N.TY PUBLIC LIBRARY
1833 02248 3439
A VERY REMARKABLE SETTLEME NT OF
STUDIES OF SOME STURDY EXAMPLES
OF THE SIMPLE LIFE, TOGETHER WITH
SKETCHES OF EARLY COLONIAL HIS-
TORY OF CUMBERLAND COUNTY AND
SOUTHERN NEW JERSEY AND SOME
EARLY GENEALOGICAL RECORDS
WILLIAM STEWARD, A.M.,
AUTHOR OF "JOHN BLTE," " CBIP," "tHECHILD OF THE AU^ET,'
"WAt/TEB GORDON," AND OTHER STORIES
Rev. THEOPHILUS G. STEWARD, D.D.,
Chaplain U. S. Army, Retired
AUTHOR OF "genesis REREAD," AND OTHER BOOKS
^^H.HoXy PRESS OF
G- 73 ^ J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY
BY WILLIAM AND T. G. STEWARD
It has long been in mind to prepare and put in book
form the oral traditions, as well as such authenticated
facts, as could be collected from records and pubhc
documents of the remarkable settlement of people of
color, which has here been attempted.
The study of the three original families herem set
forth in this county (Cumberland) and a fourth famUy
connected to a degree with them, of Salem county
origin, is a subject of some interest. That it is of more
than local interest has been shown by lengthy newspaper
articles in many metropolitan journals durmg the last
thirty years. , - i • ^ • i
The settlement was made the subject of historical
allusion more than three-quarters of a century ago ; and
while many of those periodical articles have been based
upon very insufficient information, the writers havmg
been attracted to the subject by the historical allusions
above referred to, they have been of a character in-
dicating estimation. j i.- i. •
To preserve these traditions, records, and histories
as weU as some of more enlarged interest, is the object
here had in view. W. and T. G. S.
I. Gouldtown: Its Tradition; Its People; Its Gen-
eral History 9
II. Fenwick; English History; His Sailing and
Landing; His Colony 20
III. Fenwick Colony; Land Grants and Primary
IV. Copies of Very Ancient Parchment Deeds in
Possession of a Bridgeton Attorney 43
V. Gould Traditions; Evidences; Descent; Benja-
min Gould's Will 49
VI. The Early Goulds and their Associations; the
Pierces and Murrays; the Three Foundation
VII. Origin of the Pierce, Murray and Cuff Families 62
VIII. Importance of Genealogical Research; Some of
the Original Family Genealogies of Salem
AND Cumberland Counties; Compilation of
Thomas Shourds 67
IX. Rural Sociological Examples, Suggested in
THIS Life of Simplicity 81
X. Gould Genealogies; Probability of Origin of
Name of Settlement 88
XI. The Cuffs of Salem; their Probable Origin;
THEIR Ultimate Connection with the Gould,
Pierce, and Murray Families 113
XII. Genealogical Sketch of John Murray's and
David Murray's Families and Some of the
Pierce Connections 118
XIII. Family Eugenics and Longevity; the Gould,
Pierce and Murray Estates 133
XIV. Organization of the Church; Early Religious
Affiliations of the People 140
XV. The People's Patriotism; Ready to Bear Arms
for the Country 154
XVI. Social Life; Some Typical Social Events; Two
Golden Weddings; a Social Study 157
XVII. Educational Facilities of the Neighborhood.. 170
XVIII. Some Literary Efforts of Gouldtown Youth
Thirty and Fifty Years Ago 180
XIX. A Story in Blank Verse 193
XX. Some Present Real Estate Possessions of the
Inhabitants of Gouldtown 211
William Steward Frontispiece
The Village of Gouldtown 10
Lummis-Gouldtown School House 14
Bishop Benjamin F. Lee 18
Judge Lucius Q. C. Elmer 50
Old Stone Church, Fairfield 84
Tamson Cuff 90
Abijah Gould 90
Mrs. Lydia Sheppard 92
James Steward 94
Mrs. Rebecca Steward 94
Anthony Gould 96
Mrs. Sarah Gould 100
Mrs. Hannah Gould 104
Mrs. Sarah Dunn Pierce 108
Jonathan Freeman Pierce 122
Holmes Pierce 122
Mrs. EUzabeth Stewart 126
Gouldtown Graveyard 136
Rev. Ethan Osborn 140
Miss Prudence F. Gould 140
Gouldtown A. M. E. Church 146
Jonathan Gould 146
Rev. T. Gould 150
Group at Gould Family Reunion 158
Steward Family 158
Rev. T. G. Steward 162
Mrs. William Steward 166
Jacob Wright and Wife 166
Absalom Wilson 172
Gouldtown School House 172
Bentley W. Rogers 176
Horace Bishop 176
A Gouldtown Woman and Her Driving Horse 214
Cottage of Stephen S. Steward 214
A VERY REMARKABLE SET-
TLEMENT OF ANCIENT DATE
GOULDTOWN; ITS TRADITION; ITS PEOPLE; ITS GENERAL
In Judge Lucius Q. C. Elmer's history of Cumber-
land County, New Jersey, written in 1865, occurs this
" Gouldtown — partly in the Northern part of Fair-
field, and partly in Bridgeton Townships — although
never more than a settlement of mulattoes, principally
bearing the names of Gould and Pierce, scattered over
a considerable territory, is of quite ancient date. The
tradition is that they are descendants of Fenwick."
Judge Elmer, a distinguished Supreme Court Jurist
of New Jersey, was the son of General Ebenezer Elmer,
who was an officer in the Revolutionary Army, first as an
ensign, and shortly after as lieutenant in a company, and
later, being a physician, serving as a surgeon ; he served,
in all, during the war of the Revolution, a period of
seven years and eight months. In 1814, he commanded
a brigade of militia called out for the defence of Phila-
delphia against the British, and was ever after that
known as General Elmer. Judge Elmer was born soon
after the close of the Revolution in 1793, and had ample
opportunity and ability for research in his native county.
He died in 1883.
Much interest has always been taken in the com-
munity of Gouldtown by the neighboring communities,
and this was always of a friendly character; in early
times because of its traditional descent, and later because
of the ethnological features recognizable.
General Elmer and his son were accustomed, on
Sunday afternoons to meet in a schoolhouse and cate-
chize the children of Gouldtown, in the neighborhood,
in the years following the Revolution. These children
and youth would not all be mulattoes (the term " mulat-
toes " is used in this book in its general significance,
applying to the people of color of mixed blood) how-
ever, for in the conmiunity were pure white families
as for instance the WoodruiFs, the Luptons, the Fullers,
the Seeleys, and the Whites, and others; traces of whom
are to be found only in the farms they left, which were
known by their names as the "Fuller Fields," the
" White Fields," the " Jay Fields "; the names remain-
mg a century or more after their owners had vanished.
Only one of these names has been perpetuated in a
village, and that of recent date and several miles distant
from the original location. This is Woodruffs, about
three or four miles northward from Gouldtown. It is a
wealthy farming settlement on the line of the Central
Railroad, and has a Methodist Church and a school-
house and post-office.
Gouldtown is comprised in two sections— following
the two family names of Gould and Pierce, which were
always known by their separate names, Gouldtown and
Piercetown, but both known comprehensively as Gould-
town. It is remarkable in that it has perpetuated its
family name in its locahty for nearly two hundred
years ; also because it is a community of mulattoes who.
The A'illage of Gouldtown. Sketched by 16-year-old Gouldtown
GENERAL HISTORY 11
contrary to the pet theory of some astute ethnological
scientists, have perpetuated themselves generation after
generation for almost two centuries; remarkable, too,
for the known longevity of its people, who do not begin
to grow old, as is often said, until they come to three-
score years, and a number of whom have reached the
century mark, one of whom (Ebenezer Pierce Bishop)
is still living, at this writing, who is one hundred and
six years old, and one of whom (Mrs. Lydia Gould
Sheppard) was buried in the year nineteen hundred
and eleven, at the age of one hundred and two, in the
Gouldtown Cemetery, and a number of others who are
still living at ages between seventy and ninety-five
Kellenberger's Pocket Gazetteer of New Jersey
says ; " Gouldtown — a post hamlet in Fairfield Town-
ship, Cumberland County, three miles southeast of
Bridgeton, the county seat, which affords the nearest
banking and shipping facilities, and is connected by
daily stage (now by trolley cars). Here are two
churches and a store. Population one hundred and
Formerly it had a post-office, but, since the opening
of a trolley line, that has been abolished for lack of
patronage, and its first postmaster, Seneca Bishop,
whose mother was a Pierce, was, perhaps, the first
colored postmaster in this country. At his death
Mordecai C. Pierce was made postmaster; he was suc-
ceeded by his widow, Mrs. Anna Gould Pierce, at his
death, and she held the position when the ofiice was
The actual village is situated two and a half miles
east from Bridgeton, the county seat of the County of
Cumberland, but, as Judge Elmer states in his history,
it is " scattered over a considerable territory," extending
in a line of contiguous properties owned by the Goulds
and Pierces and their connections from the farm of
William C. Gould (inherited from his father, Furman
Gould, Jr.), on East Avenue, Bridgeton, eastward to
the farm of Stewart Haines Pierce near Carmel (in-
herited from his father, Adrian Pierce), a distance of
almost seven miles; this long stretch of properties ex-
tends in width from one to three miles.
Several of the earlier Goulds and Pierces as well as
Murrays intermarried with whites, and members of their
immediate offspring went away and lost their identity,
they and their descendants becoming white ; while, from
those who still maintained their identity as people of
color, there have come many who have reached dis-
tinction, and in whom their native County shows merited
pride, as, for instance, a Methodist bishop, a chaplain
in the United States regular army, a physician, a
lawyer, a distinguished dentist, teachers, writers,
journalists; and in the industrial arts, carpenters,
masons, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, painters, carriage
builders, woolen spinners and weavers; brickmakers,
machinists, engineers, electricians, printers, factory
men, sailors, ministers of the Gospel, and farmers; in
fact none of its sister villages has produced — taking
equality of environment — more or better or more credit-
able individualities than has this settlement.
Surrounding Bridgeton and from one to seven miles
distant are the post towns and villages of Roadstown,
Cohansey, Shiloh, Deerfield, Carll's Corner, Wood-
ruffs, Fairton, Gouldtown and Bowentown, the two last
having no post-offices.
The Bridgeton and Millville Traction Company's
trolley line passes through Gouldtown, along the beauti-
ful Bridgeton and Millville Turnpike; the distance
between the two cities, Bridgeton and Millville, is ten
GENERAL HISTORY 13
miles, — Gouldtown two and a half miles from the
former and seven and a half miles from the latter city,
with hourly car traffic connection with each. The settle-
ment is an ancient one, the inhabitants tracing their
ancestry back to earliest colonial times.
The commmiity possesses two churches situated
about a mile apart, one a Methodist Episcopal, and the
other an African Methodist Episcopal; the latter being
in the village, the former in that part of the neighbor-
hood now called Fordsville, the congregation of which
is dominated by the Pierce family, while the Goulds are
the dominating jTamily in the African Methodist Episco-
This settlement, comprising all the families and both
churches, is important for many reasons other than
those before enumerated. That it does not abound in
wealth and culture is due in great part to the fixed
habits of the people and to the fact that they have been
aU these years domiciled upon poor, timber-exhausted
lands. The same labor, economy, and thrift which they
have practised here, employed in homes upon a more
productive soil, would long ago have placed many of
the industrious, sober, and self-denying families of
Gouldtown in circumstances of substantial comfort, if
not of affluence. They are not as slothful and back-
ward farmers as one might presume from the neglected
appearance of too many of their homes and their teams ;
but their poor land, coupled with the increased cost of
living, compels them to give their attention to pressing
necessities, to the neglect of the things which would add
to appearances. They are interested in agriculture,
close observers, and hard workers; and considering the
conditions, obtain from their fields fair crops. They
have estates ranging from $1000 to $15,000 or $20,000.
As far back as 1860, a large audience assembled to
listen to a well-prepared paper on agriculture delivered
in the Gouldtown schoolhouse by a young man of the
neighborhood, who had not then reached his majority.
In that paper he cited methods of cultivation practised
in China; dealt with the pulverization of the surface;
descanted upon the value of " compost," and spoke of
utilizing mud and forest leaves as fertilizing agencies.
A half century ago there was a Moral and Mental
Improvement Society in Gouldtown, and it was from
this society's library that the youth borrowed and read
Dick's Works and by those books was inducted into
the primary mysteries of natural philosophy. Many
simple experiments were made by the boys of the com-
munity after the models given by that interesting writer.
This library contained many volumes of standard
The " Saturday Evening Post " was regularly read
by the principal families, as were also some of the early
magazines. Such books as the History of England;
Burns' Poems; Pilgrim's Progress; Robinson Crusoe;
Josephus; Plutarch's Lives, Milton, and Shakespeare,
were among those owned and read by the families.
Perhaps few books were more highly prized by the
devout than Baxter's " Saints' Rest " ; but works of
fiction were eagerly read and, we might say, studied, by
many inhabitants of Gouldtown two and three genera-
tions ago. In my early childhood I heard the " Last
Days of Pompeii " discussed by women of Gouldtown.
Had they possessed the means and received the en-
couragement, several persons of the community would
have made commendable progress in literature. Despite
their surroundings, the generations that have passed
away contained within them several who could be
classed as well-read.
The principal institutions outside of the family were,
Lummis-Gouldtown School House.
GENERAL HISTORY 15
and are still, the school and the church. Up to 1860
these both occupied the same building, the circuit
preacher getting around once every three or four weeks.
In the interval the pulpit was supplied by local
preachers, among whom was " Uncle Furman Gould,"
the first preacher of any kind known among the Goulds.
The preaching, both of the circuit preacher and of the
local preacher, occupied itself exclusively with the
eternal themes of " fleeing the wrath to come," and
securing a home in heaven. The hardships of poverty,
and homes on earth, had no place in their sermons.
They had no lessons to give save such as might tend to
make the " souls " of their hearers " prosper." The
preachers as such had nothing to contribute to aid the
people in making their homes more attractive and sani-
tary, or their farms more productive.
The same with even more emphasis could be said of
the school. The Gouldtown school was a typical
" Districk " school with its own Board of Trustees.
These trustees, three in number, with very little knowl-
edge of school books or methods, hired the schoolmaster
who, without examination or license, started in on the
appointed day to " keep scliool." These schoolmasters
never had one word to say as to the purpose of educa-
tion, and never related it, except in " ciphering," to
anything in the actual lives of the scholars. They were
taught to spell, to read, to write, and to cipher; but were
taught nothing on life, conduct, and character — nothing
that might aid or inspire youth to advance materially
or even intellectually. The idea of the general improve-
ment of the student did not seem to be present. It is
painful to say, but nevertheless true, that neither the
church nor the school as they existed in Gouldtown
under the old methods contributed anything directly
to the material or moral growth of the community.
That the church contributed powerfully indirectly, by
the stress it put upon conscious spiritual life, must be
admitted; and that the school did the same by its almost
mechanical methods of teaching children to read and
write; but both failed to enter into, to improve or
brighten, the every-day life of the people as they might
have done. Nothing that either taught had the slightest
bearing upon their most burning question. How to
wring a living out of poor land? Their actual situation,
crying as it was, called forth no sympathetic response
from either church or school. The teachers were almost
always white men, and, it must be said, did their best.
Nevertheless, the people have held on to their land
from generation to generation; have bought and cleared
land ; reared families and developed character. It must
be said also that much of the land held by the Gould-
towners of to-day is of but little more exchangeable
value than it was fifty years ago, though more pro-
ductive now than it was then. Thus, instead of rising
on a tide of general increase in the values of real estate,
their fate, through no fault of their own, has been just
the opposite. Instead of an unearned increment en-
hancing their holdings, there has fallen to them an un-
merited decrement, taking from them as by the stealth
of night the modest fortunes they had acquired. The
changes in farming and living which have come over
the country within recent years, and especially the de-
velopment of market gardening, and market farming in
the South with the cheap and abundant facilities for
transportation, have very seriously affected the Jersey
farmer. He has had to make the most thorough re-
adjustment of both means and ends. In the early days
the average Gouldtown farmer had but the one end in
view, namely, to produce enough from his farm to fur-
nish food for his family and provender for the stock that
GENERAL HISTORY 17
he kept. He managed usually to have tough horses,
and fattened his hogs well; but his cattle were of the
comparatively milkless wandering " breachy " variety
that no one would have to-day. The corn, wheat and
oats from his farm coupled with salt hay from the marsh,
with potatoes, turnips and cabbage and a little clover
hay ; a few by-products, with a fair sowing of buckwheat
and rye, furnished rations for man and beast and fat-
tened the hogs from which an ample supply of well-
cured hams, pork and lard was made, and, with many,
a fatted beef was annually killed and salted down. In
some cases, wool from their own sheep made their cloth-
ing, and rags from worn-out clothes were woven into
the carpets that covered their floors.
Modernism has compelled the farmer of Gouldtown
to adopt different aims, and to farm for the market, or
rather for the middleman who stands in the market
gate. In some cases he raises tomatoes and other articles
to be delivered directly to the canners on contract, but
often his goods go to the commission man for whose
labor and skill the farmer pays on one end, and the
consumer on the other. Entering the markets the
Jerseyman finds liimself, as has been previously inti-
mated, in the presence of growers from the South; and
their cheaper labor and earlier seasons, again call for
readjustment of methods so that his goods may appeal
to customers through their quality and appearance. It
is to the credit of the Jersey farmer that it can be said
he has weathered the storm and has not been crowded
out of the markets. Jersey products and poultry hold
the highest rank in our great Eastern markets.
The people of Gouldtown, especially the Goulds,
have never been very ardent lovers of money ; they have
rather placed stress upon the development of the social
and spiritual nature. Despite their very severe condi-
tion they have kept up from earliest times those customs
of social enjoyment, indoors in winter and outdoors in
summer, which have made them famous for generous
hospitality. All the instruction which they received for
generations both with regard to the work of their fields
and the manner of entertaining guests, was that which
came down from parent to child by oral tradition,
until the coming in of modernism with its Farm and
Home Journals and the like; yet they have maintained
themselves well socially.
Several years ago in the city of Washington an
official from New Jersey in a public speech referred to
the sterling character of individuals of Gouldtown and
of their general good deportment. " I can remember
well when a schoolboy there, that there was not a boy in
school who swore; and I remember noting at one time
there was not a child in school who could not read."
[T. G. S.] Few inhabitants of Gouldtown proper,
from earliest times, were actually illiterate, although
none was highly educated. The following quotation
from a recent Bridgeton paper will show in what light
the community is regarded by its neighbors.
There is no section of our County more highly honored than
is Gouldtown, from which men have .gone forth to become widely
known and honored.
Bishop Benjamin F. Lee was for some time, before he was
made a Bishop, President of Wilberforce University at Wilber-
force, Ohio, of which he is now a member of the Advisory
Board. He is a man of solid piety, an able preacher and highly
honored by all who know him, as well as by those of his own
Another is Theophilus G. Steward, who, for many years was
chaplain of the United States Army and now since being on the
Bishop Benjamin F. Lee.
retired list, ably fills a professorship at Wilberforce University.
He is a preacher of far more than ordinary ability and able to
acceptably fill any pulpit in the land.
Yet another is Theodore Grould, who is a member of the
Philadelphia Conference of his church and for several years
has acceptably filled the office of presiding elder. He also is a
man of noted piety and of much ability as a preacher.
We doubt if there is another section of the County from
which three more highly honored and useful men have gone
FEN WICK ; ENGLISH HISTORY ; HIS SAILING AND LANDING ;
The restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660, was
followed by the war with the Dutch during wliich the
King, Charles II, granted to his brother James, Duke
of York, all the lands the Dutch had held in America.
The grant, as formally stated, included a large portion
of the Province of Maine, and the country from the west
side of the Connecticut River to the east side of Dela-
ware Bay. This grant included Martha's Vineyard,
Nantucket, all Long Island and the whole of the terri-
tory of New Netheiiand.
The next month after the grant was made a fleet of
four ships, with a force of three or four hundred men,
under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls, as the
lieutenant-governor of the Duke, sailed from England.
With Nicolls were joined as commissioners Sir Robert
Carr, Sir George Cartwright and Samuel Maverick,
with extraordinary powers for settling all difficulties in
the New England colonies, as well as to take possession
of the Dutch province and reduce its inhabitants to
No sooner was the province fairly in English hands than
new names were given to different portions, its boundaries were
as far as possible defined, and grants of land were made to
Englishmen. That region lying between the Hudson and the
Delaware was named Albania, and grants and purchases were
made within its boundaries from Sandy Hook to the mouth of the
Raritan, and from the Raritan to the Achter Cul, now Newark
Bay. But before Nicolls, in the name of the Duke of York,
had taken possession of all New Netherland, the Duke, in
FENWICK; HIS COLONY 21
anticipation of that event, granted in June, 1664, the whole
comitrj, from the Hudson to the Delaware and from latitude
41 ° 40 ' to Cape May, to two favorites of the Court, Lord
Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.
To the new province of New Cesarea, the name of New
Jersey was given, in commemoration of Carteret's defence of the
Channel Island of Jersey against the forces of the Common-
wealth in 1649.
Of this grant, however, Nicolls knew nothing till June,
1665, when Captain Philip Carteret arrived as Governor of the
new province. There was, of course, no alternative but to re-
ceive with courtesy one coming armed with such credentials,
though Nicolls represented to the Duke that he had hastily
given away the fairest portion of his dominion.
A storm had driven Carteret's ship, the Pliilip, into Chesa-
peake Bay, but in July she arrived at New York, and a few-
days later anchored off the point now known as Elizabethport,
New Jersey, and landed her thirty emigrants. At the head of
these people, Carteret, with a hoe over his shoulder, marched
to the spot he had chosen for a settlement, two or three miles
inland, and to wliich in honor of the Lady Elizabeth, the wife
of Sir George Carteret, he gave her name. He found at the
point where he and his people landed, four families who had
taken possession of lands under the grant wliich had been made
by Nicolls. The newcomers brought with them the title of a
new English province, and though more than one settlement had
been earher made by the Dutch on this side of the Bay of New
York, this was the actual beginning of the State of New Jersey
Four years before, the West India Company had discerned
and sought to take advantage of the discontent and apprehen-
sion felt by so many of the English, both at home and in the
colonies, at the restoration of Charles 11. The directors invited
them to settle on the Raritan, or in its neighborhood, and offered
them most favorable terms. Three of the magistrates of New
Haven, where this discontent was very .general, Matthew Gilbert,
the Deputy Governor, Benjamin Fenn, and Robert Treat
entered into negotiation with Stuyvesant upon the subject, on
behalf of some New Haven people, and found no difficulty in
getting from the Dutch Governor the promise that a hearty
welcome would be given and religious freedom be secured to any
Puritan Colony that should plant itself within the Dutch juris-
diction. But the English asked also for political independence,
and the negotiations were suspended. The question of civil
relations Stuyvesant felt must be referred to his superiors at
Even that concession, he was instructed, the Directors were
disposed to make to almost any, provided that Dutch su-
premacy was acknowledged in the last appeal. The New Haven
people were the most eager to set up anew for themselves when
the Winthrop charter brought them within the jurisdiction of
Connecticut, and they would, perhaps, had there been time
enough, have yielded somewhat in their demands. But while
diplomacy hesitated events made no halt. Before any agree-
ment could be reached satisfactorjj^ to both parties, New Nether-
land ceased to be a Dutch colony, and the Duke of York had
granted to its new proprietors the whole region from the
Hudson to the Delaware.^
The land gi-anted by the Duke of York to Berkeley
was soon after sold by him to John Fenwick, who in
turn was obliged to part with nine-tenths of it to Wil-
liam Penn, Gauen Laurie, and Nicholas Lucas, to
satisfy certain serious obligations, leaving for himself
but one-tenth, or " ten-hundredths," as it was called.
This John Fenwick was the second son of Sir William
Fenwick, Baronet of Northumberland, and had already
attained a degree of celebrity. The story of his life
as related by John Clements is as follows :
He was second son of Sir William Fenwick, Baronet,
who represented the County of Northumberland in the
last Parliament under the Conmionwealth (1659), and
one of four brothers, Edward, John, Roger and Ralph.
* Scribner's History United States, vol. ii, page 320, et seq.
FEN WICK; HIS COLONY 23
In 1640 Sir William had his residence at Stanton Hill,
of Stanton Manor, in the parish of Horsely, Cumber-
land, where he had considerable landed estate. The
mother, Elizabeth, was perhaps of one of the border
families, and brought to her husband additional proper-
ty, increasing his wealth and influence. John was born
in 1618, at Stanton Hall, but the day of the month is not
known. In 1636 he was styled Knight and Baronet, and
five years after that time he married Ehzabeth, daughter
of Sir Walter Covert, Knight of Slaughan, Sussex.
This lady was mother of his children, and from her
came the direct and collateral branches in New Jersey.
The family was of Saxon origin, and formed a powerful
clan in Northumberland. Their ancient fastness was
in the fenny lands about Standfordham, a small town
near the Southern boundary of the shire before named.
The tower of Fenwick at Widdington, in Northum-
berland, near the coast of the North Sea, shows its
antiquity in its rude strength and scanty limits similar
to those built by the Saxon invaders during the fifth
and sixth centuries. Tliis was probably the fii*st seat of
the family after their coming over, and whence it may be
traced through many of the shires of England.
In the ninth j^ear of the reign of Edward III (1334)
an inquisition was had of New Castle, and Johannes
Fenwick was twice appointed Sheriff. During that time
it was much enlarged and strengthened, being an im-
portant point of protection and defence against the
Scotch. In those warlike times this place had no com-
mercial importance, but had grown to be one of the
largest ports in England.
The enmities of former generations have passed
away, and what was once a necessary appendage to
every town is now visited by the curious to see the means
of defence in a barbarous age. In the twelfth century.
Sir Robert Fenwick of Northumberland endowed the
Abbey of New Minster, in the same shire, with two
parts of his villa of Irdington, in Cmnberland, thus
showing his liberality towards, and his adherence to,
the CathoHc Church.
John Fenwick having passed through liis law studies
at Gray's Inn, London (1640), abandoned Ms pro-
fession for a season and accepted an appointment in
the Parliamentary Army. His first commission reads
You are hereby ordered and required as Major under Colonel
Thomas Barwis in his regiment of cavalry which was raised in
the County of Westmoreland to assist the garrison of Carlisle,
and to exercise the officers and soldiers under his command
according to the discipline of war. And they are hereby re-
quired to yield obedience unto you as Major of said regiment.
And all this you are authorized unto, until the pleasure of the
Parliament of the Lord General be known.
Given under my hand and seal at Bernard Castle, 27th day
of October, 1640.
To John Fenwick, Major, These. O. Cromwell.
In the same year he was ordered by the Parliament,
with horse and dragoon to relieve Holy Island Castle in
Durham. It was besieged by the royal troops and
well nigh captured, when he appeared and defeated the
enemy. He was an active and efficient officer, having
the confidence of the Parliament and the Protector.
After the trial and sentence of the King, he was detailed
as commander of cavalry, in conjunction with the foot
troops under Colonel Hacker, Colonel Hanks, and
Lieutenant-Colonel Phayor, to attend the execution.
The order ran in this wise:
These are therefore to will and require you to see the said
sentence executed in the open streets before Whitehall, upon
FENWICK; HIS COLONY 25
the morrow, being the thirtieth of tliis instant, month of
January, between the hours of ten in the morning and five in
the afternoon of the same day, with full eiFect. And these are
to require all officers and soldiers and others the good people of
this nation of England to be assisting unto you in this service.
Given under our hands and seals, etc., etc.
This warrant was signed by all the members who
sat as judges upon his trial, and the most of whom
witnessed the carrying out the sentence. In the dis-
charge of this important and delicate duty the most
reliable officers and the best disciplined troops were
selected, which placed John Fenwick among the first
of those in the army about London at that time.
The religious status of John Fenwick during this
period is doubtful and contradictory. While he was
with the army he became a convert to the opinions of
George Fox, and by a certificate dated February 11,
1649, he is shown to have been a member of the Inde-
pendents, a denomination of Christians more Presby-
terian than Quaker. Be that as it may, he eventualty
adopted the principles and practices of Friends and
adhered to them until his death. The narrative goes on
to recite what has already been stated as follows:
After the restoration, Charles II granted to his brother,
James, Duke of York, " All that main land with several islands
near New England called New Cesarea or New Jersey in
America " and James granted the same lands and premises unto
John Lord Berkeley, Baron of Stratton, and Sir George
Carteret, Knight and Baronet. Berkeley soon after sold his
half of the lands to John Fenwick, and Fenwick, as has been
said, was obliged to part with ninety one-hundredths of this land
to William Penn, Gauen Laurie, and Nicholas Lucas, keeping
to himself but ten-hundredths of the original purchase. After
having relieved himself from his pressing debts he set out to
occupy these possessions.
There was a want of unity in his family, growing out of a
second marriage, and so deep rooted was it that his wife was not
willing to go with him beyond the sea. His daughters, not
realizing the perils incident to the settlement in a new country,
but filled with the spirit of adventure and buoyant with the
prospect of a change, required no persuasion to follow the lead
of their father, and join heartily in the work of breaking up
their homes and leaving their native land forever. The parent
had infused the children with liis notions of success and they
were proud to know he was head of such an enterprise; that his
anticipations and promises were not visionary, but would be
more than realized, and that he would in the future be held to be
a public benefactor. The letters of his wife, though generally
of a business character, show some attachment to him and re-
gard for his affairs, which were in much confusion after his
departure. No mention is made of the daughters, with whom
in all probability the bad blood existed. Her advice to him in
his business relations is good, and if followed more closely,
would have saved him much vexation.
In making preparations for his departure it was
decided that " only such articles as were actually
necessary to supply the wants of the emigi'ants could
be transported, leaving those of convenience and luxuiy
out of the question. Implements of husbandry, tools
for mechanics, material for building, medicines for the
sick, and sustenance for the healthy, together with a
scanty supply of furniture and household goods, must
find a place in the ship. The ship Griffin, Robert
Griffith, master, was chartered and brought to London
for repairs and to receive the cargo and passengers.
An entry made by John Smith in one of the books of
record (Salem No. 4) in the office of the Secretary of
State, Trenton, N. J., shows part of the persons that
came at that time: they were John Fenwick, his three
daughters, Elizabeth, Ann, and Priscilla ; John Adams,
husband of Elizabeth of Reading, in Berks, weaver,
FENWICK; HIS COLONY 27
and three children; Elizabeth, aged eleven years, Fen-
wick, nine years, and Mary, four j^ears; Edward
Champneys, husband of Priscilla of Thornbury, Glou-
cestershire, joiner, and two children, John and Mary.
John Fenwick brought ten servants, Robert Twiner,
Gervis Bywater, William Wilkinson, Joseph Worth,
Michael Eaton, Elinor Geere, Sarah Hutchins, Ruth
Geere, Zachariah Geere, and Ann Parsons.
Besides these he was accompanied by Mary White,
the faithful nurse of his children, who had lived in his
family several years before coming to America. Her
attachment for the three daughters showed itself in her
resolve to share their good or bad fortune in a strange
land. Their father's house was her home, where she
had entire charge, and so continued until his decease.
These traits of character were fully appreciated by the
Patroon, as he gave her a title in fee for five hundred
acres of land, and five days before the date of his will
executed a lease to her, as " Mary White, late of the
parish of Bromble, in the County of Wilkes, spinster,
now of Fenwick Grove," for Fenwick Grove, con-
taining three thousand acres ; to continue during her life
and the life of her husband, " if any she have when she
decease." In his will he makes frequent mention of
her name, continuing his liberality and always ex-
pressing the utmost confidence in her honesty and up-
rightness ^ . . .
' " To say that he [John Fenwick] was not a half brother to Charles
II, king of England, would perhaps be assuming too much, although nothing
appears to prove the affirmative of this assertion. The gallantries of the
king were proverbial; hence the plausibility of the story and which by
many came to be accepted as true. If, however, the royal blood colored his
veins and infused into his character and disposition the idea of exclusive-
ness and authority, so palpable in many of his acts during life, it came
from the first and not the last of these monarchs. The chance of such a
story being true is too apparent to be denied, but may be accounted for in
this wise. The first son of Charles Second, not recognized by law, was
The effect of the coming of this ship up the Dela-
ware is thus described in Clement's Life of John Fen-
wick. The account shows that the local political affairs
were somewhat mixed.
While thus contemplating' the development of his enter-
prise, a cloud, darker and more portentous than any before,
showed itself; and from a direction not altogether unexpected
by the chief proprietor or those who had accompanied him
across the sea. The coming of a ship into the Delaware River,
in 1675, was not an event to pass unnoticed by the Conunander
at New Castle, who, with the Justices, represented Governor
Andros and his council, appointed by the Duke of York under
his second patent from the King. The instructions to the
Commander were to keep strict watch over the interests of His
Royal Highness on both sides of the river, and, if anything
should occur, to report at once to the authorities at New York.
The ship in question proved to be the Griffin, anchored at Fort
Elseborg, with English emigrants from London under the
leadership of John Fenwick, who held the title to part of the
territory on the Eastern shore, with the right of government
derived through John Lord Berkeley and the Duke of York
from the King. Further inquiry developed the fact that these
people proposed to occupy the land on the Eastern side of the
river, and establish a government for themselves under the
right before named. This being properly brought to their
James, Duke of Monmouth, beheaded 1685, whose mother was Lucy Walters.
James married Anne Scott, heiress of Buccleugh, whose second son married
Elizabeth Fenwick, thus connecting the family with the blood royal, but
several removes. Nothing short of a careful examination of the family
genealogy in England will settle this point, which for the neglect may always
remain a mooted question."
The above is quoted verbatim from John Clement's Life of John
Fenwick. Charles II was born in 1630, at which time John Fenwick was
twelve years of age, he having been born in 1618; hence Charles II is
eliminated from the ancestry of Fenwick. The remark : " The gallantries
of the king were proverbial, etc.," refer to Charles II, and hence have but
little bearing upon this question. By " the first " and " last " of these
monarchs, the writer evidently means Charles I and Charles II. To be a
FENWICK; HIS COLONY 29
knowledge, a court was convened in the fort at New Castle, and
after due deliberation it was decided to forward, by express, the
necessary information to the authorities at New York, and
await orders therefrom. The express was no doubt a swift-
footed Indian, selected for the purpose, who forded the river
at the falls ( Trenton ) and continued by land through the forest
to Conmiunipaw ; thence by water to the fort at New Amsterdam,
where the message was dehvered to his excellency, Governor
Andros. The information was received December 5, 1675, and
somewhat stirred the bile of the new executive, who held his
commission direct and fresh from the Duke of York; and
following the spirit and letter of his instructions, could not
recognize any equal, or superior authority, within the limits of
his jurisdiction. The Governor consulted his council, and an
order was returned that John Fenwick and his followers be not
recognized as having any rights, but be allowed to remain and
occupy suitable portions of land under this government. The
same express carried the reply, which the Commander at New
Castle soon forwarded to John Fenwick and the adventurers
and emigrants who were with him ; intimating very strongly
that they were regarded as intruders and enemies. That the
title to the soil of New Jersey and the right of government
as well, which was claimed to have passed by the grant from the
Duke to Carteret and Berkeley, and under which John Fenwick
held, was, by the Dutch conquest rendered inoperative and void ;
that the second patent of the King to the Duke restored the
half-brother of Charles II, Fenwick would have to be a son of Charles I.
Charles I was born in 1600 and hence was eighteen years of age when
John Fen^vick was born. So far as I have seen there is no trace of
relationship existing between him and the mother of Fenwick. John was
the second son of Sir William Fenwick, baronet, the brothers being
Edward, John, Roger, and Ralph.
The testimony of historians generally is to the effect that Charles I
was a man of "strict decorum of conduct"; a man in "his private
character of cultivated mind, kind, and of irreproachable life," and that
"Ills personal morality was of the highest." To assume that Fenwick
might be the illegitimate son of Charles I because Charles II was dissolute
is altogether gratuitous. Besides, if it were so, Fenwick would have become
the executioner of his own father, which is preposterous.
original elements of title and government as by him held in the
first patent, and that like grants must come from His Royal
Highness, as in the former case, to make any rights good on
the Eastern shore of the Delaware River ; that the government,
as by Governor Andros and his council administered, was the
only legitimate one within the boundaries given in his commis-
sion, and that he should expect all persons living therein to
submit to the laws or suffer the penalty of transgressing them.
To all this the Chief proprietor, as the owner of the terri-
tory, made a dignified response, showing whence he derived his
title both to soil and government, which he regarded as suflScient
and by which he determined to stand or fall. He insisted that
his right to establish methods of government and the enact-
ment and enforcement of laws, emanated from the same fountain
as that of Governor Andros, had the advantage of priority in
date, and needed no confirmation or endorsement by Governor
Andros as the representative of the Duke of York. That these
prerogatives had been before exercised and not questioned by
the Crown, and, therefore, had nothing to concede or rehnquish
touching the demands made by the government at New
After two years of wrangling, in which the judg-
ment of the courts were at first against Fenwick, the
controversy finally subsided, leaving him in control of
the land he had purchased and the colony he had
founded. His recognized independence dates from the
latter part of the year 1677.
Thus far he had continued to reside at Fenwick
Grove until Salem County was organized, and indeed,
until his death, which occurred in December, 1683. Mr.
Clements has the following remarks and reflections
upon the concluding period of his life: " On the second
day of the third month, 1683, John Fenwick was re-
turned as a member of the Colonial Assembly from the
• Clement's Life of Fenwick.
FEN WICK; HIS COLONY 31
Salem tenth; but on account of ill health, which con-
tinued until his decease, he never sat as a member of
that bod5\ In this act is shoAvn the complete absorp-
tion of the political rights and franchises, incident to
the estate held in the ten lots, by the colonial authori-
ties of West New Jersej% and which appears to have
been brought about peacefully and for the evident good
of all concerned. This end was foreshadowed in the
previous signing of the concessions and agreements by
very many of the land owners, who held titles from Fen-
wick, and who had heretofore given their adherence to
his government as established in 1675, but joined their
fortunes with the more numerous colony and made
common cause in advancing religious and political
equality; to be enjoyed by all who ventured across the
sea and fixed their homes within the limits of West
Here terminated the first form of a representative
government established by the people. Rude and ill-
defined as it was, sufficient appears to show that only
time and occasion were wanting to develop its several
parts, and secure to all the blessings to be derived from
like institutions. The government established by the
owners of the ninety parts was like in substance, but
yielded to the people no greater privileges, nor more
enlarged rights. This cannot but be interesting to
those who care to trace the beginning of our present
political institutions, and study the gradual but positive
development of a system that has its foundation in the
hearts of the people; to discover that no retrograde
step had been taken in the fundamental doctrines of
private or public rights and that a jealous care had been
exercised that none be infringed.
The Patroon, in his manner of living, was more
pretentious and aristocratic than any of his neighbors.
His houses at Ivy Point and at Fenwick Grove were
well appointed; proving that he had an eye to the
creature comforts as well as to dignity and exclusive-
ness. The day had not come for wheeled carriages in
the Salem tenth, but his stable included good saddle
horses, with everything complete for the equestrian. A
favorite road animal, " Jack," he makes special mention
of in his will, and puts him in care of his trusty servant,
Mary White, " who I desire to take care of him and
see that he be not wronged as long as he liveth." His
education as a cavalry officer in the army of the Com-
monwealth now served him, and however much he may
have wished to discard the memories of his fighting
days, yet in the saddle his grace and confidence as a
rider could but be noticed. The library of books at
each place he regarded with much interest, and directed
their preservation after his decease; and touching his
private papers he charges his executors with their care,
and especially that they be not taken out of the colony.
His agreement with the resident purchasers he wished
to have religiously carried out and was anxious that his
executors should see to the discharge of every obliga-
tion. His plantation at Fenwick Grove had many
attractions for him, it being several miles from Ivy
Point, where he could enjoy his leisure and look after
his farming interests. He was systematic in his business
affairs and always knew from his accounts whether a
matter in hand was profitable or otherwise. For the
day in which he lived, his agricultural operations were
extensive and yielded a fair return. He does not
appear to have had any slaves, but employed several
persons about the estate, the whole being under his
general superintendence. In the autumn of 1683, his
health failing, he accepted an invitation from his favor-
ite daughter, Ann, and placed himself under her care
FEN WICK; HIS COLONY 33
at Hedgefield, where he died in December of the same
year. Her devotion to him remained the same through
all the vicissitudes of his life, and with filial affection
she cared for him on his dying bed.
Although in the depths of an American forest, and
far from the land of his nativity, yet there were those
around him in whose veins flowed his own blood, whose
sympathies were enlisted for his welfare, but who were
soon called upon to mourn his death. In liim passed
away one of the most remarkable men of his day and
generation. His early manhood was spent in the ex-
citements and participations of a war that overthrew
the govermnent, and well nigh destroyed the nation;
while his middle life and latter days were occupied
in an enlarged philanthropy to benefit his fellow man,
by giving scope to his energies, with the certainty of
reward to himself, and through him to his descendants ;
with the title of his land freed from the tenures of the
feudal system, and without restraints, save those based
in equity and good government.
In relation to the final disposition of his remains, he
requested in his will that they be interred at Fenwick
Grove. For some reason this was not complied with,
as he was buried in " Sharp's family burying ground,"
long since abandoned for that use, and now nearly lost
sight of. It is located near the present almshouse
property of Salem County, overgrown with briers, and
known to but few as the last resting place of the founder
of Fenwick Colony.
Nearly two centuries have passed away, and not the
rudest monument has been placed to show where his
bones are laid. Generation after generation of his kin
have neglected even to preserve a mound of earth to
show his grave, and at this day " no man knoweth the
place of his sepulchre." But a more enduring monu-
ment has survived him. His landed estate is covered
with an industrious and happy people, in the enjoyment
of free institutions, with no religious or political re-
straints ; advanced in agriculture, commerce and manu-
factures, and participant in a degree of civilization that
has no parallel in the world.
In his will, which is a curious and characteristic
document, and bears date the seventh day of August,
1683, John Fenwick makes no mention of his wife, who
was living in London at the time it was executed, and
who appears to have had a separate estate which she used
for her own comfort and convenience. This separation
produced an indifference toward each other, which
ended in a complete estrangement of feeling, and
mutual disregard. Neither is there anything to show
that she made claim on his estate or received from his
executors or devisees any money arising therefrom.
Nothing more is known of this relation, the lapse of
time having obliterated every tradition in regard to it.
FENWICK colony; LAND GRANTS AND PRIMARY
The extensive grant of territory made by Charles
II, the English king, to his brother, the Duke of York,
was by royal charter dated twentieth of March, 1664.
Upon the twenty-third of June in the same year, the
Duke conveyed a portion of this territory to two other
persons — John Lord Berkeley and Sir George
Carteret. The conveyance to these individuals was
made by an instrument in form as follows :
This indenture, made the three-and-twentieth day of June,
in the sixteenth year of the Raigne of our Sovreign Lord
Charles the Second, by the Grace of God, of England, Scotland,
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith — Anno
Domini, 1664, between his Royal Highness, James, Duke of
York and Albany, Earl of Ulster, Lord High Admiral of Eng-
land and Ireland, Constable of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of
the Cinque Ports and Governor of Portsmouth of the one part,
John Lord Berkeley, Baron of Stratton and one of his
majesties' most honorable privy Council and Sir George
Carteret of Sattrum in the County of Devon, Knight, and one
of his majesties' privy Council, of the other part, Witnesseth
that said James, Duke of York, for and in consideration of the
sum of ten shillings of lawful money of England, to him in
hand paid, by these presents doth bargain and sell unto the said
John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, all that tract of
land adjacent to New England, and lying and being to the
Westward of Long Island, bounded on the East part by the
main sea, and part by Hudson's river, and hath upon the West
Delaware Bay or river, and extendeth Southward to the mam
ocean as far as Cape May at the mouth of Delaware Bay, and
to the Northward as far as the Northermost branch of said bay
or river of Delaware, which is in forty-one degrees and forty
minutes of latitude, and worketh over thence in a straight line
to Hudson's river, which said tract of land is hereafter to be
called bj-^ the name or names of Nova Cesarea, or New Jersey.^
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, thus be-
coming the proprietors of New Jersey, formed a consti-
tution for the colony, and this was the first constitution
of New Jersey. This instrument was entitled, " The
concessions and agreement of the Lords Proprietors of
the province of New Cesarea or New Jersey, to and
with all and every of the new adventurers, and as such
as shall settle or plant there." ^
Lord Berkeley, soon becoming dissatisfied with his
adventure, offered his share for sale, and this, as before
stated, was purchased by John Fenwick and Edward
Byllinge, members of the Society of Friends. The
conveyance was executed to John Fenwick, in trust
for Edward Byllinge, for the sum of one thousand
pounds, and the tract thus purchased was afterward
known as West New Jersey.
Besides the emigrants before mentioned, who arrived
in the ship Griffith with John Fenwick, were also
Edward Wade, Samuel Hedge, Samuel Wade, John
Smith and wife, Samuel Nichols, Richard Guy, Richard
Noble, a surveyor, Richard Hancock, also a surveyor,
John Pledyer, Hipolite Lufever, and John Matlock.
These came over in this, the first English ship that came
to West Jersey and none followed for nearly two years.
From this little group descended many, whose
families are scattered over this part of the State, but
who can now hardly trace their descent back to them.
*This appears to be the first instrument in which the bounds of New
Jersey are regularly defined. — Historical Collections of New Jersey.
"Printed in Salem Records, in N. J. archives from the original parch-
ment brought over from Europe by John Fenwick in 1675.
LAND GRANTS 37
John ^latlock is said to have been the son of Abram
Matlock, founder of ^latlock College in England, and
from him descended the 3iatlock families of this and
Gloucester Counties. In Gloucester County some of
the members still retain the name of Matlock, while in
this county the name is spelled Matlack. E. L. Mat-
lack, an auctioneer and farmer of Cumberland County,
is said to be a lineal descendant.
Fenwick and Byllinge, becoming sole proprietors,
were styled " Lord Proprietors," and when Fen wick's
tenth was set off to him and his connection with Byllinge
became dissolved he became " Lord Proprietor " of
West New Jersey, and was so styled, and the Goulds'
tradition a hundred years ago was " We descended from
Lord Fen^vick." [The writer of this, now over three-
score and ten years of age, has heard the words from
his grandparents, and other of the Goulds who were
born and lived in the close of the eighteenth century.]
That there is pretty conclusive ground for giving
credence to this tradition, will be shown later.
The proprietors, increasing in numbers by purchase
of land from trustees under arrangements with William
Penn, Gauen Laurie, and Nicholas Lucas, agreed upon
a form of government comprising many of the pro-
visions of the instrument formed by Berkeley and
Carteret, together with others originating with them-
selves. This was styled " The concessions and agree-
ments of the proprietors, freeholders and inhabitants
of the province of West New Jersey." An extract from
this instrument (Chapter III) reads:
That hereafter upon the furthest settlement of the said
province, the proprietors and inhabitants, resident upon the
said province, shall and may, at or upon the first and twentieth
day of the month called March, which shall be in the year,
according to the EngHsh account, one thousand six hundred and
eighty; and so thence forward upon the said day, assemble
themselves together, in some public place to be ordered and
appointed by the Commissioners for the time being, and upon
default of such appointment, in such place as they shall see
meet, and then and there elect of and amongst themselves, ten
honest and able men, fit for government, to officiate and execute
the place of commissioners for the year ensuing, and until such
time as ten more, for the year then next following shall be
elected and appointed; which said elections shall be as follows;
that is to say, the inhabitants each ten of the one hundred
proprietors, shall elect and choose one, and the one hundred
proprietors shall be divided into ten divisions or tribes of men.
