estate was divided into sixteen lots or 
parcels by the commissioners, and the total aggregated 
two hundred and one and a half acres. The report was 
approved by the Court August 15, 1808. 

The estate of Abijah Gould, 1st, had been consider- 
ably increased before his death. His estate was also 
divided in 1808 by order of the Cumberland County 
Orphans' Court, by these commissioners: James Clark, 
James Westcott, and David Clark. It was divided into 
twenty-three lots. No. 1 to No. 23 inclusive. Hannah, 
the only daughter of Abijah, was given Lot No. 1 of 
fifty acres and sixty-seven hundredths of an acre. She 
died young. The report of these commissioners was 
approved by the court October 12, 1808. The five sons 
were Benjamin Gould, 2nd, Richard Gould, Abijah 
Gould, 2nd, Furman Gould, and Leonard Gould. In 
this estate was also a considerable quantity of salt marsh 
about Dixon's Island in Back Neck, fifty-six acres in 
all, and eight and a half acres of cedar swamp in Manu- 
musken swamp, in Millville Township. The real estate 
of Abijah Gould, which was divided among his five 
sons and one daughter, was three hundred and eighty- 



136 GOULDTOWN 

nine and forty-seven hundredths acres, besides the salt 
marsh and cedar swamp. 

The lands of Samuel Gould, second son of Benja- 
min the founder, equalled those of Abijah, 1st. This 
estate went to his son, Samuel, Jr.'s, widow Elizabeth, 
afterward Elizabeth Siro, and his daughters. Most of 
it is now owned by Mrs. Joseph Stewart, a large tract. 

While the two estates of Abijah and Elisha Gould 
were thus divided among their heirs over one hundred 
and four years ago, the main bodies of those lands still 
remain in the possession of the descendants. Upon the 
land set off to Pierce Gould is the " God's Acre " where 
repose the bones of his grandparents, his parents, and 
himself — the ancient family burying ground. The deed 
for this burying ground was later, in 1827 — January 
23rd — made by Pierce Gould and Sarah, his wife, to 
Adrian Pierce, Jesse Gould, and Benjamin Gould, 
trustees, and their successors forever, for the sum of one 
dollar, for a burying ground. Also out of this same 
estate, and out of that part set off to Lydia Gould, was 
sold one acre, deeded to Anthony Pierce, Furman 
Gould, Reuben Pierce, Elijah Gould, and Daniel Siro, 
trustees, and their successors forever for the sum of 
four dollars for a schoolhouse, and it is still used by the 
Fairfield Board of Education for that purpose. Out 
of the portion set off to Sarah Gould, the Trinity A. 
M. E. Church, in 1860, purchased a half acre, upon 
which the church was built and where it now stands, the 
deed being made to certain trustees and their successors, 
according to the form prescribed in the Book of Disci- 
pline of that church. The trustees at the time of the 
purchase and erection of the church were James 
Steward, Abijah iGould, Anthony Gould, Enoch 
Gould, and Holmes Pierce, and the minister in charge 
was the Rev. Joseph Smith, a man of great piety and 




GouUltown Grave.xard. 



LONGEVITY; ESTATES 137 

peculiarly able administrative ability. The New Jersey 
Conference of the A. M. E. Church was not yet or- 
ganized and this charge was still under the jurisdiction 
of the Philadelphia Conference, as a circuit, as it had 
been since the organization of the denomination in 1816, 
up to this time, 1860, when it became a station. 

The estate of Elisha Gould, 1st, was divided by the 
commissioners among these ten children, all of whom 
were adults except Anna, who was under the age of 
twenty-one years, as follows: To Charles Gould, 30 
acres; to Pierce Gould, 29 acres; to Jesse Gould, 23.55 
acres; to Elijah Gould, 30 acres; to Elisha Gould, 2nd, 
31.25 acres; to Charlotte Gould, 13.50 acres; to Eliza- 
beth Gould, 12.75 acres; to Sarah Gould, 11.25 acres; 
to Lydia Gould, 10.50 acres ; to Anna Gould, 10 acres, 
total, 201.80 acres. These divisions are recorded in 
Book " D " Division of Lands, pages 322 to 331 in- 
clusive, in the Cumberland County Surrogate's OfRce. 

The estate of Abijah Gould, 1st, was divided into 
twenty-three lots, or parcels, and aggregated in acres 
as follows: Among his five sons and one daughter — • 
to Benjamin Gould, 51.43 acres; to Richard Gould, 
65.63 acres; to Abijah Gould, 2nd, 79.65 acres; to Fur- 
man Gould, 62.73 acres ; to Leonard Gould, 79.60 acres ; 
to Hannah Gould, 50.67 acres ; total 389.71 acres. This 
estate had also 57-50 acres of salt marsh, and this was 
divided among the sons as follows: To Benjamin nine 
and a half acres; to Richard seventeen acres; to Abijah, 
Jr., twenty-three and a half acres ; to Furman four and a 
half acres ; to Leonard three acres ; there was also a tract 
of eight and a half acres of cedar swamp in Manu- 
muskin swamp, below Millville, and one and seventy 
hundredths acres of this went to each of the sons. As all 
this estate was left unencumbered to his children, it is evi- 
dent that Abijah Gould, 1st, was a pretty thrifty man. 



138 GOULDTOWN 

From this it is shown that those two ancient Goulds 
left to their sons and daughters almost six hundred acres 
of land. Anthony Gould's, 1st, land was but a small 
tract and was sold by his administrator, Jonathan 
Bowen. Samuel Gould's estate was of not much value, 
and was mainly bush-land of about one hundred acres, 
making in all seven hundred acres. 

While most of these lands are still in the possession 
of the descendants, much has been added to them. Like- 
wise as to old estates of the Murrays and Pierces, espe- 
cially the latter, it is not far wide of the mark to say 
that the people of color of what is commonly known as 
Gouldtown, possess in the neighborhood of five thou- 
sand acres of land, the accumulations of themselves 
and their ancestors. 

The possessions of the original Goulds were to the 
southward and westward of those of the original Pierces 
and Murrays, and this led to the northern portion being 
designated " Piercetown " (now called Fordsville) . 

Contiguous to the land of the eastern portion of 
Benjamin Gould the Founder's plantation, Richard and 
Anthony Pierce, the two brothers, had acquired a con- 
siderable number of acres. Anthony Pierce, 2nd, and 
Wanaca Pierce, 1st, sons of Richard, had over two 
hundred and twenty-five acres of farm-land and timber- 
land between them ; the southern line of Anthony's land 
bounded on the northern line of that part of the Gould 
land falling to Abijah Gould, 1st. Anthony's holding 
in this tract was over one hundred acres. 

To the northward of this tract was a considerable 
scope owned by the original Murrays, while to the north 
and west of this was one hundred and twenty-two acres 
owned by Wanaca Pierce, 1st. This was originally a 
beautiful plot of farm- and timber-land, nearly square in 



LONGEVITY; ESTATES 139 

shape ; that is, it was a little more than one hundred and 
seventy-four perches long by one hundred and twelve 
perches in width. This is the Wanaca Pierce who, with 
his young daughter Mary, was killed by lightning in 
1819. This man left a widow and nine other children; 
the oldest at that time, Wanaca, 2nd, being but twenty 
years old. Their mother lived many years after this, in 
the old homestead. 

The estate of Wanaca Pierce, 1st, was divided in 
1832, by commissioners appointed by the Orphans' 
Court as follows: To Wanaca Pierce, 2nd, nine and 
a half acres; to Adrian Pierce, nine acres; to Peleg 
Pierce, five and three-quarter acres ; to Freeman Pierce, 
sixteen acres ; to Jesse Pierce, six acres ; to Jacob Pierce, 
fourteen acres ; to Isaiah Pierce, eleven acres ; to Holmes 
Pierce, fifteen acres; to Hannah Pierce (wife of Jesse 
Gould) eleven and a quarter acres; to Catherine Pierce 
(wife of Aaron Gould) thirteen and a half acres; to 
Lydia Pierce (wife of Rev. Henry Davis) twelve and a 
half acres; aggregating one hundred and twenty- two 
acres. 

Between this and Anthony's land was the estate of 
John Murray and his brother, David Murray, while to 
the eastward was that of Mark ^lurray; these lands 
were of considerable extent. 

Westward from the Wanaca Pierce estate, extend- 
ing a mile or more, was the estate of Richard Pierce, 1st, 
and his other sons, Richard and John and Benjamin, 
while another son, Menon, owned a considerable tract 
further northward leaidng at his death a hundred acres 
or more of farm and woodland out near Lebanon Neck. 

Nearly all of these lands, together with additions, 
are still owned by the descendants of those Colonial 
pioneers. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH; EARLY RELIGIOUS 
AFFILIATIONS OF THE PEOPLE. 

Like most others of this section of New Jersey, the 
inhabitants of Gouldtown held to the Calvinistic 
doctrines, with a leaning towards Presbyterianism. In- 
deed, their early religious training was received from the 
Presbyterians. It is not unlikely that the first Benjamin 
Gould listened to the religious admonitions of Rev. 
Daniel Elmer, who came from Connecticut and was 
installed pastor of the church at New England town 
(now known as Old Stone Church) in 1729. The 
records of this old church were lost by a fire which 
destroyed the church. The earliest Goulds, as well as 
the Pierces and Murrays, attended this church under 
the administrations of Rev. Daniel Elmer; he died in 
1755, the same year that Elisha, the youngest son of 
Benjamin Gould, the Founder, was born. They 
attended this church also under the administrations of 
Rev. William Ramsey, who was pastor of this church 
from 1756 and served as pastor until his death in 1771. 

The Elmers always took a deep and cordial interest 
in Gouldtown; the descendants of Rev. Daniel Elmer 
being familiarly known to the people of Gouldtown 
until the present time ; the last Daniel Elmer, who died 
a few years ago (the seventh oldest son in the line of 
lineal descent), the son of the late Charles E. Elmer, 
Esq., no less so than those who had preceded him. Dr. 
Jonathan Elmer, a son of Rev. Daniel Elmer, born in 
1745, and also his brother General Ebenezer Elmer, 
also a physician, practised among the early residents of 

140 




Rev. Ethan Osborx. Died 
May 1, 1858, in his 100th year. 
Pastor Presbyterian Church, 
Fairfield, 55 years. 




Miss Prudence F. Gould. 



THE CHURCH 141 

Gouldtown, as did also later, Dr. Rush Bateman of 
Cedarville. These physicians were all Presbyterians, 
adherents of the New England town church, and they, 
especially the Elmers, did not fail to sow the seeds of 
their faith among the rustic people among whom they 
practised; Dr. (General) Ebenezer Elmer, with his 
son, spending many a Sunday afternoon in the first 
little schoolhouse in Gouldtown, catechizing the children. 
This is the first actual known religious teaching given 
in the community. The son became the distinguished 
Supreme Court Justice — Lucius Q. C. Elmer. The 
solid character of this father and son, as well as of those 
of their descendants, — Dr. William Elmer, Dr. Henry 
Elmer, Dr. Robert Elmer, John T. Nixon, later U. S. 
Judge (a son-in-law of Judge Elmer, always familiar 
with the rural community) , made its impress upon these 
people to a lasting degree. 

When Rev. Ethan Osborn became pastor of the 
church in 1788, he gave the same care to this community 
that he did to others; he performed their marriage cere- 
monies and attended the burial of their dead. Although 
a Presbyterian church was organized in " Bridgetown " 
in 1792, the people of Gouldtown did not transfer their 
attendance from Fairfield. 

Rev. Michael Swing, the pioneer of the Methodists 
in Fairfield, beginning with his advent into the com- 
munity in 1799, made some impression upon the Goulds 
and Pierces. He built what was known as " Swing's 
Meeting House " in Herring Row, about 1819, for a 
long time the only Methodist meeting house in Fair- 
field. He united in marriage several Gouldtown people 
and held service at their funerals, but the relations of the 
Goulds with the Methodists were not cordial. 



142 GOULDTOWN 

The centenary of a church — any church — is always a 
notable event, and the Trinity A. M. E. Church at 
Gouldtown will, in a few more years, celebrate such an 
anniversary. 

The Rev. Reuben Cuff, of Salem, who had become 
a Methodist minister, under the ministrations of Dr. 
Benjamin Fisler, who travelled the Salem circuit, which 
then extended from Salem to Cape May, married into 
the Gould family — Shaving wed Anna Gould — ^was, of 
course, a frequent visitor in Gouldtown, where he often 
held meetings in the early part of the last century. 
Phoebe Bowen, the wife of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, was 
reared in his family. Many of these meetings were held 
in the barn of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, on the old Gould 
homestead. The barn was then larger than it is now, 
for it has been reduced in size within the writer's recol- 
lection ; it had a large threshing floor where the flail was 
used in the winter time, or the grain would be trodden 
out by the horses (which I have seen done). 

This Benjamin Gould was much of a wag — though 
later becoming a class leader — but at these meetings he 
was not converted. His brother, Furman, afterward a 
local preacher, was with others converted. On one occa- 
sion the minister and the religious ones of the meeting 
tried earnest persuasion upon Benjamin (my grand- 
father) to induce him to join the meeting (it was not 
called church in those days). With much earnestness 
and vehemence they persuaded, bringing to bear all 
their arguments about everlasting damnation; making 
it exceedingly warm for Benjamin with their beseech- 
ings. They, at last, told him of the hot place awaiting 
all sinners! Slowly shaking his head he candidly re- 
plied, '* I have found that out by present experience." 

Benjamin later professed religion and joined the 



THE CHURCH 143 

meeting. At one time, in prayer-meeting, he was called 
on to pray. He coolly called back, " Call on Furm, he 
can pray." It was long asserted that his reply was 
" Call on Furm, he can pray like the De'il," but this has 
alwaj^s been denied. Let this be as it may, Benjamin 
Gould lived after joining the meeting a consistent, up- 
right life, walking in the paths of piety, dying in 1851, 
as he had lived, a humble Christian. 

The church in Gouldtown was brought together be- 
tween 1816, when the denomination was formed in 
Philadelphia, and 1820. It was organized in Benjamin 
Gould's barn, but in 1823, the Westcott schoolhouse was 
purchased and moved into the neighborhood for the 
schoolhouse, where the meetings were afterwards held 
until the present church was built in 1860. 

Miss Prudence F. Gould, the youngest daughter of 
Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, from papers in her pos- 
session left by her father, gives this very clear history 
of the church at Gouldtown, with incidents of local 
interest, together Avith a complete list of the preachers 
who have served as pastors from its beginning. She 
writes : 

The records show that the first church was the old school- 
house which stood on the old road from Fairton to Millville, on 
a lot near to where Lorenzo Gould now resides. This school was 
used also as a meeting house by the Presbyterians and Metho- 
dists alternately, by the Westcotts, Bennetts, Seeleys, Wood- 
ruffs, and Hands (white), and by the Goulds, Pierces, and 
Murrays (colored). It was where most of the community 
attended meeting in the early part of the century (19th). 

Rev. Reuben Cuff, who had organized The Methodist So- 
ciety in Salem before this time, and whose first wife was a 
Hannah Pierce, of Gouldtown, was a frequent visitor here. 



144 GOULDTOWN 

My mother, Phoebe Bowen, had been brought up in his family 
in Salem from a child of four years old, — her mother, Lydia 
Bowen, having died when she was a baby, and her father Levi 
Bowen, passing away when she was at the age of four, — and 
Rev, Reuben was a welcome visitor at our house. 

After the organization of the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Philadelphia, our people thought to become attached 
to this denomination. By this time a series of meetings had 
been held at private houses, and a religious revival had sprung 
up. Rev. Reuben Cuff suggested the organizing of a society 
here. This was in 1818, and Elder Jeremiah Miller was then 
on the newly appointed Salem circuit, so Pastor Cuff, with the 
assistance of Rev. Mr. Miller, organized our society. The formal 
meeting was held in the home of Elizabeth Gould, widow of 
Elisha Gould; her house stood just north of the graveyard on 
the lot now owned by Albert Lloyd. The first class was 
organized with these fourteen members, namely: Benjamin 
Pierce, Furman Gould, Christiana Gould, Benjamin Gould, 
Phoebe Gould, Anthony Pierce, Sarah Pierce, Charlotte Gould, 
Elizabeth Gould, David Murray, Sarah Murray, Wanaca 
Pierce, Mary Pierce, and Elizabeth Stewart. Benjamin Pierce 
was appointed the first class leader. The society was attached 
to the Salem circuit and Elder Jeremiah Miller was the first 
preacher in charge of this appointment. 

The houses being too small to accommodate the attendance, 
meetings were held in my father's barn, and the first Quarterly 
Meeting was held in June, 1819, also in my father's barn. It 
was a great meeting, lasting two days, and people crowded 
not only the bam floor, but climbed up in the mows. 

The school building called the Westcott schoolhouse, which 
had been formerly used, and purchased by the society in 1823 
and moved to the present schoolhouse lot, served the purpose 
of school and meeting house until the purchase of the Lummis 
schoolhouse in 1834. The first (Westcott) schoolhouse was 
sold to David Murray, who converted it into a dwelling. 

The Lummis schoolhouse was moved to the site ; the removal 
of this building was an event in the neighborhood, — several 
days were required to move it, and the women cooked dinners 



THE CHURCH 145 

and took the meals to the men on the road. This schoolhouse 
was dedicated as a church by Rev. Peter D. W. Schureman, and 
the name given it was Ebenezer. It was so used as church and 
school, until the erection of the present Trinity A. M. E. 
Church, on the opposite side of the road — the Bridgeton and 
Millville turnpike. 

Under the second pastorate of Rev. Jeremiah Beulah, in 
1841 a split in the church occurred, resulting in the withdrawal 
of a number of the members who established a Methodist Episco- 
pal Church in Fordsville. When the conference sent Rev. Mr. 
Beulah to the appointment for the second time, a portion of 
the church were bitterly opposed to him, and barred the door 
against him. Quite a mob was assembled to keep the preacher 
out of the church, Benjamin Gould and David Murray took 
the preacher up on their shoulders, and while others pressed 
back the crowd, carried him bodily into the church. Once in 
the church, the opponents could not get him out. A lawsuit 
was entered into by his opponents to oust him; but, as the 
trustees of the church were in his favor, nothing came of it, 
and the opponents were thrown out of court. 

These people, headed by Jacob Pierce and Freeman Pierce 
and their families and followers (excepting Freeman's wife), 
left the church in a body and in 1841 a schoolhouse and 
meeting house combined was built in Fordsville, where now they 
have a respectable church and a stationed pastor, and though 
of different denominations, the Gouldtown church and Fords- 
ville church hold cordial and harmonious relations. 

The pastors who have been in charge of the Gouldtown 
church from its organization are as follows: 

1818. Rev. Jeremiah Miller. 

1820. Rev. William Paul Quinn (afterwards Bishop). 

1821. Rev. Jeremiah Ridley. 

1822. Revs. J. P. B. Eddy and I. B. Dorsey (two cir- 

cuit riders). 
1823-25-26. Rev. Joseph Harper. 
1826-28. Rev. Richard Williams. 
1829. Revs. J. A. Shorts and Viley Reynolds. 
10 



146 GOULDTOWN 

1830. Revs. William Richardson, John Cornish, and 

Israel Scott. 

1831. Revs. L. Cook and Samuel Enty. 

1832. Rev. John Boggs. 

1833. Rev. John Cornish. 

1834-35. Rev. Peter D. W. Schureman. 

1836. Revs. Noah C. W. Cannon and Henry Turner. 

1837. Revs. William Moore and I.evin Tilgman. 

1838. Rev. Jeremiah Beulah. 

1839. Rev. John Cornish. 

1840. Revs. Clayton Durham and Henry C. Turner. 

1841. Rev. Jeremiah Beulah. 
1842-44. Rev. George Greenly. 

1845. Rev. John L. Armstrong. 

1846. Revs. A. W. Waymen (afterwards Bishop 

Waymen) and A. C. Crippin. 

1847. Revs. J. R. V. Morgan, and I. B. Parker. 
1848-50. Rev. Richard Barney. 

1851. Rev. I. B. Parker. 
1852-53. Rev. Sheppard Holcomb. 

1854. Revs. Peter Gardner and Isaac Stamford. 

1855. Rev. Caleb Woody ard. 

1856. Revs. Henry Davis and L. Jackson. 
1857-58. Rev. E. J. Hawkins. 

1859. Rev. Andrew Till. 

1860-61. Rev. Joseph H. Smith. At this time new Trinity 

Church built, at a cost of $1,600. 
1862. Rev. J. H. Henson. 
1863-65. Rev. Joshua Woodlin. 

1866. Rev. William Watson. 

1867. Rev. Joseph Nelson. 
1868-70. Rev. Benjamin Darks. 
1871. Rev, Leonard Patterson. 
1872-75. Rev. Jos. H. Smith (second time). 

1876. Rev. Redmon Faucett. 

1877. Rev. Samuel B. Williams. 
1878-79. Rev. E. Hammitt. 
1879-80. Rev. T. C. Chambers. 




(:;(.ul(ltown A. M, ]•:. Clmr 




Jonathan Gould. 



THE CHURCH 147 

1882. Rev. Geo. A. Mills. 

1883. Rev. Israel Derrick. 

1884-85. Rev. Alfred Garrison (who died, and Rev. 

James V. Pierce filled out his term). 
1886-87. Rev. Wilson Peterson. 
1888. Rev. H. P. Thomas. 
1889-91. Rev. M. M. Dent. 

1892. Rev. G. A. Mills. 

1893. Rev. E. M. Harper. 

1893. Rev. Geo. A. Woodson (now Dean of Payne 
Theological Seminary, at Wilberforce, Ohio). 
1895-96. Rev. H. H. Pinkney. 
1897-98. Rev. J. H. Mowbray. 
1899. Rev. A. B. Cooper. 
1900-03. Rev. Jas. A. Groves. 
1904-05. Rev. Wm. W. Johnson. 
1906. Rev. L. A. Generette. 
1907-08. Rev. Aaron A. Collins. 
1909-10. Rev. Geo. T. Watkins. 

1911. Rev. W. W. Middleton. 

1912. Rev. J. H. Robinson. 

During the years 1851-52, under the pastorate of Rev. 
Sheppard Holcomb, a wonderful revival of religion occurred, 
which was most marked among the heads of families ; it swept 
the whole community, in a measure, and a large acquisition 
was made to the church. A few years later, during the ministry 
of Rev. Jos. H. Smith, in 1860, there was another awakening, 
when the church membership was increased by over a score. 
The greatest revival in the history of the church, however, 
was during the winter of 1912—13 under Rev. J. H. Robinson, 
when in three weeks 116 were united with the church, the great- 
est part of whom came out of the Sunday-school. 

THE SUNDAY-SCHOOL. 

From the earliest times of its history, Gouldtown has had 
a Sunday-school. Even before the days when General 
Ebenezer Elmer and his son catechized the children, in the 



148 GOULDTOWN 

little old Westcott schoolhouse, Sunday instruction was given 
the youn.g children of the neighborhoods in the same school- 
house. It was not long after the regular organization of the 
church when a Sunday-school was kept up in the school and 
meeting house. This was not altogether for religious instruc- 
tion exclusively, but the children were taught to spell and read 
and were catechized. 

Jesse Gould, a cousin of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, is believed 
to have been the first regularly appointed Sunday-school super- 
intendent, which position he held several years. After him was 
his son, Enoch Gould, who filled the position for a number of 
years very ably and acceptably. The best loved and most 
devoted Sunday-school superintendent of nearly a half century 
ago was Jonathan Gould, son of the preacher Rev. Furman 
Gould. To him the children looked up as to a kind and gentle 
father. He was a great lover of little children, and a friend 
to everybody. He knew every little child in the neighborhood. 

