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Full text of "Title 24, Part 2, Volume 1, 2007 California Building Code"

California Code ofsRegulations 
Title 24, Part 2, Voluifie 1 of 2 



California Building 
Standards Commission 




A, 




Based on 2006 International Building Code 



® 




INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL' 



A^. 



EFFECTIVE 
JANUARY 1, 2008 

(For Errata and Supplements, see History Note Appendix) 



v< 



V 



2007 California Building Code 
Volume 1 of 2 



First Printing 



ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-518-9 
ISBN-10: 1-58001-518-2 



Publication Date: June 2007 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2007 California Building Code contains substantial copyrighted material from the 2006 Interna- 
tional Building Code, Second Printing, which is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Withoi 
advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any 
form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, 
photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material 
exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 
1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Building Code" are trade 
marks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



This document is Part 2 of the official triennial compilation and publication of the adoptions , amendments and repeal of administra- 
tive regulations to California Code ofRegulations, Title 24, also referred to as the California Building Standards Code. This Part is 
known as the California Building Code and incorporates, by adoption, the 2006 edition of the International Building Code of the 
International Code Council with the California amendments. 

The California Building Standards Code is published in its entirety every three years by order of the California legislature, with sup- 
plements published in intervening years. The California legislature delegated authority to various State agencies, boards, commis- 
sions and departments to create building regulations to implement the State's statutes. These building regulations or standards have 
the same force of law, and take effect 180 days after their publication unless otherwise stipulated. The California Building Stan- 
dards Code applies to occupancies in the State of California as annotated. 

A city, county or city and county may estabUsh more restrictive building standards reasonably necessary because of local climatic, 
geological or topographical conditions. Findings of the local condition(s) and the adopted local building standard(s) must be filed 
with the California Building Standards Commission to become effective and may not be effective sooner than the effective date of 
this edition of California Building Standards Code. Local building standards that were adopted and applicable to previous editions 
of the California Building Standards Code do not apply to this edition without appropriate adoption and the required filing. 

To familiarize themselves with the format of this code, it is suggested that users review the following contents: 

• How To Distinguish Model Code Language From California Amendments 

• Matrix Adoption Tables 

Should users find publication (e.g., typographical) errors or inconsistencies in this code or wish to offer comments toward improv- 
ing its format, please address these comments to: 

California Building Standards Commission 

2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130 

Sacramento, CA 95833-2936 

Phone: (916) 263-0916 

FAX: (916) 263-0959 

Web Page: www.bsc.ca.gov 

Acknowledgement 

The 2007 California Building Standards Code (Code) was developed through the outstanding collaborative efforts of the Depart- 
ment of Housing and Community Development, the Division of State Architect, the Office of the State Fire Marshal, the Office of 
Statewide Health Plaiming and Development, the California Energy Commission, and the Building Standards Commission (Com- 
mission). 

This collaborative effort included the assistance of the Commission's Code Advisory Committees and many other volunteers that 
worked tirelessly to assist the Commission in the production of this Code. 

Members of the Building Standards Commission 

Secretary Rosario Marin - Chair Christina Jamison 

Isam Hasenin - Vice-Chair Stephen Jensen 

James Barthman Robert Pernell 

KimBlackseth Richard Sawhill 

Susan Dowty Steven Winkel 

David Walls - Executive Director 

Thomas Morrison - Deputy 

Executive Director 

For questions on California state agency amendments, please refer to the contact hst on the following page. 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE ill 



iv 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



California Code of Regulations, Title 24 

California Agency Information Contact List 



California Energy Commission 

Energy Hotline (800) 772-3300 

Building Efficiency Standards 
Appliance Efficiency Standards 
Compliance Manual/Forms 

California State Lands Commission 

Marine Oil Terminals (562) 499-6317 



California State Library 

Construction Standards . . 



(918) 445-9604 



Corrections Standards Authority 

Local Adult Jail Standards (916) 324-1914 

Local Juvenile Facility Standards (916) 324-1914 

Department of Consumer Affairs -Acupuncture Board 

Office Standards (916) 445-3021 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Board of Pharmacy 

Pharmacy Standards (916) 574-7900 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Bureau of Bartering 
and Cosmetology 

Barber and Beauty Shop and 

College Standards 



(916) 952-5210 



Department of Consumer Affairs - Bureau of 
Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation 

Insulation Testing Standards (916) 574-2041 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Structural 
Pest Control Board 

Structural Standards (800) 737-8188 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Veterinary 
Medical Board 

Veterinary Hospital Standard (916) 263-2610 

Department of Food and Agriculture 

Meat and Poultry Packing Plant 

Standards (916) 654-0509 

Dairy Standards (916) 654-0773 



Department of Health Services 

Organized Camps Standards (916) 449-5661 

Public Swimming Pools Standards (916) 449-5661 

Asbestos Standards (510) 620-2874 

Department of Housing and Community Development 

Residential - Hotels, Motels, Apartments, 

Single-Family Dwellings (916) 445-9471 

Permanent Structures in Mobilehome and 

Special Occupancy Parks (916) 445-9471 

Factory-Built Housing, Manufactured 

Housing and Commercial Modular (916) 445-3338 

Mobilehomes - Permits and Inspections 

Northern Region (916) 255-2501 

Southern Region (951) 782-4420 

Employee Housing Standards (916) 445-9471 

Department of Water Resources 

Gray Water Installations Standards (916) 651-9687 

Division of the State Architect - Access Compliance 

Access Compliance Standards (916) 445-8100 

Division of the State Architect - Structural Safety 

Public Schools Standards (916) 445-8100 

Essential Services Building Standards (916) 445-8100 

Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 

Hospital Standards (916) 654-3139 

Skilled Nursing Facility Standards (916) 654-3139 

Clinic Standards (916) 654-3139 

Permits (916) 654-3392 

Office of the State Fire Marshal 

Code Development and Analysis (916) 445-8200 

Fire Safety Standards (916) 445-8200 

Fireplace Standards (916) 445-8200 

Day Care Centers Standards (916) 445-8200 

Exit Standards (916) 445-8200 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



vi 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



Distilling the code review process down to a methodical, sequential list of considerations is generally problematic. In many cases, 
related provisions from various chapters of the code must be considered simultaneously, or reconsidered later in the process to 
arrive at the correct classification or determination. Any number of acceptable alternatives may exist for construction of the building 
and its specific features. Each choice provided by the code must be evaluated for its specific impact on other aspects of the building's 
analysis. With a basic understanding of the interrelationship of the various chapters, the practiced code user wiU make an initial 
assessment of the building as a first step of the code review process . The following outline may be helpful as a guide for the effective 
use of the IBC/CBC, with the understanding that final resolution of each step is often dependant on subsequent steps. 

The following process is divided into two distinct areas of analysis, the nonstructural provisions of the IBC/CBC and the struc- 
tural provisions. 

Nonstructural Provisions 

1. Identify the distinct and varied uses of the building. The uses that will occur within the building must be identified, evaluated 
and classified into one or more of the distinct occupancy classifications established in the IBC/CBC. Some buildings will be classi- 
fied as single occupancy, where there is only one applicable occupancy classification. Others will be considered as mixed occu- 
pancy due to the presence of two or more uses that are classified into different occupancy groups. 

(California) Chapter 1 — Application of California Building Standards: Determine whether the use or occupancy is regulated 
by a state agency. Review California Chapter I to determine (1) which agencies regulate the use or occupancy, and (2) which 
authority is responsible for enforcement of building standards. 

Matrix Adoption Tables — Scope of California Building Standards: Review the matrix adoption tables to identify the chapters 
and sections of model code that are adopted, amended or superseded by the California Building Standards. (See "How to Distin- 
guish Model Code Language from California Amendments.") 

Sec. 302.1 Classify the building into one or more occupancy groups. Although there are 10 general occupancy groups, 
many of the groups are subdivided into subgroups to allow for a more exacting analysis of the building under consideration. 

Sec. 303 Group A 

Sec. 304 Group B 

Sec. 305 Group E 

Sec. 306 Group F 

Sec. 307 Group H 

Sec. 308 Group I 

Sec. 309 Group M 

Sec, 310 Group R 

Sec. 311 Groups 

Sec. 312 Group U 

2. Determine if the building is to be fully sprinklered. Many of the code provisions vary based upon the presence of an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout the building. 

Sec. 903.2 Determine if the building requires a fire sprinkler system. Many of the mandates for the installation of a sprin- 
kler system are based upon the occupancy or occupancies that occur within the building. The provisions will often require some 
degree of occupant load determination. Other conditions may also trigger a required sprinkler installation, such as building 
height or the lack of exterior openings. 

If a sprinkler system is not reqiured, review for potential code modifications if a sprinkler system is installed. There are a 
significant number of benefits provided by the code if a sprinkler system is installed. An initial analysis of the building will typi- 
cally allow for an early determination of the value of such sprinkler benefits. 

Sec. 504.2 Story and height increase 

Sec. 506.3 . Allowable area increase 

Sec. 1017.1 Elimination of corridor fire-resistance rating 

Sec. 507 UnUmited area building 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE vii 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



3. Determine the appropriate type of construction for tlie building. The permitted types of construction are primarily based 
upon the occupancy classifications involved, the building's height and the building's floor area. Other conditions may also affect the 
appropriate construction types, including the building's location on the lot and the intended materials of construction. In buildings 
with mixed-occupancy conditions, the methods of addressing the relationship between the multiple occupancies indirectly affect 
construction type. 

Sec. 202 and 502 Calculate actual height of building in both "feet" and "stories above grade plane." The code specifically 
describes the method for assigning a building height: measure both in the number of feet and the number of stories above grade plane. 
The actual height must be compared with the allowable height to determine if the building's type of construction is acceptable. 

Sec. 504 Determine allowable height permitted for both "feet" and "stories" 

Sec. 505 Determine if mezzanine provisions are applicable 

Sec. 504.3 Determine if any rooftop stractures are in compliance 

Sec. 502 Calculate actual floor area of each story of buUding. The building area is typically the entire floor area that occurs 
within the surrounding exterior walls. The building area for each individual story must be calculated, as well as for the building as 
a whole. 

Sec. 507 Determine if building qualifies as an unlimited area building 

Sec. 506 Determine allowable area permitted for building and each story if: 

Sec. 506 Single-occupancy building 

Sec. 508.3.1 Multi-occupancy w/accessory occupancies 

Sec. 508.3.2 Multi-occupancy building w/nonseparated occupancies 

Sec. 508.3.3 Multi-occupancy building w/separated occupancies 

Sec. 705. 1 Use of fire walls 

Sec. 509 Determine if special provisions are to be applied for height and/or area. The general requirements for allowable height 
and area may be modified under limited conditions, typically where a parking garage is located in a building with other occupancies. 

Sec. 602 Verify that the type of materials and degree of fire resistance for the building's major elements comply with 
Table 601. Once the acceptable types of construction are determined based upon the building's occupancy, height and floor area, 
the major building elements must be evaluated for compUance with the required degree of fire resistance and the appropriate 
materials of construction. 

4. Locate the building on the site. The location of the building(s) on the lot is fundamental to the degree of fire exposure to and 
from adjoining buildings and lots. In addition, the building's location influences the amount of fire department access that can be 
provided from the exterior of the building. 

Sec. 503.1.2 Determine the number of buUdings on the site. Where two or more buildings are located on the same lot, they 
can be evaluated as a single building or multiple buildings. The type of construction requirements may differ based upon which 
of the two methods is utiHzed. 

Sec. 602.1 Determine minimum required fire rating of exterior walls. The fire separation distance is the measurement used 
in evaluating the necessary fire rating for exterior walls. It is measured from the building to the lot line, to the center line of a pub- 
lic way or to an imaginary assumed line between two buildings on the same lot. 

Sec. 704.8 Determine exterior opening protection requirements. Openings in exterior walls are regulated by the fire sepa- 
ration distance and the rating of the exterior wall in which they are located. 

Sec. 506.2 Determine frontage increase for allowable area purposes. Utilized primarily for fire department access, open 
space adjacent to a building's perimeter provides for an increase in the allowable area. 

5. Identify extent of any special detailed occupancy requirements. Special types of buildings, special uses that occur within 
buildings and special elements of a building are further regulated through specific requirements found in Chapter 4. Since these pro- 
visions are specific in nature, they apply in lieu of the general requirements found elsewhere in the code. 

Chapter 4 Determine special detailed requirements based on occupancy. A number of the special provisions are applica- 
ble to a specific occupancy or group of similar occupancies. 

Sec. 402 Covered mall buildings 

Sec. 403 High-rise buildings 

Sec. 404 Atriums 

Sec. 406 Motor-vehicle-related occupancies 

Sec. 407, 408 Group 1-2 and 1-3 occupancies 

viii 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



Sec. 415 Group H occupancies 

Table 508.2 Determine if building contains any incidental use areas. The uses identified in Table 508.2 are considered as a 
portion of the occupancy in which they are located, but special conditions require that they be addressed in a more specific man- 
ner. 

Sec. 508.2 Provide fire separation and/or fire-extinguishing system 

6. Calculate occupant load of building and individual spaces within building. Although the primary use of an occupant load is in 
the design of the building's means of egress system, occupant load is also occasionally an important factor in occupancy classifica- 
tion, sprinkler system and fire alarm system requirements and plumbing fixture counts. 

Chapter 10 Verify compliance with means of egress provisions. The anticipated occupant load is the basis for the design of 
the means of egress system. The egress elements must provide for a direct, continuous, obvious, undiminished and unobsti-ucted 
path of travel from any occupiable point in the building to the public way. 

Sec. 1005.1 Egress width and distribution 

Sec. 1006.3 Emergency lighting 

Sec. 1007 Accessible means of egress 

Sec. 1008.1.2 Door swing 

Sec. 1008.1.8 Door operations 

Sec. 1008.1.9 Panic hardware 

Sec. 1009.1 Stairway width 

Sec. 1009.3 Stairway tieads and risers 

Sec. 1011.1 Exit signs 

Sec. 1012 Stairway and ramp handrails 

Sec. 1013 Guards 

Sec. 1014.2 Egress through intervening spaces 

Sec. 1014.3 Common path of egress travel 

Sec. 1015.1 Number of exit or exit access doorways 

Sec. 1015.2 Egress separation 

Sec. 1016.1 Travel distance 

Sec. 1017.1 Corridor construction 

Sec. 1019 Number of exits 

Sec. 1020.1 Vertical exit enclosures 

Sec. 1021 Exit passageways 

Sec. 1022 Horizontal exits 

Sec. 1023 Exterior exit stairways 

Sec. 1024 Exit discharge 

Sec. 1025 Egress firom assembly occupancies 

7. Identify and evaluate fire-resistance-rated construction elements. Where fire-resistance-rated constiiiction is mandated by 
other provisions of the code, the provisions of Chapter 7 identify the appropriate methods for gaining compliance. 

Chapter 7 Verify compliance w/ details of fire resistance. The various elements of fire-resistance-rated construction are 
detailed, including walls, horizontal assemblies, shaft enclosures and the penetration of such elements by conduit, ducts, piping 



and other items. 




Sec. 704 


Exterior walls 


Sec. 705 


Fire walls 


Sec. 706 


Fke barriers 


Sec. 708 


Fire partitions 


Sec. 709 


Smoke barriers 


Sec. 710 


Smoke partitions 


Sec. 707 


Shaft enclosures 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



Sec. 710 Horizontal assemblies 

Sec. 714 Structural members 

Sec. 715 Opening protectives 

Sec. 716 Ducts and air transfer openings 

8. Identify and evaluate materials utilized as interior floor, wall and ceiling finishes. Finish materials within the building are 
primarily regulated for flame spread and smoke development characteristics. 

Sec. 803.5 Verify compliance of wall and ceiling finishes. Interior wall and ceiling finishes are regulated based upon the 
occupancy classification of the space and their location within the means of egress system. The classification may typically be 
reduced where sprinkler protection is provided. 

Sec. 804.4 Verify compliance of floor finishes. While regulated differently than wall and ceiling finishes, floor finishes com- 
prised of fibers are also controlled based upon their use in the egress system, the occupancy classification and the presence of a 
sprinkler system. 

9. Identify additional fire protection systems that may be required. In addition to automatic sprinkler systems, there are several 
other types of fire protection systems that may be required in a building. 

Sec. 907.2 Determine compliance with fire alarm provisions. Fire alarm systems are typically mandated based upon the 
occupancy classification and the number of occupants. 

Sec. 905.3 Determine if standpipe system is required. A standpipe system is required in buildings once a specified height is 
reached to provide for a more effective means of fighting a fire within the building. 

Sec. 905.4-.6 Verify location of standpipe hose connections 

10. Identify any special use features of the buUding. The activities that occur within the building pose varying risks to the occu- 
pants. Special conditions are applicable when such activities are anticipated. 

Chapter 4 Verify compliance with special detailed requirements. These provisions are often an extension of the general 
requirements found elsewhere in the code. 

Sec. 410 Stages and platforms 

Sec. 413 Combustible storage 

Sec. 414 Hazardous materials 

Sec. 416 Application of flammable finishes 

11. Identify roof assembly or roof covering. The roof covering is designed to provide the building with weather protection, fire 
retardancy, decoration or a combination of such purposes. 

Sec. 1505.1 Verify classification of roof covering. Roof coverings are typically required to provide protection against moder- 
ate or light fire exposures from the exterior. Their minimum required classification is based upon the type of construction of the 
building. 

12. Determine locations of safety glazing materials. Safety glazing is mandated for glazing located in those areas that are consid- 
ered as subject to human impact. 

Sec. 2406.3 Verify safety glazing provided in hazardous locations. Safety glazing must be appropriately identified to ensure 
the proper glazing material is installed. 

Items 1-4 In doors 

Item 6 Adjacent to doors 

Item 7 Large panels 

Items 10-1 1 Adjacent to stairways and landings 

13. Determine areas of building and site required to be accessible. In general, access to persons with disabilities is required for 
all buildings. See Chapters llA and IIB. 

14. Determine extent of other miscellaneous provisions. Additional provisions may be appUcable based upon each individual 
building and its characteristics. 

Chapter 14 Exterior walls. Requirements for installation of wall coverings and the permissible use of combustible materials 
on the exterior side of exterior walls. 

Chapter 24 Glass and glazing. General provisions for the installation of glazing materials and skylights. 

Chapter 25 Gypsum board and plaster. Materials and installation of gypsum board and plaster assemblies. 

X 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



Chapter 26 Plastic. Materials and installation of light-transmitting plastics, as well as the appropriate installation methods for 
foam plastic insulation. 

Chapters 27-29 Electrical, mechanical and plumbing installations. Limited provisions addressing the fundamental sup- 
port systems of a building. 

Chapter 30 Elevators. Elevator hoistway provisions, including enclosure of hoistways, emergency operations and hoistway 
venting. 

Chapter 31 Special construction. A variety of special conditions are addressed, including membrane structures, temporary 
structures, pedestrian walkways and tunnels, awnings and canopies, marquees, signs and swimming pool enclosures. 

Chapter 32 Encroachment into the public right-of way. Limitations on construction adjacent to public property. 

Chapter 33 Safeguards during construction. Methods of protecting pedestrians and adjacent property during construction 
activities. 

Structural Provisions 

General Requirements 

1. Structural Materials. 

The structural design begins with the selection of the type of structural materials to be used to support the building. Structural fram- 
ing systems are constructed of concrete, masonry, steel or wood. Some miscellaneous or specialty structures and components, such 
as awnings and canopies, are constructed of aluminum. 

The design of various structural materials is covered in specific material chapters in the code, which in tum reference design standards for 
the type of material involved. The referenced standards in the 2007 CBC for the structural materials are shown in the following table: 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN STANDARDS FOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS^ 


MATERIAL 


IBC/CBC CHAPTER 


REFERENCED STANDARD 


Concrete 


19 


ACI318 
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete 


Aluminum 


20 


ADMl 
Aluminum Design Manual 


Masonry 


21 


ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 
Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures 


Steel 


22 


AISC 360 

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings 

AISC 341 

Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings 

NAS 

North American Specification for the Design of Cold-formed Steel Structural Members 


Wood 


23 


NDS 
National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction 



1 . The above table shows the main structural design standards for these structural materials. For a complete Ust of referenced standards, see IBC/CBC Chapter 35. 

2. Design Loads. 

Determine the applicable design loads that the building structure is expected to be subjected to. Code-prescribed loads are given in 
Chapter 16 and flie referenced standard. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7. The code-prescribed 
minimum live loads are given in CBC Table 1607.1. 

Environmental loads, such as flood, rain, snow, seismic and wind vary based on the location of the building site. The various 
code-prescribed loads are probabiUstic in nature. The following table gives the CBC section and ASCE 7 chapter for various types 
of load. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



XI 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



REFERENCED CBC SECTIONS AND ASCE 7 CHAPTERS FOR LOADS 


Type of Load 


CBC Section 


ASCE 7 Chapter 


Dead loads 


Section 1606 


Chapter 3 


Live loads 


Section 1607, Table 1607.1 


Chapter 4 


Snow loads 


Section 1608 


Chapter 7 


Wind loads 


Section 1609 


Chapter 6 


Soil lateral loads 


Section 1610 


Chapter 3 


Rain loads 


Section 1611 


Chapter 8 


Flood loads 


Section 1612 


Chapter 5' 


Earthquake loads 


Section 1613 


Chapter 11-22 



1. Section 1612 references ASCE 24, which references Chapter 5 of ASCE 7. 

3. Structural Analysis, Design and Detailing. 

Once the applicable loads are determined, the structural system of the building must be analyzed to determine the effects of the gov- 
erning gravity and lateral loads that act on the structure. The structural system of a typical building consists of the roof and floor sys- 
tems, walls, beams and columns, and the foundation. From the structural analysis, the next step is to design the structural elements 
and systems to provide the minimum level of resistance in accordance with the various load combinations prescribed in Section 
1605. 

Once the structural elements and systems are designed, the next step is to detail the load transfer coimections to provide a com- 
plete load path from the point of origin to the resisting element. The final step is to prepare a complete set of construction documents 
as required by Sections 106 and 1603. 

General Requirements 

1. Occupancy Category (IBC/CBC Table 1604.5). 

Determine the occupancy category of the building based on Table 1604.5. 

Where a structure is occupied by two or more occupancies that are not the same occupancy category, the building must be classi- 
fied in the highest occupancy category corresponding to the various occupancies. 

Where structures have two or more portions that are structurally separated, each separate portion should be separately classified. 

Where a separated portion of a structure provides required access or egress from another portion of the building with a higher 
occupancy category, both portions of the building must be assigned the higher occupancy category. 

Where a separated portion of a structure shares life safety components with another portion of the building with a higher occu- 
pancy category, both portions of the building must be assigned the higher occupancy category. 

2. Floor and roof live loads (IBC/CBC Table 1607.1). 

Determine uniformly distributed and concentrated floor live load for the floor areas of the building in accordance with Section 
1603.1.1 and Table 1607.1. 

Floor live load reduction in accordance with Section 1607.9 should be indicated for each type of live load that is reduced. 

Determine the roof live load for roof areas in accordance with Section 1607. 1 1 . 

Roof live load reduction in accordance with Section 1607. 1 1.2 should be indicated for roof live loads that are reduced. 

3. Snow load (IBC/CBC Section 1608, ASCE 7 Section 7). 

Determine the ground snow load, Pg, based on the location of the building site in accordance with Figure 1608.2 for the contigu- 
ous United States and Table 1608.2 for Alaska. 

In areas where the ground snow load, Pg, exceeds 10 psf, the following information should be determined: 

1. Flat-roof snow load, Pf. 

2. Snow exposure factor, Q. 

3. Snow load importance factor, /. 

4. Thermal factor, C,. 



XII 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



4. Wind speed and wind exposure category. 

Determine the following information related to wind loads in accordance with Section 1603.1.4: 

1. Basic 3-second gust wind speed (mph). 

2. Wind importance factor, /. 

3. Wind exposure category (B, C, D). If more than one wind exposure is used, the wind exposure for each wind direction 
should be determined. 

4. The appHcable internal pressure coefficient. 

5. The design wind pressure (psf) used for the design of exterior component and cladding materials not specifically designed 
by the registered design professional should be indicated. 

5. Earthquake design requirements. 

Determine the following information related to seismic loads regardless of whether seismic loads govern the design of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system of the building: 

1. Seismic importance factor, /, based on occupancy category. 

2. Mapped spectral response accelerations, Ss and Sj. 

3. Site class. 

4. Design spectral response coefficients, S^s and S^i. 

5. Seismic design category. 

6. Basic seismic-force-resisting system(s). 

7. Design base shear. 

8. Seismic response coefficient(s), Q. 

9. Response modification factor(s), R. 

10. Analysis procedure used. 

6. Special loads. 

Determine any special loads that are applicable to the design of the building, structure or portions thereof along with the specific 
section of the code that addresses the special loading condition. 

7. Load combinations. 

Buildings and other structures and portions thereof are required to be designed to resist the load combinations specified in Sec- 
tion 1605.2 or 1605.3 and Chapters 18 through 23, and the special seismic load combinations of Section 1605.4 where required 
by Section 12.3.3.3 or 12.10.2.1 of ASCE 7. 

8. Wind and seismic detailing. 

Lateral-force-resisting systems are required to conform to the seismic detailing requirements of the code and ASCE 7 (excluding 
Chapter 14 and Appendix 1 1 A) even when wind load effects are greater than seismic load effects. 

9. Serviceability. 

Structural systems and members shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections and lateral drift. The deflection 
of structural members shall not exceed the more restrictive of the limitations of Sections 1604.3.2 through 1604.3.5 or that per- 
mitted by Table 1 604. 3 . Structural systems shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deformation and lateral drift due 
to earthquake loading in accordance with Section 12.12.1 of ASCE 7. 

10. Foundation. 

A foundation system must be designed that provides adequate support for gravity and lateral loads . Walls of buildings of conven- 
tional light-frame construction, as defined in Section 202, are permitted to be supported by footings constructed in accordance 
with Table 1 805.4.2. Otherwise, the foundation system must be designed in accordance with other provisions of Chapter 18. The 
following table gives a summary of applicable sections for foundation systems. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



FOUNDATION REQUIREMENTS 


SECTION 


IBC/CBC SECTION 


Allowable soil bearing values 


1804 


Footings and foundations 


1805, 1805.4 


Footings 


1805.4 


Foundation walls 


1805.5 


General requirements for pier and pile foundations 


1808 


Pile foundations 


1809-1811 


Pier foundations 


1812 



A foundation soils investigation is required where required by Section 1802.2 unless the building ofBcial determines that a soils investigation is not required in 
accordance with the exception. 

11. Excavation, grading and fill. 

Requirements for excavation, grading and fill related to foundation construction are covered in Section 1803. General require- 
ments for site grading are covered in Appendix J. 

12. Flood design data. 

If required by Section 1612.5, buildings located in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3 are required to provide docu- 
mentation that includes the following information regardless of whether flood loads govern the design of the building: 

1. In flood hazard areas not subject to high- velocity wave action, the elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including the 
basement. 

2. In flood hazard areas not subject to high- velocity wave action, the elevation to which any nonresidential building will be dry 
floodproofed. 

3. In flood hazard areas subject to high- velocity wave action, the proposed elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal 
structural member of the lowest floor, including the basement. 

13. Special inspection, special testing and structural observation. 

Where special inspection, special inspection for seismic resistance or structural testing for seismic resistance is required by Sec- 
tion 1704, 1707 or 1708, the registered design professional in responsible charge shall prepare a statement of special inspections 
in accordance with Section 1705 for submittal by the permit applicant in accordance with Section 106. 1 as a condition for permit 
issuance. A statement of special inspections is not required for structures designed and constructed in accordance with the con- 
ventional construction provisions of Section 2308. The statement of special inspections is permitted to be prepared by a qualified 
person approved by the building official for construction not designed by a registered design professional. 



SPECIAL INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS 


TYPE OF SPECIAL INSPECTION 


APPLICABLE SECTION 


REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


Steel construction 


1704.3 


Table 1704.3 


Concrete construction 


1704.4 


Table 1704.4 


Masonry construction 


1704.5 


Table 1704.5.1 
Table 1704.5.3 


Wood construction 


1704.6 





Site and foundation soils 


1704.7 


Table 1704.7 


Pile foundations 


1704.8 


Table 1704.8 


Pier foundations 


1704.9 


Table 1704.9 


Sprayed fire resistant materials 


1704.10 





Mastic and intumescent fire resistive coatings 


1704.11 





Exterior insulation and finish (EIFS) systems 


1704.12 





Special cases 


1704.13 





Smoke control systems 


1704.14 






Where requured by the provisions of Section 1709.2 or 1709.3, the owner shall employ a registered design professional to perform structural observations as 
defined in Section 1702. At the conclusion of die work included in the permit, the structural observer shall submit a written statement to the building official 
that identifies any reported deficiencies that have not been resolved. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



14, Contractor responsibility. 

Each contractor responsible for the construction of a main wind- or seismic-f orce-resisting system, designated seismic system or 
a wind- or seismic-resisting component listed in the statement of special inspections is required to submit a written statement of 
responsibility to the building official and the owner prior to the commencement of work on the system or component. The con- 
tractor's statement of responsibility shall acknowledge awareness of the special requirements contained in the statement of spe- 
cial inspections and acknowledge that control will be exercised to obtain conformance with the approved construction 
documents. 

15. Deferred submittals. 

Deferred submittals that are not submitted at the time of the apphcation must have the prior approval of the building official. The 
registered design professional in responsible charge shall hst the deferred submittals on the construction documents for review 
by the building official. Documents for deferred submittal items shall be reviewed by the registered design professional in 
responsible charge who shall forward them to the building official with a notation indicating that they have been reviewed and are 
in general conformance with the design of the building. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



xvi 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN MODEL CODE LANGUAGE 

AND 
CALIFORNIA AMENDMENTS 

To distinguish between model code language and the incorporated California amendments, including exclusive California stan- 
dards, California amendments will appear in italics. 

Due to the nature of the California Building Code 's first-time use of the International Building Code as the base document, symbols 
in the margins, previously used to indicate code changes, will not be used in this edition of the California Building Code. 

[BSC] This symbol within a section identifies which State agency (s), by its "acronym, " has amended a section of the model code. 

Legend of Acronyms of Adopting State Agencies 

BSC California Building Standards Commission 

SFM Office of the State Fire Marshal 

HCD Department of Housing and Community Development 

DSA-AC Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance 

DSA-SS Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety 

OSHPD Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 

CSA Corrections Standards Authority 

DHS Department of Health Services 

AGR Department of Food and Agriculture 

CEC California Energy Commission 

CA Department of Consumer Ajf airs: 

Board ofBarbering and Cosmetology 
Board of Examiners in Veterinary Medicine 
Board of Pharmacy 
Acupuncture Board 
Bureau of Home Furnishings 
Structural Pest Control Board 

SL State Librarian 

SLC State Lands Commission 

DWR Department of Water Resources 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE xvii 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA MATRIX ADOPTION TABLES 



Format of the California l\/latrix Adoption Tables 

The matrix adoption tables, which follow, show the user which state agencies have adopted and/or amended given sections of the 
model code. The building application determines which state agency's adoptions apply. See Sections 102 through 1 14 for building 
applications and enforcement responsibilities. 

Agencies are grouped together, based on either local or state enforcement responsibilities. For example, regulations from 
DSA-AC are enforced both at the state and local levels; therefore, DSA-AC is Hsted twice in each adoption table indicating state 
enforcement responsibilities and local enforcement responsibilities. 

The side headings identify the scope of state agencies' adoption as follows: 

Adopt the entire IBC chapter without state amendments: 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency has adopted the entire 
model code chapter without any state amendments. 

Example: 











CHAPTER 2 - 


DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
















Adopting Agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


DSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


sue 


1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


















Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 






































Adopt Entire Ctiapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












s 


A 


iVI 


P 


L 


E 


















Chapter/Section 


Codes 



















































































Adopt the entire IBC chapter as amended, state-amended sections are listed below: 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency has adopted the entire 
model code chapter with state amendments. 

Each state-amended section that the agency has added to that particular chapter is listed. There will be an "X" in the column, by 
that particular section, under the agency's acronym, as well as an "X" by each section that the agency has adopted. 



Example: 











CHAPTER 2 - 


DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
















Adopting Agency 


BSD 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


DSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


sue 


1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


















Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












s 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 


















Chapter/Section 


Codes 








































202 


CA 




X 





































2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



XIX 



Adopts only those sections that are listed below: 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency is adopting only specific 
model code or state-amended sections within this chapter. There will be an "X" in the colunrn under the agency's acronym, as well 
as an "X" by each section that the agency has adopted. 

Example: 











CHAPTER 2- 


DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
















Adopting Agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


DSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


















Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 






X 


X 




s 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 


















Chapter/Section 


Codes 








































202 


CA 








X 
































202 


IBC 






X 


































203 


CA 








X 
































203 


IBC 






X 



































2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



ORDINANCE 

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2007 California Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that certain factual 
information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate goverrunental body. 
The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF 

THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2007 edition of the California Building Code, regulating and governing the condi- 
tions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for suppUed utilities and faciUties and 
other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the con- 
demnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures in the [JURISDIC- 
TION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the [JURISDICTION] 

and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section l.That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the California Building Code, 2007 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see California Building Code Appendix Chapter 1, Sec- 
tion 10 1 .2. 1 , 2007 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the 
[JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings 
and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utiUties and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to 
ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for 
human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and col- 
lection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Building Code on file 
in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with 
the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF ISSUANCE] 

Section 3410.2. Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all Other ordmances 
or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4, That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the vaHdity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it 
would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more 
sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or Uability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be 
lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be pubHshed. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be pubUshed and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE xxi 



xxii 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



VOLUME 1 

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS ... 3 

Section 

101 General 3 

102 Building Standards Commission 5 

103 Corrections Standards Authority 6 

104 Department of Consumer Affairs 6 

105 California Energy Commission 6 

106 Department of Food and Agriculture 7 

107 Department Of Health Services 7 

108 Department of Housing and 

Community Development 7 

108.3 Local Enforcing Agency 8 

108.4 Permits, Fees, Applications and Inspections .... 9 

108.5 Right-of-Entry for Enforcement 9 

108.6 Local Modification by 

Ordinance or Regulation 9 

108.7 Alternate Materials, Designs, Tests and 

Methods of Construction 10 

108.8 Appeals Board 11 

108.9 Unsafe Buildings or Structures 11 

108.10 Other Building Regulations 11 

109 Division of the State Architect 12 

110 Office of Statewide Health Planning and 

Development 13 

1 1 1 Office of the State Fire Marshal 15 

112 State Librarian 19 

113 Reserved 19 

114 California State Lands Commission 19 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 29 

Section 

201 General 29 

202 Definitions 29 

CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY 

CLASSIFICATION 49 

Section 

301 General 49 

302 Classification 49 

303 Assembly Group A 49 

304 Business Group B 50 

305 Educational Group E 50 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



306 Factory Group F 50 

307 High-hazard Group H 51 

308 Institutional Group I 59 

309 Mercantile Group M 60 

310 Residential Group R 61 

311 Storage Group S 65 

312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 65 

CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 

USE AND OCCUPANCY 71 

Section 

401 Scope 71 

402 Covered Mall Buildings 71 

403 High-rise Buildings 74 

404 Atriums 76 

405 Underground Buildings 76 

406 Motor-vehicle-related Occupancies 77 

407 Group 1-2 ' 81 

408 Group 1-3 84 

409 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 86 

410 Stages and Platforms 87 

411 Special Amusement Buildings 88 

412 Aircraft-related Occupancies 89 

413 Combustible Storage 91 

414 Hazardous Materials 91 

415 Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 95 

416 Application of Flammable Finishes 108 

417 Drying Rooms 108 

418 Organic Coatings 108 

419 Group I-l, R-1, R-2, R-3, R-3.1, R-4 109 

420 Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms 109 

421 Reserved 110 

422 Reserved 110 

423 Reserved 110 

424 Reserved 110 

425 Special Provisions for Licensed 

24-Hour Care Facilities in a 

Group I-l, R-3.1 or R-4 occupancy [SFM] .110 

426 Group 1-4 [SFM] 113 

427 Reserved 1 14 

428 Reserved 114 

429 Reserved 114 



XXIII 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



430 Horse Racing Stables [SFM] 114 

431 Pet Kennels [SFM] 114 

432 Combustion Engines and 

Gas Turbines [SFM] 114 

433 Fixed Guideway Transit Systems [SFM] 114 

434 Explosives [SFM] 118 

435 Reserved 121 

436 Winery Caves [SFM] 121 

437 Reserved 122 

438 Reserved 122 

439 Public Libraries [SL & SFM] 122 

440 Group C [SFM] 123 

441 Reserved 125 

442 Group E [SFM] 125 

443 Group L [SFM] 126 

444 Reserved 129 

445 Large-family Day Care Homes [SFM] 129 

CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING 

HEIGHTS AND AREAS 133 

Section 

501 General 133 

502 Definitions 133 

503 General Height and Area Limitations 133 

504 Height 135 

505 Mezzanines 135 

506 Area Modifications 136 

507 Unlimited Area Buildings 137 

508 Mixed Use and Occupancy 139 

509 Special Provisions 140 

CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION ... 147 

Section 

601 General 147 

602 Construction Classification 147 

603 Combustible Material in Type I and II 

Construction 148 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 

CONSTRUCTION 153 

Section 

701 General 153 

702 Definitions 153 

703 Fire-resistance Ratings and Fire Tests 154 

704 Exterior Walls 155 

705 Fire Walls 158 



706 Fire Barriers 160 

707 Shaft Enclosures 162 

708 Fire Partitions 164 

709 Smoke Barriers 165 

710 Smoke Partitions 166 

711 Horizontal Assemblies 166 

712 Penetrations 167 

713 Fire-resistant Joint Systems 169 

714 Fire-resistance Rating of 

Structural Members 170 

715 Opening Protectives 171 

716 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 175 

717 Concealed Spaces 178 

718 Fire-resistance Requirements for Plaster 180 

719 Thermal- and Sound-insulating Materials .... 181 

720 Prescriptive Fire Resistance 181 

721 Calculated Fire Resistance 202 

CHAPTER 7A MATERL^LS AND 

CONSTRUCTION METHODS 
FOR EXTERIOR WILDFIRE 
EXPOSURE 235 

Section 

701A Scope, Purpose and Application 235 

702A Definitions 235 

703A Standards of Quality 236 

704A Materials, Systems and 

Methods of Construction 236 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES 241 

Section 

801 General 241 

802 Definitions 241 

803 Wall and Ceiling Finishes 241 

804 Interior Floor Finish 243 

805 Combustible Materials in Types I 

and II Construction 244 

806 Decorative Materials and Trim 244 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION 

SYSTEMS 251 

Section 

901 General 251 

902 Definitions 251 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 254 

904 Alternative Automatic 

Fire-extinguishing Systems 260 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



905 Standpipe Systems 261 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 264 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 264 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 278 

909 Smoke Control Systems 279 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 285 

911 Fire Command Center 287 

912 Fire Department Connections 288 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 293 

Section 

1001 Administration 293 

1002 Definitions 293 

1003 General Means of Egress 294 

1004 Occupant Load 296 

1005 Egress Width 298 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 298 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 299 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 301 

1009 Stairways 306 

1010 Ramps 309 

1011 Exit Signs 310 

1012 Handrails 311 

1013 Guards 312 

1014 Exit Access 313 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 315 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 316 

1017 Corridors 317 

1018 Exits 318 

1019 Number of Exits and Continuity 318 

1020 Vertical Exit Enclosures 319 

1021 Exit Passageways 321 

1022 Horizontal Exits 322 

1023 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 322 

1024 Exit Discharge 323 

1025 Assembly 324 

1026 Emergency Escape and Rescue 329 

CHAPTER 11 RESERVED 331 

CHAPTER llA HOUSING ACCESSIBILITY .... 335 

Section 

IIOIA Application 335 

1102A Building Accessibility 335 

1103A Design and Construction 336 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



1 104A Group R Occupancies 336 

1 105A Group U Occupancies 336 

1106A Site and Building Characteristics 337 

1107A Definitions 337 

1 108 A General Requirements for 
Accessible Parking and 
Exterior Routes of Travel 339 

1109A Parking Facilities 340 

lllOA Exterior Routes of Travel 341 

llllA Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 342 

1112A Curb Ramps on Accessible Routes 342 

1113A Walks and Sidewalks on an 

Accessible Route 343 

1 1 14A Exterior Ramps and 

Landings on Accessible Routes 343 

1 1 15A Exterior Stairways Along 

Accessible Routes 345 

1116A Hazards on Accessible Routes 345 

1 1 17 A General Requirements for 

Accessible Entrances, Exits, 

Interior Routes of Travel and 

Facility Accessibility 346 

1118A Egress and Areas of Refuge 346 

1119A Interior Routes of Travel 346 

1120A Interior Accessible Routes 347 

1121 A Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 347 

1 122A Interior Ramps and Landings on 

Accessible Routes 347 

11 23 A Interior Stairways Along 

Accessible Routes 348 

1124A Elevators and Special Access 

(Wheelchair) Lifts 349 

11 25 A Hazards on Accessible Routes 351 

1126A Doors 351 

1 127A Common Use Facilities 352 

1128A Covered Dwelling Units 358 

1129A Reserved 359 

1 130A Accessible Route Within 

Covered Multifamily Dwelling Units 359 

1131 A Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 359 

1132A Doors 359 

1133A Kitchens 360 

1134A Bathing and Toilet Facilities 361 

1135A Laundry Rooms 364 

1 1 3 6 A Electrical Receptacle, 

Switch and Control Heights 364 

1137A Other Features and Facilities 365 

1 138A Reserved 365 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1139A Accessible Drinking Fountains 365 

1 140A Accessible Telephones 365 

1141 A Accessible Swimming Pools 366 

1 142A Electrical Receptacle, Switch and 

Control Heights 367 

1143A Signage 367 

1 144A Reserved 368 

1 145A Reserved 368 

1 146A Reserved 368 

1 147A Reserved 368 

1 148A Reserved 368 

1 149A Reserved 368 

1 150A Site Impracticality Tests 368 

CHAPTER IIB ACCESSIBILITY TO 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS, 
PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS, 
COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 
AND PUBLICLY FUNDED 
HOUSING 423 

Section 

IIOIB Scope 423 

1 102B Definitions 423 

1 103B Building Accessibility 426 

1 104B Accessibility for Group A Occupancies 427 

1 105B Accessibility for Group B Occupancies 430 

1 106B Accessibility for Group E Occupancies 431 

1 107B Factories and Warehouses 432 

1 108B Accessibility for Group H Occupancies 432 

1 109B Accessibility for Group I Occupancies 432 

I I lOB Accessibility for Group M Occupancies 433 

I I I IB Accessibility for Group R Occupancies 434 

1112B Reserved 437 

1113B Reserved 437 

1114B Facility Accessibility 437 

1 11 5B B athing and Toilet Facilities 

(Sanitary Facilities) 438 

1 1 16B Elevators and Special Access 

(Wheelchair) Lifts 444 

1 1 17B Other Building Components 447 

1 1 18B Space Allowance and Reach Ranges 454 

1 1 19B Special Standards of Accessibility for 

Buildings with Historical Significance .... 454 

1 120B Floor and Levels 454 

1 121B Transportation Facilities 454 

1 122B Fixed or Built-in Seating, 

Tables and Counters 458 



XXVI 



1123B Access to Employee Areas 458 

1 124B Ground and Floor Surfaces 459 

1125B Storage 459 

1126B Vending Machines and Other Equipment 459 

1 127B Exterior Routes of Travel 460 

1 128B Pedestrian Grade Separations 

(Overpasses and Underpasses) 461 

1129B Accessible Parking Required 461 

1130B Parking Structures 463 

1 13 IB Passenger Drop-off and Loading Zones 463 

1132B Outdoor Occupancies 463 

1133B General Accessibility for 

Entrances, Exits and Paths of Travel 465 

1134B Accessibility for Existing Buildings 472 

1135B Historic Preservation — 
Special Standards of 
Accessibility for Buildings with 
Historical Significance 473 

CHAPTER lie STANDARDS FOR CARD 
READERS AT GASOLINE 
FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITIES 541 

Section 

1 1 1 C Card-reader Devices at 

Fuel-dispensing Equipment 541 

1102C Application 541 

1 103C Number of Accessible 

Card-reading Devices Required 541 

1 104C Required Features 541 

1 1 05 C Protection of Dispensers 

Mounted at Grade 542 

CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT .... 547 
Section 

1201 General 547 

1202 Definitions 547 

1203 Ventilation 547 

1204 Temperature Control 548 

1205 Lighting 549 

1206 Yards or Courts 549 

1207 Sound Transmission 550 

1208 Interior Space Dimensions 552 

1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 553 

1210 Surrounding Materials 553 

1211 Garage Door Springs 553 

1212 Reserved 554 

1213 Reserved 554 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1214 Reserved 554 

1215 Reserved 554 

1216 Reserved 554 

1217 Reserved 554 

1218 Reserved 554 

1219 Reserved 554 

1220 Reserved 554 

1221 Reserved 554 

1222 Reserved 554 

1223 Reserved 554 

1224 Hospitals 555 

1225 Skilled Nursing and 

Intermediate-care Facilities 581 

1226 Clinics 586 

1227 Correctional Treatment Centers 589 

1228 Reserved 594 

1229 Reserved 594 

1230 Minimum Standards for 

Juvenile Facilities 594 

1231 Local Detention 598 

1232 Reserved 603 

1233 Reserved 603 

1234 Reserved 604 

1235 Sanitary Control of Shellfish 

(Plants and Operations) 604 

1236 Laboratory Animal Quarters 604 

1237 Wild Animal Quarantine Facilities 604 

1238 Reserved 605 

1239 Reserved 605 

1240 Meat and Poultry Processing Plants 605 

1241 Collection Centers and Facilities 606 

1242 Renderers 607 

1243 Horsemeat and Pet Food Establishments 607 

1244 Reserved 608 

1245 Reserved 608 

1246 Reserved 608 

1247 Reserved 608 

1248 Reserved 608 

1249 Reserved 608 

1250 Pharmacies 608 

1251 Veterinary Facilities 608 

1252 Barber Colleges and Shops 609 

1253 Schools of Cosmetology, 

Cosmetological Establishments and 

Satellite Classrooms 609 

1254 Acupuncture Offices 609 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 



611 



CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS 615 

Section 

1401 General 615 

1402 Definitions 615 

1403 Performance Requirements 615 

1404 Materials 616 

1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 616 

1406 Combustible Materials on the 

Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 620 

1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 621 

1408 Additional Requirements for 

Anchored and Adhered Veneer 622 

CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 625 

Section 

1501 General 625 

1502 Definitions 625 

1503 Weather Protection 625 

1504 Performance Requirements 626 

1505 Fire Classification 627 

1506 Materials 628 

1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings 628 

1508 Roof Insulation 637 

1509 Rooftop Structures 637 

1510 Reroofing 638 

1511 S eismic Anchorage of 

Slate Shingle, Clay and 

Concrete Tile Roof Coverings 639 

INDEX 641 

HISTORY NOTE 673 

VOLUME 2 

CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 3 

Section 

1601 General 3 

1602 Definitions and Notations 3 

1603 Constriiction Documents 4 

1604 General Design Requirements 5 

1605 Load Combinations 8 

1606 Dead Loads 9 

1607 Live Loads 10 



XXVII 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1608 Snow Loads 15 

1609 Wind Loads 15 

1610 Soil Lateral Loads 25 

1611 Rain Loads 25 

1612 Flood Loads 26 

1613 Earthquake Loads 28 

CHAPTER 16A STRUCTURAL DESIGN 53 

Section 

1601A General 53 

1602A Definitions and Notations 53 

1603 A Construction Documents 55 

1604A General Design Requirements 56 

1605A Load Combinations 59 

1606A Dead Loads 60 

1607A Live Loads 60 

1608A Snow Loads 66 

1609A Wind Loads 66 

1610A Soil Lateral Loads 71 

1611A Rain Loads 71 

1612A Flood Loads 72 

1613A Earthquake Loads 74 

1614A Modifications to ASCE 7 78 

CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 87 

Section 

1701 General 87 

1702 Definitions 87 

1703 Approvals 88 

1704 Special Inspections 88 

1705 Statement of Special Inspections 97 

1706 Contractor Responsibility 98 

1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance .... 98 

1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance 99 

1709 Structural Observations 100 

1710 Design Strengths of Materials 100 

1711 Alternative Test Procedure 100 

1712 Test Safe Load 100 

1713 In-situ Load Tests 101 

1714 Preconstruction Load Tests 101 

1715 Material and Test Standards 102 



CHAPTER 17A STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 105 

Section 

1701A General 105 

1702A Definitions 105 

1703A Approvals 106 

1704A Special Inspections 107 

1705A Statement of Special Inspections 117 

1706 A Contractor Responsibility 118 

1707 A Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance ... 1 18 

1708A Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance .... 119 

1709A Structural Observations 120 

1710A Design Strengths of Materials 120 

171 1 A Alternative Test Procedure 120 

1712A Test Safe Load 120 

1713A In-situ Load Tests 120 

1714A Preconstruction Load Tests 121 

1715A Material and Test Standards 122 

CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS .... 125 

Section 

1801 General 125 

1802 Foundation and Soils Investigations 125 

1803 Excavation, Grading and Fill 128 

1804 Allowable Load-bearing Values of Soils 129 

1805 Footings and Foundations 129 

1806 Retaining Walls 140 

1807 Dampproofmg and Waterproofing 140 

1808 Pier and Pile Foundations 141 

1809 Driven Pile Foundations 146 

1810 Cast-in-place Concrete Pile Foundations 149 

1811 Composite Piles 153 

1812 Pier Foundations 153 

CHAPTER 18A SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS .... 157 

Section 

1801A General 157 

1802A Foundation and Soils Investigations 157 

1803 A Excavation, Grading and Fill 160 

1804A Allowable Load-bearing Values of Soils 161 

1805A Footings and Foundations 161 

1806A Retaining Walls and Cantilever Walls 165 

1807 A Dampproofing and Waterproofing 166 

1808A Pier and Pile Foundations 167 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1809A Driven Pile Foundations 172 

1810A Cast-in-place Concrete Pile Foundations 175 

1811A Composite Piles 178 

1812A Pier Foundations 179 

CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE 183 

Section 

1901 General 183 

1902 Definitions 183 

1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 183 

1904 Durability Requirements 183 

1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 185 

1906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 185 

1907 Details of Reinforcement 186 

1908 Modifications to ACI 318 186 

1909 Structural Plain Concrete 189 

1910 Minimum Slab Provisions 190 

1911 Anchorage to Concrete — Allowable 

Stress Design 190 

1912 Anchorage to Concrete — Strength Design. . . . 191 

1913 Shotcrete 191 

1914 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 192 

1915 Concrete-filled Pipe Columns 192 

CHAPTER 19A CONCRETE 197 

Section 

1902A General 197 

1902A Definitions 197 

1903A Specifications for Tests and Materials 197 

1904A Durability Requirements 198 

1905A Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 200 

1906 A Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 201 

1907A Details of Reinforcement 201 

1908A Modifications to ACI 318 202 

1909A Structural Plain Concrete 208 

1910A Minimum Slab Provisions 208 

191 1 A Anchorage to Concrete — 

Allowable Stress Design 208 

1912A Anchorage to Concrete — 

Strength Design 209 

1913A Shotcrete 209 

1914A Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 211 

1915A Concrete-filled Pipe Columns 211 

1916A Concrete Testing 211 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



1917A Existing Concrete Structures 212 

CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM 215 

Section 

2001 General 215 

2002 Materials 215 

2003 Inspection 215 

CHAPTER 21 MASONRY 219 

Section 

2101 General 219 

2102 Definitions and Notations 219 

2103 Masonry Construction Materials 223 

2104 Construction 226 

2105 Quality Assurance 229 

2106 Seismic Design 230 

2107 Allowable Stress Design 232 

2108 Strength Design of Masonry 232 

2109 Empirical Design of Masonry 233 

2110 Glass Unit Masonry '. . . 239 

2111 Masonry Fireplaces 241 

2112 Masonry Heaters 243 

2113 Masonry Chimneys 243 

CHAPTER 21A MASONRY 251 

Section 

2101A General 251 

2102A Definitions and Notations 251 

2103A Masonry Construction Materials 255 

2104A Construction 258 

2105A Quality Assurance 263 

2106A Seismic Design 265 

2107A Allowable Stress Design 267 

2108A Strength Design of Masonry 268 

2109A Empirical Design of Masonry 268 

2110A Glass Unit Masonry 268 

2111A Masonry Fireplaces 269 

2112A Masonry Heaters 271 

2113A Masonry Chimneys 271 

2114A Nonbearing Walls 275 

2115A Masonry Screen Walls 276 

CHAPTER 22 STEEL 279 

Section 

2201 General 279 



XXIX 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



2202 Definitions 279 

2203 Identification and Protection of Steel 

for Structural Purposes 279 

2204 Connections 279 

2205 Structural Steel 279 

2206 Steel Joists 280 

2207 Steel Cable Structures 280 

2208 Steel Storage Racks 281 

2209 Cold-formed Steel 281 

2210 Cold-formed Steel Light-framed 

Construction 281 

CHAPTER 22A STEEL 285 

Section 

2201A General 285 

2202A Definitions 285 

2203A Identification and Protection of 

Steel for Structural Purposes 285 

2204A Connections 285 

2205A -Structural Steel 286 

2206A Steel Joists 288 

2207A Steel Cable Structures 289 

2208A Steel Storage Racks 289 

2209A Cold-formed Steel 289 

221 OA Cold-formed Steel Light-framed 

Construction 289 

221 1 A Light Modular Steel Moment 

Frames for Public Elementary and 

Secondary Schools, and 

Community Colleges 289 

2212A Testing 290 

CHAPTER 23 WOOD 293 

Section 

2301 General 293 

2302 Definitions 293 

2303 Minimum Standards and Quality 295 

2304 General Construction Requirements 299 

2305 General Design Requirements for 

Lateral-force-resisting Systems 309 

2306 Allowable Stress Design 317 

2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design 327 

2308 Conventional Light-frame Construction 327 

CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING 373 

Section 

2401 General 373 



2402 Definitions 373 

2403 General Requirements for Glass 373 

2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and 

Dead Loads on Glass 373 

2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights 376 

2406 Safety Glazing 377 

2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards 379 

2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilities 379 

2409 Glass in Elevator Hoistway 380 

CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD 

AND PLASTER 383 

Section 

2501 General 383 

2502 Definitions 383 

2503 Inspection 383 

2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies 383 

2505 Shear Wall Construction 384 

2506 Gypsum Board Materials 384 

2507 Lathing and Plastering 384 

2508 Gypsum Construction 385 

2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and 

Water Closets 386 

2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement 

Plaster (Stucco) 386 

2511 Interior Plaster 387 

2512 Exterior Plaster 387 

2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 388 

CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC 393 

Section 

2601 General 393 

2602 Definitions 393 

2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 393 

2604 Interior Finish and Trim 396 

2605 Plastic Veneer 397 

2606 Light-transmitting Plastics 397 

2607 Light- transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 398 

2608 Light-transmitting Plastic Glazing 399 

2609 Light-transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 399 

2610 Light-transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing . . 400 

2611 Light-transmitting Plastic Interior Signs 400 

CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL 403 

Section 

2701 General 403 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 403 

CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS 407 

Section 

2801 General 407 

2802 Spark Arresters 407 

CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS 409 

Section 

2901 General 409 

CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS 413 

Section 

3001 General 413 

3002 Hoistway Enclosures 413 

3003 Emergency Operations 414 

3004 Hoistway Venting 416 

3005 Conveying Systems 416 

3006 Machine Rooms 417 

3007 Special Requirements for 

Elevators in Hospitals 417 

CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION .... 421 

Section 

3101 General 421 

3102 Membrane Structures 421 

3103 Temporary Structures 422 

3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 422 

3105 Awnings and Canopies 423 

3106 Marquees 424 

3107 Signs 424 

3108 Radio and Television Towers 424 

3 109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and 

Safety Devices 424 

CHAPTER 31B PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS ... 431 

Section 

3101B Scope 431 

3102B Definitions 431 

3103B Special Pool Classifications 432 

3104B Accessibility to the Physically 

Handicapped Person 432 

3105B Alternate Equipment, Materials and 

Methods of Construction 432 

3106B Pool Construction 432 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



3107B Additional Requirements for a 

Temporary Training Pool 433 

3108B Pool Geometry 433 

3109B Permanent Markings 433 

3 1 lOB Steps, Recessed Steps, Ladders and 

Recessed Stairs (Treads) 437 

3111B Handholds 437 

3112B Diving Boards 437 

3113B Pool Decks 437 

31 14B Pool Lighting 438 

3 1 15B Bathhouse Dressing, 

Shower and Toilet Facilities 438 

3116B Drinking Fountains 438 

3117B Hose Bibbs 439 

3118B Enclosure of Pool Area 439 

3119B Signs 439 

3120B Indoor Pool Ventilation 441 

3121B Foundations For Pool Equipment 441 

3122B Gas Chlorination Equipment Room 441 

3123B General Requirements 441 

3124B Turnover Time 442 

3125B Recirculation Piping System and 

Components 442 

3126B Recirculation Pump Capacity 442 

3127B Water Supply Inlets 442 

3128B Filters (All Types) 442 

3129B Rapid Sand Pressure Filters 443 

3130B Diatomaceous Earth Filters 443 

3131B High-rate Sand Filters 443 

3132B Chemical Feeders 443 

3133B Disinfectant Feeders 444 

3134B Pool Fittings 444 

3135B Spa Pool Special Requirements 445 

3136B Cleaning Systems 445 

3137B Waste Water Disposal 445 

3138B Reserved 446 

3139B Reserved 446 

3140B Reserved. 446 

3141B Reserved 446 

3142B Reserved 446 

3143B Reserved 446 

3144B Reserved 446 

3145B Reserved 446 

3146B Reserved 446 

3147B Reserved 446 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



3148B Reserved 446 

3149B Reserved 446 

3150B Reserved 446 

3151B Reserved 446 

3152B Reserved 446 

3153B Reserved 446 

3154B Reserved 446 

3155B Reserved 446 

3156B Reserved 446 

3157B Reserved 446 

3158B Reserved 446 

3159B Reserved 446 

3160B 446 

3161B 447 

CHAPTER 31C RADIATION 451 

Section 

3101C Scope 451 

3102C Radiation Shielding Barriers 451 

3103C Medical Radiographic and 

Photofluorographic Installations 451 

3104C Medical Therapeutic X-ray Installations 451 

CHAPTER 31D FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS 455 

Section 

3101D Scope 455 

3102D Definitions 455 

3103B Building and Structures 455 

CHAPTER 31E TENTS AND MEMBRANE 

STRUCTURES 459 

Section 

3101E General Provisions 459 

3102E Definitions 459 

3 103E Tents Having an Occupant of 

Load 10 or More 459 

3104E Location of Tents 459 

3105E Structural Requirements 460 

3106E Exit Requirements 460 

3107E Heating Equipment 460 

3108E Membrane (Air-supported and 

Air-inflated) Structures 460 

3 109E Alternative Means of Protection 460 



CHAPTER 31F MARINE OIL TERMINALS 465 

Section 

3101F Introduction 465 

3102F Audit and Inspection 466 

3103F Structural Loading Criteria 476 

3104F Seismic Analysis and 

Structural Performance 488 

3105F Mooring and Berthing Analysis and 

Design 494 

3106F Geotechnical Hazards and Foundations 499 

3107F Structural Analysis and 

Design of Components 502 

3108F Fire Prevention, Detection and Suppression . . 514 

3109F Piping and Pipelines 518 

3110F Mechanical and Electrical Equipment 520 

3111F Electrical Systems 523 

CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE 

PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY 527 

Section 

3201 General 527 

3202 Encroachments 527 

CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING 

CONSTRUCTION 531 

Section 

3301 General 531 

3302 Construction Safeguards 531 

3303 Demolition 531 

3304 Site Work 531 

3305 Sanitary 531 

3306 Protection of Pedestrians 531 

3307 Protection of Adjoining Property 533 

3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and 

Public Property 533 

3309 Fire Extinguishers 533 

3310 Exits 533 

331 1 Standpipes 533 

3312 Automatic Sprinkler System 534 

CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES 537 

Section 

3401 General 537 

3402 Definitions 537 

3403 Additions, Alterations or Repairs 537 

3404 Fire Escapes 539 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



3405 Glass Replacement 539 

3406 Change of Occupancy 540 

3407 Historic Buildings 540 

3408 Moved Structures 540 

3409 Reserved 540 

3410 Compliance Alternatives 540 

341 1 Existing Group R-1 and 

Group R-2 Occupancies 549 

3412 Existing High-rise Buildings 552 

3413 Existing Group I Occupancies 554 

3414 Existing Group L Occupancies 554 

3415 Earthquake Evaluation and 

Design for Retrofit of 

Existing Buildings 555 

3416 Definitions 557 

3417 Seismic Criteria Selection for 

Existing Buildings 557 

3418 Method A 560 

3419 Method B 560 

3420 Peer Review Requirements 561 

3421 Additional Requirements for 

Public Schools 562 

CHAPTER 34A EXISTING STRUCTURES 565 

Section 

3401A General 565 

3402A Definitions 565 

3403A Additions, Alterations or Repairs 566 

3404A Fire Escapes 567 

3405A Glass Replacement 568 

3406A Change of Occupancy 568 

3407A Historic Buildings 568 

3408A Moved Structures 568 

3409A Reserved 568 

3410A Compliance Alternatives ; . . . . 568 

3411 A Additions, Alterations, Repairs and 
Seismic Retrofit to Existing 
Buildings or Structures 577 

3412A Earthquake Evaluation and 

Design for Retrofit of Existing 

Hospital Buildings 578 

3413A Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings 579 

3414A Peer Review Requirements 582 



CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS. ... 585 

APPENDIX CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION. ... 609 

Section 

101 General 609 

102 Applicability 609 

103 Department of Building Safety 610 

104 Duties and Powers of Building Official 610 

105 Permits 611 

106 Construction Documents 613 

107 Temporary Structures and Uses 614 

108 Fees 614 

109 Inspections 615 

110 Certificate of Occupancy 616 

111 Service Utilities 616 

1 12 Board of Appeals 616 

1 13 Violations 616 

114 Stop Work Order 617 

115 Unsafe Structures and Equipment 617 

APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE 

QUALIFICATIONS 621 

Section 

AlOl Building Official Qualifications 621 

A102 Referenced Standards 621 

APPENDIX B BOARD OF APPEALS 625 

Section 

BlOl General 625 

APPENDIX C GROUP U— AGRICULTURAL 

BUILDINGS 629 

Section 

ClOl General 629 

CI 02 Allowable Height and Area 629 

C103 Mixed Occupancies ' ... 629 

C104 Exits 629 

APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS 633 

Section 

DlOl General 633 

D102 Building Restrictions 633 

D103 Changes to Buildings 634 

D104 Buildings Located Partially in the 

Fire District 634 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



XXXIII 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



D105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District. . . . 634 
D106 Referenced Standards 635 

APPENDIX E RESERVED 639 

APPENDIX F RODENTPROOFING 643 

Section 

FlOl General 643 

APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION 647 

Section 

GlOl Administration 647 

G102 Applicability 647 

G103 Powers and Duties 647 

G104 Permits 648 

G105 Variances 648 

G201 Definitions 649 

G301 Subdivisions 650 

G401 Site Improvement 650 

G501 Manufactured Homes 650 

G601 Recreational Vehicles 650 

G701 Tanks 651 

G801 Other Building Work 651 

G901 Referenced Standards 651 

APPENDIX H SIGNS 655 

Section 

HlOl General 655 

H102 Definitions 655 

H103 Location 655 

H104 Identification 655 

H105 Design and Construction 655 

H106 Electrical 656 

H107 Combustible Materials 656 

H108 Animated Devices 656 

H109 Ground Signs 656 

HUG Roof Signs 657 

Hill Wall Signs 657 

H112 Projecting Signs 657 

H113 Marquee Signs 658 

H114 Portable Signs 658 

HI 15 Referenced Standards 658 



APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS 661 

Section 

1101 General 661 

1102 Definitions 661 

1103 Exterior Openings 661 

1104 Structural Provisions 661 

APPENDIX J GRADING 665 

JlOl General 665 

J102 Definitions 665 

J 103 Permits Required 665 

J 104 Permit Application and Submittals 665 

J105 Inspections 666 

J106 Excavations 666 

J107 Fills 667 

J108 Setbacks 667 

J109 Drainage and Terracing 667 

Jl 10 Erosion Control 668 

Jill Referenced Standards 668 

INDEX 669 

HISTORY NOTE 701 



XXXIV 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CALIFORNIA CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


GEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire California 
Chapter 








































Adopt Entire California 
Chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed 
below) 








































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


Chapter/ 
Section 


Codes 


101 


CA 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


102 


CA 


X 






































103 


CA 
























X 
















104 


CA 


































X 






105 


CA 
































X 








106 


CA 




























X 












107 


CA 


























X 














108 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























109,1 


CA 












X 




























109.2 


CA 














X 


























110.1 


CA 
















X 
























110,2 


CA 


















X 






















110.3 


CA 




















X 




















110.4 


CA 






















X 


















111 


CA 




X 




































112.0 


CA 




































X 




114.0 


CA 






































X 













































2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



(CALIFORNIA) CHAPTER 1 

GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the California 
Building Code, may be cited as such and will be referred to 
herein as "this code. " The California Building Code is Part 2 of 
12 parts of the official compilation and publication of the adop- 
tion amendment and repeal of building regulations to the Cali- 
fornia Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the 
California Building Standards Code. This part incorporates by 
adoption the 2006 International Building Code of the Interna- 
tional Code Council with necessary California amendments. 

101.2 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the min- 
imum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and 
general welfare through structural strength, means of egress 
facilities, stability, access to persons with disabilities, sanita- 
tion, adequate lighting and ventilation and energy conserva- 
tion; safety to life and property from fire and other hazards 
attributed to the built environment; and to provide safety to fire 
fighters and emergency responders during emergency opera- 
tions. 

[DSA-AC] The purpose of this code is to ensure that bar- 
rier-free design is incorporated in all buildings, facilities, site . 
work and other developments to which this code applies and to 
ensure that they are accessible to and usable by persons with 
disabilities. 

101.3 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the con- 
struction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, 
repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, 
removal and demolition of every building or structure or any 
appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or 
structures throughout the State of California. 

101.3.1 Nonstate-regulated buildings, structures and 
applications. Except as modified by local ordinance pursu- 
ant to Section 101.8, the following standards in the Califor- 
nia Code ofRegulations, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 
shall apply to all occupancies and applications not regu- 
lated by a state agency. 

101.3.2 State-regulated buildings, structures and applica- 
tions. The model code, state amendments to the model code, 
and/or state amendments where there are no relevant model 
code provisions shall apply to the following buildings, 
structures, and applications regulated by state agencies as 
referenced in the Matrix Adoption Tables and as specified in 
Sections 102 through 114, except where modified by local 
ordinance pursuant to Section 101.8. When adopted by a 
state agency, the provisions of this code shall be enforced by 
the appropriate enforcing agency, but only to the extent of 
authority granted to such agency by the state legislature. 

Note: See Preface to distinguish the model code provi- 
sions from the California provisions. 

1. State-owned buildings, including buildings con- 
structed by the Trustees of the California State 



University, and to the extent permitted by Cali- 
fornia laws, buildings designed and constructed 
by the Regents of the University of California, 
and regulated by the Building Standards Com- 
mission. See Section 102 for additional scope 
provisions. 

2. Local detention facilities regulated by the Cor- 
rections Standards Authority. See Section 103 for 
additional scope provisions. 

3. Barbering, cosmetology or electrolysis estab- 
lishments, acupuncture offices, pharmacies, vet- 
erinary facilities and structural pest control 
locations regulated by the Department of Con- 
sumer Affairs. See Section 104 for additional 
scope provisions. 

4. Energy efficiency standards regulated by the Cal- 
ifornia Energy Commission. See Section 105 for 
additional scope provisions. 

5. Dairies and places of meat inspection regulated 
by the Department of Food and Agriculture. See 
Section 106 for additional scope provisions. 

6. Organized camps, laboratory animal quarters, 
public swimming pools, radiation protection, 
commissaries serving mobile food preparation 
vehicles and wild animal quarantine facilities 
regulated by the Department of Health Services. 
See Section 107 for additional scope provisions. 

7. Hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment 
houses, dwellings, dormitories, condominiums, 
shelters for homeless persons, congregate resi- 
dences, employee housing, factory-built housing 
and other types of dwellings containing sleeping 
accommodations with or without common toilets 
or cooking facilities. See Section 108.2.1.1 for 
additional scope provisions. 

8. Accommodations for persons with disabilities in 
buildings containing newly constructed covered 
multifamily dwellings, new common use spaces 
serving existing covered multifamily dwellings, 
additions to existing buildings where the addition 
alone meets the definition of a "Covered multi- 
family dwelling" and common-use spaces serv- 
ing covered multifamily dwellings which are 
regulated by . the Department of Housing and 
Community Development. See Section 108.2.1.2 
for additional scope provisions. 

9. Permanent buildings and permanent accessory 
buildings or structures constructed within 
mobilehome parks and special occupancy parks 
regulated by the Department of Housing and 
Community Development. See Section 108.2.1.3 
for additional scope provisions. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



10. Accommodations for persons with disabilities 
regulated by the Division of the State Architect. 
See Section 109.1 for additional scope provi- 
sions. 

11. Public elementary and secondary schools, com- 
munity college buildings and state-owned or 
state-leased essential service buildings regulated 
by the Division of the State Architect. See Section 
109.2 for additional scope provisions. 

12. Qualified historical buildings and structures and 
their associated sites regulated by the State His- 
torical Building Safety Boardwith the Division of 
the State Architect. See Section 109.3 for addi- 
tional scope provisions. 

13. General acute care hospitals, acute psychiatric 
hospitals, skilled nursing and/or intermediate 
carefacilities, clinics licensed by the Department 
of Health Services and correctional treatment 
centers regulated by the Office of Statewide 
Health Planning and Development. See Section 
110 for additional scope provisions. 

14. Applications regulated by the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal include, but are not limited to, the 
following in accordance with Section 111: 

14.1. Buildings or structures used or intended 
for use as an: 

14.1.1. Asylum, jail. 

14.1.2. Mental hospital, hospital, 
home for the elderly, chil- 
dren's nursery, children's 
home or institution, school 
or any similar occupancy of 
any capacity. 

14.1.3. Theater, dancehall, skating 
rink, auditorium, assembly 
hall, meeting hall, nightclub, 
fair building or similar place 
of assemblage where 50 or 
more persons may gather to- 
gether in a building, room or 
structure for the purpose of 
amusement, entertainment, 
instruction, deliberation, 
worship, drinking or dining, 
awaiting transportation, or 
education. 

14.1.4. Small family day care homes, 
large family day care homes, 
residential facilities and res- 
idential facilities for the el- 
derly, residential care 
facilities. 

14.1.5. State institutions or other 
state-owned or state-occu- 
pied buildings. 

14.1.6. High rise structures. 

14.1.7. Motion picture production 
studios. 

14.1.8. Organized camps. 



14.1.9. Residential structures. 

14.2. Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures 
used in connection with any occupancy. 

14.3. Fire alarm devices, equipment and sys- 
tems in connection with any occupancy . 

14.4. Hazardous materials, flammable and 
combustible liquids. 

14.5. Public school automatic fire detection, 
alarm and sprinkler systems. 

14.6. Wildland-urban interface fire areas. 

1 5. Public libraries constructed and renovated using 
funds from the California Library Construction 
and Renovation Bond Act of 1988 and regulated 
by the State Librarian. See Section 112 for addi- 
tional scope provisions. 

1 6. Graywater systems regulated by the Department 
of Water Resources. See Section 113 for addi- 
tional scope provisions. 

17. For applications listed in Section 1 09. 1 regulated 
by the Division of the State Architect— Access 
Compliance, outdoor environments and uses 
shall be classified according to accessibility uses 
described in Chapters 11 A, IIB and IIC. 

18. Marine Oil Terminals regulated by the California 
State Lands Commission. See Section 114 for ad- 
ditional scope provisions. 

101.4 Appendices. Provisions contained in the appendices of 
this code shall not apply unless specifically adopted by a state 
agency or adopted by a local enforcing agency in compliance 
with Health and Safety Code Section 18938(b) for Building 
Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17950 for 
State Housing Law and Health and Safety Code Section 
13869. 7 for Fire Protection Districts. See Section 101.8 of this 
code. 

101.5 Referenced codes. The codes, standards and publica- 
tions adopted and set forth in this code, including other codes, 
standards and publications referred to therein are, by title and 
date of publication, hereby adopted as standard reference doc- 
uments of this code. When this code does not specifically cover 
any subject related to building design and construction, recog- 
nized architectural or engineering practices shall be 
employed. The National Fire Codes and the Fire Protection 
Handbook of the National Fire Protection Association are per- 
mitted to be used as authoritative guides in determining recog- 
nized fire prevention engineering practices. 

101.6 Nonbuilding standards, orders and regulations. 

Requirements contained in the International Building Code, or 
in any other referenced standard, code or document, which are 
not building standards as defined in Health and Safety Code 
Section 18909, shall not be construed as part of the provisions 
of this code. For nonbuilding standards, orders and regula- 
tions, see other titles of the California Code of Regulations. 

101.7 Order of precedence and use. 

101.7.1 Differences. In the event of any differences between 
these building standards and the standard reference docu- 
ments, the text of these building standards shall govern. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



101. 7.2 Specific provisions. Where a specific provision, var- 
ies from a general provision, the specific provision shall 
apply. 

101.7.3 Conflicts. When the requirements of this code con- 
flict with the requirements of any other part of the California 
Building Standards Code, Title 24, the most restrictive 
requirements shall prevail. 

101.8 City, county or city and county amendments, additions 
or deletions. The provisions of this code do not limit the author- 
ity of city, county or city and county governments to establish 
more restrictive and reasonably necessary differences to the 
provisions contained in this code pursuant to complying with 
Section 101.8.1. The effective date of amendments, additions 
or deletions to this code of cities, counties or city and counties 
filed pursuant to Section 101.8.1 shall be the date filed. How- 
ever, in no case shall the amendments, additions or deletions to 
this code be effective any sooner than the effective date of this 
code. 

Local modifications shall comply with Health and Safety 
Code Section 18938(b) for Building Standards Law, Health 
and Safety Code Section 17950 for State Housing Law or 
Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7 for Fire Protection 
Districts. 

101.8.1 Findings and filings. 

1. The city, county or city and county shall make express 
findings for each amendment, addition or deletion 
based upon climatic, topographical or geological 
conditions. 

Exception: Hazardous building ordinances and 
programs mitigating unreinforced masonry build- 
ings. 

2. The city, county or city and county shall file the 
amendments, additions or deletions expressly marked 
and identified as to the applicable findings. Cities, 
counties, cities and counties, and fire departments 
shall file the amendments, additions or deletions, and 
the findings with the California Building Standards 
Commission at 2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130, 
Sacramento, CA 95833. 

3. Findings prepared by fire protection districts shall be 
ratified by the local city, county or city and county and 
filed with the California Department of Housing and 
Community Development at 1800 3''^ Street, Room 
260, Sacramento, CA 95814. 

101.9 Effective date of this code. Only those standards 
approved by the California Building Standards Commission 
that are effective at the time an application for building permit 
is submitted shall apply to the plans and specifications for, and 
to the construction performed under, that permit. For the effec- 
tive dates of the provisions contained in this code, see the His- 
tory Note page of this code. 

101.10 Availability of codes. At least one entire copy each of 
Titles 8, 19, 20, 24 and 25 with all revisions shall be maintained 
in the office of the building official responsible for the adminis- 
tration and enforcement of this code. See Health and Safety 
Code Section 18942(d)(1) and (2). 



101.11 Format. This part fundamentally adopts the Interna- 
tional Building Code by reference on a chapter-by-chapter 
basis. Such adoption is reflected in the Matrix Adoption Table 
of each chapter of this part. When the Matrix Adoption Tables 
make no reference to a specific chapter of the International 
Building Code such chapter of the International Building Code 
is not adopted as a portion of this code. 

101.12 Validity. If any chapter, section, subsection, sentence, 
clause or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be uncon- 
stitutional, contrary to statute, exceeding the authority of the 
state as stipulated by statutes or otherwise inoperative, such 
decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portion of 
this code. 



SECTION 102 
BUILDING STANDARDS COMMISSION 

102.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

1. State buildings for all occupancies. 

Application — State buildings (all occupancies), 
including buildings constructed by the Trustees of the 
California State University and the Regents of the 
University of California where no state agency has 
the authority to adopt building standards applicable 
to such buildings. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 
18934.6 

Reference — Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 2.5, commencing with Section 18901. 

2. University of California, California State Universities 
and California Community Colleges. 

Application — Standards for lighting for parking lots 
and primary campus walkways at the University of 
California, California State Universities and Califor- 
nia Community Colleges. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Government Code Section 14617. 

Reference — Government Code Section 14617. 

3. Existing state-owned buildings, including those owned 
by the University of California and by the California 
State University. 

Application — Building seismic retrofit standards 
including abating falling hazards of structural and 
nonstructural components and strengthening of 
building structures. See also Division of the State 
Architect 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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Authority cited — Government Code Section 16600. 

Reference — Government Code Sections 16600 
through 16604. 

4. Unreinforced masonry-bearing wall buildings. 

Application — Minimum seismic strengthening stan- 
dards for buildings specified in Appendix Chapter Al 
of the California Existing Building Code, except for 
buildings subject to building standards adopted pur- 
suant to Health and Safety Code (commencing) with 
Section 17910. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 
18934.6. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 18901 
through 18949. 



SECTION 103 
CORRECTIONS STANDARDS AUTHORITY 

103.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Local detention facilities. 

Enforcing agency — Corrections Standards Authority. 

Authority cited — Penal Code Section 6030; Welfare and 
Institutions Code Sections 207.1, 210 and 885. 

Reference — Penal Code Section 6030; Welfare and Institu- 
tions Code Sections 207.1, 210 and 885. 



SECTION 104 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSUMER AFFAIRS 

104.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

1. Board ofBarbering and Cosmetology. 

Application — Any establishment or mobile unit 
where barbering, cosmetology or electrolysis is being 
performed. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 7312. 

Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
7303, 7303.1, 7312 and 7313. 

2. Acupuncture Board. 

Application — Acupuncture offices. 



Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 4933. 

Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
4928, 4928.1 and 493 3. 

3. Board of Pharmacy. 

Application — Pharmacies. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 4005. 

Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
4005,4127.7 and 4201. 

4. Veterinary Medical Board. 

Application — Veterinary facilities. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 4808. 

Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
4800, 4800. 1, 4808 and 4809.5. 

5. Structural Pest Control Board. 

Application — structural pest control locations. 

Enforcing agency — Structural Pest Control Board. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 8525. 

Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
8520, 8520.1 and 8525. 



SECTION 105 
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 

105.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, enforcement agency, and the specific author- 
ity to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless 
otherwise stated. 

Application — All occupancies as specified in Title 24, Part 
6, Section 100. 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or the Cal- 
ifornia Energy Commission. 

Authority cited — Public Resources Code Sections 25213, 
25402, 25920 and 25402.2. 

Reference — Public Resources Code Sections 25001, 
25213, 25402 and 25402.2. 



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SECTION 106 
DEPARTMENT OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 

106.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Dairies and places of meat and poultry 
inspection. 

Enforcing agency — Department of Food and Agriculture. 

Authority cited — Food and Agricultural Code Sections 
18735, 18960, 19384, 33481 and 33731. 

Reference — Food and Agricultural Code Sections 18735, 
18960, 19384, 33481 and 33731. 



SECTION 107 
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES 

107.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Department of Health Services. 

Application — Organized camps, laboratory animal 
quarters, public swimming pools, radiation protection 
and producing facilities, commissaries serving mobile 
food preparation vehicles, wild animal quarantine facili- 
ties, shellfish facilities and food establishments. 

Enforcing agency — The Department of Health Services 
and the local health agencies. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 1660, 
18897.2, 100275, 110065, 112165, 113710, 114304, 
115061, 116050 and 121795. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 1650, 
1660, 18897.2, 18897.4, 18897.7, 100150, 100275, 
110065, 113705, 113710, 114825, 114965, 115061, 
116050, 116503, 112165 and 121795. 



SECTION 108 

DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND COMMUNITY 

DEVELOPMENT 

108.1 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the min- 
imum requirements necessary to protect the health, safety and 
general welfare of the occupants and the public by governing 
accessibility, erection, construction, enlargement, conversion, 
alteration, repair, moving, removal, demolition, occupancy, 
use, height, court, area, sanitation, ventilation, maintenance, 
safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attrib- 
uted to the built environment. 

108.2 Authority and abbreviations. 

108.2.1 General. The Department of Housing and Commu- 
nity Development is authorized by law to promulgate and 
adopt building standards and regulations for several types 
of building applications. These applications are grouped 



and identified by abbreviation in the Matrix Adoption 
Tables to show which model code sections and amendments 
are applicable to each application. The applications under 
the authority of the Department of Housing and Community 
Development are listed in Sections 108.2.1.1 through 
108.2.1.3. 

108.2.1.1 Housing construction. Application-Hotels, 
motels, lodging houses, apartment houses, dwellings, 
dormitories, condominiums, shelters for homeless per- 
sons, congregate residences, employee housing, fac- 
tory-built housing and other types of dwellings 
containing sleeping accommodations with or without 
common toilet or cooking facilities including accessory 
buildings, facilities, and uses thereto. Sections of this 
code which pertain to applications listed in this section 
are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table using the 
abbreviation "HCD 1." 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or 
the Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 
17921, 17922 and 19990. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 
through 17060, 17910 through 17990 and 19960 
through 19997. 

108.2.1.2 Housing accessibility. Application - Covered 
multifamily dwelling units as defined in Chapter HA 
including, but not limited to, lodging houses, dormito- 
ries, timeshares, condominiums, shelters for homeless 
persons, congregate residences, apartment houses, 
dwellings, employee housing, factory-built housing and 
other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommo- 
dations with or without common toilet or cooking facili- 
ties. 

Sections of this code identified in the Matrix Adoption 
Table by the abbreviation "HCD 1-AC" require specific 
accommodations for persons with physical disabilities, 
as defined in Chapter 11 A. The application of such provi- 
sions shall be in conjunction with other requirements of 
this code and apply only to Group R occupancies which 
are newly constructed covered multifamily dwellings as 
defined in Chapter llA of the California Building Code. 
"HCD 1-AC" applications include, but are not limited 
to, the following: 

1. All newly constructed covered multifamily dwell- 
ings as defined in Chapter 11 A. 

2. New common use areas as defined in Chapter HA 
serving existing covered multifamily dwellings. 

3. Additions to existing buildings, where the addition 
alone meets the definition of a "Covered multifam- 
ily dwelling" as defined in Chapter 11 A. 

4. Common use areas serving covered multifamily 
dwellings. 

"HCD 1-AC" building standards generally do not 
apply to public use areas or public accommodations 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



such as hotels and motels. Public use areas, public 
accommodations and housing which is publicly funded 
as defined in Chapters 2, llA and IIB of this code are 
subject to the Division of the State Architect (DSA-AC) 
and are referenced in Section 109.1. 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or 
the Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 
17921, 17922 and 19990 and Government Code Sec- 
tion 12955.1. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 
through 17060, 17910 through 17990 and 19960 
through 19997 and Government Code Section 
12955.1. 

108.2.1.3 Permanent buildings in mobilehome parks 
and special occupancy parks. Application-Permanent 
buildings, and permanent accessory buildings or struc- 
tures, constructed within mobilehome parks and special 
occupancy parks that are under the control and owner- 
ship of the park operator. Sections of this code which per- 
tain to applications listed in this section are identified in 
the Matrix Adoption Table using the abbreviation "HCD 
2." 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or 
other local agency responsible for the enforcement of 
Health and Safety Code Division 13, Part 2.1 com- 
mencing with Section 18200 for mobilehome parks 
and Health and Safety Code Division 13, Part 2.3 
commencing with Section 18860 for special occu- 
pancy parks or the Department of Housing and Com- 
munity Development. 



SECTION 108.3 
LOCAL ENFORCING AGENCY 

108.3.1 Duties and powers. The building department of 
every city, county or city and county shall enforce all the 
provisions of law, this code, and the other rules and regula- 
tions promulgated by the Department of Housing and Com- 
munity Development pertaining to the installation, erection, 
reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alter- 
ation, repair, removal, demolition or arrangement of apart- 
ment houses, hotels and dwellings, including accessory 
buildings, facilities and uses thereto. 

The provisions regulating the erection and construction 
of dwellings and appurtenant structures shall not apply to 
existing structures as to which construction is commenced 
or approved prior to the ejfective date of these regulations. 
Requirements relating to use, maintenance and occupancy 
shall apply to all dwellings and appurtenant structures 
approvedfor construction or constructed before or after the 
effective date of this code. 

108.3.2 Laws, rules and regulations. Other than the build- 
ing standards contained in this code, and notwithstanding 



other provisions of law, the statutory authority and location 
of the laws, rules and regulations to be enforced by local 
enforcing agencies are listed by statute in Sections 
108.3.2.1 through 108.3.2.5 below: 

108.3.2.1 State Housing Law. Refer to the State Housing 
Law, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 1.5 commencing with Section 17910 and California 
Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, 
Subchapter 1, Article 1, commencing with Section 1, for 
the erection, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, 
conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition or 
arrangement of apartment houses, hotels and dwellings, 
including accessory buildings, facilities and uses 
thereto. 

108.3.2.2 Mobilehome Parks Act. Refer to the 
Mobilehome Parks Act, California Health and Safety 
Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, Article 1, commencing with 
Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 
25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 
1000 for mobilehome park administrative and enforce- 
ment authority, permits, plans, fees, violations, inspec- 
tions and penalties both within and outside mobilehome 
parks. 

Exception: Mobilehome parks where the Department 
of Housing and Community Development is the 
enforcing agency. 

108.3.2.3 Special Occupancy Parks Act. Refer to the 
Special Occupancy Parks Act, California Health and 
Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with 
Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 
25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, Article 1, commencing with 
Section 2000 for special occupancy park administrative 
and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, 
inspections and penalties both within and outside of spe- 
cial occupancy parks. 

Exception: Special occupancy parks where the 
Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment is the enforcing agency. 

108.3.2.4 Employee Housing Act. Refer to the Employee 
Housing Act, California Health and Safety Code, Divi- 
sion 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and 
California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, 
Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, Article 1, commencing with 
Section 600 for employee housing administrative and 
enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspec- 
tions and penalties. 

108.3.2.5 Factory -Built Housing Law. Refer to the Fac- 
tory-Built Housing Law, California Health and Safety 
Code, Division 13, Part 6 commencing with Section 
19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, 
Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, Article 1, com- 
mencing with Section 3000 for factory-built housing 
administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, 
violations, inspections and penalties. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



SECTION 108.4 

PERMITS, FEES, APPLICATIONS AND 

INSPECTIONS 

108.4.1 Permits. A written construction permit shall be 
obtained from the enforcing agency prior to the erection, 
construction, reconstruction, installation, moving or alter- 
ation of any building or structure. 

Exceptions: 

1. Work exempt from permits as specified in Appendix 
Chapter 1, Section 105.2. 

2. Changes, alterations or repairs of a minor nature 
not affecting structural features, egress, sanita- 
tion, safety or accessibility as determined by the 
enforcing agency. 

Exemptions from permit requirements shall not be 
deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in 
any manner in violation of other provisions of law or this 
code. 

108.4.2 Fees. Subject to other provisions of law, the govern- 
ing body of any city, county or city and county may prescribe 
fees to defray the cost of enforcement of rules and regula- 
tions promulgated by the Department of Housing and Com- 
munity Development. The amount of the fees shall not 
exceed the amount reasonably necessary to administer or 
process permits, certificates, forms or other documents, or 
to defray the costs of enforcement For additional informa- 
tion, see the State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code, 
Division 13, Part 1.5, Section 17951 and California Code of 
Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, 
Article 3, commencing with Section 6. 

108.4.3 Plan review and time limitations. Subject to other 
provisions of law, provisions related to plan checking, pro- 
hibition of excessive delays and contracting with or employ- 
ment of private parties to perform plan checking are set 
forth in the State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code Sec- 
tion 17960.1, and for employee housing, in Health and 
Safety Code Section 17021. 

108.4.3.1 Retention of plans. The building department 
of every city, county or city and county shall maintain an 
official copy, microfilm, electronic or other type of photo- 
graphic copy of the plans of every building, during the 
life of the building, for which the department issued a 
building permit 

Exceptions: 

1. Single or multiple dwellings not more than two 
stories and basement in height. 

2. Garages and other structures appurtenant to 
buildings listed in Exception 1. 

3. Farm or ranch buildings appurtenant to build- 
ings listed in Exception 1. 

4. Any one-story building where the span between 
bearing walls does not exceed 25 feet (7620 
mm), except a steel frame or concrete building. 