And the said elections shall be made and distinguished by
balloting trunks, to avoid noise and confusion, and not by
voices, holding up of the hands, or otherwise howsoever, which
said commissioners, so yearly to be elected, shall likewise govern
and order the affairs of the said province (pro tempore) for
the good and welfare of the said people, and according to these
our concessions, until such time as the general free assembly
shall be elected and deputed in such manner and wise as is here-
after expressed and contained.^
The Swedes and Finns had settled in what became
Salem and Gloucester Counties long before the arrival
of Fenwick, superseding the Dutch, who had largely
disappeared from the section. There was, no doubt, a
considerable sprinkling of this population occupying the
territory before Fenwick arrived. Johnson, in his
History, says " The Swedes and Finns arrived in 1627,
the Dutch having left the country. In 1631 they built
a fort at Finn's Point." Judge Elmer states in his
History of Cumberland County, " A few of the New
Haven people, who as early as 1641 made a settlement
on the creek called by the Dutch Varchen's Kill (now
Salem Creek), may have wandered into the limits of
• Historical Collections of New Jersey.
LAND GRANTS 39
Cumberland, thus becoming the pioneers of the con-
siderable number, who about fifty years later came from
Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Long Island."
Fenwick arrived in 1675 in the English ship,
" Griffith " bringing with him the persons some of
whom have been already named, as follows: "Arriv-
ing after a good passage, he landed at a pleasant, rich
spot, situated near Delaware, by him called Salem, prob-
ably from the peaceable aspect it then bore. He
brought with him tliree daughters and many servants;
two of whom, Samuel Hedge and John Adams, after-
ward married his daughters. The other passengers were
Edward Champness, who married Priscilla, Fenwick's
third daughter (this name Champness will appear in
connection with the Goulds), Edward Wade, Samuel
Wade, John Smith and wife, Samuel Nichols, Richard
Guy, Richard Noble, Richard Hancock, John Pledger,
Hipolite Lefever, and John Matlock. This was the first
EngHsh ship which came to West Jersey, and none
followed for near two years, owing probably to a differ-
ence between Fenwick and Byllinge." — Historical Col-
lection of New Jersey.
Before the arrival of the second ship from London,
the " Kent," Gregory Marlow, master, the constitution
or form of government before referred to was made,
which was entitled: "The concessions and agreements
of the proprietors, freeholders, and inhabitants of the
province of West New Jersey." This constitution is
witnessed and signed in the following manner, according
to " Historical Collections ":
In testimony and witness of our consent to and affirmation
of these present laws, concessions, and agreements, we, the
proprietors, freeholders, and inhabitants of the said province
of West New Jersey, whose names are underwritten, have to the
same voluntarily and freely set our hands, dated this third day
of the month, commonlj' called March, in the year of our Lord,
one thousand six hundred seventy-six. — Gawen Lawrie, Wm.
Penn, Wm. Euily, Josh. Wright, Wm. Haig, Wm. Peachee,
Rich. Matthews, John Harris, Francis Collins, Wm. Kent,
Benj. Scot, John Penford, Tho. Lambert, Tho. Hooten, Henry
Stacy, Edw. Byllinge, Rich. Smith, Edward Thelthorp, Dan.
Wills, Thomas Olive, Tho. Rudgard, William Riddle, Robert
Stacy, John Farrington, Wm. Royden, Rich. Mew, Percival
Towle, Mahlon Stacy, Tho. Budd, Sam, Jennings, John Lam-
bert, Will. Heulings, George Deacon, John Thomson, Edward
Bradway, Richard Guy, James Nevell, William Cantwell, Fospe
Outstout, Machgijel Baron, Casper Herinow, Turrse Psese,
Robert Kemble, John Corneliesse, Gerrat Van Jumne, William
Gill Johnson, Mich. Lackerouse, Markus Algus, Evert Aldricks,
Hendrick Everson, Jilles Fonieson, Caas Jansen, Paul Doequet,
Aert Jansen, John Surige, Tho. Smith, James Pearce, Edw,
Webb, John Pledger, Richard Wilkinson, Christe Sanders,
Renear Van Horst, William Johnson, Charles Bogler, Samuel
Wade, Thomas Woodruff, John Smith, Tho. Pierce, William
Warner, Joseph Ware, Isaac Smart, Andrew Thompson,
Thomas Kent, Henrj^ Jennings, Richard Wortsaw, Christopher
White, John Maddocks, John Forrest, James Nickory, William
Rumsey, Richard Robinson, Mark Reeve, Thomas Watson,
Samuel Nicholson, Daniel Smith, Richard Daniels, William
Fenton, William Darine, Robert Zane, Walter Peiterson,
Anthony Page, Andrew Bortheson, Wooley Woollison, Anthony
Dixon, John Derme, Thomas Benson, John Pain, Richard
Brillington, Samuel Lovett, Henry Stubbins, Wilham Willis,
George Hazelwood, Roger Pedrick, William Hughes, Van
Highst, Hipotas Lefever, William Wilkinson, Andrew Shen-
neck, Lanse Cornehcus, Samuel Hedge, William Mossier, John
Grubb, John Worlidge, Edward Meyer, Thomas Borton, Robert
Powel, Thomas Hording, Matthew Allen, Bernard Devenish,
Thomas Stokes, Thomas French, Isaac Marriott, John Butcher,
George Hutchinson, Thomas Gardner, Thomas Eves, John
Borton, John Paine, Eleazer Fenton, Samuel Oldale, William
Black, Anthony Woodhouse, Daniel Leeds, John Pancoast,
Francis Belwicke, William Luswall, John Snowdon, Richard
LAND GRANTS 41
Fenemore, Gruna Jacobson, Thomas Scholey, Thomas Might,
Godfrey Hancock, John Petty, Abraham Heuhngs, John New-
boald, John White, John Roberts, John Wood, John Hosling,
These numerous signatures clearly show that there
was a considerable population already in the country,
but with regard to the lands of Salem County, if not of
the major part of this section of west New Jersey,
Fenwick was doubtless the sole proprietor. He made
deeds and sold lands in the province, both before and
after his arrival in the country. An original parch-
ment deed, now in the possession of Orestes Cook, Esq.,
of Bridgeton, New Jersey, shows that he either executed
this deed in England, or else he arrived in America
before June, 1675. This deed, a copy of which follows,
was written and executed jNIay tenth, sixteen hundred
and seventy-five, and it was signed and sealed with
FenAvick's own hand and before the witnesses named.
This deed was for five hundred acres of land contained
in " all that Moyetie or half part of the tract of land
called New Cesarea or New Jersey," which Fenwick
bought of Lord John Berkeley by " Indenture bear-
ing date the eighteenth day of March, sixteen hundred
and seventy-three," and conveys the said five hundred
acres to Richard Hancock (who became Fen wick's
surveyor general at first). This deed does not locate
the land sold to Hancock.
It is a curious manuscript, beautifully written and
Out of this tract Richard Hancock sold one hundred
acres to John Denn, by deed dated February twelfth,
sixteen hundred and eighty-two; this land is located
by butts and bounds, as will be seen, and is along Allo-
way's Creek. This original parchment is also in the
possession of Mr. Cook.
Both deeds are given in full in Chapter IV. They
will probably find their way soon into the Cumberland
County Historical Society.
There is also still in existence a deed of Fenwick's
son-in-law, John Adams, to Samuel Bacon for two
hundred and sixty acres of land, in Bacon's Neck, made
by Adams in sixteen hundred and eighty-two. This
John Adams was the father of Elizabeth Adams, the
mother of the original Gould, the founder of Gould-
town. He later purchased one thousand acres in AUo-
way's. The deed, Fenwick to Hancock, and Hancock
to Denn, follows in the next chapter.
COPIES OF \TERY ANCIENT PARCHMENT DEEDS IN
POSSESSION OF A BRIDGETON ATTORNEY.
John FENW^CK ^
to > May 10, 16T5.
Richard Hancock. )
To all people to ■whom this present writing shall come:
John Fenwick, late of Binfields, in the County of Berkshire,
within the Kingdom of England, Esquire, and Chiefe Proprietor
of the Moyetie or half part of the tract of land within the
Province of New Cesaria or New Jersey — in America — sendeth
Whereas, the Honorable John Lord Berkeley of Stratton,
one of his Majesties most honorable Privy Counsell, by his
Indenture bearing date the eighteenth day of March, one thou-
sand six hundred seventy and three — did grant, bargain, sell,
alien and enfeoff and confirm unto the said John Fenwick, his
heirs and assigns forever, all that Moyetie or halfe part of the
tract of land called New Cesaria or New Jersey, and also the
rivers, rivolets, mines, mineralls, quaries, woods, royalties,
profits, franchises, conditions, comodities and other heredita-
ments whatsoever, in the said Indenture, particularly mentioned,
as in and by the same rela^on being thereunto had may appear.
Now know yee, that for and in consideration of the summ
of Sixty Shillings, lawfuU money of England to him, the said
John Fenwick in hand paid by Richard Hancock, of Bromley,
Neer Bow, in the County of Midd'x, upholsterer at and before
the ensealing and delivery hereof, the receipt whereof is hereby
assured, bargained and for other diver considerations, him, the
said John Fenwick hereunto moving, he, the said John Fenwick,
hath granted, bargained, sold, aliened, enfeoffed and confirmed
unto the said Richard Hancock and ^his wife, and the heirs
and assigns of the said Richard Hancock forever, Five Hundred
acres of land, to be taken out of, sett forth and surveyed out of
all such part of the said tract of land within the Province of
New Cesaria or New Jersey, the said John Fenwick hath re-
served to him and his heirs forever, hereafter to be called Fen-
wick Colony, and alsoe all river, rivolets, mines, mineralls,
quarries, woods, proffits, commodities and hereditaments, what-
soever, to the said Five Hundred Acres belonging and all the
estate right, title, interest, property, claim and demand what-
soever of him, the said John Fenwick, of, in, or to the said five
hundred acres, and premises herein before men9oned or intended
to be bargained and sold or any part or parcell thereof and the
rendition, renditions, remainder and remainders thereof to have
and to hold the said Five Hundred acres of land and all and
singular the premises herein before men9oned intended to be
granted, bargained, sold, ahened, enfeoffed and confirmed, with
the appurtenances and every part and parcel thereof, unto the
said Richard Hancock and Margaret, his wife, and the heirs and
assigns of the said Richard Hancock forever to the only use
and behoof of the said Richard Hancock and Margaret, his wife,
and the heirs and assigns of the said Richard Hancock forever,
yeeilding and paying therefor the yearly rent of ears of Indian
com on the nine and twentieth day of the seventh month, called
September, and the said John Fenwick, for himselfe, his heirs,
executors, administrators and assigns, doth covenant and grant
to and with Richard Hancock and Margaret, his wife, and the
heirs and assigns of the said Richard Hancock by these presents
— that they, the said Richard Hancock and Margaret, his wife,
and the heirs and assigns of the said Richard Hancock, shall
and may hold and enjoy the said Five Hundred acres and
premises and receive and have the rents, issues and proffits
thereof from time to time without the let, erection or disturb-
ance of him the said John Fenwick — John Lord Berkeley —
Sir George Cartaret — Knight and Baronet — Chief Proprietor
of the other Moyetie of the said tract of land or any or either
of them, their or any or either of their heirs or assigns, or of,
or by any other person or persons claiming or to claim by, from
or under him, them or either of them and for and in respect of
any right or interests which he or they or any or either of them
shall or may have or claim unto said Five Hundred acres of land
soe granted as aforesaid, or any part or parcell thereof, and not
otherwise freed and discharged or otherwise suffitionly saved
harmless of and from all incumbrances whatsoever done or
suffered by him, them or any or either of them in the meantime.
In witness whereof, the said John Fenwick hath hereunto
set his hand and seale this tenth day of the third month called
May, in the year of our Lord Christ, One thousand six hundred
seventy and five and in the twenty-seaventh year of the Reyne
of King Charles the second, over England, Scotland, France and
Signed, sealed and delivered
in the presence of us John Elridge,
Enrolled in the Register Book of Deeds and conveyances
belonging and Fenwick Colony in the Province of New Cesaria
or New Jersey in America, in the third month called May,
February 12, 1682.
Richard Hancock and '
Margaret, his wife,
John Denn and
Margaret, his wife.
To all people to wJiom this present writing shall come:
Richard Hancock of Alloway's Creek, in the Province of
West New Jersey, Yeoman, sendeth greeting.
Whereas, John Fenwick, late one of the Proprietors of the
said Province by his Deed PoU, bearing date the tenth day of
May, sixteen hundred and seventy-five, did grant, bargain, sell,
alien, enfeofFe and confirme unto said Richard Hancock, late of
Bromley, County of Midd'x, upholsterer, to five hundred acres
of land to be taken, set forth, and surveyed out of that tract of
land, which he, the said John Fenwick had referred to him and
his heirs forever. Within the said province and also the rivers,
rivoletts, woods, quaries, mines, minerals, profitts, commoodies,
hereditaments, whatsoever unto the said Five Hundred acres of
land belonging in the said deed particularly mentioned as in
and by the same relation being had may appeare.
Now know yee, that for and in consideration of sum of Five
pounds, warrant pay of Delaware River to him, the said Richard
Hancock, in hand paid by John Denn, of Allowayes Creeke, at
and before the ensealing and delivery thereof, the receipt
whereof is hereby acknowledged and for divers other causes and
considerations him, the said Richard Hancock thereunto mov-
ing, the said Richard Hancock, hath granted, bargained and
sold, aliened and enfeoffed, and confirmed unto the said John
Denn and Margaret, his wife, and to the heirs and assignes of
the said John Denn forever, one hundred acres of land, part and
parcel of the said five hundred acres, butted and bounded as
foUoweth, (viz) Beginning at a great Tree standing neere
Munmouth River, alis Alloway's Creeke aforesaid, mark't with
R. U. K. and J. S. from thence by North and by East upon a
Strait lyne and by the markt trees that leads to a tree with
J. D. three hundred and twenty pearches ; from thence upon a
straite line West and by North to a tree markd J. D. fifty
pearches; from thence South by West by the marked treese
that leeads to the middle of the highway or lane the parte of
the plantations and so downe the midle of the highway to the
said creek or riverside, three hundred and twenty pearches,
from thence Easterly up the said Creeke or river to the first
mentioned tree fifty pearches, within the bounds are contained
one hundred acres of fast land, marish and swamp, be it more
or lesse as by a certificate and in the hand of the said Richard
Hancock, bearing date eighth day of February, last appear.
ANCIENT DEEDS 47
And all the house, improvement, woods, rivers, creeks, quaries,
mines, mineralls, profitts, commodities, and hereditaments what-
soever, to the said one hundred acres belonging and all the
estate, right, title, interest, property, claime and demand what-
soever of the said Richard Hancock and Margret, his wife, of,
in, or to the said one himdred acres of land and premises herein
before mentioned or intended to be granted, bargained, sold,
aliened, enfeofed and confirmed, any part or parcel thereof.
And the rever9on, rever9ons, remainder and remainders
thereof to have and to hold the said one hundred acres of land,
house, improvement, woods, rivers, creeks, quaries, mines,
minerals, profitts, comodities, and hereditaments, thereunto
belonging herein and hereby granted, bargained, sold, aliened,
enfeoffed and confirmed every part and parcel thereof unto him
the said John Denn and Magret his wife, and to the heirs and
assignes, of him, the said John Denn forever, to the only use
and behoofe of him, the said John Denn and Margret, his wife,
their heires and assigns forever, yeilding and paying therefor
yearly and every yeare unto the said Richard Hancock, his
heires and assignes, the yearely rent of one eare of indian come
on the nine and twentieth day of September, if demanded, and
the said Richard Hancock, for himselfe, and Margret, his wife,
and for his heires and assignes, doth covenant and grant to and
with the said John Denn and Margret, his wife, by these
presents, that he, the said John Denn and Margret, his wife, and
the heires and assignes of the said John Denn, shall and may
hold and enjoy the said one hundred acres of land and premises,
and receive and take the rents, issues and profits thereof from
time to time without the let, erection or disturbance of him, the
said Richard Hancock and Margret, his wife, and the said John
Fenwick or any or either of them, their or any or either of their
heires or assignes or of any other person or persons, claiming
or to claime by or under him, them or any or either of them
for or in respect of any right, title or interest, which they or
any or either of them shall or may have or claime upon, or to the
said one hundred acres of land, house, improvements and
premises so granted aforesaid, or any part or parcel thereof
freed and discharged or otherwise well and sufficiently saved
harmless of and from all incumbrances whatsoever, done or
suffered by him, them or any or either of them in meantime.
In "witness whereof, the said Richard Hancock for himself
and for Magaret, his late wife, deceased, hath hereunto set his
hand and seals, this twelfth day of February, sixteen hundred
Signed Richard Hancock.
Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of
John Denn's deed for 100 acres from Rich'd Hancock.
This deed indicates the location of Hancock's five
hundred acres conveyed by the first deed.
GOULD traditions; evidences; descent; benjamin
Extract from Fenwick's will: " Item, I do except
against Elizabeth Adams of having any ye leaste part
of my estate, unless the Lord open her eyes to see her
abominable transgression against him, me and her good
father, by giving her true repentance, and forsaking
yt Black yt hath been ye ruin of her, and becoming
penitent for her sins; upon yt condition only I do will
and require my executors to settle five hundred acres
of land upon her." (Lucius Q. C. Elmer, History of
Cumberland County, N. J., 1869.)
Judge Elmer was born in 1793 and died in 1883;
he was the son of General Ebenezer Elmer, who was
born in 1752 and died in 1843; he was the youth who
accompanied his father. General Elmer, on Sunday
afternoons to the little school house in Gouldtown
which was also used as a church, in which the Goulds,
Pierces, and Murrays, mulattoes, and Woodruffs,
Westcotts, Seeleys, Batemans, and Fullers, white, held
religious worship. The house is still standing, though
moved to another locality. The children were cate-
chized here; and Judge Elmer has often related how
he once asked Othniel Murray, one of the small boys,
what was the first thing he did when he arose in the
morning, and the boy replied, " I go to my traps."
The expected answer was an allusion to his morning
In Evarts and Peck's " History of Salem, Cumber-
land, and Gloucester Counties," published a few years
ago, a sketch of Gouldtown appears which says :
Gouldtown is a settlement of colored people, many of them
nearly white, about three miles east of Bridgeton. The families
there mostly bear the names of Pierce and Gould. Some of
them are active, industrious farmers, and have accumulated con-
siderable property. A tradition believed by many is, that they
are descended from Elizabeth Adams, the granddaughter of
Fenwick — who directed in his will that his executors settle
five hundred acres of land upon her on conditions stated. Fen-
wick made his will and died in 1683. The tradition among the
inhabitants of Gouldtown is that Elizabeth married Gould from
whom they descended and that the five hundred acres of land
was settled upon her and they inherited it.
From these statements it will be seen that a per-
sistent and well spread " tradition " prevailed that the
Goulds were descendants of Fenwick.
John Adams who had married Elizabeth Fenwick
had a daughter Elizabeth, who was eleven j^^ears old
at the time of the arrival of the family in Jersey and
who consequently was nineteen years old at the time
Fenwick made his will excepting against her having
any share of his property unless she should repent of
her sins and forsake " that Black that hath been the
ruin of her."
Johnson's History of Fenwick's Colony, written in
1835, and published in 1839, says: "Among the
numerous troubles and vexations which assailed Fen-
wick, none appear to have distressed him more than the
base and abandoned conduct of his granddaughter,
Elizabeth Adams, who had attached herself to a citizen
of color. By his will he deprives her of any share in
his estate, ' unless the Lord open her eyes to see her
abominable transgression against him, me and her
good father, by giving her true repentance and forsak-
ing that Black which hath been the ruin of her and be-
coming penitent for her sins.' From this illicit con-
Judge Lifius Q. C. Eliiek.
TRADITIONS; DESCENT 51
nection has sprung the famihes of the Goulds at a settle-
ment called Gouldtown, in Cumberland County."
Later, this same liistorian in a memoir of John Fen-
wick wrote: " Elizabeth Adams had formed a connec-
tion with a negro man whose name was Gould." ^
This John and Elizabeth Adams continued to live
in what is now Cumberland County after the death of
Fen wick; but the historians give no further mention
of Elizabeth Gould, if indeed she ever took the name
of Gould. John and Elizabeth Adams possessed land
in what is now Bacon's Neck in Cmnberland County
acquired through John Fenwick and in the year before
the death of the latter, sold two hundred and sixty acres
to Samuel Bacon, a Quaker and seaman from Wood-
bridge, New Jersey; hence the name Bacon's Neck. The
deed for this property is still in existence among the
papers of the late Mrs. Kate Knight and now in the
possession of Ephraim J. Cook, of Port Norris, N. J.
John Adams appears to have been unable to write,
as all the public documents signed by him are by " his
mark." Then Elizabeth Adams, senior, according to
this will, was living in 1682, although John Clements
supposes she had died before her father's will was made
in 1683. This supposition is based upon the fact that
she is not mentioned in the will and that the devises
therein made are directly to her children. John Adams
died in 1700.
The name of the Gould whom Elizabeth married is
not known, nor is the date of her death, or the place
where she is buried. We have the record of only one
son, and of him we have but two authentic records.
In the oldest register of the Gouldto^vn graveyard
the spot is marked where is laid away the remains of,
'R. G. Johnson, Memoir of John Fenwick, in New Jersey Hist. Soc.
" Benjamin Gould and Ann, his wife." Swedes and
Finns had been settled in some parts of what is now
Salem and Gloucester Counties before Fenwick's
arrival, and this Benjamin Gould's wife, Ann, was a
The following is his will. The name is spelled Gold,
Goold and Gould, in the records.
WILL OF BENJAMIN GOULD.
SECRETAEY OF STATe's OFFICE, TRENTON, NEW JERSEY,
BOOK 18 OF WILLS, PAGE 516.
In the Name of God, Amen, the ninth day of May, in the
year of our Lord, 1T77.
I, Benjamin Gold, of Fairfield, in the County of Cumber-
land and in the State of New Jersey, yeoman, being sick and
weak in body, but of perfect mind and memory, blessed be God
therefor, calling unto mind the Mortallity of my body and know-
ing that it is appointed unto all men once to die do make and
ordain this my last will, that is to say, principally and first of
all give and recommend my soul into the hands of God, who gave
it and for my body I recommend it to the Earth to be buried in
a Christianlike and decent manner at the discretion of my
executors, nothing doubting but at the general Resurrection I
shall receive the same again by the mighty power of God and
as touching such worldly estate wherewith it hath pleased God
to bless me in this life I give, devise and dispose of in the
following manner and form:
Imprimis : It is my will and I do order that in the first place
all my just debts and funeral charges be paid and satisfied in
some convenient time after my decease by my executors.
Item: I give, and bequeath unto my well beloved wife, Ann
Gold, the one-third part of all my moveable estate to her and
her heirs forever and also the third part of the profits of my
plantation on which I now dwell at the West end of my land.
Item: I give and bequeath imto my daughter, Sarah Goold,
one small feather bed to her and her heirs forever.
TRADITIONS; DESCENT 53
Item: I give and bequeath unto my eldest son, Anthony
Goold, the sum of Fifteen pounds to be paid to him out of nty
moveable estate to him and to his heirs forever, and I do order
that a Vendue shall be made of all my moveable estate and when
my debts are paid out of it and my wife has got her thirds out
of it as aforesaid, the remainder of my moveable estate to be
equally divided between my two sons, Samuel Goold and Abijah
Item: I give and bequeath unto my two sons, Samuel Goold
and Abijah Goold One hundred and thirty-six acres of my land
on the East end to be equally divided between them. I give it to
them and to their heirs forever.
Item: I give and bequeath unto my youngest son, Elisha
Goold, all the remainder of my land to him and his heirs for-
ever. And I do constitute make and ordain Thomas Joslin with
James Hood my only and sole executors of this my last will and
testament and do hereby utterly disallow revise and disallow all
and every other former testaments, wills, legacies and executors
ratifying this and no other to be my last will and testament.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal
the day and year above written.
Benjajon Gooi-d. (Seal)
James Sayre, Joshua White,
Anna X Sayre.
The date of probate is not given, but the preceding
was proven June 27, 1777. The account of the execu-
tors was approved February 13, 1779 (Book 22, page
69). It amounted to £ 148 5 s., personal.
Anthony Gould left a will (Book 40, page 508),
dated June 23, 1803. Witnesses, Jeremiah Smith,
Abner Smith. It directs all property to be sold — ^to
daughter Phebe Gould $6. Remainder to be divided
between two daughters, Christiana and Martha. Jona-
than Bowen, Executor, and guardian of daughters,
Christiana and Martha until they are eighteen. Will
proved September 27, 1803. Anthony Gould was
Benjamin's oldest son.
From these four sons, mentioned in the above will,
descended all the Goulds of Gouldtown, and from them
the place derived its name.
When Benjamin Gould, the founder of Gouldtown,
grew up, it is quite probable there were no girls of his
own color with whom he could associate had he desired
to do so; that he had brothers and sisters to grow to
maturity has not been established, but the tradition
handed down through his sons is that his parents had
five children, one of whom was a son named Levi; all
the others died young, and all trace of Levi was lost
before the death of Benjamin. It was held that Levi
was older than Benjamin.
Benjamin married a Finn, whose name was Ann;
he got none of the Fenwick land, nor any of the lands of
his mother's father, John Adams, so far as can be
There were other descendants of both Fenwick and
Adams, for Samuel Hedge and Edward Champness,
as well as John Adams, married daughters of Fenwick.
Judge Elmer, in his history of Cumberland County
says: "Benjamin Champneys (thus he spells the
name) a descendant of Fenwick, studied with Ebenezer
Elmer in 1793, and, after a few voyages at sea, married
a daughter of Colonel Potter, and settled as a physician
in Bridgeton. He was much esteemed, but died young
The "Widow Champneys," mother of the Dr.
Champneys mentioned, kept the Pole Tavern, one of
the ancient landmarks of South Jersey; Dr. Champ-
neys was her son. Colonel Potter's sons, whose sister
TRADITIONS; DESCENT 55
Dr. Champneys married, kept a general store in Bridge-
ton, at which the Goulds, as well as the general pubHc,
dealt. One of the sons of a member of the firm has
often repeated this little incident as showing that the
claimed descent of the Goulds from Fenwick was known
then as the common and undisputed tradition. He said
that Dr. Champneys was connected with the store, and
among those who had become indebted to the store was
Benjamin Gould, second, the grandson of the founder
of Gouldtown. This Benjamin Gould was a dealer in
cord-wood and hoop-poles, to a considerable extent.
The firm sued him for the amount of an indebtedness
which he had contracted with them. This made him,
Gould, very angry, and he hastened to the store in great
wrath that he should be treated with such indignity.
After he had given vent to his feelings and had cooled
off so he could be talked to in a pacific manner. Dr.
Champneys said: " Well, Benjamin, we knew it was a
mean thing to do, and we hated to do it, but we need
money very badly and we've got to sue people to get it
in, and we didn't know who to begin on ; so we thought
we would begin on our o\vn relations fii'st, then other
people wouldn't mind it so much."
The explanation was entirely satisfactory and the
account was settled. This incident was told to the
writer by the son of the member of the firm alluded to,
who, at the time of relating, was the acknowledged
historiographer of local events and traditions, and a
reliable local genealogist. The Benjamin Gould,
second, was the grandfather of the writer; he was born
in 1779, or two years after the death of his grandfather,
Benjamin, first, and was, at the time of this incident,
about thirty years old. He was the son of Abijah
Gould, who died in 1806, who was born about 1730
Benjamin Gould, the founder, was born between
1700 and 1705; his mother, EHzabeth Adams Gould,
being then a little more than thirty-five years of age.
Comparatively nothing is known of his early life;
it is believed that he was the youngest of the five chil-
dren. He must have been a hardy man of thrift, and a
man much nearer white than mulatto, as indicated by
his descendants. His will shows that he had accumu-
lated considerable property, which is still in the hands
of his descendants, who have added to it. The in-
ventory of his personal property, consisting of cattle,
sheep, oxen and the like, aggregated £ 148 5 s., which
was quite a sum for those days.
His will left £ 15 to his oldest son, Anthony. Why
this was so does not appear, unless it was because he con-
sidered him already provided for, or had previously
helped him, for all records in the County Clerk's Office
show that Anthony Gould owned property on the road
from Bridgetown to Beaver Dam, or Maurice River
Bridge, which he had purchased from John Page, by
deed bearing date 1767.
Benjamin Gould had three other sons and one
daughter ; the other sons, as given in the will, and whose
descendants are all easily traced, were Samuel, Abijah
and Elisha; the daughter, Sarah, died unmarried,
shortly after the death of her father. The early life
of these four boys was not altogether monotonous, they
had plenty of companions among the hardy woodmen
of those times, for the country was forest-covered, the
principal source of industry being the cutting and haul-
ing of logs, rails for fencing, cord-wood and timber.
THE EARLY GOULDS AND THEIR ASSOCL^TIONS ; THE
PIERCES AND MURRAYS; THE THREE FOLTNDA-
In " Historical Collections of New Jersey," it is
related that Fenwick made three purchases from the
Indians of the lands included in the tract out of which
Salem and Cumberland Counties were made; the first
and second purchases included all the country between
the Cohansey and Salem creeks, and the third purchase
included all which lay between the Cohansey and
Maurice River. These purchases were made in the
years 1675 and 1676. " Emigrants were now arriving
and Fenwick, having become sole proprietor of this
large tract of country, which he called Fenwick's colony,
sales were rapidly made of large, as well as small tracts
of land, and so continued until his death."
The following is extracted " From the First General
Order, as agreed upon by Fenwick and the first
purchasers " :
And as for the settling of the town of New Salem, it is like-
wise ordered that the town be divided by a street; that the
Southeast side be for the purchasers, who are to take their
lots of sixteen acres as they come to take them up and plant
them, as they happen to join to the lots of the purchasers
resident, who are to hold their present plantations, and aU
of them to be accounted as part of their purchases, and the
other part, on the North and by East and by South is to be
disposed of by the chief proprietor for the encouragement of
trade; he also giving, for the good of the town in general, the
field or marsh that lieth between the town and Goodchild's
plantation; . . . and lastly, we do leave all other things
concerning the setting forth and surveying the said purchases
unto the chief proprietor, to order as he sees fit.
Signed accordingly, the twenty-fifth day of the fourth
month, sixteen hundred and seventy-six.
Edward Wade, John Smith, Richard Noble, Samuel Nichol-
son, John Adams, Hypolite Lefevre, Edward Champness,
Richard Whitacar, William Malston, Robert Wade.
John Fenwick held much the same relation to this
section of New Jersey — especially to Salem and Salem
County — as William Penn did to Philadelphia and
that portion of Pennsylvania.
We have now to do mainly with the lines of the tliree
families whose names are mentioned in the opening
chapter of this book. The beginning of the Gould
family has been outlined sufficiently now to introduce
the beginning of the two other families already named —
the Pierces and the Murrays.
The Pierces were next in point of early intelligence
and importance to the Goulds. Benjamin Gould and
his four sons showed considerable broad-mindedness,
and intelligence, as will appear in further detail; they
accumulated property, and maintained a life of inde-
pendence, self-reliance, and manhood for the times in
which they lived and the naturally poor soil and country
which they inhabited. The white people who inhabited
the contiguous localities fared no better than they, and
those of them who achieved any greater success in life
than did the Goulds of those early days, changed their
locality before changing their mode of living. Before
the material advancement in life and standing of these
families now detailed, the entire country between what
is now Bridgeton and Millville, had been surv^eyed and
cut up into smaller holdings.
FOUNDATION FAMILIES 59
Judge Elmer's history shows that Richard Hancock,
who was Fenwick's first Surveyor-General, came to what
is now called Bridgeton in 1686 and erected a sawmill
on the stream then called and ever since known as Mill
Creek, which runs along bj'' the Dix ^vrapper factory
and is the outlet of East Lake and the Indian Field
Run. This land, covered, as it then was, with hea^y
cedar, pine, and oak timber, was included in an eleven-
thousand-acre survey, located about this time for the
West Jersey Society. This Society was formed by
several large proprietors living partly in London and
partly in the provinces. Probably Hancock obtained
title to his holdings from them, says Judge Elmer.
Continuing he says : " It does not appear that he ever
lived here, his residence being at the place in Salem
County named after him Hancock's Bridge, where
there still remain some of his descendants." From
Hancock's sawmill much lumber was sawed up and
sent away — for Thomas, a historian, states, says Judge
Elmer, " a goodly store of lumber went out of the
Cohansey to Philadelphia."
Writing of the eleven-thousand-acre survey, before
mentioned, and as appears in Elmer's History, the
records show that " on the east side of the Cohansey a
large tract of eleven thousand acres was surveyed by
Worlidge and Budd for the West Jersey Society in
1686, and this was resurveyed and recorded in 1716.
East of that tract a large survey was made for the heirs
of William Penn, which extended to the Maurice
River. It has been asserted that the holdings of
Benjamin Gould and his compatriots came originally
from the West Jersey Society out of this eleven- thou-
sand-acre survey. Elmer's History declares : " It may be
safely said that four-fifths of the land included in Cum-
berland County was covered by surveys before 1700."
The first proprietors of the land within the bounds
of what is now Cumberland County were principally
Friends; but few of the actual settlers, however, were
Friends ; these people being mostly confined to Green-
wich, and later, a few on Maurice River, about Buck-
shutem and vicinity and finally about where Millville
It requires some stretch of imagination to under-
stand how those hardy people, those pioneers and early
settlers, made a living, — yet those who are now ad-
vanced to near the fourscore mark of their years can
form a pretty good conception of their modes of life,
as they gathered it from the traditions and conversa-
tions, jokes, anecdotes, and pleasantries of their own
gi'andsires and granddames. The grandsires would tell
about their daily life in clearing their lands, burning the
logs or hauling them to the sawmill with their oxen;
about sowing the rye for the rye bread, or the flax to
grow their own clothing; instruct how to pull the flax,
heckle it, spin it into thread and weave it into coarse
tow cloth; how some raised sheep, sheared the wool,
spun it, and had it woven into the coarse " linsey-
woolsey " cloth, from which the granddames could make
the heavy warm clothing of " homespun " and " bobin-
ette." They would tell also of the leather breeches of
calfskin and the under jackets made of deerskin; and of
splint chairs, home-made, bottomed with the deerskin,
the splint brooms with which they swept the floors of
their humble homes, many of them mere cabins; the
" noggins " and the " piggins " with which to measure
small commodities; some would tell how they reaped
the grain with the sickle, walking their oxen over it,
treading out the grain on the threshing floors to winnow
out afterward in the winds.
All these things I have heard related, and so have
FOUNDATION FAMILIES 61
you, who have lived your threescore and ten years in
Cumberland County. Such as this was the hardy and
independent life of the early inhabitants of Gouldtown.
The great forests fell beneath the strokes of their axes ;
the logs were hauled to the sawmill and the cord- wood to
the landings on the Cohansey River, whence they were
taken in vessels either as lumber or cord-wood to Phila-
delphia ; or the wood was burned to charcoal and taken to
Philadelphia and New York, in those early days. There
was but little charcoal, however, shipped from the land-
ings on the Cohansey; most of tliis commodity was
hauled to the landings on the Maurice River and
shipped to New York, as that was the better market.
There were landings on the Cohansey known as " The
Bridge," afterward called " Cohansey Bridge " — now
Bridgeton. " Free Landing," a point between the
Dailey farm and the Donaghay farm, and also at
" Bumbridge " — now Fairton. Hundreds and thou-
sands of cords of wood were hauled from the country
east of the Cohansey to those shipping-points and
freighted to Philadelphia.
The ring of the woodman's axe was heard all winter
long through the forests, and the year around teams,
both of oxen and horses, were seen upon all the roads
leading from the forests to the river-docks. The people
who did all this work were not all Goulds, Pierces, and
Murrays, but there were Garrisons, Elmers, Clarks,
Woodruffs, Batemans, Lummises, Facemires, Pages,
Steelings and hosts of others, whose names are still
prominent among their descendants in this county.
ORIGIN OF THE PIERCE, MURRAY, AND CUFF FAMILIES.
Tradition says that the Pierces originated from two
mulattoes who were brought here in a vessel from the
West Indies, w^ith which the Colony had early trade,
vessels from the West Indies arriving at Greenwich
and also coming up as far as to what is now Bridgeton.
These two men were Richard and Anthony Pierce,
brothers. It was the custom in those early days for the
landowners to pay the passage of immigi'ants who came
to this country and were unable themselves to pay,
and those immigrants would be indentured to the land-
owners for a term of years, or if they were females, the
landowners might make wives of them.^
Anthony and Richard Pierce paid the passage of
two Dutch women, sisters, from Holland; their names
were Marie and Hannah Van Aca. The last name
speedily degenerated into Wanaca, and was made the
Christian name of a son of one of them. From these
descended all the Pierces of Gouldtown. They came
to the colony of West New Jersey before the middle of
the eighteenth century.
The Murrays originated in Cape May; they claim
an Indian ancestry. The first Murray of whom there
is trace in the vicinity of the earliest settlements of
Gouldtown, was Othniel Murray. He claimed to be
a Lenapee or Siconessee Indian, and came from Cape
* Professor Kalm, writing from Rancocas, N. J., December 18, 1743,
relative to the powers of a clergjTnan respecting the performance of the
marriage ceremony, said: "He cannot marry such strangers as have bound
themselves to serve a certain number of years in order to pay their passage
from Europe, without the consent of their masters." — New Jersey Archives.
FAMILY ORIGINS 63
May County. The Lenapees resided in the loeahty of
Cohansey (or Bridgeton) and had quite a settlement
at what became known as the Indian Fields, at a run
still known as the Indian Field Run. This Othniel
Murray married Katharine (last name unknown), a
Swede. They had five children, three sons and two
daughters, INIark JSIurray, David Murray, and John
Murray, and JMary Murray and Dorcas Murray. From
these descended all the Murrays of Gouldtown.
We have now outlined the three chief families of
Gouldtown, viz.: Benjamin Gould and Ann, his wife
(they had Elizabeth and Benjamin, Jr., who died
young). TJieir other children were Sarah, Anthony,
Samuel, Abijah, and Elisha; Sarah died unmarried.
Anthony Pierce and Marie (Mary) had many children;
their sons were Menon Pierce, Richard Pierce, Anthony
Pierce, Jr., Jesse Pierce, 1st, John Pierce, Benjamin
Pierce, and Wanaca Pierce, and two daughters, Hannah
Pierce and Elizabeth Pierce. Richard Pierce, Sr., and
Hannah, had but one son, Adam Pierce, but they had
four daughters, viz.: INIary, Rhumah, Hannah, and
These four families — ^the children of Benjamin and
Ann Gould, the children of Anthony and Mary Van
Aca Pierce, the children of Richard and Hannah Van
Aca Pierce, and the cliildren of Othniel and Katharine
Murray, rapidly intermarried before the Revolution.
They also intermarried with white people. '
Benjamin Gould's oldest son, Anthony Gould,
married Phoebe Lummis, a white girl — one of the
Lummises, before named. Her father is believed to
have been James Lummis. Benjamin Gould's second
son, Samuel Gould, married Rhumah Pierce, daughter
of Richard and Hannah Pierce. Benjamin Gould's
third son, Abijah Gould, married Hannah Pierce,
daughter of Richard and Hannah Pierce. Anthony
Pierce's daughter, Elizabeth Pierce, married Josiah
Hicks, of Gloucester. Benjamin Gould's fourth son,
Elisha Gould, married Elizabeth Pierce, daughter of
Richard and Hannah Pierce. Hannah Pierce, born in
1767, married Reuben Cuff, of Salem, the minister.
These all lived in colonial times ; Adam Pierce, the only
son of Richard and Haimah Pierce, and Richard Pierce,
Jr., and Anthony Pierce, Jr., served in the Revolution-
ary War; they were Revolutionary pensioners until
their deaths, between 1836 and 1850, at a great age.
One of the sons of Othniel Murray and Katharine,
his wife, was also a soldier of the Revolution and was
a deserter. It is told of him that an officer from Gen-
eral Joseph Bloomfield's command came after him, and
he refused to go. The officer drew his sword and said :
" I demand for the last time that you go with me and
return to your company; will you go? " Young Mur-
ray saw determination in the officer's attitude and he
reluctantly replied, " I will go." He returned to the
army and served till the end of the war.
Wanaca Pierce, son of Anthony and Mary Van
Aca Pierce, married Mary Murray, daughter of Othniel
and Katharine Murray. Adam Pierce, son of Richard
and Hannah Van Aca Pierce, married Mary Murray's
sister, Dorcas Murray.
In the early days the settlements, Gouldtown and
Piercetown, were somewhat like those of the Jews and
Samaritans about which we read in the New Testament.
Each settlement had its own church, its own school-
house, and its own family and social customs. The
differences in appearance, in manners, in pronunciation
and in their general habits and views were marked ; and
there was no small degree of antipathy or at least
FAMILY ORIGINS 65
mutual disregard existing between the two races.
Happily, with the blending of the schools and the
general advance of intelligence, much of this mutual
disregard has passed away and the people are now
much nearer unification.
Not to go at length into particulars, we may re-
mark that in the early times the Pierces exhibited
greater fondness for flowers, for bright colors in dress,
amd for music than did the Goulds. They cared less
for home, were more given to hunting and fishing and
evinced greater love for amusement. While among
the Pierces the old time " fiddle " survived and frolics
were held in some far-away cabin of a home where men
and women performed some kind of dance, during the
same period there was not a musical instrument or
musician among the Goulds. It is doubtful if there
was a Gould of Gouldtown who could dance a step.
Many of the Pierces also had fine musical voices and
good ear for music, while the Goulds were markedly
defective in both respects.
The Pierces were more devoted to working in the
woods and in the marshes, caring less for farming;
while the Goulds in the earliest times manifested strong
interest towards farming, raising hogs and securing
good horses. In manners the Goulds were usually
brusque or blunt; the Pierces suave and plausible.
There was a stronger belief in signs, in ghosts, in
witches and " conjurors " among the Pierces than
among the Goulds, to be traced to their Dutch origin
in part; the Goulds, however, were not entirely free
from these superstitions. But the great regard for the
moon and the deviation of the wind in relation to sow-
ing and planting was usually found coupled more with
the Pierce or Murray element of the population than
with the Gould.
The Pierces and Murrays had more of the elements
which go to make musicians, poets, orators, and singers,
than the Goulds. The congregation which assembled
in Piercetown, a century or more ago, would produce
much better singing and was much more eloquent in
speech and prayer than the congregation in Gouldtown.
The older Pierces and Murrays could sing, making
melody with their voices, while the older Goulds could
not. Indeed one of the earliest circuit preachers who
came to Gouldtown reported that there was not a man
there who could sing " Praise God from whom all
blessings flow ! "
The Goulds ranked well in sturdy and steady-going
ways. They knew how to work from year's end to
year's end. They were persevering and frugal, with a
commendable zeal for learning. What they lacked of
the showy talents they more than compensated for in the
The Goulds of the early generations, as well as the
Murrays, were fair-skinned, ^vith blue eyes and light
hair. The Pierces were darker complexioned with
black hair and black eyes. The young women were
noted for their good looks and regular features. The
Cuff family origin will be given later. It properly
belongs to Salem County.
IMPORTANCE OF GENEALOGICAI. RESEARCH ; SOME OF THE
ORIGINAL FA^IILY GENEALOGIES OF SALEM AND
CUMBERLAND COUNTIES ; COMPILATION OF
TiHE "Magazine of American History" says:
" The gi*owing interest in ancestry indicates that
Americans are fast coming to believe that it is of some
consequence to know from whom they are descended.
Long lines of ancestry are revealed in every person.
Pride in ancestry deserves encoiu'agement. One can-
not know too much about himself. Genealogy is the
most fascinating branch of history."
The late Thomas Shom'ds, liistorian of Salem
County, nearly forty years ago compiled a long line of
Salem and Cumberland County genealogy, which well
deserves to be put in permanent form. With that end
in view, a portion is given here, wliich relates to some
of the most prominent families in Cumberland County.
It embraces the Sheppard family, from which came the
first Mayor of Bridgeton, the Bacons of Bacon's Neck,
the Wheatons of Greenwich, the Mulfords, the Bate-
mans, the Holmeses, and many more. He wrote:
The Sheppard family is the most numerous of any, except-
ing the Thompsons, in the ancient County of Salem. There
were three brothers, David, Thomas and John Sheppard ; they
came from Tipperary, Ireland. On their arrival in America
they resided for a short time at Shrewsbury, East Jersey. In
1683 they settled in what is now Cumberland County, on the
south side of the Cohansey, it being a neck of land bounded on
the north by the Cohansey River, on the south by a small
creek, called Back Creek. It is not improbable that they gave
it the name of Shrewsbury Neck, after the township in East
Jersey where they first settled. The Sheppard family, I have no
doubt, were English; their name implies as much. The Shep-
pards were members of the Baptist Church of Cleagh Keaton,
in the County of Tipperary, Ireland. They were also among
the few persons that organized the First Cohansey Baptist
Church, in 1690, at Shrewsbury Neck. David Sheppard's first
purchase was fifty acres of land of Captain William Dare; he
afterward purchased one hundred and fifty acres, on which he
lived and died. I have no doubt he became the owner of a large
quantity of land in the Neck.
The Sheppard, Westcott and Reeves families, during the
last (eighteenth) century and the fore part of the present
(nineteenth), were the principal owners of Back and Shrewsbury
Neck. David Sheppard, Sr., agreeably to the most authentic
account, had six children: David, bom 1690; John, Joseph,
Enoch, Hannah, and Elizabeth Sheppard. Hannah married a
young man named Gillman. She died in 1722, leaving one son,
David Gillman. John, the son of David Sheppard, Sr., died
about the year 1719, without issue, leaving his property to his
brothers and sisters. David, the eldest son of David Sheppard,
the emigrant, was born about the year 1690, and inherited the
homestead property of his father, in Back Neck. He married
in 1719. The children of David Sheppard, Jr., and his wife,
Sarah Sheppard, were Philip, bom 1720 ; Ephraim, bom 1722 ;
David, 1724 ; Joseph, 1727, and Phoebe Sheppard. Philip, the
eldest, inherited a large landed estate in Back Neck, on which
he resided. The property is now owned by one of the heirs of
the late Ephraim Mulford. Philip was twice married; his first
wife was Mary, his second Sarah Bennett. He was considered
one of the largest and most successful farmers in that neighbor-
hood. Tradition has it that he was the first, in that section,
that owned a covered wagon. I do not suppose that it was
an elliptic spring carriage, but plain as it was, I have no doubt
it was considered by the inhabitants a great innovation. It was
then the custom to travel on horseback. Philip died January
5, 1797, aged seventy-seven, leaving a large real and personal
estate to liis children. His widow, Sarah Sheppard, married
John Remington, in 1801. Philip was buried in the Baptist
cemetery, near Sheppard's mill ; he was a deacon in the cliurch,
and was considered one of the most prominent citizens in that
section of Cumberland County. The inventory of his personal
property at the time of his death amounted to £580 6s. His
children by his first wife, Mary, were Amos, Hannah, Mary and
Naomi Sheppard. By his second wife, Sarah B. Sheppard,
Ichabod, Henry, Phoebe, and William Sheppard. Ephraim, the
son of David Sheppard, Jr., born 1722, was married three
times. His first wife was Kesiah Kelsey ; his second was Sarah
Dennis ; third, Rebecca Barrett. He lived in Hopewell Town-
ship, on the road from Bowentown to Readstown, and was
owner of a large landed estate in that section, leaving at his
death large farms to all four of his sons, all adjoining one
another on the straight road from Bridgeton to Readstown.
He was a highly respected citizen, and like his brother Philip,
was one of the deacons of Cohansey church. He died May 8,
1783, aged sixty years, and was buried in the Baptist yard
adjoining the church, near Sheppard's mill, by the side of his
wife, Sarah Dennis, who died 1st mo. 21st, 1777. She died in
her fifty-first year. His third wife, Rebecca Barrett, survived
him twenty years. She was buried at Shiloh, being a Seventh-
day Baptist. Ephraim had ten children, all by his second wife,
Sarah Dennis. The oldest was Joel, bom 1748, Abner, bom
May, 1750; James, born December 25, 1752; Hannah, and
Rachel. Phoebe married Wade Barker, who was the grandson
of Samuel Wade, Jr., of Alloway's Creek. She died young,
leaving no issue. Wade was buried in the old Baptist yard at
Mill Hollow, near Salem. Sarah, Elizabeth, and Hope Shep-
pard, who afterward married Reuel Sayres, were the other chil-
dren. Sayres subsequently moved to the State of Ohio. Eph-
raim's youngest child was Ephraim Sheppard. David, the son
of David Sheppard, Jr., was born in the year 1724. He married
Temperance Sheppard, daughter of Jonadab and Phoebe
Sheppard. They lived in the Township of Downe, Cumberland
County. He was a member of Cohansey church, as was also
his wife, and both became constituent members of the Dividing
Creek Baptist Church at its constitution, May 30, 1761; at
that time he became deacon of the church and afterward a
colleague of the pastor, Samuel Heaton. David Sheppard died
June 18, 1774, aged fifty years ; his widow subsequently married
a man by the name of Lore. She was born in 1731 and died
July 28, 1796, aged sixty-five years ; she and her first husband,
David Sheppard, were buried at Dividing Creek Baptist grave-
yard. The following are the names of David and Temperance
Sheppard's children; Hosea, David, Owen, Jonadab, Tabitha,
Temperance and Mary Sheppard. Joseph the son of David
Sheppard, Jr., was born in 1727 ; he married a Say re. They
lived in Back Neck and owned a large quantity of good land^
which he left to his children.
I have been informed that most, if not all, of said land has
now passed out of their possession. He also left a large per-
sonal estate for that time, amounting to £647 12s. He and his
wife were members of the Cohansey church. It seems he was a
prominent man in that section. He was chosen December 22,
1774, one of the committee of safety for the County of Cumber-
land, to carry into effect the resolution of the Continental Con-
gress, and on whose hands rested the supreme authority after
the war commenced, until the formation of the new State Govern-
ment gave an organized power in New Jersey. He died 1st
mo. 8th, 1782, aged fifty-four years, and was buried on his own
farm in an old family burying ground, now long disused. His
wife, Mary Sayres Sheppard, was buried in the same yard. She
died in 1819, aged fifty-eight years; their daughter, Lydia,
also lies there; all three of them have tombstones at the head
of their graves. This family graveyard is an exception to the
general rule. It was the practice in the early settlement of
Fenwick's colony, to have family burying grounds, but the
plough has passed over nearly all of them, so no man knoweth
where many of our ancestors la}^ I have been informed that
the ancient Swedish family, the Sinnicksons, cleared their old
family graveyard during last year, in Obisquahasett, and their
intentions are to keep it in good order — a noble deed. Dr.
George B. Wood has likewise recently caused to be erected a
monument to his great-grandfather, Richard Wood, who died
in 1759, in the family graveyard in Stoe Creek Township,
County of Cumberland. Joseph Sheppard, the year before his
death, built a large brick house on his property, and died sooii
afterwards; the house is still standing, and the place is now
owned by that enterprising citizen, Richard Laning, the son of
John Laning. The following are the names of Joseph Shep-
pard's children : David, Ijpm 1758 ; Lydia, 1760 ; Ruth, Isaac,
Mary, and Lucy Sheppard.
Lucy, the daughter of Joseph and Mary Sheppard, born
November, 1773, married Isaac, son of Isaac and Judith
Wheaton, in 1792 ; Isaac was born September, 1769. By that
connection there were seven children — Joseph, the eldest, born
in 1795, died March 3, 1871, never married. Their second son,
Providence Ludlam Wheaton, bom April 21, 1798, died 3d mo.
1st, 1867 — his wife was Ruth Foster — they had one son, Andrew
Evan Wheaton, who resides at Greenwich with his mother, Mary
Sheppard Wheaton. The eldest daughter of Isaac and Lucy
S. Wheaton was born November 20, 1799; she was the second
wife of Henry Mulford. Their three oldest children were Anna
Maria, Hannah, and Isaac W. Mulford. William Wheaton,
the son of Isaac and Lucy Wheaton, was born April 18, 1801,
is living in Hopewell Township, and has a large family of chil-
dren. Isaac Wheaton born February 26, 1803, died July 6,
1846, leaving no children. Hannah, the daughter of Isaac and
Lucy S. Wheaton, born in 1805, married in 1823 Gabriel Davis
Hall, of Bacon's Neck, son of Ebenezer Hall. Gabriel and his
wife had several children. She died August 31, 1849. Amos,
the son of Philip Sheppard, bom about 1750, subsequently
married Hannah Westcott, and died in 1788, at middle age;
his widow married John Mulford. Josiah, the eldest son of
Amos and Hannah W. Sheppard, born September 14, 1778,
his wife was Charlotte Westcott, daughter of Henry and Jane
Harris Westcott. He died October 4, 1850. His son, Henry,
was born June 3, 1808, married and lives in Stone Creek Town-
ship, near Jericho; they have a family of children. Jane, the
daughter of Josiah, born in 1811 and died a young woman in
1828. Hannah, the daughter of Josiah and Charlotte W. Shep-
pard, bora 10th mo. 23rd, 1813, married Ephraim Glaspey;
they have a family of children, and reside near the city of
Bridgeton. Harriet, the fourth child of Josiah and Charlotte
W. Sheppard, bom February 19, 1816, married James Shep-
pard Kelsay in 1837; they have seven children. Martha, the
daughter of Amos and Hannah W. Sheppard, born in 1780,
subsequently married Charles Westcott, of Sayre's Neck,
Cumberland County. She and her husband afterward moved to
Covington, Kentucky, where she died in the winter of 1868,
having children. Hannah, daughter of Philip and Mary Shep-
pard, married Ephraim Shaw; they had three children,
Harvey, Mary and Lydia. Lydia, the youngest, in 1810,
married Henry Whitaker. They reside at Millville and have a
large family of children, most of whom are married. Mary,
daughter of Philip and Mary Sheppard, never married, and
died May 17, 1799, aged about fifty years.
Naomi, daughter of Philip, married William Conner; they
had three children, Abigail, the eldest, born August 31, 1754,
married Thomas Brooks in 1789; they had ten children.
Thomas died September, 1829, and his widow, Abigail Brooks,
died August 19, 1841, aged seventy-seven years. Prudence, born
1766, whose first husband was James Sheppard, son of Elias
and Susanna Sheppard (James was a nephew of Mark Shep-
pard, who was one of the first of the Sheppard family that
became a member of the Society of Friends). Prudence had
one child by her first husband, James Sheppard, which died in
infancy. Her second husband was William Johnson, William
and Prudence Johnson had eight children. She died 9th mo.
5th, 1869; her last husband, William Johnson, died 2nd mo.
17th, 1831. Ichabod, son of Philip and Sarah Bennett Shep-
pard, bom December 11, 1769, married Ruth Sheppard,
daughter of Joel and Hannah Jenkins Sheppard (Joel was a
cousin to Ichabod, being the son of Ephraim Sheppard).
Ichabod and his wife had two children, Phoebe and Naomi.
Ichabod died April 22, 1799, and his widow, Ruth Sheppard,
married David Bateman, a minister in the Baptist denomina-
tion; they had three sons, Isaac, Daniel and David Bateman.
Ruth, their mother, departed this life July 29, 1806. Soon
after that event, David Bateman and his three sons, Isaac,
Daniel and David, removed to Ohio. Phoebe, daughter of
Ichabod and Ruth Sheppard, married on March 28, 1819, John
Reeves. There were two children by that connection — one
daughter living at this time in the city of Bridgeton, and a son
residing near Shiloh. Naomi, second daughter of Ichabod and
Ruth Sheppard, born September 17, 1800, and in 1817 she
married Jonathan Young, who was afterward drowned at sea;
they had five children, all of whom died young, excepting Lewis
Young, who is a resident of Bridgeton and was the old Court
Harvey, son of Philip and Sarah B. Sheppard, married in
1797 Hannah Smith of Greenwich, daughter of Isaac and
Cynthia Smith; he had one daughter, Hannah, by his first
marriage. She married in 1818 John Test, the son of Francis
Test, Jr. John and his second wife, Hannah S. Test, removed
to Indiana. He studied law, and was elected to Congress during
Andrew Jackson's administration. He was an uncle to Joseph
Test, who resides in Salem. The wife of Harvey Sheppard, 2d,
was Ruth Ogden, daughter of Elmer and Charlotte Ogden, of
Fairfield Township; they had three children, Philip, Abbie and
Ruth. The wife of Harvey Sheppard, 3rd, was Amelia Davis,
of Shiloh; he and his last wife went West in 1818. Phoebe,
daughter of Philip Sheppard, married Joseph Newcomb, they
lived in Back Neck, and had two children, Joseph and Sarah
S. Newcomb. William, son of Philip Sheppard, born November
29, 1778, married in 1802 Matilda Westcott, daughter of Henry
and Jane Harris Westcott; they had six children, Ichabod,
William, Sarah, Harris, Phoebe, and Elmer Ogden Sheppard.
Joel, son of Ephraim and Sarah Dennis Sheppard, bom in
1748, married Hannah Jenkins, who was born in 1749 and died
in 1807; she left seven children, Dennis, Ruth, Sarah, Lydia,
Amy, Elizabeth and Reuben Sheppard. Joel's second wife was
Letitia Platts, widow of David Platts and daughter of David
Gillman ; they had no issue. His third wife was Sarah Davis,
of Shiloh ; they had no children. Joel was a deacon in the old
Cohansey Church, and was a large farmer, living in Hopewell
Township, and was a prominent citizen. Dennis, son of Joel
and Hannah Sheppard, married a young woman by the name
of Ayres. They moved to one of the Western States in 1817.
Ruth, daughter of Joel Sheppard, married Ichabod, son of
Philip and a cousin of her father. Sarah, daughter of Joel and
Hannah J. Sheppard, bom 1774, married in 1799 Samuel
Bond Davis, son of Elnathan and Susanna Bond Davis.
Elnathan was the greatest surveyor in his generation in this
section of the State for many years after the Revolution. The
late Josiah Harrison, of Salem, who died aged over ninety years,
who was a surveyor in his early life, told me a short time
previous to his death that he regarded Elnathan Davis as
captain general of the surveyors of Salem and Cumberland
Counties. Samuel B. and Sarah Davis had several children,
one of whom, Jarmin A. Davis, lives in Shiloh, and is a Justice
of the Peace. Lydia Sheppard, daughter of Joel, married in
1804* Oswell Ay res ; they had children but they are all deceased.
Amy, daughter of Joel and Hannah Sheppard, born February
15, 1780, in 1803 married Oliver Harris, son of Robert Harris.
Oliver and Amy Harris had four children — Hosea, Hannah
S., Mary, and Eliza. The latter was born October 14, 1808,
and in 1826 married Hezekiah Johnson ; they moved to Oregon
and are still living. One of their children is Franklin Johnson,
D.D., pastor of a Baptist church at Newark, N. J. He is the
author of several commentaries on the International Sunday-
school Lessons, now in general use. Samuel, another son of
Oliver and Amy Harris, born November 24, 1813. Elizabeth,
daughter of Joel and Hannah Sheppard, in 1805 married Eli
Beveman. Soon after their marriage, they moved to Highland
County, Ohio ; they had issue. Reuben, son of Joel and Hannah
Sheppard, married Elizabeth W. Dare, Reuben and his wife
moved t'> Ohio in 1817 ; they had one son, William Alfred
Sheppard, who was a physician at New Vienna, Clinton County,
Ohio. He died in 1871, leaving children; Henry A. Sheppard
is a lawyer at Hillsboro, Ohio ; Abner, second son of Ephraim
and Sarah Dennis Sheppard, born May 28, 1750 ; his first wife
was Mary Dowdney, who died about fifteen months after their
marriage, leaving one child. Abner's second wife was Ruth
Paullin; she died 1797. His third wife was Mary McGear,
widow of John McGear; she died in 1809, and his fourth wife
was Elizabeth Fithian. Abner was a farmer, and lived in Hope-
well township the greater part of his life. At the time of the
American Revolution he was in the militia, and was in Colonel
Hand's regiment at the fight of Quinton's Bridge and took
part in the battle ; he died March 2, 1824. The following are
the names of his children: Mary, Ephraim (who died young),
Henry, Temperance, Phoebe, Prudence, Delanah, Lafayette,
Ruth, Mary, and Ephraim Elmer Sheppard. James Sheppard,
the son of Ephraim and Sarah Dennis Sheppard, was bom
December 25, 1752. His first wife was Hannah Brooks, whom
he married January 23, 1774; she died in 1777. His second
wife was Keziah Barber; they were married in 1778, She died
June 11, 1824 and James, her husband, June 3, 1825. He was
a deacon in Cohansey Baptist Church, a farmer and a large
landowner in Hopewell Township, and had an excellent char-
acter for uprightness in his dealings with his fellowmen, and
was greatly respected by all who knew him. He had eleven
The children of James and Hannah B. Sheppard were David
and Phoebe Sheppard, and by his second wife, Keziah Barber
Sheppard, Hannah, Rachel, Mary, Joseph, William, Prudence,
Rebecca and Phoebe. Most of those children lived to grow up
and marry. William, the son of James Sheppard, bom July,
1785, married, March 3, 1808, Ann Husted, daughter of Henry
and Ann Sheppard Husted, of Shrewsbury Neck. William was
an ordained minister of the Baptist denomination, but never
had charge of a church. He was a farmer, and preached as he
had opportunity. They had tliirteen children. Hannah, the
daughter of Ephraim and Sarah Sheppard, born about 1754,
married Daniel Moore; she died in 1784. Rach>il, another
daughter, born in 1761, married James Sayre, who was wounded
at the massacre at Hancock's Bridge in 1778. Ephraim, son of
Ephraim and Sarah, moved to Salem, and married Elizabeth,
widow of John Challis, and mother of John and James Challis ;
(the latter afterward became an ordained minister among the
Baptists). Elizabeth Milbank, mother of these children, was
bom at Waltham, England, May 2, 1770. Ephraim and his
wife, Elizabeth M. Sheppard, had one daughter, Mary W.,
bom in 1809.
David, son of Joseph and Mary Sheppard, born 1758,
married in 1783, Phoebe, daughter of Providence and Sarah
Ludlam; she died in 1799, leaving six children. Sarah, the
eldest child, married in 1803, William S. Walker, a resident of
Upper Alloway's Creek, Salem County ; they had three children.
Phoebe Walker, their eldest daughter, married Thomas Bilder-
back, of Allowaystown ; they left children. William Sheppard, a
son, married Ann Stow, and lived on the homestead farm until
his death; since that event his widow and his daughters have
resided in Salem. Charles H. Walker owns and resides upon
the homestead farm.
Joseph, the son of David and Phoebe L. Sheppard, born
January 9, 1786, was elected pastor of the First Baptist Church
at Salem, in 1809, and was pastor of said church until 1829,
and then removed to Mount Holly, where he continued as pastor
seven years, but his health failing him, he resigned his pastoral
charge and moved to Camden. He never took another pastoral
charge, but preached occasionally when health permitted; he
died in Camden in 1838, in the fifty-second year of his age.
His wife was Hannah F. Budd ; they had four children, Mary,
Phoebe Ann, Hannah and Josephine Sheppard ; they all married
but Hannah. Phoebe Ann lived in the State of Georgia.
Josephine lived in Washington, D. C, but died about two
months since. David Sheppard's second wife was Miriam
Smith, widow of Isaac Smith; she died in 1815, and David in
1827. He was a deacon of Cohansey Church, and was a
prominent citizen. For many years he lived on the homestead
farm in Fairfield Township, but in later years he moved to
Bridgeton, and built a large brick mansion on the west side of
Cohansey, where his son, Isaac A. Sheppard, lived and died.
The dwelling is now known as Ivy Hall Seminary for ladies.
Providence Ludlam, son of David Sheppard, born February
21, 1788, married Mary Letson, of New Brunswick, New Jer-
sey. One of their children, Ebenezer L. Sheppard, lives in
Pittsgrove Township, and is a member and clerk of the Pitts-
grove Baptist Church. He has recently written and published
a historical sketch of that church. William and David Ludlam
were twin sons of David Sheppard, and were born June, 1790.
William died in 1823 and never married. David, his brother,
studied for a physician, but died suddenly about the time he
was ready to commence the practice of his profession.
Ercurious, the son of David, married Martha Lupadius, of
New Brunswick. She is still living, but Ercurious is deceased.
He left two children, Mary and Martha. Ebenezer, the son of
David, bom July 23, 1798, died June, 1814. Mary, the
daughter of David and Miriam Sheppard, his second wife,
married in 1824 Jonathan J. Haun; they had two children,
Maria and Mary Haun. The latter married Joseph Moore,
homoeopathic physician, of Bridgeton; she died in 1860.
Isaac A. Sheppard, son of David, bom in 1806, married, 1st
of April, 1828, Jane H. Bennett; she died 1839, aged thirty-
five years. Isaac's second wife was Hannah B. McLean, whom
he married in 1841, but she only lived a little over a year. His
third wife was Margaret E. Little, who is still living ; they were
married in 1850. Isaac A. Sheppard died suddenly in his
office in 1863, having been found sitting dead in his chair. He
was a deacon of the First Baptist Church of Bridgeton. His
oldest son, Isaac A., born in 1829, died April 11, 1832. Jane
B., daughter of Isaac A. Sheppard, born in 1821, married, in
1868, Horatio J. Mulford, the eldest son of the late Henry
Mulford, of Bridgeton. Horatio, with his brother, Isaac W.,
and his sisters, were the originators and principal benefactors
of the South Jersey Institute, a school for both sexes, located
in Bridgeton. The cost of the building has been estimated at
$60,000. It has a fine corps of teachers, and has been in
operation four years, during which time it has established a
reputation equal to the best educational institutions in the
country. Horatio's wife, Jane Mulford, like her father, died
suddenly, and was found dead sitting in her chair, on the
evening of February 9, 1874. She was a woman of great
usefulness in the church and in the community, and her loss
was deeply felt by all. She left one child, a son, Horatio Jones
Mulford, bom 1869. There were eight other children of Isaac
A. Sheppard's, Miriam, Theodore, Francis, Charles, Eliza-
beth, Frank, Frederick, and LiUian, widow of Mayor Smalley.
Isaac, son of Joseph and Mary Sheppard, bom in 1776,
married Sarah, daughter of Jeremiah Bennett; she died in
1797. Isaac's second wife was Jane Harris Westcott, the
widow of Henry Westcott, and daughter of Ephraim and
Jane Harris, of Fairfi)eld Township, His third wife was
Abigail B. Husted, widow of Henry Husted, and daughter of
Ichabod Bishop. Isaac Sheppard died December 16, 1815.
He had five children : Isaac, the eldest, never married ; Henry,
the second son of Isaac and Sarah Sheppard, married, March
27, 1811, Eunice Westcott. Soon after their marriage they
moved to one of the Western States, and Henry died there. His
widow returned to her native State and died in 1868. They
had a family of children. Sarah, daughter of Isaac and Sarah
Sheppard, bom November 23, 1797, married, March 17, 1819,
Elmer Ogden ; they live in Greenwich, and have several chil-
dren. Ephraim, the son of Isaac and Jane H. Sheppard, bom
August 15, 1801, married, in 1819, Jane, daughter of Jehicl
and Mary Westcott; she died in 1823. His second wife was
Mary, daughter of John and Mary B. Westcott, of Fairfield;
she died in 1842, and Ephraim Sheppard died July 9, 1848.
His children by his first wife were Ephraim, the eldest, who
went West, and died there; and Ehas Sheppard, who died
young. Mary Jane, daughter of Ephraim and Mary Shep-
pard, married Charles Campbell. Isaac Alpine Sheppard, son
of Ephraim and Mary Sheppard, went to Philadelphia to live,
and subsequently was elected a member of the Pennsylvania
Legislature for several sessions. Isaac is the head of the great
stove fimi of J. A. Sheppard & Company. Joseph, the son of
Ephraim Sheppard, married Sarah Flanagan, of Sculltown;
they now live in Camden County, between Haddonfield and
Camden. Henry, son of Abner and Ruth Sheppard, was born
in 1787, and married, the first of December, 1815, Margaret
Lummis ; she died in 1817. Henry's second wife was Sarah B.
Ogden, widow of John B. Ogden. They were married in March,
1819; she died in 1858, and her husband, Henry Sheppard, in
July, 1867. He was a hatter, and followed the business many
years in Bridgeton, where he settled early in life. He was
postmaster for several years in that town. All his children were
by his second wife, Sarah B. Ogden. Jane Buck, daughter of
Henry and Sarah B. Sheppard, born December 11, 1819,
married in 1840, to Lorenzo Fisler Lee; he died July 17, 1848,
leaving a widow and four children. Henry Sheppard, Jr.,
born November 8, 1821, married April 3, 1845, Rhoda S.
Nixon, daughter of Jeremiah Nixon. A short time after their
marriage they moved to Springfield, Green County, Missouri;
and he has prospered there. For many years he and his
brother, Charles, did the leading mercantile business of the
place, but both have now retired from active business. Henry
commanded one of the regiments of the militia of the State
and was out several times during the Rebellion. That part of
the State suffered much from the war. They have six chil-
dren, Francis, Henry, John Nixon, Mary Thompson and
Margaret Sheppard. Charles, son of Henry and Sarah Shep-
pard, born September 5, 1823, married November 5, 1856,
Lucy Dow, daughter of Ira and Mary Dow, of East Hard-
wick, Vermont. Charles and his family are living at Spring-
field, Mo. ; he being cashier of Green County National Bank.
There are three more children of Henry Sheppard, Sr., Sarah,
Margaret, and Joseph Ogden, who I believe reside in Bridgeton.
Joseph is a physician, and during the Rebellion for a time
served as a surgeon in the army. Ephraim Elmer, son of
Abner and Mary Sheppard, born October 2, 1804, married in
May, 1828, Jane Elizabeth Dare, daughter of David and
Rebecca Fithian Dare. They resided near Bridgeton. Ephraim
was elected Clerk of the County of Cumberland in 1852, and
served to 1857. He was appointed a Judge of the Court of
Common Pleas for said County in 1853, and reappointed in
1868, and was elected Mayor of Bridgeton in the spring of
1873. His term expired in 1876. Ephraim and his wife had
eight children. Ephraim Elmer, Jr., born March 19, 1830,
married in April, 1856, Linder^nlla Maxon Bonham, daughter
of Hezekiah Bonham, of Shiloh. They have had seven chil-
dren, four of whom are living. They reside at Elmer, Salem
County. Elizabeth R. Sheppard, bom April 6, 1832, married
in 1850 George W. Elwell. They live in Bridgeton, and have
one son, Albert Sheppard, born March 17, 1853, who is a
druggist in Philadelphia. Ruth N. Sheppard, daughter of
Ephraim, bom December 21, 1834, is not married. David
Dare Sheppard, son of Ephraim, bom 1836, married October
18, Cornelia Albertson, daughter of Amos Buzby, of Piles-
grove. He was in the dry goods business in Bridgeton until
1870, when he moved to Springfield, Mo., and went into business
with his brother, William Sheppard.
John Caldwell Calhoun, son of Ephraim Sheppard, bom
in 1840, married in 1861, Jane Elizabeth Smith, of Philadelphia,
and resides in that city.
William E. Sheppard, son of Ephraim, born February 28,
1842, married, March 18, 1869, Josephine M. Trull, daughter
of Nathaniel Trull, of North Tewksbury, Mass. They moved
to Springfield, Mo., in the fall of 1866, and he is in business
with his brother, David Sheppard.
Enoch Fithian Sheppard, son of Ephraim, bom August
21, 1844, died is 1846. Charles E.,^ son of Ephraim and Jane
Elizabeth Sheppard, born November 1, 1846. He is a lawyer
and resides in Bridgeton.
•At this day (1913) nearly everybody in Cumberland County knows
Charles E. Sheppard, the lawyer, so prominently connected with the
prosecution of violators of the law regarding the sale of intoxicants.
RURAL SOCIOLOGICAL EXAMPLES, SUGGESTED IN THIS LITE
John Murray, son of Othniel Murray and Kath-
erine Murray, was born in 1751, or twenty-six years
before the death of Benjamin Gould, 1st.
His wife, T'abitha Lupton, a white woman, was born
in 1763. They lived neighbors to Benjamin and Ann
John Murray died in 1853, at the age of one hundred
and two years, and his wife Tabitha died November,
1859, aged ninety-six years. The writer of this wa^
born in 1840 and is the grandson of Benjamin Gould,
2nd, and great-grandson of Abijah Gould, 1st, and
great-great-grandson of Benjamin Gould, 1st.
I have been many a time to the home of John and
Tabitha Murray, when a boy; it was but a mile from
the home of my great-great-grandfather. I was but
thirteen years old at the time of the death of John
Murray, and nineteen when Tabitha Murray died.
Their great grandson, Eli Gould, became the husband
of my sister Mary.
The four sons of Benjamin Gould were associates
of John Murray and his brothers and sisters in their
boyhood and early manhood days. Ehsha Gould,
youngest son of Benjamin, was born in 1755, but he
died in 1804, aged forty-nine years. The other sons
of Benjamin, as well as Sarah, the daughter, were much
older than Elisha. Anthony Gould was the oldest; then
came Samuel, and Abijah. The sons and daughters of
Anthony and Richard Pierce were also companions of
the sons of Benjamin Gould.
It is not hard to see how the tradition of Goulds,
as well as the Pierces, could be handed down by even
John Murray, who lived during the last twenty-six
years of Benjamin Gould 's life, and well into the early
lives of his descendants, as well as those of the Pierces.
As I have related, I have seen John Murray and
been to his house many, many times ; he was a brusque,
eccentric old man, and had had both feet cut off. His
farm was infested with sand burrs and working in his
fields in his bare feet, he got the burrs in his feet,
gangrene ensued, and both of his feet were amputated.
He used to put himself in the third person much
when talking and he " swore a little " in his general
conversation. In those days surgeons did not use
anaesthetics in their operations, and it was related of
Mm'ray when Dr. Jonathan Elmer was cutting off his
feet, that the patient became impatient and blurted out
in anger to the doctor, " Hum, damn, if John had his
old saw, I'd 'a' had them legs cut off long ago."
I have myself seen him sitting in his doorway in the
sunshine; this was his favorite place when the weather
suited him. He would sit there and mark by the
shadows cast in the doorway (marking on the bare floor)
the ascension and descension of the sun during the
seasons ; and also note the progression and retrogression
of the moon, and the progress of the stars. As a little
boy, I thought it a rare treat to go to see " Uncle
Johnnie and Aunt Tabitha." She was a gentle, lovable
old lady; and while I had heard stories of how " Uncle
Johnnie " would fire his crutches across the house at
Aimt Tabitha when angry, I never saw anything of the
He, like others of Gouldtown, owned a large body
of salt marsh along the bay and river shores, where they
would mow and gather the salt hay for their cattle,
RURAL EXAMPLES 83
oxen, and horses, and haul it the ten or twelve miles to
It was the custom for those of Gouldtown to go
upon the marshes on Monday and remain day and night
until Saturday, where they would mow " shallop " loads
of the salt hay and stack it up to haul home in the
It was related of John Murray that he would go
with his sons and the other men down to the marshes,
where all would work in common, helping each other
get the hay, each having his own body of marsh. Miu*-
ray would stay upon the wagons and " load " the hay
as the men would pitch it up to him, and when driven
up to the stacking place, he would pitch it off the wagon.
One time his ox team was proceeding to the hay-
stack with a load of hay, when a savage bull, roaming
over the marsh, made attempt to attack the ox team.
The old man seized his pitchfork and hurled it into the
animal's flank; the bull, in torture, dashed away across
the marsh, the pitchfork finally falling from the beast.
" Hum, damn," his favorite expletive, " Hum, damn,
John made him fly! " he cried out to the men in glee.
A study of the rural sociology of the times of this
generation would be no less interesting, surely, than
their ethnology; in the blood of these was the Celtic,
Teutonic, African and Indian, with sundry subdivisions,
as shown in the pure English, Dutch, and local
The Quaker solidity and quiet dispositions inherited
by the Goulds may be traced to this day; the Dutch
superstitions are still apparent in the Pierces; and the
Indian love of " firewater " has been ever noticeable in
the Murrays. The Goulds were never addicted to
excessive use of liquor, while the Pierces and Murrays
were more liberal in its indulgence.
These branches had all large families; how they
managed to support them is an interesting question;
and yet they lived in comfort and in happiness, as com-
pared to much that is seen in rural life nowadays.
Money was an almost unknown commodity in those
days and yet property was accumulated.
Reared in the woods, as we look at it in these days,
those people were almost "children of the forest";
they cut down the forests and made their farms; they
populated the wilds and made a living. The times
from the marriage of Benjamin and Ann Gould, about
1725, to that of their death in 1777, were not as prosper-
ous as they were in localities westward from the Co-
hansey; the march of population had hardly proceeded
from Salem across the Cohansey and northward from
New England town; what population there was had
been pushed out, as it were, from among those of the
early settlers who had been at Greenwich, crossed the
Cohansey at that place and stretched outward into Fair-
field, Shrewsbury Neck, and about New England town.
There were no schools in Gouldtown yet; there
were, however, some sources for getting information;
some of the Gould children learned to read and write.
Anthony Gould, oldest son of Benjamin Gould, could
write — for, to a deed made by him in 1802 for a piece
of property he had purchased in 1767, he had signed:
" At'ty Gould," abbreviating his name with his own
Fancy a gathering of the young people of the
names of Gould, Pierce, Murray, Lummis, MuUica,
Gates, Hand, and others, known to have populated that
section of territory, and imagine, if possible, their
occupations and recreations.
Their nearest church was the " Old Stone Church "
at New England cross-roads; they went to this church
Old Stone Church, Fairfield.
RURAL EXAMPLES 85
when they went anywhere to meeting, and in its adjoin-
ing cemetery some of them were afterward buried;
probably they went to " meeting " there once or twice
a year. It may have been oftener.
Socially, they met in apple-cuttings, quiltings, and
hog killings and beef killings. A favorite gathering
with them was the " chopping frolic," where the men
would show their prowess in felling and " logging "
into cord-wood the primeval trees. These " chopping
frolics " were attended with hard cider, or apple-jack
drinking; while the wives and sisters of the choppers
would gather at the home for whose benefit the chop-
ping was made, have a quilting and spinning party, all
to be topped off towards night with a big supper and
plenty of doughnuts and pies. I have been told that
these wood-choppers would vie with each other to be
first at the chopping in the woods in the morning and
often by noon the long tiers of wood would be ranked
up, and the laughing choppers would wend their way
to the homestead, where a substantial dinner would
await them. In such cases the afternoon would be
given over to sport and " waiting on the women." The
boys and young men would have jumping, running and
wrestling matches, and have as much of a good time
as do the boys of the present day. Such are the pictures
which have been handed down by my ancestors.
Drunkenness was not countenanced, and the man who
got too much apple-jack lost his respectability.
How did these old men support their families?
Benjamin Gould with his sons, Anthony, Samuel,
Abijah, and Elisha, together with the daughter, Sarah
— all these children born between 1730 and 1755, — and
the many sons and daughters of Anthony Pierce;
Menon, Richard, Jesse, Benjamin, John, Anthony, and
Wanaca, together with the two daughters, Hannah and
Elizabeth; and the son of Richard Pierce, Adam, and
the four daughters, Mary, Rhuniah, Hannah and Eliza-
beth; and the three sons and two daughters of Othniel
Murray: Othniel, Jr., David and John (whose name
begins this chapter), and daughters: Mary (Polly) and
Dorcas, all born and mostly grown up before the
Revolutionary War. Their home life as handed down
in oral tradition is a study. The high price of food and
clothing may have been felt by them then, as by us now,
but a study of their habits and resources does not make
it appear so.
Take for instance, the crop-gathering time — the
haying before alluded to, when the wife and daughters
would bake up the great loaves of rye bread in the
ovens, and the huge pies, and boil the " chunks " of fat
pork and the big pot of vegetables, and bake the
molasses cake with which to put up a supply of food
for the men-folks to take to the marsh the next week
to last them from Monday to Saturday — but this is all
over with, when the time for gathering in the fall crops
arrives. The cabbage, potatoes, turnips, apples and
pumpkins are gathered and stored; the apples are
buried in the apple-hole in the ground; the potatoes
and turnips are buried in the same way; the cabbages
are put in the cabbage-house ; a sort of shack made over
an excavation a couple of feet deep, and eight or ten
feet long, over which tent-like poles are placed, covered
over with cornstalks and trash, and then all covered
with earth, making an A-shaped shelter, open at the
south end, and tightly closed everywhere else. In this
the cabbages are stowed away, the door closed up
temporarily, and everything is safe within for winter
use. The rye and wheat have been stacked up or put
in the barns, to be threshed out with flail in the winter.
The fatted hogs are killed and the supply of pork
RURAL EXAMPLES 87
salted down; a fat beef slaughtered, and the beef
" corned " ; and the family now has no fear of a shortage
of rations during the winter. As for fresh food, the
woods abound with deer, squirrels, rabbits, coons, 'pos-
sums, quail, and pheasant, which are shot or trapped,
at pleasure. There were no game laws.
Fuel is no object of worry; it is had for the labor of
chopping and hauling from their own grounds ; and the
big fire-place uses up a large quantity during the cold
weather. The great back-log, which has been hauled
up to the door of the " cottage " — generally a log
" cottage " at that — is ready to be put in place; a log
chain is extended through the house from front door to
back door, a yoke of oxen hitched to one end of the
chain while the other end is fastened to the log; skids
and round sticks for rollers are placed, and the word
given: " Whoa-haw, Buck and Berry, Gee up, gee —
whoa! " and the log is hauled by the oxen into the house,
where it is now rolled into the back of the great fire-
Everything is thus ready for the winter's coming.
All that remains to do thereafter is to cut and haul logs
and cord-wood to the landings for the spring shipments.
Such was mostly the family life of the early inhabitants
of Gouldtown. The women folk kept up their portion,
in spinning, knitting, and making the garments for the
GOULD genealogies; probability of origin of name
OF THE SETTLEMENT.
When Gouldtown was first given its name does not
yet definitely appear. It was called " Gouldtown, an
ancient settlement " many years ago, and records show
that it was called " Gouldtown " when Bridgeton was
called "Bridgetown" or "The Bridge"; old records,
before 1800, make mention of " on the road from Gould-
town to Bumbridge " — meaning what is now Fairton.
A chronicle of the Gould families just before and just
following the Revolutionary War discloses good
grounds for calling the settlement " Gouldtown " dur-
ing that period.
The New Jersey archives at Trenton attempt to
give the record, among other things, of the marriages
in the State in colonial times, and in the times immedi-
ately following the close of the war of the Revolution;
but the reports are woefully inadequate, or else they
are not published in those archives. Among the few
dozen marriages recorded from Cumberland County is
noted that of Anthony Gould and Phoebe Lummis,
dated May 16, 1781. This is the first and only Gould,
of Gouldtown, whose marriage is thus recorded.
Anthony Gould must have been well advanced in
years at this time — though not an old man. He was
the oldest living son of Benjamin and Ann Gould, and
their youngest son, Elisha, born in 1755, was twenty-
six years old at the time of his brother Anthony's mar-
riage, but Anthony was a man and had bought and
owned land at least fourteen years before this, as is to
be seen in the record of a deed he made to Jacob Steel-
ORIGIN OF NAME 89
ing in 1802, the year before his death. This deed was
made April 10, 1802, between Anthony Gould and
Jacob Steeling, and recites the sale by Gould to Steel-
ing of twenty-eight and a quarter acres of land for
$113: " Beginning at a red oak corner standing by
the present highway leading from Bridgetown to the
Beaver dam or Maurice River bridge; thence . . .
binding on (other) land of Anthony Gould to a black
oak corner standing in the line between David Seeley
and said Gould . . . containing twenty-eight and a
quarter acres of land, be the same more or less, which
lot or piece of land the said Anthony Gould purchased
of John Page and Thomas Gentry as by Page's deed,
dated the fifth day of November, 1767; as by Gentry's
deed dated November the thirtieth day, 1796, recourse
thereto being had may more at large appear." Anthony
Gould had 34^4 acres besides, which was sold by
Jonathan Bowen, his executor.
There is no record of the date of Anthony's birth,
but it must have been about 1735, for Benjamin land
Ann were married and had two children before
Anthony, as has been already shown. Anthony sold
this land in 1802; his wife had previously died; he
signed the deed by his own hand " At'ty Gould."
He died in 1803, leaving a will which was proved
September 27, 1803. He left three daughters, Phoebe,
Martha (transcribed in the record in Trenton " Ma-
thila ") and Christiana, or " Kitty " as she was known.
The settlement was called Gouldtown before this, and
as the venerable Judge Elmer, then a lad of ten years,
said " is of quite ancient date." Martha was the
youngest. Phoebe was over eighteen years old at the
time her father made his will, for by his will Jonathan
Bowen, who resided at the Beaver Dam, was made
guardian for Chi'istiana and Martha only. These girls
were very fair, and Phoebe shortly after her father's
death went to Philadelphia, where she married a man
who became mayor of that city, and she no doubt be-
came the mother of children whose descendants have
become distinguished. She, of course, lost her identity.
* Christiana married first her cousin, Charles Gould, son
of her youngest uncle, Elisha Gould, and they had three
sons, Daniel Gould, Aaron Gould, and Anthony Gould,
2nd. Daniel Gould was the oldest, and in early man-
hood, went to Massachusetts (returning to Goiddtown
but once, which was in 1852 or 1853) , losing his identity
as colored. Aaron was born in 1810, and died in 1894,
aged eighty-four years. AnthoRy was born in 1813 and
died in 1891, aged seventy-eight years. After the birth
of these three sons, Charles, the husband and father,
died; a few years later, the widow, "Kitty," married
Furman Gould, another cousin of hers, the son of
Abijah Gould, 1st, her father's brother. They had five
sons and two daughters. The sons were Jonathan
Gould, Furman Gould, Jr., Alfred Gould, Theophilus
Gould, and Charles Gould. Theophilus died a young
man. Of the daughters, Martha and Christiana, the
last is the only one now living and she is nearly ninety
years of age.
Samuel Gould, the son of the Founder of Gould-
town, married Rhumah, second daughter of Richard
and Mary Pierce. They had one son, Samuel, Jr., and
two daughters, Hannah, and Anna. Anna became the
last wife of Rev. Reuben Cuff. Samuel, Jr., married
his cousin, Elizabeth, daughter of his uncle, Elisha, and
had one son, Samuel, 3rd. Samuel, 2nd died early in
life, and his widow, Elizabeth, married Daniel Siro,
son of Simon Siro and Mary Pierce, oldest daughter
of Richard and Mary Pierce.
Samuel, 3rd, when a young man, went to Pittsburgh,
Tamson Cuff, Daughter of
and Phoebe Gould.
Abijah Gould, Son of Benjamin Gould, and Grand-
son of Abijah Gould I.
ORIGIN OF NAME 91
then counted to be in the far west, and all trace of him
was lost. Daniel and Elizabeth Siro had one son,
Andrew. Then Daniel died and Elizabeth was again
left a widow. Hannah Gould went to Philadelphia,
where she married an East India sailor, named Charles
Gonzales Smith. They had two children, Ann Smith and
another who died an infant, and was buried at Gould-
town. The husband, Smith, was lost at sea. She after-
wards became the wife of Thomas Wester.
Andrew Siro went to New Bedford, and became a
whaler, making many voyages to the northern seas. He
came home annually until 1854, since when nothing was
ever heard from him and it is supposed he perished at
sea. He never married, so far as known.
Abijah Gould, second son of the founder, married
Hannah, born in 1756, the third daughter of Richard
and Mary Pierce. They had five sons and one daughter,
Sarah; she never married and died a young woman.
The sons were Benjamin Gould, 2nd, born in 1779,
Richard Gould, born in 1783, Abijah Gould, Jr.,
Leonard Gould and Furman Gould, the youngest.
Samuel Gould, the third son of the founder, sailed
in the privateer schooner, " Governor Livingston,"
which was built at Cohansey, and sailed in 1780. She
made one successful trip, when Gould seems to have
tired of the sailor life and left her. On her second trip
she was captured by the British.
Benjamin Gould, 2nd, married Phoebe Bowen, of
Salem County, who was born in 1788. Their living
descendants in 1910 are given in pages succeeding.
Their children, nine in number, were Oliver, Tamson,
Lydia, Jane, Abijah, Sarah, Rebecca, Phoebe, and
Benjamin Gould died in 1851, aged seventy-two
years; his widow, Phoebe, died in 1877, aged eighty-
nine years. Oliver Gould married Rhuhamah, the
daughter of Mordecai Cuff, of Salem. They had a
number of children, all of whom are now dead, except
one, the youngest son, Abijah, 4th. The oldest son,
Benjamin Gould, 3rd, went to Boston when a young
man, and nothing was heard from him after the first
year or two after he went away. Tamson Gould
married William Cox, an Indian half-breed. They
resided on a farm in Dutch Neck; and William Cox
was the first dairyman to sell milk in Bridgeton. They
had three sons, William, Jr., Isaac, and Levi.
William, Jr., ran away and went to sea, and the
last ever heard from him was a letter mailed from the
Golden Gate, California. Isaac also, after growing up
" followed the water " for several years, went to Europe
at the outbreak of the Civil War and became a blockade
runner, carrying English goods into the Southern
States. Levi also went to sea and finally became
boatswain on a ship trading between Liverpool and
China. He died suddenly on his vessel's deck in Liver-
pool. His effects were sent home to his mother, then a
widow for the second time, and residing in Philadelphia.
William and Tamson Cox had also four daughters,
Mary, Hannah, Phoebe, and Caroline; the last died a
little girl, and William Cox, the husband and father,
died. When the children were all grown, Tamson again
married — this time she married Reuben Cuff of Salem,
son of the minister; they resided on a large farm in
Salem County, and kept a big dairy. Mrs. Cuff was
noted for her fine cheeses. This Reuben Cuff died in a
few years (they had no children) and Mrs. Cuff re-
moved to Philadelphia, where she became housekeeper
for two Quaker women with whom she spent the rest
of her life. She died in 1877, in her own house in Gould-
town, which she had built, her death occurring three
Mrs. Lydia Sheppard, Daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, Who Lived to be
102 Years Old, and Was the Head of Her Son's Household Till the Last Day of Her Life.
ORIGIN OF NAME 93
days before the death of her mother, which was on May
twenty-sixth of that year at the old Gould homestead.
None of Tamson's sons ever married so far as
known; the oldest daughter, INIary, married Thomas
Almond, a barber, who removed from Philadelphia to
Bridgeton, where he carried on the business for several
years. He died in Philadelphia; they had two
daughters, Caroline and Phoebe (Mrs. White), the
latter still living as is also her widowed mother, both
residing together in Philadelphia. Caroline is dead,
one daughter surviving her. Mrs. White has no chil-
dren. Hannah Cox married Charles Wilson, of Salem,
who engaged in tenant farming, but died in a few years ;
they had no children. Hannah then married Hiram
Cuff, a cousin of her first husband who was also a Salem
County farmer, residing as tenant farmer on a three-
hundred acre farm for many years ; they had no children
and Hannah died in 1907.
Phoebe Cox married Tliomas W. Almond, of Phila-
deljDhia, a relative of her sister Mary's husband ; he was
an undertaker. He died suddenly and his widow and
son, William, succeeded to the business. Phoebe in a
few years also died suddenly, and the son, William, and
his son, succeeded to the business. William died two
years ago, and now his widow and their son succeed to
the same undertaking business in Philadelphia.
Lydia Gould, born October 22, 1809, the third
daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, married
David Sheppard, of Port Elizabeth; they made their
home in Millville. There were born to them Tamson,
who married Joseph Wilson of Salem, she died in
1874, age thirty-five, leaving no children; Thomas, still
residing in Millville; Sarah, wife of B. F. Pierce of
Fairton, and David, born two weeks after his father
died. David died about six years ago, aged sixty-two
years, leaving no children. Lydia, the mother, died in
November, 1911, a short time after she had passed the
one hundred and second anniversary of her birth.
Thomas has two sons and one daughter. Sarah has
six daughters and one son.
Jane Gould married Daniel Webster, and they had
many children, all of whom are dead but one son,
Charles. The father, Daniel, died many years ago, and
the mother, Jane, died in 1868, aged fifty-six years.
Abijah Gould, 3rd, married Emily Gould, daughter
of Jesse Gould; they had three children, Elizabeth,
Josephine, and Dr. Jesse Gould, of Philadelphia.
Abijah died in 1892, aged seventy-seven. His wife had
died a few years before.
Sarah Gould married Abel Lee; they had six chil-
dren; three daughters and three sons, B. F. Lee (Bishop
Lee) , William Cox Lee, and Abel Lee. The daughters
are Ehzabeth, Jane, and Isabel. Abel Lee, the father,
died in 1852, his widow, Sarah, died a few years ago,
over ninety years of age. Two sons, William and Abel,
Rebecca Gould, born May 2, 1820, married James
Steward in 1838; they also had three sons and three
daughters, all still living. They are Margaret, William,
Mary, Theophilus, Alice, and Stephen. Rebecca died
three weeks after the death of her mother, Phoebe, and
sister Tamson, in 1877. Tamson's house was but a few
hundred yards from the home of her sister, Rebecca
Steward, while the aged mother's home was nearly two
miles from both. Mrs. Steward, dividing her time
between the bedside of her mother at one extreme, and
that of her sister at the other, was prostrated after the
double funeral, and died three weeks after, aged fifty-
James Steward was a man of sterling character, and
James Steward. Taken when \'isiting His Daughter, Mrs. Felts, in Wilmington,
Mrs. Rebecca Steward, Daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, Wife of James
Steward, and Mother of the Steward Group of Three Sons and Three Daughters.