Under the superintendency of Jonathan Gould, the Sunday- 
school was in a very flourishing condition ; it became the banner 
Sunday-school in the township, and had a reputation of the 
very highest order. As a country Sunday-school it is safe to 
say that it was difficult to find its equal. There were several 
causes which might be cited to lead to this condition, but one 
of some importance was the clannish love of home and home 
ties which pervaded the community. As at country meeting 
houses generally, the farmers met on Sundays to greet each 
other, chat a little after church, confer about the plans for 
work, arrange their brief business affairs with each other, and 
engage help if needed in their work and for their business ; but 
the Sunday-school was where the young people met and had 
their little talks and salutations, and many a love-match was 
made in the long walks home from the Sunday-school, and these 
love-matches and the resultant weddings, years afterwards, 
always turned out well, as was readily attested by the families 
which grew up from them. 

The clannish disposition of the people made them delight 
in these Sunday assemblings, where they could see so many of 
their relatives at a single gathering (all in this community 



THE CHURCH 149 

were more or less related), and a few words of greeting would 
leave a lingering pleasure through the following week. 

The Sunday-school would be begun with the singing of one 
of the old Union Hymn-book hymns, reading a chapter in 
the Bible by the superintendent, prayer, and then the classes 
with their teachers would read a chapter or two in the Bible, 
recite the hymns or verses of Scripture which had been 
" learned by heart," and the blue and red tickets given them 
for merit. These tickets would be taken in exchange for a 
Bible or a hymn-book, and many a Bible went into a family 
for " so many red tickets." Thus the classes were taught by 
reading the Scriptures, learning the catechism and hymns. 

For twenty-one consecutive years Jonathan Gould was 
superintendent of the Gouldtown Sunday-school, first in the 
old schoolhouse and then in the new church. He died in 
1890, aged 77 years, beloved by his Sunday-school and by the 
whole neighborhood. Since his retirement from the Sunday- 
school it has lost nothing in its standing, in fact it has pro- 
gressed continually. It has at all times had a good library 
and has had a number of good superintendents and always 
maintains a corps of good teachers. In the old times there were 
no lesson-helps, but now every such accessory quickly finds its 
way to the Gouldtown Sunday-school. 

REV. THEODORE GOULD. 

GRANDSON OF ELISHA GOULD AND GKEAT-GRANDSON OF 
BENJAMIN GOULD, THE FOUNDEB. 

Of the family of Elijah and Hannah Murray Gould 
Rev. Theodore, their son, became the most distinguished. 
He was born August 12, 1830, and is still living, and at 
next birthday he will be eighty-three years of age. As 
a lad he was a studious but sturdy youth ; he went to a 
private school, kept by Miss Eliza Sheppard, but his 
schooldays were few, for his parents had a large family 
and it was necessary for him to contribute to their sup- 



150 GOULDTOWN 

port, which he did, as a boy, by working in a glass 
factory near his home in Bridgeton. 

In 1847, he was converted and united with the 
Church of his parents — the Gouldtown A. M. E. 
Church. Four years later he became an exhorter in this 
church, and two years after this he was licensed to preach 
and joined the Philadelphia Annual Conference, to 
which the church at Gouldtown belonged. 

After becoming an itinerant preacher, he was 
ordained local deacon in the Philadelphia Conference in 
1859, being ordained by the then venerable Bishop Wil- 
liam Paul Quinn, and was sent to the Danville Circuit, 
Pennsylvania. Many of the old residents of Danville, 
Bloomsburg, Wilkes-Barre, Abington Centre, and other 
Circuit points, remember the work of this earnest and 
pious young pastor, who travelled one hundred and 
twenty-five miles to reach all the points of his circuit. 

Mr. Gould was then sent to the Princeton, New Jer- 
sey, Circuit, which he served from 1860 to 1863, and 
afterwards was stationed at many points in New Jersey. 
He was then transferred to the New York Conference, 
where he filled many appointments. In the New York 
Conference he ministered to Bethel Church, Sullivan 
Street, two years, which were remarkably successful in 
church progress. After this he was sent to the New 
England Conference, where he held some of the largest 
charges, especially the Charles Street Church, Boston, 
Avhere he served three years most acceptably. He has 
been twice pastor of Bethel Church, Sixth Street, Phila- 
delphia, the first church organized by the African 
Methodist Episcopal connection and styled the " Mother 
Church." He has been appointed Presiding Elder, an 
office now called District Superintendent, many times. 




Rev. T. Gottld, Pastor of Belliel A. .M. E. Church, .Sixth Streel below Pine, Philadelphia, 

Pa., 1896. 



THE CHURCH 151 

He was business manager of the Church Publication 
Department, publisher of the " Christian Recorder," the 
church paper, and the various other church publications. 
His management of this department was eminently 
successful. 

The following by the late Bishop B. W. Arnett was 
published in the Church Budget in 1884 concerning Mr. 
Gould; "Rev. T. Gould has been in public life for a 
number of years. He is affable in manner, agi'eeable in 
society, honest in his dealing with his fellow-men, a great 
revivalist, and a consistent Christian gentleman; con- 
secrated to the work of saving souls, exemplary in his 
life and conversation, the friend of young men, sound in 
theology and a good preacher." 

Mr. Gould was and is a sound business man — a kind 
so rare among preachers generally. In Bridgeton he 
owns two dwellings and a store on South Avenue, and a 
double dwelling on East Commerce Street, besides a 
farm of about one hundred acres with a fine large farm- 
house on the Buckshutem Road, in Gouldtown. He was 
in the itinerary fifty years and still preaches ably. He 
is a man of whom his kinfolk in Gouldtown are de- 
votedly proud. 

He has three children, Howard, a printer in Phila- 
delphia, Theodore, Jr., an electrician in Boston, and 
Carrie (Mrs. Albert Rumsey). The last, with her 
husband, removed this spring from Philadelphia to her 
father's farm, just alluded to above, where they will 
supplant a tenant farmer. 

Mr. Gould still has one sister living, who is Sarah, 
widow of Alfred Gould, now eighty-nine years old and 
residing on her own farm in Gouldtown with her only 
son, Eugene, and only daughter, Mary, both unmarried. 



152 GOULDTOWN 

" Short are the annals of a happy people " wrote 
Hawthorne. The descendants of Anthony Gould, 1st, 
son of Benjamin and Ann Gould, are those who came 
from the daughters " Kitty " and Martha, — that is to 
say, the children of " Kitty " and Charles Gould, who 
were Aaron and Anthony, 2nd (Daniel having gone to 
Massachusetts, and become lost), and the children of 
" Kitty " and Furman Gould. Of Aaron's descendants 
there remain Timothy Gould, and his two sons and two 
daughters, and Aaron Paul and his two sons. Of 
Anthony's descendants (who was said to have greatly 
resembled his grandfather, Anthony) there remain the 
children of his son, William, deceased, and daughters, 
Phoebe Pierce, still living, the two sons and one daughter 
of Elizabeth CufF, deceased, the two sons of Christiana, 
deceased (Btelford and Warner K. Pierce) , and the two 
daughters of Christiana, together with one son, Lewis, 
and one daughter, Barbara, of Almeda, 

TJie descendants of " Kitty " and Furman Gould, 
viz.: the sons and daughters of Furman, Jr., Jonathan 
and Alfred and Charles, 2nd, number a great many. 
The children of Furman's daughter Martha also left 
many descendants, but Christiana, who is still living, 
had no children. 

The living representatives of the descendants of 
Samuel Gould, 1st, are very few, being only those who 
came through his daughter, Hannah, one of whom is 
Mrs. Emma Robinson, the wife of Rev. J. H. Robin- 
son, now pastor of Gouldtown, her grandmother being 
Hannah Gould, who married a Wester ; and the children 
of Hannah's daughters, Hannah Jane, and Caroline, 
the latter being the wife of Daniel Cuff, of Newark, 
N. J. Two sons of Hannah Gould Wester reside in 
Camden County, where they had children, who are now 



THE CHURCH 153 

living in New York, Brooklyn, etc. The Rev. Wm. W. 
Johnson, a minister in the New Jersey A. M. E. Con- 
ference, is a son of Hannah Jane, above mentioned. 

The surviving descendants of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, 
were given as up to 1910, in preceding pages. The 
living descendants of Elisha Gould, 1st, are most dis- 
tinguished in the persons of his grandson, Rev. Theo- 
dore Gould, and his granddaughter, Mrs. Sarah Gould, 
and their children. There are still other representatives 
of the families of Furman Gould, in the persons of 
Albert Gould and William C. Gould, farmers, etc. 
From these families in their short annals were produced 
such preachers as Rev. Furman Gould, the first local 
preacher. Rev. Theodore, as above noted. Rev. James 
V. Pierce, son of Richard Pierce, 3rd, Rev. Jehu Pierce, 
son of Jacob Pierce, 1st, Bishop B. F. Lee, a former 
President of Wilberforce University, Rev. Theophilus 
Gould Steward, chaplain for many years in the United 
States army, now Professor of History, French, and 
Logic in Wilberforce University, Rev. Alex. W. Pierce, 
of the New York A. M. E. Conference, Rev. Jeremiah 
H. Pierce, deceased, a member in his lifetime of the 
New Jersey Conference. 

All of these were men of more than ordinary 
eminence, and those still living are quite distinguished. 
With the exception of Rev. Jehu Pierce they all came 
out of the Gouldtown church. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE people's patriotism ; READY TO BEAR ARMS FOR THE 

COUNTRY. 

The people of Gouldtown were not backward to 
respond to the call of their country. They were early 
devoted to the cause of American freedom, and heartily 
hoped for the success of the colonial arms in the War of 
the Revolution. Three or four out of the commimity 
enlisted in the War of the Revolution and served 
shoulder to shoulder with other Americans during the 
conflict. Anthony Pierce, Richard Pierce, Adam 
Pierce, Mark Murraj'-, all served in the Revolution. 

There do not appear to have been many of the 
people of this community in the War of 1812. Furman 
Gould and a man named Levin Wright — not closely 
connected with the community — did some service in it; 
Gould as using his team in conjunction with David 
Cams' team in hauling supplies to the troops at Cape 
May. But when the War of the Rebellion came, the 
young men of Gouldtown made haste to get ready for 
war. Feeling that the combat just about to open meant 
the death of slavery, they were more than willing to join 
in the conflict. 

During the presidential campaign of Lincoln, 
Douglas, Breckenridge and the other candidates, their 
interest and sympathies were with Lincoln, and seeing 
and believing that his election meant strife between the 
North and the South, they were ready at the call. One 
of the young men of Gouldtown was in Trenton when; 
Lincoln made the first call for 75,000 troops. This 
young man hastened to a recruiting officer, enlisted, and 
was ready to go to the front, but having a physical de- 

154 



PATRIOTISM 155 

feet from a broken leg when a boy he could not pass 
muster. 

By means of a copy of Upton's Tactics a company 
was formed in Gouldtown and drilled. They made the 
offer to the government to raise a regiment of colored 
men for the service. Our people remembered the heroic 
conduct of the black and colored soldiers at the battle of 
Red Bank during the Revolution, in which they gloried, 
and thej^ thought to emulate the example of those men. 
The offer was not accepted, and the people felt such a 
rebuff that they decided to wait until they were really 
wanted before again attempting to go to war. So eager, 
however, were some of them, especially some of the 
Murrays, that they went as white men and served 
through the conflict. When colored soldiers were 
wanted by the government meetings were held at the old 
schoolhouse and orators came from Fairfield township, 
offering large bounties for substitutes to volunteer. The 
young fellows did not feel so much like going to war 
as they had felt before the rebuff and they informed the 
orators that they were not going to stop bullets in their 
places; they would not go as substitutes, but would go 
on their own footing, which they did when drafted. 

Of those who served in the Rebellion were Hosea 
Pierce, William H. Gould, Wanaca Pierce, Robert 
Goldsboro, JNIark Pierce, Jedediah Pierce, Lewis Mur- 
ray, William Murray, Ebenezer Murray, Hiram Mur- 
ray, Lorenzo F. Gould, Charles Lloyd, Charles Pierce, 
Ephraim Pierce and Henry JVIurray. 

Tliey were represented in the War with Spain by 
Luther D. Gould, in the regular army, and in the 
Philippines by Capt. Frank R. Steward, in an Illinois 
volunteer regiment, and by Othniel INIurray, in the regu- 
lar army, as well as by Chaplain Steward, who was 
many years in the regular army, and who was govern- 



156 



GOULDTOWN 



ment superintendent of schools in the province of IjU- 
zon, in the Philippines. 

iThe people of Gouldtown lacked nothing in patriot- 
ism from the very earliest period of the government; 
they were always devoted to their country, their state 
and their homes; always loved her institutions and de- 
lighted to obey her laws. They were not in the war of 
1848 — with Mexico; there was no call for their services 
in this war, but they took keen interest in its progress 
and General Winfield Scott was their hero. I myself 
have heard the elderly men of Gouldtown talk of the 
achievements of General Scott when he was in that war, 
and I would sit and listen to their reading of the news 
from the war and hear their talk of the battles of Che- 
pultepec, the storming of Monterey, and the capture of 
slippery one-legged Santa Anna, the commander of the 
Mexican Army. They did not side cordially with 
General Jackson, however, because of his politics. 




CHAPTER XVI. 

SOCIAL life; some typical social events; two golden 
weddings; a social study. 

The people of this community were always noted for 
their hospitality and love of company. In the early 
days, as well as at the present time, the summer season 
brought visitors to the place from Philadelphia, New 
York, and elsewhere, and on Sundays the church would 
be filled with those anxious to see and meet the visitors 
to the neighborhood. 

Some social events in the neighborhood are here 
given from clippings from the Bridgeton daily papers 
as reported at the time of happening which illustrate 
the social life of the village in those days : 

dinner party. 

AT THE HOME OF STEPHEN S. STEWARD, GOULDTOWN. 

An enjoyable dinner party was given by Stephen S. 
Steward, at his residence on the Buckshutem road. Covers 
were laid for ten and dinner served in banquet style, the tables 
being laden with fried bluefish, stewed chicken, salads, tomato 
and apple sauce, hot rolls and coffee, followed by cake, ice 
cream and sugared peaches. 

Those present were Mr. and Mrs. Eli Gould, Mr. and 
Mrs. Lorenzo F. Gould, Mr. and Mrs. William Steward, Mrs. 
Felts, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen S. Steward, and Chaplain T. G. 
Steward of Nebraska. 

Reminiscences and jokes, with watermelon, finished the 
evening. 

Miss Florence Lee, Miss Edwina Steward, Mrs. Alice S. 
Felts and Mr. G. A. Steward proved themselves efficient helpers 
for the occasion. 

157 



158 GOULDTOWN 



THE GOULD REUNION. 



One hundred and thirty took dinner at the Gould family 
reunion yesterday, and the Gould descendants were present 
from the surrounding country, from Salem County, Camden 
County, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Atlantic City, Cape 
May, Millville, and from the West. 

There was an abundance of chicken pot pie, fried chicken, 
roast meats, etc., and melons, fruit, grapes, and ice cream, and 
a delightful day and evening were spent. Service took photo- 
graphs of the group. 



GOULDTOWN, N. J., ITEMS OF INTEREST. 

THE REUNION OF THE GOULD FAMILY A GREAT EVENT ; REV. DR. 
T. G. STEWARD THE CENTRAL FIGURE. 

GouLDTOwN, N. J. (Special). Rev. T. G. Steward, Chap- 
lain U. S. Army and son. Captain Frank R. Steward, U. S. 
Army, attended service at Trinity (A. M. E.) Church. Rev. 
Mr. Generette, the pastor, preached. 

Rev. Dr. Steward will preach to-morrow to the young men 
of the town and vicinity. 

The great family reunion of the Goulds took place at the 
old homestead, which has been in the possession of this family 
for nearly two hundred years, inherited from Benjamin and 
Ann Gould, of which Rev. Dr. Steward is a descendant. 

Mrs. Lydia Sheppard, who is ninety-five years of age, and 
Miss Prudence Gould, are the only two living who are the 
direct descendants of the above-named couple. Over one 
hundred and seventy-five were present at the reunion and of this 
number one hundred and eighteen were direct lineal descendants 
of the Gould family. They were represented by families as 
follows : 

Oliver Gould and family, Lydia Sheppard and family, 
Tamson Cuff and family, Jane Webster and family, Abijah 
Gould and family, Sarah Lee and family, Rebecca Steward and 
family, Phoebe Gould and family, Clayton Gould and family. 

It was a day of rare pleasure and the event was greatly 



SOCIAL LIFE 159 

enjojed by all. The most amusing feature of the afternoon was 
to see a team of baseball composed of young ladies. 

As a whole it was just one of the greatest outings the 
residents here have ever had. Miss Prudence Gould deserves 
much credit for the plans of this happy event, at the close of 
which a picture of all was taken, as a group. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rutledge Miller, of Magnolia, N. J., were 
here attending the reunion. 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard Gould, of Philadelphia, attended 
services at Trinity, Sunday morning. 

Miss Lucetta Pierce, who has been for sometime teaching 
school in Somerville, N. J., will at the opening of the September 
term teach in Atlantic City, N. J. She is spending her vacation 
with her mother, Mrs. Anna Pierce. 



GOULD FAMILY EEUNITED. 

Bridgeton, N. J,, August 17. The descendants of Benja- 
min Gould are holding a family reunion to-day at the home of 
Miss Prudence Gould, near here. Among the descendants 
present to-day are Bishop Benjamin F. Lee and Chaplain 
Theophilus G. Steward, of the U. S. A. 



PRETTY WEDDING OCCURRED TO-DAY. 

A very pretty wedding ceremony took place this morning 
at the residence of Mrs. Alice S. Felts, No. 592 East Commerce 
Street, when her daughter, Miss Mary Felts, became the bride 
of Charles S. Dixon, of Boston. 

The ceremony was perfomned by the Rev. Theophilus G. 
Steward, U. S. A., an uncle of the bride, and the beautiful and 
impressive ring ceremony was used. 

The parlors were crowded by a company of guests, con- 
sisting of the bride's uncles, aunts, and cousins, of Gouldtown. 

The bride was gowned in a gown the like of which was never 
seen in this city before, doubtless. It was of the famous Philip- 
pine Jusi cloth (pronounced Hoosie) a fine silk. It was the 
gift of her uncle, the chaplain, who brought it from the Philip- 



160 GOULDTOWN 

pines. It was very beautiful, and she carried a fan of sandal- 
wood, brought by her cousin. Captain Frank Steward, from 
Japan. 

The Mendelssohn wedding march was played by Miss 
Phoebe Felts, a sister. There was no bridesmaid, but the 
groom's father, John R. Dixon, of Washington, D. C, stood 
up with his son. 

After the congratulations were over a very elaborate 
wedding breakfast was served. 

The happy couple left on the 8.00 p.m. train for Boston, 
where they will reside. 

A SOCIAL STUDY. 

My mother belonged to a family of seven daughters and 
two sons, all of whom, excepting herself, lived to advanced age. 
She died at fifty-seven. Two of her sisters are still living, one 
having celebrated her one-hundredth birthday October 24, 1909. 
The other never married, consequently, her age is untellable; 
but I am sure she is not far from eighty. She has never be- 
come an old maid, but has passed her life in deeds of kindness, 
and is beloved by all. 

Eight of the family married and together have had forty- 
six children, about equally divided between girls and boys. I 
have the names of all of them before me as I write. Forty-five 
of these children reached maturity, only one dying before that 
period — a girl who died at fifteen. Two young men of them 
left the neighborhood quite early in life and became lost to 
their relatives. The remaining forty-three are accounted for 
as follows: 

Four died between the ages of thirty and forty (women) ; 
three lost their lives by accident, one at sixty-five, one at sixty, 
and one in his twenties. Two died between forty and fifty; 
four between fifty and sixty ; seven between sixty and seventy ; 
two between seventy and eighty, and twenty-one are still living. 

Of the twenty-one now living all are over sixty but one; 
and five are over seventy. Thus we have a case where eight 
families had forty-six children, an average of nearly six to 



SOCIAL LIFE 161 

the family and reared all of thera to maturity, except one girl. 
Of these forty-six persons, thirty-one of them have lived over 
sixty years, and, up to the present, ten have passed over the 
seventieth mark. Not one of the forty-six ever became rich, 
ever became a drunkard, or a criminal ; and no one ever became 
a pauper or a beggar. To have forty-six children and rear 
forty-five of them to maturity and to have about three-fourths 
of them (thirty-one) to pass sixty years is a matter of no 
little importance; to have this whole body never cost the State 
a penny either as criminals or paupers is also of some 
consequence. 

Inquiring into the conditions surrounding this group, the 
first remark to be made is that all the families were poor; but 
among them was no inherited tendency to disease. In only one 
family was there the slightest weakness, and it was in precisely 
this family that the premature death occurred, and that three 
others died comparatively young. The families were all of 
sound health and untainted blood. They lived in thinly built, 
cold houses, dressed poorly, ate coarse food, the meat being 
chiefly pork, an abundance of vegetables, potatoes, bread and 
molasses, with plenty of fruit in season, some poultry, fish, and 
game. They knew nothing of sanitation or hygiene; the boys 
did rot wear overshoes or overcoats; the girls wore hoods and 
shawls. Woolen underclothes were seldom worn by the boys. 
It was no uncommon thing in winter to find snow in our bed- 
rooms as we leaped out of bed shouting and ran through fireless 
rooms and down-stairs for our jackets, shoes, and stockings. 
If asked the secret of our power of resistance I should answer 
thus : first, and best, we had honest fathers and mothers, who 
married early in life, and gave their offspring the strength of 
their physical and moral natures. We were not children of 
broken-down " daddies." Second, we were allowed to eat in 
the most natural way — all that our appetites required. We 
were not allowanced, hectored, nor guided; but permitted to 
obey the wisest mother of all. Nature, within. We ate by in- 
stinct until we were satisfied, our mothers attending only to our 
manners. 

So much for the physical. But our social life has also 
11 



162 GOULDTOW^ 

been free. We have kept up a life of considerable fun and 
frolic; and have not sold our birthright for dollars nor fame. 
We have lived close to nature. To us plants and trees have 
their likes and dislikes ; horses and cows their morals, and hens 
vary from suffragettes to queens. 

One more fact I must state about these forty-six cousins, 
forty-five of whom came to maturity and thirty-one having 
passed sixty, a fact that interferes with much science and 
philosophy that I have studied, and that fact is this: While 
all these people are truly Americans of several generations, 
they are all of mixed European and African descent — they are 
all colored people. 

The total number of this family now known to be alive is 
two hundred and twenty-five. — Statement written by Rev. 
T. G. Stewaed in 1910. 

CHRISTMAS ZVIEMORIES AND BEFLECTIONS. 

The return of the Christmas season calls my mind back to 
the open fireplaces, sometimes smoky ; the large wood stoves ; 
the plain chairs and settees which were to be found in the happy 
homes of my childhood: homes varying but little in their 
material outline and scarcely at all in their coloring of spirit 
and manner of expression. Such homes were plentiful three- 
fourths of a century ago, and the land still abounds with them. 

In all of these homes of my childhood, the children were 
cheerfully welcomed and greeted with joyous words and warm 
embraces. There were no carpets too good for them to walk 
on ; no chairs too rich for them to sit on ; no curtains or linens 
too fine for them to touch, and as Christmas approached, the 
sphere of the child's liberty greatly expanded. Stories of 
Kris Kringle (not Santa Claus), and his reindeer and sleigh- 
bells were told to us by Grandmother, Aimt, or Mother, just 
as real as the love of their hearts could make them. 