All plans for common interest developments as defined 
in Section 1351 of the California Civil Code shall be 



retained. For additional information regarding plan 
retention and reproduction of plans by an enforcing 
agency, see Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 and 
1985L 

108.4.4 Inspections. Construction or work for which a per- 
mit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building 
official and such construction or work shall remain accessi- 
. ble and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. 
Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed 
to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code 
or other regulations of the Department of Housing and 
Community Development. Required inspections are listed 
in Appendix Chapter 1, Sections 109.3.1 through 109.3.6, 
109.3.8, 109.3.9 and 109.3.10. 



SECTION 108.5 
RIGHT-OF-ENTRY FOR ENFORCEMENT 

108.5.1 General. Subject to other provisions of law, officers 
and agents of the enforcing agency may enter and inspect 
public and private properties to secure compliance with the 
rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of 
Housing and Community Development. For limitations and 
additional information regarding enforcement, see the fol- 
lowing: 

1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as 
referenced in Section 108.3.2.1 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code Sections 17970 through 
17972 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, 
Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1. 

2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act 
as referenced in Section 108.3.2.2 of this code, refer to 
the Health and Safety- Code, commencing with Sec- 
tion 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 
25, Division 1, Chapter 2. 

3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy 
Parks Act as referenced in Section 108.3.2.3 of this 
code, refer to Health and Safety Code, commencing 
with Section 18860 and California Code of Regula- 
tions, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2. 

4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act 
as referenced in Section 108.3.2.4 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code Section 17052 and California 
Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, 
Subchapter 3. 

5. For applications subject to the Factory -Built Housing 
Law as referenced in Section 108.3.2.5 of this code, 
refer to Health and Safety Code Sections 19960 
through 19997 and California Code of Regulations, 
Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1. 



SECTION 108.6 

LOCAL MODIFICATION BY ORDINANCE OR 

REGULATION 

108.6.1 General. Subject to other provisions of law, a city, 
county or city and county may make changes to the 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



provisions adopted by the Department of Housing and 
Community Development. If any city, county or city and 
county does not amend, add or repeal by local ordinances 
or regulations the provisions published in this code or other 
regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and 
Community Development, those provisions shall be appli- 
cable and shall become effective 180 days after publication 
by the California Building Standards Commission. Amend- 
ments, additions and deletions to this code adopted by a city, 
county or city and county pursuant to California Health and 
Safety Code Sections 17958.7 and 18941.5, together with 
all applicable portions of this code, shall also become effec- 
tive 180 days after publication of the California Building 
Standards Code by the California Building Standards Com- 
mission. 

108.6.2 Findings, filings and rejections of local modifica- 
tions. Prior to making any modifications or establishing 
more restrictive building standards, the governing body 
shall make express findings and filings, as required by Cali- 
fornia Health and Safety Code Section 17958.7, showing 
that such modifications are reasonably necessary due to 
local climatic, geological or topographical conditions. No 
modification shall become effective or operative unless the 
following requirements are met: 

1. The express findings shall be made available as a 
public record. 

2. A copy of the modification and express finding, each 
document marked to cross-reference the other, shall 
be filed with the California Building Standards Com- 
mission for cities, counties or cites and counties, and 
with the Department of Housing and Community De- 
velopment for fire protection districts. 

3. The California Building Standards Commission has 
not rejected the modification or change. 

Nothing in this section shall limit the authority of fire pro- 
tection districts pursuant to California Health and Safety 
Code Section 13869.7(a). 



SECTION 108.7 

ALTERNATE MATERIALS, DESIGNS, TESTS AND 

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION 

108.7.1 General. The provisions of this code, as adopted by 
the Department of Housing and Community Development 
are not intended to prevent the use of any alternate material, 
appliance, installation, device, arrangement, method, 
design or method of construction not specifically prescribed 
by this code. Consideration and approval of alternates shall 
comply with Section 108. 7.2 for local building departments 
and Section 108.7.3 for the Department of Housing and 
Community Development. 

108.7.2 Local building departments. The building depart- 
ment of any city, county or city and county may approve 
alternates for use in the erection, reconstruction, move- 
ment, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal 



or demolition of an apartment house, hotel, motel, dwelling 
or an accessory structure, except for the following: 

1. Structures located in mobilehome parks as defined in 
California Health and Safety Code Section 18214. 

2. Structures located in special occupancy parks as de- 
fined in California Health and Safety Code Section 
18862.43. 

3. Factory-built housing as defined in California Health 
and Safety Code Section 19971. 

108. 7.2.1 Approval of alternates. The consideration and 
approval of alternates by a local building department 
shall comply with the following procedures and limita- 
tions: 

1. The approval shall be granted on a case-by-case 
basis. 

2. Evidence shall be submitted to substantiate claims 
that the proposed alternate, in performance, safety 
and protection of life and health, conforms to, or is 
at least equivalent to, the standards contained in 
this code and other rules and regulations promul- 
gated by the Department of Housing and Commu- 
nity Development. 

3. The building department may require tests per- 
formed by an approved testing agency at the ex- 
pense of the owner or owner's agent as proof of 
compliance. 

4. If the proposed alternate is related to accessibility 
in covered multifamily dwellings or in facilities 
serving covered multifamily dwellings as defined 
in Chapter 11 A, the proposed alternate must also 
meet the threshold set for "Equivalent Facilita- 
tion" as defined in Chapter 11 A. 

For additional information regarding approval of 
alternates by a building department pursuant to the State 
Housing Law, see California Health and Safety Code 
Section 17951(e) and California Code of Regulations, 
Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1. 

108. 7.3 Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment. The Department of Housing and Community Devel- 
opment may approve alternates for use in the erection, 
reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alter- 
ation, repair, removal or demolition of an apartment house, 
hotel, motel, dwelling or an accessory thereto. The consid- 
eration and approval of alternates shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The department may require tests at the expense of the 
owner or owner's agent to substantiate compliance 
with the California Building Standards Code. 

2. The approved alternate shall, for its intended pur- 
pose, be at least equivalent in performance and safety 
to the materials, designs, tests or methods of con- 
struction prescribed by this code. 



10 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



SECTION 108.8 
APPEALS BOARD 

108.8.1 General. Every city, county or city and county shall 
establish a local appeals board and a housing appeals 
board. The local appeals board and housing appeals board 
shall each be comprised of at least five voting members that 
shall serve at the pleasure of the city, county or city and 
county. Appointments shall not be employees of the jurisdic- 
tion and shall consist of members who are qualified and 
specifically knowledgeable in the California Building Stan- 
dards Codes and applicable local ordinances. 

108.8.2 Definitions. The following terms shall for the pur- 
poses of this section have the meaning shown. 

HOUSING APPEALS BOARD. The board or agency of a 
city, county or city and county which is authorized by the 
governing body of the city, county or city and county to hear 
appeals regarding the requirements of the city, county or 
city and county relating to the use, maintenance and change 
of occupancy of buildings and structures, including require- 
ments governing alteration, additions, repair, demolition 
and moving. In any area in which there is no such board or 
agency, "Housing appeals board" means the local appeals 
board having jurisdiction over the area. 

LOCAL APPEALS BOARD. The board or agency of a city, 
county or city and county which is authorized by the govern- 
ing body of the city, county or city and county to hear 
appeals regarding the building requirements of the city, 
county or city and county. In any area in which there is no 
such board or agency, "Local appeals board" means the 
governing body of the city, county or city and county having 
jurisdiction over the area. 

108.8.3 Appeals. Except as otherwise provided in law, any 
person, firm or corporation adversely affected by a deci- 
sion, order or determination by a city, county or city and 
county relating to the application of building standards 
published in the California Building Standards Code, or 
any other applicable rule or regulation adopted by the 
Department of Housing and Community Development, or 
any lawfully enacted ordinance by a city, county or city and 
county, may appeal the issue for resolution to the local 
appeals board or housing appeals board as appropriate. 

The local appeals board shall hear appeals relating to 
new building construction and the housing appeals board 
shall hear appeals relating to existing buildings. 



SECTION 108.9 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS OR STRUCTURES 

108.9.1 Authority to enforce. Subject to other provisions of 
law, the administration, enforcement, actions, proceedings, 
abatement, violations and penalties for unsafe buildings 
and structures are contained in the following statutes and 
regulations: 

1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as 
referenced in Section 108.3.2.1 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code Sections 17910 through 
1 7995.5 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, 
Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1. 



2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act 
as referenced in Section 108.3.2.2 of this code, refer to 
the Health and Safety Code, commencing with Sec- 
tion 18200, and California Code of Regulations, Title 
25, Division 1, Chapter 2. 

3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy 
Parks Act as referenced in Section 108.3.2.3 of this 
code, refer to the Health and Safety Code, commenc- 
ing with Section 18860, and California Code of Regu- 
lations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2. 

4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act 
as referenced in Section 108.3.2.4 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 
17062.5 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, 
Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3. 

5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing 
Law as referenced in Section 108.3.2.5 of this code, 
refer to Health and Safety Code Sections 19960 
through 19997 and California Code of Regulations, 
Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1. 

108.9.2 Actions and proceedings. Subject to other provi- 
sions of law, punishments, penalties and fines for violations 
of building standards are contained in the following statutes 
and regulations: 

1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as 
referenced in Section 108.3.2.1 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code Sections 17980 through 
1 7995.5 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, 
Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1. 

2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act 
as referenced in Section 108.3.2.2 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code Sections 18200 through 
18700 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25 
Division 1, Chapter 2. 

3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy 
Parks Act as referenced in Section 108.3.2.3 of this 
code, refer to Health and Safety Code Sections 18866 
through 18869 and California Code of Regulations, 
Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2. 

4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act 
as referenced in Section 108.3.2.4 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code Sections 17060 through 
1 7062. 5 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, 
Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3. 

5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing 
Law as referenced in Section 108.3.2.5 of this code, 
refer to Health and Safety Code Sections 19995 
through 19997 and California Code of Regulations, 
Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1. 



SECTION 108.10 
OTHER BUILDING REGULATIONS 

108,10.1 Existing structures. Subject to the requirements of 
California Health and Safety Code Sections 17912, 
17920.3, 17922(c), 17922.3, 17958.8 and 17958.9, the pro- 
visions contained in Chapter 34 relating to existing 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



11 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



structures shall only apply as identified in the Matrix Adop- 
tion Table under the authority of the Department of Housing 
and Community Development as listedinSections 108.2.1.1 
through 108.2.1.3 of this code. 

108.10.2 Moved structures. Subject to the requirements of 
California Health and Safety Code Sections 17922.3 and 
17958.9, the provisions contained in Chapter 34 relating to 
a moved residential structure shall only apply as identified 
in the Matrix Adoption Table under the authority of the 
Department of Housing and Community Development as 
listed in Sections 108.2.1.1 through 108.2.1.3 of this code. 



SECTION 109 
DIVISION OF THE STATE ARCHITECT 

109.1 Division of the State Architect— Access Compliance. 

General. The purpose of this code is to ensure that barrier free 
design is incorporated in all buildings, facilities, site work and 
other improvements to which this code applies in compliance 
with state law to ensure that these improvements are accessible 
to and usable by persons with disabilities. Additions, alter- 
ations and structural repairs in all buildings andfacilities shall 
comply with these provisions for new buildings, except as oth- 
erwise provided and specified herein. 

The provisions of these regulations shall apply to any porta- 
ble buildings leased or owned by a school district, and shall 
also apply to temporary and emergency buildings andfacili- 
ties. Temporary buildings andfacilities are not of permanent 
construction but are extensively used or are essential for public 
use for a period of time. Examples of temporary buildings or 
facilities covered include, but are not limited to: reviewing 
stands, temporary classrooms, bleacher areas, exhibit areas, 
temporary banking facilities, temporary health screening ser- 
vices or temporary safe pedestrian passageways around a con- 
struction site. 

In addition, to incorporate standards at least as restrictive 
as those required by the federal government for barrier-free 
design under (1) Title III (Public Accommodations and Com- 
mercial Facilities), Subpart D (New Construction and Alter- 
ation) and Appendix A (Americans with Disabilities Act 
Standards for Accessible Design) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 36), and 
(2) Title II (Public Entities), Section 35.1 51 (New Construction 
and Alterations) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 35) both from the Ameri- 
cans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and (3) under the Fair Hous- 
ing Amendments Act of 1988. Some of these regulations may be 
more stringent than state law in order to meet the federal 
requirement. 

109.1.1 Application. See Government Code commencing 
with Section 4450. 

Publicly funded buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs 
and related facilities shall be accessible to and usable by 
persons with disabilities as follows: 

109.1.1.1 All buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs and 
related facilities constructed in the state by the use of 
state, county or municipal funds, or the funds of any 
political subdivision of the state. 



109.1.1.2 All buildings, structures andfacilities that are 
leased, rented, contracted, sublet or hired by any munici- 
pal, county or state division of government, or by a spe- 
cial district. 

109.1.1.3 All publicly funded buildings used for congre- 
gate residences or for one- or two-family dwelling unit 
purposes shall conform to the provisions applicable to 
living accommodations. 

109.1.1.4 All existing publicly funded buildings and 
facilities when alterations, structural repairs or addi- 
tions are made to such buildings or facilities. For 
detailed requirements on existing buildings, see Chapter 
IIB, Division IV. 

109.1.1.5 With respect to buildings, structures, side- 
walks, curbs and related facilities not requiring a build- 
ing permit, building standards published in the 
California Building Standards Code relating to access 
for persons with disabilities and other regulations 
adopted pursuant to Government Code Section 4450, 
and in effect at the time construction is commenced, shall 
be applicable. 

109.1.2 Application. See Health and Safety Code com- 
mencing with Section 19952. 

All privately funded public accommodations, as defined 
and commercial facilities, as defined, shall be accessible to 
persons with disabilities as follows: 

Exception: Certain types of privately funded multistory 
buildings do not require installation of an elevator to 
provide access above and below the first floor. See Chap- 
ter IIB. 

109.1.2.1 Any building, structure facility, complex or 
improved area, or portions thereof, which are used by the 
general public. 

109.1.2.2 Any sanitary facilities which are made avail- 
able for the public, clients or employees in such accom- 
modations or facilities. 

109.1.2.3 Any curb or sidewalk intended for public use 
that is constructed in this state with private funds. 

109.1.2.4 All existing privately funded public accommo- 
dations when alterations, structural repairs or additions 
are made to such public accommodations as set forth 
under Chapter IIB. 

109.1.3 Application — Public housing and private housing 
available for public use. See Government Code Sections 
4450 and 12955.1(d). 

109.1.4 Enforcing agency. 

109. 1.4. 1 The director of the Department of General Ser- 
vices where state funds are utilized for any project or 
where funds of counties, municipalities or other political 
subdivisions are utilized for the construction of elemen- 
tary, secondary or community college projects. 

109.1.4.2 The governing bodies where funds of counties, 
municipalities or other political subdivisions are utilized 
except as otherwise provided above. 



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109.1.4.3 The building department of every city, county 
or city and county within the territorial area of its city, 
county or city and county, where private funds are uti- 
lized. "Building department" means the department, 
bureau or officer chargedwith the enforcement of laws or 
ordinances regulating the erection or construction, or 
both the erection and construction, of buildings. 

109.1.5 Special conditions for persons with disabilities 
requiring appeals action ratification. Whenever reference 
is made in these regulations to this section, the findings and 
determinations required to be rendered by the local enforc- 
ing agency shall be subject to ratification through an 
appeals process. 

109.1.6 Authority cited — Government Code Section 4450. 

109.1.7 Reference cited — Government Code Sections 4450 
through 4461 and 12955.1(d) and Health and Safety Code 
Sections 18949.1, 19952 through 19959. 

109.2 Division of the State Architect — Structural Safety. 

109.2.1 Application — The Division of the State Architect — 
Structural Safety (DSA-SS) is authorized by law to promul- 
gate building standards and administrative regulations for 
application to public elementary and secondary schools, 
community colleges and state-owned or state-leased essen- 
tial services buildings. 

Enforcing agency — The Division of the State Architect- 
Structural Safety (DSA-SS) has been delegated the respon- 
sibility and authority by the Department of General Ser- 
vices to review and approve the design and observe the 
construction of public elementary and secondary schools, 
community colleges and state-owned or state-leased essen- 
tial services buildings. 

Authority cited — Education Code Sections 17310 and 
81142 and Health and Safety Code Section 16022. 

Reference — Education Code Sections 17280 through 
17317, and 81130 through 81147 and Health and Safety 
Code Sections 16000 through 16023. 

109.2.2 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 

1.1 Sections 4-301 through 4-355, Group 1, 
Chapter 4, for public elementary and second- 
ary schools and community colleges. 

1.2 Sections 4-201 through 4-249, Chapter 4, for 
state-owned or state-leased essential services 
buildings. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations [ap- 
plies to public elementary and secondary' schools, 
community colleges and state-owned or state-leased 
essential services building(s)]: 

2.1 Sections 101 and 109.2 of Chapter 1. 

2.2 Sections 102.1, 102.2, 102.3, 102.4, 102.5, 
104.9, 104.10 and 104.11 of Appendix Chap- 
ter 1. 

109.2.3 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 12, 
California Code of Regulations, for school buildings, com- 



munity colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential 
service buildings. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by the Division of the State Architect — Structural 
Safety, shall apply to the applications listed in Section 
109.2.1. 

The Division of the State Architect— Structural Safety 
adopts the following building standards in Title 24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 
20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and 
Appendix J. 

109.2.4 Amendments. Division of the State Archi- 
tect — Structural Safety amendments in this code appear 
preceded with the acronym [DSA-SS]. 

Exceptions: 

1. Chapters 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 21A, and 22A— 
Amendments appearing in these chapters without 
an acronym have been co-adopted by DSA-SS and 
OSHPD. 

2. Chapter 34, Sections 3115-3421— DSA-SS adopts 
these sections without the use of the DSA-SS acro- 
nym. 

109.2.5 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is 
made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 
21 and 22, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 17 A, 
18A, 19A, 21A and 22A shall apply instead. 



SECTION 110 

OFFICE OF STATEWIDE HEALTH PLANNING AND 

DEVELOPMENT 

110.1 OSHPD 1. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — General acute care hospitals and acute psychi- 
atric hospitals, excluding distinct part units or distinct part 
freestanding buildings providing skilled nursing or intermedi- 
ate care services. For structural regulations: Skilled nursing 
facilities and/or intermediate care facilities except those 
skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care facilities of sin- 
gle-story. Type V, wood or light steel-frame construction. 

Enforcing agency — Office of Statewide Health Planning and 
Development (OSHPD). The office shall enforce the Division 
of the State Architect— Access Compliance regulations and the 
regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for the above 
stated facility types. 

110.1.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapters 6 and 7. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 101 and 110 of Chapter 1 and Appendix Chapter 
1. 

110.1.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5,9,10 and 12. 



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The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 110.1. 

OSHPD 1 adopts the following building standards in Title 
24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17A, ISA, 19A, 

20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34A, 35 and 
Appendix J. 

110.1.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 110.1, amendments appear in this code pre- 
ceded with the acronym [OSHPD 1], unless the entire chap- 
ter is applicable. When the entire chapter is adopted without 
amendments, all references to International Codes shall be 
replaced by equivalent California Codes. 

110.1.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is 
made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 

21, 22 and 34, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 17 A, 
ISA, 19A, 21A, 22A and 34A shall apply instead. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129850. 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 19958, 
127010, 127015, 129680, 1275 and 129675 through 
130070. 

110.2 OSHPD 2. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care 
facilities, including distinct part skilled nursing and intermedi- 
ate care services on a general acute care or acute psychiatric 
hospital license, provided either are in a separate unit or a free- 
standing building. For structural regulations: Single-story, 
Type V skilled nursing facility and/or intermediate care facili- 
ties utilizing wood or light steel-frame construction. 

Enforcing agency — Office of Statewide Health Planning and 
Development (OSHPD). The office shall also enforce the Divi- 
sion of the State Architect—Access Compliance regulations 
and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for 
the above-stated facility type. 

110.2.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapter 7. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 101 and 110 of Chapter 1 and Appendix Chapter 
1. 

110.2.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 12. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 110.2. 

OSHPD 2 adopts the following building standards in 
Title 24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 

22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J. 



110.2.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 110.2, amendments appear in this code pre- 
ceded with the acronym [OSHPD 2]. When the entire chap- 
ter is adopted without amendments, all references to 
International Codes shall be replaced by equivalent Cali- 
fornia Codes. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129850. 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129680. 

110.3 OSHPD 3. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Licensed clinics and any freestanding building 
under a hospital license where outpatient clinical services are 
provided. 

Enforcing agency — Local building department. 

110.3.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapter 7. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 101 and 110 of Chapter 1 and Appendix Chapter 
1. 

110.3.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title24, Parts2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10andl2. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 110.3. 

OSHPD 3 adopts the following building standards in 
Title 24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J . 

110.3.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 110.3, amendments appear in this code 
without the acronym [OSHPD 3]. Adoptions are shown in 
the adoption matrix. When the entire chapter is adopted 
without amendments, all references to International Codes 
shall be replaced by equivalent California Codes. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015 and 1226. 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 129885 and 1226, Government Code Section 
54350 and State Constitution Article 11, Section 7. 

110.4 OSHPD 4. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Correctional treatment centers. 

Enforcing agency — Office of Statewide Health Planning and 
Development (OSHPD). The office shall also enforce the Divi- 
sion of the State Architect— Access Compliance regulations 
and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for 
the above-stated facility types. 



14 



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GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



110.4.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapter 7. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 101 and 110 of Chapter 1 and Appendix Chapter 
1. 

110.4.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 12. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 110.4. 

OSHPD 4 adopts the following building standards in Title 
24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17 A, ISA, 19A, 
20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34A, 35 and 
Appendix J. 

110.4.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 110.4, amendments appear in this code pre- 
ceded with the acronym [OSHPD 4], unless the entire chap- 
ter is applicable. When the entire chapter is adopted without 
amendments, all references to International Codes shall be 
replaced by equivalent California Codes. 

110.4.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is 
made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 
21, 22 and 34, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 17 A, 
ISA, 19 A, 21 A, 22 A and 34A shall apply instead. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015 and 129790. 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129675 through 130070. 



SECTION 111 
OFFICE OF THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL 

111.1 SFM— Office of the State Fire Marshal. 

Any building or structure used or intended for use as an asy- 
lum, jail, mental hospital, hospital, sanitarium, home for the 
aged, children's nursery, children's home, school or any simi- 
lar occupancy of any capacity. 

Ariy theater, dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, assembly 
hall, meeting hall, nightclub, fair building or similar place of 
assemblage where 50 or more persons may gather together in a 
building, room or structure for the purpose of amusement, 
entertainment, instruction, deliberation, worship, drinking or 
dining, awaiting transportation, or education. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Small family day care homes. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 
1597.45, 1597.54, 13143 and 17921. 

Reference - Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Large family day care homes. 



Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 
1597.46, 1597.54 and 17921. 

Reference - Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Residential facilities and residential facilities for the elderly. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13133. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Any state institution or other state-owned or state-occupied 
building. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13108. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
High-rise structures. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13211. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
Motion picture production studios. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.1. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
Organized camps. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 18897.3. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Residential. 

All hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses and 
dwellings, including congregate residences and buildings and 
structures accessory thereto. 

Multiple-story structures existing on January 1, 1975, let for 
human habitation, including and limited to, hotels, motels and 
apartment houses, less than 7 5 feet (22 860 mm) above the low- 
est floor level having building access, wherein rooms used for 
sleeping are let above the ground floor. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 13143.2 
and 17921. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Residential care facilities. 

Certified family care homes, out-of-home placement facili- 
ties, halfway houses, drug and/or alcohol rehabilitation facili- 
ties and any building or structure used or intended for use as a 
home or institution for the housing of any person of any age 
when such person is referred to or placed within such home or 
institution for protective social care and supervision services 
by any governmental agency. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 6. 

Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures used in connection 
with any occupancy. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13116. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Enforcing agency — Pursuant to Section 13146, Health 
and Safety Code. 

Fire alarm devices, equipment and systems in connection 
with any occupancy. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13114. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



15 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



Hazardous materials. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.9. 
Flammable and combustible liquids. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6. 

Public School Automatic Fire Detection, Alarm and Sprin- 
kler Systems. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143 
and California Education Code Article 7.5, Sections 
17074.50, 17074.52 and 17074.54. 

Reference — Government Code Section 11152.5, Health 
and Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education 
Code Chapter 12.5, LeroyF. Greene School Facilities Act of 
1998, Article 1. 

Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, 
13108.5(a) and 18949.2(b) and (c) and Government Code 
Section 51189. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, Gov- 
ernment Code Sections 51176, 51177, 51178 and 51179 
and Public Resources Code Sections 4201 through 4204. 

111.2 Duties and powers of the enforcing agency. 

111.2.1 Enforcement. 

111.2.1.1 The responsibility for enforcement of building 
standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and pub- 
lished in the California Building Standards Code relat- 
ing to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the 
Office of the State Fire Marshal shall be as follows: 

1. The city, county or city and county with jurisdic- 
tion in the area affected by the standard or regula- 
tion shall delegate the enforcement of the building 
standards relating to fire and panic safety and 
other regulations of the State Fire Marshal as they 
relate to Group R, Division 3 dwellings, as de- 
scribed in Section 310.1 of Part 2 of the California 
Building Standards Code, to either of the follow- 
ing: 

1.1. The chief of the fire authority of the city, 
county or city and county, or an authorized 
representative. 

1.2. The chief building official of the city, 
county or city and county, or an authorized 
representative. 

2. The chief of any city or county fire department or of 
any fire protection district, and authorized repre- 
sentatives, shall enforce within the jurisdiction the 
building standards and other regulations of the 
State Fire Marshal, except those described in Item 
1 or 4. 

3. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to en- 
force the building standards and other regulations 
of the State Fire Marshal in areas outside of corpo- 
rate cities and districts providing fire protection 
services. 



4. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to en- 
force the building standards and other regulations 
of the State Fire Marshal in corporate cities and 
districts providing fire protection services on re- 
quest of the chief fire official or the governing 
body. 

5. Any fee charged pursuant to the enforcement au- 
thority of this section shall not exceed the esti- 
mated reasonable cost of providing the service for 
which the fee is charged pursuant to Section 66014 
of the Government Code. 

111.2.1.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13108, upon the written request of the chief fire official of 
any city, county or fire protection district, the State Fire 
Marshal may authorize such chief fire official and his or 
her authorized representatives, in their geographical 
area of responsibility, to make fire prevention inspections 
of state-owned or state-occupied buildings, other than 
state institutions, for the purpose of enforcing the regula- 
tions relating to fire and panic safety adopted by the State 
Fire Marshal pursuant to this section and building stan- 
dards relating to fire and panic safety published in the 
California Building Standards Code. Authorization from 
the State Fire Marshal shall be limited to those fire 
departments or fire districts which maintain afire pre- 
vention bureau staffed by paid personnel. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108, 
any requirement or order made by any chief fire official 
who is authorized by the State Fire Marshal to make fire 
prevention inspections of state-owned or state-occupied 
buildings, other than state institutions, may be appealed 
to the State Fire Marshal. The State Fire Marshal shall, 
upon receiving an appeal and subject to the provisions of 
Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 18945) of Part 2.5 
of Division 13 of the Health and Safety Code, determine 
if the requirement or order made is reasonably consistent 
with the fire and panic safety regulations adopted by the 
Office of the State Fire Marshal and building standards 
relating to fire and panic safety published in the Califor- 
nia Building Code. 

Any person may request a code interpretation from the 
State Fire Marshal relative to the intent of any regulation 
or provision adopted by the State Fire Marshal. When the 
request relates to a specific project, occupancy or build- 
ing, the State Fire Marshal shall review the issue with the 
appropriate local enforcing agency prior to rendering 
such code interpretation. 

111.2.1.3 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13112, any person who violates any order, rule or regu- 
lation of the State Fire Marshal is guilty of a misde- 
meanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100.00 or 
more than $500. 00, or by imprisonment for not less than 
six months, or by both. A person is guilty of a separate 
offense each day during which he or she commits, contin- 
ues or permits a violation of any provision of, or any 
order, rule or regulation of, the State Fire Marshal as 
contained in this code. 



16 



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Any inspection authority who, in the exercise of his or 
her authority as a deputy State Fire Marshal, causes any 
legal complaints to be filed or any arrest to be made shall 
notify the State Fire Marshal immediately following such 
action. 

111.2.2 Right of entry. 

The fire chief of any city, county or fire protection district, 
or such person's authorized representative, may enter any 
state institution or any other state-owned or state-occupied 
building for the purpose of preparing afire suppression pre- 
planning program or for the purpose of investigating any 
fire in a state-occupied building. 

The State Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried 
assistants, the chief of any city or county fire department or 
fire protection district and his or her authorized representa- 
tives may enter any building or premises not used for dwell- 
ing purposes at any reasonable hour for the purpose of 
enforcing this chapter The owner, lessee, manager or oper- 
ator of any such building or premises shall permit the State 
Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried assistants and 
the chief of any city or county fire department or fire protec- 
tion district and his or her authorized representatives to 
enter and inspect them at the time and for the purpose stated 
in this section. 

111.2.3 More restrictive fire and panic safety building 
standards. 

111.2.3.1 Any fire protection district organized pursuant 
to Health and Safety Code Part 2.7 (commencing with 
Section 13800) of Division 12 may adopt building stan- 
dards relating to fire and panic safety that are more strin- 
gent than those building standards adopted by the State 
Fire Marshal and contained in the California Building 
Standards Code. For these purposes, the district board 
shall be deemed a legislative body and the district shall 
be deemed a local agency. Any changes or modifications 
that are more stringent than the requirements published 
in the California Building Standards Code relating to 
fire and panic safety shall be subject to Section 101.8.1. 

111.2.3.2 Any fire protection district that proposes to 
adopt an ordinance pursuant to this section shall, not 
less than 30 days prior to noticing a proposed ordinance 
for public hearing, provide a copy of that ordinance, 
together with the adoptedfindings made pursuant to Sec- 
tion 111.2.3.1, to the city, county or city and county 
where the ordinance will apply. The city, county or city 
and county may provide the district with written com- 
ments, which shall become part of the fire protection dis- 
trict's public hearing record. 

111.2.3.3 The fire protection district shall transmit the 
adopted ordinance to the city, county or city and county 
where the ordinance will apply. The legislative body of 
the city, county or city and county may ratify, modify or 
deny an adopted ordinance and transmit its determina- 
tion to the district within 15 days of the determination. 
Any modification or denial of an adopted ordinance shall 
include a written statement describing the reasons for 
any modifications or denial. No ordinance adopted by 



the district shall be effective until ratification by the city, 
county or city and county where the ordinance will apply. 
Upon ratification of an adopted ordinance, the city, 
county or city and county shall file a copy of the findings 
of the district, and any findings of the city, county or city 
and county, together with the adopted ordinance 
expressly marked and identified to which each finding 
refers, in accordance with Section 101.8.1:3. 

111.2.4 Request for alternate means of protection. 

Requests for approval to use an alternative material, assem- 
bly or materials, equipment, method of construction, 
method of installation of equipment or means of protection 
shall be made in writing to the enforcing agency by the 
owner or the owner's authorized representative and shall be 
accompanied by afull statement of the conditions. Sufficient 
evidence or proof shall be submitted to substantiate any 
claim that may be made regarding its conformance. The 
enforcing agency may require tests and the submission of a 
test report from an approved testing organization as set 
forth in Title 19, California Code of Regulation, to substan- 
tiate the equivalency of the proposed alternative: means of 
protection. 

When a request for alternate means of protection involves 
hazardous materials, the authority having jurisdiction may 
consider implementation of the findings and recommenda- 
tions identified in a Risk Management Plan (RMP) devel- 
oped in accordance with Title 19, Division 2, Chapter 4.5, 
Article 3. 

Approval of a request for use of an alternative material, 
assembly of materials, equipment, method of construction, 
method of installation of equipment or means of protection 
made pursuant to these provisions shall be limited to the 
particular case covered by request and shall not be con- 
strued as establishing any precedent for any future request 

111.2.5 Appeals. When a request for an alternate means of 
protection has been denied by the enforcing agency, the 
applicant may file a written appeal to the State Fire Marshal 
for consideration of the applicant's proposal. In consider- 
ing such appeal, the State Fire Marshal may seek the advice 
of the State Board of Fire Services. The State Fire Marshal 
shall, after considering all of the facts presented, including 
any recommendations of the State Board of Fire Services, 
determine if the proposal is for the purposes intended, at 
least equivalent to that specified in these regulations in 
quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability 
and safety, and shall transmit such findings and any recom- 
mendations to the applicant and to the enforcing agency. 

111.3 Construction documents. 

111.3.1 Public schools. Plans and specifications for the 
construction, alteration or addition to any building owned, 
leased or rented by any public school district shall be sub- 
mitted to the Division of the State Architect, Office of Regu- 
lation Services for review and approval. 

Exception: Upon the annual submission of a written 
request by the chief of any city, county or city and county 
fire department or fire protection district to the Division 
of the State Architect, Office of Regulation Services, 
approvals required by this subsection shall be obtained 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



17 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



from the appropriate chief or his or her authorized repre- 
sentative. In such instances plans and specifications may 
be submitted to the State Fire Marshal for relay to the 
appropriate local authority or may be submitted directly 
to such local authority. 

111.3.2 Movable walls and partitions. Plans or diagrams 
shall be submitted to the enforcing agency for approval 
before the installation of, or rearrangement of, any movable 
wall or partition in any occupancy. Approval shall be 
granted only if there is no increase in the fire hazard. 

111.3.3 New construction high-rise buildings. 

1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be 
prepared covering all work required to comply with 
new construction high-rise buildings. Such plans and 
specifications shall be submitted to the enforcing 
agency having jurisdiction. 

2. All plans and specifications shall be prepared under 
the responsible charge of an architect or a civil or 
structural engineer authorized by law to develop con- 
struction plans and specifications, or by both such ar- 
chitect and engineer. Plans and specifications shall 
be prepared by an engineer duly qualified in that 
branch of engineering necessary to perform such ser- 
vices. Administration of the work of construction 
shall be under the charge of the responsible architect 
or engineer except that where plans and specifica- 
tions involve alterations or repairs, such work of con- 
struction may be administered by an engineer duly 
qualified to perform such services and holding a valid 
certificate under Chapter 7 (commencing with Sec- 
tion 65700) of Division 3 of the Business and Profes- 
sions Code for performance of services in that branch 
of engineering in which said plans, specifications and 
estimates and work of construction are applicable. 

This section shall not be construed as preventing the 
design of fire-extinguishing systems by persons holding a 
C-16 license issued pursuant to Division 3, Chapter 9, Busi- 
ness and Professions Code. In such instances, however, the 
responsibility charge of this section shall prevail. 

111.3.4 Existing high-rise buildings. 

1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be 
prepared covering all work required by Section 3412 
for existing high-rise buildings. Such plans or specifi- 
cations shall be submitted to the enforcing agency 
having jurisdiction. 

2. When new construction is required to conform with 
the provisions of these regulations, complete plans or 
specifications, or both, shall be prepared in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this subsection. As used 
in this section, "new construction " is not intended to 
include repairs, replacements or minor alterations 
which do not disrupt or appreciably add to or affect 
the structural aspects of the building. 

111.3.5 Retention of plans. Refer to Building Standards 
Law, Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 and 19851 for 
permanent retention of plans. 

111.4 Fees. 



111.4.1 Other fees. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code 
Section 13146.2, a city, county or district which inspects a 
hotel, motel, lodging house or apartment house may charge 
and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the 
structure in an amount, as determined by the city, county or 
district, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection. 

111.4.2 Large family day care. Pursuant to Health and 
Safety Code Section 1597.46, Large Family Day Care 
Homes, the local government shall process any required 
permit as economically as possible, and fees charged for 
review shall not exceed the costs of the review and permit 
process. 

111.4.3 High-rise. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Sec- 
tion 1321 7, High-rise Structure Inspection: Fees and costs, 
a local agency which inspects a high-rise structure pursuant 
to Health and Safety Code Section 13217 may charge and 
collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the 
high-rise structure in an amount, as determined by the local 
agency, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection. 

111.4.4 Fire clearance preinspection. Pursuant to Health 
and Safety Code Section 13235, Fire Clearance 
Preinspection, fee, upon receipt of a request from aprospec- 
tive licensee of a community care facility, as defined in Sec- 
tion 1502, of a residential care facility for the elderly, as 
defined in Section 1569.2, or of a child day care facility, as 
defined in Section 1596.750, the local fire enforcing agency, 
as defined in Section 13244, or State Fire Marshal, which- 
ever has primary jurisdiction, shall coruiuct a preinspection 
of the facility prior to the final fire clearance approval. At 
the time of the preinspection, the primary fire enforcing 
agency shall price consultation and interpretation of the fire 
safety regulations and shall notify the prospective licensee 
of the facility in writing of the specific fire safety regulations 
which shall be enforced in order to obtain fire clearance 
approval. A fee of not more than $50.00 may be charged for 
the preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or 
fewer persons. A fee of not more than $100.00 may be 
charged for a preinspection of a facility with a capacity to 
serve 26 or more persons. 

111.4.5 Care facilities. The primary fire enforcing agency 
shall complete the final fire clearance inspection for a com- 
munity care facility, residential care facility for the elderly, 
or child day care facility within 30 days of receipt of the 
request for the final inspection, or as of the date the prospec- 
tive facility requests the final prelicensure inspection by the 
State Department of Social Services, whichever is later 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13235, a 
preinspection fee of not more than $50.00 may be charged 
for a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or less clients. A fee 
of not more than $100.00 may be charged for a 
preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 26 or 
more clients. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13131.5, a 
reasonable final inspectionfee, not to exceed the actual cost 
of inspection services necessary to complete a final inspec- 
tion may be charged for occupancies classified as residen- 
tial care facilities for the elderly (RCFE). 



18 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 1569.84, 
neither the State Fire Marshal nor any local public entity 
shall charge any fee for enforcing fire inspection regulations 
pursuant to state law or regulation or local ordinance, with 
respect to residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) 
which service six or fewer persons. 

111.4.6 Requests of the Office of the State Fire Marshal. 

Whenever a local authority having jurisdiction requests 
that the State Fire Marshal perform plan review and/or 
inspection services related to a building permit, the applica- 
ble fees for such shall be payable to the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal. 

111.5 Inspections. Workperformed subject to the provisions of 
this code shall comply with the inspection requirements of Title 
24, Part 2, California Building Standards Code, Appendix 
Chapter 1, Sections 109.1, 109.3, 109.3.4, 109.3.5, 109.3.6, 
109.3.8, 109.3.9, 109.3.10 109.5 and 109.6. 

111.5.1 Existing Group I -1 or R occupancies. Licensed 
24-hour care in a Group I-l orR occupancy in existence and 
originally classified under previously adopted state codes 
shall be reinspected under the appropriate previous code, 
provided there is no change in the use or character which 
would place the facility in a different occupancy group. 

111.6 Certificate of Occupancy. A Certificate of Occupancy 
shall be issued as specified in Title 24, Part 2, California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Appendix Chapter 1, Section 110. 

Exception: Group R, Division 3 and Group U occupancies. 

111.7 Temporary structures and uses. See Appendix Chapter 
1, Section 107. 

111.8 Service utilities. See Appendix Chapter 1, Section 111. 

111.9 Stop work order. See Appendix Chapter 1, Sectionll4. 

111.10 Unsafe buildings, structures and equipment. See 

Appendix Chapter 1, Section 115. 



SECTION 113 
Reserved 



SECTION 114 
CALIFORNIA STATE LANDS COMMISSION 

114.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Marine oil terminals. 

Enforcing agency — California State Lands Commission. 

Authority cited — Public Resources Code Section 8755^ 

Reference — Public Resources Code Section 8755. 



SECTION 112 
STATE LIBRARIAN 

112.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Public library construction and renovation 
using funds from the California Library Construction and 
Renovation Bond Act of 1988. 

Enforcing agency — State librarian. 

Authority cited — Education Code Sections 19950 through 
19981. 

Reference — Education Code Sections 19950 through 
19981. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



19 



20 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ctiapter 


X 












X 


























Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


201.3 


CA 




X 












X 


X 


X 


X 


















201.4 


CA 




X 




































Access Aisle 


CA 












X 




























Accessibility 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Accessible 


CA 












X 




























Accessible 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Accessible 
Element 


CA 












X 




























Accessible Means 
of Egress 


IBC 












X 




























Accessible Route 


CA 












X 




























Accessible Route 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Accessible Route 
of Travel 


CA 












X 




























Accessible Space 


CA 












X 




























Accessible Unit 


IBC 






t 


t 


t 






























Adaptability 


CA 












X 




























Adaptable 
Dwelling Unit 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Addition 


CA 












X 




























Administrative 
Authority 


CA 












X 




























Aged Home or 
Institution 


CA 




X 




































Aisle 


CA 












X 




























Aisle, Employee 
Areas 


CA 












X 




























Alteration (or 
Alter) 


CA 












X 




























Alternate Card 
Reader 


CA 












X 




























ANSI 


CA 












X 




























Approved 


CA 












X 




























Approved 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Approved Listing 
Agency 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Approved Testing 
Agency 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Area of Refuge 


IBC 












X 




























Assembly Area 


CA 












X 




























Assistive Device 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Automatic Door 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Bathroom 


CA 






X 




X 


X 





























2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



21 



CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


08HPD 


CSA 


DH8 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


sue 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


88 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 












X 


























Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter / Section 


Codes 


Bedridden Person 


CA 




X 




































Building 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Building 


CA 




X 




































Building Entrance 
on an Accessible 
Route 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Building, Existing 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Building Official 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Care and 
Supervision 


CA 




X 




































Catastrophically 
Injured 


CA 




X 




































OCR 


CA 












X 




























Cell 


CA 




X 




































Cellular Concrete 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Child-Care Center 


CA 




X 




































Child or Children 


CA 




X 




































Chronically III 


CA 




X 




































Circulation Path 


CA 












X 




























Circulation Path 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Clear 


CA 












X 




























Clear Floor Space 


CA 












X 




























Closed-Circuit 
Telephone 


CA 












X 




























Commercial 
Facilities 


CA 












X 




























Common Use 
Areas 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Concrete, Cellular 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Congregate Living 
Health Facility 
(CLHF) 


CA 




X 




































Congregate 
Residence 


CA 




X 




































Covered 

Multifamily 

Dwellings 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Cross Slope 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Curb Cut 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Curb Ramp 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Daycare 


CA 




X 




































Day-Care Home, 
Large Family 


CA 




X 




































Day-Care Home, 
Small Family 


CA 




X 




































Department 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Detached Single- 
Family Dwelling 


CA 






X 


X 


X 































22 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


88 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 












X 


























Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter / Section 


Codes 


Detectable 
Warning 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Detectable 
Warning 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Directional Sign 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Disability 


CA 












X 




























Disabled 


CA 












X 




























Dormitory 


IBC 












X 




























Dormitory 


CA 




X 




































Dwelling Unit 


CA 










X 


X 




























Dwelling Unit or 
Sleeping Unit, 
Multistory 


IBC 






t 


t 


t 






























Dwelling Unit or 
Sleeping Unit, 
Type A 


IBC 






t 


t 


t 






























Dwelling Unit or 
Sleeping Unit, 
TypeB 


IBC 






t 


t 


t 






























Efficiency 
Dwelling Unit 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Electric Vehicle 


CA 




X 




































Element 


CA 












X 




























Elevator, 
Passenger 


CA 












X 




























Enforcement 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Enforcing Agency 


CA 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




























Entrance 


CA 












X 




























Equivalent 
Facilitation 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Existing Building 


IBC 












X 




























Exit 


IBC 












X 




























Facility (or 
Facilities) 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Facility 


IBC 






t 


t 


t 






























Family 


CA 






X 




X 






























Fire-Retardant 
Treated Wood 


CA 




X 




































Free-standing 
Pedestal 


CA 












X 




























Fuli-Tlme Care 


CA 




X 




































Grab Bar 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Grade (Adjacent 
Ground Elevation) 


CA 












X 




























Grade 


CA 






X 


X 
































Grade Plane 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Ground Floor 


CA 












X 




























Guard (or 
Guardrail) 


CA 






X 


X 
































Guard (or 
Guardrail) 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 


X 





























2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



23 



CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


as 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 












X 


























Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


Handrail 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Hazardous 
Substance 


CA 




X 




































Health Care 
Provider 


CA 












X 




























High-Rise Building 


CA 




X 




































Historical Building 


CA 












X 




























Hotel or Motel 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Impact Insulation 
Class (IIC) 


.CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Independent Entity 


CA 












X 




























Infant 


CA 




X 




































Intended to be 
Occupied as a 
Residence 


IBC 






t 


t 


t 






























International 
Symbol of 
Accessibility 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Kicl< Plate 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Level Accessible 
Area 


CA 












X 




























Level Area 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Lift, Special 
Access 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Listed 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Listed 


CA 




X 




































Listing Agency 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Lobby 


CA 




X 


X 


X 


X 






























Lodging House 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Marked Crossing 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Mentally Retarded 
Persons, 
Profoundly or 
Severely 


CA 




X 




































Modernization 
Proiect 


CA 




X 




































Motel 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Motion Picture and 
Television 
Production Studio 
Sound Stages, 
Approved 

Production Facilities 
and Production 
Locations 


CA 




X 




































Multilevel 
Assembly Seating 


IBC 






t 


t 


t 































24 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


sue 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Cliapter 


X 












X 


























Adopt Entire Cliapter as 
amended (amended sections 
iisted beiow) 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt oniy those sections ttiat 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


Multistory Dwelling 
Unit 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Multiple- 
Accommodation 
Toilet Facility 


CA 












X 




























New Public School 
Campus 


CA 




X 




































Newly Constructed 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Nonambulatory 
Persons 


CA 




X 




































Noncombustlble 


CA 




X 




































Normal 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Nosing (or Nose) 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























NFPA 


CA 












X 




























Occupiable Space 


IBC 












X 




























Open Riser 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Operable Part 


CA 












X 




























Organized Camps 


CA 




X 




































Passage Door 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Passenger 
Elevator 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Passive Solar 
Energy Collector 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Path of Travel 


CA 












X 




























Pedestrian 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Pedestrian Grade 
Separation 


CA 












X 




























Pedestrian Ramp 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Pedestrian Way 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Permanent 


CA 












X 




























Permanent 
Portable Building 


CA 




X 




































Permit 


IBC 












X 




























Persons with 
Disabilities 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Platform 


IBC 












X 




























Photoluminescent 


CA 




X 




































Portable Building 


CA 




X 




































Powder Room 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Power-assisted 
Door 


CA 












X 




























Primary Entry 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Primary-Entry Level 








X 


X 


X 































2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



25 



CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CBA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SB 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Cliapter 


X 












X 


























Adopt Entire Cliapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 








































Chapter /Section 


Codes 


Professional 
Office of a Health 
Care Provider 


CA 












X 




























Protective Social 
Care 


CA 




X 




































Public 
Accommodation 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Public Entrance 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Publicly Funded 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Public-Use Areas 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Public Way 


IBC 












X 




























Qualified Historical 
Building (or 
Property) 


CA 












X 




























Rail Transit 
Boarding Platform 


CA 












X 




























Ramp 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Reasonable 
Portion 


CA 












X 




























Recommend 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Remodeling 


CA 












X 




























Repair 


IBC 












X 




























Residential Care 
Facility for the 
Chronically 111 
(RCF/CI) 


CA 




X 




































Residential Care 
Facility for the 
Elderly (RCFE) 


CA 




X 




































Residential Facility 
(RF) 


CA 




X 




































Restraint 


CA 




X 




































Restricted 
Entrance 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Riser 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Running Slope 


CA 












X 




























Sanitary Facility 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Self-Luminous 


CA 




X 




































Self Service 
Storage Facility 


IBC 






t 


t 


t 






























Service Entrance 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Shall 


CA 












X 




























Shopping Center 
or Shopping Mall 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Should 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Sidewalk 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 





























26 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


08HPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


88 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 












X 


























Adopt Entire Ctiapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


Signage 


CA 












X 




























Single- 
Accommodation 
Sanitary Facility 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Site 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Site Development 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Sleeping 
Accommodations 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Slope 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Sound 

Transmission 
Class (STC) 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Space 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Special Access Lift 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Specified Public 
Transportation 


CA 












X 




























Stage 


IBC 












X 




























Stair 


IBC 












X 




























Stairway 


IBC 












X 




























State- 
Owned/Leased 
Building 


CA 




X 


'^ 


































Story 


CA 












X 




























Story, First 


CA 












X 




























Structural Frame 


■ CA 












X 




























Structure 


IBC 












X 




























Tactile 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Technically 
Infeasible 


CA 












X 




























Temporary 


CA 












X 




























Terminally III 


CA 




X 




































Testing Agency 


CA 






X 


X 


X 






























Text 
Telephone 


CA 












X 




























Toeboard 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Townhouse 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 


X 





























2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



27 



CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 












X 


























Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


Transient Lodging 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Transit Boarding 
Platform 


CA 












X 




























Tread 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Tread Depth 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Tread Run 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Type of Motor Fuel 


CA 












X 




























Unreasonable 
Hardship 


CA 












X 




























Vehicular or 
Pedestrian Arrival 
Points 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Vehicular Way 


CA 












X 




























Waiting Room 


CA 




X 




































Walk 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Wheelchair 


CA 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Wheelchair 
Occupant (or 
Wheelchair User) 


CA 












X 




























Wheelchair Space 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 






























Winery Caves 


CA 




X 




































Work Station 


CA 












X 







































































The state agency does not adopt sections identified with the following symbol: t 



28 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the California Fire Code, 
California Mechanical Code or California Plumbing Code, 
such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those 
codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 

For applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, where terms are not defined through 
the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have 
ordinarily acceptedmeanings such as the context implies. Web- 
ster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage, Unabridged, shall be considered as providing 
ordinarily accepted meanings. 



SECTION 202 
DEFINITIONS 

AAC MASONRY. See Section 2102. 1 . 

ACCESS AISLE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, SectionllOlB. 

ACCESSIBILITY. [DSA-AC & HCD I-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.1-A, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, 
Section 1107A.1-A, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 1 IB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC]. See Chap- 
ter llA, Section 1107A.1-A. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE OF TRAVEL. [DSA-AC] See Chap- 
ter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE SPACE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 1 IB, Section 
1102B. 

ACCREDITATION BODY. See Section 2302. 1 . 



ADAPTABILITY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

ADAPTABLE DWELLING UNIT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 

See Chapter llA, Section 1107A.1-A. 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height 
of a building or structure. 

[DSA-AC] "Addition" is an extension, expansion or 
increase in floor area or height of a building, facility or struc- 
ture. 

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, stabilized. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, unstabilized. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] AEROSOL. See Section 307.2. 

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 307.2. 

AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION. See Section 310. 

AGRICULTURAL, BUILDING. A structure designed and 
constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, live- 
stock or other horticultural products . This structure shall not be 
a place of human habitation or a place of employment where 
agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor 
shall it be a place used by the public. 

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2. 

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2. 

Double skin. See Section 3 102.2. 

Single sliin. See Section 3102.2. 

AISLE. See Section 1002.1. 

[DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

AISLE ACCESS WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

AISLE, EMPLOYEE AREAS. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, 
Section 1102B. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLL4NCE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



29 



DEFINITIONS 



ALTERATION or ALTER. Any construction or renovation to 
an existing structure other than repair or addition. 

[DSA-AC] "Alteration or alter" is any change, addition or 
modification in construction or occupancy or structural repair 
or change in primary function to an existing structure made by, 
on behalf of or for the use of a public accommodation or com- 
mercial facility that affects or could affect the usability of the 
building or facility or part thereof Alterations include, but are 
not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, recon- 
struction, historic restoration, changes or rearrangement of 
the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrange- 
ment in the plan configuration of walls and full-height parti- 
tions. 

ALTERNATE CARD READER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
lie. Section IIOIC.I. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002.1. 

ANCHOR. See Section 2102.1. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ANNULAR SPACE. See Section 702.1. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1. 

ANSI [DSA-AC] means the American National Standards 
Institute. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction. 

[DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] "Approved" means meeting 
the approval of the enforcing agency, except as otherwise 
provided by law, when used in connection with any system, 
material, type of construction, fixture or appliance as the 
result ofinvestigations and tests conducted by the agency, or 
by reason of accepted principles or tests by national author- 
ities or technical, health or scientific organizations or agen- 
cies. 

Notes: [HCD 1 & HCD 2] 

1. See Health and Safety Code Section 17920 for 
"Approved" as applied to residential construction 
and buildings or structures accessory thereto, as 
referenced in Section 108.2.1.1. 

2. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.1 for 
"Approved" as applied to the use of hotplates in 
residential construction referenced in Section 
108.2.1.1. 

3. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.3 for 
"Approved" as applied to low-flush water closets 
in residential construction, as referenced in Sec- 
tion 108.2.1.1. 

4. See Health and Safety Code Section 19966 for 
"Approved" as applied to factory-built housing as 
referenced in Section 108.3.2.5. 

5. See Health and Safety Code Section 18201 for 
"Approved" as applied to mobilehome parks as 
referenced in Section 108.2. 



6. See Health and Safety Code Section 18862.1 for 
"Approved" as applied to special occupancy 
parks as referenced in Section 108.2. 

APPROVED AGENCY. See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED LISTING AGENCY [HCD 1 & HCD 2] is any 

agency approved by the enforcing agency, unless otherwise 
provided by statute, which is in the business of listing and label- 
ing and which makes available at least an annual published 
report of such listings in which specific information is included 
that the product has been tested to recognized standards and 
found to comply. 

APPROVED TESTING AGENCY [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 

2] is any agency, which is determined by the enforcing agency, 
except as otherwise provided by statute, to have adequate per- 
sonnel and expertise to carry out the testing of systems, materi- 
als, types of construction, fixtures or appliances. 

APPROVED FABRICATOR. See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or cor- 
poration, approved by the building official, who is competent 
and experienced in the application of engineering principles to 
materials, methods or systems analyses. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. See Section2102.1. 

AREA. See Section 2102.1. 

Bedded. See Section 2102.1. 

Gross cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

Net cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

AREA, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 

AREAWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at 
the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard. 

ASSEMBLY AREA. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 31 0.2, 
"Residential care/Assisted living facilities." 

ASSISTIVE DEVICE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1107A.1-A. 

ATRIUM. See Section 404.1.1. 

ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story 
and the roof rafters. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 

See Section 902.1. 

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC DOOR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1107.A.1-A, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 



30 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 
902.1. 

AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by 
the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of 
a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a covering is 
attached. 

BACKING. See Section 1402.1. 

BALCONY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1602.1. 

BALED COTTON. See Section 307.2. 

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See Section 
307.2. 

[F] BARRICADE. See Section 307.2. 

Artificial barricade. See Section 307.2. 

Natural barricade. See Section 307.2. 

BASE FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 

BASEMENT. See Sections 502.1 and 1612.2. 

BATHROOM. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.2-B. 

BED JOINT. See Section 2102. 1. 

BEDRIDDEN PERSON. See Section 310. 

BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1. 

BOARDING HOUSE. See Section 310.2. 

[F] BOILING POINT. See Section 307.2. 

BOND BEAM. See Section 2102.1. 

BOND REINFORCING. See Section 2102.1. 

BRACED WALL LINE. See Section 2302.1. 

BRACED WALL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

BRICK. See Section 2102.1. 

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). See Section 2102.1. 

Clay or shale. See Section 2102.1. 

Concrete. See Section 2102.1. 

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or 
sheltering any use or occupancy. 

Exception: [HCD 1, HCD 2 & HCD 1-AC] For applica- 
tions listed in Section 108.2 regulated by the Department of 
Housing and Community Development, "Building" shall 
not include the following: 

1. Any mobilehome as defined in Health and Safety 
Code Section 18008. 

2. Any manufactured home as defined in Health and 
Safety Code Section 18007. 

3. Any commercial modular as defined in Health and 
Safety Code Section 18001.8 or any special purpose 
commercial modular as defined in Section 18012.5. 

4. Any recreational vehicle as defined in Health and 
Safety Code Section 18010. 



5. Any multi-unit manufactured housing as defined in 
Health and Safety Code Section 18008.7. 

For additional information, see Health and Safety 
Code Section 18908. 

Note: [SFM] "Building" shall have the same meaning as 
defined in Health and Safety Code Sections 17920 and 
18908 for the applications specified in Section 111. 

BUILDING ENTRANCE ON AN ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. 
[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.2-B. 

BUILDING, EXISTING [DSA-AC & HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a 

building erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for 
which a legal building permit has been issued. 

BUILDING LENfE. The line established by law, beyond which 
a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by 
law. 

BUILDING OFFICL^L. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
this code, or a duly authorized representative. 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502. 1 . 

BUTTRESS. See Section 2102.1. 

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUC- 
TURE. See Section 3102.2. 

CANOPY. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is supported by the build- 
ing to which it is attached and at the outer end by not less than 
one stanchion. A canopy is comprised of a rigid structure over 
which a covering is attached. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 

See Section 902.1. 

CARE AND SUPERVISION. See Section 310. 

CAST STONE. See Section 2102.1. 

CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED. See Section 310. 

CCR [DSA-AC] means the California Code of Regulations. 

[F] CEILmG LIMIT. See Section 902.1. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

CELL. See Sections 308.4.6 and 2102.1. 

CELLULAR CONCRETE [HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a lightweight 
product consisting ofportland cement and selected gas-form- 
ing chemicals or foaming agents which create homogeneous 
voids in the hardened concrete. 

CEMENT PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. See Section 721.1.1. 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. See Section 1702.1. 

CHILD or CHILDREN. See Section 310. 

CHILD CARE CENTER. See Section 310. 

CHIMNEY. See Section 2102.1. 

CHIMNEY TYPES. See Section 2102.1. 

High-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

Low-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



31 



DEFINITIONS 



Masonry type. See Section 2102.1. 

Medium-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

CHRONICALLY ILL. [SFM] See Section 310. 

CIRCULATION PATH. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chap- 
ter IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1. 

CLEANOUT. See Section 2102.1. 

CLEAR. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 11023. 

CLEAR FLOOR SPACE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEPHONE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 

COLLAR JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

COLLECTOR. See Section 2302.1. 

COLUMN, MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 
702.1. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class n. See Section 307.2. 

Class niA. See Section 307.2. 

Class mB. See Section 307.2. 

COMMERCIAL FACILITIES [DSA-AC] are facilities that 
are intended for nonresidential use and whose operations will 
affect commerce, including factories, warehouses, office build- 
ings and other buildings in which employment may occur. 
Commercial facilities shall not include railroad locomotives, 
railroad freight cars, railroad cabooses, railroad cars covered 
under Title 11 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or 
facilities that are covered or expressly exemptedfrom coverage 
under the Fair Housing Amendment Act of 1988 (42 USC 
3601-3631, etseq). 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 
1002.1. 

COMMON USE AREAS. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chap- 
ter llA, Section 11 07A.3-C, and Chapter 1 IB, Sectionll02B. 

COMPOSITE ACTION. See Section 2102.1. 

COMPOSITE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 307.2. 

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See Section 
721.1.1. See "Cellular concrete. " 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. See Sec- 
tion 721.1.1. 



CONCRETE, PERLITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 3 10.2. 

CONGREGATE LIVING HEALTH FACILITY (CLHF). See 

Section 310. 

CONGREGATE RESIDENCE. See Section 310. 

CONNECTOR. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 
902.1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. 

CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602. 

Type I. See Section 602.2. 

Type n. See Section 602.2. 

Type in. See Section 602.3. 

Type rV. See Section 602.4. 

Type V. See Section 602.5. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS-DETECTION SYSTEM. See 

Section 415.2. 

[F] CONTROL AREA. See Section 307.2. 

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A 

self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a 
backfill in place of compacted fill. 

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME WOOD CON- 
STRUCTION. See Section 2302.1. 

CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1. 

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when 
exposed to its environment. 

[F] CORROSIVE. See Section 307.2. 

COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, 
bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or 
other enclosing devices. 

COVER. See Section 2102.1. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS. [DSA-AC & 
HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.3-C. 

CRIPPLE WALL. See Section 2302.1. 

CROSS SLOPE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, 
Section 1107A.3-C, and Chapter UB, Section 1102B. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 307.2. 



32 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



CURB CUT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-ACJ See Chapter 11 A, Sec- 
tion 1107A.3-C, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

CURB RAMP. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Sec- 
tion 1107A.3-C, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

DALLE GLASS. See Section 2402.1. 

DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

DAY BOX. See Section 307.2. 

DAY CARE. See Section 310. 

DAY CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY. See Section 310. 

DAY CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY. See Section 310. 

DEAD LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

DECK. See Section 1602.1. 

DECORATIVE GLASS. See Section 2402.1. 

[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied 
over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or 
other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and 
surface coverings), and all other materials utilized for decora- 
tive effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, 
vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam 
plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative 
materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window 
shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or 
less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a 
substrate. 

[F] DEFLAGRATION. See Section 307.2. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

DEPARTMENT [HCD 1 & HCD 2] is the Department of 
Housing and Community Development. 

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1908.1.3. 

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. See Sec- 
tion 1613.2. 

DESIGN FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 

DESIGN STRENGTH. See Section 1602.1. 

DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. See Section 1702.1. 

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 307.2. 

DETATCHED SINGLE-FAMILY DWELLING [HCD 1 & 

HCD 2] is any single-family dwelling which is separated from 
adjacent property lines by 3 feet (914 mm) or more or is sepa- 
rated from adjacent buildings by 6 feet (1829 mm) or more. 

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. 

See Section 1908.1.3. 

DETECTABLE WARNING. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-ACJ See 

Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.4-D, and Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1. 

[F] DETONATION. See Section 307.2. 

DLiPHRAGM. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Diaphragm, blocked. See Sections 1602.1. 



Diaphragm, boundary. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, chord. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, flexible. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, rigid. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, unblocked. See Section 2302.1. 

DIMENSIONS. See Section 2102.1. 

Actual. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal. See Section 2102.1. 

Specified. See Section 2102.1. 

DIRECTIONAL SIGN [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a pub- 
licly displayed notice which indicates by use of words or sym- 
bols a recommended direction or route of travel. 

DISABILITY. [DSA-AC] is (1) a physical or mental impair- 
ment that limits one or more of the major life activities of an 
individual, (2) a record of such an impairment, or (3) being 
regarded as having such an impairment. 

DISABLED. [DSA-AC] See "Disability." 

DISPENSING. See Section 307.2. 

DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 

DORMITORY. See Sections 308.4.6 and 310.2. 

DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702. 1 . 

DRAG STRUT. See Section 2302.1. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See 

Section 902.1. 

DRYFLOODPROOFING. See Section 1612.2. 

DURATION OF LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelUng 
units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let 
or hired out to be occupied for living pmposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons including per- 
manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.4-D, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

EFFECTIVE HEIGHT. See Section 2102.1. 

EFFICIENCY DWELLING UNIT [HCD 1] is a dwelling 
unit containing only one habitable room and includes an effi- 
ciency unit as defined by Health and Safety Code Section 
17958.1. See Section 1208.4. 

EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

ELECTRIC VEHICLE. See Section 406.7. 

ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ELEVATOR, PASSENGER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, 
Section 1102B. 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902. 1 . 

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 
415.2. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



33 



DEFINITIONS 



EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See 

Section 1002.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA- 
TIONS. See Section 902.1. 

ENFORCEMENT. [HCD 1 & HCD2] The applicable section 
of the Health and Safety Code is repeated here for clarity and 
reads as follows: 

Section 17920. "Enforcement" means diligent effort to 
secure compliance, including review of plans and permit 
applications, response to complaints, citation ofviolations, 
and other legal process. Except as otherwise provided in 
this part, "Enforcement" may, but need not, include inspec- 
tions of existing buildings on which no complaint or permit 
application has been filed, and effort to secure compliance 
as to these existing buildings. 

ENFORCING AGENCY [DSA-AC, HCD 1, HCD 2 & SFM] 
is the designated department or agency as specified by statute 
or regulation. 

ENTRANCE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. See Section 502.1. 

EQUIVALENT FACILITATION. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 

See Chapter llA, Section 1I07A.5-E, and Chapter IIB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 415.2. 

EXISTING BUILDINGS. [DSA-AC] See "Building, exist- 
ing." 

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

EXISTING STRUCTURE. A stracture erected prior to the 
date of adoption of the appropriate code, or one for which a 
legal building permit has been issued. See also Section 1612.2. 

EXIT. See Section 1002. 1 . 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OE See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. See Section 
802.1. 

[F] EXPLOSION. See Section 902.1. 

[F] EXPLOSIVE. See Section 307.2. 

High explosive. See Section 307.2. 

Low explosive. See Section 307.2. 

Mass detonating explosives. See Section 307.2. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 307.2. 
Division 1.1. See Section 307.2. 



Division 1.2. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.3. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.4. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.5. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.6. See Section 307.2. 
EXTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 
EXTERIOR WALL. See Section 1402.1. 
EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. See Section 1402.1. 
EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. See Section 1402.1. 
F RATING. See Section 702.1. 
FABRIC PARTITIONS. See Section 1602.1. 
FABRICATED ITEM. See Section 1702.1. 
[F] FABRICATION AREA. See Section 415.2. 

FACILITY (OR FACILITIES). [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 

Chapter llA, Section 1107A.6-F, and Chapter IIB, Section 
1I02B. 

FACTORED LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

FAMILY [HCD 1] is an individual or two or more persons who 
are related by blood or marriage; or otherwise, live together in 
a dwelling unit. 

FIBER CEMENT SIDING. See Section 1402.1. 

FIBERBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE AREA. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE BARRIER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902. 1 . 

FIRE DOOR. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702. 1 . 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to 
allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessar- 
ily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. 

FIRE PARTITION. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702.1. 



34 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



FIRE-RETARDANT TREATED WOOD [SFM] is any wood 
product impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process or 
other means during manufacture, and which, when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84-05 for a period of 30 minutes, 
shall have aflame spread of not over 25 and show no evidence 
ofprogressive combustion. In addition, the flame front shall not 
progress more than iOVj/eef (3200 mm) beyond the center line 
of the burner at any time during the test. Materials that may be 
exposed to the weather shall pass the accelerated weathering 
test and be identified as Exterior type, in accordance with 
ASTMD 2898-94 and ASTM D 3201-94. Where material is not 
directly exposed to rainfall but exposed to high humidity condi- 
tions, it shall be subjected to the hygroscopic test and identified 
as Interior Type A in accordance with ASTM D 2898-94 and 
ASTMD 3201-94. 

All materials shall bear identification showing the fire per-, 
formance rating thereof. Such identifications shall be issued by 
an approved agency having a service for inspection of materi- 
als at the factory. 

Fire-retardant-treated wood shall not be construed as 
"noncombustible. " 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902. 1 . 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE WALL. See Section 702. 1 . 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FIREBLOCKING. See Section 702.1. 

FIREPLACE. See Section 2102.1. 

FIREPLACE THROAT. See Section 2102.1. 

FIREWORKS. See Section 307.2. 

FIREWORKS, 1.3G. See Section 307.2. 

FIREWORKS, 1.4G. See Section 307.2. 

FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802.1. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1. 

[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 307.2. ' 

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class LA. See Section 307.2. 

Class IB. See Section 307.2. 

Class IC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 
415.2. 

[F] FLASH POINT. See Section 307.2. 

FLEXURAL LENGTH. See Section 1808.1. 

FLOOD OR FLOODING. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Sec- 
tion 1612.2. 



FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH VELOC- 
ITY WAVE ACTION. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). See Section 
1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOODWAY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FLY GALLERY. See Section 410.2. 

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 
902.1. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. See Section 2602.1. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 
1002.1. 

FOOD COURT. See Section 402.2. 

FOUNDATION PIER. See Section 2102.1. 

FREE-STANDING PEDESTAL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
lie. Section IIOIC.I. 

FULL-TIME CARE. See Section 310. 

[F] GAS CABINET. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GAS ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. See Section 420.2. 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

GLASS UNIT MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. See Section 2302.1. 

GRAB BAR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-ACJ See Chapter llA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.7-G, and Chapter HE, Section 1102B. 

GRADE (Adjacent Ground Elevation) [DSA-AC] is the low- 
est point of elevation of the finished surface of the ground, pav- 
ing or sidewalk within the area between the building and the 
property line or, when the property line is more than 5 feet 
(1524 mm) from the building, between the building and a line 5 
feet (1524 mm) from the building. See Health and Safety Code 
Section 19955.3(d). 

GRADE. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See Section 502.1. 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening 
located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 
44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level 
adjacent to the opening. 

GRADE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1. 

GRADE PLANE. See Section 502.1. 

GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1. 

GRIDIRON. See Section 410.2. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. See Section 402.2. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



35 



DEFINITIONS 



GROUND FLOOR. [DSA-AC&HCDl-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 

Section 1107A.7-G. 

GROUTED MASONRY, See Section 2102.1. 

Grouted hollow-unit masonry. See Section 2102.1. 
Grouted multiwythe masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

GUARD [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] or GUARDRAIL. See 

Section 1002.1. 

GYPSUM BOARD. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, 
storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTEVGUISHING SYSTEMS. See 

Section 902.1. 

[F] HANDLING. See Section 307.2. 
HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1. 
HARDBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 
[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 

See Section 415.2. 

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE [SFM] is a substance which, by 
reason of being explosive, flammable, toxic, poisonous, corro- 
sive, oxidizing, irritant or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause 
injury. 

HEAD JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

HEADER (Bonder). See Section 2102.1. 

HEALTH CARE PROVIDER. [DSA-AC] See "Professional 
Office of a Health Care Provider" in Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, STORY. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, WALLS. See Section 2102.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 412.5.1. 

HELISTOP. See Section 412.5.1. 

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

HIGH-RISE BUILDING. [SFM] As used in this code: 

1. "Existing high-rise structure" means a high-rise struc- 
ture, the construction of which is commenced or com- 
pleted prior to July 1, 1974. 

2. "High-rise structure " means every building of any type of 
construction or occupancy having floors used for human 
occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above 
the lowest floor level having building access (see Section 
403.1.2), except buildings used as hospitals as defined in 
Health and Safety Code Section 1250. 



3. "New high-rise structure " means a high-rise structure, ^ 
the construction of which is commenced on or after July 
1, 1974. 

HISTORICAL BUILDINGS. [DSA-AC] See "Qualified his- 
torical building or property," C.C.R., Title 24, Part 8. 

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

HOTEL or MOTEL [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] is any 

building containing six or more guest rooms intended or 
designed to be used, or which are used, rented or hired out to 
be occupied, or which are occupied for sleeping purposes by 
guests. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] HPM ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. See Section 1609.2. 

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. See Section 420.2. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). See Section 415.2. 

IMPACT INSULATION CLASS (IIC). See Chapter 12, Sec- 
tion 1207.2. 

IMPACT LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

INDEPENDENT ENTITY [DSA-AC] is a not-for-profit 
product safety testing and certification organization, dedi- 
cated to testing for public safety. An independent entity would 
operate for the testing, certification and quality assessment of 
products, systems and services. 

INFANT. [SFM] See Section 310. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1. 

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. See Section 
802.1. 

INTERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

INTERNATIONAL SYMBOL OF ACCESSIBILITY. 
[DSA-AC & HCD 1-ACJ See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.9-I, and Chapter IIB, Section 11023. 

JOINT. See Section 702.1. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted 
this code under due legislative authority. 

KICK PLATE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.11-K, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

LABEL. See Section 1702.1. 

LEVEL ACCESSIBLE AREA. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIC, 

Section IIOIC.I. ^ 

LEVEL AREA. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.12-L, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 



36 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



LIFT, SPECIAL ACCESS. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 

"Special access lift" Chapter llA, Section 1107A.12-L, and 
Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

LIGHT-DIFFUSING. SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction 
whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily 
formed by a system of repetitive wood or light gage steel fram- 
ing members. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. 

See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. 

See Section 2602.1. 

LIMIT STATE. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. 

See Section 415.2. 

LISTED. See Section 902. 1 . 

[HCD 1 &2] "Listed" means all products that appear in a 
list published by an approved testing or listing agency. For 
additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 
17920(h). 

For applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, "Listed" shall also mean equipment 
or materials accepted by the State Fire Marshal as conforming 
to the provisions of the State Fire Marshal's regulations and 
which are included in a list published by the State Fire Mar- 
shal. 

LISTING AGENCY [HCD 1&2] means an agency approved 
by the department that is in the business of listing and labeling 
products, materials, equipment and installations tested by an 
approved testing agency, and that maintains aperiodic inspec- 
tion program on current production of listed products, equip- 
ment and installations, and that, at least annually, makes 
available a published report of these listings. For additional 
information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(i). 

LIVE LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). 

See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD EFFECTS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOBBY [HCD I, HCD 2 & SFM] is an area not defined as a 
waiting room at the entrance of a building through which per- 
sons must pass. 

LODGING HOUSE [HCD 1] is any building or portion 
thereof containing not more than five guest rooms where rent is 
paid in money, goods, labor or otherwise. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 



LOT LINE. A Une dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
415.2. 

LOWEST FLOOR. See Section 1612.2. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1702.1. 

MALL. See Section 402.2. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. See Section 
1702.1. 

MARK. See Section 1702.1. 

MARKED CROSSING. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1 107 A.13-M, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

MARQUEE. A permanent roofed structure attached to and 
supported by the building and that projects into the public 
right-of-way. 

MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Ashlar masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Coursed ashlar. See Section 2102.1. 

Glass unit masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Plain masonry. See Section 2102. 1 . 

Random ashlar. See Section 2102.1. 

Reinforced masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Solid masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Unreinforced (plain) masonry. See Section 2102.1. 
MASONRY UNIT. See Section 2102.1. 

Clay. See Section 2102.1. 

Concrete. See Section 2102.1. 

Hollow. See Section 2102.1. 

Solid. See Section 2102.1. 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND 

MOTION. See Section 1613.2. . 

MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE. See Section 2102.1. 
MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 

See Section 406.3.2. 

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. See Section 
1502.1. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. See Section 1613.2. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOR See Section 
702.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



37 



DEFINITIONS 



MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS, PROFOUNDLY OR 
SEVERELY. See Section 310. 

MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002.1. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). See Section 
1402.1. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. 

See Section 1402.1. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. See Section 1502.1. 

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. See Section 1502.1. 

MEZZANINE. See Section 502.1. 

MICROPILES. See Section 1808.1. 

MINERAL BOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

MINERAL FIBER. See Section 702.1. 

MINERAL WOOL. See Section 702.1. 

MODERNIZATION PROJECT [SFM] is any construction 
effort that has an estimated total cost in excess of $200, 000 that 
is intended to modify a permanent school building or structure 
and/or the addition of a new school building or structure used 
to serve or house students from kindergarten through 12"' 
grade (K-12). Modernization efforts shall apply strictly to a 
public school that was established prior to July 1, 2002, and is 
funded pursuant to the Education Code, Section 1 7074.56, and 
Education Code commencing with Section 17070.10. Modern- 
ization projects that are to be completed in more than one 
phase may defer the installation of the automatic fire detection 
and alarm systems until the final phase of the modernization 
project. Solely for the purposes of Education Code Section 
17074.20, routine maintenance and repair work shall not be 
considered a modernization project. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. See Section 
1502.1. 

MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. See Section 2102.1. 

MOTEL. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] See "Hotel or Motel. " 

MOTION PICTURE AND TELEVISION PRODUCTION 
STUDIO SOUND STAGES, APPROVED PRODUCTION 
FACILITIES AND PRODUCTION LOCATIONS. See Chap- 
ter 46, California Fire Code. 

MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Section 
1102.1. 

MULTIPLE-ACCOMMODATION TOILET FACILITY 

[DSA-AC] is a room that has more than one sanitary fixture, is 
intended for the use of more than one person at a time and 
which usually is provided with privacy compartments or 
screens shielding some fixtures from view. A bathroom serving 
a hotel guest room and a privacy toilet in small offices, stores 
and similar locations are not included in this category. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 



MULTISTORY DWELUNG UNIT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 

See Chapter llA, Section 1107A.13-M. 

NAILING, BOUNDARY. See Section 2302.1. 
NAILING, EDGE. See Section 2302.1. 
NAILING, FIELD. See Section 2302. 1. 
NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

Decay resistant. See Section 2302. 1 . 

Termite resistant. See Section 2302.1. 

NEWLY CONSTRUCTED. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 

Chapter llA, Section 1107A.14-N. 

NEW PUBLIC SCHOOL CAMPUS [SFM] is an educational 
institution established on or after July 1, 2002 that houses 
and/or serves students from kindergarten through 12"' grade 
(K-12) and is funded pursuant to the Education Code, com- 
mencing with Section 17070.10. 

NFPA [DSA-AC] is the National Fire Protection Association. 

NONAMBULATORY PERSONS. See Section 310. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE, [SFM] as applied to building con- 
struction material, means a material which, in the form in 
which it is used, is either one of the following: 

1. Material of which no part will ignite and bum when sub- 
jected to fire. Any material passing ASTM 136 shall be 
considered noncombustible. 

2. Material having a structural base of noncombustible 
material as defined in Item 1 above, with a surfacing ma- 
terial not over Vg inch (3.2 mm) thick which has a 
flame-spread rating of 50 or less. 

"Noncombustible" does not apply to surface finish materi- 
als. Material required to be noncombustible for reduced clear- 
ances to fiues, heatirtg appliances or other sources of high 
temperature shall refer to material conforming to Item 1. No 
material shall be classed as noncombustible, which is subject 
to increase in combustibility or flame spread rating, beyond the 
limits herein established, through the effects of age, moisture or 
other atmospheric condition. 

NOMINAL LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

NOMINAL SIZE. (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

NORMAL [HCD 1 & HCD 2] shall mean conforming to apat- 
tem or standard regarded as usual or typical. 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 

(NTP). See Section 415.2. 

NOSING (or NOSE). See Section 1002.1. [DSA-AC & HCD 
1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 1107A.14-N and Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. See Section 1602.1. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002. 1 . 

OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space designed 
for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for 



38 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occu- 
pants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means 
of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the 
requirements of this code. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. See Section 406.3.2. 

OPEN RISER. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-ACJ See Chapter llA, 
Section 1107A.15-O, and Chapter 1 IB, Section- 1102B. 

[F] OPEN SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 

OPERABLE PART. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 307.2. 

ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. See Sec- 
tion 1908.1.3. 

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUC- 
TURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.3. 

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE 
WALL. See Section 1908.1.3. 

[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 307.2. 

Class I. See Section 307.2. 

Class n. See Section 307.2. 

Class III. See Section 307.2. 

Class TV. See Section 307.2. 

Class V. See Section 307.2. 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 307.2. 

ORGANIZED CAMPS. [SFM] See Section 440. 

ORTHOGONAL. See Section 1613.2. 

OTHER STRUCTURES. See Section 1602.1. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a 
legal or equitable interest in the property. 

[F] OXIDIZER. See Section 307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1, See Section 307.2. 

[F] OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 307.2. 

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE), See Section 1602.1. 

PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

PARTICLEBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

PASSAGE DOOR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PASSENGER ELEVATOR. [DSA-AC] See "Elevator, pas- 
senger" in Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

[HCD I & HCD 2] "Passenger elevator" is an elevator used 
primarily to carry persons. For additional information, see 
California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 7, Article 7-6, 
Section 3009 of the 2001 California Building Code. 



PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTOR [HCD 1] uses 
architectural components, rather than mechanical compo- 
nents, to provide heating or cooling for a building interior 

PATH OF TRAVEL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

PEDESTRIAN. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, 
Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PEDESTRIAN GRADE SEPARATION. [DSA-AC] See 

Chapter UB, Section 1102B. 

PEDESTRIAN RAMP [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1107A3.16-P, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1 102B. 

PEDESTRIAN WAY. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1107 A, 16-P, and Chapter UB, Section 1102B. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 702.1. 

PENTHOUSE. See Section 1502.1. 

PERMANENT [DSA-AC] shall mean facilities which, are 
intended to be used for periods longer than those designated in 
this code under the definition of "Temporary." 

PERMANENT PORTABLE BUILDING [SFM] is a portable 
building that is used to serve or house students and is certified 
as a permanent building on a new public school campus by the 
public school administration shall comply with the require- 
ments of new campus buildings. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
authority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of 
a specified activity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 
or thek successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the 
aforesaid. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. See Section 310.2. 

PERSONS WITH DISABLITIES. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 

See Chapter llA, Section 1107A.16-P. 

PHOTOLUMINESCENT [SFM] See Section 1002. ■ 

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL. See Section 415.2. 

PIER FOUNDATIONS. See Section 1808.1. 

Belled piers. See Section 1808.1. 
PILE FOUNDATIONS. See Section 1808.1. 

Auger uncased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Caisson piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Concrete-filled steel pipe and tube piles. See Section 
1808.1. 

Driven uncased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Enlarged base piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Steel-cased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Timber piles. See Section 1808.1. 

PINRAIL. See Section 410.2. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



39 



DEFINITIONS 



PLASTIC, APPROVED. See Section 2602.1. 

PLASTIC GLAZING. See Section 2602.1. 

PLASTIC HINGE. See Section 2102.1. 

PLATFORM. See Section 410.2. 

PORTABLE BUILDING [SFM] is a classroom building or 
structure of modular design and construction that houses 
and/or serves students from kindergarten through twelfth 
grade (K-12) and is fimded pursuant to the Education Code, 
commencing with Section 1 7070.10 and meets all of the follow- 
ing criteria: 

• The portable building or structure is designed and con- 
structed to be relocatable and transportable over public 
streets. 

• The portable building or structure is designed and con- 
structed for relocation without detaching the roof or the 
floor from the building or structure. 

• The portable building or structure is sited upon a tempo- 
rary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit 
easy removal. 

• The portable building or structure has a floor area of 
2,000 square feet (186 m^) or less when measured from 
the extent of the exterior walls. 

• The portable building shall be removed within three years 
of installation or the school administration may request a 
three-year extension pursuant to Education Code Section 
17074.54(a) and (b). 

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. See Section 1502.1. 

POWDER ROOM. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-ACJ See Chapter 1 lA, 
Section 1107A.16-P. 

POWER-ASSISTED DOOR [DSA-AC] is a door used for 
human passage with a mechanism that helps to open the door, 
or relieves the opening resistance of a door, upon the activation 
of a switch or a continued force applied to the door itself. 

PREFABRICATED WOOD I- JOIST. See Section 2302.1. 

PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

PRIMARY ENTRY. [HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 
1107A.16-P. 

PRIMARY ENTRY LEVEL. [HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.16-P. 

PRIMARY FUNCTION. See Section 3402.1. 

PRISM. See Section 2102.1. 

PROFESSIONAL OFFICE OF A HEALTH CARE PRO- 
VIDER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. See Section 410.2. 

PROTECTIVE SOCIAL CARE [SFM] is the housing and 
care of any person of any age when such person is referred to or 
placed within such home or facility for care and supervision 
services by any governmental agency. 

PUBLIC ACCOMMODATION [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] 

includes, but is not limited to, any building or facility or other 



specific public use facilities not listed in Items 1 through 12 if 
they fall into one or more of the following categories: 

1. Places of public lodging. 

2. Establishments serving food or drink open to public 
use. 

3. Places of exhibition or entertainment open to public 
use. 

4. Places of public gathering. 

5. Sales or rental establishments open to public use. 

6. Service establishments open to public use. 

7. Stations used for public transportation. 

8. Places of public display or collection. 

9. Places of public recreation. 

10. Places of public education. 

11. Social service center establishments open to the gen- 
eral public. 

12. Places of exercise or recreation open to public use. 

Examples of public accommodations for purposes of this 
code shall include, but not be limited to, the following private 
entities: 

1. An inn, hotel, motel or other place of public lodging, ex- 
cept for a lodging house located within a building that 
contains not more than five rooms for rent or hire and 
that is actually occupied by the proprietor of such es- 
tablishment as the residence of such proprietor. 

2. A restaurant, bar or other establishment serving food 
or drink. 

3. A motion picture house, theater, concert hall, stadium 
or other place of exhibition or entertainment. 

4. An auditorium, convention center, lecture hall or other 
place of public gathering. 

5. A bakery, grocery store, clothing store, hardware store, 
shopping center or other sales or retail establishment. 

6. A laundromat, dry cleaner, bank, barber shop, beauty 
shop, travel service, shoe repair service, funeral parlor, 
gas station, office of an accountant or lawyer, phar- 
macy, insurance office, professional office of a health 
care provider, hospital or other service establishment. 

7. A terminal, depot or other station used for specified 
public transportation. 

8. A museum, library, gallery or other place of public dis- 
play or collection. 

9. A park, zoo, amusement park or other place of recre- 
ation. 

10. A nursery, elementary, secondary, undergraduate or 
postgraduate private school, or other place of educa- 
tion. 

11. A day care center, senior citizen center, homeless shel- 
ter, food bank, adoption agency or other social service 
center establishment. 

12. A gymnasium, health spa, bowling alley, golf course or 
other place of exercise. 

13. A church. 



40 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



14. An office building. 

15. A public curb or sidewalk. 

PUBLIC ENTRANCE [HCD 1-AC] is an entrance that is not 
a service entrance or a restricted entrance. 

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chap- 
ter llA, Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

PUBLICLY FUNDED [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] for the 

purpose of housing, all buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs 
and related facilities constructed in the state and used or 
intended to be used as a public use area, as defined in Section 
1107A.16-P, shall comply with the accessibility standards of 
Chapter IIB of this code when state, county or municipal 
funds, or funds of any political subdivision of the state are used. 

[F] PYROPHORIC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 307.2. 

QUALIFIED HISTORICAL BUILDING (or PROPERTY). 

[DSA-AC] See C.C.R. Title 24, Part 8. 

RAIL TRANSIT BOARDING PLATFORM. [DSA-AC] See 

"transit boarding platform" in Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter II A, Section 
1107A.18-R. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Sec- 
tion 406.3.2. 

REASONABLE PORTION [DSA-AC] shall mean that seg- 
ment of a building, facility, area, space or condition, which 
would normally be necessary if the activity therein is to be 
accessible by persons with disabilities. 

RECOMMEND [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] does not require 
mandatory acceptance, but identifies a suggested action that 
shall be considered for the purpose of providing a greater 
degree of accessibility to persons with disabilities. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902. 1 . 

REFERENCE RESISTANCE (Z) ). See Section 2302.1. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

REINFORCED PLASTIC, GLASS FIBER. See Section 
2602.1. 

RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OR A building or portion 
thereof intended for the performance of religious services. 

REMODELING. [DSA-AC] See "Alteration or Alter." 

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REQUIRED STRENGTH. See Sections 1602.1 and2102.1. 

REROOFING. See Section 1502.1. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. See Section 
412.3.1. 



RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILI- 
TIES. See Section 310.2. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONI- 
CALLY ILL (RCF/CI). See Section 310. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE ELDERLY 
(RCFE). See Section 310. 

RESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF). See Section 310. 

RESISTANCE FACTOR. See Section 1 602. 1 . 

RESTRAINT [SFM] shall mean the physical retention of a 
person within a room, cellar cell block by any means, or within 
the exterior walls of a building by means of locked doors inop- 
erable by the person restrained. "Restraint" shall also mean 
the physical binding, strapping or similar restriction of any 
person in a chair, walker, bed or other contrivance for the pur- 
pose of deliberately restricting the free movement of ambula- 
tory persons. 

"Restraint" shall not be construed to include 
nonambulatory persons nor shall it include the use of bandage 
material, strip sheeting or other fabrics or materials (soft ties) 
used to restrain persons in hospital-type beds or wheelchairs to 
prevent injury, provided an approved method of quick release is 
maintained. Facilities employing the use of soft ties, however, 
shall be classified as a building used to house nonambulatory 
persons. 

"Restraint" shall not be practiced in licensed facilities clas- 
sified as Group I-l, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies unless con- 
structed as a Group 1-3 occupancy. For Group 1-3 occupancies 
see Section 308.2. 

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE [HCD 1, HCD 2 & HCD 

1-AC] is an entrance that is made available for common use on 
a controlled basis, but is not public use, and that is not a service 
entrance. 

RETRACTABLE AWNING. See Section 3105.2. 

RISER. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] See Chapter llA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.18-R, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF DECK. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF RECOVER. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPAIR. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPLACEMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF VENTILATION. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBLE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Coursed rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Random rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Rough or ordinary rubble. See Section 2102.1. 
RUNNING BOND. See Section 2102.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



41 



DEFINITIONS 



RUNNING SLOPE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

SANITARY FACILITY [DSA-AC, HCD I & HCD 2] is any 

single water closet, urinal, lavatory, bathtub or shower, or a 
combination thereof, together with the room or space in which 
they are housed. 

SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

SCUPPER. See Section 1502.1. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. See Section 1613.2. 

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1613.2. 

SELF-CLOSING. See Section 702.1. 

SELF-LUMINOUS. See Section 1002. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 415.2. 

SERVICE ENTRANCE [HCD 1-AC] is an entrance 
intended primarily for the delivery of goods or services. 

SHAFT. See Section 702.1. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. See Section 702.1. 

SHALL [DSA-AC] as used in this code means mandatory. 

SHEAR WALL. See Sections 2102.1 and 2302.1. 

Detailed plain masonry sliear wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2 1 02. 1 . 

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Perforated shear wall. See Section 2302.1. 

Perforated shear wall segment. See Section 2302.1. 

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

SHELL. See Section 2102.1. 

SHOPPING CENTER (or SHOPPING MALL). [DSA-AC & 

HCD 2] See Chapter IIB, Section 1I02B. 

SHOULD. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] See "Recommend." 

SIDEWALK [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] is a surfaced pedestrian 
way contiguous to a street used by the public. (As differentiated 
from the definition of "Walk" in Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.23-W, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B.) 

SIGNAGE [DSA-AC] is displayed verbal, symbolic, tactile, 
and/or pictorial information. 

SINGLE-ACCOMMODATION SANITARY FACILITY 
[DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a room that has not more than 



one of each type of sanitary fixture, is intended for use by only 
one person at a time, has no partition around the toilet and has 
a door that can be locked on the inside by the room occupant. 

SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

SITE [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a parcel of land bounded 
by a property line or a designated portion of a public 
right-of-way. 

SITE CLASS. See Section 1613.2. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS. See Section 1613.2. 

SITE DEVELOPMENT [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] is "on-site " 
and "off-site" work, including, but not limited to, walks, side- 
walks, ramps, curbs, curb ramps, parking facilities, stairs, 
planting areas, pools, promenades, exterior gathering or 
assembly areas and raised or depressed paved areas. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration 
unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for 
natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while 
preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof. 

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope 
of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing mate- 
rial in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, 
roofs and sloped walls, are included in this definition. 

SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS. [DSA-AC & HCD 

1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 1107A.19-S, and Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, 
which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, 
and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such 
rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not 
sleeping units. 

SLOPE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 
1107A.19-S 

[F] SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE BARRIER. See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702. 1 . 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SOLID. See Section 415.2. 

SOUND TRANSMISSION ^CLASS (STC). [HCD 1] See 
Chapter 12, Section 1207.2. 

SPACE [DSA-AC & HCD 2] is a definable area, e.g., a room, 
toilet room, hall, assembly area, entrance, storage room, 
alcove, courtyard, or lobby. 



42 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



SPECIALACCESS LIFT. [DSA-AC&HCD-IAC] See Chap- 
ter llA, Section 1107A.19-S, and Chapter 1 IB, SectionllOlB. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. See Section 411.2. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION. See Section 1702.1. 

Special inspection, continuous. See Section 1702.1. 

Special inspection, periodic. See Section 1702.1. 

SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

SPECIFIED. See Section 2102.1. 

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 
MASONRY if' J. See Section 2102.1. 

SPECIFIED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION. [DSA-AC] See 
Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

SPLICE. See Section 702.1. 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Section 
1702.1. 

STACK BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

STAGE. See Section 410.2. 

STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OE See Section 
902.1. 

Class I system. See Section 902.1. 

Class II system. See Section 902.1. 

Class in system. See Section 902.1. 
[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OE See Section 902.1. 

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic wet. See Section 902.1. 

Manual dry. See Section 902.1. 

Manual wet. See Section 902. 1 . 

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902. 1 . 

START OF CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

STATE-OWNED/LEASED BUILDING [SFM] is a building 
or portion of a building that is owned, leased or rented by the 
state. State-leased buildings shall include all required exits to a 
public way serving such leased area or space. Portions of state- 
leased buildings that are not leased or rented by the state shall 
not be included within the scope of this section unless such por- 
tions present an exposure hazard to the state-leased area or 
space. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. See Section 
2202.1. 

STEEL JOIST. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. See Section 2202.1. 



STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (17-percent slope). 

STONE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Ashlar stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Rubble stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 
415.2. 

STORY. The portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above (also see "Mezzanine" and Section 502.1). It is mea- 
sured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive 
tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost 
story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling 
joists, or where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof raf- 
ters. 

[DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its fin- 
ished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a 
basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane 
where the finished surface of the floor above the basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

STORY, FIRST. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 
STRENGTH. See Section 2102.1. 

Design strength. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Required strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

STRENGTH DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. See Section 
2302.1. 

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). See Section 2302.1. 

Parallel strand lumber (PSL). See Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL FRAME. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. See 

Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. See Section 1702.1. 
STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 
SUBDIAPHRAGM. See Section 2302.1. 
SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 1612.2. 
SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 1612.2. 
SUNROOM ADDITION. See Section 1202.1. 
[F] SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 
[F]SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1. 
[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 

Section 902.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



43 



DEFINITIONS 



SWIMMING POOLS. See Section 3109.2. 

T RATING. See Section 702.1. 

TACTILE [DSA-AC & HCD 2] describes an object that can be 
perceived using the sense of touch. 

TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. See Section 3402. 

[DSA-AC] "Technically infeasible" means, with respect to 
an alteration of a building or a facility, that it has little likeli- 
hood of being accomplished because existing structural 
conditions would require removing or altering a load-bear- 
ing member which is an essential part of the structural 
frame; or because other existing physical or site constraints 
prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces or fea- 
tures which are in full and strict compliance with the mini- 
mum requirements for new construction and which are 
necessary to provide accessibility. 

TEMPORARY [DSA-AC] shall mean buildings and facilities 
intended for use at one location for not more than one year and 
seats intended for use at one location for not more than 90 
days. 

TENT. Any stincture, enclosure or shelter which is con- 
stincted of canvas or pliable material supported in any manner 
except by air or the contents it protects. 

TERMINALLY ILL. See Section 310. 

TESTING AGENCY [HCD-1 & HCD- 2] means an agency 
approved by the department as qualified and equippedfor test- 
ing products, materials, equipment and installations in accor- 
dance with nationally recognized standards. For additional 
information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(m). 

TEXT TELEPHONE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

THERMAL ISOLATION. See Section 1202.1. 

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THIN-BED MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. See 

Section 702.1. 

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). See Section 2302.1. 

TIE, LATERAL. See Section 2102.1. 

TIE, WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902.1. 

TOEBOARD. [DSA-AC & HCD l-AC]See Chapter llA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.20-T. 

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in 
a group of three or more attached units in which each unit 



extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at 
least two sides. 

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] For applications required to pro- 
vide accommodations for persons with disabilities, see Chap- 
ter 11 A, Section 1107A.20-T. 

[F] TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

TRANSIENT. See Section 310.2. 

TRANSIENT LODGING. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 
Chapter IIB, Section 1102B and Chapter llA, Section 
1107A.20-T. 

TRANSIT BOARDING PLATFORM. [DSA-AC] See Chap- 
ter IIB, Section 1102B. 

TREAD. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 
1107A.20-T, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

TREAD DEPTH. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.20-T, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

TREADRUN. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.20-T, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

TRIM. See Section 802.1. 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

TYPE OF MOTOR FUEL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIC, Sec- 
tion IIOIC.I. 

UNDERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

UNREASONABLE HARDSHIP [DSA-AC] exists when the 
enforcing agency finds that compliance with the building stan- 
dard would make the specific work of the project affected by the 
building standard unfeasible, based on an overall evaluation of 
the following factors: 

1. The cost of providing access. 

2. The cost of all construction contemplated. 

3. The impact of proposed improvements on financial feasi- 
bility of the project. 

4. The nature of the accessibility which would be gained or 
lost. 

5. The nature of the use of the facility under construction 
and its availability to persons with diasbilities. 

The details of any finding of unreasonable hardship shall be 
recorded and entered in the files of the enforcing agency. 

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 
307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). See Section 415.2. 



44 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



VAPOR-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or cover- 
ing having a permeance rating of Sperms (52.9 X lO^^" kg/Pa • s ■ 
m^) or greater, when tested in accordance with the dessicant 
method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor-permeable 
material permits the passage of moisture vapor. 

VAPOR RETARDER. A vapor-resistant material, membrane 
or covering such as foil, plastic sheeting or insulation facing 
having a permeance rating of 1 perm (5.7 x 10"" kg/Pa ■ s ■ m^) 
or less, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. Vapor retarders limit the 
amount of moisture vapor that passes through a material or wall 
assembly. 

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. See Section 1602.1. 

VEHICULAR OR PEDESTRIAN ARRIVAL POINTS. 

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 
1107A.22-V. 

VEHICULAR WAY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

VINYL SIDING. See Section 1402.1. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLL^NCE. 

See Section 902.1. 

WAITING ROOM [SFM] is a room or area normally provided 
with seating and used for persons waiting. 

WALK. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 
1107A.23-W, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as 
a pedestrian trafficway. 

WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

Cavity wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Composite wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Parapet wall. See Section 2102.1. 

WALL, LOAD-BEARING. Any wall meeting either of the 
following classifications: 

1 . Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 1 00 
pounds per Unear foot (1459 N/m) of vertical load in ad- 
dition to its own weight. 

2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 
200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

WALL, NONLOAD-BEARING. Any wall that is not a 
load-bearing wall. 

WALL PIER. See Section 1908.1.3. 

[F] WATER-REACTIS^E MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 



Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 
WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. See Section 1402. 
WEATHER-EXPOSED SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 
WEB. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 

Section 902.1. 

WHEELCHAIR [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] is a chair mounted 
on wheels to be propelled by its occupant manually or with the 
aid of electric power, of a size and configuration conforming to 
the recognized standard models of the trade. 

WHEELCHAIR OCCUPANT (or WHEELCHAIR USER) 

[DSA-AC] is an individual who, due to a physical impairment 
or disability, utilizes a wheelchair for mobility. 

WHEELCHAIR SPACE [HCD 1-AC] is space for a single 
wheelchair and its occupant. 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. See Section 1609.2. 

WINDER. See Section 1002.1. 

WINERY CAVES. See Section 436. 

WIRE BACKING. See Section 2502.1. 

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

Composite panels. See Section 2302.1. 

Oriented strand board (OSB). See Section 2302.1. 

Plywood. See Section 2302.1. 
[F] WORKSTATION. See Section 415.2. 

[DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

WYTHE. See Section 2102.1. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 

[F] ZONE. See Section 902.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



45 



46 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 3 - USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


GEO 


GA 


SL 


SLG 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 












X 

♦ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 

♦ 


X 

♦ 
































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


302.1 


IBC 












X 




























302.1 


CA 




X 




































303,1 


CA 




X 




































303.2 


CA 




X 




































303.3 


CA 




X 




































304.1 


CA 




X 




































305.1 


CA 




X 




































305.2 


CA 




X 




































306.2 


CA 




X 




































307.1 


CA 




X 




































308.1 


CA 




X 




































308.2 


IBC 






X 


X 
































308.2 


CA 




X 




































308.3 


IBC 






X 


X 
































308.3 


CA 




• X 




































308.3.1 


CA 




X 




































308.3.2 


CA 




X 




































308.4 


CA 




X 




































308.4.6 


CA 




X 




































Cell 


CA ■ 




X 




































Cell Complex 


CA 




X 




































Cell Tiers 


CA 




X 




































Day Room 


CA 




X 




































Dormitory 


CA 




X 




































Holding Facility 


CA 




X 




































Housing Unit 


CA 




X 




































Restraint 


CA 




X 




































308.5 


IBC 






X 


X 
































308.5 


CA ■ 




X 




































308.5.1 


CA 




X 




































308,5.2 


CA 




X 




































308.5.2.1 


CA 




X 




































310.1 


IBC 






X 


X 
































310.1 


CA 




X 




































310.2 


CA 








































310.2 (Dormitory) 


IBC 












X 




























Aged Home or 
Institution 


CA 




X 




































Bedridden Person 


CA 




X 




































Boarding House 


IBC 












1 


1 1 1 



















2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



47 



CHAPTER 3 - USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SB 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 












X 

♦ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 

♦ 


X 

♦ 
































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


Care and 
Supervision 


CA 




X 




































Catastrophically 
Injured 


CA 




X 




































Child-Care 
Center 


CA 




X 




































Child or Children 


CA 




X 




































Chronically ill 


CA 




X 




































Congregate 
Living Health 
(CLHF) 


CA 




X 




































Daycare 


CA 




X 




































Day-Care Home, 
Large Family 


CA 




X 




































Day-Care Home, 
Small Family 


CA 




X 




































Full-Time Care 


CA 




X 




































Infant 


CA 




X 




































Mentally 
Retarded 
Persons, 
Profoundly or 
Severely 


CA 




X 




































Nonambulatory 
Persons 


CA 




X 




































Residential Care 
Facility for the 
Chronically III 
(RCF/CI) 


CA 




X 




































Residential Care 
Facility for the 
Elderly (RCFE) 


CA 




X 




































Residential 
Facility (RF) 


CA 




X 




































Terminally III 


CA 




X 




































310.3-310.3.6 


CA 




X 















































































The ♦ designation indicates that the Office of the State Fire IVIarshal's adoption of this chapter or 
individual sections is applicable to structures subject to HCD 1 and/or HCD 2 or DSA-SS. 



48 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 3 

USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occu- 
pancy. 



SECTION 302 
CLASSIFICATION 

302.1 GeneraL Structures or portions of structures shall be 
classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the 
groups listed below. A room or space that is intended to be 
occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply 
with all of the requirements that are applicable. to each of the 
purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Struc- 
tures with multiple occupancies or uses shall comply with Sec- 
tion 508. Where a structure is proposed for a purpose that is not 
specifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be 
classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resem- 
bles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved. 

1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, 
A-4 and A-5 

2. Business (see Section 304): Group B 

3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E 

4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-1 
and F-2 

5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, 
H-4 and H-5 

6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups I-l, 1-2, 1-3 and 
1-4 

7. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M 

8. [SFM] Organized Camps (see Section 440) Group C 

9. Research Laboratories (see Section 443) Group L 

10. Residential (see Section 310): Grotips R-1, R-2, R-3, 
i?-5.7andR-4 

11. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2 

12. Utility andMiscellaneous(seeSection312): GroupU 

[SFM] Existing buildings housing existing protective social 
care homes or facilities established prior to 1972 (see Section 
3413). 

302.1.1 Reserved 

302.1.2 Reserved 

302.1.3 Pharmacies; veterinary facilities; bartering, cos- 
metology, or electrolysis establishments; and acupuncture 
offices. See Chapter 12. 



SECTION 303 
ASSEMBLY GROUP A 

303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such 
as civic, social or rehgious functions; recreation, food or drink 
consumption; or awaiting transportation or motion picture and 
television production studio sound stages, approved produc- 
tion facilities and production locations. 

Exceptions: 

1. A building or tenant space used for assembly pur- 
poses with an occupant load of less than 50 persons 
shall be classified as a Group B occupancy. 

2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an 
occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to 
another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B 
occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is 
less than 750 square feet (70 m^) in area and is acces- 
sory to another occupancy shall be classified as a 
Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for 
the production and viewing of the performing arts or 
motion picture including, but not limited to: 

Motion picture and television production studio 

sound stages, approved production facilities and 

production locations (with live audiences). 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Television and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not liniited to: 
Banquet halls 
Night clubs 
Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A including, but not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 

Artgalleries 

Bowhng alleys 

Places of religious worship 

Community halls 

Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink consump- 
tion) 

Exhibition halls 

Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



49 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 

Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 

Lecture halls 

Libraries 

Museums 

Waiting areas in transportation terminals 

Pool and billiard parlors 

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting 
events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 

Skating rinks 

Swimming pools 

Tennis courts 

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing 
outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 
Amusement park structures 
Bleachers 
Grandstands 
Stadiums 

303.2 Fixed guideway transit systems. [SFMJ Fixed guideway 
transit system buildings shall conform to the requirements of 
this code for their occupancy classification in addition to the 
provisions set forth in Section 433. 

303.3 Subterranean spaces for winery facilities in natural or 
manmade caves. [SFM] For fire and life safety requirements, 
see Section 436. 



SECTION 304 
BUSINESS GROUP B 

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transac- 
tions, including storage of records and accounts. Business 
occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 

Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 

Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 

Car wash 

Civic administration 

CUnic-outpatient [SFM] (not classified as Group 1-2.1) 

Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations 
and self-service 

Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade 

Electronic data processing 

Laboratories: testing and research 

Motor vehicle showrooms 

Post offices 

Print shops 

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physi- 
cians, engineers, etc.) 

Radio and television stations 

Telephone exchanges 



Training and skill development not within a school or 
academic program 



SECTION 305 
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 

305.1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, by more than six persons at any one time for 
educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educa- 
tional rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to 
places of religious worship in accordance with Section 508.3. 1 
and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as 
A-3 occupancies. 

Exception: [SFM] A residence used as a home school for 
the children who normally reside at the residence. Such resi- 
dences shall remain classified as Group R-2 or Group R-3 
occupancies. 

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 
thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services 
for more than six children older than 21/2 years of age, shall be 
classified as a Group E occupancy. 

Exception: [SFM] A day-care facility not otherwise classi- 
fied as an R-3 occupancy, where occupants are not capable 
of responding to an emergency situation without physical 
assistance from the staff, shall be classified as Group 1-4. 



SECTION 306 
FACTORY GROUP F 

306.1 Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group 
F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembUng, disassembling, 
fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or pro- 
cessing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazard- 
ous or Group S storage occupancy. 

306.2 Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-Iiazard Occupancy. 

Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Factory 
Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate 
Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Aircraft 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages; over 12-percent alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas or similar fabric 

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Clothing 

Construction and agricultural machinery 

Disinfectants 



50 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Millwork (sash & door) 

[SFM] Motion picture and television production studio 
sound stages, approved production facilities and produc- 
tion locations (without live audiences) 

Musical instruments 

Optical goods 

Paper mills or products 

Photographic film 

Plastic products 

Printing or publishing 

Recreational vehicles 

Refuse incineration 

Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 

Textiles 

Tobacco 

Trailers 

Upholstering 

Wood; distillation 

Woodworking (cabinet) 

306.3 Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard occupancy. Fac- 
tory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufactur- 
ing of noncombustible materials which during finishing, 
packing or processing do not involve a significant &e hazard 
shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Beverages; up to and including 12-percent alcohol content 

Brick and masonry 

Ceramic products 

Foundries 

Glass products 

Gypsum 

Ice 

Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 

306.4 Places of meat and poultry inspection. [ARG] 

306.4.1 Meat and poultry processing plants. [ARG] See 

Section 1240. 

306.4.2 Collection centers and facilities. [ARG] See Sec- 
tion 1241. 

306.4.3 Renderers. [ARG] See Section 1242. 

306.4.4 Horsemeat and pet food establishments, [ARG] 

See Section 1243. 



SECTION 307 
HIGH-HAZARD GROUP H 

[F] 307.1 High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or struc- 
ture, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, 
processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a 
physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those 
allowed in control areas constructed and located as required in 
Section 414. Hazardous uses are classified in Groups H-1, H-2, 
H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this section, 
the requirements of Section 415 and the California Fire Code. 

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified in Group 
H, but shall be classified in the occupancy that they most 
nearly resemble: 

1. Buildings and structures that contain not more than 
the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
of hazardous materials as shown in Tables 307.1(1) 
and 307. 1 (2), provided that such buildings are main- 
tained in accordance with the California Fire Code. 

2. Buildings utilizing control areas in accordance with 
Section 414.2 that contain not more than the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area of haz- 
ardous materials as shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 
307.1(2). 

3. Buildings and structures occupied for the applica- 
tion of flammable finishes, provided that such build- 
ings or areas conform to the requirements of Section 
416 and the California Fire Code. 

4. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flanamable 
and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies 
conforming to the California Fire Code. 

5. Closed piping system containing flammable or 
combustible liquids or gases utiHzed for the opera- 
tion of machinery or equipment. 

6. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible 
liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) 
or higher in closed systems employing equipment 
Usted by an approved testing agency, provided that 
this occupancy is separated from all other areas of 
the building by 1-hour fire barriers or 1-hour hori- 
zontal assemblies or both. 

7. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent 
having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C). 

8 . Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage. 

9. Refrigeration systems. 

10. The storage or utilization of materials for agricul- 
tural purposes on the premises. 

11. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency 
power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommu^ 
nication facilities, provided that the batteries are 
provided with safety venting caps and ventilation is 
provided in accordance with the California Me- 
chanical Code. 

12. Corrosives shall not include personal or household 
products in their original packaging used in retail 
display or commonly used building materials. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



51 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



13. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol stor- 
age shall be classified as Group S-1, provided that 
such buildings conform to the requirements of the 
California Fire Code. 

14. Display and storage of nonflammable solid andnon- 
flammiable or noncombustible liquid hazardous ma- 
terials in quantities not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S 
occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5. 

15. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant 
and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and 
special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, 
M and S, provided such storage conforms to the 
quantity limits and requirements prescribed in the 
California Fire Code. 

16. [SFM] Group L occupancies as defined in Section 
443.1. 

307.1.1 Hazardous materials. Hazardous materials in any 
quantity shall conform to the requirements of this code, 
including Section 414, and the California Fire Code. 

[F] 307.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol con- 
tainer by a propellant. 

Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calcula- 
tion of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be desig- 
nated Level 1,2 or 3. 

Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British ther- 
mal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g). 

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but 
less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or a glass or plastic 
bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be Um- 
ited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1,000 ml). Glass 
or plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum size of 4 fluid 
ounces (118 ml). 

BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and 
secured with industry accepted materials, usually consisting of 
burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet 
polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands or 
wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) 
and motes (residual materials from the ginning process). 

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Cotton made into 
banded bales with a packing density of at least 22 pounds per 
cubic foot (360 kg/m'), and dimensions complying with the 
following: a length of 55 inches (1397 ± 20 mm), a width of 21 
inches (533.4 ± 20 mm) and aheight of 27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 
to 899 mm). 



BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of 
walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid 
release of energy in an explosion and which is fiaUy confined, 
partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of 
shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial bar- 
rier. 

Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a 
minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm). 

Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as 
hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding 
exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the 
magazine or building containing explosives when the trees 
are bare of leaves. 

BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pres- 
sure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds 
per square inch (psi) (101 kPa) gage or 760 mm of mercury. 
Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material 
in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boil- 
ing point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent 
evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with 
ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid. 

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the 
product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal opera- 
tions; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed 
systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed 
through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of 
equipment. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided sohd material that is 
420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 
or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burn- 
ing materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, 
cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, 
oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, cer- 
tain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does 
not include densely packed baled cotton. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A Hquid having a closed cup 
flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall 
be subdivided as follows: 

Class n. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 

Class IDA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

Class lllB. Liquids having a closed clip flash point at or 
above 200°F(93°C). 

The category of combustible hquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 



52 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



to 

o 
o 
■-a 



[F] TABLE 307.1(1) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD^- '• 


m, n, p 




MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 

THE MAXIMUM 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTITY IS 

EXCEEDED 


STORAGE" 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS" 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Combustible liquid*^- ' 


n 
mA 

lllB 


H-2orH-3 
H-2orH-3 

N/A 


N/A 


120"' = 
.330"''= 
13,200=-' 


N/A 


N/A 


120" 

330" 

13,200' 


N/A 


N/A 


30" 

80" 

3,300' 


Combustible fiber 


Loose baled" 


H-3 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(20) 
(200) 


N/A 


Consumer fireworks (Class 
C, Common) 


1.4G 


H-3 


125". e.i 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics flammable 


N/A 


H-2 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


10" 


Cryogenics, oxidizing 


N/A 


H-3 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


10" 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4G 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


H-1 
H-1 
H-1 or 2 
H-3 
H-3 
H-1 
H-1 


p,g 

ie,g 
5e.g 

SO^'S 
125"'='' 

ie,g 
I'i.e.g 


(l)e.g 
(l)e.g 
(5)=- 8 

(50)"=- 8 
N/A 

(l)e.g 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
0.258 

18 

508 
N/A 
0.258 
N/A 


(0.25)8 
(0.25)8 

(1)8 

(50)8 

N/A 

(0.25)8 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
0.258 

18 

N/A 
N/A 
0.258 
N/A 


(0.25)8 
(0.25)8 

(1)8 

N/A 

N/A 

(0.25)8 

N/A 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
liquefied 


H-2 


N/A 


N/A 
30"'' 


1,000".'= 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 
30". <= 


1,000"- = 
N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Flammable liquid" 


lA IB and IC 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


30"'"= 
120"- = 


N/A 


N/A 


30" 
120" 


N/A 


N/A 


10" 
30" 


Combination flammable 
liquid (lA, IB, IC) 


N/A 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


120". ^.h 


■ N/A 


N/A 


1204 h 


N/A 


N/A 


30"- h 


Flammable solid 


N/A 


H-3 


125"-'= 


N/A 


N/A 


125" 


N/A 


N/A 


25" 


N/A 


Organic peroxide 


UD 
I 

n 
m 

IV 
V 


H-1 
H-2 
H-3 
H-3 

N/A 
N/A 


ie,g 
5d.e 

50"-'= 

125''' = 

NL 

NL 


(l)e.g 

(5)".^ 
(50)"- <= 
(125)"- = 

NL 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
1" . 
50" 
125" 
N/L 
N/L 


(0.25)8 

(1) 

(50)" 

(125)" 

N/L 

N/L 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
1" 
10" 
25" 
NL 
NL 


(0.25)8 
(1)^ 
(10)" 
(25)" 
NL 
NL 


Oxidizer 


4 
3k 

2 
1 


H-1 

H-2 or H-3 

H-3 

N/A 


ie,g 
10d,e 

250"'^ 
4,000='f 


(l)e.g 

(10)"'= 
(250)"''^ 
(4,000)'='f 


N/A 

■ N/A 

N/A 

N/A 


0.258 

2" 

250" 

4,000' 


(0.25)8 

(2)" 
(250)" 
(4,000)' 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 

2" 

50" 
1,000' 


(0.25)8 
(2)" 
(50)" 

(1,000)' 


Oxidizing gas 


Gaseous 
liquefied 


H-3 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
15".= 


1,500"' = 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
IS-s.^ 


1,500"- = 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 



(continued) 



o 

> 

o 

Z 



4^ 



[F] TABLE 307.1(1)— continued 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD"- <■"■'<■■' 



o 
o 

>4 

O 

> 

■n 
O 
3) 

z 

> 

CD 

c 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 

THE MAXIMUM 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTITY IS 

EXCEEDED 




STORAGE" 




USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS" 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

atNTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Pyrophoric material 


N/A 


H-2 


4e,g 


(4)e.g 


50^ s 


IS 


(l)i 


10'=. g 








Unstable (reactive) 


4 
3 
2 
1 


H-1 

H-lorH-2 

H-3 

N/A 


p-g 
54 e 

50''' = 

NL 


(l)e,g 

(5)".'= 
(SO)"*-' 

NL 


IOI.S 

50*' 

250"-' 

N/L 


0.258 

1" 

50'' 

NL 


(0.25)8 

(1) 
(50)0 

N/L 


2=' 8 
10<i.e 

250"-' 
NL 


0.258 

1" 

10" 

NL 


(0.25)8 
(1)" 
(10)" 

NL 


Water reactive 


3 
2 
1 


H-2 
H-3 

N/A 


5d.e 
50d.e 

NL 


(so-i-^ 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


5" 
50" 
NL 


(5)" 
(50)0 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


1" 
10" 
NL 


(1)" 
(10)" 

NL 



c 

(0 

m 

> 
z 

D 

O 
O 
O 

c 

TJ 

> 
Z 

o 

-< 



> 

0) 
CO 



u 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1 .3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales 
occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not 
being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903 .3. 1 . 1 .Where Note e also applies, the increase for 
both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or safety cans. Where Note d also appUes, the increase for 
both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

g. Permitted only in bmldings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class lA, IB or IC flammable liquids. 

i. Inside a building, the maximum capacity of a combustible liquid storage system that is connected to a fuel-oil piping system shall be 660 gallons provided such system complies with the California Fire Code. 

j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment. Storage contain- 
ers and the manner of storage shall be approved. 

1. Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the iireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks, including packaging, 
shall be used. 

m. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703. 1 .2 of the California Fire Code. 

n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2). 

o. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 81 15 shall not be included in this material class. 

p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities: 

1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fiiel tanks on vehicles. 

2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code. 

3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the California Mechanical Code. 

4. Liquid fiiels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the California Mechanical Code. 



Q 
O 
O 
O 

m 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] TABLE 307.1(2) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARD^"''' 



MATERIAL 


STORAGE" 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEIVIS" 


USE-OPEN SYSTEIVIS" 


Solid pounds^' ' 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)^'' 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)' 


Solid pounds^ 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)^ 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)^ 


Solid pounds^ 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)^ 


Corrosive 


5,000 


500 


SlOf'S 


5,000 


500 


SlQf'S 


1,000 


100 


Highly toxic 


10 


(10)' 


20'' 


10 


(10)' 


20" 


3 


(3)' 


Toxic 


500 


(500)' 


SlQf 


500 


(500)' 


810f 


125 


(125)' 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 per- 
cent by volume of water-miscible Uquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are pack- 
aged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.4, see Table 414.2.4(1). 

d. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity Usted for storage. 

e. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the California Fire Code. 
Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

g. A single cylinder containing 1 50 pounds or less of anhydrous ammonia in a single control area in a nonsprinklered building shall be considered a maximum allow- 
able quantity. Two cylinders, each containing 1 50 pounds or less in a single control area, shall be considered a maximum allowable quantity provided the building 
is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

h. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the California Fire Code. 

i. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

j. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of ih& California Fire Code. 



COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials 
which: 

1. Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square 
inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) or pressure; and 

2. Has a boiUng point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia 
(101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in so- 
lution, except those gases which have no other health- or 
physical-hazard properties are not considered to be com- 
pressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 
psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C). 

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows: 

1. Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than 
those in solution, which are in a packaging under the 
charged pressure and ai-e entirely gaseous at a tempera- 
ture of 68°F(20°C). 

2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packag- 
ing under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a 
temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3 . Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that 
are dissolved in a solvent. 

4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or 
more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the 
hazard properties of which afe represented by the proper- 
ties of the mixture as a whole. 

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allow- 
able quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or 
handled. See also the definition of "Outdoor control area" in 
the California Fire Code. 

CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, 
or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at 
the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive 



if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method 
described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173137, such a chemical 
destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the 
point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This 
term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower 
than -150°F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmo- 
sphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa). 

DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive 
materials constructed in accordance with the requirements for 
a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 33 of 
the California Fire Code. 

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the 
extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, 
in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material 
at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have 
an explosive effect. 

DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, 
without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use 
of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from 
all structures. 

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the 
presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and 
maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through 
the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The 
principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. 
Detonations have an explosive effect. 

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material 
from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, 
fumes, mists or gases ai'e liberated to the atmosphere. 

EXPLOSIVE. Any chemical compound, mixture or device, 
the primary or common purpose of which is to function by 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



55 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, 
black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, 
safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and 
display fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special). 

The term "explosive" includes any material determined to be 
within the scope of USC Title 1 8 : Chapter 40 and also includes 
any material classified as an explosive other than consumer 
fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) by the hazardous materi- 
als regulations of DOTn 49 CFR. 

High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, 
which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test 
blasting cap when unconfined. 

Low explosive. Explosive material that will bum or defla- 
grate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction 
that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explo- 
sives include, but are not limited to, black powder; safety 
fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 1.3G 
(Class B, Special) and propellants, 1.3C. 

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 
explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various 
types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be 
expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small 
portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the 
impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable 
discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in 
this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an 
explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to 
adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur imme- 
diately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored 
sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the 
initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so 
that two or more quantities must be considered as one for 
quantity-distance purposes. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification 
system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and "low" 
explosives as defined herein. The following terms further 
define explosives under the current system applied by 
DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 
materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert 
with the division to specify further limitations on each divi- 
sion noted (i.e., the letter G identifies the material as a pyro- 
technic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic 
substance and similar materials). 

Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion haz- 
ard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the 
entire load instantaneously. 

Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard 
but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and 
either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard 
or both, but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion 
hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the 
package and no projection of fragments of appreciable 
size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not 
cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the 
entire contents of the package. 



Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division 
is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion 
hazard, but that are so insensitive there is very little prob- 
ability of initiation or of transition from burning to deto- 
nation under normal conditions of transport. 

Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not 
have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised 
of articles that contain only extremely insensitive deto- 
nating substances and which demonstrate a negUgible 
probability of accidental initiation or propagation. 

FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of 
producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment pur- 
poses by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the 
definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth 
herein. 

FIREWORKS, 1.3G. (Formerly Class B, Special Fireworks.) 
Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, 
intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce 
audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or deto- 
nation. Such 1 .3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, fire- 
crackers containing more than 130 miUigrams (2 grains) of 
explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 
grams of pyrotechnic composition, and other display pieces 
which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. 
Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as fureworks, UN0335 
by the DOTn. 

FIREWORKS, 1.4G. (Formerly Class C, Common Fire- 
works.) Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts 
of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce vis- 
ible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks 
which comply with the construction, chemical composition 
and labeling regulations of the DOTn for fireworks, IJN0336, 
and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as 
set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explo- 
sive materials for the purpose of this code. 

FLAMMABLE GAS. A material that is a gas at 68°F (20°C) 
or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 
kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68°F 
(20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which: 

1 . Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in amixture of 13 
percent or less by volume with air; or 

2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of 
at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. 

The hmits specified shall be determined at 1 4.7 psi ( 1 1 kPa) 
of pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accordance 
with ASTME 681. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A hquefied compressed 
gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a tem- 
perature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash 
point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further cate- 
gorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I cate- 
gory is subdivided as follows: 

Class lA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C). 



56 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Class IB, Liquids having a flash point below VST (23°C) 
and a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C). 

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F 
(23°C) and below 100°F (38°C). 

The category of flammable liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

FLAMMABLE MATERL^L, A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a tempera- 
ture of 600°F (316°C) or less. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent 
or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, 
absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or 
retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has 
an ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which bums 
so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a seri- 
ous hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid 
as determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 
CFR; Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns with a self-sustained 
flame at a rate greater than 0. 1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along 
its major axis. 

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahr- 
enheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form 
an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the con- 
tainer, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liq- 
uid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and 
apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 
3278. 

HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point 
of storage or use. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or sub- 
stances that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined 
and classified in this section and the California Fire Code, 
whether the materials are in usable or waste condition. 

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which 
there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic 
health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The 
term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic or 
highly toxic, and corrosive. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or 
lethal concentration that falls within any of the following cate- 
gories: 

1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 
miUigrams or less per kilogram of body weight when ad- 
ministered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 
and 300 grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when ad- 
ministered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3 . A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LCjq) 
in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or 
vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or 
dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 
hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats 
weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. 



Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as 
water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic; While 
this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evalu- 
ation that is required for the precise categorization of this type 
of material shall be performed by experienced, technically 
competent persons. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when 
mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates 
heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or 
property. 

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or Uquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are 
liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during 
normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and 
liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunc- 
tion with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive 
materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another 
with the use of intraplant or intraline distances. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains 
the bivalent -0-0- structure and which may be considered to be 
a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both 
of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radi- 
cal. Organic peroxides can pose an explosion hazard (detona- 
tion or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can 
also decompose into various unstable compounds over an 
extended period of time. 

Class I. Those formulations that are capable of deflagration 
but not detonation. 

Class H. Those formulations that burn very rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class III. Those formulations that burn rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class IV. Those formulations that burn in the same manner 
as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity 
hazard. 

Class V. Those formulations that bum with less intensity 
than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion 
and that pose no reactivity hazard. 

Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable 
of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high 
explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition. 

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other 
oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate com- 
bustion of combustible materials. Examples of other oxidizing 
gases include bromine, chlorine and fluorine. 

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction 
due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical 
shock. Additionally, the oxidizer will enhance the burning 
rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles. 

Class 3. An oxidizer that will cause a severe increase in the 
burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



57 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



in contact or that will undergo vigorous self-sustained 
decomposition due to contamination or exposure to heat. 

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in 
the burning rate or that causes spontaneous ignition of com- 
bustible materials with which it comes in contact. 

Class 1. An oxidizer whose primary hazard is that it slightly 
increases the burning rate but which does not cause sponta- 
neous ignition when it comes in contact with combustible 
materials. 

OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate 
combustion of other materials. 

PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evi- 
dence that it is a combustible hquid, compressed gas, cryo- 
genic, explosive, flammable gas, flammable liquid, flammable 
solid, organic peroxide, oxidizer, pyrophoric or unstable (reac- 
tive) or water-reactive material. 

PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an autoignition tempera- 
ture in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C). 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture 
that produces visible light displays or sounds through a 
self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is 
initiated by ignition. 

TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following cate- 
gories: 

1 . A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more 
than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 
milligrams per kilogram of body weight when adminis- 
tered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 
grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LDjq) of more 
than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 
1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when ad- 
ministered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3 . A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) 
in air of more than 200 parts per million but not more 
than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or 
more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 mil- 
ligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when adminis- 
tered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death 
occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 
200 and 300 grams each. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other 
than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially 
produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense 
or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical 
changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or 
shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of 
contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. 
Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of 
detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reac- 
tion at normal temperatures and pressures. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or local- 
ized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures. 



Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detona- 
tion or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but 
which require a strong initiating source or which must be 
heated under confinement before initiation. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechani- 
cal shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable 
and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not det- 
onate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemi- 
cal change with rapid release of energy at normal 
temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent 
chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but 
which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and 
pressure. 

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that 
explodes; violently reacts; produces flanmiable, toxic or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition 
or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or mois- 
ture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without 
requiring heat or confinement. 

Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the 
ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, 
toxic or other hazardous gases or evolve enough heat to 
cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon expo- 
sure to water or moisture. 

Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of 
energy, but not violently. 

[F] 307.3 High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be 
classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Explosives: 

Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exception: Materials that are used and maintained in 
a form where either confinement or configuration will 
not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explo- 
sion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies. 

Division 1.4 

Exception: Articles, including articles packaged for 
shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under 
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regula- 
tions, or unpackaged articles used in process opera- 
tions that do not propagate a detonation or 
deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 
occupancies. 

Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3 detonable and Class 4 

Detonable pyrophoric materials 



58 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] 307.4 High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard 
from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. 
Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- 
ing: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids which 
are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, 
or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 
15 psi (103.4 kPa) gage. 

Combustible dusts 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides. Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
open containers or systems, or in closed containers or 
systems pressurized at more than 15 psi (103 kPa) 
gage 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials. Class 3 

[F] 307.5 High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such 
materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are 
used or stored in normally closed containers or systems 
pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 
kPa) or less 

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton 

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) 

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Flammable solids 

Organic peroxides. Class II and in 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed 
containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 2 

Water-reactive materials. Class 2 ' 

[F] 307.6 High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classi- 
fied as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

[F] 307.7 High-hazard Group H-5 structures. Semiconduc- 
tor fabrication facilities and comparable research and develop- 
ment areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) 
are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of 
those listed in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be classified 
as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with Section 415.8. 

[F] 307.8 Multiple hazards. Buildings and structures contain- 
ing a material or materials representing hazards that are classi- 
fied in one or more of Groups H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall 



conform to the code requirements for each of the occupancies 
so classified. 



SECTION 308 
INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I 

308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a super- 
vised environment, having physical limitations because of 
health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care 
or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or cor- 
rectional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is 
restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as 
Group I- 1 , 1-2, 1-3 or 1-4. Restraint shall not be permitted in any 
building except in Group 1-3 occupancies constructed/or such 
use (see Section 308.4). 

Where occupancies house both ambulatory and nonambula- 
tory persons, the more restrictive requirements shall apply. 

308.2 Group I-l. This occupancy shall include buildings, 
structures or parts thereof housing clients, on a 24-hour basis, 
who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a 
supervised residential environment that provides personal care 
services. 

This occupancy may contain more than six nonambulatory 
and/or bedridden clients. (See Section 425, Special Provisions 
For Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group I-l, R-3.1, or 
R-4 Occupancy). This group shall include, but not be Umited 
to, the following: 

Assisted living facilities such as: Residential Care Facilities, 
Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE's), Adult 
Residential Facilities, Congregate Living Health facilities, 
Group homes, Residential Care Facilities for the Chronically 
III, and Congregate Living Health Facilities for the Terminally 
III. 

Social rehabilitation facilities such as: Halfway houses, 
Community Correctional Centers, Community Correction 
Reentry Centers, Community Treatment Programs, Work Fur- 
lough Programs, and Alcoholism or drug abuse recovery or 
treatment facilities. 

308.3 Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or 
custodial care on a 24-hour basis for more than six persons who 
are classified as nonambulatory or bedridden. This group shall 
include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Hospitals 

Nursing homes (both intermediate care facilities and skilled 

nursing facilities) 
Mental hospitals 
Detoxification facilities 

308.3.1 Child care facility. A child care facility that pro- 
vides care on a 24-hour basis to more than six children 2V2 
years of age or less shall be classified as Group 1-2. 

308.3.2 Group 1-2.1 ambulatory care facility. A healthcare 
facility that receives persons for outpatient medical care 
that may render the patient incapable of unassisted 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



59 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



self-preservation and where each tenant space accommo- 
dates more than five such patients. 

308.4 Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include buildings or 
portions of buildings and structures that are inhabited by one or 
more persons who are under restraint. An 1-3 facility is occu- 
pied by persons who are restrained. This group shall include, 
but not be limited to, the following: 

Prisons 
Jails 

Reformatories 
Detention centers 
Correctional centers 
Juvenile Halls 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the 
occupancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4. 1 through 
308.4.5 (see Section 408.1). 

308.4.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas, and other spaces v^'here access or occupancy 
is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without 
restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be con- 
structed as Group R. 

308.4.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed fi:om 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment 
to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the 
exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

308.4.3 Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a residen- 
tial unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group 
activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-con- 
trolled release of means of egress firom such a smoke com- 
partment to another smoke compartment. 

308.4.4 Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to 
permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and 
other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to 
other smoke compartments. 

308.4.5 Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compart- 
ment to other smoke compartments. 

308.4.6 Definitions. 

For the purpose of this chapter, certain terms are defined 
as follows: 

CELL is a housing unit in a detention or correctional facil- 
ity for the confinement of not more than two inmates or pris- 
oners. 

CELL COMPLEX is a cluster or group of cells or dormito- 
ries in a jail, prison or other detention facility, together with 
rooms used for accessory purposes, all of which open into 



the cell complex, and are used for functions such as dining, 
counseling, exercise, classrooms, sick call, visiting,. storage, 
staff offices, control rooms or similar functions, and inter- 
connecting corridors all within the cell complex. 

CELL TIERS are cells, dormitories and accessory spaces. 
Cell tiers are located one level above the other, and do not 
exceed two levels per floor A cell tier shall not be consid- 
ered a story or mezzanine. 

DAY ROOM is a room which is adjacent to a cell, or cell tier, 
or dormitory and which is used as a dining, exercise or other 
activity room for inmates. 

DORMITORY is an area occupied by no less than three 
inmates. 

HOLDING FACILITY means a detention or correctional 
facility or area where inmates, staff and public are not 
housed but are restrained. 

HOUSING UNIT is an area intended to lodge inmates on a 
24-hour basis where accommodations are provided for 
sleeping. 

RESTRAINT shall mean the physical retention of a person 
within a room, cell or holding facility by any means, or 
within a building by means of locked doors. 

308.5 Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group shall include 
buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who 
receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals 
other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or 
adoption and in a place other than the home of the person cared 
for. A facility such as the above with six or fewer persons shall 
be classified as a Group R-3. Places of worship during religious 
functions are not included. 

308.5.1 Adult care facility. A facility that provides accom- 
modations for less than 24 hours for more than six unrelated 
adults and provides supervision and personal care services 
shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

308.5.2 Cliild care facility. A facility that provides supervi- 
sion and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more 
than six children 2 '4 years of age or less shall be classified as 
Group 1-4. 

Exception: A child day care facility that provides care 
for more than six but no more than 1 00 children 2 Vj years 
or less of age, when the rooms where such children are 
cared for are located on the level of exit discharge and 
each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to 
the exterior, shall be classified as Group E. 

308.5.2.1 Special provisions. See Section 442.4 for 
daycares located above or below the first story. 



SECTION 309 
MERCANTILE GROUP M 

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, buildings and structures or a portion 
thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves 
stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such pur- 



60 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



poses and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 

309.2 Quantity of hazardous materials. The aggregate quan- 
tity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed 
in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not 
exceed the quantities in Table 414.2.5(1). 



SECTION 310 
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R 

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institu- 
tional Group I. Residential occupancies shall include the fol- 
lowing: 

R-1 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units 
where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, 
including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 

Hotels (transient) 

Motels (transient) 

[HCD 1] Efficiency dwelling units (transient) 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or 
more than two dwelling units where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (not transient) 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 

Hotels (nontransient) 

Monasteries 

Motels (nontransient) 

Vacation timeshare properties 

[HCD 1] Efficiency dwelling units (nontransient) 

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer occu- 
pants are permitted to comply with the construction 
requirements for Group R-3. 

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are pri- 
marily permanent in nature and not classified as Group 
R-1, R-2, R-3.1, R-4 or I, including: 

Buildings other than townhouses that do not contain 

more than two dwelling units. 
Townhouses not more than three stories above grade 

in height with a separate means of egress. 
[SFM] Adult care facilities that provide accommoda- 
tions for clients of any age for less than 24 hours. 
Licensing categories that may use this classification 
include, but are not limited to: Adult Day-care Facili- 
ties, Adult Day-support Center 



[SFM] Child care facilities that provide accommoda- 
tions for clients of any age for less than 24 hours. 
Licensing categories that may use this classification 
include, but are not limited to: 
Family Day-care Homes, Day-care Center for 
Mildly III Children, Infant Care Center and 
School Age Child Day-care Center 
Congregate living facilities with 1 6 or fewer persons. 

R-3.1. [SFM] This occupancy group may include facilities 
licensed by a governmental agency for a residen- 
tially based 24-hour care facility providing accom- 
modations for six or fewer clients of any age. Clients 
may be classified as ambulatory, nonambulatory or 
bedridden. A Group R-3. 1 occupancy shall meet the 
requirements for construction as defined for Group 
R-3, except as otherwise provided for in Section 425, 
Special Provisions For Licensed 24-Hour Care Fa- 
cilities in a Group I- 1, R-3.1 or R-4 Occupancy. This 
group may include: 

Adult Residential Facilities 

Congregate Living Health Facilities 

Foster Family Homes 

Group Homes 

Intermediate Care Facilities for the Developmen- 
tally Disabled Habilitative 

Intermediate Care Facilities for the Developmen- 
tally Disabled Nursing 

Nurseries for the full-time care of children under 
the age of six, but not including "infants" as 
defined in Section 310 

Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly 

Small Family Homes and Residential Care Facili- 
ties for the Chronically III 

Exception: Group Homes licensed by the 
Department of Social Services which provide 
nonmedical board, room and care for six or 
fewer ambulatory children or children two 
years of age or younger, and which do not have 
any nonambulatory clients shall not be subject 
to regulations found in Section 425. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13143 with respect to these exempted facilities, no 
city, county, or public district shall adopt or enforce 
any requirement for the prevention of fire or for the 
protection of life and property against fire and panic 
unless the requirement would be applicable to a 
structure regardless of the special occupancy. Noth- 
ing shall restrict the application of state or local 
housing standards to such facilities if the standards 
are applicable to residential occupancies and are 
not based on the use of the structure as a facility for 
ambulatory children. For the purpose of this excep- 
tion, "ambulatory children" does not include rela- 
tives of the licensee or the licensee's spouse. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings ar- 
ranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living 
facilities including more than six ambulatory clients, 
excluding staff. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



61 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the require- 
ments for construction as defined for Group R-3, 
except as otherwise provided for in this code. 

This occupancy classification may include a maxi- 
mum six nonambulatory or bedridden clients (see Sec- 
tion 425, Special Provisions For Licensed 24-Hour Care 
Facilities in a Group I-l, R-3.1, or R-4 Occupancy). 
Group R-4 occupancies shall include the following: 

Assisted living facilities such as: Residential care 
facilities, Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly 
(RCFE's), Adult Residential Facilities, Congregate Liv- 
ing Health facilities, and Group homes. 

Social rehabilitation facilities such as: Halfway 
houses. Community Correctional Centers, Community 
Correction Reentry Centers, Community Treatment Pro- 
grams, Work Furlough Programs, and Alcoholism or 
drug abuse recovery or treatment facilities. 

310.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION [SFM] is a facility used 
for the housing of persons 65 years of age or older in need of 
care and supervision. (See definition of "Care and supervi- 
sion. ") 

BEDRIDDEN PERSON [SFM] means a person, requiring 
assistance in turning and repositioning in bed, or being unable 
to independently transfer to and from bed, except in facilities 
with appropriate and sufficient care staff, mechanical devices if 
necessary, and safety precautions as determined in Title 22 reg- 
ulations, by the Director of Social Services or his or her desig- 
nated representative. 

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated rep- 
resentative shall make the determination of the bedridden sta- 
tus of persons with developmental disabilities, in consultation 
with the Director of Developmental Services or his or her des- 
ignated representative. 

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated rep- 
resentative shall make the determination of the bedridden sta- 
tus of all other persons with disabilities who are not 
developmentally disabled. 

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodg- 
ing for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied 
as a single-family unit. 

CARE AND SUPERVISION [SFM] means any one or more 
of the following activities provided by a person or facility to 
meet the needs of the clients: 

Assistance in dressing, grooming, bathing and other per- 
sonal hygiene. 

Assistance with taking medication. 

Central storage and/or distribution of medications. 

Arrangement of and assistance with medical and dental 
care. 

Maintenance of house rules for the protection of clients. 

Supervision of client schedules and activities. 



Maintenance and/or supervision of client cash resources or 
property. 

Monitoring of food intake or special diets. 

Providing basic services required by applicable law and 
regulation to be provided by the licensee in order to obtain 
and maintain a community-care facility license. 

CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED, [SFM] as termed, means 
a person whose origin of disability was acquired through 
trauma or nondegenerative neurologic illness, for whom it has 
been determined by the Department of Health Services Certifi- 
cation and Licensing that active rehabilitation would be bene- 
ficial. 

CHILD-CARE CENTER [SFM] is any facility of any capac- 
ity other than a large or small family day-care home as defined 
in these regulations in which less than 24-hour-per-day 
nonmedical supervision is provided for children in a group set- 
ting. 

CHILD OR CHILDREN [SFM] is a person or persons under 
the age of 18 years. 

CHRONICALLY ILL [B] [SFM] See "Terminally ill." 

CONGREGATE LIVING HEALTH FACILITY (CLHF), 

[SFM] as termed, is a residential home with a capacity of no 
more than six beds, which provides inpatient care, including 
the following basic services: medical supervision, 24-hour 
skilled nursing and supportive care, pharmacy, dietary, social 
recreational, and at least provides services for persons who are 
diagnosed with a terminal illness or who are catastrophically 
and severely disabled. 

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part 
thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bath- 
room and/or kitchen facilities. 

CONGREGATE RESIDENCE [SFM] is any building or por- 
tion thereof that contains facilities for living, sleeping and san- 
itation, as required by this code, and may include facilities for 
eating and cooking, for occupancy by other than a family. A 
congregate residence may be a shelter, convent, monastery, 
dormitory, fraternity or sorority house, but does not include 
jails, hospitals, nursing homes, hotels or lodging houses. 

DAY CARE [SFM] shall, for the purposes of these regulations, 
mean the care of persons during any period of a 24-hour day 
where permanent sleeping accommodations are not provided. 

Note: "Day care" shall not be construed to preclude the use 
of cots or mats for napping purposes, provided all employ- 
ees, attendants and staff personnel are awake and on duty in 
the area where napping occurs. 

DAY-CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY [SFM] is a provider's 
own home which is licensed to provide day care for periods less 
than 24 hours per day for nine to 14 persons, including chil- 
dren under the age of 10 years who reside at the home. 

DAY-CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY [SFM] is a home 
which provides family day care to eight or fewer children, 
including children under the age of 10 years who reside at the 
home, in the provider's own home, for periods of less than 24 
hours per day. Small-family day-care homes are exemptedfrom 
state fire and life safety regulations other than those state and 



62 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



local standards applicable to Group R, Division 3 occupan- 
cies. [See Health and Safety Code, Section 13143 (b).] 

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping 
accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of 
closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same 
family group, under joint occupancy and single management, 
as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. 

FULL-TIME CARE [B][SFM] shall mean the establishment 
and routine care of persons on an hourly, daily, weekly, 
monthly, yearly or permanent basis, whether for 24 hours per 
day or less, and where sleeping accommodations are provided. 

INFANT, [B] [SFM] for the purpose of these regulations, shall 
mean any child who because of age only, is unable to walk and 
requires the aid of another person to evacuate the building. In 
no case shall the term "infant" mean a child beyond two years 
of age. 

MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS, PROFOUNDLY OR 
SEVERELY [B] [SFM] shall mean any retarded person who is 
unable to evacuate a building unassisted during emergency 
conditions. 

Note: The determination as to such incapacity shall be 
made by the Director of the State Department of Public 
Health or his or her designated representative pursuant to 
Health and Safety Code Section 13131.3. 

NONAMBULATORY PERSONS [B] [SFM] are persons 
unable to leave a building unassisted under emergency condi- 
tions. It includes, but is not limited to, persons who depend on 
mechanical aids such as crutches, walkers and wheelchairs 
and any person who is unable to physically and mentally 
respond to a sensory signal approved by the State Fire Marshal 
or an oral instruction relating to fire danger. 

The determination of ambulatory or nonambulatory status of 
persons with developmental disabilities shall be made by the 
Director of Social Services or his or her designated representa- 
tive, in consultation with the director of Developmental Ser- 
vices or his or her designated representative. The 
determination of ambulatory or nonambulatory status of all 
other disabled persons placed after January 1, 1984, who are 
not developmentally disabled shall be made by the Director of 
Social Services or his or her designated representative. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONI- 
CALLY ILL (RCF/CI) [SFM] as termed, means a housing 
arrangement with a maximum capacity of 25 residents that 
provides a range of services to residents who have chronic, 
life-threatening illnesses. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE ELDERLY 
(RCFE) [SFM] as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 
1569.2, shall mean a facility with a housing arrangement cho- 
sen voluntarily by persons 60 years of age or over, or their 
authorized representative, where varying levels and intensities 
of care and supervision, protective supervision or personal 
care are provided, based on their varying needs, as determined 
in order to be admitted and to remain in the facility. Persons 
under 60 years of age with compatible needs, as determined by 



the Department of Social Services in regulations, may be 
allowed to be admitted or retained in a residential care facility 
for the elderly. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regula- 
tions of the state fire marshal pertaining to Group R, Division 2 
occupancies classified as Residential Facilities (RF) and Resi- 
dential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply uni- 
formly throughout the state and no city, county, city and county, 
including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection 
district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or 
regulation relating to fire andpanic safety which is inconsistent 
with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, including 
a charter city or charter county may pursuant to Health and 
Safety Code Section 13143.5, or afire protection district may 
pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt 
standards more stringent than those adopted by the state fire 
marshal that are reasonably necessary to accommodate local 
climate, geological, or topographical conditions relating to 
roof coverings for Residential-Care Facilities for the Elderly. 

RESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF) [SFM] as defined in Section 
1502 of the Health and Safety Code, shall mean any family 
home, group care facility, or similar facility determined by the 
director of Social Services, for 24-hour nonmedical care of 
persons in need of personal services, supervision, or assis- 
tance essential for sustaining the activities of daily living or for 
the protection of the individual. Such facilities include small 
family homes and social rehabilitation facilities. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regula- 
tions of the State Fire Marshal pertaining to Group R Occupan- 
cies classified as Residential Facilities (RF) and Residential 
Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply uniformly 
throughout the state and no city, county, city and county, 
including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection 
district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or 
regulation relating to fire andpanic safety which is inconsistent 
with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, including 
a charter city or charter county may pursuant to Health and 
Safety Code Section 13143.5, or a fire protection district may 
pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt 
standards more stringent than those adopted by the state fire 
marshal that are reasonably necessary to accommodate local 
climate, geological, or topographical conditions relating to 
roof coverings for Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly. 

TERMINALLY ILL [SFM] as termed for an individual, 
means the individual has a life expectancy of six months or less 
as stated in writing by his or her attending physician and sur- 
geon. 

TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
for not more than 30 days. 

310.3 Large-family day care homes. [SFM] 

310.3.1 For purposes of clarification. Health and Safety 
Code Section 1597.46 is repeated. 

(a) A city, county, or city and county shall not prohibit 
large-family day-care homes on lots zoned for sin- 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



63 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



gle-family dwellings, but shall do one of the follow- 
ing: 

(1) Classify these homes as a permitted use of res- 
idential property for zoning purposes. 

(2) Grant a nondiscretionary permit to use a lot 
zoned for a single-family dwelling to any 
large-family day care home that complies 
with local ordinances prescribing reasonable 
standards, restrictions, and requirements 
concerning spacing and concentration, traffic 
control, parking, and noise control relating to 
such homes, and complies with subdivision 
(d) and any regulations adopted by the State 
Fire Marshal pursuant to that subdivision. 
Any noise standards shall be consistent with 
local noise ordinances implementing the 
noise element of the general plan and shall 
take into consideration the noise level gener- 
ated by children. The permit issued pursuant 
to this paragraph shall be granted by the zon- 
ing administrator, if any, or if there is no zon- 
ing administrator by the person or persons 
designated by the planning agency to grant 
such permits, upon the certification without a 
hearing. 

(3) Require any large-family day care home to 
apply for a permit to use a lot zoned for sin- 
gle-family dwellings. The zoning administra- 
tor, if any, or if there is no zoning 
administrator, the person or persons desig- 
nated by the planning agency to handle the 
use permits shall review and decide the appli- 
cations. The use permit shall be granted if the 
large-family day care home complies with lo- 
cal ordinances, if any, prescribing reasonable 
standards, restrictions, and requirements 
concerning spacing and concentration, traffic 
control, parking, and noise control relating to 
such homes, and complies with subdivision 
(d) and any regulations adopted by the State 
Fire Marshal pursuant to that subdivision. 

Any noise standards shall be consistent with lo- 
cal noise ordinances implementing the noise ele- 
ment of the general plan and shall take into 
consideration the noise levels generated by chil- 
dren. 

The local government shall process any re- 
quired permit as economically as possible, and 
fees charged for review shall not exceed the costs 
of the review and permit process. Not less than 10 
days prior to the date on which the decision will be 
made on the application, the zoning administrator 
or person designated to handle such use permits 
shall give notice of the proposed use by mail or de- 
livery to all owners shown on the last equalized as- 
sessment roll as owning real property within a 
100-foot (30 480 mm) radius of the exterior bound- 
aries of the proposed large-family day care home. 
No hearing on the application for a permit issued 



pursuant to this paragraph shall be held before a 
decision is made unless a hearing is requested by 
the applicant or other affected person. The appli- 
cant or other affected person may appeal the deci- 
sion. The appellant shall pay the cost, if any, of the 
appeal. 

(b) A large-family day-care home shall not be subject to 
the provisions of Division 13 (commencing with 
Section 21000) of the Public Resources Code. 

(c) Use of a single-family dwelling for the purposes of a 
large-family day care home shall not constitute a 
change of occupancy for purposes of Part 1.5 (com- 
mencing with Section 17910) of Division 13 (State 
Housing Law), or for purposes of local building and 
fire codes. 

(d) Large-family day care homes shall be considered as 
single-family residences for the purposes of the 
State Uniform Building Standards Code and local 
building and fire codes, except with respect to any 
additional standards specifically designed to pro- 
mote the fire and life safety of the children in these 
homes adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant 
to this subdivision. 

310.3.2 Smoke alarm. Large-family day care homes shall 
be equipped with State Fire Marshal approved and listed 
single-station residential-type smoke alarms. The number 
and placement of smoke alarms shall be determined by the 
enforcement authority. 

310.3.3 Fire extinguishers. Large- and small-family day 
care homes shall be equipped with a portable fire extin- 
guisher having a minimum 2- A: 10-B:C rating. 

310.3.4 Fire alarm devices. Every large-family day care 
home shall be provided with at least one manual device at a 
location approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 
Such device shall actuate afire alarm signal, which shall be 
audible throughout the facility at a minimum level of 15 db 
above ambient noise level. These devices need not be inter- 
connected to any other fire alarm device, have a control 
panel or be electrically supervised or provided with emer- 
gency power. Such device or devices shall be attached to the 
structure and may be of any type acceptable to the enforcing 
agent, provided that such devices are distinctive in tone and 
are audible throughout the structure. 

310.3.5 Compliance. Every large-family day care home 
shall comply with the provisions for Group R-3 occupan- 
cies. 

Enforcement of these provisions shall be in accordance 
with the Health and Safety Code Sections 13145 and 13146. 
No city, county, city and county, or district shall adopt or 
enforce any building ordinance or local rule or regulation 
relating to the subject of fire and life safety in large-family 
day care homes which is inconsistent with those standards 
adopted by the State Fire Marshal, except to the extent the 
building ordinance or local rule or regulation applies to sin- 
gle-family residences in which day care is not provided. 

310.3.6 Special hazards. Every unenclosed gas-fired water 
heater or furnace which is within the area used for child 



64 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



care in a large-family day care home shall be protected in 
such a way as to prevent children from making contact with 
those appliances. 

Exception: This does not apply to kitchen stoves or 
ovens. 



SECTION 311 
STORAGE GROUP S 

311.1 Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occu- 
pancy. 

311.2 Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings 
occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, 
including, but not limited to, storage of the following: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 

Aircraft repair hangar 

Bags: cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboos and rattan 

Baskets 

Belting: canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Dry boat storage (indoor) 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum 

allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in 

Table 307. 1(1) (see Section 406.6) 
Photo engravings 
Resilient flooring 
Silks 
Soaps 
Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 
Upholstery and mattresses 
Wax candles 

311.3 Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials 
such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or 
without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such 
products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic 
trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Storage uses 
shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following: 

Aircraft hangar 
Asbestos 



Beverages up to and including 12-percent alcohol in metal, 

glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Empty cans 
Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 

Glass botdes, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 
Meats 

Metal cabinets 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 
Parking garages, open or enclosed 
Porcelain and pottery 
Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 
Washers and dryers 



SECTION 312 
UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U 

312.1 General. Buildings and structures of an accessory char- 
acter and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific 
occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to 
conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with 
the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family resi- 
dence (see Section 412.3) 
Bams 
Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 
Greenhouses 
Livestock shelters 
Private garages 
Retaining walls 
Sheds 
Stables 
Tanks 
Towers 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



65 



66 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 

CHAPTER 4 - SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED 

ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 






Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 












X 

♦ 


X 


X 


X 


X 








( 










Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed beiow) 




X 


X 

♦ 


X 

♦ 
































Adopt oniy those sections 
that are listed beiow 












X 














X 










X 




Chapter/ 
Section 


Codes 


403.1 


CA 




X 




































403.1.1 


CA 




X 




































403.1.2 


CA 




X 




































403.2 


CA 




X 




































403.3.1 


CA 




X 




































403.9 


CA 




X 




































403.12 


CA 




X 




































403.13 


CA 




X 




































403.13.1 


CA 




X 




































403.13.2 


CA 




X 




































403.15 


CA 




X 




































404.5 


CA 




X 




































404.9 


CA 




X 




































405.1 


CA 




X 




































406.2.2 


IBC 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























406.7-406.7.4 


CA 




X 


♦ 


♦ 


























• 






407.1 


CA 




X 




































407.2 


CA 




X 




































407.2.1 


CA 




X 




































407.2.2 


CA 




X 




































407.3 


CA 




X 




































407.3.1 


CA 




X 




































407.3.1.1 


CA 




X 




































407.3.3 


CA 




X 




































407.3.4 


CA 




X 




































407.4 


CA 




X 




































407.4.2 


CA 




X 




































407.5 


CA 




X 




































407.5.1 


CA 




X 




































407.6 


CA 




X 




































407.7 


CA 




X 




































407.8 


CA 




X 




































408.1.1 


CA 




X 




































408.2 


CA 




X 




































408.3.1.1 


CA 




X 




































408.3.4 


CA 




X 




































408.3.4.1 


CA 




X 




































408.3.4.2 


CA 




X 




































408.3.4.3 


CA 




X 
























1 











2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



67 



CHAPTER 4 - SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS 
BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ctiapter 


X 












X 

♦ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 

♦ 


X 

♦ 
































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 












X 














X 










X 




Chapter /Section 


Codes 


408.3.4.4 


CA 




X 




































408.3.6 


CA 




X 




































408.3.6.1 


CA 




X 




































408.3.6.2 


CA 




X 




































408.4 


CA 




X 




































408.4.3 


CA 




X 




































408.5 


CA 




X 




































408.6 


CA 




X 




































408.7 


CA 




X 




































408.7.1 


CA 




X 




































408.9 - 
408.14 


CA 




X 




































409.3 


IBC 






X 


X 
































410.2 Platform 
& Stage 


IBC 












X 




























412.1.6 


CA 












X 




























419,1 


CA 




X 




































419.4 


CA 






X 


































419.4.1 


CA 






X 


































419.4.2 


CA 






X 


































419.4.3 


CA 






X 


































419.4.4 


CA 






X 


































419.5 


CA 




X 




































419.6 


CA 




X 




































425 


CA 




X 




































426 


CA 




X 




































430 


CA 




X 




































431 


CA 




X 




































432 


CA 




X 




































433 


CA 




X 




































434 


CA 




X 





































68 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 4 - SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS 
BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SB 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 












X 

♦ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt Entire Chapter as. 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 

♦ 


X 

♦ 
































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 












X 














X 










X 




Chapter/ 
Section 


Codes 


436 


CA 




X 




































439 


CA 




X 
































X 




440 


CA 




X 






















X 














442 


CA 




X 




































443 


CA 




X 




































445 


CA 




X 















































































The ♦ designation indicates thatttie Office of the State Fire IVIarshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is 
applicable to structures subject to HCD 1 and/or HCD 2 or DSA-SS. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



69 



V 



70 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 4 

SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND 

OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 401 
SCOPE 

401.1 Detailed use and occupancy requirements. In addition 
to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, 
the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and 
occupancies described herein. 



SECTION 402 
COVERED MALL BUILDINGS 

402.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings 
not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three 
stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by 
this section, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable pro- 
visions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not 
required to comply with this section. 

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this 
section when they totally comply with other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

402.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a 
group other than H having direct access to. a covered mall build- 
ing but having required means of egress independent of the 
mall. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing 
a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drink- 
ing and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement 
facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other 
similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance 
into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor 
buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall 
building. 

FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that 
serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed 
for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant 
occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions 
to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including 
areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross 
leasable area. 

MALL. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a 
covered mall building that serves as access for two or more ten- 
ants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. 



402.3 Lease plan. Each covered mall building owner shall pro- 
vide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan 
showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the 
certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or 
changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on 
the leajse plan without prior approval of the building official. 

402.4 Means of egress. Each tenant space and the covered mall 
building shall be provided with means of egress as required by 
this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the 
requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, 
the requirements of this section shall apply. 

402.4.1 Determination of occupant load. The occupant 
load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered 
mair building shall be determined as required by this code. 
Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces 
shall be based on the occupant load thus determined. 

402.4.1.1 Occupant formula. In determining required 
means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for 
whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based 
on gross leasable area of the covered mall building 
(excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load fac- 
tor as determined by the following equation. 



OLF= (0.00007) <iGLA) + 25 
where: 



(Equation 4-1) 



OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per per- 
son). 

GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet). 

402.4.1.2 OLF range. The occupant load factor (OLF) is 
not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50. 

402.4.1.3 Anchor buildings. The occupant load of 
anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be 
included in computing the total number of occupants for 
the mall. 

402.4.1.4 Food courts. The occupant load of a food 
court shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of 
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant 
load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered 
mall building as calculated above. 

402.4.2 Number of means of egress. Wherever the dis- 
tance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant 
space used by persons other than employees exceeds 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant load of 50 
or more, not less than two means of egress shall be provided. 

402.4.3 Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly 
occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be 
so located in the covered mall building that their entrance 
will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the 



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mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required 
means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the cov- 
ered mall building. 

402.4.3.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required 
means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided 
independently from the mall means of egress system. 
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the 
mall shall not be included in determining means of egress 
requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of 
malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls ter- 
minating at an anchor building where no other means of 
egress has been provided shall be considered as a 
dead-end mall. 

402.4.4 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant 
space in a covered mall building, the maximum distance of 
travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall 
not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

The maximum distance of travel from any point within a 
mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

402.4.5 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is 
required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel 
in either direction from any point in a maU to separate exits. 
The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from 
a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm). 

Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to 
twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest 
location within the dead-end portion of the mall. 

402.4.5.1 Exit passageways. Where exit passageways 
provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, 
doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by 
1-hour fire door assembUes that are self- or automatic 
closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 
715.4.7.3. 

402.4.6 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. 

Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas 
and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit 
passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated 
from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated fire barriers and 1-hour opening protectives. 

402.5 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required 
egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but 
need not comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of 
this code where the width of the mall is as specified in this 
section. 

402.5.1 Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be suffi- 
cient to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall 
be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a 
height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a ten- 
ant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending 
machine, bench, display opening, food court or other 
obstruction to means of egress travel. 

402.6 Types of construction. The area of any covered mall 
building, including anchor buildings, of Type 1, 11, III and IV 
construction, shall not be limited provided the covered mall 



building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages are 
surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less 
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not 
exceed three stories in height. The allowable height and area of 
anchor buildings greater than three stores in height shall com- 
ply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The 
construction type of open parking garages and enclosed park- 
ing garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, 
respectively. 

402.7 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resis- 
tance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces 
and the maU. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required 
between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall. 

402.7.1 Attached garage. An attached garage for the stor- 
age of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than 
nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered 
as a separate building where it is separated from the covered 
mall building by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating 
of at least 2 hours. 

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed 
parking garage is separated from the covered mall build- 
ing or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. 
Pedestrian walkways and tunnels which attach the open 
parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered 
mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in 
accordance with Section 3104. 

402.7.2 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be 
separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition com- 
plying with Section 708. A tenant separation wall is not 
required between any tenant space and the mall. 

402.7.3 Anchor building separation. An anchor building 
shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire 
walls complying with Section 705. 

Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane that have an occupancy classifica- 
tion the same as that permitted for tenants of the covered 
mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistive 
fire barriers complying with Section 706. 

402.7.3.1 Openings between anchor building and 
mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1 
sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor 
buildings of Type lA, IB, EA and IIB construction and 
the mall need not be protected. 

[F] 402.8 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall 
building and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following: 

1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and 
operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall 
building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. 
Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected 
unless provided with approved alternate protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent 
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where 



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tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall 
be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of open parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Section 406.2. 

[F] 402.8.1 Standpipe system. The covered mall building 
shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as 
required by Section 905.3.3. 

402.9 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be pro- 
vided where required for atriums in Section 404. 

402.10 Kiosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or 
permanent) shall meet the following requirements: 

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be lo- 
cated within the mall unless constructed of any of the fol- 
lowing materials: 

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with 
Section 2303.2. 

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release 
rate not greater than lOOkW (105 Btu/h) when 
tested in accordance with the exhibit booth proto- 
col in UL 1975. 

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a 
flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450 
when tested as an assembly in the maximum 
thickness intended for use in accordance with 
ASTME84. 

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall 
be provided with approved fire suppression and detec- 
tion devices. 

3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or 
groupings thereof and other structures within the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). 

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall 
have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m^). 

402.11 Children's playground structures. Structures 
intended as children's playgrounds that exceed 10 feet (3048 
nam) in height and 150 square feet (14 m^) in area shall comply 
with the following. 

402.11.1 Materials. Children's playground structures shall 
be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combusti- 
ble materials that comply with the following: 

1. Fire-retardant-treated wood. 

2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 
2606. 

3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in 
soft-contained play equipment structures) having a 
maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kW 
when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the 
requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance 
with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the 
maximum thickness intended for use. 

5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA 701. 



6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components 
of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as 
tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides 
and decks) meeting the UL 94 V-2 classification when 
tested in accordance with UL 94. 

7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment 
structures, having a maximum heat release rate not 
greater than 100 kW when tested in accordance with 
UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall be 36 
inches by 36 inches (914 nun by 9 14 mm) by an aver- 
age of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls shall be 
held in a box constructed of galvanized steel poultry 
netting wire mesh. 

8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or 
film meeting the flame propagation performance cri- 
teria of NFPA 701. 

9. The floor covering placed under the children's play- 
ground structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor 
finish classification, as described in Section 804, 
when tested in accordance with NFPA 253. 

402.11.2 Fire protection. Children's playground structures 
located within the mall shall be provided with the same level 
of approved fire suppression and detection devices required 
for kiosks and similar structures. 

402.11.3 Separation. Children's playground structures 
shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other 
structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 nun). 

402.11.4 Area limits. Children's playground structures 
shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m^) in area, unless a 
special investigation has demonstrated adequate fire safety. 

402.12 Security grilles and doors. Horizontal sliding or verti- 
cal security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of 
egress shall conform to the following: 

1 . They shall remain in the full open position during the pe- 
riod of occupancy by the general public. 

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed .posi- 
tion when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces 
served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying 
spaces served by more than one exit. 

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within with- 
out the use of any special knowledge or effort where the 
space is occupied. 

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a 
horizontal sliding or vertical rolhng grille or door. 

[F] 402.13 Standby power. Covered mall buildmgs exceeding 
50,000 square feet (4645 m^) shall be provided with standby 
power systems that are capable of operating the emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. 

[F] 402.14 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m^) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency 
voice/alarm conununication system. Emergency voice/alarm 
communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, 
shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 



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402.15 Plastic signs. Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of 
any tenant space facing the mall shall be limited as specified in 
Sections 402.15.1 through 402.15.5.2. 

402.15.1 Area. Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of 
the wall area facing the mall. 

402.15.2 Height and width. Plastic signs shall not exceed a 
height of 36 inches (914 mm), except if the sign is vertical, 
the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the 
width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

402.15.3 Location. Plastic signs shall be located a mini- 
mum distance of 1 8 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants. 

402.15.4 Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics other 
than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting 
plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a 
self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343 °C) or greater when 
tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame 
spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed 
index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner 
intended for use m accordance with ASTM E 84 or meet the 
acceptance criteria of Section 803.2. 1 when tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 286. 

402.15.4.1 Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic 
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal. 

402.15.5 Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs shall 
have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a 
maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in 
accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have 
the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam 
plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 
402.14 shall not be required to comply with the flame 
spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 
2603.3. 

402.15.5.1 Density, The minimum density of foam plas- 
tics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per 
cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m^). 

402.15.5.2 Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic 
signs shall not be greater than V2 inch (12.7 mm). 

[F] 402.16 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or 
areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppres- 
sion or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire 
department. 



SECTION 403 
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 

403.1 Applicability. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to new high-rise buildings. 

Exception: The provisions of this section shall not apply to 
the following buildings and structures: 

1 . Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sec- 
tion 412. 



2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accor- 
dance with Section 303.1. 

4. Low-hazard special industrial occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 503.1.1. 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415. 

6. Hospitals as defined in Section 1250 of the Health 
and Safety Code. 

7. Buildings such as power plants, lookout towers, stee- 
ples, grain houses and similar structures with 
noncontinuous human occupancy, when so deter- 
mined by the enforcing agency. 

8. Buildings used exclusively for jails and prisons. 

For existing high-rise buildings, see Section 3412 for R 
occupancies and see Section 3411.13. 

[SFM] For the purpose of this section, in determining the 
level from which the highest occupied floor is to be measured, 
the enforcing agency should exercise reasonable judgment, 
including consideration of overall accessibility to the building 
by fire department personnel and vehicular equipment. When a 
building is located on sloping terrain and there is building 
access on more than one level, the enforcing agency may select 
the level that provides the most logical and adequate fire 
department access. 

403.1.1 "New building" shall mean a high-rise structure, 
the construction of which is commenced on or after July 1, 
1974. For the purpose of this section, construction shall be 
deemed to have commenced when plans and specifications 
are more than 50 percent complete and have been presented 
to the local jurisdiction prior to July 1, 1974. Unless all pro- 
visions of this section have been met, the construction of 
such buildings shall commence on or before January 1, 
1976. 

403.1.2 For the purposes of this section, "building access " 
shall mean an exterior door opening conforming to all of the 
following: 

1. Suitable and available for fire department use. 

2. Located not more than 2 feet (610 mm) above the ad- 
jacent ground level. 

3. Leading to a space, room or area having foot traffic 
communication capabilities with the remainder of the 
building. 

4. Designed to permit penetration through the use of fire 
department forcible-entry tools and equipment unless 
other approved arrangements have been made with 
the fire authority having jurisdiction. 

[F] 403.2 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary 
water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2. A sprinkler 
water-flow alarm-initiating device and a control valve with a 



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supervisory signal-initiating device shall be provided at the 
lateral connection to the riser for each floor 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of: 

1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used ex- 
clusively for telecommunications equipment, associ- 
ated electrical power distribution equipment, 
batteries and standby engines, provided that those 
spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic fire detection system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the 
building by fire barriers consisting of not less than 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assemblies. 

403.3 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The fire-resis- 
tance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.3.1 and 403.3.2 
shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves 
equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow 
initiating devices for each floor. 

403.3.1 Type of construction. The following reductions in 
the minimum construction type allowed in Table 601 shall 
be allowed as provided in Section 403.3: 

1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in 
height. Type lA construction shall be allowed to be re- 
duced to Type IB. 

Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of 
the structural frame shall not be allowed to be 
reduced. 

2. In other than Groups F-1, M and S-1, Type IB con- 
struction shall be allowed to be reduced to Type HA. 

Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of 
the structural frame shall not be allowed to be 
reduced. 

3. The height and area limitations of the reduced con- 
struction type shall be allowed to be the same as for 
the original construction type. 

403.3.2 Shaft enclosures. For buildings not greater than 
420 feet (128 m) in height, the required fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the fire barriers enclosing vertical shafts, other than 
exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures, shall be 
reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are installed 
within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor levels. 

403.4 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings required by Section 1026 are not required. 

[F] 403.5 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detection shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.1. 

[F] 403.6 Emergency voice/alarm communication systems. 

An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 403.7 Fire department communications system. A 

two-way fire department communications system shall be pro- 



vided for fire department use in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.3. 

[F] 403.8 Fire command. A fire command center complying 
with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by 
the fire department. 

403.9 Elevators. Elevator operation and installation shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 30. 

Elevator lobbies shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tion 707.14.1. 

[F] 403.10 Standby power. A standby power system comply- 
ing with Section 2702 shall be provided for standby power 
loads specified in Section 403.10.2. 

403.10.1 Special requirements for standby power sys- 
tems. If the standby system is a generator set inside a build- 
ing, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed 
with 2-hour fu'e barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 706 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 711, or both. System supervision with 
manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the 
fire command center. 

[F] 403.10.2 Standby power loads. The following are clas- 
sified as standby power loads: 

1. Power and Ughting for the fire command center re- 
quired by Section 403.8; 

2. Electrically powered fire pumps; and 

3. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Sections 1007.4 and 3003. 

[F] 403.11 Emergency power systems. An emergency power 
system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for 
emergency power loads specified in Section 403.11.1. 

[F] 403.11.1 Emergency power loads. The following are 
classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination required 
by Chapter 10; 

2. Elevator car lighting; 

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems; 

4. Automatic fire detection systems; and 

5. Fire alarm systems. 

403.12 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other than 
the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from 
stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway 
side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center. [SFM] 
Upon failure of electrical power to the locking mechanism the 
door shall unlock. 

403.12.1 Stairway communications system. A telephone 
or other two-way communications system connected to an 
approved constantly attended station shall be provided at 
not less than every fifth floor in each required stairway 
where the doors to the stairway are locked. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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403.13 Smoke control. 

403.13.1 Smoke control system. High-rise buildings shall 
be provided with a passive or active smoke control system or 
combination thereof in accordance with Section 909. 

403.13.2 Smokeproof exit enclosures. Every exit enclosure 
shall comply with Sections 909.20 and 1020.1.7. 

403.14 Seismic considerations. For seismic considerations, 
see Cliapter 16. 

403.15 Existing high-rise buildings. For existing high-rise 
buildings, see Section 3412. 



SECTION 404 
ATRIUMS 

404.1 General. In other than Group H occupancies, and where 
permitted by Exception 5 in Section 707.2, the provisions of 
this section shall apply to buildings or structures containing 
vertical openings defined herein as "Atriums." 

404.1.1 DelSnition. The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 

ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories 
other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escala- 
tors, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equip- 
ment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. 
Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies 
within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with 
Section 505. 

404.2 Use. The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other 
than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and dec- 
orations in accordance with the California Fire Code shall be 
used in the atrium space. 

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for 
any approved use where the individual space is provided 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3. 1.1. 

[F] 404.3 Automatic sprinkler protection. An approved 
automatic sprinMer system shall be installed throughout the 
entire building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium 
need not be sprinklered, provided that portion of the 
building is separated from the atrium portion by not 
less than a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier or 
horizontal assembly, or both. 

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet 
(16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at 
the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

404.4 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 909. 

Exception: Smoke control is not required for atriums that 
cormect only two stories. 

404.5 Enclosure of atriums. Atrium spaces shall be separated 
from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in 



accordance with Section 706 or a horizontal assembly con- 
structed in accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

Exceptions: 

1. A glass wall forming a smoke partition where auto- 
matic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less 
along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room 
side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, 
and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 
mm) away from the glass and designed so that the en- 
tire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the 
sprinkler system without obstruction. The glass shall 
be installed in a gasketed frame so that the framing 
system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass 
before the sprinkler system operates. 

2. A glass-block wall assembly in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2110 and having a V4-hour fire protection rating. 

3. [SFM] In other than Group I occupancies, the adja- 
cent spaces of any three floors of the atrium shall not 
be required to be separated from the atrium where 
such spaces are included in the design of the smoke 
control system. 

[F] 404.6 Standby power. Equipment required to provide 
smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system in 
accordance with Section 909.11. 

404.7 Interior finish. The interior finish of walls and ceilings 
of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in 
class for sprinkler protection. 

404.8 Travel distance. In other than the lowest level of the 
atrium, where the required means of egress is through the 
atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within 
the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

404.9 Group I occupancy means of egress. [SFM] Required 
means of egress from sleeping rooms in Group I occupancies 
shall not pass through the atrium. 



SECTION 405 
UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS 

405.1 General. The provisions of this section apply to building 
spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge. 

Exceptions: 

1 . One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.3. 

2. Parking garages with automatic sprinkler systems in 
compliance with Section 405.3. 

3. Fixed guideway transit systems. 

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar 
facilities. 

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would 
qualify the building as an underground building and 
has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m^) 
and has an occupant load less than 10. 



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6. [SFM] Winery caves having a floor level used for hu- 
man occupancy 30 feet (9144 mm) or less below the 
lowest level of exit discharge. 

405.2 Construction requirements. The underground portion 
of the building shall be of Type I construction. 

[F] 405.3 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building 
and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

405.4 Compartmentation. Compartmentation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 405.4.1 tiirough 405.4.3. 

405.4.1 Number of compartments. A building having a 
floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the lowest 
level of exit discharge shall be divided into a minimum of 
two compartments of approximately equal size. Such 
compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the 
building and all levels below. 

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented 
where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 
m^) and has an occupant load of less than 10. 

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetration. The compartments 
shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in 
accordance with Section 709. Penetrations between the two 
compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical 
piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with 
Section 712. Doorways shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies that are automatic closing by smoke detection in 
accordance with Section 715.4.7.3 and are installed in 
accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 715.4.3. Where 
provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an 
exhaust system independent of the other compartments. 

405.4.3 Elevators. Where elevators are provided, each 
compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where 
an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator 
lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each 
compartment by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 
709. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be auto- 
matic closing by smoke detection in accordance with 
Section 715.4.7.3. 

[F] 405.5 Smoke control system. A smoke control system 
shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 
405.5.2. 

[F] 405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is 
required to control the migration of products of combustion 
in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this 
section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to 
the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress 
in a usable condition. 

[F] 405.5.2 Compartment smoke control system. Where 
compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have 
an independent smoke control system. The system shall be 
automatically activated and capable of manual operation in 
accordance with Section 907.2.18. 



[F] 405.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19. 

[F] 405.7 Public address. A public address system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19.1. 

405.8 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be in accordance 
with Sections 405.8.1 and 405.8.2. 

405.8.1 Number of exits. Each floor level shall be provided 
with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is 
required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have a 
minimum of one exit and shall also have an exit access door- 
way into the adjoining compartment. 

405.8.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway 
serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below its 
level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements 
for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1020. 1 .7. 

[F] 405.9 Standby power. A standby power system complying 
with Section 2702 shall be provided standby power loads spec- 
ified in Section 405.9.1. 

405.9.1 Standby power loads. The following loads are 
classified as standby power loads. 

1. Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance witti Section 3003. 

405.9.2 Pick-up time. The standby power system shall pick 
up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of the 
normal power supply. 

[F] 405.10 Emergency power. An emergency power system 
complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for emergency 
power loads specified in Section 405.10.1. 

[F] 405.10.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads 
are classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car Ughting. 

5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required 
by Chapter 10. 

[F] 405.11 Standpipe system. The underground building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance 
with Section 905. 



SECTION 406 
MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

406.1 Private garages and carports. 

406.1.1 Classification. Buildings or parts of buildings clas- 
sified as Group U occupancies because of the use or charac- 
ter of the occupancy shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 
m^) in area or one story in height except as provided in Sec- 
tion 406.1.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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the limitations specified in this section shall be classified in 
the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly 
resembles. 

406.1.2 Area increase. Group U occupancies used for the 
storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no 
repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are permitted 
to be 3,000 square feet (279 m^) when the following provi- 
sions are met: 

1 . For a mixed occupancy buUding, the exterior wall and 
opening protection for the Group U portion of the 
building shall be as required for the major occupancy 
of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, 
the allowable floor area of the building shall be as per- 
mitted for the major occupancy contained therein. 

2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, 
the exterior wall shall not be required to have a fire-re- 
sistance rating and the area of openings shall not be 
limited when the fire separation distance is 5 feet 
(1524 mm) or more. 

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) Group U 
occupancy shall be perndtted to be in the same building, 
provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) area is separated 
by fire walls complying with Section 705. 

406.1.3 Garages and carports. Carports shall be open on at 
least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved 
noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two 
sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the 
provisions of this section for garages. 

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

406.1.4 Separation. Separations shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . The private garage shall be separated from the dwell- 
ing unit and its attic area by means of a minimum 
V2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to the ga- 
rage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be 
separated from all habitable rooms above by not less 
than a Vg-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent. 
Door openings between a private garage and the 
dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood 
doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less 
than P/g inches (34.9 mm) thick, or doors in compli- 
ance with Section 715.4.3. Openings from a private 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes 
shall not be permitted. Doors shall be self-closing and 
self-latching. 

2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the 
walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit from the 
garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.01 9-inch 
(0.48 mm) sheet steel and shall have no openings into 
the garage. 



3 . A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and 
U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two 
or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above. 

406.2 Parliing garages. 

406.2.1 Classification. Parking garages shall be classified 
as either open, as defined in Section 406.3, or enclosed and 
shall meet the appropriate criteria in Section 406.4. Also see 
Section 509 for special provisions for parking garages. 

406.2.2 Clear heiglit. The clear height of each floor level in 
vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 
feet (2134 mm). [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] The clear height 
of vehicle and pedestrian areas required to be accessible 
shall comply with Chapter llA or IIB, as applicable. 

406.2.3 Guards. Guards shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1013 at exterior and interior vertical openings 
on floor and roof areas where vehicles are parked or moved 
and where the vertical distance to the ground or surface 
directly below exceeds 30 inches (762 nrni). 

406.2.4 Vehicle barriers. Parking areas shall be provided 
with exterior or interior walls or vehicle barriers, except at 
pedestrian or vehicular accesses, designed in accordance 
with Section 1607.7. Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet 
(607 mm) high shall be placed at the end of drive lanes, and 
at the end of parking spaces where the difference in adjacent 
floor elevation is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). 