ORIGIN OF NAME 95
of more than average intelligence, as was also his wife.
He was a bound boy, indentured to a man named
Reeves, in Back Neck, who ill-treated him so much that
he ran away from him before he was nine years old, and
went to live with Elijah Gould, the father of Rev.
Theodore Gould. His parents had gone to Santa
Domingo in the Bowyer expedition of 1824, leaving him
with Mr. Gould, his only remaining relative here
being a little dead sister lying in the Gouldtown
It was learned that his parents engaged in coffee-
gi'owing in Santa Domingo, but in a few years no more
was ever heard from them.
James Steward, the husband and father, died in
May, 1892, aged seventy-seven years and three days.
He was a mechanic and had been employed in the works
of the Cumberland Nail and Iron Company fifty-one
years. The last thirty-five years he had been foreman
of the sheet-iron mill.
Phoebe Gould the next to the youngest daughter,
married Nathan Gould, son of Abijah Gould, Jr., 2nd.
They resided opposite where is now the reservoir on
the Bridgeton and Millville Turnpike, on the farm now
owned by George T. Pearce. They had three sons and
two daughters. Two sons, Joseph and Clarence, are
still living, and Nancy, the youngest daughter, wife of
George W. Gould, still lives, residing in Atlantic City.
The other daughter, Amanda, wife of Edward Cruise,
is dead. The last daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe
Gould, Miss Prudence F. Gould, ex-schoolteacher, and
dressmaker for all the neighborhood, beloved by every
one, dwells now at the old homestead where she was
born, and which she owns — ^that land bequeathed by
Benjamin Gould, 1st, to his son Abijah Gould, 1st, who
was the grandfather of Miss Prudence.
Richard Gould, second son of Abijah Gould 1st,
married Charlotte Gould, daughter of Elisha Gould.
They had five sons and three daughters. Richard Gould
was born in 1783 and died in 1855, aged seventy- two
years. His wife, Charlotte, was born in 1786 and died
in 1876, aged ninety years. Their sons were Norton,
Andrew, Elijah, Robert and Richard, Jr. The
daughters were Rhumah, Sarah and Hannah. Norton
died in 1892, aged seventy-eight years, and left a
number of descendants, one of whom is Mrs. Ruth
Tudas, of Bridgeton. Andrew Gould left a number of
descendants; his two sons, Charles and Robert, reside
in Bridgeton. His wife was Ann Smith, daughter of
Hannah Gould and Charles Gonzales Smith, the East
Indiaman. Robert Gould, the third son, went to
Canada, where he resided several years, and afterwards
returned to Michigan, where he probably died. Richard,
Jr., died in Salem; his wife was Martha Emery of
Salem. They left a number of children. Rhumah Gould
married John Hammond. They had a number of chil-
dren, some of whom still survive. Hannah Gould
married William Jones. They had no children. Some
of John Hammond's and Rhumah's children reside in
Bridgeton, and two sons, Charles and Arthur, reside
somewhere in the far West; Arthur at Saginaw,
Furman Gould's children were Jonathan Gould,
Furman Gould, Jr., Alfred Gould, Charles Gould, and
Theophilus Gould. Furman's first wife, the mother of
these boj^s, and two daughters, Martha and Christiana,
was Christiana or " Kitty," the widow of Charles Gould,
son of Elisha Gould. TJiough " Kitty " was the mother
of ten children, three by her first husband and seven by
Furman, she died in 1841 at the age of thirty-seven
years. Furman Gould, Sr., became the first local
ORIGIN OF NAME 97
preacher of Gouldto^vn. He died in 1855, aged sixty-
nine years. His stepchildren were Daniel Gould, who
went to Massachusetts, Aaron Gould, and Anthony
Gould, 2nd. Aaron Gould married Catherine Pierce,
daughter of Wanaca Pierce, 1st. They had four chil-
dren, Timothy, still living; Thomas, dead; Lydia Ann,
the wife of Job Cuff, of Hancock's Bridge, and Aaron
Paul, still living. Catherine died in 1887, aged seventy-
six years. Aaron died in 1894, aged eighty- four years.
Anthony Gould, 2nd, born in 1813, married Almeda,
daughter of Jesse Pierce and Christina Stoms, a Dutch
woman from Salem County. (It is said Anthony re-
sembled his grandfather Anthony, 1st.) They left
numerous descendants, a grandson being Anthony
Pierce, the well-known electrician and foreman of
electrical wiring for the Bridgeton and Millville Trac-
tion Company. The children of Anthony and Almeda
Gould were Phoebe, William, Elizabeth, Christina,
Christiana, and Almeda; the oldest, Phoebe, and the
youngest, Almeda, still survive; all the others are dead.
Phoebe is now nearing her eightieth birthday. Wil-
liam was a soldier in the war of the Rebellion, and died
two years ago. Phoebe married Francis L. Pierce, of
Canton, who is dead. They had four daughters,
Prudence, wife of Charles H. Pierce, engineer at the
Ferracute Machine Works; Marietta, wife of Robert
'Pierce; Dorothy, wife of Rev. Alex. W. Pierce, and
Phoebe Jane, wife of Fenwick Wright. These last
have a musical family, who unite in orchestral perform-
ances by string or wind instruments. The sons of
Francis L. and Phoebe Gould Pierce, are Anthony, the
electrician, Francis, Jr., a barber, at Bristol, Pa. ; Amos,
also a barber at Coatesville, Pa., and Harold, a hotel
chef, now at Commercial Hotel, Bridgeton.
William Gould married Hannah Caroline Gould,
daughter of Elisha Gould, Jr. They had two
daughters, LueEa, wife of John Coombs, and Melissa,
wife of George Cuff, of Salem County. William and
his wife are both dead.
Elizabeth Gould married Archibald Cuff, Jr. They
have two sons and one daughter living. The sons are
Edmund and Reuben, both married, and the daughter
is Fanny, wife of Luther D. Gould, a former corporal
in the Tenth Cavalry, U. S. Army, who served among
the Indians and in Cuba, where he figured in rescuing
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Rider regi-
ment of Volunteers at Las Guasimas, Cuba.
Christina Gould married Robert Dunn; they had
two daughters, Estella and Almeda. Both Robert
Dunn and his wife have passed away. Estella married
Rev. Burgojnie Cuff, 2nd. He died early, leaving no
children. After the death of her mother, with whom she
resided many years after the decease of her father and
her husband, Estella married Howard Stewart. They
own a farm in Gouldtown upon which they reside, and
have no children. Almeda Gould, the other daughter
of Robert and Christina Dunn, married Joseph Gould,
grandson of Rev. Furman Gould, who resides on the
farm where once his grandfather lived. They have
Christiana Gould married Mordecai Pierce, a black-
smith of Canton, N. J. They had two sons, Belford, at
present a blacksmith in Bridgeton, and Warner K., a
member of the Board of Education of Fairfield Town-
ship. Christiana died early, and Mordecai later married
Anna, daughter of Jonathan Gould. TJiey had two
sons and two daughters, Mordecai, Sylvester, Lucette
and Madge. Sylvester, a cigar-maker, died a young
man; Mordecai resides in Pennsylvania; Lucette is
principal of the Gouldtown public school, and Madge
ORIGIN OF NAME 99
is a student in the Bridgeton High School. Anna, the
mother, was the postmistress at Gouldtown until the
post-office there was abolished.
The wife of Anthony Gould, 2nd, AJmeda, died in
1844, aged thirty- three years. Many years after this
he remarried — his oldest daughter, Phoebe, having been
his housekeeper all these years, and characterized
as the "Little Mother" of the family by the
whole neighborhood. Anthony Gould at this time
married Harriet Gould Cuff, daughter of Leonard
Gould, and widow of Ephraim Cuff. There were born
to them Ajithony Gould, 3rd, Preston Gould, Harriet,
Cynthia, and Ida. Only Preston and Ida survive.
Ajithony Gould died in 1891, aged seventy-eight
years; Harriet Gould, his widow, in 1895, aged seventy-
two years. She left children by her former husband
Ephraim Cuff: three sons, Quinton Cuff, Lambert
Cuff and Theodore Cuff; the last now dead. Quinton
resides in Chester, Pa., and Lambert in Gouldtown.
Furman Gould, Sr., the Furman Gould of whom
we have spoken, was something of a blusterer in his
early days. During the war of 1812, it is told he, to-
gether with a man named David Cams, were chartered
to take a four-horse load of commissary stores down to
Cape May for the garrison located there. One of the
lead horses, belonging to Gould, had the name of
" Spaddle Ham " on account of being spotted on his
rump. A British ship had got too far in shore at Cape
May, where she grounded when the tide went out. As
the commissary team was approaching the island, the
man-o'-war fired a broadside from her port guns. The
shot, of course, went way inland. " By Goose,
Dave" (his favorite swear-word), "by Goose, that
sounds wus'n thunder," said Gould, with some
agitation. Driving on a little further, the ship blazed
away with another broadside. This time the shot cut
off the tops and branches of trees all around them.
" Hold on, Furm; stop, I must get out o' here! " cried
out David in terror. " Peddee — whoa, come about here,
Spaddle Ham!" yelled Furm to his horses, and with
lines and whip he brought the team to a right-about-
face; and they tell to this day that Furm Gould and
Dave Cams ran their horses from Cape May to Dennis-
ville before they stopped them. Whether this tale is
true or not, it is a fact that Furman Gould was given
by the United States Government a quarter section of
land (160 acres) in the State of Illinois, for serving in
the war of 1812. This land was sold in 1855 to Henry
Gould, who had gone to Illinois the year before.
Furman Gould, Jr., married Hester Cuff, sister of
Jonathan Gould's wife. They had four children, two
sons and two daughters. The two sons, Albert and
William C. Gould survive; of the two daughters.
Prudence, who became the wife of Stephen S. Steward,
died in 1890, aged forty- two years; Martha, the second,
went to Illinois, with an uncle and aunt, lost her identity
of color, married a wealthy farmer, and has an interest-
ing family of distinguished westerners. Furman Gould,
Jr., died in 1883 aged sixty-six years; his widow, Hester
Gould, passed away in 1893, aged seventy- two years.
Jonathan Gould married Hannah Ann Cuff, the
daughter of William Cuff, of Salem, son of Rev.
Reuben Cuff. They had three children, Lorenzo F.
Gould, Hannah Ann, wife of Rev. Jeremiah H. Pierce,
and Anna Rebecca, wife of Mordecai C. Pierce. These
three are all living and have numerous children. Jona-
than Gould the father died in 1893, aged seventy-seven;
his widow, Hannah Ann, died a few years ago aged
Alfred Gould married Sarah, a daughter of Elijah
Mrs. Sarah Gould, Widow of Alfred Gould and Sister of Rev. Theodore Gould.
ORIGIN OF NAME 101
and Hannah Murray Gould. Tihey had three children,
Eugene Gould, Mary E. Gould and Alice Gould. Alice
died of typhoid fever after graduating from the Second
Ward public school, Bridgeton, and teaching school in
Gouldtown. She was a young woman of high accom-
plishment. Eugene and Mary are still living on their
old homestead, a rich and beautiful farm, both unmar-
ried, with their widowed mother, now in her ninetieth
year. She is a sister of Rev. Theodore Gould, who is
long past his eighty-second birthday. Alfred Gould
died in 1902, aged eighty years. He was born May 13,
Charles Gould, the youngest son of Furman Gould,
Sr., married Susan, the daughter of Abijah Gould, 2nd.
They had a number of children, most of whom still live.
Joseph, the second of their sons, resides at the old
homestead of his father, which was also the home of his
grandfather and a part of the original Gould tract; he
is a thrifty farmer, and has an interesting family. His
wife was Almeda, daughter of Robert and Christina
Gould Dunn. Martha Gould, oldest daughter of Fur-
man and " Kitty " Gould, married Elmer, oldest son of
Abijah Gould, 2nd, and had several children, most of
whom are dead. Elmer died in 1866. Furman, 3rd,
their son, went West before the war of the Rebellion;
lost his identity of color, became a thrifty farmer and
at last lost himself to all his people in the East.
Christiana Gould, the remaining daughter of Furman
Gould, Sr., married Menon Pierce, 3rd, and is still
living in Gouldtown. They never had any children.
Menon, who was a carpenter, died in ( ) . This dis-
poses of the immediate descendants of Furman and
" Kitty " Gould; and " Kitty " and Charles Gould.
Abijah Gould, 2nd, married Rachel Hicks, daughter
of Josiah Hicks and Elizabeth Pierce; they resided on
a part of the patrimony of his father, Abijah Gould, 1st,
who had received it by will from Benjamin Gould, 1st.
The house was located on the Buckshutem road, and is
now owned by Joseph Gould, a grandson of Abijah
Gould, 2nd. They had five sons and four daughters.
The sons were Elmer, Nathan, Mason Mulford, Joseph
and Moses ; the daughters were Elizabeth, Maria, Susan
Elmer married Martha Gould (as shown on another
page). Elizabeth (Betsy), married Adam Pierce, 3rd,
and Maria married Smith Gould, as has been also
shown, and Caroline, the youngest, married Timothy
Gould, son of Aaron Gould. Caroline is dead, but her
husband survives. They had two sons and two
daughters, who are still living here. Susan married
Charles Gould, as appears on another page. Nathan
Gould married Phoebe, daughter of Benjamin Gould,
2nd ; they are both dead, but two sons and one daughter
remain. Their names are Joseph Gould, Clarence
Gould, residing in Gouldtown, and Nancy, wife of
George W. Gould, with a home in Atlantic City. Mason
Mulford Gould married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard
and Amelia Pierce, who lived on the road to Roads-
town, owning the farm now owned by Gottleib Gos-
man. They had seven daughters but no son. The
daughters are all living and married, excepting one,
the wife of E. P. Wilson, of Pleasantville, N. J. She
died several years ago. Joseph died as a young man;
Moses married Elizabeth, daughter of Adrian Pierce.
Both are dead. Their only son, Mitchell H. Gould, is
their sole survivor; Mitchell Gould has only one
daughter, the wife of Smith Gould, Jr., of Bridgeton.
Leonard Gould, the youngest son of Abijah and
Hannah Pierce Gould, married Almeda, daughter of
John and Tabitha Murray. They also resided on a
ORIGIN OF NAME 103
sixty-acre patrimony of the original Gould estate, just
south from the farms of his brothers Benjamin and
Furman and eastward and adjoining that of his other
brother, Abijah, and southeast from his brother
Richard Gould. They had three sons, Jeremiah Gould,
Clayton Gould and Ephraim Gould. Clayton is still
living, a very old man — of ninety-one. They also had
six daughters, Eliza Ann, Rachel, Emeline, Mary,
Harriet, and Clara. Harriet became the second wife
of Anthony Gould, 2nd, as already shown. Jeremiah
married Louisa, daughter of Richard and Amelia
Murray Pierce; Clayton married Harriet Pierce,
daughter of Anthony and Sarah Jones Pierce ; Ephraim
went away and married among colored people; Eliza
Ann became the second wife of Daniel Lee of Salem,
and had several sons, among them being Benjamin F.
Lee of Flemington, N. J.; Rachel married Jonathan
CufF, and resided on a farm in Salem County; her hus-
band died many years ago, and she resides with one of
her sons on a large farm in Salem County. She is now
eighty-eight years of age. Mary married Francis
Cuff, of Salem; he was a son of Archibald and Lydia
Gould Cuff. They were always successful Salem
County tenant farmers residing on large, well-stocked
farms among Quakers. They had a numerous family,
and both are now dead. Emeline married Reuben
Pierce, Jr., son of Reuben Pierce and Ann Cuff Pierce
— they resided in the city of Salem, and had one child,
but all three are dead. Clara married Jacob Coombs,
and has always resided in Gouldtown. Jacob Coombs*
mother was Elizabeth, daughter of Anthony Pierce,
2nd, his father was William Coombs, a Philadelphian.
Jacob and Clara Coombs had several children. Jacob
died suddenly about two years ago, over eighty years
of age. Clara, his widow, is living.
The youngest son of Benjamin Gould, 1st, was
Elisha Gould, who, as has been already shown, married
Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Richard and Hannah
Van Aca Pierce. Elisha was born in 1755, and Eliza-
beth, who died in 1836, was a few years younger, being
born about 1760. Their children were Pierce Gould,
born 1785; Charlotte, 1786; Elisha, 1788; Elijah, 1790;
Jesse, 1792; Elizabeth, 1794; Sarah, 1795.
Pierce Gould married Sarah Murray, widow of
Menon Pierce, 2nd, who had one child, Maurice, who,
when he grew up, went to Mount Holly. This Sarah
was the daughter of John and Tabitha Murray. Pierce
Gould and his wife, Sarah, had children, Elizabeth,
Caroline, Augustus, Fanny, and Frederick. The latter
is the only one alive.
Elizabeth married Charles Cato, of Salem; they had
but one child, Elizabeth, still living in Bridgeton, but
who never married. Caroline married Robert Pierce,
son of Jesse Pierce and Christina Stoms Pierce, and
they had two children; one of whom survives and is the
second wife of the aged Clayton Gould. Her first hus-
band was Isaac Wood, a white man residing on a farm
on the road from Indian Fields to Rosenhayn. Fanny
married Elijah Gould, 2nd, son of Richard Gould, and
had two daughters, Julia and Malvena. Julia married
Andrew Pierce of Salem, and Malvena married Abijah
Gould, 4th, now residing in Gouldtown; he is the only
survivor of the family of his father, Oliver Gould, son
of Benjamin Gould, 2nd.
Charlotte Gould, oldest daughter of Elisha Gould,
married Richard Gould, as has been already related.
Elisha Gould, 2nd, married Mary Cuff, and their
descendants have already been detailed in part, but it
is well to say here that the present Smith Gould, the
barber in Bridgeton, who is the only son of Smith
Mrs. Hannah Gould, Widow of Elijah Gould, and Mother of Rev. Theodore Gould.
She Was the Daughter of John and Tabitha Murray.
ORIGIN OF NAME 105
Gould, Sr., who was the only son of Elisha Gould, has
one child, an only son, who might be called a complete
Gould as to immediate descent. This boy, Lenhart
Gould, is the son of Smith Gould and Beatrice Gould.
Beatrice Gould's parents were Mitchell Gould and Ann
Gould. Mitchell was the son of Moses Gould and
Elizabeth Pierce, daughter of Adrian Pierce, while
Ann was the daughter of Augustus Gould and Mary
Elizabeth, daughter of Adam Pierce, 2nd. Mitchell
was an only son, and Moses, his father, was the brother
of Maria Gould, wife of Smith Gould, 1st, therefore,
little Lenhart's mother and father were both Goulds;
the mother and father of Smith Gould, 2nd, were both
Goulds, and the parents of Beatrice, his wife, are both
Elijah Gould married Hannah, daughter of John
and Tabitha Murray ; the descendants of these two were
perhaps, the most distinguished of all in Gouldtown,
in the times they lived. The children were Henry and
Ann, twins. Henry married Elizabeth, daughter of
William and Prudence Murray Cuff, of Salem. They
went to Illinois in 1854. They never had any children
to live, and both are dead. Ann married J. Freeman
Pierce, son of Wanaca, and brother of Holmes Pierce.
Both have passed away.
The other sons were John, Theodore (Rev. Theodore
Gould), and Eli Gould. John and Theodore married
sisters, who were also sisters to their brother Henry's
wife, Elizabeth. John married Sarah, and Theodore
married Caroline, both daughters of William and
Prudence Murray Cuff. Eli married Mary, daughter
of James and Rebecca Gould Steward.
The other daughters were Hannah (married Robert
D. Stewart), Ruth (married Moses Pierce), Sarah
(married Alfred Gould). All of these have left well
known descendants. Of the two sons of Rev. Theodore
Gould, one is a printer in Philadelphia; the other is an
electrical engineer in Boston.
When Henry and John Gould were young men they
built an oyster schooner, and engaged in carrying oysters
from Maurice River Cove — this industry then in its
infancy — to Philadelphia, also from the Chesapeake
Bay to Baltimore. After the close of the oyster season,
they engaged in carrying produce and peaches from
Delaware and Maryland to Baltimore and Philadelphia.
This was long before the War of .the Rebellion, and was,
of course, hazardous in those times, had their color been
suspected. John Gould after this became a carpenter,
and with his cousin, Enoch Gould, whose father, Jesse,
was a carpenter, they employed a gang of workmen and
erected many buildings. In those days it was the custom
for a carpenter to build a house from cellar to roof ; they
would do the mason work, laying the cellar walls and
foundations, and lath and plaster the walls. All those
trades were to be found in practice among the Gould-
town men in those times. Abijah Gould, 2nd, was a
millwright, an occupation for which there is now but
Jesse Gould, the carpenter, married first, Mary
Lippincott, a Leni-Lenape Indian; they had two sons,
Enoch and James, both of whom became carpenters, and
one daughter, Abigail. Mary Lippincott died. Jesse's
second wife was Hannah Pierce, daughter of Menon
Pierce, 1st. To this union were born Emily, and Anson.
Anson died young. Emily married Abijah Gould, 3rd,
father of Jesse Gould, M.D., now of Philadelphia.
Hannah, this wife, died, and Jesse's third wife was
Hannah Pierce again — this time a daughter of Wanaca
Pierce — who was killed by lightning in August, 1819.
To Jesse Gould and this third wife were born
ORIGIN OF NAME 107
Matilda, who became the wife of Rev. James V. Pierce ;
Freeman, who also became a carpenter and who married
Miriam, daughter of Elisha Gould, of Salem ; Hezekiah,
also becoming a carpenter, and afterwards a machinist,
learning this trade with the Moore Brothers, who had a
machine shop between what is now South Avenue and
Grove Street. Hezekiah married Malinda, daughter of
Ajnos and Jane Murray Pierce. In 1862-63, they went
to Michigan, where Hezekiah became an organ manu-
facturer; he left two children, and died in the West.
His widow still survives, residing with her daughter and
son-in-law in Canada.
Hezekiah was born at the old Jesse Gould home-
stead, now owned by John Stout, at the tollgate in
Gouldtown. He and Matilda were the youngest. At
their home the well from which they drew the water
was very deep, and is still. One day Hezekiah, when a
boy, drew up a bucket of water with the old style of
^vindlass: leaning over to dump the bucket, the wind-
lass broke out of the curb, and windlass, bucket, and boy
went in a bunch down to the bottom of the well. Matilda,
a half-grown girl, began screaming ; and Hezekiah, from
the bottom of the well, hallooed up, " Till, you needn't
cry; I'm a comin' up." — and sure enough, by bracing
arms and legs to the sides of the well, he scrambled to the
top, but little the worse for his terrific plunge. The
writer of this looked down the well that night on the way
home from school.
Enoch Gould married Sarah Ann, daughter of
Elisha and Mary Cuff Gould, of Salem; they had an
interesting family of girls and but one son, Elisha, 3rd,
who graduated from Lincoln University, but shortly
afterward died. Two daughters of Enoch Gould are
still living; Henrietta Shords and Olivia Dickinson.
James Gould married Charlotte, daughter of Norton
Gould, both have deceased, leaving no issue; Abigail
married Seneca Bishop, and they had one child, Joseph,
also a graduate of Lincoln University and who also
deceased soon afterward, having never married. Lydia
Gould, as has been detailed, married Archibald CufF,
and afterwards Rev. Furman Gould, becoming his third
wife, his second being Hannah Gould Wester. Charles
Gould, 1st, married " Kitty " Gould and had three sons,
as before told.
Sarah Gould married Thomas Dunn, of Salem;
their children were Sarah, who married Jacob Wright
and has a large family; Elizabeth, who married a man
named Green and left no children; Robert Dunn, who
married Christina, daughter of Anthony Gould, 2nd,
and left two daughters; and Ercurious, who left three
sons and one daughter, one son is now a minister. After
the death of Dunn, Sarah married Anthony Pierce, 3rd.
Elizabeth Gould married Samuel Gould at first, as
has been stated, and becoming a widow married Daniel
Siro. This woman became blind, but she was a remark-
able woman. Blind as she was, she knew all the news
of the neighborhood, could detect any one whom she had
once met, by their step, and could tell whether it was a
man, woman, or child and whether a large person or
small. She was a great plyer of the knitting needles
and forever busy in darning and mending wherever she
lived or visited. She stayed quite a time in the family
of the writer's parents, and when we were all at home
she was to us a source of pleasure and amusement, join-
ing in our pranks with as much relish as if young and not
sightless, but woe to us if we carried our sports too far.
One night having been more full of fun and frolic
perhaps than usual, we were sent off upstairs to bed.
Our noise and laughter continued after we got upstairs,
and soon " Aunt Elizabeth," as we used to call her.
Mrs. Sarah Drxx Pierce, Mother of Mrs. Jacob Wright.
ORIGIN OF NAME 109
came to the foot of the stairs and called out " If you
young'uns don't make less noise, I'll come up there and
lick you like six ! " That was a new word to us then and
" lick you like six " was passed around among us (but
out of her hearing) for many a day.
DESCENDANTS OF BENJAMIN GOULD, 2^D, OF GOULDTOWN,
NEW JERSEY, LIVING AT PRESENT AND CELEBRATING
THEIR Ai^NUAL REUNION ON THE ORIGINAL
HOME PLACE, AUGUST 18TH, 1910.
PEDIGREE OF BENJAMIN GOULD.
1. Benjamin Gould, I, immediate descendant of
John Fenwick, through his granddaughter, Elizabeth
2. Abijah Gould, I, a son.
3. Benjamin Gould, II, a grandson.
1. Lydia Gould Sheppard 2. Prudence F. Gould
(Two children now living.)
1. Almond, Mary 13. Lee, Benjamin F., Bishop
2. Cruse, Amanda B. Lee
3. Felts, AHce S. 14. Pierce, Sarah S.
4. Gould, Abijah 15. Pierce, Isabella L.
5. Gould, Jesse, M.D. 16. Sheppard, Thomas
6. Gould, Margaret S. 17. Steward, William
7. Gould, Mary S. 18. Steward, Theophilus G.,
8. Gould, Joseph Chaplain Steward
9. Gould, Josephine 19. Steward, Stephen S.
10. Gould, Clarence 20. White, Jane Lee
11. Lloyd, Elizabeth L. 21. Webster, Charles
12. Gould, Nancy
(Twenty-one grandchildren now living.)
Cuff, Thomson W.
Gary, Kate S.
Dixon, Mary F.
Drain, Florence M.
Durisoe, Emma J.
Glass, Maud L.
Felts, Phoebe, Teacher
Gould, Grace D.
Felts, Harriet Webster
Jones, Sara L.
Lively, Lizzie M.
Gould, Jesse, 2nd
Lee, Frances A.
Lee, B. F., Jr.
Gould, Ann E.
Gould, Jennie B.
Pierce, Tamson M.
Gould, Luther D.
Gould, Agnes, Teacher
Pierce, Austin R.
Gould, Edgar E.
Gould, Leslie S.
Pierce, Ella W.
ORIGIN OF NAME
73. Sheppard, Floyd
74. Sheppard, Ernest
75. Sheppard, Lydia
76. Steward, Charles G.,
77. Steward, Frank R., Law-
78. Steward, Benjamin G.,
79. Steward, T. B.
80. Steward, G. A.
81. Steward, Clara
82. Steward, Wilmon
83. Steward, Fred K.
84. Steward, Edwina
85. Steward, Esther
86. Steward, Thaddeus
87. Steward, Charlotte
88. Thoroughgood, Jane
89. Wallace, Louisa
90. Webster, Joseph
91. Webster, William
92. Webster, Louis
93. Webster, Daniel
94. Webster, Eli
95. Webster, Frank
96. Webster, Russel
97. Webster, Gertrude
98. Webster, Earl
99. Wright, Lillie
100. White, Phoebe
(One hundred great-grandchildren now living.)
1. Almond, William, Jr. 19. Gould, Pearl L.
2. Almond, Clarence 20. Gould, Clayton
3. Almond, Thomas 21. Grould, Harry
4. Almond, Maud 22. Gould, Eva
5. Almond, Rosell 23. Gould, Leonard
6. Coombs, Bertha 24. Gould, Leland
7. Coombs, Elizabeth 25. Gould, Lester
8. Coombs, Jacob 26. Gould, Martha
9. Jackson, Justin 27. Gould, Sarah
10. Jackson, Agnes 28. Gould, Charlotte
11. Gould, Raphael 29. Gould, Sarah
12. Gould, Constance 30. Gould, Elvira
13. Gould, Rex 31. Gould, Raymond
14. Gould, Madeline 32. Gould, Susan
15. Gould, Douglas 33. Gould, Livola
16. Gould, Stanley 34. Gould, Oscar
17. Gould, Grace 35. Gould, Prudence
18. Gould, Byrel 36. Gould, Clifford
37. Gould, Inez
38. Gould, Elizabeth
39. Gould, Helen
40. Gould, Jeanette
41. Gould, Eli
42. Gould, Marie
43. Gould, Herschel
44. Gould, Lamont
45. Lively, Lavinia
46. Lively, Eliza
47. Lively, Mary
48. Lively, Walter
49. Lloyd, Frank, Jr.
50. Lloyd, Walter
51. Lloyd, Raymond
52. Lloyd, Harry
53. Lloyd, Anna
54. Miller, Leah
55. Miller, Hannah
56. Miller, Carl
57. Pierce, Florence Lloyd
58. Pierce, Cortland
59. Pierce, Ashton
60. Pierce, Lawrence
61. Pierce, Lorenzo
62. Pierce, Oliver
63. Pierce, Margaret
64. Pierce, Annabel
65. Pierce, Dora
( Ninety-four great-great-
66. Pierce, Roy K.
67. Pierce, Earl G.
68. Pierce, Romaine I. H.
69. Pierce, Jessie H.
70. Pierce, Vernon Philip
71. Pierce, Hartley Rupert
72. Pierce, Terrance Claire
73. Pierce, Irving
74. Sheppard, Thomas, Jr.
75. Steward, Stephen, Jr.
76. Steward, Raymond
77. Steward, Leon
78. Steward, Harold
79. Webster, Eva
80. Webster, Ruth
81. Webster, Oscar
82. Wright, Ethel
83. Wynder, Cora
84. Webster, Virginius
85. Cuff, Vivian
86. Cuff, Grafton
87. Cuff, Mildred
88. Cuff, Russel
89. Cuff, Gertrude
90. Felts, Mary Alice
91. Felts, Ruth
92. Felts, George W.
93. Jones, Elizabeth
94. Lee, Benjamin F., Ill
grandchildren now living.)
To this list might be added the names of eight little
great-great-grandchildren, who are living, — babies at the
time of this writing, — making a total of two hundred
and twenty-three from one grandson of Benjamin
THE CUFFS OF SALEM; THEIR PROBABLE ORIGIN; THEIR
ULTIMATE CONNECTION WITH THE GOULD, PIERCE,
AND MURRAY FAMILIES.
The Cuff family was of slave origin, though in a
time quite remote; Cuff, a slave, was owned by a man
named Padgett. Padgett had three daughters, and he,
by some means, got into the Continental Army, in the
French and Indian War, and was killed.
Cuff took care of the widow, and she finally married
him. He was called " Cuffee Padgett " ; they had
three sons, and when these went to school they were
taunted by the other boys as being the sons of " Old
Cuffee Padgett; " so they would have their father drop
the Padgett and take the name of Cuffee Cuff. The
names of these sons were Mordecai, Reuben, and Seth.
The grave of Cuffee Cuff is in the colored burying-
ground at Canton, N. J., the land for which was given
by his oldest son, Mordecai, and his is the first grave in
it. Mordecai dug the grave himself for his father, and
while digging it, his little daughter, Dorothy, was play-
ing about; on the fence nearby she found a gold chain
hanging, which it was supposed was lost by some young
people from Philadelphia who had been there the day
before. She kept this chain for years and before her
death gave it to her son, Jacob B. Pierce, of Gouldtown,
an old man now, who still has it at this time (December,
nineteen hundred and twelve).
These three brothers, sons of Cuffee Cuff, became
farmers; but later, Reuben became a preacher in the
Methodist Society, and organized a church in Salem,
and was one of the founders of the African Methodist
Episcopal Church in America. Reuben kept a Bible
record of his own family. The Bible is now in posses-
sion of Wm. A. Cuff, of Bridgeton.
This record shows that he was born in Salem, March
28, 1764, and he left numerous descendants, for he had
a large family. His brother, Seth, married, and had
three daughters, Mary, Sarah, and Emma Ann; the two
last died young. Reuben Cuff, the preacher, married
Hannah Pierce, the record states. She was born Novem-
ber, 1767. They were married March 3, 1790. She
was the daughter of Richard Pierce, 1st, of Gouldtown.
Their children were Anthony, born December 18, 1790;
Jonathan, June 20, 1792; Reuben, April 4, 1794, died
very young; Richard, March 28, 1796; Alley, 1798, died
September 11, 1799, aged one year, nine months, and
twenty-one days; Anna, December 29, 1799; Elizabeth,
February 21, 1802; Reuben (named after the one who
died), March 7, 1804. Hannah, the wife and mother,
died April 23, 1804, a little more than a month after the
birth of her last son.
Reuben Cuff, the father, on November 28, 1805, took
for his second wife, Lydia Her, widow of Morris Her.
To them were born Burgoyne, October 12, 1806, and
Archibald, date not given, also one daughter, Caroline,
who married Daniel Lee, uncle of Bishop B. F. Lee,
but she died early, childless. Lydia, the second wife of
Reuben, the preacher, died May 2, 1814, and two years
after this he married Ann Gould, daughter of Samuel
Gould of Gouldtown, May 1, 1816. In this year Rev.
Reuben Cuff attended the convention in Philadelphia
as a delegate, in the organization of the African Metho-
dist Episcopal Church, as before stated.
Anthony Cuff, the oldest son, married Martha, the
second daughter of Anthony Gould, 1st, of Gouldtown.
She was the granddaughter of Benjamin and Ann
CONNECTED FAMILIES 115
Gould, founders of Gouldtown. Their children were
Mordecai, Anthony, and William CufF, and Phoebe
Hannah, and another daughter, who died early in life.
Their youngest son, Wilham Cuff, still dwells in
Bridgeton and is now (1912) in his seventy-fifth year.
He has one daughter living. Phoebe Hannah married
Hosea Pierce, son of Reuben Pierce, and greatgrandson
of Anthony and Mary Van Aca Pierce. Three
daughters were born to them; she died early in her
married life. Jonathan Cuff married Mary, daughter
of John and Tabitha Murray of Gouldtown. Their
children were Jonathan, Jr., Oliver, Margaret, Jane,
Leonard, IVIary, Ai*tie, and Thomas. Richard Cuff mar-
ried Rebecca Tliompson. Three sons and three daugh-
ters are still living; one son, Hiram Cuff, a farmer,
resides in Salem County, one daughter, Hannah, wife
of Charles Cuff, resides in Salem County, another, wife
of Jeremiah Harris, resides in Holly Beach, New
Jersey, and the other two sons reside in East Jersey.
Rebecca, the youngest, resides in Bridgeton.
Elizabeth married William Wilson, a noted Salem
County farmer in his day. They had several sons and
but one daughter, all of whom are now dead, except
William and Joseph, both over eighty years old and
residing in Philadelphia.
William Wilson, Jr., married Anna, daughter of his
mother's brother, Archibald Cuff. Two sons and one
daughter are also living, but Anna died many years ago.
Joseph Wilson married Tamson Sheppard, daughter of
Lydia Gould Sheppard (daughter of Benjamin and
Phoebe Gould) , the woman who recently died at the age
of one hundred and two. Tamson had but one child,
which died an infant, and she deceased in 1874, aged
Reuben Cuff married Tamson Cox, widow of
William Cox, of Indian descent, if not a half-breed.
There were no children born to them. She also was the
daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, and died in
1877 in Gouldtown.
Burgoyne married Prudence, daughter of Benjamin
Pierce, of Gouldtown. He was a well-to-do farmer near
Quinton. They had but one child, Burgoyne, Jr., who
became a preacher, but died early in life. He married,
however, Estelle, daughter of Robert Dunn, of Gould-
town ; they had no children.
Mordecai CufF, brother of Rev. Reuben and Seth
Cuff, married Margaret (" Peggy ") Thomas, sister to
David Murray's wife, and had three daughters, Ruha-
mah. Prudence and Dorothy. Ruhamah became the
wife of Oliver Gould, oldest son of Benjamin and
Phoebe Gould, and resided in Gouldtown. Prudence
married Lewis Pierce, son of Anthony Pierce, of Gould-
town, and resided in Harmersville, where he kept a
general store. After Prudence's death Dorothy became
Pierce's second wife and had children. She became the
second wife of Elisha Gould, Jr., of Gouldtown, and
died in 1894, aged eighty- four. They had no children.
Archibald Cuff, Rev. Reuben's son, married Lydia
Gould, daughter of Elisha Gould, and they had sons
and daughters. Their sons were Seth, still living, and
now over ninety years old; Elisha, Burgoyne, Reuben,
Francis, Daniel, Ai'chibald and Charles ; and daughters,
Anna and Caroline. Anna, Caroline and Francis are
dead, all the others survive. Archibald Cuff erected a
small home on land left to his wife by her father Elisha
Gould, which stood in front of where the Gouldtown
church now stands. It was burned down, and the family
then removed to Salem, where he engaged in farming
until his death. His widow, many years after, became
the second wife of her cousin. Rev. Furman Gould.
CONNECTED FAMILIES 117
The Bible record has become so dulled by age that
some of the dates are undecipherable. A son, William,
one of the older children, but not the oldest, has his
record entirely obliterated. He married Prudence
Murray, daughter of John and Tabitha Murray, of
Gouldtown, and became a tenant farmer in Salem
County, residing on the same rich farm until he had
raised a large family, when he died, and his son Job
succeeded him on the same farm until he also raised a
large family, and now lives retired in Hancock's Bridge.
Five of William and Prudence Cuff's daughters be-
came the wives of Goulds: one, Hannah Ann, was
married by Jonathan Gould, residing in Gouldtown;
Filizabeth, another, married Henry Gould, and removed
to Illinois, where she died; another, Hester, married
Furman Gould, Jr., and resided in Bridgeton; another,
Sarah J., married John Gould, the well-known carpen-
ter and builder in his day, and another, Caroline, is the
wife of Rev. Theodore Gould, of Philadelphia. They
had four sons, William, Jr., Joseph, Job, and David.
William married Maranda Murray, daughter of his
mother's brother, Oliver Murray, of Gouldtown; Job
married Lydia Ann, daughter of Aaron Gould, of
Gouldtown; Joseph never married and died an old
bachelor several years ago, and David went away some
thirty years ago or more, and lost his identity.
Elisha Gould, Jr., married Mary, daughter of Seth
CuiF; they had one son. Smith, who married Maria,
daughter of Abijah Gould, Jr., and Rachel Hicks
Gould, and four daughters, Sarah Ann, who became the
wife of Enoch Gould, Miriam, who married Freeman
Gould, Isabelle, who married Burgoyne Cuff, and
Hannah Caroline, the wife of William H. Gould.
Thus the Cuff family became united with the Gould
and Murray as well as the Pierce families of Gouldtown.
GENEALOGICAI. SKETCH OF JOHN MURRAY^S AND DAVID
MURRAY^S FAMILIES AND SOME OF THE PIERCE
John Murray married Tabitha Lupton (white).
Their children were John Murray, 2nd, OHver Murray,
Silas Murray (deceased — leaving no issue), Hannah
Murray, Sarah Murray, Almedia Murray, Mary Mur-
ray, Prudence Murray, Hester Murray, Jane Murray.
Oliver Murray married Amy Murray, daughter of
David and Sarah Murray; their children were Maranda,
who married William CufF, Jr., of Salem ; Adeline, who
became the wife of the Rev. Jehu Pierce; Tabitha, who
married Jeremiah Pierce, of Salem ; Silas, 2nd, Wesley,
and David Murray, Jr.; Sarah Murray, who married
William Murray, son of John Murray, 2nd; Rachel
Murray, who married Moses Pierce, 2nd; Cynthia
JNIurray, who married David Pierce. Silas, Wesley, and
David are dead.
John Murray, 2nd, married Mary Hand (white).
Their children were John Murray, 3rd, Zachariah
Murray, Ebenezer Murray, Henry Murray, Hiram
Murray, William Murray, Lewis Murray, and daugh-
ters, Mary, Elizabeth, Julia, Harriet. All are gone,
excepting Mary (Mrs. Frederick Gould), and Eliza-
beth, who is single and resides with Mary, and Henry.
Lewis never married, and died in Millville, where he
had resided since coming home from the Civil War, in
which he and three of his brothers served. These four
boys served in the Civil War, as white soldiers. Three
of them, Hiram, Henry, and Ebenezer, served in Co.
B, 2nd Regt., N. J. Vol. Infantry.
MURRAY AND PIERCE 119
Hannah Murray married Elijah Gould, as detailed
in preceding pages ; Sarah Murray married first Menon
Pierce, 2nd; had one son, Maurice, and after the death
of Menon married Pierce Gould; Almeda Murray
married Leonard Gould, youngest son of Abijah Gould,
1st, as has been before shown. Mary Murray married
Jonathan Cuff, of Salem, already detailed. Prudence
Murray married William Cuff, Sr., of Salem. This
has been before given.
Hester Murray married Jacob Pierce, son of
Wanaca Pierce. They had a numerous family. One
of the sons was Jacob Pierce, who went West before
the war; went to the war, rose to the rank of Captain
in a regiment from the State in which he resided. After
the war he married, and became owner of several large
farms. In a letter received from him by the writer,
some sixteen years ago, he stated he and his boys were
in the height of their wheat harvest ; the letter set forth
that he was running eight wheat-headers, four horses
each in his wheat-field at home, harvesting their grain.
He said the price of wheat at that time was ninety cents
per bushel. Of course, he and all his family were white
people. He died about three years ago.
The other sons were Jehu, a Methodist minister;
Israel, now deceased, leaving one child; Freeman, who
married a daughter of Mason M. Gould; Ephraim, who
married Mary Pierce, daughter of Moses Pierce, 1st;
and Fayette, who married Anna Billingsly, of Phila-
delphia. The daughters of Jacob and Hester Pierce
were Elvira, who married Aaron Pierce (both are dead,
but left several children) ; Hester, who married William
Coombs, Jr. (she is dead, leaving two sons) ; Hannah,
who married Leonard Cuff, of Salem, who left several
sons; Eliza Jane, wife of Horatio Pierce (dead, no
children surviving) ; Almedia Jones — now a widow with
one son; Cynthia, who married Robert Pierce, who died.
She is now second wife of William Coombs, Jr.
Jane Murray, the yoimgest daughter, married Amos
Pierce, son of Anthony Pierce, 2nd. Their children
were Malinda, who married Hezekiah Gould; Gideon
Pierce, the well-known boss carder in the East Lake
Woolen Mills, in their palmy days; Robert Pierce, the
boss spinner in the same works, and Lorenzo, twin
brother of Robert, the " picker " in the same business;
Ruth Pierce (Mrs. Valentine) ; Sarah Jane, wife of
William Cuff, 3rd (she is deceased) ; Margaret, widow
of Eh Lee, of Salem, and now the second wife of
Stephen S. Steward, and Elizabeth, widow of Phineas
Pierce of Salem.
John Murray and Tabitha Lupton, his wife, were
born and lived between the years of 1750 and 1852, John
dying at a little over one hundred and two years of age,
and his wife at ninety-six. The youngest of their
descendants named in these preceding pages is Eliza-
beth, the youngest daughter of Jane Murray — youngest
daughter of John and Tabitha Murray.
There has been but little of drama in all the lives of
these generations, above that of hard struggles to make
a living; but as it can be traced, there was much of
romance, some pathos, and plenty of humor throughout.
John and Henry Gould, the oystermen, had much fun
among themselves when they would arrive home from
carrying peaches and grain from slaveholding territory;
they would regale their friends at home with their ex-
periences and relate to them the possible consequences
should they be discovered to maintain a trace of the
colored people's blood in themselves. Isaac Cox, when
penetrating into the heart of Georgia, as far as Augusta
during the Civil War, as an English blockade runner,
found much romantic food to feast on when taken into
MURRAY AND PIERCE 121
the homes of those proud Georgians and feasted as an
Englishman. Another, who had been a clerk in his
father's country store, and later in a Salem city store,
went to a large western city and became, and is, a lead-
ing dry-goods merchant. But these bits of romance
carry their terrors. This same merchant, now very old,
sent his children (he had married there) to the fashion-
able schools. One day his children came home and in
their lively prattle, related how some new scholars had
come to their school and said they had come from Salem,
New Jersey, where they knew people of the same name
as theirs, — " But papa," said the children, " they said
these people were colored people." Instantly terrified
at a possible discovery, the father made immediate
arrangements to have his children placed in an advanced
and more select school.
Tliis American prejudice is a terrible handicap to
intelligent aspirations and effort. For people of the
conditions herein attempted to be described to amount to
anything of recognized worth and escape the galling
effects of this trait of the American character, — to
escape humiliation and even insult and injury, unfair
and even brutal treatment, — they must leave this
country, their home for generations and go to some
Latin country to the southward or else to Europe. None
can appreciate this situation, except those who have
lived in it and felt its stifling atmosphere. " Where
ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be wise," is a saying that
goes ; these early children of the woods and forests knew
but little of this ill thing in the early days. It has come
with the advance of civilization; where they were in
ignorance of the outside world they were not hurt by its
rough edges. To chop their logs, plough their grounds,
live on their own lands and dig their sustenance, meagre
as it may have been, from their own forests, they lived
in peace and simple happiness, undisturbed by those
things which, with education and culture, civilization and
accomplishments and increasing sensitiveness, become so
galling and unbearable. It is only the clannish love of
" the old home " which keeps such people here. To be
distinguished, they must go to Paris, like H. O. Tanner,
or to Berlin, like J. G. Bias, or to Rome or Naples, like
others connected with these people this book aims to
describe and illustrate in their humble, simple lives.
In 1802 Wanaca Pierce purchased from Abraham
Sayre forty-five and a half acres of land out of the
Abinadab Westcott estate, out towards the Beaver
Dam, for which he jjaid <£ 70. John Pierce, his brother,
purchased from the David Westcott estate out of the
Pamphylia Tract, fifty acres near Wanaca's tract, for
which he paid £ 100. This was in 1802 also. Abraham
Sayre also bought of Benjamin Pierce a tract of land
in the same locality, which Benjamin had purchased of
his brother John. Menon Pierce, another brother, pur-
chased of Jacob Steeling, administrator of Anthony
Gould, 1st, in 1803, thirty- four and one-quarter acres
of land of which Anthony Gould died seized; this was
contiguous to other lands which Menon Pierce owned
and also adjoining lands purchased by his brothers,
Wanaca, John and Benjamin. These lands went out
towards the Beaver Dam, in what was long known as
Lebanon Neck. Richard, their brother had purchased
land just north from Gouldtown. Another brother,
Anthony, 2nd, had already owned a measure of land
close to the lands of Benjamin Gould, 1st.
From these six brothers descended that branch of
Pierces, the progeny of Richard and Hannah Wanaca
Pierce. They were born between 1750 and 1770.
Richard and Anthony were in the Revolution. They
intermarried mostly with the Murrays and Goulds.
Jonathan Freeman Pierce, Son of Wanaca and Mary Pierce.
MURRAY AND PIERCE 123
Wanaca Pierce married Mary Murray, daughter of
Othniel Murray. They had children, Adrian, born in
1802, Peleg, Jacob, Jesse, Wanaca, Jr., all older than
Adrian, and Isaiah, J. Freeman, and Holmes, all
younger than Adrian; and daughters, Hannah,
Catherine, Lydia, and Mary. Wanaca and Mary —
father and daughter — were killed by lightning while
standing in the door of their home in August, 1819.
Adrian Pierce married Rachel Stewart, daughter of
Cato and Elizabeth Stewart. Rev. Jeremiah H. Pierce
was one of their sons. Stewart H. Pierce of Carmel,
who resides on the old homestead of his father, is the
only one of the family now living. Jacob Pierce
married Hester Murray, and their descendants have
been given in preceding pages. Jesse Pierce married
Ruth Pierce Duck, a widow, who was his cousin, and
daughter of his uncle, Benjamin Pierce. They had no
children, but Ruth had two children, Amos and Pru-
dence Duck, by her former marriage. Peleg was un-
married. Isaiah married Jane Pierce, daughter of
Richard Pierce, 3rd, and had one child; Mrs. Jane
Keen, residing in Bridgeton, is a granddaughter.
J. Freeman Pierce married Ann Gould, daughter of
Elijah Gould, 1st; one daughter and one son are still
living. Holmes Pierce married Mary BaraclifF, a Ger-
man woman; they left several children, prominent of
whom is the enterprising farmer and wood-dealer,
George T. Pierce, or Pearce as he spells his name.
Holmes always spelled his name in the same way, de-
claring that was the original name. Holmes Pierce was
an energetic and enterprising man and left quite a for-
tune when he died a few years ago. Hannah Pierce
became the second ^vife of Jesse Gould, as previously
related, and Catherine married Aaron Gould; Lydia
married Rev. Henry Davis, and left no children; both
died years ago.
Adrian Pierce owned about seven hundred acres of
woodland and farm land — ^most of it woodland, but it
has nearly all been sold off by his heirs. Holmes Pierce
left much property in farm land and woodland, besides
several houses in Bridgeton; he left each of his sons,
Peter, John, Holmes, Jr., and George a farm, and his
only daughter, Sophia, a portion in cash.
George, the most enterprising of the sons, has added
largely to his patrimony, both in woodland and in city
property. He also owns the homestead farm, where
his father resided before retiring and moving into the
city. George also owns his father's city home, on East
Commerce Street, near which he has recently purchased
the seventy-acre farm and residence owned by the late
Nathan Gould, now within the city limits of Bridgeton.
Wanaca Pierce, 1st, left considerable property,
mostly timberland, which was divided by his adminis-
trators among his children. Jacob Pierce, J. Freeman
Pierce, Wanaca Pierce, Jr., as well as Adrian and
Holmes, all added considerably to their original patri-
monies, but the others did not. Wanaca Pierce, Jr.,
purchased a farm eastward from Fairton, where he
lived and died, and after his death the farm was pur-
chased by John Gould.
Holmes Pierce was the youngest son, and seemed
to have inherited the shrewd instinct of his father for
progressiveness, more than the others, judging by the
traits of his father's character as handed down. Holmes
early started out to make money, as his father's death
occurred when he was quite young. Having a fair
education he taught school for a short time, and then he
became a medicine peddler, but this was too slow to suit
his notion of making money, and he went into buying
MURRAY AND PIERCE 125
and selling cattle; purchasing a farm, he went into
horse-breeding. Soon he became one of the heaviest
dealers in the county in cord-wood, hoop-poles and salt
hay. No man around the county employed more men
in these enterprises than did Holmes Pierce. Next
to him in the cord- wood and hoop-pole business in those
contemporary times, however, were Oliver and Abijah
Gould, 3rd, who engaged many men and teams in these
industries a half century ago and more. The salt hay
which Holmes Pierce dealt in was mostly used for
packing hay in the glass-works in South Jersey and in
Philadelphia and in the pottery works at Trenton,
where hundreds of tons were sold annually.
SKETCHES OF THE DAVID AND SARAH MURRAY FAMH^Y.
The children of David and Sarah Thomas Murray
were Othniel, 2nd, Jeremy, Amy, Sarah, Patience,
Charity, Hope (the last three were triplets), Elizabeth,
Amelia, Nancy, Enos, Mary, Margaret.
Othniel Murray, 2nd, married Angeline Pierce,
daughter of Richard Pierce, 2nd, and Tabitha Pierce,
daughter of Adam Pierce, 1st, the Revolutionary
soldier. Othniel and Angeline had several children ; one
daughter and one son are still living, and one of the
son's sons, Othniel, 3rd, is now in the United States
Army, stationed at Fort Reno, at this writing. The
daughter and son who survive, reside in Bridgeton.
Jeremy lived a bachelor until quite an old man, when
he married a widow, who came from Tennessee ; both are
long dead, leaving no children. Ajmy Murray married
her cousin, Oliver Murray, and had a number of chil-
dren, who have been heretofore enumerated. Sarah
Murray married Charles Lloyd, a manumitted black
slave, who used to drive a team in the great gangs of
freight wagons which conveyed merchandise from
Baltimore to Pittsburgh, before the days of railroads.
Their children were William, Adelia, Sabia, George,
Charles, Lydia, Emily, Amanda, Alexander, Jonathan,
Lewis, and Albert. Of these Charles, George, Jona-
than, and Albert of the boys, and perhaps Lydia,
Emily, and Amanda, are still living.
Patience Murraj'^ married Clement Pierce, stepson
of Wanaca Pierce, 1st. They had many children; all
are dead or gone away. Charity married a man named
David Baily, and resided in Salem County. They had
two children, David J. Baily and Nancy. Nancy be-
came the wife of Levi Harmon, of Back Neck. Both
David and Nancy are dead. Hope Murray, the last
of the triplets, was drowned when a young man.
Amelia married Richard Pierce, 3rd, son of Richard,
2nd, and Tabitha Pierce, and resided on a farm which
they owned on the Roadstown road — now owned by
Elizabeth Murray married John Keen, a white man.
They were married by the venerable Ethan O shorn,
pastor of the " Old Stone Church " in Fairfield, in
January, 1839. Their children were John Keen, Jr.,
who became a shoemaker; Joseph and Levi, who went
to Virginia and settled after the war, as white men, and
Jacob Jones, who died in Gouldtown; Marietta, a very
beautiful girl, long dead, and Margaret, wife of Aaron
Paul Gould, now living ; Marietta was the wife of Jacob
B. Pierce — she left no children.
Nancy Murray married a colored man in Salem.
Enos died young. David married a daughter of Simon
and Mary Siro, but died without issue.
The children of John and Tabitha Lupton Murray
have been enumerated. The children of David and
Sarah Thomas Murray have also been enumerated.
Mrs. Elizabeth Stewart, One of the Organizing .Members of Gouldtown Church.
MURRAY AND PIERCE 127
Mark Murray married Hannah Gates, August 23,
1810. All of these women were white. Mark resided
on what was long called " The Mark Fields," which are
beyond Gouldtown and a little northward from the old
Dick farm on the Millville trolley-line. The Mark
fields are now owned by George W. Coombs. Mark
Murray ran away; what became of his wife is not
known. They left no children. The children of the
sister, Mary Murray, who became the wife of Wanaca
Pierce, 1st, have been given with their descendants.
Dorcas Murray, the remaining sister, became the
wife of Adam Pierce, the Revolutionary soldier, who
was the only son of Anthony and Mary Van Aca Pierce,
as has been stated.
The children of Adam and Dorcas Pierce were
Matthias, Andrew, Asa, and Adam, and three
daughters. Asa died young; Matthias went as a sailor
in a vessel belonging to John Trenchard of the original
Trenchard family, of Fairfield, and in one voyage, on
which a son of Trenchard, the owner, was a sailor, the
vessel was lost with all on board and nothing was ever
heard from her or any of her crew.
Andrew Pierce got in a scrape by cutting the spokes
out of the wagon wheels of Benjamin Gould, 2nd; and,
to avoid arrest, ran away and never came back.
Adam Pierce, the youngest son, was born in the year
1800; his wife was Juliann, daughter of Cato and
Elizabeth Hicks Stewart. They had six sons and two
daughters. The daughters were Mary Elizabeth, wife
of Augustus Gould (both now dead) ; Sarah Rachel,
^wife of the present writer; Edward, who married
Rebecca Bustill, of Philadelphia; Alexander, who went
West, and died several years ago in TIacoma, Washing-
ton, leaving a widow but no children ; John C, who died
in Bridgeton, leaving two sons ; Calvin B. and Warren
W. Pierce; Benjamin F., who resides at Fairton and
whose wife is Sarah, second daughter of Lydia Gould
Sheppard, who died recently in Millville at the great
age of one hundred and two years. Charles Jones, the
next of the brothers, died in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, leav-
ing a widow, but no children. Hosea, the youngest
child, died a youth.
Edward Pierce left three sons, one daughter, and a
widow still surviving. Two sons, the daughter and the
mother reside in Philadelphia, while the oldest son,
Edward Pierce, Jr., resides in Washington and has
been for many years in the Government employ. Benja-
min F. Pierce has six daughters and one son, all living ;
one daughter resides in Tacoma, Washington.
The daughters of Adam and Dorcas Murray Pierce
were Sarah, who married John Flemmings, of York-
town; Violette, who married David Pierce, son of
Richard Pierce, 2nd, and Louisa; and Tiabitha, who
became the second wife of Richard Pierce, 2nd, the
father of her sister's husband, David Pierce, and
Hannah, who married Abram Winrow, of Stowe Creek.
David and Violette Pierce lived on a farm in Dutch
Neck, where they reared a large family. Their sons
were Adam, 3rd, Moses, Asa, Hosea, and the daughters
Matilda, Hester, Caroline, and Priscilla.
Adam married Elizabeth, daughter of Abijah
Gould, 2nd, and Rachel Hicks Gould, and had numer-
ous children, many of whom are still living; Moses
mai'ried Ruth, daughter of Elijah Gould, 1st, and
Hannah Murray Gould: Moses lived on a farm he
owned out near where Rosenhayn is now located; he
had several daughters and two sons, most of whom are
yet alive; Asa Pierce died, leaving no issue; Hosea
married Sarah, daughter of Robert Anderson: Hosea
was a soldier of the Civil War — ^he and his wife are both
MURRAY AND PIERCE 129
dead, but numerous children and grandchildren survive
them ; Matilda became the wife of Norton Gould, son of
Richard and Charlotte Gould, and many of their chil-
dren still survive; Hester Pierce became the wife of
Smith Pierce, of Salem; she had one daughter and two
sons, still living; Caroline Pierce married a man in
Bushtown and vanished from her relations; Priscilla
never married and died an old maid. David and
Violette Pierce were married, July 12, 1811, the cere-
mony being performed by Squire James Clark of Fair-
field; in the same year David's father, Richard Pierce,
married his second wife, Tabitha, who was Violette's
sister. This marriage ceremony was performed by the
venerable Ethan Osborn, of the Old Stone Church.
WANACA Pierce's (2nd) family.
Wanaca Pierce, 2nd, married Margaret, daughter
of Richard and Tabitha Pierce. He resided on the farm
he bought eastward from Fairton ; he had sons, Wanaca,
3rd, Cornelius, Richard, 3rd, and one daughter, Mary.
They are all dead.
Wanaca's wife, Margaret, died and he again
married; this time an English woman, Fanny Horton;
they had two daughters (one of whom is dead) , and one
son now living.
THE BENJAMIN PIERCE (3rd) FAMILY.
Benjamin Pierce's (3rd) wife was Margaret Mur-
ray. They had a numerous progeny; their sons were
Elam, John, Henry, Benjamin, Jr., Leonard, and
Charles; and daughters Margaret, Mary, and Ruth.
Ruth and Mary died unmarried; Margaret married
Stratton Hicks, son of. Andrew and Sarah Pierce Hicks
(one son, Andrew, lives) ; Elam Pierce, growing up
into a fine large man, over six feet tall, went away and
was lost to his family; John Pierce married a daughter
of Clement Pierce, and resided in the vicinity of Seeley's
Mill ; they had several children, most of whom have left
this part of the country; Henry married and resided in
Elmer; his children are in Camden, Philadelphia, and
Salem County; Leonard and Charles, the remaining
sons, died unmarried.
MISCELLANEOUS BRANCHES OF PIERCE FAMILIES.
The Pierce families scattered about Salem County
are the descendants, mostly, of Anthony and Marie
(Mary) Pierce. They are spread about Salem City,
Canton, and Quinton; also formerly in Penton and
latterly in Seeley and Elmer, New Jersey. Those who
descended from Anthony, through Anthony, 2nd, were
those about Canton, the descendants of F. Lewis and
Reuben Pierce, sons of Anthony, 2nd.
Reuben had three sons, Reuben, 2nd, Smith,
Thomas, and one daughter, Elizabeth. Reuben, 2nd,
married Emeline, daughter of Leonard Gould, of
Gouldtown ; they had but one daughter, Emeline : they
resided in the city of Salem, where they had a pretty
home. Both Emeline and her daughter were of re-
markable beauty, and Reuben, the husband and father,
was a handsome man, both in form and features; his
appearance was that of a Spaniard. They were a
devoted family to one another, and their happy home
was the subject of comment among their friends a half-
century or more ago. Death, it is said, loves a shining
mark, and all these died young; and in the sixties the
entire family was obliterated, leaving no descendants.
Smith Pierce married Mary Cuff and left several
children, Jeremiah, a Salem carpenter being the princi-
MURRAY AND PIERCE 131
pal one now living. Thomas Pierce, the other son of
Reuben, Sr., married in Camden; but they left several
children surviving, some of whom lately removed to
Bridgeton where they, now reside. Elizabeth married
a man named Bond, in Camden, where she still resides,
though advanced in years. She was a beautiful girl when
young. Her husband is dead.
The children of John Pierce, at least some of them,
settled in Salem, about Canton and Quinton. From
these came George Pierce, who married Julia Noble,
and Andrew Pierce, who married Lydia Cornish.
Anthony Pierce, 3rd, son of Menon Pierce of Gould-
to\Mi, also went early into Salem County, where he
married and had several children, one of whom is Menon,
4th, and from this branch came William H. Pierce, the
well-known express carter of Bridgeton.
Benjamin Pierce's ^vife's name was Ruth (last
name unknown) , a German woman. She was of a very
lovable character; devoted to her family and generally
beloved by the neighborhood in which she lived, and
familiarly called " Aunt Ruth." Their children were
Benjamin, Jr., Andrew, Ruth, and Sarah. Benjamin,
2nd, married Margaret, daughter of David Murray.
Ruth married Charles Duck, and Sarah married An-
drew Hicks, son of Josiah and Elizabeth Pierce Hicks.
The children of Sarah Pierce and Andrew Hicks
were Catherine, who married Hiram Pierce, and this
family is now extinct; Rachel, who married a colored
man of Salem; Sarah Ann, who went blind; Stratton,
who married his cousin, INIargaret, daughter of his Uncle
Benjamin Pierce, his mother's brother; and Isaiah, who
became a city barber in Philadelphia, and if he ever
married it is not known, as he died a young man.
The youngest of the children of Andrew and Sarah
Hicks was Prudence, who became the wife of William
Hendrickson. Both of them are dead, leaving only an
adopted daughter, to whom they left their little home
on South East Avenue, Bridgeton, N. J. Andrew
Hicks of Bridgeton is the sole survivor of the family of
Andrew and Sarah Hicks. The family of Ruth Pierce
Duck is extinct.
The families of John Pierce (who married a
daughter of Clement and Patience Pierce) resided
about Seeley, and have drifted away; Henry resided in
Salem County; his descendants are all white.
There is another branch of the Jesse Pierce and
Christina Stoms Pierce family not yet mentioned. That
is the family of their son, William Pierce. Jesse and
Christina Pierce had three sons and two daughters ; the
daughters were Almeda (wife of Anthony Gould, 2nd)
and Mary, who left the neighborhood and vanished from
the community; the sons were William, Ephraim, and
Robert. The descendants of Robert were mentioned.
James R. Pierce, of Burhngton Avenue, and Ephraim
Pierce, Jr., of East Commerce Street, are sons of
Ephraim and Louisa Pierce. Thus two sons and two
daughters of Jesse and Christina Pierce are accounted
for. William Pierce, the remaining son, married Char-
lotte Ogden, of Hopewell Township. They had numer-
ous children but there are only one son and three
daughters of that family now living : the son Jesse, 2nd,
lives alone in a small house of his own, while of the
daughters, one, Elizabeth, the widow of John Murray,
3rd, resides with her daughter in Fairton. Another,
Roseann, lives at Bayside, the wife of Emanuel Pierce ;
and Mary, the last remaining daughter, is domiciled in
Greenwich. She is the widow of the late Jedediah
Pierce, and has one son, Isaac Pierce, and one daughter.
Rosette, now widow of Clayton Gould, 2nd, and residing
FAMILY EUGENICS AND LONGEVITY; THE GOULD^ PIERCE^
AND MURRAY ESTATES.
The hygienism of the Goulds, Pierces, and Murrays
was of the most simple kind, and, it may be said, the most
effective for the preservation of their health and the
promotion of longevity; as has before been stated, all
three of the families were noted for their natural length
of life. Families of six to ten children would live to
reach mature j^ears, and, in many cases, all would live
to reach old age. Hereditary disease was unknown
among them, except as will be stated further on, unless
it may be here and there in sporadic character, and not
in direct heredity.
All the common infantile and youthful ailments were
prevalent, such as measles, whooping-cough, chicken-
pox, and such like, which were almost always treated
with such domestic remedies as herb teas, called *' yarb
tea," and poultices — according to the nature of the ail-
ment. So far as can be ascertained, no case of smallpox
or other virulent disease was ever known in the com-
munity. They took no sanitary precautions ; their main
treatment was to keep cool in summer and warm in
winter, with plenty of solid and wholesome food, but
little or no luxuries or high living. The woods afforded
them the chief ingredients of their home-made medicines
and salves and ointments, which were used, internally or
externally, for all manner of complaints with which, in
their simple lives, they were attacked.
Pulmonary troubles, except as will be explained
later, were unknown; bad colds were treated with *' yarb
tea," fevers were dosed with home-made " yarb " febri-
f uge ; measles were helped by infusions, and the patient
kept out of a draft; for whooping-cough emetics and
syiTips of molasses and onions were given. Consump-
tion, now and always such a dreadful disease, was only
known sporadically, until intermarriage with one branch
of the Cuff family. Its heredity seems to be positively
traced in this branch, but its origin seems to be obscure.
The Goulds, Pierces, and Murrays intermarried into
the Rev. Reuben Cuff family, and also the families of
his brothers, Mordecai and Seth Cuff — these two last
had married white women. No tuberculosis has been
traced to the Rev. Reuben Cuff family directly, except
in one instance, but from the families of Mordecai and
Seth the trace is apparently well marked, and the infer-
ence leads to the opinion that, if hereditary, it must be
by way of their marriage. Oliver Gould married a
daughter of Mordecai Cuff, and had a large family of
children; all but one grew to maturity and all but one
died with consumption. One is still living. Elisha
Gould, 2nd, married a daughter of Seth Cuff. Con-
sumption afflicted his children and carried off many of
his grandchildren, especially the family of Enoch Gould,
who married Sarah Ann, the oldest daughter of Elisha
Gould, 2nd. Some sporadic cases, with two or three
deaths, came through the family of Anthony Cuff,
whose wife was Martha Gould.
THE GOULD ESTATES.
The original Gould estate, as given documentarily
in the will of Benjamin Gould, 1st, was devised to his
three sons, Samuel, Abijah, and Elisha. The oldest
son, Anthony, was devised his portion in cash. To
Samuel and Abijah, the founder gave one hundred
and thirty-six acres of land to be divided equally be-
tween them, and to his remaining son, Elisha, he gave the
LONGEVITY; ESTATES 135
residue of his land. The surrogate's office does not show
any division of the lands left by Samuel Gould, though
he left considerable. Abijah and Elisha added to their
patrimony by purchase.
The estate of Elisha Gould was divided among his
ten children, by order of the Orphans' Court in 1808, by
three commissioners, Jedediah Davis, Jonathan Coney,
and Enoch Burgen. The sons and daughters were
Charles Goidd, Pierce Gould, Jesse Gould, Elijah
Gould, Elisha Gould, Jr., Charlotte Gould, Elizabeth
Gould, Sarah Gould, Lydia Gould, and Ajina Gould;
the last being a minor, and dying before coming into her
patrimony. The estate was divided into sixteen lots or
parcels by the commissioners, and the total aggregated
two hundred and one and a half acres. The report was
approved by the Court August 15, 1808.
The estate of Abijah Gould, 1st, had been consider-
ably increased before his death. His estate was also
divided in 1808 by order of the Cumberland County
Orphans' Court, by these commissioners: James Clark,
James Westcott, and David Clark. It was divided into
twenty-three lots. No. 1 to No. 23 inclusive. Hannah,
the only daughter of Abijah, was given Lot No. 1 of
fifty acres and sixty-seven hundredths of an acre. She
died young. The report of these commissioners was
approved by the court October 12, 1808. The five sons
were Benjamin Gould, 2nd, Richard Gould, Abijah
Gould, 2nd, Furman Gould, and Leonard Gould. In
this estate was also a considerable quantity of salt marsh
about Dixon's Island in Back Neck, fifty-six acres in
all, and eight and a half acres of cedar swamp in Manu-
musken swamp, in Millville Township. The real estate
of Abijah Gould, which was divided among his five
sons and one daughter, was three hundred and eighty-
nine and forty-seven hundredths acres, besides the salt
marsh and cedar swamp.
The lands of Samuel Gould, second son of Benja-
min the founder, equalled those of Abijah, 1st. This
estate went to his son, Samuel, Jr.'s, widow Elizabeth,
afterward Elizabeth Siro, and his daughters. Most of
it is now owned by Mrs. Joseph Stewart, a large tract.
While the two estates of Abijah and Elisha Gould
were thus divided among their heirs over one hundred
and four years ago, the main bodies of those lands still
remain in the possession of the descendants. Upon the
land set off to Pierce Gould is the " God's Acre " where
repose the bones of his grandparents, his parents, and
himself — the ancient family burying ground. The deed
for this burying ground was later, in 1827 — January
23rd — made by Pierce Gould and Sarah, his wife, to
Adrian Pierce, Jesse Gould, and Benjamin Gould,
trustees, and their successors forever, for the sum of one
dollar, for a burying ground. Also out of this same
estate, and out of that part set off to Lydia Gould, was
sold one acre, deeded to Anthony Pierce, Furman
Gould, Reuben Pierce, Elijah Gould, and Daniel Siro,
trustees, and their successors forever for the sum of
four dollars for a schoolhouse, and it is still used by the
Fairfield Board of Education for that purpose. Out
of the portion set off to Sarah Gould, the Trinity A.
M. E. Church, in 1860, purchased a half acre, upon
which the church was built and where it now stands, the
deed being made to certain trustees and their successors,
according to the form prescribed in the Book of Disci-
pline of that church. The trustees at the time of the
purchase and erection of the church were James
Steward, Abijah iGould, Anthony Gould, Enoch
Gould, and Holmes Pierce, and the minister in charge
was the Rev. Joseph Smith, a man of great piety and
LONGEVITY; ESTATES 137
peculiarly able administrative ability. The New Jersey
Conference of the A. M. E. Church was not yet or-
ganized and this charge was still under the jurisdiction
of the Philadelphia Conference, as a circuit, as it had
been since the organization of the denomination in 1816,
up to this time, 1860, when it became a station.
The estate of Elisha Gould, 1st, was divided by the
commissioners among these ten children, all of whom
were adults except Anna, who was under the age of
twenty-one years, as follows: To Charles Gould, 30
acres; to Pierce Gould, 29 acres; to Jesse Gould, 23.55
acres; to Elijah Gould, 30 acres; to Elisha Gould, 2nd,
31.25 acres; to Charlotte Gould, 13.50 acres; to Eliza-
beth Gould, 12.75 acres; to Sarah Gould, 11.25 acres;
to Lydia Gould, 10.50 acres ; to Anna Gould, 10 acres,
total, 201.80 acres. These divisions are recorded in
Book " D " Division of Lands, pages 322 to 331 in-
clusive, in the Cumberland County Surrogate's OfRce.
The estate of Abijah Gould, 1st, was divided into
twenty-three lots, or parcels, and aggregated in acres
as follows: Among his five sons and one daughter — •
to Benjamin Gould, 51.43 acres; to Richard Gould,
65.63 acres; to Abijah Gould, 2nd, 79.65 acres; to Fur-
man Gould, 62.73 acres ; to Leonard Gould, 79.60 acres ;
to Hannah Gould, 50.67 acres ; total 389.71 acres. This
estate had also 57-50 acres of salt marsh, and this was
divided among the sons as follows: To Benjamin nine
and a half acres; to Richard seventeen acres; to Abijah,
Jr., twenty-three and a half acres ; to Furman four and a
half acres ; to Leonard three acres ; there was also a tract
of eight and a half acres of cedar swamp in Manu-
muskin swamp, below Millville, and one and seventy
hundredths acres of this went to each of the sons. As all
this estate was left unencumbered to his children, it is evi-
dent that Abijah Gould, 1st, was a pretty thrifty man.
From this it is shown that those two ancient Goulds
left to their sons and daughters almost six hundred acres
of land. Anthony Gould's, 1st, land was but a small
tract and was sold by his administrator, Jonathan
Bowen. Samuel Gould's estate was of not much value,
and was mainly bush-land of about one hundred acres,
making in all seven hundred acres.
While most of these lands are still in the possession
of the descendants, much has been added to them. Like-
wise as to old estates of the Murrays and Pierces, espe-
cially the latter, it is not far wide of the mark to say
that the people of color of what is commonly known as
Gouldtown, possess in the neighborhood of five thou-
sand acres of land, the accumulations of themselves
and their ancestors.
The possessions of the original Goulds were to the
southward and westward of those of the original Pierces
and Murrays, and this led to the northern portion being
designated " Piercetown " (now called Fordsville) .
Contiguous to the land of the eastern portion of
Benjamin Gould the Founder's plantation, Richard and
Anthony Pierce, the two brothers, had acquired a con-
siderable number of acres. Anthony Pierce, 2nd, and
Wanaca Pierce, 1st, sons of Richard, had over two
hundred and twenty-five acres of farm-land and timber-
land between them ; the southern line of Anthony's land
bounded on the northern line of that part of the Gould
land falling to Abijah Gould, 1st. Anthony's holding
in this tract was over one hundred acres.
To the northward of this tract was a considerable
scope owned by the original Murrays, while to the north
and west of this was one hundred and twenty-two acres
owned by Wanaca Pierce, 1st. This was originally a
beautiful plot of farm- and timber-land, nearly square in
LONGEVITY; ESTATES 139
shape ; that is, it was a little more than one hundred and
seventy-four perches long by one hundred and twelve
perches in width. This is the Wanaca Pierce who, with
his young daughter Mary, was killed by lightning in
1819. This man left a widow and nine other children;
the oldest at that time, Wanaca, 2nd, being but twenty
years old. Their mother lived many years after this, in
the old homestead.
The estate of Wanaca Pierce, 1st, was divided in
1832, by commissioners appointed by the Orphans'
Court as follows: To Wanaca Pierce, 2nd, nine and
a half acres; to Adrian Pierce, nine acres; to Peleg
Pierce, five and three-quarter acres ; to Freeman Pierce,
sixteen acres ; to Jesse Pierce, six acres ; to Jacob Pierce,
fourteen acres ; to Isaiah Pierce, eleven acres ; to Holmes
Pierce, fifteen acres; to Hannah Pierce (wife of Jesse
Gould) eleven and a quarter acres; to Catherine Pierce
(wife of Aaron Gould) thirteen and a half acres; to
Lydia Pierce (wife of Rev. Henry Davis) twelve and a
half acres; aggregating one hundred and twenty- two
Between this and Anthony's land was the estate of
John Murray and his brother, David Murray, while to
the eastward was that of Mark ^lurray; these lands
were of considerable extent.
Westward from the Wanaca Pierce estate, extend-
ing a mile or more, was the estate of Richard Pierce, 1st,
and his other sons, Richard and John and Benjamin,
while another son, Menon, owned a considerable tract
further northward leaidng at his death a hundred acres
or more of farm and woodland out near Lebanon Neck.
Nearly all of these lands, together with additions,
are still owned by the descendants of those Colonial
ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH; EARLY RELIGIOUS
AFFILIATIONS OF THE PEOPLE.
Like most others of this section of New Jersey, the
inhabitants of Gouldtown held to the Calvinistic
doctrines, with a leaning towards Presbyterianism. In-
deed, their early religious training was received from the
Presbyterians. It is not unlikely that the first Benjamin
Gould listened to the religious admonitions of Rev.
Daniel Elmer, who came from Connecticut and was
installed pastor of the church at New England town
(now known as Old Stone Church) in 1729. The
records of this old church were lost by a fire which
destroyed the church. The earliest Goulds, as well as
the Pierces and Murrays, attended this church under
the administrations of Rev. Daniel Elmer; he died in
1755, the same year that Elisha, the youngest son of
Benjamin Gould, the Founder, was born. They
attended this church also under the administrations of
Rev. William Ramsey, who was pastor of this church
from 1756 and served as pastor until his death in 1771.
The Elmers always took a deep and cordial interest
in Gouldtown; the descendants of Rev. Daniel Elmer
being familiarly known to the people of Gouldtown
until the present time ; the last Daniel Elmer, who died
a few years ago (the seventh oldest son in the line of
lineal descent), the son of the late Charles E. Elmer,
Esq., no less so than those who had preceded him. Dr.
Jonathan Elmer, a son of Rev. Daniel Elmer, born in
1745, and also his brother General Ebenezer Elmer,
also a physician, practised among the early residents of
Rev. Ethan Osborx. Died
May 1, 1858, in his 100th year.
Pastor Presbyterian Church,
Fairfield, 55 years.
Miss Prudence F. Gould.
THE CHURCH 141
Gouldtown, as did also later, Dr. Rush Bateman of
Cedarville. These physicians were all Presbyterians,
adherents of the New England town church, and they,
especially the Elmers, did not fail to sow the seeds of
their faith among the rustic people among whom they
practised; Dr. (General) Ebenezer Elmer, with his
son, spending many a Sunday afternoon in the first
little schoolhouse in Gouldtown, catechizing the children.
This is the first actual known religious teaching given
in the community. The son became the distinguished
Supreme Court Justice — Lucius Q. C. Elmer. The
solid character of this father and son, as well as of those
of their descendants, — Dr. William Elmer, Dr. Henry
Elmer, Dr. Robert Elmer, John T. Nixon, later U. S.
Judge (a son-in-law of Judge Elmer, always familiar
with the rural community) , made its impress upon these
people to a lasting degree.
When Rev. Ethan Osborn became pastor of the
church in 1788, he gave the same care to this community
that he did to others; he performed their marriage cere-
monies and attended the burial of their dead. Although
a Presbyterian church was organized in " Bridgetown "
in 1792, the people of Gouldtown did not transfer their
attendance from Fairfield.
Rev. Michael Swing, the pioneer of the Methodists
in Fairfield, beginning with his advent into the com-
munity in 1799, made some impression upon the Goulds
and Pierces. He built what was known as " Swing's
Meeting House " in Herring Row, about 1819, for a
long time the only Methodist meeting house in Fair-
field. He united in marriage several Gouldtown people
and held service at their funerals, but the relations of the
Goulds with the Methodists were not cordial.
The centenary of a church — any church — is always a
notable event, and the Trinity A. M. E. Church at
Gouldtown will, in a few more years, celebrate such an
The Rev. Reuben Cuff, of Salem, who had become
a Methodist minister, under the ministrations of Dr.
Benjamin Fisler, who travelled the Salem circuit, which
then extended from Salem to Cape May, married into
the Gould family — Shaving wed Anna Gould — ^was, of
course, a frequent visitor in Gouldtown, where he often
held meetings in the early part of the last century.
Phoebe Bowen, the wife of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, was
reared in his family. Many of these meetings were held
in the barn of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, on the old Gould
homestead. The barn was then larger than it is now,
for it has been reduced in size within the writer's recol-
lection ; it had a large threshing floor where the flail was
used in the winter time, or the grain would be trodden
out by the horses (which I have seen done).
This Benjamin Gould was much of a wag — though
later becoming a class leader — but at these meetings he
was not converted. His brother, Furman, afterward a
local preacher, was with others converted. On one occa-
sion the minister and the religious ones of the meeting
tried earnest persuasion upon Benjamin (my grand-
father) to induce him to join the meeting (it was not
called church in those days). With much earnestness
and vehemence they persuaded, bringing to bear all
their arguments about everlasting damnation; making
it exceedingly warm for Benjamin with their beseech-
ings. They, at last, told him of the hot place awaiting
all sinners! Slowly shaking his head he candidly re-
plied, '* I have found that out by present experience."
Benjamin later professed religion and joined the
THE CHURCH 143
meeting. At one time, in prayer-meeting, he was called
on to pray. He coolly called back, " Call on Furm, he
can pray." It was long asserted that his reply was
" Call on Furm, he can pray like the De'il," but this has
alwaj^s been denied. Let this be as it may, Benjamin
Gould lived after joining the meeting a consistent, up-
right life, walking in the paths of piety, dying in 1851,
as he had lived, a humble Christian.
The church in Gouldtown was brought together be-
tween 1816, when the denomination was formed in
Philadelphia, and 1820. It was organized in Benjamin
Gould's barn, but in 1823, the Westcott schoolhouse was
purchased and moved into the neighborhood for the
schoolhouse, where the meetings were afterwards held
until the present church was built in 1860.
Miss Prudence F. Gould, the youngest daughter of
Benjamin and Phoebe Gould, from papers in her pos-
session left by her father, gives this very clear history
of the church at Gouldtown, with incidents of local
interest, together Avith a complete list of the preachers
who have served as pastors from its beginning. She
The records show that the first church was the old school-
house which stood on the old road from Fairton to Millville, on
a lot near to where Lorenzo Gould now resides. This school was
used also as a meeting house by the Presbyterians and Metho-
dists alternately, by the Westcotts, Bennetts, Seeleys, Wood-
ruffs, and Hands (white), and by the Goulds, Pierces, and
Murrays (colored). It was where most of the community
attended meeting in the early part of the century (19th).
Rev. Reuben Cuff, who had organized The Methodist So-
ciety in Salem before this time, and whose first wife was a
Hannah Pierce, of Gouldtown, was a frequent visitor here.
My mother, Phoebe Bowen, had been brought up in his family
in Salem from a child of four years old, — her mother, Lydia
Bowen, having died when she was a baby, and her father Levi
Bowen, passing away when she was at the age of four, — and
Rev, Reuben was a welcome visitor at our house.
After the organization of the African Methodist Episcopal
Church in Philadelphia, our people thought to become attached
to this denomination. By this time a series of meetings had
been held at private houses, and a religious revival had sprung
up. Rev. Reuben Cuff suggested the organizing of a society
here. This was in 1818, and Elder Jeremiah Miller was then
on the newly appointed Salem circuit, so Pastor Cuff, with the
assistance of Rev. Mr. Miller, organized our society. The formal
meeting was held in the home of Elizabeth Gould, widow of
Elisha Gould; her house stood just north of the graveyard on
the lot now owned by Albert Lloyd. The first class was
organized with these fourteen members, namely: Benjamin
Pierce, Furman Gould, Christiana Gould, Benjamin Gould,
Phoebe Gould, Anthony Pierce, Sarah Pierce, Charlotte Gould,
Elizabeth Gould, David Murray, Sarah Murray, Wanaca
Pierce, Mary Pierce, and Elizabeth Stewart. Benjamin Pierce
was appointed the first class leader. The society was attached
to the Salem circuit and Elder Jeremiah Miller was the first
preacher in charge of this appointment.
The houses being too small to accommodate the attendance,
meetings were held in my father's barn, and the first Quarterly
Meeting was held in June, 1819, also in my father's barn. It
was a great meeting, lasting two days, and people crowded
not only the bam floor, but climbed up in the mows.
The school building called the Westcott schoolhouse, which
had been formerly used, and purchased by the society in 1823
and moved to the present schoolhouse lot, served the purpose
of school and meeting house until the purchase of the Lummis
schoolhouse in 1834. The first (Westcott) schoolhouse was
sold to David Murray, who converted it into a dwelling.
The Lummis schoolhouse was moved to the site ; the removal
of this building was an event in the neighborhood, — several
days were required to move it, and the women cooked dinners
THE CHURCH 145
and took the meals to the men on the road. This schoolhouse
was dedicated as a church by Rev. Peter D. W. Schureman, and
the name given it was Ebenezer. It was so used as church and
school, until the erection of the present Trinity A. M. E.
Church, on the opposite side of the road — the Bridgeton and
Under the second pastorate of Rev. Jeremiah Beulah, in
1841 a split in the church occurred, resulting in the withdrawal
of a number of the members who established a Methodist Episco-
pal Church in Fordsville. When the conference sent Rev. Mr.
Beulah to the appointment for the second time, a portion of
the church were bitterly opposed to him, and barred the door
against him. Quite a mob was assembled to keep the preacher
out of the church, Benjamin Gould and David Murray took
the preacher up on their shoulders, and while others pressed
back the crowd, carried him bodily into the church. Once in
the church, the opponents could not get him out. A lawsuit
was entered into by his opponents to oust him; but, as the
trustees of the church were in his favor, nothing came of it,
and the opponents were thrown out of court.
These people, headed by Jacob Pierce and Freeman Pierce
and their families and followers (excepting Freeman's wife),
left the church in a body and in 1841 a schoolhouse and
meeting house combined was built in Fordsville, where now they
have a respectable church and a stationed pastor, and though
of different denominations, the Gouldtown church and Fords-
ville church hold cordial and harmonious relations.
The pastors who have been in charge of the Gouldtown
church from its organization are as follows:
1818. Rev. Jeremiah Miller.
1820. Rev. William Paul Quinn (afterwards Bishop).
1821. Rev. Jeremiah Ridley.
1822. Revs. J. P. B. Eddy and I. B. Dorsey (two cir-
1823-25-26. Rev. Joseph Harper.
1826-28. Rev. Richard Williams.
1829. Revs. J. A. Shorts and Viley Reynolds.
1830. Revs. William Richardson, John Cornish, and
1831. Revs. L. Cook and Samuel Enty.
1832. Rev. John Boggs.
1833. Rev. John Cornish.
1834-35. Rev. Peter D. W. Schureman.
1836. Revs. Noah C. W. Cannon and Henry Turner.
1837. Revs. William Moore and I.evin Tilgman.
1838. Rev. Jeremiah Beulah.
1839. Rev. John Cornish.
1840. Revs. Clayton Durham and Henry C. Turner.
1841. Rev. Jeremiah Beulah.
1842-44. Rev. George Greenly.
1845. Rev. John L. Armstrong.
1846. Revs. A. W. Waymen (afterwards Bishop
Waymen) and A. C. Crippin.
1847. Revs. J. R. V. Morgan, and I. B. Parker.
1848-50. Rev. Richard Barney.
1851. Rev. I. B. Parker.
1852-53. Rev. Sheppard Holcomb.
1854. Revs. Peter Gardner and Isaac Stamford.
1855. Rev. Caleb Woody ard.
1856. Revs. Henry Davis and L. Jackson.
1857-58. Rev. E. J. Hawkins.
1859. Rev. Andrew Till.
1860-61. Rev. Joseph H. Smith. At this time new Trinity
Church built, at a cost of $1,600.
1862. Rev. J. H. Henson.
1863-65. Rev. Joshua Woodlin.
1866. Rev. William Watson.
1867. Rev. Joseph Nelson.
1868-70. Rev. Benjamin Darks.
1871. Rev, Leonard Patterson.
1872-75. Rev. Jos. H. Smith (second time).
1876. Rev. Redmon Faucett.
1877. Rev. Samuel B. Williams.
1878-79. Rev. E. Hammitt.
1879-80. Rev. T. C. Chambers.
(:;(.ul(ltown A. M, ]•:. Clmr
THE CHURCH 147
1882. Rev. Geo. A. Mills.
1883. Rev. Israel Derrick.
1884-85. Rev. Alfred Garrison (who died, and Rev.
James V. Pierce filled out his term).
1886-87. Rev. Wilson Peterson.
1888. Rev. H. P. Thomas.
1889-91. Rev. M. M. Dent.
1892. Rev. G. A. Mills.
1893. Rev. E. M. Harper.
1893. Rev. Geo. A. Woodson (now Dean of Payne
Theological Seminary, at Wilberforce, Ohio).
1895-96. Rev. H. H. Pinkney.
1897-98. Rev. J. H. Mowbray.
1899. Rev. A. B. Cooper.
1900-03. Rev. Jas. A. Groves.
1904-05. Rev. Wm. W. Johnson.
1906. Rev. L. A. Generette.
1907-08. Rev. Aaron A. Collins.
1909-10. Rev. Geo. T. Watkins.
1911. Rev. W. W. Middleton.
1912. Rev. J. H. Robinson.
During the years 1851-52, under the pastorate of Rev.
Sheppard Holcomb, a wonderful revival of religion occurred,
which was most marked among the heads of families ; it swept
the whole community, in a measure, and a large acquisition
was made to the church. A few years later, during the ministry
of Rev. Jos. H. Smith, in 1860, there was another awakening,
when the church membership was increased by over a score.
The greatest revival in the history of the church, however,
was during the winter of 1912—13 under Rev. J. H. Robinson,
when in three weeks 116 were united with the church, the great-
est part of whom came out of the Sunday-school.
From the earliest times of its history, Gouldtown has had
a Sunday-school. Even before the days when General
Ebenezer Elmer and his son catechized the children, in the
little old Westcott schoolhouse, Sunday instruction was given
the youn.g children of the neighborhoods in the same school-
house. It was not long after the regular organization of the
church when a Sunday-school was kept up in the school and
meeting house. This was not altogether for religious instruc-
tion exclusively, but the children were taught to spell and read
and were catechized.
Jesse Gould, a cousin of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, is believed
to have been the first regularly appointed Sunday-school super-
intendent, which position he held several years. After him was
his son, Enoch Gould, who filled the position for a number of
years very ably and acceptably. The best loved and most
devoted Sunday-school superintendent of nearly a half century
ago was Jonathan Gould, son of the preacher Rev. Furman
Gould. To him the children looked up as to a kind and gentle
father. He was a great lover of little children, and a friend
to everybody. He knew every little child in the neighborhood.
Under the superintendency of Jonathan Gould, the Sunday-
school was in a very flourishing condition ; it became the banner
Sunday-school in the township, and had a reputation of the
very highest order. As a country Sunday-school it is safe to
say that it was difficult to find its equal. There were several
causes which might be cited to lead to this condition, but one
of some importance was the clannish love of home and home
ties which pervaded the community. As at country meeting
houses generally, the farmers met on Sundays to greet each
other, chat a little after church, confer about the plans for
work, arrange their brief business affairs with each other, and
engage help if needed in their work and for their business ; but
the Sunday-school was where the young people met and had
their little talks and salutations, and many a love-match was
made in the long walks home from the Sunday-school, and these
love-matches and the resultant weddings, years afterwards,
always turned out well, as was readily attested by the families
which grew up from them.
The clannish disposition of the people made them delight
in these Sunday assemblings, where they could see so many of
their relatives at a single gathering (all in this community
THE CHURCH 149
were more or less related), and a few words of greeting would
leave a lingering pleasure through the following week.
The Sunday-school would be begun with the singing of one
of the old Union Hymn-book hymns, reading a chapter in
the Bible by the superintendent, prayer, and then the classes
with their teachers would read a chapter or two in the Bible,
recite the hymns or verses of Scripture which had been
" learned by heart," and the blue and red tickets given them
for merit. These tickets would be taken in exchange for a
Bible or a hymn-book, and many a Bible went into a family
for " so many red tickets." Thus the classes were taught by
reading the Scriptures, learning the catechism and hymns.
For twenty-one consecutive years Jonathan Gould was
superintendent of the Gouldtown Sunday-school, first in the
old schoolhouse and then in the new church. He died in
1890, aged 77 years, beloved by his Sunday-school and by the
whole neighborhood. Since his retirement from the Sunday-
school it has lost nothing in its standing, in fact it has pro-
gressed continually. It has at all times had a good library
and has had a number of good superintendents and always
maintains a corps of good teachers. In the old times there were
no lesson-helps, but now every such accessory quickly finds its
way to the Gouldtown Sunday-school.
REV. THEODORE GOULD.
GRANDSON OF ELISHA GOULD AND GKEAT-GRANDSON OF
BENJAMIN GOULD, THE FOUNDEB.
Of the family of Elijah and Hannah Murray Gould
Rev. Theodore, their son, became the most distinguished.
He was born August 12, 1830, and is still living, and at
next birthday he will be eighty-three years of age. As
a lad he was a studious but sturdy youth ; he went to a
private school, kept by Miss Eliza Sheppard, but his
schooldays were few, for his parents had a large family
and it was necessary for him to contribute to their sup-
port, which he did, as a boy, by working in a glass
factory near his home in Bridgeton.
In 1847, he was converted and united with the
Church of his parents — the Gouldtown A. M. E.
Church. Four years later he became an exhorter in this
church, and two years after this he was licensed to preach
and joined the Philadelphia Annual Conference, to
which the church at Gouldtown belonged.
After becoming an itinerant preacher, he was
ordained local deacon in the Philadelphia Conference in
1859, being ordained by the then venerable Bishop Wil-
liam Paul Quinn, and was sent to the Danville Circuit,
Pennsylvania. Many of the old residents of Danville,
Bloomsburg, Wilkes-Barre, Abington Centre, and other
Circuit points, remember the work of this earnest and
pious young pastor, who travelled one hundred and
twenty-five miles to reach all the points of his circuit.
Mr. Gould was then sent to the Princeton, New Jer-
sey, Circuit, which he served from 1860 to 1863, and
afterwards was stationed at many points in New Jersey.
He was then transferred to the New York Conference,
where he filled many appointments. In the New York
Conference he ministered to Bethel Church, Sullivan
Street, two years, which were remarkably successful in
church progress. After this he was sent to the New
England Conference, where he held some of the largest
charges, especially the Charles Street Church, Boston,
Avhere he served three years most acceptably. He has
been twice pastor of Bethel Church, Sixth Street, Phila-
delphia, the first church organized by the African
Methodist Episcopal connection and styled the " Mother
Church." He has been appointed Presiding Elder, an
office now called District Superintendent, many times.
Rev. T. Gottld, Pastor of Belliel A. .M. E. Church, .Sixth Streel below Pine, Philadelphia,
THE CHURCH 151
He was business manager of the Church Publication
Department, publisher of the " Christian Recorder," the
church paper, and the various other church publications.
His management of this department was eminently
The following by the late Bishop B. W. Arnett was
published in the Church Budget in 1884 concerning Mr.
Gould; "Rev. T. Gould has been in public life for a
number of years. He is affable in manner, agi'eeable in
society, honest in his dealing with his fellow-men, a great
revivalist, and a consistent Christian gentleman; con-
secrated to the work of saving souls, exemplary in his
life and conversation, the friend of young men, sound in
theology and a good preacher."
Mr. Gould was and is a sound business man — a kind
so rare among preachers generally. In Bridgeton he
owns two dwellings and a store on South Avenue, and a
double dwelling on East Commerce Street, besides a
farm of about one hundred acres with a fine large farm-
house on the Buckshutem Road, in Gouldtown. He was
in the itinerary fifty years and still preaches ably. He
is a man of whom his kinfolk in Gouldtown are de-
He has three children, Howard, a printer in Phila-
delphia, Theodore, Jr., an electrician in Boston, and
Carrie (Mrs. Albert Rumsey). The last, with her
husband, removed this spring from Philadelphia to her
father's farm, just alluded to above, where they will
supplant a tenant farmer.
Mr. Gould still has one sister living, who is Sarah,
widow of Alfred Gould, now eighty-nine years old and
residing on her own farm in Gouldtown with her only
son, Eugene, and only daughter, Mary, both unmarried.
" Short are the annals of a happy people " wrote
Hawthorne. The descendants of Anthony Gould, 1st,
son of Benjamin and Ann Gould, are those who came
from the daughters " Kitty " and Martha, — that is to
say, the children of " Kitty " and Charles Gould, who
were Aaron and Anthony, 2nd (Daniel having gone to
Massachusetts, and become lost), and the children of
" Kitty " and Furman Gould. Of Aaron's descendants
there remain Timothy Gould, and his two sons and two
daughters, and Aaron Paul and his two sons. Of
Anthony's descendants (who was said to have greatly
resembled his grandfather, Anthony) there remain the
children of his son, William, deceased, and daughters,
Phoebe Pierce, still living, the two sons and one daughter
of Elizabeth CufF, deceased, the two sons of Christiana,
deceased (Btelford and Warner K. Pierce) , and the two
daughters of Christiana, together with one son, Lewis,
and one daughter, Barbara, of Almeda,
TJie descendants of " Kitty " and Furman Gould,
viz.: the sons and daughters of Furman, Jr., Jonathan
and Alfred and Charles, 2nd, number a great many.
The children of Furman's daughter Martha also left
many descendants, but Christiana, who is still living,
had no children.
The living representatives of the descendants of
Samuel Gould, 1st, are very few, being only those who
came through his daughter, Hannah, one of whom is
Mrs. Emma Robinson, the wife of Rev. J. H. Robin-
son, now pastor of Gouldtown, her grandmother being
Hannah Gould, who married a Wester ; and the children
of Hannah's daughters, Hannah Jane, and Caroline,
the latter being the wife of Daniel Cuff, of Newark,
N. J. Two sons of Hannah Gould Wester reside in
Camden County, where they had children, who are now
THE CHURCH 153
living in New York, Brooklyn, etc. The Rev. Wm. W.
Johnson, a minister in the New Jersey A. M. E. Con-
ference, is a son of Hannah Jane, above mentioned.
The surviving descendants of Benjamin Gould, 2nd,
were given as up to 1910, in preceding pages. The
living descendants of Elisha Gould, 1st, are most dis-
tinguished in the persons of his grandson, Rev. Theo-
dore Gould, and his granddaughter, Mrs. Sarah Gould,
and their children. There are still other representatives
of the families of Furman Gould, in the persons of
Albert Gould and William C. Gould, farmers, etc.
From these families in their short annals were produced
such preachers as Rev. Furman Gould, the first local
preacher. Rev. Theodore, as above noted. Rev. James
V. Pierce, son of Richard Pierce, 3rd, Rev. Jehu Pierce,
son of Jacob Pierce, 1st, Bishop B. F. Lee, a former
President of Wilberforce University, Rev. Theophilus
Gould Steward, chaplain for many years in the United
States army, now Professor of History, French, and
Logic in Wilberforce University, Rev. Alex. W. Pierce,
of the New York A. M. E. Conference, Rev. Jeremiah
H. Pierce, deceased, a member in his lifetime of the
New Jersey Conference.
All of these were men of more than ordinary
eminence, and those still living are quite distinguished.
With the exception of Rev. Jehu Pierce they all came
out of the Gouldtown church.
THE people's patriotism ; READY TO BEAR ARMS FOR THE
The people of Gouldtown were not backward to
respond to the call of their country. They were early
devoted to the cause of American freedom, and heartily
hoped for the success of the colonial arms in the War of
the Revolution. Three or four out of the commimity
enlisted in the War of the Revolution and served
shoulder to shoulder with other Americans during the
conflict. Anthony Pierce, Richard Pierce, Adam
Pierce, Mark Murraj'-, all served in the Revolution.
There do not appear to have been many of the
people of this community in the War of 1812. Furman
Gould and a man named Levin Wright — not closely
connected with the community — did some service in it;
Gould as using his team in conjunction with David
Cams' team in hauling supplies to the troops at Cape
May. But when the War of the Rebellion came, the
young men of Gouldtown made haste to get ready for
war. Feeling that the combat just about to open meant
the death of slavery, they were more than willing to join
in the conflict.
During the presidential campaign of Lincoln,
Douglas, Breckenridge and the other candidates, their
interest and sympathies were with Lincoln, and seeing
and believing that his election meant strife between the
North and the South, they were ready at the call. One
of the young men of Gouldtown was in Trenton when;
Lincoln made the first call for 75,000 troops. This
young man hastened to a recruiting officer, enlisted, and
was ready to go to the front, but having a physical de-
feet from a broken leg when a boy he could not pass
By means of a copy of Upton's Tactics a company
was formed in Gouldtown and drilled. They made the
offer to the government to raise a regiment of colored
men for the service. Our people remembered the heroic
conduct of the black and colored soldiers at the battle of
Red Bank during the Revolution, in which they gloried,
and thej^ thought to emulate the example of those men.
The offer was not accepted, and the people felt such a
rebuff that they decided to wait until they were really
wanted before again attempting to go to war. So eager,
however, were some of them, especially some of the
Murrays, that they went as white men and served
through the conflict. When colored soldiers were
wanted by the government meetings were held at the old
schoolhouse and orators came from Fairfield township,
offering large bounties for substitutes to volunteer. The
young fellows did not feel so much like going to war
as they had felt before the rebuff and they informed the
orators that they were not going to stop bullets in their
places; they would not go as substitutes, but would go
on their own footing, which they did when drafted.
Of those who served in the Rebellion were Hosea
Pierce, William H. Gould, Wanaca Pierce, Robert
Goldsboro, JNIark Pierce, Jedediah Pierce, Lewis Mur-
ray, William Murray, Ebenezer Murray, Hiram Mur-
ray, Lorenzo F. Gould, Charles Lloyd, Charles Pierce,
Ephraim Pierce and Henry JVIurray.
Tliey were represented in the War with Spain by
Luther D. Gould, in the regular army, and in the
Philippines by Capt. Frank R. Steward, in an Illinois
volunteer regiment, and by Othniel INIurray, in the regu-
lar army, as well as by Chaplain Steward, who was
many years in the regular army, and who was govern-
ment superintendent of schools in the province of IjU-
zon, in the Philippines.
iThe people of Gouldtown lacked nothing in patriot-
ism from the very earliest period of the government;
they were always devoted to their country, their state
and their homes; always loved her institutions and de-
lighted to obey her laws. They were not in the war of
1848 — with Mexico; there was no call for their services
in this war, but they took keen interest in its progress
and General Winfield Scott was their hero. I myself
have heard the elderly men of Gouldtown talk of the
achievements of General Scott when he was in that war,
and I would sit and listen to their reading of the news
from the war and hear their talk of the battles of Che-
pultepec, the storming of Monterey, and the capture of
slippery one-legged Santa Anna, the commander of the
Mexican Army. They did not side cordially with
General Jackson, however, because of his politics.
SOCIAL life; some typical social events; two golden
weddings; a social study.
The people of this community were always noted for
their hospitality and love of company. In the early
days, as well as at the present time, the summer season
brought visitors to the place from Philadelphia, New
York, and elsewhere, and on Sundays the church would
be filled with those anxious to see and meet the visitors
to the neighborhood.
Some social events in the neighborhood are here
given from clippings from the Bridgeton daily papers
as reported at the time of happening which illustrate
the social life of the village in those days :
AT THE HOME OF STEPHEN S. STEWARD, GOULDTOWN.
An enjoyable dinner party was given by Stephen S.
Steward, at his residence on the Buckshutem road. Covers
were laid for ten and dinner served in banquet style, the tables
being laden with fried bluefish, stewed chicken, salads, tomato
and apple sauce, hot rolls and coffee, followed by cake, ice
cream and sugared peaches.
Those present were Mr. and Mrs. Eli Gould, Mr. and
Mrs. Lorenzo F. Gould, Mr. and Mrs. William Steward, Mrs.
Felts, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen S. Steward, and Chaplain T. G.
Steward of Nebraska.
Reminiscences and jokes, with watermelon, finished the
Miss Florence Lee, Miss Edwina Steward, Mrs. Alice S.
Felts and Mr. G. A. Steward proved themselves efficient helpers
for the occasion.
THE GOULD REUNION.
One hundred and thirty took dinner at the Gould family
reunion yesterday, and the Gould descendants were present
from the surrounding country, from Salem County, Camden
County, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Atlantic City, Cape
May, Millville, and from the West.
There was an abundance of chicken pot pie, fried chicken,
roast meats, etc., and melons, fruit, grapes, and ice cream, and
a delightful day and evening were spent. Service took photo-
graphs of the group.
GOULDTOWN, N. J., ITEMS OF INTEREST.
THE REUNION OF THE GOULD FAMILY A GREAT EVENT ; REV. DR.
T. G. STEWARD THE CENTRAL FIGURE.
GouLDTOwN, N. J. (Special). Rev. T. G. Steward, Chap-
lain U. S. Army and son. Captain Frank R. Steward, U. S.
Army, attended service at Trinity (A. M. E.) Church. Rev.
Mr. Generette, the pastor, preached.
Rev. Dr. Steward will preach to-morrow to the young men
of the town and vicinity.
The great family reunion of the Goulds took place at the
old homestead, which has been in the possession of this family
for nearly two hundred years, inherited from Benjamin and
Ann Gould, of which Rev. Dr. Steward is a descendant.
Mrs. Lydia Sheppard, who is ninety-five years of age, and
Miss Prudence Gould, are the only two living who are the
direct descendants of the above-named couple. Over one
hundred and seventy-five were present at the reunion and of this
number one hundred and eighteen were direct lineal descendants
of the Gould family. They were represented by families as
Oliver Gould and family, Lydia Sheppard and family,
Tamson Cuff and family, Jane Webster and family, Abijah
Gould and family, Sarah Lee and family, Rebecca Steward and
family, Phoebe Gould and family, Clayton Gould and family.
It was a day of rare pleasure and the event was greatly
SOCIAL LIFE 159
enjojed by all. The most amusing feature of the afternoon was
to see a team of baseball composed of young ladies.
As a whole it was just one of the greatest outings the
residents here have ever had. Miss Prudence Gould deserves
much credit for the plans of this happy event, at the close of
which a picture of all was taken, as a group.
Mr. and Mrs. Rutledge Miller, of Magnolia, N. J., were
here attending the reunion.
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Gould, of Philadelphia, attended
services at Trinity, Sunday morning.
Miss Lucetta Pierce, who has been for sometime teaching
school in Somerville, N. J., will at the opening of the September
term teach in Atlantic City, N. J. She is spending her vacation
with her mother, Mrs. Anna Pierce.
GOULD FAMILY EEUNITED.
Bridgeton, N. J,, August 17. The descendants of Benja-
min Gould are holding a family reunion to-day at the home of
Miss Prudence Gould, near here. Among the descendants
present to-day are Bishop Benjamin F. Lee and Chaplain
Theophilus G. Steward, of the U. S. A.
PRETTY WEDDING OCCURRED TO-DAY.
A very pretty wedding ceremony took place this morning
at the residence of Mrs. Alice S. Felts, No. 592 East Commerce
Street, when her daughter, Miss Mary Felts, became the bride
of Charles S. Dixon, of Boston.
The ceremony was perfomned by the Rev. Theophilus G.
Steward, U. S. A., an uncle of the bride, and the beautiful and
impressive ring ceremony was used.
The parlors were crowded by a company of guests, con-
sisting of the bride's uncles, aunts, and cousins, of Gouldtown.
The bride was gowned in a gown the like of which was never
seen in this city before, doubtless. It was of the famous Philip-
pine Jusi cloth (pronounced Hoosie) a fine silk. It was the
gift of her uncle, the chaplain, who brought it from the Philip-
pines. It was very beautiful, and she carried a fan of sandal-
wood, brought by her cousin. Captain Frank Steward, from
The Mendelssohn wedding march was played by Miss
Phoebe Felts, a sister. There was no bridesmaid, but the
groom's father, John R. Dixon, of Washington, D. C, stood
up with his son.
After the congratulations were over a very elaborate
wedding breakfast was served.
The happy couple left on the 8.00 p.m. train for Boston,
where they will reside.
A SOCIAL STUDY.
My mother belonged to a family of seven daughters and
two sons, all of whom, excepting herself, lived to advanced age.
She died at fifty-seven. Two of her sisters are still living, one
having celebrated her one-hundredth birthday October 24, 1909.
The other never married, consequently, her age is untellable;
but I am sure she is not far from eighty. She has never be-
come an old maid, but has passed her life in deeds of kindness,
and is beloved by all.
Eight of the family married and together have had forty-
six children, about equally divided between girls and boys. I
have the names of all of them before me as I write. Forty-five
of these children reached maturity, only one dying before that
period — a girl who died at fifteen. Two young men of them
left the neighborhood quite early in life and became lost to
their relatives. The remaining forty-three are accounted for
Four died between the ages of thirty and forty (women) ;
three lost their lives by accident, one at sixty-five, one at sixty,
and one in his twenties. Two died between forty and fifty;
four between fifty and sixty ; seven between sixty and seventy ;
two between seventy and eighty, and twenty-one are still living.
Of the twenty-one now living all are over sixty but one;
and five are over seventy. Thus we have a case where eight
families had forty-six children, an average of nearly six to
SOCIAL LIFE 161
the family and reared all of thera to maturity, except one girl.
Of these forty-six persons, thirty-one of them have lived over
sixty years, and, up to the present, ten have passed over the
seventieth mark. Not one of the forty-six ever became rich,
ever became a drunkard, or a criminal ; and no one ever became
a pauper or a beggar. To have forty-six children and rear
forty-five of them to maturity and to have about three-fourths
of them (thirty-one) to pass sixty years is a matter of no
little importance; to have this whole body never cost the State
a penny either as criminals or paupers is also of some
Inquiring into the conditions surrounding this group, the
first remark to be made is that all the families were poor; but
among them was no inherited tendency to disease. In only one
family was there the slightest weakness, and it was in precisely
this family that the premature death occurred, and that three
others died comparatively young. The families were all of
sound health and untainted blood. They lived in thinly built,
cold houses, dressed poorly, ate coarse food, the meat being
chiefly pork, an abundance of vegetables, potatoes, bread and
molasses, with plenty of fruit in season, some poultry, fish, and
game. They knew nothing of sanitation or hygiene; the boys
did rot wear overshoes or overcoats; the girls wore hoods and
shawls. Woolen underclothes were seldom worn by the boys.
It was no uncommon thing in winter to find snow in our bed-
rooms as we leaped out of bed shouting and ran through fireless
rooms and down-stairs for our jackets, shoes, and stockings.
If asked the secret of our power of resistance I should answer
thus : first, and best, we had honest fathers and mothers, who
married early in life, and gave their offspring the strength of
their physical and moral natures. We were not children of
broken-down " daddies." Second, we were allowed to eat in
the most natural way — all that our appetites required. We
were not allowanced, hectored, nor guided; but permitted to
obey the wisest mother of all. Nature, within. We ate by in-
stinct until we were satisfied, our mothers attending only to our
So much for the physical. But our social life has also
been free. We have kept up a life of considerable fun and
frolic; and have not sold our birthright for dollars nor fame.
We have lived close to nature. To us plants and trees have
their likes and dislikes ; horses and cows their morals, and hens
vary from suffragettes to queens.
One more fact I must state about these forty-six cousins,
forty-five of whom came to maturity and thirty-one having
passed sixty, a fact that interferes with much science and
philosophy that I have studied, and that fact is this: While
all these people are truly Americans of several generations,
they are all of mixed European and African descent — they are
all colored people.
The total number of this family now known to be alive is
two hundred and twenty-five. — Statement written by Rev.
T. G. Stewaed in 1910.
CHRISTMAS ZVIEMORIES AND BEFLECTIONS.
The return of the Christmas season calls my mind back to
the open fireplaces, sometimes smoky ; the large wood stoves ;
the plain chairs and settees which were to be found in the happy
homes of my childhood: homes varying but little in their
material outline and scarcely at all in their coloring of spirit
and manner of expression. Such homes were plentiful three-
fourths of a century ago, and the land still abounds with them.
In all of these homes of my childhood, the children were
cheerfully welcomed and greeted with joyous words and warm
embraces. There were no carpets too good for them to walk
on ; no chairs too rich for them to sit on ; no curtains or linens
too fine for them to touch, and as Christmas approached, the
sphere of the child's liberty greatly expanded. Stories of
Kris Kringle (not Santa Claus), and his reindeer and sleigh-
bells were told to us by Grandmother, Aimt, or Mother, just
as real as the love of their hearts could make them.
After long waiting Christmas eve comes; the ground is all
white with snow; the big crockery jars are well filled with
doughnuts, still warm from the frying and covered down with
heavy, clean white cloths that none of their nectar may escape;
Rev. T. G. Steward, D.D., Chaplain U. S. Army, Retired: Professor of History, Logic
and French, Wiiberforce University, Ohio.
SOCIAL LIFE 163
the red apples are snugly hiding away in their comer in the
cellar 'neath their blanket of salt hay; and the mince pies
are serenely cooling on the swinging shelf while distant mice
grind their teeth with rage. Without may be heard the ring
of the sleigh-bells, interrupted occasionally by the report of the
overloaded Christmas gun.
The people are not trying to be happy; still less were
they going through the solemn silly farce of trying to make
themselves or their neighbors believe they were happy. The
joy-beams on their faces were genuine scintillations from bound-
ing hearts. Their wants were few; tastes simple, and the
slightest manifestation of kindly interest met with liberal
Christmas morning dawns with its breakfast of sausage
and straw-cake, and its flourish of " Christmas presents," of
so little cost and of such measureless value. Mother gets a
warm hood from laughing daughters who slip it on her head;
it has been knit by their own hands in secret; father gets a
cap with heavy ear covers, or a warm neck wrap ; and the
little boys and girls (there were no " kids " in our home) re-
ceived their presents of useful things silvered over with toy
candies. Everywhere on older faces could be seen the reflected
halo of a childhood past blending itself with the effulgent light
of the reigning hour.
At Christmas time the Child is King, and little ones for a
moment rise to a kinship with the divine.
The day broadens and brightens ; the boys go gunning or
skating; or it may be gather around the stove, crack hickory
nuts and walnuts, while girls pop corn or make molasses candy.
The dinner just grows into shape amid all this merriment, and
is over, the scene changes. The girls bedeck themselves a little
moi*e ; the boys depart to seek other homes. " Sis's " beau
comes, to the disgust of little Johnny, who cannot go out with
his big brother. To Johnny, who does not see any sense in
" Sis's " having a beau, this halting lump of sleek-headed
adolescence is a puzzle. Mary has a different notion, however,
and Christmas night is, not infrequently, popping question
time. Why shouldn't it be? It is the symbolic season of the
union between Heaven and Earth, " a time of love."
As the panorama of my childhood Christmas passes before
me I can almost hear the voices commingling from old age to
babbling infancy into a chord as uni-colored as the green that
cheers the day, proclaiming in tones fountained by hearts
divinely touched : " Christmas has returned, let the Heavens
rejoice; Christmas has returned, let the Earth be glad." And
as the mantling canopy of benevolence extends itself from the
distant past covering my track of three score years and more,
and the present year with all its myriads glides under its
folds, there comes to me the sweet murmurings from trustful
humanity ; " God is love." " It is good to be here." Our
tabernacle is already builded, and we dwell with Him Imanuel.
With us Christ is not only born but abides; one of us, one
WITH us, through the possession of generations in their career
through the ages.
TWO NOTABLE FAMILY EVENTS: GOLDEN WEDDINGS OF
BROTHER AND SISTER.
MR. ELI GOULD AND WIFE, MARY STEWARD GOULD, CELEBRATE
FIFTIETH WEDDING ANNIVERSARY.
Fifty years ago last Saturday, Eli Gould and Mary
Steward were married at the home of the bride's parents, Mr.
and Mrs. James Steward, at the Steward Farm on the Millville
turnpike. That was March 12, 1860. Last Saturday, the
fiftieth anniversary of that event — their golden wedding — was
celebrated at their home on Burlington Avenue. The festivities
were from three until eight p.m. Though the day was a most
inclement one, nearly a hundred of their relatives and friends
responded to the invitation to make merry with them and a
very enjoyable gathering it was made. Besides those of their
friends about the neighborhood, there were guests from Salem,
Millville, Philadelphia, and elsewhere, and remembrances from
relatives in New York and Boston.
Mr. and Mrs. Gould both trace their ancestry back to the
SOCIAL LIFE 165
earliest Colonial times, and have always resided in this com-
munity. The Goulds and Pierces practically constitute one
family and the gathering on Saturday showed a good many of
their names. There was an abundance of good cheer, the most
" spirited " of which was plain orangeade. The tables were set
for dinner before nightfall, and between the time of nine o'clock,
six tables of about sixteen persons each were served with
chicken salad, fried oysters, sandwiches, oranges, cakes, Nea-
politan ice cream, coffee and tea. Very nearly one hundred
persons were served. Principal among those present were Dr.
G. T. Watkins, pastor of the bride and groom, Chaplain T. G.
Steward, brother of the bride, and Bishop B. F. Lee, a cousin
of the bride, and the bride's only two living aunts, Mrs. Lydia
Sheppard of MiUville, who was one hundred years old last
October, and Miss Prudence F. Gould, Mrs. Sheppard's sister.
Many beautiful presents were received by the couple in-
cluding, in part, a solid gold thimble and a pair of solid gold
cuff-buttons from Mr. and Mrs. William P. Almond, of Phila-
delphia ; a five-dollar gold coin from Chaplain Steward, a comb,
handkerchiefs, and handkerchief basket from Mrs. Steward,
eleven $2.50 gold coins from different guests, and a one-dollar
gold coin from Miss Prudence Gould, currency from Mrs.
Frank Pierce, Mrs. Hattie Pierce, Mrs. R. M. Seeley, and
others, and large picture in gilt from Mrs. Phoebe White, of
Philadelphia, and berry spoon, cold-meat fork, gold-lined ladles,
glass berry dishes, fruit dishes, celery dishes, cake dishes, bread
plates in many varieties, rich and beautiful table-cloths, linen
napkins, water pitcher, Japanese teapot with cream pitcher
and sugar bowl, and many other articles and " gold " clock
from Mr. Howard Gould, of Philadelphia.
The table was decorated with gold ribbons extending from
an artificial lake in the center of the table to the ceiling of the
dining-room. The lake was surrounded with smilax interspersed
with water lilies, and in its center were two columns represented
by two large glass vases filled with daisies, between which was
suspended a large gilt " 50 " ; about the lake were golden
candlesticks, altogether making a very pretty effect. The lake
itself was a large mirror laid upon the table. As the guests
entered the house a little wedding bell was pinned on each one
by an attendant.
Among those present were Eli Gould, the groom, Mary
Steward Gould, the bride, Dr. George T. Watkins, their pastor.
Chaplain T. G. Steward, L. F. Gould and wife, Stephen S.
Steward and wife, William Steward and wife, Mrs. Alice S.
Felts, brothers and sisters of the bride; Bishop B. F. Lee,
Eugene Gould, Miss Mary Gould, Misses Lizzie and Emma
Stewart, William Cuff, Mrs. Mary Pierce and Miss Helen Pierce
of Salem; Mrs, Lydia Sheppard and son, Thomas, of Millville,
and Mrs. Sheppard's granddaughter, Mrs. Lydia Sheppard, II,
of Haddonfield, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Sheppard of Millville,
Mrs. Alice Almond and Mrs. Phoebe White of Philadelphia,
Howard Gould, of Philadelphia, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph B.
Stewart, James Pierce and wife, James Wynder and wife,
Murray Wynder and wife, William B. Gould and wife, Mr. and
Mrs. Harold Pierce, Mrs. Harriet Pierce, Mr. and Mrs. Menon
Gould, Mrs. Ephraim Pierce, Miss Lizzie Cato, Miss Prudence
Gould, Miss Clara Steward, Miss Madeline Gould, Mrs. Ella
Pierce, Miss Dora Pierce, Miss Constance Gould, Mr. and Mrs.
Frederick Steward, Miss Edwina Steward, Mr. and Mrs*
Leslie Gould, Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Gould, Mr. Oscar Pierce,
Eli Gould, Jr., Miss Inez Gould, Herschel Gould, Mrs. Lizzie
Gould, Miss Jeanette Gould, Miss Marie Gould, Miss Helen
Gould, Miss Lucetta Pierce, Miss Nellie Goldsboro, William
Goldsboro, Mrs. Harriet Goldsboro, Mrs. Mary Chase Beckett,
of Holmesburg, Pa., Walter Hubbard, Samuel Lively and wife,
Miss Maggie Felts and some others, whose names were not
Chaplain Steward in an address said : " This is my first
opportunity to attend a golden wedding and although this put
me to considerable trouble and expense, I could not afford to
miss it. There are in this community four or five other people
who have lived out their half-century, but have not celebrated
it. Our good brother and sister have seen fit to celebrate theirs
and invite us to join them. It is an event that ought to be
celebrated. When two people have lived together fifty years
and have thus set an example for the stability of family life.
Mrs. V\ rLLlAM Steward.
Jacob Wright and Wife.
SOCIAL LIFE 167
they have a right to announce the fact and their friends do
well to congratulate them. On behalf of the whole community
I tender to this couple my congratulations. As a community
we are not speechmakers, but I am sure we can all join in the
expression of our high appreciation of this example of solid
With some other pleasantries he concluded his address with
wishing both bride and groom continued health and prosperity.
Mrs. Gould then in a few words thanked their friends for
the kind response to their invitations and also for their gener-
ous help in making the entertainment so successful.
ANOTHER GOLDEX WEDDING ! MR. AND MRS. WILLIAM
STEWARD MARRIED FIFTY YEARS.
MANY GUESTS WERE PRESENT ; HAPPY OCCASION AT THEIR HOME
AT EAST BRIDGETON; LARGE NUMBER OF BEAUTIFUL AND
USEFUL GIFTS RECEIVED.
Mr. and Mrs. William Steward celebrated the fiftieth
anniversary of their marriage last Saturday, at their home at
East Bridgeton. The exact anniversary occurred last Monday,
but as a matter of convenience the Golden Wedding was held
on Saturday. The hours were from three to ten o'clock and
many of their relatives and friends called during that time to
tender their congratulations and join in the festivities of the
occasion. Among the guests were Mr. and Mrs. Eli Gould,
the latter Mr. Steward's sister, who celebrated their golden
wedding over a year ago. Mr. Steward has two brothers and
three sisters, the youngest or " baby " of the six being sixty-
two years old. The house was decorated with flowers, the pro-
fusion of golden-glow being especially appropriate and many
crimson ramblers adding their beauty. Music was furnished at
intervals by Misses Phoebe Felts, Constance Gould, Mildred
Pierce, and Harold Pierce, on piano and violin, and there was
also some vocal music. A collation was served of sandwiches,
chicken salad, olives, coffee, NeapoHtan block ice cream, and
cake. An elaborately iced wedding cake adorned the table.
Many beautiful gifts were received. Among those who
sent congratulations and remembrances were the following:
Mrs. Sarah Gould and Miss Mary Gould, Dresden celery dish ;
Rev. and Mrs. M. M. Middleton, salad bowl; Mr. and Mrs.
Reuben Cuff, gold thimble and fountain pen; Miss Edwina
Steward, salad bowl; Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Hubbell, of
Brooklyn, bonbon dish; Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Sheppard,
Dresden and gold mustard cup ; W. L. Evans, salad bowl ; Mrs.
Anna and Miss Lucette Pierce, silver cream ladle ; Mrs. George
F. Bundy, of Philadelphia, gold belt buckle; Mrs. Jane C.
Pierce, gold-lined bonbon dish ; Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Dixon,
West Somerville, bonbon spoon; Captain and Mrs. WiUiam
Jerrell, cut-glass berry-bowl; Miss N. P. Elmer, handkerchief
box; Mr. and Mrs. Walter Durisoe, of Philadelphia, bonbon
plate; Mr. and Mrs. Harold Pierce, drawn-work centerpiece;
Misses Lizzie and Emma Stewart, embroidered towel and watch
fob ; Mr. and Mrs. Roy Pierce, tumblers ; Miss Albertine Felts,
Somerville, Mass., congratulation card; Mrs. Phoebe White,
Philadelphia, gold cuff-buttons, Mrs. Mary Almond, Philadel-
phia, brooch; Mrs. J. L. Titus, New Brunswick, cuff-buttons
and brooch; Rev. and Mrs. Theodore Gould, gold-lined olive-
spoon ; Mr. and Mrs. Calvin Pierce, berry spoon ; Mrs. S. Maria
Steward, M.D., of Wilberforce, Ohio, three handkerchiefs,
collar, and gold comb; Mr. and Mrs. Eli Lee, meat fork, Wil-
liam A. Cuff and family, cuff-buttons ; employees of the Pioneer,
gold-lined table spoons ; Publisher, gold clock ; Miss Lizzie
Cato, gold-lined teaspoons, Mr. and Mrs. Belford Pierce, salad
Gold and silver coin and notes: Mr. and Mrs. Edgar
Gould, Thomas J. Sheppard and family, of Millville; Mrs.
Alice and Miss Agnes Gould, Mr. and Mrs. Warren Pierce;
Chaplain T. E. Steward, of Wilberforce, Ohio; Mr. and Mrs.
Edward Pierce, of Washington, D. C; Stephen S. Steward,
Mr. and Mrs. Howard W. Jerrell, Mr. and Mrs. Menon
Gould, Mrs. Rebecca and Miss Pierce, of Philadelphia; Mr.
and Mrs. Eli Gould, Mr. and Mrs. Leslie Gould, Mr. and Mrs.
Ambrose Russell, of Pittsburgh; Mrs. Alice S. Felts and
family; Miss Ethel M. Pierce, of Longport; Miss Susanna
SOCIAL LIFE 169
Pierce, Mrs. Lydia Sheppard, Mrs. Hortense Klose, of Phila-
delphia; Mr. and Mrs. James R. Pierce; Miss Prudence F.
Gould, Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Pierce.
The celebration of two " Golden Weddings " in the
same family, as were the two which have been here re-
lated, is of very rare occurrence ; yet in Gouldtown there
have been several golden weddings passed without
general recognition. Jacob Wright (whose mother was
a Pierce) and his wife, Anna Gould Wright, passed
their sixty-ninth wedding anniversary.
EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD.
In the colonial times in which the early population
of this community lived, it is not to be supposed that the
facilities for education were very common. The people,
however, even in those times, endeavored to give their
offspring the rudiments of learning. They were mostly
taught to read and to write, with some idea of calcula-
tion. The Presbyterians connected with the " Old Stone
Church " in Fairfield, then generally called New Eng-
landtown, took active interest in giving aid to schooling
the children throughout Fairfield township, in which
Gouldtown was situated. At a very early day a school-
house was erected on property belonging to a Hosea
Shaw on the road leading " from Gouldtown to Bum-
bridge," where a pay school was kept, for many j^ears,
previous to 1800.
Here the early Goulds, Pierces, and Murrays, to-
gether with the Westcotts, Batemans, Fullers, and
others got their schooling. This schoolhouse was about
a mile from the residence of Benjamin Gould, 1st.
About two and a half miles northward from this ancient
Gouldtown schoolhouse was another called the Lummis
schoolhouse. Here the Lummises, Bowens, Woodruffs,
Parvins, and Garrisons went to school, but the school-
house that those from Gouldtown and others nearer
" Bumbridge " attended was the one standing on the
Shaw property. Who or of what character the teachers
were who taught here has not been recorded. In 1807,
on January 8th, Hosea Shaw and Rachel, his wife, made
a deed for the " School house and lot of land" (the
metes and bounds being given), "containing one
hundred and thirty-five square perches " to " Robert
Hood, James Hood, James Westcott, Peter Sleesman,
Robert McGee, and Ephraim McGee, for the sum of
One Dollar." The deed does not say that the school-
house and lot sold to those men was for school purposes,
but it seems to be self-evident that they were trustees
of the school. The deed simply conveys the property to
them and their heirs and assigns, but the consideration
being but One Dollar is proof it was not for their own!
Robert Hood resided on the farm on Reeves Road
now owned by the brothers Servais, and Peter Sleesman
resided on the farm about a quarter of a mile north of
the present Gouldtown church, lately owned by
Nathanial H. Atkinson. James Hood probably resided
with Robert Hood, but later moved into Bridgeton.
Peter Sleesman afterward moved into Bridgeton also,
and by his will left one thousand dollars for the schools
of Bridgeton; the sum being still invested and the
interest paid to the school fund of Bridgeton. West-
cott, and the McGees, resided near Fairton.
In 1809 Isaac W. Crane, a young and brilliant but
later rather eccentric lawyer, came from Salem and
settled in Bridgeton, where he practised law for thirty
years ; during this time he found leisure to teach school
in this schoolhouse where the Goulds attended. He was
a tall, fine-looking man and was always called " Law-
yer " Crane. When teaching school he endeavored to
get the Goulds to make suit for what he alleged to be,
by right, their inlieritance in the Fenwick and Adams
estates, but they would have nothing to do with the
The Academy on Bank Street, Bridgeton, was
erected in 1795-1797 and incorporated by a joint stock
company. The names of the stockholders and incor-
porators, which were those of the best and most promi-
nent citizens of the town, are recorded with the articles
of incorporation in the Cumberland County Clerk's
office, dated in 1797. So liberal were the incorporators
with their educational facihties that a number of the
young men of Gouldtown attended school there in the
years following, and long before the building of the
Bank Street public schoolhouse ; among those so attend-
ing from Gouldtown were Enoch Gould, who became a
carpenter and builder, Abijah Gould (3rd), James
Steward, Freeman Gould, Anthony Gould (2nd) and
As was previously stated, the Gouldtown school was
under the moral direction of Presbyterians; the old
Gouldtowners being inclined to that denomination and
attended the " Old Stone Church." The old women of
the locality have many a time related how they walked
"The Bank Street Academy was built jointly by individual stock-
holders and Brearly Lodge No. 9, A. F. & A. M. under the following
ancient agreement, made one hundred and twenty years ago in February,
nineteen hundred and thirteen, on file in the County Clerk's Office of
"Memohandum of an agreement entered into and agreed upon by each
and every of the subscribers each one severally and individually of the one
part with the others jointly of the other part, as followeth, viz.:
"1. It is mutually agreed that the subscribers hereto shall form
themselves into a society for the promotion of Literature agreeably to an
act of the Legislature in such case made and provided.
"2. In order to carry the designs of this institution in full and com-
plete effect, it is agreed that suitable buildings for the reception of
scholars be immediately erected.
"3. Whereas, the members of Brearly Lodge No. 9 have proposed
and made the following offer, to wit: That they will be at the one-third
part of the whole expense of erecting and enclosing a building of forty
feet by twenty-two, two stories high, with a cellar under the same and two
chimneys and two floors laid, and in the same proportion to bear the
expense of painting the outside and the putting up of a lightning rod,
and of enclosing the lot, and of paying and bearing in the same proportion
in all needful and necessary repairs to the said building which may here-
Absalom Wilson, School Teacher.
Gouldtown School House.
the long distance on Sundays from Gouldtown to that
church, when they were young. For better accommoda-
tion, a small frame church (also used for a school) was
built northward of Gouldtown, before alluded to as the
Lummis schoolhouse, on the road leading from Gould-
town to Deerfield at the intersection of what is now the
road to Carmel. Becoming dissatisfied with the arrange-
ment, the people of Gouldtown in 1823 purchased the
Westcott school building, at the same time securing the
lot where the Gouldtown schoolhouse is now located,
and moved the building upon it.
This lot, comprising one acre, belonged to the estate
of Elisha Gould, youngest son of Benjamin Gould, 1st,
and in the division of his estate was a part set off to.
Lydia, his daughter. She had married Archibald Cuff,
and, for the sum of four dollars, they made a deed dated
March 13, 1823, to Anthony Pierce, 2nd, Jesse Gould,
after arise — the windows in the lower story excepted — and also to make the
stairway out of the lower story to the upper at their sole and entire
" And wheeeas the said proposal will not only lessen the expense of
erecting said building on the part of the subscribers but will add ornament
and beauty to the same, it is hereby agreed that the same be accepted.
"4. That the said building be erected on a lot given by John Moore
White, Esq., for the purpose, and that the lower story of the house be
appropriated to the use of a school or other purposes as the majority of
the subscribers present at their stated meetings shall agree, except the
entry which shall be for the joint use of the subscribers and the members of
the said Lodge; that the subscribers sheill occupy the whole cellar except
that part which shall be under the library room, and that the members
of said Lodge shall, at all times and forever hereafter, have the sole use
and occupation of the upper story upon the terms and conditions afore-
said, and it is hereby understood and agreed that each party shall be at
the expense of completing and finishing the stairs by them respectively to
be occupied at their own expense, except as is before excepted.
"6. The costs and expenses of building and finishing said house on
the part of the subscribers hereto shall be divided into one hundred equal
shares or parts and each subscriber to pay in proportion to the number of
shares he subscribes.
Reuben Pierce (son of Anthony), Elijah Gould (son
of Elisha) , and Daniel Siro, Trustees, to them and their
successors in office, for school purposes. On this spot
the school of Gouldtown has ever since been.
In this schoolhouse many teachers have taught school.
Among them were Jeremiah Sayre, Nathaniel Bateman
of Fairfield, Josiah Bennett of Fairton ; Jeremiah Carll,
Hiram Carll from Deerfield; three of the daughters of
Benjamin Gould (2nd), one of whom, Miss Prudence
Gould, is still living. Absalom Wilson of Salem, his
brother Charles Wilson, and still another brother
Reuben, and David CufF — all of Salem. Horace
Bishop of Herring Row, who was a favorite teacher of
that generation ; Seth Husted, Albino Davis, and James
Barrett of Shiloh, — all these taught in the little old one-
story schoolhouse; Benjamin T. Bright and B. W.
Rogers were the last who taught in it. Since then the
" 6. That if the whole number of shares are not subscribed by the
third day of March next that then and in such case the unsubscribed shares
shall be divided into as many shares as are subscribed and each subscriber
shall take the residue in proportion to the shares by him subscribed.
" 7. That on the said third day of March the subscribers shall meet
at the new store house, opposite the store of Seeley and Merseilles, at six
o'clock in the afternoon of said day and appoint a committee who shall
have full power and authority to erect and build said house in conjunction
with a committee to be appointed by the Lodge upon the terms and condi-
tions aforesaid, and for that purpose the said committee are hereby
authorized to make contracts and do all needful and necessary things for
the purposes contemplatetl by the subscribers hereto; to receive all moneys
which may be subscribed and pay out the same as occasion may require,
and that it is the meaning of the subscribers that the said committee pro-
ceed to complete the building in such manner as they shall think best for
the interest and advantage of the subscribers and without any further
meeting of the said subscribers unless a majority of said committee deem
it proper and call a meeting accordingly.
"9. That no subscriber shall transfer any of the shares by him
subscribed until all shares are subscribed.
" 10. That all persons holding a share or shares by transfer shall be
entitled to the same privileges as the original subscribers have and enjoy.
teachers have been many; instead of one there have been
two, one down-stairs and one up-stairs. The old Board
of three or five ti-ustees has been legislated out of office,
the schools being now school district No. 1, under the
Fairfield Township school board, with always one or
two members from Gouldtown on it.
A TEACHER FOURTEEN YEARS.
RECOLLECTIONS OF GOULDTOWX AND VICINITY IN FOURTEEN
The writer, B. W. Rogers, was called upon about the year
1866, by Mr. Benjamin Bright, to finish out his term as
teacher in the Gouldtown school, as Mr. Bright wanted to start
a grocery store on Commerce Street near the bridge. It was
a new business to me, teaching school, and Mr. Bright had to
do some coaxing to get me to go, but I soon became so well
" 11. That the subscribers shall be entitled to vote in proportion to the
number of shares they hold at the time of voting.
" 12, That each subscriber shall pay on each share by him subscribed
the sum of Four Dollars on the first day of April next and the sum of
Three Dollars on the first day of June following and the remainder, if any,
as soon as called for after the house is completed.
"Done at Bridgeton, February 21st, 1797."
The subscribers, whose names are recorded, were:
JoHK Moore White
Davto Potter, Jr.
The entire 100 shares were subscribed by them.
pleased with the job that, with the exception of two winter terms
which I taught at the Loder School, I remained at the Gould-
town School nearly fourteen years.
The old schoolhouse was one story and no vestibule, and
very annoying it was if children came late, when removing
their wraps and putting up their dinner kettles in the school-
room. It was hard on the teacher; and besides there were no
grades ; aU in the same room from o fe c up to algebra ; but I
got along and the children liked me and I liked them.
The opening exercises consisted of singing, reading a
chapter in the Bible, and most of the time I had an organ to
help with the music, and it gave pleasure all around; and I
must say that these years of schoolteaching were the happiest
in my life. There were many things very unpleasant for the
teacher, of course, but my heart was in the work, and besides
I had a good set of trustees who stood by me and they saw I
was trying to do my very best to get the children to learn;
if any were unruly and had to be corrected, and the parents
complained to the trustees, they passed it by, — knowing as they
did, that in nine cases out of ten the correction was proper. I
shall always think kindly and have respect for the memory of
these men; Mr. Abijah Gould, Mr. Andrew Gould, and Mr.
Holmes Pierce who were trustees most of the time.
About the year 1871 or 1872 the city of Bridgeton was
induced to give five hundred dollars, and Fairfield township to
give a like amount, and they employed Mr. Enoch Gould to
remodel the old schoolhouse, put on another story and eight
feet in front for a vestibule. Mr. Gould did a good job and
anyone else would have charged at least twelve hundred or
fifteen hundred dollars.
Mr. Enoch Gould could do more work in one day than any
man in Gouldtown, and it is said that he was known to walk
two or three miles out, when he had no carpenter work in
winter and cut his two or three cords of wood per day; Mr.
Gould was about one-quarter Indian. It is said that he was a
hustler at anything he went at. He raised quite a family and
lived near the schoolhouse. All his children were well-behaved
and they had a good mother to instruct them, and what I say
Bextlev W. Rogers, School Teacher, and Retired Capitalist.
Horace Bishop, School Teacher.
of this family I can truthfully say of many other families in
Gouldtown — they were God-fearing and honest in their deal-
ings and transactions, and remarkable for their hospitality.
One winter I taught a singing-school, and on Thursday evening
did not go home, but stayed with some near-by family to supper,
and the invitations were two and three weeks ahead for me to
take supper at their house — I shall never forget their kindness
In looking back some thirty-five years, I can tell of some
very severe winters and the snow and ice and difficulty of getting
to and from school. One winter I remember was an icy one
and the boys would skate along the pike just as on a mill-pond;
I was overturned in my sleigh once going to school, and my
dinner spilled out in the snow. Once the old schoolhouse got on
fire and such a scampering to get out you never saw! It was
in the roof, and was soon put out with a few buckets of water.
If the many born and raised in Gouldtown could be brought
back again, the population of the place would amount to
twenty or thirty thousand, for go whore you wiU, you can
always find someone raised in Gouldtown.
Yes, they were happy times and I wish I could have them
over again; but it cannot be, and sooner or later I too shall
be gone to the " Land beyond the River " to j oin the loved
ones gone before.
I must not forget to mention my good wife and the service
she rendered in hearing the younger ones recite in their classes,
and if she was absent, then I had the assistance of some of the
older scholars and to them I was greatly indebted. Some of
the names I recall were Mary Pierce, Mary Gould, Josephine
Gould, Miss Pierce, daughter of Mrs. Phoebe Pierce, and others.
I may also mention the fact that during the fourteen years
I got up fourteen exhibitions and every one was a success. The
money received from two of them was used for a library. Any-
one familiar with the vast amount of work getting up an
exhibition must realize that my heart was in the work, and that
it was one of the bright spots in my life. I must give due
credit to the scholars: some in particular like Rev. Isaac
Showel, Rev. Alex. Pierce, Holmes Pierce, Jr., Paul Gould,
Josephine Grould, Mary Gould, Anna Gould, Hannah Gould,
Dorothy Gould, Anson Gould, Samuel Gould, Harriet Gould,
and others ; I cannot recall their names now.
Favorable mention should be made of the distinguished
talent turned out from Gouldtown, such as Bishop Lee, Chap-
lain Steward, Rev. Theodore Gould, Dr. Jesse Gould, Rev.
Jeremiah Pierce, Rev. Isaac Showel, Rev. Alex. Pierce, and a
few other names not recalled.
The natural soil of the place is first class for crops of any
kind, and the climate is delightful.
Respectfully, B. W. Rogers.
Mr. Rogers is a retired capitalist of ample fortune,
and wealthy at the time of teaching school, as he has
described; his wife, who assisted him, was a woman of
culture; and Benjamin Bright, whom he succeeded, was
a man of some wealth also, his father having left him an
estate of eighty thousand dollars. He was for many
years an active and energetic member of the Bridgeton
Board of Education and a prominent citizen. He is now
Those school teachers did not receive the almost
princely (in comparison) salaries now paid to in-
structors, even in the rural districts. Captain Jeremiah
Carll, who was captain of a sloop in summer months,
walked to and from the school, a distance of five miles
daily, kept school from eight o'clock in the morning
until four o'clock in the afternoon, with one hour inter-
mission at noon, and for this service he received about
thirty-five dollars a month. School was also kept every
other Saturday, but on those Saturdays it " let out " a
half hour earlier at night. Albino Davis walked from his
home in Shiloh — three miles west of Bridgeton — ^to
Gouldtovm — a full five and a half miles, and taught
school the same number of hours daily, and received the
same pay. Horace Bishop taught many winters. He
was the beloved teacher of those who attended the
Gouldtown school sixty years ago ; he drove a horse and
sulky, sometimes a buggy, from his home in Herring
Row, two miles below Fairton, and he got no more
salary than the others. Absalom Wilson and several
others boarded in the neighborhood.
There were singing-schools also in those days. The
first teacher of " singing by note " in Gouldtown was
Alphonso Sumner, a colored barber. He would walk
from Bridgeton to the home of James Steward, and here
he would meet a class of children and young people, and
put them through the do-re-mi, the breves and semi-
breves, the " Scotland's Burning," the crescendo and
diminuendo to the fullest extent. He was a good
teacher of the rudiments of music. Professor CoUister
Morton, a peripatetic music-teacher, who had a circuit
of singing-schools from Cedarville to Deerfield, gave one
night a week to a Gouldtown class, who were as much
delighted to hear his " fiddle " lead the strains and give
the pitch as they were to learn music from his teaching.
There was no choir in the Gouldtown church until
after the erection of the new church in 1860; since then
they have always had a choir, with organ, in both the
church and the Sunday-school; and there have been
graduates from the Gouldtown school attending the
South Jersey Institute, in both voice culture and instru-
mental music. There are now good pianists and violin-
ists, as well as good singers, among the Gouldtown
people. The first female schoolteacher in Gouldtown
was Mrs. Sarah Lee, mother of Bishop B. F. Lee. Then
her sister, Mrs. Rebecca Steward, taught one or two
summers. Then Miss Prudence Gould, another sister.
Mrs. Enoch Gould kept the school one or two summers.
Miss Anna Hoover, of MillvHle, and Miss Emma Sink,
of Fairton, were also teachers several summers.
SOME LITERARY EFFORTS OF GOULDTOWN YOUTH THIRTY"
AND FIFTY YEARS AGO.
These are offered — ^not because of their merit — to
indicate a literary taste in the community. It is thought,
however, that these examples are not altogether without
merit. They could be increased by many such speci-
mens which are to be found in the neighborhood.
The chapters which follow are taken at random,
from a story written and published in a newspaper many
years ago, and indicate clearly the habit and thought of
this community two or three generations earlier. The
people at that time had very pronounced notions of
propriety, morality, religion; and were independent
though considerate to others, in expressing and impress-
ing their own opinions and predilections. It may be
said here, that the hero of the story was Hezekiah Gould,
the son of Jesse Gould, the carpenter and housebuilder.
Hezekiah learned the trade with his father, but he was
a very energetic and ambitious youth, with a positive
genius for mechanical investigation. After completing
his trade he became a machinist and ranked with the best
in the city of Bridgeton in this trade. His career has
been before mentioned. The heroine was the girl he
married. Both were mulattoes, but were pictured as
black (for obvious reasons at that time) by the author.
JOHN BLYE: OR TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS OF A
By "Will," Author of "The Gem of the AUey," etc.
After supper the family, with their guests, returned to the
parlor. The old folks — that is, Mr. and Mrs. Blye and Mrs.
Voulons — entered into a general conversation, which dwindled
LITERARY EFFORTS 181
down to personal reminiscences. Mrs. Voulons informed her
host and hostess that she was a Pennsylvanian by birth and
ancestry — that her progenitors had lived among the quiet
Quakers for several generations, but that her husband was a
West Indian of French extraction.
Somehow or other young folks will get together, no matter
how bashful they are, and by this time John was getting along
first rate with Miss Eteline ; and though they sat a little apart
from the old folks, they were quite close together themselves —
possibly so that the noise of their conversation might not dis-
turb their parents — and laughing and chatting like old school
" Please don't call me ' Mr.,' just call me * John.' "
" Well, ' John,' then," said Eteline, " are you fond of
" Yes, I am very fond of vocal music."
" Do you sing.'' "
" Oh, no, indeed. I wish I could ! "
" But you play, I suppose.'' "
" Not well, I have taken some lessons on the piano, but you
know you can't have the advantages of professional teachers
here that people in the large cities have."
" Your instrument is a very nice one."
"Yes; won't you favor us with a song.''"
" Oh, my ! " smiling archly, " I am an Episcopalian, and
the songs I would sing might be too naughty for Methodist
" If you are a Christian you will not sing what you ought
not to sing," said John, gravely.
" There, now, I did not mean to wound you with my leArity.
Of course I am a Christian — a member of the High Church.
But which is your church.'' "
" We are Methodists," said John.
" Then I'U have a chance to go to a new church. Will you
have time to show me around town any while we are here? '*
" I will try to. The evenings are moonlight now, and per-
haps you and your mamma would like to visit the iron works
and the glass works in the evening. We often go and look in
on them. It is a very pretty sight to see the red, molten
iron, and the sparks flying and the great engines puffing and
wheezing ; and at the .glass works to see the red globes of glass
being blown out into large cylinders for window panes, or
dropped into the moulds and blown out into jars, bottles,
" Oh, yes, I would like to go. I am fond of moonlight
walks anyhow. Do you have any parties or social gatherings ? "
" Not much. There are but few colored families in this
town, and they are mostly poor, hard working people, and
have but little time for recreation."
" What do you do then — just go to workshops days and to
prayer-meetings evenings, eh.^ "
" We don't have theatres and operas as you do in the city,
so we take up the time in reading and studying."
" Oh, now you are chiding our city doings. Now you had
better cease. I won't have you finding fault with our city
amusements, so there now ! "
" I was not finding fault with them ; I don't like them,
though, and I don't think they are any good in the world ! "
" Don't think they are any good in the world ! Only
hark at you! Why, what would we do without the fine,
classic music of the great masters as rendered by the most
wonderfully endowed artists at the operas.'' And the wonderful
imaginative genius of the great play writers would be the
merest drudgery to read if it were not for the theatres.
Such things are good; they stimulate and bring out the latent
or half awakened powers of human exertion."
" Oh well, now, I am not going to argue the matter with
you. Anything that is bad can't be good, and I have yet
to be convinced that society is any better by having theatres
and such things than it would be without them. Of course
I don't know anything about them — hope I never shall; but
you do, and if I undertake to argue with you, you'll get the
better of me.'?
" That's because your side is weak. But I don't go to
theatres and operas. Mamma is very strict in that regard.
It is not fashionable in Philadelphia for colored people to go
LITERARY EFFORTS 183
to such places. Only the low and vulgar go, for the better
class do not like to be insulted as they would be by the whites, if
they should go. They are not allowed to enter the same part
of the house with white ladies and gentlemen, but are put aside
with the lowest classes of low whites."
" Well, I suppose the colored people don't own any of
them, so they can't say much. The theatres belong to the
whites, and I am satisfied they shall have them; but I fear
you will become lonesome in our silent village and soon want
to be going back to Philadelphia."
" Oh, no, indeed. I see you have some rare books to me,
and I was saying to Mamma awhile since that I should have
a rich feast in perusing them. I am so fond of reading."
John went to bed that night with a new sensation in his
heart. The evening's conversation with Eteline and her
mother, enlivened as it had been with some choice songs by
Eteline, who had a really fine voice of good culture, had
awakened a fluttering that was new to him.
Eteline was pretty, of majestic form, elegant carriage,
educated and refined, and entirely different from the kind of
girls of his own race with whom he had hitherto associated.
She was evidently of aristocratic breeding according to John's
notions, and he felt himself exalted beyond measure by the
notice he had received from the young lady, and her mother.
The next day John found himself hastening home from his
work with a little more than his usual eagerness, and the
next it would have been plain to any one in the secret that
there was an attraction to impel him homeward after the
close of his day's labor.
Ah, John, the sturdiest boy has a weak spot when he gets
to be about your age, but go on; the bird that flutters and
warbles before your eyes is worth catching. Only be careful
that you make yourself worthy of the prize!
" Mr. Needles," said Absalom Wheeler, while John was
rather absently comparing a pattern with his draught, " I
am convinced that boy can't put up this engine an' run it."
" Who, John.? Why not.? "
" Cause he's too young and inexperienced for one thing.
and then he's careless and lazy. Why, I have to watch him
like a cat would a mouse all the time for fear he'll get some-
" Does he ever get anything wrong? "
" No, but I don't know where he would go to if he was let
go on. I measure and try every piece of the machinery to
be sure that no mistake is made."
" I am glad you do so ; it will be all the better for John
as well as be a further assurance that everything is right."
" Oh, I mean to have every thing put up right, for I expect
I shall have her to run, and I want her to run like a top."
" I believe it is Mr. HoUoway's intention to have John to
run her. He has always taken a great interest in him, and
I guess almost considers him as one of his family. I think
John is a very smart boy and of remarkable genius. It is
seldom you meet with a boy of his years who has so steady a
head on his shoulders. I believe Dr. HoUoway's sister, little
Teeny Holloway, has given a good deal of her personal atten-
tion to his education, and is very much attached to him."
" Well, they're a gay couple, I'm sure ! She's as ugly as
the pillar of salt, and John's as black as Egypt's darkness.
Well, I don't believe he'll ever run that engine, that's all.
I don't believe it's in 'im."
" We'll see after we get her up," said Mr. Needles, turn-
" Yes, we will see. John Blye nor no other black Blye
shall run that engine while my head's hot," muttered Absalom.
" John's very young, but my ! I've seen several boys running
engines and making good engineers, who were no older than
John, and hadn't near his theoretical knowledge. I am glad
Absalom has been such a friend to him, though. It has been
well for John, and it has been well for Absalom, for I've
never seen him so careful and exact before," said Mr. Needles
That was Saturday, and the men were allowed to " knock
off " earlier on Saturdays than on the other days of the week,
and in addition to stopping work at three o'clock, now, Mr.
Needles told John he could have two or three days off the next
LITERARY EFFORTS 185
week, as the moulders were up with the pattern makers, and
the machinists had to wait for some brasses.
John was glad of this, and began to lay off a good time for
himself with Miss Eteline and her mother.
There were several places to visit of more or less import-
ance in the rural districts as well as some families upon whom
they should call, and he hastened home to acquaint his mother
of his plans for entertaining their guests and to enlist her
As he neared his residence, Eteline was standing upon the
piazza, and commenced calling out to him —
" Oh, John, I've been on an exploring expedition — a voy-
age of discovery — to-day, and I've found just the sweetest
place where you must take mamma and me to-morrow."
" To-morrow ! To-morrow is the Sabbath, and we should
not take pleasure excursions on the Sabbath," said John,
" Oh, dear, I wish I had been brought up a Puritan, then
I would always have my thoughts about me, too," said Ete-
line, with pleasant gaiety.
" Do you approve of such things ? " asked John.
"As Puritans? Certainly I do, only I'm glad they're all
dead," replied Eteline, laughing.
" Oh, pshaw ! No. I mean Sunday walks for pleasure,"
" Generally I don't. Mostly I think they are real
naughty," said Eteline with mock gravity. Sunday walks or
week day walks are rarely pleasure walks to me, but a Sunday
walk, to-morrow, will be pleasant, because you will go, and to
balance the thing I shall take my prayer-book and whenever
you show any signs of jollity I shall read you ' Gloria in
"I have something better than that to tell you," said
John. " I shall not be at work three days next week, and I
hope to spend a good deal of time with you."
" Oh, that's nice ! I won't say anything more about go-
ing to-morrow, only I hope it will rain all day, now, so we
won't have to go to church and I'll have you to laugh and talk
to all day," said Eteline.
John felt as if his head was getting wrong side about or
something. What could Eteline mean by saying a walk would
be pleasant because he would go and what could she mean by
wanting to-morrow to be a rainy day so she could have him
all day to laugh and talk to? Was she in earnest or was she
only joking him to make him feel flattered? Fie, fie, it was
nonsense to believe that Etehne Voulons, the rich city lady,
should think anything of him, — only to pass away the time
while she was away from her gay city circle. What was he,
compared to the brilliant and polished gentleman who followed
in her train when at home. He would banish all nonsensical
thoughts — that he would, for she would soon return to the
city and he would be forgotten !
" Mamma," said Eteline, as they retired to their chamber
that night, " the longer we stay here the better I like it. I
am surprised and delighted beyond expression to find such
culture and refinement among people of our own race."
" Yes, daughter, it is a delightful satisfaction. These
people, no doubt, had a very humble beginning and they are
very modest still, but without any sycophantic fawning. What
we see here is genuine gentility, and I am pleased, my dear,
that you find pleasure in staying here," said Mrs. Voulons.
" Indeed I do, mamma. Mr. Blye is one of those men who
can be characterized as of solid worth, and Mrs. Blye's
intelligence is of that common-sense sort that I could wish
myself possessed of," said Eteline.
" Mrs. Blye is a lady whose character, habits and piety I
am sure can well be emulated. Though always serene and
happy, she tells me that she has known sorrow and has passed
through the fires of affliction. Of five babes she buried four,
and only one — John — has been spared to her, and, like your
poor mother, my Eteline, her struggles have ever been to
guard against making an idol of her boy," said Mrs. Voulons,
Eteline came to her mother's side and putting her arms
LITERARY EFFORTS 187
about her neck with tender caress she kissed her cheek and
brow with sincere affection, saying,
" John Blye is much more worthy of being idolized than
your worthless daughter, and I think my own mamma's piety,
and habits, and character are as worthy of emulation as any
saint's on earth."
" You are partial, my dear, and cannot see your mother's
" No, because she has none. I think my mamma and papa
are the best people in the whole wide world; and the nearest
people like them are Mr. and Mrs. Blye," said Eteline.
" Do not form your opinions too quickly ; sometimes ap-
pearances are deceptive, but it is a very high mark of excel-
lence that these people have worked their way from modest
beginnings up to a position of respect and comparative wealth,"
said Mrs. Voulons.
" I suppose we shall accompany the family to their church
to-morrow, shall we not, mamma ? "
" Yes, we will go with them. I do not approve of wor-
shipping with their denomination, but if our desire to wor-
ship God and reverence His name be sincere it matters little
what may be the denomination with which we worship, and
we must also accord their opinions the same respect we shall
want for our own," said Mrs. Voulons.
The next day was the Sabbath and quite a sensation was
manifested in the Methodist church when two elegantly attired
and strange looking black ladies were noticed with the Blyes
at the services, as it did not turn out to be a rainy day.
ANOTHER CHAPTER FROM " JOHN BLYE."
John wasted no time over Absalom, who had regained his
feet boiling over with rage. A half dozen men had got between
him and Dr. Holloway and prevented any further assault by
either. Dr. Holloway was paying no attention to him. Point-
ing to the wedge, John said:
" This accounts for all the trouble. The wedge that be-
longs there has been removed, and another inserted for the
purpose of throwing the machinery out of line. I do not
wonder it would not run, but it is astonishing I did not dis-
cover it sooner."
" Do you think that was done purposely to prevent the
engine's running.'' "
" Yes, it could not be for any other purpose," said John,
proceeding to unscrew the bolts and remove the wedge.
Absalom had by this time left the mills in a great rage
not to return, so we will dismiss him here.
Removing the wedge, John began a search for the one that
belonged there. Going to a rude " cupboard " where Absa-
lom kept his towel, soap, hair brush, etc., he found it wrapped
up in stout paper.
After the adjustment of the machinery again, which occu-
pied an hour or two, steam was turned on, the engine started,
and everything worked with the precision and nicety of its
The facts of the matter had by this time become known
among the employees and John became the hero of the mills,
while indignation was loud and strong against the absent
Anyone in the village after that having anything to say
against John Blye — the engineer, was advised to " sing it
small " as his friends soon numbered the entire population of
But events of a more stirring nature began to agitate both
the home of Dr. Holloway and the little village of Edgefield.
The first event was the marriage of Dr. Holloway and
Miss Grace Harris. This can as well be imagined as described.
It came off during the Christmas holiday season and of course
was the event.
Girls are singular things, and when they " take a notion,"
they will have their own way and carry out that " notion."
There is nothing a woman cannot do when she has once deter-
mined she will, for with her it is preeminently true that " where
there is a will there is a way."
Teeny Holloway had determined to have Miss Eteline
Voulons at this wedding, for during Eteline's visit at the Blyes
LITERARY EFFORTS 189
she had made many friends; by her elegant manners and the
intelligence of her conversation as well as by her warm and
sympathetic heart, she had won the esteem of all with whom
she had become acquainted.
In addition to a formal card, Teeny had sent a personal
letter urging her to come down, coupled with one from Mrs.
Blye. The result of this was that Eteline's commanding form
was seen among the gay guests at the home of Judge Harris
on the wedding day. She was not alone, for the young engineer,
John Blye, was also an honored guest. As has been before
intimated, John's musical abilities were considerable and he
was not unaccustomed to mingling with the best social circle
of the place, so his presence among the guests occasioned no
surprise — unless it was among those from neighboring towns.
The festivities passed off happily. The great event was
over, and Dr. Holloway and his young bride settled down like
sensible folk in their new home, settling themselves to making
each other happy.
As the winter drew on towards spring a dark and sombre
foreboding began to shadow the land.
" I'll bet there'll be a war yet," said some, while others
laughed and said, " They ought never to let ' Old Abe ' take
the Presidential chair."
Ominous misgivings were rife in the nation during the
whole winter, but when, at last, Abraham Lincoln arrived in
Washington from the growing and buoyant West, and was
peaceably inaugurated President of the United States, the
people breathed freer and began to feel that the prospective
trouble had passed over.
This feeling was soon, however, dispelled. Fort Sumter
was fired upon at last, two months and two days after the
firing upon the " Star of the West," off the city of Charleston.
The Southerners, maddened at first by the John Brown
raid in October, 1859, looked upon the turn of affairs as
the culmination of Abolition aspirations. The sound of the
drum began to be heard all over the land. Volunteers were
called for and preparations warlike began to be made.
A few months rolled by and the whole nation is plunged
into a bloody civil war.
Even the little town of Edgefield shared in the general
excitement. The shrill scream of the fife, and the roll of the
drum called up the loyal villagers, and the " squad " was soon
drilled and ready to march to the front. Soon the mills and
the fields began to be depleted of laborers. " Call " after
" call " for volunteers to supply the sinews of war was made
by the President.
New Kfe began to be infused into the wheels of industry.
Contractors, speculators, " shoddy mills " and greenbacks
soon became known, and men pocketed fortunes of the Nation's
wealth in a day.
John worked steadily at the mills for a while, but at length
a new industry sprang up at the Eagle Works. The govern-
ment wanted iron bedsteads for the soldiers, and iron latches
and hasps for transportation chests, etc. The Eagle Works
had secured a " contract," and new machinery to be made.
The lumber business had fallen off at Edgefield, and John's
services being in so much demand at the works, the saw-mills
were stopped — the laborers going to war — and John was given
the important position of assistant to the engineer-in-chief,
Mr. Needles. Nearly two years had elapsed since John had
exposed Absalom Wheeler's trick at the Edgefield mills, and
so signally defeated the plan so cunningly laid to prevent his
running the engine. During all that time of John's trial and
mortification, Mr. Needles' confidence in him had never failed,
and when John's triumph came, Mr. Needles' satisfaction was
Still came the calls for " three hundred thousand volun-
teers." Recruiting officers were in every hamlet, visiting
every store, ofiice and workshop. One day the Hon. Mr. ,
a member of the Legislature of John's native State, visited
the Eagle Works, recruiting volunteers for a State regiment.
While talking eloquently to a knot of mechanics, some of whom
had already given him their names, one of the men said,
" Here's Mr. Blye, let him go, too."
LITERARY EFFORTS 191
The honorable recruiter, with gushing loyalty for his
country and exaltation for the soldier, replied:
" Yes, if I had my way he might go along ; if I had my
way black men should go along to carry you boys' guns and
water cans, and wait on you and black up your shoes, and you
should do nothing but march and fight."
John was a general favorite, respected and beloved by
every man in the works, and at these remarks the men said no
more but hung their heads in shame — shame for the man who
did not know their John, and shame for their state and
country which made it possible for the utterance of such *^
remarks with all they might imply, and one by one they slunk
away to their work.
But at last came the Proclamation of Emancipation —
then came calls for enlistment of the contrabands and freed-
men and finally calls for colored volunteers all over the country.
Spring Bottom shared in the new excitement. Like magic,
almost, strange colored recruiting officers appeared in the
hamlet, and soon here and there a blue suit and blue cap
appeared in the streets.
The war fever seized upon John also; but he did not like
the idea of going to war for his state or country as a mere
hireling. He was perfectly willing to go to war as a state
volunteer, for he felt that to go any other way would be an
acknowledgment on his part that he was not a citizen of a
state. Spring Bottom raised a pretty strong club of stay-
at-homes under the hireling rule of the government, declaring
they would not go to war unless they could be accredited as
volunteers to the state to which they belonged. John joined
this club and was elected captain of it. The more the drums
beat to arms the more anxious were its members to go to war.
At length so urgent became the colored people of that and
the adjoining counties to go to war, and so popular had
John become among his own people that he was induced to
" An actual occurrence, the remarks being made by the Hon. P. L.,
now dead, in the presence of " Will." Instead of the words " black men,"
however, the word that was used may be guessed.
take the initiatory steps towards raising a regiment. The
success in this undertaking was so promising that, at the
instigation of some of the leading colored men he wrote the
following letter to the Secretary of War :
" Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Sec. of War, Washington, D. C.
" Sir : I have the honor to inquire if a regiment of black
men would be accepted by the War Department and credited
to this State; and, if its officers of black men would be com-
missioned to command it as are the volunteer officers of other
volunteer regiments, with the same pay and rations for privates
" Very respectfully, John Blye."
This letter was endorsed at the War Department " John
Blye, Esq., of [Gouldtown, N. J.] makes inquiries concern-
ing raising a colored regiment," and returned with the follow-
"War Dept., Washington, D. C, 1863.
" Sir : The government accepts the services of colored
men as United States Colored Troops. They are allowed a
compensation of $6.00 per month for privates and $8.00 per
month for non-commissioned officers. It is not deemed advis-
able to allow colored men to command. I have the honor to be
" Very respectfully, A. A. G.^^
The result of this correspondence was to disband the
various clubs that had been organized, the men declaring they
would wait for a draft and see if the government would draft
those whom it would not recognize as citizens.
Soon, however, came the clarion voice of glorious old
Massachusetts, and the country remembers yet what she said.
John at once determined to become a Massachusetts soldier.
^This correspondence, in substance, was an actual occurrence and the
letters are verbatim et literatim.
A STORY IN BLANK VEESE.
In Stowe Creek township, near Flax landing on
Stowe Creek about a century ago stood a brick house. It
still stands there and, though modernized, is now owned
by either Frank Ridgeway, or the estate of Captain
Miller. It was said to have been erected in Colonial
times, and the tradition, in early days was that it was the
rendezvous of pirates; and was finally made the prison
of a fair captive of the pirate chief. Seventy-five years
ago the natives used to call it " Joe Compton's Haunted
House," because nobody would live in it.
(The following story, in blank verse, was founded
upon this legend, by a Gouldtown boy, then about 20
years old, and who is still living. The name of the
writer is assumed, and this same boy wrote many things
in prose and verse under assumed names, one of which,
as I now remember was " Ichabod."
This story of " Luilla " was written about 1860.
luilla: the coesair's victim.
A TAI.E OF SOUTH JERSEY BY " OLIVER TWEEDLE."
I'll tell the tale, as it was told to me;
But yet, to 'hellish with a little grace,
Must weave in fancy; for it would not do
To give it in the rough with no carving —
For meats are always better with seas'ning;
In earlier times, 'tis said, wild daring men.
Devoid of fear of law, or punishment
For crime, t' increase their wealth would band themselves,
And choose a chieftain whom they would obey:
A sharp, sagacious, cunning man 'twould be,
Most apt, and young, and handsome, too, to boot,
With good address ; one who could probe right well
The gentleman; could visit the abodes
Of wealth — to mingle with the high and gay;
To be the greatest sport in sporting scenes,
To be the most solemn where things devout
Are wont to be enacted, and to pry
The inmost secrets of the haunts of wealth
And find the, to his band, most harmless way
To possess it and to escape, uncaught;
And this while being the admired of all
Admirers, and the star of all who gaze.
And deeds by such were done that froze the blood ;
Deeds of plunder that would end in murder.
And sometimes worse than murder, — death outright
Is better oft than torture to compel
The victim to disclose some secret place
Where wealth and plunder might be stored away;
Or, some fair victim, who, by luckless fate
Had fallen in their power, to be forced
To yield her virtue to th' unhallowed care
Of such men-monsters ; — so much had I learned
Before my narrator, an aged man.
Began his story in this wise, to wit:
" Jean Paul Retour was born, no matter where.
It might be France, or Spain or Italy,
In some large city or a country town;
He might have been a duke's son or a clown's, —
It matters not, his younger days I knew
But little of, nor care I more to learn.
'Twas in his early manhood that I knew
Aught of him, and to know him then was but
To love and to admire and to revere;
For he was grand and noble, good and true.
His own descent would count for nothing, for
His own proud blood could found a family;
Tall, upright was his form, and conscious pride
Of his own person gleamed forth from his eye.
His raven hair in curling locks hung o'er
The square and lofty shoulders ; and the brow
Was high and haughty, and the jet black eyes
Showed nought of fear of danger seen or not;
The straight, thin, well-set and transparent nose
Showed restlessness of disposition, and
The small square chin and thin compressing lips
Showed cruel firmness in a purpose set —
And he was handsome, aye! surpassing all;
No door was closed to him, but all were glad
To win his smile, and gain a passing word,
But, ah! a spell hangs o'er him and would break
In vengeance! — Foul crimes had been committed
And murders done that baffled inquiry.
Merchants and banks were robbed by one Pedro,
'Twas said, a bandit with a bandit band;
And church and convent shared alike their fate.
And all attempts of sheriffs, high or low.
To trap the desperadoes were in vain.
For none could tell, or give a clue where might
Be found the hiding place of band so bold;
And other robberies, and murder e'en.
Had been committed where 'twas thought that ev'n
The bold Pedro could not have found the scene.
At last a man was robbed and left as dead,
A merchant he with stores of golden coin
Locked in his house secure, with double bolts,
And all his family gone to while the time
Of evening at theatre or church ;
But he, well knowing where his treasure was.
Remained to guard as 'twere, and if perchance
A passing friend should enter, to beguile
In pleasant talk the lonesome hours away.
The time would be well spent in sweet converse.
Jean Paul did enter, welcomed ev'rywhere,
A no less welcome did he now receive,
With adroit skill he plied his host with words,
About the fair Ilene or bold Henri ;
With artless queries learned he that they
With all the servants, save one — Olao —
Had gone to seek amusement, or devote
An hour to worship. How a fire did gleam
From the black eye of Jean, as Olao
With tray of viands rich entered the room
And placing them upon a table paused,
As if to hear command; his eye did meet
The hurried gaze of Jean for one instant, —
It was enough, a magic spark had caught
The tinder sleeping in his own gray eyes
It blazed and lashed itself into a flame;
Demons held carnival therein as if
A scheme t' increase their demoniacal joy
In dreadful orgies were consummated.
And Olao smiled ; his very soul shone out
In frightful blackness through his vicious eyes;
He placed himself behind his master's seat
And said, " My Lord, the viands, see, are here
For you and for your noble friend, and I,
Your slave, am here to do your bidding; and
The wine will loose your brain and make your thoughts
One, two, and yet another glass
Was quaffed, Jean rose as if to go, but stayed;
Then quick as thought a dagger pierced the breast
Of the rich merchant and he fell to earth.
" He dies ! " said Paul, with one triumphal look,
" Olao, at the spoil, or else the herd
Of sniffling women will be here and then
The clue is given e'er we could escape."
One last look as he left the house Paul gave
To see that life had left the body, and
No tales were likely to be told of him.
He looked too hasty — for, when he had gone
And faithless Olao had followed him,
The bleeding man revived, and to the crowd
Assembled cried : " It was Jean Paul Retour,
He's the bold bandit Pedro, and his band
Are Jean Paul's men," and closed his eyes and died.
It was a subterranean chamber where
Were congregated many stalwart men,
Each clustering round a common centre
Paying deference to a manly form
Who had just entered, who recounted low
An adventure. List, now ! a spring is touched,
Another form admitted; 'tis a maid
Or vixen, as you will; her look was wild
And agitated, and she paused as if
She feared to break the silence.
" Speak, hussy ! "
Said a thundering voice from out the crowd,
And stepping nearer to the bending form
Of him who seemed to be the chief, she said
" Pedro, my chief, you did your work too soon.
For he, your dagger pierced, died not until
He had revealed your name ; so have a care
How that you mingle in the throng of men.
They'll seek your life — for now they'll know who 'tis
That leads the band of Pedro."
The dim light of the tapers shone athwart
The corridors; the massive pews of that
Great church: its holy furniture showed dark
And rich in the dull glare of taper light.
Its beautiful images, and the robes
Of absent priests, melted and modified
The scene, and there amid the tapestry
That overhung the image of Mary,
The Mother of our Lord, knelt the fair form
Of woman, and a step was heard close by.
She started up, a dagger met her gaze,
" Luilla," said a voice she knew full well.
And joy and gladness lighted up her face,
" 'Tis you, my only love," she feebly said,
" For you I've prayed the Virgin all the night,
Now tell me — ^but the dagger," and she fell
Pale, trembling to the ground —
" Was pointed at
The heart of any found who would tell tales,"
Said Pedro, for 'twas he, and as he raised
The drooping girl, repeated in her ear,
" I cannot strike the heart of one like you,
Nor can I trust you out among the world ;
I am a robber chief, but not so bold
As put my neck within the halter noose,
So you'll away with me."
" No, strike me dead !
Take, take the bloody hand I blindly loved
And slay me here, I am prepared to die,
For nought is stronger than a woman's love
But her despair," — thus said the stricken girl
In accents weak.
The robber chief would not.
But bore her off unto his den of thieves.
And thought by words of flattery to win
Again the love that lived but once and died.
He swore by the " Lord George " she should be his.
And that by her consent, for if he would,
Could he not break her to his will, for she
Was in his pow'r, what could she do but yield.'*
Sometimes such bold, wild, daring, reckless men
Found helpmates for their profit, who would share
Their plunder, on the sea ; who were as bold
In crime as they, and cared no more for laws
Of men or nations, or a higher pow'r.
'Twas well sometimes to ship his spoils away.
So Pedro thought, to sell in other climes.
So he had leagued himself with pirates too.
And they with each exchanged their ill-got goods.
And profited thereby; — a rendezvous
For both their gangs was made, to seek ashore:
The sea beats madly 'gainst the broken rocks
And dashes its white foam amid the clouds
And roars and surges like a giant bound —
And bound it is ; the tow'ring rocks above
Stay its proud waves, they can no farther go ;
A ship at anchor in the distance shows
By the wan gleam of starlight, and the crew
Pull a small boat towards the breaking shore
Where none but madmen dare to risk their lives ;
But at the helm a swearing steersman sits
Who knows the path — has traversed it before,
And safely runs the boat to a small light
High up the cliff. The boatmen give a sharp,
Short whistle, and a door springs open wide:
A sentry stands, the password now is given,
A scaling ladder falls into the boat.
And captain, crew, and plunder soon are safe
Within the den so cunningly devised.
An inn, a common covmtry inn, along
A sparsely traveled road, 'tween no great towns,
Is filled with country folk — a brawling set.
Who for amusement congregate to spend
An hour or two in drinking and in chat,
And high their humor runs ; and loud uproar
Is mixed with vulgar laughter.
But a hush —
The scene is stilled — a new arrival's made:
A coach and 'tendants fill the open space
In front the house; a tall and graceful man
Alights, bearing the seraph form of one,
Who seems to be a maiden lost in grief.
For ever and anon a sigh escapes,
But the veiled features are not let to view.
And slapping his fat thighs brave Loraine says :
Ha ! Pedro, now I have it, well you know
That I will aid you, if I can, to 'scape
And take your dainty cargo with you, too, —
I know a port where none as yet do come
To lade their ships, but where I have e'er this
Unladen mine of gold and buried it,
Now go you there, since this is not the place
For you to stay, and spend a quiet life,
What say you. Eh? "
"I say I will away
To any place where I may but possess
This object of my passion."
"The New World
Is then your home."
Then springing to his feet
Pedro called out : " Ten men of you I want.
By lot, to be the agents of a man.
Unknown ; to guard his wealth, tenant his lands,
And build a mansion house for him when he
Shall come to hold them; and again I want
Two others, but by choice, to guard a charge
That I shall give them — Alberto, your wife,
And you, I shall make use of for this trust
And Irish Bill, a better is not found."
It was a motley crowd — from verdant youth
To hoar age the lot impartial took;
I'll not describe them all, but merely tell
Of the main agents, who were chosen out:
Orlando Conara, a dashing youth.
Was first appointed over all the rest,
And they must do his bidding as they would
Were he their chief ; in faith, a gallant chief
He'd make, his tall, commanding form and mien
Showed he was not of common parentage.
The keeper of the house is all aglow
With smiles and blandishments, the gaping crowd
Bow and cringe, and give way to the pair,
Who, as the landlord says, " are shown their room,"
And then indulge in comments ; some one says.
" He is a bridegroom with his dainty bride,
Spending a honeymoon." And others say
" She is his sister and they two have met
A sad bereavement, for did you not see
How sad he looked and how she seemed to sigh? "
But Piano, the old steward, put in his voice
And said: "It is the Maestro, he who owns
The house and lands and all that here surrounds.
He comes and goes whenever 'tis his will,
And none dare question him, but I do think
As Albro says, 'tis a young bride who now
Accomp'nies him " —
You know the man, my friend,
I do not doubt, and know the maiden too,
'Tis none but Pedro and the Luilla,
And Pedro's men compose th' attending train.
We wiU not follow through the vaulted way
Long leading from the chamber where they go
Unto the den ; but meet them there amid
The scenes of revelry.
An hundred lamps
Illume a spacious hall well thronged with men.
And women too are there and not a few,
And strains of music fill the smothered air.
A table groans with viands and repast
Of richest odors show a sumptuous feast
Is ready for some honor'ble event ;
The pirate chief and robber chief discuss
A topic strong and stronger cup of wine.
Yet so it was ; a helpmate he possessed,
Who outvied him in hideous, horrid looks —
A short and crumpled, humpbacked thing was she,
I cannot call her woman, nor do I
Believe that she was woman ; for a fiend
Would be most likely to put on her shape.
Her chin was sharp as any eagle's beak
Yet blunted off; her mouth from ear to ear
Encircled half her head, which dev'lish thing
Sat squattily between the humpy things
She called her shoulders and two other things
She called her back and breast, I wonder not
That such a face had such a hooked nose,
Or such green eyes matched such red, grizzly hair.
Now " Irish Bill " in turn deserves a glance ;
Although not prominent, he holds a place
In the selected comp'ny, which must care
For the selected charge.
A short spare man,
Of light but withy form, and sinewy
Was he, with skinny face that wrinkled up
From chin to brow when but he chanced to smile
Or speak, or even wink his ej-^es, which orbs
Were large and full, protruding from their seats
Like any hare's, but which he could not help;
His hair of yellow hue was short and curled.
And when he spoke a spasm seemed to jerk
His entire frame — his lungs would fill and heave
And vi'lent splutter make, as from his mouth
His thick and smothered voice found utterance.
I said the other nine were common men.
And it was so; but one deserves a space
Of notice. Diff'rent from the rest in hue.
Yellow and curling were his massy locks
And mild and placid was his sky-blue eye,
A ready smile awaited all who chose
To address him; courteous and polite,
He was cut out and stamped a gentleman.
But now and then a quick electric flash
Shot from those placid orbs ; the quick expanse
And flutter of that thin, straight waxen nose,
And hasty motion of the head and hand.
The constant watchfulness, all tend to show
That there is something lurking still within.
No wonder is it that the like of him
Is found in such a band — 'tis just his place,
The other men were nought but common men.
Of various dispositions, as you'll find,
In any comp'ny; but Albertero —
Alberto and his wife were two, the like
Of whom I think 'tis very hard to find:
Tall was the man and gaunt and sinewy,
With grayish hair and straight and lank the locks.
And sunken eyes of piercing, stinging black.
And hollow cheeks with yellow, wrinkled skin;
A deep mouth reaching well around and filled
With snags of teeth, with eyeteeth long and sharp;
A broad, flat chin with stubbed beard beclad —
Like frost just oozing from the glazier's mouth.
And nose of three-inch measure, fuU and hooked
The end, to keep the superficial curve —
And 'tis the truth, my friend, he looked more fit
To be companion for the wildest apes
And ogres too, of largest size, to stay
The dread and terror that's inspired by him,
Than be companion of the womankind.
Reclining calmly on the deck, Pedro
Watched with the pirate captain every move,
And seemed to study with his strongest will
To weigh her thoughts, divine her inmost heart.
And he succeeded, too, somewhat, 'twould seem,
For turning to the pirate in a tone
Of mingled bitterness and joy, he said,
' Fairest of all the fair ones is my bride
That is to be, — yet 'tis the greatest crime
That I've committed thus to bear her off
From friends and kindred and a pleasant home.
To share the fortunes of a wretch like me —
In faith my heart reproves me more for this
Than plunging my stiletto in the heart
Of my best friend. Does she not look, Loraine,
Like some fair goddess weeping o'er the fate
Of some fair protege? If I could but '
Induce the girl to overlook my crimes
And see that they were necessary, then
She might forget her past life and her home,
And bow to fate before it breaks her."
Break her, then," said Loraine, " or bends she not? "
" By heaven! she's mine, I'll do just what I will! "
And a low chuckle glided o'er the sea.
Days, weeks, and months successive pass away.
But still Luilla's home is on the sea,
But not in the same ship she started with ;
For Pedro showed his skill so much the first
Attack upon an unarmed merchantman
That Loraine did divide his stock of war.
Some heavy guns and small arms without stint.
With him, and fitted up the captured ship
For chasing harmless prizes, and the crew
That was found in her had their choice to swear
Allegiance to Pedro or drink the deep.
Some turb'lent ones, of course, were murdered straight,
For they might give him trouble, and perhaps
Might cut his throat if they became too strong
By numbers joining to them.
Augmented by his twelve disciples, who
Were chosen by the lot to do his will —
Became a corsair bold, and dreaded much
By shipping merchants in full many ports.
Cinara was his mate and quite as bold.
And Hilo Maenon was his cabin steward
And he with Albertero and his wife.
Old Zaniffe, had the charge of Luilla,
Who, in a private cabin fitted up
With great luxuriance and artful taste,
Was closely guarded — though it seemed not so.
For he, the wily corsair, would not seem
To govern harshly, nor e'en would he seem
To hold her is. his ship as with his will —
But fain would make her think with fluent words,
He, of necessity, a virtue makes.
How that the changes came, it is not need
That I should tell you, Sir, but come they did.
And Conara received instructions full
To follow out the plans by Loraine laid
For Pedro's guidance ere they parted ships.
And as you do not know them, I will tell
In what they did consist in my own way.
But quite at home among them, and they seemed
To pay deference even to him, like
As if he had some trait that would command
Respect — and so he had, for though his skin
Was black as night, true brav'ry dwelt beneath.
As well they knew in many plund'ring scenes.
Of Afric's ebon race he was a son —
And well might Afric pride herself to own
A son so noble in his form and mien:
His name was Hilo Maenon, and the lot
Had chose him with the rest.
The night drew on
To morning and the feast was well-nigh done,
The pirate and the bandit chief had made
Their plans, quick work must now be done to move
The bandits' necessary stores unto
The anchored ship as yet the morning light
Lingered and danced not o'er the rippling wave, —
Great chests, and heavy, filled the lab'ring boats,
As to and from the ship the sturdy tars
Bent their strong oars; and stores of merchandise
Of best and finest quality, the spoil
Appropriated from some wealthy son
Of commerce. But we next will turn our eyes
To Pedro, who, unconscious of the noise
And bustle, seems to be absorbed within
Himself, and thus he muses : " I'll become
A corsair, too, for lucky have I been
On land ; I've heaped up gold and silver bright —
Yon chests contain my treasures, all but one;
I'll be a corsair and I wiU possess
That other one — she can't escape me now;
The sky and sea shall be our boundaries,
The ship our home — I'll win her to myself,
And when those fellows do perform their work,
I'll bear her to my mansion where the past
Will be forgotten — ^but if she resist
My wiles of love, what's left me then to do?
Nor will she either, for she loved me once.
And what has been can well be o'er again;
I'll soothe and caress her with gentle words.
And make her love me by her own proud will."
The morning sun beheld the gallant ship
Swift driving o'er the blue — no trace of land
Was visible; the sporting flying-fish
Darted across her bow in multitudes.
And ever and anon a screaming bird
Hovered o'erhead awhile, then hied away;
The gentle breeze crested the distant wave
And swelled the canvas of the lab'ring ship ;
It moaned and sighed amid the loose cordage,
And fanned the cheek of Luilla, my friend, —
For she was there and leaning o'er the waists
Look'd into the deep sea and thought of home,
And friends, and childhood's early scenes, I think;
Her mass and pray'r, her spir'tual adviser —
Of all she loved and all she thought lov'd her —
Ah, then, the tears unbidden 'gan to flow ;
The breeze now playing with her ringlets black
That cluster o'er her snowy shoulders, and
Her crimson cheeks receive the kisses light
Of the majestic sun. A form she stands
Of unsurpassed beauty, e'en among
The fairest daughters of the sons of men.
Her fragile form is gently rocked and swayed
By the soft motion of the sailing ship;
One waxlike hand the ships gunwale supports
The other grasps her cherished rosarie.
In South New Jersey e'en unto this day
There is a weird place where many tales
Are told of Bluebeard, once a pirate, too.
And money holes abound in plenty, where
'Twas said that he had buried stores of gold
And anxious diggers searched with hushed voice,
To gain the treasure, which, 'twas often said
Was heard to rattle 'neath the cov'ring stone ;
And many vouched when they had digged a ways,
They found the iron chest which held the prize.
But being so o'ercome with dreadful awe,
They spoke! and down the chest immediate sunk —
For 'twas a legend that old Bluebeard called
A stalwart stripling from his pirate crew,
More wicked than the rest and steep'd in crime,
And charged him thus : " Son of the sulph'rous pit,
Seest thou this gold? I leave it now to thee,
To guard until I do return — Dost hear?
See that thou guard'st it well ; and if perchance
The hand of man should seek and find, the fiends
Of hell in their black arts assist to guard !
And if a human voice dost hear, raise all
The powers of hell to bear it off. Spirits
Of darkness keep their vigils near to thee ! "
A charmed bullet pierced the young man's brain.
He died while standing upright ; yet no mark
Or wound, 'twas said, was seen; they buried first
The gold, then stood the corpse upright upon
The chest, then filled the pit and laid a great
Flat stone upon it.
This Bluebeard was none
But Loraine, pirate of the Southern Seas ;
He found the place; a quiet, sheltered cove,
A few miles up the Bay of Delaware,
Had landed many times and stored his spoils,
Among a band of servile padders, who
Inhabited the country and by stealth
Surreptitious conveyed them to the town
Of Quakers, where they might be sold for coin.
This is the place of which Loraine had told,
Jean Paul Retour the night he left the den
And he had made his plan to this effect, —
That Conara and his associates
Should seize upon the land as best they could,
And build a mansion house and till the soil
And keep communication with the town
Of Penn, from whence to import luxuries,
And thus to make a home adapted to
A foreign lord and lady when they came.
And so it was; a beautiful abode
Was finished with the most exquisite taste,
And flow'rs and forest trees adorned the lawn
Which stretched expansive from the edifice;
And carriage-drives, well gravelled and laid off,
And shaded by the tow'ring oak and pine —
In truth it was a home that would invite
The most fastidious, for the corsair gave
Command that no expense be spared to make
His home full worthy of his bride.
Were passed — the time drew near at which
He said he should be done of robbing ships —
And should forsake the deep and land his prize,
And enter in the social walks of life
And as exiled nobleman from lands
Where prisoners of state were forced to leave
Their home and kindred — was thus much his plan.
" And now, my friend," my narrator kept on,
" We must return our thoughts unto the ship, —
Plunging and ploughing through the restless main,
A thing of beauty, she, a thing of life.
And freighted with the spoils of many lands.
Of captured ships the burthen, and her decks
Were always trimmed for action. Pedro knew
'Twas better to prevent confusion than
To cure th' effects by losing in the fight.
Thus was the home of Luilla, but not
Of Luilla alone; for merchantmen
Oft carried passengers of female sex,
And so it chanced that Pedro had run down
And taken a rich commerce ship of France,
With two French ladies who became his spoil —
For any one he thought to be of use
He failed to put on shore at liberty
But pressed them to his service ; so it was
With those two ladies ; he had reckoned well
That Luilla desired company
Of her o^vn sex ; how to provide for her
And not endanger his designs had been
A subject often pondered in his mind.
Not that he feared she could escape from him,
Or any plots she might with comp'ny make
Would foil the least his foul intentions, for
He knew she was secure, such trusty guards,
Were Albertero and his old hag wife —
But he did fear the slightest counterpoise
Would alien her affections ; to this end
Was strict forbiddance made for any one
Save the old guards and Maenon, the black steward.
To hold converse or say a word to her.
It happened lucky then, so Pedro thought,
That these two maidens spoke another tongue —
So henceforth were they her associates.
Their names were Lizzette and Enfronica,
And Lizzette bore a striking likeness to
The fair Luilla, so much so that one
With slighting gaze would not the difference tell.
The only 'stinguishment between the two
Was in their hair — Lizzette's was golden hue.
The night was dark and stormy and the wind
In fitful howls swept through the taut cordage ;
The good ship rocked and swayed before the gale
Now upon beams, now bows beneath the waves.
Onward she hastens, glad, she seems to near
A port at last, so tossed and beat by seas
Her oaken sides delight themselves to find
A harbor is before; with sturdy ribs
They check and dash the billows back upon
Their own revengeful heads.
The quiet Bay
Of Delaware is seen athwart her prow;
The surging sea is stayed at last, the calm
Smooth waters of the Creek of Stowe
Bear on their bosom Paul Retour's proud ship
And through the murky night a friendly beam
Starts from a watchful signal-light hard by
And signal answers signal; by the ship
The cables run, the good ship winds around.
At last she ceases in her progress, rests —
From years of weary toil she rests at last ! "
In the poem there follows the description of the life
in the Haunted House, referred to previously.
SOME PRESENT KEAL ESTATE POSSESSIONS OF THE
INHABITANTS OF GOULDTOWN.
The Western extremity of Gouldtown extends to
Southeast Avenue at the corner of Pamphylia Avenue,
in the second ward of the city of Bridgeton, New Jersey.
At this point is the home of William C. Gould, a de-
scendant of Rev. Furman Gould. His wife is Elizabeth,
daughter of George Pierce of Salem. She is a de-
scendant of Menon Pierce, 1st, of Gouldtown. This
home of William C. Gould consists of a farm of twenty
acres, which he inherited from his father, Furman Gould,
2nd. It extends eastward along Pamphyha Avenue
until it joins an eleven-acre lot belonging to Cleon
Gould, which Cleon inherited by will from his mother's
father, Abijah Gould, 3rd. Cleon's lot extends east-
ward, still along Pamphylia Avenue until it joins the
farm of Eugene Gould's fifty acres. This farm was left
to Eugene and his sister, Mary Gould, by their father,
Alfred Gould, and their mother, Mrs. Sarah Gould,
still resides with them and has her widow's right in the
farm. South of this farm, divided from it by Pam-
phylia Avenue, is the hundred-acre farm of Eli Gould
(lately deceased), where reside his widow, Mary Stew-
ard Gould, her son, Edgar S. Gould, and family. This
farm extends eastward along this same avenue, up to
Burlington Avenue, still in ward two of Bridgeton.
The farm of Eugene and Mary Gould (these two
are unmarried, brother and sister living with their
mother) extends northward until it joins the seventy-*
acre farm of George Pierce of Gouldtown (not the
Salem George previously mentioned). This farm of
George Pierce, which is his home farm, as he owns
several, extends northward, crosvsing the Buckshutem
road and extending to the Bridgeton and Millville turn-
pike, where his handsome dwelling stands ; the farm also
extends eastward to Burlington Avenue, which runs
north and south, and to which also extends the Eli Gould
farm, a half mile south. Between the Pierce farm and
the Eli Gould farm is a twenty-acre lot owned by T, R.
Janvier, which joins on the east end of that much of the
Eugene Gould farm. East of the Eli Gould farm, from
which it is separated by Burlington Avenue, is the
twenty-eight-acre lot of Chaplain T. G. Steward, and
eastward and northward of this lot is the more than
hundred-acre farm of Rev. Theodore Gould, and his
beautiful country home ; this farm fronts on the Buck-
shutem road, there being a ten-acre lot at the northwest
corner, belonging lately to Henry Dare, which separates
that portion from Burlington Avenue.
Joining the northwest portion of the farm of Eugene
and Mary Gould, from which it is separated by the
Central Railroad, is the f ourteen-acre farm and home of
Wilham Steward, which extends almost to Southeast
Avenue, before mentioned, and between this and the
eleven-acre lot of Cleon Gould is another eleven-acre
lot owned by a lawyer. So that, as is thus shown, all
this square territory lying between Southeast Avenue,
Pamphylia Avenue, Burlington Avenue and the Bridge-
ton and Millville turnpike and trolley line, as is here
indicated, as well as the farm of Rev. Theodore Gould,
east of Burlington Avenue (with the exception of the
lawyer's lot and the Janvier lot) , is owned by the Gould-
town people, though the territory is within the limits of
Bridgeton; these lands are all contiguous, divided only
by roads and the Central Railroad of New Jersey.
To keep up the contiguity, on the north side of the
REAL ESTATE 213
Bridgeton and Millville turnpike, we step across this
road at the northeast corner of the George Pierce
seventy-acre farm where we can join the property of the
estate of Francis L. Pierce, occupied by his widow and
her son, and his family; this is twenty acres, off which
building-lots have been sold on Burlington Avenue,
which is on the west side ; this property extends eastward
along the turnpike until it joins the twenty-eight-acre
farm belonging to Bishop B. F. Lee. Bishop Lee'3
property still extends eastward along the turnpike until
it joins the seventy-acre Steward farm, formerly the
home of James Steward, where the Steward family,
whose picture is shown in this book, spent their child-
hood and youth. This farm, which extends on both sides
of the turnpike, is now owned by Leslie S. Gould, a
grandson of James Steward, the original owner.
We are now almost one and a half miles eastward
from the starting point, at the west side of the home of
William C. Gould, which fronts on Southeast Avenue.
Going back to the Steward farm, we cross this to the
south side, where we join the farm of the late Anthony
Gould's heirs ; it is separated by a road, running north-
eastwardly from the Buckshutem road, in front of Rev.
Theodore Gould's residence, to the turnpike before men-
tioned, where it terminates at the toll gate, which is the
actual beginning of the village of Gouldtown from the
The Anthony Gould farm, as well as the westerly
portion of the part of the James Steward farm, joins
on other lands of Bishop Lee and his three sisters — ^the
estate of their parents. This Anthony Gould farm con-
tains over forty acres, and extends south to the Buck-
shutem road. To the west of this and extending along
the Buckshutem road westwardly, which divides it from
the farm of Rev. Theodore Gould, is the home and
twelve-acre lot of Stephen S. Steward, the carpenter and
builder. South of the Anthony Gould farm and on the
south side of the Buckshutem road is the farm of Milton
Pierce (unmarried) comprising some thirty acres; this
joins the farm of Rev. Theodore Gould, on the west,
farms (two) of Lorenzo F. Gould on the south, and
other farm lands of Bishop Lee and his three sisters on
the east. These Lee lands also lie on both sides of the
Buckshutem road, and join on the southeast that por-
tion of the Anthony Gould farm. To the east of the
Anthony Gould farm lies the farm of William H.
Gould, his son (deceased) and this joins the James
Steward farm at its southeast corner, and the lands of
Preston Gould, Reuben CufF, and Frank Webster,
which lie between the road which goes to the tollgate be-
fore mentioned and the turnpike.
William Gould's lands also join the lands of the
estate of Pierce Gould, inherited from his father, EHsh^
Gould, 1st, and which are now owned by Anna Gould,
granddaughter of Pierce Gould and daughter of Au-
gustus Gould. This Pierce Gould tract extends out to
and across the main road from Fairfield to Woodruff,
terminating at a distance of two and a half miles from
our first starting point, and all are contiguous proper-
ties ; but within this large territory is a plot of fifty- two
acres, belonging to the Stevenson estate, which lies
between the farm of Rev. Theo. Gould on the south and
the estate of Francis L. Pierce on the north, and another
plot of ten acres formerly owned by Gideon Pierce, but
now owned by a white man. These two plots lie be-
tween Burlington Avenue and the James Steward farm
and Lee estate, on the south side of the turnpike. These
two plots, comprising sixty-two acres, are entirely sur-
rounded by the farms of George T. Pierce on the west.
Rev. Theodore Gould on the south, James Steward and
Lee estates on the east, and farm of Bishop Lee and
A Goiildtown Woman and Her Driving Horse. Photo by Her Grandson.
Cottage of Stephen S. Steward.
REAL ESTATE 215
Francis L. Pierce estate on the north. South of the
farm of Rev. Mr. Gould are lands of the Jonathan
Gould estate, Lorenzo F. Gould's farms (he also owns
the farm of Jonathan Gould, his father) .
From the northern point of the Steward farm, going
to the southern point of the Rev. Gould farm, crossing
lands of the estate of Anthony Gould and to the south-
ern line of L. F. Gould's farms is a distance of one and
a half miles. Still further south, and still contiguous,
are lands of William Wilson (whose mother was a
Gould) and Jacob Coombs (whose mother was a
Pierce), comprising nearly one hundred acres.
To the eastward of these last tracts comes the ancient
estate of Elisha Gould, 1st, which has been before
alluded to, as well as lands comprising the old Gould
possessions of the heirs of Abijah Gould, 1st, Samuel
Gould, 1st, and Elisha Gould, 1st, as bequeathed in
the ancient will of Benjamin Gould of 1777.
To the eastward and northward of these ancient
estates and the ancient estates of Wanaca Pierce, 1st,
and his brothers, Anthony, Menon, John, and Benja-
min Pierce, are hundreds of acres, now owned by Goulds
and Pierces, with now and then a Murray — the latter,
however, being small possessions.
The only survivor of the family of Adrian Pierce
is Steward Haines Pierce, who resides on the old home-
stead farm of his father at the eastern end of the settle-
ment of Carmel. Adrian's estate was about seven hun-
dred acres, and was divided among his heirs. Most of it
has been disposed of by them, before their deaths.
From the home of William C. Gould at Bridgeton
on the west to the farm of Stewart H. Pierce on the
east is a distance of seven miles and a person can go
from one extremity to the other and be continuously on
the lands of the colored residents of Gouldtown. This
immense territory, comprising over five thousand acres
at the present time, is composed of both farm lands and
woodlands, but the greater portion of it is woodland,
and a large increase to the original holdings. The
largest holders of these woodlands are William C.
Gould, Albert Gould; heirs of Benjamin Gould; heirs
of Holmes Pierce; George T. Pierce; Peter Pierce;
Holmes Pierce, Jr., Charles Lloyd; John Murray, 4th,
heirs of Jacob Pierce, and others.
SOME LEADING FAMILIES AND THEIR LINE OF DESCENT.
Of the present descendants of the inhabitants of
Gouldtown may be found family branches in all parts
of the country from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast.
Some of these branches, for obvious reasons founded
on well-known American prejudice, will not be given
here. They are white people and happy, prosperous,
and some of them distinguished, and it would add noth-
ing to the happiness or comfort of them to let their
children even know of their descent. I received last
week a letter from a lady in the West, the daughter of
a man who was a close boyhood friend in our boyhood
days, asking me if I knew her father's relatives. She
had heard her father speak of me often before his death
a few years ago. I had kept track of him; he was a
brave soldier and a heroic officer for over three years in
the Union Army in the Civil War. He was not the only
one from this place (Gouldtown) whom I had known
in the same capacity, who, having gone West, lost their
identity of color, and become soldiers and officers in the
war, and had raised honored families. Others I have
known in other spheres of life as well. If their posterity
can be called '* deceived " I would not undeceive them.
There are two sisters, daughters of Mr. and Mrs.
B(. F. Pierce, the one recently residing on the Atlantic
REAL ESTATE 217
coast, at Longport, Atlantic City, the other at Tacoma,
Washington. They are Miss Ethel Pierce and Mrs.
Jennie Jones. They are descendants of Benjamin
Gould, 2nd, on the mother's side, and Adam Pierce, the
Revolutionary soldierj on their father's side.
The family of Lorenzo F. Gould is conspicuous for
its general intelligence; two daughters, Miss Agnes
Gould and Miss Alice Gould (now Mrs. Clifton
Mosely), were schoolteachers in Atlantic and Camden
Counties. Miss Lucette Pierce, niece of Mr. Gould, is
principal of the Gouldtown public school and has been a
teacher in SomerviUe, and Atlantic City, and else-
where. They are Normal graduates. They are de-
scendants of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, and Rev. Furman
Gould, and of Anthony Pierce, 2nd.
Leslie S. Gould and Edgar E. Gould, sons of the
late Eli Gould, are prominent farmers. They are de-
scendants on their father's side from John Murray, 1st,
and Elisha Gould, 1st, and on their mother's side from
Benjamin Gould, 2nd. Timothy Gould and Aaron
Paul Gould, farmers and truckers, are descendants on
their mother's side of Wanaca Pierce, 1st, and Mary
Murray, and on their father's side of Charles Gould,
son of Elisha Gould, 1st.
Joseph Gould, the farmer, who resides on the home-
stead of his grandfather. Rev. Furman Gould, is a
Gould on both sides, his mother being a daughter of
Abijah Gould, 2nd. Furman and Abijah were brothers,
sons of Abijah Gould, 1st. One of his grandmothers
was " Kitty " Gould; the other was Rachel Hicks.
Bishop Benjamin Franklin Lee, extensively known
all over the United States and in Europe, who, as well
as his interesting family, has been quite distinguished,
is a descendant of Benjamin Gould, 2nd, on his mother's
side, and of Abel Lee, of Salem County. Bishop Lee
was a member of the great Ecmnenical Council which
met in London a few years ago, and of other great re-
ligious bodies. Bishop Lee's mother was Sarah,
daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe Gould. His only
son is a distinguished student of sociology, and his
daughters are accomplished teachers in Wilberforce
University, of which their honored father was once
president, and in which their mother, then Miss Ashe
of Kentucky, was a teacher. Two of his sisters aire
well-known residents of Gouldtown, and the other re-
sides in Philadelphia.
The Steward family has ifigured so often in this book
that a mere mention is all that is here necessary., Wil-
liam (that is my name) is the writer; he has been erip
gaged in newspaper work for a generation and more;
he is the oldest of the brothers. Theophilus Gould
Steward has been a clergyman since 1861; was first
stationed in Camden, New Jersey. He graduated from
an Episcopalian Theological Institute. He was sent
South immediately after the close of the war to estab-
lish the African Methodist Episcopal Church where, for
several years, he accomplished very successful labors.
Being a French scholar he was sent to establish the
African Methodist Episcopal Church in Port-au-Prince,
Haiti, which he successfully accomplished. He has
served most acceptably some of the largest churches of
his chosen connection in the United States. He was
appointed a chaplain in the regular United States army
by President Harrison, the appointment coming to him
unsought, and as a surprise. In this service he spent
many years among the Indians on the far western
frontiers. In the war with Spain he was sent to the
Philippines, making several trips across the Pacific.
Reaching the age limit, he was retired from the army
with all the honors that go with it. He has travelled
REAL ESTATE 219
since in Mexico, and made two summer trips to England
and the Continent.
Joseph Gould, son of Charles and Susan Gould,
resides on the farm owned by his father. This farm
came to Charles Gould in the division of the estate of
his father, Rev. Furman Gould, who inherited it from
his father, Abijah Gould, 1st, who inherited it from his
father, the original Benjamin Gould who died in 1777.
This Joseph Gould is a lineal descendant of the original
Gould on both paternal and maternal sides, his mother,
Susan, being daughter of Abijah Gould, 2nd, and
Rachel Hicks. Joseph's wife is Almeda, granddaughter
of Anthony Gould, 2nd, and Almeda Pierce.
Lorenzo F. Gould, member of the Fairfield town-
ship school-board, has Gould, Murray, and CufF de-
scent. His father was Jonathan Gould ; his mother was
a daughter of William CufF and Prudence Murray
Cuff. William Cuff was the son of Rev. Reuben Cuff
and Hannah Pierce. Lorenzo F. was a soldier in the
Civil War, and his son. Corporal Luther D. Gould, was
a soldier in 10th United States Cavalry, and served in
the War with Spain in Cuba.
Albert Gould and William C. Gould are sons of the
late Furman Gould, 2nd, and Hester Cuff, daughter of
the before mentioned William Cuff. There were two
sisters of Albert and William Gould. One became the
wife of Stephen S. Steward and is deceased, and the
other, having been taken West by her uncle and aunt,
grew up a white person, married and has a fine, pros-
perous, and intelligent family.
Frederick Gould is the last surviving member of the
large family of Pierce Gould and his wife Sarah, who
was a Murray ; he has sons, Henry, John and Theodore,
and one daughter; his wife was a daughter of John
Frederick is now seventy-eight years of age ; several
years ago he was run into by a trolley car when crossing
the tracks with his mule team and a load of wood. His
mule team was killed, both his legs were broken, one
of them in two places, and he was otherwise terribly
injured. It was thought by all that he could not sur-
vive, but such was his life tenacity (characteristic of the
family of Ms name) that he completely recovered, and
had for years worked as usual. Elizabeth Lloyd, wife
of Charles Lloyd, sister of Bishop Lee, is a highly in-
tellectual woman, and though always in humble life has
read more widely than many of wealth and culture.
James R. Pierce, the son of the late Ephraim and
Louisa Pierce, is descended from Richard Pierce, 3rd, a
son of Richard Pierce, 2nd. His wife is Isabella,
another sister of Bishop Lee.
Jonathan Gould had but three children, one son,
Lorenzo F. and two daughters, Hannah, widow of Rev.
Jeremiah H. Pierce, of Trenton, and Annie, widow of
Mordecai C. Pierce; she was Gouldtown's last post-
mistress. Her daughter. Miss Lucette, is principal of
the Gouldtown public school.
Belford Pierce, the blacksmith, is a descendant of
Anthony Pierce, 1st, and also of Anthony Gould, 2nd;
his mother being Christiana, first wife of Mordecai C.
Pierce. Warner K. Pierce, another member of the
Fairfield School Board, is his brother.
Two brothers of Bishop Lee met accidental deaths.
Both were unmarried, and both over sixty years of age.
Their names were William C. and Abel. William C.
left a considerable estate.
Joseph and Clarence Gould, sons of Nathan and
Phoebe Gould, are full Goulds, both their parents being
of that name. Nathan was the son of Abijah Gould,^
2nd, and Phoebe was the daughter of Benjamin Gould,
2nd. Joseph and Clarence are both widowers.
REAL ESTATE mi
Clarence has one daughter, Phoebe, wife of Philbert
Gould, son of the late Thomas Gould, who was the son
of Aaron Gould.
Preston Gould is the only son living of Anthony
Gould, 2nd; he has no children.
A brother of Joseph and Clarence Gould met an
accidental death when a young man by a cave-in in a
sand pit on his father's farm. A sister, Nancy, wife of
George Gould (nephew of Rev. Theodore Gould), re-
sides in Atlantic City.
Besides the descendants of the original Gould,
Pierce, Murray, and Cuff families residing in Gould-
town at the present time, there are numerous branches
in Salem County, especially of Cuffs, and scattered in
many parts of the United States and in Canada.
If the writers of this book should attempt to write to
all their living relatives, they would write addresses to
every State in the Union nearly, to most of the princi-
pal cities in the country and several of the larger ones
in the Dominion of Canada. They would also direct
to London, Liverpool, Paris, Berlin, and Antwerp.
As we now close the pages of this humble volume,
we send it forth with kindly greetings to all our relatives
wherever their eyes may behold it, and to our posterity
that the love of the home life — the family life and all
its sacred ties — the love of the old home and its tradi-
tions may be cherished and fostered, prospered and im-
proved upon, and the sterling qualities of our forbears
as we now recall them, recount, and look back upon
them, may be intensified in the coming generations.
To look back for two centuries on the name which
founds this community and be able to say in general
terms, that it is a name unsmirched in the court annals
of this county by crime, or by a drunkard or a pauper,
is a heritage in which any community might rejoice,
however poor it may be in material wealth.
Abbey of New Minster, 24
Academy, Bridgeton, 171, 172
Achter Cul. 20
Adams, Elizabeth, 27, 42, 49, 50
John, 26, 39, 42, 50, 54
African M. E. church, 13, 113-114, 142.
144. 145, 150, 218
Alloway's Creek, 41, 69
Almond, Caroline, 93
Mary, 93, 168
Thomas W., 93
William P., 165
Andros, Governor, 28-30
Amett, Bishop B. W., 151
Assembly to be elected, 38
Ayres, Oswell, 74
Back Creek, 67
Back Neck, 68
Bacon, Samuel, 42
Bacons of Bacon's neck, 67
Bacon's neck, 42, 51
Baily, David, 126
Baptist Church, FirstTCohansey, 68
Baracliff, Mary, 123
Barber, Keziah, 75
Barker, Wade, 69
Barrett, James, 174
Bateman, Daniel, 72
Bateman, David, 72
Dr. Rush, 141
Beaver Dam, 56
Bennett, Jane H., 77
Sarah, 68, 78
Berkeley, Lord, 21, 22, 25, 28, 29, 35, 41
Bethel Church, Philadelphia, 150
Beulah, Rev. Jeremiah, 145
Beveman, EH, 74
Bias. J. G., 122
Bilderback, Thomas, 76
Billingsly, Anna, 119
Binfields, Berkshire (Eng.), 48
Bishop, Abigail, 108
Ebenezer Pierce, 11
Horace, 174, 178, 179
Seneca, 11, 108
Bonham, Hezekiah, 79
Lindervilla Maxon. 79
Bowen, Jonathan, 54, 89
Phoebe. 91. 142. 144
Bowyer expedition of 1824, 95
Bradway, Edward, 45
Township. N. J., 9. 11. 12. 41, 50
54, 55. 58, 59, 61
first Mayor of, 67
and Millville Traction Company's
trolley line, 12
Bridgetown, now Bridgeton, 56, 88
Bright, Benjamin T., 174, 175
Brooks, Abigail, 72
Budd, Hannah F., 76
"Bumbridge," now Fairton, 61, 88
Bustill, Rebecca, 127
Buzby, Amos, 80
Cornelia A., 80
Byllinge, Edward, 36, 37
Campbell, Charles, 78
Cape May, 35
Carll, Hiram, 174
Jeremiah, 174, 178
Carll's Corner, village, 12
Carmel, N. J., 12
Carpets woven from worn-out clothes,
Carr, Sir Robert, 20
Carteret, Sir George, 21, 25, 29, 35
Captain Philip, 21
Cartwright, Sir George, 20
Cato, Charles, 104
Cattle, the variety that no one would
have to-day, 17
Challis, Elizabeth M., 75
Champness, Edward, 39, 54
Champneys, Benjamin, 54
Priscilla. 27, 39
Charcoal shipped to New York, 61
Charles II, King, grant of lands by, 20,
25, 27, 28, 29, 35
Chopping frolics, 85
Christmas memories and reflections,
Church organization, 140 et seq.
Clark, James, 129
Clement's (John) Life of John Fenwick,
22, 28, 30
Cohansey Church, 76
Cohansey River, 57, 59, 61, 67
Colonial Assembly, 30
Colored men offer their services aa
soldiers, 155, 192
Colored people, American prejudice
distinguished descendants of,
Commission man, the, 17
Commissioners, election of, 38
Concessions and agreements, 37, 39
Connecticut, settlers from, 39
Connecticut River, 20
Conner, Abigail, 72
Constitution of New Jersey, 36, 39
Cook, Ephraim J., 51
Coombs, Clara G., 103
George W., 127
Jacob, 103, 215
William, 103, 120
Covert. Elizabeth, 23
Cox, Caroline, 92
Hannah, 92, 93
Isaac, 92, 120, 121
Mary, 92, 93
Phoebe, 92, 93
Tamson, 92, 93, 115
William, 92, 116
Crane, Isaac W., 171
Cromwell, O., the Protector, 24
Cruise, Edward, 95
Cuff, Alley, 114
Anna, 114. 115, 116
Anthony. 114, 115, 134
Archibald, 98, 103, 108, 114, 115,
CuflP, Artie, 115
Burgoyne, 98, 114, 116, 117
Caroline, 105, 114, 116, 117
Charles, 115, 116
Cuffee (Padgett), 113
Dorothy, 113, 116
Elizabeth, 105, 114, 115, 117
Emma Ann, 114
Estelle Dunn, 98, 116
Francis, 103, 116
Hannah, 93, 114, 115
Hannah Ann. 100, 117
Hester, 100, 117, 219
Hiram, 93, 115
Jonathan, 103, 114, 115, 119
Leonard, 115, 119
Lydia Gould, 103, 173
Maranda M., 118
Margaret, 115, 116
Martha, 114, 134
Mary, 104, 114, 115, 117, 130
Mordecai, 92, 113, 115, 116, 134
Phoebe H., 115
Prudence, 105, 116, 117, 119, 219
Reuben, 64, 90, 92, 98, 100, 113,
114, 115, 116, 134, 142, 143,
144, 168, 214, 219
Richard, 114, 115
Sarah, 105, 114, 117
Seth, 113, 114, 116, 117, 134
Cuff, Theodore, 99
William, 100, 105, 115, 117, 118,
William A., 114
Cumberland County genealogy, 67
Cumberland County Historical Society,
Cumberland County, New Jersey, 9, 38,
39. 49, 54, 59
Cumberland Nail and Iron Co., 95
Dailey farm, 61
Dare, Captain William, 68
Elizabeth W., 74
Jane Elizabeth. 79
Rebecca F., 79
Davis, Albino, 174, 178
Jarmin A., 74
Samuel Bond, 74
Susanna Bond, 74
Deeds, early original, 41-43 sq.
Deerfield village, 12
Defence, means of, in a barbarous age,
Delaware Bay, 20, 21, 35
warrant, pay, of, 46
Denn, John, 41, 45, sq.
Dennis, Sarah, 69
Descendants of leading families. 109,
Dividing Creek Baptist Church, 69, 70
Dix wrapper factory, 59
Dixon, Charles S., 159
John R., 160
Donaghay farm, 61
Dow, Ira, 79
Dow, Mary, 79
Downe, Township of, 69
Duck, Amos, 123
Dunn, Almeda, 98, 101
Christina G., 98, 101
Robert, 98, 101, 108
Dutch jurisdiction, 20-22
East Lake, 59
Ebenezer chvu-ch, 144
Educational facilities, 170
Elections by balloting, 38
Elizabethport, New Jersey, 21
Elmer, Charles E., 140
Dr. Ebenezer, 9, 49, 54, 140, 141,
Dr. Henry, 141
Dr. Jonathan, 82, 140
Judge L. Q. C, 9, 49, 89, 141
History of Cumberland
County, N. J., 9, 49
Dr. Robert, 141
Dr. Wilham, 141
Eh-idge, John, 46
Elwell, Albert S., 79
Geo. W., 79
Evarts and Peck's "History of Salem,
Cumberland and Gloucester Coun-
Fairfield Township, N. J., 9
Fairton, 12, 61
Family eugenics and longevity, 133
Farm and Home Journals, 18
Felts, Alice S., 157, 169, 166
Mary, 159, 160
Phoebe, 160, 167
Fenwick, Ann, 26, 32
Elizabeth, 26, 28
John, 22, 24, 25, 26, sq.
commands the cavalry at the
execution of the Eling, 24, 25
death of, 33
deeds by, 41 sq.
descendants of, 9
grave of, unknown, 33
wife of, 26, 34
Priscilla, 26, 39
Sheriff Johannes, 23
Sir Robert of Northumberland, 24
Sir William, 22
Fenwick Grove, 27, 30, 32
Finn's Point, 38
Firewater, Indian love of. 83
Fisler, Dr. Benjamin, 142
Flemmings, John, 128
Fordsville M. E. church, 13, 145
Fort Elseborg, 28
Foster, Ruth, 71
Fox, George, 25
"Free Landing," 61
Friends, 25, 60
Game plenty — no game laws, 87
Generette, Rev. Mr., 158
Gentry, Thomas, 89
Gillman, David, 68
Glaspey, Ephraim, 71
Gloucester County, 37, 38
Gold, Gool. See Gould
Golden wedding, 164-169
Goodchild's plantation, 57
Gould, the original founder of Gould-
Aaron, 90, 97, 102, 117, 152,
Aaron Paul, 126, 152, 217
Gould, Abijah, 53, 55, 56, 63. 81, 85, 91,
92, 94, 95, 96, 101, 102, 103, 104,
106, 117, 125, 128, 134, 158, 176,
215, 217, 219
Agnes, 168, 217
Albert, 100, 153, 216, 219
Alfred, 90, 96, 100, 101, 106, 151.
Alice, 101, 217
Almeda, 99, 102, 219
Almeda D., 98, 101
Almeda P., 97, 119
Andrew, 96, 176
Ann, 52, 54, 63, 81, 88, 89, 105, 114,
Ann Smith, 96
Anna, 90, 98, 142, 178, 214
Anna Rebecca, 100
Anson, 106, 178
Anthony, 53, 63, 81, 85, 88-90, 97,
99, 103, 108, 114, 122, 134, 152,
Augustus, 104, 105, 127, 214
Benjamin, 52-56, 58, 63, 81, 88, 89,
91-93, 95, 102, 103, 104, 109, 114,
115, 116, 122, 134, 142-144, 145,
148, 152, 158, 219
Benjamin, will of, 52
Caroline, 102. 104, 105, 117
Catherine P., 97
Charles, 90. 96, 101, 102, 108, 152,
Charlotte, 96, 104, 107, 129, 182,
Christiana (Kitty), 53, 90, 96, 97,
98, 101, 144, 152
Christina, 97, 98, 108
Clarence, 95, 102, 220
Clayton, 103, 104, 132, 158
Cleon. 211, 212
Gould, Daniel, 90, 97
Edgar, 168, 211, 217
Eli, 81, 105, 157, 164, 166, 167, 211,
Elijah, 95, 96, 100, 104, 105, 119,
128, 149, 174
Elisha, 53, 56, 63, 81, 85, 90, 96, 98.
104, 105, 107, 116, 117, 134, 153,
174, 216, 217
Eliza Ann, 103
Elizabeth, 63, 90, 94, 97, 98, 102,
104, 108, 117, 128, 144, 211
Elizabeth Adams, 56
Elmer, 101, 102
Emily, 94, 106
Enoch, 106, 107, 117, 134, 148,
Enoch (Mrs.), 179
estates, 134, 138
Eugene 101, 151. 211, 212
Fanny Cuff. 98
Frederick, 104, 219
Freeman, 107, 117
Furman, 12, 90, 91, 96, 97, 98-
100, 101. 103, 108, 116. 117, 142,
144, 148, 152, 153. 211, 217,
genealogies, 88, 109-112
George W., 95, 102
Hannah, 90, 91, 96. 102, 105, 178,
Hannah Ann, 100. 117
Hannah Caroline, 97, 117
Hannah M., 101, 149
Harriet, 99, 103, 178
Harriet G. C, 99
Henrietta S., 107
Henry. 100. 105. 106, 117, 120
Hester Cuff. 100
Hezekiah, 107, 180
Gould, Howard, 151. 159, 165
James, 106. 107
Jane. 91, 94
Jesse, 94, 104, 106, 173, 178, 180
John, 105, 106, 117, 120, 219
Jonathan, 90, 96, 98. 100, 117, 148,
152, 215, 219, 220
Joseph, 95, 98, 101, 102, 117, 217,
Josephine, 94, 177, 178
Kitty. 90. 96. 101, 108, 217
Leonard, 91, 99, 102. 119. 130
Leslie, 168, 213, 217
Lorenzo F., 100, 155, 157, 214, 215.
217, 219, 220
Luther D., 98, 155
Lydia, 91, 93, 94, 108, 116
Lydia Ann, 97, 117
Mai vena, 104
Maria, 102, 105, 117
Martha, 53, 89. 90, 96. 100, 101,
102, 134, 152
Mary, 81. 103, 107, 151, 164, 166,
Mary E., 101
Mary S., 164
Mason M., 102, 119
Miriam, 107, 117
Mitchell H., 102, 105
Moses. 102, 105
Nancy, 95, 221
Nathan. 95, 102, 220
Norton, 96, 107-8, 129
Oliver, 91, 92, 104. 116. 125. 134,
Olivia D.. 107
Gould, Paul, 177
Phoebe, 53, 89, 91, 93-95, 97. 99,
102, 115, 116, 142. 144, 158, 218,
Pierce, 104, 119, 214, 219
Preston, 99, 214, 221
Prudence, 91, 100, 158, 159, 165,
Prudence F., 95, 143, 165, 169
Rachel, 103, 117
Rebecca, 91, 94
reunion, 158, 159
Rhumah, 90, 96
Richard, 91, 96, 103, 104, 129
Ruth, 96, 105, 128
Samuel, 53. 56. 63. 81. 85, 90, 91,
108, 114, 134, 178, 215
Sarah, 56, 63, 81, 85, 91, 94, 96. 100,
104, 105-6, 108, 117, 134, 151,
153, 168, 211, 218
Sarah M., 104
Smith, 102, 104, 105, 117
Susan, 101, 102
Tamson, 91. 92, 94
Theodore, 19, 95, 101, 105, 117, 149,
150. 151. 153. 168, 178, 212, 214,
Theophilus. 90. 96
Thomas, 97, 220
Timothy. 97. 102. 152. 217
William, 97, 117, 152
William C, 12, 100, 153, 213, 215,
William H., 117, 155, 214
Gouldtown, church, pastors of, 1818-
founder of, 42
graveyard, oldest register of, 51
honored by its neighbors, 18
origin of name, 88
sketch of, 49, 50
Gouldtown Sunday-school, 147-149
Gouldtown and Piercetown, 64
Government, representative, first form
Governor Livingston, schooner, 91
Greenwich, 60, 71
Griffin (or Griffith), ship, 26, 28, 39
Guy, Richard, 36, 39
Hall, Ebenezer, 71
Gabriel Davis, 71
Hammond, Arthur, 96
Hancock, Margaret, 44, sq.
Richard, 36. 39, 41, 59
Hancock's Bridge, 59
Harris, Amy S., 74
Hannah S.. 74
Harrison, Josiah, 74
Haun, Jonathan J., 77
Haunted house, Compton's, 193, 210
Haying time, 83, 86
Heaton, Samuel, 70
Hedge, Samuel, 36, 39, 54
Hicks, Andrew, 129, 131, 132
Elizabeth P., 131
Josiah, 64, 101. 131
Rachel, 101, 131, 217
Sarah Ann, 131
Sarah Pierce, 129, 131
Hicks, Stratton, 129, 131,
Historical Collections of New Jersey, 36,
39, 51, 57
Holcomb, Rev. Sheppard, 146, 147
Holy Island Castle in Durham, 24
Hood, James, 53
Hoover, Anna, 179
Hopewell Township, 69. 71
Hubbell, W. W., 168
Husted, Abigail B., 78
Independents, Christian denomination,
Indian ancestry, Murrays, 62
Indian Field Run, 59, 63
International Sunday-school Lessona,
commentaries on, 74
Irdington, in Cumberland, 24
Ivy Hall Seminary, 76
Ivy Point, 32
"Jack," a favorite road horse, 32
James, Duke of Monmouth, 28
James, Duke of York, 20, 22, 25, 28,
Janvier. T. R., 212
Jenkins, Hannah, 73
Jersey farmer, injured by southern com-
petition, 16, 17
Jersey products and poultry, 17
John Blye; or. Trials and Triumphs,
Johnson, Franklin, D.D., 74
Rev. Wm. W., 153
Johnson's History of Fenwick's Colony,
Memoir of John Fen wick, 38, 50, 51
Jones, Jennie, 217
Joslin, Thomas, 53
Kalm, Professor, 62
Keen, Jacob Jones, 126
Kellenberger's Pocket Gazetteer of New
Kelsay, James S., 72
Kelsey, Kesiah, 69
Kent, ship, from London, 39
King, the, trial and sentence of, 24
Klose, Mrs. Hortense, 169
Knight, Mrs. Kate, 51
Lands, poor and timber exhausted, 13,
Laning, John, 71
Laurie, Gauen, 22, 25, 37
Lee, Abel, 94, 217, 220
Benjamin F., 103
B. F., bishop, 18, 94, 153, 159. 165,
179, 213, 214, 217, 220
Elizabeth, 94, 220
Lorenzo F., 79
Sarah, 94, 179
William C, 94, 220
Lefever, Hipolite, 36, 39
Lenapee Indians, 62, 63
Libraries of John Fenwick, 32
Lippincott, Mary, 106
Literary efiForts, 180 et seq.
Little, Margaret E., 77
Lloyd, Adelia, 126
Charles, 125, 126, 155, 216, 220
Lloyd, Elizabeth, 220
Long Island, 35
Long Island, immigrants from, 89
Longevity — Gould, Pierce, Murray,
Lord Fenwick, 37
"Lord Proprietor" of West New Jersey,
Lucas, Nicholas, 22, 25, 37
Ludlam, Providence, 76
Luilla: The Corsair's Victim, a tale of
South Jersey, 193-210
Lummis, James, 63
Phoebe, 63, 88
schoolhouse, 144, 173
Lupton, Tabitha, 118
McLean, Hannah B., 77
Magazine of American History, quoted,
Maine, Province of, 20
Market gardening, and market farm-
ing in the South, 16
Marriages in colonial times, 88
Matlack, E. L., 37
Matlock, Abram, 37
College in England, 37
John, 36, 37, 39
Maurice River, 57, 59-61
Maverick, Samuel, 20
Methodist Episcopal Church, 13
Middleman, the, 17
Mill Creek, 59
Miller, Rev. Jeremiah, 144, 145
Millville, 12, 58, 59, 72
Money, lack of, 84
Moore, Daniel, 75
Joseph, M.D., 77
Moral and Mental Improvement Soci-
Morton, Collister. 179
Mulford, Anna Maria, 71
Henry, 71, 77
Horatio J., 77
Isaac W., 71, 77
Murray, Adeline, 118
Almeda, 118, 119
Amelia, 125, 126
Amy, 118, 125
Charity, 125, 126
David. 63, 86, 118, 125. 126. 144.
Dorcas, 63, 86, 127
Ebenezer, 118, 155
Elizabeth, 118, 125, 126
Enos, 125, 126
Hannah, 105, 118. 119, 127
Henry, 118, 155
Hester, 118, 119
Hiram, 118, 155
Hope, 125, 126
Jane, 118, 120
John, 63, 81, 82, 86, 102, 105. 115,
117, 118, 120, 126, 216, 217, 219
Katherine, 63, 81
Lewis, 118, 155
Maranda, 117, 118
Mark, 63, 127, 155
Mary, 63. 86. 115, 118, 119, 125.
Murray, Mary Hand, 118
Nancy, 125, 126
Oliver, 117, 118, 125
Othniel, 49, 62, 81, 86, 125, 155
Patience, 125, 126
Prudence, 117, 118. 119
Sarah. 118, 119, 125, 144
Tabitha, 81, 102, 115, 117, 118, 120,
William, 118, 155
Murrays, 12, 58
Neville, James, 48
Newark Bay, 20
New Cesarea, 21, 25
Newcomb, Joseph, 73
Sarah S.. 73
New England, 35
New England Cross-roads church, 84
New Haven (Conn.), discontent at, 21,22
immigrants from, 38
New Jersey archives, 88
New Netherland, 20, 22
New Salem, 57
New York, Bay of, 21
Nichols, Samuel, 36, 39
NicoUs, Colonel Richard, 20
Nixon, Jeremiah, 79
John T., 141
Rhoda S., 79
Noble, Richard, 36, 39, 45
Northumberland, County of (Eng.), 22.
Nova Cesarea or New Jersey, 36
Ogden, Charlotte, 73, 132,
Elmer, 73, 78
John B., 78
Sarah B., 78
Osborn, Rev. Ethan, 129, 141
Padgett, Cuffee, 113
Page, John, 66, 89
Parliamentary Army, 24
Patriotism of Gouldtown people, 154
Pearce, George T., 95, 123
Pedigree of Benj. Gould, 109
Penn, WUliam, 22, 25, 37. 58, 59
Pierce, Aaron, 119
Adam, 63, 86, 102, 105, 125, 127,
128, 154, 217
Adrian, 12, 102, 105, 123, 124,
Alexander, 127, 177, 178
Alex. W., 97, 153
Almeda, 97, 132, 219
Almedia Jones, 119
Amelia, 102, 103, 126
Amos, 97, 107, 120
Andrew, 127, 131
Anna, 11, 98, 99, 159, 168. 220
Ann Cuff, 103
Anthony, 62, 64, 85, 97, 103, 108,
115, 116, 120, 122, 130, 131, 144,
154, 173, 215, 217, 220
Asa, 127, 128
Belford, 98, 152, 220
Benjamin, 63, 85, 116, 122, 123,
129, 131, 144, 215
B. F., 93, 128, 169
Calvin B., 127
Caroline, 128, 129
Catherine, 97, 123
Charles, 129, 130, 155
Charles H., 97
Charles Jones, 128
Christiana G., 98, 220
Christina S., 104, 132
Clement, 126, 130, 132
David, 118, 128, 129
Dorcas, 127, 128
Pierce, Dorothy, 97
Edward, 127, 128
Eliza Jane, 119
Elizabeth, 63, 86, 101-103, 105,
120, 130, 131, 132, 211
Elizabeth (2d?), 63
Ephraim, 119, 132, 155, 220
estates, 138, 139, 211, sq.
Francis L., 97, 213, 214
Frank, Mrs., 165
Freeman, 119, 145
F. Lewis, 130
George, 124, 131, 211-213
George T., 95, 123, 214. 216
Gideon, 120, 214
Hannah, 63, 64, 85, 86, 91, 106, 114,
119, 122, 123, 128, 143, 219
Harold, 97, 166
Harriet, 103, 166
Henry, 129, 130, 132
Hester, 119, 123, 128
Holmes, 105, 123, 124, 125, 176,
Hosea, 115, 128, 155
Isabella L., 220
Jacob, 119, 123, 124, 145, 153, 216
Jacob B., 113, 126
James, 107, 132, 153, 166, 220
Jane M., 107
Jedediah, 132, 155
Jehu, 118, 119, 153
Jeremiah, 100, 118, 123, 130, 153,
Pierce, Jesse, 63, 85, 97, 104, 123, 132,
J. Freeman, 105, 123, 124
John, 63, 85, 122, 124, 129, 130, 131,
John C, 127
Julia Noble, 131
Juliann S., 127
Leonard, 129, 130
Louisa, 103, 128, 220
Lucette, 98, 159, 168, 217, 220
Lydia. 123. 131
Malinda, 107, 120
Margaret, 120, 129, 131
Mary, 63, 86, 90, 91, 115, 119, 123,
129. 130, 132, 144, 177
Mary E., 105, 127
Matilda, 128, 129
MatUda G., 107
Menon, 63, 85, 101, 106. 119, 122,
131, 211, 215
Mordecai C, 11, 100, 220
Moses, 118, 119. 128
Peter. 124, 216
Phoebe. 97, 152, 177
Phoebe Jane, 97
Priscilla. 128, 129
Prudence, 97. 116
Rachel S., 123
Rhumah, 63, 86, 90
Richard, 62, 63, 64, 81, 86, 90, 91.
102. 103, 114, 122, 126, 128, 129,
Robert. 97. 104, 120, 132
Pierce, Rosette, 132
Ruth, 120, 129, 131
Sarah, 128, 131, 144
Sarah Jane, 120
Sarah Rachel, 127
Smith, 129, 130
Stewart H., 12, 123, 215
Tabitha, 125, 126, 128, 129
Tabitha M., 118
Thomas, 130, 131
Violette, 128, 129
Wanaca, 63, 85, 97, 106, 122, 123,
124, 129, 144, 155, 215. 217
Warner K.. 98, 152, 220
Warren W., 127-128
William H., 131
Pierces, belief in signs and witches,
fondness for flowers and music, 65
Pittsgrove Baptist Church, 76
Platts, David, 73
Pledger (Pledyer), John, 36, 39
Potter, Colonel, 54
Quinton's Bridge. 6ght of. 75
Ramsey, Rev. William, 140
Raritan River, 20, 21
Real estate possessions, present, 211-
Reeves, John, 73
Religious and political equality, 31
Remington, John, 69
Restoration of the Stuart monarchy,
Reunion, annual (of Goulds), 109
Rhode Island, immigrants from, 39
Roadstown, village, 12
Robinson, Rev. J. H., 147
Rogers, B. W., 174, 175, 178
Royal charter of 1664, 35
Rumsey, Albert, 151
Carrie Gould, 151
Rural amusements, 85
sociological examples, 81 sq.
Salem County, 30
Creek, 38, 57
New Jersey, 26, 31, 39
Records in N. J. archives, 36
Salt marsh haying, 17, 83
Sand burrs, gangrene of feet caused by,
Sandy Hook. 20
Sayre, Abraham, 122
Sayre's Neck, 72
Sayres, Reuel, 69
School boards, 15, 175
Schoolmasters of Gouldtown school, 15
singing-schools, 177, 179
Sunday-schools, 147, 149, 179
Scott, Anne, 28
Scribner's History United States, 22
Seeley, David, 89
Servant of John Fenwick, 27
"Sharp's family burying ground," 33
Shaw, Ephraim, 72
Sheppard, Abbie, 73
Abner, 69, 74, 79
Amos, 69, 71
Amy, 73, 74
Charles, 77, 79
Charles E., 80
Charlotte W., 72
David. 67, 68, 70, 71, 76, 80, 93
David Dare, 79
Sheppard, David L., 76, 77
Ebenezer L., 76, 77
Elias, 72, 78
Elizabeth, 68, 69, 73, 74
Elizabeth R., 79
Elmer Ogden, 73
Enoch F., 80
Ephraim, 68, 72, 74, 75, 78, 79
Ephraim E., 79
Hannah, 68, 69, 71-76
Henry, 75, 78, 79
Henry A., 74
Ichabod, 69, 72, 73, 74
Isaac A., 76, 77, 78
James, 69, 72, 75
Jane B., 77, 78
Jane H., 78
Joel, 69, 72, 74
John, 67, 68
John C. Calhoun, 80
John Nixon, 79
Joseph, 68, 70, 71. 75, 76
Joseph, committee of safety, 70
Joseph Ogden, 79
Josephine S., 76
Josiah, 71, 72
J. A. & Company, 78 '
Lydia, 11, 70, 71, 73, 74, 93, 94,
115, 158, 166, 169
Sheppard, Margaret, 79
Martha. 72, 77
Mary, 68-72, 75-77, 79
Naomi, 69, 72, 73
Philip, 68, 69, 71-74
Phoebe, 68. 69, 72, 73, 75, 76
Providence Ludlam, 76
Prudence, 72, 75
Rachel, 69, 75
Reuben, 73, 74
Ruth, 71, 72-75
Ruth N., 79
Sarah, 68. 69, 72-74, 76, 78, 79, 93,
Tamson. 93, 115
Temperance, 69, 70, 75
Thomas, 67. 93, 94, 168
William, 73, 75, 76
Waiiam A., 74
Wilham E., 80
Shourds, Thomas, historian of Salem
Showel, Rev. Isaac, 177, 178
Shrewsbury, East Jersey, 67
Siconessee Indian, 62
Sink, Emma, 179
Siro, Andrew, 91
Daniel, 90, 108, 174
Elizabeth G., 108
Smalley, Mayor, 77
Smith, Abner, 53
Ann, 91, 96
Charies G., 91, 96
Smith, Hannah, 73, 96
Isaac, 73, 76
Jane Elizabeth, 80
John, and wife, 26, 36, 39
Joseph H., 147
Social enjoyment, indoors and outdoors
— hospitality, 18
study, a, 160
South Jersey Institute, 77, 179
Stanton, E. M., Sec. of War, letter to,
Stanton Manor, Cumberland, (Eng.)
State Government, organized, 70
SteeUng, Jacob, 88, 89
Steward, Alice, 94
Capt. Frank R., 155, 158, 160
Edwina. 157, 166, 168
G. A., 157
James, 94, 95, 105, 164, 179, 213,
Mary, 94, 105, 164, 166
Rebecca, 94, 105, 179
Stephen S., 100, 120, 157, 166, 168,
Rev. Theophilus Gould, 18, 153,
155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 162, 165,
166, 168, 212, 218
WUliam, 94, 157, 167, 212, 218
Stewart, Cato, 123, 127
Elizabeth, 123, 127, 144
EsteUa D., 98
Robert D., 105
Stone Creek Township, 71
Stow, Ann. 76
Stowe Creek Township, 70
Sumner, Alphonso, 179
Sunday-school, Gouldtown, 147-149
Swedes and Finns, 38
Swing, Rev. Michael, 141
Tanner, H. O.. 122
Test, Francis, 73
Hannah S., 73
Thomas, Margaret, 116
Thomas, a historian, 59
Titus, Mrs. J. L., 168
Trenchard, John, 127
Trinity, A. M. E. church, 145, 146
Trull, Josephine M., 80
Unearned increment, lack of, 16
United States Army, chaplain of,
Van Aca, Hannah, 62
Varchen's Kill, 38
Wade, Edward, 36, 39, 45, 48
Samuel, 36, 39, 69
Walker, Charles H., 76
William S., 76
Walters. Lucy, 28
Warner, Edmund, 45
Watkins, Dr. G. T., 165
Webster, Charles, 94
Weddings, 159. 164, 167
Wescott, Charles, 72
Wescott, Eunice, 78
Henry. 73. 78
Jane Harris, 71
Jane. 73, 78
Mary B., 78
Westcott estates, 122
schoolhouse, 143, 144, 173, 174
Wester, Hannah Gould, 108, 152
West India Company, 21
West Indies, vessels from, 62
West Jersey Society, 59
West New Jersey, 36
Wheaton, Andrew Evan, 71
Lucy S., 71
Mary Sheppard, 71
Providence L., 71
Wheatons, the, of Greenwich, 67
Whitaker, Henry, 72
White, Joshua, 53
Mary, child nurse of Fenwick's
Widdington, (Eng.), 23
Wilberforce University, 18, 218
Will of John Fenwick, 33, 34
Wilson, Absalom, 174, 179
Anna C, 115
Charles, 93, 174
E. P.. 102
Joseph, 93, 115
Tamson, 93. 115
William, 115, 215
Winrow, Abram, 128
Winthrop charter, of Connecticut,
Wood, Caroline, 104
Dr. George B., 70
Woodbridge, New Jersey, 51
Woodruffs, 10, 12, 61
Wright, Anna Gould, 169
Wright family, 97
Phoebe Jane, 97
Young, Jonathan, 7S