After long waiting Christmas eve comes; the ground is all 
white with snow; the big crockery jars are well filled with 
doughnuts, still warm from the frying and covered down with 
heavy, clean white cloths that none of their nectar may escape; 




Rev. T. G. Steward, D.D., Chaplain U. S. Army, Retired: Professor of History, Logic 
and French, Wiiberforce University, Ohio. 



SOCIAL LIFE 163 

the red apples are snugly hiding away in their comer in the 
cellar 'neath their blanket of salt hay; and the mince pies 
are serenely cooling on the swinging shelf while distant mice 
grind their teeth with rage. Without may be heard the ring 
of the sleigh-bells, interrupted occasionally by the report of the 
overloaded Christmas gun. 

The people are not trying to be happy; still less were 
they going through the solemn silly farce of trying to make 
themselves or their neighbors believe they were happy. The 
joy-beams on their faces were genuine scintillations from bound- 
ing hearts. Their wants were few; tastes simple, and the 
slightest manifestation of kindly interest met with liberal 
responses. 

Christmas morning dawns with its breakfast of sausage 
and straw-cake, and its flourish of " Christmas presents," of 
so little cost and of such measureless value. Mother gets a 
warm hood from laughing daughters who slip it on her head; 
it has been knit by their own hands in secret; father gets a 
cap with heavy ear covers, or a warm neck wrap ; and the 
little boys and girls (there were no " kids " in our home) re- 
ceived their presents of useful things silvered over with toy 
candies. Everywhere on older faces could be seen the reflected 
halo of a childhood past blending itself with the effulgent light 
of the reigning hour. 

At Christmas time the Child is King, and little ones for a 
moment rise to a kinship with the divine. 

The day broadens and brightens ; the boys go gunning or 
skating; or it may be gather around the stove, crack hickory 
nuts and walnuts, while girls pop corn or make molasses candy. 
The dinner just grows into shape amid all this merriment, and 
is over, the scene changes. The girls bedeck themselves a little 
moi*e ; the boys depart to seek other homes. " Sis's " beau 
comes, to the disgust of little Johnny, who cannot go out with 
his big brother. To Johnny, who does not see any sense in 
" Sis's " having a beau, this halting lump of sleek-headed 
adolescence is a puzzle. Mary has a different notion, however, 
and Christmas night is, not infrequently, popping question 



164 GOULDTOWN 

time. Why shouldn't it be? It is the symbolic season of the 
union between Heaven and Earth, " a time of love." 

As the panorama of my childhood Christmas passes before 
me I can almost hear the voices commingling from old age to 
babbling infancy into a chord as uni-colored as the green that 
cheers the day, proclaiming in tones fountained by hearts 
divinely touched : " Christmas has returned, let the Heavens 
rejoice; Christmas has returned, let the Earth be glad." And 
as the mantling canopy of benevolence extends itself from the 
distant past covering my track of three score years and more, 
and the present year with all its myriads glides under its 
folds, there comes to me the sweet murmurings from trustful 
humanity ; " God is love." " It is good to be here." Our 
tabernacle is already builded, and we dwell with Him Imanuel. 
With us Christ is not only born but abides; one of us, one 
WITH us, through the possession of generations in their career 
through the ages. 



TWO NOTABLE FAMILY EVENTS: GOLDEN WEDDINGS OF 
BROTHER AND SISTER. 

MR. ELI GOULD AND WIFE, MARY STEWARD GOULD, CELEBRATE 
FIFTIETH WEDDING ANNIVERSARY. 

Fifty years ago last Saturday, Eli Gould and Mary 
Steward were married at the home of the bride's parents, Mr. 
and Mrs. James Steward, at the Steward Farm on the Millville 
turnpike. That was March 12, 1860. Last Saturday, the 
fiftieth anniversary of that event — their golden wedding — was 
celebrated at their home on Burlington Avenue. The festivities 
were from three until eight p.m. Though the day was a most 
inclement one, nearly a hundred of their relatives and friends 
responded to the invitation to make merry with them and a 
very enjoyable gathering it was made. Besides those of their 
friends about the neighborhood, there were guests from Salem, 
Millville, Philadelphia, and elsewhere, and remembrances from 
relatives in New York and Boston. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gould both trace their ancestry back to the 



SOCIAL LIFE 165 

earliest Colonial times, and have always resided in this com- 
munity. The Goulds and Pierces practically constitute one 
family and the gathering on Saturday showed a good many of 
their names. There was an abundance of good cheer, the most 
" spirited " of which was plain orangeade. The tables were set 
for dinner before nightfall, and between the time of nine o'clock, 
six tables of about sixteen persons each were served with 
chicken salad, fried oysters, sandwiches, oranges, cakes, Nea- 
politan ice cream, coffee and tea. Very nearly one hundred 
persons were served. Principal among those present were Dr. 
G. T. Watkins, pastor of the bride and groom, Chaplain T. G. 
Steward, brother of the bride, and Bishop B. F. Lee, a cousin 
of the bride, and the bride's only two living aunts, Mrs. Lydia 
Sheppard of MiUville, who was one hundred years old last 
October, and Miss Prudence F. Gould, Mrs. Sheppard's sister. 

Many beautiful presents were received by the couple in- 
cluding, in part, a solid gold thimble and a pair of solid gold 
cuff-buttons from Mr. and Mrs. William P. Almond, of Phila- 
delphia ; a five-dollar gold coin from Chaplain Steward, a comb, 
handkerchiefs, and handkerchief basket from Mrs. Steward, 
eleven $2.50 gold coins from different guests, and a one-dollar 
gold coin from Miss Prudence Gould, currency from Mrs. 
Frank Pierce, Mrs. Hattie Pierce, Mrs. R. M. Seeley, and 
others, and large picture in gilt from Mrs. Phoebe White, of 
Philadelphia, and berry spoon, cold-meat fork, gold-lined ladles, 
glass berry dishes, fruit dishes, celery dishes, cake dishes, bread 
plates in many varieties, rich and beautiful table-cloths, linen 
napkins, water pitcher, Japanese teapot with cream pitcher 
and sugar bowl, and many other articles and " gold " clock 
from Mr. Howard Gould, of Philadelphia. 

The table was decorated with gold ribbons extending from 
an artificial lake in the center of the table to the ceiling of the 
dining-room. The lake was surrounded with smilax interspersed 
with water lilies, and in its center were two columns represented 
by two large glass vases filled with daisies, between which was 
suspended a large gilt " 50 " ; about the lake were golden 
candlesticks, altogether making a very pretty effect. The lake 
itself was a large mirror laid upon the table. As the guests 



166 GOULDTOWN 

entered the house a little wedding bell was pinned on each one 
by an attendant. 

Among those present were Eli Gould, the groom, Mary 
Steward Gould, the bride, Dr. George T. Watkins, their pastor. 
Chaplain T. G. Steward, L. F. Gould and wife, Stephen S. 
Steward and wife, William Steward and wife, Mrs. Alice S. 
Felts, brothers and sisters of the bride; Bishop B. F. Lee, 
Eugene Gould, Miss Mary Gould, Misses Lizzie and Emma 
Stewart, William Cuff, Mrs. Mary Pierce and Miss Helen Pierce 
of Salem; Mrs, Lydia Sheppard and son, Thomas, of Millville, 
and Mrs. Sheppard's granddaughter, Mrs. Lydia Sheppard, II, 
of Haddonfield, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Sheppard of Millville, 
Mrs. Alice Almond and Mrs. Phoebe White of Philadelphia, 
Howard Gould, of Philadelphia, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph B. 
Stewart, James Pierce and wife, James Wynder and wife, 
Murray Wynder and wife, William B. Gould and wife, Mr. and 
Mrs. Harold Pierce, Mrs. Harriet Pierce, Mr. and Mrs. Menon 
Gould, Mrs. Ephraim Pierce, Miss Lizzie Cato, Miss Prudence 
Gould, Miss Clara Steward, Miss Madeline Gould, Mrs. Ella 
Pierce, Miss Dora Pierce, Miss Constance Gould, Mr. and Mrs. 
Frederick Steward, Miss Edwina Steward, Mr. and Mrs* 
Leslie Gould, Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Gould, Mr. Oscar Pierce, 
Eli Gould, Jr., Miss Inez Gould, Herschel Gould, Mrs. Lizzie 
Gould, Miss Jeanette Gould, Miss Marie Gould, Miss Helen 
Gould, Miss Lucetta Pierce, Miss Nellie Goldsboro, William 
Goldsboro, Mrs. Harriet Goldsboro, Mrs. Mary Chase Beckett, 
of Holmesburg, Pa., Walter Hubbard, Samuel Lively and wife, 
Miss Maggie Felts and some others, whose names were not 
secured. 

Chaplain Steward in an address said : " This is my first 
opportunity to attend a golden wedding and although this put 
me to considerable trouble and expense, I could not afford to 
miss it. There are in this community four or five other people 
who have lived out their half-century, but have not celebrated 
it. Our good brother and sister have seen fit to celebrate theirs 
and invite us to join them. It is an event that ought to be 
celebrated. When two people have lived together fifty years 
and have thus set an example for the stability of family life. 




Mrs. V\ rLLlAM Steward. 




Jacob Wright and Wife. 



SOCIAL LIFE 167 

they have a right to announce the fact and their friends do 
well to congratulate them. On behalf of the whole community 
I tender to this couple my congratulations. As a community 
we are not speechmakers, but I am sure we can all join in the 
expression of our high appreciation of this example of solid 
•family life." 

With some other pleasantries he concluded his address with 
wishing both bride and groom continued health and prosperity. 

Mrs. Gould then in a few words thanked their friends for 
the kind response to their invitations and also for their gener- 
ous help in making the entertainment so successful. 

ANOTHER GOLDEX WEDDING ! MR. AND MRS. WILLIAM 
STEWARD MARRIED FIFTY YEARS. 

MANY GUESTS WERE PRESENT ; HAPPY OCCASION AT THEIR HOME 

AT EAST BRIDGETON; LARGE NUMBER OF BEAUTIFUL AND 

USEFUL GIFTS RECEIVED. 

Mr. and Mrs. William Steward celebrated the fiftieth 
anniversary of their marriage last Saturday, at their home at 
East Bridgeton. The exact anniversary occurred last Monday, 
but as a matter of convenience the Golden Wedding was held 
on Saturday. The hours were from three to ten o'clock and 
many of their relatives and friends called during that time to 
tender their congratulations and join in the festivities of the 
occasion. Among the guests were Mr. and Mrs. Eli Gould, 
the latter Mr. Steward's sister, who celebrated their golden 
wedding over a year ago. Mr. Steward has two brothers and 
three sisters, the youngest or " baby " of the six being sixty- 
two years old. The house was decorated with flowers, the pro- 
fusion of golden-glow being especially appropriate and many 
crimson ramblers adding their beauty. Music was furnished at 
intervals by Misses Phoebe Felts, Constance Gould, Mildred 
Pierce, and Harold Pierce, on piano and violin, and there was 
also some vocal music. A collation was served of sandwiches, 
chicken salad, olives, coffee, NeapoHtan block ice cream, and 
cake. An elaborately iced wedding cake adorned the table. 



168 GOULDTOWN 

Many beautiful gifts were received. Among those who 
sent congratulations and remembrances were the following: 
Mrs. Sarah Gould and Miss Mary Gould, Dresden celery dish ; 
Rev. and Mrs. M. M. Middleton, salad bowl; Mr. and Mrs. 
Reuben Cuff, gold thimble and fountain pen; Miss Edwina 
Steward, salad bowl; Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Hubbell, of 
Brooklyn, bonbon dish; Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Sheppard, 
Dresden and gold mustard cup ; W. L. Evans, salad bowl ; Mrs. 
Anna and Miss Lucette Pierce, silver cream ladle ; Mrs. George 
F. Bundy, of Philadelphia, gold belt buckle; Mrs. Jane C. 
Pierce, gold-lined bonbon dish ; Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Dixon, 
West Somerville, bonbon spoon; Captain and Mrs. WiUiam 
Jerrell, cut-glass berry-bowl; Miss N. P. Elmer, handkerchief 
box; Mr. and Mrs. Walter Durisoe, of Philadelphia, bonbon 
plate; Mr. and Mrs. Harold Pierce, drawn-work centerpiece; 
Misses Lizzie and Emma Stewart, embroidered towel and watch 
fob ; Mr. and Mrs. Roy Pierce, tumblers ; Miss Albertine Felts, 
Somerville, Mass., congratulation card; Mrs. Phoebe White, 
Philadelphia, gold cuff-buttons, Mrs. Mary Almond, Philadel- 
phia, brooch; Mrs. J. L. Titus, New Brunswick, cuff-buttons 
and brooch; Rev. and Mrs. Theodore Gould, gold-lined olive- 
spoon ; Mr. and Mrs. Calvin Pierce, berry spoon ; Mrs. S. Maria 
Steward, M.D., of Wilberforce, Ohio, three handkerchiefs, 
collar, and gold comb; Mr. and Mrs. Eli Lee, meat fork, Wil- 
liam A. Cuff and family, cuff-buttons ; employees of the Pioneer, 
gold-lined table spoons ; Publisher, gold clock ; Miss Lizzie 
Cato, gold-lined teaspoons, Mr. and Mrs. Belford Pierce, salad 
fork. 

Gold and silver coin and notes: Mr. and Mrs. Edgar 
Gould, Thomas J. Sheppard and family, of Millville; Mrs. 
Alice and Miss Agnes Gould, Mr. and Mrs. Warren Pierce; 
Chaplain T. E. Steward, of Wilberforce, Ohio; Mr. and Mrs. 
Edward Pierce, of Washington, D. C; Stephen S. Steward, 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard W. Jerrell, Mr. and Mrs. Menon 
Gould, Mrs. Rebecca and Miss Pierce, of Philadelphia; Mr. 
and Mrs. Eli Gould, Mr. and Mrs. Leslie Gould, Mr. and Mrs. 
Ambrose Russell, of Pittsburgh; Mrs. Alice S. Felts and 
family; Miss Ethel M. Pierce, of Longport; Miss Susanna 



SOCIAL LIFE 169 

Pierce, Mrs. Lydia Sheppard, Mrs. Hortense Klose, of Phila- 
delphia; Mr. and Mrs. James R. Pierce; Miss Prudence F. 
Gould, Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Pierce. 

The celebration of two " Golden Weddings " in the 
same family, as were the two which have been here re- 
lated, is of very rare occurrence ; yet in Gouldtown there 
have been several golden weddings passed without 
general recognition. Jacob Wright (whose mother was 
a Pierce) and his wife, Anna Gould Wright, passed 
their sixty-ninth wedding anniversary. 




CHAPTER XVII. 

EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. 

In the colonial times in which the early population 
of this community lived, it is not to be supposed that the 
facilities for education were very common. The people, 
however, even in those times, endeavored to give their 
offspring the rudiments of learning. They were mostly 
taught to read and to write, with some idea of calcula- 
tion. The Presbyterians connected with the " Old Stone 
Church " in Fairfield, then generally called New Eng- 
landtown, took active interest in giving aid to schooling 
the children throughout Fairfield township, in which 
Gouldtown was situated. At a very early day a school- 
house was erected on property belonging to a Hosea 
Shaw on the road leading " from Gouldtown to Bum- 
bridge," where a pay school was kept, for many j^ears, 
previous to 1800. 

Here the early Goulds, Pierces, and Murrays, to- 
gether with the Westcotts, Batemans, Fullers, and 
others got their schooling. This schoolhouse was about 
a mile from the residence of Benjamin Gould, 1st. 
About two and a half miles northward from this ancient 
Gouldtown schoolhouse was another called the Lummis 
schoolhouse. Here the Lummises, Bowens, Woodruffs, 
Parvins, and Garrisons went to school, but the school- 
house that those from Gouldtown and others nearer 
" Bumbridge " attended was the one standing on the 
Shaw property. Who or of what character the teachers 
were who taught here has not been recorded. In 1807, 
on January 8th, Hosea Shaw and Rachel, his wife, made 
a deed for the " School house and lot of land" (the 
metes and bounds being given), "containing one 

170 



EDUCATIONAL 171 

hundred and thirty-five square perches " to " Robert 
Hood, James Hood, James Westcott, Peter Sleesman, 
Robert McGee, and Ephraim McGee, for the sum of 
One Dollar." The deed does not say that the school- 
house and lot sold to those men was for school purposes, 
but it seems to be self-evident that they were trustees 
of the school. The deed simply conveys the property to 
them and their heirs and assigns, but the consideration 
being but One Dollar is proof it was not for their own! 
personal use. 

Robert Hood resided on the farm on Reeves Road 
now owned by the brothers Servais, and Peter Sleesman 
resided on the farm about a quarter of a mile north of 
the present Gouldtown church, lately owned by 
Nathanial H. Atkinson. James Hood probably resided 
with Robert Hood, but later moved into Bridgeton. 
Peter Sleesman afterward moved into Bridgeton also, 
and by his will left one thousand dollars for the schools 
of Bridgeton; the sum being still invested and the 
interest paid to the school fund of Bridgeton. West- 
cott, and the McGees, resided near Fairton. 

In 1809 Isaac W. Crane, a young and brilliant but 
later rather eccentric lawyer, came from Salem and 
settled in Bridgeton, where he practised law for thirty 
years ; during this time he found leisure to teach school 
in this schoolhouse where the Goulds attended. He was 
a tall, fine-looking man and was always called " Law- 
yer " Crane. When teaching school he endeavored to 
get the Goulds to make suit for what he alleged to be, 
by right, their inlieritance in the Fenwick and Adams 
estates, but they would have nothing to do with the 
proposition. 

The Academy on Bank Street, Bridgeton, was 
erected in 1795-1797 and incorporated by a joint stock 
company. The names of the stockholders and incor- 



172 GOULDTOWN 

porators, which were those of the best and most promi- 
nent citizens of the town, are recorded with the articles 
of incorporation in the Cumberland County Clerk's 
office, dated in 1797. So liberal were the incorporators 
with their educational facihties that a number of the 
young men of Gouldtown attended school there in the 
years following, and long before the building of the 
Bank Street public schoolhouse ; among those so attend- 
ing from Gouldtown were Enoch Gould, who became a 
carpenter and builder, Abijah Gould (3rd), James 
Steward, Freeman Gould, Anthony Gould (2nd) and 
others.^" 

As was previously stated, the Gouldtown school was 
under the moral direction of Presbyterians; the old 
Gouldtowners being inclined to that denomination and 
attended the " Old Stone Church." The old women of 
the locality have many a time related how they walked 

"The Bank Street Academy was built jointly by individual stock- 
holders and Brearly Lodge No. 9, A. F. & A. M. under the following 
ancient agreement, made one hundred and twenty years ago in February, 
nineteen hundred and thirteen, on file in the County Clerk's Office of 
Cumberland County: 

"Memohandum of an agreement entered into and agreed upon by each 
and every of the subscribers each one severally and individually of the one 
part with the others jointly of the other part, as followeth, viz.: 

"1. It is mutually agreed that the subscribers hereto shall form 
themselves into a society for the promotion of Literature agreeably to an 
act of the Legislature in such case made and provided. 

"2. In order to carry the designs of this institution in full and com- 
plete effect, it is agreed that suitable buildings for the reception of 
scholars be immediately erected. 

"3. Whereas, the members of Brearly Lodge No. 9 have proposed 
and made the following offer, to wit: That they will be at the one-third 
part of the whole expense of erecting and enclosing a building of forty 
feet by twenty-two, two stories high, with a cellar under the same and two 
chimneys and two floors laid, and in the same proportion to bear the 
expense of painting the outside and the putting up of a lightning rod, 
and of enclosing the lot, and of paying and bearing in the same proportion 
in all needful and necessary repairs to the said building which may here- 




Absalom Wilson, School Teacher. 




Gouldtown School House. 



EDUCATIONAL 173 

the long distance on Sundays from Gouldtown to that 
church, when they were young. For better accommoda- 
tion, a small frame church (also used for a school) was 
built northward of Gouldtown, before alluded to as the 
Lummis schoolhouse, on the road leading from Gould- 
town to Deerfield at the intersection of what is now the 
road to Carmel. Becoming dissatisfied with the arrange- 
ment, the people of Gouldtown in 1823 purchased the 
Westcott school building, at the same time securing the 
lot where the Gouldtown schoolhouse is now located, 
and moved the building upon it. 

This lot, comprising one acre, belonged to the estate 
of Elisha Gould, youngest son of Benjamin Gould, 1st, 
and in the division of his estate was a part set off to. 
Lydia, his daughter. She had married Archibald Cuff, 
and, for the sum of four dollars, they made a deed dated 
March 13, 1823, to Anthony Pierce, 2nd, Jesse Gould, 

after arise — the windows in the lower story excepted — and also to make the 
stairway out of the lower story to the upper at their sole and entire 
expense; 

" And wheeeas the said proposal will not only lessen the expense of 
erecting said building on the part of the subscribers but will add ornament 
and beauty to the same, it is hereby agreed that the same be accepted. 

"4. That the said building be erected on a lot given by John Moore 
White, Esq., for the purpose, and that the lower story of the house be 
appropriated to the use of a school or other purposes as the majority of 
the subscribers present at their stated meetings shall agree, except the 
entry which shall be for the joint use of the subscribers and the members of 
the said Lodge; that the subscribers sheill occupy the whole cellar except 
that part which shall be under the library room, and that the members 
of said Lodge shall, at all times and forever hereafter, have the sole use 
and occupation of the upper story upon the terms and conditions afore- 
said, and it is hereby understood and agreed that each party shall be at 
the expense of completing and finishing the stairs by them respectively to 
be occupied at their own expense, except as is before excepted. 

"6. The costs and expenses of building and finishing said house on 
the part of the subscribers hereto shall be divided into one hundred equal 
shares or parts and each subscriber to pay in proportion to the number of 
shares he subscribes. 



174 GOULDTOWN 

Reuben Pierce (son of Anthony), Elijah Gould (son 
of Elisha) , and Daniel Siro, Trustees, to them and their 
successors in office, for school purposes. On this spot 
the school of Gouldtown has ever since been. 

In this schoolhouse many teachers have taught school. 
Among them were Jeremiah Sayre, Nathaniel Bateman 
of Fairfield, Josiah Bennett of Fairton ; Jeremiah Carll, 
Hiram Carll from Deerfield; three of the daughters of 
Benjamin Gould (2nd), one of whom, Miss Prudence 
Gould, is still living. Absalom Wilson of Salem, his 
brother Charles Wilson, and still another brother 
Reuben, and David CufF — all of Salem. Horace 
Bishop of Herring Row, who was a favorite teacher of 
that generation ; Seth Husted, Albino Davis, and James 
Barrett of Shiloh, — all these taught in the little old one- 
story schoolhouse; Benjamin T. Bright and B. W. 
Rogers were the last who taught in it. Since then the 

" 6. That if the whole number of shares are not subscribed by the 
third day of March next that then and in such case the unsubscribed shares 
shall be divided into as many shares as are subscribed and each subscriber 
shall take the residue in proportion to the shares by him subscribed. 

" 7. That on the said third day of March the subscribers shall meet 
at the new store house, opposite the store of Seeley and Merseilles, at six 
o'clock in the afternoon of said day and appoint a committee who shall 
have full power and authority to erect and build said house in conjunction 
with a committee to be appointed by the Lodge upon the terms and condi- 
tions aforesaid, and for that purpose the said committee are hereby 
authorized to make contracts and do all needful and necessary things for 
the purposes contemplatetl by the subscribers hereto; to receive all moneys 
which may be subscribed and pay out the same as occasion may require, 
and that it is the meaning of the subscribers that the said committee pro- 
ceed to complete the building in such manner as they shall think best for 
the interest and advantage of the subscribers and without any further 
meeting of the said subscribers unless a majority of said committee deem 
it proper and call a meeting accordingly. 