Exception: Vehicle storage compartments in a mechani- 
cal access parking garage. 

406.2.5 Ramps. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as 
required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. 
Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as 
well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 (6.67 
percent). 

406.2.6 Floor surface. Parking surfaces shall be of concrete 
or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. 

Exception: Asphalt parking surfaces are permitted at 
ground level. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facihtate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

406.2.7 Mixed separation. Parking garages shall be sepa- 
rated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 
508.3. 

406.2.8 Special hazards. Connection of a parking garage 
with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall 
be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separa- 
tion. 

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the 
sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches 
(457 mm) above the floor. 

406.2.9 Attached to rooms. Openings from a parking 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall 
not be permitted. 



V, 



78 



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406.3 Open parking garages. 

406.3.1 Scope. Except where specific provisions are made 
in the following subsections, other requirements of this 
code shall apply. 

406.3.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING 
GARAGES. Open parking garages employing parking 
machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for 
vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public 
occupancy is prohibited above the street level. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a 
structure with the openings as described in Section 
406.3.3. 1 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or 
storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 
406.3.4. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open 
parking garages employing a series of continuously rising 
floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors 
permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power 
from and to the street level. 

406.3.3 Construction. Open parking garages shall be of 
Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall 
meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle 
barriers, see Section 406.2.4. 

406.3.3.1 Openings. For natural ventilation purposes, 
the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly dis- 
tributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such 
openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 
percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The 
aggregate length of the openings considered to be pro- 
viding natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 
40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall 
be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed 
openings. 

Exception: Openings are not required to be distrib- 
uted over 40 percent of the building perimeter where 
the required openings are uniformly distributed over 
two opposing sides of the building. 



406.3.4 Uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same 
building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions 
of Sections 508.3, 402.7.1, 406.3.13, 509.3, 509.4 and 
509.7. 

406.3.5 Area and height. Area and height of open parking 
garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group 
S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 
508.3. 

406.3.5.1 Single use. When the open parking garage is 
used exclusively for the parking or storage of private 
motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the 
area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 
406.3.5, along with increases allowed by Section 
406.3.6. 

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to con- 
tain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total 
combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 
m^). Such area need not be separated from the open 
parking garage. 

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping 
floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any 
cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per 
parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having 
a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) 
of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier. 

The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 
7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is per- 
mitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where 
approved by the building official. 

406.3.6 Area and height increases. The allowable area and 
height of open parking garages shall be increased in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides 
open on three-fourths of the building's perimeter are permit- 
ted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in 
height. Garages with sides open around the entire building's 
perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area 
and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under 
the above provisions, the total area of openings along the 
side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of 



TABLE 406.3.5 
OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


AREA PER TIER 
(square feet) 


HEIGHT (In tiers) 


Ramp access 


Mechanical access 


Automatic sprinl<ler system 


No 


Yes 


lA 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


IB 


Unlimited 


12 tiers 


12 tiers 


18 tiers 


HA 


50,000 


10 tiers 


10 tiers 


15 tiers 


JIB 


50,000 


8 tiers 


8 tiers 


12 tiers - 


IV 


50,000 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally dis- 
tributed along the length of the tier. 

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased 
for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the 
table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not 
exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three 
sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizon- 
tal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height 
extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides 
and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 
960 nmi) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, 
each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a 
street with a width of at least 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full 
length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in 
each such tier. 

Open parking garages of Type E construction, with all 
sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the 
height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be 
considered open, the total area of openings along the side 
shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the 
side at each tier and such openings shaU be equally distrib- 
uted along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers shall be 
within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally firom such open- 
ings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Sec- 
tion 406.3.3.1. These openings shall be permitted to be 
provided in courts with a minimum width of 30 feet (9144 
mm) for the full width of the openings. 

406.3.7 Fire separation distance. Exterior walls and open- 
ings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. 
The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in 
accordance with Table 602 and Section 704. 

406.3.8 Means of egress. Where persons other than parking 
attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet 
the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no 
persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there 
shall not be less than two 36-inch-wide (914 mm) exit stair- 
ways. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of 
employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by 
noncombustible materials. 

406.3.9 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be installed where 
required by the provisions of Chapter 9. 

406.3.10 Sprinkler systems. Where required by other pro- 
visions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and 
standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 9. 

406.3.11 Enclosure of vertical openings. Enclosure shall 
not be required for vertical openings except as specified in 
Section 406.3.8. 

406.3.12 VentUation. Ventilation, other than the percentage 
of openings specified in Section 406.3.3.1, shall not be 
required. 

406.3.13 Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations 
are not permitted: 

1. Vehicle repair work. 

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles. 



3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in ^ 
exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means. 

4. Dispensing of fuel. 

406.4 Enclosed parking garages. 

406.4.1 Heights and areas. Enclosed vehicle parking 
garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition 
of open parking garages shall be Umited to the allowable 
heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified by Sec- 
tions 504, 506 and 507. Roof parking is permitted. 

406.4.2 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system shall 
be provided in accordance with the California Mechanical 
Code. 

406.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

406.5.1 Construction. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall be constructed in accordance with the California Fire 
Code and this section. 

406.5.2 Canopies. Canopies under which fuels are dis- 
pensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less 
than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting ele- 
ment in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their 
supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, 
fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, 
wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour 
fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a can- 
opy shall comply with one of the following: 

1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible ele- 
ment of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes; 

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a mini- 
mum thickness of 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corro- 
sion-resistant steel having a minimum base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall 
have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a 
smoke-deVeloped index of 450 or less when tested in 
the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 
84 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) 
or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 
1929; or 

3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic mate- 
rials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies 
erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station 
fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the 
same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet 
(12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggre- 
gate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^). The maximum area of any individual 
panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^). 

406.5.2.1 Canopies used to support gaseous hydrogen 
systems. Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing 
operations where flammable compressed gases are 
located on the roof of the canopy shdl be in accordance 
with the following: 

1 . The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construc- 
tion requirements. ^ 

2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited 
to refueling only. 



80 



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3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that 
prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas. 

406.6 Repair garages. 

406.6.1 General. Repair garages shall be constructed in 
accordance with the California Fire Code and this section. 
This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities, as regulated in Section 406.5. 

406.6.2 Mixed uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the 
same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of 
Section 508.3. 

406.6.3 Ventilation. Repair garages shall be mechanically 
ventilated in accordance with the California Mechanical 
Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the 
entrance to the garage. 

406.6.4 Floor surface. Repair garage floors shall be of con- 
crete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materi- 
als. 

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor 
finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 
W/cm^, as determined by NFPA 253 , shall be permitted. 

406.6.5 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the California Mechanical 
Code. 

[F] 406.6.6 Gas detection system. Repair garages used for 
repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as 
hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an 
approved flammable gas-detection system. 

[F] 406.6.6.1 System design. The flammable gas-detec- 
tion system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or 
gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection 
system shall be designed to activate when the level of 
flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive 
Umit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication 
or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing 
nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles. 

[F] 406.6.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection 
system shall result in all of the following: 

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm sig- 
nals in the repair garage. 

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the 
repair garage. 

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, 
where the system is interlocked with gas detection. 

[F] 406.6.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Fail- 
ure of the gas detection system shall result in the deacti- 
vation of the heating system, activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system when the system is inter- 
locked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble 
signal to sound in an approved location. 

406. 7 Electric vehicle. [SFM] 

406.7.1 Electric vehicle. An automotive-type vehicle for 
highway use, such as passenger automobiles, buses, trucks, 
vans and the like, primarily powered by an electric motor 
that draws current from a rechargeable storage battery, fuel 



cell, photovoltaic array or other source of electric current. 
For the purpose of this chapter, electric motorcycles and 
similar-type vehicles and off-road self-propelled electric 
vehicles such as industrial trucks, hoists, lifts, transports, 
golf carts, airline ground support equipment, tractors, 
boats and the like, are not included. 

406.7.2 Charging. In any building or interior area used for 
charging electric vehicles, electrical equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the California Electrical Code. 

406.7.3 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation, when 
required by the California Electrical Code, shall be pro- 
vided at a rate as required by Article 625 or as required by 
Section 1203 of the California Building Code, whichever is 
greater The ventilation system shall include both the supply 
and exhaust equipment and shall be permanently installed 
and located to intake supply air from the outdoors, and vent 
the exhaust directly to, the outdoors without conducting the 
exhaust air through other spaces within the building. 

Exception: Positive pressure ventilation systems shall 
only be allowed in buildings or areas that have been 
designed and approved for that application. 

406.7.4 Electrical interface. The electrical supply circuit to 
electrically powered mechanical ventilation equipment 
shall be interlocked with the recharging equipment used to 
supply the vehicle(s) being charged, and shall remain ener- 
gized during the entire charging cycle. Electric vehicle 
recharging equipment shall be marked or labeled in accor- 
dance with the California Electrical Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Exhaust ventilation shall not be required in areas 
with an approved engineered ventilation system, 
which maintains a hydrogen gas concentration at 
less than 25 percent of the lower flammability 
limit. 

2. Mechanical exhaust ventilationfor hydrogen shall 
not be required where the charging equipment uti- 
lized is installed and listed for indoor charging of 
electric vehicles without ventilation. 



SECTION 407 
GROUP 1-2 

407.1 General. Occupancies in Groups 1-2 and 1-2.1 shall 
comply with the provisions of this section and other applicable 
provisions of this code. 

407.2 Corridors. Corridors in occupancies in Groups 1-2 and 
1-2.1 shall be continuous to the exits and separated from other 
areas in accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conform- 
ing to Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.4. 

407.2.1 Spaces, of unlimited area. Waiting areas and simi- 
lar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be per- 
mitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the 
following criteria are met: 

1 . The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, 
treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental use areas 
listed in Table 508.2. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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2. The open space is protected by an automatic smoke 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2.6.2 

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same 
smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic 
smoke detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907.2.6.2, and the smoke compartment in 
which the spaces are located is equipped throughout 
with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with 
Section 903.3.2. 

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to 
the required exits. 

J. Each space is located to permit direct visual supervi- 
sion by the facility staff. 

407.2.2 Nurses' stations. Spaces for doctors' and nurses' 
charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be 
permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are 
constructed as required for corridors and the smoke com- 
partment is providedwithan automatic fire sprinkler system 
throughout complying with Section 903.3.1.1. A minimum 
of one smoke detector interconnected to the facility fire 
alarm system shall be installed directly above the nurses' 
station. 

407.2.3 Mental health treatment areas. Areas wherein 
mental health patients who are not capable of self-preserva- 
tion are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeu- 
tic spaces other than incidental use areas as defined in 
Section 508.2, under continuous supervision by facility 
staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the 
following criteria are met: 

1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet(140m^). 

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facil- 
ity staff. 

3 . The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to 
the required exits. 

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection 
system installed in accordance with Section 907.2. 

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one 
smoke compartment. 

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as 
required for corridors. 

407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops less than 500 square feet 
(46.5 m^) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor 
provided the gift shop and storage areas are fully 
sprinklered and storage areas are protected in accordance 
with Section 508.2. 

407.3 Corridor walls. Corridor walls shall be constructed as 
fire partitions in accordance with Section 108. 

407.3.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors in fully sprinklered 
buildings, other than those in a wall required to be rated by 
Section 508.2 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an 
exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating, but shall 
provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke 
and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches 
are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 
715.4. In Group 1-2 occupancies, self-closing or auto- 



matic-closing devices are not required on corridor doors to 
patient sleeping rooms, treatment rooms and offices located 
in areas specified in Sections 1224 and 1225, excluding 
offices specified in Sections 1224.21 and 1225.8. 

407.3.1.1 Swing of corridor doors. Corridor doors, 
other than those equipped with self-closing or auto- 
matic-closing devices, shall not swing into the required 
width of corridors. 

407.3.2 Locking devices. Locking devices that restrict 
access to the patient room from the corridor, and that are 
operable only by staff from the corridor side, shall not 
restrict the means of egress firom the patient room except for 
patient rooms in mental health facilities. 

407.3.3 Glazing. In fully sprinklered buildings, fixed fully 
tempered or laminated glass in wood or metal frames may 
be used in corridor walls, provided the glazed area does not 
exceed 25 percent of the areas of the corridor wall of the 
room. The total area of glass in corridor walls is not limited 
when the glazing is fixed V4-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wired glass 
in steel frames and the size of individual glazed panel does 
not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.836 m^). 

407.4 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment 
and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more 
persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories 
shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not 
more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m^) and the travel distance 
from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door 
shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall 
be in accordance with Sections 709 and 909.5. 

Exceptions: 

1. This requirement shall not apply to Group 1-2.1 facili- 
ties less than 10,000 square feet (929 rr?). 

2. An area in an adjoining occupancy shall be permitted 
to serve as a smoke compartment for a Group 1-2. 1 fa- 
cility if the following criteria are met: 

2.1. The separating wall and both compartments 
meet the requirements of Section 407.4. 

2.2. Group 1-2.1 is less than 22,500 square feet 
(2,100 m'). 

2.3. Access from Group 1-2.1 to the other occu- 
pancy is unrestricted. 

407.4.1 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) per 
patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corri- 
dors, patientrooms, treatmentrooms, lounge or dining areas 
and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or lit- 
ter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per occupant shall be 
provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total 
number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. 

407.4.2 Independent egress. At least two means of egress 
shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by 
smoke barriers. Means of egress may pass through adjacent 
compartments provided it does not return through the 
smoke compartment from which means of egress 
originated. 



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[F] 407.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Every facility as spec- 
ified herein wherein more than six clients or patients are 
housed or cared for on the premises on a 24-hour-per-day 
basis shall have installed and maintained in an operable con- 
dition in every building or portion thereof where clients or 
patients are housed, an automatic sprinkler system of a type 
approved by the State Fire Marshal. The provisions of this sub- 
section shall apply to every person, firm or corporation estab- 
lishing, maintaining or operating a hospital, children's home, 
children's nursery or institution, or a home or institution for 
the care of aged or persons with dementia or other cognitive 
impairments, or any institution for persons with mental illness 
or persons with developmental disabilities and any nursing or 
convalescent home, and to any state-owned or state-occupied 
building usedforany of the types of facilities specified herein. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to homes or institutions 
for the 24-hour-per-day care of ambulatory children 
if all of the following conditions are satisfied: 

1.1. The buildings or portions thereof in which 
children are housed are not more than two sto- 
ries in height and are constructed and main- 
tained in accordance with regulations 
adopted by the State Fire Marshal. 

1.2. The buildings or portions thereof housing 
more than six such children shall have in- 
stalled and maintained in an operable condi- 
tion therein, a fire alarm system of a type 
approved by the State Fire Marshal. Such sys- 
tem shall be activated by detectors responding 
to invisible particles of combustion other than 
heat, except that detectors used in closets, us- 
able under-floor areas, storage rooms, bath- 
rooms, attached garages, attics, plenums, 
laundry rooms and rooms of similar use, may 
be heat-responsive devices. 

1.3. The buildings or portions thereof do not house 
persons with mental illness or children with 
developmental disabilities. 

2. This section shall not apply to any one-story building 
or structure of an institution or home for the care of 
the aged providing 24-hour-per-day care if such 
building or structure is used or intended to be used for 
the housing of no more than six ambulatory aged per- 
sons. Such buildings or institutions shall have in- 
stalled and maintained in an operable condition 
herein afire alarm system of a type approved by the 
State Fire Marshal. Such system shall be activated by 
detectors responding to either visible or invisible par- 
ticles of combustion other than heat, except that de- 
tectors used in closets, usable under-floor areas, 
storage rooms, bathrooms, attached garages, attics, 
plenums, laundry rooms and rooms of similar use, 
may be heat-responsive devices. 

3. This section shall not apply to occupancies or any al- 
terations thereto conforming to the construction pro- 
visions of this exception which were under 
construction or in existence on March 4, 1972. "Un- 



der construction " as used in this exception shall mean 
that actual work had been performed on the construc- 
tion site and shall not be construed to mean that the 
hospital, home, nursery, institution, sanitarium or 
any portion thereof, was or is in the planning stage. 
The provisions of this exception shall apply to those 
buildings or structures having bearing walls and 
structural flame protected in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Column Type lA of Table 601. 

4. In detention facilities where inmates are not re- 
strained. 

The provisions of this section shall not apply to any facil- 
ity used to house six or less persons on the premises. 

407.5.1 When a new addition is to be made to an 
unsprinklered building or structure as permitted by this sub- 
section, such new addition shall be sprinklered as required 
by this section and shall be separated from the existing 
building or structures by not less than a 2-hour flre-resistive 
fire barrier. 

When a sprinkler system is added to an existing 
unsprinklered building or structure, the sprinklered area(s) 
shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not 
less than a 1 -hour fire-resistive fire barrier. 

The provisions of this section do not apply to any facility 
used to house six or less persons on the premises. 

[F] 407.6 Automatic smoke detection. See Section 907.2. 6.2. 

Wl.l Secured yards. Grounds are permitted to be fenced and 
gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided 
that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) for 
bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) for ambu- 
latory patients and other occupants are located between the 
building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall 
not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building 
they serve. Each safe dispersal area shall have a minimum of 
two exits. The aggregate clear width of exits from a safe dis- 
persal area shall be determined on the basis of not less than one 
exit unit of 22 inches (559 mm) for each 500 persons to be 
accommodated, and no exit shall be less than 44 inches (1118 
mm) in width. Gates shall not be installed across corridors or 
passageways leading to such dispersal areas unless they com- 
ply with egress requirements. Keys to gate locks shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with the California Fire Code. 

407.8 Special hazards. 

407.8.1 Storage and handling of flammable, combustible 
liquids and hazardous materials shall be in accordance with 
the California Fire Code. 

407.8.2 All exterior openings in a boiler room or room con- 
taining central heating equipment, if located below open- 
ings in another story, or if less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
other doors or windows of the same building, shall be pro- 
tected by afire assembly having a ^/4-hour fire protection 
rating. 

407.8.3 Safety padding. See Sections 308.1 and 408.14. 

407.8.4 Floor surfaces. Rooms occupied by patients whose 
personal liberties are restrained shall have noncombustible 
floor surfaces (see Sections 308.1 and 804.4.2), 



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SECTION 408 
GROUP 1-3 

408.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall comply with 
the provisions of this section and other applicable provisions of 
this code (see Section 308.4). 

408.1.1 Construction. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be 
housed in buildings of Type lA or IB. 

Exception: Such occupancies may be housed in 
one-story buildings of Type IIA, IIIA or VA construction 
provided the floor area does not exceed 5, 200 square feet 
(483 rr?) between fire walls of 2-hour fire-resistive con- 
struction with openings protected by fire assemblies hav- 
ing P/2-hour fire protection rating. 

408.2 Mixed occupancies. Portions of buildings with an occu- 
pancy in Group 1-3 that are classified as a different occupancy 
shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for such 
occupancies. Where security operations necessitate the lock- 
ing of required means of egress, provisions shall be made for 
the release of occupants at all times. 

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupan- 
cies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform 
to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into 
other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to 
detention and correctional occupancy egress provi- 
sions but that do comply with requirements set forth 
in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occu- 
pancy is not a high-hazard use. 

2. Regardless of the provisions of Section 508, laundry 
areas and kitchens including associated dining areas, 
where commercial/institutional equipment is used, 
shall be separated from the remainder of the building 
by construction capable of resisting the passage of 
smoke. 

3. For the purpose of occupancy separation only pris- 
oner docks directly accessory to courtrooms need not 
be separated from a courtroom. 

408.3 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided for 
in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply. 

408.3.1 Door width. Doors to resident sleeping units shall 
have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). 

408.3.1.1 Cell doors shall open outwardly or slide later- 
ally. 

408.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress 
are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to sUde the door 
to its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) 
with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds 
(220 N). 

408.3.3 Spiral stairs. Spiral stairs that conform to the 
requirements of Section 1009.8 are permitted for access to 
and between staff locations. 

408.3.4 Exit discharge. 



408.3.4.1 Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced 
or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of 
a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum of 50 
feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 3 
square feet ( 1 .4 m^) per person. A gate shall be provided 
from the safe dispersal area to allow for the necessary 
relocation of occupants. 

408.3.4.2 Exterior fenced enclosures and fenced enclo- 
sures utilized for recreational or activity purposes, used 
for exit termination for more than 20 persons, and which 
do not provide a safe dispersal area, shall have not less 
than two exits. 

408.3.4.3 Fenced enclosures utilized for recreational or 
activity purposes only, for more than 49 people, and 
which do not provide a safe dispersal area, shall be pro- 
vided with not less than two exits. 

408.3.4.4 Fenced enclosures located on roofs of build- 
ings one or more stories in height shall be provided with 
not less than two exits regardless of occupant load. 

408.3.5 Sallyports. A sallyport shall be permitted in a 
means of egress where there are provisions for continuous 
and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an 
emergency egress condition. 

408.3.6 Exit enclosures. 

408.3.6.1 One of the required exit enclosures in each 
building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in 
doors and interior walls at each landing level providing 
access to the enclosure, provided that the following con- 
ditions are met: 

1. The exit enclosures shall not serve more than four 
floor levels. 

2. Exit doors shall not be less than ^-hour fire door 
assemblies complying with Section 715.4. 

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall 
not exceed 5,000 square inches (3m^) and individ- 
ual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1 ,296 square 
inches {O.^Axo?). 

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an 
automatic fire sprinkler system. The sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be designed to wet completely the entire 
surface of any glazing affected by fire when 
actuated. 

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and in- 
stalled in such a manner that the framing system 
will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass 
before the sprinkler system operates. 

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery tra- 
verse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials 
shall not be installed between the automatic sprin- 
klers and glazing. 

408.3.6.2 Where the number and arrangement of exits 
complies with the requirements of Chapter 10, other 
stairways which occur within the secure area of the 
detention facility and are not used for required exiting 



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but are used primarily for the movement of inmates and 
security stajfneed not extend to the exterior. 

408.4 Locks. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accor- 
dance with the applicable use condition. Doors from an area of 
refuge to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in 
lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4. 1 . The keys 
to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and 
the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door. Security 
hardware may be used on any fire-rated door. 

408.4.1 Remote release. Remote release of locks on doors 
in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of 
operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release 
locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, 
the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release 
mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the 
minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms 
are capable of being released within 2 minutes. 

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking 
of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not 
required provided that not more than 10 locks are neces- 
sary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one 
smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. 
The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished 
with not more than two separate keys. 

408.4.2 Power-operated doors and locks. Power-operated 
sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors 
shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the 
door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical 
operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities 
with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to 
Section 408.4.1. 

408.4.3 Redundant operation. Mechanically operated 
sliding doors or mechanically operated locks shall be pro- 
vided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at 
each door and shall be provided with a remote release 
control. 

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked under 
emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when 
closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location 
to enable doors to relock. 

408.5 Vertical openings. Vertical openings shall be enclosed 
in accordance with Section 707. 

Exception: The open space in front of a cell tier and con- 
nected chases, not exceeding two tiers in height, shall not be 
considered a vertical shaft and need not meet the fire-resis- 
tive shaft enclosure requirements of Section 707. 

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall have 
smoke barriers complying with Section 709 to divide every 
story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story hav- 
ing an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two 
smoke compartments. 

Exception: Spaces having a direct exit to one of the follow- 
ing, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors 



involved complies with the requirements for doors at the 
smoke barrier for the use condition involved: 

1. A public way. 

2. A building separated from the resident housing area 
by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) of open space. 

3 . A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 
square feet (0.56 m^) or more of refuge area per occu- 
pant, including residents, staff and visitors. 

4. Holding facility. 

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The maximum number of 
residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The 
travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room 
door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 
720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier 
from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 
mm). 

408.6.2 Refuge area. At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per 
occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke 
compartments. This space shall be readily available wher- 
ever the occupants are moved across the smoke baiTier in a 
fire emergency. 

408.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originates. 

408.7 Subdivision of areas. Each cell complex shall be sepa- 
rated from other cell complexes or other spaces by a 
smoke-tight partition. 

408.7.1 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in partitions 
required to be smoke tight by Section 408.7 shall be sub- 
stantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of 
smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell 
doors. 

408.8 Windowless buildings. For the purposes of this section, 
a windowless building or portion of a building is one with 
nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or with- 
out windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an 
engineered smoke control system to provide ventilation 
(mechanical or natural) in accordance with Section 909 for 
each windowless smoke compartment. 

408.9 Nonbearing walls and interior partitions. Nonbearing 
cell or dormitory walls within cell complexes shall be of 
noncombustible construction. 

408.10 Cells with open bars. In buildings protected throughout 
by an automatic sprinkler system and automatic fire detection 
system, corridor doors or walls of cells and dormitories may be 
of open bars, perforated metal, grilles or other similar con- 
struction. 

408.11 Dead-end balconies. Exit balconies serving cell tiers 
shall not extend more than 50 feet (15240 mm) beyond an exit 
stairway. 



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408.12 Emergency and standby power systems. Special elec- 
trical systems, exit illumination, power installations and alter- 
nate on-site electrical supplies shall be provided for every 
building or portion of a building housing 10 or more inmates in 
a detention or correctional facility in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the California Electrical Code. There shall be a 
source of emergency power in all detentionfacilities capable of 
providing minimal lighting in all housing units, activity areas, 
corridors, stairs and central control points, and to maintain 
fire and life safety, security, communications and alarm 
systems. 

408.13 Windows. In security areas within cell complexes 
sprinklered throughout, the area of glazing in 1-hour corridor 
walls and smoke barrier walls shall not be restricted, provided: 

1. All openings are protected by fixed glazing listed and la- 
beled for fire protection of at least ^/4-hour; or 

2. Fixed security glazing set in noncombustible frames 
shall comply with the minimum requirements of one of 
the following test standards: ASTM F 1233-98, Class III 
glass, or California Department of Corrections, CDC 
860-94d or H.P. White Laboratory, Inc., 
HPW-TP-0500.02, Forced Entry Level III 

3. In lieu of the sizes set forth in the California Building 
Code, the size and area of glazed assemblies shall con- 
form to the following: 

Windows required to have a ^/^-hour fire-resistive rat- 
ing or windows protected by fixed security glazing, as 
delineated in Items 1 and 2 above, may have an area not 
greater than 84 square feet (7.8 m^) with neither width 
nor height exceeding 12 feet (3658 mm). 

408.14 Safety padding. Padding material used on walls, floors 
and ceilings in Group I occupancies shall be of an approved 
type tested in accordance with the procedures established by 
State Fire Marshal Standard 12-8-100, Room Fire Test for Wall 
and Ceiling Materials, Part 12, Title 24, California Code of 
Regulations. 



SECTION 409 
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS 

409.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety 
film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other 
light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous 
gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utihzed 
or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA 40. 

409.1.1 Projection room required. Every motion picture 
machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of 
this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurte- 
nant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers 
and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an 
adjacent room of equivalent construction. 

409.2 Construction of projection rooms. Every projection 
room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the 
construction requirements for the type of building in which the 



projection room is located. Openings are not required to be 
protected. 

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square 
feet (7.44 m^) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet 
(3.7 m^) for each additional machine. Each motion picture pro- 
jector, floodUght, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall 
have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 
inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear 
thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two 
adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appur- 
tenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 
inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection 
equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall 
between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings 
shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to 
close completely the opening. 

409.3 Projection room and equipment ventilation. Ventila- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with the California 
Mechanical Code. 

409.3.1 Supply air. Each projection room shall be provided 
with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide 
well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts 
shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of 
air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permit- 
ted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces 
within the building, provided the volume and infiltration 
rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning sys- 
tem, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air 
when other systems are not in operation. 

409.3.2 Exhaust air. Projection rooms are permitted to be 
exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp 
exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the 
lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the 
required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the 
exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air 
cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. 
The projection room ventilation system is penmitted to also 
serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind 
rooms. 

409.3.3 Projection machines. Each projection machine 
shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air 
from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the 
building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust 
air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. 
Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible 
connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or 
projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be 
combined but shall not be interconnected with any other 
exhaust or return system, or both, within the building. 

409.4 Lighting control. Provisions shall be made for control 
of the auditorium Ughting and the means of egress Ughting sys- 
tems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at 
least one other convenient point in the building. 

409.5 Miscellaneous equipment. Each projection room shall 
be provided with rewind and film storage facilities. 



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SECTION 410 
STAGES AND PLATFORMS 

410.1 Applicability. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or 
platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined. 

410.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from which 
the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects 
are controlled. 

GRIDIRON. The structural framing over a stage supporting 
equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage 
effects. 

PINRAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belaying 
pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened. 

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for wor- 
ship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; 
the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers 
and speakers; boxing and wrestUng rings; theater-in-the-round 
stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead 
hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than 
Hghting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for 
not more than 30 days. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage 
from the auditorium or assembly seating area. 

STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment 
or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, 
drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. 

410.3 Stages. Stage construction shall comply with Sections 
410.3.1 through 410.3.7. 

410.3.1 Stage construction. Stages shall be constructed of 
materials as required for floors for the type of construction 
of the building in which such stages are located. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Stages of Type UB or IV construction with a nomi- 
nal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the 
stage is separated from other areas in accordance 
with Section 410.3.4. 

2. In buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construc- 
tion, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, 
provided the space below the stage is equipped 
with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in ac- 
cordance with Section 903 or 904. 

3. In all types of construction, the finished floor shall 
be constructed of wood or approved 
noncombustible materials. Openings through 
stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, 
solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks. 

410.3.1.1 Stage height and area. Stage areas shall be 
measured to include the entire performance area and 
adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from 
the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest 



point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or 
floor deck above the stage. 

410.3.2 Galleries, gridirons, catvcalks and pinrails. 

Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed 
theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of approved materials consistent with the 
requirements for the type of construction of the building; 
and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas 
shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or 
levels in applying this code. 

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of any approved material. 

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of open- 
ings is requhed, exterior exit doors shall be protected with 
fire door assemblies that comply with Section 715. Exterior 
openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or 
loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be 
open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed 
with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium. 

410.3.4 Proscenium wall. Where the stage height is greater 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be 
completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium 
wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating 
extending continuously from the foundation to the roof. 

410.3.5 Proscenium curtain. Where a proscenium wall is 
required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening 
shall be provided with a fire curtain of approved material or 
an approved water curtain complying with Section 
903 . 3 . 1 . 1 . The fire curtain shall be designed and installed to 
intercept hot gases, flames and smoke and to prevent a glow 
from a severe fire on the stage from showing on the audito- 
rium side for a period of 20 minutes. The closing of the fire 
curtain from the full open position shall be accomplished in 
less than 30 seconds, with the last 8 feet (243 8 mm) of travel 
requiring 5 or more seconds for full closure. 

410.3.5.1 Activation. The curtain shall be activated by 
rate-of-rise heat detection installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10 operating at a rate of temperature rise of 
15 to 20°F per minute (8 to 1 1°C per minute), and by an 
auxiliary manual control. 

410.3.5.2 Fire test. A sample curtain with a minimum of 
two vertical seams shall be subjected to the standard fire 
test specified in ASTM E 119 for a period of 30 minutes. 
The curtain shall overlap the furnace edges by an amount 
that is appropriate to seal the top and sides. The curtain 
shall have a bottom pocket containing a minimum of 4 
pounds per Hnear foot (5.9 kg/m) of batten. The exposed 
surface of the curtain shall not glow, and flame or smoke 
shall not penetrate the curtain during the test period. 
Unexposed surface temperature and hose stream test 
requirements are not applicable to the proscenium fire 
safety curtain test. 

410.3.5.3 Smoke test. Curtain fabrics shall have a 
smoke-developed rating of 25 or less when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84. 



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410.3.5.4 Tests. The completed proscenium curtain shall 
be subjected to operating tests prior to the issuance of a 
certificate of occupancy. 

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and 
scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria 
of NFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the Cali- 
fornia Fire Code. Foam plastics and materials containing 
foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the Cali- 
fornia Fire Code. 

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be 
provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) in 
floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 
mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 
or 410.3.7.2. 

410.3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed to 
open automatically by approved heat-activated devices 
and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 
5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the 
center and above the highest part of the stage area. Sup- 
plemental means shaU be provided for manual operation 
of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for 
skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled. 

[F] 410.3.7.2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accor- 
dance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the 
smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) 
above the highest level of the assembly seating or above 
the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium 
wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4. 

410.4 Platform construction. Permanent platforms shall be 
constructed of materials as required for the type of construction 
of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Per- 
manent platforms are permitted to be constructed of frre-retar- 
dant-treated wood for Type I, n, and IV construction where the 
platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the 
main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area 
and not more than 3 ,000 square feet (279 m^) in area. Where the 
space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any 
other purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the 
floor construction shall not be less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Where the space beneath the perma- 
nent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, 
the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected. 

410.4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a 
period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be con- 
structed of any materials permitted by the code. The space 
between the floor and the platform above shall only be used 
for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment. 

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and appur- 
tenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 
410.5.3. 

410.5.1 Separation from stage. Where the stage height is 
greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), the stage shall be sepa- 
rated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, 
workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to 
the stage and other parts of the building by a fire barrier with 
not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating with approved 



opening protectives. For stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 
mm) or less, the required stage separation shall be a fire bar- 
rier with not less llian a 1-hour fire-resistance rating with 
approved opening protectives. 

410.5.2 Separation from each other. Dressing rooms, 
scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and 
compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated 
from each other by fire barriers with not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating with approved opening protectives. 

410.5.3 Stage exits. At least one approved means of egress 
shall be provided from each side of the stage and from each 
side of the space under the stage. At least one means of 
escape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the 
gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread staurway or spiral 
stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a 
scuttle in the stage roof. 

[F] 410.6 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed under 
the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over 
the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, per- 
former lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such 
stages. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 
4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized ex- 
clusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the 
concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces 
by not less than Vg-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum 
board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or 
less in height where curtains, scenery or other com- 
bustible hangings are not rettactable vertically. Com- 
bustible hangings shall be limited to a single main 
curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop. 

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra 
enclosures on stages. 

[F] 410.7 Standpipes. Standpipe systems shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 905. 



SECTION 411 
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS 

411.1 General. Special amusement buildings having an occu- 
pant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for 
the appropriate Group A occupancy and this section. Amuse- 
ment buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall 
comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and 
this section. 

Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that 
are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the 
accumulation of smoke. 

For flammable decorative materials, see the California Fire 
Code. 



88 



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411.2 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the 
purpose of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meaning shown herein. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amuse- 
ment building is any temporary or permanent building or por- 
tion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or 
educational purposes and that contains a device or system that 
conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or 
over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of 
egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio dis- 
tractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily avail- 
able because of the nature of the attraction or mode of 
conveyance through the building or structure. 

[F] 411.3 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement build- 
ings shall be equipped with an automatic &e detection system 
in accordance with Section 907. 

[F] 411.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where 
the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler 
water supply shall be of an approved temporary means. 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the 
total floor area of a temporary special amusement building 
is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) and the travel distance 
from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

[F] 411.5 Alarm. Actuation of a single smoke detector, the 
automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fure detection 
device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a 
constantly attended location from which emergency action can 
be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of 
requirements in Section 907.2.11.2. 

[F] 411.6 Emergency voice/alarm communications system. 

An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be 
provided in accordance with Sections 907.2. 1 1 and 907.2.12.2, 
which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and 
shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement 
building. 

411.7 Exit marking. Exit signs shall be installed at the 
required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings. 
Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. 
Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that dis- 
guise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, 
approved low-level exit signs and directional path markings 
shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) 
above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress 
travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. 
The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic 
&e detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.11.2. 

411.8 Interior finish. The interior finish shall be Class A in 
accordance with Section 803.1. 



SECTION 412 
AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

412.1 Airport traffic control towers. 

2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



412.1.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to airport traffic control towers not exceeding 1,500 square 
feet (140 m^) per floor occupied only for the following uses: 

1. Airport traffic control cab. 

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms. 

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms. 

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation. 

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities. 

412.1.2 Type of construction. Airport traffic control tow- 
ers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area 
limitations of Table 412.1.2. 



TABLE 41 2.1 .2 

HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT TRAFFIC 

CONTROL TOWERS 



TYPE OF 
CONSTRUCTION 


HEIGHr 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 
(square feet) 


lA 


Unlimited 


1,500 


IB 


240 


1,500 


IIA 


100 


1,500 


IIB 


85 


1,500 


IHA 


65 


1,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 
a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor 

412.1.3 Egress. A minimum of one exit stairway shall be 
permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height pro- 
vided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. 
The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 
1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a 
minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area 
served measured in a straight hue. The exit stairway and ele- 
vator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft 
enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 
4-hour fire barrier having no openings. Such stairway shall 
be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water column 
(43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 
Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors 
closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in 
Section 1009.11. The provisions of Section 403 do not 
apply. 

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Sec- 
tion 1020.1.7 are not required where required stairways 
are pressurized. 

[F] 412.1.4 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traf- 
fic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2. 

[F] 412.1.5 Standby power. A standby power system that 
conforms to Section 2702 shall be provided in airport traffic 
control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. 
Power shall be provided to the following equipment: 

1 . Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and 
Hghting. 



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2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

412.1.6 Accessibility. [DSA-ACJ In air traffic control tow- 
ers, an accessible route shall not be required to serve the 
cab and the equipment areas on the floor immediately below 
the cab. 

412.2 Aircraft hangars. Aircraft hangars shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 412.2.1 through 412.2.6. 

412.2.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 
feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a 
foe-resistance rating not less than 2 hours. 

412.2.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, the 
floor over the basement shall be of Type lA construction and 
shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. 
There shall be no opening or communication between the 
basement and the hangar. Access to the basement shall be 
from outside only. 

412.2.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained 
to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor 
drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer 
or to an outside vented sump. 

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease 
spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m^) each in 
which servicing, repaking or washing is not conducted 
and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded 
toward the door, but shall not requhe a separator. 

412.2.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Entrance shall be from the outside 
or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway 
separation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating 
equipment suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) 
above the upper surface of wings or engine enclo- 
sures of the highest aurcraft that are permitted to be 
housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) 
above the floor in shops, offices and other sections 
of the hangar communicating with storage or 
service areas. 

2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided 
the sources of ignition in the appUances are at least 
18 inches (457 mm) above the floor. 

412.2.5 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving use 
of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be car- 
ried on in a separate detached building equipped with auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with 
Section 903. 

[F] 412.2.6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409. 

Exception: Group II hangars as defined in NFPA 409 
storing private aircraft without major maintenance or 
overhaul are exempt from foam suppression require- 
ments. 



412.3 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft han- 
gars as defined in Section 412.3.1 shall comply with Sections 
412.3.2 through 412.3.6. 

412.3.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory 
building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m^) and 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height, constructed on a one- or two-family 
residential property where aircraft are stored. Such use will 
be considered as a residential accessory use incidental to the 
dwelUng. 

412.3.2 Fire separation. A hangar shall not be attached to a 
dwelUng unless separated by a fire barrier having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation 
shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of 
the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the dwell- 
ing unit. Doors into the dwelling unit must be equipped with 
self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of 
S ection 715 with at least a 4-inch (102 mm) noncombustible 
raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly into a room used 
for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. 

412.3.3 Egress. A hangar shall provide two means of 
egress. One of the doors into the dwelUng shall be consid- 
ered as meeting only one of the two means of egress. 

[F] 412.3.4 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be pro- 
vided within the hangar in accordance with Section 
907.2.21. 

412.3.5 Independent systems. Electrical, mechanical and 
plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed 
within the hangar shall be independent of the systems 
installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be 
permitted to be connect outside the structures. 

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electri- 
cal subpanels in the hangar. 

412.3.6 Height and area limits. Residential aircraft han- 
gars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m^) in area and 
20 feet (6096 mm) in height. 

[F] 412.4 Aircraft paint hangars. Aircraft painting opera- 
tions where flammable Uquids are used in excess of the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 
307.7(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that 
complies with the provisions of Section 412.4. 

[F] 412.4.1 Occupancy group. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
comply with the apphcable requkements of this code and 
the California Fire Code for such occupancy. 

412.4.2 Construction. The aircraft paint hangar shall be of 
Type I or n construction. 

[F] 412.4.3 Operations. Only those flammable Uquids nec- 
essary for painting operations shall be permitted in quanti- 
ties less than the maximum allowable quantities per control 
area in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning opera- 
tions shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and 
mixing room. 



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[F] 412 A A Storage. Storage of flammable liquids shall be 
in a liquid storage room. 

[F] 412.4.5 Fire suppression. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409. 

412.4.6 Ventilation. Aircraft paint hangars shall be pro- 
vided with ventilation as required in the California Mechan- 
ical Code. 

412.5 Heliports and helistops. Heliports and helistops shall 
be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where 
they are constructed in accordance with this section. 

412.5.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking 
off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, 
or intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport 
facilities. 

HELISTOP. The same as a "heliport," except that no fuel- 
ing, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicop- 
ters is permitted. 

412.5.2 Size. The landing area for helicopters less than 
3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of 20 feet (6096 
mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be sur- 
rounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum aver- 
age width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no 
width less than 5 feet (1524 mm). 

412.5.3 Design. Helicopter landing areas and the supports 
thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible 
construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any 
flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and pro- 
visions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any 
exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a 
structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design 
requirements, see Section 1605.5. 

412.5.4 Means of egress. The means of egress from heli- 
ports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of 
Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures 
shall have two or more means of egress. For landing areas 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length, or less than 2,000 
square feet (186 m^) in area, the second means of egress may 
be a fire escape or ladder leading to the floor below. 

412.5.5 Rooftop heliports and helistops. Rooftop heli- 
ports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418. 



SECTION 413 
COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 

413.1 General. High-piled stock or rack storage in any occu- 
pancy group shall comply with the California Fire Code. 

413.2 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combusti- 
ble materials shall be protected on the storage side as required 
for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall 
be protected by assembUes that are self-closing and are of 



noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 
IV4 inches (45 mm) in thickness. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. 

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies. 



SECTION 414 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

[F] 414.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, pro- 
cessing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials. 

[F] 414.1.1 Other provisions. Buildings and structures 
with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the 
applicable provisions of Section 415 and the California Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414.1.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous mate- 
rial occupancies is material dependent. Individual material 
requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in 
the California Mechanical Code and the California Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414.1,2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products 
shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the Cal- 
ifornia Fire Code. See Section 311.2 and the California 
Fire Code for occupancy group requirements. 

[F] 414.1.3 Information required. Separate floor plans 
shall be submitted for buildings and structures with an occu- 
pancy in Group H, identifying the locations of anticipated 
contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each 
occupied portion of every building and structure. A report 
identifying hazardous materials including, but not limited 
to, materials representing hazards that are classified in 
Group H to be stored or used, shall be submitted and the 
methods of protection from such hazards shall be indicated 
on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall 
be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation 
approved by the building official and shall be provided 
without charge to the enforcing agency. 

[F] 414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall comply with Sec- 
tions 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the California Fire Code. 

414.2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall 
be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 706 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 711, or both. 

[F] 414.2.2 Percentage of maximum allowable quanti- 
ties. The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of 
hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor 
level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.2. 

[F] 414.2.3 Number. The maximum number of control 
areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.2. 

414.2.4 Fire-resistance-rating requirements. The 

required fire-resistance rating for frre barriers shall be in 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



91 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor construction of 
the control area and the construction supporting the floor of 
the control area shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance 
rating. 

Exception: The floor construction of the control area 
and the construction supporting the floor of the control 
area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in 
buildings of Type IIA, UIA and VA construction, pro- 
vided that both of the following conditions exist: 

1 . The building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, and 

2. The building is three stories or less in height. 

[F] 414.2.5 Hazardous material in Group M display and 
storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The aggre- 
gate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted 
within a single control area of a Group M display and stor- 
age area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is 
permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per 
control area specified in Tables 307. 1 (1) and 307. 1 (2) with- 
out classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, 
provided that the materials are displayed and stored in 
accordance with the California Fire Code and quantities do 
not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 
414.2.5(1). 

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, 
indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall 
not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control 
area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the 
materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the 
California Fire Code. 

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M 
occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to 
retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accor- 
dance with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 414.3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in 
which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly 
toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be emitted 



due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials 
shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the California 
Fire Code and the California Mechanical Code. 

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or 
dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building with- 
out entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or 
through ducts and plenums. 

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flam- 
mable constituents less than 25 percent of their lower flam- 
mable limit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other 
spaces. 

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the 
area in which they are generated as specified in the California 
Fire Code and the California Mechanical Code. 

The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in 
accordance with the California Mechanical Code. Exhaust air 
contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accor- 
dance with the California Fire Code. 

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required 
by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to 
the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the 
break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYS- 
TEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF. 

[F] 414.4 Hazardous material systems. Systems involving 
hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended applica- 
tion. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from 
entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the 
intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where pro- 
vided, shall be designed to be fail safe. 

[F] 414.5 Inside storage, dispensing and use. The inside stor- 
age, dispensing and use of hazardous materials in excess of the 
maximum allowable quantities per control area of Tables 
307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 
414.5.1 through 414.5.5 of this code and the California Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414.5.1 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be 
provided in accordance with the California Fire Code as 
required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous 



[F] TABLE 414.2.2 
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS 



FLOOR LEVEL 


PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA= 


NUMBER OF CONTROL 
AREAS PER FLOOR 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 
FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURS" 


Above grade 
plane 


Higher than 9 

7-9 

6 

5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


5 

5 
12.5 
12.5 
12.5 
50 
75 
100 


1 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 


Below grade 
plane 


1 

2 

Lower than 2 


75 

50 

Not Allowed 


3 

2 

Not Allowed 


1 

1 

Not Allowed 



a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307. 1(1) and 307. 1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those 
tables. 

b. Fire barriers shall.include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building. 



92 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES 

NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS""' 



CONDITION 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA 


Material^ 


Class 


Solids 
pounds 


Liquids 
gallons 


A. Health-hazard materials-nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids 


1. Corrosives''' "= 


Not Applicable 


9,750 


975 


2. Highly toxics 


Not Applicable 


20"' = 


2b, c 


3. Toxics''' = 


Not Applicable 


1,000 


100 


B. Physical-hazard materials-nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids 


1. Oxidizers''' "= 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


l,150s 


115 


2 


2,250" 


225 


1 


18,000''J 


1,800''J 


2. Unstable (reactives)''' "= 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


550 


55 


2 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


3. Water (reactives) 


3b, 


550 


55 


2b, c 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Hazard categories are as specified in the California Fire Code. 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . When Note c also applies, the 
increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the California Fire Code. When Note b 
also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas. 

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307. 

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas. 

g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager 
and do not exceed 10 pounds each. 

h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager 

and do not exceed 10 pounds each, 
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



93 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] TABLE 414.2.5(2) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREA^ 



TYPE OF LIQUID 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons) 


Sprinklered in accordance with Note B 
densities and arrangements 


Sprinldered in accordance witii Tables 

3404.3.6.3(4) througli 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 

3404.3.7.5.1 of the International Fire Code 


Nonsprinlclered 


Class lA 


60 


60 


30 


Class IB, IC,n and mA 


7,500<^ 


15,000= 


1,600 


Class lllB 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


13,200 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m^. 

a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall. 

b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing mimmum densities 
as follows: 

1 . For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 1 8 feet, quantities are those permitted with a mini- 
mum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2. 

2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 1 8 feet, quanti- 
ties are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1 ,500-square-foot area. 

c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for 
each 1 ,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The 
cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons. 



materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allow- 
able quantities in Table 307. 1(1) or where a structure, room 
or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion haz- 
ards as required by Section 4 15 or the California Fire Code. 

[F] 414.5.2 Monitor control equipment. Monitor control 
equipment shall be provided where required by the Califor- 
nia Fire Code. 

[F] 414.5.3 Automatic fire detection systems. Group H 
occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.2. 

[F] 414.5.4 Standby or emergency power. Where mechan- 
ical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, 
alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are 
required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency 
or standby power system in accordance with this code or the 
California Electrical Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Storage areas for Class I and 11 oxidizers. 

2. Storage areas for Class III, IV and V organic per- 
oxides. 

3. Storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic or 
toxic materials as provided for in the California 
Fire Code. 

4. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treat- 
ment systems and temperature control systems 
shall not be required where an approved fail-safe 
engineered system is installed. 

[F] 414.5.5 Spill control, drainage and containment. 

Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid 
and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a 
means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage 
and fire protection water discharged in the storage area 
where required in the California Fire Code. The methods of 
spill control shall be in accordance with the California Fire 
Code. 



[F] 414.6 Outdoor storage, dispensing and use. The outdoor 
storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in 
accordance with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6.1 Weather protection. Where weather protection 
is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material stor- 
age or use areas, such areas shall be considered outdoor 
storage or use when the weather protection structure com- 
plies with Sections 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3. 

[F] 414.6,1.1 Walls. Walls shall not obstruct more than 
one side of the structure. 

Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct por- 
tions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that 
the obstructed area does not exceed 25 percent of the 
structure's perimeter. 

[F] 414.6.1.2 Separation distance. The distance from 
the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means 
of egress to a public way shall not be less than the dis- 
tance required for an outside hazardous material storage 
or use area without weather protection. 

[F] 414.6.1.3 Noncombustible construction. The over- 
head structure shall be of approved noncombustible con- 
struction with amaximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 

Exception: The increases permitted by Section 506 
apply. 

[F] 414.7 Emergency alarms. Emergency alarms for the 
detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group 
H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein. 

[F] 414.7.1 Storage. An approved manual emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas 
used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency 
alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each 
interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms 
or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device 
shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency 
situation involving hazardous materials. 



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[F] 414,7.2 Dispensing, use and handling. Where hazard- 
ous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accor- 
dance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or 
exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone sys- 
tem, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-ini- 
tiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) 
intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway through- 
out the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an 
approved central, proprietary or remote station service or 
constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a 
local audible alarm. 

[F] 414.7.3 Supervision. Emergency alarm systems shall 
be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote 



station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at 
a constantly attended on-site location. 



SECTION 415 
GROUPS H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 AND H-5 

[F] 415.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
the storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the 
maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Sec- 
tion 307.1. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in 
Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of 
Section 414 and the California Fire Code. 





[F] TABLE 414.5.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS^ 




MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems'" 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


Combustible dusts'^ 





Not Required 


Required 


Cryogenic flammables 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 


Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquid 


lA" 
IB= 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


U 
I 


Required 
Required 


Not Permitted 
Not Permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not Permitted . 


Pyrophoric gas 





Not Required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 Detonable 

3 Nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not Required 


Not Permitted 

Not Permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 
2s 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


SPECIAL USES 


Acetylene generator rooms 





Not Required 


Required 


Grain processing 





Not Required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist^ 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not Required 


Not Permitted 
Required 



a. See Section 414.1.3. 

b. See the California Fire Code. 

c. As generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of "Combustible dust" in Chapter 3. 

d. Storage or use. 

e. In open use or dispensing. 

f. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



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[F] 415.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shaU, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS-DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas 

detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained 
in continuous operation and sampling is performed without 
interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical 
basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved 
location on the premises where signals from emergency equip- 
ment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appHance or piece of 
eqmpment that consists of a top, a back and two sides providing 
a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and 
mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume 
hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to locally 
retain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could 
be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, 
in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures. 

[F] FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor 
fabrication facility and related research and development areas 
in which there are processes using hazardous production mate- 
rials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas 
such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to 
the fabrication area processes. 

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentra- 
tion of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of 
their lower flammable limit (LFL). 

[F] GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclo- 
sure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed 
gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for 
exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating con- 
trols are allowed to be included. 

[F] GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room 
in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and 
supplies are stored or used. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 

A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufac- 
turing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, 
flammability or reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 
704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or pro- 
duction processes that have as their end product materials that 
are not hazardous. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is 
defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or 
Class IILA combustible Hquid. 

[F] HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving 
a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and 
which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contami- 
nants which poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed per- 
manent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent 
escape from such an environment. This contaminant concen- 



tration level is established by the National Institute of Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and 
flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per milHon by 
volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m^). If 
adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH 
concentrations, an independent certified mdustrial hygienist, 
industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other 
source approved by the code official shall make such determi- 
nation. 

[F] LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to 
or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 
68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) 
(101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "hquid" 
includes both flammable and combustible liquids. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a 
Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or 
combustible liquids in a closed condition. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. 

A room in which Class 1, 11 and niA flammable or combustible 
liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum 
concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame wiU 
occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is some- 
times referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit." 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 

(NTP). A temperature of 70°F (2 rC) and a pressure of 1 atmo- 
sphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)]. 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL. A concentration of air-borne contaminants, normally 
expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic 
meter, that represents the concentration at which persons can 
sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or 
other quick-acting physiological response. When used in con- 
junction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) the physio- 
logical warning threshold levels are those consistent with the 
classification system used to establish the PEL. See the defini- 
tion of "Permissible exposure limit (PEL)" in the California 
Fire Code. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fiilly enclosed passage used 
for transportuig HPM and purposes other than required means 
of egress. 

[F] SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or 
sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C). 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 

1 . The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials 
in closed containers, tanks, cylinders or similar vessels, 
or 

2. Vessels supplying operations through closed connec- 
tions to the vessel. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, includ- 
ing solids, liquids and gases. 

[F] WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent 
principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication 
area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or 



96 



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research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materi- 
als storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas 
cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the work- 
station. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equip- 
ment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electrical 
devices and other processing and scientific equipment. 

[F] 415.3 Fire separation distance. Group H occupancies 
shall be located on property in accordance with the other provi- 
sions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 
percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an 
exterior wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a floor 
area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m^) need not 
be located on the outer perimeter of the building where 
they are in accordance with the California Fire Code and 
NFPA 30. 

2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) need not be located on the 
outer perimeter where they axe in accordance with the 
California Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

3. Spray paint booths that comply with the California Fire 
Code need not be located on the outer perimeter. 

[F] 415.3.1 Group H occupancy minimum fire separa- 
tion distance. Regardless of any other provisions, buildings 
containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to the 
minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Items 1 
through 4 below. Distances shall be measured firom the 
walls enclosing the occupancy to lot Hues, including those 
on a public way. Distances to assumed lot lines established 
for the purpose of determining exterior wall and opening 
protection are not to be used to establish the minimum fire 
separation distance for buildings on sites where explosives 
are manufactured or used when separation is provided in 
accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for 
explosive materials in the California Fire Code. 

1 . Group H- 1 . Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not 
less than required by the California Fire Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireworks manufacturing buildings sepa- 
rated in accordance with NFPA 1 124. 

2. Buildings containing the following materi- 
als when separated in accordance with Table 
415.3.1: 

2.1. Organic peroxides, unclassified deton- 
able. 

2.2. Unstable reactive materials. Class 4. 

2.3. Unstable reactive materials, Class 3 de- 
tonable. 

2.4. Detonable pyrophoric materials. 

2. Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where 
the area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet 
(93 m^) and it is not required to be located in a de- 
tached building. 



3. Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 
mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 
415.3.2). 

4. Groups H-2 and H-3 . Occupancies containing materi- 
als with explosive characteristics shall be separated as 
required by the California Fire Code. Where separa- 
tions are not specified, the distances required shall not 
be less than the distances required by Table 415.3. 1 . 

[F] 415.3.2 Group H-1 and H-2 or H-3 detached build- 
ings. Where a detached building is required by Table 
415.3.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening pro- 
tection based on fire separation distance. 

[F] 415.4 Special provisions for Group H-1 occupancies. 

Group H-1 occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other 
purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without a 
basement, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs 
shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insu- 
lation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decompo- 
sition temperature. 

Group H-1 occupancies containing materials which are in 
themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities 
exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
in Table 307.1.(2) shall comply with requirements for both 
Group H-1 and H-4 occupancies. 

[F] 415.4.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unsta- 
ble (reactive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, 
noncombustible construction. 

[F] 415.5 Special provisions for Group H-2 and H-3 occu- 
pancies. Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 
415.3.2 shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall 
not exceed one story in height and shall be without basements, 
crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. 

Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive 
materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for con- 
veying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing 
water reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight con- 
struction. 

Exception: Fire protection piping. 

[F] 415.5.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materi- 
als, unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids 
and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible 
construction. 

[F] 415.5.2 Waterproof room. Rooms or areas used for the 
storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be con- 
structed in a manner that resists the penetration of water 
through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying 
water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems shall not be within such rooms or areas. 

[F] 415.6 Group H-2. Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 415.6.1 through 415.6.4 
and the California Fire Code. 



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[F] TABLE 415.3.1 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL^ 


MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


Lot lines" and inhabited buildings" 


Separation of magazines"' °'' 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded" 


Unbarricaded 


2 


5 


70 


140 


12 


5 


10 


90 


180 


16 


10 


20 


110 


220 


20 


20 


30 


125 


250 


22 


30 


40 


140 


280 


24 


40 


50 


150 


300 


28 


50 


75 


170 


340 


30 


75 


100 


190 


380 


32 


100 


125 


200 


400 


36 


125 


150 


215 


430 


38 


150 


200 


235 


470 


42 


200 


250 


255 


510 


46 


250 


300 


270 


540 


48 


300 


400 


295 


590 


54 


400 


500 


320 


640 


58 


500 


600 


340 


680 


62 


600 


700 


355 


710 


64 


700 


800 


375 


750 


66 


800 


900 


390 


780 


70 


900 


1,000 


400 


800 


72 


1,000 


1,200 


425 


850 


78 


1,200 


1,400 


450 


900 


82 


1,400 


1,600 


470 


940 


86 


1,600 


1,800 


490 


980 


88 


1,800 


2,000 


505 


1,010 


90 


2,000 


2,500 


545 


1,090 


98 


2,500 


3,000 


580 


1,160 


104 


3,000 


4,000 


635 


1,270 


116 


4,000 


5,000 


685 


1,370 


122 


5,000 


6,000 


730 


1,460 


130 


6,000 


7,000 


770 


1,540 


136 


7,000 


8,000 


800 


1,600 


144 


8,000 


9,000 


835 


1,670 


150 


9,000 


10,000 


865 


1,730 


156 


10,000 


12,000 


875 


1,750 


164 


12,000 


14,000 


885 


1,770 


174 


14,000 


16,000 


900 


1,800 


180 


16,000 


18,000 


940 


1,880 


188 


18,000 


20,000 


975 


1,950 


196 


20,000 


25,000 


1,055 


2,000 


210 


25,000 


30,000 


1,130 


2,000 


224 


30,000 


35,000 


1,205 


2,000 


238 


35,000 


40,000 


1,340 


2,000 


248 



(continued) 



98 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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TABLE 415.3.1— continued 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 







MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL' 


Lot lines" and inhabited buildings' 


Separation of magazines'''*'' 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded*' 


Unbarricaded 


40,000 


45,000 


1,340 


2,000 


258 


45,000 


50,000 


1,400 


2,000 


270 


50,000 


55,000 


1,460 


2,000 


280 


55,000 


60,000 


1,515 


2,000 


290 


60,000 


65,000 


1,565 


2,000 


300 


65,000 


70,000 


1,610 


2,000 


310 


70,000 


75,000 


1,655 


2,000 


320 


75,000 


80,000 


1,695 


2,000 


330 


80,000 


85,000 


1,730 


2,000 


340 


85,000 


90,000 


1,760 


2,000 


350 


90,000 


95,000 


1,790 


2,000 


360 


95,000 


100,000 


1,815 


2,000 


370 


100,000 


110,000 


1,835 


2,000 


390 


110,000 


120,000 


1,855 


2,000 


410 


120,000 


130,000 


1,875 


2,000 


430 


130,000 


140,000 


1,890 


2,000 


450 


140,000 


150,000 


1,900 


2,000 


470 


150,000 


160,000 


1,935 


2,000 


490 


160,000 


170,000 


1.965 


2,000 


510 


170,000 


180,000 


1,990 


2,000 


530 


180,000 


190,000 


2,010 


2,010 


550 


190,000 


200,000 


2,030 


2,030 


570 


200,000 


210,000 


2,055 


2,055 


590 


210,000 


230,000 


2,100 


2,100 


630 


230,000 


250,000 


2,155 


2,155 


670 


250,000 


275,000 


2,215 


2,215 


720 


275,000 


300,000 


2,275 


2,275 


770 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m^. 

a. The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive. 

b. The distance listed is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways. 

c. For the puipose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same lot that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings containing 
explosives or magazines are located on the same lot, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings and, 
in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for "Separation of magazines," except that the quantity of explosive materi- 
als contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator buildings or magazines from buildings or magazines con- 
taining other explosive materials. If any two or more buildings or magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified "Separation of magazines" 
distances, then such two or more buildings or magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials 
stored in such group shall be treated as if the explosive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group, and shall 
comply with the minimum distance specified from other magazines or inhabited Iwildings. 

d. Barricades shall effectively screen the building containing explosives from other buildings, public ways or magazines. Where mounds or revetted walls of earth 
are used for barricades, they shall not be less than 3 feet in thickness. A straight line from the top of any side wall of the building containing explosive materials to 
the eave line of any other building, magazine or a point 12 feet above the centerline of a public way shall pass through the barricades. 

e. Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 1 20 
square feet in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, however, all magazines shall comply with the California Fire Code. 

f. The distance listed is permitted to be reduced by 50 percent where approved natural or artificial barriers are provided in accordance with the requirements in Note 
d. 



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[F] 415.6.1 Combustible dusts, grain processing and 
storage. The provisions of Sections 415.6.1.1 thfougii 
415.6.1.6 shall apply to buildmgs in which materials that 
produce conabustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings 
that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the 
applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 120, NFPA 484, 
NFPA 654, NFPA 655, NFPA 664 and NFPA 85, and the 
California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.1.1 Type of construction and tieight excep- 
tions. Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with 
the height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group 
H-2; except that where erected of Type I or n construc- 
tion, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar 
structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV con- 
struction, the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 
mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maxi- 
mum height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 
85 feet (25 908 mm). 

[F] 415.6.1.2 Grinding rooms. Every room or space 
occupied for grinding or other operations that produce 
combustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers that 
have not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating where 
the area is not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^), and 
not less than a 4-hour fixe-resistance rating where the 
area is greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 



[F] 415.6.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping and 
similar eqiiipment passing through the enclosures of 
rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor 
tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials com- 
plying with Chapter 30. 

[F] 415.6.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided as specified in the California Fire 
Code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent 
mechanical ventilation complying with the California 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 415.6.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt 
houses and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be 
located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or 
structures on the same lot, except where erected along a 
raikoad right-of-way. 

[F] 415.6.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from 
structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less 
than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along 
a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of construc- 
tion of such structures not more than 65 feet(19 812mm) 
in height shall be Type IV. 



[F] TABLE 415.3.2 
REQUIRED DETACHED STORAGE 



DETACHED STORAGE IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN 


Material 


Class 


Solids and Liquids (tons)^''' 


Gases (cubic feet)'* 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4"= 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximimi Allowable Quantity 

1 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizers 


Class 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Unstable (reactives) detonable 


Class 3 or 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Oxidizer, liquids and solids 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1,200 
2,000 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Organic peroxides 


Detonable 
Class I 
Class n 

Class m 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

25 

50 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Unstable (reactives) nondetonable 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 
25 


2,000 
10,000 


Water reactives 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 
25 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric gases 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


2,000 



For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 ^l^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in Table 41 5.3 . 1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the 
material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 33 the California Fire Code. For all other materials, the distance shall be as indicated in Section 
415.3.1. 

b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Ihble 307.7(1). 

c. Limited to Division 1 .4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco 
and Firearms (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing 
the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound. 



100 



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[F] 415.6.2 Flammable and combustible liquids. The 

storage, handling, processing and transporting of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with the 
California Mechanical Code and the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where the storage 
tank area is located in a building of two or more occupan- 
cies, and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maximum 
allowable quantity for one control area, the use shall be 
completely separated from adjacent fire areas in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Section 508.3.3. 

[F] 415.6.2.1.1 Height exception. Where storage 
tanks are located within only a single-story building, 
the height limitation of Section 503 shall not apply for 
Group H. 

[F] 415.6.2.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be 
noncombustible and protected from physical damage. A 
fire barrier wall or horizontal assembUes or both around 
the storage tank(s) shall be permitted as the method of 
protection from physical damage. 

[F] 415.6.2.3 Tanks. Storage tanks shall be approved 
tanks conforming to the requirements of the California 
Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.4 Suppression. Group H shall be equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, installed in accordance with Section 903. 

[F] 415.6.2.5 Leakage containment. A liquid-tight con- 
tainment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be 
provided. The method of spill control, drainage control 
and secondary containment shall be in accordance with 
the California Fire Code. 

Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage 
tanks conforming to Section 415.6.2.3 are used to 
store Class 1, 11 and IILA flammable and combustible 
liquids shall not be required to have a leakage contain- 
ment area. 

[F] 415.6.2.6 Leakage alarm. An approved automatic 
alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage 
tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 
15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of 
entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is 
located. An approved sign shall be posted on every entry 
door to the tank storage room indicating the potential 
hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall 
state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE 
ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE 
HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be super- 
vised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble 
signal. 

[F] 415.6.2.7 Tank vent. Storage tank vents for Class I, 
II or IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in 
accordance with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.8 Room ventilation. Storage tank areas stor- 
ing Class I, n or IHA liquids shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation sys- 
tem shall be in accordance with the California Mechani- 
cal Code and the California Fire Code. 



[F] 415.6.2.9 Explosion venting. Where Class I liquids 
are being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in 
accordance with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.10 Tank openings other than vents. Tank 
openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings 
shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concen- 
trations are not released inside the building. 

[F] 415.6.3 Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facili- 
ties. The design and construction of propane, butane, pro- 
pylene, butylene and other liquefied petroleum 
gas-distribution facilities shall conform to the applicable 
provisions of Sections 415.6.3.1 through 415.6.3.5.2. The 
storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gas systems 
shall conform to the California Fire Code. The design and 
installation of piping, equipment and systems that utilize 
hquefied petroleum gas shall be in accordance with the Cal- 
ifornia Mechanical Code and the California Plumbing 
Code. Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities shall 
be ventilated in accordance with the California Mechanical 
Code and Section 415.6.3.1. 

[F] 415.6.3.1 Air movement. Liquefied petroleum gas- 
distribution facilities shall be provided with air inlets and 
outlets arranged so that air movement across the floor of 
the facility will be uniform. The total area of both inlet 
and outlet openings shall be at least 1 square inch (645 
mm^) for each 1 square foot (0.093 m^) of floor area. The 
bottom of such openings shall not be more than 6 inches 
(152 mm) above the floor. 

[F] 415.6.3.2 Construction. Liquefied petroleum 
gas-distribution facilities shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 415.6.3.3 for separate buildings, Sec- 
tion 415.6.3.4 for attached buildings or Section 
415.6.3.5 for rooms within buildings. 

[F] 415.6.3.3 Separate buildings. Where located in sep- 
arate buildings, liquefied petroleum gas-distribution 
facilities shall be occupied exclusively for that purpose 
or for other purposes having similar hazards. Such build- 
ings shall be limited to one story in height and shall con- 
form to Sections 415.6.3.3.1 through 415.6.3.3.3. 

[F] 415.6.3.3.1 Floors. The floor shall not be located 
below ground level and any spaces beneath the floor 
shall be solidly filled or shall be unenclosed. 

[F] 415.6.3.3.2 Materials. Walls, floors, ceilings, 
columns and roofs shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 

[F] 415.6.3.3.3 Explosion venting. Explosion vent- 
ing shall be provided in accordance with the Califor- 
nia Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.3.4 Attached buildings. Where liquefied 
petroleum gas-distribution facilities are located in an 
attached structure, the attached perimeter shall not 
exceed 50 percent of the perimeter of the space enclosed 
and the facility shall comply with Sections 415.6.3.3 and 
415.6.3.4.1. Where the attached perimeter exceeds 50 
percent, such facilities shall comply with Section 
415.6.3.5. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



101 



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[F] 415.6.3.4.1 Fire separation. Separation of the 
attached structures shall be provided by fire barriers 
having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour 
and shall not have openings. Fire barriers between 
attached structures occupied only for the storage of 
LP-gas are permitted to have fire door assemblies that 
comply widi Section 715. Such fire barriers shall be 
designed to withstand a static pressure of at least 100 
pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa), except where 
the building to which the structure is attached is occu- 
pied by operations or processes having a similar 
hazard. 

[F] 415.6.3.5 Rooms viitliin buildings. Where liquefied 
petroleum gas-distribution facilities are located in rooms 
within buildings, such rooms shall be located in the first 
story above grade plane and shall have at least one exte- 
rior wall with sufficient exposed area to provide explo- 
sion venting as required in die California Fire Code. The 
building in which the room is located shall not have a 
basement or unventilated crawl space and the room shall 
comply with Sections 415.6.3.5.1 and 415.6.3.5.2. 

[F] 415.6.3.5.1 Materials. Walls, floors, ceilings and 
roofs of such rooms shall be constructed of approved 
noncombustible materials. 

[F] 415.6.3.5.2 Common construction. Walls and 
floor/ceiling assemblies common to the room and to 
the building where the room is located shall be fire 
barriers with not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rat- 
ing and without openings. Common walls for rooms 
occupied only for storage of LP-gas are permitted to 
have opening protectives complying with Section 
715. The walls and ceilings shall be designed to with- 
stand a static pressure of at least 100 psf (4788 Pa). 

Exception: Where the building, within which the 
room is located, is occupied by operations or pro- 
cesses having a similar hazard. 

[F] 415.6.4 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and 
installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance 
with the requirements of this code, the California Mechani- 
cal Code, the California Plumbing Code and NFPA 32. Dry 
cleaning solvents and systems shall be classified in accor- 
dance with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.7 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be 
constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
this code and the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.7.1 Gas rooms. When gas rooms are provided, such 
rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than a 
1-hour fire barrier. 

[F] 415.7.2 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materi- 
als shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible constiniction. 

[F] 415.7.3 Separation-higlily toxic solids and liquids. 

Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved haz- 
ardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from 



other hazardous materials storage by a fire barrier having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

[F] 415.8 Group H-5. 

[F] 415.8.1 General. In addition to the requirements set 
forth elsewhere in this code, Group H-5 shall comply with 
the provisions of Section 415.8 and the California Fire 
Code. 

[F] 415.8.2 Fabrication areas. 

[F] 415.8.2.1 Hazardous materials in fabrication 
areas. 

[F] 415.8.2.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggregate 
quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a 
single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities 
set forth in Table 415.8.2.1.1. 

Exception: The quantity limitations for any haz- 
ard category in Table 415.8.2.1.1 shall not apply 
where the fabrication area contains quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area established 
by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

[F] 415.8.2.1.2 Hazardous production materials. 

The maximum quantities of hazardous production 
materials (HPM) stored in a single fabrication area 
shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
per control area estabUshed by Tables 307.1(1) and 
307.1(2). 

[F] 415.8.2.2 Separation. Fabrication areas, whose 
sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials 
allowed by Table 415.8.2.1.1, shall be separated from 
each other, from corridors and from other parts of the 
building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers. 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors within such fire barrier walls, including 
doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing 
fire door assemblies having a fire protection rat- 
ing of not less than V4 hour. 

2. Windows between fabrication areas and corri- 
dors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed and 
labeled for a fire protection rating of at least V4 
hour in accordance with Section 715. 

[F] 415.8.2.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied 
levels of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the 
first story above grade plane. 

[F] 415.8.2.4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors within 
fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible construc- 
tion. 

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are per- 
mitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels 
are used solely for mechanical equipment directly 
related to such fabrication areas (see also Section 
415.8.2.5). 

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall 
be liquid tight. 



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[F] TABLE 415.8.2.1.1 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5' 



HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds per square feet) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons per square feet) 


GAS 
(feet^@ NTP/square feet) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber Loose 
Baled 


Noteb 
Notes b, c 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid II 
IHA 
IIIB 

Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas Flammable 
Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
Noted 


Flammable liquid lA 
IB 
IC 

Combination Class lA, IB and IC 
Combination Class I, n and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 
Unclassified detonable 
Class I 
Class n 
Class in 
Class rv 
Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 

Combination of gaseous 
and liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 

1.25 


Oxidizer Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Combination Class 1, 2, 3 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric material 


Noteb 


0.00125 


Notes d and e 


Unstable reactive Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxic 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m^ 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m^, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m^ @ NTP/m^, 
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 Ml 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single febrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tkbles 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet atNTP. 

e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Thble 415.3.2. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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[F] 415.8.2.5 Shafts and openings through floors. Ele- 
vator shafts, vent shafts and other openings through 
floors shall be enclosed when required by Section 707. 
Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabri- 
cation area shall not extend through more than two 
floors. The annular space around penetrations for cables, 
cable trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall be 
sealed at the floor level to restrict the movement of air. 
The fabrication area, including the areas through which 
the ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a 
single conditioned environment. • 

[F] 415.8.2.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per 
square foot (0.051 m^ /(s • m^ ) of floor area shall be pro- 
vided throughout the portions of the fabrication area 
where HPM are used or stored. The exhaust air duct sys- 
tem of one fabrication area shall not connect to another 
duct system outside that fabrication area within the 
building. 

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and 
exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations. 

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be 
connected to the same exhaust system where either one 
or the combination of the substances removed could con- 
stitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction 
within the exhaust duct system. 

Exhaust ducts penetrating occupancy separations 
shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not pene- 
trate fire walls. 

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts. 

[F] 415.8.2.7 Transporting hazardous production 
materials to fabrication areas. HPM shall be trans- 
ported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or 
tubing systems that comply with Section 415.8.6.1, 
through service corridors complying with Section 
415.8.4, or in corridors as permitted in the exception to 
Section 415.8.3. The handling or transporting of HPM 
within service corridors shall comply with the California 
Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2.8 Electrical. 

[F] 415.8.2.8.1 General. Electrical equipment and 
devices within the fabrication area shall comply with 
the California Electrical Code. The requirements for 
hazardous locations need not be applied where the 
average air change is at least four times that set forth 
in Section 415.8.2.6 and where the number of air 
changes at any location is not less than three times that 
required by Section 415.8.2.6. The use of recirculated 
air shall be permitted. 

[F] 415.8.2.8.2 Workstations. Workstations shall not 
be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. 
See Section 415.8.2.6 for workstation exhaust venti- 
lation requirements. 

[F] 415.8.3 Corridors. Corridors shall comply with Chap- 
ter 10 and shall be separated from fabrication areas as speci- 



fied in Section 415.8.2.2. Corridors shall not contain HPM 
and shall not be used for transporting such materials, except 
through closed piping systems as provided in Section 
415.8.6.3. 

Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are altered 
or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing 
corridors, subject to the following conditions: 

1. Corridors. Corridors adjacent to the fabrication 
area where the alteration work is to be done shall 
comply with Section 1017 for a length determined 
as foUows: 

1.1. The length of the conamon wall of the corridor 
and the fabrication area; and 

1.2. For the distance along the corridor to the point 
of entry of HPM into the corridor serving that 
fabrication area. 

2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emer- 
gency telephone system, a local manual alarm sta- 
tion or other approved alarm-initiating device 
within corridors at not more than 150-foot (45 720 
mm) intervals and at each exit and doorway. The 
signal shall be relayed to an approved central, pro- 
prietary or remote station service or the emergency 
control station and shall also initiate a local audible 
alarm. 

3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire 
protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall sepa- 
rate pass-throughs from existing corridors. 
Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for 
the corridors and protected by an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system. 

[F] 415.8.4 Service corridors. 

[F] 415.8.4.1 Occupancy. Service corridors shall be 
classified as Group H-5. 

[F] 415.8.4.2 Use conditions. Service corridors shall be 
separated from corridors as required by Section 
415.8.2.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a 
required corridor. 

[F] 415.8.4.3 Mechanical ventilation. Service corridors 
shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 
415.8.2.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour, 
whichever is greater. 

[F] 415.8.4.4 Means of egress. The maximum distance 
of travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, 
exit access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall 
not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall not 
exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less 
than two exits, and not more than one-half of the required 
means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication 
area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the 
direction of egress travel and shall be self-closing. 

[F] 415,8.4.5 Minimum width. The minimum clear 
width of a service corridor shall be 5 feet (1524 mm), or 
33 inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart or truck 
used in the corridor, whichever is greater. 



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[F] 415.8.4.6 Emergency alarm system. Emergency 
alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with this 
section and Sections 414.7.1 and414.7.2. The maximum 
allowable quantity per control area provisions shall not 
apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.1 Service corridors. An emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, 
with at least one alarm device in each service corridor. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclo- 
sures. Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and 
exit enclosures shall comply with Section 414.7.2. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms 
and gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage 
rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with 
Section 414.7.1. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.4 Alarm-initiating devices. An 

approved emergency telephone system, local alarm 
manual pull stations, or other approved alarm-initiat- 
ing devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm-initiating devices. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the 
emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm 
and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. 

[F] 415.8.5 Storage of hazardous production materials. 

[F] 415.8.5.1 General. Storage of HPM in fabrication 
areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets 
or gas cabinets or within a workstation. The storage of 
HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Section 
1 804.2 of the California Fire Code shall be in liquid stor- 
age rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate for 
the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous 
materials shall be in accordance with other applicable 
provisions of this code and the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.5.2 Construction. 

[F] 415.8.5.2.1 HPM rooms and gas rooms. HPM 

rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other 
areas by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier where the 
area is 300 square feet (27.9 m^) or more and not less 
than a 1-hour fire barrier where the area is less than 
300 square feet (27.9 m^). 

[F] 415.8.5.2.2 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid stor- 
age rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the 
following requirements: 

1. Rooms in excess of 500 square feet (46.5 m^) 
shall have at least one exterior door approved 
for fire department access. 

2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by 
fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1-hour for rooms up to 150 square 
feet (13.9 m^) in area and not less than 2 hours 
where the room is more than 150 square feet 
(13.9 m^) in area. 

3. Shelving, racks and wainscoting in such areas 
shall be of noncombustible construction or 



wood of not less than linch (25 mm) nominal 
thickness. 

4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flamma- 
ble liquids shall not be located in a basement. 

[F] 415.8.5.2.3 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors of 
HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of 
noncombustible liquid-tight construction. Raised 
grating over floors shall be of noncombustible materi- 
als. 

[F] 415.8.5.3 Location. Where HPM rooms, Hquid stor- 
age rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have at 
least one exterior wall and such wall shall be not less than 
30 feet (9 144 mm) from lot lines, including lot lines adja- 
cent to public ways. 

[F] 415.8.5.4 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1. 

[F] 415.8.5.5 Exits. Where two exits are required firom 
HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one 
shall be directly to the outside of the building. 

[F] 415.8.5.6 Doors. Doors in a fire barrier wall, includ- 
ing doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire door 
assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less than 
V4 hour. 

[F] 415.8.5.7 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM 
rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic 
foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/s/m^) of floor 
area or six air changes per hour, whichever is greater, for 
categories of material. 

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to 
operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surround- 
ing areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust 
system. 

[F] 415.8.5.8 Emergency alarm system. An approved 
emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM 
rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms. 

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed 
outside of each interior exit door of such rooms. 

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device 
shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the 
emergency control station. 

An approved emergency telephone system, local 
alarm manual pull stations or other approved alarm-initi- 
ating devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm-initiating devices. 

[F] 415.8.6 Piping and tubing. 

[F] 415.8.6.1 General. Hazardous production materials 
piping and tubing shall comply with this section and 
ASMEB31.3. 

[F] 415.8.6.2 Supply piping and tubing. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.1 HPM having a health-hazard rank- 
ing of 3 or 4. Systems supplying HPM liquids or 
gases having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be 
welded throughout, except for connections, to the 



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systems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the 
material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage 
or containment is provided for the connections if the 
material is a liquid. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.2 Location in service corridors. Haz- 
ardous production materials supply piping or tubing 
in service corridors shall be exposed to view. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.3 Excess flow control. Where HPM 
gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping 
above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 
kPa), excess flow control shall be provided. Where 
the piping originates from within a liquid storage 
room, HPM room or gas room, the excess flow con- 
trol shall be located within the liquid storage room, 
HPM room or gas room. Where the piping originates 
from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be 
located as close to the bulk source as practical. 

[F] 415.8.6.3 Installations in corridors and above 
otiier occupancies. The installation of HPM piping and 
tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors 
and the floor or roof above, or in concealed spaces above 
other occupancies, shall be in accordance with Section 
415.8.6.2 and the following conditions: 

1. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the 
space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 
mm) in the least dimension. 

2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour 
shall be provided. The space shall not be used to 
convey air from any other area. 

3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport 
HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below 
such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be de- 
signed to collect any discharge or leakage and 
drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclo- 
sure shall not be used as part of the receptor. 

4. HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic 
waste lines shall be separated from the corridor 
and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by fu:e 
barriers that have a fire-resistance rating of not less 
than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is used, 
joints on the piping side of the enclosure are not re- 
quired to be taped, provided the joints occur over 
framing meinbers. Access openings into the enclo- 
sure shall be protected by approved fire 
protection-rated assemblies. 

5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely 
activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall 
be installed on piping and tubing other than waste 
lines at the following locations: 

5.1. At branch connections into the fabrication 
area. 

5.2. At entries into corridors. 

Exception: Transverse crossings of the 
corridors by supply piping that is 
enclosed within a ferrous pipe or tube for 



the width of the corridor need not comply 
with Items 1 through 5. 

[F] 415.8.6.4 Identification. Piping, tubing and HPM 
waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI 
A13.1 to indicate the material being transported. 

[F] 415.8.7 Continuous gas detection systems. A continu- 
ous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases 
when the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is 
at a higher level than the accepted PEL for the gas and for 
flammable gases in accordance with this section. 

[F] 415.8.7.1 Where required. A continuous gas-detec- 
tion system shall be provided in the areas identified in 
Sections 415.8.7.L1 through 415.8.7.1.4. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous 
gas-detection system shall be provided in fabrication 
areas when gas is used in the fabrication area. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous 
gas-detection system shall be provided in HPM 
rooms when gas is used in the room. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures 
and gas rooms. A continuous gas-detection system 
shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclo- 
sures. A continuous gas-detection system shall be 
provided in gas rooms when gases are not located in 
gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.4 Corridors. When gases are trans- 
ported in piping placed within the space defined by 
the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the 
corridor, a continuous gas-detection system shall be 
provided where piping is located and in the corridor. 

Exception: A continuous gas-detection system is 
not required for occasional transverse crossings of 
the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a 
ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor. 

[F] 415.8.7.2 Gas-detection system operation. The 

continuous gas-detection system shall be capable of 
monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas 
is located at or below the PEL or ceiling limit of the gas 
for which detection is provided. For flammable gases, 
the monitoring detection threshold level shall be vapor 
concentrations in excess of 20 percent of the lower 
explosive limit (LEL). Monitoring for highly toxic and 
toxic gases shall also comply with the requirements for 
such material in the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.7.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system 
shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the 
emergency control station when a short-term hazard 
condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visual 
and audible and shall provide warning both inside and 
outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible 
alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms. 

[F] 415.8.7.2.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas detec- 
tion system shall automatically close the shutoff valve 
at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related 
to the system being monitored for which gas is 
detected when a short-term hazard condition is 



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detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff 
valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure 
for the specific gas detected shall automatically 
close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
room and compressed gas containers are not in 
gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the 
shutoff valves on all gas hnes for the specific 
gas detected shall automatically close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
piping distribution manifold enclosure, the 
shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the 
compressed gas container of the specific gas 
detected shall automatically close. 

Exception: Where the gas-detection sampling 
point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at 
the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a 
branch line downstream of a piping distribution 
manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line 
located in the piping distribution manifold enclo- 
sure shall automatically close. 

[F] 415.8.8 Manual fire alarm system. An approved man- 
ual fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings 
containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall 
initiate a local alarm and teansmit a signal to the emergency 
control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Section 907. 

415.8.9 Emergency control station. An emergency contiol 
station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
415.8.9.1 through 415.8.9.3. 

415.8.9.1 Location. The emergency control station shall 
be located on the premises at an approved location out- 
side the fabrication area. 

415.8.9.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall continuously 
staff the emergency control station. 

415.8.9.3 Signals. The emergency control station shall 
receive signals from emergency equipment and alarm 
and detection systems. Such emergency equipment and 
alarm and detection systems shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following where such equipment or systems 
are required to be provided either in this chapter or else- 
where in this code: 

1. Automatic fire sprinkler system alarm and moni- 
toring systems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous gas-detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 



7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids required in Section 1805.2.3.5 of the Califor- 
nia Fire Code. 

8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required 
in Section 1805.2.3.5 of the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.10 Emergency power system. An emergency 
power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies 
where required in Section 415.8.10.1. The emergency 
power system shall be designed to supply power automati- 
cally to required electrical systems when the normal electti- 
cal supply system is interrupted. 

[F] 415.8.10.1 Required electrical systems. Emer- 
gency power shall be provided for electrically operated 
equipment and connected contiol circuits for the follow- 
ing systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems. 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 

7. Manual fire alarm systems. 

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and 
alarm systems. 

9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids required in Section 1805.2.3.5 of the Cali- 
fornia Fire Code. 

10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and 
Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust 
ventilation systems required in Section 
1805.2.3.5 of the California Fire Code. 

1 1 . Electrically operated systems required elsewhere 
in this code or in the California Fire Code appli- 
cable to the use, storage or handling of HPM. 

[F] 415.8.10.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust 
ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to operate 
at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the 
emergency power system where it is demonstrated that 
the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere. 

[F] 415.8.11 Automatic sprinkler system protection in 
exhaust ducts for HPM. 

[F] 415.8.11.1 Exhaust ducts for HPM. An approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust 
ducts conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts 
generated from HPM in accordance with this section and 
the California Mechanical Code. 

[F] 415.8.11.2 Metallic and noncombustible nonme- 
tallic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible 



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nonmetallic exhaust ducts when all of the following con- 
ditions apply: 

1 . Where ftie largest cross-sectional diameter is equal 
to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors 
or fumes. 

[F] 415.8.11.3 Combustible nonmetallic extiaust 
ducts. Automatic sprinkler system protection shaU be 
provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts 
where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is 
equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out automatic fire sprinkler system protection. 

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in 
length installed below ceiling level. 

[F] 415.8.11.4 Automatic sprinkler locations. Sprin- 
kler systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 nam) 
intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. 
In vertical ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top 
and at alternate floor levels. 



SECTION 416 
APPLICATION OF FLAMMABLE FINISHES 

[F] 416.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
the construction, installation and use of buildings and struc- 
tures, or parts thereof, for the spraying of flammable paints, 
varnishes and lacquers or other flammable materials or mix- 
tures or compounds used for painting, varnishing, staining or 
similar purposes. Such construction and equipment shall com- 
ply with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 416.2 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be enclosed with 
fixe barriers willi not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 
Floors shall be waterproofed and drained in an approved man- 
ner. 

[F] 416.2.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray rooms 
shall be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the 
free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and 
to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed 
to confine residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be 
used. 

[F] 416.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be venti- 
lated with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of 
flammable mist or vapors in accordance wifhi the California 
Mechanical Code. Where such spaces are not separately 
enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to 
restrict the spread of flammable vapors. 

[F] 416.3.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spraying 
spaces shall be smooth and continuous without edges; shall 
be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air 
from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and 
cleaning; and shall be so designed to confine residues within 
the spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used. 



[F] 416.4 Fire protection. An automatic fire-extinguishing 
system shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces 
and storage rooms and shall be installed in accordance with 
Chapter 9. 



SECTION 417 
DRYING ROOMS 

[F] 417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed within a 
building shall be constructed entirely of approved 
noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials reg- 
ulated by the approved rules or as required in the general and 
specific sections of Chapter 4 for special occupancies and 
where applicable to the general requirements of Chapter 28. 

[F] 417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall have 
a clearance of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) from combustible 
contents in the dryer. 

[F] 417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of the 
dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insu- 
lated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined 
withV4-inch (6.35 mm) insulating mill board or other approved 
equivalent insulation. 

[F] 417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for 
high-hazard materials and processes, including special occu- 
pancies as provided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an 
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with 
the provisions of Chapter 9. 



SECTION 418 
ORGANIC COATINGS 

[F] 418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coat- 
ings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or 
basements. 