"9. That no subscriber shall transfer any of the shares by him 
subscribed until all shares are subscribed. 

" 10. That all persons holding a share or shares by transfer shall be 
entitled to the same privileges as the original subscribers have and enjoy. 



EDUCATIONAL 



175 



teachers have been many; instead of one there have been 
two, one down-stairs and one up-stairs. The old Board 
of three or five ti-ustees has been legislated out of office, 
the schools being now school district No. 1, under the 
Fairfield Township school board, with always one or 
two members from Gouldtown on it. 



A TEACHER FOURTEEN YEARS. 

RECOLLECTIONS OF GOULDTOWX AND VICINITY IN FOURTEEN 

YEARS. 

The writer, B. W. Rogers, was called upon about the year 
1866, by Mr. Benjamin Bright, to finish out his term as 
teacher in the Gouldtown school, as Mr. Bright wanted to start 
a grocery store on Commerce Street near the bridge. It was 
a new business to me, teaching school, and Mr. Bright had to 
do some coaxing to get me to go, but I soon became so well 

" 11. That the subscribers shall be entitled to vote in proportion to the 
number of shares they hold at the time of voting. 

" 12, That each subscriber shall pay on each share by him subscribed 
the sum of Four Dollars on the first day of April next and the sum of 
Three Dollars on the first day of June following and the remainder, if any, 
as soon as called for after the house is completed. 

"Done at Bridgeton, February 21st, 1797." 

The subscribers, whose names are recorded, were: 



JoHK Moore White 
DAvro Seeley 
Enoch Book 
Enos Johnson 
Ebenezer Seeiey 
Abraham Satre 
Zachariah Lawrence 
Jonas Keen 
Jeremiah Buck 
Reuben Burgin 
Robert Smith 
Smith Bowen 
Joseph High 



Eden Merseilles 
Jajees Burch 
Abel Corson 
Jonathan Holmes 
John Pierson 
Mark Riley 
Reuben Pierson 
Davto Potter, Jr. 
John Brown 
John Mulford 
James Giles 
Josiah Parvin 
Benj. Champneys 



Charles Howell 
Abel Randolph 
Clarence Mulford 
Mosheck Sapp 
Ephraim Seeley 
Manoah Lummis 
Nathan Middleton 
Eli Elaier 
John Woodruff 
Walter Robinson 
Joel Zapp 
John Irelan 



The entire 100 shares were subscribed by them. 



176 GOULDTOWN 

pleased with the job that, with the exception of two winter terms 
which I taught at the Loder School, I remained at the Gould- 
town School nearly fourteen years. 

The old schoolhouse was one story and no vestibule, and 
very annoying it was if children came late, when removing 
their wraps and putting up their dinner kettles in the school- 
room. It was hard on the teacher; and besides there were no 
grades ; aU in the same room from o fe c up to algebra ; but I 
got along and the children liked me and I liked them. 

The opening exercises consisted of singing, reading a 
chapter in the Bible, and most of the time I had an organ to 
help with the music, and it gave pleasure all around; and I 
must say that these years of schoolteaching were the happiest 
in my life. There were many things very unpleasant for the 
teacher, of course, but my heart was in the work, and besides 
I had a good set of trustees who stood by me and they saw I 
was trying to do my very best to get the children to learn; 
if any were unruly and had to be corrected, and the parents 
complained to the trustees, they passed it by, — knowing as they 
did, that in nine cases out of ten the correction was proper. I 
shall always think kindly and have respect for the memory of 
these men; Mr. Abijah Gould, Mr. Andrew Gould, and Mr. 
Holmes Pierce who were trustees most of the time. 

About the year 1871 or 1872 the city of Bridgeton was 
induced to give five hundred dollars, and Fairfield township to 
give a like amount, and they employed Mr. Enoch Gould to 
remodel the old schoolhouse, put on another story and eight 
feet in front for a vestibule. Mr. Gould did a good job and 
anyone else would have charged at least twelve hundred or 
fifteen hundred dollars. 

Mr. Enoch Gould could do more work in one day than any 
man in Gouldtown, and it is said that he was known to walk 
two or three miles out, when he had no carpenter work in 
winter and cut his two or three cords of wood per day; Mr. 
Gould was about one-quarter Indian. It is said that he was a 
hustler at anything he went at. He raised quite a family and 
lived near the schoolhouse. All his children were well-behaved 
and they had a good mother to instruct them, and what I say 




Bextlev W. Rogers, School Teacher, and Retired Capitalist. 




Horace Bishop, School Teacher. 



EDUCATIONAL 177 

of this family I can truthfully say of many other families in 
Gouldtown — they were God-fearing and honest in their deal- 
ings and transactions, and remarkable for their hospitality. 
One winter I taught a singing-school, and on Thursday evening 
did not go home, but stayed with some near-by family to supper, 
and the invitations were two and three weeks ahead for me to 
take supper at their house — I shall never forget their kindness 
of heart. 

In looking back some thirty-five years, I can tell of some 
very severe winters and the snow and ice and difficulty of getting 
to and from school. One winter I remember was an icy one 
and the boys would skate along the pike just as on a mill-pond; 
I was overturned in my sleigh once going to school, and my 
dinner spilled out in the snow. Once the old schoolhouse got on 
fire and such a scampering to get out you never saw! It was 
in the roof, and was soon put out with a few buckets of water. 
If the many born and raised in Gouldtown could be brought 
back again, the population of the place would amount to 
twenty or thirty thousand, for go whore you wiU, you can 
always find someone raised in Gouldtown. 

Yes, they were happy times and I wish I could have them 
over again; but it cannot be, and sooner or later I too shall 
be gone to the " Land beyond the River " to j oin the loved 
ones gone before. 

I must not forget to mention my good wife and the service 
she rendered in hearing the younger ones recite in their classes, 
and if she was absent, then I had the assistance of some of the 
older scholars and to them I was greatly indebted. Some of 
the names I recall were Mary Pierce, Mary Gould, Josephine 
Gould, Miss Pierce, daughter of Mrs. Phoebe Pierce, and others. 
I may also mention the fact that during the fourteen years 
I got up fourteen exhibitions and every one was a success. The 
money received from two of them was used for a library. Any- 
one familiar with the vast amount of work getting up an 
exhibition must realize that my heart was in the work, and that 
it was one of the bright spots in my life. I must give due 
credit to the scholars: some in particular like Rev. Isaac 
Showel, Rev. Alex. Pierce, Holmes Pierce, Jr., Paul Gould, 
12 



178 GOULDTOWN 

Josephine Grould, Mary Gould, Anna Gould, Hannah Gould, 
Dorothy Gould, Anson Gould, Samuel Gould, Harriet Gould, 
and others ; I cannot recall their names now. 

Favorable mention should be made of the distinguished 
talent turned out from Gouldtown, such as Bishop Lee, Chap- 
lain Steward, Rev. Theodore Gould, Dr. Jesse Gould, Rev. 
Jeremiah Pierce, Rev. Isaac Showel, Rev. Alex. Pierce, and a 
few other names not recalled. 

The natural soil of the place is first class for crops of any 
kind, and the climate is delightful. 

Respectfully, B. W. Rogers. 

Mr. Rogers is a retired capitalist of ample fortune, 
and wealthy at the time of teaching school, as he has 
described; his wife, who assisted him, was a woman of 
culture; and Benjamin Bright, whom he succeeded, was 
a man of some wealth also, his father having left him an 
estate of eighty thousand dollars. He was for many 
years an active and energetic member of the Bridgeton 
Board of Education and a prominent citizen. He is now 
deceased. 

Those school teachers did not receive the almost 
princely (in comparison) salaries now paid to in- 
structors, even in the rural districts. Captain Jeremiah 
Carll, who was captain of a sloop in summer months, 
walked to and from the school, a distance of five miles 
daily, kept school from eight o'clock in the morning 
until four o'clock in the afternoon, with one hour inter- 
mission at noon, and for this service he received about 
thirty-five dollars a month. School was also kept every 
other Saturday, but on those Saturdays it " let out " a 
half hour earlier at night. Albino Davis walked from his 
home in Shiloh — three miles west of Bridgeton — ^to 
Gouldtovm — a full five and a half miles, and taught 
school the same number of hours daily, and received the 
same pay. Horace Bishop taught many winters. He 



EDUCATIONAL 179 

was the beloved teacher of those who attended the 
Gouldtown school sixty years ago ; he drove a horse and 
sulky, sometimes a buggy, from his home in Herring 
Row, two miles below Fairton, and he got no more 
salary than the others. Absalom Wilson and several 
others boarded in the neighborhood. 

There were singing-schools also in those days. The 
first teacher of " singing by note " in Gouldtown was 
Alphonso Sumner, a colored barber. He would walk 
from Bridgeton to the home of James Steward, and here 
he would meet a class of children and young people, and 
put them through the do-re-mi, the breves and semi- 
breves, the " Scotland's Burning," the crescendo and 
diminuendo to the fullest extent. He was a good 
teacher of the rudiments of music. Professor CoUister 
Morton, a peripatetic music-teacher, who had a circuit 
of singing-schools from Cedarville to Deerfield, gave one 
night a week to a Gouldtown class, who were as much 
delighted to hear his " fiddle " lead the strains and give 
the pitch as they were to learn music from his teaching. 

There was no choir in the Gouldtown church until 
after the erection of the new church in 1860; since then 
they have always had a choir, with organ, in both the 
church and the Sunday-school; and there have been 
graduates from the Gouldtown school attending the 
South Jersey Institute, in both voice culture and instru- 
mental music. There are now good pianists and violin- 
ists, as well as good singers, among the Gouldtown 
people. The first female schoolteacher in Gouldtown 
was Mrs. Sarah Lee, mother of Bishop B. F. Lee. Then 
her sister, Mrs. Rebecca Steward, taught one or two 
summers. Then Miss Prudence Gould, another sister. 
Mrs. Enoch Gould kept the school one or two summers. 
Miss Anna Hoover, of MillvHle, and Miss Emma Sink, 
of Fairton, were also teachers several summers. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

SOME LITERARY EFFORTS OF GOULDTOWN YOUTH THIRTY" 
AND FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

These are offered — ^not because of their merit — to 
indicate a literary taste in the community. It is thought, 
however, that these examples are not altogether without 
merit. They could be increased by many such speci- 
mens which are to be found in the neighborhood. 

The chapters which follow are taken at random, 
from a story written and published in a newspaper many 
years ago, and indicate clearly the habit and thought of 
this community two or three generations earlier. The 
people at that time had very pronounced notions of 
propriety, morality, religion; and were independent 
though considerate to others, in expressing and impress- 
ing their own opinions and predilections. It may be 
said here, that the hero of the story was Hezekiah Gould, 
the son of Jesse Gould, the carpenter and housebuilder. 
Hezekiah learned the trade with his father, but he was 
a very energetic and ambitious youth, with a positive 
genius for mechanical investigation. After completing 
his trade he became a machinist and ranked with the best 
in the city of Bridgeton in this trade. His career has 
been before mentioned. The heroine was the girl he 
married. Both were mulattoes, but were pictured as 
black (for obvious reasons at that time) by the author. 

JOHN BLYE: OR TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS OF A 
WHITEWASHER'S SON. 

By "Will," Author of "The Gem of the AUey," etc. 

After supper the family, with their guests, returned to the 
parlor. The old folks — that is, Mr. and Mrs. Blye and Mrs. 
Voulons — entered into a general conversation, which dwindled 
180 



LITERARY EFFORTS 181 

down to personal reminiscences. Mrs. Voulons informed her 
host and hostess that she was a Pennsylvanian by birth and 
ancestry — that her progenitors had lived among the quiet 
Quakers for several generations, but that her husband was a 
West Indian of French extraction. 

Somehow or other young folks will get together, no matter 
how bashful they are, and by this time John was getting along 
first rate with Miss Eteline ; and though they sat a little apart 
from the old folks, they were quite close together themselves — 
possibly so that the noise of their conversation might not dis- 
turb their parents — and laughing and chatting like old school 
mates. 

" Please don't call me ' Mr.,' just call me * John.' " 

" Well, ' John,' then," said Eteline, " are you fond of 
music.'' " 

" Yes, I am very fond of vocal music." 

" Do you sing.'' " 

" Oh, no, indeed. I wish I could ! " 

" But you play, I suppose.'' " 

" Not well, I have taken some lessons on the piano, but you 
know you can't have the advantages of professional teachers 
here that people in the large cities have." 

" Your instrument is a very nice one." 

"Yes; won't you favor us with a song.''" 

" Oh, my ! " smiling archly, " I am an Episcopalian, and 
the songs I would sing might be too naughty for Methodist 
ears." 

" If you are a Christian you will not sing what you ought 
not to sing," said John, gravely. 

" There, now, I did not mean to wound you with my leArity. 
Of course I am a Christian — a member of the High Church. 
But which is your church.'' " 

" We are Methodists," said John. 

" Then I'U have a chance to go to a new church. Will you 
have time to show me around town any while we are here? '* 

" I will try to. The evenings are moonlight now, and per- 
haps you and your mamma would like to visit the iron works 
and the glass works in the evening. We often go and look in 



182 GOULDTOWN 

on them. It is a very pretty sight to see the red, molten 
iron, and the sparks flying and the great engines puffing and 
wheezing ; and at the .glass works to see the red globes of glass 
being blown out into large cylinders for window panes, or 
dropped into the moulds and blown out into jars, bottles, 
goblets, etc." 

" Oh, yes, I would like to go. I am fond of moonlight 
walks anyhow. Do you have any parties or social gatherings ? " 

" Not much. There are but few colored families in this 
town, and they are mostly poor, hard working people, and 
have but little time for recreation." 

" What do you do then — just go to workshops days and to 
prayer-meetings evenings, eh.^ " 

" We don't have theatres and operas as you do in the city, 
so we take up the time in reading and studying." 

" Oh, now you are chiding our city doings. Now you had 
better cease. I won't have you finding fault with our city 
amusements, so there now ! " 

" I was not finding fault with them ; I don't like them, 
though, and I don't think they are any good in the world ! " 

" Don't think they are any good in the world ! Only 
hark at you! Why, what would we do without the fine, 
classic music of the great masters as rendered by the most 
wonderfully endowed artists at the operas.'' And the wonderful 
imaginative genius of the great play writers would be the 
merest drudgery to read if it were not for the theatres. 
Such things are good; they stimulate and bring out the latent 
or half awakened powers of human exertion." 

" Oh well, now, I am not going to argue the matter with 
you. Anything that is bad can't be good, and I have yet 
to be convinced that society is any better by having theatres 
and such things than it would be without them. Of course 
I don't know anything about them — hope I never shall; but 
you do, and if I undertake to argue with you, you'll get the 
better of me.'? 

" That's because your side is weak. But I don't go to 
theatres and operas. Mamma is very strict in that regard. 
It is not fashionable in Philadelphia for colored people to go 



LITERARY EFFORTS 183 

to such places. Only the low and vulgar go, for the better 
class do not like to be insulted as they would be by the whites, if 
they should go. They are not allowed to enter the same part 
of the house with white ladies and gentlemen, but are put aside 
with the lowest classes of low whites." 

" Well, I suppose the colored people don't own any of 
them, so they can't say much. The theatres belong to the 
whites, and I am satisfied they shall have them; but I fear 
you will become lonesome in our silent village and soon want 
to be going back to Philadelphia." 

" Oh, no, indeed. I see you have some rare books to me, 
and I was saying to Mamma awhile since that I should have 
a rich feast in perusing them. I am so fond of reading." 

John went to bed that night with a new sensation in his 
heart. The evening's conversation with Eteline and her 
mother, enlivened as it had been with some choice songs by 
Eteline, who had a really fine voice of good culture, had 
awakened a fluttering that was new to him. 

Eteline was pretty, of majestic form, elegant carriage, 
educated and refined, and entirely different from the kind of 
girls of his own race with whom he had hitherto associated. 
She was evidently of aristocratic breeding according to John's 
notions, and he felt himself exalted beyond measure by the 
notice he had received from the young lady, and her mother. 

The next day John found himself hastening home from his 
work with a little more than his usual eagerness, and the 
next it would have been plain to any one in the secret that 
there was an attraction to impel him homeward after the 
close of his day's labor. 

Ah, John, the sturdiest boy has a weak spot when he gets 
to be about your age, but go on; the bird that flutters and 
warbles before your eyes is worth catching. Only be careful 
that you make yourself worthy of the prize! 

" Mr. Needles," said Absalom Wheeler, while John was 
rather absently comparing a pattern with his draught, " I 
am convinced that boy can't put up this engine an' run it." 

" Who, John.? Why not.? " 

" Cause he's too young and inexperienced for one thing. 



184 GOULDTOWN 

and then he's careless and lazy. Why, I have to watch him 
like a cat would a mouse all the time for fear he'll get some- 
thing wrong." 

" Does he ever get anything wrong? " 

" No, but I don't know where he would go to if he was let 
go on. I measure and try every piece of the machinery to 
be sure that no mistake is made." 

" I am glad you do so ; it will be all the better for John 
as well as be a further assurance that everything is right." 

" Oh, I mean to have every thing put up right, for I expect 
I shall have her to run, and I want her to run like a top." 

" I believe it is Mr. HoUoway's intention to have John to 
run her. He has always taken a great interest in him, and 
I guess almost considers him as one of his family. I think 
John is a very smart boy and of remarkable genius. It is 
seldom you meet with a boy of his years who has so steady a 
head on his shoulders. I believe Dr. HoUoway's sister, little 
Teeny Holloway, has given a good deal of her personal atten- 
tion to his education, and is very much attached to him." 

" Well, they're a gay couple, I'm sure ! She's as ugly as 
the pillar of salt, and John's as black as Egypt's darkness. 
Well, I don't believe he'll ever run that engine, that's all. 
I don't believe it's in 'im." 

" We'll see after we get her up," said Mr. Needles, turn- 
ing away. 

" Yes, we will see. John Blye nor no other black Blye 
shall run that engine while my head's hot," muttered Absalom. 

" John's very young, but my ! I've seen several boys running 
engines and making good engineers, who were no older than 
John, and hadn't near his theoretical knowledge. I am glad 
Absalom has been such a friend to him, though. It has been 
well for John, and it has been well for Absalom, for I've 
never seen him so careful and exact before," said Mr. Needles 
to himself. 

That was Saturday, and the men were allowed to " knock 
off " earlier on Saturdays than on the other days of the week, 
and in addition to stopping work at three o'clock, now, Mr. 
Needles told John he could have two or three days off the next 



LITERARY EFFORTS 185 

week, as the moulders were up with the pattern makers, and 
the machinists had to wait for some brasses. 

John was glad of this, and began to lay off a good time for 
himself with Miss Eteline and her mother. 

There were several places to visit of more or less import- 
ance in the rural districts as well as some families upon whom 
they should call, and he hastened home to acquaint his mother 
of his plans for entertaining their guests and to enlist her 
cooperation. 

As he neared his residence, Eteline was standing upon the 
piazza, and commenced calling out to him — 

" Oh, John, I've been on an exploring expedition — a voy- 
age of discovery — to-day, and I've found just the sweetest 
place where you must take mamma and me to-morrow." 

" To-morrow ! To-morrow is the Sabbath, and we should 
not take pleasure excursions on the Sabbath," said John, 
smilingly. 

" Oh, dear, I wish I had been brought up a Puritan, then 
I would always have my thoughts about me, too," said Ete- 
line, with pleasant gaiety. 

" Do you approve of such things ? " asked John. 

"As Puritans? Certainly I do, only I'm glad they're all 
dead," replied Eteline, laughing. 

" Oh, pshaw ! No. I mean Sunday walks for pleasure," 
said John. 

" Generally I don't. Mostly I think they are real 
naughty," said Eteline with mock gravity. Sunday walks or 
week day walks are rarely pleasure walks to me, but a Sunday 
walk, to-morrow, will be pleasant, because you will go, and to 
balance the thing I shall take my prayer-book and whenever 
you show any signs of jollity I shall read you ' Gloria in 
Excelsis.' " 

"I have something better than that to tell you," said 
John. " I shall not be at work three days next week, and I 
hope to spend a good deal of time with you." 

" Oh, that's nice ! I won't say anything more about go- 
ing to-morrow, only I hope it will rain all day, now, so we 



186 GOULDTOWN 

won't have to go to church and I'll have you to laugh and talk 
to all day," said Eteline. 

John felt as if his head was getting wrong side about or 
something. What could Eteline mean by saying a walk would 
be pleasant because he would go and what could she mean by 
wanting to-morrow to be a rainy day so she could have him 
all day to laugh and talk to? Was she in earnest or was she 
only joking him to make him feel flattered? Fie, fie, it was 
nonsense to believe that Etehne Voulons, the rich city lady, 
should think anything of him, — only to pass away the time 
while she was away from her gay city circle. What was he, 
compared to the brilliant and polished gentleman who followed 
in her train when at home. He would banish all nonsensical 
thoughts — that he would, for she would soon return to the 
city and he would be forgotten ! 

" Mamma," said Eteline, as they retired to their chamber 
that night, " the longer we stay here the better I like it. I 
am surprised and delighted beyond expression to find such 
culture and refinement among people of our own race." 

" Yes, daughter, it is a delightful satisfaction. These 
people, no doubt, had a very humble beginning and they are 
very modest still, but without any sycophantic fawning. What 
we see here is genuine gentility, and I am pleased, my dear, 
that you find pleasure in staying here," said Mrs. Voulons. 

" Indeed I do, mamma. Mr. Blye is one of those men who 
can be characterized as of solid worth, and Mrs. Blye's 
intelligence is of that common-sense sort that I could wish 
myself possessed of," said Eteline. 

" Mrs. Blye is a lady whose character, habits and piety I 
am sure can well be emulated. Though always serene and 
happy, she tells me that she has known sorrow and has passed 
through the fires of affliction. Of five babes she buried four, 
and only one — John — has been spared to her, and, like your 
poor mother, my Eteline, her struggles have ever been to 
guard against making an idol of her boy," said Mrs. Voulons, 
feelingly. 

Eteline came to her mother's side and putting her arms 



LITERARY EFFORTS 187 

about her neck with tender caress she kissed her cheek and 
brow with sincere affection, saying, 

" John Blye is much more worthy of being idolized than 
your worthless daughter, and I think my own mamma's piety, 
and habits, and character are as worthy of emulation as any 
saint's on earth." 

" You are partial, my dear, and cannot see your mother's 
shortcomings." 

" No, because she has none. I think my mamma and papa 
are the best people in the whole wide world; and the nearest 
people like them are Mr. and Mrs. Blye," said Eteline. 

" Do not form your opinions too quickly ; sometimes ap- 
pearances are deceptive, but it is a very high mark of excel- 
lence that these people have worked their way from modest 
beginnings up to a position of respect and comparative wealth," 
said Mrs. Voulons. 

" I suppose we shall accompany the family to their church 
to-morrow, shall we not, mamma ? " 

" Yes, we will go with them. I do not approve of wor- 
shipping with their denomination, but if our desire to wor- 
ship God and reverence His name be sincere it matters little 
what may be the denomination with which we worship, and 
we must also accord their opinions the same respect we shall 
want for our own," said Mrs. Voulons. 

The next day was the Sabbath and quite a sensation was 
manifested in the Methodist church when two elegantly attired 
and strange looking black ladies were noticed with the Blyes 
at the services, as it did not turn out to be a rainy day. 

ANOTHER CHAPTER FROM " JOHN BLYE." 

John wasted no time over Absalom, who had regained his 
feet boiling over with rage. A half dozen men had got between 
him and Dr. Holloway and prevented any further assault by 
either. Dr. Holloway was paying no attention to him. Point- 
ing to the wedge, John said: 

" This accounts for all the trouble. The wedge that be- 
longs there has been removed, and another inserted for the 



188 GOULDTOWN 

purpose of throwing the machinery out of line. I do not 
wonder it would not run, but it is astonishing I did not dis- 
cover it sooner." 

" Do you think that was done purposely to prevent the 
engine's running.'' " 

" Yes, it could not be for any other purpose," said John, 
proceeding to unscrew the bolts and remove the wedge. 

Absalom had by this time left the mills in a great rage 
not to return, so we will dismiss him here. 

Removing the wedge, John began a search for the one that 
belonged there. Going to a rude " cupboard " where Absa- 
lom kept his towel, soap, hair brush, etc., he found it wrapped 
up in stout paper. 

After the adjustment of the machinery again, which occu- 
pied an hour or two, steam was turned on, the engine started, 
and everything worked with the precision and nicety of its 
former action. 

The facts of the matter had by this time become known 
among the employees and John became the hero of the mills, 
while indignation was loud and strong against the absent 
Absalom. 

Anyone in the village after that having anything to say 
against John Blye — the engineer, was advised to " sing it 
small " as his friends soon numbered the entire population of 
the place. 

But events of a more stirring nature began to agitate both 
the home of Dr. Holloway and the little village of Edgefield. 

The first event was the marriage of Dr. Holloway and 
Miss Grace Harris. This can as well be imagined as described. 
It came off during the Christmas holiday season and of course 
was the event. 

Girls are singular things, and when they " take a notion," 
they will have their own way and carry out that " notion." 
There is nothing a woman cannot do when she has once deter- 
mined she will, for with her it is preeminently true that " where 
there is a will there is a way." 

Teeny Holloway had determined to have Miss Eteline 
Voulons at this wedding, for during Eteline's visit at the Blyes 



LITERARY EFFORTS 189 

she had made many friends; by her elegant manners and the 
intelligence of her conversation as well as by her warm and 
sympathetic heart, she had won the esteem of all with whom 
she had become acquainted. 

In addition to a formal card, Teeny had sent a personal 
letter urging her to come down, coupled with one from Mrs. 
Blye. The result of this was that Eteline's commanding form 
was seen among the gay guests at the home of Judge Harris 
on the wedding day. She was not alone, for the young engineer, 
John Blye, was also an honored guest. As has been before 
intimated, John's musical abilities were considerable and he 
was not unaccustomed to mingling with the best social circle 
of the place, so his presence among the guests occasioned no 
surprise — unless it was among those from neighboring towns. 

The festivities passed off happily. The great event was 
over, and Dr. Holloway and his young bride settled down like 
sensible folk in their new home, settling themselves to making 
each other happy. 

As the winter drew on towards spring a dark and sombre 
foreboding began to shadow the land. 

" I'll bet there'll be a war yet," said some, while others 
laughed and said, " They ought never to let ' Old Abe ' take 
the Presidential chair." 

Ominous misgivings were rife in the nation during the 
whole winter, but when, at last, Abraham Lincoln arrived in 
Washington from the growing and buoyant West, and was 
peaceably inaugurated President of the United States, the 
people breathed freer and began to feel that the prospective 
trouble had passed over. 

This feeling was soon, however, dispelled. Fort Sumter 
was fired upon at last, two months and two days after the 
firing upon the " Star of the West," off the city of Charleston. 

The Southerners, maddened at first by the John Brown 
raid in October, 1859, looked upon the turn of affairs as 
the culmination of Abolition aspirations. The sound of the 
drum began to be heard all over the land. Volunteers were 
called for and preparations warlike began to be made. 



190 GOULDTOWN 

A few months rolled by and the whole nation is plunged 
into a bloody civil war. 

Even the little town of Edgefield shared in the general 
excitement. The shrill scream of the fife, and the roll of the 
drum called up the loyal villagers, and the " squad " was soon 
drilled and ready to march to the front. Soon the mills and 
the fields began to be depleted of laborers. " Call " after 
" call " for volunteers to supply the sinews of war was made 
by the President. 

New Kfe began to be infused into the wheels of industry. 
Contractors, speculators, " shoddy mills " and greenbacks 
soon became known, and men pocketed fortunes of the Nation's 
wealth in a day. 

John worked steadily at the mills for a while, but at length 
a new industry sprang up at the Eagle Works. The govern- 
ment wanted iron bedsteads for the soldiers, and iron latches 
and hasps for transportation chests, etc. The Eagle Works 
had secured a " contract," and new machinery to be made. 
The lumber business had fallen off at Edgefield, and John's 
services being in so much demand at the works, the saw-mills 
were stopped — the laborers going to war — and John was given 
the important position of assistant to the engineer-in-chief, 
Mr. Needles. Nearly two years had elapsed since John had 
exposed Absalom Wheeler's trick at the Edgefield mills, and 
so signally defeated the plan so cunningly laid to prevent his 
running the engine. During all that time of John's trial and 
mortification, Mr. Needles' confidence in him had never failed, 
and when John's triumph came, Mr. Needles' satisfaction was 
intense. 

Still came the calls for " three hundred thousand volun- 
teers." Recruiting officers were in every hamlet, visiting 

every store, ofiice and workshop. One day the Hon. Mr. , 

a member of the Legislature of John's native State, visited 
the Eagle Works, recruiting volunteers for a State regiment. 
While talking eloquently to a knot of mechanics, some of whom 
had already given him their names, one of the men said, 
" Here's Mr. Blye, let him go, too." 



LITERARY EFFORTS 191 

The honorable recruiter, with gushing loyalty for his 
country and exaltation for the soldier, replied: 

" Yes, if I had my way he might go along ; if I had my 
way black men should go along to carry you boys' guns and 
water cans, and wait on you and black up your shoes, and you 
should do nothing but march and fight." 

John was a general favorite, respected and beloved by 
every man in the works, and at these remarks the men said no 
more but hung their heads in shame — shame for the man who 
did not know their John, and shame for their state and 
country which made it possible for the utterance of such *^ 
remarks with all they might imply, and one by one they slunk 
away to their work. 

But at last came the Proclamation of Emancipation — 
then came calls for enlistment of the contrabands and freed- 
men and finally calls for colored volunteers all over the country. 

Spring Bottom shared in the new excitement. Like magic, 
almost, strange colored recruiting officers appeared in the 
hamlet, and soon here and there a blue suit and blue cap 
appeared in the streets. 

The war fever seized upon John also; but he did not like 
the idea of going to war for his state or country as a mere 
hireling. He was perfectly willing to go to war as a state 
volunteer, for he felt that to go any other way would be an 
acknowledgment on his part that he was not a citizen of a 
state. Spring Bottom raised a pretty strong club of stay- 
at-homes under the hireling rule of the government, declaring 
they would not go to war unless they could be accredited as 
volunteers to the state to which they belonged. John joined 
this club and was elected captain of it. The more the drums 
beat to arms the more anxious were its members to go to war. 
At length so urgent became the colored people of that and 
the adjoining counties to go to war, and so popular had 
John become among his own people that he was induced to 

" An actual occurrence, the remarks being made by the Hon. P. L., 
now dead, in the presence of " Will." Instead of the words " black men," 
however, the word that was used may be guessed. 



192 GOULDTOWN 

take the initiatory steps towards raising a regiment. The 
success in this undertaking was so promising that, at the 
instigation of some of the leading colored men he wrote the 
following letter to the Secretary of War : 

" Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Sec. of War, Washington, D. C. 

" Sir : I have the honor to inquire if a regiment of black 
men would be accepted by the War Department and credited 
to this State; and, if its officers of black men would be com- 
missioned to command it as are the volunteer officers of other 
volunteer regiments, with the same pay and rations for privates 
and officers. 

" Very respectfully, John Blye." 

This letter was endorsed at the War Department " John 
Blye, Esq., of [Gouldtown, N. J.] makes inquiries concern- 
ing raising a colored regiment," and returned with the follow- 
ing letter: 

"War Dept., Washington, D. C, 1863. 

" Sir : The government accepts the services of colored 
men as United States Colored Troops. They are allowed a 
compensation of $6.00 per month for privates and $8.00 per 
month for non-commissioned officers. It is not deemed advis- 
able to allow colored men to command. I have the honor to be 

" Very respectfully, A. A. G.^^ 

The result of this correspondence was to disband the 
various clubs that had been organized, the men declaring they 
would wait for a draft and see if the government would draft 
those whom it would not recognize as citizens. 

Soon, however, came the clarion voice of glorious old 
Massachusetts, and the country remembers yet what she said. 

John at once determined to become a Massachusetts soldier. 

^This correspondence, in substance, was an actual occurrence and the 
letters are verbatim et literatim. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



A STORY IN BLANK VEESE. 



In Stowe Creek township, near Flax landing on 
Stowe Creek about a century ago stood a brick house. It 
still stands there and, though modernized, is now owned 
by either Frank Ridgeway, or the estate of Captain 
Miller. It was said to have been erected in Colonial 
times, and the tradition, in early days was that it was the 
rendezvous of pirates; and was finally made the prison 
of a fair captive of the pirate chief. Seventy-five years 
ago the natives used to call it " Joe Compton's Haunted 
House," because nobody would live in it. 

(The following story, in blank verse, was founded 
upon this legend, by a Gouldtown boy, then about 20 
years old, and who is still living. The name of the 
writer is assumed, and this same boy wrote many things 
in prose and verse under assumed names, one of which, 
as I now remember was " Ichabod." 

This story of " Luilla " was written about 1860. 

luilla: the coesair's victim. 

A TAI.E OF SOUTH JERSEY BY " OLIVER TWEEDLE." 

I'll tell the tale, as it was told to me; 
But yet, to 'hellish with a little grace, 
Must weave in fancy; for it would not do 
To give it in the rough with no carving — 
For meats are always better with seas'ning; 
In earlier times, 'tis said, wild daring men. 
Devoid of fear of law, or punishment 

For crime, t' increase their wealth would band themselves, 
And choose a chieftain whom they would obey: 
A sharp, sagacious, cunning man 'twould be, 
13 193 



194 GOULDTOWN 

Most apt, and young, and handsome, too, to boot, 
With good address ; one who could probe right well 
The gentleman; could visit the abodes 
Of wealth — to mingle with the high and gay; 
To be the greatest sport in sporting scenes, 
To be the most solemn where things devout 
Are wont to be enacted, and to pry 
The inmost secrets of the haunts of wealth 
And find the, to his band, most harmless way 
To possess it and to escape, uncaught; 
And this while being the admired of all 
Admirers, and the star of all who gaze. 
And deeds by such were done that froze the blood ; 
Deeds of plunder that would end in murder. 
And sometimes worse than murder, — death outright 
Is better oft than torture to compel 
The victim to disclose some secret place 
Where wealth and plunder might be stored away; 
Or, some fair victim, who, by luckless fate 
Had fallen in their power, to be forced 
To yield her virtue to th' unhallowed care 
Of such men-monsters ; — so much had I learned 
Before my narrator, an aged man. 
Began his story in this wise, to wit: 
" Jean Paul Retour was born, no matter where. 
It might be France, or Spain or Italy, 
In some large city or a country town; 
He might have been a duke's son or a clown's, — 
It matters not, his younger days I knew 
But little of, nor care I more to learn. 
'Twas in his early manhood that I knew 
Aught of him, and to know him then was but 
To love and to admire and to revere; 
For he was grand and noble, good and true. 
His own descent would count for nothing, for 
His own proud blood could found a family; 
Tall, upright was his form, and conscious pride 
Of his own person gleamed forth from his eye. 



LUILLA 195 

His raven hair in curling locks hung o'er 

The square and lofty shoulders ; and the brow 

Was high and haughty, and the jet black eyes 

Showed nought of fear of danger seen or not; 

The straight, thin, well-set and transparent nose 

Showed restlessness of disposition, and 

The small square chin and thin compressing lips 

Showed cruel firmness in a purpose set — 

And he was handsome, aye! surpassing all; 

No door was closed to him, but all were glad 

To win his smile, and gain a passing word, 

But, ah! a spell hangs o'er him and would break 

In vengeance! — Foul crimes had been committed 

And murders done that baffled inquiry. 

Merchants and banks were robbed by one Pedro, 

'Twas said, a bandit with a bandit band; 

And church and convent shared alike their fate. 

And all attempts of sheriffs, high or low. 

To trap the desperadoes were in vain. 

For none could tell, or give a clue where might 

Be found the hiding place of band so bold; 

And other robberies, and murder e'en. 

Had been committed where 'twas thought that ev'n 

The bold Pedro could not have found the scene. 

At last a man was robbed and left as dead, 

A merchant he with stores of golden coin 

Locked in his house secure, with double bolts, 

And all his family gone to while the time 

Of evening at theatre or church ; 

But he, well knowing where his treasure was. 

Remained to guard as 'twere, and if perchance 

A passing friend should enter, to beguile 

In pleasant talk the lonesome hours away. 

The time would be well spent in sweet converse. 

Jean Paul did enter, welcomed ev'rywhere, 

A no less welcome did he now receive, 

With adroit skill he plied his host with words, 

About the fair Ilene or bold Henri ; 



196 GOULDTOWN 

With artless queries learned he that they 

With all the servants, save one — Olao — 

Had gone to seek amusement, or devote 

An hour to worship. How a fire did gleam 

From the black eye of Jean, as Olao 

With tray of viands rich entered the room 

And placing them upon a table paused, 

As if to hear command; his eye did meet 

The hurried gaze of Jean for one instant, — 

It was enough, a magic spark had caught 

The tinder sleeping in his own gray eyes 

It blazed and lashed itself into a flame; 

Demons held carnival therein as if 

A scheme t' increase their demoniacal joy 

In dreadful orgies were consummated. 

And Olao smiled ; his very soul shone out 

In frightful blackness through his vicious eyes; 

He placed himself behind his master's seat 

And said, " My Lord, the viands, see, are here 

For you and for your noble friend, and I, 

Your slave, am here to do your bidding; and 

The wine will loose your brain and make your thoughts 

More free." 

One, two, and yet another glass 
Was quaffed, Jean rose as if to go, but stayed; 
Then quick as thought a dagger pierced the breast 
Of the rich merchant and he fell to earth. 

" He dies ! " said Paul, with one triumphal look, 

" Olao, at the spoil, or else the herd 
Of sniffling women will be here and then 
The clue is given e'er we could escape." 
One last look as he left the house Paul gave 
To see that life had left the body, and 
No tales were likely to be told of him. 
He looked too hasty — for, when he had gone 
And faithless Olao had followed him, 
The bleeding man revived, and to the crowd 
Assembled cried : " It was Jean Paul Retour, 



LUILLA 197 

He's the bold bandit Pedro, and his band 

Are Jean Paul's men," and closed his eyes and died. 

It was a subterranean chamber where 

Were congregated many stalwart men, 

Each clustering round a common centre 

Paying deference to a manly form 

Who had just entered, who recounted low 

An adventure. List, now ! a spring is touched, 

Another form admitted; 'tis a maid 

Or vixen, as you will; her look was wild 

And agitated, and she paused as if 

She feared to break the silence. 

" Speak, hussy ! " 

Said a thundering voice from out the crowd, 

And stepping nearer to the bending form 

Of him who seemed to be the chief, she said 
" Pedro, my chief, you did your work too soon. 

For he, your dagger pierced, died not until 

He had revealed your name ; so have a care 

How that you mingle in the throng of men. 

They'll seek your life — for now they'll know who 'tis 

That leads the band of Pedro." 

'Twas midnight! 

The dim light of the tapers shone athwart 

The corridors; the massive pews of that 

Great church: its holy furniture showed dark 

And rich in the dull glare of taper light. 

Its beautiful images, and the robes 

Of absent priests, melted and modified 

The scene, and there amid the tapestry 

That overhung the image of Mary, 

The Mother of our Lord, knelt the fair form 

Of woman, and a step was heard close by. 

She started up, a dagger met her gaze, 
" Luilla," said a voice she knew full well. 

And joy and gladness lighted up her face, 
" 'Tis you, my only love," she feebly said, 



198 GOULDTOWN 

" For you I've prayed the Virgin all the night, 
Now tell me — ^but the dagger," and she fell 
Pale, trembling to the ground — 

" Was pointed at 
The heart of any found who would tell tales," 
Said Pedro, for 'twas he, and as he raised 
The drooping girl, repeated in her ear, 

" I cannot strike the heart of one like you, 
Nor can I trust you out among the world ; 
I am a robber chief, but not so bold 
As put my neck within the halter noose, 
So you'll away with me." 

" No, strike me dead ! 
Take, take the bloody hand I blindly loved 
And slay me here, I am prepared to die, 
For nought is stronger than a woman's love 
But her despair," — thus said the stricken girl 
In accents weak. 

The robber chief would not. 
But bore her off unto his den of thieves. 
And thought by words of flattery to win 
Again the love that lived but once and died. 
He swore by the " Lord George " she should be his. 
And that by her consent, for if he would, 
Could he not break her to his will, for she 
Was in his pow'r, what could she do but yield.'* 

CANTO II. 

Sometimes such bold, wild, daring, reckless men 
Found helpmates for their profit, who would share 
Their plunder, on the sea ; who were as bold 
In crime as they, and cared no more for laws 
Of men or nations, or a higher pow'r. 
'Twas well sometimes to ship his spoils away. 
So Pedro thought, to sell in other climes. 
So he had leagued himself with pirates too. 
And they with each exchanged their ill-got goods. 



LUILLA 199 

And profited thereby; — a rendezvous 
For both their gangs was made, to seek ashore: 
The sea beats madly 'gainst the broken rocks 
And dashes its white foam amid the clouds 
And roars and surges like a giant bound — 
And bound it is ; the tow'ring rocks above 
Stay its proud waves, they can no farther go ; 
A ship at anchor in the distance shows 
By the wan gleam of starlight, and the crew 
Pull a small boat towards the breaking shore 
Where none but madmen dare to risk their lives ; 
But at the helm a swearing steersman sits 
Who knows the path — has traversed it before, 
And safely runs the boat to a small light 
High up the cliff. The boatmen give a sharp, 
Short whistle, and a door springs open wide: 
A sentry stands, the password now is given, 
A scaling ladder falls into the boat. 
And captain, crew, and plunder soon are safe 
Within the den so cunningly devised. 

An inn, a common covmtry inn, along 

A sparsely traveled road, 'tween no great towns, 

Is filled with country folk — a brawling set. 

Who for amusement congregate to spend 

An hour or two in drinking and in chat, 

And high their humor runs ; and loud uproar 

Is mixed with vulgar laughter. 

But a hush — 
The scene is stilled — a new arrival's made: 
A coach and 'tendants fill the open space 
In front the house; a tall and graceful man 
Alights, bearing the seraph form of one, 
Who seems to be a maiden lost in grief. 
For ever and anon a sigh escapes, 
But the veiled features are not let to view. 
And slapping his fat thighs brave Loraine says : 
Ha ! Pedro, now I have it, well you know 



200 GOULDTOWN 

That I will aid you, if I can, to 'scape 
And take your dainty cargo with you, too, — 
I know a port where none as yet do come 
To lade their ships, but where I have e'er this 
Unladen mine of gold and buried it, 
Now go you there, since this is not the place 
For you to stay, and spend a quiet life, 
What say you. Eh? " 

"I say I will away 
To any place where I may but possess 
This object of my passion." 

"The New World 
Is then your home." 

Then springing to his feet 
Pedro called out : " Ten men of you I want. 
By lot, to be the agents of a man. 
Unknown ; to guard his wealth, tenant his lands, 
And build a mansion house for him when he 
Shall come to hold them; and again I want 
Two others, but by choice, to guard a charge 
That I shall give them — Alberto, your wife, 
And you, I shall make use of for this trust 
And Irish Bill, a better is not found." 
It was a motley crowd — from verdant youth 
To hoar age the lot impartial took; 
I'll not describe them all, but merely tell 
Of the main agents, who were chosen out: 
Orlando Conara, a dashing youth. 
Was first appointed over all the rest, 
And they must do his bidding as they would 
Were he their chief ; in faith, a gallant chief 
He'd make, his tall, commanding form and mien 
Showed he was not of common parentage. 
The keeper of the house is all aglow 
With smiles and blandishments, the gaping crowd 
Bow and cringe, and give way to the pair, 
Who, as the landlord says, " are shown their room," 
And then indulge in comments ; some one says. 



LUILLA 201 

" He is a bridegroom with his dainty bride, 

Spending a honeymoon." And others say 
" She is his sister and they two have met 

A sad bereavement, for did you not see 

How sad he looked and how she seemed to sigh? " 

But Piano, the old steward, put in his voice 

And said: "It is the Maestro, he who owns 

The house and lands and all that here surrounds. 

He comes and goes whenever 'tis his will, 

And none dare question him, but I do think 

As Albro says, 'tis a young bride who now 

Accomp'nies him " — 

You know the man, my friend, 

I do not doubt, and know the maiden too, 
'Tis none but Pedro and the Luilla, 

And Pedro's men compose th' attending train. 

We wiU not follow through the vaulted way 

Long leading from the chamber where they go 

Unto the den ; but meet them there amid 

The scenes of revelry. 

An hundred lamps 

Illume a spacious hall well thronged with men. 

And women too are there and not a few, 

And strains of music fill the smothered air. 

A table groans with viands and repast 

Of richest odors show a sumptuous feast 

Is ready for some honor'ble event ; 

The pirate chief and robber chief discuss 

A topic strong and stronger cup of wine. 

Yet so it was ; a helpmate he possessed, 

Who outvied him in hideous, horrid looks — 

A short and crumpled, humpbacked thing was she, 

I cannot call her woman, nor do I 

Believe that she was woman ; for a fiend 

Would be most likely to put on her shape. 

Her chin was sharp as any eagle's beak 

Yet blunted off; her mouth from ear to ear 

Encircled half her head, which dev'lish thing 



202 GOULDTOWN 

Sat squattily between the humpy things 

She called her shoulders and two other things 

She called her back and breast, I wonder not 

That such a face had such a hooked nose, 

Or such green eyes matched such red, grizzly hair. 

Now " Irish Bill " in turn deserves a glance ; 

Although not prominent, he holds a place 

In the selected comp'ny, which must care 

For the selected charge. 

A short spare man, 
Of light but withy form, and sinewy 
Was he, with skinny face that wrinkled up 
From chin to brow when but he chanced to smile 
Or speak, or even wink his ej-^es, which orbs 
Were large and full, protruding from their seats 
Like any hare's, but which he could not help; 
His hair of yellow hue was short and curled. 
And when he spoke a spasm seemed to jerk 
His entire frame — his lungs would fill and heave 
And vi'lent splutter make, as from his mouth 
His thick and smothered voice found utterance. 
I said the other nine were common men. 
And it was so; but one deserves a space 
Of notice. Diff'rent from the rest in hue. 
Yellow and curling were his massy locks 
And mild and placid was his sky-blue eye, 
A ready smile awaited all who chose 
To address him; courteous and polite, 
He was cut out and stamped a gentleman. 
But now and then a quick electric flash 
Shot from those placid orbs ; the quick expanse 
And flutter of that thin, straight waxen nose, 
And hasty motion of the head and hand. 
The constant watchfulness, all tend to show 
That there is something lurking still within. 
No wonder is it that the like of him 
Is found in such a band — 'tis just his place, 
The other men were nought but common men. 



LUILLA 203 

Of various dispositions, as you'll find, 

In any comp'ny; but Albertero — 

Alberto and his wife were two, the like 

Of whom I think 'tis very hard to find: 

Tall was the man and gaunt and sinewy, 

With grayish hair and straight and lank the locks. 

And sunken eyes of piercing, stinging black. 