[F] 418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing opera- 
tions and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall 
not be located in buildings having other occupancies. 

[F] 418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clearances 
and that process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such 
as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or 
noncombustible structure. 

[F] 418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and com- 
bustible liquid tanks inside of stinictures shall be located at or 
above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by 
not less than 2-hour fire barriers. 

[F] 418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitirocellulose storage shall 
be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room 
enclosed with no less than 2-hour fire barriers. 

[F] 418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished prod- 
ucts that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be sepa- 
rated from the processing area by fire barriers having a 
fire-resistance rating of at least 2 hours, and openings in the 
walls shall be protected with approved opening protectives. 



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SECTION 419 
GROUP 1-1, R-1, R-2, R-3, R-3.1, R-4 

419.1 General. Occupancies in Groups I-l, R-1, R-2, R-3, 
R-3.1 and R-4 shall comply with the provisions of this section 
and other applicable provisions of this code. 

419.2 Separation walls. Walls separating dwelling units in the 
same building and walls separating sleeping units in the same 
building shall comply with Section 708. 

419.3 Horizontal separation. Floor/ceiling assemblies sepa- 
rating dwelling units in the same buildings and floor/ceiling 
assemblies separating sleeping units in the same building shall 
be constructed in accordance with Section 711. 

419.4 Townhouses. [HCD 1] Each townhouse unit shall be 
considered a separate building and shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Adjacent townhouse units shall each be provided with a 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall assembly separating 
the units. 

2. Openings are not permitted. 

3. Penetrations shall comply with Section 705.9. 

Exception: In lieu of the two 1-hour walls a common 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall shall be permitted 
for townhouses if such walls do not contain plumbing 
or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in the cavity 
of the common wall. Electrical installations shall be 
installed in accordance with the California Electrical 
Code. Penetrations of electrical outlet boxes shall be 
in accordance with Section 712. 

For purposes of determining accessibility requirements to 
accommodate persons with disability, dwelling units within a 
single structure separated by a firewall do not constitute sepa- 
rate structures or buildings and are treated as a single build- 
ing. For additional information, see Chapter HA, Section 
1102A.1. 

419.4.1 Continuity. [HCD 1] The fire-resistance-rated wall 
or assembly separating townhouses shall be continuous 
from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, 
deck or slab. The fire-resistance rating shall extend the full 
length of the wall or assembly, including wall extensions 
through and separating attached enclosed accessory struc- 
tures. 

419.4.2 Parapets. [HCD 1] Parapets constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 704.11.1 shall be constructed for town- 
houses as an extension of exterior walls or common walls in 
accordance with the following: 

1. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surfaces. 

2. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at different elevations and the higher roof is not more 
than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, the 
parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the lower roof surface. 

Exception: A parapet is not required in the two 
cases above when the roof is covered with a mini- 



mum Class C roof covering, and the roof decking 
or sheathing is of noncombustible materials or 
approved fire-retardant-treated wood for a dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall 
or walls, or one layer of ^/g-inch (15.9 mm). Type X 
gypsum board is installed directly beneath the roof 
decking or sheathing, supported by a minimum of 
nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the 
sides of the roof framing members, for a minimum 
distance of 4 feet (1220 mm) on each side of the 
wall or walls. 

3. A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adja- 
cent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and 
the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the lower roof. The common wall construction 
from the lower roof to the underside of the higher roof 
deck shall have not less than a 1 -hour fire-resistance 
rating. The wall shall be rated for exposure from both 
sides. 

419.4.3 Parapet construction. [HCD 1] Parapets shall have 
the same fire-resistance rating as that required for the sup- 
porting wall or walls. On any side adjacent to a roof sur- 
face, the parapet shall have noncombustible faces for the 
uppermost 18 inches (457 mm), to include counterflashing 
and coping materials. Where the roof slopes toward a para- 
pet at slopes greater than two units vertical in 12 units hori- 
zontal (16. 7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the 
same height as any portion of the roof within a distance of 3 
feet (914 mm), but in no case shall the height be less than 30 
inches (762 mm). 

419.4.4 Structural independence. [HCD 1] Each individ- 
ual townhouse shall be structurally independent. 

Exceptions: 

1. Foundations supporting exterior walls or common 
walls. 

2. Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit 
may fasten to the common wall framing. 

3. Nonstructural wall coverings. 

4. Flashing at termination of roof covering over com- 
mon wall. 

5. Townhouses separated by a common 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated wall as provided in Section 
419.4. 

419.5 Licensed 24-hour care facilities in a Group I-l, R-3.1, 
or R-4 occupancy. [SFM] See Section 425. 

419.6 Existing Group R occupancies. [SFM] See Chapter 34. 



SECTION 420 
HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOMS 

[F] 420.1 General. When required by the California Fire 
Code, hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with this section. 

[F] 420.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 



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[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of 
piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, con- 
tain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-con- 
taining mixture having at least 95-percent hydrogen gas by 
volume and not more than 1 -percent oxygen by volume. Gas- 
eous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed 
gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure 
regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, com- 
pressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls. 

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. A room or space that is 
intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system. 

[F] 420.3 Location. Hydrogen cut-off rooms shall not be 
located below grade. 

[F] 420.4 Design and construction. Hydrogen cutoff rooms 
shall be classified with respect to occupancy in accordance 
with Section 302.1 and separated from other areas of the build- 
ing by not less than 1-hour fire barriers or as required by Sec- 
tion 508.2 or 508.3 as applicable. 

[F] 420.4.1 Opening protectives. Doors within such frre 
barrier walls, including doors to corridors, shall be 
self-closing in accordance with Section 715. Interior door 
openings shall be electronically interlocked to prevent oper- 
ation of the hydrogen system when doors are opened or ajar 
or the room shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust 
ventilation system designed in accordance with Section 
420.4.1.1. 

[F] 420.4.1.1 Ventilation alternative. When an exhaust 
system is used in lieu of the interlock system required by 
Section 420.4, exhaust ventilation systems shall operate 
continuously and shall be designed to operate at a nega- 
tive pressure in relation to the surrounding area. The 
average velocity of ventilation at the face of the door 
opening with the door in the fiilly open position shall not 
be less than 60 feet per minute (0.3048 m/s) with a mini- 
mum of 45 feet per minute (0.2287 m/s) at any point in 
the door opening. 

[F] 420.4.2 Windows. Operable windows in interior walls 
shall not be permitted. Fixed windows shall be permitted 
when in accordance with Section 715. 

[F] 420.5 Ventilation. Cutoff rooms shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation in accordance with the applicable pro- 
visions for repair garages in Chapter 5 of the California 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 420.6 Gas detection system. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall 
be provided with an approved flammable gas-detection system 
in accordance with Sections 420.6.1 through 420.6.3. 

[F] 420.6.1 System design. The flammable gas-detection 
system shall be listed for use with hydrogen and any other 
flammable gases used in the room. The gas detection system 
shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable 
gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammability limit 
(LFL) for the gas or mixtures present at their anticipated 
temperature and pressure. 



[F] 420.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection sys- 
tem shall result in all of the following: 

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals 
both inside and outside of the cutoff room. 

2. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system. 

[F] 420.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of 
the gas detection system shall result in activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system, cessation of hydrogen gen- 
eration and the sounding of a trouble signal in an approved 
location. 

[F] 420.7 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Chapter 9 of the California Fire 
Code. 

[F] 420.8 Standby power. Mechanical ventilation and gas 
detection systems shall be connected to a standby power sys- 
tem in accordance with Chapter 27. 



SECTION 421 
Reserved 



SECTION 422 
Reserved 



SECTION 423 
Reserved 



SECTION 424 
Reserved 



SECTION 425 

SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR LICENSED 24-HOUR 

CARE FACILITIES IN A GROUP 1-1, R-3. 1 or R-4 

OCCUPANCY [SFM] 

425.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
24-hour care facilities in a Group I-l, R-3.1, or R-4 occupancy 
licensed by a governmental agency. 

425.2 General. The provisions in this section shall apply in 
addition to general requirements in this code. 

425.2.1 Restraint shall not be practiced in a Group I-l, 
R-3.1, or R-4 occupancies. 

Exception: Occupancies which meet all the require- 
ments for a Group 1-3 occupancy. 

425.2.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, 
regulations of the State Fire Marshal pertaining to occupan- 
cies classified as Residential Facilities (RF) and Residen- 
tial-Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply 
uniformly throughout the state and no city, county, city and 
county, including a charter city or charter county, or fire 
protection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or 



110 



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local rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety 
which is inconsistent with these regulations. A city, county, 
city and county, including a charter city or charter county 
may, pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, 
or a fire protection district may, pursuant to Health and 
Safety Code Section 13869. 7, adopt standards more strin- 
gent than those adopted by the State Fire Marshal that are 
reasonably necessary to accommodate local climate, geo- 
logical, or topographical conditions relating to roof cover- 
ings for Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly. 

Exception: Local regulations relating to roof coverings 
in facilities licensed as a Residential Care Facility for the 
Elderly (RCFE) per Health and Safety Code Section 
13133. 

425.2.3 Temporarily bedridden clients. Clients who 
become temporarily bedridden as defined in Health and 
Safety Code Section 1569.72, as enforced by the Depart- 
ment of Social Services, may continue to be housed on any 
story in Group I-l, R-3.1, orR-4 occupancies classified as 
Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE). Every 
Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (RCFE) admitting 
or retaining a bedridden resident shall, within 48 hours of 
the resident's admission or retention in the facility, notify the 
local fire authority with jurisdiction of the estimated length 
of time the resident will retain his or her bedridden status in 
the facility. 

425.3 Building height and area provisions. 

425.3.1 One or two stories. Group 1-1 occupancies licensed 
as a Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (RCFE) one or 
two stories in height where more than six nonambulatory 
clients are housed shall be constructed of a minimum 
1 -hour fire-resistance-rated construction throughout. 

425.3.2 Three to five stories. Group I-l occupancies 
licensed as a Residential Care Facility for the Elderly 
(RCFE) three to five stories in height where more than six 
nonambulatory clients are housed above the first floor shall 
be constructed of a minimum Type IB construction. 

425.3.3 Six or more stories. Group I-l occupancies 
licensed as a Residential Care Facility for the Elderly 
(RCFE) exceeding five stories in height where more than six 
nonambulatory clients are housed above the fifth floor shall 
be constructed of a minimum Type lA construction. 

425.3.4 Limitations — six or less clients. GroupR-3.1 occu- 
pancies where clients are housed above the first story, hav- 
ing more than two stories in height or having more than 
3,000 square feet (279 rr?) of floor area above the first story 
shall not be of less than 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction throughout. 

In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client, 
the client sleeping room shall not be located above or below 
the first story. 

Exception: Clients who become bedridden as a result of 
a temporary illness as defined in Health and Safety Code 
Sections 1566.45, 1568.0832, and 1569.72. Atemporary 
illness is an illness that persists for 14 days or less. A 
bedridden client may be retained in excess of the 14 days 
upon approval by the Department of Social Services and 



may continue to be housed on any story in a Group R3.1 
occupancy classified as a licensed residential facility. 

Every licensee admitting or retaining a bedridden res- 
ident shall, within 48 hours of the resident's admission or 
retention in the facility, notify the local fire authority with 
jurisdiction of the estimated length of time the resident 
will retain his or her bedridden status in the facility. 

425.3.5 Limitations — seven or more clients. Group R-4 
occupancies where nonambulatory clients are housed 
above the first story and there is more than 3, 000 square feet 
(279 m^) of floor area above the first story or housing more 
than 16 clients above the first story shall be constructed of 
not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction 
throughout. 

425.3.6 Nonambulatory elderly clients. Group R-4 occu- 
pancies housing nonambulatory elderly clients shall be of 
not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction 
throughout 

425.4 Type of construction provisions. 

425.4.1 Group 1-1 occupancies are not permitted in 
nonfire-resistance-rated construction, see Health and 
Safety Code Section 13131.5. 

425.5 Fire-resistance-rated construction provisions. 

425.5.1 Smoke barriers required. Group 1-1 and R-4 occu- 
pancies licensed as a Residential Care Facility (RCF) with 
individual floor areas over 6,000 square feet (557 m^) per 
floor, shall be provided with smoke barriers, constructed in 
accordance with Section 709. 

'When smoke barriers are required, the area within a 
smoke compartment shall not exceed 22,500 square feet 
(2090 m^) nor shall its travel distance exceed 200 feet (60 
960 mm). Such smoke barriers shall divide the floor as 
equally as possible. 

425.5.2 Smoke partitions. In Group I-l and R-4 occupan- 
cies where smoke partitions are required, framing shall be 
covered with noncombustible materials having an approved 
thermal barrier with an index of not less than 15 in accor- 
dance with FM 4880, UL 1040, NFPA 286 or UL 1715. 

425. 6 Interior finish provision. 

425.6.1Interior wall and ceiling finish. Group R-3.1 occu- 
pancies housing a bedridden client shall comply with inte- 
rior wall and ceilingfinish requirements specifiedfor Group 
1-2 occupancies in Table 803.5. 

425. 7 Fire protection system provisions. 

425.7.1 Automatic sprinkler systems in Group I-l, R-3.1 
and R-4 occupancies. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be installed where required in Section 903. 

425. 7.2 Fire alarm systems in Group I-l and R-4 occupan- 
cies. An approvedfire alarm system shall be installed where 
required in Section 907. 

425. 7.3 Smoke alarms in Groups I-l, R-3.1, and R-4 occu- 
pancies. Smoke alarms shall be installed where required in 
Section 907.2.10 

425.7.4 Hearing impaired. See Section 907.9.1. 



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425.8 Means of egress provisions. 

425.8.1 General. In addition to the general means of egress 
requirements of Chapter 10, this section shall apply to 
Group I-l, R-3.1, andR-4 occupancies. 

425.8.2 Number of exits. 

425.8.2.1 Group I-l, R-3.1, andR-4 occupancies shall 
have a minimum of two exits. 

Exception: Ancillary use areas or occupancies shall 
have egress as required by Section 1019. 

425.8.3 Egress arrangements. 

425.8.3.1 Egress through adjoining dwelling units shall 
not be permitted. 

425.8.3.2 Group R-3.1 occupancies housing 
nonambulatory clients. In a Group R-3.1 occupancy, 
bedrooms used by nonambulatory clients shall have 
access to at least one of the required exits which shall 
conform to one of the following: 

1. Egress through a hallway or area into a bedroom 
in the immediate area which has an exit directly to 
the exterior and the corridor/hallway is con- 
structed consistent with the dwelling unit interior 
walls. The hallway shall be separated from com- 
mon areas by a solid wood door not less than i% 
inch (35 mm) in thickness, maintained self-closing 
or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 715.4.7. 

2. Egress through a hallway which has an exit di- 
rectly to the exterior. The hallway shall be sepa- 
rated from the rest of the house by a wall 
constructed consistent with the dwelling unit inte- 
rior walls and opening protected by a solid wood 
door not less than i% inch (35 mm) in thickness, 
maintained self-closing or shall be automatic clos- 
ing by actuation of a smoke detector installed in 
accordance with Section 715.4.7. 

3. Direct exit from the bedroom to the exterior. 

4. Egress through an adjoining bedroom which exits 
to the exterior. 

425.8.3.3 Group R-3.1 occupancies housing bedridden 
clients. In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedrid- 
den client, all of the following shall apply: 

1. In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden 
client, a direct exit to the exterior of the residence 
shall be provided from the client sleeping room. 

2. Doors to a bedridden client's sleeping room shall 
be of a self-closing, positive latching i% inch (35 
mm) solid wood door Such doors shall be provided 
with a gasket so installed as to provide a seal 
where the door meets the jam on both sides and 
across the top. Doors shall be maintained 
self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actu- 
ation of a smoke alarm in accordance with Section 
715.4.7. 



3. Group R-3. 1 occupancies housing a bedridden cli- 
ent shall not have a night latch, dead bolt, security 
chain or any similar locking device installed on 
any interior door leading from a bedridden client 's 
sleeping room to any interior area such as a corri- 

' dor, hallway and/or general use areas of the resi- 
dence in accordance with Chapter 10. 

4. The exterior exit door to a bedridden client's sleep- 
ing room shall be operable from both the interior 
and exterior of the residence. 

5. Every required exit doorway from a bedridden cli- 
ent's sleeping room shall be of a size as to permit 
the installation of a door not less than 3 feet (914 
mm) in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches 
(2032 mm) in height. When installed in exit door- 
ways, exit doors shall be capable of opening at 
least 90 degrees (1.57 rad) and shall be so 
mounted that the clear width of the exit way is not 
less than 32 inches (813 mm). 

425.8.3.4 Intervening rooms. A means of exit shall not 
pass through more than one intervening room. A means 
of egress shall not pass through kitchens, storerooms, 
closets, garages or spaces used for similar purposes. 

Exception: Kitchens that do not form separate rooms 
by construction. 

425.8.4 Corridors. 

425.8.4.1 Unless specified by Section 425.8.4, corridors 
serving Group I-l and Group R-4 occupancies shall 
comply with Section 1017.1. 

425.8.4.2 The minimum clear width of a corridor shall 
be as follows: 

1. Group I-l occupancies shall have 60 inches (1524 
mm) on floors housing nonambulatory clients and 
44 inches (1118 mm) on floors housing only ambu- 
latory clients. 

2. Group R-4 occupancies shall have 44 inches (1118 
mm) on floors housing clients. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridors serving an occupant load of 10 
or less shall not be less than 36 inches 
(914 mm) in width. 

2. Corridors serving ambulatory persons 
only and having an occupant load of 49 
or less shall not be less than 36 inches 
(914 mm) in width. 

3. Group R-3.1 occupancies shall have 36 inches 
(914 mm) on floors housing clients. 

In Group I-l occupancies provided with fire sprin- 
klers throughout and which are required to have rated 
corridors, door closers need not be installed on doors 
to client sleeping rooms. 

425.8.4.3 In Group I-l and Group R-3.1 occupancies 
having smoke barriers, cross-corridor doors in corri- 
dors 6 feet (1829 mm) or less in width shall have, as a 
minimum, a door 36 inches (914 mm) in width. 



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425.8.5 Changes in level. In Group R-3.1 occupancies 
housing nonambulatory clients, changes in level up to 0.25 
inch (6 mm) may be vertical and without edge treatment. 
Changes in level between 0.25 inch (6 mm) and 0.5 inch 
(12.7 mm) shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1 
unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50 percent slope). 
Changes in level greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) shall be 
accomplished by means of a ramp. 

425.8.6 Stairways. 

425.8.6.1 Group I-l andR-4 occupancies housing more 
than six nonambulatory clients above the first floor shall 
be provided with two vertical exit enclosures. Stairway 
enclosures shall be in compliance with Section 1020. 
Exceptions to Section 1020 shall not apply in facilities 
licensed as a 24-hour care facility. 

425.8.6.2 Group R-3.1 occupancies may continue to use 
existing stairways (except for winding and spiral stair- 
ways which are not permitted as a required means of 
egress) provided the stairs have a maximum rise of 8 
inches (203 mm) with a minimum run of 9 inches (229 
mm). The minimum stairway width may be 30 inches 
(762 mm). 

425.8.7 Floor separation. Group R-3.1 occupancies shall 
be provided with a nonfire resistance constructed floor sep- 
aration at stairs which will prevent smoke migration 
betweenfloors. Such floor separation shall have equivalent 
construction of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard on 
one side of wall framing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies with at least one exterior exit from 
floors occupied by clients. 

2. Occupancies provided with automatic flre sprin- 
kler systems complying with Chapter 9. 

425.8.7.1 Doors within floor separations. Doors within 
such floor separations shall be tight fitting solid wood at 
least P/g inches (35 mm) in thickness. Door glazing shall 
not exceed 1,296 inches (32 918 mm) with no dimension 
greater than 54 inches (1372 mm). Such doors shall be 
positive latching, smoke gasketed and shall be auto- 
matic-closing by smoke detection. 

425.8.8 Fences and gates. Grounds of a residential care for 
the elderly facility serving Alzheimer's clients may be 
fenced and gates therein equipped with locks, provided safe 
dispersal areas are located not less than 50 feet (15240 mm) 
from the buildings. Dispersal areas shall be sized to provide 
an area of not less than 3 square feet (0.28^) per occupant. 
Gates shall not be installed across corridors or passage- 
ways leading to such dispersal areas unless they comply 
with egress requirements. 

425.8.9 Basement exits. One exit is required to grade level 
when the basement is accessible to clients. 

425.8.10 Delayed egress locks. See Section 1008.1.8.6. 

425.9 Request for alternate means of protection for facilities 
housing bedridden clients. Request for alternate means of pro- 
tection shall apply to Sections 425 through 425.9. Request for 
approval to use an alternative material, assembly or materials, 



equipment, method of construction, method of installation of 
equipment or means of protection shall be made in writing to 
the local fire authority having jurisdiction by the facility, client 
or the client's authorized representative. Sufficient evidence 
shall be submitted to substantiate the need for an alternate 
means of protection. 

The facility, client or the client's representative or the local 
fire authority having jurisdiction may request a written opinion 
from the State Fire Marshal concerning the interpretation of 
the regulations promulgated by the State Fire Marshal for a 
particular factual dispute. The State Fire Marshal shall issue 
the written opinion within 45 days following the request. 

Approval of a request for use of an alternative material, 
assembly or materials, equipment, method of construction, 
method of installation of equipment, or means of protection 
made pursuant to this section shall be limited to Group R-3.1 
occupancies housing a bedridden client. 

Approvals made by the local fire authority having jurisdic- 
tion and the written opinion by the State Fire Marshal shall be 
applicable only to the requesting facility and shall not be con- 
strued as establishing any precedent for any future request by 
that facility or any other facility. 



SECTION 426 
GROUP 1-4 [SFM] 

426.1 Group 1-4 special provisions. Rooms classified as 
Group 1-4 shall not be located above or below the first story. 

Exceptions: 

1. Basements or stories having floor levels located 
within 4 feet (1219 mm), measured vertically, from 
adjacent ground level at the level of exit discharge, 
provided the basement or story has exterior exit doors 
at that level. 

2. In buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler 
system throughout, rooms used for day-care purposes 
may be located on the second story, provided there are 
at least two exterior exit doors for the exclusive use of 
such occupants 

3. Group 1-4 child care facilities may be located above 
the first story in buildings of Type I construction and 
in Types llA, andlllA construction, subject to the limi- 
tation of Section 503 when: 

3.1. Group 1-4 child care facilities with children 
under the age of seven or containing more 
than 12 children per story shall not be located 
above the fourth floor; and 

3.2. The entire story in which the Group 1-4 child 
care facility is located is equipped with an ap- 
proved manual fire alarm and smoke detec- 
tion system (see the California Fire Code). 
Actuation of an initiating device shall sound 
an audible alarm throughout the entire story. 

When a building fire alarm system is re- 
quired by other provisions of this code or the 
California Fire Code, the alarm system shall 
be connected to the building alarm system. An 



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approved alarm signal shall sound at an ap- 
proved location in the Group 1-4 child care fa- 
cility to indicate afire alarm or sprinkler flow 
condition in other portions of the building; 
and 

3.3. Group 1-4 child care facilities, if more than 
1,000 square feet (92.9 m^) in area, is divided 
into at least two compartments of approxi- 
mately the same size by a smoke barrier with 
door openings protected by smoke- and 
draft-control assemblies having afire protec- 
tion rating of not less than 20 minutes. Smoke 
barriers shall have afire-resistive rating of 
not less than 1 hour. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 508.3.3, occupancy separa- 
tions between Group 1-4 child care and other 
occupancies shall be constructed as smoke 
barriers. Door openings in the smoke barrier 
shall be tighlfitting, with gaskets installed as 
required by Section 709, and shall be auto- 
matic closing by actuation of the automatic 
sprinklers, fire alarm or smoke detection sys- 
tem; and 

3.4. Each compartment formed by the smoke bar- 
rier has not less than two exits or exit access 
doors, one of which is permitted to pass 
through the adjoining compartment; and 

3.5. Where two or more means of exits or exit ac- 
cess are required at least one shall not share a 
common path of travel; and 

3.6. The building is equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout 



SECTION 427 
Reserved 



SECTION 428 
Reserved 



SECTION 429 
Reserved 



SECTION 430 
HORSE RACING STABLES [SFM] 

430.1 For automatic sprinkler and fire alarm system require- 
ments applying to each building, barn or structure which is 
used by an association regulated by the California Horse Rac- 
ing Board for the stabling of horses or human habitation, and 
the stable area grounds, including any additional location 
where any excess horses are stabled, see Title 4, Division 4, 
Article 1, Section 1927. 



SECTION 431 
PET KENNELS [SFM] 

431.1 These regulations shall apply to every building or fire 
area in which a pet dealer, as defined in Health and Safety Code 
Section 122125, maintains a kennel. 

431.2 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved automatic 
sprinkler system complying with California Fire Code Section 
903 shall be installed. 

Exception: Where afire alarm system that is connected to a 
central reporting station that alerts the local fire depart- 
ment in case of fire. 



SECTION 432 
COMBUSTION ENGINES AND GAS TURBINES 

[SFM] 

432.1 General. The installation of combustion engines and gas 
turbines shall be in accordance with NFPA 37 and this chapter. 

432.2 Separation, 

432.2.1 Construction. Every room in which is installed a 
combustion engine or gas turbine shall be separated from 
the remainder of the building by not less than a 1 -hour fire 
barrier 

432.2.2 Exterior openings. When doors, windows or lou- 
vered openings are located below openings in another story 
or less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from doors, windows or lou- 
vered openings of the same building, they shall be protected 
by afire assembly having a %-hour rating. Such fire assem- 
blies shall be fixed, automatic or self-closing. 

432.2.2.1 Interior openings. In other than buildings 
housing Group I occupancies, interior openings shall be 
allowed in buildings protected by an automatic fire 
sprinkler system throughout 

432.2.3 Location. Combustion engines and gas turbines 
used for emergency power shall not be located in a room or 
area used for any purpose other than equipment and con- 
trols related to the generation and distribution of emergency 
power 

432.2.4 Special hazards. The handling and use of flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids shall comply with the California 
Fire Code. 



SECTION 433 
FIXED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEMS [SFM] 

433,1 General, 

433.1.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings or structures defined as stations for fixed 
guideway transit systems and shall supersede other similar 
requirements in other sections of this code. 

433.1.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this section, certain 
terms are defined as follows: 

AT-GRADE STATION is any at-grade or unroofed station 
other than an elevated or underground station. 



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ELEVATED STATION is a station greater than one story 
not otherwise defined as an at-grade or underground sta- 
tion. 

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PANEL (BMP) is the 
location where all necessary on-site control and communi- 
cation facilities are consolidated for effective response to 
emergency situations. 

ENCLOSED STATION is a station or portion thereof that 
does not meet the definition of an "open station." 

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS (FIRE HAZARD/FIRE 
RISK ASSESSMENT) is an analysis that evaluates all var- 
ious factors that affect the fire safety of the system or compo- 
nent A written report of the analysis shall indicate the fire 
protection method(s) recommended that demonstrates a 
level of fire safety commensurate with this standard. 

FIXED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEM is an automated 
driverlessor manually controlled electrified transportation 
system, utilizing a fixed guideway, operating on 
right-of-way for the mass movement of passengers and con- 
sisting of its fixed guideway s, transit vehicles and other roll- 
ing stock; power system; buildings; maintenance facilities; 
stations; transit vehicle yard; and other stationary and mov- 
able apparatus, equipment, appurtenances and structures. 

GUIDEWAY is that portion of the system on which the tran- 
sit vehicles operate. 

OPEN STATION is a station that is constructed in such a 
manner that it is open to the atmosphere, and smoke and 
heat are allowed to disperse directly into the atmosphere. 
The following enclosed areas in open stations are permitted 
but limited to: 

1. Ticket/pass booths not exceeding 150 square feet 
(13.9 rrf) in area. 

2. Mechanical and electrical spaces typically not used 
for human occupancy and necessaryfor the operation 
of a fixed guideway transit system. Such spaces shall 
be limited to two per level. 

3. Restrooms not exceeding 150 square feet (13.9 m^) in 
area. A maximum of four restrooms are permitted per 
level. 

OPERATIONS CONTROL CENTER (OCC) (CENTRAL 
CONTROL) is the operation center where the authority 
controls and coordinates the system-wide movement of pas- 
sengers and trains from which communication is main- 
tained with supervisory and operating personnel of the 
authority, and with participating agencies when required. 

POINT OF SAFETY is an enclosed fire exit that leads to a 
public way or safe location outside the structure, or an 
at-grade point beyond any enclosing structure, or other 
area that affords adequate protection for passengers. 

POWER SUBSTATION is the location of electric equip- 
ment that does not generate electricity but receives and con- 
verts or transforms generated energy to usable electric 
energy. 

STATION is a place designated for the purpose of loading 
and unloading passengers, including patron service areas 
and ancillary spaces associated with the same structure. 



STATION PLATFORM is the area of a station used pri- 
marily for loading and unloading transit vehicle passen- 
gers. 

UNDERGROUND STATION is a station or that part of a 
station located beneath the surface of the earth or of the 
^ water. 

433.2 Types of construction. 

433.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in this section, buildings 
or portions of buildings classed as stations of fixed 
guideway transit systems shall be minimum Type I, Type IB, 
or Type IIA construction and shall not exceed in area or 
height the limits specified in Table 503. 

Underground stations shall be a minimum Type I or Type 
IB construction. 

Open stations may be of Type IIB construction and shall 
not exceed in area or height as required by Table 503 for 
Type IIA. 

Exception: At-grade structures of open stations with an 
occupancy load not exceeding 300 persons may be of any 
construction type permitted by this code. 

433.2.2 Mixed occupancies. 

433.2.2.1 Stations of fixed guideway transit systems shall 
be separatedfrom other occupancies in accordance with 
Table 508.3.3 for Group A occupancies. 

433.2.2.2 The following areas shall be separated from 
public areas by a 2-hour barrier: 

1. Electrical control rooms, auxiliary electrical 
rooms and associated battery rooms. 

2. Trash rooms. 

3. Train control rooms and associated battery rooms. 

4. Fan rooms. 

5. Emergency generator rooms. 

433.2.2.3 Within station structures, all power substa- 
tions shall be separatedfrom all other areas by a 3-hour 
fire barrier with no openings to public areas. 

433.3 Access and exit facilities. 

433.3.1 Occupant load. The occupant load for a transit sta- 
tion shall be based on the emergency condition requiring 
evacuation of that station to a point of safety. The station 
occupant load shall be the sum of the number of persons in 
the calculated train load of trains entering a station plus the 
entraining load of persons awaiting train(s), during a speci- 
fied time period. Notwithstanding, the minimum occupant 
load shall not be less than the maximum capacity load of a 
train which would occupy the entire length of the station 
platform on a single track. Exiting shall be provided for 
occupant loads recalculated upon increase in service 
and/or every 5 years. 

433.3.1.1 Calculated train load. The calculated train 
load is the number of passengers on trains 
simultaneously entering the station on all tracks in nor- 
mal traffic direction during the peak 15-minute period. 



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The following limitations to the calculated train load 
shall be applied: 

1. No more than one train will unload at any one 
track to a platform during an emergency. 

2. The load on any single train is limited to the maxi- 
mum train capacity. 

433.3.1.2 Entraining load (on platform awaiting train). 

The entraining load is equal to the number ofpassengers 
that would accumulate on theplatform in the timeperiod 
equivalent to two headways or 12 minutes during the 
peak 15-minute period, whichever timeperiod is greater 

This entraining load is constrained as stated as fol- 
lows: 

1. Special consideration shall be given to stations 
servicing areas where events occur that establish 
occupant loads not included in normal passenger 
loads. These would include such areas as civic 
centers, sports complexes and convention centers. 

2. At multiplatform stations, each platform shall be 
considered separately. Arrival of trains from all 
normal traffic directions, plus their entraining 
loads, shall be considered. 

3. At concourses, mezzanines or multilevel stories, 
simultaneous platform loads shall be considered 
for all exit lanes passing through that area. 

433.3.2 Exits required. 

433.3.2.1 Number of exits. Stations shall have at least 
two exits placed a distance apart equal to not less than 
one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal 
dimension of the station. Enclosed station platforms 
shall have a minimum of one exit within 20 feet (6096 
mm) from each end. Underground station platforms shall 
have a minimum of one enclosed exit within 20 feet (6096 
mm) from each end. Routes from platform ends into the 
underground guideway shall not be considered as exits 
for calculating exiting requirements. 

433.3.2.2 Capacity of exits and station evacuation time. 

433.3.2.2.1 Exit capabilities shall be calculated on 
the basis of 22-inch-wide (559 mm) exit lanes at the 
clear and narrowest point except that individual 
handrails may project into the required width as per- 
mitted by Chapter 10. Fractional lanes shall not be 
counted in measuring exit capacities except that 12 
inches (305 mm) added to one or more lanes shall be 
counted as one-half a lane. Escalators 32 inches (813 
mm) in width may be considered as i Vj lanes. 

433.3.2.2.2 There shall be sufficient means of exit to 
evacuate the station occupant load from the station 
platforms in 4 minutes or less. 

433.3.2.2.3 The station shall also be designed to per- 
mit evacuationfrom the most remote point on theplat- 
form to a point of safety in 6 months or less. 

433.3.2.2.4 In at-grade or elevated structures so 
designed that the station platform is open to the ele- 
ments and, when the concourse is below or protected 



from the platform by distance or materials as deter- 
mined by an appropriate engineering analysis, that 
concourse may be defined as a point of safety, with fire 
code official concurrence. 

433.3.2.2.5 To calculate evacuation time, the walking 
travel time should be tabulated using the longest exit 
route and travel speeds. To this time should be added 
the following factors: 

1. The waiting time at the vertical elements at 
platform level minus the longest walking travel 
time at platform level. 

2. The waiting time at the fare collection barriers 
minus the waiting time at the platform vertical 
circulation elements. 

3. The waiting time at the vertical or horizontal 
circulation elements from mezzanine to grade 
minus the waiting time at the platform vertical 
circulation elements or fare collection barrier, 
whichever is greater. 

4. The waiting time, if any, at any additional con- 
striction minus the greatest previous waiting 
time (repeat for all additional constrictions). 

Note: The total of any of the factors in Items 1 through 
4 above cannot be less than zero. 

433.3.3 Exit width and exit lanes. 

433.3.3.1 The capacity in persons per minute (ppm), 
patron travel speeds infeet per minute (fpm) and require- 
ments for exit lanes shall be as follows: 

1. Platforms, corridors and ramps of 1 foot vertical 
for 20 feet horizontal (5-percent slope) or less: 
Exit corridors, platforms and ramps shall be a 
minimum clear width of 5 feet (1524 mm). In com- 
puting the number of exit lanes available, Ifoot 6 
inches (457 mm) shall be deducted at each plat- 
form edge and 1 foot (305 mm) at each sidewall. 

Per exit lane: 

Capacity — 50 ppm 

Travel speed— 200 fpm 

2. Stairs, stopped escalators and ramps of over Ifoot 
vertical for 20 feet horizontal (5-percent slope): 
Exit ramps shall be a minimum clear width of 6 feet 
(1829 mm). Stopped escalators may be considered 
as a means of egress, provided they are of nominal 
2 feet 8 inches (813 mm) width. 

Per exit lane "up" direction: 

Capacity — 35 ppm 

Travel speed — 50 fpm* 
Per exit lane "down" direction: 

Capacity — 40 ppm 

Travel speed — 60 fpm* 

3. Doors and gates: Gates fittedwith approved panic 
hardware and opening in the direction of exit 



116 



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travel, with minimum nominal width of 3 feet (914 
mm) shall be permitted in exit calculation. 

Per doors and gate: 

Capacity — SOppm per exit lane 

4. Fare collection gates: Fare collection gates, when 
deactivated, shall provide a minimum 20 inches 
(508 mm) clear unobstructed aisle. Console shall 
not exceed 40 inches (1016 mm) in height. 

Per gate: 

Capacity — 50 ppm 

Note: Examples of exiting analysis may be found in 
Appendix C ofNFPA 130, 1995 edition. Standard for 
Fixed Guideway Transit Systems. 

* Indicates vertical component of travel speed. 

433.3.4 Arrangement of exits. 

433.3.4.1 Vertical circulation elements shall be com- 
prised of stairs or stair/escalator combinations. Escala- 
tors shall not account for more than half of the units of 
exit at any one level in the public area. Escalators must 
be paired in combination with stairs to be included in 
exiting capacity calculations. 

433.3.4.2 Because of the possibility of maintenance or 
malfunction, one escalator at each station shall be con- 
sidered as being out of service in calculating egress 
requirements. The escalator chosen shall be that one 
having the most adverse effect on exiting capacities. 

433.3.5 Distance to exits. No point of the stationplatform(s) 
or mezzanine(s) shall be more than 300 feet (91 440 mm) 
from a point of safety. 

433.3.6 Other exits required/guideway access. 

433.3.6.1 Access/egress between guideway and plat- 
forms shall be provided as follows: 

1. Stairs or ramps, 2 feet 10 inches (864 mm) in width 
minimum, or other arrangement having equivalent 
capacity, shall be provided at each end of the plat- 
form, arranged to provide access/egress to 
guideway level. 

2. Except in underground stations, the access points 
between the guideway and the platform, and the 
exit from the platform may be integrated. 

433.3.6.2 In enclosed stations, escalator and stairway 
enclosures are not required in the public areas of multi- 
level transit stations among platform, mezzanine and 
concourse when the station is provided with an emer- 
gency ventilation system. 

433.3.7 Emergency lighting and exit signs. 

433.3. 7.1 Emergency lighting and exit signs shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Chapter 10. 

Exception: Open stations at grade need not provide 
emergency lighting or exit signs. 

433.4 Special provisions. 



433.4.1 Automatic sprinkler system. See Section 
903.2.17.1. 

433.4.2 Station guideway deluge system. See Section 
903.2.17.1. 

433.4.3 Standpipe systems. See Section 905.3.10. 

433.4.4 Emergency management panel (EMP). An EMP 
shall be required for enclosed and underground stations. 
Location of the EMP shall be determined by the fire code 
official. The EMP shall include but not be limited to the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Indication of manual pull boxes and automatic smoke 
detectors. 

2. Indication of alarm signals from all suppression sys- 
tems. 

3. Capabilities for using station paging systems. 

4. Emergency telephone. 

5. Escalator controls. 

6. Emergency ventilation controls. 

7. Station schematics. 

433.4.5 Emergency ventilation systems. 

433.4.5.1 General. Emergency ventilation shall be pro- 
vided for enclosed and underground stations for the pro- 
tection of passengers, employees and emergency 
personnel. 

433.4.5.2 These systems shall be designed as follows: 

1. A stream of noncontaminated air is provided to 
passengers in apath(s) of egress away from a train 
fire; and 

2. Airflow rates produced toward a train fire in apath 
of egress are sufficient to prevent back layering of 
smoke; and 

3. The temperature in apath of egress away from a 
train fire is limited to 140°F (60°C) or less; and 

4. The design heat release rate produced by a train 
fire shall be used to design the emergency ventila- 
tion system. 

433.4.5.3 Ventilation_shaft terminals at-grade shall be 
located to prevent recirculation as follows: 

1. Openings for blast relief shafts, and under plat- 
form and smoke exhaust shafts at-grade shall be 
separated by a minimum horizontal distance of 40 
feet (12 192 mm) from any station entrance, eleva- 
tor hoistway enclosure, surface emergency stair 
doorway, unprotected outside air intake or other 
opening, or from each other. Exhaust outlets that 
are not used for intakes may be adjacent to each 
other. 

2. Where this distance is not practical, the horizontal 
distance may be reduced to 15 feet (4572 mm) if the 
closest blast relief or underplatform and smoke ex- 
haust shaft terminal is raised a minimum of 10 feet 
(3048 mm) above the station entrance, emergency 
stair doorway and unprotected outside air intake 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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or other opening, or the underplatform and smoke 
exhaust shaft terminal is raised a minimum of 10 
feet (3048 mm) above the blast relief shaft termi- 
nal. 

3. Ventilation of stations shall not terminate at grade 
on any vehicle roadway. 

433.4.5.4 Emergency ventilation fans. 

433.4.5.4.1 Ventilation fans used for emergency ser- 
vice, their motors, dampers and all related compo- 
nents exposed to the ventilation airflow shall be 
designed to operate in an ambient atmosphere of 
482°F (250°C) for a period of at least 1 hour. Ventila- 
tion fans and related components shall be capable of 
withstanding the maximum anticipated plus/minus 
pressure transients induced by train operations. 

433.4.5.4.2 Local fan motor starters and related 
operating control devices for emergency ventilation 
equipment shall be isolated from the ventilation air- 
flow by a separation having afire-resistance rating of 
at least 1 hour. 

433.4.5.4.3 Thermal overload protective devices 
shall not be provided on motor controls of fans used 
for emergency ventilation. 

433.4.5.4.4 The power supply for fans essential for 
emergency ventilation service shall consist of two 
separate electrical feeders. Each feeder shall origi- 
nate from a different source (substation) and shall be 
separated physically to the extent possible. Automatic 
transfer shall be provided in the event the normal sup- 
ply source fails. 

433.4.5.4.5 Operation and fail-safe verification for 
proper operation of emergency fans shall be affected 
from the operation control center with indication pro- 
vided for all modes of operation for each fan. 

433.4.5.5 Emergency ventilation control. 

433.4.5.5.1 Local controls shall override remote con- 
trol. Local control shall be capable of operating the 
fans in all modes in the event the remote controls 
become inoperative. 

433.4.5.5.2 Emergency ventilation systems shall be 
supervised and/or controlled in all operating modes 
locally (motor control center and/or fan unit) and 
remotely at both the OCC and the station BMP. 

433.4.5.5.3 Fan running shall be provided by sensing 
devices for each fan for operation in both the supply 
and exhaust directions. 

433.4.5.5.4 Trouble status signals shall be annunci- 
ated in the local control room. A summarized trouble 
signal shall be annunciated at OCC and EMP. 

433.4.5.6 Ventilation systems and ancillary areas. 

Ancillary area ventilation systems shall be arranged so 
that air is not exhausted into station public occupancy 
areas. 

433.5 Fire alarm and communication systems. See Section 
907.2.26. 



SECTION 434 
EXPLOSIVES [SFM] 

434.1 General construction requirements. Magazines shall be 
constructed in conformity with the provisions of these regula- 
tions, or may be of substantially equivalent construction satis- 
factory to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction. 
Reasonable allowances shall be made for storage facilities in 
existence prior to the adoption of these regulations. No allow- 
ance, however, shall be made for storage facilities which con- 
stitute a distinct hazard to life and property. 

434.2 Ventilation and weather resistance. Magazines for the 
storage of explosives shall be sufficiently ventilated and 
weather resistant and, when used for the storage of Class A 
explosives (other than black powder, blasting agents, blasting 
caps and electric blasting caps), shall also be of bullet-resis- 
tant construction unless deemed exempt by the enforcing 
agency having jurisdiction. 

Note: The recommendation for ventilation as contained in 
Pamphlet No. J, Institute of Makers of Explosives, 1965 edi- 
tion, is evidence of good practice. 

434.3 Construction for separation between primers and flam- 
mable liquids. Primers shall be separated from flammable liq- 
uids by a 1 -hour fire-resistive occupancy separation. 

Exception: A separation need not be provided for small 
arms ammunition primers when such primers are located a 
distance of not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from flammable 
liquids. 

434.4 Construction of Type I magazine. Type I magazines 
shall be of bullet-resistant construction. Plans shall be submit- 
ted to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction for approval 
prior to construction. 

434.4.1 General. Use of the following materials and meth- 
ods of construction shall be evidence of compliance with 
this requirement: 

1. Masonry units not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in 
thickness with all hollow spaces filled with weak ce- 
ment, well-tamped sand or equivalent material; or 

2. Reinforced concrete not less than 6 inches (152 mm) 
in thickness; or 

3. Steel walls of minimum No. 14 manufacturer's stan- 
dard gage (0.0747 inch) (1.9 mm) to No. 6 manufac- 
turer's standard gage (0.1943 inch) (4.9 mm) may be 
used, provided there are two layers spaced at least 6 
inches (152 mm) apart with all hollow spaces filled 
with weak cement, well-tamped sand or equivalent 
material; or 

4. One layer of No. 6 manufacturer's standard gage 
(0.1943 inch) (4.9 mm) or heavier; steel lined on the 
interior with a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) of 
wood; or 

5. Two layers of No. 6 manufacturer's standard gage 
(0. 1 943 inch) (4. 9 mm) or heavier steel spaced a mini- 
mum V2 inch (12.7 mm) apart and lined on the interior 
with a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) of wood; or 

6. Two layers of wood, at least 2 inches (51mm) nominal 
thickness each, spaced a minimum of 4 inches (102 



118 



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mm) apart with the hollow spacefilled with weak ce- 
ment, well-tamped sand or equivalent material. 

7. Wood used shall conform to the following: 

Wood shall be of tongue-and-grooved lumber or ply- 
wood. Wood shall be covered, on the exterior side, 
with metal to provide protection against flying embers 
and sparks. 

434.4.2 Doors. Doors shall be of bullet-resistant construc- 
tion. Each door is to be equipped with: 

1. Two mortise locks; 

2. Two padlocks fastened in separate hasps and staples; 

3. A combination of a mortise lock and a padlock; 

4. A mortise lock that requires two keys to open; and 

5. A three-point lock. 

Padlocks must have at least five tumblers and a 
case-hardened shackle of at least Vg-inch (9.5 mm) diame- 
ter. Padlocks must be protected with not less than '/4-inch 
(6.4 mm) steel hoods constructed so as to prevent sawing or 
lever action on the locks, hasps and staples. These require- 
ments do not apply to magazine doors that are adequately 
secured on the inside by means of a bolt, lock or bar that 
cannot be actuated from the outside. 

434.4.3 Floors. Floors of magazines shall be securely fas- 
tened in place and shall be capable of withstanding the 
loads imposed. 

434.4.4 Roofs. Roofs shall be securely fastened inplace and 
they shall be bullet resistant, if required by the fire chief hav- 
ing jurisdiction. 

434.4.5 Ventilation openings. Ventilation openings shall be 
screened to prevent the entrance of sparks and protected in 
a manner that will maintain the bullet resistance of the mag- 
azine. 

434.4.6 Interiors. Magazine interiors shall be of a smooth 
finish without cracks or crevices with all nails, screws, bolts 
and nuts countersunk. Exposed metal capable of emitting 
sparks shall be covered so as not to come in contact with 
packages of explosives. 

434.4.7 Location. No Type I magazine, or portion thereof, 
shall be located under a high-voltage power line (750 volts 
or more). For the purposes of this section, "under" shall 
include an open space of not less than the height of the 
power line from the ground at right angles to the walls of the 
magazine. 

434.5 Buildings used for mixing of blasting agents. Buildings 
used for the mixing of blasting agents shall conform to the 
requirements of Sections 434.5 and 434.6, unless otherwise 
specifically approved by the enforcing agency having jurisdic- 
tion. 

434.5.1 Construction. Buildings shall be of all 
noncombustible construction or of sheet metal on wood 
studs. 

434.5.2 Separation. The layout of the mixing building shall 
be such so as to provide physical separation between the fin- 



ished product storage and the mixing and packaging 
operations. 

434.5.3 Storage areas. Floors in storage areas and in the 
processing plant shall be of concrete or other 
noncombustible material. Isolatedfuel storage shall be pro- 
vided to avoid contact between molten ammonium nitrate 
and fuel in case of fire. 

434.5.4 Ventilation. The building shall be well ventilated in 
accordance with Section 434.2. 

434.5.5 Heat. Heat, if used, shall be provided exclusively 
from a unit outside of the building. 

434.5.6 Venting. Explosion venting shall be provided when 
required by the enforcing agency having jurisdiction. 

434.6 Building construction storage. Blasting agents may be 
stored in the manner set forth in Title 19, California Code of 
Regulations, Subchapter 10, Article 3, or in one-story ware- 
houses (without basements), which shall be: 

1. Of noncombustible or 1-hour fire-resistive construction; 

2. Constructed so as to eliminate floor drains and piping 
into which molten materials could flow and be confined 
in case of fire; 

3. Weather resistant; 

4. Well ventilated in accordance with Section 434.2; and 

5. Equipped with a substantially constructed and lockable 
door which shall be kept securely locked, except When the 
facility is open for business. 

434.7 Electrical requirements for Type I magazines. Maga- 
zines shall not be provided with either heat or light, except 
upon the approval of the enforcing agency having jurisdiction. 
Electrical installation, when permitted, shall be in accordance 
with the California Electrical Code for Type II, Division I loca- 
tions. 

434.8 Mixing room blasting agents. All electrical switches, 
controls, motors and lights, if located in the mixing room, shall 
be installed in accordance with the California Electrical Code 
for Type II, Division I locations. 

434.9 Storage of special effects materials. The storage of not 
more than 750 pounds (340 kg) of special effects materials 
shall be in a building or a room conforming to the requirements 
of Group H, Division 1 occupancies as defined in this part. In 
addition, the following shall apply to every special effects 
materials storage building or room: 

1. The building shall be sprinklered as required in Chapter 
9. 

2. It shall be deemed that the storage of special effects ma- 
terials creates an atmosphere of flammable dust. 

3. Two or more permanent openings having an area of not 
less than 100 square inches (64 500 mm^) shall be lo- 
cated in the exterior wall to provide natural ventilation. 
These openings shall be protected by screens or louvers 
covered with '/4-inch (6.4 mm) wire mesh screen. 

4. Walls, floor ceiling, shelves and benches shall have a 
smooth nonmetallic surface which can be easily cleaned 
with a minimum of brushing or scrubbing. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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5. Each entrance door shall be posted on the outside with 
signs stating, "Authorized Personnel Only" and "No 
Smoking." 

6. Assembling and manufacturing are prohibited in special 
effects storage rooms or buildings. 

7. The room shall be located above grade in a one-story 
building or on the top floor of a multistory building or 
may be a separate building. 

8. The room or building shall have a minimum floor area of 
80 square feet (7.4 m^) with no dimension less than 8 feet 
(2438 mm). 

9. Electric wiring, lighting and heating shall be of a type 
approved for use in hazardous locations. 

434.10 Mixing room or building. Buildings or rooms in which 
more than 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of special effects materials are 
present at any time shall be constructed with at least one wall of 
explosion-relief type. The relief wall should be placed so as to 
be of least hazard to persons in adjacent buildings. 

434.10.1 Explosive venting. When explosive venting is 
required, the venting area will be calculated on 1 square 
foot (0.0929 m^)for each 35 cubic feet (0.99 m^) of building 
or roof area. 

434.10.2 Egress. All rooms or buildings shall have ade- 
quate aisle space and at least two exits separated by a dis- 
tance equal to at least one-fifth the perimeter of the room. 
Openings in fire walls shall be equipped with approved, 
self-closing fire doors. All exit doors shall open outward and 
be equipped with approved panic hardware. 

Exception: Cubicles 100 square feet (9.3 m^) or less and 
occupied by not more than two persons working within 
12 feet (3658 mm) of an unobstructed passageway may 
have one exit. 

434.10.3 Room finishes. Floors, walls, interior surfaces 
and equipment shall be of a finish and color that will indi- 
cate the presence of dust and spilled material. They shall be 
smooth finished for easy cleaning. 

434.10.4 HVAC. Heating and cooling shall be by the indi- 
rect method using water, steam, electric heaters or other 
indirect methods. 

Note: Floor registers shall not be permitted. 

434.10.5 Electrical. All electrical wiring and equipment 
shall be acceptable for the hazard involved and installed in 
accordance with Hazardous Locations, California Electri- 
cal Code. 

434.10.6 Grounding. Effective bonding and grounding 
means shall be provided to prevent accumulation of static 
charges where static charges are a hazard, as set forth in the 
California Electrical Code. 

434.10.7 Pressure relief valves. Hydraulic or air presses 
and hand jacks shall be provided with pressure-relief valves 
so arranged and set that the material being processed will 
not be subjected to pressure likely to cause it to explode. 
Dies and plugged press equipment shall not be cleared by 



striking blows that may detonate or start the material burn- 
ing. 

434.10.8 Dust control. Dust from special effects materials 
shall not be exhausted to the atmosphere. Where vacuum 
dust collections systems are used, they shall comply with the 
following requirements: 

1. Adequate filters must be installed between the source 
vacuum and the point of pickup to prevent explosive 
special effects materials from entering the vacuum 
pump or exhauster. 

2. The dust collection system shall be designed to pre- 
vent pinch points threaded fittings exposed to the haz- 
ardous dust and sharp turns, dead ends, pockets, etc., 
in which special effects materials may lodge and ac- 
cumulate outside the collecting chamber 

3. The entire vacuum collection system shall be made 
electrically continuous and be grounded to a maxi- 
mum resistance of 5 ohms. 

4. Chambers in which the dusts are collected shall not be 
located in the operating area unless adequate shields 
for the maximum quantity of material in the collector 
are furnished for personnel protection. 

5. No more that two rooms may be serviced by a common 
connection to a vacuum collection chamber Where 
interconnections are used, means should be employed 
to prevent propagation of an incident via the collec- 
tion piping. 

6. When collecting the more sensitive special effects ma- 
terials, such as black powder, lead azide, etc., a.wet. 
collector which moistens the dust close to the point of 
intake and maintains the dust wet until removed for 
disposal shall be used. Wetting agents shall be com- 
patible with the explosives. 

7. Dusts shall be removed from the collection chamber 
as often as necessary to prevent overloading. The en- 
tire system shall be cleaned at a frequency that will 
eliminate hazardous concentrations of dusts in pipes, 
tubing and/or ducts. 

434.10.9 Fans. Squirrel cage blowers should not be used for 
exhausting hazardous fumes, vapors or gases. Onlynonfer- 
rous fan blades are permitted for fans located within the 
ductwork and through which hazardous materials are 
exhausted. Motors shall be located outside the duct. 

434.10.10 Work stations. Work stations for small amounts 
of special effects materials [less than 1 pound (0.454 kg)] 
shall be separated by distance, barrier or other means, so 
fire in one station will not ignite material in the next work 
station. When necessary, each operator shall be protected 
by a personnel shield located between the operator and the 
material being processed. This shield and its support shall 
be a test designed to withstand a blast from the maximum 
amount of special effects materials allowed behind it. 

434.10.11 Shielding. When shields or structures are needed 
to protect personnel, the following requirement shall be fol- 



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lowed when specific weights of special effects materials in 
the amount ofl pound (0.454 kg) or more are involved: 



Weight of Explosive 

1 tol 5 pounds 
(0.454-6.8 kg) 



More than 15 pounds (6.8 
kg) 



structure ofStiield Wait 

Shield wall constructed of concrete 
not less than 12 inches (305 mm) 
thick which is reinforced near both 
sides by rods not less than V2 inch 
(12. 7 mm) in diameter located on 
maximum centers of 12 inches (305 
mm) both horizontally and 
vertically. The rods must be 
staggered on opposite faces. 

The shield wall for the protection 
of workers must he designed in 
such a manner to protect against 
the efforts of not less than 25 
percent overload above the 
expected maximum charge to be 
processed. 



Notes: 



1. One inch (25 mm) of mild steel is equivalent to 1 
foot (305 mm) of reinforced concrete. 

2. Explosives shall be located not less than 36 inches 
(914 mm) from the wall and 24 inches (610 mm) 
above the floor. 

If this personnel protection wall for the required opera- 
tion involving large quantities of special effects materials 
becomes so large that it is impractical, the operator must 
perform the operations by remote control or be protected by 
a suitably constructed shelter designed with a safety factor 
of not less than 4 to withstand the overpressure from the 
maximum amount of explosives in process. 



SECTION 435 
Reserved 



SECTION 436 
WINERY CAVES [SFM] 

436.1 Scope. The use of subterranean space for winery facili- 
ties in natural or manmade caves shall be in accordance with 
this section. 

436.2 Definitions. 

436.3 General. For definitions of "Assembly, fire appliance" 
and "Noncombustible," see Chapter 2. 

436.4 Limited application. For the purpose of Section436, cer- 
tain terms are defined as follows: 

TYPE 1 WINERY CAVES. Natural or manmade caves 
used solely for storage and/or processing of wine at a win- 
ery facility. Type 1 winery caves are not accessible to the 
public. 

TYPE 2 WINERY CAVES. Natural or manmade caves 
used for the storage and/or processing of wine at a winery 



facility. Type 2 winery caves are accessible to the public on 
guided tours only. 

TYPE 3 WINERY CAVES. Natural or manmade caves 
used for the storage and/or processing of wine at a winery 
facility. Type 3 winery caves are accessible to the public on 
guided tours and contain assembly use areas. 

436.5 Permits. For permits to operate Type 2 and 3 winery 
caves, see Appendix Chapter 1, Section 105. 

436.6 Fire apparatus access roads Fire apparatus access 
wads shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with 
the California Fire Code, Section 503. 

436.7 Construction requirements. 

436.7.1 Allowable area. The area of winery caves shall not 
be limited if constructed entirely of noncombustible materi- 
als. 

Winery caves constructed with combustible materials 
shall be limited in area so that no point is more than 150 feet 
(45 720 mm) from an exit. 

436.7.2 Interior construction. The walls and ceilings of 
winery caves shall not contain hidden or concealed spaces. 

436.8 General requirements. 

436.8.1 Public tours. Tours for the public shall be continu- 
ously guided by staff knowledgeable in the location of exits 
and the use of emergency notification devices. 

436.8.2 Standby personnel. In accordance with the Califor- 
nia Fire Code, Section 2404.20, when, in the opinion of the 
fire chief, it is essential for public safety, the owner, agent or 
lessee shall employ one or more qualified persons, as 
required and approved by the chief, to be on duty at such 
place. Such individuals shall be in uniform or otherwise 
easily identifiable. 

Standby personnel shall be subject to the fire chiefs 
orders at all times when so employed and shall remain on 
duty during the times such places are open to the public or 
when such activity is being conducted. 

Before the start of any activity requiring standby person- 
nel, such individuals shall: 

1. Inspect the required fire appliances to ensure they are 
in the proper place and in good working order 

2. Inspect all exits to verify accessibility and proper op- 
eration. 

While on duty, such individuals shall not be required or 
permitted to perform any duties other than those specified 
by the fire chief. 

436.8.3 Open-flame devices. The use of candles and other 
open-flame devices shall be in accordance with California 
Fire Code, Section 308.3.5. 

436.9 Portable fire extinguishers and other fire appliances. 

Portable fire extinguishers shall be located to be readily acces- 
sible. Their type, location and spacing throughout the facility 
shall be in accordance with the provisions of Title 19, Chapter 
3 and California Fire Code, Section 906.1. Other fire appli- 
ances shall be maintained at the site as required by the fire 
chief. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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436.10 Fire alarm systems. An approved manual fire alarm 
system conforming with the provisions of the California Fire 
Code, Section 907.2.1, shall be provided in all Type 3 winery 
caves. 

436.11 Exits. 

436.11.1 Distribution. Exits shall be located remotely from 
each other and arranged to minimize any possibility that 
more than one may be blocked off by any one fire or other 
emergency condition. 

436.11.2 Number. Winery caves shall be provided with a 
minimum of two exits. Assembly areas of Type 3 winery 
caves shall be provided with exits as required by the Califor- 
nia Building Code for Group A occupancies. 

436.12 Exit illumination. 

436.12.1 General. Exits shall be illuminated to a minimum 
intensity of not less than 1 foot-candle (10.76 lux) at floor 
level whenever the winery cave is occupied. Fixtures provid- 
ing exit illumination shall be supplied from a dedicated cir- 
cuit or source of power used only for exit illumination. 

436.12.2 Separate sources of power. The power supply for 
exit illumination may be provided by the premises' wiring 
system. In the event of its failure, illumination shall be auto- 
matically provided from an emergency system in Type 2 and 
3 winery caves. Emergency systems shall be supplied fi-om 
storage batteries or an on-site generator set) and the system 
shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of the 
California Electrical Code. 

436.13 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be installed at required exits 
and where otherwise necessary to clearly indicate the exits 
from assembly areas in Type 3 winery caves. 

436.14 Maximum occupant load. Occupant load require- 
ments in the assembly areas of Type 3 winery caves shall be in 
accordance with Section 1004. 

436.15 Seating arrangements. Seating arrangements in the 
assembly areas of Type 3 winery caves shall be in accordance 
with California Fire Code, Section 1024.9. 



SECTION 437 
Reserved 



SECTION 438 
Reserved 



SECTION 439 
PUBLIC LIBRARIES [SL & SFM] 

Public libraries funded fi-om the California Library Con- 
struction and Renovation Act of 1988. 

439.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be installed in: 

1. New facilities, including additions; 

2. Existing facilities to which a project adds the lesser of 
5, 000 square feet ( 465m^) or 10 percent of the size of the 



existing facility, if the existing facility does not already 
have an automatic sprinkler system. 

439.1.1 Fire extinguishment. Fire-extinguishing systems 
meeting the standards in Chapter 9 and approved by the 
local fire authority shall be installed in: 

New facilities, including additions; 

Existing facilities to which a project adds the lesser of 
5,000 square feet ( 465m^) or 10 percent of the size of the 
existing facility, if the existing facility does not already 
have an automatic sprinkler system. 

439.2 System monitoring requirement. All fire protection sys- 
tems shall be monitored by afire alarm supervising station in 
accordance with NFPA 72. 

439.2.1 Signaling system. Fire-extinguishing systems 
installed in accordance with the preceding subsection shall 
be connected to a remote station protection signaling sys- 
tem conforming to NFPA 72. 

Exception: The extinguishment and signaling require- 
ments of this chapter do not apply to projects of less than 
5,000 gross square feet (465 m^) that do not have ade- 
quate water fiow available, except that any interior book 
return with a slot piercing the exterior wall shall be 
enclosed in fire-rated construction. 

439.3 Book return slots. Any interior book return with a slot 
piercing the exterior wall shall have a separate sprinkler head 
and be enclosed in fire-rated construction. 

439.4 Automatic sprinkler and extinguishing systems. For 

public libraries constructed with funds awarded under the Cal- 
ifornia Reading and Literacy Improvement and Public Library 
Construction and Renovation Bond Act of 2000: 

1. Fire sprinkler system requirement. All libraries funded 
for new construction, including additions, shall have au- 
tomatic fire sprinkler systems installed. 

2. Fire sprinkler system requirement for renovations of 
existing facilities. If there is no automatic fire sprinkler 
system in the exiting facility, grant recipients shall be re- 
quired to install afire sprinkler system throughout the ex- 
isting facility. 

3. Fire sprinkler system types. The grant recipient may 
choose, on approval by the local fire authority, from 
wet-pipe, dry-pipe orpre-action systems, utilizing listed 
standard, early suppression fast response (ESFR) or 
on/off-type sprinkler heads. 

4. Book return rooms and slots. Book return rooms with 
slots in exterior walls shall have an automatic sprinkler 
head and be of approved fire-resistive construction. 
Book return slots and book drops shall have an addi- 
tional automatic sprinkler head when shielded from the 
room sprinkler head. 

5. System monitoring requirement. All fire protection sys- 
tems shall be monitored by afire alarm supervising sta- 
tion in accordance with NFPA 72. 

6. Alternate fire-extinguishing systems for specialized ar- 
eas. When approved by the fire authority having jurisdic- 
tion, other types of approved automatic 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



fire-extinguishing systems may be utilized as an alter- 
nate to sprinklers in the following areas: rare book 
rooms, central computer rooms and telecommunication 
rooms. 

7. Automatic sprinkler system plan requirement. Fire 
sprinkler system drawings shall use the furniture plan as 
a background for coordination with furniture and book 
stack location and height. 



SECTION 440 
GROUP C[SFM] 

440.1 Group C occupancies defined. 

440.1.1 Organized camps. For the purposes of these regula- 
tions, Group C occupancies shall mean "organized camps" 
as defined in Section 18897, Health and Safety Code. 

440.1.1.1 Description. An organized camp is a site with 
programs and facilities established for the primary pur- 
pose of providing an outdoor group living experience 
with social, spiritual, educational or recreational objec- 
tives, for 5 days or more during one or more seasons of 
the year 

The term "organized camp " does not include a motel, 
tourist camp, trailer park, resort, hunting camp, auto 
court, labor camp, penal or correctional camp, child 
care institution or home-finding agency nor does it 
include any charitable or recreational organization 
which complies with the rules and regulations for recre- 
ation railer parks provided for by Section 18301 (b). 
Health and Safety Code. 

440.1.2 Tents and tent structures. For the purpose of this 
chapter, a tent or tent structure is defined as any shelter of 
which 25 percent or more of the walls or roof, or both, are 
constructed of, or covered or protected by, a canvas or any 
other fabric material. 

440.2 Purpose and intent. The provisions of this section are 
established to provide fire and life safety in organized camps, 
but at the same time preserve the basic concept of outdoor liv- 
ing. It is the intent of this section that organized camps shall be 
considered as a separate and distinct occupancy. 

440.3 Basic building and structures. 

440.3.1 Building classification. Every building or structure 
shall be classified into the occupancy group they most 
nearly resemble and be constructed in accordance with 
appropriate occupancy requirements specified in this part. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Tents, tent structures, and buildings and structures 
that do not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) in any lateral 
dimension and where such building or structure is 
not more than one story. 

2. For fire safety, buildings or structures on the pre- 
mises of an organized camp which are used for 
sleeping purposes, regardless of their similarity to 
other occupancy groups, shall conform to the pro- 
visions of Sections 440.4, 440.5, 440.6 and 440.7. 



3. For fire safety, buildings and structures which are 
not used for sleeping purposes shall conform to the 
provisions of Section 440. 7, which shall supersede 
any similar provisions contained in this part. 

440.3.2 Occupant load. The living shelter, whether a build- 
ing, structure, tent and tent structure, or cabin, shall provide 
a minimum of 30 square feet (2.8 rr?) of superficial floor 
areaper person for single-tier bed units, and 20 square feet 
(1.9 m^) of superficial floor area per person for two-tier bed 
units. More than two tiers per bed unit are prohibited. There 
shall be at least 3 feet (914 mm) of lateral distance between 
beds. 

Exception: Intermittent short-term organized camps are 
not required to provide shelter facilities but, if provided, 
they shall comply with this section. 

440.4 General. 

440.4.1 Buildings intended for sleeping. Buildings and 
structures used or intended for sleeping purposes which do 
not exceed any one of the limitations set forth below shall 
conform to the provisions of Sections 440.5 and 440.7. 

1. One story in height. 

2. Twenty-fivefeet (7620 mm) in any lateral dimension. 

Exception: This provision shall not apply to build- 
ings or structures conforming to construction pro- 
visions of this section in effect prior to January 1, 
1985. 

3. Maximum housing of 12 persons. 

440.4.2 Limitations. Buildings and structures used or 
intended for sleeping purposes, including those so used in 
whole or in part by staff personnel, and which exceed any 
one of the limitations set forth in Section 440.4.1, shall con- 
form to the provisions of Sections 440.5 and 440.7. 

Exception: Buildings or structures used exclusively for 
living and sleeping purposes by resident custodial or 
caretaker personnel only may be constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of these regulations for a 
Group R-3 occupancy. 

440.5 Special buildings, tents and tent structures. 

440.5.1 Special buildings. In addition to the provisions of 
Section 440.7, special buildings conforming to the limita- 
tions specified in Section 440.4.1 shall conform to the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The flame-spread end-point rating of all interior fln- 
ish materials shall not exceed 200. 

2. Every room or area housing more than eight persons 
shall be provided with not less than two approved ex- 
its, each of which shall be direct to the exterior and 
shall not be less than 32 inches (813 mm) in clear 
width and 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. Rooms 
or areas housing eight or less persons shall be pro- 
vided with at least one such exit direct to the exterior. 

3. Every exit door shall be openable from the inside 
without the use of any key, special knowledge or ef- 
fort. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



123 



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4. Exit doors need not be hung to swing in the direction 
of exit travel. Where exit doors are hung to swing in 
the direction of exit travel, a landing conforming to 
the provisions of Section 1 008. 1 . 5 shall be provided. 

5. When the distance (measured vertically) between the 
ground level and the floor level exceeds 8 inches (203 
mm), a stairway from each exit shall be provided. 
Steps shall have a rise of not more than 8 inches (203 
mm) and a run of not less than 9 inches (229 mm). 
Such stairway shall be at least as wide as the door it 
serves. 

Exception: In lieu of a stairway, a ramp having a 
slope of not more than Ifoot (305 mm) of rise for 
each 8 feet (2438 mm) of run may be provided. 

6. When the floor level at any door opening of any build- 
ing or structure is more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the adjacent ground level, handrails or guard- 
rails shall be provided on the landing, balcony or 
porch, and on every stairway or ramp to ground level. 

7. Buildings and structures or groups of buildings and 
structures shall be separated from each other by not 
less than 10 feet (3048 mm). This section shall not ap- 
ply to existing buildings and structures of existing 
Group C occupancies. 

440.5.2 Tents and tent structures. In addition to the provi- 
sions of Section 440.7, tents and tent structures, or groups 
thereof, shall conform to the provisions of Section 440.5, 
except as follows: 

1. Regardless of any other provisions of this section, 
heating of tents and tent structures shall be prohibited 
unless written permission is obtained from the fire 
chief. 

2. All canvas or other fabric material shall be treated 
and maintained in aflame-retardant condition. 

Exceptions: 

1. Tents in existence prior to January 1, 1979, 
provided the following conditions are met: 

1.1. Tents shall not exceed 80 square feet 
(7.4 nf-) in area. 

1.2. No electrical devices, except flash- 
lights, are installed or used in the 
tents. 

1.3. Tents are not located closer than 30 
feet (9144 mm) to any open fire. 

1.4. Smoking is prohibited in the tents. 

1.5. All other applicable provisions of 
this article are met. 

2. Canvas or materials used exclusively to pro- 
tect windows and similar openings in walls. 

3. Canvas or materials used as a windbreak en- 
closure of not more than three sides and 
open to the sky. 

Note: It is not the intent of Section 
440.5.2 that strict adherence to the width 
and height requirements of exit openings 
be enforced for exits from tents. 



440.6 Buildings and structures for sleeping. Buildings and 
structures, or portions thereof, used or intended for sleeping 
purposes and which exceed the height, area or capacity limita- 
tions specified in Section 440.4.1 shall conform to the provi- 
sions of this section. 

440.6.1 Area, height and type of construction. Buildings 
and structures, or portions thereof, shall not exceed the lim- 
its of area, height and type of construction specified in these 
regulations for a Group I-l occupancy. Such buildings and 
structures shall not be of less than 1 -hour fire-resistive con- 
struction throughout. 

440.6.2 Location on property. The fire-resistive protection 
of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location 
on property, shall be in accordance with the provisions of 
these regulations for a Group I-l occupancy. 

440.6.3 Exits. Stairs, exits and smokeproof enclosures shall 
be provided in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 
10. 

440.6.4 Enclosure of vertical openings. Exits shall be 
enclosed as specified in Chapter 10. Elevator shafts, vent 
shafts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed and 
enclosures shall be as set forth in Chapter 7. 

440.6.5 Fire-extinguishing systems. Automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, standpipes and basement pipe inlets shall 
be installed when and as specified in Chapter 9 for buildings 
based on the occupancy they most nearly resemble. 

440.6.6 Automatic fire alarm system. See Section 907. 

440.7 Special requirements. The provisions of this section 
shall apply to the premises and to all buildings and structures 
of all organized camps. 

440.7.1 Electrical. The installation of all electrical wiring 
shall conform to the applicable provisions of the California 
Electrical Code. 

440.7.2 Heating equipment. Heating equipment, and the 
installation thereof, shall conform to the provisions of the 
California Mechanical Code. 

440.7.3 Motion picture booths. Motion picture machine 
booths shall conform to the requirements of Section 409. 

440.7.4 Interior finish. Interior finish shall conform to the 
requirements of Chapter 8, except as permitted in Section 
440.5.1, Item 1. 

440.7.5 Heater room openings. All exterior openings in 
rooms containing central heating equipment, low-pressure 
boilers or water-heating boilers used as part of the heating 
system, if located below openings in another story, or if less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other doors or windows of the 
same building, shall be protected by afire assembly having 
a ^/4-hour fire-resistive rating. Such fire assemblies shall be 
fixed, automatic or self-closing. 

Exception: The requirement for ^/f hour fire assembly 
protection of openings may be deleted if the entire room 
is protected by an automatic sprinkler system conform- 
ing to the provisions of Section 903. 

440.7.6 Heating rooms. Every room containing central 
heating equipment, low-pressure boiler or water-heating 



124 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



boiler used as part of the heating system shall be separated 
from the rest of the building by a 1 -hour fire-resistive fire 
barrier with all openings protected as set forth in Section 
706.7. 

. Exceptions: 

1. Boilers or central heating plants where the largest 
piece of fuel equipment does not exceed 400,000 
Btu per hour (135 kW) input. 

2. When any such opening is protected by a pair of 
fire doors, the inactive leaf shall be normally se- 
cured in the closed position and shall be openable 
only by use of a tool. An astragal shall be provided 
and the active leaf shall be self-closing. 

440.7.7 Exits. For purposes of determining occupant load 
for exit requirements, see Section 440.3.2. 

440.7.8 Liquefied petroleum gas. The construction and 
installation of all tanks, cylinders, equipment and systems 
used or intended for use in conjunction with any liquefied 
petroleum gas shall conform to the provisions of the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code and the California Fire Code. 

440. 7.9 Air-conditioning and ventilation systems. Heating 
units used as an integral part of an air-conditioning and 
ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 440.7.2, 440.7.3 and 440. 7. 6. 

440.8 Camp fire alarm. Every organized camp shall provide 
and maintain a device or devices suitable for sounding afire 
alarm. Such device or devices may be of any type acceptable to 
the enforcing agency provided they are distinctive in tone from 
all other signaling devices or systems and shall be audible 
throughout the camp premises. When an automatic fire alarm 
system is provided, as required by Section 440.6.6, all signal- 
ing devices required by this section shall be of the same type as 
that used in the automatic system. 



SECTION 441 
Reserved 



SECTION 442 
GROUP E[SFM] 

442.1 Location on property. All buildings housing Group E 
occupancies shall front directly on a public street or an exit dis- 
charge not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in width. The exit dis- 
charge to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot-wide 
(6096 mm) right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as 
access to the public street. At least one required exit shall be 
located on the public street or on the exit discharge. 

442.2 Separate means of egress systems required. Every room 
with an occupant load of 300 or more shall have one of its exits 
or exit-access doorways lead directly into a separate means of 
egress system that consists of not less than two paths of exit 
travel which are separated in such a manner to provide an 
atmospheric separation that precludes contamination of both 
paths of exit travel by the same fire. Not more than two required 
exits or exit-access doorways shall enter into the same means 
of egress system. 



442.3 Fences and gates. School grounds may be fenced and 
gates therein may be equipped with locks, provided that safe 
dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m^) per occupant 
are located between the school and the fence. Such required 
safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 
240 mm) from school buildings. 

Every public and private school shall conform with Section 
32020 of the Education Code which states: 

The governing board of every public school district, and the 
governing authority of every private school, which maintains 
any building used for the instruction or housing of school 
pupils on land entirely enclosed (except for building walls) by 
fences of walls, shall, through cooperation with the local law 
enforcement and fire protection agencies having jurisdiction of 
the area, make provision for the erection of gates in such fences 
or walls. The gates shall be of sufficient size to permit the 
entrance of the ambulances, police equipment and fire-fighting 
apparatus used by the law enforcement and fire protection 
agencies. There shall be no less than one such access gate and 
there shall be as many such gates as needed to ensure access to 
all major buildings and ground areas. If such gates are to be 
equipped with locks, the locking devices shall be designed to 
permit ready entrance by the use of the chain or bolt-cutting 
devices with which the local law enforcement and fire-protec- 
tion agencies may be equipped. 

442.4 Special provisions. Rooms in Group E day care, kinder- 
garten, first-, or second-grade pupils shall not be located 
above or below the first story. 

Exceptions: 

1. Basements or stories having floor levels located 
within 4 feet (1219 mm), measured vertically, from 
adjacent ground level at the level of exit discharge, 
provided the basement or story has exterior exit doors 
at that level. 

2. In buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler 
system throughout, rooms used for kindergarten, 
first- and second-grade children or for day care pur- 
poses may be located on the second story, provided 
there are at least two exterior exit doors for the exclu- 
sive use of such occupants. 

3. Group E day-care facilities may be located above the 
first story in buildings of Type lA, IB, IIA and IllA 
construction, subject to the limitation of Section 503 
when: 

3.1. Facilities with children under the age of seven 
or containing more than 12 children per story 
shall not be located above the fourth floor; 
and 

3.2. The entire story in which the day-care facility 
is located is equipped with an approved man- 
ual fire alarm and smoke detection system. 
Actuation of an initiating device shall sound 
an audible alarm throughout the entire story. 

When a building fire alarm system is re- 
quired by other provisions of this code, the 
alarm system shall be interconnected and 
sound the day-care fire alarm system; and 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



3.3. The day-care facility, if more than 1,000 
square feet (92.9 m?) in area, is divided into at 
least two compartments of approximately the 
same size by a smoke barrier in accordance 
with Section 709. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 508, occupancy separations 
between day-care and other occupancies 
shall be constructed as smoke barriers. Door 
openings in the smoke barrier shall he 
tightfitting, with gaskets installed as required 
by Section 715.4.3 and shall be automatic 
closing by actuation of the fire sprinklers, fire 
alarm or smoke detection system; and 

3.4. Each compartment formed by the smoke bar- 
rier has not less than two exits or exit-access 
doors, one of which is permitted to pass 
through the adjoining compartment; and 

3.5. Where two or more means of exits or exit ac- 
cess are required at leased one shall not share 
a common path of travel; and 

3.6. The building is equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout. 

442.5 Special hazards. School classrooms constructed after 
January 1, 1990, not equipped with automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems, which have metal grilles or bars on all their windows and 
do not have at least two exit doors within 3 feet (914 mm) of 
each end of the classroom opening to the exterior of the build- 
ing or to a common hallway used for evacuation purposes, 
shall have an inside release for the grilles or bars on at least 
one window farthest from the exit doors. The window or win- 
dows with the inside release shall be clearly marked as emer- 
gency exits. 

442.5.1 Class I, II or III-A flammable liquids shall not be 
placed, stored or used in Group E occupancies, except in 
approved quantities as necessary in laboratories and class- 
rooms and for operation and maintenance as set forth in the 
California Fire Code. 



SECTION 443 
GROUP L [SFM] 

443.1 Group L laboratories. For applications listed in Section 
111 regulated by the office of the State Fire Marshal, Group L 
occupancies shall include buildings and structures or portions 
thereof, used as laboratories for scientific experimentation or 
research having quantities of materials not in excess of those 
listed in Tables 443.1(1) and 443.1(2), except as modified in 
this section and not classified as a Group B occupancy. This 
occupancy shall be designed and constructed in accordance 
with the requirements for a Group B occupancy except as spec- 
ified in this section. 

443.2 Requirements for Group L. 

443.2.1 Multiple hazards. When a hazardous material has 
multiple hazards, all hazards shall be addressed and con- 
trolled in accordance with the provisions of this code. 

443.2.2 Requirement for report. The enforcing agency may 
require a technical opinion and report to identify and 



develop methods of protection from the hazards presented 
by the hazardous materials. A qualified person, firm or cor- 
poration, approved by the enforcing agency, shall prepare 
the opinion and report, and shall be provided without 
charge to the enforcing agency. The opinion and report may 
include, but is not limited to, the preparation of a hazardous 
material management plan (HMMP); chemical analysis; 
recommendations for methods of isolation, separation, con- 
tainment or protection of hazardous materials or processes, 
including appropriate engineering controls to be applied; 
the extent of changes in the hazardous behavior to be antici- 
pated under conditions of exposure to fire or from hazard 
control procedures; and the limitations or conditions of use 
necessary to achieve and maintain control of the hazardous 
materials or operations. The report shall be entered into the 
files of the code enforcement agencies. Proprietary and 
trade secret information shall be protected under the laws of 
the state or jurisdiction having authority. 

443.2.3 Laboratory suite. A laboratory suite is a space up to 
10,000 square feet (929 m^) bounded by not less than a 
1 -hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier within which the 
maximum allowable quantity of hazardous materials in 
accordance with Tables 443.1(1) and 443.1(2) may be 
stored, dispensed, handled or used. 

443.2.4 Emergency Power. An emergency power system 
shall be provided. The emergency power system shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with the California 
Electrical Code to automatically supply power to all 
required electrical equipment when the normal electrical 
supply system is interrupted. The exhaust system may be 
designed to operate at not less than one-half the normal fan 
speed on the emergency power system when it is demon- 
strated that the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmo- 
sphere. 

443.2.5 Construction type. Buildings containing Group L 
occupancies shall be of Type I or II A construction. 

Exception: Buildings of less than three stories shall be a 
minimum of Type VA construction. 

443.2.6 Floor construction. Liquid-tight floors, which 
comply with ASTMD 2843 (01 greater than 25) andASTM 
E 84 (Class 1), shall be required. Pipe and similar penetra- 
tions shall maintain the fire-resistive and liquid-tight char- 
acteristics of the floor a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) at 
the bottom of walls from the floor level. 

443.2.7 Fire-barrier separation. The interstitial space 
above a laboratory shall be separated from a corridor by 
1-hour construction. Laboratories and similar areas shall 
not require afire-barrier separation from each other when 
the use of the area is determined to be compatible. Class- 
rooms and offices directly related to the use shall not require 
afire-barrier separation. 

443.2.8 Fume hood exhaust ducts. Fume hood exhaust 
ducts exposed to fire-resistive exit corridors shall be sepa- 
rated from the corridor by 1 -hour fire-resistive construc- 
tion. 

443.2.9 Emergency spill response. An area for spill emer- 
gency-response equipment shall be located on each floor 



126 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



and shall be a minimum of 50 square feet (4.6 m^) with an 
increase in the size at the rate of 5 square feet (0.46 m^) per 
1,000 square feet (93 m^) in excess of 10,000 square feet 
(929 m'). 

443.3 Hazardous material restrictions. 

443.3.1 Hazardous material restrictions — Floors 1, 2, 3, 
and 1^ basement level. Up through the third floor and down 
through the first basement level, the maximum quantity of 
hazardous materials per laboratory suite shall comply with 
Tables 443.1(1) and 443.1(2). Quantities of materials shall 
not be permitted to be increased with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. ' 

443.3.2 Hazardous material restrictions — Floors 4, 5, 6, 

and 2'"' and 3''' basement levels. For the fourth, fifth and 
sixth floors, and the second and third basement levels, the 
maximum quantity of hazardous materials per laboratory 
suite shall be reduced to 75 percent of those allowed by 
Tables 443.1(1) and 443.1(2). Quantities of materials shall 
not be permitted to be increased with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 

443.3.3 Hazardous material restrictions — Floors 7 and 
above, and below 3"^ basement level. For the seventh floor 
and above, and below the third basement floor level, the 
maximum quantity of hazardous materials per laboratory 
suite shall be reduced to 50 percent of those allowed by 
Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2). Quantities of materials shall 
not be permitted to be increased with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 

443.4 Ventilation. 

443.4.1 General. In all Group L occupancies, exhaust 
streams when combined shall not create a physical hazard 
or react to degrade the containment material. The building 
official may require a technical report in accordance with 
Section 443.2. Fire and smoke dampers in fume hood 
exhaust ducts are prohibited. 

Ducts from laboratory hoods and local exhaust systems 
shall be constructed entirely of noncombustible material. 

Exceptions: 

1. Flexible ducts for special local exhausts used 
within a laboratory work suite. 

2. Combustible ducts with aflame-spread index less 
than 75 located within a shaft of noncombustible 
construction where passing through areas other 
than the laboratory suite they serve and provided 
with internal fire sprinklers. 

3. Combustible ducts or duct linings having aflame 
spread of 25 or less. 

Exhaust ducts from each laboratory suite shall be 
separately ducted to a point outside the building, to a 
mechanical space or to a shaft. Connection to a com- 
mon duct may occur at those points. Exhaust ducts 
within the same laboratory suite may be combined 
within that laboratory suite. 

Perchloric acid hoods and exhaust ducts shall be 
constructed of materials that are acid resistant. 



nonreactive, and impervious to perchloric acid. A 
water-spray system shall be provided for washing 
down the hood interior behind the baffle and the 
entire duct system. Ductwork shall provide a positive 
drainage slope back to the hood and shall consist of 
sealed sections. The hood baffle shall be removable 
for inspection. 

443.4.2 Ventilation rates. Ventilation rates shall comply 
with the requirements of the California Mechanical Code. 

443.5 Special hazards 

443.5.1 Special hazards. Storage, handling and use of haz- 
ardous materials in Group L occupancies shall comply with 
the California Fire Code. 

443.6 Means of egress 

443.6.1 Access to exits. Every portion of a Group L occu- 
pancy having a floor area of 200 square feet (19 m^) or more 
shall have access to not less than two separate exits or 
exit-access doors. 

443.6.2 Travel within rooms. Within a Group L occupancy 
all portions of any room shall be within 100 feet (30 480 
mm) to an exit. 

443.6.3 Door swing. All exit and exit-access doors serving 
areas with hazardous materials shall swing in the direction 
of exit travel, regardless of the occupant load served. 

443.6.4 Panic hardware. Exit and exit access doors from 
■ areas with hazardous materials shall not be provided with a 

latch or lock unless it is panic hardware orflre exit hard- 
ware. 

443.6.5 Horizontal exits. Buildings containing Group L 
occupancies located four or more floors above thefirstfloor 
shall have each floor of the building separated with at least 
one horizontal exit constructed as required for a 2-hour fire 
barrier. Each side of the horizontal exit shall be provided 
with a separate mechanical exhaust system without inter- 
connection. No side shall be less than 30 percent of the total 
area for the floor At least one elevator shall be provided to 
serve the floor on each side of the horizontal exit wall and 
shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 30. 

443.6.6 Corridor doors. Corridor doors shall be protected 
by aflre assembly having afire protection rating of not less 
than ^/fhour with smoke gasketing, shall not have more 
than 100 square inches (64 516 mm^) of wired glass set in 
steel frames and shall be maintained self-closing or shall be 
automatic closing. 

443. 7 Automatic fire sprinkler systems. See Section 903. 2.1 6. 

443.8 Fire alarm system. See Section 907.2.28. 

443.9 Existing Group L occupancies, additions, alterations 
or repairs. See Section 3414. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 443.1(1) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER LABORATORY SUITE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD^ 



CONDITION 


STORAGE 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS 


MATERIAL 


CLASS 


Solid 
(pounds 
per cubic 

feet.) 


Liquid 

Gallons 

(l-bs.) 


Gas Cu. 
Ft. 


Solid Lbs. 
(Cu. Ft.) 


Liquid 

Gallons 

(Lbs.) 


Gas Cu. 
Ft. 


Solid Lbs. 
(Cu. Ft.) 


Liquid 

Gallons 

(Lbs.) 


Gas Cu. 
Ft. 


1.1 Combustible liquid 


II 


- 


120' 


- 


- 


120 


- 


- 


30 


- 


III-A 


- 


330' 


- 


- 


330 


- 


- 


80 


- 


III-B 


- 


13,200' 


- 


- 


13,200 


- 


- 


3,300 


- 


1.2 Combustible dust 
lbs/1000 cu. ft. 




1 






1 






1 






1.3 Combustible fiber 

(loose) 

(baled) 




(100) 
(1,000) 


- 


- 


(100) 
(1,000) 


- 


- 


(20) 
(200) 


- 


- 


1.4 Cryogenic, flammable 
or oxidizing 






45 


- 


- 


45 


- 


- 


10 


- 


2.1 Explosives 




12 


(1? 


- 


% 


fVj 


- 


% 


('/,) 


- 


3.1 Flammable solid 




125^ 


- 


- 


25 


- 


- 


25 


- 


- 


3.2 Flammable gas 

(gaseous) 

(liquefied) 




- 


15' 


750' 


- 


15' 


750' 


- 


- 


- 


3.3 Flammable liquid 
Combination I- A, I-B, I-C 


I-A 


- 


30' 


. 


- 


30 


- 


. 


10 


- 


I-B 


- 


6(? 


. 


. 


60 


- 


. 


15 


. 


I-C 


- 


9(? 


. 


- 


90 


- 


- 


20 


- 




- 


nc 


- 


- 


120 


- 


- 


30 


- 


4.1 Organic peroxide, 
unclassified detonatable 




P 


(1? 


- 


% 


(%) 


- 


% 


(%) 


- 


4.2 Organic peroxide 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 


52 

50" 

125^ 

500 

N.L. 


(5)' 
(50)^ 
(125)' 
(500) 
N.L. 