And hollow cheeks with yellow, wrinkled skin; 

A deep mouth reaching well around and filled 

With snags of teeth, with eyeteeth long and sharp; 

A broad, flat chin with stubbed beard beclad — 

Like frost just oozing from the glazier's mouth. 

And nose of three-inch measure, fuU and hooked 

The end, to keep the superficial curve — 

And 'tis the truth, my friend, he looked more fit 

To be companion for the wildest apes 

And ogres too, of largest size, to stay 

The dread and terror that's inspired by him, 

Than be companion of the womankind. 

Reclining calmly on the deck, Pedro 
Watched with the pirate captain every move, 
And seemed to study with his strongest will 
To weigh her thoughts, divine her inmost heart. 
And he succeeded, too, somewhat, 'twould seem, 
For turning to the pirate in a tone 
Of mingled bitterness and joy, he said, 
' Fairest of all the fair ones is my bride 
That is to be, — yet 'tis the greatest crime 
That I've committed thus to bear her off 
From friends and kindred and a pleasant home. 
To share the fortunes of a wretch like me — 
In faith my heart reproves me more for this 
Than plunging my stiletto in the heart 
Of my best friend. Does she not look, Loraine, 
Like some fair goddess weeping o'er the fate 
Of some fair protege? If I could but ' 

Induce the girl to overlook my crimes 



204 GOULDTOWN 

And see that they were necessary, then 

She might forget her past life and her home, 

And bow to fate before it breaks her." 

" You'd 
Break her, then," said Loraine, " or bends she not? " 
" By heaven! she's mine, I'll do just what I will! " 
And a low chuckle glided o'er the sea. 

CANTO III. 

Days, weeks, and months successive pass away. 

But still Luilla's home is on the sea, 

But not in the same ship she started with ; 

For Pedro showed his skill so much the first 

Attack upon an unarmed merchantman 

That Loraine did divide his stock of war. 

Some heavy guns and small arms without stint. 

With him, and fitted up the captured ship 

For chasing harmless prizes, and the crew 

That was found in her had their choice to swear 

Allegiance to Pedro or drink the deep. 

Some turb'lent ones, of course, were murdered straight, 

For they might give him trouble, and perhaps 

Might cut his throat if they became too strong 

By numbers joining to them. 

Thus Pedro, 
Augmented by his twelve disciples, who 
Were chosen by the lot to do his will — 
Became a corsair bold, and dreaded much 
By shipping merchants in full many ports. 
Cinara was his mate and quite as bold. 
And Hilo Maenon was his cabin steward 
And he with Albertero and his wife. 
Old Zaniffe, had the charge of Luilla, 
Who, in a private cabin fitted up 
With great luxuriance and artful taste, 
Was closely guarded — though it seemed not so. 
For he, the wily corsair, would not seem 



LUILLA 205 

To govern harshly, nor e'en would he seem 

To hold her is. his ship as with his will — 

But fain would make her think with fluent words, 

He, of necessity, a virtue makes. 

How that the changes came, it is not need 

That I should tell you, Sir, but come they did. 

And Conara received instructions full 

To follow out the plans by Loraine laid 

For Pedro's guidance ere they parted ships. 

And as you do not know them, I will tell 

In what they did consist in my own way. 

But quite at home among them, and they seemed 

To pay deference even to him, like 

As if he had some trait that would command 

Respect — and so he had, for though his skin 

Was black as night, true brav'ry dwelt beneath. 

As well they knew in many plund'ring scenes. 

Of Afric's ebon race he was a son — 

And well might Afric pride herself to own 

A son so noble in his form and mien: 

His name was Hilo Maenon, and the lot 

Had chose him with the rest. 

The night drew on 
To morning and the feast was well-nigh done, 
The pirate and the bandit chief had made 
Their plans, quick work must now be done to move 
The bandits' necessary stores unto 
The anchored ship as yet the morning light 
Lingered and danced not o'er the rippling wave, — 
Great chests, and heavy, filled the lab'ring boats, 
As to and from the ship the sturdy tars 
Bent their strong oars; and stores of merchandise 
Of best and finest quality, the spoil 
Appropriated from some wealthy son 
Of commerce. But we next will turn our eyes 
To Pedro, who, unconscious of the noise 
And bustle, seems to be absorbed within 
Himself, and thus he muses : " I'll become 



206 GOULDTOWN 

A corsair, too, for lucky have I been 

On land ; I've heaped up gold and silver bright — 

Yon chests contain my treasures, all but one; 

I'll be a corsair and I wiU possess 

That other one — she can't escape me now; 

The sky and sea shall be our boundaries, 

The ship our home — I'll win her to myself, 

And when those fellows do perform their work, 

I'll bear her to my mansion where the past 

Will be forgotten — ^but if she resist 

My wiles of love, what's left me then to do? 

Nor will she either, for she loved me once. 

And what has been can well be o'er again; 

I'll soothe and caress her with gentle words. 

And make her love me by her own proud will." 

The morning sun beheld the gallant ship 

Swift driving o'er the blue — no trace of land 

Was visible; the sporting flying-fish 

Darted across her bow in multitudes. 

And ever and anon a screaming bird 

Hovered o'erhead awhile, then hied away; 

The gentle breeze crested the distant wave 

And swelled the canvas of the lab'ring ship ; 

It moaned and sighed amid the loose cordage, 

And fanned the cheek of Luilla, my friend, — 

For she was there and leaning o'er the waists 

Look'd into the deep sea and thought of home, 

And friends, and childhood's early scenes, I think; 

Her mass and pray'r, her spir'tual adviser — 

Of all she loved and all she thought lov'd her — 

Ah, then, the tears unbidden 'gan to flow ; 

The breeze now playing with her ringlets black 

That cluster o'er her snowy shoulders, and 

Her crimson cheeks receive the kisses light 

Of the majestic sun. A form she stands 

Of unsurpassed beauty, e'en among 

The fairest daughters of the sons of men. 

Her fragile form is gently rocked and swayed 



LUILLA 207 

By the soft motion of the sailing ship; 

One waxlike hand the ships gunwale supports 

The other grasps her cherished rosarie. 

In South New Jersey e'en unto this day 

There is a weird place where many tales 

Are told of Bluebeard, once a pirate, too. 

And money holes abound in plenty, where 

'Twas said that he had buried stores of gold 

And anxious diggers searched with hushed voice, 

To gain the treasure, which, 'twas often said 

Was heard to rattle 'neath the cov'ring stone ; 

And many vouched when they had digged a ways, 

They found the iron chest which held the prize. 

But being so o'ercome with dreadful awe, 

They spoke! and down the chest immediate sunk — 

For 'twas a legend that old Bluebeard called 

A stalwart stripling from his pirate crew, 

More wicked than the rest and steep'd in crime, 

And charged him thus : " Son of the sulph'rous pit, 

Seest thou this gold? I leave it now to thee, 

To guard until I do return — Dost hear? 

See that thou guard'st it well ; and if perchance 

The hand of man should seek and find, the fiends 

Of hell in their black arts assist to guard ! 

And if a human voice dost hear, raise all 

The powers of hell to bear it off. Spirits 

Of darkness keep their vigils near to thee ! " 

A charmed bullet pierced the young man's brain. 

He died while standing upright ; yet no mark 

Or wound, 'twas said, was seen; they buried first 

The gold, then stood the corpse upright upon 

The chest, then filled the pit and laid a great 

Flat stone upon it. 

This Bluebeard was none 
But Loraine, pirate of the Southern Seas ; 
He found the place; a quiet, sheltered cove, 
A few miles up the Bay of Delaware, 



208 GOULDTOWN 

Had landed many times and stored his spoils, 

Among a band of servile padders, who 

Inhabited the country and by stealth 

Surreptitious conveyed them to the town 

Of Quakers, where they might be sold for coin. 

This is the place of which Loraine had told, 

Jean Paul Retour the night he left the den 

And he had made his plan to this effect, — 

That Conara and his associates 

Should seize upon the land as best they could, 

And build a mansion house and till the soil 

And keep communication with the town 

Of Penn, from whence to import luxuries, 

And thus to make a home adapted to 

A foreign lord and lady when they came. 

And so it was; a beautiful abode 

Was finished with the most exquisite taste, 

And flow'rs and forest trees adorned the lawn 

Which stretched expansive from the edifice; 

And carriage-drives, well gravelled and laid off, 

And shaded by the tow'ring oak and pine — 

In truth it was a home that would invite 

The most fastidious, for the corsair gave 

Command that no expense be spared to make 

His home full worthy of his bride. 

Three years 

Were passed — the time drew near at which 
He said he should be done of robbing ships — 
And should forsake the deep and land his prize, 
And enter in the social walks of life 
And as exiled nobleman from lands 
Where prisoners of state were forced to leave 
Their home and kindred — was thus much his plan. 
" And now, my friend," my narrator kept on, 
" We must return our thoughts unto the ship, — 

Plunging and ploughing through the restless main, 

A thing of beauty, she, a thing of life. 

And freighted with the spoils of many lands. 



LUILLA 209 

Of captured ships the burthen, and her decks 
Were always trimmed for action. Pedro knew 
'Twas better to prevent confusion than 
To cure th' effects by losing in the fight. 
Thus was the home of Luilla, but not 
Of Luilla alone; for merchantmen 
Oft carried passengers of female sex, 
And so it chanced that Pedro had run down 
And taken a rich commerce ship of France, 
With two French ladies who became his spoil — 
For any one he thought to be of use 
He failed to put on shore at liberty 
But pressed them to his service ; so it was 
With those two ladies ; he had reckoned well 
That Luilla desired company 
Of her o^vn sex ; how to provide for her 
And not endanger his designs had been 
A subject often pondered in his mind. 
Not that he feared she could escape from him, 
Or any plots she might with comp'ny make 
Would foil the least his foul intentions, for 
He knew she was secure, such trusty guards, 
Were Albertero and his old hag wife — 
But he did fear the slightest counterpoise 
Would alien her affections ; to this end 
Was strict forbiddance made for any one 
Save the old guards and Maenon, the black steward. 
To hold converse or say a word to her. 
It happened lucky then, so Pedro thought, 
That these two maidens spoke another tongue — 
So henceforth were they her associates. 
Their names were Lizzette and Enfronica, 
And Lizzette bore a striking likeness to 
The fair Luilla, so much so that one 
With slighting gaze would not the difference tell. 
The only 'stinguishment between the two 
Was in their hair — Lizzette's was golden hue. 
The night was dark and stormy and the wind 
14 



210 GOULDTOWN 

In fitful howls swept through the taut cordage ; 
The good ship rocked and swayed before the gale 
Now upon beams, now bows beneath the waves. 
Onward she hastens, glad, she seems to near 
A port at last, so tossed and beat by seas 
Her oaken sides delight themselves to find 
A harbor is before; with sturdy ribs 
They check and dash the billows back upon 
Their own revengeful heads. 

The quiet Bay 
Of Delaware is seen athwart her prow; 
The surging sea is stayed at last, the calm 
Smooth waters of the Creek of Stowe 
Bear on their bosom Paul Retour's proud ship 
And through the murky night a friendly beam 
Starts from a watchful signal-light hard by 
And signal answers signal; by the ship 
The cables run, the good ship winds around. 
At last she ceases in her progress, rests — 
From years of weary toil she rests at last ! " 

In the poem there follows the description of the life 
in the Haunted House, referred to previously. 




CHAPTER XX. 

SOME PRESENT KEAL ESTATE POSSESSIONS OF THE 
INHABITANTS OF GOULDTOWN. 

The Western extremity of Gouldtown extends to 
Southeast Avenue at the corner of Pamphylia Avenue, 
in the second ward of the city of Bridgeton, New Jersey. 
At this point is the home of William C. Gould, a de- 
scendant of Rev. Furman Gould. His wife is Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Pierce of Salem. She is a de- 
scendant of Menon Pierce, 1st, of Gouldtown. This 
home of William C. Gould consists of a farm of twenty 
acres, which he inherited from his father, Furman Gould, 
2nd. It extends eastward along Pamphyha Avenue 
until it joins an eleven-acre lot belonging to Cleon 
Gould, which Cleon inherited by will from his mother's 
father, Abijah Gould, 3rd. Cleon's lot extends east- 
ward, still along Pamphylia Avenue until it joins the 
farm of Eugene Gould's fifty acres. This farm was left 
to Eugene and his sister, Mary Gould, by their father, 
Alfred Gould, and their mother, Mrs. Sarah Gould, 
still resides with them and has her widow's right in the 
farm. South of this farm, divided from it by Pam- 
phylia Avenue, is the hundred-acre farm of Eli Gould 
(lately deceased), where reside his widow, Mary Stew- 
ard Gould, her son, Edgar S. Gould, and family. This 
farm extends eastward along this same avenue, up to 
Burlington Avenue, still in ward two of Bridgeton. 

The farm of Eugene and Mary Gould (these two 
are unmarried, brother and sister living with their 
mother) extends northward until it joins the seventy-* 
acre farm of George Pierce of Gouldtown (not the 
Salem George previously mentioned). This farm of 

211 



212 GOULDTOWN 

George Pierce, which is his home farm, as he owns 
several, extends northward, crosvsing the Buckshutem 
road and extending to the Bridgeton and Millville turn- 
pike, where his handsome dwelling stands ; the farm also 
extends eastward to Burlington Avenue, which runs 
north and south, and to which also extends the Eli Gould 
farm, a half mile south. Between the Pierce farm and 
the Eli Gould farm is a twenty-acre lot owned by T, R. 
Janvier, which joins on the east end of that much of the 
Eugene Gould farm. East of the Eli Gould farm, from 
which it is separated by Burlington Avenue, is the 
twenty-eight-acre lot of Chaplain T. G. Steward, and 
eastward and northward of this lot is the more than 
hundred-acre farm of Rev. Theodore Gould, and his 
beautiful country home ; this farm fronts on the Buck- 
shutem road, there being a ten-acre lot at the northwest 
corner, belonging lately to Henry Dare, which separates 
that portion from Burlington Avenue. 

Joining the northwest portion of the farm of Eugene 
and Mary Gould, from which it is separated by the 
Central Railroad, is the f ourteen-acre farm and home of 
Wilham Steward, which extends almost to Southeast 
Avenue, before mentioned, and between this and the 
eleven-acre lot of Cleon Gould is another eleven-acre 
lot owned by a lawyer. So that, as is thus shown, all 
this square territory lying between Southeast Avenue, 
Pamphylia Avenue, Burlington Avenue and the Bridge- 
ton and Millville turnpike and trolley line, as is here 
indicated, as well as the farm of Rev. Theodore Gould, 
east of Burlington Avenue (with the exception of the 
lawyer's lot and the Janvier lot) , is owned by the Gould- 
town people, though the territory is within the limits of 
Bridgeton; these lands are all contiguous, divided only 
by roads and the Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

To keep up the contiguity, on the north side of the 



REAL ESTATE 213 

Bridgeton and Millville turnpike, we step across this 
road at the northeast corner of the George Pierce 
seventy-acre farm where we can join the property of the 
estate of Francis L. Pierce, occupied by his widow and 
her son, and his family; this is twenty acres, off which 
building-lots have been sold on Burlington Avenue, 
which is on the west side ; this property extends eastward 
along the turnpike until it joins the twenty-eight-acre 
farm belonging to Bishop B. F. Lee. Bishop Lee'3 
property still extends eastward along the turnpike until 
it joins the seventy-acre Steward farm, formerly the 
home of James Steward, where the Steward family, 
whose picture is shown in this book, spent their child- 
hood and youth. This farm, which extends on both sides 
of the turnpike, is now owned by Leslie S. Gould, a 
grandson of James Steward, the original owner. 

We are now almost one and a half miles eastward 
from the starting point, at the west side of the home of 
William C. Gould, which fronts on Southeast Avenue. 
Going back to the Steward farm, we cross this to the 
south side, where we join the farm of the late Anthony 
Gould's heirs ; it is separated by a road, running north- 
eastwardly from the Buckshutem road, in front of Rev. 
Theodore Gould's residence, to the turnpike before men- 
tioned, where it terminates at the toll gate, which is the 
actual beginning of the village of Gouldtown from the 
western direction. 

The Anthony Gould farm, as well as the westerly 
portion of the part of the James Steward farm, joins 
on other lands of Bishop Lee and his three sisters — ^the 
estate of their parents. This Anthony Gould farm con- 
tains over forty acres, and extends south to the Buck- 
shutem road. To the west of this and extending along 
the Buckshutem road westwardly, which divides it from 
the farm of Rev. Theodore Gould, is the home and 
twelve-acre lot of Stephen S. Steward, the carpenter and 



214 GOULDTOWN 

builder. South of the Anthony Gould farm and on the 
south side of the Buckshutem road is the farm of Milton 
Pierce (unmarried) comprising some thirty acres; this 
joins the farm of Rev. Theodore Gould, on the west, 
farms (two) of Lorenzo F. Gould on the south, and 
other farm lands of Bishop Lee and his three sisters on 
the east. These Lee lands also lie on both sides of the 
Buckshutem road, and join on the southeast that por- 
tion of the Anthony Gould farm. To the east of the 
Anthony Gould farm lies the farm of William H. 
Gould, his son (deceased) and this joins the James 
Steward farm at its southeast corner, and the lands of 
Preston Gould, Reuben CufF, and Frank Webster, 
which lie between the road which goes to the tollgate be- 
fore mentioned and the turnpike. 

William Gould's lands also join the lands of the 
estate of Pierce Gould, inherited from his father, EHsh^ 
Gould, 1st, and which are now owned by Anna Gould, 
granddaughter of Pierce Gould and daughter of Au- 
gustus Gould. This Pierce Gould tract extends out to 
and across the main road from Fairfield to Woodruff, 
terminating at a distance of two and a half miles from 
our first starting point, and all are contiguous proper- 
ties ; but within this large territory is a plot of fifty- two 
acres, belonging to the Stevenson estate, which lies 
between the farm of Rev. Theo. Gould on the south and 
the estate of Francis L. Pierce on the north, and another 
plot of ten acres formerly owned by Gideon Pierce, but 
now owned by a white man. These two plots lie be- 
tween Burlington Avenue and the James Steward farm 
and Lee estate, on the south side of the turnpike. These 
two plots, comprising sixty-two acres, are entirely sur- 
rounded by the farms of George T. Pierce on the west. 
Rev. Theodore Gould on the south, James Steward and 
Lee estates on the east, and farm of Bishop Lee and 




A Goiildtown Woman and Her Driving Horse. Photo by Her Grandson. 




Cottage of Stephen S. Steward. 



REAL ESTATE 215 

Francis L. Pierce estate on the north. South of the 
farm of Rev. Mr. Gould are lands of the Jonathan 
Gould estate, Lorenzo F. Gould's farms (he also owns 
the farm of Jonathan Gould, his father) . 

From the northern point of the Steward farm, going 
to the southern point of the Rev. Gould farm, crossing 
lands of the estate of Anthony Gould and to the south- 
ern line of L. F. Gould's farms is a distance of one and 
a half miles. Still further south, and still contiguous, 
are lands of William Wilson (whose mother was a 
Gould) and Jacob Coombs (whose mother was a 
Pierce), comprising nearly one hundred acres. 

To the eastward of these last tracts comes the ancient 
estate of Elisha Gould, 1st, which has been before 
alluded to, as well as lands comprising the old Gould 
possessions of the heirs of Abijah Gould, 1st, Samuel 
Gould, 1st, and Elisha Gould, 1st, as bequeathed in 
the ancient will of Benjamin Gould of 1777. 

To the eastward and northward of these ancient 
estates and the ancient estates of Wanaca Pierce, 1st, 
and his brothers, Anthony, Menon, John, and Benja- 
min Pierce, are hundreds of acres, now owned by Goulds 
and Pierces, with now and then a Murray — the latter, 
however, being small possessions. 

The only survivor of the family of Adrian Pierce 
is Steward Haines Pierce, who resides on the old home- 
stead farm of his father at the eastern end of the settle- 
ment of Carmel. Adrian's estate was about seven hun- 
dred acres, and was divided among his heirs. Most of it 
has been disposed of by them, before their deaths. 

From the home of William C. Gould at Bridgeton 
on the west to the farm of Stewart H. Pierce on the 
east is a distance of seven miles and a person can go 
from one extremity to the other and be continuously on 
the lands of the colored residents of Gouldtown. This 



216 GOULDTOWN 

immense territory, comprising over five thousand acres 
at the present time, is composed of both farm lands and 
woodlands, but the greater portion of it is woodland, 
and a large increase to the original holdings. The 
largest holders of these woodlands are William C. 
Gould, Albert Gould; heirs of Benjamin Gould; heirs 
of Holmes Pierce; George T. Pierce; Peter Pierce; 
Holmes Pierce, Jr., Charles Lloyd; John Murray, 4th, 
heirs of Jacob Pierce, and others. 

SOME LEADING FAMILIES AND THEIR LINE OF DESCENT. 

Of the present descendants of the inhabitants of 
Gouldtown may be found family branches in all parts 
of the country from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast. 

Some of these branches, for obvious reasons founded 
on well-known American prejudice, will not be given 
here. They are white people and happy, prosperous, 
and some of them distinguished, and it would add noth- 
ing to the happiness or comfort of them to let their 
children even know of their descent. I received last 
week a letter from a lady in the West, the daughter of 
a man who was a close boyhood friend in our boyhood 
days, asking me if I knew her father's relatives. She 
had heard her father speak of me often before his death 
a few years ago. I had kept track of him; he was a 
brave soldier and a heroic officer for over three years in 
the Union Army in the Civil War. He was not the only 
one from this place (Gouldtown) whom I had known 
in the same capacity, who, having gone West, lost their 
identity of color, and become soldiers and officers in the 
war, and had raised honored families. Others I have 
known in other spheres of life as well. If their posterity 
can be called '* deceived " I would not undeceive them. 

There are two sisters, daughters of Mr. and Mrs. 
B(. F. Pierce, the one recently residing on the Atlantic 



REAL ESTATE 217 

coast, at Longport, Atlantic City, the other at Tacoma, 
Washington. They are Miss Ethel Pierce and Mrs. 
Jennie Jones. They are descendants of Benjamin 
Gould, 2nd, on the mother's side, and Adam Pierce, the 
Revolutionary soldierj on their father's side. 

The family of Lorenzo F. Gould is conspicuous for 
its general intelligence; two daughters, Miss Agnes 
Gould and Miss Alice Gould (now Mrs. Clifton 
Mosely), were schoolteachers in Atlantic and Camden 
Counties. Miss Lucette Pierce, niece of Mr. Gould, is 
principal of the Gouldtown public school and has been a 
teacher in SomerviUe, and Atlantic City, and else- 
where. They are Normal graduates. They are de- 
scendants of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, and Rev. Furman 
Gould, and of Anthony Pierce, 2nd. 

Leslie S. Gould and Edgar E. Gould, sons of the 
late Eli Gould, are prominent farmers. They are de- 
scendants on their father's side from John Murray, 1st, 
and Elisha Gould, 1st, and on their mother's side from 
Benjamin Gould, 2nd. Timothy Gould and Aaron 
Paul Gould, farmers and truckers, are descendants on 
their mother's side of Wanaca Pierce, 1st, and Mary 
Murray, and on their father's side of Charles Gould, 
son of Elisha Gould, 1st. 

Joseph Gould, the farmer, who resides on the home- 
stead of his grandfather. Rev. Furman Gould, is a 
Gould on both sides, his mother being a daughter of 
Abijah Gould, 2nd. Furman and Abijah were brothers, 
sons of Abijah Gould, 1st. One of his grandmothers 
was " Kitty " Gould; the other was Rachel Hicks. 

Bishop Benjamin Franklin Lee, extensively known 
all over the United States and in Europe, who, as well 
as his interesting family, has been quite distinguished, 
is a descendant of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, on his mother's 
side, and of Abel Lee, of Salem County. Bishop Lee 



218 GOULDTOWN 

was a member of the great Ecmnenical Council which 
met in London a few years ago, and of other great re- 
ligious bodies. Bishop Lee's mother was Sarah, 
daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould. His only 
son is a distinguished student of sociology, and his 
daughters are accomplished teachers in Wilberforce 
University, of which their honored father was once 
president, and in which their mother, then Miss Ashe 
of Kentucky, was a teacher. Two of his sisters aire 
well-known residents of Gouldtown, and the other re- 
sides in Philadelphia. 

The Steward family has ifigured so often in this book 
that a mere mention is all that is here necessary., Wil- 
liam (that is my name) is the writer; he has been erip 
gaged in newspaper work for a generation and more; 
he is the oldest of the brothers. Theophilus Gould 
Steward has been a clergyman since 1861; was first 
stationed in Camden, New Jersey. He graduated from 
an Episcopalian Theological Institute. He was sent 
South immediately after the close of the war to estab- 
lish the African Methodist Episcopal Church where, for 
several years, he accomplished very successful labors. 
Being a French scholar he was sent to establish the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church in Port-au-Prince, 
Haiti, which he successfully accomplished. He has 
served most acceptably some of the largest churches of 
his chosen connection in the United States. He was 
appointed a chaplain in the regular United States army 
by President Harrison, the appointment coming to him 
unsought, and as a surprise. In this service he spent 
many years among the Indians on the far western 
frontiers. In the war with Spain he was sent to the 
Philippines, making several trips across the Pacific. 
Reaching the age limit, he was retired from the army 
with all the honors that go with it. He has travelled 



REAL ESTATE 219 

since in Mexico, and made two summer trips to England 
and the Continent. 

Joseph Gould, son of Charles and Susan Gould, 
resides on the farm owned by his father. This farm 
came to Charles Gould in the division of the estate of 
his father, Rev. Furman Gould, who inherited it from 
his father, Abijah Gould, 1st, who inherited it from his 
father, the original Benjamin Gould who died in 1777. 
This Joseph Gould is a lineal descendant of the original 
Gould on both paternal and maternal sides, his mother, 
Susan, being daughter of Abijah Gould, 2nd, and 
Rachel Hicks. Joseph's wife is Almeda, granddaughter 
of Anthony Gould, 2nd, and Almeda Pierce. 

Lorenzo F. Gould, member of the Fairfield town- 
ship school-board, has Gould, Murray, and CufF de- 
scent. His father was Jonathan Gould ; his mother was 
a daughter of William CufF and Prudence Murray 
Cuff. William Cuff was the son of Rev. Reuben Cuff 
and Hannah Pierce. Lorenzo F. was a soldier in the 
Civil War, and his son. Corporal Luther D. Gould, was 
a soldier in 10th United States Cavalry, and served in 
the War with Spain in Cuba. 

Albert Gould and William C. Gould are sons of the 
late Furman Gould, 2nd, and Hester Cuff, daughter of 
the before mentioned William Cuff. There were two 
sisters of Albert and William Gould. One became the 
wife of Stephen S. Steward and is deceased, and the 
other, having been taken West by her uncle and aunt, 
grew up a white person, married and has a fine, pros- 
perous, and intelligent family. 

Frederick Gould is the last surviving member of the 
large family of Pierce Gould and his wife Sarah, who 
was a Murray ; he has sons, Henry, John and Theodore, 
and one daughter; his wife was a daughter of John 
Murray, 2nd. 



220 GOULDTOWN 

Frederick is now seventy-eight years of age ; several 
years ago he was run into by a trolley car when crossing 
the tracks with his mule team and a load of wood. His 
mule team was killed, both his legs were broken, one 
of them in two places, and he was otherwise terribly 
injured. It was thought by all that he could not sur- 
vive, but such was his life tenacity (characteristic of the 
family of Ms name) that he completely recovered, and 
had for years worked as usual. Elizabeth Lloyd, wife 
of Charles Lloyd, sister of Bishop Lee, is a highly in- 
tellectual woman, and though always in humble life has 
read more widely than many of wealth and culture. 

James R. Pierce, the son of the late Ephraim and 
Louisa Pierce, is descended from Richard Pierce, 3rd, a 
son of Richard Pierce, 2nd. His wife is Isabella, 
another sister of Bishop Lee. 

Jonathan Gould had but three children, one son, 
Lorenzo F. and two daughters, Hannah, widow of Rev. 
Jeremiah H. Pierce, of Trenton, and Annie, widow of 
Mordecai C. Pierce; she was Gouldtown's last post- 
mistress. Her daughter. Miss Lucette, is principal of 
the Gouldtown public school. 

Belford Pierce, the blacksmith, is a descendant of 
Anthony Pierce, 1st, and also of Anthony Gould, 2nd; 
his mother being Christiana, first wife of Mordecai C. 
Pierce. Warner K. Pierce, another member of the 
Fairfield School Board, is his brother. 

Two brothers of Bishop Lee met accidental deaths. 
Both were unmarried, and both over sixty years of age. 
Their names were William C. and Abel. William C. 
left a considerable estate. 

Joseph and Clarence Gould, sons of Nathan and 
Phoebe Gould, are full Goulds, both their parents being 
of that name. Nathan was the son of Abijah Gould,^ 
2nd, and Phoebe was the daughter of Benjamin Gould, 
2nd. Joseph and Clarence are both widowers. 



REAL ESTATE mi 

Clarence has one daughter, Phoebe, wife of Philbert 
Gould, son of the late Thomas Gould, who was the son 
of Aaron Gould. 

Preston Gould is the only son living of Anthony 
Gould, 2nd; he has no children. 

A brother of Joseph and Clarence Gould met an 
accidental death when a young man by a cave-in in a 
sand pit on his father's farm. A sister, Nancy, wife of 
George Gould (nephew of Rev. Theodore Gould), re- 
sides in Atlantic City. 

Besides the descendants of the original Gould, 
Pierce, Murray, and Cuff families residing in Gould- 
town at the present time, there are numerous branches 
in Salem County, especially of Cuffs, and scattered in 
many parts of the United States and in Canada. 

If the writers of this book should attempt to write to 
all their living relatives, they would write addresses to 
every State in the Union nearly, to most of the princi- 
pal cities in the country and several of the larger ones 
in the Dominion of Canada. They would also direct 
to London, Liverpool, Paris, Berlin, and Antwerp. 

As we now close the pages of this humble volume, 
we send it forth with kindly greetings to all our relatives 
wherever their eyes may behold it, and to our posterity 
that the love of the home life — the family life and all 
its sacred ties — the love of the old home and its tradi- 
tions may be cherished and fostered, prospered and im- 
proved upon, and the sterling qualities of our forbears 
as we now recall them, recount, and look back upon 
them, may be intensified in the coming generations. 

To look back for two centuries on the name which 
founds this community and be able to say in general 
terms, that it is a name unsmirched in the court annals 
of this county by crime, or by a drunkard or a pauper, 
is a heritage in which any community might rejoice, 
however poor it may be in material wealth. 



INDEX 



Abbey of New Minster, 24 
Academy, Bridgeton, 171, 172 
Achter Cul. 20 
Adams, Elizabeth, 27, 42, 49, 50 

Fenwick, 27 

John, 26, 39, 42, 50, 54 

Mary, 27 
African M. E. church, 13, 113-114, 142. 

144. 145, 150, 218 
Albania, 20 

Alloway's Creek, 41, 69 
Almond, Caroline, 93 

Mary, 93, 168 

Phoebe, 93 

Thomas, 93 

Thomas W., 93 

William, 93 

William P., 165 
Anderson, Robert,?128 

Sarah, 128 

Thomas, 45 
Andros, Governor, 28-30 
Amett, Bishop B. W., 151 
Assembly to be elected, 38 
Ayres, Oswell, 74 

Back Creek, 67 
Back Neck, 68 
Bacon, Samuel, 42 
Bacons of Bacon's neck, 67 
Bacon's neck, 42, 51 
Baily, David, 126 

Nancy, 126 
Baptist Church, FirstTCohansey, 68 
Baracliff, Mary, 123 
Barber, Keziah, 75 
Barker, Wade, 69 
Barrett, James, 174 

Rebecca, 69 
Bateman, Daniel, 72 



Bateman, David, 72 

Isaac, 72 

Nathaniel, 174 

Dr. Rush, 141 
Batemans, 61 
Beaver Dam, 56 
Bennett, Jane H., 77 

Jeremiah, 78 

Josiah, 174 

Sarah, 68, 78 
Berkeley, Lord, 21, 22, 25, 28, 29, 35, 41 
Bethel Church, Philadelphia, 150 
Beulah, Rev. Jeremiah, 145 
Beveman, EH, 74 
Bias. J. G., 122 
Bilderback, Thomas, 76 
Billingsly, Anna, 119 
Binfields, Berkshire (Eng.), 48 
Bishop, Abigail, 108 

Ebenezer Pierce, 11 

Horace, 174, 178, 179 

Ichabod, 78 

Joseph, 108 

Seneca, 11, 108 
Bonham, Hezekiah, 79 

Lindervilla Maxon. 79 
Bowen, Jonathan, 54, 89 

Levi, 144 

Lydia, 144 

Phoebe. 91. 142. 144 
Bowentown. 69 

village. 12 
Bowyer expedition of 1824, 95 
Bradway, Edward, 45 
Bridgeton. 69 

Township. N. J., 9. 11. 12. 41, 50 
54, 55. 58, 59, 61 

first Mayor of, 67 

and Millville Traction Company's 
trolley line, 12 

223 



224 



INDEX 



Bridgetown, now Bridgeton, 56, 88 
Bright, Benjamin T., 174, 175 
Brooks, Abigail, 72 

Hannah, 75 

Thomas, 72 
Buckshutem, 60 
Budd, Hannah F., 76 
"Bumbridge," now Fairton, 61, 88 
Bustill, Rebecca, 127 
Buzby, Amos, 80 

Cornelia A., 80 
Byllinge, Edward, 36, 37 

Campbell, Charles, 78 
Cape May, 35 

county, 62 
Carll, Hiram, 174 

Jeremiah, 174, 178 
Carll's Corner, village, 12 
Carmel, N. J., 12 
Carpets woven from worn-out clothes, 

17 
Carr, Sir Robert, 20 
Carteret, Sir George, 21, 25, 29, 35 

Captain Philip, 21 
Cartwright, Sir George, 20 
Cato, Charles, 104 

Elizabeth, 104 
Cattle, the variety that no one would 

have to-day, 17 
Challis, Elizabeth M., 75 

James, 75 

John, 75 
Champness, Edward, 39, 54 
Champneys, Benjamin, 54 

Edward, 27 

John, 27 

Mary, 27 

Priscilla. 27, 39 
Charcoal shipped to New York, 61 
Charles II, King, grant of lands by, 20, 

25, 27, 28, 29, 35 
Chopping frolics, 85 
Christmas memories and reflections, 

162-164 
Church organization, 140 et seq. 



Clark, James, 129 

Clarks, 61 

Clement's (John) Life of John Fenwick, 

22, 28, 30 
Cohansey Church, 76 
Cohansey River, 57, 59, 61, 67 

village, 12 
Colonial Assembly, 30 
Colored men offer their services aa 

soldiers, 155, 192 
Colored people, American prejudice 
against, 121 
distinguished descendants of, 
12 
Commission man, the, 17 
Commissioners, election of, 38 
Concessions and agreements, 37, 39 
Connecticut, settlers from, 39 
Connecticut River, 20 
Conner, Abigail, 72 

Thomas, 72 

William, 72 
Constitution of New Jersey, 36, 39 
Cook, Ephraim J., 51 

Orestes, 41 
Coombs, Clara G., 103 

George W., 127 

Jacob, 103, 215 

William, 103, 120 
Covert. Elizabeth, 23 
Cox, Caroline, 92 

Hannah, 92, 93 

Isaac, 92, 120, 121 

Levi, 92 

Mary, 92, 93 

Phoebe, 92, 93 

Tamson, 92, 93, 115 

William, 92, 116 
Crane, Isaac W., 171 
Cromwell, O., the Protector, 24 
Cruise, Edward, 95 
Cuff, Alley, 114 

Anna, 114. 115, 116 

Anthony. 114, 115, 134 

Archibald, 98, 103, 108, 114, 115, 
116, 173 



INDEX 



225 



CuflP, Artie, 115 

Burgoyne, 98, 114, 116, 117 

Caroline, 105, 114, 116, 117 

Charles, 115, 116 

Cuffee (Padgett), 113 

Daniel, 116 

David, 174 

Dorothy, 113, 116 

Edmund, 98 

Elisha, 116 

Elizabeth, 105, 114, 115, 117 

Emma Ann, 114 

Ephraim, 99 

Estelle Dunn, 98, 116 

Fanny, 98 

Francis, 103, 116 

George, 98 

Hannah, 93, 114, 115 

Hannah Ann. 100, 117 

Hester, 100, 117, 219 

Hiram, 93, 115 

Jane, 115 

Job, 97 

Jonathan, 103, 114, 115, 119 

Lambert, 99 

Leonard, 115, 119 

Lydia Gould, 103, 173 

Maranda M., 118 

Margaret, 115, 116 

Martha, 114, 134 

Mary, 104, 114, 115, 117, 130 

Mordecai, 92, 113, 115, 116, 134 

Oliver, 115 

Phoebe H., 115 

Prudence, 105, 116, 117, 119, 219 

Quinton, 99 

Rachel, 103 

Rebecca, 115 

Reuben, 64, 90, 92, 98, 100, 113, 

114, 115, 116, 134, 142, 143, 

144, 168, 214, 219 
Richard, 114, 115 
Ruhamah, 116 
Sarah, 105, 114, 117 
Seth, 113, 114, 116, 117, 134 
Tamson, 158 

15 



Cuff, Theodore, 99 
Thomas, 115 
William, 100, 105, 115, 117, 118, 

119, 120 
William A., 114 
Cumberland County genealogy, 67 
Cumberland County Historical Society, 

42 
Cumberland County, New Jersey, 9, 38, 

39. 49, 54, 59 
Cumberland Nail and Iron Co., 95 

Dailey farm, 61 

Dare, Captain William, 68 

David, 79 

Elizabeth W., 74 

Henry, 212 

Jane Elizabeth. 79 

Rebecca F., 79 
Davis, Albino, 174, 178 

Elnathan, 74 

Henry, 124 

Jarmin A., 74 

Lydia. 123-4 

Samuel Bond, 74 

Sarah. 73 

Susanna Bond, 74 
Deeds, early original, 41-43 sq. 
Deerfield village, 12 
Defence, means of, in a barbarous age, 

23 
Delaware Bay, 20, 21, 35 

River, 35 

warrant, pay, of, 46 
Denn, John, 41, 45, sq. 

Margaret, 45 
Dennis, Sarah, 69 
Descendants of leading families. 109, 

216-221 
Dividing Creek Baptist Church, 69, 70 
Dix wrapper factory, 59 
Dixon, Charles S., 159 

John R., 160 
Donaghay farm, 61 
Dow, Ira, 79 

Lucy, 79 



226 



INDEX 



Dow, Mary, 79 
Downe, Township of, 69 
Duck, Amos, 123 

Charles, 131 

Prudence, 123 

Ruth, 123 
Dunn, Almeda, 98, 101 

Christina G., 98, 101 

Elizabeth, 108 

Ercurious, 108 

Estella, 98 

Robert, 98, 101, 108 

Sarah, 108 

Thomas, 108 
Dutch jurisdiction, 20-22 

settlers, 38 

East Lake, 59 
Ebenezer chvu-ch, 144 
Educational facilities, 170 
Elections by balloting, 38 
Elizabethport, New Jersey, 21 
Elmer, Charles E., 140 
Daniel, 140 
Dr. Ebenezer, 9, 49, 54, 140, 141, 

147 
Dr. Henry, 141 
Dr. Jonathan, 82, 140 
Judge L. Q. C, 9, 49, 89, 141 

History of Cumberland 
County, N. J., 9, 49 
Dr. Robert, 141 
Dr. Wilham, 141 
Elmers, 61 
Eh-idge, John, 46 
Elwell, Albert S., 79 

Geo. W., 79 
Evarts and Peck's "History of Salem, 
Cumberland and Gloucester Coun- 
ties," 49 

Facemires, 61 

Fairfield Township, N. J., 9 

Fairton, 12, 61 

Family eugenics and longevity, 133 

Farm and Home Journals, 18 



Farming, 16 

Felts, Alice S., 157, 169, 166 
Mary, 159, 160 
Phoebe, 160, 167 
Fenwick, Ann, 26, 32 
Elizabeth, 26, 28 
John, 22, 24, 25, 26, sq. 

commands the cavalry at the 
execution of the Eling, 24, 25 
death of, 33 
deeds by, 41 sq. 
descendants of, 9 
grave of, unknown, 33 
wife of, 26, 34 
Priscilla, 26, 39 
Sheriff Johannes, 23 
Sir Robert of Northumberland, 24 
Sir William, 22 
Fenwick Grove, 27, 30, 32 
Finn's Point, 38 
Firewater, Indian love of. 83 
Fisler, Dr. Benjamin, 142 
Flemmings, John, 128 
Fordsville M. E. church, 13, 145 
Fort Elseborg, 28 
Foster, Ruth, 71 
Fox, George, 25 
"Free Landing," 61 
Friends, 25, 60 

Game plenty — no game laws, 87 
Garfield, 45 
Garrisons, 61 
Generette, Rev. Mr., 158 
Gentry, Thomas, 89 
Gillman, David, 68 
Glaspey, Ephraim, 71 
Gloucester County, 37, 38 
Gold, Gool. See Gould 
Golden wedding, 164-169 
Goodchild's plantation, 57 
Gould, the original founder of Gould- 
town, 42 

Aaron, 90, 97, 102, 117, 152, 
220 

Aaron Paul, 126, 152, 217 



INDEX 



227 



Gould, Abijah, 53, 55, 56, 63. 81, 85, 91, 
92, 94, 95, 96, 101, 102, 103, 104, 
106, 117, 125, 128, 134, 158, 176, 
215, 217, 219 
Agnes, 168, 217 
Albert, 100, 153, 216, 219 
Alfred, 90, 96, 100, 101, 106, 151. 

152, 211 
Alice, 101, 217 
Almeda, 99, 102, 219 
Almeda D., 98, 101 
Almeda P., 97, 119 
Amanda, 95 
Andrew, 96, 176 
Ann, 52, 54, 63, 81, 88, 89, 105, 114, 

152, 158 
Ann Smith, 96 
Anna, 90, 98, 142, 178, 214 
Anna Rebecca, 100 
Anson, 106, 178 

Anthony, 53, 63, 81, 85, 88-90, 97, 
99, 103, 108, 114, 122, 134, 152, 
213, 219 
Augustus, 104, 105, 127, 214 
Beatrice, 105 

Benjamin, 52-56, 58, 63, 81, 88, 89, 
91-93, 95, 102, 103, 104, 109, 114, 
115, 116, 122, 134, 142-144, 145, 
148, 152, 158, 219 
Benjamin, will of, 52 
Caroline, 102. 104, 105, 117 
Carrie, 151 
Catherine P., 97 
Charles, 90. 96, 101, 102, 108, 152, 

217, 219 
Charlotte, 96, 104, 107, 129, 182, 

144 
Christiana (Kitty), 53, 90, 96, 97, 

98, 101, 144, 152 
Christina, 97, 98, 108 
Clara, 103 

Clarence, 95, 102, 220 
Clayton, 103, 104, 132, 158 
Cleon. 211, 212 
Constance, 167 
Cynthia, 99 



Gould, Daniel, 90, 97 
David, 117 
Dorothy, 178 
Edgar, 168, 211, 217 
Eli, 81, 105, 157, 164, 166, 167, 211, 

212, 217 
Elijah, 95, 96, 100, 104, 105, 119, 

128, 149, 174 
Elisha, 53, 56, 63, 81, 85, 90, 96, 98. 
104, 105, 107, 116, 117, 134, 153, 
174, 216, 217 
Eliza Ann, 103 
Elizabeth, 63, 90, 94, 97, 98, 102, 

104, 108, 117, 128, 144, 211 
Elizabeth Adams, 56 
Elmer, 101, 102 
Emeiine, 103 
Emily, 94, 106 
Enoch, 106, 107, 117, 134, 148, 

176 
Enoch (Mrs.), 179 
Ephraim, 103 
estates, 134, 138 
Eugene 101, 151. 211, 212 
Fanny, 104 
Fanny Cuff. 98 
Frederick, 104, 219 
Freeman, 107, 117 
Furman, 12, 90, 91, 96, 97, 98- 
100, 101. 103, 108, 116. 117, 142, 
144, 148, 152, 153. 211, 217, 
219 
genealogies, 88, 109-112 
George, 221 
George W., 95, 102 
Hannah, 90, 91, 96. 102, 105, 178, 

220 
Hannah Ann, 100. 117 
Hannah Caroline, 97, 117 
Hannah M., 101, 149 
Harriet, 99, 103, 178 
Harriet G. C, 99 
Henrietta S., 107 

Henry. 100. 105. 106, 117, 120 
Hester Cuff. 100 
Hezekiah, 107, 180 



INDEX 



Gould, Howard, 151. 159, 165 
Ida, 99 
Isabelle, 117 
James, 106. 107 
Jane. 91, 94 
Jeremiah, 103 

Jesse, 94, 104, 106, 173, 178, 180 
Job, 117 

John, 105, 106, 117, 120, 219 
Jonathan, 90, 96, 98. 100, 117, 148, 

152, 215, 219, 220 
Joseph, 95, 98, 101, 102, 117, 217, 

219, 220, 
Josephine, 94, 177, 178 
Julia, 104 

Kitty. 90. 96. 101, 108, 217 
Lenhart, 105 

Leonard, 91, 99, 102. 119. 130 
Leslie, 168, 213, 217 
Lorenzo F., 100, 155, 157, 214, 215. 

217, 219, 220 
Luella, 98 
Luther D., 98, 155 
Lydia, 91, 93, 94, 108, 116 
Lydia Ann, 97, 117 
Mai vena, 104 
Maria, 102, 105, 117 
Martha, 53, 89. 90, 96. 100, 101, 

102, 134, 152 
Mary, 81. 103, 107, 151, 164, 166, 

168, 177-8 
Mary E., 101 
Mary S., 164 
Mason M., 102, 119 
Matilda, 107 
Maurice, 104 
Melissa, 98 
Miriam, 107, 117 
Mitchell H., 102, 105 
Moses. 102, 105 
Nancy, 95, 221 
Nathan. 95, 102, 220 
Norton, 96, 107-8, 129 
Oliver, 91, 92, 104. 116. 125. 134, 

158 
Olivia D.. 107 



Gould, Paul, 177 
Philbert, 220 
Phoebe, 53, 89, 91, 93-95, 97. 99, 

102, 115, 116, 142. 144, 158, 218, 

220 
Pierce, 104, 119, 214, 219 
Preston, 99, 214, 221 
Prudence, 91, 100, 158, 159, 165, 

174, 179 
Prudence F., 95, 143, 165, 169 
Rachel, 103, 117 
Rebecca, 91, 94 
reunion, 158, 159 
Rhuhamah, 92 
Rhumah, 90, 96 
Richard, 91, 96, 103, 104, 129 
Robert, 96 
Ruth, 96, 105, 128 
Samuel, 53. 56. 63. 81. 85, 90, 91, 

108, 114, 134, 178, 215 
Sarah, 56, 63, 81, 85, 91, 94, 96. 100, 

104, 105-6, 108, 117, 134, 151, 

153, 168, 211, 218 
Sarah M., 104 
Smith, 102, 104, 105, 117 
Susan, 101, 102 
Tamson, 91. 92, 94 
Theodore, 19, 95, 101, 105, 117, 149, 

150. 151. 153. 168, 178, 212, 214, 

219. 221 
Theophilus. 90. 96 
Thomas, 97, 220 
Timothy. 97. 102. 152. 217 
traditions, 49 
William, 97, 117, 152 
William C, 12, 100, 153, 213, 215, 

216 
William H., 117, 155, 214 
Gouldtown, church, pastors of, 1818- 

1912, 145-147 
founder of, 42 

graveyard, oldest register of, 51 
honored by its neighbors, 18 
origin of name, 88 
school, 170-179 
sketch of, 49, 50 



INDEX 



229 



Gouldtown Sunday-school, 147-149 
Gouldtown and Piercetown, 64 
Government, representative, first form 

of, 31 
Governor Livingston, schooner, 91 
Greenwich, 60, 71 

Griffin (or Griffith), ship, 26, 28, 39 
Guy, Richard, 36, 39 

Hall, Ebenezer, 71 

Gabriel Davis, 71 
Hammond, Arthur, 96 

Charles, 96 

John. 96 

Rhumah, 96 
Hancock, Margaret, 44, sq. 

Richard, 36. 39, 41, 59 
Hancock's Bridge, 59 
Harris, Amy S., 74 

Eliza, 74 

Ephraim, 78 

Hannah S.. 74 

Hosea. 74 

Jane. 78 

Jeremiah. 115 

Mary. 74 

Oliver. 74 

Robert. 74 

Samuel. 74 
Harrison, Josiah, 74 
Haun, Jonathan J., 77 

Maria, 77 

Mary, 77 
Haunted house, Compton's, 193, 210 
Haying time, 83, 86 
Heaton, Samuel, 70 
Hedge, Samuel, 36, 39, 54 
Hicks, Andrew, 129, 131, 132 

Catherine, 131 

Elizabeth P., 131 

Isaiah, 131 

Josiah, 64, 101. 131 

Prudence, 131 

Rachel, 101, 131, 217 

Sarah Ann, 131 

Sarah Pierce, 129, 131 



Hicks, Stratton, 129, 131, 

Historical Collections of New Jersey, 36, 

39, 51, 57 
Holcomb, Rev. Sheppard, 146, 147 
Holy Island Castle in Durham, 24 
Hood, James, 53 
Hoover, Anna, 179 
Hopewell Township, 69. 71 
Hubbell, W. W., 168 
Husted, Abigail B., 78 

Henry. 78 

Seth, 174 

Independents, Christian denomination, 

25 
Indian ancestry, Murrays, 62 
Indian Field Run, 59, 63 
International Sunday-school Lessona, 

commentaries on, 74 
Irdington, in Cumberland, 24 
Ivy Hall Seminary, 76 
Ivy Point, 32 

"Jack," a favorite road horse, 32 
James, Duke of Monmouth, 28 
James, Duke of York, 20, 22, 25, 28, 

35 
Janvier. T. R., 212 
Jenkins, Hannah, 73 
Jericho, 71 

Jersey farmer, injured by southern com- 
petition, 16, 17 
Jersey products and poultry, 17 
John Blye; or. Trials and Triumphs, 

180-193 
Johnson, Franklin, D.D., 74 

Hezekiah, 74 

Prudence, 72 

William, 72 

Rev. Wm. W., 153 
Johnson's History of Fenwick's Colony, 
50,51 

Memoir of John Fen wick, 38, 50, 51 
Jones, Jennie, 217 

William, 96 
Joslin, Thomas, 53 



@30 



INDEX 



Kalm, Professor, 62 
Keen, Jacob Jones, 126 

Jane, 123 

John, 126 

Joseph, 126 

Levi, 126 

Margaret, 126 

Marietta, 126 
Kellenberger's Pocket Gazetteer of New 

Jersey, 11 
Kelsay, James S., 72 
Kelsey, Kesiah, 69 
Kent, ship, from London, 39 
King, the, trial and sentence of, 24 
Klose, Mrs. Hortense, 169 
Knight, Mrs. Kate, 51 

Lands, poor and timber exhausted, 13, 

16 
Laning, John, 71 

Richard, 71 
Laurie, Gauen, 22, 25, 37 
Lee, Abel, 94, 217, 220 

Benjamin F., 103 

B. F., bishop, 18, 94, 153, 159. 165, 
179, 213, 214, 217, 220 

Daniel, 103 

Eli. 120 

Elizabeth, 94, 220 

Isabel, 94 

Jane, 94 

Lorenzo F., 79 

Sarah, 94, 179 

William C, 94, 220 
Lefever, Hipolite, 36, 39 
Lenapee Indians, 62, 63 
Levi, 54 

Libraries of John Fenwick, 32 
Lippincott, Mary, 106 
Literary efiForts, 180 et seq. 
Little, Margaret E., 77 
Lloyd, Adelia, 126 

Albert, 126 

Alexander, 126 

Amanda, 126 

Charles, 125, 126, 155, 216, 220 



Lloyd, Elizabeth, 220 

Emily, 126 

George, 126 

Jonathan, 126 

Lewis, 126 

Lydia, 126 

Sabia, 126 

William, 126 
Long Island, 35 

Long Island, immigrants from, 89 
Longevity — Gould, Pierce, Murray, 

133 
Lord Fenwick, 37 
"Lord Proprietor" of West New Jersey, 

37 
Lucas, Nicholas, 22, 25, 37 
Ludlam, Providence, 76 

Sarah, 76 
Luilla: The Corsair's Victim, a tale of 

South Jersey, 193-210 
Lummis, James, 63 

Phoebe, 63, 88 

schoolhouse, 144, 173 
Lummises, 61 
Lupton, Tabitha, 118 

McLean, Hannah B., 77 

Magazine of American History, quoted, 

67 
Maine, Province of, 20 
Market gardening, and market farm- 
ing in the South, 16 
Marriages in colonial times, 88 
Matlack, E. L., 37 
Matlock, Abram, 37 

College in England, 37 

John, 36, 37, 39 
Maurice River, 57, 59-61 

Bridge, 56 
Maverick, Samuel, 20 
Methodist Episcopal Church, 13 
Middleman, the, 17 
Mill Creek, 59 

Hollow, 69 
Miller, Rev. Jeremiah, 144, 145 

Rutledge, 159 



INDEX 



231 



Millville, 12, 58, 59, 72 
Money, lack of, 84 
Moore, Daniel, 75 

Joseph, M.D., 77 
Moral and Mental Improvement Soci- 
ety, 14 
Morton, Collister. 179 
Mulford, Anna Maria, 71 

Ephraim, 68 

Hannah, 71 

Henry, 71, 77 

Horatio J., 77 

Isaac W., 71, 77 

Jane, 77 

John, 71 
Murray, Adeline, 118 

Almeda, 118, 119 

Amelia, 125, 126 

Amy, 118, 125 

Charity, 125, 126 

Cynthia, 118 

David. 63, 86, 118, 125. 126. 144. 
145 

Dorcas, 63, 86, 127 

Ebenezer, 118, 155 

Elizabeth, 118, 125, 126 

Enos, 125, 126 

estates, 138-139 

Hannah, 105, 118. 119, 127 

Harriet, 118 

Henry, 118, 155 

Hester, 118, 119 

Hiram, 118, 155 

Hope, 125, 126 

Jane, 118, 120 

Jeremy, 125 

John, 63, 81, 82, 86, 102, 105. 115, 
117, 118, 120, 126, 216, 217, 219 

Julia, 118 

Katherine, 63, 81 

Lewis, 118, 155 

Maranda, 117, 118 

Margaret, 125 

Mark, 63, 127, 155 

Mary, 63. 86. 115, 118, 119, 125. 
127 



Murray, Mary Hand, 118 

Nancy, 125, 126 

Oliver, 117, 118, 125 

Othniel, 49, 62, 81, 86, 125, 155 

Patience, 125, 126 

Prudence, 117, 118. 119 

Rachel. 118 

Sarah. 118, 119, 125, 144 

Silas, 118 

Tabitha, 81, 102, 115, 117, 118, 120, 
126 

Wesley, 118 

William, 118, 155 

Zachariah, 118 
Murrays, 12, 58 

Neville, James, 48 
Newark Bay, 20 
New Cesarea, 21, 25 
Newcomb, Joseph, 73 

Sarah S.. 73 
New England, 35 

colonies, 20 
New England Cross-roads church, 84 
New Haven (Conn.), discontent at, 21,22 

immigrants from, 38 
New Jersey archives, 88 
New Netherland, 20, 22 
New Salem, 57 
New York, Bay of, 21 
Nichols, Samuel, 36, 39 
NicoUs, Colonel Richard, 20 
Nixon, Jeremiah, 79 

John T., 141 

Rhoda S., 79 
Noble, Richard, 36, 39, 45 
Northumberland, County of (Eng.), 22. 

23 
Nova Cesarea or New Jersey, 36 

Ogden, Charlotte, 73, 132, 

Elmer, 73, 78 

John B., 78 

Ruth, 73 

Sarah B., 78 
Osborn, Rev. Ethan, 129, 141 



232 



INDEX 



Padgett, Cuffee, 113 
Page, John, 66, 89 
Pages, 61 

Parliamentary Army, 24 
Patriotism of Gouldtown people, 154 
Pearce, George T., 95, 123 

Holmes, 123 
Pedigree of Benj. Gould, 109 
Penn, WUliam, 22, 25, 37. 58, 59 
Pierce, Aaron, 119 

Adam, 63, 86, 102, 105, 125, 127, 

128, 154, 217 
Adeline, 118 

Adrian, 12, 102, 105, 123, 124, 

215 
Alexander, 127, 177, 178 
Alex. W., 97, 153 
Almeda, 97, 132, 219 
Almedia Jones, 119 
Amelia, 102, 103, 126 
Amos, 97, 107, 120 
Andrew, 127, 131 
Angeline, 125 

Anna, 11, 98, 99, 159, 168. 220 
Ann Cuff, 103 
Anthony, 62, 64, 85, 97, 103, 108, 

115, 116, 120, 122, 130, 131, 144, 

154, 173, 215, 217, 220 
Asa, 127, 128 
Belford, 98, 152, 220 
Benjamin, 63, 85, 116, 122, 123, 

129, 131, 144, 215 
B. F., 93, 128, 169 
Calvin B., 127 
Caroline, 128, 129 
Catherine, 97, 123 
Charles, 129, 130, 155 
Charles H., 97 
Charles Jones, 128 
Christiana G., 98, 220 
Christina S., 104, 132 
Clement, 126, 130, 132 
Cynthia, 120 

David, 118, 128, 129 
Dora, 166 
Dorcas, 127, 128 



Pierce, Dorothy, 97 
Edward, 127, 128 
Elam, 129 
Eliza Jane, 119 
Elizabeth, 63, 86, 101-103, 105, 

120, 130, 131, 132, 211 
Elizabeth (2d?), 63 
Ella, 166 
Elvira, 119 
Emanuel, 132 
Emeline, 130 

Ephraim, 119, 132, 155, 220 
estates, 138, 139, 211, sq. 
Ethel, 217 
Fayette, 119 
Francis L., 97, 213, 214 
Frank, Mrs., 165 
Freeman, 119, 145 
F. Lewis, 130 
George, 124, 131, 211-213 
George T., 95, 123, 214. 216 
Gideon, 120, 214 
Hannah, 63, 64, 85, 86, 91, 106, 114, 

119, 122, 123, 128, 143, 219 
Harold, 97, 166 
Harriet, 103, 166 
Henry, 129, 130, 132 
Hester, 119, 123, 128 
Hiram, 131 
Holmes, 105, 123, 124, 125, 176, 

216 
Horatio, 119 
Hosea, 115, 128, 155 
Isaac, 132 
Isabella L., 220 
Isaiah, 123 
Israel, 119 

Jacob, 119, 123, 124, 145, 153, 216 
Jacob B., 113, 126 
James, 107, 132, 153, 166, 220 
Jane, 123 
Jane M., 107 
Jedediah, 132, 155 
Jehu, 118, 119, 153 
Jeremiah, 100, 118, 123, 130, 153, 

178, 220 



INDEX 



233 



Pierce, Jesse, 63, 85, 97, 104, 123, 132, 
J. Freeman, 105, 123, 124 
John, 63, 85, 122, 124, 129, 130, 131, 

132, 215 
John C, 127 
Julia Noble, 131 
Juliann S., 127 
Leonard, 129, 130 
Lewis, 116 
Lorenzo, 120 
Louisa, 103, 128, 220 
Lucette, 98, 159, 168, 217, 220 
Lydia. 123. 131 
Madge, 98 
Malinda, 107, 120 
Margaret, 120, 129, 131 
Marietta, 97 
Mark, 155 
Mary, 63, 86, 90, 91, 115, 119, 123, 

129. 130, 132, 144, 177 
Mary E., 105, 127 
Matilda, 128, 129 
MatUda G., 107 
Matthias, 127 
Maurice, 119 
Melinda, 120 
Menon, 63, 85, 101, 106. 119, 122, 

131, 211, 215 
Mordecai, 98 
Mordecai C, 11, 100, 220 
Moses, 118, 119. 128 
Peleg, 123 
Peter. 124, 216 
Phineas, 120 
Phoebe. 97, 152, 177 
Phoebe Jane, 97 
Priscilla. 128, 129 
Prudence, 97. 116 
Rachel S., 123 
Reuben, 103,115,130,174 
Rhumah, 63, 86, 90 
Richard, 62, 63, 64, 81, 86, 90, 91. 

102. 103, 114, 122, 126, 128, 129, 

153. 154 
Robert. 97. 104, 120, 132 
Roseann, 132 



Pierce, Rosette, 132 

Ruth, 120, 129, 131 

Sarah, 128, 131, 144 

Sarah Jane, 120 

Sarah Rachel, 127 

Smith, 129, 130 

Sophia, 124 

Stewart H., 12, 123, 215 

Sylvester, 98 

Tabitha, 125, 126, 128, 129 

Tabitha M., 118 

Thomas, 130, 131 

Violette, 128, 129 

Wanaca, 63, 85, 97, 106, 122, 123, 
124, 129, 144, 155, 215. 217 

Warner K.. 98, 152, 220 

Warren W., 127-128 

William, 132 

William H., 131 
Pierces, 58 

Pierces, belief in signs and witches, 
65 

fondness for flowers and music, 65 
Piercetown, 10 

Pittsgrove Baptist Church, 76 
Platts, David, 73 

Letitia, 73 
Pledger (Pledyer), John, 36, 39 
Potter, Colonel, 54 

Quinton's Bridge. 6ght of. 75 

Ramsey, Rev. William, 140 

Raritan River, 20, 21 

Readstown, 69 

Real estate possessions, present, 211- 

216 
Reeves, John, 73 

Religious and political equality, 31 
Remington, John, 69 
Restoration of the Stuart monarchy, 

20 
Reunion, annual (of Goulds), 109 
Rhode Island, immigrants from, 39 
Roadstown, village, 12 
Robinson, Rev. J. H., 147 



INDEX 



Rogers, B. W., 174, 175, 178 
Royal charter of 1664, 35 
Rumsey, Albert, 151 

Carrie Gould, 151 
Rural amusements, 85 

sociological examples, 81 sq. 

Salem County, 30 

genealogy, 67 

Creek, 38, 57 

New Jersey, 26, 31, 39 

Records in N. J. archives, 36 
Salt marsh haying, 17, 83 
Sand burrs, gangrene of feet caused by, 

82 
Sandy Hook. 20 
Sayre, Abraham, 122 

Anna, 53 

James, 53 

Jeremiah, 174 
Sayre's Neck, 72 
Sayres, Reuel, 69 
School boards, 15, 175 

trustees, 15 
Schoolmasters of Gouldtown school, 15 
Schools, 170-179 

singing-schools, 177, 179 

Sunday-schools, 147, 149, 179 
Scott, Anne, 28 

Scribner's History United States, 22 
Seeley, David, 89 
Servant of John Fenwick, 27 
"Sharp's family burying ground," 33 
Shaw, Ephraim, 72 

Harvey, 72 

Lydia, 72 

Mary, 72 
Sheppard, Abbie, 73 

Abner, 69, 74, 79 

Amos, 69, 71 

Amy, 73, 74 

Charles, 77, 79 

Charles E., 80 

Charlotte W., 72 

David. 67, 68, 70, 71, 76, 80, 93 

David Dare, 79 



Sheppard, David L., 76, 77 
Delanah, 75 
Dennis, 73 
Ebenezer L., 76, 77 
Elias, 72, 78 
Eliza, 149 

Elizabeth, 68, 69, 73, 74 
Elizabeth R., 79 
Elmer Ogden, 73 
Enoch, 68 
Enoch F., 80 

Ephraim, 68, 72, 74, 75, 78, 79 
Ephraim E., 79 
Ercurious, 77 
Ernest, 168 
Francis, 77 
Frederick, 77 
Hannah, 68, 69, 71-76 
Harriet, 72 
Harris, 73 
Harvey, 73 
Henry, 75, 78, 79 
Henry A., 74 
Hope, 69 
Hosea, 70 

Ichabod, 69, 72, 73, 74 
Isaac A., 76, 77, 78 
James, 69, 72, 75 
Jane B., 77, 78 
Jane H., 78 
Joel, 69, 72, 74 
John, 67, 68 
John C. Calhoun, 80 
John Nixon, 79 
Jonadab, 69 

Joseph, 68, 70, 71. 75, 76 
Joseph, committee of safety, 70 
Joseph Ogden, 79 
Josephine S., 76 
Josiah, 71, 72 
J. A. & Company, 78 ' 
Lafayette, 75 
Lillian, 77 
Lucy, 71 

Lydia, 11, 70, 71, 73, 74, 93, 94, 
115, 158, 166, 169 



INDEX 



235 



Sheppard, Margaret, 79 

Mark, 72 

Martha. 72, 77 

Mary, 68-72, 75-77, 79 

Miriam, 77 

Naomi, 69, 72, 73 

Owen, 70 

Philip, 68, 69, 71-74 

Phoebe, 68. 69, 72, 73, 75, 76 

Providence Ludlam, 76 

Prudence, 72, 75 

Rachel, 69, 75 

Rebecca, 75 

Reuben, 73, 74 

Ruth, 71, 72-75 

Ruth N., 79 

Sarah, 68. 69, 72-74, 76, 78, 79, 93, 
94 

Susanna, 72 

Tabitha, 70 

Tamson. 93, 115 

Temperance, 69, 70, 75 

Theodore, 77 

Thomas, 67. 93, 94, 168 

William, 73, 75, 76 

Waiiam A., 74 

Wilham E., 80 
Shiloh, 69 

village, 12 
Shourds, Thomas, historian of Salem 

County, 67 
Showel, Rev. Isaac, 177, 178 
Shrewsbury, East Jersey, 67 

Neck, 68 
Siconessee Indian, 62 
Sink, Emma, 179 
Siro, Andrew, 91 

Daniel, 90, 108, 174 

Elizabeth, 91 

Elizabeth G., 108 

Simon, 90 
Smalley, Mayor, 77 
Smith, Abner, 53 

Ann, 91, 96 

Charies G., 91, 96 

Cynthia, 73 



Smith, Hannah, 73, 96 

Isaac, 73, 76 

Jane Elizabeth, 80 

Jeremiah, 53 

John, and wife, 26, 36, 39 

Joseph H., 147 

Miriam, 76 
Social enjoyment, indoors and outdoors 
— hospitality, 18 

study, a, 160 
South Jersey Institute, 77, 179 
Stanton, E. M., Sec. of War, letter to, 

192 
Stanton Manor, Cumberland, (Eng.) 

23 
State Government, organized, 70 
SteeUng, Jacob, 88, 89 
Steelings, 61 
Steward, Alice, 94 

Clara, 166 

Capt. Frank R., 155, 158, 160 

Edwina. 157, 166, 168 

G. A., 157 

James, 94, 95, 105, 164, 179, 213, 
214 

Margaret, 94 

Mary, 94, 105, 164, 166 

Rebecca, 94, 105, 179 

Stephen, 94 

Stephen S., 100, 120, 157, 166, 168, 
213, 219 

Theophilus. 94 

Rev. Theophilus Gould, 18, 153, 
155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 162, 165, 
166, 168, 212, 218 

WUliam, 94, 157, 167, 212, 218 
Stewart, Cato, 123, 127 

Elizabeth, 123, 127, 144 

Emma, 168 

EsteUa D., 98 

Hannah, 105 

Howard, 98 

Juliann, 127 

Lizzie, 168 

Rachel, 123 

Robert D., 105 



236 



INDEX 



Stone Creek Township, 71 

Stow, Ann. 76 

Stowe Creek Township, 70 

Sumner, Alphonso, 179 

Sunday-school, Gouldtown, 147-149 

Swedes and Finns, 38 

Swing, Rev. Michael, 141 

Tanner, H. O.. 122 
Test, Francis, 73 

Hannah S., 73 

John. 73 

Joseph, 73 
Thomas, Margaret, 116 
Thomas, a historian, 59 
Thompsons, 67 
Titus, Mrs. J. L., 168 
Trenchard, John, 127 
Trinity, A. M. E. church, 145, 146 
Trull, Josephine M., 80 

Nathaniel, 80 

Unearned increment, lack of, 16 
United States Army, chaplain of, 
18 

Van Aca, Hannah, 62 

Marie, 62 
Varchen's Kill, 38 

Wade, Edward, 36, 39, 45, 48 

Samuel, 36, 39, 69 
Walker, Charles H., 76 

Phoebe, 76 

William S., 76 
Walters. Lucy, 28 
Wanaca, 62 
Warner, Edmund, 45 
Watkins, Dr. G. T., 165 
Webster, Charles, 94 

Daniel, 94 

Frank, 214 

Jane, 94 
Weddings, 159. 164, 167 
Wescott, Charles, 72 

Charlotte, 71 



Wescott, Eunice, 78 

Hannah, 71 

Henry, 71 

Henry. 73. 78 

Jane Harris, 71 

Jane. 73, 78 

Jehiel. 78 

Mary, 78 

Mary B., 78 

Matilda. 73 
Westcott estates, 122 

schoolhouse, 143, 144, 173, 174 
Wester, Hannah Gould, 108, 152 

Thomas, 91 
West India Company, 21 
West Indies, vessels from, 62 
West Jersey Society, 59 
West New Jersey, 36 
Wheaton, Andrew Evan, 71 

Hannah. 71 

Isaac, 71 

Joseph. 71 

Judith. 71 

Lucy S., 71 

Mary Sheppard, 71 

Providence L., 71 

WUliam, 71 
Wheatons, the, of Greenwich, 67 
Whitaker, Henry, 72 
White, Joshua, 53 

Mary, child nurse of Fenwick's 
daughters, 27 
Widdington, (Eng.), 23 
Wilberforce University, 18, 218 
Will of John Fenwick, 33, 34 
Wilson, Absalom, 174, 179 

Anna C, 115 

Charles, 93, 174 

E. P.. 102 

Joseph, 93, 115 

Reuben. 174 

Tamson, 93. 115 

William, 115, 215 
Winrow, Abram, 128 
Winthrop charter, of Connecticut, 

22 



INDEX 



237 



Wood, Caroline, 104 
Dr. George B., 70 
Isaac, 104 
Richard, 70 

Woodbridge, New Jersey, 51 

Woodruffs, 10, 12, 61 

Wright, Anna Gould, 169 



Wright family, 97 
Fenwick, 97 
Jacob, 108 
Phoebe Jane, 97 

Young, Jonathan, 7S 
Lewis, 73 



2188