- 


(1) 
50 
125 
500 
N.L 


(1) 
(50) 
(125) 
(500) 
N.L 


- 


1 

10 

25 

100 

N.L. 


1 
(10) 
(25) 
(100) 
N.L. 


- 


4.3 Oxidizer 


4 
3 
2 

1 


f 

1(P 

25(? 

1,00(P 


(IP 

(10)' 

(250)' 

(1,000)' 


- 


2 

50 
1,000 


(2) 

(250) 

(1,000) 


" 


% 
2 

50 
200 


(%) 

(2) 

(50) 

(200) 


~ 


4.4 Oxidizer: Gas 

(gaseous) 

(liquefied) 




- 


15' 


1,500' 


- 


15' 


1,500' 


- 


- 


- 


5.1 Pyrophoric 




42 


(4)' 


50' 


1 


(1) 


10' 











6.1 Unstable (reactive) 


4 
3 
2 
1 


5(? 
125' 


(1? 

(5)' 

(50f 

(125)' 


10' 
50' 
250' 
750' 


% 

1 

50 
125 


(1) 
(50) 
(125) 


2' 
10' 
250' 
750' 


% 
1 

10 
25 


(%) 
(1) 
(10) 
(25) 








7.1 Water (reactive) 


3 
2 
1 


52 
50' 
125' 


(5)' 

(50)' 

(125)' 


- 


5 
50 
125 


(5) 

(50) 

(125)' 


- 


1 

10 

25 


(1) 
(10) 
(25) 


- 



1. See Section 443.3 Hazardous 

2. Quantities may be increased 



Material Restrictions. 

100 percent when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or fume hoods. 



128 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 443.1(2) 
MAXIMUM QUANTITY PER LABORATORY SUITE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A HEALTH HAZARD^ 


i\/IATERiAL 


STORAGE 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEIVIS 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS 


Solid 
Lbs. 


Liquid 

Gaiions 

(Lbs.) 


Gas 
Cu, Ft. 


Soiid 
Lbs. 


Liquid 
Gaiions 
(Lbs.) 


Gas 
Cu. Ft. 


Soiid 
Lbs. 


Liquid 

Gaiions 

(Lbs.) 


1. Corrosives 


5,000 


500 


650" 


5,000 


500 


650 


1,000 


100 


2a. Highly toxics^ 


40 


10 


65 


5 


1 


65 


2 


'/4 


2b. Toxics 


500 


50 


650' 


500 


50 


650 


5 


% 


3. Irritants 


5,000 


500 


650 


5,000 


500 


650 


1,000 


100 


4. Sensitizers 


5.000 


500 


650 


5,000 


500 


650 


1,000 


100 


5. Other health hazards 


5,000 


500 


650 


5,000 


500 


650 


1,000 


100 



1. See Section 443.3 Hazardous Material Restrictions. 

2. Permitted only when stored or used in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or fume hoods. Quantites of high toxics in use in open systems need 
not be reduced above the third floor or below the first basementfloor level. Individual container size shall be limited to 2 pounds (0. 91 kg) for solids and 1/4 gallon 
(0.95 L) for liquids. 



SECTION 444 
Reserved 



SECTION 445 
LARGE-FAMILY DAY CARE HOMES [SFM] 

445.1 Large-family day care homes. 

445.2 For purposes of clarification, Health and Safety Code 
Section 1597.46 is repeated. 

(a) A city, county, or city and county shall not prohibit 
largefamily day care homes on lots zoned for single-family 
dwellings, but shall do one of the following: 

(1) Classify these homes as a permitted use of residential 
property for zoning purposes. 

(2) Grant a nondiscretionary permit to use a lot zoned for 
a single-family dwelling to any large-family day care 
home that complies with local ordinances prescribing 
reasonable standards, restrictions and requirements 
concerning spacing and concentration, traffic control, 
parking and noise control relating to such homes, and 
complies with subdivision (d) and any regulations 
adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to that subdi- 
vision. Any noise standards shall be consistent with local 
noise ordinances implementing the noise element of the 
general plan and shall take into consideration the noise 
level generated by children. The permit issued pursuant 
to this paragraph shall be granted by the zoning adminis- 
trator, if any, or if there is no zoning administrator by the 
person or persons designated by the planning agency to 
grant such permits, upon the certification without a 
hearing. 

(3) Require any large-family day care home to apply for 
a permit to use a lot zoned for single-family dwellings. 
The zoning adrninistrator, if any, or if there is no zoning 
administrator, the person or persons designated by the 
planning agency to handle the use permits shall review 
and decide the applications. The use permit shall be 
granted if the largefamily day care home complies with 
local ordinances, if any, prescribing reasonable stan- 



dards, restrictions and requirements concerning spacing 
and concentration, traffic control, parking and noise 
control relating to such homes, and complies with subdi- 
vision (d) and any regulations adopted by the State Fire 
Marshal pursuant to that subdivision. 

Any noise standards shall be consistent with local 
noise ordinances implementing the noise element of the 
general plan and shall take into consideration the noise 
levels generated by children. 

The local government shall process any required per- 
mit as economically as possible, and fees charged for 
review shall not exceed the costs of the review and permit 
process. Not less than 10 days prior to the date on which 
the decision will be made on the application, the zoning 
administrator or person designated to handle such use 
permits shall give notice of the proposed use by mail or 
delivery to all owners shown on the last equalized assess- 
ment roll as owning real property within a 100 (30 480 
mm) foot radius of the exterior boundaries of the pro- 
posed large-family day-care home. No hearing on the 
application for a permit issued pursuant to this para- 
graph shall be held before a decision is made unless a 
hearing is requested by the applicant or other affected 
person. The applicant or other affected person may 
appeal the decision. The appellant shall pay the cost, if 
any, of the appeal. 

(b) A largefamily day care home shall not be subject to the 
provisions of Division 13 (commencing with Section 21000) 
of the Public Resources Code. 

(c) Use of a single-family dwelling for the purposes of a 
largefamily day care home shall not constitute a change of 
occupancy for purposes of Part 1.5 (commencing with Sec- 
tion 17910) of Division 13 (State Housing Law), or for pur- 
poses of local building and fire codes. 

(d) Largefamily day care homes shall be considered as sin- 
gle-family residences for the purposes of the State Uniform 
Building Standards Code and local building and fire codes, 
except with respect to any additional standards specifically 
designed to promote the fire and life safety of the children in 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



129 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



these homes adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to 
this subdivision. 

445.3 Smoke alarms. Large-family day care homes shall be 
equipped with State Fire Marshal approved and listed single- 
station residential-type smoke alarms. The number and place- 
ment of smoke alarms shall be determined by the enforcement 
authority. 

445.4 Fire extinguishers. Large- and small-family day care 
homes shall be equipped with a portable fire extinguisher hav- 
ing a minimum 2A10BC rating. 

445.5 Fire alarm devices. Every large-family day care home 
shall be provided with at least one manual device at a location 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. Such device 
shall actuate a fire alarm signal, which shall be audible 
throughout the facility at a minimum level of 15 dh above ambi- 
ent noise level. These devices need not be interconnected to any 
other fire alarm device, have a control panel or be electrically 
supervised or provided with emergency power. Such device or 
devices shall be attached to the structure and may be of any 
type acceptable to the enforcing agent, provided that such 
devices are distinctive in tone and are audible throughout the 
structure. 

445.6 Compliance. Every large-family day care home shall 
comply with the provisions for Group R-3 occupancies. 

Enforcement of these provisions shall be in accordance with 
the Health and Safety Code Sections 13145 and 13146. No city, 
county, city and county, or district shall adopt or enforce any 
building ordinance or local rule or regulation relating to the 
subject of fire and life safety in large-family day-care homes 
which is inconsistent with those standards adopted by the State 
Fire Marshal, except to the extent the building ordinance or 
local rule or regulation applies to single-family residences in 
which day care is not provided. 

445.7 Special hazards. Every unenclosed gas-fired water 
heater or furnace which is within the area used for child care in 
a large-family day care home shall be protected in such a way 
as to prevent children from making contact with those appli- 
ances. 

Exception: This does not apply to kitchen stoves or ovens. 



130 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 5 - GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



Adopting Agency 




BBC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


GSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


38 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ciiapter 


X 












X 

♦ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt Entire Ciiapter as 
amended (amended sections 
iisted beiow) 


' 


X 


X 


X 

♦ 
































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 








































Chapter/ 
Section 


Codes 


502.1 
Gradeplane 


IBC 






X 


X 
































Table 503 


CA 




X 




































503.1 


IBC 






X 


































504.2 


CA 




X 




































506,3 


CA 




X 




































506.4 


CA 




X 




































506.4.1 


CA 




X 




































507.3 


CA 




X 




































507.9 


CA 




X 




































Table 508.2 


CA 




X 




































508.3.1.3 


CA 




X 




































508.3.2.3 


CA 




X 




































Table 508.3.3 


CA 




X 




































509.2 


CA 




X 




































509.9 


CA 




X 















































































The ♦ designation indicates that the Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is 
applicable to structures subject to HCD 1 and/or HCD 2 or DSA-SS. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



131 



1 32 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 5 

GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter control the height 
and area of structures hereafter erected and additions to exist- 
ing structures. 

[F] 501.2 Address numbers. Buildings shall have approved 
address numbers, building numbers or approved building iden- 
tification placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible 
from the street or road fronting the property. These numbers 
shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be 
Arabic numerals or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall be a 
nainimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a minimum stroke 
width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 



SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding 
exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent 
shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with sur- 
rounding walls shall be included in the building area if such 
areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof 
or floor above. 

BASEMENT. That portion of a building that is partly or com- 
pletely below grade plane (see "Story above grade plane" in 
Section 202). A basement shall be considered as a story above 
grade plane where the finished surface of the floor above the 
basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated plat- 
form used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial 
process equipment, including the associated elevated walk- 
ways, stairs and ladders necessary to access the platform (see 
Section 505.5). 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average 
of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior 
walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the 
exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the 
lowest points within the area between the building and the lot 
line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from 
the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1 829 mm) 
from the building. 

[HCD 1 & HCD 2] "Grade or grade plane" is the lowest 
point of elevation of the finished surface of the ground, pav- 
ing or sidewalk within the area between the building and the 
property line or, when the property line is more than 5 feet 



(1524 mm) from the building, between the building and a 
line 5 feet (1524 mm) from the building. For additional 
information, see Health and Safety Code, Section 19955.3 
(d). 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance firom grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 

HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of 
two successive finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost 
story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling 
joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof 
rafters. 

MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the 
floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 
505. 



SECTION 503 
GENERAL HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS 

503.1 General. The height and area for buildings of different 
construction types shall be governed by the intended use of the 
building and shall not exceed the limits in Table 503 except as 
modified hereafter. Each part of a building included within the 
exterior walls or the exterior walls and fire walls where pro- 
vided shall be permitted to be a separate building. 

Exception: [HCD 1] Limited-density owner-built rural 
dwellings may be of any type of construction which will pro- 
vide for a sound structural condition. Structural hazards 
which result in an unsound condition and which may consti- 
tute a substandard building are delineated by Section 
17920.3 of the Health and Safety Code. 

503.1.1 Special industrial occupancies. Buildings and 
structures designed to house special industrial processes 
that require large areas and unusual heights to accommodate 
craneways or special machinery and equipment, including, 
among others, rolling mills; structural metal fabrication 
shops and foundries; or the production and distribution of 
electric, gas or steam power, shall be exempt from the height 
and area limitations of Table 503. 

503.1.2 Buildings on same lot. Two or more buildings on 
the same lot shall be regulated as separate buildings or shall 
be considered as portions of one building if the height of 
each building and the aggregate area of buildings are within 
the limitations of Table 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 
506. The provisions of this code applicable to the aggregate 
building shall be appUcable to each building. 

503.1.3 Type I construction. Buildings of Type I construc- 
tion permitted to be of unlimited tabular heights and areas 
are not subject to the special requirements that allow unlim- 
ited area buildings in Section 507 or unlimited height in 
Sections 503.1.1 and 504.3 or increased height and areas for 
other types of construction. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



133 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



TABLE 503 

ALLOWABLE HEIGHT AND BUILDING AREAS" 

Height limitations shown as stories and feet above grade plane. 

Area limitations as determined by the definition of "Area, building," per story 



GROUP 




TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


TYPEI 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


HT 


A 


B 


HGT(feet) 
HGT(S) 


UL 


160 


6S 


55 


65 


55 


65 


50 


40 


A-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
5,500 


A-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-3 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


315,500 


29,500 


314,000 


29,500 


315,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-5 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


B 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37,500 


4 
23,000 


5 
28,500 


4 
19,000 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


29,000 


E 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


3 
26,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
23,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,500 


F-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
25,000 


2 
15,500 


3 
19,000 


2 
12,000 


4 
33,500 


2 
14,000 


1 
8,500 


F-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


4 
28,500 


3 
18,000 


5 
50,500 


3 
21,000 


2 
13,000 


H-1 


S 
A 


1 
21,000 


1 
16,500 


1 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


1 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


1 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


NP 
NP 


H-2'' 


S 
A 


UL 
21,000 


3 
16,500 


2 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


2 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


2 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


1 
3,000 


H-3'' 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


6 

60,000 


426,500 


214,000 


417,500 


213,000 


425,500 


2 
10,000 


1 
5,000 


H-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


7 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
28,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
6,500 


H-5 


S 
A 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


3 
28,500 


3 
19,000 


3 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


I-l 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


9 

55,000 


4 
19,000 


3 
10,000 


4 
16,500 


3 
10,000 


4 
18,000 


3 
10,500 


2 
4,500 


l-VI-2.1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 
11,000 


1 
12,000 


NP 
NP 


1 
12,000 


1 
9,500 


NP 
NP 


1-3" 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


2 
15,100 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


1-4 


S 
A 


XJL 
UL 


5 
60,500 


3 
26,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
23,500 _j 


2 
13,000 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,000 


L 


S 

A 


10 
UL 


3 
39.900 


3 
18,000 


2 
12,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
12,000 


3 
18,000 


3 
14,000 


1 
8,000 


M 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
21,500 


4 
12,500 


4 
18,500 


4 
12,500 


4 
20,500 


3 
14,000 


1 
9,000 


R-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-3/R-3.1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
UL 


3 
UL 


R-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


S-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
48,000 


4 
26,000 


3 
17,500 


3 
26,000 


3 
17,500 


4 
25,500 


3 
14,000 


1 
9,000 


S-2''''= 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
79,000 


5 
39,000 


4 
26,000 


4 
39,000 


4 
26,000 


5 
38,500 


4 
21,000 


2 
13,500 



(continued) 



134 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



TABLE 503— continued 

ALLOWABLE HEIGHT AND BUILDING AREAS" 

Height limitations sliown as stories and feet above grade plane. 

Area limitations as determined by the definition of "Area, building," per story 



GROUP 




TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


TYPEI 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


HT 


A 


B 


HGT(feet) 
HGT(S) 


UL 


160 


65 


55 


65 


55 


65 


50 


40 


U° 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
35,500 


4 
19,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


4 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


1 
5,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m?. 
UL = Unlimited, NP = Not permitted. 

a. See the following sections for general exceptions to Table 503: 

1. Section 504.2, Allowable height increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

2. Section 506.2, Allowable area increase due to street frontage. 

3. Section 506.3, Allowable area increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

4. Section 507, Unlimited area buildings. 

b. For open parking structures, see Section 406.3. 

c. For private garages, see Section 406.1. 

d. See Section 415.5 for hraitations. 

e. [SFM] See Section 408.1.1 for specific exceptions for one-story Type HA, IIIA or VA construction. 



SECTION 504 
HEIGHT 

504.1 General. The height permitted by Table 503 shall be 
increased in accordance with this section. 

Exception: The height of one-story aircraft hangars, air- 
craft paint hangars and buildings used for the manufacturing 
of aircraft shall not be limited if the building is provided 
with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Chapter 9 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or 
yards not less in width than one and one-half times the 
height of the building. 

504.2 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the value 
specified in Table 503 for maximum height is increased by 20 
feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of stories is 
increased by one. Increases arepermitted in addition to the area 
increase in accordance with Section 506.2. In other than 
high-rise buildings, Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies and 
other applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, these increases are permitted in 
addition to the area increase in accordance with Section 506.3. 
For Group R -2 buildings of Type VA construction equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3. i . i, the value specified in Table 
503 for maximum height is increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and 
the maximum number of stories is increased by one, but shall 
not exceed 60 feet (18 288 mm) or four stories, respectively, 
these increases arepermitted in addition to the area increase in 
accordance with Section 506.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire areas with an occupancy in Group 1-2 of Type 
IIB, m, IV or V construction. 



2. Fire areas with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2, H-3 
or H-5. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with 
Table 601, Note e. 

4. [SFM] Fire areas with an occupancy in Group L. 

5. [SFM] Fire areas with an occupancy in licensed 
Group I-l and R-4. 

504.3 Roof structures. Towers, spires, steeples and other roof 
structures shall be constructed of materials consistent with the 
required type of construction of the building except where 
other construction is permitted by Section 1509.2.1. Such 
structures shall not be used for habitation or storage. The struc- 
tures shall be unlimited in height if of noncombustible materi- 
als and shall not extend more than 20 feet (6096 mm) above the 
allowable height if of combustible materials (see Chapter 15 
for additional requirements). 



SECTION 505 
MEZZANINES 

505.1 General. A mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance 
with Section 505 shall be considered a portion of the story 
below. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to either the build- 
ing area or number of stories as regulated by Section 503 . 1 . The 
area of the mezzanine shall be included in determining the fire 
area defined in Section 702. The clear height above and below 
the mezzanine floor construction shall not be less than 7 feet 
(2134 mm). 

505.2 Area limitation. The aggregate area of a mezzanine or 
mezzanines within a room shall not exceed one-third of the 
floor area of that room or space in which they are located. The 
enclosed portion of a room shall not be included in a determina- 
tion of the floor area of the room in which the mezzanine is 
located. In determining the allowable mezzanine area, the area 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



135 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



of the mezzanine shall not be included in the floor area of the 
room. 

Exceptions: 

1. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and 
structures of Type I or n construction for special in- 
dustrial occupancies in accordance with Section 
503 . 1 . 1 shall not exceed two-thirds of the floor area of 
the room. 

2. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and 
structures of Type I or 11 construction shall not exceed 
one-half of the floor area of the room in buildings and 
structures equipped throughout with an approved au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 and an approved emergency voice/alarm 
communication system in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.2. 

505.3 Egress. Each occupant of a mezzanine shall have access 
to at least two independent means of egress where the common 
path of egress travel exceeds the limitations of Section 1014.3. 
Where a stairway provides a means of exit access from a mez- 
zanine, the maximum travel distance includes the distance trav- 
eled on the stairway measured in the plane of the tread nosing. 
Accessible means of egress shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1007. 

Exception: A single means of egress shall be permitted in 
accordance with Section 1015.1. 

505.4 Openness. A mezzanine shall be open and unobstructed 
to the room in which such mezzanine is located except for walls 
not more than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, columns and posts. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the occupant load of the aggregate area 
of the enclosed space does not exceed 10. 

2. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress is 
not required to be open to the room in which the mez- 
zanine is located if at least one of the means of egress 
provides direct access to an exit from the mezzanine 
level. 

3. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the aggregate floor area of the enclosed 
space does not exceed 10 percent of the mezzanine 
area. 

4. In industrial facilities, mezzanines used for control 
equipment are permitted to be glazed on all sides. 

5. In other flian Groups H and I occupancies no more 
than two stories in height above grade plane and 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, a mezza- 
nine having two or more means of egress shall not be 
required to be open to the room in which the mezza- 
nine is located. 

505.5 Equipment platforms. Equipment platforms in build- 
ings shall not be considered as a portion of the floor below. 
Such equipment platforms shall not contribute to either the 



building area or the number of stories as regulated by Section 
503 . 1 . The area of the equipment platform shall not be included 
in determining the fire area. Equipment platforms shall not be a 
part of any mezzanine and such platforms and the walkways, 
stairs and ladders providing access to an equipment platform 
shall not serve as a part of the means of egress from the 
building. 

505.5.1 Area limitations. The aggregate area of all equip- 
ment platforms within a room shall not exceed two-thirds of 
the area of the room in which they are located. Where an 
equipment platform is located in the same room as a mezza- 
nine, the area of the mezzanine shall be determined by Sec- 
tion 505.2 and the combined aggregate area of the 
equipment platforms and mezzanines shall not exceed 
two-thirds of the room in which they are located. 

[F] 505.5.2 Fire suppression. Where located in a building 
that is required to be protected by an automatic sprinkler 
system, equipment platforms shall be fully protected by 
sprinklers above and below the platform, where required by 
the standards referenced in Section 903.3. 

505.5.3 Guards. Equipment platforms shall have guards 
where required by Section 1013.1. 



SECTION 506 
AREA MODIFICATIONS 

506.1 General. The areas limited by Table 503 shall be permit- 
ted to be increased due to frontage (If) and automatic sprinkler 
system protection f/J in accordance with the following: 



^.={A+[Ax//] + [4x/.]} 



(Equation 5-1) 



where: 



A„ = Allowable area per story (square feet). 

A, = Tabular area per story in accordance with Table 503 
(square feet). 

If = Area increase factor due to frontage as calculated in ac- 
cordance with Section 506.2. 

/, = Area increase factor due to sprinkler protection as cal- 
culated in accordance with Section 506.3. 

506.1.1 Basements. A single basement that is not a story 
above grade plane need not be included in the total allow- 
able area, provided such basement does not exceed the area 
permitted for a building with no more than one story above 
grade plane. 

506.2 Frontage increase. Every building shall adjoin or have 
access to a public way to receive an area increase for frontage. 
Where a building has more than 25 percent of its perimeter on a 
public way or open space having a minimum width of 20 feet 
(6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be determined in accor- 
dance with the following: 



If =[F/P-0.25]W/30 



where: 

If = Area increase due to frontage. 



(Equation 5-2) 



136 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



F = Building perimeter that fronts on a public way or open 
space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum width 
(feet). 

P = Perimeter of entire building (feet). 

W = Width of public way or open space (feet) in accordance 
with Section 506.2.1. 

506.2.1 Width limits. "W" must be at least 20 feet (6096 
mm). Where the value of ^varies along the perimeter of the 
building, the calculation performed in accordance with 
Equation 5-2 shall be based on the weighted average of each 
portion of exterior wall and open space where the value of W 
is greater than or equal to 20 feet (6096 mm). Where W 
exceeds 30 feet (9144 mm), a value of 30 feet (9144 mm) 
shall be used in calculating the weighted average, regardless 
of the actual width of the open space. 

Exception: The quantity of Wdividedby 30 shall be per- 
mitted to be a maximum of 2 when the building meets all 
requirements of Section 507 except for compUance with 
the 60-foot (18 288 mm) public way or yard requirement, 
as applicable. 

506.2.2 Open space limits. Such open space shall be either 
on the same lot or dedicated for pubHc use and shall be 
accessed from a street or approved fire lane. 

506.3 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the area 
limitation in Table 503 is permitted to be increased by an addi- 
tional 200 percent (/j = 2) for buildings with more than one 
story above grade plane and an additional 300 percent ( /j = 3) 
for buildings with no more than one story above grade plane. In 
other than high-rise buildings, Group A, E, H, I, L and R occu- 
pancies or other applications listed in Section 111 regulated by 
the Office of the State Fire Marshal, these increases are permit- 
ted in addition to the height and story increases in accordance 
with Section 504.2. For Group R-2 buildings of Type VA con- 
struction equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, these 
increases are permitted in addition to the height increase in 
accordance with Section 504.2. 

Exception: The area limitation increases shall not be per- 
mitted for the following conditions; 

1 . The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not ap- 
ply to buildings with an occupancy in Use Group H-1 . 

2. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not ap- 
ply to the floor area of an occupancy in Use Group 
H-2 or H-3. For mixed-use buildings containing such 
occupancies, the allowable area shall be calculated in 
accordance with Section 508.3.3.2, with the sprinkler 
increase apphcable only to the portions of the build- 
ing not classified as Use Group H-2 or H-3. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with 
Table 601, Note e. 

4. [SFM] The automatic sprinkler system increase shall 
not apply to Group L occupancies. 

506.4 Area determination. In other than high-rise buildings, 
Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies and other applications 



listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal, the maximum area of a building with more than one 
story above grade plane shall be determined by multiplying the 
allowable area of the first story (A„), as determined in Section 
506.1, by the number of stories above grade plane as listed 
below: 

1. For buildings with two stories above grade plane, multi- 
ply by 2; 

2. For buildings with three or more stories above grade 
plane, multiply by 3; and 

3. No story shall exceed the allowable area per story (A„), as 
determined in Section 506. 1, for the occupancies on that 
story. 

Exception: 

1. Unlimited area buildings in accordance with 
Section 507. 

For high-rise buildings. Group A, E, H, I, LandR occupan- 
cies and other applications listed in Section 111 regulated by 
the Office of the State Fire Marshal, the maximum area of a 
building with more than one story above grade plane shall be 
determined by multiplying the allowable area of the first story 
(A"), as determined in Section 506.1, by the number of stories 
above grade plane as listed below: 

1. For buildings with two or more stories above grade 
plane, multiply by 2; 

2. No story shall exceed the allowable area per story (A"), 
as determined in Section 506.1, for the occupancies on 
that story. ■ 

Exception: Unlimited area buildings in accordance 
with Section 507. 

506.4.1 Mixed occupancies. In buildings with mixed occu- 
pancies, the allowable area per story (A J shall be based on 
the most restrictive provisions for each occupancy when the 
mixed occupancies are treated according to Section 508.3.2. 
When the occupancies are treated according to Section 
508.3.3 as separated occupancies, the maximum total build- 
ing area shall be such that the sum of the ratios for each such 
area on all floors as calculated according to Section 
508.3.3.2 shall comply with the following. ■ 

1. For other than high-rise buildings. Group A, E, H, I, 
L, andR occupancies and other applications listed in 
Section III regulated by the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal, the sum shall not exceed 2 for two-story 
buildings and 3 for buildings three stories or higher. 

2. For high-rise buildings, Group A, E, H, I, L, andR oc- 
cupancies and other applications listed in Section 
111 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, 
the sum shall not exceed 2 for buildings two stories or 
higher 



SECTION 507 
UNLIMITED AREA BUILDINGS 

507.1 General. The area of buildings of the occupancies and 
configurations specified herein shall not be limited. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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507.2 Nonsprinklered, one story. The area of a one-story, 
Group F-2 or S-2 building shall not be Umited when the build- 
ing is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less 
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.3 Sprinklered, one story. The area of a one-story, Group 
B, F, M or S building, of other than Type V construction, shall 
not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and adjoined by public'ways or 
yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings and structures of Type I and II construction 
for rack storage facilities that do not have access by 
the public shall not be limited in height, provided that 
such buildings conform to the requirements of Sec- 
tions 507.2 and 903.3.1.1 and NFPA 230. 

2. Group A- 1 and A-2 occupancies of other than Type V 
construction shall be permitted, provided: 

2.1. AU assembly occupancies are separated from 
other spaces as required for separated uses in 
Section 508.3.3.4 with no reduction allowed 
in the fire-resistance rating of the separation 
based upon the installation of an automatic 
sprinkler system; 

2.2. Each Group A occupancy shall not exceed the 
maximum allowable area permitted in Section 
503.1; and 

2.3. All required exits shall discharge directly to 
the exterior. 

507.4 Two story. The area of a two-story. Group B, F, M or S 
building shall not be hmited when the building is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903 .3 . 1 . 1 , and is surrounded and adjoined by pub- 
lic ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.5 Reduced open space. The permanent open space of 60 
feet (18 288 mm) required in Sections 507.2, 507.3, 507.4, 

507.6 and 507.10 shall be permitted to be reduced to not less 
than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements 
are met: 

1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more 
than 75 percent of the perimeter of the building. 

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall 
have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours. 

3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open 
space shall have opening protectives with a minimum 
fire protection rating of 3 hours. 

507.6 Group A-3 buildings. The area of a one-story, Group 
A-3 building used as a place of religious worship, community 
hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, 
indoor swimming pool or teimis court of Type n construction 
shall not be limited when all of the following criteria are met: 

1 . The building shall not have a stage other than a platform. 



2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3 . The assembly floor shall be located at or within 2 1 inches 
(533 mm) of street or grade level and all exits are pro- 
vided with ramps complying with Section 1010.1 to the 
street or grade level. 

4. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18288 mm) in width. 

507.7 Group H occupancies. Group H-2, H-3 and H-4 occu- 
pancies shall be permitted in unlimited area buildings contain- 
ing Group F and S occupancies, in accordance with Sections 

507.3 and 507.4 and the limitations of this section. The aggre- 
gate floor area of the Group H occupancies located at the per- 
imeter of the unhmited area building shall not exceed 10 
percent of the area of the buUding nor the area Hmitations for 
the Group H occupancies as specified in Table 503 as modified 
by Section 506.2, based upon the percentage of the perimeter 
of each Group H fu:e area that fronts on a street or other unoccu- 
pied space. The aggregate floor area of Group H occupancies 
not located at the perimeter of the building shall not exceed 25 
percent of the area limitations for the Group H occupancies as 
specified in Table 503. Group H fire areas shall be separated 
from the rest of the unlimited area building and from each other 
in accordance with Table 508.3.3. For two-story unlimited area 
buildings, the Group H fire areas shall not be located above the 
first story unless permitted by the allowable height in stories 
and feet as set forth in Table 503 based on the type of 
construction of the unlimited area building. 

507.8 Aircraft paint hangar. The area of a one-story. Group 
H-2 aircraft paint hangar shall not be limited where such air- 
craft paint hangar complies with the provisions of Section 

412.4 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or yards not 
less in width than one and one-half times the height of the 
building. 

507.9 Group E buildings. The area of a one-story Group E 
building of Type UA, HIA or IV construction shall not be lim- 
ited when the following criteria are met: 

1. Each classroom shall have not less than two means of 
egress, with one of the means of egress being a direct exit 
to the outside of the building complying with Section 
1018. 

2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. The building is surrounded and adjoined by public ways 
or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in widtii. 

507.10 Motion picture theaters. In buildings of Type II con- 
struction, the area of a one-story motion picture theater shall 
not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or 
yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.11 Covered mall buUdings and anchor stores. The area 
of covered maU buildings and anchor stores not exceeding 
three stories in height that comply with Section 402.6 shall not 
be limited. 



138 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SECTION 508 
MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY 

508.1 General. Where a building or portion thereof contains 
two or more occupancies or uses, the building or portion 
thereof shall comply with the applicable provisions of this 
section. 

508.2 Incidental uses. Incidental use areas shall comply with 
the provisions of this section. 

Exception: Incidental use areas within and serving a dwell- 
ing unit are not required to comply with this section. 

508.2.1 Occupancy classification. An incidental use area 
shall be classified in accordance with the occupancy of that 
portion of the building in which it is located or the building 
shall be classified as a mixed occupancy and shall comply 
with Section 508.3. 

508.2.2 Separation. Incidental use areas shall be separated 
or protected, or both, in accordance with Table 508.2. 

508.2.2.1 Construction. Where Table 508.2 requires a 
fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental use area 
shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a 
fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 706 
or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with 
Section 7 1 1 , or both. Where Table 508.2 permits an auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system without afire barrier, the 
incidental use area shall be separated from the remainder 
of the building by construction capable of resisting the 
passage of smoke. The partitions shall extend from the 
floor to the underside of the fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling assembly or fire-resistance-rated roof/ceil- 
ing assembly above or to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, or sub deck above. Doors shall be self- or 
automatic closing upon detection of smoke in accor- 
dance with Section 715.4.7.3. Doors shall not have air 
transfer openings and shall not be undercut in excess of 
the clearance permitted in accordance with NFPA 80. 

508.2.3 Protection. Where an automatic fire-extinguishing 
system or an automatic sprinkler system is provided in 
accordance with Table 508.2, only the incidental use areas 
need be equipped with such a system. 

508.3 Mixed occupancies. Each portion of a building shall be 
individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. 

Where a building contains more than one occupancy group, 
the building or portion thereof shall comply with Sections 
508.3.1, 508.3.2, 508.3.3 or a combination of these sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies separated in accordance with Section 
■ 509. 

2. Where required by Table 415.3.2, areas of Group H- 1 , 
H-2 or H-3 occupancies shall be located in a separate 
and detached building or structure. 

508.3.1 Accessory occupancies. Accessory occupancies 
are those occupancies subsidiary to the main occupancy of 
the building or portion thereof. Aggregate accessory occu- 



pancies shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the area of 
the story in which they are located and shall not exceed the 
tabular values in Table 503, without height and area 
increases in accordance with Sections 504 and 506 for such 
accessory occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Accessory assembly areas having a floor area less 
than 750 square feet (69.7 m^) are not considered 
separate occupancies. 

2. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E oc- 
cupancies are not considered separate occupancies 
except when applying the assembly occupancy re- 
quirements of Chapter IIB. 

3. Accessory religious educational rooms and reli- 
gious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 
100 are not considered separate occupancies. 

508.3.1.1 Occupancy classification. Accessory occu- 
pancies shall be individually classified in accordance 
with Section 302.1. Code requirements shall apply to 
each portion of the building based on the occupancy clas- 
sification of that accessory space, except that the most 
restrictive applicable provisions of Section 403 and 
Chapter 9 shall apply to the entire building or portion 
thereof. 

508.3.1.2 Allowable area and height. The allowable 
area and height of the building shall be based on the 
allowable area and height for the main occupancy in 
accordance with Section 503.1. The height of any acces- 
sory occupancy shall not exceed the tabular values in 
Table 503, without height and area increases in accor- 
dance with Sections 504 and 506 for such accessory 
occupancies. 

508.3.1.3 Separation. No separation is required 
between accessory occupancies or the main occupancy. 

Exception: Group H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5, 1-2, 1-2.1 or 
1-3 occupancies shall be separated from all other 
occupancies in accordance with Section 508.3.3. 

508.3.2 Nonseparated occupancies. Buildings or portions 
of buildings that comply with the provisions of this section 
shall qualify as nonseparated occupancies. 

508.3.2.1 Occupancy classification. Nonseparated 
occupancies shall be individually classified in accor- 
dance with Section 302. 1 . Code requirements shall apply 
to each portion of the building based on the occupancy 
classification of that space except that the most restric- 
tive applicable provisions of Section 403 and Chapter 9 
shall apply to the entire building or portion thereof. 

508.3.2.2 Allowable area and height. The allowable 
area and height of the building or portion thereof shall be 
based on the most restrictive allowances for the occu- 
pancy groups under consideration for the type of con- 
struction of the building in accordance with Section 
503.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



139 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



TABLE 508.2 
INCIDENTAL USE AREAS 



ROOM OR AREA 


SEPARATION AND/OR 
PROTECTION 


Furnace room where any piece of 
equipment is over 400,000 Btu per 
hour input 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system^ 


Rooms with boilers where the 
largest piece of equipment is over 
15 psi and 10 horsepower 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system'' 


Refrigerant machinery rooms 


1 hour or provide automatic 
sprinkler system" 


Parking garage (Section 406.2) 


2 hours; or 1 hour and 
provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Hydrogen cut-off rooms, not 
classified as Group H 


1-hour in Group B, F, M, S 
and U occupancies. 2-hour in 
Group A, E, I and R 
occupancies. 


Incinerator rooms 


2 hours and automatic 
sprinkler system 


Paint shops, not classified as Group 
H, located in occupancies other than 
Group F 


2 hours; or 1 hour and 
provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Laboratories and vocational shops, 
not classified as Group H, located in 
Group 1-2 and 1-2.1 occupancies 


1 hour or provide 
automatic 
fire-extinguishing system" 


[SFM] Rooms or areas with special 
hazards such as laboratories, 
vocational shops and other such 
areas not classified as Group H, 
located in Group E occupancies 
where hazardous materials in 
exempt amounts are used or stored 


I hour 


Laundry rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system" 


Storage rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system" 


Group 1-2 and 1-2.1 waste and 
linen collection rooms 


1 hour" 


Waste and linen collection rooms 
over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system" 


Stationary storage battery systems 
having a liquid capacity of more 
than 100 g^lons used for facility 
standby power, emergency power or 
uninterrupted power supplies 


1-hour in Group B, F, M, S 
and U occupancies. 2-hour in 
Group A, E, I and R 
occupancies". 



508.3.2.3 Separation. 

between occupancies. 



No separation is required 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929in^, 1 pound per square inch = 6.9 kPa, 
1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 
1 gaUon = 3.785 L. 

a. [SFM] Fire barrier protection and automatic sprinkler protection required 
througiiout the fire area in 1-2 and 1-2.1 occupancies as indicated. 



Exception: Group H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5, 1-2, 1-2.1 or 
1-3 occupancies shall be separated from all other 
occupancies in accordance with Section 508.3'.3. 

508.3.3 Separated occupancies. Buildings or portions of 
buildings that comply with the provisions of ttiis section 
shall qualify as separated occupancies. 

508.3.3.1 Occupancy classification. Separated occu- 
pancies shall be individually classified in accordance 
with Section 302. 1 . Each fire area shall comply Mth this 
code based on the occupancy classification of that por- 
tion of the building. 

508.3.3.2 Allowable area. In each story, the building 
area shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the actual 
floor area of each occupancy divided by the allowable 
area of each occupancy shall not exceed one. 

508.3.3.3 Allowable height. Each occupancy shall com- 
ply with the height limitations based on the type of con- 
struction of the building in accordance with Section 
503.1. The height, in both feet and stories, of each lire 
area shall be measured from grade plane. This measure- 
ment shall include the height, in both feet and stories, of 
intervening fire areas. 

Exception: Special provisions permitted by.Section 
509. 

508.3.3.4 Separation. Individual occupancies shall be 
separated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with 
Table 508.3.3. 

508.3.3.4.1 Construction. Required separations 
shall be fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 706 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 711, or both, so as \ com- 
pletely separate adjacent occupancies. 



SECTION 509 
SPECIAL PROVISIONS 

509.1 General. The provisions in this section shall permit the 
use of special conditions that are exempt from, or modify, the 
specific requirements of this chapter regarding the allewable 
heights and areas of buildings based on the occupancy cfessifi- 
cation and type of construction, provided the special condition 
complies with the provisions specified in this section for such 
condition and other applicable requirements of this code. 

509.2 Group S-2 enclosed or open parking garage with 
Group A, B, I-l, M, R or S above. A basement and/or the first 
story above grade plane of a building shall be considered as a 
separate and distinct building for the purpose of determining 
area limitations, continuity of fire walls, limitation of nujoiber 
of stories and type of construction when all of the folkAving 
conditions are met: 

1. The basement and/or the first story above grade plane is 
of Type lA construction and is separated fi:om the build- 



140 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



ing above with a horizontal assembly having a minimum 
3-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Shaft, stairway, ramp or escalator enclosures through the 
horizontal assembly shall have not less than a 2-hour 
fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accor- 
dance with Table 715.4. 

Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the hor- 
izontal assembly have not less than a 3-hour 
fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in 
accordance with Table 715.4, the enclosure walls 
extending above the horizontal assembly shall be per- 
mitted to have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating, pro- 
vided: 

1. The building above the horizontal assembly is 
not required to be of Type I construction; 

2. The enclosure connects less than four stories; 
and 

3. The enclosure opening protectives above the 
horizontal assembly have a minimum 1-hour 
&e protection rating. 

3. The building above the horizontal assembly shall be per- 
mitted to have multiple Group A uses, each with an occu- 
pant load of less than 300, or Group B, I-l, M, R or S 

uses. 



4. The building below the horizontal assembly is a Group 
S-2 enclosed or open parking garage, used for the park- 
ing and storage of private motor vehicles. 

Exceptions: 

1. Entry lobbies, mechanical rooms and similar 
uses incidental to the operation of the building 
shall be permitted. 

2. Multiple Group A uses, each with an occupant 
load of less than 300, or Group B or M uses 
shall be permitted, in addition to those uses in- 
cidental to the operation of the building (includ- 
ing storage areas), provided that the entire 
structure below the horizontal assembly is pro- 
tected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. 

5. The maximum building height in feet shall not exceed 
the limits set forth in Section 503 for the building having 
the smaller allowable height as measured from the grade 
plane. 

509.3 Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with Group S-2 
open parking garage above. A Group S-2 enclosed parking 
garage located in the basement or first story below a Group S-2 
open parking garage shall be classified as a separate and dis- 



TABLE 508.3.3 
REQUIRED SEPARATION OF OCCUPANCIES (HOURS) 



OCCUPANCY 


A°,E 


1 


R" 


F-2, s-a'^'^u" 


B^F-1,M^s-1 


H-1 


H-2 


H-3, H-4, H-5 


S 


NS 


s 


NS 


S 


NS 


s 


NS 


3 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


A^E^ 


N 


N 


2 


2 


1 


2 


N 


1 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


3" 


I 


— 


— 


N 


N 


2 


NP 


2 


2 


2f 


2f 


NP 


NP 


4 


NP 


4 


NP 


R^ 


— 


— . 


— 


— 


N 


N 


1 


2 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


F-2, S-2'=''',U<' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


N 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


3" 


B^ F-1, M^ S-1 








— 


— 





— 


— 





N 


N 


NP 


NP 


2 


3 


1 


2" 


H-1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


H-2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


NP 


1 


NP 


H-3, H-4, H-5 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


NP 


L 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


4 


NP 


1 


NP 


1 


NP 


NP 


NP 


2 


NP 


1 


NP 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 

S = Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
NS = Buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
N = No separation requirement. 
NP = Not permitted. 
■ ' a. For Group H-5 occupancies, see Section 903.2.4.2. 

b. Occupancy separation need not be provided for storage areas within Groups B and M if the: 

1. Area is less than 10 percent of the floor area; 

2. Area is equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system and is less than 3,000 square feet; or 

3. Area is less than 1,000 square feet. 

c. Areas used only for private or pleasure vehicles shall be allowed to reduce separation by 1 hour. 

d. See Section 406.1.4. 

e. Commercial kitchens need not be separated from the restaurant seating areas that they serve. 
/ [SFM] For Group I and F-1 occupancies shall have a 3-hour sepamtion. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



141 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



tinct building for the purpose of determining the type of con- 
struction when the following conditions are met: 

1 . The allowable area of the structure shall be such that the 
sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the allow- 
able area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed 
1.0. 

2. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is of Type I or II 
construction and is at least equal to the fire-resistance re- 
quirements of the Group S-2 open parking garage. 

3. The height and the number of the floors above the base- 
ment shaU be limited as specified in Table 406.3.5. 

4. The floor assembly separating the Group S-2 enclosed 
parking garage and Group S-2 open parking garage shall 
be protected as required for the floor assembly of the 
Group S-2 enclosed parking garage. Openings between 
the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 
open parking garage, except exit openings, shall not be 
required to be protected. 

5. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is used exclu- 
sively for the parking or storage of private motor vehi- 
cles, but shall be permitted to contain an office, waiting 
room and toilet room having a total area of not more than 
1,000 square feet (93 m^), and mechanical equipment 
rooms incidental to the operation of the building. 

509.4 Parking beneath Group R. Where a maximum 
one-story above grade plane Group S-2 parking garage, 
enclosed or open, or combination thereof, of Type I construc- 
tion or open of Type IV construction, with grade entrance, is 
provided under a building of Group R, the number of stories to 
be used in determining the minimum type of construction shall 
be measured from the floor above such a parking area. The 
floor assembly between the parking garage and the Group R 
above shall comply with the type of construction required for 
the parking garage and shall also provide a fire-resistance rat- 
ing not less than the mixed occupancy separation required in 
Section 508.3.3. 

509.5 Group R-2 buildings of Type IIIA construction. The 

height limitation for buildings of Type IIIA construction in 
Group R-2 shall be increased to six stories and 75 feet (22 860 
mm) where the first-floor construction above the basement has 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours and the floor 
area is subdivided by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire walls 
into areas of not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

509.6 Group R-2 buildings of Type IIA construction. The 

height limitation for buildings of Type ILA construction in 
Group R-2 shall be increased to nine stories and 100 feet (30 
480 mm) where the building is separated by not less than 50 
feet (15 240 nam) from any other building on the lot and from 
lot lines, the exits are segregated in an area enclosed by a 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated fire wall and the first-floor construction 
has a fire-resistance rating of not less than IVj hours. 

509.7 Open parking garage beneatli Groups A, I, B, M and 

R. Open parking garages constructed under Groups A, I, B, M 
and R shall not exceed the height and area limitations permitted 
under Section 406.3. The height and area of the portion of the 
building above the open parking garage shall not exceed the 
limitations in Section 503 for the upper occupancy. The height. 



in both feet and stories, of the portion of the building above the 
open parking garage shall be measured from grade plane and 
shall include both the open parking garage and the portion of 
the building aboye the parking garage. 

509.7.1 Fire separation. Fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 706 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 711 between the 
parking occupancy and the upper occupancy shall corre- 
spond to the required fire-resistance rating prescribed in 
Table 508.3.3 for the uses involved. The type of construc- 
tion shall apply to each occupancy individually, except that 
structural members, including main bracing within the open 
parking structure, which is necessary to support the upper 
occupancy, shall be protected with the more restrictive 
fire-resistance-rated assembUes of the groups involved as 
shown in Table 601. Means of egress for the upper occu- 
pancy shall conform to Chapter 10 and shall be separated 
from the parking occupancy by fire barriers having at least a 
2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 706 with 
self-closing doors complying with Section 715 or horizon- 
tal assemblies having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating 
as required by Section 71 1, with self-closing doors comply- 
ing with Section 715. Means of egress from the open 
parking garage shall comply with Section 406.3. 

509.8 Group B or M with Group S-2 open parldng garage 
above. Group B or M uses located in the basement or first story 
below a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be classified as a 
separate and distinct building for the purpose of determining 
the type of construction when all of the following conditions 
are met: 

1 . The basement or first story shall be Type I or H construc- 
tion, but not less than the type of construction required 
for the open parking garage above. The height and area 
of the basement or first story shall not exceed the limita- 
tions in Section 503 for the Group B or M uses. 

2. The height and area of the open parking garage shall not 
exceed the limitations permitted under Section 406.3. 
The height, in both feet and stories, of the open parking 
garage shall be measured from grade plane and include 
both the open parking garage and the basement or first 
story. 

3 . Fire separation assemblies between the open parking ga- 
rage and the basement or first story use group shall corre- 
spond to the required fire-resistance rating prescribed by 
Table 508.3.3. 

4. Exits serving the open parking garage shall discharge di- 
rectly to a street or public way and shall be separated 
from the basement or first story use group by not less 
than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 706 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed 
in accordance with Section 711, or both, with opening 
protectives in accordance with Table 715.4. 

509.9 Group I or R. [SFM] Buildings housing protective 
social care homes or in occupancies housing inmates who are 
not restrained need not be of 1 -hour fire-resistive construction 
when not more than two stories in height. In no case shall indi- 
vidual floor areas exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m^). The 
fire-resistive protection of the exterior walls shall not be less 



142 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



than 1 hour where such walls are located within 5 feet (1524 
mm) of the property line. Openings within such walls are not 
permitted. Openings in exterior nonrated walls need not be 
protected. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



143 



144 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 6 - TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ciiapter 


X 






X 






X 

♦ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt Entire Ciiapter as 
amended (amended sections 
iisted below) 




X 


X 

♦ 


X 

♦ 
































■ Adopt oniy tliose sections 
> ttiat are listed below 








































Ciiapter/ 
Section 


Codes 


Table 601 


CA 




X 




































Table 602 


CA 




X 


X 













































































The ♦ designation indicates that the Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or 
individual sections is applicable to structures subject to HCD 1 and/or HCD 2 or DSA-SS. 



2007< CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



145 



146 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 6 

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of buildings as to type of construction. 



SECTION 602 
CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 

602.1 General. Buildings and structures erected or to be 
erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classified 
in one of the five construction types defined in Sections 602.2 
through 602.5. The building elements shall have a fire-resis- 
tance rating not less than that specified in Table 601 and exte- 
rior walls shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that 
specified in Table 602. 

602.1.1 Minimum requirements. A building or portion 
thereof shall not be required to conform to the details of a 
type of construction higher than that type, which meets the 
minimum requirements based on occupancy even though 
certain features of such a building actually conform to a 
higher type of construction. 

602.2 Types I and II. Type I and n construction are those types 
of construction in which the building elements listed in Table 
601 are of noncombustible materials, except as permitted in 
Section 603 and elsewhere in this code. 

602.3 Type III. Type III construction is that type of construc- 
tion in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materi- 
als and the interior building elements are of any material 
permitted by this code. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exte- 
rior wall assemblies of a 2-hour rating or less. 

602.4 Type IV. Type IV construction (Heavy Timber, HT) is 
that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of 
noncombustible materials and the interior building elements 
are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces. The 
details of Type IV construction shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this section. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing com- 
plying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exterior 
wall assemblies with a 2-hour rating or less. Minimum solid 
sawn nominal dimensions are required for structures built 
using Type IV construction (HT). For glued-laminated mem- 
bers the equivalent net finished width and depths correspond- 
ing to the minimum nominal width and depths of solid sawn 
lumber are required as specified in Table 602.4. 

602.4.1 Columns. Wood columns shall be sawn or glued 
laminated and shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), 
nominal, in any dimension where supporting floor loads and 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not 
less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth where sup- 
porting roof and ceiling loads only. Columns shall be con- 
tinuous or superimposed and connected in an approved 
manner. 



602.4.2 Floor framing. Wood beams and girders shall be of 
savvn or glued-laminated timber and shall be not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not less than 10 
inches (254 mm) nominal in depth. Framed sawn or 
glued-laminated timber arches, which spring from the floor 
line and support floor loads, shall be not less than 8 inches 
(203 mm) nominal in any dimension. Framed timber trusses 
supporting floor loads shall have members of not less than 8 
inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimension. 

602.4.3 Roof framing. Wood-frame or glued-laminated 
arches for roof construction, which spring from the floor 
hne or from grade and do not support floor loads, shall have 
members not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width 
and have less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth for 
the lower half of the height and not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) nominal in depth for the upper half. Framed or glued- 
laminated arches for roof construction that spring from the 
top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber trusses and 
other roof framing, which do not support floor loads, shall 
have members not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in 
width and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in depth. 
Spaced members shall be permitted to be composed of two 
or more pieces not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in 
thickness where blocked solidly throughout their interven- 
ing spaces or where spaces are tightly closed by a continu- 
ous wood cover plate of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
nominal in thickness secured to the underside of the mem- 
bers. Splice plates shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) 
nominal in thickness. Where protected by approved auto- 
matic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members 
shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in width. 

602.4.4 Floors. Floors shall be without concealed spaces. 
Wood floors shall be of sawn or glued-laminated planks, 
splined or tongue-and-groove, of not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in thickness covered with 1-inch (25 mm) 
nominal dimension tongue-and-groove flooring, laid cross- 
wise or diagonally, or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) particleboard or 
planks not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in width set 
on edge close together and well spiked and covered with 
1-inch (25 mm) nominal dimension flooring or 'Vjj-inch 
(12 mm) wood structural panel or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) 
particleboard. The lumber shall be laid so that no continu- 
ous line of joints will occur except at points of support. 
Floors shall not extend closer than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) to 
walls. Such 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) space shall be covered by a 
molding fastened to the wall and so arranged that it will not 
obstruct the swelling or shrinkage movements of the floor. 
Corbeling of masonry walls under the floor shall be permit- 
ted to be used in place of molding. 

602.4.5 Roofs. Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and 
wood roof decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined 
or tongue-and-groove plank, not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
nominal in thickness, 1 '/j-inch-thick (32 mm) wood struc- 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



147 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



tural panel (exterior glue), or of planks not less than 3 inches 
(76 mm) nominal in width, set on edge close together and 
laid as required for floors. Other types of decking shall be 
permitted to be used if providing equivalent fixe resistance 
and structural properties. 

602.4.6 Partitions. Partitions shall be of solid wood con- 
struction formed by not less than two layers of 1-inch (25 
mm) matched boards or laminated construction 4 inches 
(102nmi) thick, or of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

602.4.7 Exterior structural members. Where a horizontal 
separation of 20 feet (6096 mm) or more is provided, wood 
colunons and arches conforming to heavy tunber sizes shall 
be permitted to be used externally. 

602.5 lype V. Type V construction is that type of construction 
in which the structural elements, exterior walls and interior 
walls are of any materials permitted by this code. 



SECTION 603 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN TYPE I AND II 

CONSTRUCTION 

603.1 Allowable materials. Combustible materials shall be 
permitted in buildings of Type I or Type n construction in the 
following applications and in accordance with Sections 
603.1.1 through 603.1.3: 

1. Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permittedjn: 

1.1. Nonbearing partitions where the required fire-re- 
sistance rating is 2 hours or less. 

1.2. Nonbearing exterior walls where no fire rating is 
required. 

1.3. Roof construction, including girders, trusses, 
framing and decking. 

Exception: In buildings of Type I construction 
exceeding two stories in height, fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood is not perriiitted in roof con- 
struction when the vertical distance from the 
upper floor to the roof is less than 20 feet (6096 
mm). 

2. Thermal and acoustical insulation, other than foam 
plastics, having a flame spread index of not more than 
25. 

Exceptions: 

1. Insulation placed between two layers of 
noncombustible materials without an interven- 
ing airspace shall be allowed to have a flame 
spread index of not more than 100. 

2. Insulation installed between a finished floor 
and solid decking without intervening airspace 
shall be allowed to have a flame spread index of 
not more than 200. 

3. Foam plastics in accordance with Chapter 26. 

4. Roof coverings that have an A, B or C classification. 



5. Interior floor finish and interior finish, trim and mill- 
work such as doors, door frames, window sashes and 
frames. 

6. Where not installed over 15 feet (4572 mm) above 
grade, show windows, nailing or furring strips and 
wooden bulkheads below show windows, including 
their frames, aprons and show cases. 

7. Finished flooring applied directly to the floor slab or to 
wood sleepers that are fireblocked in accordance with 
Section 717.2.7. 

8. Partitions dividing portions of stores, offices or similar 
places occupied by one tenant only and that do not 
establish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or 
more shall be permitted to be constructed of fire-retar- 
dant-tteated wood, 1-hour fu-e-resistance-rated con- 
struction or of wood panels or similar light construction 
up to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height. 

9. Stages and platforms constructed in accordance with 
Sections 410.3 and 410.4, respectively. 

10. Combustible exterior wall coverings, balconies and 
similar projections and bay or oriel windows in accor- 
dance with Chapter 14. 

1 1 . Blocking such as for handrails, millwork, cabinets and 
window and door frames. 

1 2. Light-transmitting plastics as permitted by Chapter 26. 

1 3 . Mastics and cauUdng materials applied to provide flex- 
ible seals between components of exterior wall con- 
struction. 

14. Exterior plastic veneer installed in accordance with 
Section 2605.2. 

1 5 . Nailing or furring strips as permitted by Section 803 .4. 

16. Heavy timber as permitted by Note d to Table 601 and 
Sections 602.4.7 and 1406.3. 

17. Aggregates, component materials and admixtures as 
permitted by Section 703.2.2. 

18. Sprayed fire-resistant materials and intumescent and 
mastic fire-resistant coatings, determined on the basis 
of fire-resistance tests in accordance with Section 
703.2 and installed in accordance with Section 1704. 10 
and 1704.11, respectively. 

19. Materials used to protect penetrations in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies in accordance with Section 712. 

20. Materials used to protect joints in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies in accordance with Section 713, 

2 1 . Materials allowed in the concealed spaces of buildings 
of Type I and 11 construction in accordance with Sec- 
tion 717.5. 

22. Materials exposed within plenums complying with 
Section 602 of the California Mechanical Code. 

603.1.1 Ducts. The use of nonmetaUic ducts shall be per- 
mitted when installed in accordance with the limitations of 
the California Mechanical Code. 



148 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



603.1.2 Piping. The use of combustible piping materials 
shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the 
limitations of the California Mechanical Code and the Cali- 
fornia Plumbing Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical. The use of electrical wiring methods 
with combustible insulation, tubing, raceways and related 
components shall be permitted when installed in accor- 
dance with the limitations of the California Electrical Code. 



TABLE 601 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING ELEMENTS (hours) 



BUILDING ELEMENT 


TYPEl 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


A" 


B 


A» 


B 


HT 


A» 


B 


Structural frame=' 


3" 


2" 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Bearing walls 
Exterior^ 
Interior 


3 

3^ 


2 

2" 


1 
1 






2 
1 


2 



2 
1/HT 


1 
1 






Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Exterior 


See Table 602 


Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Interior' 




















See Section 
602.4.6 








Floor construction 
Including supporting beams 
and joists 


2 


2 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Roof construction 
Including supporting beams 
and joists 


l\^ 


led 


led 


0" 


led 


0" 


HT 


led 






For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The structural frame shall be considered to be the columns and the girders, beams, trusses and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and bracing 
members designed to carry gravity loads. The members of floor or roof panels which have no connection to the columns shall be considered secondary members 
and not a part of the structural frame. 

b. Roof supports; Fire-resistance ratings of structural frame and bearing walls are permitted to be reduced by 1 hour where supporting a roof only 

c. Except in high-rise buildings. Group A, £, F- 1 , H, /, L, M, i?-i, i?-2 and S- 1 occupancies, fire protection of structural members shall not be required, including pro- 
tection of roof framing and decking where every part of the roof construction is 20 feet or more above any floor immediately below. For high-rise buildings, Group 
A, E,I,L,R-1 and R-2 occupancies and other applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, fire protection of members other 
than the structuralframe shall not be required, including protection of roof framing and decking where every part of the roof construction is 20 feet or more above 
any floor immediately below. Fire-retardant-treated wood members shall be allowed to be used for such unprotected members. 

d. In all occupancies, heavy timber shall be allowed where a 1-hour or less fire-resistance rating is required. 

e. An approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 shall be allowed to be substituted for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, pro- 
vided such system is not otherwise required by other provisions of the code or used for an allowable area increase in accordance with Section 506.3 or an allowable 
height increase in accordance with Section 504.2. The 1-hour substitution for the fire resistance of exterior walls shall not be permitted. 

f. Not less than the fire-resistance rating required by other sections of this code. 

g. Not less than the fire-resistance rating based on fire separation distance (see Table 602). 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



149 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 602 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE"" 



FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE s X 
(feet) 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP H, L 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP F-1,M,S-1 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP A, B, E, F-2, 1, fl', S-2, U"' 


x<5'= 


All 


3 


2 


1 


5<x<10 


lA 
Others 


3 

2 


2 

1 


1 
1 


10<x<30 


IA,IB 
IIB,VB 
Others 


2 
1 

1 


1 


1 


1" 



X>30 


All 












For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Load-bearing exterior walls shall also comply with the fire-resistance rating requirements oflhble 601. 

b. For special requirements for Group U occupancies see Section 406.1.2 

c. See Section 705.1.1 for party walls. 

d. Open parking garages complying with Section 406 shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating. 

e. The fire-resistance rating of an exterior wall is determined based upon the fire separation distance of the exterior wall and the story in which the wall is located. 

/ Group R-3, and Group U when used as accessory to Group R-3, shall not be required to have afire-resistance rating where the fire separation distance is 5 feet or 



TABLE 602.4 
WOOD MEMBER SIZE 



MINIMUM NOMINAL SOLID SAWN SIZE 


MINIMUM GLUED-LAMINATED NET SIZE 


Width, Inch 


Depth, Inch 


Width, Inch 


Depth, Inch 


8 


8 


6% 


8V4 


6 


10 


5 


IOV2 


6 


8 


5 


8V4 


6 


6 


5 


6 


4 


6 


3 


6% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



150 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 7 - FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ctiapter 


X 










X 

♦ 


X 

♦ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt Entire Ctiapter as 
amended (amended sections 
iisted below)- 




X 


X 

♦ 


X 

♦ 
































Adopt oniy those sections ttiat 
are listed beiow 








































Ctiapter / Section 


Codes 


704.5 


CA 




X 




































705.1,2 


CA 




X 




































Table 705.4 


CA 




X 




































Table 706.3.9 


CA 




X 




































707.2 


CA 




X 




































707.2 


IBC 






X 


X 
































707.14.1 


CA 




X 




































708.3 


IBC 








































708.4 


IBC 






X 


X 
































708.8 


IBC 






X 


X 
































709.5 


CA 




X 




































710.2 


CA 




X 




































710.7 


CA 




X 




































715.4,3 


CA 




X 




































715.4,5.1 


CA 




X 




































715.4,7.3 


CA 




X 




































716.5,2 


CA 




X 




































716.5.4 


CA 




X 




































716.5.4 


IBC 






X 


X 
































716.5.4.1 


CA 




X 
















- — 




















717.3.3 


CA 




X 


























717.4.3 


CA 




X 




































720,2.5 


CA 






X 


X 
































720,2.5.1 


CA 






X 


X 

































Ttie ♦ designation indicates that tlie Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or 
individual sections is applicable to structures subject to HCD 1 and/or HCD 2 or DSA-SS. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



151 



152 2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials and assemblies used for structural fire resistance and 
fu:e-resistance-rated construction separation of adj acent spaces 
to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke within a 
building and the spread of fire to or from buildings. 



SECTION 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 DeHnitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ANNULAR SPACE. The opening around the penetrating 
item. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. A listed device installed 
in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assembly to hmit automatically the radiative heat 
transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed 
device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to 
close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the 
passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to operate 
automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and 
where required, is capable of being positioned from a fure 
command center. 

DAMPER. See "Ceiling radiation damper," "Combination 
fire/smoke damper," "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper." 

DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to 
restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics. 

F RATING. The time period that the through-penetration 
fu:estop system limits the spread of fire through the penetration 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814. 

FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded 
by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or fire-resis- 
tance-rated horizontal assemblies of a building. 

FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of 
materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which conti- 
nuity is maintained. 

FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detec- 
tion of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are 
classified for use in either static systems that will automatically 
shut down in the event of a fixe, or in dynamic systems that con- 
tinue to operate during a fixe. A dynamic fire damper is tested 
and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow. 

FIRE DOOR. The door component of a fire door assembly. 



FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, 
frame, hardware, and other accessories that together provide a 
specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 

FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are pro- 
tected. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an 
opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to con- 
fine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in S ection 7 1 5 . Rat- 
ings are stated in hours or minutes. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their 
assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive 
heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a build- 
ing element, component or assembly maintains the ability to 
confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, 
or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on 
tests,-prescribed in Section 703. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of 
specific materials or products fhat are designed, tested, and 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1 966 or 
UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of 
fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE, The distance measured 
from the building face to one of the following: 

1. The closest interior lot line; 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or 

3 . To an imaginary line between two buildings on the prop- 
erty. 

The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face 
of the wall. 

FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected 
openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends contin- 
uously from the foundation to or through the roof, with suffi- 
cient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse 
of construction on either side without collapse of the wall. 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. A window constructed and 
glazed to give protection against the passage of fire. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials installed to resist the 
free passage of flame to other areas of the building through 
concealed spaces. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. A combination of a fire 
door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in a hor- 
izontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire 
protection to a through-opeifeng in a fire-resistance-rated floor 
(see Section 711.8). 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor 
or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of 
fire in which continuity is maintained. 

JOINT. The linear opening in or between adjacent fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies that is designed to allow independent 
movement of the building in any plane caused by thermal, seis- 
mic, wind or any other loading. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. An opening made through 
one side (wall, floor or ceiling membrane) of an assembly. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A material, 
device or construction installed to resist for a prescribed time 
period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a pro- 
tective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable trays, 
conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items. 

MINERAL FIBER. Insulation composed principally of fibers 
manufactured from rock, slag or glass, with or witiiout binders. 

MINERAL WOOL. Synthetic vitreous fiber insulation made 
by melting predominately igneous rock or furnace slag, and 
other inorganic materials, and then physically forming the melt 
into fibers. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A through-penetration 
firestop or a membrane-penetration firestop. 

SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening, 
means equipped with an approved device that will ensure clos- 
ing after having been opened. 

SHAFT. An enclosed space extending through one or more 
stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in succes- 
sive floors, or floors and roof. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. The walls or constraction forming 
the boundaries of a shaft. 

SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical 
or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is 
designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and 
bottom. 

SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The 
device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a 
smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of 
being positioned from a fire command center. 

SPLICE. The result of a factory and/or field method of joining 
or connecting two or more lengths of a fire-resistant joint sys- 
tem into a continuous entity. 

T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop sys- 
tem, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum tem- 
perature rise to 325°F (163°C) above its initial temperature 
through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested in 
accordance with ASTME 814. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. An opening that passes 
through an entire assembly. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An 

assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, 
tested and fire-resistance rated to resist for a prescribed period 



of time the spread of fire through penetrations. The F and T 
rating criteria for penetration firestop systems shall be in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814. See definitions of "F rating" and "T 
rating." 



SECTION 703 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS AND FIRE TESTS 

703.1 Scope. Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance 
shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. 

703.2 Fire-resistance ratings. The fire-resistance rating of 
building elements shaU be determined in accordance with the 
test procedures set forth in ASTM E 119 or in accordance with 
Section 703.3. Where materials, systems or devices that have 
not been tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are 
incorporated into the assembly, sufficient data shall be made 
available to the building official to show that the required 
fire-resistance rating is not reduced. Materials and methods of 
construction used to protect joints and penetrations in 
fire-resistance-rated building elements shall not reduce the 
required fire-resistance rating. 

Exception: In determining the fire-resistance rating of exte- 
rior bearing walls, comphance with the ASTM E 1 19 crite- 
ria for unexposed surface temperature rise and ignition of 
cotton waste due to passage of flame or gases is required 
only for a period of time corresponding to the required 
fire-resistance rating of an exterior nonbearing wall with the 
same fire separation distance, and in a building of the same 
group. When the fire-resistance rating determined in accor- 
dance with this exception exceeds the fire-resistance rating 
determined in accordance with ASTM E 1 19, the fire expo- 
sure time period, water pressure, and application duration 
criteria for the hose stream test of ASTM E 119 shall be 
based upon the fire-resistance rating determined in 
accordance with this exception. 

703.2.1 Nonsymmetrical wall construction. Interior walls 
and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the 
assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration 
obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with 
ASTM E 1 19. When evidence is furnished to show that the 
wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to 
the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, 
the wall need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side 
(see Section 704.5 for exterior walls). 

703.2.2 Combustible components. Combustible aggre- 
gates are permitted in gypsum and portland cement concrete 
mixtures approved for fire-resistance-rated constraction. 
Any approved component material or admixture is permit- 
ted in assembUes if the resulting tested assembly meets the 
fire-resistance test requirements of this code. 

703.2.3 Restrained classification. Fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies tested under ASTM E 119 shall not be consid- 
ered to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory to the 
building official is furnished by the registered design pro- 
fessional showing that the construction qualifies for a 
restrained classification in accordance with ASTM E 119. 
Restrained construction shall be identified on the plans. 



154 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



703.3 Alternative methods for determining fire resistance. 

The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this 
section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance crite- 
ria specified in ASTM E 1 19. The required fire resistance of a 
building element shall be permitted to be established by any of 
the following methods or procedures: 

1. Fire-resistance designs documented in approved 
sources. 

2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building ele- 
ments as prescribed in Section 720. 

3. Calculations in accordance with Section 721. 

4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building 
element designs having fire-resistance ratings as deter- 
mined by the test procedures set forth in ASTM E 11 9 . 

5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

703.4 Noncombustibility tests. The tests indicated in Sections 
703.4.1 and 703.4.2 shall serve as criteria for acceptance of 
building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 602.3 and 
602.4 in Type I, II, III and IV construction. The term 
"noncombustible" does not apply to the flame spread charac- 
teristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not 
be classified as a noncombustible building construction mate- 
rial if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or flame 
spread beyond the limitations herein established through the 
effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions. 

703.4.1 Elementary materials. Materials required to be 
noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 
136. 

703.4.2 Composite materials. Materials having a struc- 
tural base of noncombustible material as determined in 
accordance with Section 703.4.1 with a surfacing not more 
than 0.125 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has a flame spread 
index not greater than 50 when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 shall be acceptable as noncombustible 
materials. 



SECTION 704 
EXTERIOR WALLS 

704.1 General. Exterior walls shall comply with this section. 

704.2 Projections. Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balco- 
nies and similar projections extending beyond the floor area 
shall conform to the requirements of this section and Section 
1406. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit stairways 
shall also comply with Sections 1014.5 and 1023.1, respec- 
tively. Projections shall not extend beyond the distance deter- 
mined by the following two methods, whichever results in the 
lesser projection: 

1. A point one-third the distance to the lot line from an as- 
sumed vertical plane located where protected openings 
are required in accordance with Section 704.8. 

2. More than 12 inches (305 mm) into areas where open- 
ings are prohibited. 

704.2.1 Type I and II construction. Projections from walls 
of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible 



materials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 
1406.3 and 1406.4. 

704.2.2 Type HI, IV or V construction. Projections from 
walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any 
approved material. 

704.2.3 Combustible projections. Combustible projec- 
tions located where openings are not permitted or where 
protection of openings is required shall be of at least 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction. Type IV construction, 
fire-retardant-treated wood or as required by Section 
1406.3. 

Exception: Type V construction shall be allowed for R-3 
occupancies. 

704.3 Buildings on the same lot. For the purposes of deter- 
mining the required wall and opening protection and roof-cov- 
ering requirements, buildings on the same lot shall be assumed 
to have an imaginary line between them. 

Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as an 
existing building, the location of the assumed imaginary line 
with relation to the existing building shall be such that the exte-. 
rior wall and opening protection of the existing building meet 
the criteria as set forth in Sections 704.5 and 704.8. 

Exception: Two or more buildings on the same lot shall 
either be regulated as separate buildings or shall be consid- 
ered as portions of one building if the aggregate area of such 
buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 for a sin- 
gle building. Where the buildings contain different occu- 
pancy groups or are of different types of construction, the 
area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy 
or construction. 

704.4 Materials. Exterior walls shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of constraction. 

704.5 Fire-resistance ratings. For other than high-rise build- 
ings, Group A, E, H,I,LandR occupancies and other applica- 
tions listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal, exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated in 
accordance with Tables 601 and 602. The fire-resistance rating 
of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of greater than 5 
feet (1524 mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from the 
inside. The fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fure 
separation distance of 5 feet (1524 mm) or less shall be rated 
for exposure to fire from both sides. 

For high-rise buildings. Group A, E, H, I, L andR occupan- 
cies and other applications listed in Section 111 regulated by 
the Office of the State Fire Marshal exterior walls shall be 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602. 
The fire-resistance rating of exterior walls be rated for expo- 
sure to fire from both sides. 

704.6 Structural stability. The wall shall extend to the height 
required by Section 704. 1 1 and shall have sufficient structural 
stability such that it will remain in place for the duration of time 
indicated by the required fire-resistance rating. 

704.7 Unexposed surface temperature. Where protected 
openings are not hmited by Section 704.8, the limitation on the 
rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls 
as required by ASTM E 119 shall not apply. Where protected 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



155 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



Openings are limited by Section 704.8, the limitation on the rise 
of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as 
required by ASTM E 119 shall not apply provided that a cor- 
rection is made for radiation from the unexposed exterior wall 
surface in accordance with the following formula: 



where: 



(Equation 7-1) 



Ag = Equivalent area of protected openings. 

A = Actual area of protected openings. 

Af = Area of exterior wall surface in the story under consid- 
eration exclusive of openings, on which the tempera- 
ture limitations of ASTM E 1 1 9 for walls are exceeded. 

F^„ = An "equivalent opening factor" derived from Figure 
704.7 based on the average temperature of the unex- 
posed wall surface and the fu:e-resistance rating of the 
wall. 



704.8 Allowable area of openings. The maximum area of 
unprotected or protected openings permitted in an exterior wall 
in any story shall not exceed the values set forth in Table 704.8. 
Where botii unprotected and protected openings are located in 
the exterior wall in any story, the total area of the openings shall 
comply with the following formula: 



A A 

- + ^<1.0 

a a„ 



where: 



(Equation 7-2) 



A = Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent 
area of protected openings, A^ (see Section 704.7). 

a = Allowable area of protected openings. 

A„ = Actual area of unprotected openings. 

(3„ = Allowable area of unprotected openings. 




For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32] / 1.8. 



200 400 600 800 1,000 



Average temperature of unexposed surface ( F) 



FIGURE 704.7 
EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR 



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2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 704.8 
MAXIMUM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS^ 



CLASSIFICATION 
OF OPENING 


FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet) 


to 3'J 


Greater 
than 3 to S"-' 


Greater 
than5to10'='='9''' 


Greater 
than 10 to 15"*= 


Greater 
thanlStoao^'S 


Greater 
than 20 to as^'S 


Greater 
than 25 to SC'^ 


Greater 
than 30 


Unprotected 


Not 
Permitted 


Not 
Permitted"^ 


10%' 


15%' 


25%' 


45%' 


70%' 


No Limit'' 


Protected 


Not 
Permitted 


15% 


25% 


45% 


75% 


No Limit'' 


No Limit'' 


No Limit'' 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Values given are percentage of the area of the exterior wall. 

b. Not used 

c. For occupancies' in Group R-3, the maximum percentage of unprotected and protected ecterior wall openings shall be 25 percent. 

d. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a fire separation distance of greater than 10 feet shall not be limited. 

e. For occupancies in Group H-2 or H-3, unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a lire separation distance of 15 feet or less. . 

f . For requirements for iire walls for buildings with differing roof heights, see Section 705.6. 1 . 

g. The area of unprotected and protected openings is not limited for occupancies in Group R-3, with a &e separation distance greater than 5 feet, 
h. For special requirements for Group U occupancies, see Section 406.1.2 

i. Buildings whose exterior bearing wall, exterior nonbearing wall and exterior structural frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated by Table 601 or 602 shall 

be permitted to have unlimited unprotected openings, 
j. Includes accessory buildings to Group R-3. 



704.8.1 Automatic sprinkler system. In buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903 .3 . 1 . 1 , the maximum allowable 
area of unprotected openings in occupancies other than 
Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3 shall be the same as the tabulated 
limitations for protected openings. 

704.8.2 First story. In occupancies other than Group H, 
unlimited unprotected openings are permitted in the exterior 
walls of the first story above grade facing a street that have a 
fire separation distance of greater than 15 feet (4572 mm) or 
facing an unoccupied space. The unoccupied space shall be 
on the same lot or dedicated for public use, shall not be less 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) in width and shall have access from 
a street by a posted fire lane in accordance with the Califor- 
nia Fire Code. 

704.9 Vertical separation of openings. Openings in exterior 
walls in adjacent stories shall be separated vertically to protect 
against fire spread on the exterior of the buildings where the 
openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of each other horizon- 
tally and the opening in the lower story is not a protected open- 
ing with a fire protection rating of not less than V4 hour. Such 
openings shall be separated vertically at least 3 feet (914 mm) 
by spandrel girders, exterior walls or other similar assemblies 
that have a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour or by flame 
barriers that extend horizontally at least 30 inches (762 mm) 
beyond the exterior wall. Flame barriers shall also have a 
fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour. The unexposed surface 
temperature limitations specified in ASTM E 119 shall not 
apply to the flame barriers or vertical separation unless 
otherwise required by the provisions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This section shall not apply to buildings that are three 
stories or less in height. 

2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

3. Open parking garages. 



704.10 Vertical exposure. For buildings on the same lot, open- 
ing protectives having a fire-protection rating of not less than 
V4 hour shall be provided in every opening that is less than 15 
feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an adjoining build- 
ing or adjacent structure that is within a horizontal fire separa- 
tion distance of 15 feet (4572 mm) of the wall in which the 
opening is located. 

Exception: Opening protectives are not required where the 
roof construction has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
1 hour for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
the adjoining building, and the entire length and span of the 
supporting elements for the fire-resistance-rated roof 
assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

704.11 Parapets. Parapets shall be provided on exterior walls 
of buildings. 

Exceptions: A parapet need not be provided on an exterior 
wall where any of the following conditions exist: 

1. The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in 
accordance with Table 602 because of fire separation 
distance. 

2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 
square feet (93 m^) on any floor. 

3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, 
including the deck or slab and supporting construc- 
tion, is constructed entirely of noncombustible 
materials. 

4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that ter- 
minate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or 
slab, provided: 

4.1. Where the roof/ceiling framing elements are 
parallel to the walls, such framing and ele- 
ments supporting such framing shall not be of 
less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a width of 4 feet (1220 mm) for 
Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



157 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



other occupancies, measured from the interior 
side of the wall. 

4.2. Where roof/ceiling framing elements are not 
parallel to the wall, the entire span of such 
framing and elements supporting such fram- 
ing shall not be of less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 

4.3. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 1-hour fire-re- 
sistance-rated exterior wall for Groups R and 
U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupan- 
cies, measured from the interior side of the 
wall. 

4.4. The entire building shall be provided with not 
less than a Class B roof covering. 

5. In Groups R-2 and R-3 where the entire building is 
provided with a Class C roof covering, the exterior 
wall shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
the roof sheathing or deck in Type III, IV and V con- 
struction, provided: 

5.1. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials or of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm); or 

5.2. The roof is protected with 0.625-inch (16 
nrai) Type X gypsum board directly beneath 
the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, 
supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch 
(51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the 
roof framing members for a minimum dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1220 mm). 

6. Where the wall is permitted to have at least 25 percent 
of the exterior wall areas containing unprotected 
openings based on fire separation distance as deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 704.8. 

704.11.1 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the 
same fire-resistance rating as that required for the support- 
ing wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, shall 
have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches 
(457 mm), including counterflashing and coping materials. 
The height of the parapet shall not be less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the point where the roof surface and the 
wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at a 
slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same 
height as any portion of the roof within a fire separation dis- 
tance where protection of wall openings is required, but in 
no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm). 

704.12 Opening protection. Windows in exterior walls 
required to have protected openings in accordance with other 
sections of this code or determined to be protected in accor- 
dance with Section 704.3 or 704.8 shall comply with Section 
715.5. Other openings required to be protected with fire door or 
shutter assemblies in accordance with other sections of this 



code or determined to be protected in accordance with Section 
704.3 or 704.8 shall comply with Section 715.4. 

Exception: Opening protectives are not required where the 
building is protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler 
system and the exterior openings are protected by an 
approved water curtain using automatic sprinklers approved 
for that use. The sprinklers and the water curtain shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and shall 
have an automatic water supply and fire department 
connection. 

704.12.1 Unprotected openings. Where protected open- 
ings are not required by Section 704, windows and doors 
shall be constructed of any approved materials. Glazing 
shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 24 and 26. 

704.13 Joints. Joints made in or between exterior walls 
required by this section to have a fire-resistance rating shall 
comply with Section 713. 

Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to 
have unprotected openings. 

704.13.1 Voids. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assem- 
bly shall be protected in accordance with Section 713.4. 

704.14 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by air 
ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior 
walls required to have protected openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 

Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with 
this code are permitted. 



SECTION 705 
FIRE WALLS 

705.1 General. Each portion of a building separated by one or 
more fire walls that comply with the provisions of this section 
shall be considered a separate building. The extent and location 
of such fire walls shall provide a complete separation. Where a 
fire wall also separates occupancies that are required to be sep- 
arated by a fire barrier waU, the most restrictive requirements of 
each separation shall apply. 

705.1.1 Party walls. Any wall located on a lot line between 
adjacent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service 
between the two buildings, shall be constructed as a fire wall 
in accordance with Section 705. Party walls shall be con- 
structed without openings and shall create separate 
buildings. 

705.1.2 Automatic fire sprinkers. [SFM] Fire walls shall 
. not be considered to create separate buildings for the pur- 
pose of automatic fire sprinkler system requirements as set 
forth in Chapter 9. 

Exception: Buildings separated by continuous fire walls 
of 4-hour fire-resistive construction without openings. 
Buildings required to have automatic fire sprinkler pro- 



158 



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tection as set forth in Section 13113 of the Health and 
Safety Code are prohibited from using fire walls in lieu of 
automatic fire sprinkler protection. 

705.2 Structural stability. Fire walls shall have sufficient 
structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of 
construction on either side without collapse of the wall for the 
duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance 
rating. 

705.3 Materials. Fire walls shall be of any approved 
noncombustible materials. 

Exception: Buildings of Type V construction. 

705.4 Fire-resistance rating. Fire walls shall have afire-resis- 
tance rating of not less than that required by Table 705.4. 

TABLE 705.4 
FIRE WALL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS 



GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


A,B,E,H-4,I,R-1,R-2,U,L 


3" 


F-1, H-3^ H-5, M, S-1 


3 


H-1, H-2 


4b 


F-2, S-2, R-3, R-4 


2 



a. Walls shall be not less than 2-hour fire-resistance rated where separating 
buildings of Type 11 or V construction. 

b. For Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.4 and 415.5. 

705.5 Horizontal continuity. Fire walls shall be continuous 
from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 18 
inches (457 mm) beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or sid- 
ing provided the exterior wall has a fire-resistance 
rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of at 
least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 
Openings within such exterior walls shall be pro- 
tected by opening protectives having a fire protection 
rating of not less than V4 hour. 

2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, ex- 
terior siding or other noncombustible exterior finishes 
provided the sheathing, siding, or other exterior 
noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance 
of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire 
wall. 

3. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing 
where the building on each side of the fire wall is pro- 

■ tected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

705.5.1 Exterior walls. Where the fure wall intersects the 
exterior walls, the fire-resistance rating for the exterior 
walls on both sides of the fure wall shall have a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating with^-hour opening protection where 
opening protection is required. The fire-resistance rating of 
the exterior wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet (1220 
mm) on each side of the intersection of the fire wall to exte- 



rior wall. Exterior wall intersections at fire walls that form 
an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad) do 
not need exterior wall protection. 

705.5.2 Horizontal projecting elements. Fire walls shall 
extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements 
such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and 
similar projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the 
fire wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Horizontal projecting elements without concealed 
spaces, provided the exterior wall behind and be- 
low the projecting element has notless than 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance 
not less than the depth of the projecting element on 
both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such 
exterior walls shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not 
less than V4 hour. 

2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, provided a minimum 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through 
the concealed space. The projecting element shall 
be separated from the building by a minimum of 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a. dis- 
tance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth 
of the projecting element. The wall is not required 
to extend under the projecting element where the 
building exterior wall is not less than 1-hour 
fire-resistance rated for a distance on each side of 
the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting el- 
ement. Openings within such exterior walls shall 
be protected by opening protectives having a fire 
protection rating of not less than V4 hour. 

3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only ex- 
tend through the concealed space to the outer 
edges of the projecting elements. The exterior wall 
behind and below the projecting element shall be 
of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a distance not less than the depth of 
the projecting elements on both sides of the fire 
wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be 
protected by opening protectives having a fire-pro- 
tection rating of not less than V4 hour. 

705.6 Vertical continuity. Fire walls shall extend from the 
foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) 
above both adjacent roofs. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 
705.6.1. 

2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls shall be permit- 
ted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, 
deck or slab provided: 

2.1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet (1220 
mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating and the entire length and 
span of supporting elements for the rated roof 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



159 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than 1 hour. 

2.2. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 4 feet (1220 nun) of the fire wall. 

2.3. Each building shall be provided with not less 
than a Class B roof covering. 

3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside 
of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck, or slabs 
where both buildings are provided with not less than a 
Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall not 
be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

4. In buildings of Type IE, IV and V construction, walls 
shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
combustible roof sheathing or decks provided: 

4.1. There are no openings in the roof within 4 feet 
(1220 mm) of the fire wall, 

4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B 
roof covering, and 

4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the wall or the 
roof is protected with Vg inch (15.9 mm) Type 
X gypsum board directly beneath the under- 
side of the roof sheathing or deck, supported 
by a minimum of 2-incli (51 mm) nominal 
ledgers attached to the sides of the roof fram- 
ing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet 
(1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 

5. Buildings located above a parking garage designed in 
accordance with Section 509.2 shall be permitted to 
have the &e walls for the buildings located above the 
parking garage extend from the horizontal separation 
between the parking garage and the buildings. 

705.6.1 Stepped buildings. Where a fire wall serves as an 
exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having 
different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof level, 
provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the lower roof is not less than 1-hour frre-resis- 
tance-rated construction from both sides with openings pro- 
tected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of 
not less than V4 hour. 

Exception: Where the fire wall terminates at the under- 
side of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower roof, 
provided: 

1. Thelowerroof assembly within 10feet(3048 mm) 
of the wall has not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance 
rating and the entire length and span of supporting 
elements for the rated roof assembly has a fire-re- 
sistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the fire wall. 

705.7 Combustible framing in fire walls. Adjacent combusti- 
ble members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wall from 
opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 mm) dis- 
tance between embedded ends. Where combustible members 



frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, hollow spaces 
shall be soUdly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a 
distance not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above, below and 
between the structural members, with noncombustible materi- 
als approved for fireblocking. 

705.8 Openings. Each opening through a fire wall shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715.4 and shall not exceed 
120 square feet (11 m^). The aggregate width of openings at 
any floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the 
wall. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Openings are not permitted in party walls constructed in 
accordance with Section 705.1.1. 

2. Openings shall not be limited to 120 square feet (1 1 m^) 
where both buildings are equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

705.9 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire walls shall comply 
with Section 712. 

705.10 Joints. Joints made in or between fure walls shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

705.11 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air trans- 
fer openings shall not penetrate fire walls. 

Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings 
of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed pro- 
vided the penetrations comply with Sections 712 and 716. 
The size and aggregate width of all openings shall not 
exceed the limitations of Section 705.8. 



SECTION 706 
FIRE BARRIERS 

706.1 General. Fire barriers installed as required elsewhere in 
this code or the California Fire Code shall comply with this 
section. 

706.2 Materials. Fire barriers shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 

706.2.1 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resis- 
tance-rated glazing, when tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 1 19 and complying with the requirements of Section 706, 
shall be permitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall bear a 
label or other identification showing the name of the manu- 
facturer, the test standard and the identifier "W-XXX," 
where the "XXX" is the fire-resistance rating in minutes. 
Such label or identification shall be issued by an approved 
agency and shall be permanently affixed to the glazing. 

706.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of fire 
barriers shall comply with this section. 

706.3.1 Shaft enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier sepai^ating building areas from a shaft shall com- 
ply with Section 707.4. 

706.3.2 Exit enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from an exit shall com- 
ply with Section 1020.1. 



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706.3.3 Exit passageway. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas and an exit passageway 
shall comply with Section 1021.1. 

706.3.4 Horizontal exit. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas connected by a horizon- 
tal exit shall comply with Section 1022. 1 . 

706.3.5 Atriums. The fire-resistance rating of the fire bar- 
rier separating atriums shall comply with Section 404.5. 

706.3.6 Incidental use areas. The fire barrier separating 
incidental use areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than that indicated in Table 508.2. 

706.3.7 Control areas. Fire barriers separating control 
areas shall have a fure-resistance rating of not less than that 
required in Section 414.2.4. ■ 

706.3.8 Separation of mixed occupancies. Where the pro- 
visions of Section 508.3.3 are applicable, the fire barrier 
separating mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than that indicated in Section 508.3.3 
based on the occupancies being separated. 

706.3.9 Single-occupancy fire areas. The fire barrier or 
horizontal assembly, or both, separating a single occupancy 
into different fure areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than that indicated in Table 706.3.9. 

TABLE 706.3!9 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE 

BARRIER ASSEMBLIES OR HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

BETWEEN FIRE AREAS 



OCCUPANCY GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


H-1, H-2 


4 


F-1,H-3,S-1 


3 


A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, 
I,M,R,S-2,L 


2 


U 


1 



706.4 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated shaft or exit enclosure, or 
seperation such walls shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 704 for exterior walls and the fure-resistance-rated 
enclosure or seperation requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1014.5.1 for exterior 
egress balconies. Section 1020.1.4 for exit enclosures and 
Section 1023.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

706.5 Continuity. Fire bairiers shall extend from the top of the 
floor/ceihng assembly below to the underside of the floor or 
roof slab or deck above and shall be securely attached thereto. 
Such fire barriers shall be continuous through concealed 
spaces, such as the space above a suspended ceiling. The sup- 
porting construction for fire baixiers shall be protected to afford 
the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier supported, 
except for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated incidental use area sepa- 
rations as required by Table 508.2 in buildings of Type HB, IIIB 



and VB construction. Hollow vertical spaces within a fire bar- 
rier shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section 717.2 at 
every floor level. 

Exceptions: 

1. The maxinium required fire-resistance rating for as- 
semblies supporting fire barriers separating tank stor- 
age as provided for in Section 415.6.2.1 shall be 2 
hours, but not less than required by Table 601 for the 
building construction type. 

2. Shaft enclosures shall be permitted to terminate at a 
top enclosure complying with Section 707.12. 

706.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resisitance-rated enclosure or seperation, such 
walls shall comply with the requirments of Section 704 for 
exterior walls, and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure or 
seperation requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls requii-ed to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with section 1014.5. 1 for exterior egress 
balconies. Section 1020.1.4 for exit enclosures and Section 
1023.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

706.7 Openings. Openings in a fire barrier shall be protected in 
accordance with Section 715. Openings shall be limited to a 
maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the 
wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall not 
exceed 156 square feet (15 m^). Openings in exit enclosures 
and exit passageways shall also comply with Sections 1 020. 1 . 1 
and 1021.4, respectively. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m^) where adjoining fure areas are equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Fire doors serving an exit enclosure. 

3. Openings shall not be hmited to 156 square feet (15 
m^) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective assembly has 
been tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 and has a 
minimum fire-resistance rating not less than the 
frre-resistance rating of the wall. 

4. Fire windows permitted in atrium seperation walls 
shall not be limited to a maximum aggregate width of 
25 percent of the length of the wall. 

706.8 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire barriers shall comply 
with Section 712. 

706.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations into an exit 
enclosure or an exit passageway shall be allowed only when 
permitted by Section 1020.1.2 or 1021.5, respectively. 

706.9 Joints. Joints made in or between fire barriers shall com- 
ply with Section716. 

706.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a fire 
barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 707 
SHAFT ENCLOSURES 

707.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
vertical shafts where such shafts are required to protect open- 
ings and penetrations through floor/ceiling and roof/ceiUng 
assemblies. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as foe barri- 
ers in accordance with Section 706 or horizontal assemblies in 
accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

707.2 Shaft enclosure required. Openings through a 
floor/ceUing assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure 
complying with this Section. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A shaft enclosure is not required for openings totally 
within an individual residential dwelling unit and 
connecting four stories or less. 

2. In other than Groups 1-2, 1-2.1 and 1-3, a shaft en- 
closure is not required in a building equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 for an escalator 
opening or stairway that is not a portion of the means 
of egress protected according to Item 2.1 or 2.2: 

2.1. Where the area of the floor opening between 
stories does not exceed twice the horizontal 
projected area of the escalator or stairway and 
the opening is protected by a draft curtain and 
closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFPA 13. In other than Groups B and M, this 
application is limited to openings that do not 
connect more than four stories. 

2.2 Where the opening is protected by approved 
power-operated automatic shutters at every 
penetrated floor. The shutters shall be of 
noncombustible construction and have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 
hours. The shutter shall be so constructed as to 
close immediately upon the actuation of a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with 
Section 907.11 and shall completely shut off 
the well opening. Escalators shall cease oper- 
ation when the shutter begins to close, the 
shutter shall operate at a speed of not more 
than 30 feet per minute (152.4 mm/s) and shall 
be equipped with a sensitive leading edge to 
arrest its progress where in contact with any 
obstacle and to continue its progress on re- 
lease therefrom. 

3 . A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
pipe, tube, conduit, wire, cable and vents protected 
in accordance with Section 712.4. 

4. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
ducts protected in accordance with Section 712.4. 
Grease ducts shall be protected in accordance with 
the California Mechanical Code. 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, a shaft enclo- 
sure is not required for floor openings complying 
with the provisions for atriums in Section 404. 



6. A shaft enclosure is not required for approved ma- 
sonry chimneys where annular space protection is 
provided at each floor level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 717.2.5. 

7. In other than Groups 1-2, 1-2.1 and 1-3, a shaft enclo- 
sure is not requked for a floor opening or an air 
transfer opening that complies with the following: 

7.1. Does not connect more than two stories. 

7.2. Is not part of the required means of egress sys- 
tem, except as permitted in Section 1020.1. 

7.3. Is not concealed within the building construc- 
tion. 

7.4. Is not open to a corridor in Group I and R oc- 
cupancies. 

7.5. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered 
floors in any occupancy. 

7.6. Is separated from floor openings and air trans- 
fer openings serving other floors by construc- 
tion conforming to required shaft enclosures. 

7.7. Is limited to the same smoke compartment. 

8. A shaft enclosure is not required for automobile 
ramps in open and enclosed parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 406.3 and 
406.4, respectively. 

9. A shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings 
between a mezzanine and tiie floor below. 

10. A shaft enclosure is not required for joints protected 
by a fure-resistant joint system in accordance with 
Section 713. 

11. A shaft enclosure shall not be required for floor 
openings created by unenclosed stairs or ramps in 
accordance with Exception 8 or 9 in Section 1020. 1 . 

12. Floor openings protected by floor fire doors in ac- 
cordance with Section 71 1.8. 

13. Where permitted by other sections of this code. 

707.3 Materials. The shaft enclosure shall be of materials per- 
mitted by the building type of construction. 

707.4 Fire-resistance rating. Shaft enclosures shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting 
four stories or more, and not less than 1 hour where connecting 
less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the 
shaft enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezza- 
nines. Shaft enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating not 
less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 
hours. 

707.5 Continuity. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire 
barriers in accordance with Section 706 or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 7 1 1 , or both, and 
shall have continuity in accordance with Section 706.5 for fire 
barriers or Section 711.4 for horizontal assemblies as 
applicable. 

707.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required shaft enclosure, such walls shall comply with the 



162 



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requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls and the 
fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1014.5.1 for exterior 
egress balconies, Section 1020.1.4 for exit enclosures and 
Section 1023.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

707.7 Openings. Openings in a shaft enclosure shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 7 15 as required for fire barri- 
ers. Doors shall be self- or automatic closing by smoke 
detection in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3. 

707.7.1 Prohibited openings. Openings other than those 
necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted 
in shaft enclosures. 

707.8 Penetrations. Penetrations in a shaft enclosure shall be 
protected in accordance with Section 712 as required for fire 
barriers. 

707.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations other than 
those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be per- 
mitted in shaft enclosures. 

707.9 Joints. Joints in a shaft enclosure shall comply with Sec- 
tion 713. 

707.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of a 
shaft enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Section 716. 

707.11 Enclosure at the bottom. Shafts that do not extend to 
the bottom of the building or structure shall: 

1. Be enclosed at the lowest level with construction of the 
same fire-resistance rating as the lowest floor through 
which the shaft passes, but not less than the rating re- 
quired for the shaft enclosure; 

2: Terminate in a room having a use related to the purpose 
of the shaft. The room shall be separated from the re- 
mainder of the building by a fire barrier having a fure-re- 
sistance rating and opening protectives at least equal to 
the protection required for the shaft enclosure; or 

3 . Be protected by approved fire dampers installed in accor- 
dance with their listing at the lowest floor level within the 
shaft enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

1. The fire-resistance-rated room separation is not 
required, provided there are no openings in or 
penetrations of the shaft enclosure to the inte- 
rior of the building except at the bottom. The 
bottom of the shaft shall be closed off around 
the penetrating items with materials permitted 
by Section 717.3.1 for draftstopping, or the 
room shall be provided with an approved auto- 
matic fire suppression system. 

2. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse chute or 
laundry chute shall not be used for any other 
purpose and shall terminate in a room protected 
in accordance with Section 707.13.4. 

3. The frre-resistance-rated room separation and 
the protection at the bottom of the shaft are not 
required, provided there are no combustibles in 



the shaft and there are no openings or other 
penetrations through the shaft enclosure to the 
interior of the building. 

707.12 Enclosure at the top. A shaft enclosure that does not 
extend to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the 
building shall be enclosed at the top with construction of the 
same fire-resistance rating as the topmost floor penetrated by 
the shaft, but not less than the fire-resistance rating required for 
the shaft enclosure. 

707.13 Refuse and laundry chutes. Refuse and laundry 
chutes, access and termination rooms and incinerator rooms 
shall meet the requirements of Sections 707.13.1 through 
707.13.6. 

Exception: Chutes serving and contained within a single 
dwelling unit. 

707.13.1 Refuse and laundry chute enclosures. A shaft 
enclosure containing a refuse or laundry chute shall not be 
used for any other purpose and shall be enclosed in accor- 
dance with Section 707.4. Openings into the shaft, includ- 
ing those from access rooms and termination rooms, shall 
be protected in accordance with this section and Section 
715. Openings into chutes shall not be located in corridors. 
Doors shall be self- or automatic closing upon the actuation 
of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3, 
except that heat-activated closing devices shall be permitted 
between the shaft and the termination room. 

707.13.2 Materials. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse 
or laundry chute shall be constructed of materials as permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

707.13.3 Refuse and laundry chute access rooms. Access 
openings for refuse and laundry chutes shall be located in 
rooms or compartments enclosed by a fire barrier that has a 
frre-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings into 
the access rooms shall be protected by opening protectives 
having a fire protection rating of not less than V4 hour. Doors 
shall be self- or automatic closing upon the detection of 
smoke in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3. 

707.13.4 Termination room. Refuse and laundry chutes 
shall discharge into an enclosed room separated from the 
remainder of the building by a fire barrier that has a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings into 
the termination room shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than V4 
hour. Doors shall be self- or automatic closing upon the 
detection of smoke in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3. 
Refuse chutes shall not terminate in an incinerator room. 
Refuse and laundry rooms that are not provided with chutes 
need only comply with Table 508.2. 

707.13.5 Incinerator room. Incinerator rooms shall com- 
ply with Table 508.2. 

707.13.6 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 903.2.10.2. 

707.14 Elevator, dumbwaiter and other hoistways. Elevator, 
dumbwaiter and other hoistway enclosures shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 and Chapter 30. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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707.14.1 Elevator lobby. An enclosed elevator lobby shall 
be provided at each floor where an elevator shaft enclosure 
connects more than two stories in high-rise buildings, 
Group A, E, H, I, L, R-1 and R-2 occupancies and other 
applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office of 
the State Fire Marshal, and three stories /or all other occu- 
pancies. The lobby shall separate the elevator shaft enclo- 
sure doors from each floor by fire partitions equal to the 
fire-resistance rating of the corridor and the required open- 
ing protection. Elevator lobbies shall have at least one 
means of egress complying with Chapter 10 and other 
provisions within this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required at the 
street floor, provided the entire street floor is 
equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in ac- 
cordance with Section 707.2 are not required to 
have enclosed elevator lobbies. 

3. Where additional doors are provided at the 
hoistway opening in accordance with Section 
3002.6. Such doors shall be tested in accordance 
with UL 1784 without an artificial bottom seal. 

4. [SFM] In other than Group 1-3, and high-rise 
buildings, enclosed elevator lobbies are not re- 
quired where the building is protected by an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

5. Smoke partitions shall be permitted iu heu of fire 
partitions to separate the elevator lobby at each 
floor where the building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

6. [SFM] When approved, enclosed elevator lobbies 
are not required where the elevator hoistway is 
pressurized in accordance with Section 707. 14.2. 

7. [SFM] Where the hoistway door has afire-protec- 
tion rating as required by Section 711.4 and the 
hoistway door opening is also protected by a listed 
and labeled smoke containment system complying 
with ICBO ES AC 77. 

707.14.2 Enclosed elevator lobby pressurization alterna- 
tive. Where elevator hoistway pressurization is provided in 
lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization 
system shall comply with this section. 

707.14.2.1 Pressurization requirements. Elevator 
hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum 
positive pressure of 0.04 inches of water column (1.00 
Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.06 inches of 
water column (1.49 Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied 
space on all floors. This pressure shall be measured at the 
midpoint of each hoistway door, with all ground floor 
level hoistway doors open and all other hoistway doors 
closed. The supply air intake shall be from an outside. 



uncontaminated source located a minimum distance of 
20 feet (6096 mm) from any air exhaust system or outlet. 

707.14.2.2 Ducts for system. Any duct system that is 
part of the pressurization system shall be protected with 
the same fire-resistance rating as required for the eleva- 
tor shaft enclosure. 

707.14.2.3 Fan system. The fan system provided for the 
pressurization system shall be as required by this section. 

707.14.2.3.1 Fire resistance. When located within 
the building, the fan system that provides the pressur- 
ization shall be protected with the same fire-resis- 
tance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure. 

707.14.2.3.2 Smoke detection. The fan system shall 
be equipped with a smoke detector that will automati- 
cally shut down the fan system when smoke is 
detected within the system. 

707.14.2.3.3 Separate systems. A separate fan sys- 
tem shall be used for each bank of elevators. 

707.14.2.3.4 Fan capacity. The supply fan shall 
either be adjustable with a capacity of at least 1,000 
cfm (.4719 mVs) per door, or that specified by a regis- 
tered design professional to meet the requirements of 
a designed pressurization system. 

707.14.2.4 Standby power. The pressurization system 
shall be provided with standby power from the same 
source as other required emergency systems for the 
building. 

707.14.2.5 Activation of pressurization system. The 

elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon 
activation of the building fire alarm system or upon acti- 
vation of the elevator lobby smoke detectors. 



SECTION 708 
FIRE PARTITIONS 

708.1 General. The following wall assemblies shaU comply 
with this section: 

1. Walls separating dwelling units in the same building. 

2. Walls separating sleeping units in occupancies in Group 
R-1 hotel, R-2 and I-l occupancies. 

3. Walls separating tenant spaces in covered mall buildings 
as required by Section 402.7.2. 

4. Corridor walls as requured by Section 1017.1. 

5. Elevator lobby separation as required by Section 
707.14.1. 

6. Residential aircraft hangars. 

708.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

708.3 Fire-resistance rating. Fire partitions shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor walls as permitted by Table 1017.1. 



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2. Dwelling and sleeping unit separations in buildings of 
Type nB, IIIB and VB construction shall have fire-re- 
sistance ratings of not less than '4 hour in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

708.4 Continuity. Fire partitions shall extend from the top of 
the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the under- 
side of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above or to the 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
above, and shall be securely attached thereto. If the partitions 
are not continuous to the sheathing, deck or slab, and where 
constructed of combustible construction, the space between the 
ceiling and the sheathing, deck or slab above shall be 
fireblocked or draftstopped in accordance with Sections 717.2 
and 717.3 at the partition line. The supporting construction 
shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of 
the wall supported, except for tenant and sleeping unit separa- 
tion walls and corridor walls in buildings of Types IIB, IIIB and 
VB construction. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The wall need not be extended into the crawl space be- 
low where the floor above the crawl space has a mini- 
mum 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Where the room-side fire-resistance-rated membrane 
of the corridor is carried through to the underside of 
the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor or roof above, the ceiling of the cor- 
ridor shall be permitted to be protected by the use of 
ceiling materials as required for a 1-hour fu-e-resis- 
tance-rated floor or roof system. 

3. Where the corridor ceiling is constructed as required 
for the corridor walls, the walls shall be permitted to 
terminate at the upper membrane of such ceiling 
assembly. 

4. The fire partition separating tenant spaces in a mall, 
complying with Section 402.7.2, are not required to 
extend beyond the underside of a ceiling that is not 
part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly. A wall is not 
required in attic or ceiling spaces above tenant 
separation walls. 

5. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in Group R-2 buildings that do not ex- 
ceed four stories in height, provided the attic space is 
subdivided by draftstopping into areas not exceeding 
3,000 square feet (279 m^) or above every two dwell- 
ing units, whichever is smaller. 

6. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in buildings equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance 
with Section 903.3. 1. 1 or 903.3. 1.2, provided that au- 
tomatic sprinklers are installed in combustible 
floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling spaces. 

7. [HCD 1] Wall assemblies in two-family dwellings 
need not extend through attic spaces when the ceiling 
is protected by not less than % inch (15.9 mm). Type X 
gypsum board and an attic draftstop constructed as 
specified in Section 717.3.1 is provided above and 
along the wall assembly separating the dwellings. 



The structural framing supporting the ceiling shall 
also be protected by not less than V2 inch (12.7 mm) 
gypsum board or equivalent. 

708.5 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fu:e-resistance-rated separation, such walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls, and 
the fire-resistance-rated separation requirements shall not 
apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1014.5.1 for exterior 
egress balconies. Section 1020.1.4 for exit enclosures and 
Section 1023.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

708.6 Openings. Openings in a fire partition shall be protected 
in accordance with Section 715. 

708.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire partitions shall com- 
ply with Section 712. 

708.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire partitions shall 
comply with Section 713. 

Exception: [HCD 1] Fire.-resistance-rated wall assemblies 
in two-family dwellings which extend to and are tight 
against the exterior wall, the ceiling as permitted in Section 
708.4 or the underside of the roof sheathing. 

708.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a fire 
partition by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 



SECTION 709 
SMOKE BARRIERS 

709.1 General. Smoke barriers shall comply with this section. 

709.2 Materials. Smoke barriers shall be of materials permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

709.3 Fire-resistance rating. A 1-hour fire-resistance rating is 
required for smoke barriers. 

Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 
0.10-inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group 1-3 buildings. 

709.4 Continuity. Smoke barriers shall form an effective 
membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall and 
from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below 
to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab 
above, including continuity through concealed spaces, such as 
those found above suspended ceilings, and interstitial struc- 
tural and mechanical spaces. The supporting construction shall 
be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the 
wall or floor supported in buildings of other than Type IIB , IIIB 
or VB construction. 

Exception: Smoke-barrier walls are not required in intersti- 
tial spaces where such spaces are designed and constructed 
with ceilings that provide resistance to the passage of fire 
and smoke equivalent to that provided by the smoke-barrier 
walls. 

709.5 Openings. Openings in a smoke barrier shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715. 

In Group 1-2, where doors are installed across corridors, a 
pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center muUion or 



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horizontal sliding doors that comply with Section 1008.1.3.3 
shall be installed. Vision panels consisting of fire-rated glazing 
in approved frames shall be provided in each cross-corridor 
swinging door in a smoke barrier. The doors shall be close fit- 
ting within operational tolerances, and shall not have under- 
cuts, louvers or grilles. Swinging doors shall have head and 
jamb stops and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges. Doors 
installed across corridors shall be automatic closing by smoke 
detection in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3. Positive-latch- 
ing devices are required. Doors installed across corridors shall 
comply with Section 1008.1.1. 

709.6 Penetrations. Penetrations of smoke barriers shall com- 
ply with Section 712. 

709.7 Joints. Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 713. 

709.8 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a 
smoke barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Section 716. 



SECTION 710 
SMOKE PARTITIONS 

710.1 General. Smoke partitions installed as required else- 
where in the code shall comply with this section. 

710.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. In Group 1-2 and 1-2.1, smoke 
partitions shall have framing covered with noncombustible 
materials having an approved thermal barrier with an index of 
not less than 15 in accordance with FM4880, UL 1040, NFPA 
286 or UL 1715. 

710.3 Fire-resistance rating. Unless required elsewhere in the 
code, smoke partitions are not required to have a fire-resistance 
rating. 

710.4 Continuity. Smoke partitions shall extend from the top 
of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of the 
ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to 
limit the transfer of smoke. 

710.5 Openings. Windows shall be sealed to resist the free pas- 
sage of smoke or be automatic-closing upon detection of 
smoke. Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with this sec- 
tion. 

710.5.1 Louvers. Doors in smoke partitions shall not 
include louvers. 

710.5.2 Smol(e and draft control doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be 
tested in accordance with UL 1784 with an artificial bottom 
seal installed across the full width of the bottom of the door 
assembly during the test. The air leakage rate of the door 
assembly shall not exceed 3 cubic feet per minute per square 
foot [ft3/(min ■ ft2)](0.015424 mV s • m^) of door opening at 
0. 10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient tempera- 
ture test and the elevated temperature exposure test. 

710.5.3 Self- or automatic-closing doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be 



self- or automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance 
with Section 715.4.7.3. 

710.6 Penetrations and joints. The space around penetrating 
items and in joints shall be filled with an approved material to 
limit the free passage of smoke. 

710.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. The space around a 
duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an 
approved material to limit the free passage of smoke. Air trans- 
fer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a 
smoke damper complying with Section 716.3.2. For high-rise 
buildings. Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies and other 
applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office of the 
State Fire Marshal, duct openings in smoke partitions shall 
also be provided with a smoke damper complying with Section 
716.3.2. 

Exceptions: Where the installation of a smoke damper will 
interfere with the operation of a required smoke control sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative 
protection shall be utilized. 

1. Where the installation of a smoke damper will inter- 
fere with the operation of a required smoke control 
system in accordance with Section 909, approved al- 
ternative protection shall be utilized. 

2. [SFM] Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of steel not 
less than 0.019-inch (0.40 mm) in thickness and there 
are no openings serving the corridor. 



SECTION 711 
HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

711.1 General. Floor and roof assemblies required to have a 
fire-resistance rating shall comply with this section. 

711.2 Materials. The floor and roof assemblies shall be of 
materials permitted by the building type of construction. 

711.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of 
floor and roof assemblies shall not be less than that required by 
the building type of construction. Where the floor assembly 
separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 
508.3.3 based on the occupancies being separated. Where the 
floor assembly separates a single occupancy into different fire 
areas, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less 
than that requked by Section 706.3.9. Floor assemblies sepa- 
rating dwelling units in the same building or sleeping units in 
occupancies in Group R- 1 , hotel occupancies, R-2 and I- 1 shall 
be a minimum of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

Exception: Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in 
buildings of Type IIB, niB, and VB construction shall have 
fire-resistance ratings of not less than '4 hour in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

711.3.1 Ceiling panels. Where the weight of lay-in ceiling 
panels, used as part of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assemblies, is not adequate to resist an upward 
force of 1 lb/ft.2 (48 Pa), wire or other approved devices 



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shall be installed above the panels to prevent vertical dis- 
placement under such upward force. 

711.3.2 Access doors. Access doors shall be permitted in 
ceilings of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and roof/ceil- 
ing assemblies provided such doors are tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 119 as horizontal assemblies and labeled by 
an approved agency for such purpose. 

711.3.3 Unusable space. In 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
floor construction, the ceiling membrane is not required to 
be installed over unusable crawl spaces. In 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated roof construction, the floor membrane is not 
required to be installed where unusable attic space occurs 
above. 

711.4 Continuity. Assemblies shall be continuous without 
openings, penetrations or joints except as permitted by this sec- 
tion and Sections 707.2, 712.4, 713 and 1020.1. Skylights and 
other penetrations through a fire-resistance-rated roof deck or 
slab are permitted to be unprotected, provided that the struc- 
tural integrity of the fire-resistance-rated roof construction is 
maintained. Unprotected skylights shall not be permitted in 
roof construction required to be &e-resistance rated in accor- 
dance with Section 704.10. The supporting construction shall 
be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the 
horizontal assembly supported. 

711.5 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire-resistance-rated hori- 
zontal assemblies shall comply with Section 712. 

711.6 Joints. Joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated 
horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 713. The void 
created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an 
exterior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance 
with Section 713.4. 

711.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in hori- 
zontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer openings shall com- 
ply with Section 716. 

711.8 Floor fire door assemblies. Floor fire door assemblies 
used to protect openings in fure-resistance-rated floors shall be 
tested in accordance with NFPA 288, and shall achieve a 
fire-resistance rating not less than the assembly being pene- 
trated. Floor fire door assemblies shall be labeled by an 
approved agency. The label shall be permanently affixed and 
shall specify the manufacturer, the test standard and the 
fure-resistance rating. 



SECTION 712 
PENETRATIONS 

712.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect through 
penetrations and membrane penetrations of horizontal assem- 
bUes and fire-resistance-rated wall assemblies. 

712.2 Installation details. Where sleeves are used, they shall 
be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space 
between the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself 
and any space between the sleeve and the assembly penetrated 



shall be protected in accordance with this section. Insulation 
and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not penetrate 
the assembly unless the specific material used has been tested 
as part of the assembly in accordance with this section. 

712.3 Fire-resistance-rated walls. Penetrations into or 
through fire walls, fire-barrier walls, smoke-barrier walls and 
frre partitions shall comply with Sections 712.3.1 through 
712.3.4. 

712.3.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Section 
712.3.1.1 or 712.3.1.2. 

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space 
between the penetrating item and the fire-resis- 
tance-rated wall is permitted to be protected as follows: 

1. In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrat- 
ing item is a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter and the area of the opening through the 
wall does not exceed 144 square inches (0.0929 
m^), concrete, grout or mortar is permitted where it 
is installed the full thickness of the wall or the 
thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance 
rating; or 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 
ASTM E 1 19 time-temperature fire conditions un- 
der a minimum positive pressure differential of 
0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the 
penetration for the time period equivalent to the 
fire-resistance rating of the construction 
penetrated. 

712.3.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in an approved fure-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

712.3.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. 

Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved 
penetration firestop system installed as tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum 
positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of 
water and shall have an F rating of not less than the 
required fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated. 

712.3.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetrations 
shall comply with Section 712.3.1. Where walls or parti- 
tions are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed 
fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire resis- 
tance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations of maximum two-hour 
fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel 
electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square 
inches (0.0103 m^) in area, provided the aggregate 
area of the openings through the membrane does 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m^) in any 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



100 square feet (9.29 m^) of wall area. The annular 
space between the wall membrane and the box 
shall not exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on 
opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be sepa- 
rated by one of the following: 

1 . 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm); 

1 .2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the 
depth of the wall cavity where the wall cav- 
ity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, 
rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation; 

1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

1.4. By protecting both boxes with Usted putty 
pads; or 

1.5. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations by Usted electrical boxes 
of any material, provided such boxes have been 
tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
and are installed in accordance with the instruc- 
tions included in the listing. The annular space be- 
tween the wall membrane and the box shall not 
exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. 
Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or parti- 
tion shall be separated as follows: 

2. 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm); 

2.2. By soUd fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

2.4. By other listed materials and methods. 

3 . The annular space created by the penetration of an 
automatic sprinkler, provided it is covered by a 
metal escutcheon plate. 

712.3.3 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts that are not protected 
with dampers shall comply with Sections 712.2 through 
712.3.1. Ducts and air transfer openings that are protected 
with dampers shall comply with Section 716. 

712.3.4 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrating 
items shall not connect to combustible items beyond the 
point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the 
fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained. 

712.4 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations of a floor, 
floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceil- 
ing assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 
707. 

712.4.1 Fire-resistance rated assemblies. Penetrations of 
the fire-resistance rated floor, floor/ceiUng assembly or the 
ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall comply 
with Sections 712.4.1.1 through 712.4.1.4 



712.4.1.1 Through penetrations. Through penettations 
of fire-resistance-rated horizontal assembhes shall com- 
ply with Section 712.4.1.1.1 or 712.4.1.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper con- 
duits, pipes, tubes or vents or concrete or ma- 
sonry items through a single 
fire-resistance-rated floor assembly where the 
annular space is protected with materials that 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suf- 
ficient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 
ASTM E 119 time-temperature fire conditions 
under a minimum positive pressure differential 
of 0.0 1 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of 
the penetration for the time period equivalent to 
the fire-resistance rating of the construction 
penetrated. Penetrating items with a maximum 
6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter shall not be 
limited to the penetration of a single fitre-resis- 
tance-rated floor assembly, provided the aggre- 
gate area of the openings through the assembly 
does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 
mm^) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m^) of floor 
area. 

2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, 
ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents 
with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal di- 
ameter, provided the concrete, grout or mortar 
is installed the full thickness of the floor or the 
thickness required to maintain the fire-resis- 
tance rating. The penetrating items shall not be 
limited to the penetration of a single concrete 
floor, provided the area of the opening through 
each floor does not exceed 144 square inches 
(92 900 mm^). 

3. Penetrations by hsted electrical boxes of any 
material, provided such boxes have been tested 
for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and 
installed in accordance with the instructions in- 
cluded in the listing. 

712.4.1.1.1 Installation. Through penetrations shall 
be installed as tested in the approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

712.4.1.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. 

Through penetrations shall be protected by an 
approved through-penetration firestop system 
installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 
or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differ- 
ential of 0.01 inch of water (2.49 Pa). The system shall 
have an F-rating and a T-rating of not less than 1 hour 
but not less than the required rating of the floor 
penetrated. 

Exception: Floor penetrations contained and 
located within the cavity of a wall do not require a 
T- rating. 



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712.4.1.2 Membrane penetrations. Penetrations of 
membranes that are part of a fire-resistance-rated hori- 
zontal assembly shall comply with Section 712.4.1.1.1 
or 712.4.1.1.2. Where floor/ceiling assemblies are 
required to have a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rat- 
ing, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the 
required fire resistance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations by steel, ferrous or 
copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents, or con- 
crete or masonry items where the annular space 
is protected either in accordance with Section 
7 1 2.4. 1 . 1 or to prevent the free passage of flame 
and the products of combustion. The aggregate 
area of the openings through the membrane 
shall not exceed 100 square inches (64 500 

. mm^) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m^) of ceiling 
area in assemblies tested without penetrations. 

2. CeiUng membrane penetrations of maximum 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated horizontal assem- 
blies by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 
16 square inches (10 323 mm^) in area, pro- 
vided the aggregate area of such penetrations 
does not exceed 100 square inches (44 500 
mm^) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m^) of ceiling 
area, and the annular space between the ceiling 
membrane and the box does not exceed Vg inch 
(3.12 mm). 

3. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical 
boxes of any material, provided such boxes 
have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies and are installed in accordance with 
the instructions included in the listing. The an- 
nular space between the ceiling membrane and 
the box shall not exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm) un- 
less listed otherwise. 

4. The annular space created by the penetration of 
a fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a metal 
escutcheon plate. 

712.4.1.3 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetra- 
tions of horizontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer 
openings shall comply with Section 716. 

712.4.1.4 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible pene- 
trating items shall not connect to combustible materials 
beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be demon- 
strated that the fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal 
assembly is maintained. 

712.4.2 Nonfire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions of horizontal assemblies without a required fure-resis- 
tance rating shall meet the requirements of Section 707 or 
shall comply with Section 712.4.2.1 or 712.4.2.2. 

712.4.2.1 Noncombustible penetrating items. 

Noncombustible penetrating items that connect not more 
than three stories are permitted, provided that the annular 
space is filled with an approved noncombustible material 



to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

712.4.2.2 Penetrating items. Penetrating items that con- 
nect not more than two stories are permitted, provided 
that the annular space is filled with an approved material 
to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

712.5 Penetrations in smolce barriers. Penetrations in smoke 
barriers shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 1479 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the penetration 
assembly shallnotexceed5.0cfmper square foot(0.025 m^/s • 
m^) of penetration opening at 0.30 inch ( 7.47 Pa) of water for 
both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests. 



SECTION 713 
FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEMS 

713.1 General. Joints installed in or between fire-resis- 
tance-rated walls, floor or floor/ceiling assemblies and roofs or 
roof/ceiHng assemblies shall be protected by an approved 
fire-resistant joint system designed to resist the passage of fire 
for a time period not less than the required frre-resistance rating 
of the wall, floor or roof in or between which it is installed. 
Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accordance with 
Section 713.3. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly 
shall be protected in accordance with Section 713.4. 

Exception: Fire-resistant joint systems shall not be 
required for joints in all of the following locations: 

1. Floors within a single dwelling unit. 

2. Floors where the joint is protected by a shaft enclo- 
sure in accordance with Section 707. 

3. Floors within atriums where the space adjacent to the 
■ atrium is included in the volume of the atrium for 

smoke control purposes. 

4. Floors within malls. 

5. Floors within open parking structures. 

6. Mezzanine floors. 

7. Walls that are permitted to have unprotected open- 
ings. 

8. Roofs where openings are permitted. 

9. Control joints not exceeding a maximum width of 
0.625 inch (15.9 mm) and tested in accordance with 
ASTME119. 

713.2 Installation. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not 
to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommo- 
date expected building movements and to resist the passage of 
fire and hot gases. 

713.3 Fire test criteria. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
tested in accordance with the requirements of either ASTM E 
1966 or UL 2079. Nonsymmetrical wall joint systems shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned 
fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained 
from the two tests. When evidence is furnished to show that the 



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FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the 
furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall 
need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side. 

Exception: For exterior walls with a horizontal fire separa- 
tion distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the joint system 
shall be required to be tested for interior fire exposure only. 

713.4 Exterior curtain wall/floor intersection. Where fire 
resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assembhes are required, 
voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall 
assemblies and such floor assemblies shall be sealed with an 
approved material or system to prevent the interior spread of 
fire. Such material or systems shall be securely insttJled and 
capable of preventing the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste where subjected either to ASTM E 
119 time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum posi- 
tive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water column (2.5 Pa) 
or installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 2307 for the 
time period at least equal to the fire-resistance rating of the 
floor assembly. Height and fire-resistance requirements for 
curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 704.9. 

713.5 Spandrel wall. Height and fire-resistance requirements 
for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 704.9. 
Where Section 704.9 does not require a fire-resistance-rated 
spandrel wall, the requirements of Section 713.4 shall still 
apply to the intersection between the spandrel wall and the 
floor. 

713.6 Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers. 

Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers shall be tested in 
accordance with the requirements of UL 2079 for air leakage. 
The air leakage rate of the joint shall not exceed 5 cfm per lineal 
foot (0.00775 mVs • m ) of joint at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa ) of water 
for both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature 
tests. 



SECTION 714 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF STRUCTURAL 

MEMBERS 

714.1 Requirements. The fire-resistance rating of structural 
members and assemblies shall comply with the requirements 
for the type of construction and shall not be less than the rating 
required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies supported. 

Exception: Fire barriers, fire partitions and smoke barriers 
as provided in Sections 706.5, 708.4 and 709.4, respec- 
tively. 

714.2 Protection of structural members. Protection of col- 
umns, girders, trusses, beams, lintels or other structural mem- 
bers that are required to have a fire-resistance rating shall 
comply with this section. 

714.2.1 Individual protection. Columns, girders, trusses, 
beams, lintels or other structural members that are required 
to have a fire-resistance rating and that support more than 
two floors or one floor and roof, or support a load-bearing 
wall or a nonload-bearing wall more than two stories high, 
shall be individually protected on all sides for the full length 
with materials having the required fire-resistance rating. 
Other structural members required to have a fire-resistance 



rating shall be protected by individual encasement, by a 
membrane or ceiling protection as specified in Section 711, 
or by a combination of both. Columns shall also comply 
with Section 714.2.2. 

714.2.1.1 Membrane protection. King studs and 
boundary elements that are integral elements in 
load-bearing walls of light-framed construction shall be 
permitted to have required fire-resistance ratings pro- 
vided by the membrane protection provided for the 
load-bearing wall. 

714.2.2 Column protection above ceilings. Where col- 
umns require a fire-resistance rating, the entire column, 
including its connections to beams or girders, shall be pro- 
tected. Where the column extends through a ceiling, fire 
resistance of the column shall be continuous from the top of 
the foundation or floor/ceihng assembly below through the 
ceiling space to the top of the column. 

714.2.3 Truss protection. The required thickness and con- 
struction of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing 
trusses shall be based on the results of full-scale tests or 
combinations of tests on truss components or on approved 
calculations based on such tests that satisfactorily demon- 
strate that the assembly has the required fire resistance. 

714.2.4 Attachments to structural members. The edges 
of lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural 
members shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 
mm) of the surface of the fire protection. 

714.2.5 Reinforcing. Thickness of protection for concrete 
or masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside 
of the reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral rein- 
forcement ties are permitted to project not more than 
0.5-inch (12.7 mm) into the protection. 

714.3 Embedments and enclosures. Pipes, wires, conduits, 
ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the 
required fire protective covering of a structural member that is 
required to be individually encased. 

714.4 Impact protection. Where the fire protective covering 
of a structural member is subject to impact damage from mov- 
ing vehicles, the handling of merchandise or other activity, the 
fire protective covering shall be protected by comer guards or 
by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible mate- 
rial to a height adequate to provide full protection, but not less 
than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor. 

714.5 Exterior structural members. Load-bearing structural 
members located within the exterior walls or on the outside of a 
building or structure shall be provided with the highest 
fire-resistance rating as determined in accordance with the 
following: 

1 . As required by Table 60 1 for the type of building element 
based on the type of construction of the building; 

2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls based 
on the type of construction; and 

3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on the 
fire separation distance. 

714.6 Bottom flange protection. Fire protection is not 
required at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates. 



170 



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FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



Spanning not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) whether part of the 
structural frame or not, and from the bottom flange of lintels, 
shelf angles and plates not part of the structural frame, regard- 
less of span. 

714.7 Seismic isolation systems. Fire-resistance ratings for 
the isolation system shall meet the fire-resistance rating 
required for the columns, walls or other structural elements in 
which' the isolation system is installed in accordance with Table 
601. 

Isolation systems required to have a fire-resistance rating 
shall be protected with approved materials or construction 
assemblies designed to provide the same degree of fire resis- 
tance as the structural element in which it is installed when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 (see Section 703.2). 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator 
unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying 
capacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after exposure 
to the standard time-temperature curve fire test prescribed in 
ASTM E 1 19 for a duration not less than that required for the 
fire-resistance rating of the structure element in which it is 
installed. 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to 
dislodge, loosen, sustain damage or otherwise impair its abiUty 
to accommodate the seismic movements for which the isolator 
unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the purpose of 
providing the required fire-resistance protection. 



SECTION 715 
OPENING PROTECTIVES 

715.1 General. Opening protectives required by other sections 
of this code shall comply with the provisions of this section. 



715.2 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Labeled fire-resis- 
tance-rated glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall 
assembly in accordance with ASTM E 119 shall not be 
required to comply with this section. 

715.3 Alternative methods for determining fire protection 
ratings. The application of any of the alternative methods 
listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and 
acceptance criteria specified in NFPA 252 or NFPA 257. The 
required fire resistance of an opening protective shall be per- 
mitted to be established by any of the following methods or 
procedures: 

1. Designs documented in approved sources. 

2. Calculations performed in an approved manner. 

3. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of opening 
protective designs having fire-protection ratings as de- 
termined by the test procedures set forth in NFPA 252 or 
NFPA 257. 

4. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

715.4 Fire door and shutter assemblies. Approved fire door 
and fire shutter assemblies shall be constructed of any material 
or assembly of component materials that conforms to the test 
requirements of Section 715.4.1, 715.4.2 or 715.4.3 and the 
fire-protection rating indicated in Table 715.4. Fire door 
assembUes and shutters shall be installed in accordance with 
the provisions of this section and NFPA 80. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Labeled protective assemblies that conform to the re- 
quirements of this section or UL 10 A, UL 14B and 
UL 14C for tin-clad fire door assemblies. 

2. Floor fire door assemblies in accordance with Section 
711.8. 



TABLE 715.4 
FIRE DOOR AND FIRE SHUTTER FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED ASSEMBLY RATING 
(hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE DOOR AND FIRE 
SHUTTER ASSEMBLY RATING (hours) 


Fire walls and fire barriers having a required fire-resistance 
rating greater than 1 hour 


4 

3 

2 

IV, 


3 
3^ 
IV2 
IV, 


Fire barriers having a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour: 
Shaft, exit enclosure and exit passageway walls 
Other fire barriers 


1 
1 


1 


Fire partitions: 
Corridor walls 

Other fire partitions 


1 
0.5 

1 
0.5 


Va^ 
V, 


Exterior walls 


3 
2 
1 


IV, 
IV2 


Smoke barriers 


1 


V," 



a. Two doors, each with a fire protection rating of 1 V, hours, installed on opposite sides of the same opening in a iire wall, shall be deemed equivalent in fire protection 
rating to one 3-hour fire door. 

b. For testing requirements, see Section 715.4.3. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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715.4.1 Side-hinged or pivoted swinging doors. 

Side-hinged and pivoted swinging doors shall be tested in 
accordance with NFPA 252 or UL IOC. After 5 minutes into 
the NFPA 252 test, the neutral pressure level in the furnace 
shall be established at 40 inches (1016 mm) or less above the 
siU. 

715.4.2 Other types of doors. Other types of doors, includ- 
ing swinging elevator doors, shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL 1 OB . The pressure in the furnace shall 
be maintained as nearly equal to the atmospheric pressure as 
possible. Once estabUshed, the pressure shall be maintained 
during the entire test period. 

715.4.3 Door assemblies in corridors and smoke barri- 
ers. Fire door assemblies required to have a minimum &e 
protection rating of 20 minutes where located in corridor 
walls or smoke-barrier walls having a fu:e-resistance rating 
in accordance with Table 7 1 5.4 shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL IOC without the hose stream test. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Viewports that require a hole not larger than 1 inch 
(25 mm) in diameter through the door, have at least 
a 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 nun) glass disc and the 
holder is of metal that will not melt out where sub- 
ject to temperatures of 1,700°F (927°C). 

2. Corridor door assemblies in occupancies of Group 
1-2 shall be in accordance with Section 407.3.1. 

3. Unprotected openings shall be permitted for corri- 
dors in multitheater complexes where each motion 
picture auditorium has at least one-half of its re- 
quired exit or exit access doorways opening di- 
rectly to the exterior or into an exit passageway. 

4. Cell or room doors in Group 1-3 occupancies 
which open into a required exit corridor within a 
cell complex. 

715.4.3.1 Smoke and draft control. Fire door assem- 
blies shall also meet the requirements for a smoke and 
draft control door assembly tested in accordance with 
UL 1784. Louvers shall be prohibited. Installation of 
smoke doors shall be in accordance with NFPA 105. 

715.4.3.2 Glazing in door assemblies. In a 20-niinute 
fire door assembly, the glazing material in the door itself 
shall have a minimum fire-protection rating of 20 min- 
utes and shall be exempt from the hose stream test. Glaz- 
ing material in any other part of the door assembly, 
including transom lites and sidelites, shall be tested in 
accordance with NFPA 257, including the hose stream 
test, in accordance with Section 715.5. 

715.4.4 Doors in exit enclosures and exit passageways. 

Fire door assemblies in exit enclosures and exit passage- 
ways shall have a maximum transmitted temperature end 
point of not more than 450°F (250° C) above ambient at the 
end of 30 minutes of standard fire test exposure. 

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature rise 
is not limited in buildings equipped throughout with an 



automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

715.4.4.1 Glazing in doors. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m^) shall be 
permitted in fire door assemblies when tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 252 as components of the door assem- 
blies and not as glass lights, and shall have a maximum 
transmitted temperature rise of 450°F (250°C) in accor- 
dance with Section 715.4.4. 

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature 
end point is not required in buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

715.4.5 Labeled protective assemblies. Fire door assem- 
blies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The labels 
shall comply with NFPA 80, and shall be permanently 
affixed to the door or frame. 

715.4.5.1 Fire door labeling requirements. Fire doors 
shall be labeled showing the name of the manufacturer, 
the name of the third-party inspection agency, the fire 
protection rating and, where required for fire doors in 
exit enclosures and exit passageways by Section 7 1 5.4.4, 
the maximum transmitted temperature end point. Smoke 
and draft control doors complying with UL 1784 shall be 
labeled as such. Labels shall be approved and perma- 
nently affixed. The label shall be applied at the factory or 
location where fabrication and assembly are performed. 

Exception: In Group 1-3 doors, which are required to 
be 45 minutes or higher, shall be fire-rated assemblies 
or certified by the manufacturer as being equivalent 
to the required standard. 

715.4.5.2 Oversized doors. Oversized fire doors shall 
bear an oversized fire door label by an approved agency 
or shall be provided with a certificate of inspection fur- 
nished by an approved testing agency. When a certificate 
of inspection is furnished by an approved testing agency, 
the certificate shall state that the door conforms to the 
requirements of design, materials and construction, but 
has not been subjected to the fire test. 

715.4.5.3 Smoke and draft control door labeling 
requirements. Smoke and draft control doors comply- 
ing with UL 1784 shall be labeled in accordance with 
Section 715.4.5. 1 and shall show the letter "S" on the fire 
rating label of the door. This marking shall indicate that 
the door and frame assembly are in compUance when 
listed or labeled gasketing is also installed. 

715.4.5.4 Fire door frame labeling requirements. Fne 

door frames shall be labeled showing the names of the 
manufacturer and the third-party inspection agency. 

715.4.6 Glazing material. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
conforming to the opening protection requirements in Sec- 
tion 715.4 shall be permitted in fire door assembUes. 

715.4.6.1 Size limitations. Wired glass used in fire doors 
shall comply with Table 715.5.3. Other fire-protec- 



172 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



tion-rated glazing shall comply with the size limitations 
ofNFPASO. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire-protection-rated glazing in fire doors lo- 
cated in fire walls shall be prohibited except 
that where serving as a horizontal exit, a 
self-closing swinging door shall be permitted to 
have a vision panel of not more than 100 square 
inches (0.065 m^) without a dimension exceed- 
ing 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall not be in- 
stalled in fire doors having a 1 '^-hour fire pro- 
tection rating intended for installation in &e 
barriers, unless the glazing is not more than 100 
square inches (0.065 m^) in area. 

715.4.6.2 Exit and elevator protectives. Approved 
fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire door assemblies 
in elevator and exit enclosures shall be so located as to 
furnish clear vision of the passageway or approach to the 
elevator, ramp or stairway. 

715.4.6.3 Labeling. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
bear a label or other identification showing the name of 
the manufacturer, the test standard and information 
required in Section 715.5.8.1 that shall be issued by an 
approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the 
glazing. 

715.4.6.3.1 Identification. For fu:e-protection-rated 
glazing, the label shall bear the following four-part 
identification: "D - H or NH - T or NT - XXX." "D" 
indicates that the glazing shall be used in fire door 
assemblies and that the glazing meets the fire resis- 
tance requirements of the test standard. "H" shall 
indicate that the glazing meets the hose stream 
requirements of the test standard. "NH" shall indicate 
that the glazing does not meet the hose stream require- 
ments of the test. "T" shall indicate that the glazing 
meets the temperature requirements of Section 
715.4.4.1. "NT" shall indicate that the glazing does 
not meet the temperature requirements of Section 
715.4.4.1. The placeholder "XXX" shall specify the 
fire-protection-rating period, in minutes. 

715.4.6.4 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire doors or fire window assemblies in areas 
subject to human impact in hazardous locations shall 
comply with Chapter 24. 

715.4.7 Door closing. Fire doors shall be self- or automatic 
closing in accordance with this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire doors located in common walls separating 
sleeping units in Group R-1 shall be permitted 
without automatic- or self-closing devices. 

2. The elevator car doors and the associated hoistway 
enclosure doors at the floor level designated for re- 
call in accordance with Section 3003.2 shall be 
permitted to remain open during Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation. 



715.4.7.1 Latch required. Unless otherwise specifically 
permitted, single fire doors and both leaves of pairs of 
side-hinged swinging fire doors shall be provided with 
an active latch bolt that will secure the door when it is 
closed. 

715.4.7.2 Automatic-closing fire door assemblies. 

Automatic-closing fire door assemblies shall be 
self-closing in accordance with NFPA 80. 

715.4.7.3 Smoke-activated doors. Automatic-closing 
doors installed in the following locations shall be auto- 
matic closing by the actuation of smoke detectors 
installed in accordance with Section 907. 10 or by loss of 
power to the smoke detector or hold-open device. Doors 
that are automatic closing by smoke detection shall not 
have more than a 10-second delay before the door starts 
to close after the smoke detector is actuated: 

1. Doors installed across a corridor. 

2. Doors that protect openings in exits or corridors 
required to be of fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

3. Doors that protect openings in walls that are ca- 
pable of resisting the passage of smoke in accor- 
dance with Section 508.2.2.1. 

4. Doors installed in smoke barriers in accordance 
with Section 709.5. 

5. Doors installed in fire partitions in accordance 
with Section 708.6. 

6. Doors installed in a fire wall in accordance with 
Section 705.8. 

7. Doors installed in shaft enclosures in accordance 
with Section 707.7. 

8. Doors installed in refuse and laundry chutes and 
access and termination rooms in accordance with 
Section 707.13. 

9. Doors installed in the walls for 
compartmentation of underground buildings in 
accordance with Section 405.4.2. 

10. Doors installed in the elevator lobby walls of un- 
derground buildings in accordance with Section 
405.4.3. 

1 1 . Doors installed in smoke partitions in accordance 
with Section 710.5.3. 

12. [SFM] Doors installed in walls required to be fire 
rated in accordance with Section 508.2.2. 

13. [SFM] Doors installed in walls required to be fire 
rated in accordance with Section 508.3.3. 

In Group 1-2 occupancies, smoke-activated doors 
installed in the above locations shall be automatic clos- 
ing by actuation of the fire alarm system, or actuation of 
smoke detectors installed in accordance with Section 
907.10 or activation of the sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.1. 

715.4.7.4 Doors in pedestrian vyays. Vertical sUding or 
vertical rolling steel frre doors in openings through 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



173 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



which pedestrians travel shall be heat activated or acti- 
vated by smoke detectors with alarm verification. 

715.4.8 Swinging fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
swinging type are installed in exterior openings, not less 
than one row in every three vertical rows shall be arranged to 
be readily opened from the outside, and shall be identified 
by distinguishing marks or letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high. 

715.4.9 Rolling fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
rolling type are installed, such shutters shall include 
approved automatic-closing devices. 

715.5 Fire-protection-rated glazing. Glazing in fire window 
assemblies shall be fire-protection rated in accordance with 
this section and Table 715.5. Glazing in fire door assembUes 
shall comply with Section 715.4.6. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing shall be tested in accordance with and shall meet the accep- 
tance criteria of NFPA 257. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
also comply with NFPA 80. Openings in nonfire-resis- 
tance-rated exterior wall assemblies that require protection in 
accordance with Section 704.3, 704.8, 704.9 or 704.10 shall 
have a fire-protection rating of not less than V4 hour. 

Exceptions: 

1. Wired glass in accordance with Section 715.5.3. 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing in 0.5-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated partitions is permitted to have an 
0.33-hour fire-protection rating. 

TABLE 715.5 
FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED ASSEMBLY 
RATING (hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE 

WINDOW 

ASSEMBLY RATINg 

(hours) 


Interior walls: 
Fire walls 
Fire barriers 
Smoke barriers 
and fire partitions 


All 
>1 

1 

1 


NP=' 

Npa 


Exterior walls 


>1 

1 


IV, 


Party wall 


All 


NP 



NP = Not Permitted. 

a. Not permitted except as specified in Section 715.2. 

715.5.1 Testing under positive pressure. NFPA 257 shall 
evaluate fire-protection-rated glazing under positive pres- 
sure. Within the first 10 minutes of a test, the pressure in the 
furnace shall be adjusted so at least two-thirds of the test 
specimen is above the neutral pressure plane, and the neutral 
pressure plane shall be maintained at that height for the 
balance of the test. 

715.5.2 Nonsymmetrical glazing systems. Non-symmet- 
rical fire-protection-rated glazing systems in fire partitions, 
fire barriers or in exterior walls with a fire separation dis- 
tance of 5 feet (1524 mm) or less pursuant to Section 704 
shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and 
the assigned fire protection rating shall be the shortest dura- 



tion obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance 
witii NFPA 257. 

715.5.3 Wired glass. Steel window frame assembhes of 
0.125-inch (3.2 mm) minimum solid section or of not less 
than nominal 0.048-inch-thick (1 .2 mm) formed sheet steel 
members fabricated by pressing, mitering, riveting, inter- 
locking or welding and having provision for glazing with 
V4-inch (6.4 mm) wired glass where securely installed in the 
building construction and glazed with V4-inch (6.4 mm) 
labeled wired glass shall be deemed to meet the require- 
ments for a %-hour fire window assembly. Wired glass pan- 
els shall conform to the size limitations set forth in Table 
715.5.3. 

TABLE 715.5.3 
LIIUIITING SIZES OF WIRED GLASS PANELS 



OPENING FIRE 

PROTECTION 

RATING 


MAXIMUM 

AREA 

(square inches) 


MAXIMUM 
HEIGHT 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM 
WIDTH 
(inches) 


3 hours 











iVj-hour doors in 
exterior walls 











1 and IV2 hours 


100 


33 


10 


V4hour 


1,296 


54 


54 


20 minutes 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Fire window 
assemblies 


1,296 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm^. 

715.5.4 Nonwired glass. Glazing other than wired glass in 
fire window assemblies shall be fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing installed in accordance with and complying with the size 
limitations set forth in NFPA 80. 

715.5.5 Installation. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be 
in the fixed position or be automatic-closing and shall be 
installed in approved frames. 

715.5.6 Window muUions. Metal mulhons that exceed a 
nominal height of 12 feet (3658 mm) shall be protected with 
materials to afford the same fire-resistance rating as 
required for the wall construction in which the protective is 
located. 

715.5.7 Interior fire window assemblies. Fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing used in fire window assemblies located in 
fire partitions and fire barriers shall be limited to use in 
assemblies with a maximum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour 
in accordance with this section. 

715.5.7.1 Where permitted. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing shall be limited to fire partitions designed in accor- 
dance with Section 708 and fu-e barriers utilized in the 
apphcations set forth in Sections 706.3.6 and 706.3.8 
where the fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 hour. 

715.5.7.2 Size limitations. The total area of windows 
shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of a common wall 
with any room. 

715.5.8 Labeling requirements. Fke-protection-rated 
glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the 
name of the manufacturer, the test standard and information 



174 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



required in Section 715.5.8.1 that shall be issued by an 
approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the 
glazing. 

715.5.8.1 Identification. For fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing, the label shall bear the following two-part identifica- 
tion: "OH - XXX." "OH" indicates that the glazing meets 
both the fire-resistance and the hose-stream require- 
ments of NFPA 257 and is permitted to be used in open- 
ings. "XXX" represents the fire-protection rating period, 
in minutes, that was tested. 



SECTION 716 
DUCTS AND AIR TRANSFER OPENINGS 

716.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
protection of duct penetrations and air transfer openings in 
assemblies required to be protected. 

716.1.1 Ducts without dampers. Ducts that penetrate 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are not required by this 
section to have dampers shall comply with the requirements 
of Section 712. 

716.2 Installation. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combina- 
tion fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers located 
within air distribution and smoke control systems shall be 
installed in accordance with the requirements of this section, 
the manufacturer's installation instructions and the dampers' 
listing. 

716.2.1 Smoke control system. Where the installation of a 
fire damper will interfere with the operation of a required 
smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, 
approved alternative protection shall be utilized. 

716.2.2 Hazardous exhaust ducts. Fire dampers for haz- 
ardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code. 

716.3 Damper testing and ratings. Dampers shall be listed 
and bear the label of an approved testing agency indicating 
compliance with the standards in this section. Fire dampers 
shall comply with the requirements of UL 555. Only fire damp- 
ers labeled for use in dynamic systems shall be installed in 
heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems designed to 
operate with fans on during a fire. Smoke dampers shall com- 
ply with the requirements of UL 555S. Combination 
fire/smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of both 
UL 555 and UL 555S. Ceiling radiation dampers shall comply 
with the requirements of UL 555C. 

716.3.1 Fire protection rating. Fire dampers shall have the 
minimum fire protection rating specified in Table 716.3.1 
for the type of penetration. 

TABLE 716.3.1 
FIRE. DAMPER RATING 



TYPE OF 
PENETRATION 


MINIMUM DAMPER RATING 
(hours) 


Less than 3-hour fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies 


1.5 


3 -hour or greater fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies 


3 



716.3.1.1 Fire damper actuating device. The fire 
damper actuating device shall meet one of the following 
requirements: 

1 . The operating temperature shall be approximately 
50°F (10°C) above the normal temperature within 
the duct system, but not less than 160°F (71°C). 

2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 
286°F (14rC) where located in a smoke control 
system complying with Section 909. 

3. Where a combination fire/smoke damper is lo- 
cated in a smoke control system complying with 
Section 909, the operating temperature rating shall 
be approximately 50°F (10°C). above the maxi- 
mum smoke control system designed operating 
temperature, or a maximum temperature of 350°F 
(177°C). The temperature shall not exceed the UL 
555S degradation test temperature rating for a 
combination fire/smoke damper. 

716.3.2 Smoke damper ratings. Smoke damper leakage 
ratings shall not be less than Class U. Elevated temperature 
ratings shall not be less than 250°F (12rC). 

716.3.2.1 Smoke damper actuation methods. The 

smoke damper shall close upon actuation of a Usted 
smoke detector or detectors installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10 and one of the following methods, as 
applicable: 

1 . Where a damper is installed within a duct, a smoke 
detector shall be installed in the duct within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of the damper with no air outlets or in- 
lets between the detector and the damper. The de- 
tector shall be listed for the air velocity, 
temperature and humidity anticipated at the point 
where it is installed. Other than in mechanical 
smoke control systems, dampers shall be closed 
upon fan shutdown where local smoke detectors 
require a minimum velocity to operate. 

2. Where a damper is installed above smoke barrier 
doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type detector Usted 
for releasing service shall be installed on either 
side of the smoke barrier door opening. 

3. Where a damper is installed within an unducted 
opening in a wall, a spot-type detector listed for re- 
leasing service shall be installed within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) horizontally of the damper. 

4. Where a damper is installed in a corridor wall or 
ceihng, the damper shall be permitted to be con- 
trolled by a smoke detection system installed in the 
corridor. 

5. Where a total-coverage smoke detector system is 
provided within areas served by a heating, ventila- 
tion and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, damp- 
ers shall be permitted to be controlled by the 
smoke detection system. 

716.4 Access and identification. Fire and smoke dampers 
shall be provided with an approved means of access, which is 
large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



damper and its operating parts. The access shall not affect the 
integrity of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access open- 
ings shall not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. 
Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior 
by a label having letters not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in 
height reading: FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, SMOKE DAMPER 
or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting 
and suitable for the required duct construction. 

716.5 Where required. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combi- 
nation fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers shall 
be provided at the locations prescribed in Sections 716.5.1 
through 716.5.5 and Section 716.6. Where an assembly is 
required to have both fire dampers and smoke dampers, combi- 
nation fire/smoke dampers or a fire damper and a smoke 
damper shall be required. 

716.5.1 Fire walls. Ducts and air transfer openings permit- 
ted in fire walls in accordance with Section 705. 1 1 shall be 
protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance 
with their listing. 

716.5.2 Fire barriers. In other than high-rise buildings, 
Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies and other applica- 
tions listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal, ducts and air transfer openings that penetrate 
fire barriers shall be protected with listed fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. Ducts and air 
transfer openings shall not penetrate exit enclosures and 
exit passageways except as permitted by Sections 1020.1.2 
and 1021.5, respectively. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required at penetrations 
of fire barriers where any of the following apply: 

1. Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 119 as part of the fire-resistance rated assembly. 

2. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909 and 
where the fire damper would interfere with the op- 
eration of the smoke control system. 

3. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC sys- 
tems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour or less, are in areas of other than Group H and 
are in buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1 .2. For the purposes of this ex- 
ception, a ducted HVAC system shall be a duct sys- 
tem for conveying supply, return or exhaust air as 
part of the structure's HVAC system. Such a duct 
system shall be constructed of sheet steel not less 
than 26 gage thickness and shall be continuous 
from the air-handling appliance or equipment to 
the air outlet and inlet terminals. 

For high-rise buildings, Group A, E, H, I, L and R occu- 
pancies and other applications listed in Section 111 regu- 
lated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, ducts and air 
transfer openings of fire barriers shall be protected with 
approved fire and smoke dampers installed in accordance 
with their listing. Ducts and air transfer openings shall not 



penetrate exit enclosures and exit passageways except as 
permitted by Sections 1020.1.2 and 1021.5, respectively. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of 
fire barriers where penetrations are tested in ac- 
cordance with ASTM E 119 as part of the fire-re- 
sistance-rated assembly. 

2. Fire and smoke dampers are not required where 
ducts are used as part of an approved smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909 and 
where the use of afire or smoke damper would in- 
terfere with the operation of a smoke control sys- 
tern. 

716.5.3 Shaft enclosures. Shaft enclosures that are permit- 
ted to be penetrated by ducts and air transfer openings shall 
be protected with listed fire and smoke dampers installed in 
accordance with their listing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where: 

1.1. Steel exhaust subducts are extended at 
least 22 inches (559 mm) vertically in ex- 
haust shafts, provided there is a continuous 
airflow upward to the outside; or 

Penetrations are tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 119 as part of the fire-resistance 
rated assembly; or 

Ducts are used as part of an approved 
smoke control system in accordance with 
Section 909 and where the fire damper will 
interfere with the operation of the smoke 
control system; or 

1.4. The penetrations are in parking garage ex- 
haust or supply shafts that are separated 
from other building shafts by not less than 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

In Group B and R occupancies, equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke dampers are 
not required at penetrations of shafts where: 

2. 1 . Kitchen, clothes dryer, bathroom and toilet 
room exhaust openings are installed with 
steel exhaust subducts, having a wall thick- 
ness of at least 0.0 19 inch (0.48 mm); and 

2.2. That extend at least 22 mches (559 mm) 
vertically; and 

2.3. An exhaust fan is installed at the upper ter- 
minus of the shaft that is, powered continu- 
ously in accordance with the provisions of 
Section 909. 1 1, so as to maintain a contin- 
uous upward airflow to the outside. 

Smoke dampers are not required at penetration of 
exhaust or supply shafts in parking garages that are 



1.2 



1.3 



V. 



176 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



separated from other building shafts by not less 
than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

4. Smoke dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where ducts are used as part of an approved 
mechanical smoke control system designed in ac- 
cordance with Section 909 and where the smoke 
damper will interfere with the operation of the 
smoke control system. 

716.5.4 Fire partitions. Ducts and air transfer openings 
that penetrate fire partitions shall be protected with listed 
fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing. 

Exceptions: In other than high-rise buildings and in 
occupancies other than Group A, E, H, landR and other 
applications listedin Section 111 regulated by the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, fire dampers are not required 
where any of the following apply: 

1. The partitions are tenant separation or corridor 
walls in buildings equipped throughout with an au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the duct is 
protected as a through penetration in accordance 
with Section 712. 

2. Tenant partitions in covered mall buildings where 
the walls are not required by provisions elsewhere 
in the code to extend to the underside of the floor or 
roof deck above. 

3. The duct system is constructed of approved mate- 
rials in accordance with the California Mechanical 
Code and the duct penetrating the wall complies 
with all of the following requirements: 

3.1. The duct shall not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.06 m^). 

3.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel a 
minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in 
thickness. 

3.3. The duct shall not have openings that com- 
municate the corridor with adjacent spaces 
or rooms. 

3 .4. The duct shall be installed above a ceiHng. 

3.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall regis- 
ter in the fire-resistance-rated wall. 

3.6. A minimum 12-inch-long (305 mm) by 
0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve 
shall be centered in each duct opening. The 
sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the 
wall and all four sides of the sleeve with 
minimum I'/j-inch by IVj-inch by 
0.060-inch (38 mm by 38 mm by 1.52 mm) 
steel retaining angles. The retaining angles 
shall be secured to the sleeve and the wall 
with No. 10 (M5) screws. The annular 
space between the steel sleeve and the wall 
opening shall be filled with mineral wool 
batting on all sides. 

716.5.4.1 Corridors. In other than high-rise buildings, 
Group A, E, H, I, L andR occupancies and other applica- 



tions listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office of the 
State Fire Marshal, a listed smoke damper designed to 
resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each 
point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a corridor 
enclosure required to have smoke and draft doors in 
accordance with Section 715.4.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke dampers are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved smoke control system in accordance 
with Section 909, and smoke dampers are not 
necessary for the operation and control of the 
system. 

2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constnicted of 
steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in 
thickness and there are no openings serving the 
corridor. 

For high-rise buildings, Group A, E, H, I, L and R 
occup'ancies and other applications listed in Section 111 
regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, a listed 
smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke 
shall also be provided at each point a duct or air transfer 
opening penetrates a fire-resistance rated corridor 
enclosure required to have smoke and draft doors in 
accordance with Section 715.4.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke dampers are not required where ducts 
are used as part of an approved mechanical 
smoke control system designed in accordance 
with Section 909 and where the smoke damper 
will interfere with the operation of the smoke 
control system. 

2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of 
steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in 
thickness and there are no openings serving the 
corridor 

716.5.5 Smoke barriers. A listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point 
a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke barrier. 
Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall 
comply with Section 716.3.2.1. 

Exception: Smoke dampers are not required where the 
openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke compart- 
ment and the ducts are constructed of steel. 

716.6 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations by ducts and air 
transfer openings of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceil- 
ing membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected by 
a shaft enclosure that complies with Section 707 or shall com- 
ply with Sections 716.6.1 through 716.6.3. 

716.6.1 Through penetrations. In occupancies other than 
Groups 1-2 and 1-3 , a duct constructed of approved materials 
in accordance with the California Mechanical Code that 
penetrates a fure-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assembly 
that connects not more than two stories is permitted without 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



177 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



shaft enclosure protection, provided a listed fire damper is 
installed at the floor line or the duct is protected in accor- 
dance with Section 712.4. For air transfer openings, see 
Exception 7 to Section 707.2. 

Exception: A duct is permitted to penetrate three floors 
or less without a fire damper at each floor, provided it 
meets all of the following requirements: 

1. The duct shall be contained and located within the 
cavity of a wall and shall be constructed of steel not 
less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (26 gage) in thick- 
ness. 

2. The duct shaU open into only one dwelling or 
sleeping unit and the duct system shall be continu- 
ous from the unit to the exterior of the building. 

3. The duct shall not exceed 4-inch (102 mm) nomi- 
nal diameter and the total area of such ducts shall 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m^) in any 
100 square feet (9.3 m^) of floor area. 

4. The annular space around the duct is protected 
with materials that prevent the passage of flame 
and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste 
where subjected to ASTM E 1 19 time-temperature 
conditions under a minimum positive pressure dif- 
ferential of 0.0 1 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the loca- 
tion of the penetration for the time period 
equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the 
construction penetrated. 

5. Grille openings located in a ceiling of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
shall be protected with a listed ceiling radiation 
damper installed in accordance with Section 
716.6.2.1. 

716.6.2 Membrane penetrations. Ducts and air transfer 
openings constructed of approved materials in accordance 
with the California Mechanical Code that penetrate the ceil- 
ing membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceihng or 
roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected with one of the 
following: 

1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 707. 

2. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceil- 
ing line where a duct penetrates the ceiling of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling 
assembly. 

3. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceil- 
ing line where a diffuser with no duct attached pene- 
trates the ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiUng assembly. 

716.6.2.1 Ceiling radiation dampers. Ceiling radiation 
dampers shall be tested in accordance with UL 555C and 
instdled in accordance with the manufacturer's installa- 
tion instructions and listing. CeiUng radiation dampers 
are not required where either of the following applies: 

1 . Tests in accordance with ASTM E 1 1 9 have shown 
that ceiling radiation dampers are not necessary in 
order to maintain the fire-resistance rating of the 
assembly. 



2. Where exhaust duct penetrations are protected in 
accordance with Section 712.4.1.2, are located 
within the cavity of a wall and do not pass through 
another dwelling unit or tenant space. 

716.6.3 Nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies. Duct 
systems constructed of approved materials in accordance 
with the California Mechanical Code that penetrate 
nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies shall be protected 
by any of the following methods: 

1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 707. 

2. The duct connects not more than two stories, the an- 
nular space around the penetrating duct is protected 
with an approved noncombustible material that resists 
the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

3. The duct connects not more than three stories, the an- 
nular space around the penetrating duct is protected 
with an approved noncombustible material that resists 
the free passage of flame and the products of combus- 
tion and a fire damper is installed at each floor line. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required in ducts 
within individual residential dwelling units. 

716.7 Flexible ducts and air connectors. Flexible ducts and 
air connectors shall not pass through any fire-resistance-rated 
assembly. Flexible air connectors shall not pass through any 
wall, floor or ceiling. 



SECTION 717 
CONCEALED SPACES 

717.1 General. Fireblocking and draftstopping shall be 
installed in combustible concealed locations in accordance 
with this section. Fireblocking shall comply with Section 
717.2. Draftstopping in floor/ceiling spaces and attic spaces 
shall comply with Sections 717.3 and 717.4, respectively. The 
permitted use of combustible materials in concealed spaces of 
buildings of Type I or II constinction shall be limited to the 
appUcations indicated in Section 717.5. 

717.2 Fireblocldng. In combustible construction, fireblocking 
shall be installed to cut off concealed draft openings (both ver- 
tical and horizontal) and shall form an effective barrier between 
floors, between a top story and a roof or attic space. 
Fireblocking shall be installed in the locations specified in Sec- 
tions 717.2.2 through 717.2.7. 

717.2.1 Fireblocking materials. Fireblocking shall consist 
of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber or two thicknesses of 
1-inch (25 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints or 
one thickness of 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural 
panel with joints backed by 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood 
structural panel or one thickness of 0.75-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard with joints backed by 0.75-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard. Gypsum board, cement fiber board, batts or 
blankets of mineral wool, glass fiber or other approved 
materials installed in such a manner as to be securely 
retained in place shall be permitted as an acceptable 
fireblock. Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other 
approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted for compli- 



178 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



ance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal fireblocking in 
walls constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered 
studs. Loose-fill insulation material shall not be used as a 
fireblock unless specifically tested in the form and manner 
intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place 
and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases. The integrity of 
fireblocks shall be maintained. 

717.2.1.1 Double stud walls. Batts or blankets of min- 
eral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials 
shall be allowed as fireblocking in walls constructed 
using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 

717.2.2 Concealed wall spaces. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, 
including furred spaces, and parallel rows of studs or stag- 
gered studs, as follows: 

1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels. 

2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 
nam). 

717.2.3 Connections between horizontal and vertical 
spaces. Fireblocking shall be provided at interconnections 
between concealed vertical stud wall or partition spaces and 
concealed horizontal spaces created by an assembly of floor 
joists or trusses, and between concealed vertical and hori- 
zontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings, cove 
ceilings and similar locations. 

717.2.4 Stairways. Fireblocking shall be provided in con- 
cealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom 
of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall also comply 
with Section 1009.5.3. 

717.2.5 Ceiling and floor openings. Where annular space 
protection is provided in accordance with Exception 6 of 
Section 707.2, Exception 1 of Section 712.4.1.2, or Section 
712.4.2, fireblocking shall be installed at openings around 
vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at ceiling and 
floor levels, with an approved material to resist the free pas- 
sage of flame and the products of combustion. Factory-built 
chimneys and fireplaces shall be fireblocked in accordance 
with UL 103 and UL 127. 

717.2.6 Architectural trim. Fireblocking shall be installed 
within concealed spaces of exterior wall finish and other 
exterior architectural elements where permitted to be of 
combustible consti^uction as specified in Section 1406 or 
where erected with combustible frames, at maximum inter- 
vals of 20 feet (6096 mm), so that there will be no open 
space exceeding 100 square feet (9.3 m^). Where wood fur- 
ling strips are used, they shall be of approved wood of natu- 
ral decay resistance or preservative-treated wood. If 
noncontinuous, such elements shall have closed ends, with 
at least4 inches (102 mm) of separation between sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking of cornices is not required in sin- 
gle-family dwellings. Fireblocking of cornices of a 
two-family dwelling is required only at the line of 
dwelling unit separation. 



2. Fireblocking shall not be required where installed 
on noncombustible framing and the face of the ex- 
terior wall finish exposed to the concealed space is 
covered by one of the following materials: 

2. 1 . Aluminum having a minimum thickness of 
0.019 inch (0.5 mm). 

2.2. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base 
metal thickness not less than 0.016 inch 
(0.4 mm) at any point. 

2.3. Other approved noncombustible materials. 

717.2.7 Concealed sleeper spaces. Where wood sleepers 
are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete 
fire-resistance-rated floors, the space between the floor slab 
and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with an 
approved material to resist the free passage of flame and 
products of combustion or fireblocked in such a manner that 
there will be no open spaces under the flooring that will 
exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^) in area and such space shall 
be filled solidly under permanent partitions so that there is 
no communication under the flooring between adjoining 
rooms. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking is not required for slab-on-grade 
floors in gymnasiums. 

2. Fireblocking is required only at the juncture of 
each alternate lane and at the ends of each lane in a 
bowling facility. 

717.3 Draftstopping in floors. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide floor/ceiling 
assembUes in the locations prescribed in Sections 717.3.2 
through 717.3.3. 

717.3.1 Draftstopping materials. Draftstopping materials 
shall not be less than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 
0.375-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 0.375-inch (9.5 
mm) particleboard, 1-inch (25-mm) nominal lumber, 
cement fiberboard, batts or blankets of mineral wool or 
glass fiber, or other approved materials adequately sup- 
ported. The integrity of draftstops shall be maintained. 

717.3.2 Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4. Draftstopping 
shall be provided in floor/ceiling spaces in Group R- 1 build- 
ings, in Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling 
units, in Group R-3 buildings with two dwelling units and in 
Group R-4 buildings. Draftstopping shall be located above 
and in line with the dwelling unit and sleeping unit separa- 
tions. 

Exceptions: 

1. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped titiroughout with an automatic sprinlder 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



179 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



717.3.3 Other groups. In other groups, draftstopping shall 
be installed so that horizontal floor areas do not exceed 
1,000 square feet (93 m^). 

Exceptions: 

1 . In other than high-rise buildings, Group A, E, H, I 
andL occupancies and other applications listed in 
Section 111 regulated by the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal, Jraftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. In high-rise buildings. Group A, E, H, I and L oc- 
cupancies and other applications listed in Section 
111 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Mar- 
shal, where an automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3 J.l is installed, the 
area between draft stops may be 3,000 square feet 
(279 rr?) and the greatest horizontal dimension 
may be 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

Ill A Draftstopping in attics. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide attic spaces and 
concealed roof spaces in the locations prescribed in Sections 
717.4.2 and 717.4.3. Ventilation of concealed roof spaces shall 
be maintained in accordance with Section 1203.2. 

717.4.1 Draftstopping materials. Materials utiUzed for 
draftstopping of attic spaces shall comply with Section 
717.3.1. 

717.4.1.1 Openings. Openings in the partitions shall be 
protected by self-closing doors with automatic latches 
constructed as required for the partitions. 

717.4.2 Groups R-1 and R-2. Draftstopping shall be pro- 
vided in attics, mansards, overhangs or other concealed roof 
spaces of Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelUng 
units and in all Group R-1 buildings. Draftstopping shall be 
installed above, and in Une with, sleeping unit and dwelling 
unit separation walls that do not extend to the underside of 
the roof sheathing above. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where corridor waUs provide a sleeping unit or 
dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only 
be required above one of the corridor walls. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed 
four stories in height, the attic space shall be subdi- 
vided by draftstops into areas not exceeding 3,000 
square feet (279 m^) or above every two dwelUng 
units, whichever is smaller. 

4. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 



717.4.3 Other groups. Draftstopping shall be installed in 
attics and concealed roof spaces, such that any horizontal 
area does not exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than high-rise buildings, Group A, E, H, I 
and L occupancies and other applications listed in 
Section 111 regulated by the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal, draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. In high-rise buildings. Group A, E, H, land L oc- 
cupancies and other applications listed in Section 
111 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Mar- 
shal, where an automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1 is installed, the 
area between draft stops may be 9,000 square feet 
(836 m^) and the greatest horizontal dimension 
may be 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

717.5 Combustible materials in concealed spaces in Type I 
or n construction. Combustible materials shall not be permit- 
ted in concealed spaces of buildings of TVpe I or II 
construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Combustible materials in accordance with Section 
603. 

2. Combustible materials exposed within plenums com- 
plying with Section 602 of the California Mechanical 
Code. 

3. Class A interior finish materials classified in accor- 
dance with Section 803. 

4. Combustible piping within partitions or shaft enclo- 
sures installed in accordance with the provisions of 
this code. 

5. Combustible piping within concealed ceiling spaces 
installed in accordance with the California Mechani- 
cal Code and tiie California Plumbing Code. 

6. Combustible insulation and covering on pipe and tub- 
ing, installed in concealed spaces other than plenums, 
complying with Section 719.7. 

7. Complying with Section 719.7. 



SECTION 718 

FIRE-RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR 

PLASTER 

718.1 Thickness of plaster., The minimum thickness of gyp- 
sum plaster or portland cement plaster used in a fire-resis- 
tance-rated system shall be determined by the prescribed fire 
tests. The plaster thickness shall be measured from the face of 
the lath where applied to gypsum lath or metal lath. 

718.2 Plaster equivalents. For fire-resistance purposes, 0.5 
inch (12.7 mm) of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed 
equivalent to 0.75 inch (19. 1 mm) of one-to-three gypsum sand 
plaster or 1 inch (25 mm) of pordand cement sand plaster. 



180 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



718.3 Noncombustible furring. In buildings of Type I and 11 
construction, plaster shall be applied directly on concrete or 
masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and 
furring. 

718.4 Double reinforcement. Plaster protection more than 1 
inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be reinforced with an addi- 
tional layer of approved lath embedded at least 0.75 inch (19.1 
mm) from the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 

Exception: SoHd plaster partitions or where otherwise 
determined by fire tests. 

718.5 Plaster alternatives for concrete. In reinforced con- 
crete construction, gypsum plaster or portland cement plaster is 
permitted to be substituted for 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of the 
required poured concrete protection, except that a minimum 
thickness of 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) of poured concrete shall be 
provided in reinforced concrete floors and 1 inch (25 mm) in 
reinforced concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish. 
The concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with Section 
2510.7. 



SECTION 719 
THERMAL- AND SOUND-INSULATING MATERIALS 

719.1 General. Insulating materials, including facings such as 
vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes, similar cov- 
erings, and all layers of single and multilayer reflective foil 
insulations, shall comply with the requirements of this section. 
Where a flame spread index or a smoke-developed index is 
specified in this section, such index shall be determined in 
accordance with ASTM E 84. Any material that is subject to an 
increase in flame spread index or smoke-developed index 
beyond the limits herein established through the effects of age, 
moisture, or other atmospheric conditions shall not be 
permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Fiberboard insulation shall comply with Chapter 23 . 

2. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Chapter 26. 

3. Duct and pipe insulation and duct and pipe coverings 
and linings in plenums shall comply with the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code. 

719.2 Concealed installation. Insulating materials, where 
concealed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, 
shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Section 719.6, 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719.2.1 Facings. Where such materials are installed in con- 
cealed spaces in buildings of Type III, IV or V consti-uction, 
the flame spread and smoke-developed limitations do not 
apply to facings, coverings, and layers of reflective foil 
insulation that are installed behind and in substantial contact 



with the unexposed surface of the ceihng, wall or floor 
finish. 

719.3 Exposed installation. Insulating materials, where 
exposed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, 
shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied complying with the requirements of Section 719.6 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719.3.1 Attic floors. Exposed insulation materials installed 
on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux of not less 
than 0.12 watt per square centimeter when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 970. 

719.4 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials 
that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 apparatus without a 
screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread 
and smoke-developed limits of Sections 719.2 and 719.3 when 
tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S 102.2. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be 
required to comply with the flame spread index requirement 
of CAN/ULC S 102.2, provided such insulation complies 
with the requirements of Section 719.6. 

719.5 Roof insulation. The use of combustible roof insulation 
not complying with Sections 719.2 and 719.3 shall be permit- 
ted in any type of construction provided it is covered with 
approved roof coverings directly apphed thereto. 

719.6 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill insu- 
lation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1209 and CPSC 
16 CFR, Part 1404. Each package of such insulating material 
shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 
1209 and CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1404. 

719.7 Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing. Insula- 
tion and covering on pipe and tubing shall have a flame spread 
index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not 
more than 450. 

Exception: Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing 
installed in plenums shall comply with the California 
Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 720 
PRESCRIPTIVE FIRE RESISTANCE 

720.1 General. The provisions of this section contain prescrip- 
tive details of fire-resistance-rated building elements. The 
materials of construction listed in Tables 720.1(1), 720.1(2), 
and 720.1(3) shall be assumed to have the fire-resistance rat- 
ings prescribed therein. Where materials that change the capac- 
ity for heat dissipation are incorporated into a 
fire-resistance-rated assembly, fire test results or other substan- 
tiating data shall be made available to the building official to 
show that the required fire-resistance-rating time period is not 
reduced. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



181 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1) 

MINIMUIVI PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



INSULATING MATERIAL USED 



MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



hour 



1. Steel columns 
and all of primary 
trusses 



1-1.1 



1-1.2 



1-1.3 



1-1.4 



1-1.5 



1-1.6 



1-.2.1 



1-3.1 



1-3.2 



1-3.3 



1-3.4 



1-4.1 



1-5.1 



1-6.1 



1-6.2 



1-6.3 



1-6.4 



Carbonate, lightweight and sand-Hghtweight aggregate concrete, members 6" x 6" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel)." 



2V, 



IV, 



Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 8" x 8" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel)." 



IV, 



Carbonate, lightweight and sand-Ughtweight aggregate concrete, members 
12" X 12" or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel)." 



IV, 



Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 6" x 
6"or greater." 



IV, 



Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 8" x 8" 
or greater." 



2V, 



SiUceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 
12" X 12" or greater." 



Clay or shale brick with brick and mortar fill." 



3\ 



4" hoUow clay tile in two 2" layers; V2" mortar between tUe and column; Vg" metal 
mesh 0.046" wire diameter in horizontal joints; tile fill." 



2" hollow clay tile; V/ mortar between tile and column; %" metal mesh 0.046" wire 
diameter in horizontal joints; limestone concrete fill;" plastered with V^" gypsum 
plaster. 



2" hoUow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile or Vg" 
metal mesh 0.046" diameter wire in horizontal joints; limestone or trap-rock 
concrete fill" extending 1" outside column on all sides. 



2" hoUow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile with or 
without concrete fill; V4" mortar between tile and column. 



Cement plaster over metal lath wire tied to ^Z/ cold-rolled vertical channels with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 
1:2 V2 by volume, cement to sand. 



2%" 



Vermiculite concrete, 1:4 mix by volume over paperbacked wire fabric lath wrapped 
directly around column with additional 2" x 2" 0.065"/0.065" (No. 16/16 B.W. gage) 
wire fabric placed V4" from outer concrete surface. Wire fabric tied with 0.049" (No. 
18 B.W. gage) wire spaced 6" on center for inner layer and 2" on center for outer 
layer. 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over metal lath wrapped around column and 
furred 1 V4" from column flanges. Sheets lapped at ends and tied at 6" intervals with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) tie wire. Plaster pushed through to flanges. 



IV, 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over self-furring metal lath wrapped directly 
around column, lapped 1" and tied at 6" intervals with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) 
wire. 



I'L 



1V« 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath applied to %" cold-rolled 
channels spaced 24" apart vertically and wrapped flatwise around column. 



IV, 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over two layers of Vj" plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath wrapped with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 
20 gage wire and tied with doubled 0.035" diameter (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 
spaced 23" on center. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall 
not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2V2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 3-hour 
system. 



2V, 



(continued) 



182 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



INSULATING MATERIAL USED 



MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 



hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



1 
hour 



1. Steel columns 
and all of primary 
trusses 
(continued) 



1-6.5 



Perlite or vermiculate gypsum plaster over one layer of V2" plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath tied with doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. 
gage) wire ties spaced 23" on center and scratch coat wrapped with 1" hexagonal 
mesh 0.035" (No. 20 B.W. gage) wire fabric. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for 
the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2V2 cubic feet of 
aggregate. 



1-7.1 



1-7.2 



1-7.3 



1-8.1 



Multiple layers of Vj" gypsum wallboard"^ adhesively'' secured to column flanges and 
successive layers. Wallboard applied without horizontal joints. Corner edges of each 
layer staggered. Wallboard layer below outer layer secured to column with doubled 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel wire ties spaced 15" on center. Exposed corners 
taped and treated. 



Three layers of Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard"^. First and second layer held in place 
by Vg" diameter by 1%" long ring shank nails with V^" diameter heads spaced 24" 
on center at comers. Middle layer also secured with metal straps at mid-height and 
18" from each end, and by metal comer bead at each comer held by the metal straps. 
Third layer attached to comer bead with 1" long gypsum wallboard screws spaced 
12"on center. 



Three layers of Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard,"^ each layer screw attached to 1%" 
steel studs 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) at each comer of column. 
Middle layer also secured with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W.gage) double-strand steel wire 
ties, 24" on center. Screws are No. 6 by 1" spaced 24" on center for inner layer, No. 
6 by iVg" spaced 12" on center for middle layer and No. 8 by 2V4" spaced 12" on 
center for outer layer. 



1-9.1 



Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum-to-sand aggregate 
applied over metal lath. Lath lapped 1" and tied 6" on center at all end, edges and 
spacers with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Lath applied over V2" spacers 
made of %" furring channel with 2" legs bent around each comer. Spacers located 1" 
from top and bottom of member and a maximum of 40"on center and wire tied with 
a single strand of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Comer bead tied to the 
lath at 6" on center along each comer to provide plaster thickness. 



Minimum W8x35 wide flaijge steel column (w/d > 0.75) with each web cavity filled 
even with the flange tip with normal weight carbonate or siUceous aggregate 
concrete (3,000 psi minimum compressive strength with 145 pcf ± 3 pcf unit 
weight). Reinforce the concrete in each web cavity with a minimum No. 4 deformed 
reinforcing bar installed vertically and centered in the cavity, and secured to the 
column web with a minimum No. 2 horizontal deformed reinforcing bar welded to 
the web every 18" on center vertically. As an alternative to the No. 4 rebar,%" 
diameter by 3" long headed studs, spaced at 12" on center vertically, shall be welded 
on each side of the web midway between the column flanges. 



IV. 



IV. 



1\ 



See 

Note 

n 



2-1.1 



2. Webs or 
flanges of 
steel beams and 
girders 



Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete (not including 
sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel) with 3" or finer metal mesh placed 1" from 
the finished surface anchored to the top flange and providing not less than 0.025 
square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 



IV, 



2-1.2 



Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 2-1.1 with 3" or finer 
metal mesh placed 1" from the finished surface anchored to the top flange and 
providing not less than 0.025 square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 



2V, 



IV, 



2-2.1 



Cement plaster on metal lath attached to %" cold-rolled channels with 0.04" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2V2 by volume, 
cement to sand. 



2V,i> 



V« 



(continued) 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



183 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS"* 









MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 








INSULATING MATERIAL 








FOR THE FOLLOWING 








FIRE-RESISTANCE 


STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 






PERIODS (inches) 


ITEM 




4 


3 


2 


1 


PROTECTED 


NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


hour 


hour 


hour 


hour 






Vermiculite gypsum plaster on a metal lath cage, wire tied to 0.165" diameter (No. 8 












2-3.1 


B.W. gage) steel wire hangers wrapped around beam and spaced 16" on center. Metal 
lath ties spaced approximately 5" on center at cage sides and bottom. 


— 


\ 


— 


— 




Two layers of Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard'= are attached to U-shaped brackets 














spaced 24" on center. 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) 1%" deep by 1" 














galvanized steel runner chaimels are first installed parallel to and on each side of the 














top beam flange to provide a V/ clearance to the flange. The channel runners are 














attached to steel deck or concrete floor construction with approved fasteners spaced 














12" on center. U-shaped brackets are formed from members identical to the channel 














runners. At the bent portion of the U-shaped bracket, the flanges of the channel are cut 














out so that iVg" deep comer channels can be inserted without attachment parallel to 














each side of the lower flange. 












2-4.1 


As an alternate, 0.021" thick (No. 24 carbon sheet steel gage) T'x 2" runner and comer 






1'/. 






angles may be used in lieu of channels, and the web cutouts in the U-shaped brackets 






1 '4 








may be omitted. Each angle is attached to the bracket with V2"-long No. 8 self-drilling 










2. Webs or flanges 




screws. The vertical legs of the U-shaped bracket are attached to the mnners with one 










of steel beams and 




Vj" long No. 8 self-drilling screw. The completed steel framing provides a l^l{ and 










girders 




1 V2" space between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the steel 










(continued) 




beam, respectively. The inner layer of wallboard is attached to the top runners and 
bottom corner charmels or comer angles with 1 '//-long No. 6 self-drilling screws 
spaced 16" on center. The outer layer of wallboard is applied with 1 V/'-long No. 6 
self-drilling screws spaced 8" on center. The bottom comers are reinforced with metal 
comer beads. 












Three layers of Vj" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ attached to a steel suspension system 














as described immediately above utilizing the 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel 














gage) 1" X 2" lower comer angles. The framing is located so that a l^'l^' and 2" space 














is provided between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the beam. 














respectively. The first two layers of wallboard are attached as described immediately 












2-4.2 


above. A layer of 0.035" thick (No. 20 B.W. gage) 1" hexagonal galvanized wire mesh 
is applied under the soffit of the middle layer and up the sides approximately 2". The 
mesh is held in position with the No. 6 \^l{'-\cia%, screws installed in the vertical leg of 
the bottom corner angles. The outer layer of wallboard is attached with No. 6 
2V4"-long screws spaced 8" on center. One screw is also installed at the mid-depth of 
the bracket in each layer. Bottom comers are finished as described above. 




1% 






3. Bonded 




Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous^ aggregate concrete 


48 


^g 


2'/, 


IV2 


pretensioned 




Beams or girders 


*+" 


J 


■^ '2 


reinforcement in 


3-1.1 












prestressed 








9 


iVo 


1 


concrete^ 




SoUd slabs'" 




j^ 


-'■ '1 






Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous' aggregate concrete 














Unrestrained members: 








— 




4-1.1 


SoUd slabs'" 


— 


2 


1V2 




4. Bonded or 


Beams and girders' 








1^/4 


unbonded 




8" wide 




4'/, 


1\ 


l'/2. 


post-tensioned 




greater than 12" wide 


3 


2'/, 


2 




tendons in 




Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siUceous aggregate 










prestressed 




Restrained members:'' 




1 






concrete^-' 


4-1.2 


Solid slabs'" 


l'/4 




V4 






Beams and girders^ 




2 











8" wide 


1\ 


\\ 


1^/4 


. 






greater than 12" wide 


2 




1'/, 





{continued) 



184 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (Inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


5. Reinforcing 
steel in reinforced 
concrete columns, 
beams girders and 
trusses 


5-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 12" or 
larger, square or round. (Size limit does not apply to beams and girders monolithic 
with floors.) 

Siliceous aggregate concrete, members 12" or larger, square or round. (Size limit 
does not apply to beams and giirders monolithic with floors.) 


IV, 
2 


IV2 
IV2 


1% 


IV2 
IV2 


6. Reinforcing 
steel in reinforced 
concrete joists' 


6-1.1 
6-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-Hghtweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


IV4 
1% 


IV4 
IV, 


1 

1 


% 


7. Reinforcing 
and tie rods in 
floor and roof 
slabs' 


7-1.1 
7-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-hghtweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


1 

IV4 


1 
1 


1 





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mni^, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^. 

a. Reentrant parts of protected members to be filled solidly. 

b. Two layers of equal thickness with a%-inch airspace between. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in Table 720. 1(1), gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be 
permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard and the joints on the face layer are reinforced, 
and the entire surface is covered with a minimum of '/15-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. An approved adhesive qualified under ASTM E 1 19. 

e. Where lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete having an oven-dry weight of 1 10 pounds per cubic foot or less is used, the tabulated minimum cover shall be per- 
mitted to be reduced 25 percent, except that in no case shall the cover be less than % inch in slabs or l'/, inches in beams or girders. 

f . For solid slabs of siliceous aggregate concrete, increase tendon cover 20 percent. 

g. Adequate provisions against spalling shall be provided by U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member with a clear cover of 1 inch, 
h. Prestressed slabs shall have a thickness not less than that required in Ihble 720.1(3) for the respective fire resistance time period. 

i. Fire coverage and end anchorages shall be as follows: Cover to the prestressing steel at the anchor shall be '/, inch greater than that required away from the anchor. 
Minimum cover to steel-bearing plate shall be 1 inch in beams and% inch in slabs. 

j. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, cover thickness shall be permitted to be determined by interpolation. 

k. Interior spans of continuous slabs, beams and girders shall be permitted to be considered restrained. 

1. For use with concrete slabs having a comparable fire endurance where members are framed into the structure in such a manner as to provide equivalent perfor- 
mance to that of monolithic concrete construction. 

m. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the Usting) in GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein Usted. 

n. No additional insulating material is required on the exposed outside face of the column flange to achieve a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



185 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2) 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS =°" 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE'' 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


l.Biickof clay or 
shale 


1-1.1 


Solid brick of clay or shale'^ 


6 


4.9 


3.8 


2.7 


1-1.2 


Hollow brick, not filled. 


5.0 


4.3 


3.4 


2.3 


1-1.3 


Hollow brick unit wall, grout or filled with perlite vermiculite or expanded shale 
aggregate. 


6.6 


5.5 


4.4 


3.0 


1-2.1 


4" nominal thick units at least 75 percent solid backed with a hat-shaped metal 
fiirring channel %" thick formed from 0.021" sheet metal attached to the brick 
wall on 24" centers with approved fasteners, and Vj" Type X gypsum wallboard 
attached to the metal fiirring strips with l"-long Type S screws spaced 8" on 
center. 


— 


— 


5^ 


— 


2. Combination of 
clay brick and 
load-bearing 
hollow clay tile 


2-1.1 


4" solid brick and 4" tile (at least 40 percent solid). 





8 








2-1.2 


4" solid brick and 8" tile (at least 40 percent solid). 


12 


— 


— 


— 


3. Concrete 
masonry units 


3-l.lf'8 


Expanded slag or pumice. 


4.7 


4.0 


3.2 


2.1 


3-1.2f'S 


Expanded clay, shale or slate. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.6 


3-1.3f 


Limestone, cinders or air-cooled slag. 


5.9 


5.0 


4.0 


2.7 


3-1. #8 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel. 


6.2 


5.3 


4.2 


2.8 


4. Solid concrete''' ' 


4-1.1 


Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


Carbonate aggregate concrete. 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


Sand-lightweight concrete. 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 


Lightweight concrete. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 


5. Glazed or 
unglazed facing 
tile, nonload- 
bearing 


5-1.1 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 25 percent 
maximum with %" mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions reversed in alternate 
courses. 


— 


6% 


— 


— 


5-1.2 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 40 percent 
maximum with %" mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions side with %" gypsum 
plaster. Two wythes tied together every fourth course with No. 22 gage 
corrugated metal ties. 


— 


6% 


— 


— 


5-1.3 


One unit with three cells in wall thickness, cored 29 percent maximum. 





— 


6 





5-1.4 


One 2" unit cored 22 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 41 percent 
maximum with V4" mortar-filled collar joint. Two wythes tied together every 
third course with 0.030" (No. 22 galvanized sheet steel gage) corrugated metal 
ties. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


5-1.5 


One 4" unit cored 25 percent maximum with %" gypsum plaster on one side. 


— 


— 


4% 


— 


5-1.6 


One 4" unit with two cells in wall thickness, cored 22 percent maximum. 


— 


— 




4 


5-1.7 


One 4" unit cored 30 percent maximum with %" vermiculite gypsum plaster on 
one side. 


— 


— 


4'/2 


— 


5-1.8 


One 4" unit cored 39 percent maximum with %" gypsum plaster on one side. 


— 








4V, 



(continued) 



186 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 







TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS 


a,o,p 








MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


minimum finished thickness 
face-to-face" 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


6. Solid gypsum 
plaster 


6-1.1 


V4" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 
16" on center with 2.6-pound flat metal lath appKed to one face and tied with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. Gage) wire at 6" spacing. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 
1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2" 


6-1.2 


V4" by 0.05" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels 16" on center 
with metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) 
wire at 6" spacing. Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster each side. For 
three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds 
of gypsum to 2 V2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 1-hour system. 


— 


— 


21/2^ 


2" 


6-1.3 


V4" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 
16" on center with Vg" gypsum lath applied to one face and attached with sheet 
metal clips. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand 
aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2" 


6-2.1 


Studless with V2" full-length plain gypsum lath and gypsum plaster each side. 
Plaster mixed 1 : 1 for scratch coat and 1 :2 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2" 


6-2.2 


Studless with V2" full-length plain gypsum lath and perlite or vermiculite 
gypsum plaster each side. 


— 


— 


2%^ 


2" 


6-2.3 


Studless partition with %" rib metal lath installed vertically adjacent edges tied 
6" on center with No. 18 gage wire ties, gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by 
weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2" 


7. Solid perlite 
and porfland 
cement 


7-1.1 


Perlite mixed in the ratio of 3 cubic feet to 100 pounds of portland cement and 
machine applied to stud side of 1 Vj" mesh by 0.058-inch (No. 17 B.W. gage) 
paper-backed woven wke fabric lath wire-tied to 4"-deep steel trussed 
wirei'studs 16" on center. Wire ties of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) galvanized 
steel wire 6" on center vertically. 


— 




s'V 


— 


8. Solid neat 
wood fibered 
gypsum plaster 


8-1.1 


V4" by 0.055-inch (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels, 12" on 
center with 2.5-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" 
(No. 18 B.W. gage) wire at 6" spacing. Neat gypsum plaster applied each side. 


— 


— 


2" 


— 


9. Solid 

wallboard 

partition 


9-1.1 


One full-length layer V2" Type X gypsum wallboard^ laminated to each side of 
1" full-length V-edge gypsum coreboard with approved laminating compound. 
Vertical joints of face layer and coreboard staggered at least 3". 


— 


— 


2" 


— 


10. Hollow 

(studless) 

gypsum 

wallboard 

partition 


10-1.1 


One full-length layer of %" Type X gypsum wallboard^ attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners laminated to each side of l"x 6" 
full-length gypsum coreboard ribs spaced 2" on center with approved 
laminating compound. Ribs centered at vertical joints of face plies and joints 
staggered 24" in opposing faces. Ribs may be recessed 6" from the top and 
bottom. 


— 


— 


— 


21/4'^ 


10-1.2 


1" regular gypsum V-edge full-length backing board attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners v/iih nails or iVg" drywall screws at 24" 
on center. Minimum width of rumors iVg". Face layer of V2" regular full-length 
gypsum wallboard laminated to outer faces of backing board with approved 
laminating compound. 


— 


— 


4^8" 


— 



(continued) 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



187 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ="* 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(Inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


11. Noncombustible 
studs-interior 
partition with plaster 
each side 


11-1.1 


3V4" X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 24" on center. 
Vg" gypsum plaster on metal lath each side mixed 1 :2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 




4V 


11-1.2 


3%" X 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable'' studs spaced 
24" on center. Vg" neat gypsum wood-fibered plaster each side over %" rib 
metal lath nailed to studs with 6d common nails, 8" on center. Nails driven 
1'//' and bent over. 


— 


— 


5% 


— 


11-1.3 


4" X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped steel stods at 16" 
on center. On each side approved resiUent clips pressed onto stud flange at 16" 
vertical spacing, ^/^" pencil rods snapped into or wire tied onto outer loop of 
clips, metal lath wire-tied to pencil rods at 6" intervals, 1" perlite gypsum 
plaster, each side. 


— 


7V 


— 


— 


11-1.4 


2V2" X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 16" on center. 
Wood fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum to sand aggregate 
applied on V4-pound metal lath wire tied to smds, each side. ^Z/ plaster applied 
over each face, including finish coat. 


— 


— 


4'// 


— 


12. Wood studs 
interior partition 
with plaster each 
side 


12-1. 11. -n 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with '/g" gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached by 4d common nails bent over or No. 14 gage by 1'//' by %" crown 
width staples spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:1 Vjfor scratch coat and 1:3 
for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5V3 


12-1.2' 


2" x4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and %" neat wood-fibered 
gypsum plaster each side. Lath attached by 6d common nails, 7" on center. 
Nails driven l'//' and bent over. 


— 


— 


5'/2'' 


— 


12-1.3' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with%" perforated or plain gypsum lath and 
'/a" gypsum plaster each side. Lath nailed with 1 '/g" by No. 13 gage by ^^Z^" 
head plasterboard blued nails, 4" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5V4 


12-1.4' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16"on center with Vg" Type X gypsum lath and '4" gypsum 
plaster each side. Lath nailed with I'/g" by No. 13 gage by '^V' head 
plasterboard blued nails, 5" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5'/4 


1 3 .Noncombustible 
studs-interior 
partition with 
gypsum wallboard 
each side 


13-1.1 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 24" on center 
with one full-length layer of %" Type X gypsum wallboard' applied vertically 
attached with 1" long No. 6 drywall screws to each stud. Screws are 8" on 
center around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stod. The 
wallboard may be applied horizontally when attached to 3%" studs and the 
horizontal joints are staggered with those on the opposite side. Screws for the 
horizontal application shall be 8" on center at vertical edges and 12" on center 
at intermediate studs. 


— 


— 




2V 


13-1.2 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 25" on center 
with two full-length layers of '/j" Type X gypsum wallboard' applied vertically 
each side. First layer attached with T'-long, No. 6 drywall screws, 8" on center 
around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. Second layer 
applied with vertical joints offset one stud space from first layer using 1%" 
long. No. 6 drywall screws spaced 9" on center along vertical joints, 12" on 
center at intermediate studs and 24" on center along top and bottom runners. 




— 


3V 


— 


13-1.3 


0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable metal studs' 24" on 
center with full-length Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard' apphed vertically and 
nailed 7" on center with 6d cement-coated common nails. Approved metal 
fastener grips used with nails at vertical butt joints along studs. 




— 


— 


4'/g 



(continued) 



188 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS "•"•p 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 

hour 


1 
hour 


14.Wood 
studs-interior 
partition with 
gypsum wallboard 
each side 


14-1.1"-™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers of %" regular gypsum 
wallboard'^ each side, 4d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center first layer, 5d 
cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center second layer with laminating 
compound between layers, joints staggered. First layer applied full length 
vertically, second layer applied horizontally or vertically 


— 


— 


— 


5 


14-1.2'-™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers '/z" regular gypsum wallboard' 
applied vertically or horizontally each side'', joints staggered. Nail base layer 
with 5d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center face layer with 8d cooler" or 
wallboard" nails at 8 " on center. 


— 


— 


— 


5% 


14-1.3'-™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 24" on center with %" Type X gypsum wallboard' applied 
vertically or horizontally nailed with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on 
center with end joints on nailing members. Stagger joints each side. 


— 


— 


— 


4% 


14-1.4' 


2" X 4" fire-retardaijt-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
Vg" Type X gypsum'^'wallboard' applied with face paper grain (long dimension) 
parallel to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on 
center. 


— 


— 


— 


43/4" 


14-1.5'-™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 1" on center with two layers Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard' 
each side. Base layers applied vertically and nailed with 6d cooler" or wallboard" 
nails at 9" on center. Face layer applied vertically or horizontally and nailed 
with 8d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on center. For nail-adhesive application, 
base layers are nailed 6" on center. Face layers applied with coating of approved 
wallboard adhesive and nailed 12" on center. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


14-1.6' 


2" X 3" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard' applied with face paper grain (long dimension) 
at right angles to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cement-coated box nails 
spaced 7 "on center. 


— 


— 


— 


3%" 


15. Exterior or 
interior walls 


15-1.1'-™ 


Exterior surface with 2/4" drop siding over V2" gypsum sheathing on 2" x 4" 
wood studs at 16" on center, interior surface treatment as required for 
l-hour-rated exterior or interior 2"'x 4" wood stud partitions. Gypsum sheathing 
nailed with IV4" by No. 11 gage byVig" head galvanized nails at 8" on center. 
Siding nailed with 7d galvanized smooth box nails. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


15-1.2'-™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and V4" cement plaster on each 
side. Lath attached with 6d common nails 7" on center driven to 1" minimum 
penetration and bent over. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown 
coat, by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


5\ 


15-1.3'-™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with '/g" cement plaster (measured from the 
face of studs) on the exterior surface with interior surface treatment as required 
for interior wood stud partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 
1:5 for brown coat, by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


15-1.4 


3Vg" No. 16 gage noncombustible studs 16" on center with %" cement plaster 
(measured from the face of the studs) on the exterior surface with interior 
surface treatment as required for interior, nonbearing, noncombustible stud 
partitions in tliis table. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, 
by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


Vanes'" 



(continued) 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



189 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS °'°'P 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



1 
hour 



15-1.5" 



2V4" X 3%" clay face brick with cored holes over Vj" gypsum sheathing on 
exterior surface of 2" x 4" wood studs at 16" on center and two layers %" Type 
X gypsum wallboard^on interior surface. Sheathing placed horizontally or 
vertically with vertical joints over studs nailed 6" on center with 1%" x No. 11 
gage by '/u" head galvanized nails. Inner layer of wallboard placed horizontally 
or vertically and nailed 8"on center with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails. Outer 
layer of wallboard placed horizontally or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 
8d cooler" or waUboard" nails. All joints staggered with vertical joints over studs. 
Outer layer joints taped and finished with compound. Nail heads covered with 
joint compound. 0.035 inch (No. 20 galvanized sheet gage) corrugated 
galvanized steel wall ties %" by 6%" attached to each stud with two 8d cooler" 
or wallboard" nails every sixth course of bricks. 



10 



15-1.6''™ 



2" X 6" fire-retardant-treated wood studs 16" on center. Interior face has two 
layers of %" Type X gypsum with the base layer placed vertically and attached 
with 6d box nails 12" on center. The face layer is placed horizontally and 
attached with 8d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. 
The exterior face has a base layer of %" Type X gypsum sheathing placed 
vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. 
An approved building paper is next applied, followed by self-furred exterior lath 
attached with 2V2", No. 12 gage galvanized roofing nails with a %" diameter 
head and spaced 6"on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of a V/ 
brown coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by 
weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of 
approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed 
in the proportion of 1 :4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of 
hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. 



8'A 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



15-1.7''"' 



2" X 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of %" Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12"on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed 
by 1" by No. 18 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2V2" long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of a V2" scratch coat, a bonding agent and a V2" brown coat and a 
finish coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1 :3 by 
weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of 
approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed 
in the proportion of 1:4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of 
hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat, 
liie interior is covered with %" gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of 0.035 
inch (No. 20 B.W. gage) woven wire lath furred out Vje" and 1" perlite or 
vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1 Vg" by No. 13 gage by ^V^" head 
plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by 1%" by No. 12 
gage by ^/g" head nails with Vg" furrings, spaced 8" on center. The plaster mix 
shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2'/, cubic feet of aggregate. 



8V, 



15-1.8'' "> 



2" x6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of Vg" Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed 
by l'/2" by No. 17 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2V2" long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of a '/2" scratch coat, and aV2" brown coat is then applied. The plaster 
may be placed by machine. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:4 by 
weight, plastic cement to sand. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:5 
by weight, plastic cement to sand. The interior is covered with %" gypsum lath 
with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 gage woven wire lath fiirred out Vig" and 1" 
perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1 Vg" by No. 13 gage 
by''/g4" head plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by 
1%" by No. 12 gage by %" head nails with %" furrings, spaced 8" on center. 
The plaster mdx shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2'/2 cubic feet of 
aggregate. ^ 



8Vg 



(continued) 



190 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS °°p 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(Inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



15-1.9 



4" No. 18 gage, nonload-bearing metal studs, 16" on center, with 1" portland 
cement lime plaster [measured from the back side of the V4-pound expanded 
metal lath] on the exterior surface. Interior surface to be covered with 1" of 
gypsum plaster on ^-pound expanded metal lath proportioned by weight-l:2 for 
scratch coat, 1:3 for brown, gypsum to sand. Lath on one side of the partition 
fastened toV4" diameter pencil rods supported by No. 20 gage metal clips, 
located 16" on center vertically, on each stud. 3" thick mineral fiber insulating 
batts friction fitted between the studs. 



15-1.10 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, with V/ Glass 
Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is attached 
with flex anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two V2"-long 
flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with Vg" thick GFRC 
bonding pads that extend 2V2" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. 
Interior surface to have two layers of V2" Type X gypsum wallboard.'The first 
layer of wallboard to be attached with T'-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 
24" on center and the second layer is attached with lV8"-long Type S screws 
spaced at 12" on center. Cavity is to be filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral 
fiber batts. GFRC has 1 V2" returns packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the 
exterior. 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



15-1.11 



15-1.121 



15-1.13'! 



15-1.141 



15-1.151 



15-1.161 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, respectively, with 
V2" Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is 
attached with flex anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two 
V2"-long flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with %"-thick 
GFRC bonding pads that extend 2'/2" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides.. 
Interior surface to have one layer of %" Type X gypsum wallboard*, attached 
with 1 V^-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 12" on center. Cavity is to be 
filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. GFRC has 1 Vj" returns 
packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



2" X 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior 
and exterior sides covered with Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4 wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. 



6Vd 



6V, 



6V« 



2" X 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior 
and exterior sides covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4 wide, applied 
vertically with all joints over framing or blocking and fastened with 2V4" Type S 
drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. R-19 fiberglass insulation installed in stud 
cavity. 



2"x 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior 
and exterior sides covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4 wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S drywall screws, spaced 7" on center. 



2"x 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior 
and exterior sides covered with Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard and sheathing, 
respectively, 4 wide, applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over 
studs, and fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. 
Cavity to be filled with 3 'A" mineral wool insulation. 



2"x 6" wood studs at 24" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; 
interior and exterior side covered with two layers of Vg" Type X gypsum 
wallboard, 4' wide, aplUed horizontally with vertical joints over studs. Base 
layer fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 8" on center, wallboard 
joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastened heads covered with 
joint coumpound. Cavity to be filled with 5'/," mineral wool insulation. 



6% 



6^/4 



63/4 



4V4 



4V2 



(continued) 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



191 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS =°" 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


16. Exterior walls 
rated for fire 
resistance from 
the inside only in 
accordance with 
Section 704.5. 


16-1.15 


2" x4" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; 
interior side covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4 wide, applied 
horizontally unblocked, and fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 
12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, 
fastener heads covered with joint compound. Exterior- covered with %" wood 
structural panels, applied vertically, horizontal joints blocked and fastened with 
6d common nails (bright) - 12" on center in the field, and 6" on center panel 
edges. Cavity to be filled vyith 3V2" mineral wool insulation. Rating established 
for exposure from interior side only. 


— 


— 


— 


4V2 


16-1.25 


2" x6" (Slmm x 152 mm) wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, 
single bottom plate; interior side covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4 
wide, applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs and 
fastened with 2^1 ^ Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center, wallboard joints 
covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads covered with joint 
compound, exterior side covered with Vig" wood structaral panels fastened with 
6d conmion nails (bright) spacedl2" on center in the field and 6" on center along 
the panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 5V2" mineral wool insulation. Rating 
established from the gypsum-covered side only. 


— 


— 


— 


6'/i6 


16-1.3 


2" x6" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plates; 
interior side covered with %" Type X gypsum waJlboard, 4"-4' wide, appUed 
vertically with all joints over framing or blocking and fastened with 2V4" Type S 
drywall screws spaced 1" on center. Joints to be covered with tape and joint 
compound. Exterior covered with %" wood structural panels (oriented strand 
board), applied vertically with edges over framing or blocking and fastened with 
6d common nails (bright) at 12" on center in the field and 6" on center on panel 
edges. R-19 fiberglass insulation installed in stud cavity. 


— 


— 


— 


6% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mn^, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate iasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. Thickness shown for brick and clay tUe is nominal thicknesses unless plastered, in which case thicknesses are net. Thickness shown for concrete masonry and clay 
masonry is equivalent thickness defined in Section 721 .3 . 1 for concrete masonry and Section 72 1 .4. 1 . 1 for clay masonry. Where all cells are solid grouted or filled 
with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fiU insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, the equivalent thickness 
shall be the thickness of the block or brick using specified dimensions as defined in Chapter 2 1 . Equivalent thickness may also include the thickness of applied plas- 
ter and lath or gypsum wallboard, where specified. 

c. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 

d. Shall be used for nonbearing purposes only 

e. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of Vig-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

f. The fire-resistance time period for concrete masonry units meeting the equivalent thicknesses required for a 2-hour fire-resistance rating in Item 3, and having a 
thickness of not less than 7^8 inches is 4 hours when cores which are not grouted are filled with sUicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill 
insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, sand or slag having a maximum particle size of ^/g inch. 

g. The fire-resistance rating of concrete masonry units composed of a combination of aggregate types or where plaster is applied directly to the concrete masonry 
shall be determined in accordance with ACI 216.1A'MS 0216. Lightweight aggr^ates shall have a maximum combined density of 65 pounds per cubic foot. 

h. See also Note b. The equivalent thickness shall be permitted to include the thickness of cement plaster or 1 .5 times the thickness of gypsum plaster applied in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Chapter 25. 

i. Concrete walls shall be reinforced with horizontal and vertical temperature reinforcement as required by Chapter 19. 

J. Studs are welded truss wire studs with 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W gage) flange wire and 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W. gage) truss wires. 

k. Nailable metal studs consist of two channel studs spot welded back to back with a crimped web forming a nailing groove. 

1. Wood structural panels shall be permitted to be installed between the fire protection and the wood studs on either the interior or exterior side of the wood frame 
assemblies in this table, provided the length of the fasteners used to attach the fire protection is increased by an amount at least equal to the thickness of the wood 
structural panel. 

m. The design stress of studs shall be reduced to 78 percent of allowable F ' c with the maximum not greater than 78 percent of the calculated stress with studs having a 
slendemess ratio l/d of 33. 

n. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 514, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

o. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 

p. NCMA TEK 5-8A shall be permitted for the design of fire walls. 

q. The design stress of studs shall be equal to a maximum of 100 percent of the allowable F ' ^ calculated in accordance with Section 2306. 



192 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3) 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



1. Siliceous 
aggregate concrete 



2. Carbonate 
aggregate concrete 



3. Sand-lightweight concrete 



4. Lightweight concrete 



5. Reinforced 
concrete 



6. Steel joists constructed with 
a poured reinforced concrete 
slab on metal lath forms or 
steel form units'*'' 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



1-1.1 



2-1.1 



3-1.1 



4-1.1 



5-1.1 



5-2.1 



6-1.1 



6-2.1 



6-3.1 



6-4.1. 



6-5.1 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



Slab (no ceiling required). Minimum cover over 
nonprestressed reinforcement shall not be less than 



Slab with suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum 
plaster over metal lath attached to %" cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center. Ceiling located 6" 
minimum below joists. 



Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard'= attached to 0.018 
inch (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) by Vg" deep 
by 2^8" hat-shaped galvanized steel channels with 
1" -long No. 6 screws. The channels are spaced 24" 
on center, span 35" and are supported along their 
length at 35" intervals by 0.033" (No. 21 galvanized 
sheet gage) galvanized steel flat strap hangers 
having formed edges that engage the lips of the 
channel. The strap hangers are attached to the side 
of the concrete joists with ^/jj" by IV4" long 
power-driven fasteners. The wallboard is installed 
with the long dimension perpendicular to the 
channels. All end joints occur on channels and 
supplementary channels are installed parallel to the 
main channels, 12" each side, at end joint 
occurrences. The finished ceiling is located 
approximately 12" below the soffit of the floor slab. 



Gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to the bottom 
cord with single No. 16 gage or doubled No. 18 
gage wire ties spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 
for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown coat, by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate for 2-hour system. For 
3-hour system plaster is neat. 



Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached 
to the bottom chord with single No. 16 gage or 
doubled 0.049-inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 6" 
on center^ __^ 



Cement plaster over metal lath attached to the 
bottom chord of joists with single No. 16 gage or 
doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 
6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat, 1:3 
for brown coat for 1-hour system and 1:1 for scratch 
coat, 1 : 1 V2 for brown coat for 2-hour system, by 
weight, cement to sand. 



Ceiling of %" Type X wallboard^ attached to %" 
deep by iVg" by 0.021 inch (No. 25 carbon sheet 
steel gage) hat-shaped furring channels 12" on 
center with 1" long No. 6 wallboard screws at 8" on 
center. Channels wire tied to bottom chord of joists 
with doubled 0.049 inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire or 
suspended below joists on wire hangers.^ 



Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight 
gypsum to sand aggregate applied over metal lath. 
Lath tied 6" on center to V/ channels spaced 13 V2" 
on center. Channels secured to joists at each 
intersection with two strands of 0.049 inch (No. 18 
B.W. gage) galvanized wire. 



THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



7.0 



6.6 



5.4 



5.1 



3 
hour 



6.2 



5.7 



4.6 



4.4 



2 

hour 



5.0 



4.6 



3.8 



3.6 



2V, 



2V, 



2V, 



2V, 



1 
hour 



3.5 



3.2 



2.7 



2.5 



2V. 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



v« 



2 

hour 



'h 



1 
hour 



v„ 



(continued) 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



193 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^i 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


7. Reinforced concrete slabs 
and joists with hollow clay tile 
fillers laid end to end in rows 
2V2" or more apart; 
reinforcement placed between 
rows and concrete cast around 
and over tile. 


7-1.1 


%" gypsum plaster on bottom of floor or roof 
construction. 


— 


— 


8" 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


7-1.2 


None 


— 


— 


— 


5V2' 




— 




— 


8. Steel joists constructed with 
a reinforced concrete slab on 
top poured on a V2" deep steel 
deck.' 


8-1.1 


VermicuUte gypsum plaster on metal lath attached 
to V4" cold-rolled channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. 


2V2J 


— 




— 


% 


— 


— 


— 


9. 3" deep cellular steel deck 
with concrete slab on top. Slab 
thickness measured to top. 


9-1.1 


Suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum plaster 
base coat and vermiculite acoustical plaster on metal 
lath attached at 6" intervals to %" cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center and secured to 1 '4" 
cold-rolled chaimels spaced 36"on center with 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire. iVj" channels 
supported by No. 8 gage wire hangers at 36" on 
center. Beams within envelope and with a 2V2" 
airspace between beam soffit and lath have a 4-hour 
rating. 


2V2 


— 


— 


— 


iVg'' 


— 


— 


— 


10. lV2"-deep steel roof deck 
on steel framing. Insulation 
board, 30 pcf density, 
composed of wood fibers with 
cement binders of thickness 
shown bonded to deck with 
unified asphalt adhesive. 
Covered with a Class A or B 
roof covering. 


10-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached to V/ furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center.%" 
channel saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065"(No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle-tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


1% 


1 




— 


%' 


V 


11. lV2"-deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing wood fiber 
insulation board, 17.5 pcf 
density on top applied over a 
15-lb asphalt-saturated felt. 
Class A or B roof covering. 


ll-l.l 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached 10^4" furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center.%" 
channels saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 
1:3 for brown coat, by weight, gypsimi-to-sand 
aggregate for 1-hour system. For 2-hour system, 
plaster mix is 1:2 by weight, gypsum-to-sand 
aggregate. , 


— 


— 


IV2 


1 






V 


V 



(continued) 



194 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^'" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



12. 1 V2" deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing insulation of 
rigid board consisting of 
expanded perlite and fibers 
impregnated with integral 
asphalt waterproofing; density 
9 to 12 pcf secured to metal 
roof deck by V2" wide ribbons 
of waterproof, cold-process 
liquid adhesive spaced 6" 
apart. Steel joist or light steel 
construction with metal roof 
deck, insulation, and Class A 
or B built-up roof covering.^ 



13. Double wood floor over 
wood joists spaced 16" on 
center.™'" 



14. Plywood stressed skin 
panels consisting of ^''-thick 
interior C-D (exterior glue) . 
top stressed skin on 2" x 6" 
nominal (minimum) stringers. 
Adjacent panel edges joined 
with 8d common wire nails 
spaced 6" on center. Stringers 
spaced 12" maximum on 
center. 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



12-1.1 



13-1.1 



13-1.2 



13-1.3 



13-1.4 



14-1.1 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



Gypsum- vermiculite plaster on metal lath wire tied 
at 6" intervals to V4" furring channels spaced 12"on 
center and wire tied to 2" runner channels spaced 
32" on center. Runners wire tied to bottom chord of 
steel joists. 



Gypsum plaster over Vg" Type X gypsum lath. Lath 
initially applied with not less than four 1 Vg" by No. 
13 gage by ^^1^' head plasterboard blued nails per 
bearing. Continuous stripping over lath along all 
joist lines. Stripping consists of 3" wide strips of 
metal lath attached by 1 V2" by No. 1 1 gage by V2" 
head roofing nails spaced 6" on center. Alternate 
stripping consists of 3" wide 0.049" diameter wire 
stripping weighing 1 pound per square yard and 
attached by No. 16 gage by 1 V2" by %" crown width 
staples, spaced 4" on center. Where alternate 
stripping is used, the lath nailing may consist of two 
nails at each end and one nail at each intermediate 
bearing. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 



Cement or gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
fastened with IV2" by No. 11 gage by V^^' head 
barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 
Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 1:3 for brown 
coat, by weight, cement to sand aggregate. 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath 
secured to joists with 1 V2" by No. 11 gage by ^jg" 
head barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 



V2" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ nailed to joists with 
5d cooler or wallboard nails at 6" on center. End 
joints of wallboard centered on joists. 



V2"-thick wood fiberboard weighing 15 to 18 
pounds per cubic foot installed with long dimension 
parallel to stringers or %" C-D (exterior glue) 
plywood glued and/or nailed to stringers. Nailing to 
be with 5d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 12" on 
center. Second layer of V2" Type X gypsum 
wallboard" applied with long dimension 
perpendicular to joists and attached with 8d cooler" 
or wallboard" nails at 6" on center at end joints and 
8" on center elsewhere. Wallboard joints staggered 
with respect to fiberboard joints. 



THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



1 
hour 



(continued) 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



1 
hour 



'U 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



195 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING 
(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


15. Vermiculite concrete 
slab proportioned 1:4 
(portiand cement to 
vermiculite aggregate) on 
a lV2"-deep steel deck 
supported on individually 
protected steel framing. 
Maximum span of deck 6 
-10" where deck is less 
than 0.019 inch (No. 26 
carbon steel sheet gage) 
or greater. Slab reinforced 
with 4" x8" 0.109/0.083" 
(No.12/14 B.W. gage) 
welded wire mesh. 


15-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


3J 


— 


— 


— 


— 


16. Perlite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on a iV/'-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected 
steel framing. Slab 
reinforced with 4" x &" 
0.109/0.083" (No.i2/i4 
B.W. gage) welded wire 
mesh. 


16-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


3V,J 


— 


— 




— 


17. Perlite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on a ^/jg-'-deep 
steel deck supported by 
steel joists 4 on center. 
Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 


17-1.1 


PerUte gypsum plaster on metal lath wire tied to %" 
fijrring channels attached with 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. 
gage) wire ties to lower chord of joists. 


— 


2P 


2P 


— 


— 


% 


% 


— 


18. Perlite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on lV4"-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected 
steel framing. Maximum 
span of deck 6-10" where 
deck is less than 0.019" 
(No. 26 carbon sheet steel 
gage) and 8 -0" where 
deck is 0.019" (No. 26 
carbon sheet steel gage) 
or greater. Slab reinforced 
with 0.042" (No. 19 B.W. 
gage) hexagonal wire 
mesh. Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 


18-1.1 


None 


— 


2V4P 


2V4P 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



(continued) 



196 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS'" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



19. Floor and beam 
construction consisting of 
3"-deep cellular steel floor 
unit mounted on steel 
members with 1:4 
(proportion of portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) perlite-concrete 
floor slab on top. 



20. Perlite concrete 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) poured to Vg" 
thickness above top of 
corrugations of l^/i5"-deep 
galvanized steel deck 
maximum span 8'-0" for 
0.024"(No. 24 galvanized 
sheet gage) or 6'0" for 
0.019" (No. 26 galvanized 
sheet gage) with deck 
supported by individually 
protected steel framing. 
Approved polystyrene 
foam plastic insulation 
board having a flame 
spread not exceeding 75 
(1" to 4" thickness) with 
vent holes that 
approximate 3 percent of 
the board surface area 
placed on top of perlite 
slurry. A 2' by 4' 
insulation board contains 
six 2%" diameter holes. 
Board covered with 2V4" 
minimum perlite concrete 
slab. 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



19-1.1 



20-1.1 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



Suspended envelope ceiling of perlite 
gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to 
^"cold-rolled channels, secured to iVj" 
cold-rolled channels spaced 42" on center 
supported by 0.203 inch (No. 6 B.W. gage) 
wire 36" on center. Beams in envelope with 
3" minimum airspace between beam soffit 
and lath have a 4-hour rating. 



None 



THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



2P 



Varies 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(Inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



(continued) 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



197 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


(continued) 
20. Slab reinforced with mesh 
consisting of 0.042" (No. 19 
B.W. gage) galvanized steel 
wire twisted together to form 
2" hexagons with straight 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) 
galvanized steel wire woven 
into mesh and spaced 3". 
Alternate slab reinforcement 
shall be permitted to consist of 
4" X 8", 0.109/0.238" (No. 12/4 
B.W. gage), or 2" x 2", 
0.083/0.083" (No. 14/14 B.W. 
gage) welded wire fabric. Class 
A or B roof covering on top. 


20-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


21. Wood joists, wood I-joist, 
floor trusses and flat or pitched 
roof trusses spaced a maximum 
24" o.c. with V2" wood 
structural panels with exterior 
glue applied at right angles to 
top of joist or top chord of 
trusses with 8d nails. The wood 
structural panel thickness shall 
not be less than nominal V2" 
less than required by Chapter 
23. 


21-1.1 


Base layer Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard applied 
at right angles to joist or truss 24" o.c. with 1 V4" 
Type S or Type W drywall screws 24" o.c. Face 
layer Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard or veneer 
base applied at right angles to joist or truss 
through base layer with iVg" Type S or Type W 
drywall screws 12" o.c. at joints and intermediate 
joist or truss. Face layer Type G drywall screws 
placed 2" back on eitiier side of face layer end 
joints, 12" o.c. 


— 




— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


IV4 


22. Steel joists, wood I-joists, 
floor trusses and flat or pitched 
roof trusses spaced a maximum 
24" o.c. with V2" wood 
structural panels with exterior 
glue applied at right angles to 
top of joist or top chord of 
trusses with No. 8 screws. The 
wood structural panel thickness 
shall not be less than nominal 
V2" less than required by 
Chapter 23. 


22-1.1 


Base layer Vg" Type X gypsum board applied at 
right angles to steel framing 24" on center with 1" 
Type S drywall screws spaced 24"on center. Face 
layer %" Type X gypsum board applied at right 
angles to steel framing attached through base 
layer with 1\" Type S drywall screws 12" on 
center at end joints and intermediate joints and 
1 V2" Type G drywall screws 12 inches on center 
placed 2" back on either side of face layer end 
joints. Joints of the face layer are offset 24" from 
the joints of the base layer. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


IV4 


23. Wood I-joist (minimum 
joist depth 9%" with a 
minimum flange depth of IV15" 
and a minimum flange cross- 
sectional area of 2.3 square 
inches) at 24" o.c. spacing with 
1x4 (nominal) wood furring 
strip spacer applied parallel to 
and covering the bottom of the 
bottom flange of each member, 
tacked in place. 2" mineral 
wool insulation, 3.5 pcf 
(nominal) installed adjacent to 
the bottom flange of the I-joist 
and supported by the 1x4 
furring strip spacer. 


23-1.1 


V2" deep single leg resilient channel 16"on center 
(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), placed 
perpendicular to the fiarring strip and joist and 
attached to each joist by 1%" Type S drywall 
screws .%" Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints 
staggered at least 4 and fastened with 1 Vg" Type S 
drywall screws spaced 7" on center. Wallboard 
joints to be taped and covered with joint 
compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


— 



(continued) 



198 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUIVl PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



25. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9V4" with a 
minimum flange depth of 1 Vj" 
and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 5.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of V) @ 24" o.c, 
1 V2" mineral fiber insulation 
(2.5 pcf - nominal) resting on 
hat-shaped channels. 



26. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9V4" with a 
minimum flange depth of 1 V2" 
and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 5.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of V) @ 24" o.c, 
1 V/mineral fiber insulation 
(2.5 pcf - nominal) resting on 
resiUent channels. 



27. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9V4" with a 
minimum flange thickness of 
l'/2" and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 2.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of V) @ 24" o.c. 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



25-1.1 



26-1.1 



27-1.1 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



Minimum 0.026" thick hat-shaped channel 16" 
o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard end joints), 
placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to 
each joist by iVg" Type S drywall screws.%" 
Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints 
staggered and fastened with 1 Vg" Type S 
drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 
8" o.c. at the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints 
to be taped and covered with joint compound. 



Minimum 0.019" thick resilient channel 16" o.c. 
(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), 
placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to 
each joist by iVg" Type S drywall screws. ^I{ 
Type C gypsum wallboard apphed 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints 
staggered and fastened with 1" Type S drywall 
screws spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. at 
the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints to be taped 
and covered with joint compound. 



Two layers of V2" Type X gypsum wallboard 
applied with the long dimension perpendicular 
to the I-joists with end joints staggered. The 
base layer is fastened with iVg" Type S drywall 
screws spaced 12" o.c. and the face layer is 
fastened with 2" Type S drywall screws spaced 
12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. on the edges. 
Face layer end joints shall not occur on the same 
I-joist as base layer end joints and edge joints 
shall be offset 24" from base layer joints. Face 
layer to also be attached to base layer with 1 Vj" 
Type G drywall screws spaced 8" o.c. placed 6" 
from face layer end joints. Face layer wallboard 
joints to be taped and covered with joint 
compound. 



THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



1 
hour 



Varies 



Varies 



Varies 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 

hour 



1 
hour 



Varies 



Varies 



Varies 



(continued) 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



199 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 





TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^' 


1 












FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


28. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth QV/ with a 
minimum flange depth of 
iVig" and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 1.95 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of V) @ 24" o.c. 


28-1.1 


Minimum 0.019" thick resilient charmel 16" 
o.c.(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), 
placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to 
each joist by 1%" Type S dry wall screws. Two 
layers of V2" Type X gypsum wallboard applied 
with the long dimension perpendicular to the 
I-joists with end joints staggered. The base layer 
is fastened with 1 V/ Type S dry wall screws 
spaced 12" o.c. and the face layer is fastened 
with iVg" Type S drywall screws spaced 12" 
o.c. Face layer end joints shall not occur on the 
same I- Joist as base layer end joints and edge 
joints shall be offset 24" from base layer joints. 
Face layer to also be attached to base layer with 
IV2" Type G drywall screws spaced 8" o.c. 
placed 6" from face layer end joints. Face layer 
wallboard joints to be taped and covered witii 
joint compoimd. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


29. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9V4" with a 
minimum flange depth of 
1 V2" and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 2.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness ofV)@ 24" o.c, 
with hat-shaped channels 
supporting the middle and 
face layers of gypsum 
wallboard. Unfaced 
fiberglass insulation is 
installed between the I-joists 
supported on the upper 
surface of the flange by stay 
wires spaced 12" o.c. 


29-1.1 


Base layer of ^/g" Type C gypsum wallboard 
attached directly to I-joists with 1%" Type S 
drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. with ends 
staggered. Minimum 0.0179" thick resilient 
channel 16" o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard 
end joints), placed perpendicular to the joist and 
attached to each joist by l^/g" Type S drywall 
screws after the base layer of gypsum wall 
board has been applied. The middle and face 
layers of %" Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints 
staggered. The middle layer is fastened with 1" 
Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. The face 
layer is applied parallel to the middle layer but 
with the edge joints offset 24" from those of the 
middle layer and fastened with 1%" Type S 
drywall screws 8" o.c. The joints shall be taped 
and covered with joint compound. 


— 


— 




Varies 


— 




— 


Varies 


30. Channel-shaped 18 gauge 
steel joists (minimum depth 
8") spaced a maximum 24" 
o.c. supporting 
tongue-and-groove wood 
structural panels (nominal 
minimum %" thick) applied 
perpendicular to framing 
members. Structural panels 
attached with iVg" Type S-12 
screws spaced 12"o.c. 


30-1.1 


Base layer Vg" Type X gypsum board applied 
perpendicular to bottom of framing members 
with iVg" Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. 
Second layer Vs" Type X gypsum board 
attached perpendicular to framing members with 
l%"Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Second 
layer joints offset 24" from base layer. Third 
layer %" Type X gypsum board attached 
perpendicular to framing members with 2%" 
Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Third layer 
joints offset 12" from second layer joints. 
Hat-shaped rigid furring chaimels applied at 
right angles to framing members over third layer 
with two 2%" Type S-12 screws at each framing 
member. Face layer Vg" Type X gypsum board 
applied at right angles to furring channels with 
1 Vg" Type S screws spaced 12" o.c. 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


3Vg 


— 



200 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



Table 720.1(3) Notes. 

■ For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283m^ 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per lineal foot = 1.4882 kg/m. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate festeners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. When the slab is in an unrestrained condition, minimum reinforcement cover shall not be less than 1% inches for 4-hour (siliceous aggregate only); 1 V4 inches for 
4- and 3-hour; 1 inch for 2-hour (siliceous aggr^ate only); and % inch for all other restrained and unrestrained conditions. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of Vig-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. Slab thickness over steel joists measured at the joists for metal lath form and at the top of the form for steel form units. 

e. (a) The maximum allowable stress level for H-Series joists shall not exceed 22,000 psi. 

(b) The allowable stress for K-Series joists shall not exceed 26,000 psi, the nominal depth of such joist shall not be less than 10 inches and the nomlnaljoist weight 
shall not be less than 5 pounds per lineal foot. 

f. Cement plaster with 1 5 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admixtures per bag of cement. 

g. Gypsum wallboard ceilings attached to steel framing shall be permitted to be suspended with 1 Vj-inch cold-formed carrying channels spaced 48 inches on center, 
which are suspended with No. 8 SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 
SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 SWG galvanized wire (double 
strand) and spaced as required for direct attachment to the framing. This alternative is also apphcable to those steel framing assemblies recognized under 
Note q. 

h. Six-inch hollow clay tile with 2-inch concrete slab above. 

i. Four-inch hollow clay tile with 1 '/2-inch concrete slab above. 

j. Thickness measured to bottom of steel form units. 

k. Five-eighths inch of vermiculite gypsum plaster plus V2 inch of approved vermiculite acoustical plastic. 

1. Furring channels spaced 12 inches on center 

m. Double wood floor shall be permitted to be either of the following: 

(a) Subfloor of 1-inch nominal boarding, a layer of asbestos paper weighing not less than 14 pounds per 100 square feet and a layer of 1-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring; or 

(b) Subfloor of 1-inch nominal tongue-and-groove boarding or '^/32-inch wood structural panels with exterior glue and a layer of 1-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring or ' %2'inch wood structural panel finish flooring or a layer of Type I Grade M- 1 particleboard not less than %-inch thick. 

n. The ceiling shall be permitted to be omitted over unusable space, and flooring shall be permitted to be omitted where unusable space occurs abwe. 

o. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 514, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

p. Thickness measured on top of steel deck unit. 

q. Generic iire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 



720.1.1 Thickness of protective coverings. The thickness 
of fire-resistant materials required for protection of struc- 
tural members shall be not less than set forth in Table 
720.1(1), except as modified in this section. The jBigures 
shown shall be the net thickness of the protecting materials 
and shall not include any hollow space in back of the 
protection. 

720.1.2 Unit masonry protection. Where required, metal 
ties shall be embedded in bed joints of unit masonry for pro- 
tection of steel columns. Such ties shall be as set forth in 
Table 720.1(1) or be equivalent thereto. 

720.1.3 Reinforcement for cast-in-place concrete col- 
umn protection. Cast-in-place concrete protection for steel 
coluirms shall be reinforced at the edges of such members 
with wire ties of not less than 0.18 inch (4.6 mm) in diameter 
wound spirally around the columns on a pitch of not more 
than 8 inches (203 mm) or by equivalent reinforcement. 

720.1.4 Plaster application. The finish coat is not required 
for plaster protective coatings where they comply with the 
design mix and thickness requirements of Tables 720. 1(1), 
720.1(2) and 720.1(3). 

720.1.5 Bonded prestressed concrete tendons. For mem- 
bers having a single tendon or more than one tendon 
installed with equal concrete cover measured from the near- 
est surface, the cover shall not be less than that set forth in 
Table 720.1(1). For members having multiple tendons 
installed with variable concrete cover, the average tendon 



cover shall not be less than that set forth in Table 720.1(1), 
provided: 

1. The clearance from each tendon to the nearest ex- 
posed surface is used to determine the average cover. 

2. In no case can the clear cover for individual tendons 
be less than one-half of that set forth in Table 
720.1(1). A minimum cover of 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) 
for slabs and 1 inch (25 mm) for beams is required for 
any aggregate concrete. 

3. For the purpose of establishing a fire-resistance rat- 
ing, tendons having a clear covering less than that set 
forth in Table 720.1(1) shall not contribute more than 
50 percent of the required ultimate moment capacity 
for members less than 350 square inches (0.226 m^) in 
cross-sectional area and 65 percent for larger mem- 
bers. For structural design purposes, however, ten- 
dons having a reduced cover are assumed to be fully 
effective. < 

720.2 Cellular concrete. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] 

720.2.1 Use and application. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Con- 
trolled-density cellular concrete, when used or applied, 
shall be in accordance with the use of materials in Bulletin 
No. 65 of the Federal Housing Administration, United 
States Department of Housing and Urban Development. 

Exceptions: 

1. Regardless of the provisions of Subsections 3.2, 
3.3, 3.4 and 3.6 in Section 3, BulletinNo. 65provi- 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



201 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



sions relating to proportioning, mixing and test- 
ing, in the following shall apply to this chapter. 

1.1. Field-control weighings for control of the 
wet-unit weight shall be made. The design 
wet-unit weight for field control of the con- 
crete shall be based on previously estab- 
lished data for the relation between the 
wet-unit weight and the air-dry-unit 
weight at 28 days for the mix being placed. 
Field-control weighings for determining 
the wet-unit weight shall be made at the 
mixer discharge and at the point of deposit. 
There should be one pair of weighings per 
batch for batch-type mixers unless equip- 
ment is provided with scales allowing the 
operator to adequately weigh materials. 
For continuous weight-instrumented batch 
mixers, there should be one pair of 
weighings per 10 cubic yards (7.65 m^). 
The gain in unit weight between the mixer 
discharge and point of deposit shall not ex- 
ceed 5 percent. The wet-unit weight at the 
point of deposit of the concrete shall not ex- 
ceed plus 5 percent of the design wet-unit 
weight. A variation exceeding plus 5 per- 
cent of the design wet-unit weight shall re- 
quire a modification of the mix 
proportions, a change of materials or a 
change in the mixing procedure. 

1.2. When tests are required by the enforcing 
agency, they shall be performed in the fol- 
lowing manner: Two test cylinders, for 
compressive strength tests, shall be made 
for each 8,000 square feet (743 m^) of sur- 
face area placed. A minimum of two test 
cylinders shall be made each day. Each 
strength test result shall be the average of 
two cylinders from the same sample tested 
at 28 days or at a specified earlier date. 

1.3. The minimum air-dry density shall be 90 
pounds per cubic foot (1,440 kg/m^). The 
minimum design compressive strength 
shall be 1, 000 psi (6890 kPa) when the cur- 
ing procedure specified herein is applied. 
The minimum design compressive strength 
shall be 1,250 psi (8,619 kPa) if the slab is 
placed in a covered area of a building and 
a specified curing medium is not applied. 
The specified design compressive strength 
shall be increased 20 percent when the 
specified strength is greater than 1,000 psi 
(6,890 kPa) and the slab is placed in a cov- 
ered area of a building and a specified cur- 
ing medium is not applied. 

1.4. The cellular concrete shall be sampled at 
the point of deposit in accordance with the 
applicable procedures of ASTM C 172, 
Sampling Fresh Concrete. Cylinder molds 



shall be either 3 inches by 6 inches (76 mm 
by 152 mm) or 6 inches by 12 inches (152 
mm by 305 mm). Lightly tap the sides of the 
mold with a rubber hammer while filling 
the mold instead ofrodding the mix. Moist 
cure the specimens for seven days at 
73.4°F (40.8°C) plus or minus 3°F 
{1.7°C). At the age of seven days, remove 
the specimens from the moist condition and 
store in a temperature of73.4°F (40.8°C) 
plus or minus 3°F (1.7°C) and a relative 
humidity of 50 plus or minus 10 percent for 
21 days; remove and air dry until the time 
of test at 28 days. The compressive strength 
test shall be in accordance with ASTM C 
39, Compressive Strength of Cylindrical 
Concrete Specimens. Determine the 
air-dry-unit weight at 28 days. 

2. Regardless of the provisions of Subsections 4.1 
and 4.2 in Section 4 of Bulletin No. 65, relating to 
placing, finishing and curing, the following shall 
apply to these regulations. 

2.1. The concrete shall be placed, finished and 
cured to produce a level, smooth surface. 
The concrete shall be placed in a single 
layer to a minimum thickness ofV/2 inches 
(38 mm). The deviation from apian shall 
not exceed % inch (6 mm) in any 10 feet 
{1,048 mm). The final finish of the concrete 
shall be suitable for the application of the 
specified wear- resistant covering. Cracks 
wider than % inch (3 mm) shall be re- 
paired. 

2.2. Install a water-resistant membrane be- 
tween wood or plywood subfloors and the 
cellular concrete to prevent leakage of the 
concrete and wetting of the subfloor. The 
membrane shall consist of waterproof pa- 
per or plastic sheets conforming to ASTM 
C 171, Sheet Materials for Curing Con- 
crete, or Type 15 roofing felt conforming to 
ASTM D 226, D 250 or D 227, or Federal 
Specification UUB790, Building Paper 
Vegetable Fiber: (Kraft, Waterproofed, 
Water Repellent and Fire-resistant) Type 1, 
Grade B. The sheets shall be securely fas- 
tened to the subfloor 

3. Regardless of the provisions of Subsections 6.1 
and 6.2 in Section 6, of Bulletin No. 65, relating to 
applicator qualifications and warranty, these sub- 
sections are omitted from this chapter. 



SECTION 721 
CALCULATED FIRE RESISTANCE 

721.1 General. The provisions of this section contain proce- 
dures by which the fire resistance of specific materials or com- 



202 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



binations of materials is established by calculations. These 
procedures apply only to the information contained in this sec- 
tion and shall not be otherwise used. The calculated fire resis- 
tance of concrete, concrete masonry, and clay masonry 
assemblies shall be permitted in accordance with ACI 
216. 1/TMS 0216. The calculated fire resistance of steel assem- 
blies shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 5 of ASCE 
29. 

721.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A mineral wool insula- 
tion material made of alumina-silica fibers and weighing 4 
to 10 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with aggregates consisting mainly of calcium or mag- 
nesium carbonate, such as Hmestone or dolomite, and con- 
taining 40 percent or less quartz, chert, or flint. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. A lightweight insulating 
concrete made by mixing a preformed foam with portland 
cement slurry and having a dry unit weight of approxi- 
mately 30 pcf (480 kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. Con- 
crete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or 
slate or sintered fly ash or any natural lightweight aggregate 
meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resis- 
tance properties and weighing 85 to 1 15 pcf (1360 to 1840 
kg/m3). 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. A hghtweight insulating con- 
crete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 
kg/m') made with periite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggre- 
gate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, 
expands to form a glass-like material of cellular structure. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. Concrete made 
with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, 
sintered fly ash, or any natural lightweight aggregate meet- 
ing ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance 
properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally 
between 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m'). 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of 
silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium car- 
bonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert, 
or flint. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. A hghtweight insulating 
concrete made with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is 
laminated micaceous material produced by expanding the 
ore at high temperatures. When added to a portland cement 
slurry the resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approx- 
imately 30 pcf (480 kg/m^). 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. Fibrous glass roof insulation 
consisting of inorganic glass fibers formed into rigid boards 
using a binder. The board has a top surface faced with 
asphalt and kraft reinforced with glass fiber. 

MINERAL BOARD. A rigid felted thermal insulation 
board consisting of either felted mineral fiber or cellular 



beads of expanded aggregate formed into flat rectangular 
units. 

721.2 Concrete assemblies. The provisions of this section 
contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of con- 
crete assemblies are established by calculations. 

721.2.1 Concrete walls. Cast-in-place and precast concrete 
walls shall comply with Section 721 .2. 1 . 1 . Multiwythe con- 
crete walls shall comply with Section 721.2.1.2. Joints 
between precast panels shall comply with Section 
721 .2. 1.3. Concrete walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster 
finish shall comply with Section 721.2.1.4. 

721.2.1.1 Cast-in-place or precast walls. The mini- 
mum equivalent thicknesses of cast-in-place or precast 
concrete walls for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 
hours are shown in Table 721.2.1.1. For solid walls with 
flat vertical surfaces, the equivalent thickness is the same 
as the actual thickness. The values in Table 721.2.1.1 
apply to plain, reinforced or presti-essed concrete walls. 

TABLE 721.2.1.1 

MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS OF CAST-IN-PLACE OR 

PRECAST CONCRETE WALLS, LOAD-BEARING OR 

NONLOAD-BEARING 



CONCRETE 
TYPE 


MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (Inches) 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 


1-hour 


iVj-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand-Lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



721.2.1.1.1 Hollow-core precast wall panels. For 

hollow-core precast concrete wall panels in which the 
cores are of constant cross section throughout the 
length, calculation of the equivalent thickness by 
dividing the net cross-sectional area (the gross cross 
section minus the area of the cores) of the panel by its 
width shall be permitted. 

721.2.1.1.2 Core spaces filled. Where all of the core 
spaces of hollow-core wall panels are filled with 
loose-fill material, such as expanded shale, clay, or 
slag, or vermicuUte or periite, the fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the wall is the same as that of a solid wall of the 
same concrete type and of the same overall thickness. 

721.2.1.1.3 Tapered cross sections. The thickness of 
panels with tapered cross sections shall be that deter- 
mined at a distance 2t or 6 inches (152 mm), which- 
ever is less, from the point of minimum thickness, 
where t is the minimum thickness. 

721.2.1.1.4 Ribbed or undulating surfaces. The 

equivalent thickness of panels with ribbed or undulat- 
ing surfaces shall be determined by one of the follow- 
ing expressions: 

For s>4t, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s<2t, the thickness to be used shall be t^ 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



203 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



For 4t>s>2t,th.e thickness to be used shall be 



t + 



{ \ 
4£_ 

s 
V J 



r \ 



t -t 
e 

\ J 



(Equation 7-3) 



where: 

s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

t = Minimum thickness. 

t^ = Equivalent thickness of the panel calculated as 
the net cross-sectional area of the panel divided 
by the width, in which the maximum thickness 
used in the calculation shall not exceed 2t. 

721.2.1.2 Multiwythe walls. For walls that consist of 
two wythes of dififerent types of concrete, the fire-resis- 
tance ratings shall be permitted to be determined from 
Figure 721.2.1.2. 

721.2.1.2.1 Two or more wythes. The fire-resistance 
rating for wall panels consisting of two or more 
wythes shall be permitted to be determined by the for- 
mula: 



:(i?l''^9+/?20-59 



+...+i?„''«)l 



(Equation 7-4) 



R-- 

where: 

R = The fire endurance of the assembly, minutes. 

i?i, i?2, and i?„ = The &e endurances of the individual 
wythes, minutes. Values of /?„ "-'^ for use in Equation 
7-4 are given in Table 721.2.1.2(1). Calculated 
fire-resistance ratings are shown in Table 
721.2.1.2(2). 



INSIDE WYTHE 
CARBONATE 



INSIDE WYTHE 
SILICEOUS 




a: 

UJO 
Q 



THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE, INCHES 

OUTSIDE WYTHE OUTSIDE WYTHE 

CARBONATE SILICEOUS 

5 




THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE, INCHES 
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .2.1 .2 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS OF 
TWO-WYTHE CONCRETE WALLS 



TABLE 721.2.1.2(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS BASED ON R°^^ 



FP, MINUTES 


HO.59 


60 
120 
180 
240 


11.20 
16.85 
21.41 
25.37 



a. Based on Equation 7-4. 









TABLE 721.2.1.2(1) 
VALUES OF /?„"== FOR USE IN EQUATION 7-4 










TYPE OF MATERIAL 


THICKNESS OF MATERIAL (Inches) 


^\ 


2 


2% 


3 


z\ 


4 


4V, 


5 


5Va 


6 


6V, 


7 


Siliceous aggregate 
concrete 


5.3 


6.5 


8.1 


9.5 


11.3 


13.0 


14.9 


16.9 


18.8 


20.7 


22.8 


25.1 


Carbonate aggregate 
concrete 


5.5 


7.1 


8.9 


10.4 


12.0 


14.0 


16.2 


18.1 


20.3 


21.9 


24.7 


27.2"= 


Sand-lightweight 
concrete 


6.5 


8.2 


10.5 


12.8 


15.5 


18.1 


20.7 


23.3 


26.0'= 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Lightweight concrete 


6.6 


8.8 


11.2 


13.7 


16.5 


19.1 


21.9 


24.7 


27.8'= 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Insulating concrete'' 


9.3 


13.3 


16.6 


18.3 


23.1 


26.5-^ 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Airspace'' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kgAn^. 

a. Dry unit weight of 35 pcf or less and consisting of cellular, perlite or vermiculite concrete. 

b. The Rn"-^' value for one V/ to 3 V/ airspace is 3.3. The R°^^ value for two Vj" to V/ airspaces is 6.7. 

c. The fire-resistance rating for this thickness exceeds 4 hours. 



204 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.2.1,2.2 Foam plastic insulation. The fire-resis- 
tance ratings of precast concrete wall panels consist- 
ing of a layer of foam plastic insulation sandwiched 
between two wythes of concrete shall be permitted to 
be determined by use of Equation 7-4. Foam plastic 
insulation with a total thickness of less than 1 inch (25 
mm) shall be disregarded. The R„ value for thickness 
of foam plastic insulation of 1 inch (25 mm) or 
greater, for use in the calculation, is 5 minutes; there- 
■ fore 7?„°-59 = 2.5. 

721.2.1.3 Joints between precast wall panels. Joints 
between precast concrete wall panels which are not insu- 
lated as required by this section shall be considered as 
openings in walls. Uninsulated joints shall be included in 
determining the percentage of openings permitted by 
Table 704.8. Where openings are not permitted or are 
required by this code to be protected, the provisions of 
this section shall be used to determine the amount of j oint 
insulation required. Insulated joints shall not be consid- 
ered openings for purposes of determining compliance 
with the allowable percentage of openings in Table 
704.8. 

721.2.1.3.1 Ceramic fiber joint protection. Figure 
721.2.1.3.1 shows thicknesses of ceramic fiber blan- 
kets to be used to insulate joints between precast con- 
crete wall panels for various panel thicknesses and for 
joint widths of Vg inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 nun) 
for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours. For 
joint widths between Vg inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 
mm), the thickness of ceramic fiber blanket is allowed 
to be determined by direct interpolation. Other tested 



and labeled materials are acceptable in place of 
ceramic fiber blankets. 

721.2.1.4 Walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster fin- 
ishes. The fire-resistance rating of cast-in-place or pre- 
cast concrete walls with finishes of gypsum wallboard or 
plaster applied to one or both sides shall be permitted to 
be calculated in accordance with the provisions of this 
section. 

721.2.1.4.1 Nonfire-exposed side. Where the finish 
of gypsum wallboard or plaster is applied to the side 
of the wall not exposed to fire, the contribution of the 
finish to the total fire-resistance rating shall be deter- 
mined as follows: The thickness of the finish shall 
first be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness 
of the finish by the applicable factor determined from 
Table 721.2.1.4(1) based on the type of aggregate in 
the concrete. The corrected thickness of finish shall 
then be added to the actual or equivalent thickness of 
concrete and fire-resistance rating of the concrete and 
finish determined from Table 721.2.1.1, Figure 
721.2.1.2 or Table 721.2.1.2(1). 

721.2.1.4.2 Fire-exposed side. Where gypsum wall- 
board or plaster is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: 
The time assigned to the finish as established by Table 
721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rat- 
ing determined from Table 721.2.1.1 or Figure 
721.2.1.2, or Table 721.2.1.2(1) for the concrete 
alone, or to the rating determined in Section 
721.2.1.4.1 for the concrete and finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side. 



1IN( 


;h joir 

\ 
\ 


>ITWID1 
\ 


fH ^ 


\ 


\ 


A 


l'<^ 


\\iP 


\ 


\ 


^^^^ 




v 


V, 


% 


4jir_ 


N. 




^ 



3 4 5 6 7 8 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



3/8 INCH JC 
3hr.-\ 


INTWI 
^2hr. 


DTH 




\\ 


\ 




\ 




ii 




^s% 


i 


\ 



3 4 5 6 7 8 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



CO 

UJ 

X 

o 

z 

ts 

z 



ffi 
o 



UJ 

o 



m 

V) 

m 
z 
it: 
o 

X 
H- 

b 



1 INCH MAXIMUM REGARDLESS 
OF OPENING RATING 

-CERAMIC FIBER 
BLAN KET 




CARBONATE OR 

■ SILICEOUS AGGREGATE 

CONCRETE 

SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT 

■ OR LIGHTWEIGHT 

CONCRETE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 nun. 



, FIGURE 721.2.1.3.1 
CERAMIC FIBER JOINT PROTECTION 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



205 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.2.1.4.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall 
having no finish on one side or different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation pro- 
cedures of Sections 721.2.1.4.1 and 721.2.1.4.2 shall 
be performed twice, assuming either side of the wall 
to be the fibre-exposed side. The fire-restance rating of 
the wall shall not exceed the lower of the two values. 

Exception: For an exterior wall with more than 5 
feet (1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the fire 
shall be assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

721.2.1.4.4 Minimum concrete fire-resistance rat- 
ing. Where finishes applied to one or both sides of a 
concrete wall contribute to the fire-resistance rating, 
the concrete alone shall provide not less than one-half 



of the total required fire-resistance rating. Addition- 
ally, the contribution to the fibre resistance of the finish 
on the nonfibre-exposed side of a load-bearing wall 
shall not exceed one-half the contribution of the 
concrete alone. 

721.2.1.4.5 Concrete finislies. Finishes on concrete 
walls that are assumed to contribute to the total 
fire-resistance rating of the wall shall comply with the 
installation requirements of Section 721.3.2.5. 

721.2.2 Concrete floor and roof slabs. Reinforced and 
prestressed floors and roofs shall comply with Section 
721.2.2.1. Multicourse floors and roofs shall comply with 
Sections 721.2.2.2 and 721.2.2.3, respectively. 



TABLE 721.2.1.4(1) 
MULTIPLYING FACTOR FOR FINISHES ON NONFIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 



TYPE OF FINISH APPLIED 
TO MASONRY WALL 


TYPE OF AGGREGATE USED IN CONCRETE OR CONCRETE MASONRY 


Concrete: siliceous 

or carbonate 

Masonry: siliceous or 

calcareous gravel 


Concrete: sand 

lightweight concrete 

Masonry: limestone, 

cinders or unexpanded 

slag 


Concrete: lightweight 

concrete 
Masonry: expanded 
shale, clay or slate 


Concrete: pumice, or 
expanded slag 


Portland cement-sand plaster 


1.00 


0.75^ 


0.75^ 


0.50^ 


Gypsum-sand plaster or gypsum wallboard 


1.25 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


Gypsum-vermiculite or perlite plaster 


1.75 


1.50 


1.50 


1.25 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For Portland cement-sand plaster % inch or less in thiclaiess and applied directly to the masonry on the non&e-exposed side of the wall, the multiplying factor 
shall be 1.00. 

TABLE 721 .2.1 .4(2) 
TIME ASSIGNED TO FINISH MATERIALS ON FIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 



FINISH DESCRIPTION 


TIME (minute) 


Gypsum wallboard 
Vginch 
Vainch 

Vginch 

2 layers of '/g inch 

1 layer Vginch, 1 layer '^inch 

2 layers V2inch 


10 
15 
20 
25 
35 
40 


Type X gypsum wallboard 
V2inch 
Vginch 


25 
40 


Portland cement-sand plaster applied directly to concrete masonry 


See Note a 


Portland cement-sand plaster on metal lath 
V4inch 
'/ginch 
linch 


20 

25 
30 


Gypsum sand plaster on Vg-inch gypsum lath 
Vjinch 
Vg inch 


35 
40 
50 


Gypsum sand plaster on metal lath 
V4inch 
%inch 
1 inch 


50 
60 
80 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The actual thickness of portland cement-sand plaster, provided it is % inch or less in thiclcness, shall be permitted to be included in determining the equivalent 
thiclaiess of the masonry for use in Ikble 721.3.2. 



206 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.2.2.1 Reinforced and prestressed floors and 
roofs. The minimum thicknesses of reinforced and pre- 
stressed concrete floor or roof slabs for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours are shown in Table 72 1 .2.2. 1 . 

TABLE 721.2.2.1 
MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) 



CONCRETE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hour) 


1 


^% 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand-lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



721.2.2.1.1 Hollow-core prestressed slabs. For hol- 
low-core prestressed concrete slabs in which the cores 
are of constant cross section throughout the length, 
the equivalent thickness shall be permitted to be 
obtained by dividing the net cross-sectional area of 
the slab including grout in the joints, by its width. 

721.2.2.1.2 Slabs with sloping soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with sloping soffits (see Figure 721.2.2.1.2) 
shall be determined at a distance It or 6 inches (152 
mm), whichever is less, from the point of minimum 
thickness, where t is the minimum thickness. 



t = Minimum thickness. 

fg = Equivalent thickness of the slab calculated as 
the net area of the slab divided by the width, in 
which the maximum thickness used in the cal- 
culation shall not exceed 2 t. 




NEGLECT SHADED AREA IN CALCULATION OF EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721.2.2.1.3 
SLABS WITH RIBBED OR UNDULATING SOFFITS 

721.2.2.2 Multicourse floors. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of floors that consist of a base slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of a different type of concrete shall 
comply with Figure 721.2.2.2. 



DETERMINE THICKNESS HERE 




2f OR 6 INCHES, 
WHICHEVER IS LESS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 721.2.2.1.2 

DETERMINATION OF SLAB THICKNESS 

FOR SLOPING SOFFITS 

721.2.2.1.3 Slabs with ribbed soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with ribbed or undulating soffits (see Figure 
721 .2.2. 1 .3) shall be determined by one of the follow- 
ing expressions, whichever is applicable: 

For 5 > 4t, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s < 2t, the thickness to be used shall be t ^ 

For At> s> It, the thickness to be used shall be 



f + 



r \ 

s 



-t 



\ 



(Equation 7-5) 



; 



where: 

s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 



I- 

X 

Qto 









18 





CARBONATE BASE 






1 1 1 J 


T" 


N 


^>. X^hr. 


" 


s 


\y^ >s3hN. 


" 




\lhr/\\^ 


\ 


- 


, X\ 


N 



SILICEOUS BASE 




12345 12345 

THICKNESS OF NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



CARBONATE OVERLAY 



SILICEOUS OVERLAY 



o 

i 




THICKNESS OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .2.2.2 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR TWO-COURSE 

CONCRETE FLOORS 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



207 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.2.2.3 Multicourse roofs. The fire-resistance ratings 
of roofs which consist of a base slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of an insulating concrete or with an 
insulating board and built-up roofing shall comply with 
Figures 721.2.2.3(1) and 721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.3.1 Heat transfer. For the transfer of heat, 
three-ply built-up roofing contributes 10 minutes to 
the fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating 
for concrete assemblies such as those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(1) shall be increased by 10 minutes. This 
increase is not applicable to those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.4 Joints in precast slabs. Joints between adja- 
cent precast concrete slabs need not be considered in cal- 
culating the slab thickness provided that a concrete 



topping at least 1 inch (25 mm) thick is used. Where no 
concrete topping is used, joints must be grouted to a 
depth of at least one-third the slab thickness at the joint, 
but not less than 1 inch (25 mm), or the joints must be 
made fire resistant by other approved methods. 

721.2.3 Concrete cover over reinforcement. The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover over reinforcement in con- 
crete slabs, reinforced beams and prestressed beams shall 
comply with this section. 

721,2.3.1 Slab cover. The minimum thickness of con- 
crete cover to the positive moment reinforcement shall 
comply with Table 721.2.3(1) for reinforced concrete 
and Table 721.2.3(2) for prestressed concrete. These 
tables are applicable for solid or hollow-core one-way or 
two-way slabs with flat undersurfaces. These tables are 



CELLULAR CONCRETE 



A CONCRETE ■<»- 



SILICEOUS BASE SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 
T— I— I— n 3E 




4 2 4 2 

THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 




SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 



THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



-STANDARDS-PLY 
BUILT-UP ROOFING 



,\\\\\\ MINERAL BOARD \\\\\\^ 
' • '• ■• ■«. CONCRETE ■>■■•■ ■ ■ 



SILICEOUS BASE SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

3r 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SUB, INCHES 



-STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILD-UP ROOFING 



vnm 



■"^^^ 



.GLASS FIBER BOARD, 



".CONCRETE '■'■ 



muL 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 721.2.2.3(1) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



FIGURE 721 .2.2.3(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE 



TABLE 721 .2.3(1) 
COVER THICKNESS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


1 


^\ 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


% 


% 


\ 


% 


'U 


% 


% 


1 


1V4 


1% 


Carbonate 


% 


% 


V4 


'U 


% 


% 


V4 


% 


IV4 


IV4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


% 


V4 


'U 


% 


% 


% 


\ 


% 


IV4 


IV4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



208 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



applicable to slabs that are either cast in place or precast. 
For precast prestressed concrete not covered elsewhere, 
the procedures contained in PCI MNL 124 shall be 
acceptable. 

721.2.3.2 Reinforced beam cover. The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment reinforce- 
ment (bottom steel) for reinforced concrete beams is 
shown in Table 721.2.3(3) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 
hour to 4 hours. 

721.2.3.3 Prestressed beam cover. The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment 



prestressing tendons (bottom steel) for restrained and 
unrestrained prestressed concrete beams and stemmed 
units shall comply with the values shown in Tables 
721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 
hour to 4 hours. Values in Table 721.2.3(4) apply to 
beams 8 inches (203 mm) or greater in width. Values in 
Table 721.2.3(5) apply to beams or stems of any width, 
provided the cross-section area is not less than 40 square 
inches (25 806 nam^). In case of differences between the 
values determined from Table 721.2.3(4) or 721.2.3(5), 
it is permitted to use the smaller value. The concrete 



TABLE 721.2.3(2) 
COVER THICKNESS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (Inches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


1 


^\ 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


1% 


IV2 


1V4 


2% 


2V4 


Carbonate 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


1 


1% 


l\ 


2V« 


2V4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


'U 


% 


% 


% 


% 


1 


1% 


IV2 


2 


2% 



TABLE 721.2.3(3) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR MAIN REINFORCING BARS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS" (APPLICABLE TO ALL TYPES OF 

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE) 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED^ 


BEAM WIDTH" 
(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (iiours) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


5 

7 

£lO 






% 




11/4" 


Unrestrained 


5 

7 

slO 


% 
% 


1 


1V4 


1V4 
1 


3 
1^/4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover of 
% inch is adequate for ratings of 4 hours or less. 

b. For beam widths between the tabulated values, the minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. The cover for an individual reinforcing bar is the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface of the bar and the fire-exposed surface of the beam. For beams 
in which several bars are used, the cover for corner bars used in the calculation shall be reduced to one-half of the actual value. The cover for an individual bar must 
be not less than one-half of the value given in Table 721.2.3(3) nor less than V4 inch. 

TABLE 721.2.3(4) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS 8 INCHES OR GREATER IN WIDTH 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED" 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM 
WIDTH''(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 

Carbonate or siliceous 

Sand lightweight 

Sand lightweight 


8 
>12 

8 
£l2 


IV2 

IV, 
IV, 


iv, 

IV, 
IV, 
IV, 


IV, 
IV, 
IV, 

1V2 


IV4" 
IV2 
IV, 
IV, 


2V2" 

2" 
IVs" 


Unrestrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 

Carbonate or siliceous 

Sand lightweight 

Sand lightweight 


8 
kl2 

8 
^12 


IV, 
IV, 
IV, 
IV, 


1V4 
1V2 

IV, 


2V, 

2 
iVs 


5"= 

2V, 

3V4 

2 


3 
2V, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover of 
V4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. Not practical for 8-inch-wide beam but shown for purposes of interpolation. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



209 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



cover shall be calculated in accordance with Section 
721.2.3.3.1. The minimum concrete cover for 
nonprestressed reinforcement in prestressed concrete 
beams shall comply with Section 721.2.3.2. 

721.2.3.3.1 Calculating concrete cover. The con- 
crete cover for an individual tendon is the minimum 
thickness of concrete between the surface of the ten- 
don and the foe-exposed surface of the beam, except 
that for ungrouted ducts, the assumed cover thickness 
is the minimum thickness of concrete between the 
surface of the duct and the fire-exposed surface of the 
beam. For beams in which two or more tendons are 
used, the cover is assumed to be the average of the 
minimum cover of the individual tendons. For comer 
tendons (tendons equal distance fi-om the bottom and 
side), the minimum cover used in the calculation shall 
be one-half the actual value. For stemmed members 
with two or more prestressing tendons located along 
the vertical centerline of the stem, the average cover 
shall be the distance from the bottom of the member to 
the centroid of the tendons. The actual cover for any 
individual tendon shall not be less than one-half the 
smaller value shown in Tables 721.2.3(4) and 
721.2.3(5), or 1 inch (25 mm), whichever is greater. 

721.2,4 Concrete columns. Concrete columns shall com- 
ply with this section. 

721.2.4.1 Minimum size. The minimum overall dimen- 
sions of reinforced concrete columns for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours shall com.ply with Table 
721.2.4. 

721.2.4.2 Minimum cover for R/C columns. The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover to the main longitudi- 
nal reinforcement in columns, regardless of the type of 
aggregate used in the concrete, shall not be less than 1 
inch (25 mm) times the number of hours of required fire 
resistance or 2 inches (51 mm), whichever is less. 



TABLE 721 .2.4 
MINIMUM DIMENSION OF CONCRETE COLUIVINS (Inches) 



TYPES OF 
CONCRETE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1% 


ja 


3= 


A'' 


Siliceous 


8 


9 


10 


12 


14 


Carbonate 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Sand-lightweight 


8 


8V, 


9 


\0% 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 mm. 

a. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 8 inches for rectangu- 
lar columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

b. The minimimi dimension is permitted to be reduced to 10 inches for rectan- 
gular columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

721.2.4.3 Columns built into walls. The minimum 
dimensions of Table 721 .2.4 do not apply to a reinforced 
concrete column that is built into a concrete or masonry 
wall provided all of the following are met: 

1 . The fire-resistance rating for the wall is equal to or 
greater than the required rating of the column; 

2. The main longitudinal reinforcing in the column 
has cover not less than that required by Section 
721.2.4.2; and 

3. Openings in the wall are protected in accordance 
with Table 715.4. 

Where openings in the wall are not protected as 
required by Section 715.4, the minimum, dimension of 
columns required to have a fire-resistance rating of 3 
hours or less shall be 8 inches (203 mm), and 10 inches 
(254 mm) for columns required to have a fire-resistance 
rating of 4 hours, regardless of the type of aggregate used 
in the concrete. 

721.2.4.4 Precast cover units for steel columns. See 

Section 721.5.1.4. 



TABLE 721.2.3(5) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS OF ALL WIDTHS 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED^ 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM AREA" 
A (square inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


^% 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


All 


40 ^ A s 150 


IV. 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


. — 


Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150<As300 


1V2 


IV, 


IV, 


1% 


2V, 


300 < A 


l'/2 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


Unrestrained 


All 


40 ^A s 150 


2 


2V, 











Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150<A^300 


IV, 


IV4 


2V, 


— 


— 


300 < A 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


y 


40 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


y 


4= 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover of 
% inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. The cross-sectional area of a stem is permitted to include a portion of the area in the flange, provided the width of the flange used in the calculation does not exceed 
three times the average width of the stem. 

c. U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member and having a minimum cover of 1 inch shall be provided. 



210 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.3 Concrete masonry. The provisions of this section con- 
tain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of concrete 
masonry are established by calculations. 

721.3.1 Equivalent thickness. The equivalent thickness of 
concrete masonry construction shall be determined in 
accordance with the provisions of this section. 

721.3.1.1 Concrete masonry unit plus finishes. The 

equivalent thickness of concrete masoruy assemblies, 
r^g, shall be computed as the sum of the equivalent thick- 
ness of the concrete masonry unit, T^, as determined by 
Section 721.3.1.2, 721.3.1.3, or 721.3.1.4, plus the 
equivalent thickness of finishes, 7,,^ determined in accor- 
dance with Section 721.3.2: 

Tea=Te+T,f (EquatioH 7-6) 

T^ = V/LH = Equivalent thickness of concrete ma- 
sonry unit (inch) (mm). 

where: 

V„ = Net volume of masonry unit (inch^) (nmi^). 

L = Specified length of masonry unit (inch) (mm). 

H = Specified height of masonry unit (inch) (mm). 

721.3.1.2 Ungrouted or partially grouted construc- 
tion. T^ shall be the value obtained for the concrete 
masonry unit determined in accordance with ASTM C 
140. 

721.3.1.3 Solid grouted construction. The equivalent 
thickness, T^, of solid grouted concrete masonry units is 
the actual thickness of the unit. 

721.3.1.4 Airspaces and cells filled with loose-fill 
material. The equivalent thickness of completely filled 
hollow concrete masonry is the actual thickness of the 
unit when loose-fill materials are: sand, pea gravel, 
crushed stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 require- 
ments; pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, 
expanded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or cin- 
ders that comply with ASTM C 33 1 ; or perlite or vermic- 



ulite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 549 and 
ASTM C 516, respectively. 

721.3.2 Concrete masonry walls. The fire-resistance rat- 
ing of walls and partitions constructed of concrete masonry 
units shall be determined from Table 721.3.2. The rating 
shall be based on the equivalent thickness of the masom:y 
and type of aggregate used. 

721.3.2.1 Finish on nonfire-exposed side. Where plas- 
ter or gypsum wallboard is applied to the side of the wall 
not exposed to fire, the contribution of the finish to the 
total fire-resistance rating shall be determined as fol- 
lows: The thickness of gypsum wallboard or plaster shall 
be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of the 
finish by applicable factor determined from Table 
721.2.1.4(1). This corrected thickness of finish shall be 
added to the equivalent thickness of masonry and the 
fire-resistance rating of the masonry and finish deter- 
mined fi:om Table 721.3.2. 

721.3.2.2 Finish on fire-exposed side. Where plaster or 
gypsum wallboard is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: The 
time assigned to the finish as established by Table 
721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating 
determined in Section 721.3.2 for the masonry alone, or 
in Section 721.3.2.1 for the masorury and finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side. 

721.3.2.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall hav- 
ing no finish on one side or having different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation proce- 
dures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming 
either side of the wall to be the fire-exposed side. The 
fire-resistance rating of the wall shall not exceed the 
lower of the two values calculated. 

Exception: For exterior walls with more than 5 feet 
(1524 nam) of horizontal separation, the fire shall be 
assumed to occur on the interior side only. 



TABLE 721 .3.2 
MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS (inches) OF BEARING OR NONBEARING CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS""' 


,d 




TYPE OF AGGREGATE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


\ 


% 


1 


1% 


^\ 


1% 


2 


2% 


2\ 


2% 


3 


3V, 


3\ 


3% 


4 


Pumice or expanded slag 


1.5 


1.9 


2.1 


2.5 


2.7 


3.0 


3.2 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.5 


4.7 


Expanded shale, clay or slate 


1.8 


2.2 


2.6 


2.9 


3.3 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.6 


4.8 


4.9 


5.1 


Limestone, cinders or unexpanded slag 


1.9 


2.3 


2.7 


3.1 


3.4 


3.7 


4.0 


4.3 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.5 


5.7 


5.9 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


3.2 


3.6 


3.9 


4.2 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.3 


5.5 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values between those shown in the table can be determined by direct interpolation. 

b. Where combustible members are framed into the wall, the thickness of sohd material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between 
members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown in the table. 

c. Requkements of ASTM C 55, ASTM C 73 or ASTM C 90 shall apply. 

d. Minimum required equivalent thickness coaesponding to the hourly fire-resistance rating for units with a combination of aggregate shall be determined by linear 
interpolation based on the percent by volume of each aggregate used in manufacture. 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



211 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.3.2.4 Minimum concrete masonry fire-resistance 
rating. Where the finish applied to a concrete masonry 
wall contributes to its fire-resistance rating, the masonry 
alone shall provide not less than one-half the total 
required fire-resistance rating. 

721.3.2.5 Attachment of finishes. Installation of fin- 
ishes shall be as follows: 

1. Gypsum waUboard and gypsum lath applied to 
concrete masonry or concrete walls shall be se- 
cured to wood or steel furring members spaced not 
more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center (o.c). 

2. Gypsum wallboard shall be installed with the long 
dimension parallel to the fiirring members and 
shall have all joints finished. 

3. Other aspects of the installation of finishes shall 
comply with the appUcable provisions of Chapters 
7 and 25. 

721.3.3 Multiwythe masonry walls. The fire-resistance 
rating of wall assemblies constructed of multiple wythes of 
masonry materials shall be permitted to be based on the 
fire-resistance rating period of each wythe and the continu- 
ous airspace between each wythe in accordance with the fol- 
lowing formula: 

R^ = ( /?i0.59 + /?^0.59 +._, + ^^0.59 + ^j + ^^ +... + yl J1.7 

(Equation 7-7) 

where: 



R], R2: 



Fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours). 
,., R„ = Fire-resistance rating of wythes for 1, 2, k 
(hours), respectively. 

A], A2,—; A„ = 0.30, factor for each continuous airspace 
for 1, 2,...n, respectively, having a depth of 
V2 inch (12.7 mm) or more between 
wythes. 

721.3.4 Concrete masonry lintels. Fire-resistance ratings 
for concrete masonry lintels shall be determined based upon 
the nominal thickness of the lintel and the minimum thick- 
ness of concrete masonry or concrete, or any combination 
thereof, covering the main reinforcing bars, as determined 
according to Table 721.3.4, or by approved alternate 
methods. 



TABLE 721.3.4 

MINIMUM COVER OF LONGITUDINAL 

REINFORCEMENT IN FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 

REINFORCED CONCRETE MASONRY LINTELS (inches) 



NOMINAL WIDTH OF 
LINTEL (inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


IV, 


2 


« 


„ 


8 


IV,, 


IV, 


1% 


3 


10 or greater 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


1% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721.3.5 Concrete masonry columns. The fire-resistance 
rating of concrete masonry columns shall be determined 
based upon the least plan dimension of the column in accor- 
dance witii Table 721 .3.5 or by approved alternate methods. 

TABLE 721 .3.5 

MINIMUM DIMENSION OF 

CONCRETE MASONRY COLUMNS (inches) 



FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


8 inches 


10 inches 


12 inches 


14 inches 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721.4 Clay brick and tile masonry. The provisions of this sec- 
tion contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of 
clay brick and tile masonry are established by calculations. 

721.4.1 Masonry walls. The fire-resistance rating of 
masonry walls shall be based upon the equivalent thickness 
as calculated in accordance with this section. The calcula- 
tion shall take into account finishes applied to the wall and 
airspaces between wythes in multiwythe construction. 

721.4.1.1 Equivalent thickness. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of walls or partitions constructed of solid or hollow 
clay masonry units shall be determined from Table 
721.4.1(1) or 721.4.1(2). The equivalent thickness of the 
clay masonry unit shall be determined by Equation 7-8 
when using Table 721.4.1(1). The fire-resistance rating 
determined from Table 721.4.1(1) shall be permitted to 
be used in the calculated fire-resistance rating procedure 
in Section 721.4.2. 



Te=V„/LH 



(Equation 7-8) 



TABLE 721 .4.1(1) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS OF CLAY MASONRY WALLS 



MATERIAL TYPE 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS FOR FIRE RESISTANCE°''''°(lnches) 


1 hour 


2 hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


Solid brick of clay or shale'' 


2.7 


3.8 


4.9 


6.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, unfilled 


2.3 


3.4 


4.3 


5.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, grouted or filled with 
materials specified inSection721.4.1.1.3 


3.0 


4.4 


5.5 


6.6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Equivalent thickness as determined from Section 721.4.1.1. 

b. Calculated fire resistance between the hourly increments hsted shall be determined by linear interpolation. 

c. Where combustible members are framed in the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between 
members set in from opposite sides, shall hot be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown. 

d. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 



212 



2007 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



where: 

T^ = The equivalent thickness of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

V„ = The net volume of the clay masonry unit (inch^). 

L =The specified length of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

H =The specified height of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

721.4.1.1.1 Hollow clay units. The equivalent thick- 
ness, T^, shall be the value obtained for hollow clay 
units as determined in accordance with ASTM C 67. 



TABLE 721.4.1(5) 
REINFORCED MASONRY LINTELS 





TABLE 721 .4.1 (3) 
VALUES OF fl„ °=' 




Rn°'' 


R (hours) 


1 


1.0 


2 


1.50 


3 


1.91 


4 


2.27 


TABLE 721 .4.1 (4) 
COEFFICIENTS FOR PLASTER, p/ = 


THICKNESS OF 
PLASTER (inch) 


ONE SIDE 


TWO SIDE 


V, 


0.3 


0.6 


% 


0.37 


0.75 


\ 


0.45 


0.90 



NOMINAL 

LINTEL WIDTH 

(Inches) 


MINIMUM LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT COVER 
FOR FIRE RESISTANCE (inch) 


1 hour 


2 hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


6 


1% 


2 


'NP 


NP 


8 


IV2 


IV2 


1% 


3 


10 or more 


\% 


IV2 


IV2 


1% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NP = Not permitted. 



TABLE 721 .4.1 (6) 
REINFORCED CLAY MASONRY COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE