(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Title 24, Part 9, 2007 California Fire Code"

Code 



^^ 



."->./ 



'-.^^ 



California Code of Regulations 
Title 24, Part 9 \ 



California Building 
Standards Commission 



"N 




Based on 2006 International Fire Code 



® 




INTERNATIONAL 
CODECOUNCIL^ 



N^ 



■\-f 



EFFECTIVE 
JANUARY 1, 2008 \ 

(For Errata and Supplements, see History Note Appendix) 



2007 California Fire Code 



First Printing 



ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-518-9 



Publication Date: July 2007 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2007 California Fire Code contains substantial copyrighted material from the 2006 International 
Fire Code, which is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from 
the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, 
without Umitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by ( 
in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Pub- 
lications, 4051 West Hossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Fire Code" are trademarks 
of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



This document is Part 9 of the official tiiennial compilation and publication of the adoptions, amendments and repeal of administra- 
tive regulations to California Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the California Building Standards Code. This Part is 
known as the California Fire Code and incorporates, by adoption, the 2006 edition of the International Fire Code of the Interna- 
tional Code Council with the California amendments. 

The California Building Standards Code is published in its entirety eveiy three years by order of the California legislature, with 
supplements published in intervening years. The California legislature delegated authority to various State agencies, boards, com- 
missions and departments to create building regulations to implement the State's statutes. These building regulations or standards, 
have the same force of law, and take effect 180 days after their publication unless otherwise stipulated. The California Building 
Standards Code applies to occupancies in the State of California as annotated. 

A city, county or city and county may establish more restrictive building standards reasonably necessary because of local clima- 
tic, geological or topographical conditions. Findings of the local condition(s) and the adopted local building standard(s) must be 
filed with the California B uilding Standards Cormnission to become effective and may not be effective sooner than the effective date 
of this edition of California Building Standards Code. Local building standards that were adopted and applicable to previous edi- 
tions of the California Building Standards Code do not apply to this edition without appropriate adoption and the required filing. 

To familiarize yourself with the format of this code, it is suggested that users review the following contents: 

• How To Distinguish Model Code Language From CaUfornia Amendments 

• Matrix Adoption Tables 

Should you find publication (e.g., typographical) errors or inconsistencies in this code or wish to offer comments toward improving 
its format, please address your comments to: 

California Building Standards Commission 

2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130 

Sacramento, CA 95833-2936 

Phone: (916) 263-0916 

FAX: (916) 263-0959 

Web Page: www.bsc.ca.gov 

Acknowledgement 

The 2007 California Building Standards Code (Code) was developed through the outstanding collaborative efforts of the Depart- 
ment of Housing and Community Development, the Division of State Architect, the Office of the State Fii^e Marshal, the Office of 
Statewide Health Planning and Development, the California Energy Coimnission, and the Building Standards Commission (Com- 
mission). 

This collaborative effort included the assistance of the Commission's Code Advisory Committees and many other volunteers that 
worked tii-elessly to assist the Commission in the production of this Code. 

Members of the Building Standards Commission 

Secretai-y Rosario Maiin - Chair Christina Jamison 

Isam Hasenin - Vice-Chair Stephen Jensen 

James Baithman Robert Pernell 

Kim Blackseth Richard Sawhill 

Susan Dowty Steven Winkel 

David Walls - Executive Director 

Thomas Morrison - Deputy 

Executive Director 

For questions on California state agency amendments, please refer to the contact list on the following page. 

2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE ill 



California Code of Regulations, Title 24 

California Agency Information Contact List 



California Energy Commission 

Energy Hotline (800) 772-3300 

Building Efficiency Standards 
Appliance Efficiency Standards 
Compliance Manual/Forms 

California State Lands Commission 

Marine Oil Terminals (562) 499-6317 

California State Library 

Construction Standards (918) 445-9604 

Corrections Standards Authority 

Local Adult Jail Standards (916) 324-1914 

Local Juvenile Facility Standards (916) 324-1914 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Acupuncture Board 

Office Standards (916) 445-3021 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Board of Pharmacy 

Pharmacy Standards (916) 574-7900 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Bureau of Bartering 
And Cosmetology 

Barber and Beauty Shop and 

College Standards (916) 952-5210 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Bureau of 
Home Furnishings and 

Thermal Insulation 

Insulation Testing Standards (916) 574-2041 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Structural 
Pest Control Board 

Structural Standards (800) 737-8188 

Department of Consumer Affairs - Veterinary 
Medical Board 

Veterinary Hospital Standard (916) 263-2610 

Department of Food and Agriculture 

Meat & Poultry Packing Plant 

Standards (916) 654-0509 

Dairy Standards (916) 654-0773 



Department of Health Services 

Organized Camps Standards (916) 449-5661 

Public Swimming Pools Standards (916) 449-5661 

Asbestos Standards (510) 620-2874 

Department of Housing and Community Development 

Residential - Hotels, Motels, Apartments, 

Single-Family Dwellings (916) 445-9471 

Permanent Structures in Mobilehome And 

Special Occupancy Paries (916) 445-9471 

Factory-Built Housing, Manufactured 

Housing and Commercial Modular (916) 445-3338 

Mobile Homes - Permits & Inspections 

Northern Region (916) 225-2501 

Southern Region (951) 782-4420 

Employee Housing Standards (916) 445-9471 

Department of Water Resources 

Gray Water Installations Standards (916) 651-9687 

Division of the State Architect - Access Compliance 

Access Compliance Standards (916) 445-8100 

Division of the State Architect - Structural Safety 

Public Schools Standards (916) 445-8100 

Essential Services Building Standards (916) 445-8100 

Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 

Hospital Standards (916) 654-3139 

Skilled Nursing Facility Standards (916) 654-3139 

Clinic Standards (916) 654-3139 

Permits (916) 654-3392 

Office of the State Fire Marshal 

Code Development and Analysis (916) 445-8200 

Fire Safety Standards (916) 445-8200 

Fireplace Standards (916) 445-8200 

Day Care Centers Standards (916) 445-8200 

Exit Standards (916) 445-8200 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



How to Distinguish Between Modei Code Language 

and 
California Amendments 

To distinguish between model code language and the incorporated California amendments, including exclusive California stan- 
dards, California amendments will appear in italics. 

Due to the nature of the California Fire Code's first time use of the International Fire Code as the base document, symbols in the 
margins, previously used to indicate code changes, will not be used in this edition of the California Fire Code. 

[SFM] This symbol within a section identifies which State agency (s), by its "acronym, " has amended a section of the model code. 

Legend of Acronyms of Adopting State Agencies 

BSC California Building Standards Commission 

SFM Office of the State Fire Marshal 

HCD Department of Housing and Community Development 

DSA-AC Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance 

DSA-SS Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety 

OSHPD Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 

CSA Corrections Standards Authority 

DHS Department of Health Services 

AGR Department of Food and Agriculture 

CEC California Energy Commission 

CA Department of Consumer Affairs: 

Board of Bartering and Cosmetology 
Board of Veterinary Medicine Examiners 
Board of Pharmacy 
Acupuncture Board 
Bureau of Home Furnishings 
Structural Pest Control Board 

SL State Library 

SLC State Lands Commission 

DWR Department of Water Resources 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



vi 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



ORDINANCE 



The California Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2007 California Fire Code as an enforceable regulation governing regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and property 
from fire and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from 
conditions hazardous to life or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises should ensure that certain factual information is 
included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The following 
sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for 
insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF 

THE CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2007 edition of the California Fire Code, regulating and governing the safeguard- 
ing of life and property from fu:e and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materi- 
als and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life orproperty in the occupancy of buildings and premises in the [JURISDICTION]; 

providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the [JURISDICTION] and all 

other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three; (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the California Fire Code, 2007 edition, including Appen- 
dix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see California Fire Code, Appendix Chapter 1, Section 101.2.1, 
2007 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Fire Code of the [JURISDICTION], in 
the State of [STATE NAME] regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards arising 
from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life or prop- 
erty in the occupancy of buildings and premises as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees 
therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Fire Code on file in the office of the 
[JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, inser- 
tions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. That the following sections of Appendix Chapter 1 are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1 Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 109.3. Insert: [OFFENSE, DOLLAR AMOUNT, NUMBER OF DAYS] 

Section 111.4. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 3. That the geographic limits referred to in certain sections of the 2007 California Fire Code are hereby established as fol- 
lows: 

Section 3204.3.1.1 (geographic limits in which the storage of flammable cryogenic fluids in stationary containers is prohib- 
ited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 3404.2.9.5.1 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class 11 liquids in above-ground tanks outside of 
buildings is prohibited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 3406.2.4.4 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class II liquids in above-ground tanks is prohib- 
ited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 3804.2 (geographic limits in which the storage of liquefied petroleum gas is restricted for the protection of heavily 
populated or congested areas): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 4. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY SPECIFIC REFERENCE] and all Other ordi- 
nances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section S.That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it 

2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE vii 



would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more 
sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 6. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Fire Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 4 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be 
lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 7. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. 
(An additional provision may be requked to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be requked.) 

Section 8. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 



viii 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



California IVIatrix Adoption Tables 



Format of the California Matrix Adoption Tables 

The matrix adoption tables, which follow, show the user which state agencies have adopted and/or amended given sections of the 
model code. The building application determines which state agency's adoptions apply. See Section's 102 through 114 for building 
applications and enforcement responsibilities. 

Agencies are grouped together, based on either local or state enforcement responsibilities. For example, regulations from SFM 
are enforced both at the state and local levels; therefore, SFM is listed twice in each adoption table indicating state enforcement 
responsibihties and local enforcement responsibilities. 

The side headings identify the scope of state agencies' adoption as follows: 

Adopt the entire IFC chapter without state amendments. 

If there is an "X" under aparticulai' state agency's acronym on this row; this means that paiticular state agency has adopted the entire 
model code chapter without any state amendments. 

Example: 

CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 



Adopting Agency 


BSC 


DHS 


OSA 


SL 


CA 


DWR 


AGR 


GEO 


DSA 


HOD 


OSHPD 


SFM 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


1/AC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 


X 






s 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 




















Adopt Entire Chapter 
as amended (amended 
sections listed below) 







































Adopt the entire IFC chapter as amended, state-amended sections are listed below: 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency has adopted the entire 
model code chapter; with state amendments. 

Each state-amended section that the agency has added to that particular chapter is hsted. There will be an "X" in the column, by 
that particular section, under the agency's acronym, as well as an "X" by each section that the agency has adopted. 



Example: 













CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 














Adopting Agency 


BSC 


DHS 


OSA 


SL 


CA 


DWR 


AGR 


CEO 


DSA 


HOD 


OSHPD 


SFiVI 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


1/AC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 






































Adopt Entire Chapter 
as amended (amended 
sections listed below) 










s 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 
















X 


Adopt only those 
sections that are listed 
below 






































Chapter 1 


CAorlFC 






































202 


CA 




































X 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



IX 



Adopts only those sections that are listed below: 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency is adopting only specific 
model code or state-amended sections within this chapter. There will be an "X" in the column under the agency's acronym, as well 
as an "X" by each section that the agency has adopted. 

Example: 

CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 



Adopting Agency 


BSC 


DHS 


CSA 


SL 


CA 


DWR 


AGR 


CEC 


DSA 


HCD 


OSHPD 


SFM 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


1/AC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 






































Adopt Entire Chapter 
as amended (amended 
sections listed below) 










s 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 


















Adopt only those 
sections that are listed 
below 
























X 


X 












Chapter 1 


CAor 
IBC 




































202 


CA 








s 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 




X 


X 












202 


IPC 










C 





N 


T. 






X 


X 












203 


CA 






















X 


X 












203 


IPC 






















X 


X 













2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 1 GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS .... 3 

Section 

101 General 3 

102 Reserved 4 

103 Reserved 4 

104 Reserved 4 

105 Reserved 4 

106 Reserved 4 

107 Reserved 4 

108 Reserved 4 

109 Division of the State Architect 5 

110 Reserved 5 

111 Office of the State Fire Marshal 6 

112 Reserved 10 

113 Reserved 10 

114 Reserved 10 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 13 

Section 

201 General 13 

202 General Definitions 13 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 

AGAINST FIRE 33 

Section 

301 General 33 

302 Definitions 33 

303 Asphalt Kettles 33 

304 Combustible Waste Material 33 

305 Ignition Sources 34 

306 Motion Picture Projection Rooms and Film .... 34 

307 Open Burning and Recreational Fires 34 

308 Open Flames 35 

309 Powered Industrial Trucks and Equipment 37 

310 Smoking 37 

311 Vacant Premises 37 

312 Vehicle Impact Protection 38 

313 Fueled Equipment 38 

314 Indoor Displays 39 

315 Miscellaneous Combustible Materials Storage . . 39 

2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 4 EMERGENCY PLANNING 

AND PREPAREDNESS 43 

Section 

401 General 43 

402 Definitions 43 

403 Public Assemblages and Events 43 

404 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans 43 

405 Emergency Evacuation Drills 44 

406 Employee Training and Response Procedures ... 45 

407 Hazard Communication 45 

408 Use and Occupancy-related Requirements 46 

CHAPTER 5 FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 51 

Section 

501 General 51 

502 Definitions 51 

503 Fire Apparatus Access Roads 51 

504 Access to Building Openings and Roofs 52 

505 Premises Identification 53 

506 Key Boxes 53 

507 Hazards to Fire Fighters 53 

508 Fire Protection Water Supplies 53 

509 Fire Command Center 54 

510 Fire Department Access to Equipment. 54 

CHAPTER 6 BUILDING SERVICES 

AND SYSTEMS 57 

Section 

601 General 57 

602 Definitions 57 

603 Fuel- fired Apphances 57 

604 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 59 

605 Electrical Equipment, Wiring and Hazards 61 

606 Mechanical Refrigeration 62 

607 Elevator Recall and Maintenance 64 

608 Stationary Storage Battery Systems 64 

609 Commercial Kitchen Hoods 66 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 

CONSTRUCTION 69 

Section 

701 General 69 

702 Definitions 69 



XI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



703 Fire-resistance-rated Construction 69 

704 Floor Openings and Shafts 69 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE 
MATERIALS AND 
FURNISHINGS 73 

Section 

801 General 73 

802 Definitions 73 

803 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish and 

Trim in Existing Buildings 73 

804 Interior Wall and Ceiling Trim in 

New and Existing Buildings 75 

805 Upholstered Furniture and Mattresses in 

New and Exisiting Buildings 75 

806 Decorative Vegetation in New and 

Existing Buildings 77 

807 Decorative Materials Other Than Decorative 

Vegetation in New and Existing Buildings ... 78 

808 Furnishings Other Than Upholstered 

Furniture and Mattresses or Decorative 
Materials in New and Existing Buildings .... 80 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS .... 87 

Section 

901 General 87 

902 Definitions 88 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 91 

904 Alternative Automatic Fire-extinguishing 

Systems 98 

905 Standpipe Systems 100 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 103 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 105 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 122 

909 Smoke Control Systems 122 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 128 

911 Explosion Control 130 

912 Fire Department Connections 132 

913 Fire Pumps 132 

914 Fire Protection Based on Special Detailed 

Requirements of Use and Occupancy 133 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 139 

Section 

1001 Administration 139 

1002 Definitions 139 

1003 General Means of Egress 140 

1004 Occupant Load 141 

xii 



1005 Egress Width 143 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 143 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 144 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 146 

1009 Stairways 151 

1010 Ramps 154 

1011 Exit Signs 155 

1012 Handrails 156 

1013 Guards 157 

1014 Exit Access 158 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 160 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 161 

1017 Corridors 162 

1018 Exits 164 

1019 Number of Exits and Continuity 164 

1020 Vertical Exit Enclosures 164 

1021 Exit Passageways 166 

1022 Horizontal Exits 167 

1023 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 168 

1024 Exit Discharge 168 

1025 Assembly 169 

1026 Emergency Escape and Rescue 174 

1027 Means of Egress for Existing Buildings 175 

1028 Maintenance of the Means of Egress 179 

CHAPTER 11 AVIATION FACILITIES 183 

Section 

1101 General 183 

1102 Definitions 183 

1 103 General Precautions 183 

1 104 Aircraft Maintenance 183 

1 105 Portable Fire Extinguishers 184 

1 106 Aircraft Fueling 184 

1107 Helistops and Heliports 189 

CHAPTER 12 DRY CLEANING 193 

Section 

1201 General 193 

1202 Definitions 193 

1203 Classificafions 193 

1204 General Requirements 193 

1205 Operating Requirements 194 

1206 Spotting and Pretreating 194 

1207 Dry Cleaning Systems 195 

1208 Fire Protection 195 

2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 13 COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING 
OPERATIONS 199 

Section 

1301 General 199 

1302 Definitions 199 

1303 Precautions 199 

1304 Explosion Protection 199 

CHAPTER 14 FIRE SAFETY DURING 
CONSTRUCTION AND 
DEMOLITION 203 

Section 

1401 General 203 

1402 Definitions 203 

1403 Temporary Heating Equipment 203 

4404 Precautions Against Fire 203 

1405 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 203 

1406 Flammable Gases 204 

1407 Explosive Materials 204 

1408 Owner's Responsibility for Fire Protection .... 204 

1409 Fire Reporting 204 

1410 Access for Fire Fighting 204 

1411 Means of Egress 204 

1412 Water Supply for Fire Protection 204 

1413 Standpipes 204 

1414 Automatic Sprinkler System 205 

1415 Portable Fire Extinguishers 205 

1416 Motorized Equipment 205 

1417 Safeguarding Roofing Operations 205 

CHAPTER 15 FLAMMABLE FINISHES 209 

Section 

1501 General 209 

1502 Definitions 209 

1503 Protection of Operations 209 

1504 Spray Finishing 211 

1505 Dipping Operations 215 

1506 Powder Coating 216 

1507 Electrostatic Appai'atus 217 

1508 Organic Peroxides and Dual-component 

Coatings 217 

1509 Indoor Manufacturing of Reinforced Plastics . . 218 

1510 Floor Surfacing and Finishing Operations 218 



CHAPTER 16 FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING ... 223 

Section 

1601 General 223 

1602 Definitions 223 

1603 Ethylene Gas 223 

1604 Sources of Ignition 223 

1605 Combustible Waste 223 

1606 Ethylene Generators 223 

1607 Warning Signs 223 

CHAPTER 17 FUMIGATION AND THERMAL 

INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 227 

Section 

1701 General 227 

1702 Definitions 227 

1703 Fire Safety Requirements 227 

CHAPTER 18 SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION 

FACILITIES 231 

Section 

1801 General 231 

1802 Definitions 231 

1803 General Safety Provisions 231 

1804 Storage 235 

1805 Use and Handling 237 

CHAPTER 19 LUMBER YARDS AND 

WOODWORKING FACILITIES ... 243 

Section 

1901 General 243 

1902 Definitions 243 

1903 General Requirements 243 

1904 Fire Protection 243 

1905 Plywood, Veneer and Composite Board 

Mills 244 

1906 Log Storage Areas 244 

1907 Storage of Wood Chips and Hogged Material 

Associated With Timber and Lumber 
Production Facilities 244 

1908 Storage and Processing of Wood Chips, Hogged 

Material, Fines, Compost and Raw Product 
Associated With Yard Waste and Recycling 
Facilities 244 

1909 Exterior Storage of Finished Lumber 

Products 245 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



XIII 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 20 MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC 

COATINGS 249 

Section 

2001 General 249 

2002 Definitions 249 

2003 General Precautions 249 

2004 Electrical Equipment and Protection 249 

2005 Process Structures 250 

2006 Process Mills and Kettles 250 

2007 Process Piping 250 

2008 Raw Materials in Process Areas 25 1 

2009 Raw Materials and Finished Products 251 

CHAPTER 21 INDUSTRIAL OVENS 255 

Section 

2101 General 255 

2102 Definitions 255 

2103 Location 255 

2104 Fuel Piping 255 

2105 Interlocks 255 

2106 Fire Protection 256 

2107 Operation and Maintenance 256 

CHAPTER 22 MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITIES AND REPAIR 
GARAGES 259 

Section 

2201 General 259 

2202 Definitions 259 

2203 Location of Dispensing Devices 259 

2204 Dispensing Operations 260 

2205 Operational Requirements 261 

2206 Flammable and Combustible Liquid Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 261 

2207 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 265 

2208 Compressed Natural Gas Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 266 

2209 Hydrogen Motor Fuel-dispensing and 

Generation Facilities 268 

2210 Marine Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 271 

221 1 Repair Garages 273 

CHAPTER 23 HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE 

STORAGE 279 

Section 

2301 General 279 



2302 Definitions 279 

2303 Commodity Classification 280 

2304 Designation of High-piled Storage Areas 282 

2305 Housekeeping and Maintenance 282 

2306 General Fire Protection and Life Safety 

Features 282 

2307 Solid-piled and Shelf Storage 286 

2308 Rack Storage 286 

2309 Automated Storage 286 

2310 Specialty Storage 287 

CHAPTER 24 TENTS, CANOPIES AND OTHER 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 291 

Section 

2401 General 291 

2402 Definitions 291 

2403 Temporary Tents, Canopies and Membrane 

Structures 291 

2404 Temporary and Permanent Tents, Canopies 

and Membrane Structures 293 

CHAPTER 25 TIRE REBUILDING AND 

TIRE STORAGE 299 

Section 

2501 General 299 

2502 Definitions 299 

2503 Tire Rebuilding 299 

2504 Precautions Against Fire 299 

2505 Outdoor Storage 299 

2506 Fire Department Access 300 

2507 Fencing 300 

2508 Fire Protection 300 

2509 Indoor Storage Arrangement 300 

CHAPTER 26 WELDING AND OTHER 

HOT WORK 303 

Section 

2601 General 303 

2602 Definitions 303 

2603 General Requirements 303 

2604 Fire Safety Requirements 304 

2605 Gas Welding and Cutting 305 

2606 Electric Arc Hot Work 305 

2607 Calcium Carbide Systems 305 

2608 Acetylene Generators 305 

2609 Piping Manifolds and Hose Systems for 

Fuel Gases and Oxygen 305 

2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 27 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS- 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 309 

Section 

2701 General 309 

2702 Definitions 311 

2703 General Requirements 313 

2704 Storage 326 

2705 Use, Dispensing and Handling 330 

CHAPTER 28 AEROSOLS 337 

Section 

2801 General 337 

2802 Definitions 337 

2803 Classification of Aerosol Products 337 

2804 Inside Storage of Aerosol Products 337 

2805 Outside Storage 339 

2806 Retail Display 339 

2807 Manufacturing Facilities 341 

CHAPTER 29 COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. 345 

Section 

2901 General 345 

2902 Definitions 345 

2903 General Precautions 345 

2904 Loose Fiber Storage 345 

2905 Baled Storage 346 

CHAPTER 30 COMPRESSED GASES 349 

Section 

3001 General ! ... 349 

3002 Definitions 349 

3003 General Requirements 349 

3004 Storage of Compressed Gases 353 

3005 Use and Handling of Compressed Gases 353 

3006 Medical Gas Systems 353 

3007 Compressed Gases Not Otherwise Regulated . . 354 

CHAPTER 31 CORROSIVE MATERIALS 357 

Section 

3101 General 357 

3102 Definitions 357 

3103 General Requirements 357 

3104 Storage 357 

3105 Use 357 

2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 32 CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 361 

Section 

3201 General 361 

3202 Definitions , 361 

3203 General Requirements 361 

3204 Storage 363 

3205 Use and Handling 365 

CHAPTER 33 EXPLOSIVES AND 

FIREWORKS 369 

Section 

3301 General 369 

3302 Reserved 369 

3303 Reserved 369 

3304 Reserved 369 

3305 Reserved 369 

3306 Reserved 369 

3307 Reserved 369 

3308 Fireworks Display 369 

CHAPTER 34 FLAMMABLE AND 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 373 

Section 

3401 General 373 

3402 Definitions 373 

3403 General Requirements 374 

3404 Storage 378 

3405 Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling 397 

3406 Special Operations 403 

CHAPTER 35 FLAMMABLE GASES 415 

Section 

3501 General 415 

3502 Definitions 415 

3503 General Requirements 415 

3504 Storage 416 

3505 Use 416 

CHAPTER 36 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS 419 

Section 

3601 General 419 

3602 Definitions 419 

3603 General Requirements 419 

3604 Storage 419 

3605 Use 419 

3606 Magnesium 419 

XV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 37 HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC 

MATERIALS 423 

Section 

3701 General 423 

3702 Definitions 423 

3703 Highly Toxic and Toxic Solids and Liquids. ... 424 

3704 Highly Toxic and Toxic Compressed Gases . . . 425 

3705 Ozone Gas Generators 429 

CHAPTER 38 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM 

GASES 433 

Section 

3801 General 433 

3802 Definitions 433 

3803 Installation of Equipment 433 

3804 Location of Containers 434 

3805 Prohibited Use of LP-gas 435 

3806 Dispensing and Overfilling 435 

3807 Safety Precautions and Devices 435 

3808 Fire Protection 435 

3809 Storage of Portable LP-gas Containers 

Awaiting Use or Resale 435 

3810 Containers Not in Service 437 

381 1 Parking and Garaging 437 

CHAPTER 39 ORGANIC PEROXIDES 441 

Section 

3901 General 441 

3902 Definitions 441 

3903 General Requirements 441 

3904 Storage 441 

3905 Use 443 

CHAPTER 40 OXIDIZERS 447 

Section 

4001 General 447 

4002 Definitions 447 

4003 General Requirements 447 

4004 Storage 448 

4005 Use 448 

CHAPTER 41 PYROPHORIC MATERIALS 453 

Section 

4101 General 453 

4102 Definitions 453 



4103 General Requirements 453 

4104 Storage 453 

4105 Use 454 

4106 Silane Gas 454 

CHAPTER 42 PYROXYLIN (CELLULOSE 

NITRATE) PLASTICS 459 

4201 General 459 

4202 Definitions 459 

4203 General Requirements 459 

4204 Storage and Handling 459 

CHAPTER 43 UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) 

MATERIALS 463 

Section 

4301 General 463 

4302 Definitions 463 

4303 General Requirements 463 

4304 Storage 464 

4305 Use 464 

CHAPTER 44 WATER-REACTIVE SOLIDS AND 

LIQUIDS 467 

Section 

4401 General 467 

4402 Definitions 467 

4403 General Requirements 467 

4404 Storage 467 

4405 Use 468 

CHAPTER 45 REFERENCED STANDARDS 471 

CHAPTER 46 MOTION PICTURE AND 

TELEVISION PRODUCTION 
STUDIO SOUND STAGES, 
APPROVED PRODUCTION 
FACILITIES AND PRODUCTION 
LOCATIONS 483 

Section 

4601 General 483 

4602 Occupancy Classification 483 

4603 Required Permits 483 

4604 General Requirements 483 

4605 Fire-extinguishing Systems 484 

4606 Fire-detection Equipment 484 

4607 Fire Safety Officers 484 

4608 Electrical Requirements 484 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



4609 Mechanical Equipment 484 

4610 Design Requirements 485 

461 1 Production Locations 485 

CHAPTER 47 REQUIREMENTS FOR 
WILDLAND-URBAN 
INTERFACE AREAS 489 

Section 

4701 General 489 

4702 Definitions 489 

4703 Reserved '. 489 

4704 Fire Hazard Severity Zones 489 

4705 Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area 489 

4706 Reserved 490 

4707 Reserved 490 

4708 Materials and Construction Methods for 

Exterior Wildfire Exposure - . . 490 

4709 Reserved 490 

4710 Materials, Systems and Methods of 

Construction 490 

4711 Reserved 490 

4712 Reserved 490 

4713 Reserved 490 

APPENDIX CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 493 

Section 

101 General 493 

102 Applicability 493 

103 Department of Fire Prevention 494 

104 General Authority and Responsibilities 494 

105 Permits 495 

106 Inspections 502 

107 Maintenance 502 

108 Board of Appeals 502 

109 Violations 503 

110 Unsafe Buildings 503 

111 Stop Work Order 504 

APPENDIX CHAPTER 4 

SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 

USE AND OCCUPANCY 507 

Section 

425 Special Provisions for Licensed 24-hour Care 

Facilities in Groups I-l, R-3.1 and R-4 507 

2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



APPENDIX A BOARD OF APPEALS 513 

Section 

AlOl General 513 

APPENDIX B FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS 

FOR BUILDINGS 517 

Section 

BlOl General 517 

B102 Definitions . 517 

B103 Modifications 517 

B104 Fire-flow Calculation Area , 517 

B105 Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings 517 

B106 Referenced Standai-ds 517 

APPENDIX C FIRE HYDRANT LOCATIONS 

AND DISTRIBUTION 521 

Section 

ClOl General 521 

C102 Location 521 

C103 Number of Fire Hydrants 521 

C104 Consideration of Existing Fire Hydrants 521 

CI 05 Distribution of Fire Hydrants 521 

APPENDIX D FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS 

ROADS 525 

Section 

DlOl General 525 

D102 Required Access 525 

D103 Minimum Specifications 525 

D104 Commercial and Industrial Developments 526 

D105 Aerial Fire Apparatus Access Roads 526 

D106 Multiple-family Residential Developments .... 526 

D107 One- or Two-family Residential 

Developments 527 

APPENDIX E HAZARD CATEGORIES 531 

Section 

ElOl General 531 

E102 Hazard Categories 531 

E103 Evaluation of Hazards 534 

APPENDIX F HAZARD RANKING 539 

Section 

FlOl General 539 

F102 Referenced Standards 539 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



APPENDIX G CRYOGENIC FLUIDS— WEIGHT 

AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS. . . 543 

Section 

GlOl General 543 

APPENDIX H HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 
MANAGEMENT PLANS AND 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 
INVENTORY STATEMENTS 547 

Section 

HI Scope 547 

H2 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statements 

(HMIS) 547 

H3 Hazardous Materials Management (HMMP) . . . 547 

H4 Maintenance of Records 548 

INDEX 559 

HISTORY NOTE 583 



xviii 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CALIFORNIA CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



Adopting Agency 




BBC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


■ SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


as 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Ciiapter as amended 
(amended sections listed beiow) 








































Adopt oniy tfiose sections that are 
iisted below 




X 








X 




























Chapter / Section 


Codes 


101.0-101.12 


CA 




X 




































109 and 109.1 


CA 












X 




























111.0-111.10 


CA 




X 















































































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA CHAPTER 1 

GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the California 
Fire Code, may be cited as such and will be referred to herein as 
"this code. " The California Fire Code is Part 9 of twelve parts 
of the official compilation and publication of the adoption, 
amendment, and repeal of building regulations to the Califor- 
nia Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the Cali- 
fornia Building Standards Code. This part incorporates by 
adoption the 2006 International Fire Code of the International 
Code Council with necessary California amendments. 

101.2 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the min- 
imum requirements consistent with nationally recognized good 
practices to safeguard the public health, safety and general 
welfare from the hazards of fire, explosion or dangerous condi- 
tions in new and existing buildings, structures, and premises, 
and to provide safety and assistance to fire fighters and emer- 
gency responders during emergency operations. 

101.3 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the con- 
struction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, 
repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, 
removal and demolition of every building or structure or any 
appurtenances, connected or attached to such building struc- 
tures throughout the State of California. 

This code establishes regulations affecting or relating to 
buildings, structures, processes, premises and a reasonable 
degree of life and property safeguards regarding: 

1. The hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage, 
handling or use of structures, materials or devices; 

2. Conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare 
in the use of, occupancy of buildings, structures, or pre- 
mises; 

3. Fire hazards in the buildings, structures, or on premises 
from use of, occupancy of, or operation; 

4. Matters related to the construction, extension, repair, 
alteration or removal of fire suppression or alarm sys- 
tems. 

101.3.1 Nonstate-regulated buildings, structures, and 
applications. Except as modified by local ordinance pursu- 
ant to Section 101.8, the building standards in the Califor- 
nia Code of Regulations, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 
shall apply to all occupancies and applications not regu- 
lated by a state agency. 

101.3.2 State-regulated buildings, structures, andapplica- 
tions. The model code, state amendments to the model code, 
and/or state amendments where there are no relevant model 
code provisions, shall apply to the following buildings, 
structures, and applications regulated by state agencies as 
referenced in the Matrix Adoption Tables and as specified in 
Sections 102 through 113, except where modified by local 
ordinance pursuant to Section 101.8. When adopted by a 



state agency, the provisions of this code shall be enforced by 
the appropriate enforcing agency, but only to the extent of 
authority granted to such agency by the State Legislature. 

Note: See Preface to distinguish the model code provi- 
sions from the California provisions. 

1. Applications regulated by the Office of State Fire 
Marshal include but are not limited to the following in 
accordance with Section 111: 

1. Buildings or structures used or intended for use as 
an: 

1.1. Asylum, jail 

1.2. Mental hospital, hospital, home for the el- 
derly, children's nurseiy, children's home or 
institution, school or any similar occupancy 
of any capacity 

1.3. Theater, dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, 
assembly hall, meeting hall, nightclub, fair 
building, or similar place of assemblage 
where 50 or more persons may gather to- 
gether in a building, room or structure for the 
purpose of amusement, entertainment, in- 
struction, deliberation, worship, drinking or 
dining, awaiting transportation, or education 

1.4. Small family day-care homes, large family 
day-care homes, residential facilities and res- 
idential facilities for the elderly, residential 
care facilities 

1.5. State institutions or other state-owned or 
state-occupied buildings 

1.6. High-rise structures 

1.7. Motion picture production studios 

1.8. Organized camps 

1.9. Residential structures 

2. Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures used in 
connection with any occupancy 

3. Fire alarm devices, equipment and systems in con- 
nection with any occupancy 

4. Hazardous materials, flammable and combustible 
liquids 

5. Public school automatic fire detection, alarm, and 
sprinkler systems 

6. Wildland urban interface fire areas 

101.4 Appendices. Provisions contained in the appendices of 
this code shall not apply unless specifically adopted by a state 
agency or adopted by a local enforcing agency in compliance 
with Health and Safety Code Section 18938 (b) for Building 
Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17950 for 
State Housing Law and Health and Safety Code Section 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



13869. 7 for Fire Protection Districts. See Section 101.8 of this 
code. 

101.5 Referenced codes. The codes, standards and publica- 
tions adopted and set forth in this code, including other codes, 
standards and publications referred to therein are, by title and 
date of publication, hereby adopted as standard reference doc- 
uments of this code. When this code does not specifically cover 
any subject related to building design and construction, recog- 
nized fire engineering practices shall be employed. The 
National Fire Codes and the Fire Protection Handbook of the 
National Fire Protection Association are permitted to be used 
as authoritative guides in determining recognized fire-preven- 
tion engineering practices. 

101.6 Non-building standards, orders and regulations. 

Requirements contained in the California Fire Code, or in any 
other referenced standard, code or document, which are not 
building standards as defined in Section 18909, Health and 
Safety Code, shall not be construed as part of the provisions of 
this code. For non-building standards, orders, and regulations, 
see other titles of the California Code of Regulations. 

101.7 Order of precedence and use. 

101. 7.1 Differences. In the event of any differences between 
these building standards and the standard reference docu- 
ments, the text of these building standards shall govern. 

101.7.2 Specific provision. Where a specific provision var- 
ies from a general provision, the specific provisions shall 
apply. 

101.7.3 Conflicts. When the requirements of this code con- 
flict with the requirements of any other part of the California 
Building Standards Code, Title 24, the most restrictive 
requirement shall prevail. 

101.8 City, county, or city and county amendments, additions 
or deletions. The provisions of this code do not limit the author- 
ity of city, county, or city and county governments to establish 
more restrictive and reasonably necessary differences to the 
provisions contained in this code pursuant to complying with 
Section 101.8.1. The effective date of amendments, additions, 
or deletions to this code of cities, counties, or city and counties 
filed pursuant to Section 101.8.1 shall be the date filed. How- 
ever, in no case shall the amendments, additions or deletions to 
this code be effective any sooner than the effective date of this 
code. 

101.8.1 Findings and filings. 

1. The city, county, or city and county shall make express 
findings for each amendment, addition or deletion based 
upon climatic, topographical, or geological conditions. 

Exception: Hazardous building ordinances and pro- 
grams mitigating unreinforced masonry buildings. 

2. The city, county, or city and county shall file the amend- 
ments, additions, or deletions expressly marked and 
identified as to the applicable findings. Cities, counties, 
cities and counties, and fire departments shall file the 
amendments, additions or deletions, and the findings 
with the California Building Standards Commission at 
2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130, Sacramento, CA 
95833. 



3. Findings prepared by fire protection districts shall be 
ratified by the local city, county, or city and county and 
filed with the California Department of Housing and 
Community Development at 1800 3"' Street, Room 260, 
Sacramento, CA 95814. 

101.9 Effective date of this code. Only those standards 
approved by the California Building Standards Commission 
that are effective at the time an application for building permit 
is submitted shall apply to the plans and specifications for, and 
to the construction performed under, that permit. For the effec- 
tive dates of the provisions contained in this code, see the His- 
tory Note page of this code. 

201.10 Availability of codes. At least one entire copy each of 
Titles 8, 19, 20, 24, and 25 with all revisions shall be main- 
tained in the office of the building official responsible for the 
administration and enforcement of this code. See Health and 
Safety Code Section 18942 (d) (1) & (2). 

101.11 Format. This part fundamentally adopts the Interna- 
tional Fire Code by reference on a chapter-by-chapter basis. 
Such adoption is reflected in the Matrix adoption table of each 
chapter of this part. When the Matrix adoption tables make no 
reference to a specific chapter of the International Fire Code, 
such chapter of the International Fire Code is not adopted as a 
portion of this code. 

101.12 Validity. If any chapter Section, subSection, sentence, 
clause or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be uncon- 
stitutional, contrary to statute, exceeding the authority of the 
state as stipulated by statutes, or otherwise inoperative, such 
decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portion of 
this code. 



SECTION 102 
RESERVED 



SECTION 103 
RESERVED 



SECTION 104 
RESERVED 



SECTION 105 
RESERVED 



SECTION 106 
RESERVED 



SECTION 107 
RESERVED 



SECTION 108 
RESERVED 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



[DSA-AC] SECTION 109 
DIVISION OF THE STATE ARCHITECT 

109.1 Division of the State Architect — Access Compliance 

General. The purpose of this code is to ensure that barrier free 
design is incorporated in all buildings, facilities, site work and 
, other improvements to which this code applies in compliance 
with state law to ensure that these improvements are accessible 
to and usable by persons with disabilities. Additions, alter- 
ations and structural repairs in all buildings andfacilities shall 
comply with these provisions for new buildings, except as oth- 
erwise provided and specified herein. 

The provisions of these regulations shall apply to any porta- 
ble buildings leased or owned by a school district, and shall 
also apply to temporary and emergency buildings andfacili- 
ties. 

In addition, to incorporate standards at least as restrictive as 
those required by the federal government for barrier-free 
design under (1) Title III (Public Accommodations and Com- 
mercial Facilities), Subpart D (New Construction and Alter- 
ation) and Appendix A (Americans with Disabilities Act 
Standards for Accessible Design) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 36), and 
(2) Title II (Public Entities), Section 35.151 (New Construction 
and Alterations) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 35) both from theAmeri- 
canswithDisabilitiesActofl990, and(3) under the Fair Hous- 
ing Amendments Act of 1988. Some of these regulations may be 
more stringent than state law in order to meet the federal 
requirement. 

109.1.1 Application. See Government Code commencing 
with Section 4450. Publicly funded buildirigs, structures, 
sidewalks, curbs and relatedfacilities shall be accessible to 
and usable by persons with disabilities as follows: 

109.1.1.1 All buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs and 
relatedfacilities constructed in the state by the use of 
state, county or municipal funds, or the funds of any 
political subdivision of the state. 

109.1.1.2 All buildings, structures andfacilities that are 
leased, rented, contracted, sublet or hired by any munici- 
pal county, or state division of government, or by a spe- 
cial district 

109.1.1.3 All publicly funded buildings used for congre- 
gate residences or for one- or two-family dwelling unit 
purposes shall conform to the provisions applicable to 
living accommodations. 

109.1.1.4 All existing publicly funded buildings and 
facilities when alterations, structural repairs or addi- 
tions are made to such buildings or facilities. For 
detailed requirements on existing buildings, see Chapter 
I IB, Division IV. 

109.1.1.5 With respect to buildings, structures, side- 
walks, curbs and relatedfacilities not requiring a build- 
ing permit, building standards published in the 
California Building Standards Code relating to access 
for persons with disabilities and other regulations 
adopted pursuant to Government Code Section 4450, 
and in effect at the time construction is commenced, shall 
be applicable. 



109.1.2 Application. See Health and Safety Code com- 
mencing with Section 19952. All privately funded public 
accommodations, as defined, and commercial facilities, as 
defined, shall be accessible to persons withphysical disabil- 
ities as follows. ■ 

Exception: Certain types of privately funded multistory 
buildings do not require installation of an elevator to 
provide access above and below the first floor. See the 
California Building Code, Chapter IIB. 

109.1.2.1 Any building, structure, facility, complex, or 
improved area, or portions thereof, which are used by the 
general public. 

109.1.2.2 Any sanitary facilities which are made avail- 
able for the public, clients or employees in such accom- 
modations or facilities. 

109.1.2.3 Any curb or sidewalk intended for public use 
that is constructed in this state with private funds. 

109.1.2.4 All existing privately funded public accommo- 
dations when alterations, structural repairs or additions 
are made to such public accommodations as set forth 
under the California Building Code, Chapter IIB. 

109.1.3 Application — public housing and private housing 
available for public use. See Government Code Sections 
4450 and 12955.1 (d). 

109.1.4 Enforcing agency. 

109.1.4.1 The director of General Services where state 
funds are utilizedfor any project or where funds of coun- 
ties, municipalities or other political subdivisions are 
utilizedfor the construction of elementary, secondary or 
community college projects. 

109.1.4.2 The governing bodies where funds of counties, 
municipalities or other political subdivisions are utilized 
except as otherwise provided above. 

109.1.4.3 The building department of every city, county, 
or city and county within the territorial area of its city, 
county, or city and county, where private funds are uti- 
lized. "Building department" means the department, 
bureau or officer charged with the enforcement of laws or 
ordinances regulating the erection or construction, or 
both the erection and construction, of buildings. 

109.1.5 Special conditions for persons with disabilities 
requiring appeals action ratification. Whenever reference 
is made in these regulations to this Section, the findings and 
determinations required to be rendered by the local enforc- 
ing agency shall be subject to ratification through an 
appeals process. 

109.1.6 Authority cited. Government Code Section 4450. 

109.1.7 Reference cited. Government Code Sections 4450 
through 4461, 12955.1(d) and Health and Safety Code Sec- 
tions 18949.1, 19952 through 19959. 



SECTION 110 
RESERVED 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



[SFM] SECTION 111 
OFFICE OF THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL 

111.1 SFM— Office of the State Fire Marshal. 

Any building or structure used or intended for use as an asy- 
lum, jail, mental hospital, hospital, sanitarium, home for the 
aged, children's nursery, children's home, school or any similar 
occupancy of any capacity. 

Any theater, dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, assembly 
hall, meeting hall, nightclub, fair building, or similar place of 
assemblage where 50 or more persons may gather together in a 
building, room or structure for the purpose of amusement, 
entertainment, instruction, deliberation, worship, drinking or 
dining, awaiting transportation, or education. 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Small family day-care homes 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Sections 1597.45, 
1597.54, 13143 and 17921 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Large family day-care homes 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Sections 1597.46, 
1597.54 and 17921 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Residential facilities and residential facilities for the elderly 
Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13133 
Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Any state institution or other state-owned or state-occupied 
building 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13108 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

High-rise structures 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13211 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Motion picture production studios 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13143.1 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Organized camps 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 18897.3 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Residential 

All hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses and 
dwellings, including congregate residences and buildings and 
structures accessory thereto. 

Multiple-story structures existing on January 1, 1975, let for 
human habitation, including and limited to, hotels, motels, 
apartment houses, less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the low- 



est floor level having building access, wherein rooms used for 
sleeping are let above the ground floor. 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Sections 13143.2 and 
17921 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Residential care facilities 

Certified family-care homes, out-of-home placement facili- 
ties, halfway houses, drug and/or alcohol rehabilitation facili- 
ties and any building or structure used or intended for use as a 
home or institution for the housing of any person of any age 
when such person is referred to or placed within such home or 
institution for protective social care and supervision services 
by any governmental agency. 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6 

Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures used in connection 
with any occupancy 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13116 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 

Enforcing agency: Pursuant to Section 13146, Health and 
Safety Code: 

Fire alarm devices, equipment and systems in connection 
with any occupancy 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13114 

Hazardous materials 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13143.9 

Flammable and combustible liquids 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6 

Public school automatic fire detection, alarm, and sprinkler 
systems 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Section 13143 and 
California Education Code Article 7.5, Sections 17074.50, 
17074.52, & 17074.54 

Reference: Government Code Section 11 152.5 andHealth and 
Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education Code 
Chapter 12.5, Leroy F. Greene School Facilities Act of 1998, 
Article 1 

Wildland urban interface fire area 

Authority cited: Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, 
13108.5(a) and 18949.2(b) and (c) and Government Code Sec- 
tion 51189 

Reference: Health and Safety Code Sections 13143 and Gov- 
ernment Code Sections 51176, 51177, 51178 and 51179 and 
Public Resources Code Sections 4201 through 4204 

111.2 Duties and powers of the enforcing agency 

111.2.1 Enforcement. 

111.2.1.1 The responsibility for enforcement of building 
standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and pub- 
lished in the California Building Standards Code relat- 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



ing to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the 
Office of the State Fire Marshal shall be as follows: 

1. The city, county, or city and county with jurisdic- 
tion in the area affected by the standard or regula- 
tion shall delegate the enforcement of the building 
standards relating to fire and panic safety and 
other regulations of the State Fire Marshal as they 
relate to Group R, Division 3 dwellings, as de- 
scribed in Section 310.1 of Part 2 of the California 
Building Standards Code, to either of the follow- 
ing: 

1.1. The chief of the fire authority of the city, 

• county, or city and county, or an authorized 
representative. 

1.2. The chief building official of the city, county, 
or city and county, or an authorized represen- 
tative. 

2. The chief of any city or county fire department or of 
any fire protection district, and authorized repre- 
sentatives, shall enforce within the fiirisdiction the 
building standards and other regulations of the 
State Fire Marshal, except those described in Item 
1 or 4. 

3. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to en- 
force the building standards and other regulations 
of the State Fire Marshal in areas outside of corpo- 
rate cities and districts providing fire protection 
services. 

4. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to en- 
force the building standards and other regulations 
of the State Fire Marshal in corporate cities and 
districts providing fire protection services on re- 
quest of the chief fire official or the governing 
body. 

5. Any fee charged pursuant to the enforcement au- 
thority of this Section shall not exceed the esti- 
mated reasonable cost of providing the service for 
which the fee is charged pursuant to Section 66014 
of the Government Code. 

111.2.1.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13108, upon the written request of the chief fire official of 
any city, county or fire protection district, the State Fire 
Marshal may authorize such chief fire official and his or 
her authorized representatives, in their geographical 
area of responsibility, to make fire prevention inspections 
of state-owned or state-occupied buildings, other than 
state institutions, for the purpose of enforcing the regula- 
tions relating to fire and panic safety adopted by the State 
Fire Marshal pursuant to this Section and building stan- 
dards relating to fire and panic safety published in the 
California Building Standards Code. Authorization from 
the State Fire Marshal shall be limited to those fire 
departments or fire districts which maintain afire pre- 
vention bureau staffed by paid personnel. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108, 
any requirement or order made by any chief fire official 
who is authorized by the State Fire Marshal to make fire 



prevention inspections of state-owned or state-occupied 
buildings, other than state institutions, may be appealed 
to the State Fire Marshal. The State Fire Marshal shall, 
upon receiving an appeal and subject to the provisions of 
Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 18945) of Part 2, 5 
of Division 13 of the Health and Safety Code, determine 
if the requirement or order made is reasonably consistent 
with the fire and panic safety regulations adopted by the 
Office of the State Fire Marshal and building standards 
relating to fire and panic safety published in the Califor- 
nia Building Code. 

Any person may request a code interpretation from the 
State Fire Marshal relative to the intent of any regulation 
or provision adopted by the State Fire Marshal. When the 
request relates to a specific project, occupancy or build- 
ing, the State Fire Marshal shall review the issue with the 
appropriate local enforcing agency prior to rendering 
such code interpretation. 

111.2.1.3 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13112, any person who violates any order, rule or regu- 
lation of the State Fire Marshal is guilty of .a misde- 
meanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100.00 or 
more than $500. 00, or by imprisonment for not less than 
six months, or by both. A person is guilty of a separate 
offense each day during which he or she commits, contin- 
ues or permits a violation of any provision of, or any 
order, rule or regulation of, the State Fire Marshal as 
contained in this code. 

Any inspection authority who, in the exercise of his or 
her authority as a deputy State Fire Marshal, causes any 
legal complaints to be filed or any arrest to be made shall 
notify the State Fire Marshal immediately following such 
action. 

111.2.2 Right of entry. The fire chief of any city, county or 
fire protection district, or such person's authorized repre- 
sentative, may enter any state institution or any other 
state-owned or state-occupied building for the purpose of 
preparing a fire-suppression preplanning program or for 
the purpose of investigating any fire in a state-occupied 
building. 

The State Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried 
assistants, the chief of any city or county fire department or 
fire protection district and his or her authorized representa- 
tives may enter any building or premises not used for dwell- 
ing purposes at any reasonable hour for the purpose of 
enforcing this chapter. The owner, lessee, manager or oper- 
ator of any such building or premises shall permit the State 
Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried assistants and 
the chief of any city or county fire department or fire protec- 
tion district and his or her authorized representatives to 
enter and inspect them at the time and for the purpose stated 
in this section. 

111.2.3 Restrictive fire and panic safety building stan- 
dards. 

111.2.3.1 Any fire protection district organized pursuant 
to Health and Safety Code Part 2. 7 (commencing with 
Section 13800) of Division 12 may adopt building stan- 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENEtRAL CODE PROVISIONS 



dards relating to fire and panic safety that are more strin- 
gent than those building standards adopted by the State 
Fire Marshal and contained in the California Building 
Standards Code. For these purposes, the district board 
shall be deemed a legislative body and the district shall 
be deemed a local agency. Any changes or modifications 
that are more stringent than the requirements published 
in the California Building Standards Code relating to 
fire and panic safety shall be subject to Section 101. 8.1. 

111.2.3.2 Any fire protection district that proposes to 
adopt an ordinance pursuant to this Section shall, not 
less than 30 days prior to noticing a proposed ordinance 
for public hearing, provide a copy of that ordinance, 
together with the adoptedfindings made pursuant to Sec- 
tion 111.2.3.1, to the city, county, or city and county 
where the ordinance will apply. The city, county, or city 
and county, may provide the district with written com- 
ments, which shall become part of the fire protection dis- 
trict's public hearing record. 

111.2.3.3 The fire protection district shall transmit the 
adopted ordinance to the city, county, or city and county 
where the ordinance will apply. The legislative body of 
the city, county, or city and county, may ratify, modify or 
deny an adopted ordinance and transmit its determina- 
tion to the district within 15 days of the determination. 
Any modification or denial of an adopted ordinance shall 
include a written statement describing the reasons for 
any modifications or denial. No ordinance adopted by 
the district shall be effective until ratification by the city, 
county, or city and county where the ordinance will 
apply. Upon ratification of an adopted ordinance, the 
city, county, or city and county, shall file a copy of the 
findings of the district, and any findings of the city, 
county, or city and county, together with the adopted 
ordinance expressly marked and identified to which each 
finding refers, in accordance with Section 101.8.1:3. 

111.2.4 Request for alternate means of protection. 

Requests for approval to use an alternative material, assem- 
bly or materials, equipment, method of construction, 
method of installation of equipment, or means of protection 
shall be made in writing to the enforcing agency by the 
owner or the owner's authorized representative and shall be 
accompanied by a full statement of the conditions. Sufficient 
evidence or proof shall be submitted to substantiate any 
claim that may be made regarding its conformance. The 
enforcing agency may require tests and the submission of a 
test report from an approved testing organization as set 
forth in Title 19, California Code of Regulation, to substan- 
tiate the equivalency of the proposed alternative means of 
protection. 

When a request for alternate means of protection involves 
hazardous materials, the enforcing agency may consider 
implementation of the findings and recommendations iden- 
tified in a Risk Management Plan (RMP) developed in 
accordance with Title 19, Division 2, Chapter 4.5, Article 3. 

Approval of a request for use of an alternative material, 
assembly of materials, equipment, method of construction, 
method of installation of equipment, or means of protection 



made pursuant to these provisions shall be limited to the 
particular case covered by request and shall not be con- 
strued as establishing any precedent for any future request. 

111.2.5 Appeals. When a request for an alternate means of 
protection has been denied by the enforcing agency, the 
applicant may file a written appeal to the State Fire Marshal 
for consideration of the applicant's proposal In consider- 
ing such appeal, the State Fire Marshal may seek the advice 
of the State Board of Fire Services. The State Fire Marshal 
shall, after considering all of the facts presented, including 
any recommendations of the State Board of Fire Services, 
determine if the proposal is for the purposes intended, at 
least equivalent to that specified in these regulations in 
quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability 
and safety, and shall transmit such findings and any recom- 
mendations to the applicant and to the enforcing agency. 

111.3 Construction documents. In addition to the provisions 
of this Section, see Title 24, Part 2, California Building Code, 
Appendix Chapter 1, Section 106 for additional requirements. 

111.3.1 Public schools. Plans and specifications for the 
construction, alteration or addition to any building owned, 
leased or rented by any public school district shall be sub- 
mitted to the Division of the State Architect, Office of Regu- 
lation Services for review and approval. 

Exception: Upon the annual submission of a written 
request by the chief of any city, county, or city and county 
fire department or fire protection district to the Division 
of the State Architect, Office of Regulation Services, 
approvals required by this subSection shall be obtained 
from the appropriate chief or his or her authorized repre- 
sentative. In such instances plans and specifications may 
be submitted to the State Fire Marshal for relay to the 
appropriate local authority or may be submitted directly 
to such local authority. 

111.3.2 Movable walls and partitions. Plans or diagrams 
shall be submitted to the enforcing agency for approval 
before the installation of, or rearrangement of, any movable 
wall or partition in any occupancy. Approval shall be 
granted only if there is no increase in the fire hazard. 

111.3.3 New construction high-rise buildings. 

1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be 
prepared covering all work required to comply with 
new construction high-rise buildings. Such plans and 
specifications shall be submitted to the enforcing 
agency having jurisdiction. 

2. All plans and specifications shall be prepared under 
the responsible charge of an architect or a civil or 
structural engineer authorized by law to develop con- 
struction plans and specifications, or by both such ar- 
chitect and engineer. Plans and specifications shall 
be prepared by an engineer duly qualified in that 
branch of engineering necessary to perform such ser- 
vices. Administration of the work of construction 
shall be under the charge of the responsible architect 
or engineer except that where plans and specifica- 
tions involve alterations or repairs, such work of con- 
struction may be administered by an engineer duly 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



qualified to perform such services and holding a valid 
certificate under Chapter 7 (commencing with Sec- 
tion 65700) of Division 3 of the Business and Profes- 
sions Code for performance of services in that branch 
of engineering in which said plans, specifications and 
estimates and work of construction are applicable. 

This Section shall not be construed as preventing the 
design of fire-extinguishing systems by persons holding a 
C-16 license issued pursuant to Division 3, Chapter 9, 
Business and Professions Code. In such instances, how- 
ever, the responsibility charge of this Section shall pre- 
vail. 

111.3.4 Existing high-rise buildings. 

1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be 
prepared covering all work required by Section 3412, 
for existing high-rise buildings. Suchplans or specifi- 
cations shall be submitted to the enforcing agency 
having jurisdiction. 

2. When new construction is required to conform to the 
provisions of these regulations, complete plans or 
specifications, or both, shall be prepared in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this subSection. As used 
in this Section "new construction" is not intended to 
include repairs, replacements or minor alterations 
which do not disrupt or appreciably add to or affect 
the structural aspects of the building. 

111.3.5 Retention of plans. Refer to Building Standards 
Law, Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 and 19851, for 
permanent retention of plans. 

111.4 Fees 

111.4.1 Other fees. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code 
Section 13146.2, a city, county or district which inspects a 
hotel, motel, lodging house, or apartment house may charge 
and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the 
structure in an amount, as determined by the city, county or 
district, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection. 

111.4.2 Large family day care. Pursuant to Health and 
Safety Code Section 1597.46, Large Family Day-care 
Homes, the local government shall process any required 
permit as economically as possible, and fees charged for 
review shall not exceed the costs of the review and permit 
process. 

111.4.3 High-rise. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Sec- 
tion 13217, High-rise Structure Inspection: Fees and Costs, 
a local agency which inspects a high-rise structure pursuant 
to Health and Safety Code Section 13217 may charge and 
collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the 
high-rise structurein an amount, as determined by the local ■ 
agency, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection. 

111.4.4 Fire clearance preinspection. Pursuant to Health 
and Safety Code Section 13235, Fire Clearance Preinspec- 
tion, fee; upon receipt of a request from a prospective 
licensee of a community care facility, as defined in Section 
1502, of a residential-care facility for the elderly, as defined 
in Section 1569.2, or of a child day-care facility, as defined 
in Section 1596.750, the local fire enforcing agency, as 
defined in Section 13244, or State' Fire Marshal, whichever 



has primary jurisdiction, shall conduct a preinspection of 
the facility prior to the final fire clearance approval. At the 
time of the preinspection, the primary fire enforcing agency 
shall price consultation and interpretation of the fire safety 
regulations, and shall notify the prospective licensee of the 
facility in writing of the specific fire safety regulations which 
shall be enforced in order to obtain fire clearance approval. 
A fee of not more than $50.00 may be charged for the 
preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or 
fewer persons. A fee of not more than $100.00 may be 
charged for a preinspection of a facility with a capacity to 
serve 26 or more persons. 

111.4.5 Care facilities. The primary fire enforcing agency 
shall complete the final fire clearance inspection for a com- 
munity care facility, residential-care facility for the elderly, 
or child day-care facility within 30 days of receipt of the 
request for the final inspection, or as of the date the prospec- 
tive facility requests the final prelicensure inspection by the 
State Department of Social Services, whichever is later. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13235, a 
preinspection fee of not more than $50.00 may be charged 
for a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or less clients. A fee 
of not more than $100.00 may be charged for a preinspec- 
tion of a facility with a capacity to serve 26 or more clients. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13131.5, a 
reasonable final inspection fee, not to exceed the actual cost 
of inspection services necessary to complete a final inspec- 
tion may be charged for occupancies classified as residen- 
tial care facilities for the elderly (RCFE). 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 1569.84, nei- 
ther the State Fire Marshal nor any local public entity shall 
charge any fee for enforcing fire inspection regulations pur- 
suant to state law or regulation or local ordinance, with 
respect to residential-care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) 
which service six or fewer persons. 

111.4.6 Requests of the office of the State Fire Marshal. 

Whenever a local enforcing agency requests that the State 
Fire Marshal perform plan review and/or inspection ser- 
vices related to a building permit, the applicable fees for 
such shall be payable to the Office of the State Fire Marshal. 

111.5 Inspections. Work performed subject to the provisions of 
this code shall comply with the inspection requirements con- 
tained in Appendix Chapter 1, Section 106 as adopted by the 
Office of the State Fire Marshal. 

111.5.1 Existing Group I-l or R occupancies. Licensed 
24-hour care in a Group I-l orR occupancy in existence and 
originally classified under previously adopted state codes 
shall be reinspected under the appropriate previous code 
provided there is no change in the use or character which 
would place the facility in a different occupancy group. 

111.6 Certificate of Occupancy. A Certificate of Occupancy 
shall be issued as specified in Title 24, Part 2, California Build- 
ing Code, Appendix Chapter 1, Section 110. 

Exception: Group R-3 and Group U occupancies. 

111.7 Temporary structures anduses. See Title 24, Part 2, Cal- 
ifornia Building Code, Appendix Chapter 1, Section 107. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS 



111.8 Service utilities. See Title 24, Part 2, California Building 
Code, Appendix Chapter 1, Section 111. 

111.9 Stop work order. See Title 24, Part 2, California Building 
Code, Appendix Chapter 1, Section 114. 

111.10 Unsafe buildings, structures and equipment. See Title 
24, Part 2, California Building Code, Appendix Chapter 1, Sec- 
tion 115. 



SECTION 112 
RESERVED 



SECTION 113 
RESERVED 



SECTION 114 
RESERVED 



1 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


201.3 


CA 




X 




































202.0 


IFC 




X 




































Accessible Means of 
Egress 


IFC 












X 




























Aged Home or institution 


CA 




X 




































Area of Refuge 


IFC 












X 




























Assembly 


CA 




X 




































Assembly Building 


CA 




X 




































Bedridden Person 


CA 




X 




































Building 


CA . 




X 




































Care and Supervision 


CA 




X 




































Catastrophically Injured 


CA 




X 




































Cell 


CA 




X 




































Celi Complex 


CA 




X 




































Cell Tiers 


CA 




X 




































Child-Care Center 


CA 




X 




































Child or Children 


CA 




X 




































Chronically III 


CA 




X 




































Congregate Living Health 
Facility (CLHF) 


CA 




X 




































Congregate Residence 


CA 




X 




































Daycare 


CA 




X 




































Day-Care Home, Large 
Family 


CA 




X 




































Day-Care Home, Small 
Family 


CA 




X 




































Day Room 


CA 




X 




































Enforcing Agency 


CA 




X 




































Exit 


IFC 












X 




























Fire-Retardant Treated 
Wood 


CA 




X 




































Fire Appliance 


CA 




X 




































Fixed Guideway Transit 
System 


CA 




X 




































Fuii-Tlme Care 


CA 




X 




































Guard or Guardrail 


IFC 












X 




























Handrail 


IFC 












X 




























High-Rise Building 


CA 




X 




































Holding Facility 


CA 




X 




































Housing Unit 


CA 




X 




































infant 


CA 




X 




































Lodging House 


CA 




X 




































Mentally Retarded 
Persons, Profoundly or 
Severely 


CA 




X 




































IVIodernization Project 


CA 




X 




































New Public School 
Campus 


CA 




X 





































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



11 



CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ctiapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections iisted below) 




X 




































Adopt oniy those sections that are 
iisted beiow 












X 




























Chapter / Section 


Codes 


Non-Accessibie Area 


CA 




X 




































Nonambuiatory Persons 


CA 




X 




































Noncombustible 


CA 




X 




































Occupancy Ciassification 


CA 




X 




































Permanent Portable 
Building 


CA 




X 




































Photoluminescent 


CA 




X 




































Portable Building 


CA 




X 




































Protective Social Care 


CA 




X 




































Public Way 


IFC 




X 








X 




























Residential Care Facility 
for the Chronically III 
(RCF/CI) 


CA 




X 




































Residential Care Facility 
For The Elderly (RCFE) 


CA 




X 




































Residential Facility (RF) 


CA 




X 




































Restraint 


CA 




X 




































Self-luminous 


CA 




X 




































Stair 


IFC 












X 




























Stairway 


IFC 












X 




























Terminally III 


CA 








































Winery Caves 


CA 



















































































12 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and ai'e defined in the California Building 
Code, California Mechanical Code or California Plumbing 
Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as 
in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the 
English Language, Unabridged, shall be considered as provid- 
ing ordinarily accepted meanings. 

For applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, where terms are not defined through 
the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have 
ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Web- 
ster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage, Unabridged, shall be considered as providing 
ordinarily accepted meanings. 



SECTION 202 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

[B] ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 
1002.1. 

AEROSOL. See Section 2802. 1 . 

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1. 

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1. 

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1. 

AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 2802.1. 

AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. See Section 2802.1. 

[B]AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION. A facility used for the 
housing of persons 65 years of age or older in need of care and 
supervision. (See definition of "care and supervision." ) 

AGENT. A person who shall have chai'ge, cai'e or control of 
any structure as owner, or agent of the owner, or as executor, 
executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of 
the estate of the owner. Any such person representing the actual 
owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this 
code to the same extent as if that person was the owner. 

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 



AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). See Section 
1102.1. 

AIRPORT. See Section 1 102. 1 . 

AISLE. See Section 1002. 

[B] AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section' 902.1. 

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. See Section 3402.1. 

[EB] ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an 
existing structure other than a repair or addition. 

[B] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002. 1 . 

AMMONIUM NITRATE. See Section 3302.1. 

ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902. 1 . 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the fire code official. 

[B] AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 

ARRAY. See Section 2302.1. 

ARRAY, CLOSED. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] ASSEMBLY. The gathering together of 50 or more persons 
for such purposes as deliberation, education, instruction, wor- 
ship, entertainment, amusement, drinking, dining or awaiting 
transportation. 

[B] ASSEMBLY BUILDING. A building or portion of a build- 
ing used for the gathering together of 50 or more persons for 
such purposes as deliberation, education, instruction, wor- 
ship, entertainment, amusement, drinking or dining, or await- 
ing transportation. Any building or structure or portion thereof 
used or intended to be used for the showing of motion pictures 
when an admission fee is charged and when such building or 
structure is open to the public and has a capacity of 10 or more 
persons. 

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See 

Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 

Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. See Section 2202.1. 

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 902. 1 . 

BARRICADE. See Section 3302.1. 

Artificial barricade. See Section 3302.1. 

Natural barricade. See Section 3302.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



BARRICADED. See Section 3302.1. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. See 

Section 602.1. 

BATTERY TYPES. See Section 602.1. 

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. See Section 602.1. 

Nonrecombinant battery. See Section 602.1. 

Recombinant battery. See Section 602.1. 

Stationary storage battery. See Section 602.1. 

Valve-regulated lead-acid battery. See Section 602.1. 

Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery. See Section 602.1. 

[B] BEDRIDDEN PERSON. A person, requiring assistance 
in turning and repositioning in bed, or being unable to inde- 
pendently transfer to and from bed, except in facilities with 
appropriate and sufficient care staff, mechanical devices if nec- 
essary, and safety precautions as determined in Title 22 regula- 
tions, by the Director of Social Services or his or her 
designated representative. 

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated rep- 
resentative shall make the determination of the bedridden sta- 
tus of persons with developmental disabilities, in consulation 
with the Director of Developmental Services or his or her des- 
ignated representative. 

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated rep- 
resentative shall make the determination of the bedridden sta- 
tus of all other persons with disabilities who are not 
developmentally disabled. 

BIN BOX. See Section 2302.1. 

BLAST AREA. See Section 3302.1. 

BLAST SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

BLASTER. See Section 3302.1. 

BLASTING AGENT. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1. 

BOILING POINT. See Section 2702.1. 

BONFIRE. See Section 302.1. 

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to 
raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by 1°F 
(0.5565°C). 

[B] BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting 
or sheltering any use or occupancy. 

Note: Building shall have the same meaning as defined in 
Health and Safety Code Sections 17920 and 18908 for the 
applications specified in Section 111. 

BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. See Section 4002.1. 

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. See Section 3402.1. 

BULK TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1. 

BULLET RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1. 

CANOPY. See Section 2402.1. 

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 

Section 902.1. 



[B] CARE AND SUPERVISION. Any one or more of the fol- 
lowing activities provided by a person or facility to meet the 
needs of the clients: 

Assistance in dressing, grooming, bathing and other per- 
sonal hygiene 

Assistance with taking medication 

Central storing and/or distribution of medications 

Arrangement of and assistance with medical and dental 
care 

Maintenance of house rules for the protection of clients 

Supervision of client schedules and activities 

Maintenance and/or supervision of client cash resources or 
property 

Monitoring food intake or special diets 

Providing basic services required by applicable law and 
regulation to be provided by the licensee in order to obtain 
and maintain a community-care facility license 

CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product. 

[B] CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED. As termed means a 
person whose origin of disability was acquired through trauma 
or nondegenerative neurologic illness, for whom it has been 
determined by the Department of Health Services Certification 
and Licensing that active rehabilitation would be beneficial. 

CEILING LIMIT. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] CELL. A housing unit in a detention or correctional facility 
for the confinement of not more than two inmates or prisoners. 

[B] CELL COMPLEX. A cluster or group of cells or dormito- 
ries in a jail, prison, or other detention facility, together with 
rooms used for accessory purposes, all of which open into the 
cell complex, and are used for functions such as dining, coun- 
seling, exercise, classrooms, sick call, visiting, storage, staff 
offices, control rooms or similar functions, and interconnecting 
corridors all within the cell complex. 

[B] CELL TIERS. Cells, dormitories and accessory spaces. 
Cell tiers are located one level above the other, and do not 
exceed two levels per floor. A cell tier shall not he considered a 
story or mezzanine. 

[EB] CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the purpose 
or level of activity within a building that involves a change in 
application of the requirements of this code. 

CHEMICAL. See Section 2702.1. 

CHEMICAL NAME. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] CHILD-CARE CENTER. Any facility of any capacity 
other than a large or small family day-care home as defined in 
these regulations in which less than 24-hour-per-day 
nonmedical supervision is provided for children in a group set- 
ting. 

[B] CHILD OR CHILDREN. A person or persons under the 
age of 18 years. 

[B] CHRONICALLY ILL. See "Terminally ill." 

CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1. 



14 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



CLOSED CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1. 

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the 
product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal opera- 
tions; and all. uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed 
systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed 
through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of 
equipment. 

COLD DECK. See Section 1902.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 1302.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 2902.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1. 

Class n. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IIIA.. See Section 3402.1. 

Class inB. See Section 3402.1. 

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. See Sec- 
tion 602.1. 

COMMODITY. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 
1002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 3002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3002.1. 

[B] CONGREGATE LIVING HEALTH FACILITY (CLHF). 

As termed, is a residential home with a capacity of no more 
than six beds, which provides inpatient care, including the fol- 
lowing basic services: medical supervision, 24-hour skilled 
nursing and supportive care, pharmacy, dietary, social recre- 
ational, and at least provides services for persons who are 
diagnosed with a terminal illness or who are catastrophically 
and severely disabled. 

[B] CONGREGATE RESIDENCE. Any building or portion 
thereof that contains facilities for living, sleeping and sanita- 
tion, as required by this code, and may include facilities for eat- 
ing and cooking, for occupancy by other than a family. A 
congregate residence may be a shelter, convent, monastery, 
dormitory, fraternity or sorority house, but does not include 
jails, hospitals, nursing homes, hotels or lodging houses. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 
902.1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, graphic 
and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing 
the design, location and physical characteristics of the ele- 
ments of the project necessary for obtaining a permit. 

CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1. 

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. See Section 3702.1. 

CONTAINMENT VESSEL. See Section 3702.1. 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
1802.1. 



CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 
[B] CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1. 
COTTON. See Section 2902.1. 

Baled cotton. See Section 2902.1. 

Baled cotton, densely packed. See Section 2902.1. 

Seed cotton. See Section 2902.1. 

CORROSIVE. See Section 3102.1. 

CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. See Section 3202.1. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202. 1 . 

CRYOGENIC VESSEL. See Section 3202. 1 . 

CYLINDER. See Section 2702.1. 

DAY BOX. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] DAY-CARE. Shall, for the purposes of these regulations, 
mean the care of persons during any period of a 24-hour day 
where permanent sleeping accommodations are nofprovided. 

Note: "Day-care " shall not be construed to preclude the 
use of cots or mats for napping purposes, provided all 
employees, attendants and staff personnel are awake and on 
duty in the area where napping occurs. 

[B] DAY-CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY. A providers own 
home licensed to provide day care for periods less than 24 
hours per day for nine to 14 persons, including children under 
the age of 10 years who reside at the home. 

[B] DAY-CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY. A home which 
provides family day care to eight or fewer children, including 
children under the age of 10 years who reside at the home, in 
the provider's own home, for periods of less than 24 hours per 
day. Small family day-care homes are exempted from state fire 
and life safety regulations other than those state and local stan- 
dards applicable to Group R-3 occupancies. See Health and 
Safety Code, Section 13143 (b). 

DAY ROOM. A room which is adjacent to a cell, or cell tier, or 
dormitory and which is used as a dining, exercise or other 
activity room for inmates. 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over 
the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other 
effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, sti'eamers and sur- 
face coverings) and all other materials utilized for decorative 
effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, staUcs, sti-aw, vines, 
leaves, trees, moss and similai- items), including foam plastics 
and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials 
do not include floor coverings, ordinai-y window shades, inte- 
rior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thick- 
ness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate. 

DEFLAGRATION. See Section 2702. 1 . 

DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902. 1 . 

DESIGN PRESSURE. See Section 2702. 1 . 

DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 2702.1. 

DETEARING. See Section 1502.1. 

DETECTOR, HEAT See Section 902.1. 

DETONATING CORD. See Section 3302.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



DETONATION. See Section 3302.1. 

DETONATOR. See Section 3302.1. 

DIP TANK. See Section 1502.1. 

DISCHARGE SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

DISPENSING. See Section 2702.1. 

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. See Section 
2202.1. 

DISPLAY SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 

DRAFT CURTAIN. See Section 2302.1. 

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Sec- 
tion 902.1. 

DRY CLEANING. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING PLANT. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. See Sectionl202.1. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. See Section 1202. 1 . 

[B] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, 
independent living facilities for one or more persons, including 
permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) 
SPRINKLER. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502. 1 . 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 1 802. 1 . 

[B] EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. 

See Section 1002.1. 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. See Section 402. 1 . 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE. A valve designed to 
shut off the flow of gases or liquids. 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, AUTOMATIC. A 

fail-safe automatic-closing valve designed to shut off the flow 
of gases or liquids initiated by a contiol system that is activated 
by automatic means. 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, MANUAL. A manu- 
ally operated valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liq- 
uids. 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. 

See Section 902.1. 

[B] ENFORCING AGENCY. Enforcing Agency is the desig- 
nated department or agency as specified by statute or regula- 
tion. 

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. See Section 2702.1. 

EXCESS FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 2702.1. 



EXISTING. Buildings, facilities or conditions which are 
already in existence, constructed or officially authorized prior 
to the adoption of this code. 

[B] EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OE See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

EXPANDED PLASTIC. See Section 2302.1. 

EXPLOSION. See Section 2702.1. 

EXPLOSIVE. See Section 3302.1. 

High Explosive. See Section 3302.1. 

Low Explosive. See Section 3302.1. 

Mass-detonating Explosives. See Section 3302.1. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.1. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.2. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.3. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.4. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.5. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.6. See Section 3302.1. 
EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1. 

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See 

Section 2302.1. 

FABRICATION AREA. See Section 1802.1. 

FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including 
exterior storage areas for flammable and combustible sub- 
stances and hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms 
and similar uses. This term includes recreational vehicles, 
mobile home and manufactured housing parks, sales and stor- 
age lots. 

FAIL-SAFE. A design condition incorporating a feature for 
automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated possi- 
ble source of failure; also, a design condition eUminating or 
mitigating a hazardous condition by compensating automati- 
cally for a failure or malfunction. 

FALLOUT AREA. See Section 3302.1. 

FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or trans- 
mission of a signal, message or other notification of an event of 
fire when no such danger exists. 

FINES. See Section 1902.1. 

FIRE ALARM. The giving, signaling or fransmission to any 
public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee 
thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of 
information to the effect that there is a fu:e at or near the place 
indicated by the person giving, signaling, or transmitting such 
information. 



16 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902. 1 . 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE CHIEF. The chief officer of the fire depaitment serving 
the jurisdiction, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
the code, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. See Section 502. 1 . 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

[B] FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire 
door, frame, hardware, and other accessories that together pro- 
vide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 

[B] FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

FIRE LANE. See Section 502.1. 

[B] FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restiict the spread of fire in vvhich openings are pro- 
tected. 

FIRE POINT. See Section 3402.1. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

[B] FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED WOOD. Fire-retardant 
wood is any wood product impregnated with chemicals by a 
pressure process or other means during manufacture, and 
which, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84-05 for a 
period of 30 minutes, shall have aflame spread of not over 25 
and show no evidence of progressive combustion. In addition, 
the flame front shall not progress more than 10 '/2feet (3200 
mm) beyond the center line of the burner at any time during the 
test. Materials that may be exposed to the weather shall pass 
the accelerated weathering test and be identified as Exterior 
type, in accordance with ASTM D 2898-94 and ASTM D 
3201-94. Where material is not directly exposed to rainfall but 
exposed to high humidity conditions, it shall be subjected to the 
hygroscopic test and identified as Interior Type A in accor- 
dance with ASTMD 2898-94 and ASTM D 3201-94. 

All materials shall bear identification showing the fire per- 
formance rating thereof. Such identifications shall be issued by 
an approved agency having a service for inspection of materi- 
als at the factory. 

Fire-retardant-treated wood shall not be construed as 
"noncombustible. " 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902. 1 . 

FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure con- 
tinuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion 
thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of 
identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs 



of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the fire 
department. 

FIREWORKS. See Section 3302.1. 

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 3302.1. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 3302.1. 

FIREWORKS DISPLAY. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] FIXED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEMS. See Califor- 
nia Building Code, Section 443. 

FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202. 1 . 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. See Section 1502.1. 

FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 3502.1. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 3502.1. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1. 

Class lA. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IB. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IC. See Section 3402.1. 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being 
readily ignited fi'om common sources of heat or at a tempera- 
ture of 600°F (316°C) or less. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 3602.1. 

FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. See Section 1502.1. 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 2702. 1 . 

FLASH POINT. See Section 3402.1. 

FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY, See Section 2202.1. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1. 

FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1. 

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

[B] FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

FUEL LIMIT SWITCH. See Section 3402.1. 

[B][SFM] FULL-TIME CARE. The establishment and rou- 
tine care of persons on an hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly 
or permanent basis, whether for 24 hours per day or less, and 
where sleeping accommodations are provided. 

FUMIGANT. See Section 1702.1. 

FUMIGATION. See Section 1702. 1 . 

FURNACE CLASS A. See Section 2102.1. 

FURNACE CLASS B. See Section 2102.1. 

FURNACE CLASS C. See Section 2102.1. 

FURNACE CLASS D. See Section 2102.1. 

GAS CABINET. See Section 2702.1. 

GAS ROOM. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] GUARD. See Section 1002.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Sec- 
tion 902.1. 

HANDLING. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. See Section 2702.1. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See 

Section 1802.1. 

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE. A substance which, by reason 
of being explosive, flammable, toxic, poisonous, corrosive, oxi- 
dizing, irritant or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause injury. 

HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 2702.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 1102.1. 

HELISTOP. See Section 1102.1. 

HI-BOY. See Section 302.1. 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 
2302.1. 

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] HIGH-RISE BUILDING. As used in this code: 

1. "Existing high-rise structure" means a high-rise struc- 
ture, the construction of which is commenced or com- 
pleted prior to July 1, 1974. 

2. "High-rise structure" means every building of any type 
of construction or occupancy having floors used for hu- 
man occupancy located more than 75 feet above the low- 
est floor level having building access (see California 
Building Code, Section 403.1.2), except buildings used 
as hospitals as defined in Health and Safety Code Sec- 
tion 1250. 

3. "New high-rise structure" means a high-rise structure, 
the construction of which is commenced on or after July 
1, 1974. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 3702.1. 

HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUID. A liquefied compressed gas 
with a boiling point of less than 68°F (20°C). 

HIGHWAY. See Section 3302.1. 

HOGGED MATERIALS. See Section 1902.1. 

[B] HOLDING FACILITY. A detention or correctionalfacility 
or area where inmates, staff and public are not housed but are 
restrained. 

[M] HOOD. See Section 602.1. 

Type L See Section 602.1. 

HOT WORK. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK AREA. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK PERMITS. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK PROGRAM. See Section 2602.1. 

[B] HOUSING UNIT. An area intended to lodge inmates on a 
24-hour basis where accommodations are provided for sleep- 
ing. 



HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 1802.1. 

HPM ROOM. See Section 1802.1. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). See Section 2702.1. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. See Section 902.1. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] INFANT. For the purpose of these regulations, shall mean 
any child who because of age only, is unable to walk and 
requires the aid of another person to evacuate the building. In 
no case shall the term "infant" mean a child beyond two years 
of age. 

INHABITED BUILDING. See Section 3302.1. 

INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which 
causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by 
chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin irri- 
tant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the 
methods of CPSC 16CFRPart 1500.41 for an exposure of four 
or more hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in 
an empirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an 
eye irritant if so determined under the procedure listed in CPSC 
16CFR Part 1500.42 or other approved techniques. 

KEY BOX. See Section 502.1. 

LABELED. Equipment or material to which has been attached 
a label, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recog- 
nized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organiza- 
tion concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic 
inspection of production of labeled equipment or materials, 
and by whose labehng is indicated compUance with nationally 
recognized standards or tests to determine suitable usage in a 
specified manner. 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1. 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). See Section 2202. 1 . 

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP-gas). See Section 
3802.1. 

LIQUID. See Section 2702.1. 

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 3402.1. 

LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. See Section 3402.1. 

LISTED. Equipment or materials included on a list published 
by an approved testing laboratory, inspection agency or other 
organization concerned with current product evaluation that 
maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equip- 
ment or materials, and whose listing states that equipment or 
materials comply with approved nationally recognized stan- 
dards and have been tested or evaluated and found suitable for 
use in a specified manner. 

[B] LODGING HOUSE. Any building or portion thereof con- 
taining not more than five guestrooms where rent is paid in 
money, goods, labor or otherwise. 

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1. 

LOW-PRESSURE TANK. See Section 3202.1. 

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See Section 2702. 1 . 



18 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
2702.1. 

MAGAZINE. See Section 3302.1. 

Indoor. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 1. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 2. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 3. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 4. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 5. See Section 3302. 1. 
MAGNESIUM. See Section 3602.1. 
MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1. 
MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1. 

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See 

Section 2202.1. 

MATEIOAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). See Section 
2702.1. 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CON- 
TROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 
2302.1. 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 

[B] MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS, PROFOUNDLY 
OR SEVERELY. Any retarded person who is unable to evacu- 
ate a building unassisted during emergency conditions. 

Note: The determination as to such incapacity shall be 
made by the Director of the State Department of Public 
Health or his or her designated representative pursuant to 
Health and Safety Code Section 1313L3. 

[B] MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002. 

MOBILE FUELING. See Section 3402.1. 

MODERNIZATION PROJECT. Any construction effort that 
has an estimated total cost in excess of $200,000.00 that is 
intended to modify a permanent school building or structure 
and or the addition of a new school building or structure used 
to serve or house students from kindergarten through twelfth 
grade (K-12). Modernization efforts shall apply strictly to a 
public school that was established prior to July 1, 2002, and is 
funded pursuant to the Education Code, Section 17074.56 and 
Education Code commencing with Section 17070.10. Modern- 
ization projects that are to be completed in more than one 
phase, may defer the installation of the automatic fire detection 
and alarm systems until the final phase of the modernization 
project. Solely for the purposes of Education Code Section 
17074.20, routine maintenance and repair work shall not be 
considered a modernization project. 

MORTAR. See Section 3302.1. 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 



MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. 

902.1. 

■NESTING. See Section 3002.1. 



See Section 



NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). See Section 
3302.1. 

NEW PUBLIC SCHOOL CAMPUS. An educational institu- 
tion established on or after July 1, 2002, that houses and or 
serves students from kindergarten through twelfth grade 
(K-12} and is funded pursuant to the Education Code, com- 
mencing with Section 17070.10. 

NONACCESSIBLE AREA. An enclosed area that creates a 
cavity by the application of any construction feature and/or 
building materials. This area shall be recognized by the enforc- 
ing agency as a separation between the nonaccessible space 
and any adjacent, occupied space of the building. 

IB] NONAMBULATORY PERSONS. Persons unable to 
leave a building unassisted under emergency conditions. It 
includes, but is not limited to, persons who depend on mechani- 
cal aids such as crutches, walkers and wheelchairs and any 
person who is unable to physically and mentally respond to a 
sensory signal approved by the State Fire Marshal or an oral 
instruction relating to fire danger 

The determination ofambulatoiy or nonambulatory status of 
persons with developmental disabilities shall be made by the 
Director of Social Services or his or her designated representa- 
tive, in consultation with the director of Developmental Ser- 
vices or his or her designated representative. The 
determination of ambulatory or nonambulatory status of all 
other disabled persons placed after January 1, 1984, who are 
not developmentally disabled shall be made by the Director of 
Social Services or his or her designated representative. 

[B] NONCOMBUSTIBLE. Noncombustible as applied to 
building construction material means a material which, in the 
form in which it is used, is either one of the following: 

1. Material of which no part will ignite and burn when sub- 
jected to fire. Any material passing ASTM 136 shall be 
considered noncombustible. 

2. Material having a structural base of noncombustible 
material as defined in Item 1 above, with a surfacing ma- 
terial not over '/g inch (3.2 mm) thick which has aflame 
spread index of 50 or less. 

"Noncombustible" does not apply to surface finish materi- 
als. Material required to be noncombustible for reduced clear- 
ances to flues, heating appliances or other sources of high 
temperature shall refer to material conforming to Item 1. No 
material shall be classed as noncombustible which is subject to 
increase in combustibility or flame spread index, beyond the 
limits herein established, through the effects of age, moisture or 
other atmospheric condition. 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). 
See Section 2702.1. 

[B] NOSING. See Section 1002.1. 

NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



19 



DEFINITIONS 



OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of this 
code, certain occupancies are defined as follows: 

[B] Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, for the gathering together of persons for 
purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recre- 
ation, food or drink consumption; or awaiting transporta- 
tion; or motion picture and television production studio 
sound stages, approved production facilities and produc- 
tion locations. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A building used for assembly purposes with an oc- 
cupant load of less than 50 persons shall be classi- 
fied as a Group B occupancy. 

2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with 
an occupant load of less than 50 persons and acces- 
sory to another occupancy shall be classified as a 
Group B occupancy or classified as part of that oc- 
cupancy. 

3 . A room or space used for assembly purposes that is 
less than 750 square feet (70 m^) in area and is ac- 
cessory to another occupancy shall be classified as 
a Group B occupancy or classified as part of that 
occupancy. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended 
for the production and viewing of performing arts or 
motion pictures including but not hmited to: 

Motion picture and television production studio 
sound stages, approved production facilities and 
production locations (with live audiences) 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Televison and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not limited to: 

Banquet halls 
Night clubs 
Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A, including, but not Hmited to: Amuse- 
ment arcades 

Art galleries 
Bowling alleys 
Community halls 
Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink consump- 
tion) 

Exhibition halls 
Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 
Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 
Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 



Lecture halls 

Libraries 

Museums 

Places of religious worship 

Pool and billiard parlors 

Waiting areas in transportation terminals 

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sport- 
ing events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 
Skating rinks 
Swimming pools 
Tennis courts 

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or view- 
ing outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 

Amusement park structures 

Bleachers 

Grandstands 

Stadiums 

[B] Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type 
transactions, including storage of records and accounts. 
Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 

Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 

Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 

Car wash 

Civic administration 

Clinic-outpatient (Not classified as Group 1-2.1) 

Dry cleaning and laundries; pick-up and delivery sta- 
tions and self-service 

Educational occupancies for students above the 12th 
grade 

Electronic data processing 

Laboratories; testing and research 

Motor vehicle showrooms 

Post offices 

Print shops 

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, 
physicians, engineers, etc.) 

Radio and television stations 

Telephone exchanges 

Training and skill development not within a school or 
academic program 

[B] Group C (CAMPS, ORGANIZED). An organized 
camp is a site with programs and facilities established for 
the primary purpose of providing an outdoor group living 
experience with social, spiritual, educational or recre- 
ational objectives, for five days or more during one or more 
seasons of the year. 

[B] Educational Group E. Educational Group E occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or struc- 
ture, or a portion thereof, by more than six persons at any 
one time for educational purposes thi-ough the 12th grade. 



20 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, 
which are accessory to places of religious worship in accor- 
dance with Section 508.3.1 of the California Building Code 
and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified 
as Group A-3 occupancies. 

Exception: A residence used as a home school for the 
children who normally reside at the residence. Such resi- 
dences shall remain classified as Group R-2, or Group 
R-3 occupancies. 

Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 
thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care 
services for more than six children older than 2 '4 years of 
age shall be classified as an E occupancy. 

Exception: A day-care facility not otherwise classi- 
fied as an R-3 occupancy, where occupants are not 
capable of responding to an emergency situation 
without physical assistance from the staff shall be 
classified as Group 1-4. 

[B] Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group 
F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassem- 
bUng, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, 
repair or processing operations that are not classified as a 
Group H high-hazard or Group S storage occupancy. 

Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard Occupancy. 

Factory Industrial uses which are not classified as Fac- 
tory Industrial Group F-2 shall be classified as F-1 Mod- 
erate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Aircraft 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages; over 12 percent in alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas and similar fabric 

Carpet and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Millwork (sash and doors) 



Motion picture and television production studio 
sound stages, approved production facilities and 
production locations (without live audiences) 

Musical instruments 

Optical goods 

Paper mills or products 

Photographic film 

Plastic products 

Printing or publishing 

Recreational vehicles 

Refuse incineration 

Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 

Textiles 

Tobacco 

Trailers 

Upholstering 

Wood; distillation 

Woodworking (cabinet) 

[B] Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. 

Factory industrial uses involving the fabrication or man- 
ufacturing of noncombustible materials which, during 
finishing, packaging or processing do not involve a sig- 
nificant fire hazard, shall be classified as Group F-2 
occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Beverages; up to and including 12 percent alcohol 

content 
Brick and masonry 
Ceramic products 
Foundries 
Glass products 
Gypsum 
Ice 
Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 

High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, process- 
ing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a 
physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of quanti- 
ties allowed in control areas constructed and located as 
required in Section 2703.8.3. Hazai'dous uses are classified 
in Groups H- 1 , H-2, H-3 , H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accor- 
dance with this code and the requirements of Section415 of 
the California Building Code. 

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified in 
Group H, but shall be classified in the occupancy that 
they most nearly resemble: 

1. Buildings and structui-es that contain not more 
than the maximum allowable quantities per con- 
trol area of hazardous materials as shown in Ta- 
bles 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2), provided tiiat 
such buildings are maintained in accordance with 
this code. 

2. Buildings utilizing control areas in accordance 
with Section 2703.8.3 that contain not more than 
the maximum allowable quantities per control 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



21 



DEFINITIONS 



area of hazardous materials as shown in Tables 
2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2). 

3. Buildings and structures occupied for the appli- 
cation of flammable finishes, provided that such 
buildings or ai'eas conform to the requirements of 
Section 416 of the California Building Code and 
Chapter 15 of this code. 

4. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flam- 
mable and combustible liquids in mercantile oc- 
cupancies conforming to Chapter 34. 

5. Closed piping systems containing flammable or 
combustible liquids or gases utiUzed for the oper- 
ation of machinery or equipment. 

6. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible 
liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F 
(60°C) or higher in closed systems employing 
equipment listed by an approved testing agency, 
provided that this occupancy is separated from 
all other areas of the building by 1 -hour fire barri- 
ers constructed in accordance with Section 706 
of the California Building Code or 1-hour hori- 
zontal assemblies constructed in accordance 
with Section 711 of the California Building 
Code, or both. 

7. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid sol- 
vent having a flash point at or above 200°F 
(93°C). 

8. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk stor- 
age. 

9. Refrigeration systems. 

1 0. The storage or utilization of materials for agricul- 
tural purposes on the premises. 

11. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emer- 
gency power, uninterrupted power supply or tele- 
communication facilities, provided that the 
batteries are provided with safety venting caps 
and ventilation is provided in accordance with 
the California Mechanical Code. 

12. Corrosives shall not include personal or house- 
hold products in their original packaging used in 
retail display or commonly used building materi- 
als. 

13. Buildings and stractures occupied for aerosol 
storage shall be classified as Group S- 1 , provided 
that such buildings conform to the requirements 
of Chapter 28. 

14. Display and storage of nonflammable soUd and 
nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazard- 
ous materials in quantities not exceeding the 
maximum allowable quantity per control area in 
Group M or S occupancies complying with Sec- 
tion 2703.8.3.5. 

15. The storage of black powder, smokeless propel- 
lant and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 
and special industrial explosive devices in 
Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage con- 



forms to the quantity limits and requirements of 
this code. 

High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose a detonation hazard, shall be 
classified as Group H-1 . Such materials shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Explosives: 
Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exception: Materials that are used and main- 
tained in a form where either confinement or 
configuration will not elevate the hazard from a 
mass fure to mass explosion hazard shall be 
allowed in Group H-2 occupancies. 

Division 1.4 

Exception: Articles, including articles pack- 
aged for shipment, that are not regulated as an 
explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco 
and Firearms regulations, or unpackaged arti- 
cles used in process operations that do not prop- 
agate a detonation or deflagration between 
articles shall be allowed in Group H-3 occupan- 
cies. 

Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable, and 

Class 4 
Detonable pyrophoric materials 

High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a haz- 
ard from accelerated burning, shall be classified as 
Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Class I, or II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids 
which are used or stored in normally open contain- 
ers or systems, or in closed containers or systems 
pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch 
(103.4 kPa) gauge 

Combustible dusts 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides, Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
open containers or systems, or in closed containers 
or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per 
square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials. Class 3 

High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazai'd shall be classified as Group H-3. 



22 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids 
that ai'e used or stored in normally closed con- 
tainers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) or less 

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled 
cotton 

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) 

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Flammable sohds 

Organic peroxides, Class II and III 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 
pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less. 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 2 

Water-reactive materials, Class 2 

High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazai'ds shall be 
classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

High-hazard Group H-5. Semiconductor fabrication 
facilities and comparable research and development 
areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) 
are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in 
excess of those listed in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 
2703 . 1 . 1 (2) shall be classified as Group H-5 . Such facili- 
ties and areas shall be designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 415.8 of the California Building 
Code. 

[B] Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, in which people, cared for or living in a 
supervised environment ' and having physical hmitations 
because of health or age, are hai'bored for medical treatment 
or other care or treatment, or in which people ai'e detained 
for penal or con-ectional purposes or in which the liberty of 
the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall 
be classified as Group I-l, 1-2, 1-3 or l-A. Restraint shall not 
be permitted in any building except in Group 1-3 occupan- 
cies constructed for such use. See California Building Code, 
Section 308.4. See special provisions for 1-2.1 occupancies 
in California Building Code, Section 407. 

Group I occupancies shall not include buildings used 
only for private residential purposes for a family group. 

Where occupancies house both ambulatory and 
nonambulatory persons, the more restrictive requirements 
shall apply. ■ 

Group I-l. This occupancy shall include buildings, 
structures or parts thereof housing clients, on a 24-hour 
basis, who because of age, mental disability or other rea- 



sons, live in a supervised residential enviromnent that 
provides personal care services. 

This occupancy may contain more than six 
nonambulatory and/or bedridden clients. (See Califor- 
nia Building Code, Section 425, Special Provisions For 
Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group I-l, R-3.1, 
or R-4 Occupancy). This group shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Assisted living facilities such as: Residential Care 
Facilities, Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly 
(RCFE's), Adult Residential Facilities, Congregate Liv- 
ing Health facilities. Group homes. Residential Care 
Facilities for the Chronically III, and Congregate Living 
Health Facilities for the Terminally III. 

Social rehabilitation facilities such as: Halfway 
houses, Community Correctional Centers, Community 
Correction Reentry Centers, Community Treatment Pro- 
grams, Work Furlough Programs, and Alcoholism or 
di^ug abuse recoveiy or treatment facilities. 

[B] Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings 
and structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, 
nursing or custodial care on a 24-hour basis of more than 
six persons who are classified as nonambulatory or bed- 
ridden. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Hospitals 

Nursing homes (both intermediate care facilities and 

skilled nursing facilities) 
Mental hospitals 
Detoxification facilities 

A child care facility that provides care on a 24-hour 
basis to more than six children 2V2 years of age or less 
shall be classified as Group 1-2. 

[SFM] Group 1-2.1 Ambulatory Care Facility. A 

healthcare facility that receives persons for outpatient 
medical care that may render the patient incapable of 
unassisted self-preservation and where each tenant 
space accommodates more than five such patients. 

Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include buildings or 
portions of buildings and structures which are inhabited 
by one or more persons who are under restiaint. An 1-3 
facility is occupied by persons who ai-e restrained. This 
group shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Con-ectional centers 

Detention centers 

Jails 

Juvenile Halls 

Prisons 

Reformatories 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the 
occupancy conditions indicated below: 

Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed fi-om 
sleeping ai'eas, and other spaces where access or 
occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



23 



DEFINITIONS 



egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is per- 
mitted to be constructed as Group R. 

Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke com- 
partment to one or more other smoke compartments. 
Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a res- 
idential unit comprised of individual sleeping units 
and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by 
remote-controlled release of means of egress from 
such smoke compartment to another smoke compart- 
ment. 

Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activ- 
ity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke 
compartment to other smoke compartments. 

Condition 5, This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is 
provided to permit movement from sleeping units, 
activity spaces and other occupied areas within the 
smoke compartment to other smoke compartments. 

Group 1-4, day care facUities. This group shall include 
buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age 
who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by indi- 
viduals other than parents or guardians, relatives by 
blood marriage, or adoption, and in a place other than the 
home of the person cared for. A faciUty such as the above 
with six or fewer persons shall be classified as Group 
R-3. Places of worship during religious functions are not 
included. 

Adult care facility. A facility that provides accom- 
modations for less than 24 hours for more than six 
unrelated adults and provides supervision and per- 
sonal care services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

Cliild care facility. A facility that provides supervi- 
sion and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for 
more than six children 2 Vjyears of age or less shall be 
classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A child day care facility which pro- 
vides care for more than six but no more than 100 
children 2V2 years or less of age, when the rooms 
where such children are cared for are located on 
the level of exit discharge and each of these child 
care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, 
shall be classified as Group E. 

[B] Group L Laboratories. For applications listed in Sec- 
tion 111 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, 
Group L occupancies shall include buildings and structures 
or portions thereof, used as laboratories for scientific 
experimentation or research having quantities of materials 



not in excess of those listed in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1.(2) 
of the California Building Code except as modified in this 
section and not classified as Group B occupancy. This occu- 
pancy shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
the requirements for a Group B occupancy except as speci- 
fied in this section. 

[B] Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, buildings and structures or a por- 
tion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and 
involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental 
to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile 
occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- 
ing. 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 

[B] Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an 
Institutional Group I. Residential occupancies shall include 
the following: 

R-1 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units 
where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, 
including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 
Hotels (transient) 
Motels (transient) 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing.sleeping units or 
m ore than two dwelling units where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (not transient) 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 

Hotels (nontransient) 

Monasteries 

Motels (nontransient) 

Vacation timeshare properties 

Congregate living faciUties with 16 or fewer occu- 
pants are permitted to comply with the construction 
requirements for Group R-3. 

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature and not classified as R-1, 
R-2, R-3.1, R-4 or I, including: 

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling 
units. 

Adult care facilities that provide acconomodations for 
clients of any age for less than 24 hours. Licensing 
categories that may use this classification include, 
but are not limited to: Adult Day-care Facilities, 
Adult Day-support Center. 

Child care facilities that provide accommodations for 



24 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



clients of any age for less than 24 hours. Licensing 
categories that may use this classification include, 
but are not limited to: Family Day-care Homes, 
Day-care Center for Mildly III Children, Infant 
Care Center and School Age Child Day-care 
Center. 
Congregate living facilities with 1 6 or fewer persons. 

R-3.1 This occupancy group may include facilities 
licensed by a governmental agency for a residentially 
based 24-hour care facility providing accommoda- 
tions for six or fewer clients of any age. Clients may be 
classified as ambulatory, nonambulatory or bedrid- 
den. A Group R-3. 1 occupancy shall meet the require- 
ments for construction as defined for Group R-3, 
except as otherwise provided for in Section 425 Spe- 
cial Provisions For Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities 
in a Group I-l, R-3.1 orR-4 Occupancy. This group 
may include: 

• Adult Residential Facilities 
Congregate Living Health Facilities 
Foster Family Homes 
Group Homes 
Intermediate Care Facilities for the 

Developmentally Disabled Habilitative 
Intermediate Care Facilities for the 

Developmentally Disabled Nursing 
Nurseries for thefidl-time care of children under 

the age of six, but not including "infants" as 

defined in Section 310 
Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly 
Small Family Homes and Residential Care 

Facilities for the Chronically III. 

Exception: Group Homes licensed by the 
Department of Social Services which provide 
nonmedical board, room and care for six or 
fewer ambulatory children or children two 
years of age or younger, and which do not have 
any nonambulatory clients shall not be subject 
to regulations found in Section 425. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143 
with respect to these exempted facilities, no city, 
county, or public district shall adopt or enforce any 
requirement for the prevention of fire or for the pro- 
tection of life and property against fire and panic 
unless the requirement would be applicable to a struc- 
ture regardless of the special occupancy. Nothing 
shall restrict the application of state or local housing 
standards to such facilities if the standards are appli- 
cable to residential occupancies and are not based on 
the use of the structure as a facility for ambulatory 
children. For the purpose of this exception, "ambula- 
tory children" does not include relatives of the 
licensee or the licensee 's spouse. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings 
arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted liv- 
ing facilities including more than six ambulatory clients, 
excluding staff. 



Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements 
for construction as defined in the California Building 
Code for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in 
this code. 

This occupancy classification may include a maxi- 
mum six nonambulatory or bedridden clients (see Cali- 
fornia Building Code, Section 425 Special Provisions 
For Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group I-l, 
R-3.1, or R-4 Occupancy). Group R-4 occupancies shall 
include the following: 

Assisted living facilities such as: Residential Care 
Facilities, Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly 
(RCFE's), Adult Residential Facilities, Congregate Liv- 
ing Health Facilities, and Group Homes. 

Social rehabilitation facilities such as: Halfway 
Houses, Community Correctional Centers, Community 
Correction Reentry Centers, Community Treatment Pro- 
grams, Work Furlough Programs, and Alcoholism or 
drug abuse recovery or treatment facilities. 

[B] Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, for storage that is riot classified as a haz- 
ardous occupancy. 

Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings 
occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group 
S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the follow- 
ing: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 

Aircraft repair hangar 

Bags; cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboos and rattan 

Baskets 

Belting; canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, peaii or bone 

Cai-dboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Dry boat storage (indoor) 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages (complying with the 
California Building Code and containing less than 
the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous 
materials) 

Photo engravings 

ResiUent flooring 

Silks 

Soaps 

Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



25 



DEFINITIONS 



Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 
Upholstery and mattresses 
Wax candles 

Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible 
materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper 
cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in 
paper wrappings. Such products may have a negligible 
amount of plastic trim such as knobs, handles, or film 
wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be Hmited 
to, storage of the following: 

Aircraft hangar 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 12-percent alcohol in 

metal, glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Empty cans 
Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or 

containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 
Glass botties, empty or filled with noncombustible 

liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 
Parking garages (open or enclosed) 
Porcelain and pottery 
Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 
Washers and dryers 

[B] Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures of an 
accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classi- 
fied in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, 
equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of 
this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard inci- 
dental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangar, accessory to a one- or two-family 
residence (see Section 412.3 of the California Build- 
ing Code ) 

Bams 

Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 

Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 

Greenhouses 



Livestock shelters 

Private garages 

Retaining walls 

Sheds 

Stables 

Tanks 

Towers 

[B] OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1. 

OPEN BURNING. See Section 302.1. 

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a soUd or hquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are 
liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during 
normal operations. Examples of open systems for sohds and 
liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 3302.1. 

OPERATING LINE. See Section 3302.1. 

OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a system 
operates. 

ORGANIC COATING. See Section2002. 1 . 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 3902. 1 . 

Class I. See Section 3902.1 . 

Class IL See Section 3902.1. 

Class in. See Section 3902.1. 

Class rV. See Section 3902.1. 

Class V. See Section 3902.1. 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 3902.1. 

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either 
there are more people in a building, structure or portion thereof 
than have been authorized or posted by the fire code official, or 
when the fixe code official determines that a threat exists to the 
safety of the occupants due to persons sitting and/or standing in 
locations that may obstruct or impede the use of aisles, pas- 
sages, corridors, stairways, exits or other components of the 
means of egress. 

OWNER. A corporation, firm, partnership, association, orga- 
nization and any other group acting as a unit, or a person who 
has legal title to any structure or premises with or without 
accompanying actual possession thereof, and shall include the 
duly authorized agent or attorney, a purchaser, devisee, fidu- 
ciary and any person having a vested or contingent interest in 
the premises in question. 

OXIDIZER. See Section 4002.1. 

Class 4. See Section 4002.1. 
Class 3. See Section 4002.1. 
Class 2. See Section 4002.1. 
Class 1. See Section 4002.1. 

OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 4002.1. 

OZONE-GAS GENERATOR. See Section 3702.1. 

[B] PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

PASS-THROUGH. See Section 1802.1. 



26 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



PERMANENT PORTABLE BUILDING. A portable build- 
ing that is used to serve or house students and is certified as a 
permanent building on a new public school campus by the pub- 
lic school administration shall comply with the requirements of 
new campus buildings. 

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). See Section 
2702.1. 

PESTICIDE. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] PHOTOLUMINESCENT. See Section 1002. 

PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 2702.1. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD. See Sec- 
tion 3702.1. 

PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1. 

PLYWOOD and VENEER MILLS. See Section 1902.1. 

PORTABLE BUILDING. Portable Building is a classroom 
building or structure of modular design and construction that 
houses and/or serves students from kindergarten through 
twelfth grade (K-12) and is funded pursuant to the Education 
Code, commencing with section 17070.10 and meets all of the 
following criteria: 

• The portable building or structure is designed and con- 
structed to be relocatable and transportable over public 
streets. 

• The portable building or structure is designed and con- 
structed for relocation without detaching the roof or the 
floor from the building or structure. 

• The portable building or structure is sited upon a tempo- 
rary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit easy 
removal. 

• The portable building or structure has a floor area of 2, 000 
square feet or less when measured from the extent of the 
exterior walls. 

' The portable building shall be removedwithin three years 
of installation or the school administration may request a 
three-year extension pursuant to Education Code Section 
17074.54 (a) and (b). 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. See Section 302.1. 

PRESSURE VESSEL. See Section 2702.1. 

PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of contain- 
ment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which 
comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the 
material being contained. 

PROCESS TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1. 

PROPELLANT. See Section 2802.1. 

PROTECTIVE SOCIAL CARE. Protective Social Care is the 
housing and care of any person of any age when such person is 
referred to or placed within such home or facility for care and 
supervision services by any governmental agency. 

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. See Section 3302.1. 

PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR). See Section 3302.1. 

[B] PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002. 1 . 



PYROPHORIC. See Section 4102.1. 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 3302.1. 

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. See Section 3302. 1 . 

QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D). See Section 3302.1. 

Minimum Separation Distance (Do)- See Section 3302. 1 . 
Intraline Distance (ILD) or Intraplant Distance (IPD). 

See Section 3302.1. 
Inhabited Building Distance (IBD). See Section 3302.1. 
Intermagazine Distance (IMD). See Section 3302.1. 

RAILWAY. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

RAW PRODUCT. See Section 1902.1. 

READY BOX. See Section 3302.1. 

RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1. 

RECREATIONAL FIRE. See Section 302.1. 

REDUCED FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1. 

REFINERY. See Section 3402.1. 

REFRIGERANT. See Section 602.1. 

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. See Section 602.1. 

[B] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An archi- 
tect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional 
ai-chitecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory require- 
ments of the professional registration laws of the state in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

[B] RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OR A building or 
portion thereof intended for the performance of religious ser- 
vices. 

REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. See Sec- 
tion 3402.1. 

REMOTELY LOCATED, MANUALLY ACTIVATED 
SHUTDOWN CONTROL. A control system that is designed 
to initiate shutdown of the flow of gases or liquids that is manu- 
ally activated from a point located some distance from the 
delivery system. 

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. See Section 3402.1. 

REPAIR GARAGE. See Section 2202.1. 

[B] RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONI- 
CALLY ILL (RCF/CI). As termed, means a housing arrange- 
ment with a maximum capacity of 25 residents that provides a 
range of services to residents who have chronic, life-threaten- 
ing illnesses. 

[B] RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE 
ELDERLY (RCFE). As defined in Health and Safety Code 
Section 1569.2, shall mean a facility with a housing arrange- 
ment chosen voluntarily by persons 60 years of age or over, or 
their authorized representative, where varying levels and 
intensities of care and supervision, protective supervision or 
personal care are provided, based on their varying needs, as 
determined in order to be admitted and to remain in the facility. 
Persons under 60 years of age with compatible needs, as deter- 
mined by the Department of Social Services in regulations, may 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



27 



DEFINITIONS 



be allowed to be admitted or retained in a residential care facil- 
ity for the elderly. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regula- 
tions of the State Fire Marshal pertaining to occupancies clas- 
sified as Residential Facilities (RF) and Residential Care 
Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply uniformly 
throughout the state and no city, county, city and county, 
including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection 
district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or 
regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is inconsistent 
with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, including 
a charter city or charter county may pursuant to Health and 
Safety Code Section 13143.5, or afire protection district may 
pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt 
standards more stringent than those adopted by the State Fire 
Marshal that are reasonably necessary to accommodate local 
climate, geological, or topographical conditions relating to 
roof coverings for Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly. 

[B] RESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF). As defined in Section 
1502 of the Health and Safety Code, shall mean any family 
home, group care facility, or similar facility determined by the 
director of Social Services, for 24-hour nonmedical care of 
persons in need of personal services, supervision, or assis- 
tance essential for sustaining the activities of daily living or for 
the protection of the individual. Such facilities include small 
family homes and social rehabilitation facilities. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regula- 
tions of the State Fire Marshal pertaining to Group R, Division 
2 occupancies classified as Residential Facilities (RF) and 
Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply 
uniformly throughout the state and no city, county, city and 
county, including a charter city or charter county, or fire pro- 
tection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local 
rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is 
inconsistent with these regulations. A city, county, city and 
county, including a charter city or charter county may pursuant 
to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, or afire protection 
district may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13869. 7, adopt standards more stringent than those adopted by 
the State Fire Marshal that are reasonably necessary to accom- 
modate local climate, geological, or topographical conditions 
relating to roof coverings for Residential Care Facilities for the 
Elderly. 

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. See Section 1502.1. 

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. See Section 2602.1. 

[B] RESTRAINT. Restraint shall mean the physical retention 
of a person within a room, cell or cell block by any means, or 
within the exterior walls of a building by means of locked doors 
inoperable by the person restrained. Restraint shall also mean 
the physical binding, strapping or similar restriction of any 
person in a chair, walker, bed or other contrivance for the pur- 
pose of deliberately restricting the free movement of ambula- 
tory persons. 

Restraint shall not be construed to include nonambulatory 
persons nor shall it include the use of bandage material, strip 
sheeting or other fabrics or materials (soft ties) used to restrain 
persons in hospital-type beds or wheelchairs to prevent injury, 
provided an approved method of quick release is maintained. 



Facilities employing the use of soft ties, however, shall be clas- 
sified as a building used to house nonambulatory persons. 

Restraint shall not be practiced in licensed facilities classi- 
fied as Group 1-1, R-3 andR-4 occupancies unless constructed 
as a Group 1-3 occupancy. For Group 1-3 occupancies, see Cal- 
ifornia Building Code Section 308.2. 

RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. See Section 2802.1. 

ROLL COATING. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombustible 
waste materials, including residue from the burning of coal, 
wood, coke or other combustible material, paper, rags, cartons, 
tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and dis- 
carded refrigerators, and heating, cooking or incinerator-type 
appliances. 

SAFETY CAN. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. See Section 2702.1. 

SEGREGATED. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] SELF-LUMINOUS. See Section 1002. 

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. See Section 2202.1. 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. See 

Section 1802.1. 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 1802.1. 
SHELF STORAGE. See Section 2302.1. 
SEVGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902. 1 . 
[B] SLEEPESfG UNIT. See Section 902.1. 
SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. See Section 3302.1. 
SMALL ARMS PRIMERS. See Section 3302.1. 
SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 
SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1. 

[B] SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See 

Section 1002.1. 

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. See Section 3302.1. 

SOLID. See Section 2702.1. 

SOLID SHELVING. See Section 2302.1. 

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. See Section 3402.1. 

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. See Section 
1202.1. 

Class I solvents. See Section 1202.1. 
Class n solvents. See Section 1202.1. 
Class niA solvents. See Section 1202.1. 
Class IIDB solvents. See Section 1202.1. 
Class IV solvents. See Section 1202.1. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is 
temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or sys- 
tem that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, 
around or over a course in any direction as a form of amuse- 
ment arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent 



28 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally con- 
founded egress path, or is not readily available because of the 
mode of conveyance through the building or structure. 

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. See Sec- 
tion 3302.1. 

SPRAY BOOTH. See Section 1502.1. 

SPRAY ROOM. See Section 1502.1. 

SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1. 

[B] STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY. See.Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, SPIRAL, See Section 1002.1. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OE See Section 902. 1 . 

Class I system. See Section 902.1. 
Class n system. See Section 902.1. 
Class ni system. See Section 902.1. 

STANDPIPE, TYPES OE See Section 902. 1 . 

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1. 
Automatic wet. See Section 902.1. 
Manual dry. See Section 902.1. 
Manual wet. See Section 902. 1 . 
Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902. 1 . 

[B] STATE-OWNED/LEASED BUILDING. A building or 
portion of a building that is owned, leased or rented by the 
state. State-leased buildings shall include all required exits to a 
public way serving such leased area or space. Portions of state- 
leased buildings that are not leased or rented by the state shall 
not be included within the scope of this section unless such por- 
tions present an exposure hazard to the state-leased area or 
space. 

STATIC PILES. See Sectionl 902.1. 

STEEL. Hot- or cold-rolled as defined by the California 
Building Code. 

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 
2702.1. 

SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 

Section 902.1. 

SYSTEM. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L). 

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK, PORTABLE. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK, PRIMARY. See Section 3402.1. 

TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND. See Section 
3402.1. 

TANK, STATIONARY. See Section 2702.1. 



TANK VEHICLE. See Section 2702.1. 

TENT. See Section 2402.1. 

[B] TERMINALLY ILL. As termed for an individual, means 
the individual has a life expectancy of six months or less as 
stated in writing by his or her attending physician and surgeon. 

THEFT RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1. 

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. See Section 
1702.1. 

TIMBER and LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. 

See Section 1902.1. 

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OE See Section 902.1. 

TOOL. See Section 1802.1. 

TORCH- APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

TOXIC. See Section 3702.1. 

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1. 

TRASH. See "Rubbish." 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. See Section 2702.1. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 
4302.1. 

Class 4. See Section 4302.1. 
Class 3. See Section 4302.1. 
Class 2. See Section 4302. 1 . 
Class 1. See Section 4302. 1 . 

UNWANTED FIRE. A fire not used for cooking, heating or 
recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal opera- 
tions of the property. 

USE (MATERIAL). See Section 2702.1. 

VAPORPRESSURE. See Section 2702.1. 

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See 

Section 902.1. 

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 4402.1. 

Class 3. See Section 4402.1. 
Class 2. See Section 4402.1. 
Class 1. See Section 4402.1. 

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Sec- 
tion 902.1. 

[B] WINDER. See Section 1002. 1 . 

[BJ WINERY CAVES. A subterranean space for winery facili- 
ties in natural or manmade caves shall be in accordance with 
the California Building Code, Section 436. Winery caves have 
a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902. 1 . 

WORKSTATION. See Section 1802.1. 

ZONE. See Section 902.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



29 



30 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 3 - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



Adopting Agency 




BBC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


' OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


BL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SB 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections iisted beiow) 








































Adopt oniy those sections that are 
iisted below 




X 








X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


308.3.9 


CA 




X 




































31 2 with 312.1, 
312.2 & 312.3 


iFC 












X 







































































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



31 



32 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
occupancy and maintenance of all structures and premises for 
precautions against fire and the spread of fire. 

301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Appen- 
dix Chapter 1, Section 105.6 for the activities or uses regulated 
by Sections 306, 307, 308.3, 308.4, 308.5 and 315. 



SECTION 302 
DEFINITIONS 

302.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

BONFIRE. An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes. 

HI-BOY. A cart used to transport hot roofing materials on a 
roof 

OPEN BURNING. The burning of materials wherein prod- 
ucts of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air 
without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed 
chamber. Open burning does not include road flares, 
smudgepots and similar devices associated with safety or occu- 
pational uses typically considered open flames or recreational 
fires. For the purpose of this definition, a chamber shall be 
regarded as enclosed when, during the time combustion occurs, 
only apertures, ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to 
provide combustion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas 
are open. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, 
platform lift track or motorized hand truck powered by an elec- 
trical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial 
trucks do not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for 
highway use. 

RECREATIONAL FIRE. An outdoor fu:e burning materials 
other than rubbish where the fuel being burned is not contained 
in an incinerator, outdoor fireplace, barbeque grill or bai^beque 
pit and has a total fuel area of 3 feet (914 mm) or less in diame- 
ter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in height for pleasure, religious, 
ceremonial, cooking, warmth or similar purposes. 



SECTION 303 
ASPHALT KETTLES 

303.1 Transporting. Asphalt (tai-) kettles shall not be trans- 
ported over any highway, road or street when the heat source 
for the kettle is operating. 

Exception: Asphalt (taiO kettles in the process of patching 
road surfaces. 

303.2 Location. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be located 
within 20 feet (6096 mm) of any combustible material, com- 



bustible building surface or any building opening and within a 
controlled area identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or 
other approved means. Asphalt (tar) kettles and pots shall not 
be utilized inside or on the roof of a building or structure. Roof- 
ing kettles and operating asphalt (tar) kettles shall not block 
means of egress, gates, roadways or entrances. 

303.3 Location of fuel containers. Fuel containers shall be 
located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from the burner. 

Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or 
flame are allowed to be within 2 feet (610 mm) of the burner. 

303.4 Attendant. An operating kettle shall be attended by a 
minimum of one employee knowledgeable of the operations 
and hazards. The employee shall be within 100 feet (30 480 
mm) of the kettle and have the kettle within sight. Ladders or 
similar obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the 
attendant and the kettle. 

303.5 Fire extinguishers. There shall be a portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 
40-B:C rating within 25 feet (7620 mm) of each asphalt (tar) 
kettle during the period such kettle is being utilized. Addition- 
ally, there shall be one portable fure extinguisher with a mini- 
mum 3-A:40-B :C rating on the roof being covered. 

303.6 Lids. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall be equipped with 
tight-fitting hds. 

303.7 Hi-boys. Hi-boys shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. Hi- boys shall be limited to a capac- 
ity of 55 gallons (208 L). Fuel sources or heating elements shall 
not be allowed as part of a hi-boy. 

303.8 Roofing kettles. Roofing kettles shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 

303.9 Fuel containers under air pressure. Fuel containers 
that operate under air pressure shall not exceed 20 gallons (76 
L) in capacity and shall be approved. 



SECTION 304 
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL 

304.1 Waste accumulation prohibited. Combustible waste 
material creating a fire hazai-d shall not be allowed to accumu- 
late in buildings or structures or upon premises. 

304.1.1 Waste material. Accumulations of wastepaper, 
wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flammable 
waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to remain 
on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, parking lot, 
open Space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, 

- manufactured home, recreational vehicle or other similar 
structure. 

304.1.2 Vegetation. Weeds, grass, vines or other growth 
that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, 
shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant of 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



33 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



the premises. Vegetation clearance requirements in 
urban- wildland interface areas shall be in accordance with 
the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. 

304.1.3 Space underneath seats. Spaces underneath 
grandstand and bleacher seats shall be kept free from com- 
bustible and flammable materials. Except where enclosed in 
not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction in 
accordance with the California Building Code, spaces 
underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall not be occu- 
pied or utilized for purposes other than means of egress. 

304.2 Storage. Storage of combustible rubbish shall not pro- 
duce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the 
public health, safety or welfare. 

304.3 Containers. Combustible rubbish, and waste material 
kept within a structure shall be stored in accordance with Sec- 
tions 304.3.1 through 304.3.3. 

304.3.1 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to 
spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a 
listed disposal container. Contents of such containers shall 
be removed and disposed of daily. 

304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet. Containers 
with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 
m^) shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials or approved com- 
bustible materials. 

304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.5 cubic yards. Dumpsters 
and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic 
yards [40.5 cubic feet (1.15 m^)] or more shall not be stored 
in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combusti- 
ble walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines. 

Exceptions: 

1. Dumpsters or containers in areas protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where 
the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, lo- 
cated not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other 
buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or 
container storage. 



SECTION 305 
IGNITION SOURCES 

305.1 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance between 
ignition sources, such as luminaires, heaters, flame-producing 
devices and combustible materials, shall be maintained in an 
approved manner. 

305.2 Hot ashes and spontaneous ignition sources. Hot 

ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials 
subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a com- 
bustible receptacle, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other combus- 
tible material including combustible walls and partitions or 
within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings. 

Exception: The minimum required separation distance to 
other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) where 



the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible 
receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground sur- 
face or stand. 

305.3 Open-flame warning devices. Open-flame warning 
devices shall not be used along an excavation, road, or any 
place where the dislodgment of such device might permit the 
device to roll, fall or slide on to any area or land containing 
combustible material. 

305.4 Deliberate or negligent burning. It shall be unlawful to 
deliberately or through neghgence set fire to or cause the burn- 
ing of combustible material in such a manner as to endanger the 
safety of persons or property. 



SECTION 306 

MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS 

AND FILM 

306.1 Motion picture projection rooms. Electric arc, xenon 
or other light source projection equipment which develops haz- 
ardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of rib- 
bon-type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source 
used in projection, shall be operated within a motion picture 
projection room complying with Section 409 of the California 
Building Code. 

306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage. Storage of cellulose 
nitrate film shall be in accordance with NFPA 40. 



SECTION 307 
OPEN BURNING AND RECREATIONAL FIRES 

307.1 General. A person shall not kindle or maintain or autho- 
rize to be kindled or maintained any open burning unless con- 
ducted and approved in accordance with this section. 

307.1.1 Prohibited open burning. Open burning that is 
offensive or objectionable because of smoke or odor emis- 
sions or when atmospheric conditions or local circum- 
stances make such fires hazardous shall be prohibited. 

307.2 Permit required. A permit shall be obtained from the 
fire code official in accordance with Appendix Chapter 1 , Sec- 
tion 1 05 .6 prior to kindling a fure for recognized silvicultural or 
range or wildlife management practices, prevention or control 
of disease or pests, or a bonfire. Application for such approval 
shall only be presented by and permits issued to the owner of 
the land upon which the fire is to be kindled. 

307.2.1 Authorization. Where required by state or local 
law or regulations, open burning shall only be permitted 
with prior approval from the state or local air and water 
quality management authority, provided that all conditions 
specified in the authorization are followed. 

307.3 Extinguishment authority. The fire code official is 
authorized to order the extinguishment by the permit holder, 
another person responsible or the fire department of open burn- 
ing that creates or adds to a hazardous or objectionable situa- 
tion. 

307.4 Location. The location for open burning shall not be less 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any structure, and provisions 



34 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



shall be made to prevent the fire from spreading to within 50 
feet (15 240 inm) of any structure. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fires in approved containers that are not less than 15 
feet (4572 mm) from a sti-ucture. 

2. The minimum requked distance from a structure shall 
be 25 feet (7620 mm) where the pile size is 3 feet (914 
mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in 
height. 

307.4.1 Bonfires. A bonfire shall not be conducted within 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of a structure or combustible material 
unless the fire is contained in a bai-becue pit. Conditions 
which could cause a fire to spread within 50 feet (15 240 
mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition. 

307.4.2 Recreational fires. Recreational fires shall not be 
conducted within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a sti'ucture or com- 
bustible material. Conditions which could cause a fire to 
spread within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure shall be elim- 
inated prior to ignition. 

307.5 Attendance. Open burning, bonfires or recreational fires 
shall be constantly attended until the fire is extinguished. A 
minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with 
Section 906 with a minimum 4-A rating or other approved 
on-site fire-extinguishing equipment, such as dirt, sand, water 
baiTel, garden hose or water truck, shall be available for imme- 
diate utilization. 



SECTION 308 
OPEN FLAMES 

308.1 General. This section shall control open flames, fire and 
burning on all premises. 

308.2 Where prohibited. A person shall not take or utilize an 
open flame or light in a sti-ucture, vessel, boat or other place 
where highly flammable, combustible or explosive material is 
utilized or stored. Lighting appliances shall be well-secured in 
a glass globe and wke mesh cage or a similai- approved device. 

308.2.1 Throwing or placing sources of ignition. No per- 
son shall ttoow or place, or cause to be thrown or placed, a 
lighted match, cigar, cigai^ette, matches, or other flaming or 
glowing substance or object on any surface or article where 
it can cause an unwanted fire. 

308.3 Open fiame. A person shall not utilize or allow to be uti- 
lized, an open flame in coimection with a public meeting or 
gathering for purposes of deliberation, worship, entertainment, 
amusement, instruction, education, recreation, awaiting trans- 
portation or similar purpose in Group A or E occupancies with- 
out fii'st obtaining a permit in accordance with Appendix 
Chapter 1, Section 105.6. 

308.3.1 Open-flame cooking devices. Charcoal burners 
and other open-flame cooking devices shall not be operated 
on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
combustible consti"uction. 

Exceptions: 

1. One- and two-family dwellings. 



2. Where buildings, balconies and decks are pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system. 

308.3.1.1 Liquefied-petroleum-gas-fueled cooking 
devices. LP-gas burners having an LP-gas container with 
a water capacity greater than 2.5 pounds [nominal 1 
pound (0.454 kg) LP-gas capacity] shall not be located 
on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
combustible construction. 

Exception: One- and two-family dwellings. 

308.3.2 Open-flame decorative devices. Open-flame dec- 
orative devices shall comply with all of the following 
restrictions: 

1. Class I and Class II liquids and LP-gas shaU not be 
used. 

2. Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing 
more than 8 ounces (237 ml) of fuel must self-extin- 
guish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 
teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped 
over. 

3 . The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent 
the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of more 
than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) 
when the device or holder is not in an upright posi- 
tion. 

4. The device or holder shall be designed so that it will 
return to the upright position after being tilted to an 
angle of 45 degrees from vertical. 

Exception: Devices that self-extinguish if 
tipped over and do not spill fuel or wax at the 
rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute 
(1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over. 

5. The flame shall be enclosed except where openings 
on the side are not more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) di- 
ameter or where openings are on the top and the dis- 
tance to the top is such that a piece of tissue paper 
placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds. 

6. Chimneys shall be made of noncombustible materi- 
als and securely attached to the open-flame device. 

Exception: A chimney is not required to be 
attached to any open-flame device that will 
self-extinguish if the device is tipped over. 

7. Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage. 

8 . Storage and handUng of combustible liquids shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 34. 

9. Shades, where used, shall be made of 
noncombustible materials and securely attached to 
the open-flame device holder or chimney. 

10. Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be se- 
curely fastened in place to prevent overturning, and 
shall be located away from occupants using the area 
and away from possible contact with drapes, cur- 
tains or other combustibles. 

308.3.3 Location near combustibles. Open flames such as 
from candles, lanterns, kerosene heaters, and gas-fired heat- 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



35 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



ers shall not be located on or near decorative material or 
similar combustible materials. 

308.3.4 Aisles and exits. Candles shall be prohibited in 
areas where occupants stand, or in an aisle or exit. 

308.3.5 Religious ceremonies. When, in the opinion of the 
fire code official, adequate safeguards have been taken, par- 
ticipants in religious ceremonies are allowed to carry 
hand-held candles. Hand-held candles shall not be passed 
from one person to another while lighted. 

308.3.6 Theatrical performances. Where approved, 
open-flame devices used in conjunction with theatrical per- 
formances are allowed to be used when adequate safety pre- 
cautions have been taken in accordance with NFPA 160. 

308.3.7 Group A occupancies. Open-flame devices shall 
not be used in a Group A occupancy. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open-flame devices are allowed to be used in the 
following situations, provided approved precau- 
tions are taken to prevent ignition of a combustible 
material or injury to occupants: 

1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial or reli- 
gious purposes in accordance with Section 
308.3.5. 

1.2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part 
of a performance in accordance with Sec- 
tion 308.3.6. 

1.3. Where candles on tables are securely sup- 
ported on substantial noncombustible 
bases and the candle flames are protected. 

2. Heat-producing equipment complying with Chap- 
ter 6 and the California Mechanical Code. 

3. Gas lights are allowed to be used provided ade- 
quate precautions satisfactory to the fire code offi- 
cial are taken to prevent ignition of combustible 
materials. 

308.3.8 Group R-2 dormitories. Candles, incense and 
similar open-flame-producing items shall not be allowed in 
sleeping units in Group R-2 dormitory occupancies. 

308.3.9 Group I, Group R-3.1, Group R-4 occupancies or 
any licensed care facility. A person shall not utilize or allow 
to be utilized, an open flame in Group I, Group R-3.1, Group 
R-4 occupancies or any licensed care facilities. 

308.4 Torches for removing paint. Persons utilizing a torch or 
other flame-producing device for removing paint from a struc- 
ture shall provide a minimum of one portable fire extinguisher 
complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 4-A rating, 
two portable fire extinguishers, each with a minimum 2-A rat- 
ing, or a water hose connected to the water supply on the pre- 
mises where such burning is done. The person doing the 
burning shall remain on the premises 1 hour after the torch or 
flame-producing device is utilized. 

308.4.1 Permit. A permit in accordance with Appendix 
Chapter 1, Section 105.6 shall be secured from the fire code 
official prior to the utilization of a torch or flame-producing 
device to remove paint from a stmcture. 



308.5 Open-flame devices. Torches and other devices, 
machines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not be 
operated or used in or upon hazardous fire areas, except by a 
permit in accordance with Appendix Chapter 1, Section 105.6 
secured from the fire code official. 

Exception: Use within inhabited premises or designated 
campsites which are a minimum of 30 feet (9144 mm) from 
grass-, grain-, brush- or forest-covered areas. 

308.5.1 Signals and markers. Flame-employing devices, 
such as lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall not be oper- 
ated or used as a signal or marker in or upon hazardous fire 
areas. 

Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scenes of 
emergencies or as required by standard railroad operat- 
ing procedures. 

308.5.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices. Portable 
open-flame devices fueled by flammable or combustible 
gases or liquids shall be enclosed or installed in such a man- 
ner as to prevent the flame from contacting combustible 
material. 

Exceptions: 

1. LP-gas-fueled devices used for sweating pipe 
joints or removing paint in accordance with Chap- 
ter 38. 

2. Cutting and welding operations in accordance 
with Chapter 26. 

3. Torches or flame-producing devices in accordance 
with Section 308.4. 

4. Candles and open-flame decorative devices in ac- 
cordance with Section 308.3. 

308.6 Flaming food and beverage preparation. The prepara- 
tion of flaming foods or beverages in places of assembly and 
drinking or dining estabUshments shall be in accordance with 
Sections 308.6.1 through 308.6.5. 

308.6.1 Dispensing. Flammable or combustible liquids 
used in the preparation of flaming foods or beverages shall 
be dispensed from one of the following: 

1. A 1-ounce (29.6 ml) container; or 

2. A container not exceeding 1 -quart (946.5 ml) capac- 
ity with a controlled pouring device that will limit the 
flow to a 1-ounce (29.6 ml) serving. 

308.6.2 Containers not in use. Containers shall be secured 
to prevent spillage when not in use. 

308.6.3 Serving of flaming food. The serving of flaming 
foods or beverages shall be done in a safe manner and shall 
not create high flames. The pouring, ladling or spooning of 
liquids is restricted to a maximum height of 8 inches (203 
mm) above the receiving receptacle. 

308.6.4 Location. Flaming foods or beverages shall be pre- 
pared only in the immediate vicinity of the table being ser- 
viced. They shall not be transported or carried while 
burning. 

308.6.5 Fire protection. The person preparing the flaming 
foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel immediately 



36 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



available for use in smothering the flames in the event of an 
emergency. 



SECTION 309 
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS AND EQUIPMENT 

309.1 General. Powered industrial trucks and similar equip- 
ment including, but not limited to, floor scrubbers and floor 
buffers, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with 
this section. 

309.2 Battery chargers. Battery chargers shall be of an 
approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept a minimum 
of 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging 
shall not be conducted in areas accessible to the public. 

309.3 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in an approved 
manner in battery-charging areas to prevent a dangerous accu- 
mulation of flammable gases. ■ 

309.4 Fire extinguishers. Battery-charging areas shall be pro- 
vided with a fure extinguisher complying with Section 906 hav- 
ing a minimum 4-A:20-B :C rating within 20 feet (6096 mm) of 
the battery charger. 

309.5 Refueling. Powered industrial trucks using liquid fuel, 
LP-gas or hydrogen shall be refueled outside of buildings or in 
areas specifically approved for that purpose. Fixed fuel-dis- 
pensing equipment and associated fueling operations shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 22. Other fuel-dispensing equip- 
ment and operations, including cylinder exchange for 
LP-gas-fueled vehicles, shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 
for flammable and combustible liquids or Chapter 38 for 
LP-gas. 

309.6 Repairs. Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems and 
repairs utilizing open flame or welding shall be done in 
approved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifically 
approved for that purpose. 



SECTION 310 
SMOKING 

310.1 General. The smoking or carrying of a lighted pipe, 
cigar, cigarette or any other type of smoking paraphernalia or 
material is prohibited in the areas indicated in this section. 

310.2 Prohibited areas. Smoking shall be prohibited where 
conditions are such as to make smoking a hazard, and in spaces 
where flammable or combustible materials are stored or han- 
dled. 

310.3 "No Smoking" signs. The fire code official is authorized 
to order the posting of "No Smoking" signs in a conspicuous 
location in each structure or location in which smoking is pro- 
hibited. The content, lettering, size, color and location of 
required "No Smoking" signs shall be approved. 

310.4 Removal of signs prohibited. A posted "No Smoking" 
sign shall not be obscured, removed, defaced, mutilated or 
destroyed. 

310.5 Compliance with "No Smoking" signs. Smoking shall 
not be permitted nor shall a person smoke, throw or deposit any 



lighted or smoldering substance in any place where "No Smok- 
ing" signs are posted. 

310.6 Ash trays. Where smoking is permitted, suitable 
noncombustible ash trays or match receivers shall be provided 
on each table and at other appropriate locations. 

310.7 Burning objects. Lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or 
other burning object shall not be discarded in such a manner 
that could cause ignition of other combustible material. 

310.8 Hazardous environmental conditions. When the fire 
code official determines that hazardous environmental condi- 
tions necessitate controlled use of smoking materials, the igni- 
tion or use of such materials in mountainous, brush-covered or 
forest-covered areas or other designated areas is prohibited 
except in approved designated smoking areas. 



SECTION 311 
VACANT PREMISES 

311.1 General. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, 
premises or portions thereof, including tenant spaces, shall be 
safeguarded and maintained in accordance with this section. 

311.1.1 Abandoned premises. Buildings, structures and 
premises for which an owner cannot be identified or located 
by dispatch of a certificate of mailing to the last known or 
registered address, which persistently or repeatedly become 
unprotected or unsecured, which have been occupied by 
unauthorized persons or for illegal purposes, or which pres- 
ent a danger of structural collapse or fire spread to adjacent 
properties shall be considered abandoned, declared unsafe 
and abated by demolition or rehabilitation in accordance 
with the International Property Maintenance Code and the 
California Building Code. 

311.1.2 Tenant spaces. Storage and lease plans required by 
this code shall be revised and updated to reflect temporary 
or partial vacancies. 

311.2 Safeguarding vacant premises. Temporarily unoccu- 
pied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof shall be 
secured and protected in accordance with this section. 

311.2.1 Security. Exterior openings and interior openings 
accessible to other tenants or unauthorized persons shall be 
boarded, locked, blocked or otherwise protected to prevent 
entry by unauthorized individuals. 

311.2.2 Fire protection. Fire alarm, sprinkler and 
standpipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condi- 
tion at all times. 

Exceptions: 

1. When the premises have been cleared of all com- 
bustible materials and debris and, in the opinion of 
the fii'e code official, the type of construction, fire 
separation distance and security of the premises do 
not create a frre hazard. 

2. Where buildings will not be heated and fire protec- 
tion systems will be exposed to freezing tempera- 
tures, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are 
permitted to be placed out of service and 
standpipes are permitted to be maintained as dry 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



37 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



systems (without an automatic water supply) pro- 
vided the building has no contents or storage, and 
windows, doors and other openings are secured to 
prohibit entry by unauthorized persons. 

311.2.3 Fire separation. Fire-resistance-rated partitions, 
fire barriers, and fire walls separating vacant tenant spaces 
from the remainder of the building shall be maintained. 
Openings, joints^ and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 7. 

311.3 Removal of combustibles. Persons owning, or in charge 
or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, shall remove 
therefrom all accumulations of combustible materials, flam- 
mable or combustible waste or rubbish and shall securely lock 
or otherwise secure doors, windows and other openings to pre- 
vent entry by unauthorized persons. The premises shall be 
maintained clear of waste or hazardous materials. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings or portions of buildings undergoing addi- 
tions, alterations, repairs, or change of occupancy in 
accordance with the California Building Code, where 
waste is controlled and removed as required by Sec- 
tion 304. 

2. Seasonally occupied buildings. 

311.4 Removal of hazardous materials. Persons owning or 
having charge or control of a vacant building containing haz- 
ardous materials regulated by Chapter 27 shall comply with the 
facility closure requirements of Section 2701.6. 

311.5 Placards. Any building or structure determined to be 
unsafe pursuant to Section 1 10 of this code shall be marked as 
required by Sections 311.5.1 through 311.5.5. 

311.5.1 Placard location. Placards shall be applied on the 
front of the structure and be visible from the street. Addi- 
tional placards shall be applied to the side of each entrance 
to the structure and on penthouses. 

311.5.2 Placard size and color. Placards shall be 24 inches 
by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm) in size with a red back- 
ground, white reflective sbipes and a white reflective bor- 
der. The stripes and border shall have a 2-inch (51 mm) 
stroke. 

311.5.3 Placard date. Placards shall bear- the date of their 
application to the building and the date of the most recent 
inspection. 

311.5.4 Placard symbols. The design of the placards shall 
use the following symbols: 



1. 



2. 



I I This symbol shall mean that the structure had nor- 
mal structural conditions at the time of marking. 

This symbol shall mean that structural or interior 



hazards exist and interior fire-fighting or rescue oper- 
ations should be conducted with extreme caution. 

/\ This symbol shall mean that structural or interior 
hazai-ds exist to a degree that consideration should be 
given to limit fire fighting to exterior operations only, 
with entry only occurring for known life hazards. 



311.5.5 Informational use. The use of these symbols shall 
be informational only and shall not in any way Hmit the dis- 
cretion of the on-scene incident commander. 



SECTION 312 
VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION 

312.1 General. Vehicle impact protection required by this 
code shall be provided by posts that comply with Section 3 12.2 
or by other approved physical barriers that comply with Sec- 
tion 312.3. 

312.2 Posts. Guard posts shall comply with all of the following 
requirements: 

1. Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
diameter and concrete filled. 

2. Spacednotmorethan4feet(1219 mm) between posts on 
center. 

3. Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete foot- 
ing of not less than a 15-inch (381 mm) diameter. 

4. Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
above ground. 

5. Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected 
object. 

312.3 Other barriers. Physical banders shall be a minimum of 
36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall resist a force of 12,000 
pounds (53 375 N) applied 36 inches (914 mm) above the adja- 
cent ground surfate. 



SECTION 313 
FUELED EQUIPMENT 

313.1 General. Fueled equipment, including but not limited to 
motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment and portable cook- 
ing equipment, shall not be stored, operated or repaired within 
a building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in accor- 
dance with the California Building Code. 

2. Where allowed by Section 314. 

3. Storage of equipment utilized for maintenance pur- 
poses is allowed in approved locations when the ag- 
gregate fuel capacity of the stored equipment does not 
exceed 10 gallons (38 L) and the building is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

313.1.1 Removal. The frre code official is authorized to 
require removal of fueled equipment from locations where 
the presence of such equipment is determined by the fire 
code official to be hazardous. 

313.2 Group R occupancies. Vehicles powered by flammable 
liquids. Class II combustible liquids, or compressed flammable 
gases shall not be stored within the living space of Group R 
buildings. 



38 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



SECTION 314 
INDOOR DISPLAYS 

314.1 General. Indoor displays constructed within any occu- 
pancy shall comply with Sections 314.2 through 314.4. 

314.2 Fixtures and displays. Fixtures and displays of goods 
for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, 
immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by 
Chapter 10. 

314.3 Highly combustible goods. The display of highly com- 
bustible goods, including but not limited to fkeworks, flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, 
oxidizing materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, 
in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered malls, or within 5 
feet (1524 mm) of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors is 
prohibited when a fire involving such goods would rapidly pre- 
vent or obstruct egress. 

314.4 Vehicles. Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles, boats or other 
motorcraft shall not be located indoors except as follows: 

1. Batteries are disconnected. 

2. Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 
gallons (19 L) (whichever is least). 

3. Fuel tanks and fill openings ai'e closed and sealed to pre- 
vent tampering. 

4. Vehicles, boats or other motorcraft equipment are not fu- 
eled or defueled within the building. 



core not less than 1.75 inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Stor- 
age shall not be placed on exposed joists. 

Exceptions: 

1. Ai-eas protected by approved automatic sprinkler 
systems. 

2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies. 

315.3 Outside storage. Outside storage of combustible mate- 
rials shall not be located within 1 feet (3048 mm) of a property 
line. 

Exceptions: 

1. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 3 
feet (914 mm) for storage not exceeding 6 feet (1829 
mm) in height. 

2. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced 
when the fire code official determines that no hazard 
to the adjoining property exists. 

315.3.1 Storage beneath overhead projections from 
buildings. Combustible materials stored or displayed out- 
side of buildings that are protected by automatic sprinklers 
shall not be stored or displayed under nonsprinklered eaves, 
canopies or other projections or overhangs. 

315.3.2 Height. Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height. 



SECTION 315 

MISCELLANEOUS COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 

STORAGE 

315.1 General. Storage, use and handling of miscellaneous 
combustible materials shall be in accordance with this section. 
A permit shall be obtained in accordance with Appendix Chap- 
ter 1, Section 105.6. 

315.2 Storage in buildings. Storage of combustible materials 
in buildings shall be orderly. Storage shall be separated from 
heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that igni- 
tion cannot occur. 

315.2.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 2 
feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in nonsprinklered 
ai-eas of buildings or a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) 
below sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered ai-eas of 
buildings. 

315.2.2 Means of egress. Combustible materials shall not 
be stored in exits or exit enclosures. 

315.2.3 Equipment rooms. Combustible material shall not 
be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms or electrical 
equipment rooms. 

315.2.4 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of com- 
bustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as 
required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated consti'uction. 
Openings shall be protected by assemblies tliat are self-clos- 
ing and ai^e of noncombustible construction or solid wood 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



39 



40 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 4 - EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 

(Not Adopted by the State Fire Marshal) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 


























1 














Chapter /Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



41 



42 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 4 

EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

401.1 Scope. Reporting of emergencies, coordination with 
emergency response forces, emergency plans, and procedures 
for managing or responding to emergencies shall comply with 
the provisions of this section. 

Exception: Firms that have approved on-premises 
fure-fighting organizations and that are in compliance with 
approved procedures for fke reporting. 

401.2 Approval. Where required by this code, fire safety 
plans, emergency procedures, and employee ti'aining programs 
shall be approved by the fii-e code official. 

401.3 Emergency forces notification. In the event an 
unwanted fire occurs on a property, the owner or occupant shall 
immediately report such condition to the fire department. 
Building employees and tenants shall implement the appropri- 
ate emergency plans and procedures. No person shall, by ver- 
bal or written directive, require any delay in the reporting of a 
fire to the fire department. 

401.3.1 Making false report. It shall be unlawful for a per- 
son to give, signal, or transmit a false alarm. 

401.3.2 Alarm activations. Upon activation of a fire alarm 
signal, employees or staff shall immediately notify the fire 
department. 

401.3.3 Emergency evacuation drills. Nothing in this sec- 
tion shall prohibit the sounding of a fire alarm signal or the 
carrying out of an emergency evacuation drill in accordance 
with the provisions of Section 405. 

401.4 Interference with fire department operations. It shall 
be unlawful to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, con- 
spke to interfere with, obstruct or restrict the mobility of or 
block the path of travel of a fire depaitment emergency vehicle 
in any way, or to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, con- 
spke to interfere with, obstruct or hamper any fire depaitment 
operation. 

401.5 Security device. Any security device, or system that 
emits any medium that could obscure a means of egress in any 
building, structure or premise shall be prohibited. 



SECTION 402 
DEFINITIONS 

402.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meaning shown herein. 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRBLL. An exercise per- 
formed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their effi- 
ciency and effectiveness in canying out emergency evacuation 
procedures. 



SECTION 403 
PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGES AND EVENTS 

403.1 Fire vf atch personnel. When, in the opinion of the fire 
code official, it is essential for public safety in a place of assem- 
bly or any other place where people congregate, because of the 
number of persons, or the nature of the performance, exhibi- 
tion, display, contest or activity, the owner, agent or lessee shall 
provide one or more fire watch personnel, as required and 
approved, to remain on duty during the times such places are 
open to the public, or when such activity is being conducted. 

403.1.1 Duties. Fire watch personnel shall keep diligent 
watch for fires, obstructions to means of egress and other 
hazards during the time such place is open to the public or 
such activity is being conducted and take prompt measures 
for remediation of hazards, extinguishment of fu'es that 
occur and assist in the'evacuation of the public firom the 
structures. 

403.2 Public safety plan. In other than Group A or E occupan- 
cies, where the fire code official determines that an indoor or 
outdoor gathering of persons has an adverse impact on public 
safety through diminished access to buildings, structures, fire 
hydrants and fire apparatus access roads or where such gather- 
ings adversely affect public safety services of any kind, the fire 
code official shall have the authority to order the development 
of, or prescribe a plan for, the provision of an approved level of 
public safety. 

403.2.1 Contents. The pubUc safety plan, where required 
by Section 403.2, shall address such items as emergency 
vehicle ingress and egress, fire protection, emergency medi- 
cal services, public assembly areas and the directing of both 
attendees and vehicles (including the parking of vehicles), 
vendor and food concession distribution, and the need for 
the presence of law enforcement, and fire and emergency 
medical services personnel at the event. 



SECTION 404 
FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS 

404.1 General. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall comply 
with the requirements of this section. 

404.2 Where required. An approved frre safety and evacua- 
tion plan shall be prepai'ed and maintained for the following 
occupancies and buildings. 

1. Group A, other than Group A occupancies used exclu- 
sively for purposes of religious worship that have an oc- 
cupant load less than 2,000. 

2. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or below 
the lowest level of exit discharge. 

3. Group E. 

4. Group H. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



43 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



5. Group I. 

6. Group R-1. 

7. Group R-2 college and university buildings. 

8. Group R-4. 

9. High-rise buildings. 

10. Group M buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or below 
the lowest level of exit discharge. 

1 1 . Covered malls exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) 
in aggregate floor area. 

12. Underground buildings. 

13. Buildings with an atrium and having an occupancy in 
Group A, E or M. 

404.3 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan contents shall 
be in accordance with Sections 404.3.1 and 404.3.2. 

404.3.1 Fire evacuation plans. Fire evacuation plans shall 
include the following: 

1 . Emergency egress or escape routes and whether evac- 
uation of the building is to be complete or, where ap- 
proved, by selected floors or areas only. 

2. Procedures for employees who must remain to oper- 
ate critical equipment before evacuating. 

3. Procedures for accounting for employees and occu- 
pants after evacuation has been completed. 

4. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for rescue or emergency medical aid. 

5. The preferred and any alternative means of notifying 
occupants of a fire or emergency. 

6. The preferred and any alternative means of reporting 
fires and other emergencies to the fire department or 
designated emergency response organization. 

7. Identification and assignment of personnel who can 
be contacted for further information or explanation of 
duties under the plan. 

8. A description of the emergency voice/alarm commu- 
nication system alert tone and preprogrammed voice 
messages, where provided. 

404.3.2 Fire safety plans. Fire safety plans shall include the 
following: 

1 . The procedure for reporting a fu^e or other emergency. 

2. The life safety strategy and procedures for notifying, 
relocating, or evacuating occupants. 

3. Site plans indicating the following: 

3.1. The occupancy assembly point. 

3.2. The locations of fire hydrants. 

3.3. The normal routes of fire department vehicle ac- 
cess. 

4. Floor plans identifying the locations of the following: 

4.1. Exits. 

4.2. Primary evacuation routes. 

4.3. Secondaiy evacuation routes. 

4.4. Accessible egress routes. 



4.5. Areas of refuge. 

4.6. Manual fure alarm boxes. 

4.7. Portable fire extinguishers. 

4.8. Occupant-use hose stations. 

4.9. Fire alarm annunciators and controls. 

5. A list of major fire hazards associated with the normal 
use and occupancy of the premises, including mainte- 
nance and housekeeping procedures. 

6. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance of systems and equipment in- 
stalled to prevent or control fires. 

7. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance, housekeeping and controlhng 
fuel hazard sources. 

404.4 Maintenance. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be 
reviewed or updated annually or as necessitated by changes in 
staff assignments, occupancy, or the physical arrangement of 
the building. 

404.5 Availability. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be 
available in the workplace for reference and review by employ- 
ees, and copies shall be furnished to the fire code official for 
review upon request. 



SECTION 405 
EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS 

405.1 General. Emergency evacuation drills complying with 
the provisions of this section shall be conducted at least annu- 
ally in the occupancies listed in Section 404.2 or when required 
by the fire code official. Drills shall be designed in cooperation 
with the local authorities. 

405.2 Frequency. Requked emergency evacuation drills shall 
be held at the intervals specified in Table 405.2 or more fre- 
quently where necessary to familiarize all occupants with the 
drill procedure. 

405.3 Leadership. Responsibility for the planning and con- 
duct of drills shall be assigned to competent persons designated 
to exercise leadership. 

405.4 Time. Drills shall be held at unexpected times and under 
varying conditions to simulate the unusual conditions that 
occur in case of fire. 

405.5 Record keeping. Records shall be maintained of 
required emergency evacuation drills and include the following 
information: 

1. Identity of the person conducting the drill. 

2. Date and time of the drill. 

3. Notification method used. 

4. Staff members on duty and participating. 

5. Number of occupants evacuated. 

6. Special conditions simulated. 

7. Problems encountered. 

8. Weather conditions when occupants were evacuated. 

9. Time required to accomplish complete evacuation. 



44 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



TABLE 405.2 

FIRE AND EVACUATION DRILL 

FREQUENCY AND PARTICIPATION 



GROUP OR 
OCCUPANCY 


FREQUENCY 


PARTICIPATION 


Group A 


Quarterly 


Employees 


Group B'^ 


Annually 


Employees 


Group E 


Monthly" 


All occupants 


Group I 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees'' 


Group R-1 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees 


Group R-2'' 


Four annually 


All occupants 


Group R-4 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees'' 


High-rise 
buildings 


Annually , 


Employees 



a. The frequency shall be allowed to be modified in accordance with Section 
408.3.2. 

b. Fire and evacuation drills in residential care assisted living facilities shall 
include complete evacuation of the premises in accordance with Section 
408.10.5. Where occupants receive habilitation or rehabilitation training, 
fire prevention and fire safety practices shall be included as part of the ti'ain- 
ing program. 

c. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more 
than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

d. Applicable to Group R-2 college and university buildings in accordance 
with Section 408.3. 

405.6 Notification. Where required by the fire code official, 
prior notification of emergency evacuation drills shall be given 
to the fire code official. 

405.7 Initiation. Where a fire alarm system is provided, emer- 
gency evacuation drills shall be initiated by activating the fire 
alarm system. 

405.8 Accountability. As building occupants arrive at the 
assembly point, efforts shall be made to determine if all occu- 
pants have been successfully evacuated or have been accounted 
for. 

405.9 Recall and reentry. An electrically or mechanically 
operated signal used to recall occupants after an evacuation 
shall be separate and distinct from the signal used to initiate the 
evacuation. The recall signal initiation means shall be manu- 
ally operated and under the control of the person in charge of 
the premises or the official in charge of the incident. No one 
shall reenter the premises until authorized to do so by the 
official in charge. 



SECTION 406 

EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND RESPONSE 

PROCEDURES 

406.1 General. Employees in the occupancies listed in Section 

404.2 shall be trained in the fire emergency procedures 
described in their fire evacuation and fii'e safety plans. Training 
shall be based on these plans and as described in Section 404. 3. 

406.2 Frequency. Employees shall receive training in the con- 
tents of fire safety and evacuation plans and their duties as part 
of new employee orientation and at least annually thereafter. 
Records shall be kept and made available to the fii-e code offi- 
cial upon request. 



406.3 Employee training program. Employees shall be 
trained in fire prevention, evacuation and fire safety in accor- 
dance with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.3. 

406.3.1 Fire prevention training. Employees shall be 
apprised of the fire hazards of the materials and processes to 
which they are exposed. Each employee shall be instructed 
in flie proper procedures for preventing fires in the conduct 
of their assigned duties. 

406.3.2 Evacuation training. Employees shall be familiar- 
ized with the fire alarm and evacuation signals, their 
assigned duties in the event of an alaim or emergency, evac- 
uation routes, areas of refuge, exterior assembly areas, and 
procedures for evacuation. 

406.3.3 Fire safety training. Employees assigned 
fire-fighting duties shall be ttained to know the locations 
and proper use of portable fire extinguishers or other man- 
ual fire-fighting equipment and the protective clothing or 
equipment required for its safe and proper use. 



SECTION 407 
HAZARD COMMUNICATION 

407.1 General. The provisions of Sections 407.2 through 
407.7 shall be applicable where hazardous materials subject to 
permits under Section 2701.5 are located on the premises or 
where requii-ed by the fire code official. 

407.2 Material Safety Data Sheets. Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDS) for all hazardous materials shall be readily 
available on the premises. 

407.3 Identification. Individual containers of hazardous mate- 
rials, cartons or packages shall be marked or labeled in accor- 
dance with applicable federal regulations. Buildings, rooms 
and spaces containing hazardous materials shall be identified 
by hazard warning signs in accordance with Section 2703.5. 

407.4 Training. Persons responsible for the operation of areas 
in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or 
used shall be famihar with the chemical nature of the materials 
and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of 
a fire, leak or spill. Responsible persons shall be designated and 
ti^ained to be liaison personnel for the fii'e department. These 
persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency 
responses and identification of the locations where hazardous 
materials are located, and shall have access to Material Safety 
Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site emergency 
response procedures. 

407.5 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement. Where 
required by the fire code official, each application for a permit 
shall include a Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement 
(HMIS) in accordance witii Section 2701.5.2. 

407.6 Hazardous Materials Management Plan. Where 
required by the fire code official, each application for a permit 
shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan 
(HMMP) in accordance with Section 2701.5.1. The fire code 
official is authorized to accept a similar plan required by other 
regulations. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



45 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



407.7 Facility closure plans. The permit holder or applicant 
shall submit to the fire code official a facility closure plan in 
accordance with Section 2701.6.3 to terminate storage, dis- 
pensing, handling or use of hazardous materials. 



SECTION 408 
USE AND OCCUPANCY-RELATED REQUIREMENTS 

408.1 General. In addition to the other requirements of this 
chapter, the provisions of this section are applicable to specific 
occupancies listed herein. 

408.2 Group A occupancies. Group A occupancies shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Sections 408.2. 1 and 408.2.2 and 
Sections 401 through 406. 

408.2.1 Seating plan. The fire safety and evacuation plans 
for assembly occupancies shall include the information 
required by Section 404.3 and a detailed seating plan, occu- 
pant load, and occupant load limit. Deviations from the 
approved plans shall be allowed provided the occupant load 
limit for the occupancy is not exceeded and the aisles and 
exit accessways remain unobstructed. 

408.2.2 Announcements. In theaters, motion picture the- 
aters, auditoriums and similar assembly occupancies in 
Group A used for noncontinuous programs, an audible 
announcement shall be made not more than 1 minutes prior 
to the start of each program to notify the occupants of the 
location of the exits to be used in the event of a fire or other 
emergency. 

Exception: In motion picture theaters, the announce- 
ment is allowed to be projected upon the screen in a man- 
ner approved by the fire code official. 

408.3 Group E occupancies and Group R-2 college and uni- 
versity buildings. Group E occupancies shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 408.3.1 through 408.3.4 and Sections 
401 through 406. Group R-2 college and university buildings 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.3.1 and 
408.3.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.3.1 First emergency evacuation drill. The first emer- 
gency evacuation drill of each school year shall be con- 
ducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes. 

408.3.2 Emergency evacuation drill deferral. In severe 
climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to 
modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency specified 
in Section 405.2. 

408.3.3 Time of day. Emergency evacuation drills shall be 
conducted at different hours of the day or evening, during 
the changing of classes, when the school is at assembly, dur- 
ing the recess or gymnastic periods, or during other times to 
avoid distinction between drills and actual fires. In Group 
R-2 college and university buildings, one required drill shall 
be held during hours after sunset or before sunrise. 

408.3.4 Assembly points. Outdoor assembly areas shall be 
designated and shall be located a safe distance from the 
building being evacuated so as to avoid interference with 
fire department operations. The assembly areas shall be 



arranged to keep each class separate to provide accountabil- 
ity of all individuals. 

408.4 Group H-5 occupancies. Group H-5 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.4.1 through 

408.4.4 and Sections 401 through 407. 

408.4.1 Plans and diagrams. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 404 and Section 407.6, plans and diagrams 
shall be maintained in approved locations indicating the 
approximate plan for each area, the amount and type of 
HPM stored, handled and used, locations of shutoff valves 
for HPM supply piping, emergency telephone locations and 
locations of exits. 

408.4.2 Plan updating. The plans and diagrams required by 
Section 408.4.1 shall be maintained up to date and the fire 
code official and fire department shall be informed of all 
major changes. 

408.4.3 Emergency response team. Responsible persons 
shall be designated the on-site emergency response team 
and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. 
These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning 
emergency responses, identifying locations where HPM is 
stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemical 
nature of such material. An adequate number of personnel 
for each work shift shall be designated. 

408.4.4 Emergency drills. Emergency drills of the on-site 
emergency response team shall be conducted on a regular 
basis but not less than once every three months. Records of 
drills conducted shall be maintained. 

408.5 Group I-l occupancies. Group I-l occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.5.1 through 

408.5.5 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.5.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of any resident with unusual needs. 

408.5.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically 
insttucted and kept informed of their duties and responsibil- 
ities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by 
the staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan shall 
be readily available at all times within the facility. 

408.5.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The ti-aining shall include 
actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where 
the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, 
training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of 
a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. 
Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire 
to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them 
to do so without additional personal risk. 

408.5.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills shall 
be conducted at least six times per year, two times per year 
on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in the first 
year of operation. Drills are not required to comply with the 
time requirements of Section 405.4. 



46 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



408.5.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a 
selected assembly point; 

408.6 Group 1-2 occupancies. Group 1-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.6.1 and 408.6.2 
and Sections 401 through 406. Drills are not required to com- 
ply with the time requirements of Section 405.4. 

408.6.1 Evacuation not required. During emergency 
evacuation drills, the movement of patients to safe areas or 
to the exterior of the building is not required. 

408.6.2 Coded alarm signal. When emergency evacuation 
drills are conducted after visiting hours or when patients or 
residents are expected to be asleep, a coded announcement 
is allowed instead of audible alarms. 

408.7 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.7.1 through 
408.7.4 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.7.1 Employee training. Employees shall be instnacted 
in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers and other 
manual fure suppression equipment. Training of new staff 
shall be provided promptly upon entrance on duty. 
Refresher training shall be provided at least annually. 

408.7.2 Staffing. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be provided 
with 24-hour staffing. Staff shall be within three floors or 
300 feet (91 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access door 
of each resident housing area. In Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, 
as defined in Chapter 2, the arrangement shall be such that 
the staff involved can start release of locks necessary for 
emergency evacuation or rescue and initiate other necessary 
emergency actions within 2 minutes of an alarm. 

Exception: Staff shall not be required to be within three 
floors or 300 feet (9144 mm) in areas in which all locks 
are unlocked remotely and automatically in accordance 
with Section 408.4 of the California Building Code. 

408.7.3 Notification. Provisions shall be made for residents 
in Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, to 
readily notify staff of an emergency. 

408.7.4 Keys. Keys necessary for unlocking doors installed 
in a means of egress shall be individually identifiable by 
both touch and sight. 

408.8 Group R-1 occupancies. Group R-1 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.8.1 through 
408.8.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.8.1 Evacuation diagrams. A diagram depicting two 
evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adja- 
cent to every required egress door from each hotel, motel or 
dormitory sleeping unit. 

408.8.2 Emergency duties. Upon discovery of a fire or sus- 
pected fu^e, hotel, motel and dormitory employees shall per- 
form the following duties: 

1. Activate the fire alarm system, where provided. 

2. Notify the public fire depai'tment. 

3. Take other action as previously instructed. 



408.8.3 Fire safety and evacuation instructions. Informa- 
tion shall be provided in the fire safety and evacuation plan 
required by Section 404 to allow guests to decide whether to 
evacuate to the outside, evacuate to an area of refuge, remain 
in place, or any combination of the three. 

408.9 Group R-2 occupancies. Group R-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.9.1 through 
408.9.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.9.1 Emergency guide. A fire emergency guide shall be 
provided which describes the location, function and use of 
fire protection equipment and appliances accessible to resi- 
dents, including fire alarm systems, smoke alarms, and por- 
table fire extinguishers. The guide shall also include an 
emergency evacuation plan for each dwelling unit. 

408.9.2 Maintenance. Emergency guides shall be reviewed 
and approved in accordance with Section 401.2. 

408.9.3 Distribution. A copy of the emergency guide shall 
be given to each tenant prior to initial occupancy. 

408.10 Group R-4 occupancies. Group R-4 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.10.1 through 
408.10.5 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.10.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions, including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of a resident with unusual needs. 

408.10.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibil- 
ities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by 
the staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan shall 
be readily available at all times within the facility. 

408.10.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be tiained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include 
actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where 
the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, 
training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of 
a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. 
Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire 
to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them 
to do so without additional personal risk. 

408.10.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills 
shall be conducted at least six times per year, two times per 
year on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in the 
first year of operation. Drills are not required to comply with 
the time requirements of Section 405.4. 

408.10.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a 
selected assembly point and shall provide residents with 
experience in exiting through all required exits. All required 
exits shall be used during emergency evacuation drills. 

Exception: Actual exiting from windows shall not be 
required. Opening the window and signaling for help 
shall be an acceptable alternative. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



47 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



408.11 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall 
comply with the provisions of Sections 408.11.1 through 
408.11.3. 

408.11.1 Lease plan. A lease plan shall be prepared for 
each covered mall building. The plan shall include the fol- 
lowing information in addition to that required by Section 
404.3.2: 

1. Each occupancy, including identification of tenant. 

2. Exits from each tenant space. 

3. Fire protection features, including the following: 

3.1. Fire department connections. 

3.2. Fire command center. 

3.3. Smoke management system controls. 

3.4. Elevators and elevator controls. 

3.5. Hose valves outlets. 

3.6. Sprinkler and standpipe control valves. 

3.7. Automatic fire-extinguishing system areas. 

3.8. Automatic fire detector zones. 

3.9. Fire barriers. 

408.11.1.1 Approval. The lease plan shall be submitted 
to the fire code official for approval, and shall be main- 
tained on site for immediate reference by responding fire 
service personnel. 

408.11.1.2 Revisions. The lease plans shall be revised 
annually or as often as necessary to keep them current. 
Modifications or changes in tenants or occupancies shall 
not be made without prior approval of the fire code offi- 
cial and building official. 

408.11.2 Tenant identification. Each occupied tenant 
space provided with a secondai-y exit to the exterior or exit 
corridor shall be provided with tenant identification by busi- 
ness name and/or address. Letters and numbers shall be 
posted on the corridor side of the door, be plainly legible and 
shall contrast with their background. 

Exception: Tenant identification is not required for 
anchor stores. 

408.11.3 Maintenance. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be: 

1. Kept free from the storage of any materials. 

2. Separated from the remainder of the building by parti- 
tions of at least 0.5-inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum 
board or an approved equivalent to the underside of 
the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces. 

3 . Without doors or other access openings other than one 
door that shall be kept key locked in the closed posi- 
tion except during that time when opened for inspec- 
tion. 

4. Kept free from combustible waste and be broom- 
swept clean. 

48 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 5 - FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SB 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Cliapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 








































Adopt only ttiose sections that are 
listed below 




X 




































Chapter /Section 


Codes 


503.5.2 


CA 




X 




































508.3 


CA 




X 




































508.5 


CA 




X 




































508.5.3 


CA 




X 




































509.1 


CA 




X 















































































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



49 



50 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 5 

FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. Fire service features for buildings, structures and 
preniises shall comply with this chapter. 

501.2 Permits. A permit shall be requked as set forth in 
Appendix Chapter 1, Sections 105.6 and 105.7. 

501.3 Construction documents. Construction documents for 
proposed fire apparatus access, location of frre lanes and con- 
struction documents and hydraulic calculations for fce hydrant 
systems shall be_submitted to the fce department for review 
and approval prior to construction. 

501.4 Timing of installation. When fire apparatus access 
roads or a water supply for fire protection is required to be 
installed, such protection shall be installed and made service- 
able prior to and during the time of construction except when 
approved alternative methods of protection are provided. Tem- 
porary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection 
when construction of new roadways allows passage by vehi- 
cles in accordance with Section 505.2. 



SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that provides 
fire apparatus access from a fire station to a facility, building or 
portion thereof. This is a general term inclusive of all other 
terms such as fire lane, public street, private street, pai-king lot 
lane and access roadway. 

FIRE COMMAND CEJSfTER. The principal attended or 
unattended location where the status of the detection, alarm 
communications and conti-ol systems is displayed, and from 
which the system(s) can be manually controlled. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. A.limited issue key 
of special or controlled design to be canied by fire department 
officials in cominand which will open key boxes on specified 
properties. 

FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow 
the passage of fire apparatus. A fii"e lane is not necessarily 
intended for vehicular- traffic other than fire appai^atus. 

KEY BOX. A secure device with a lock operable only by a fire 
department master key, and containing building entry keys and 
other keys that may be required for access in an emergency. 



SECTION 503 
FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 

503.1 Wliere required. Fire appai-atus access roads shall be 
provided and maintained in accordance with Sections 503.1.1 
through 503.1.3. 

503.1.1 Buildings and facilities. Approved fire apparatus 
access roads shall be provided for every facility, building or 
portion of a building hereafter constructed or moved into or 
within the jurisdiction. The fire apparatus access road shall 
comply with the requirements of this section and shall 
extend to within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of all portions of the 
facility and all portions of the exterior walls of the first story 
of the building as measured by an approved route around the 
exterior of the building or facility. 

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to 
increase the dimension of 1 50 feet (45 720 mm) where: 

1. The building is equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 
903.3.1.3. 

2. Fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed be- 
cause of location on property, topography, water- 
ways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar 
conditions, and an approved alternative means of 
fire protection is provided. 

3. There are not more than two Group R-3 or Group 
U occupancies. 

503.1.2 Additional access. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require more than one fire apparatus access road 
based on the potential for impairment of a single road by 
vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions 
or other factors that could limit access. 

503.1.3 High-piled storage. Fire department vehicle access 
to buildings used for high-piled combustible storage shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 23. 

503.2 Specifications. Fire appai'atus access roads shall be 
installed and arranged in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 
through 503.2.7. 

503.2.1 Dimensions. Fire apparatus access roads shall have 
an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), 
except for approved security gates in accordance with Sec- 
tion 503 .6, and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less 
than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm). 

503.2.2 Authority. The frre code official shall have the 
authority to require an increase in the minimum access 
widths where they are inadequate for fire or rescue opera- 
tions. 

503.2.3 Surface. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



51 



FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



fire apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide 
all-weather driving capabilities. 

503.2.4 Turning radius. The required turning radius of a 
fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the fire 
code official. 

503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in 
excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided 
vi'ith an approved area for turning around fire apparatus. 

503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or 
an elevated surface is part of afire apparatus access road, the 
bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance 
with AASHTO HB-17. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall 
be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed 
loads of fire apparatus. Vehicle load hmits shall be posted at 
both entrances to bridges when required by the fire code 
official. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency 
vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces which are not designed 
for such use, approved barriers, approved signs or both shall 
be installed and maintained when required by the fire code 
official. 

503.2.7 Grade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road 
shall be within the limits established by die fire code official 
based on the fire department's apparatus. 

503.3 Marking. Where required by the fire code official, 
approved signs or other approved notices shall be provided for 
fire apparatus access roads to identify such roads or prohibit the 
obstruction thereof Signs or notices shall be maintained in a 
clean and legible condition at all times and be replaced or 
repaired when necessary to provide adequate visibility. 

503.4 Obstruction of fire apparatus access roads. Fire appa- 
ratus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner, 
including the parking of vehicles. The minimum widths and 
clearances established in Section 503.2.1 shall be maintained 
at all times. 

503.5 Required gates or barricades. The fure code official is 
authorized to require the installation and maintenance of gates 
or other approved barricades across fire appai'atus access 
roads, trails or other accessways, not including pubUc streets, 
alleys or highways. 

503.5.1 Secured gates and barricades. When required, 
gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved man- 
ner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been 
closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 
503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized 
by the owner and the fire code official. 

Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to pub- 
lic officers acting within the scope of duty. 

[B] 503.5.2 Fences and gates. School grounds may be 
fenced and gates therein may be equipped with locks, pro- 
vided that safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 
rrf) per occupant are located between the school and the 
fence. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be 
located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from school buildings. 

Every public and private school shall conform with Sec- 
tion 32020 of the Education Code which states: 



The governing board of every public school district, and 
the governing authority of every private school, which 
maintains any building used for the instruction or housing 
of school pupils on land entirely enclosed (except for build- 
ing walls) by fences or walls, shall, through cooperation 
with the local law enforcement and fire protection agencies 
having jurisdiction of the area, make provision for the erec- 
tion of gates in such fences or walls. The gates shall be of 
sufficient size to permit the entrance of the ambulances, 
police equipment and fire-fighting apparatus used by the 
law enforcement and fire protection agencies. There shall be 
no less than one such access gate and there shall be as many 
such gates as needed to ensure access to all major buildings 
and ground areas. If such gates are to be equipped with 
locks, the locking devices shall be designed to permit ready 
entrance by the use of the chain or bolt-cutting devices with 
which the local law enforcement and fire protection agen- 
cies may be equipped. 

503.6 Security gates. The installation of security gates across a 
fire apparatus access road shall be approved by the fire chief 
Where security gates are installed, they shall have an approved 
means of emergency operation. The security gates and the 
emergency operation shall be maintained operational at all 
times. 



SECTION 504 
ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS 

504.1 Required access. Exterior doors and openings required 
by this code or the California Building Code shall be main- 
tained readily accessible for emergency access by the fire 
department. An approved access walkway leading from fire 
apparatus access roads to exterior openings shall be provided 
when required by the fire code official. 

504.2 Maintenance of exterior doors and openings. Exterior 
doors and their function shall not be eliminated without prior 
approval. Exterior doors that have been rendered nonfunc- 
tional and that retain a functional door exterior appearance 
shall have a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door with the 
words THIS DOOR BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of let- 
ters having a principal stroke of not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 
mm) wide and at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a conti-asting 
background. Required fire department access doors shall not 
be obstructed or eliminated. Exit and exit access doors shall 
comply with Chapter 10. Access doors for high-piled combus- 
tible storage shall comply with Section 2306.6.1. 

504.3 Stairway access to roof. New buildings four or more 
stories in height, except those with a roof slope greater than 
four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3 percent slope), 
shall be provided with a stairway to the roof. Stairway access to 
the roof shall be in accordance with Section 1009.12. Such 
stairway shall be marked at street and floor levels with a sign 
indicating that the stairway continues to the roof Where roofs 
are used for roof gai-dens or for other purposes, stairways shall 
be provided as required for such occupancy classification. 



52 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



SECTION 505 
PREMISES IDENTIFICATION 

505.1 Address numbers. New and existing buildings shall 
have approved address numbers, building numbers or 
approved building identification placed in a position that is 
plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the 
property. These numbers shall contrast with their background. 
Address numbers shall be Arabic numerals or alphabet letters. 
Numbers shall be a minimum of 4 inches ( 1 02 mm) high with a 
minimum sti'oke width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

505.2 Street or road signs. Streets and roads shall be identified 
with approved signs. Temporary signs shall be installed at each 
street intersection- when construction of new roadways allows 
passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, 
weather resistant and be maintained until replaced by perma- 
nent signs. 



on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed 
so as to be readily discernible. 

Exception: Mai-king shall not be required on shaftway 
openings which are readily discernible as openings onto 
a shaftway by the construction or aixangement. 

507.3 Pitfalls. The intentional design or alteration of buildings 
to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited. No per- 
son shall install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, 
razor wire, explosives, flammable or combustible liquid con- 
tainers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, uritant or 
other hazardous materials in a manner which may passively or 
actively disable, injure, maim or kill a fire fighter who forcibly 
enters a building for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing 
a fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering other emer- 
gency assistance. 



SECTION 506 
KEY BOXES 

506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a sti-ucture 
or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where 
immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting 
puiposes, the fire code official is authorized to require a key 
box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall 
be of an approved type and shall contain keys to gain necessary 
access as required by the fire code official. 

506.1.1 Locks. An approved lock shall be installed on gates 
or similar baixiers when required by the fire code official. 

506.2 Key box maintenance. The operator of the building 
shall immediately notify the fire code official and provide the 
new key when a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such 
lock shall be secured in the key box. 



SECTION 507 
HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS 

507.1 Trapdoors to be closed. Trapdoors and scuttle covers, 
other than those that ai'e within a dwelling unit or automatically 
operated, shall be kept closed at all times except when in use. 

507.2 Shaftway marlcings. Vertical shafts shall be identified 
as required by this section. 

507.2.1 Exterior access to shaftways. Outside openings 
accessible to the fu'e department and which open directly on 
a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or 
more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the 
word SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be 
placed so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the 
building. 

507.2.2 Interior access to shaftways. Door or window 
openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the 
building shall be plainly marked with the word 
SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high 



SECTION 508 
FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES 

508.1 Required water supply. An approved water supply 
capable of supplying the required fure flow for fire protection 
shall be provided to premises upon which facilities, buildings 
or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved into 
or within the jurisdiction. 

508.2 Type of water supply. A water supply shall consist of 
reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or other 
fixed systems capable of providing the required fire flow. 

508.2.1 Private fire service mains. Private fire service 
mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 24. 

508.2.2 Water tanks. Water tanks for private fibre protection 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 22. 

508.3 Fire flow. Fire flow requirements for buildings or por- 
tions of buildings and facilities shall be determined by an 
approved method or Appendix B. 

508.4 Water supply test. The fire code official shall be noti- 
fied prior to the water supply test. Water supply tests shall be 
witnessed by the fire code official or approved documentation 
of the test shall be provided to the fu:e code official prior to final 
approval of the water supply system. 

508.5 Fire hydrant systems. Fu-e hydrant systems shall com- 
ply with Sections 508.5.1 through 508.5.6 and Appendix C or 
by an approved method. 

508.5.1 Where required. Where a portion of the facility or 
building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the 
jurisdiction is more than 400 feet ( 1 22 m) from a hydrant on 
a fu'e apparatus access road, as measured by an approved 
route ai-ound the exterior of the facility or building, on-site 
fire hydrants and mains shall be provided where required by 
the fire code official. 

Exceptions: 

1. For Group R-3 and Group U occupancies, the dis- 
tance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m). 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



53 



FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



2. For buildings equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the 
distance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m). 

508.5.2 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire 
hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as required 
by the fire code official. Fire hydrant systems shall be main- 
tained in an operative condition at all times and shall be 
repaired where defective. Additions, repairs, alterations and 
servicing shall comply with approved standards. 

508.5.3 Private fire service mains and water tanks. Pri- 
vate fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodically 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Title 19 
California Code of Regulations Chapter 5. 

508.5.4 Obstruction. Posts, fences, vehicles, growth, trash, 
storage and other materials or objects shall not be placed or 
kept near fire hydrants, fire department inlet connections or 
fire protection system control valves in a manner that would 
prevent such equipment or fire hydrants from being imme- 
diately discernible. The fire department shall not be deterred 
or hindered from gaining immediate access to fire protec- 
tion equipment or fire hydrants. 

508.5.5 Clear space around Iiydrants. A 3-foot (914 mm) 
clear space shall be maintained around the circumference of 
fire hydrants except as otherwise required or approved. 

508.5.6 Pliysical protection. Where fire hydrants are sub- 
ject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts or other 
approved means shall comply with Section 312. 



SECTION 509 
FIRE COMMAND CENTER 

509.1 Features. Where required by other sections of this code 
and in all buildings classified as high-rise buildings by the Cali- 
fornia Building Code, a fire conmiand center for fire depart- 
ment operations shall be provided. The location and 
accessibility of the fire command center shall be approved by 
the fire department. The fire command center shall be sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the building by not less than a 
1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance witlr Section 706 
of the California Building Code or horizontal assembly con- 
structed in accordance with Section 711 of the California 
Building Code, or both. The room shall be a minimum of 96 
square feet (9 m^) with a minimum dimension of 8 feet (2438 
mm). A layout of the fire command center and all features 
required by this section to be contained therein shall be submit- 
ted for approval prior to installation. The fire command center 
shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain the following fea- 
tures: 

1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
unit. 

2. The fire department communications system. 

3. Fire-detection and alarm system annunciator system. 

4. Annunciator visually indicating the location of the ele- 
vators and whether they are operational. 

5. Status indicators and controls for air-handling systems. 



6. The fire-fighter's control panel required by Section 
909. 1 6 for smoke control systems installed in the build- 
ing. 

7. Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously. 

8 . Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display panels . 

9. Emergency and standby power status indicators. 

10. A telephone for fire department use with controlled ac- 
cess to the public telephone system. 

1 1 . Fire pump status indicators. 

12. Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor 
plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, 
fire protection systems, fire-fighting equipment and 
fire department access. 

13. Work table. 

14. Generator supervision devices, manual start and trans- 
fer features. 

15. Public address system, where specifically required by 
other sections of this code. 

16. Fire command centers shall not be used for the housing 
of any boiler, heating unit, generator, combustible stor- 
age, or similar hazardous equipment or storage. 



SECTION 510 
FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT 

510.1 Identification. Fire protection equipment shall be iden- 
tified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for 
air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other 
fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identi- 
fied for the use of the fire department. Approved signs required 
to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location, 
shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently 
installed and readily visible. 



54 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 6 - BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



Adopting Agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 




X 




































Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended 
sections listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 








































Chapter/ 
Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



55 



56 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 6 

BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the 
installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appli- 
ances and heating systems, emergency and standby power sys- 
tems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical 
refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage battery 
systems and commercial kitchen hoods. 

601.2 Permits. Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration sys- 
tems and battery systems as set forth in Appendix Chapter 1, 
Sections 105.6 and 105.7. 



SECTION 602 
DEFINITIONS 

602.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. A sys- 
tem which consists of three interconnected subsystems: 

1. A lead-acid battery. 

2. A battery charger. 

3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters, and asso- 
ciated electrical equipment as required for a particular 
application. 

BATTERY TYPES 

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. An alkaline storage bat- 
tery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the 
negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte is potassium 
hydroxide. 

Nonrecombinant battery. A storage battery in which, 
under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gas- 
ses created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of 
the battery. 

Recombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under 
conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases cre- 
ated by electrolysis are converted back into water inside the 
battery instead of venting into the air outside of the battery. 

Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical 
cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC 
power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for 
service in a permanent location. The number of cells con- 
nected in a series determines the riominal voltage rating of 
the battery. The size of the cells determines the discharge 
capacity of the entire battery. After discharge, it may be 
restored to a fully charged condition by an electric current 
flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when 
the battery is discharged. 

Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. A lead-acid 
battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that 



opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of 
the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In 
VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is immo- 
bihzed in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) 
or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled 
batteries). 

Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery. A lead-acid battery 
consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid 
electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for 
the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a 
flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydrogen 
and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that 
a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not 
ignite the gases inside the cell. 

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. AppH- 
ances used in a commercial food service establishment for 
heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, 
steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed 
through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances 
include deep fat fryers; upright broilers; griddles; broilers; 
steam-jacketed kettles; hot- top ranges; under-fired broilers 
(charbroilers); ovens; barbecues; rotisseries; and similar appli- 
ances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service estab- 
lishment shall include any building or aportion thereof used for 
the preparation and serving of food. 

[M] HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrap- 
ment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and 
similar contaminants before they enter a duct system. 

Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease 
vapors and smoke. 

REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrig- 
erating system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a 
higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a 
change of state. 

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. A combination of intercon- 
nected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed 
refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the 
purpose of extracting heat. 



SECTION 603 
FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES 

603.1 Installation. The installation of nonportable fuel gas 
appliances and systems shall comply the California Mechani- 
cal Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, 
other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable 
devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, 
shall comply with this section and the California Mechanical 
Code. 

603.1.1 Manufacturer's instructions. The installation 
shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions and applicable federal, state, and local rules and 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



57 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify, 
or alter a manufacturer's instructions in any way, written 
approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer. 

603.1.2 Approval. The design, construction and installa- 
tion of fuel-fired appUances shall be in accordance with the 
California Mechanical Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment used in connection with oil-burning 
equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance 
with the California Electrical Code. 

603.1.4 Fuel oil. The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall 
be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by 
the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not 
be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in 
Group F, M and S occupancies, when utilized in equipment 
listed for use with waste oil and when such equipment is 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions 
and the terms of its hsting. 

603.1.5 Access. The installation shall be readily accessible 
for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing 
motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regu- 
lators, and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning 
and lubricating parts. 

603.1.6 Testing, diagrams and instructions. After instal- 
lation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combus- 
tion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that 
the burner is in proper operating condition and that all 
accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function 
properly. 

603.1.6.1 Diagrams. Contractors instalhng industrial 
oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies 
of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling 
valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burn- 
ing equipment and another at an approved location that 
will be accessible in case of emergency. 

603.1.6.2 Instructions. After completing the installa- 
tion, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in 
the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall 
also furnish the owner or operator with the name and 
telephone number of persons to contact for technical 
information or assistance and routine or emergency 
services. 

603.1.7 Clearances. Working clearances between oil-fired 
appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall 
be in accordance with the California Electrical Code. Clear- 
ances between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks 
shall be in accordance with NFPA 31. 

[B, M, FG] 603.2 Chimneys. Masoru-y chimneys shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the California Building Code. Fac- 
tory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with the 
California Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be con- 
structed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211. 

603.3 Fuel oil storage systems. Fuel oil storage systems shall 
be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel oil piping sys- 
tems shall be installed in accordance with the California 
Mechanical Code. 



603.3.1 Maximum outside fuel oil storage above ground. 

Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum 
amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above gi-ound 
without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). 
The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 
660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31. 

603.3.2 Maximum inside fuel oil storage. Where con- 
nected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum amount of 
fuel oil storage allowed inside any building shall be 660 gal- 
lons (2498 L). Where the amount of fuel oil stored inside a 
building exceeds 660 gallons (2498 L), the storage area 
shall be in compliance with the California Building Code. 

603.3.3 Underground storage of fuel oil. The storage of 
fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with 
NFPA 31. 

603.4 Portable unvented heaters. Portable unvented 
fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupan- 
cies in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4. 

Exception: Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters 
in one- and two-family dwellings. 

603.4.1 Prohibited locations. Unvented fuel-frred heating 
equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air 
from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, 
bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets. 

603.5 Heating appliances. Heating appliances shall be listed 
and shall comply with this section. 

603.5.1 Guard against contact. The heating element or 
combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to 
prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 

603.5.2 Heating appliance installation and maintenance. 

Heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, the 
California Building Code, the California Mechanical Code 
and the California Electrical Code. 

603.6 Chimneys and appliances. Chimneys, incinerators, 
smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot 
gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boil- 
ers to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so 
as not to create a fire hazard. 

603.6.1 Masonry chimneys. Masoiu^ chinaneys that, upon 
inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have 
open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be 
discharged into the building, or which are cracked as to be 
dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a Usted chimney 
liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions or a flue lining system installed in 
accordance with the requirements of the California Build- 
ing Code and appropriate for the intended class of chimney 
service. 

603.6.2 Metal chimneys. Metal chimneys which are cor- 
roded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds installed 
at tiie termination of factory-built chimneys shall be 
removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled 
for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and 



58 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

603.6.4 Factory-built chimneys. Existing factory-built 
chimneys that ai'e damaged, coixoded or improperly sup- 
ported shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.5 Connectors. Existing chimney and vent connectors 
that ai'e damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall 
be repaired or replaced. 

603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appli- 
ances. The fire code official is authorized to order that mea- 
sures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, 
oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing 
device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code 
requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this 
effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge 
of the same. The fu:e code official is authorized to take mea- 
sures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance with- 
out notice when inspection shows the existence of an 
immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The 
defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all 
necessary repairs or alterations have been made. 

603.7.1 Unauthorized operation. It shall be a violation of 
this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the 
utihzation of any device or appliance (the operation of 
which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in 
accordance with Section 603.7), unless written authority to 
resume operation is given by the fure code official. Remov- 
ing or breaking the means by which operation of the device 
is prevented shall be a violation of this code. 

603.8 Incinerators. Commercial, industrial and residen- 
tial-type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in 
accordance with the California Building Code and the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code. 

603.8.1 Residential incinerators. Residential incinerators 
shall be of an approved type. 

603.8.2 Sparlc arrestor. Incinerators shall be equipped with 
an effective means for arresting sparks. 

603.8.3 Restrictions. Where the fire code official deter- 
mines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet 
(152 m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered ai-eas will 
create an undue fu'e hazai-d because of atmospheric condi- 
tions, such burning shall be prohibited. 

603.8.4 Time of burning. Burning shall take place only 
during approved hours. 

603.8.5 Discontinuance. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require incinerator use to be discontinued immedi- 
ately if the fu'e code official determines that smoke 
emissions ai^e offensive to occupants of surrounding prop- 
erty or if the use of incinerators is determined by the fire 
code official to constitute a hazai^dous condition. 

603.9 Gas meters. Above-ground gas meters, regulators and 
piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier com- 
plying with Section 312 or otherwise protected in an approved 
manner. 



SECTION 604 
EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS 

604.1 Installation. Emergency and standby power systems 
required by this code or the California Building Code shall be 
installed in accordance with this code, NFPA 110 and NFPA 
111. Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance 
with the original approval. 

604.1.1 Stationary generators. Stationary emergency and 
standby power generators required by this code shall be 
listed in accordance with UL 2200. 

604.2 Where required. Emergency and standby power sys- 
tems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 
through 604.2.19.4. 

604.2.1 Group A occupancies. Emergency power shall be 
provided for emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems in Group A occupancies in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.2. 

604.2.2 Smoke control systems. Standby power shall be 
provided for smoke control systems in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.11. 

604.2.3 Exit signs. Emergency power shall be provided for 
exit signs in accordance with Section 1011.5.3 

604.2.4 Means of egress illumination. Emergency power 
shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accor- 
dance with Section 1006.3. 

604.2.5 Accessible means of egress elevators. Standby 
power shall be provided for elevators that are part of an 
accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 
1007.4. 

604.2.6 Accessible means of egress platform lifts. 

Standby power in accordance with this section or ASME 
Al 8. 1 shall be provided for platform lifts that are part of an 
accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 
1007.5. 

604.2.7 Horizontal sliding doors. Standby power shall be 
provided for horizontal sliding doors in accordance with 
Section 1008.1.3.3. 

604.2.8 Semiconductor fabrication facilities. Emergency 
power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication 

/facilities in accordance with Section 1803.15. 

604.2.9 Membrane structures. Emergency power shall be 
provided for exit signs in temporary tents and membrane 
structures in accordance with Section 2403.12.6.1. Standby 
power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in 
permanent membrane structures in accordance with the 
California Building Code. 

604.2.10 Hazardous materials. Emergency or standby 
power shall be provided in occupancies with hazai'dous 
materials in accordance with Sections 2704.7 and 2705. 1 .5. 

604.2.11 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Emergency 
power shall be provided for occupancies with highly toxic 
or toxic materials in accordance witii Sections 3704.2.2.8 
and 3704.3.2.6. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



59 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



604.2.12 Organic peroxides. Standby power shall be pro- 
vided for occupancies with organic peroxides in accordance 
with Section 3904.1.11. 

604.2.13 Pyrophoric materials. Emergency power shall be 
provided for occupancies with silane gas in accordance with 
Sections 4106.2.3 and 4106.4.3. 

604.2.14 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings 
exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) shall be provided 
with standby power systems which are capable of operating 
the emergency voice/alarm communication. 

604.2.15 High-rise buildings. Standby power, light and 
emergency systems in high-rise buildings shall comply with 
the requirements of Sections 604.2.15.1 through 
604.2.15.3. 

604.2.15.1 Standby power. A standby power system 
shall be provided. Where the standby system is a genera- 
tor set inside a building, the system shall be located in a 
separate room enclosed with 2-hour fu'e barriers or hori- 
zontal assemblies constructed in accordance with the 
California Building Code, or both. System supervision 
with manual start and transfer features shall be provided 
at the fire conomand center. 

604.2.15.1.1 Fuel supply. An on-premises fuel sup- 
ply, sufficient for not less than 2-hour full-demand 
operation of the system, shall be provided. 

Exception: When approved, the system shall be 
allowed to be supplied by natural gas pipelines. 

604.2.15.1.2 Capacity. The standby system shall 
have a capacity and rating that supplies all equipment 
required to be operational at the same time. The gen- 
erating capacity is not required to be sized to operate 
all of the connected electrical equipment 
simultaneously. 

604.2.15.1.3 Connected facilities. Power and light- 
ing facilities for the fire command center and eleva- 
tors specified in Sections 403.8 and 403.9 of the 
California Building Code, as applicable, and electri- 
cally powered fure pumps required to maintain pres- 
sure, shall be transferable to the standby source. 
Standby power shall be provided for at least one ele- 
vator to serve all floors and be transferable to any ele- 
vator. 

604.2.15.2 Separate circuits and luminaires. Separate 
lighting circuits and luminaires shall be requked to pro- 
vide sufficient light with an intensity of not less than 1 
foot-candle (11 lux) measured at floor level in all means 
of egress coiridors, stairways, smokeproof enclosures, 
elevator cars and lobbies, and other areas that are clearly 
a part of the escape route. 

604.2.15.2.1 Other circuits. Circuits supplying 
lighting for the fire command center and mechanical 
equipment rooms shall be transferable to the standby 
source. 



604.2.15.3 Emergency systems. Exit signs, exit illumi- 
nation as required by Chapter 10, and elevator car light- 
ing are classified as emergency systems and shall operate 
within 10 seconds of failure of the normal power supply 
and shall be capable of being transferred to the standby 
source. 

Exception: Exit sign, exit and means of egress illumi- 
nation are permitted to be powered by a standby 
source in buildings of Group F and S occupancies. 

604.2.16 Underground buildings. Emergency and standby 
power systems in underground buildings covered in Chap- 
ter 4 of the California Building Code shall comply with Sec- 
tions 604.2.16.1 and 604.2.16.2. 

604.2.16.1 Standby power. A standby power system 
complying with the California Electrical Code shall be 
provided for standby power loads as specified in Section 
604.2.16.1.1. 

[B] 604.2.16.1.1 Standby power loads. The follow- 
ing loads are classified as standby power loads: 

1. Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equip- 
ment for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

4. Standby power shall be provided for elevators 
in accordance with Section 3003 of the Califor- 
nia Building Code. 

[B] 604.2.16.1.2 Pickup time. The standby power 
system shall pick up its connected loads within 60 
seconds of failure of the normal power supply. 

604.2.16.2 Emergency power. An emergency power 
system complying with the California Electrical Code 
shall be provided for emergency power loads as specified 
in Section 604.2.15.2.1. 

604.2.16.2.1 Emergency power loads. The follow- 
ing loads ai'e classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car lighting. 

5. Means of egress lighting and exit sign illumina- 
tion as required by Chapter 10. 

604.2.17 Group 1-3 occupancies. Power-operated sliding 
doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group 
1-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mech- 
anism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote 
mechanical operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in faciUties 
where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of 
occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not 
required as set forth in the California Building Code. 



60 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



604.2.18 Airport traffic control towers. A standby power 
system shall be provided in aii-port traffic control towers 
more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be 
provided to the following equipment: 

1 . Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and 
lighting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

604.2.19 Elevators. In buildings and structures where 
standby power is required or furnished to operate an eleva- 
tor, the operation shall be in accordance with Sections 
604.2.19.1 through 604.2.19.4. 

604.2.19.1 Manual transfer. Standby power shall be 
manually transferable to all elevators in each bank. 

604.2.19.2 One elevator. Where only one elevator is 
installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to 
standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal 
power. 

604.2.19.3 Two or more elevators. Where two or more 
elevators are controlled by acommon operating system, 
all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby 
power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power 
where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity 
to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the 
standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to 
operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall 
transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the des- 
ignated landing and disconnect from the standby power 
source. After all elevators have been returned to the des- 
ignated level, at least one elevator shall remain operable 
from the standby power source. 

604.2.19.4 Venting. Where standby power is connected 
to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air condi- 
tioning shall be connected to the standby power source. 

604.3 Maintenance. Emergency and standby power systems 
shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 
111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within 
the time specified for the type and duration required. 

604.3.1 Schedule. Inspection, testing and maintenance of 
emergency and standby power systems shall be in accor- 
dance with an approved schedule established upon comple- 
tion and approval of the system installation. 

604.3.2 Written record. Written records of the inspection, 
testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power 
systems shall include the date of service, name of the servic- 
ing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a 
detailed description of any conditions requiring correction 
and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be 
kept on the premises served by the emergency or standby 
power system and be available for inspection by the fure 
code official. 

604.3.3 Switch maintenance. Emergency and standby 
power system transfer switches shall be included in the 
inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by 
Section 604.3.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free 
from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include 



examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of 
deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is 
■ detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with 
the transfer switch manufacturer's instructions. 

604.4 Operational inspection and testing. Emergency power 
systems, including all appurtenant components shall be 
inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 
and NFPA 111. 

Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for 
standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be 
recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for sched- 
uled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate 
records are maintained. 

604.4.1 Transfer switch test. The test of the transfer switch 
shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch 
from the normal position to the alternate position and then 
return to the normal position. 

604.5 Supervision of maintenance and testing. Routine 
maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be over- 
seen by a properly instructed individual. 



SECTION 605 
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS 

605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Identified electrical 
hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical condi- 
tions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of 
the code official responsible for enforcement of the California 
Electrical Code. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and 
other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an 
electrical shock or fure hazard shall not be used. 

605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for service 
equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical 
panelboards. 

605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in 
depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in 
front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical ser- 
vice equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working 
space shall not be less than the width of the equipment. No stor- 
age of any materials shall be located within the designated 
working space. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where other dimensions are requked or allowed by 
the California Electrical Code. 

2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas 
which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches 
(559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm). 

605.3.1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel rooms 
shall be mai'ked with a plainly visible and legible sign stat- 
ing ELECTRICAL ROOM or similai" approved wording. 
The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch 
circuit originating on a switchboai^d or panelboard shall be 
legibly and durably marked to indicate its puipose unless 
such purpose is cleaiiy evident. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



61 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



605.4 Multiplug adapters. Multiplug adapters, such as cube 
adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying 
with the California Electrical Code shall be prohibited. 

605.4.1 Power tap design. Relocatable power taps shall be 
of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with 
overcurrent protection, and shall be listed in accordance 
with UL 1363. 

605.4.2 Power supply. Relocatable power taps shall be 
directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle. 

605.4.3 Installation. Relocatable power tap cords shall not 
extend through walls, ceiHngs, floors, under doors or floor 
coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical 
damage. 

605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords 
shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords 
and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended 
through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor cover- 
ings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage 
or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with 
portable appliances. 

605.5.1 Power supply. Extension cords shall be plugged 
directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug 
adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, 
shall serve only one portable appliance. 

605.5.2 Ampacity. The ampacity of the extension cords 
shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appli- 
ance supplied by the cord. 

605.5.3 Maintenance. Extension cords shall be maintained 
in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage. 

605.5.4 Grounding. Extension cords shall be grounded 
when serving grounded portable appliances. 

605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and 
open- wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall 
be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes. 

605.7 Appliances. Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be 
tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical 
equipment by an approved agency and installed and main- 
tained in accordance with all instructions included as part of 
such listing. 

605.8 Electrical motors. Electiical motors shall be maintained 
free from excessive accumulations of oil, diit, waste and 
debris. 

605.9 Temporary wiring. Temporary wiring for electrical 
power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to 
exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the 
applicable provisions of the California Electrical Code. 

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations is allowed during periods of construc- 
tion, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, struc- 
tures, equipment or similar activities. 

605.9.1 Attachment to structures. Temporary wiring 
attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved man- 
ner. 



605.10 Portable, electric space heaters. Portable, electric 
space heaters shall comply with Sections 605.10.1 through 
605.10.4. 

605.10.1 Listed and labeled. Only Usted and labeled porta- 
ble, electric space heaters shall be used. 

605.10.2 Power supply. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle. 

605.10.3 Extension cords. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall not be plugged into extension cords. 

605.10.4 Prohibited areas. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall not be operated within 3 feet (914 mm) of any combus- 
tible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be 
operated only in locations for which they are hsted. 



SECTION 606 
MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION 

[M] 606.1 Scope. Refrigeration systems shall be installed in 
accordance with the California Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.2 Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recovered, 
and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the Cali- 
fornia Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.3 Refrigerant classification. Refrigerants shall be 
classified in accordance with the California Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.4 Change in refrigerant type. A change in the type of 
refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with 
the California Mechanical Code. 

606.5 Access. Refiigeration systems having a refrigerant cir- 
cuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 
30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be acces- 
sible to the fire department at all times as required by the fire 
code official. 

606.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigeration equipment and 
systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 
pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other 
group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accor- 
dance with Section 606.6.1. A written record of required test- 
ing shall be maintained on the premises. Tests of emergency 
devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted 
by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems. 

606.6.1 Periodic testing. The following emergency devices 
or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions and as required by the fire 
code official. 

1. Treatment and flaring systems. 

2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation 
of emergency refrigeration control boxes. 

3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate 
emergency ventilation systems. 

4. Detection and alarm systems. 

606.7 Emergency signs. Refrigeration units or systems having 
a refrigerant cncuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) 
of Group Al or 30 pounds (14kg)of any other group refriger- 
ant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts, 



62 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be 
in accordance with the California Mechanical Code for the 
classification of refrigerants listed therein. 

606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain a 
refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The 
detector, or a samphng tube that draws air to the detector, shall 
be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concen- 
trate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the 
coiresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the California 
Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. Detectors 
and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. 

606.9 Remote controls. Remote control of the mechanical 
equipment and appliances located in the machinery room shall 
be provided at an approved location immediately outside the 
machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance. 

606.9.1 Refrigeration system. A clearly identified switch 
of the break-glass type shall provide off-only control of 
electrically energized equipment and appliances in the 
machinery room, other than refrigerant leak detectors and 
machinery room ventilation. 

Exception: In machinery rooms where only nonflam- 
mable refrigerants are used, electrical equipment and 
appliances, other than compressors, are not required to 
be provided with a cut-off switch. 

606.9.2 Ventilation system. A clearly identified switch of 
the break-glass type shall provide on-only control of the 
machinery room ventilation fans. 

606.10 Emergency pressure control system. Refrigeration 
systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, 
toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided 
with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with 
Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2. 

606.10.1 Automatic crossover valves. Each high- and 
intermediate-pressure zone in. a refrigeration system shall 
be provided with a single automatic valve providing a cross- 
over connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic cross- 
over valves shall comply with Sections 606.10.1.1 through 
606.10.1.3. 

606.10.1.1 Overpressure limit setpoint. Automatic 
crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically 
relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if 
the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone 
rises to within 15 psi (108.4 kPa) of the set point for 
emergency pressure-relief devices. 

606.10.1.2 Manual operation. When required by the 
fire code official, automatic crossover valves shall be 
capable of manual operation. 

606.10.1.3 System design pressure. Refrigeration sys- 
tem zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by 
an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely 
contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by 
interconnection of the two zones. 

606.10.2 Automatic emergency stop. An automatic emer- 
gency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with 
Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2. 



606.10.2.1 Operation of an automatic crossover 
valve. Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall 
cause all compressors on the affected system to immedi- 
ately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located 
immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be per- 
mitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. 
To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system pro- 
vides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an 
overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors 
associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis 
for determining operation of a crossover valve. 

606.10.2.2 Overpressure in low-pressure zone. The 

lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be 
provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in 
system pressure to within 15 psi (103.4 kPa) of the 
setpoint for emergency pressure-relief devices. Activa- 
tion of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all 
compressors on the effected system to immediately stop . 

606.11 Storage, use and handling. Flammable and combusti- 
ble materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrig- 
eration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more 
than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) of 
any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra 
refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 
27, 30, 32 and 34. 

Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, 
tools, and incidental materials necessary for the safe and 
proper operation and maintenance of the system. 

606.12 Termination of relief devices. Pressure relief devices, 
fusible plugs and purge systems for refrigeration systems con- 
taining more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or 
highly toxic refrigerants shall be provided with an approved 
discharge system as required by Sections 606.12.1, 606.12.2 
and 606.12.3. Discharge piping and devices connected to the 
discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have 
provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event of the fus- 
ible plug or rupture member functions. 

606.12.1 Flammable refrigerants. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater 
than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere only through an approved treatment system in accor- 
dance with Section 606.12.4 or a flaring system in 
accordance with Section 606.12.5. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density less than the den- 
sity of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere provided that the point of discharge is located 
outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit. 

606.12.2 Toxic and highly toxic refrigerants. Systems 
containing toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall dischai-ge 
vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treat- 
ment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4 or a flar- 
ing system in accordance with Section 606.12.5. 

606.12.3 Ammonia refrigerant. Systems containing 
ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere through an approved tteatment system in accordance 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



63 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



with Section 606.12.4, a flaring system in accordance with 
Section 606.12.5, or through an approved ammonia diffu- 
sion system in accordance with Section 606.12.6, or by 
other approved means. 

Exceptions: 

1. Ammonia/water absorption systems containing 
less than 22 pounds (10 kg) olF ammonia and for 
which the ammonia circuit is located entirely 
outdoors. 

2. When the fire code official determines, on review 
of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance 
with Appendix Chapter 1, Section 104.7.2, that a 
fire, health or environmental hazard would not re- 
sult from discharging ammonia directly to the 
atmosphere. 

606.12.4 Treatment systems. Treatment systems shall be 
designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of 
the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH 
at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 37. 

606.12.5 Flaring systems. Flaring systems for incineration 
of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the 
entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration 
shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration 
shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be 
designed to prevent blowback, and shall not expose struc- 
tures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP 
gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for 
one and one-half the required time for complete incineration 
of refrigerant in the system. 

606.12.6 Ammonia diffusion systems. Ammonia diffu- 
sion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of 
water for each pound of ammonia (4 L of water for each 1 kg 
of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest 
relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water 
shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from 
the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the 
bottom of the tank, but no lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) 
below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the 
volume of water and ammonia without overflowing. 

606.13 Discharge location for refrigeration machinery 
room ventilation. Exhaust from mechanical ventilation sys- 
tems serving refrigeration machinery rooms capable of 
exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH 
shall be equipped with approved ti'eatment systems to reduce 
the discharge concentrations of flammable, toxic or highly 
toxic refrigerants to those values or lower. 

606.14 Notification of refrigerant discharges. The fire code 
official shall be notified immediately when a discharge 
becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in 
accordance with Section 2703.3.1. 

606.15 Records. A written record shall be kept of refrigerant 
quantities brought into and removed from the premises. Such 
records shall be available to the fire code official. 

606.16 Electrical equipment. Where refrigerants of Groups 
A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the California Mechanical 



Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform 
to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification 
requirements of the California Electrical Code. 

Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided 
with ventilation in accordance with the California Mechani- 
cal Code. 



SECTION 607 
ELEVATOR RECALL AND MAINTENANCE 

607.1 Required. Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 
feet (7620 mm) or more above or below the main floor or other 
level of a building and intended to serve the needs of emer- 
gency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall be 
provided with emergency operation in accordance with ASME 
A17.3. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation 
in accordance with ASME A17.1. 

[B] 607.2 Emergency signs. An approved pictorial sign of a 
standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator 
call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit 
stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign 
shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVA- 
TOR. USE EXIT STAIRS. The emergency sign shall not be 
required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of 
egress complying with Section 1007.4. 

607.3 Elevator Iteys. Keys for the elevator car doors and 
fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location 
for immediate use by the fire department. 



SECTION 608 
STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS 

608.1 Scope. Stationary storage battery systems having an 
electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons ( 1 89 L) for flooded 
lead acid, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and valve-regulated lead 
acid (VRLA), or 1,000 pounds (454 kg) for lithium-ion, used 
for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterrupted 
power supplies, shall comply with this section and Table 608 . 1 . 

608.2 Safety caps. Safety caps for stationary storage battery 
systems shall comply with Sections 608.2.1 and 608.2.2. 

608.2.1 Nonrecombinant batteries. Vented lead acid, 
nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batteries 
shall be provided with safety venting caps. 

608.2.2 Recombinant batteries. VRLA batteries shall be 
equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents. 

608.3 Thermal runaway. VRLA batteiy systems shall be pro- 
vided with a listed device or other approved method to pre- 
clude, detect and control thermal ranaway. 

608.4 Room design and construction. Enclosure of station- 
ary battery systems shall comply with the California Building 
Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room 
with the equipment they support. 

608.4.1 Separate rooms. When stationary batteries are 
installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to 



64 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



TABLE 608.1 
BATTERY REQUIREMENTS 



REQUIREMENT 


NONRECOMBINANT BATTERIES 


RECOMBINANT BATTERIES 


Flooded Lead Acid 
Batteries 


Flooded Nickel-Cadmium 
(Ni-Cd) Batteries 


Valve Regulated Lead Acid 
(VRLA) Batteries 


Lithium-Ion Batteries 


Safety caps 


Venting caps 
(608.2.1) 


Venting caps 
(608.2.1) 


Self-resealing 

ilame-arresting caps 

(608.2.2) 


No caps 


Thermal runaway management 


Not required 


Not required 


Required 
(608.3) 


Not required 


Spill control 


Required 
(608.5) 


Required 
(608.5) 


Not required 


Not required 


Neutralization 


Required 
(608.5.1) 


Required 
(608.5.1) 


Required 
(608.5.2) 


Not required 


Ventilation 


Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 


Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 


Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 


Not required 


Signage 


Required 
(608.7) 


Required 
(608.7) 


Required 
(608.7) 


Required 
(608.7) 


Seismic protection 


Required 
(608.8) 


Required 
(608.8) 


Required 
(608.8) 


Required 
(608.8) 


Smoke detection 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required 
(608.9) 



authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed 
on an open rack for ease of maintenance. 

6,08.4.2 Occupied work centers. When a system of VRLA, 
lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing batteries is 
situated in an occupied work center, it shall be allowed to be 
housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to 
prevent access by unauthorized personnel. 

608.4.3 Cabinets. When stationary batteries are contained 
in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures 
shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment 
that they support. 

608.5 Spill control and neutralization. An approved method 
and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of 
electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead-acid, 
nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing 
liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a "spill" is 
defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte. 

Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion or other types of sealed bat- 
teries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill 
control. 

608.5.1 Nonrecombinant battery neutralization. For bat- 
tery systems containing lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other 
types of batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the method 
and materials shall be capable of neuti-alizing a spill from 
the largest lead-acid battery to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0. 

608.5.2 Recombinant battery neutralization. For VRLA 
or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electro- 
lyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutraliz- 
ing a spill of 3 percent of the capacity of the largest VRLA 
cell or block in the room to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0. 

Exception: Lithium-ion batteries shall not require neu- 
tralization. 



608.6 Ventilation. Ventilation of stationary storage battery 
systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2. 

608.6.1 Room ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with the California Mechanical Code and the 
following: 

1. For flooded lead acid, flooded nickel-cadmium, and 
VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be de- 
signed to limit the maximum concentration of hydro- 
gen to 1 percent of the total volume of the room; or 

2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of 
not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square f oot [ 1 
ftVmin/ft2 or 0.0051 mV(s • m^)] of floor area of the 
room. 

Exception: Lithium-ion batteries shall not require venti- 
lation. 

608.6.2 Cabinet ventilation. When VRLA batteries are 
installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for 
use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or natu- 
rally vented by one of the following methods: 

1 . The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum con- 
centration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total vol- 
ume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of 
simultaneous "boost" charging of all the batteries in 
the cabinet; or 

2. When calculations are not available to substantiate 
the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be 
provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per min- 
ute per square foot [ 1 ftVmin/ft^ or 0.005 1 m^/(s • m^)] 
of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in 
which the cabinet is installed shall also be ventilated 
as required in Section 608.6.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



65 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



608.7 Signage. Signs shall comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 
608.7.2. 

608.7.1 Equipment room and building signage. Doors 
into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing sta- 
tionary battery systems shall be provided with approved 
signs. The signs shall state that: 

1. The room contains energized battery systems. 

2. The room contains energized electrical circuits. 

3. The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are 
corrosive liquids. 

608.7.2 Cabinet signage. Cabinets shall have exterior 
labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of 
the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the 
contained battery system. There shall be signs within the 
cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and 
fire hazards. 

608.8 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismi- 
cally braced in accordance with the California Building Code. 

608.9 Smolce detection. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2 
in rooms containing stationary battery systems. 

SECTION 609 
COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS 

[M] 609.1 General. Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall 
comply with the requirements of the California Mechanical 
Code. 

[M] 609.2 Where required. A Type I hood shall be installed at 
or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic 
cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that produce 
grease vapors. 



66 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 7 - FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



Adopting Agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended 
sections listed below) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 








































Chapter/ 
Section 


Codes 


Table 704.1 


CA 




X 















































































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



67 



68 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify the 
requirements for and the maintenance of fire-resistance-rated 
construction and requirements for enclosing floor openings 
and shafts in existing buildings. New construction shall comply 
with the California Building Code. 



SECTION 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 703 
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 

703.1 Maintenance. The requii'ed fire-resistance rating of 
fire-resistance-rated consti'uction (including walls, firestops, 
shaft enclosures, partitions, smoke barriers, floors, fire-resis- 
tive coatings and sprayed fire-resistant materials apphed to 
structural members and fire-resistant joint systems) shall be 
maintained. Such elements shall be properly repaired, restored 
or replaced when dainaged, altered, breached or penetrated. 
Openings made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical con- 
duit, wii-es, ducts, aii" transfer openings and holes made for any 
reason shall be protected with approved methods capable of 
resisting the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected by self- or 
automatic-closing doors of approved construction meeting the 
fire protection requkements for the assembly. 

703.1.1 Fireblocking and draftstopping. Required 
fireblocking and draftstopping in combustible concealed 
spaces shall be maintained to provide continuity and integ- 
rity of the construction. 

703.1.2 Smoke barriers. Required smoke barriers shall be 
maintained to prevent the passage of smoke and all openings 
protected with approved smoke banier doors or smoke 
dampers. 

703.2 Opening protectives. Opening protectives shall be 
maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 
80. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or 
obsti'ucted or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible links shall be 
replaced promptly whenever fused or damaged. Fire door 
assemblies shall not be modified. 

703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the fire code official, a 
sign shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire 
door in letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as 
follows: 

1. For doors designed to be kept normally open: FIRE 
DOOR-DO NOT BLOCK. 



2. For doors designed to be kept normally closed: FIRE 
DOOR-KEEP CLOSED. 

703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open 
devices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall 
be maintained. During the period that such device is out of 
service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the 
closed position. 

703.2.3 Door operation. Swinging fire doors shall close 
from the full-open position and latch automatically. The 
door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the 
door from any partially open position. 

703.3 Ceilings. The hanging and displaying of salable goods 
and other decorative materials from acoustical ceiling systems 
that are part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceil- 
ing assembly, shall be prohibited. 

703.4 Testing. Horizontal and vertical sliding and rolling fire 
doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper 
operation and full closure. A written record shall be maintained 
and be available to the fire code official. 



SECTION 704 
FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS 

704.1 Enclosure. Interior vertical shafts, including but not lim- 
ited to stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utility shafts, 
that connect two or more stories of a building shall be enclosed 
or protected as specified in Table 704.1. 

704.2 Opening protectives. When openings are required to be 
protected, opening protectives shall be maintained self-closing 
or automatic-closing by smoke detection. Existing fus- 
ible-link-type automatic door-closing devices are permitted if 
the fusible link rating does not exceed 135°F (57°C). 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



69 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 704.1 
VERTICAL OPENING PROTECTION REQUIRED 



OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 


CONDITIONS 


PROTECTION REQUIRED 


Group I 


Vertical openings connecting two or more stories 


1-hour protection 


All, other than Group I 


Vertical openings connecting two stories 


No protection required"-'' 


All, other than Group I 


Vertical openings connecting three to five stories 


1-hour protection or automatic 
sprinklers throughout^'''' 


All, other than Group I 


Vertical openings connecting more than five stories 


1 -hour protection"* 


All 


Mezzanines open to the floor below 


No protection required"* 


All, other than Group I 


Atriums and covered mall buildings 


1-hour protection or automatic 
sprinklers throughout 


All, other than Groups B, / and M 


Escalator openings connecting four or less stories in a sprinklered 
building. Openings must be protected by a draft curtain and closely 
spaced sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 13 


No protection required 


Group B and M 


Escalator openings in a sprinklered building protected by a draft 
curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 13 


No protection required 



a. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies. 

b. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking gsrages and ramps. 



70 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 8 - INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended . 
sections listed below) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 








































Chapter/ 
Section 


Codes 


Table 803.3 


CA 




X 




































804.1 


CA 




X 




































807.4.2.4 


CA 




X 




































807.4.2.4.1 


CA 




X 




































807.4.5 


CA 




X 




































807.4.5.1 


CA 




X 















































































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



71 



72 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTERS 

INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern inte- 
rior finish, interior trim, furniture, furnishings, decorative 
materials and decorative vegetation in buildings. Section 803 
shall be appUcable to existing buildings. Sections 804 tteough 
808 shall be applicable to new and existing buildings. 



SECTION 802 
DEFINITIONS 

802.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 803 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH AND TRIM 

IN EXISTING BUILDINGS 

803.1 General. The provisions of this section shall limit the 
allowable flame spread and smoke development of interior 
wall and ceiling finishes and interior wall and ceiUng trim in 
existing buildings based on location and occupancy classifica- 
tion. Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be classified in 
accordance with Section 803 of the California Building Code. 
Such materials shall be grouped in accordance with ASTM E 
84, as indicated in Section 803.1.1, or in accordance with 
NFPA 286, as indicated in Section 803.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch (0.9 
min) applied directly to the surface of walls and ceil- 
ings. 

2. Exposed portions of structural members complying 
with the requirements of buildings of Type IV con- 
struction in accordance with the California Building 
Code shall not be subject to interior finish require- 
ments. 

803.1.1 Classification in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

Interior finish materials shall be grouped in the following 
classes in accordance with their flame spread and 
smoke-developed index when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84. 

Class A: flame spread index 0-25; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

Class B: flame spread index 26-75; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

Class C: flame spread index 76-200; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 



803.1.2 Classification in accordance with NFPA 286. 

Interior wall or ceiling finishes, other than textiles, shall be 
allowed to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Sec- 
tion 803.1.2.1. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials, 
other than textiles, tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and 
meeting the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1, shall 
be allowed to be used where a Class A classification in 
accordance with ASTM E 84 is required. 

803.1.2.1 Acceptance criteria for interior finish mate- 
rials tested to NFPA 286. During the 40 kW exposure, 
the interior finish shall comply with Item 1. During the 
160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with 
Item 2. During the entire test, the interior finish shall 
comply with Item 3. 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with the following: 

2. 1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extrem- 
ity of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall 
not occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 
286 test shall not exceed 1,000 m^. 

803.2 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this chap- 
ter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that 
such materials will not readily become detached where sub- 
jected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for not less than 
30 minutes. 

803.3 Interior finish requirements based on occupancy. 

Interior wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index 
not greater than that specified in Table 803.3 for the group and 
location designated. 

803.4 Fire-retardant coatings. The requu-ed flame spread or 
smoke-developed index of surfaces in existing buildings shall 
be allowed to be achieved by application of approved fire-retar- 
dant coatings, paints or solutions to surfaces having a flame 
spread index exceeding that allowed. Such applications shall 
comply with NFPA 703 and the required fire-retardant proper- 
ties shall be maintained or renewed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's insti^uctions. 

803.5 Textiles. Where used as interior wall or ceiling finish 
materials, textiles, including materials having woven or 
nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface, shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



73 



INTERIOR FINISH DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



TABLE 803.3 
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCY'' 



GROUP 


SPRINKLERED' 


NONSPRINKLERED" 


Exit enclosures and 
exit passageways^' ^ 


Corridors 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces^ 


Exit enclosures and exit 
passageways"''' 


Corridors 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces" 


A-1 & A-2 


B 


B 


C 


A 


Ad 


B« 


A-3f, A-4, A-5 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A" 


C 


B, E, M, R-1, R-4 


B 


C 


C 


A 


B 


C 


F 


C 


C 


C 


B 


C 


C 


H,L 


B 


B 


Cs 


A 


A 


B 


I-l 


B 


C 


C 


A 


B 


B 


1-2, 1-2.1 


B 


B 


Bh,i 


A 


A 


B 


1-3 


A 


AJ 


s 











1-4 


B 


B 


Bh.i 


A 


A 


B 


R-2 


c 


C 


c 


B 


B 


C 


R-3, R-3.1 


C 


C 


C 


C 


C 


C 


S 


C 


C 


C 


B 


B 


C 


U 


No Restrictions 


No Restrictions 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 

a. Class C interior finisii materials shall be allowed for wainscotting or paneling of not more than 1 ,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby where 
applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.4 of the California 
Building Code. 

b. In exit enclosures of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C for 
sprinklered buildings shall be permitted. 

c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, 
the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered as enclosing spaces and the rooms or 
spaces on both sides shall be considered as one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy thereof shall be 
the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. 

d. Lobby areas in Group A-1, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials. 

e. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. 

f. In places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be allaved. 

g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories. 

h. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in administrative spaces, 
i. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less, 
j. Class B materials shall be allowed as wainscoting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in corridors, 
k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. 

1. Applies when the vertical exits, exit passageways, corridors or rooms and spaces are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

m. [SFM] Not Permitted for Group 1-3. 



803.5.1 Textile wall coverings. Textile wall coverings 
sliall comply with one of the following: 

1 . The coverings shall have a Class A flame spread index 
in accordance with ASTM E 84 and be protected by 
automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, 

2. The covering shall meet the criteria of Section 
803.5.1.1 or 803.5.1.2 when tested in the manner in- 
tended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using the 
product-mounting system, including adhesive, of ac- 
tual use, or 

3. The covering shall meet the criteria of Section 
803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 
using the product-mounting system, including adhe- 
sive, of actual use. 



803.5.1.1 Method A test protocol. During the Method A 
protocol, flame shall not spread to the ceUing during the 40 
kW exposure. During the 150 kW exposure, the textile wall 
covering shall comply with all of the following: 

1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the 
sample on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 305 
mm) wall. 

2. The specimen shall not burn to the outer extremity 
of the 2-foot- wide (610 mm) samples mounted in 
the comer of the room. 

3. Buming droplets deemed capable of igniting tex- 
tile wall coverings or that burn for 30 seconds or 
more shall not form. 

4. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not occur. 



74 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



INTERIOR FINISH DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



5. The maximum net instantaneous peak heat release 
rate, determined by subtracting the burner output 
from the maximum heat release rate, does not ex- 
ceed 300 kW. 

803.5.1.2 Method B test protocol. During the Method B 
protocol, ilames shall not spread to the ceiling at any time 
during the 40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW expo- 
sure, the textile wall covering shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Flame shall not spread to the outer exti'emities of 
the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 
305 mm) walls. 

2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265 , shall not occur. 

803.6 Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings. Expanded 
vinyl wall or ceihng coverings shah comply with the require- 
ments of either Section 803.6.1 or 803.6.2. 

803.6.1 General. Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings 
shall comply with the requii-ements of Section 803.1.2. 
Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings complying with 
Section 803. 1 .2 shall not be required to comply with Section 
803.1.1. 

803.6.2 Compliance alternative. Expanded vinyl wall or 
ceiling coverings shall be allowed to comply with the 
requirements for textile wall or ceiling coverings in Section 
803.5. 

803.7 Foam plastic materials. Foam plastic materials shall 
not be used as interior wall and ceiling finish unless specifically 
allowed by Section 803.7.1 or 803.7.2. Foam plastic materials 
shall not be used as interior tiim unless specifically allowed by 
Section 803.7.3. 

803.7.1 Combustibility characteristics. Foam plastic 
materials shall be allowed on the basis of fire tests that sub- 
stantiate their combustibility chai-acteristics for the use 
intended under actual fii'e conditions, as indicated in Section 
2603.9 of the California Building Code. This section shall 
apply both to exposed foam plastics and to foam plastics 
used in conjunction with a textile or vinyl facing or cover. 

803.7.2 Thermal barrier. Foam plastic material shall be 
allowed if it is separated from the interior of the building by 
a thermal banier in accordance with Section 2603.4 of the 
California Building Code. 

803.7.3 Trim. Foam plastic shall be allowed for trim not in 
excess of 10 percent of the wall or ceiling area, provided 
such trim is not less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 
kg/m^) in density; is limited to 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in thick- 
ness and 8 inches (203 mm) in width, and exhibits a flame 
spread index not exceeding 75 when tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 84. The smoke-developed index shall not be 
limited. 



SECTION 804 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING TRIM IN NEW AND 

EXISTING BUILDINGS 

804.1 Interior trim. Material, other than foam plastic, used as 
interior trim shall have a minimum Class B flame spread and 



smoke-developed index in Group 1-3 and for all other occupan- 
cies Class C flame spread and smoke-developed index, when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 84, as described in Section 
803. 1 . 1 . Combustible trim, excluding handrails and guardrails, 
shall not exceed 1 percent of the aggregate wall or ceiling area 
in which it is located. 

804.2 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as interior trim shall 
comply with Sections 804.2.1 through 804.2.4. 

804.2.1 Density. The minimum density of the interior trim 
shall be 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m^). 

804.2.2 Thickness. The maximum thickness of the interior 
trim shall be 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum width 
shall be 8 inches (203 mm). 

804.2.3 Area limitation. The interior trim shall not consti- 
tute more than 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling 
area of a room or space. 

804.2.4 Flame spread. The flame spread index shall not 
exceed 75 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. The 
smoke-developed index shall not be limited. 



SECTION 805 

UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES IN 

NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

805.1 Group I-l, board and care facilities. The requirements 
in Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.2 shall apply to board and 
care facilities classified in Group I-l. 

805.1.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly inti'oduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.1.1.1 and 805.1.1.2. 

805.1.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with NFPA 260 and shall meet the requirements of 
Class I. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.1.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinlder system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 megajoules (MJ). 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



75 



INTERIOR FINISH DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



805.1.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compli- 
ance with the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 and 
805.1.1.2. 

805.1.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.2.1 through 
805.1.2.3. 

805.1.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.1.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.1.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2. 

805.2 Group 1-2, nursing homes and hospitals. The require- 
ments in Sections 805.2.1 through 805.2.2 shall apply to nurs- 
ing homes and hospitals classified in Group 1-2. 

805.2.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.2.1.1 through 805.2.1.3. 

805.2.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: (a) mocked-up compos- 
ites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length 
not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm) when tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 261 or (b) the components of the 
upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for 
Class I when tested in accordance with ISfFPA 260. 

Exceptions: 

1. Upholstered furniture belonging to the patient 
in sleeping rooms of nursing homes (Group 
1-2), provided that a smoke detector is installed 



in such rooms. Battery-powered, single-station 
smoke alarms shall be allowed. 

2. Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.2.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have hmited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.2.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compU- 
ance with the requkements of Sections 805.2.1.1 and 
805.2.1.2. 

805.2.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requkements of Sections 805.2.2.1 through 
805.2.2.3. 

805.2.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

805.2.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress 
shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single mattress 
during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not ex- 
ceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 



76 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



INTERIOR FINISH DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



805.2.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2. 

805.3 Group 1-3, detention and correction facilities. The 

requirements in Sections 805.3.1 through 805.3.2 shall 
apply to detention and correction facilities classified in 
Group 1-3. 

805.3.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.3.1.1 thi-ough 805.3.1.3 

805.3.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furni- 
ture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 
inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with 
NFPA261,or 

2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall 
meet the requirements for Class I when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 260. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.3.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537, as fol- 
lows: 

1. The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Use Condition I, n and HI occupan- 
cies, as defined in the California Building 
Code, upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by approved smoke 
detectors that initiate, without delay, an 
alarm that is audible in that room or 
space. 

2. Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces 
protected by ,an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.3.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compli- 



ance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 and 
805.3.1.2. 

805.3.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 through 
805.3.2.3. 

805.3.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.3.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress 
shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single mattress 
during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not ex- 
ceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.3.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming comphance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 and 805.3.2.2. 



SECTION 806 

DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW 

AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

806.1 Natural cut trees. Natural cut trees, where allowed by 
this section, shall have the trunk bottoms cut off at least 0.5 inch 
(12.7 mm) above the original cut and shall be placed in a sup- 
port device complying with Section 806.1.2. 

806.1.1 Restricted occupancies. Natural cut tiees shall be 
prohibited in Group A, E, I-l, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, M, R-1, R-2 and 
R-4 occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Trees located in ai'eas protected by an approved au- 
tomatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall not be 
prohibited in Groups A, E, M, R-1 and R-2. 

2. Trees shall be allowed within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



77 



INTERIOR FINISH DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



806.1.2 Support devices. The support device that holds the 
tree in an upright position shall be of a type that is stable and 
that meets all of the following criteria: 

1 . The device shall hold the tree securely and be of ade- 
quate size to avoid tipping over of the tree. 

2. The device shall be capable of containing a minimum 
two-day supply of water. 

3. The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem at 
least 2 inches (5 1 mm). The water level shall be main- 
tained above the fresh cut and checked at least once 
daily. 

806.1.3 Dryness. The tree shall be removed from the build- 
ing whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily when a 
tree branch is shaken or if the needles are brittle and break 
when bent between the thumb and index finger. The tree 
shall be checked daily for diyness. 

806.2 Artificial vegetation. Artificial decorative vegetation 
shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 
701. Meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of 
NFPA 701 shall be documented and certified by the manufac- 
turer in an approved manner. 

806.3 Obstruction of means of egress. The required width of 
any portion of a means of egress shall not be obstructed by dec- 
orative vegetation. 

806.4 Open flame. Candles and open flames shall not be used 
on or near decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall be kept 
a distance from heat vents and any open flame or heat-produc- 
ing devices at least equal to the height of the tree. 

806.5 Electrical fixtures and wiring. The use of unlisted elec- 
trical wiring and lighting on natural cut trees and artificial dec- 
orative vegetation shall be prohibited. The use of electrical 
wiring and lighting on artificial trees constructed entirely of 
metal shall be prohibited. 



SECTION 807 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS OTHER THAN 

DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING 

BUILDINGS 

807.1 General requirements. In occupancies in Groups A, E, 
I and R-1 and dormitories in Group R-2, curtains, draperies, 
hangings and other decorative materials suspended from walls 
or ceilings shall meet the flame propagation performance crite- 
ria of NFPA 701 in accordance with Section 806.2 or be 
noncombustible. 

In Groups I- 1 and 1-2, combustible decorative materials shall 
meet the flame propagation criteria of NFPA 701 unless the 
decorative materials, including, but not limited to, photographs 
and paintings, are of such limited quantities that a hazard of fire 
development or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, combusti- 
ble decorative materials are prohibited. 

Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads 
and crash pads, applied structurally or for decoration, acousti- 
cal con-ection, surface insulation or other purposes, shall be 
considered interior finish if they cover 10 percent or more of 



the wall or of the ceiling area, and shall not be considered deco- 
rative materials or furnishings. 

In Group B and M occupancies, fabric partitions suspended 
from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall meet the 
flame propagation performance criteria in accordance with 
Section 807.2 and NFPA 701 or shall be noncombustible. 

807.1.1 Noncombustible materials. The peimissible 
amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be 
limited. 

807.1.2 Combustible decorative materials. The permissi- 
ble amount of decorative materials meeting the flame propa- 
gation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall not exceed 
10 percent of the aggregate area of walls and ceilings. 

Exceptions: 

1. In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible 
amount of decorative material meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 
shall not exceed 50 percent of the aggregate area of 
walls and ceiling where the building is equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and 
where the material is installed in accordance with 
Section 803.4 of the California Building Code. 

2. The amount of fabric partitions suspended from 
the ceihng and not supported by the floor in Group 
B and M occupancies shall not be limited. 

807.2 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required to be 
flame resistant, decorative materials shall be tested by an 
approved agency and meet the flame propagation performance 
criteria of NFPA 701, or such materials shall be 
noncombustible. Reports of test results shall be prepared in 
accordance with NFPA 701 and furnished to the fire code offi- 
cial upon request. 

807.3 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other material 
consisting of or coated with a pyroxyhn or similarly hazai'dous 
base shall not be used in Group A occupancies. 

807.4 Occupancy-based requirements. In occupancies in 
Group A, E and 1-4 day care facilities, decorative materials 
other than decorative vegetation shall comply with Sections 
807.4.1 tiirough 807.4.4.2. 

807.4.1 General. All of the following requirements shall 
apply to all Group A and E occupancies and Group 1-4 day 
care facilities regulated by Sections 807.4.2 through 
807.4.4: 

1. Explosive or highly flammable materials. Furnish- 
ings or decorative materials of an explosive or highly 
flammable character shall not be used. 

2. Fire-retardant coatings. Fire-retardant coatings in ex- 
isting buildings shall be maintained so as to retain the 
effectiveness of the treatment under service condi- 
tions encountered in actual use. 

3. Obstructions. Furnishings or other objects shall not 
be placed to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress 
therefrom or visibility thereof. 



78 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



INTERIOR FINISH DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



807.4.2 Group A. The requirements in Sections 807.4.2.1 
through 807.4.2.3 shall apply to occupancies in Group A. 

807.4.2.1 Foam plastics. Exposed foam plastic materi- 
als and unprotected materials containing foam plastic 
used for decorative purposes, or stage scenery or exhibit 
booths shall have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kW 
when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

Exceptions: 

1. Individual foam plastic items or items contain- 
ing foam plastic where the foam plastic does 
not exceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight. 

2. Cellular or foam plastic shall be allowed for 
trim not in excess of 10 percent of the wall or 
ceiling area, provided it is not less than 20 
pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m^) in density; is 
limited to 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and 8 
inches (204 mm) in width; and compUes with 
the requirements for Class B interior wall and 
ceiHng ianish, except that the smoke-developed 
index shall not be hmited. 

807.4.2.2 Motion picture screens. The screens upon 
which motion pictures are projected in new and existing 
buildings of Group A shall either meet the flame propa- 
gation performance criteria of NFPA 701 or shall comply 
with the requirements for a Class B interior finish in 
accordance with Section 803 of the California Building 
Code. 

807.4.2.3 Wood use in Group A-3 places of religious 
worship. In places of religious worship, wood used for 
ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel fur- 
nishing shall be allowed. 

807.4.2.4 Motion picture and television production stu- 
dio sound stages, approved production facilities and 
production locations with live audiences. 

807.4.2.4.1 Foam plastics, decorations, textile and 
film materials. Foam plastics, textile and film materi- 
als and other decorative materials and materials con- 
taining foam plastics shall be in accordance with the 
following: 

1. Exhibit booth construction shall have a maxi- 
mum heat-release rate of 100 kilowatts when 
tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

2. Decorative objects, including but not limited to 
mannequins, murals and signs, shall have a 
maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts 
when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

Exception: When the aggregate area of 
murals, signs or similar decorative objects 
occupies less than 10 percent of the floor or 
wall area, this requirement may be waived 
by the Fire Chief 

3. Theater, motionpicture and television stage set- 
tings with or withouthorizontalprojections and 
simulated caves or caverns shall have a maxi- 
mum heat-release rate of 100 kilowatts when 
tested in accordance with UL 1975. 



807.4.3 Group E. The requirements in Sections 807.4.3.1 
and 807.4.3.2 shall apply to occupancies in Group E. 

807.4.3.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing 
and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and 
lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke de- 
tection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907. 

3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the mini- 
mum required egress width is maintained. 

807.4.3.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials 
shall be limited on the walls of corridors to not more than 
20 percent of the wall area. 

807.4.4 Group 1-4, day care facilities. The requirements in 
Sections 807.4.4.1 and 807.4.4.2 shall apply to day care 
facilities classified in Group 1-4. 

807.4.4.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing 
and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and 
lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke de- 
tection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907. 

3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the mini- 
mum requured egress width is maintained. 

807.4.4.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials 
shall be limited on walls of corridors to not more than 20 
percent of the wall area. 

807.4.5 Group F-1 motionpicture and television produc- 
tion studio sound stages, approved production facilities 
and production locations without live audiences. 

807.4.5.1 Foam plastics, decorations, textile and film 
materials. Foam plastics, textile and film materials and 
other decorative materials and materials containing 
foamplastics shall be in accordance with the following: 

1. Exhibit booth construction shall have a maximum 
heat-release rate of 100 kilowatts when tested in 
accordance with UL 1975. 

2. Decorative objects, including but not limited to 
mannequins, murals and signs, shall have a maxi- 
mum heatrrelease rate of 150 kilowatts when 
tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

Exception: When the aggregate area of murals, 
signs or similar decorative objects occupies 
less than 10 percent of the floor or wall area, 
this requirement may be waived by the Fire 
Chief 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



79 



INTERIOR FINISH DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



3. Theater, motion picture and television stage set- 
tings with or without horizontal projections and 
simulated caves or caverns shall have a maximum 
heat-release rate of 100 kilowatts when tested in 
accordance with UL 1975. 



SECTION 808 

FURNISHINGS OTHER THAN UPHOLSTERED 

FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES OR DECORATIVE 

MATERIALS IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

808.1 Wastebaskets in Group 1-3, detention and correction 
facilities. Wastebaskets and other waste containers, including 
their lids, located in Group 1-3 detention and correction facili- 
ties shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of 
materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 
300 kW/m^ when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at 
an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m^ in the horizontal orientation. 
Metal wastebaskets and other metal waste containers with a 
capacity of 20 gallons (75.7 L) or more shall be listed in accor- 
dance with UL 1315 and shall be provided with a 
noncombustible hd. 

808.2 Signs. Foam plastic signs that are not affixed to interior 
building surfaces shall have a maximum heat release rate of 
150 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

Exception: Where the aggregate area of foam plastic signs 
is less than 10 percent of the floor area or wall area of the 
room or space in which the signs are located, whichever is 
less, subject to the approval of the fire code official. 



80 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 9 - FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 




X 




































Adopt oniy those sections that are 
listed below 












X 




























Chapter / Section 


Codes 


901.6.1 


CA 




X 




































Table 901.6.1 


CA 




X 




































902.1 


CA 




X 




































[B] Fire Appliance 


CA 




X 




































903.2 


CA 




X 




































903.2.2 


CA 




X 




































903.2.2.1 


CA 




X 




































903.2.2.1.1 


CA 




X 




































903.2.2.1.2 


CA 




X 




































903.2.2.1.3 


CA 




X 




































903.2.5 


CA 




X 




































903.2.5.1 


CA 




X 




































903.2.7 


CA 




X 




































Table 903.2.13 


CA 




X 




































903.2.14 


CA 




X 




































903.2.14.1 


CA 




X 




































903.2.14.2 


CA 




X 




































903,2.15 


CA 




X 




































903.2.15.1 


CA 




X 




































903.2.16 


CA 




X 




































903.2.17 


CA 




X 




































903.2.17.1 


CA 




X 




































903.2.17.2 


CA 




X 




































903.2.17.2.1 


CA 




X 




































903.2.17.2.2 


CA 




X 




































903.2.17.2.3 


CA 




X 




































903.2.17.2.4 


CA 




X 




































903.2.17.2.5 


,CA 




X 




































903.2,17.2.6 


CA 




X 




































903.3.1.1.1 


CA 




X 




































903.3,2 


CA 




X 




































903.3.5 


CA 




X 




































903.3.5.2 


CA 




X 


































- 


903,6 


CA 




X 




































904,2.1 


CA 




X 




































904,3.1 


CA 




X 




































904,5 


CA 




X 





































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



81 



CHAPTER 9 - FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS - (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SB 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(annended sections listed below) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


904.6 


CA 




X 




































904.7 


CA 




X 




































904.7.1 


CA 




X 




































904,8 


CA 




X 




































904.9 


CA 




X 




































904.10 


CA 




X 




































904.11 


CA 




X 




































904.11.5 


CA 




X 




































904.11.5.2 


CA 




X 




































904.11.6 


CA 




X 




































905.3 


CA 




X 




































905.3.8 


CA 




X 




































905.3.9 


CA 




X 




































905.3.10 


CA 




X 




































905.3.10.1 


CA 




X 




































905.5 


CA 




X 




































906.1 


CA 




X 




































906.2 


CA 




X 




































907.1.2 


CA 




X 




































907.1.3 


CA 




X 




































907.1.4 


CA 




X 




































907.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.1.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.1.3 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.3 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.4 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.5 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.6 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.6.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.7 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.7.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.7.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.8 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.8.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.8.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.3.8.3 


CA 




X 




































907.2.6 


CA 




X 




































907.2.6.1.1 


CA 




X 





































82 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 9 - FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS - (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DBA 


OBHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SB 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ciiapter 








































Adopt Entire Ctiapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 












X 




























Chapter / Section 


Codes 


907.2.6.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.6.2.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.6.3.3 


CA 




X 




































907.2.6.3.4 


CA 




X 




































907.2.6.4 


CA 




X 




































907.2.8 


CA 




X 




































907.2.8.4 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10.1.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10.1.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10.1.4 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10.1.5 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10.3 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10,5 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10.5.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10.5.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.10.5.3 


CA 




X 




































907.2.12 


CA 




X 




































907.2.15 


CA 




X 




































907.2.15.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.15.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.15.3 


CA 




X 




































907,2.18 


CA 




X 




































907.2.21 


CA 




X 




































907.2.24 


CA 




X 




































907.2.24.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.24.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.24.3 


CA 




X 












\ 
























907.2.24.4 


CA 




X 




































907.2.25 


CA 




X 




































907.2.25.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.25.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.26 


CA 


. 


X 




































907.2.26.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.26.2 


CA 




X 




































907.2.26.3 


CA 




X 




































907.2.26.4 


CA 




X 




































907.2.26.4.1 


CA 




X 




































907.2.26.4.2 


CA 




X 





































2007 CALIFORNtA FIRE CODE 



83 



CHAPTER 9 - FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS - (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ctiapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections iisted beiow) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed beiow 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


907.2.27 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.3 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.3.1 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.9 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.9.1 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.9.2 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.1 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.2 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.3 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.4 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.5 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.6 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.7 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.8 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.9 


CA 




X 




































907.3.1.10.10 


CA 




X 




































907.3.2 


CA 




X 




































907.3.2.1 


CA 




X 




































907.3.2.2 


CA 




X 




































907.3.2.3 


CA 




X 




































907.3.2.4 


CA 




X 




































907.3.2.4.1 


CA 




X 




































907.4.2 


CA 












X 




























907.4.5 


CA 




X 




































907.4.6 


CA 




X 




































907.7 


CA 




X 




































907.9 


CA 




X 




































907.9.1 


CA 




X 




































907.9.2 


CA 




X 




































907.9.3 


CA 




X 




































907.9.4 


CA 




X 




































907.10.1 


CA 




X 








X 




























907.10.1.1 


CA 




X 








X 




























907.10.1.2 


IFC 












X 




























907.10.1.3 


IFC 












X 




























Table 907.10.1.3 with 
Note 


CA 




X 








X 




























907.10.1.4 


CA 




X 








X 





























84 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 9 - FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS - (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ctiapter 








































Adopt Entire Ciiapter as amended 
(amended sections iisted beiow) 




X 




































Adopt only tliose sections tliat are 
iisted beiow 












X 




























Ciiapter/ Section 


Codes 


907.10.1.5 


CA 




X 








X 




























907.10.2 


CA 




Xi 




































907.10.2 


CA 












X 




























907.10.2.1 


CA 




X 








X 




























907.11 


CA 




X 




































907.12 


CA 




X 




































907.17 


CA 




X 




































907.20.3 


CA 




X 




































909.5.2 


CA 




X 




































909.16.1 


CA 




X 




































912.3 


CA 




X 




































912.5 


CA 




X 




































912.6 


CA 




X 




































913.5 


CA 




X 




































914.3.1 


CA 




X 




































914.3.6 


CA 




X 




































914.3.6.1 


CA 




X 




































914.3.6.2 


CA 




X 




































914.11 


CA 




X 




































914.11.1 


CA 




X 




































914.11.2 


CA 




X 















































































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



85 



86 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 9 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify where 
fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the 
design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and mainte- 
nance of all fire protection systems. 

901.2 Construction documents. The fue code official shall 
have the authority to require construction documents and cal- 
culations for all fire protection systems and to require permits 
be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of 
any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire 
protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval 
prior to system installation. 

901.2.1 Statement of compliance. Before requesting final 
approval of the installation, where required by the fire code 
official, the installing conti-actor shall furnish a written 
statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protec- 
tion system has been installed in accordance with approved 
plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's specifications and the appropriate installation stan- 
dai-d. Any deviations from the design standards shall be 
noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall 
be attached to the written statement. 

901.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Appen- 
dix Chapter 1, Section 105.6 and 105.7. 

901.4 Installation. Fire protection systems shall be maintained 
in accordance with the original installation standai'ds for that 
system. Required systems shall be extended, altered, or aug- 
mented as necessaiy to maintain and continue protection 
whenever the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alter- 
ations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance 
with applicable standai'ds. 

901.4.1 Required fire protection systems. Fue protection 
systems required by this code or the California Building 
Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and main- 
tained in accordance with this code. 

901.4.2 Nonrequired fire protection systems. Any fue 

protection system or portion thereof not required by this 
code or the California Building Code shall be allowed to be 
furnished for partial or complete protection provided such 
installed system meets the requirements of this code and the 
California Building Code. 

901.4.3 Additional fire protection systems. In occupan- 
cies of a hazai-dous nature, where special hazai-ds exist in 
addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where 
the fire code official determines that access for fire appara- 
tus is unduly difficult, the fu-e code official shall have the 
authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards 
include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic 
fire detection systems, fii^e alai'm systems, automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable 
or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment requii-ed 



under this section shall be installed in accordance with this 
code and the applicable referenced standards. 

901.4.4 Appearance of equipment. Any device that has the 
physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equip- 
ment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protec- 
tion function, shall be prohibited. 

901.5 Installation acceptance testing. Fire detection and 
alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant sys- 
tems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fii'e 
service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurte- 
nances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained 
in the installation standai-ds and as approved by the fii-e code 
official. The frre code official shall be notified before any 
required acceptance testing. 

901.5.1 Occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy any por- 
tion of a building or stiiicture until the required fire detec- 
tion, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and 
approved. 

901.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire detection, 
alarm and extinguishing systems shall be maintained in an 
operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or 
repaked where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems 
and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or 
removed. 

901.6.1 Standards. Fire protection systems shall be 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the ref- 
erenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1 and Chapters 3 
and 5, Title 19 California Code of Regulations. 



TABLE 901.6.1 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS 



SYSTEM 


STANDARD 


Portable fire extinguishers 


Title 19, California Code of 
Regulations, Chapter 3 


Cai'bon dioxide fire-extinguishing 
system 


NFPA12 


Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing 
systems 


NFPA 12A 


Dry-chemical extinguishing 
systems 


NFPA17 


Wet-chemical extinguishing 
systems 


NFPA 17A 


Water-based fire protection 
systems 


Title 19, California Code of 
Regulations, Chapter 5 


Fire alarm systems 


NFPA 72 as amended in 
Chapter 45 


Water-mist systems 


NFPA 750 


Clean-agent extinguishing 
systems 


NFPA 2001 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



87 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



901.6.2 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests 
and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall 
be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years 
and shall be copied to the fire code official upon request. 

901.6.2.1 Records information. Initial records shall 
include the name of the installation contractor, type of 
components installed, manufacturer of the components, 
location and number of components installed per floor. 
Records shall also include the manufacturers' operation 
and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall 
be maintained on the premises. 

901.7 Systems out of service. Where a required fire protection 
system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code 
official shall be notified immediately and, where required by 
the fire code official, the building shall either be evacuated or 
an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left 
unprotected by the shut down until the fire protection system 
has been returned to service. 

Where utihzed, fire watches shall be provided with at least 
one approved means for notification of the fire department and 
their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the pro- 
tected premises and keep watch for fires. 

901.7.1 Impairment coordinator. The building owner 
shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the 
requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific 
designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment 
coordinator. 

901.7.2 Tag required. A tag shall be used to indicate that a 
system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service. 

901.7.3 Placement of tag. The tag shall be posted at each 
fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm 
control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fure command cen- 
ter, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been 
removed from service. The fire code official shall specify 
where the tag is to be placed. 

901.7.4 Preplanned impairment programs. Preplanned 
impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordi- 
nator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual 
shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following 
procedures have been implemented: 

1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment 
have been determined. 

2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected 
and the increased risks determined. 

3. Recommendations have been submitted to manage- 
ment or building owner/manager. 

4. The fire department has been notified. 

5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building 
owner/managpr, and other authorities having jurisdic- 
tion have been notified. 

6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been 
notified. 

7. A tag impairment system has been implemented. 

8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled 
on the impairment site. 



901.7.5 Emergency impairments. When unplanned 
impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be 
taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impair- 
ment coordinator shall implement the steps outUned in Sec- 
tion 901.7.4. 

901.7.6 Restoring systems to service. When impaired 
equipment is restored to normal working order, the impair- 
ment coordinator shall verify that all of the following proce- 
dures have been implemented: 

1 . Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted 
to verify that affected systems are operational. 

2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is re- 
stored. 

3. The fire department has been advised that protection 
is restored. 

4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm 
company and other involved parties have been ad- 
vised that protection is restored. 

5. The impairment tag has been removed. 

901.8 Removal of or tampering with equipment. It shall be 
unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise 
disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire 
suppression system, or other fire appliance required by this 
code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training pur- 
poses, recharging or making necessary repairs, or when 
approved by the fire code official. 

901.8.1 Removal of or tampering vdth appurtenances. 

Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, 
tags or seals which have been installed by or at the direction 
of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, 
destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandahzed in any 
manner. 

901.9 Recall of fire protection components. Any fire protec- 
tion system component regulated by this code that is the subject 
of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be 
replaced with approved, listed components in compUance with 
the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official 
shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the 
recalled component parts have been replaced. 



SECTION 902 
DEFINITIONS 

902.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
puiposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fiie alarm sys- 
tem component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light, or text dis- 
play that provides audible, tactile, or visible outputs, or any 
combination thereof. 

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requir- 
ing immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. 

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of auto- 
matic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted 
alai-ms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a 
minimum period of time, or confirm alai-m conditions within a 



88 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be 
accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal. 

ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator 
lamps, alphanumeric displays, or other equivalent means in 
which each indication provides status information about a cir- 
cuit, condition or location. 

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. 

AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, is a 
device or system providing an emergency function without the 
necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a 
predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise, or 
combustion products. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An 

approved system of devices and equipment which automati- 
cally detects a fue and dischai-ges an approved fire-extinguish- 
ing agent onto or in the ai-ea of a fire. 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A sprinkler system, 
for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of under- 
ground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire 
protection engineering standards. The system includes a suit- 
able water supply. The portion of the system above the ground 
is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping 
installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to 
which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pat- 
tern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and dis- 
charges water over the fire area. 

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean 
square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 
24-hour period. 

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A sys- 
tem supplying carbon dioxide (COj) from a pressurized vessel 
through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a man- 
ual- or automatic-actuating mechanism. 

CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile, or 
gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon 
evaporation. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated 
location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continu- 
ous basis where alai"m or supervisory signals ai^e monitored and 
facilities ai'e provided for notification of the fire department or 
other emergency services. 

DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open 
sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water sup- 
ply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detec- 
tion system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When 
this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and dis- 
chai'ges from all sprinklers attached thereto. 

DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat pro- 
duced by burning substances. Heat is the energy produced by 
combustion that causes substances to rise in temperature. 

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder 
composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, 
potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, 
potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added 



particulate material supplemented by special treatment to pro- 
vide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption 
(caking) and the proper flow capabilities. 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide 
indication and warning of emergency situations involving haz- 
ardous materials. 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. 

Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and 
distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation 
signals pertaining to a fii'e emergency, to the occupants of a 
building. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual fire alarm 
box." 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that 
receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alai-m devices 
and is capable of supplying power to detection devices and 
transponder(s) of off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit 
is capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification 
appliances and transfer of condition to relays of devices. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire 
alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, auto- 
matic fire detector, water-flow switch, or other device whose 
activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combina- 
tion system consisting of components and circuits arranged to 
monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory 
signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate 
response to those signals. 

FIRE APPLIANCE. Apparatus or equipment provided or 
installed for use in the event of an emergency. 

[B] FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and 
bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls, or fire-resis- 
tance-rated horizontal assemblies of a building. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to 
detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equip- 
ment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a 
fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or 
manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination 
thereof 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control 
functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for 
occupants or to control the spread of the harmful effects of fire. 

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system dis- 
charging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically 
or chemically, over the area to be protected. 

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 

fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an ele- 
ment from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible 
for the maintenance of a particular fire protection system. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



89 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates 
transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke 
detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch. 

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device 
used to initiate an alarm signal. 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such 
that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm 
device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire 
alarm box. 

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. 

NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical fail- 
ure, malfunction, improper installation, or lack of proper main- 
tenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be 
determined. 

RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that docu- 
ment the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, sequences, 
wiring methods, and connections of the components of a fire 
alarm system as installed. 

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incor- 
porating the detector, the control equipment, and the 
alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power sup- 
ply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 

[B] SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people 
sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, 
eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. 
Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are 
not sleeping units. 

SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm 
responsive to smoke and not connected to a system. 

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or 
invisible particles of combustion. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OE Standpipe classes 
are as follows: 

Class I system. A system providing IVj-inch (64 mm) hose 
connections to supply water for use by fire departments and 
those trained in handling heavy fure streams. 

Class II system. A system providing IVj-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the build- 
ing occupants or by the fire department during initial 
response. 

Class ni system. A system providing IVj-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants 
and 2'/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger 
volume of water for use by fibre departments and those 
trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows: 

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled 
with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a 
device, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the sys- 



tem piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. 
The water supply for an automatic diy standpipe system 
shall be capable of supplying the system demand. 

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water 
supply that is capable of supplying the system demand auto- 
matically. 

Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a 
permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual di-y 
standpipe systems require water from a &e department 
pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire 
department connection in order to supply the system 
demand. 

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water 
supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the sys- 
tem but which does not have a water supply capable of deliv- 
ering the system demand attached to the system. Manual 
wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to 
supply the system demand. 

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is 
arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, 
to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a 
remote control device located at a hose connection. A 
remote control activation device shall be provided at each 
hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry 
standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system 
demand. 

SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals 
and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond 
to these signals. 

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor 
performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed 
suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life 
and property. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of 
action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the 
fire suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance fea- 
tures of related systems. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An ini- 
tiating device such as a valve supervisory switch, water level 
indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler 
system whose change of state signals an off-normal condition 
and its restoration to normal of a fu:e protection or life safety 
system; or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fne 
suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance features of 
related systems. 

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the 
area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m^). 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm sys- 
tem or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or com- 
ponent. 

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. 

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A solu- 
tion of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potas- 



90 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



sium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, 
forming an extinguishing agent. 

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part 
of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid 
of wire. 

ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone 
can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area 
to which a signal can be sent, or an area in which a form of con- 
trol can be executed. 



SECTION 903 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

903.1 General. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply 
with this section. 

903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 
shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection 
where recognized by the applicable standard and approved 
by the fire code official. 

903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the 
locations described in this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used 
exclusively for telecommunications equipment, asso- 
ciated electrical power distribution equipment, batter- 
ies and standby engines, provided those spaces or 
areas ai-e equipped throughout with an automatic fne 
alarm system and are sepai'ated from the remainder of 
the building by fire barriers consisting of not less than 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and 2-hour fire-re- 
sistance-rated floor/ceiling assemblies. 

2. Automatic fire sprinkler protection for fixed guideway 
transit systems shall be as per Section 903.2.17. 

903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as 
Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group 
A-1, A-2, A-3, and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided throughout the floor area 
where the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is 
located, and in all floors between the Group A occupancy 
and the level of exit discharge. For Group A-5 occupancies, 
the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the 
spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5. 

903.2.1.1 Group A-1. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 squai-e feet (1115 
m^); ■ 

2. The fii-e area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge; or 

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex. 



903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (465 m^); 

2. The fire ai'ea has an occupant load of 100 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fu:e area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 

2. The fure area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Areas used exclusively as participant 
sports areas where the main floor area is located at 
the same level as the level of exit dischai^ge of the 
main entrance and exit. 

903.2.1.4 Group A-4. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Areas used exclusively as participant 
sports areas where the main floor area is located at 
the same level as the level of exit discharge of the 
main entrance and exit. 

903.2.1.5 Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the fol- 
lowing areas: concession stands, retail areas, press 
boxes, and other accessory use ai^eas in excess of 1,000 
squai'e feet (93 m^). 

903.2.2 Group E. Except as provided for in Sections 
903.2.2.1 for a new public school campus and 907.2.3.6.1 
(fire alarm and detection) for modernization of an existing 
public school campus building(s), an automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as fol- 
lows: 

1 . Thi-oughout all Group E fke areas greater than 20,000 
square feet (1858 m^) in area. 

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings 
below the level of exit discharge. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not 
required in any fire area or area below the level of 
exit discharge where every classroom tliroughout 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



91 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



the building has at least one exterior exit door at 
ground level. 

3. In rooms or areas with special hazards such as labo- 
ratories, vocational shops and other such areas 
where hazardous materials in exempt amounts are 
used or stored. 

903.2.2.1 Public schools — automatic sprinkler system 
requirements. 

903.2.2.1.1 New public school campus. A State Fire 
Marshal approved automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided on all new public school campus as 
defined in section 202 and maintained in accordance 
with this code and Chapter 45. See Section 907.2.3.6 
for automatic detection requirements and "ceil- 
ing-plenum" spaces. 

903.2.2.1.2 Permanent portable buildings. A porta- 
ble building that is used to serve or house students 
and is certified, as a permanent building on a new 
public school campus by the public school adminis- 
tration shall comply with the requirements of Section 
903.2.2.1.1. 

903.2.2.1.3 Fire-resistive substitution for new cam- 
pus. A new public school campus as defined in Section 
202 fhall be entitled to include in the design and con- 
struction documents all of the applicable fire-resistive 
construction substitutions as permitted by the Cali- 
fornia Building Code. 

903.2.3 Group F-1. An automatic sprinlder system shall be 
provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. Where a Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square 
feet (11 15 m2); 

2. Where a Group F- 1 fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade plane; or 

3. Where the combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas 
on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 
24,000 square feet (2230 m^). 

903.2.3.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group 
F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking 
operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m^) 
which generate finely divided combustible waste or 
which use finely divided combustible materials. 

903.2.4 Group H. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sec- 
tions 903.2.4.1 through 903.2.4.3. 

903.2.4.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be installed in Group H occupancies. 

903.2.4.2 Group H-5 occupancies. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be installed throughout buildings con- 
taining Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the 
sprinkler system shall not be less than that required under 
the California Building Code for the occupancy hazard 
classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.4.2. 



Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists 
of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maxi- 
mum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13. 

TABLE 903.2.4.2 
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA 



LOCATION 


OCCUPANCY HAZARD 
CLASSIFICATION 


Fabrication areas 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Service corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms without dispensing 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms with dispensing 


Extra Hazard Group 2 


Corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 



903.2.4.3 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in buildings, or portions 
thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics 
are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities 
exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg). 

903.2.5 Group I. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area. 

Exceptions: 

1. Those areas exempted by Section 407.5 of the Cali- 
fornia Building Code. 

2. When not used in accordance with Section 504.2 
or 506.3 of the California Building Code, an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be allowed in Group 
I-l occupancies. 

3. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13113, Group 1-1 occupancies housing ambula- 
tory children only, none of whom are mentally ill or 
mentally retarded, and the buildings or portions 
thereof in which such children are housed are not 
more than two stories in height, and buildings or 
portions thereof housing such children shall have 
an automatic fire alarm system activated by ap- 
proved smoke detectors. 

4. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13113 
(d), Group 1-1 occupancies, or any alterations 
thereto, located in Type lA construction in exis- 
tence on March 4, 1972. 

An automatic sprinkler system designed in accordance 
with Section 903. 3.1.3 shall not be utilized in Group 1-1 . 

903.2.5.1 Group 1-3. Every building, or portion thereof, 
where inmates are restrained shall be protected by an 
automatic sprinkler system conforming to NFPA 13. The 
main sprinkler control valve or valves and all other con- 
trol valves in the system shall be locked in the open posi- 
tion and electrically supervised so that at least an 
audible and visual alarm will sound at a constantly 
attended location when valves are closed. The sprinkler 
branch piping serving cells may be embedded in the con- 
crete construction. 

Exception: Sprinklers are not required in cells hous- 
ing two or fewer inmates and the building shall be 



92 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



considered sprinklered throughout when all the fol- 
lowing criteria are met: 

1. Automatic fire sprinklers shall be mounted out- 
side the cell a minimum of 6 feet (1829 mm) on 
center and 12 inches (305 mm) from the wall 
with quick response sprinkler heads. Where 
spacing permits, the head shall be centered 
over the cell door opening. 

2. The maximum amount of combustibles, exclud- 
ing linen and clothing, shall be maintained at 
three pounds per inmate. 

3. For local detention facilities, each individual 
housing cell shall be provided with a two-way 
inmate or sound-actuated audio monitoring 
system for communication directly to the con- 
trol station serving the cell(s). 

4. The provisions of the exception in Section 
804.4.2 of the California Building Code shall 
not apply. 

903.2.6 Group M. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occu- 
pancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1 . Where a Group M fire area exceeds 1 2,000 square feet 
(1115 m2); 

2. Where a Group M fne area is located more than three 
stories above grade plane; or 

3. Where the combined area of all Group M fire areas on 
all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 

903.2.6.1 High-piled storage. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided as required in Chapter 23 in all 
buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in 
high-piled or rack storage aixays. 

903.2.7 Group R. An automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided through- 
out all buildings with a Group R fke area. 

Exceptions: 

1. Detached one- and two-family dwellings and mul- 
tiple single-family dwellings (town houses) not 
more than three stories above grade plane in 
height with a separate means of egress, unless spe- 
cifically required by other sections of this code or 
classified as Group R-4. 

2. Group U private garages accessory to a Group R-3 
occupancy. 

3. Group R-3.1 occupancies not housing bedridden 
' clients, not housing nonambulatory clients above 

the first floor, and not housing clients above the 
secondfloor. 

4. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13113, occupancies housing ambulatory children 
only, none of whom are mentally ill or mentally re- 
tarded, and the buildings or portions thereof in 
which such children are housed are not more than 
two stories in height, and buildings or portions 



thereof housing such children have an automatic 
fire alarm system activated by approved smoke de- 
tectors. 

5. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13143.6, occupancies licensed for protective so- 
cial care which house ambulatory clients only, 
none of whom is a child (under the age of 18 years), 
or who is elderly (65 years of age or over). 

An automatic sprinkler system designed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.3 shall not be utilized in Group R-4. 

903.2.8 Group S-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m^); 

2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane; or 

3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 

903.2.8.1 Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided throughout all building's used as 
repair garages in accordance with the California Build- 
ing Code, as follows: 

1. Buildings two or more stories in height, including 
basements, with a fire area containing a repair ga- 
rage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m^). 

2. One-story buildings with a fire area containing a 
repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

3. Buildings with a repair gai'age servicing vehicles 
parked in the basement. 

903.2.8.2 Bullc storage of tires. Buildings and structures 
where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 
cubic feet (566 m^) shall be equipped thi'oughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

903.2.9 Group S-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided thi^oughout buildings classified as enclosed park- 
ing garages in accordance with Section 406.4 of the Califor- 
nia Building Code or where located beneath other groups. 

Exception: Enclosed pai'king gai-ages located beneath 
Group R-3 occupancies. 

903.2.9.1 Commercial parking garages. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided tteoughout buildings 
used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the 
fire area exceeds 5,000 squai-e feet (464 m^). 

903.2.10 Windowless stories in all occupancies. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in the locations set 
forth in Sections 903.2.10.1 through 903.2.10.1.3. 

Exception: Group R-3 and Group U. 

903.2.10.1 Stories and basements without openings. 

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in every 
story or basement of all buildings where the floor area 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



93 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m^) and where there is 
not provided at least one of the following types of exte- 
rior wall openings: 

1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground 
level by an exterior stairway complying with Sec- 
tion 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Sec- 
tion 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 
linear feet(15 240 mm), or fraction thereof , of ex- 
terior wall in the story on at least one side. 

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground 
level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m^) in 
each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction 
thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one 
side. 

903.2.10.1.1 Opening dimensions and access. 

Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less 
than 30 inches (762 nam). Such openings shall be 
accessible to the fire department from the exterior and 
shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or 
rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. 

903.2.10.1.2 Openings on one side only. Where 
openings in a stoiy are provided on only one side and 
the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) from such openings, the stoiy shall be 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall 
be provided on at least two sides of the story. 

903.2.10.1.3 Basements. Where any portion of a 
basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from openings required by Section 903.2.10.1, the 
basement shall be equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

903.2.10.2 Rubbisli and linen chutes. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish 
and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes 
extending through tluree or more floors shall have addi- 
tional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at 
alternate floors. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for 
servicing. 

903.2.10.3 Buildings 55 feet or more in lieight. An 

automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout 
buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 
or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more 
above the lowest level of fke department vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport control towers. 

2. Open parking structures. 

3. Occupancies in Group F-2. 

903.2.11 During construction. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems required during construction, alteration and demoli- 
tion operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 
1413. 

903.2.12 Other hazards. Automatic sprinkler protection 
shall be provided for the hazards indicated in Sections 
903.2.12.1 and 903.2.12.2. 



903.2.12.1 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts. 

Where required by the California Mechanical Code, 
automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts convey- 
ing hazardous exhaust, flammable or combustible mate- 
rials. 

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional 
diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 
mm). 

903.2.12.2 Commercial cooking operations. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in a commercial 
kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an auto- 
matic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 
904. 

903.2.13 Other required suppression systems. In addition 
to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indi- 
cated in Table 903 .2. 1 3 also require the installation of a sup- 
pression system for certain buildings and areas. 

903.2.14 Motion picture and television production studio 
sound stages, approved production facitities and produc- 
tion locations. 

903.2.14.1 Existing sound stages and approvedproduc- 
tion facilities. All existing sound stages and approved 
production facilities equipped with an automatic fire 
sprinkler system shall be maintained in accordance with 
the provisions of California Fire Code Chapter 9. 

903.2.14.2 New sound stages. All new sound stages shall 
be equipped with an approved automatic fire sprinkler 
system. The system shall be installed in accordance with 
the provisions of the California Fire Code Chapter 9 and 
shall meet the minimum design requirements of an Extra 
Hazard, Group 2 system. 

903.2.15 Automatic sprinkler system — Existing high-rise 
buildings. Regardless of any other provisions of these regu- 
lations, every existing high-rise building of Type II-B, Type 
III-B or Type V-B construction shall be provided with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system conforming to NFPA 
13. 

903.2.15.1 Existing R-1 andR-2 high-rise buildings 
fire-extinguishing systems. Automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems installed in any existing high-rise 
structure in which a Group R-1 or a Group R-2 occu- 
pancy is, located shall have an approved flow indica- 
tor electrically interconnected to the required fire 
alarm system. 

903.2.16 Group L occupancies. An automatic fire protec- 
tion system shall be installed throughout buildings housing 
Group L occupancies. Sprinkler system design for research 
laboratories and similar areas of a Group L occupancy 
shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard 
Group 2 with a design area of not less than 3,000 square feet 
(279 m^). 

In mixed occupancies, portions of floors or buildings not 
classified as Group L occupancies shall be provided with 
sprinkler protection designed of not less than that required 
for Ordinary Hazard Group 1 with a design area of not less 
than 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 



94 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 903.2.13 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 



TABLE 903.2.1 3-continued 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


914.2.1 


Covered malls 


914.3.1 


High-rise buildings 


914.4.1 


Atriums 


914.5.1 


Underground structures 


914.6.1 


Stages 


914.7.1 


Special amusement buildings 


914.8.2, 914.8.5 


Aircraft liangars 


914.9 


Flammable finishes 


914.10 


Drying rooms 


1025.6.2.3 


Smoke-protected seating 


1208.2 


Dry cleaning plants 


1208.3 


Dry cleaning machines 


1504.2 


Spray finishiBg in Group A, E, I or R 


1504.4 


Spray booths and spray rooms 


1505.2 


Dip-tanlc rooms in Group A, I or R 


1505.4.1 


Dip tanlis 


1505.9.4 


Hardening and tempering tanks 


1803.10 


HPM facilities 


1803.10.1.1 


HPM work station exhaust 


1803.10.2 


HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures 


1803.10.3 


HPM exit access corridor 


1803.10.4 


HPM exhaust ducts 


1803.10.4.1 


HPM noncombustible ducts 


1803.10.4.2 


HPM combustible ducts 


1907.3 


Lumber production conveyor enclosures 


1908.7 


Recycling facility conveyor enclosures 


2106.1 


Class A and B ovens 


2106.2 


Class C and D ovens 


2209.3.2.6.2 


Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies 


Table 2306.2 


Storage fire protection 


2306.4 


Storage 


2703.8.4.1 


Gas rooms 


2703.8.5.3 


Exhausted enclosures 


2704.5 


Indoor storage of hazardous materials 


2705.1.8 


Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials 


2804.4.1 


Aerosol warehouses 


2806.3.2 


Aerosol display and merchandising areas 


2904.5 


Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose 
combustible fibers 


3306.5.2.1 


Storage of smokeless propellant 


3306.5.2.3 


Storage of small arms primers 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


3404.3.7.5.1 


Flammable and combustible liquid 
storage rooms 


3404.3.8.4 ■ 


Flammable and combustible liquid 
storage warehouses 


3405.3.7.3 


Flammable and combustible liquid 
Group H-2 or H-3 areas 


3704.1.2 


Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic 
gas 


3704.1.3 


Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic 
and toxic gas 


3704.2.2.6 


Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas 


3704.3.3 


Outdoor storage for highly toxic and 
toxic gas 


4106.2.2 


Exhausted enclosures or gas cabinets for 
silane gas 


4204.1.1 


Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets 


4204.1.3 


Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults 


4204.2 


Pyroxylin plastic storage and 
manufacturing 


California Building Code 
Section 403 


Horse-racing stables 


California Building Code 
Section 431 


Pet kennels 


California Building Code 
Section 439 


Public libraries 



(continued) 



903.2.17 Fixed guideway transit systems. 

903.2.17.1 Automatic sprinkler system. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed in all stations affixed 
guideway transit systems. 

Exceptions: 

1. Guideways when the closest sprinkler heads to 
the guideway are within 3 feet (914 mm) of the 
edge, over the platform, and spaced 6 feet (1829 
mm) on center parallel to the guideway. 

2. Station agent booths not exceeding 150 square 
feet (13.9 rr?) in area, when provided with an 
approved smoke detector connected to the 
building fire alarm system. 

3. Power substations. 

4. Machinery rooms, electrical rooms and train 
control rooms protected by an approved auto- 
matic fixed fire-extinguishing system. 

5. Open stations. 

6. Station platform areas open to three or more 
sides. 

903.2.17.2 Station guideway deluge system. Under- 
ground stations and stations in open cuts with walls 5 
feet (1524 mm) above the top of the running rail and with , 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



95 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



a raised platform shall be provided with an under-vehi- 
cle guideway manually activated deluge sprinkler sys- 
tem. In open cut stations, such system shall be provided 
in guideway s which are situated between a raised plat- 
form edge and a retaining wall. 

903.2.17.2.1 Systems shall be provided along the 
entire length of track at each station platform. 

903.2.17.2.2 Deluge nozzles with caps shall be 
located in the approximate center of track with spac- 
ing designed to completely wet the undersides of the 
vehicle at the applied density. 

903.2.17.2.3 System density shall be a minimum of 
0.19 gallon per minute (gpm) per square foot (0.72 
Umper m^)for the design area. When more than one 
zone is provided, two adjacent zones are required to 
be considered operating for calculating purposes. 

903.2.17.2.4 Deluge systems shall be directly con- 
nected to a water supply capable of supplying the 
required flow rate for a minimum 30-minute duration. 

903.2.17.2.5 Controls or manually operable valves 
shall be in a location acceptable to the fire code offi- 
cial. All deluge systems shall be monitored by the sta- 
tion fire alarm system. 

903.2.1 7.2.6 Each valve shall be monitored by a sepa- 
rate circuit The alarm panel shall be located in an 
area normally occupied by station personnel or sig- 
nals shall be transmitted to the operations control 
center (OCC). 

903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 903.3.1 through 903.3.7. 

903.3.1 Standards. Sprinkler systems shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the pro- 
visions of this code require that a building or portion 
thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers 
shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 
13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1. 

903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. In other than Group 
1-2, 1-2.1, or 1-3 occupancies, automatic sprinklers 
shall not be required in the following rooms or areas 
where such rooms or areas are protected with an 
approved automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall 
not be omitted from any room merely because it is 
damp, of fire-resistance rated construction or contains 
electrical equipment. 

1. Any room where the application of water, or 
flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire 
hazard. 

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are consid- 
ered undesirable because of the nature of the 



contents, when approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. 

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated 
from the remainder of the building by walls and 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. 

4. In rooms or areas that are of noncombustible 
construction with wholly noncombustible con- 
tents. 

903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Where 
allowed in buildings of Group R, up to and including four 
stories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R. 

903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and decks. Sprinkler protec- 
tion shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks 
and ground floor patios of dwelling units where the 
building is of Type V construction. Sidewall sprin- 
klers that are used to protect such areas shall be per- 
mitted to be located such that their deflectors are 
within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the 
structural members and a maximum distance of 14 
inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balco- 
nies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist 
construction. 

903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Where 
allowed, automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- 
and two-family dwellings shall be installed throughout 
in accordance with NFPA 13D. 

903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers. 

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this 
code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1 and their listings: 

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment 
containing patient sleeping units in Group 1-2 in ac- 
cordance with the California Building Code. 

2. Dwelhng units and sleeping units in Group R and I-l 
occupancies. 

3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 

903.3.3 Obstructed locations. Automatic sprinklers shall 
be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay 
activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Auto- 
matic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered 
kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment 
that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 
3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between 
automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible 
fibers. 

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods 
protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Section 904. 

903.3.4 Actuation. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in 
this code. 

903.3.5 Water supplies. Water supplies for automatic 
sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the 



96 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. Tlie potable water 
supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with Health and Safety Code 13114. 7. 

903.3.5.1 Domestic services. Where the domestic ser- 
vice provides the water supply for the automatic sprin- 
kler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this 
section. 

903.3.5.1.1 Limited area sprinkler systems. Lim- 
ited ai-ea sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 
sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to 
be connected to the domestic service where a wet 
automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area 
sprinkler systems connected to domestic water sup- 
plies shall comply with each of the following require- 
ments: 

1. Valves shall not be installed between the do- 
mestic water riser control valve and the sprin- 
klers. 

Exception: An approved indicating control 
valve supervised in the open position in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

2. The domestic service shall be capable of sup- 
plying the simultaneous domestic demand and 
the sprinkler demand requir^ed to be hydrauli- 
cally calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or 
NFPA 13D. 

903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. A 

single combination water supply shall be allowed pro- 
vided that the domestic demand is added to the sprin- 
Ider demand as required by NFPA 13R. 

903.3.5.2 Secondary water supply. A secondary on-site 
water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated sprin- 
kler demand, including the hose stream requirement, 
shall be provided for high-rise buildings in Seismic 
Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by the Cali- 
fornia Building Code. The secondary water supply shall 
have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined 
by the occupancy hazard classification in accordance 
with NFPA 13. 

Exception: Existing buildings. 

903.3.6 Hose threads. Fire hose thi'eads and fittings used in 
connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as pre- 
scribed by the fire code official. 

903.3.7 Fire department connections. The location of fue 
department connections shall be approved by the fire code 
official. 

903.4 Sprinkler system monitoring and alarms. All valves 
controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, 
pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical ail' pres- 
sures, and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be 
electrically supervised. 

Exceptions: 

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and 
two-family dwellings. 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance 
with NFPA 1 3R where a common supply main is used 
to supply both domestic water and the automatic 
sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the 
automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 

4., Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked 
in the open position. 

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint 
spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump en- 
gines that are sealed or locked in the open position. 

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and 
deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

903.4.1 Signals. Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals 
shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically trans- 
mitted to an approved central station, remote supervising 
station or proprietary supervising station as defined in 
NFPA 72 or, when approved by the frre code official, shall 
sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes 
provided by the municipality or public utility are 
not required to be monitored. 

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in 
limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall 
be locked in the open position. In occupancies re- 
quired to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the 
backflow preventer valves shall be electrically su- 
pervised by a tamper switch installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated. 

903.4.2 Alarms. Approved audible devices shall be con- 
nected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler 
water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow 
equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest 
orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall be 
provided on the exterior of the building in an approved loca- 
tion. Where a fu'e alai'm system is installed, actuation of the 
automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire 
alarm system. 

903.4.3 Floor control valves. Approved supervised indi- 
cating control valves shall be provided at the point of con- 
nection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings. 

903.5 Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall be 
tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901. 

903.6 Existing buildings. The provisions of this section ai-e 
intended to provide a reasonable degree of safety in existing 
structures not complying with the minimum requirements of 
the California Building Code by requiring installation of an 
automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

903.6.1 Pyroxylin plastics. All sti-uctures occupied for the 
manufacture or storage of articles of cellulose nitrate 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



97 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



(pyroxylin) plastic shall be equipped with an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system. Vaults located within 
buildings for the storage of raw pyroxyUn shall be protected 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system capable of dis- 
charging 1.66 gallons per minute per square foot (68 
L/min/m^) over the area of the vault. 



SECTION 904 

ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC 

FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

904.1 General. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other 
than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section and the applicable referenced standards. 

904.2 Where required. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler 
systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be consid- 
ered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions 
allowed by other requirements of this code. 

904.2.1 Commercial hood and duct systems. Each 
required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system 
required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be pro- 
tected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem installed in accordance with this code. 

904.3 Installation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall 
be installed in accordance with this section. 

904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in 
accordance with the California Electrical Code. 

904.3.2 Actuation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual 
means of actuation in accordance with Section 904. 1 1 . 1 . 

904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment inter- 
locks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, 
window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, 
and other features necessary for proper operation of the 
fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by 
the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard. 

904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are 
required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and 
warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent 
discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing 
agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to 
ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, 
a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occu- 
pants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall 
be in accordance with Section 907.10.2. 

904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is 
installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be 
monitored by the building fure alarm system in accordance 
with NFPA 72. 

904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fire-extinguishing 
systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the 
provisions of this section prior to acceptance. 



904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final acceptance 
tests, the following items shall be inspected: 

1 . Hazard specification for consistency with design haz- 
ard. 

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and man- 
ual-initiating devices. 

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge 
orifices. 

4. Location and identification of audible and visible 
alarm devices. 

5. Identification of devices with proper designations. 

6. Operating instructions. 

904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, connec- 
tions to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved 
supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this 
section and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 

904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibility 
and visibiUty of notification appliances signaling agent 
discharge or system operation, where required, shall be 
verified. 

904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to protected pre- 
mises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be 
tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of 
alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

904.5 Wet-chemical systems. Wet-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with Title 19 California Code of Regu- 
lations, Chapter 5 and NFPA 17A and their listing. 

904.5.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall 
include a check of the detection system, alarms and releas- 
ing devices, including manual stations and other associated 
equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed 
and the requked amount of agent verified. Stored pres- 
sure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. 
The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed 
and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 

904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed tempera- 
ture-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper 
operation of the system. 

904.6 Dry-chemical systems. Dry-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with Title 19 California Code of Regu- 
lations, Chapter 5 and NFPA 17 and their Usting. 

904.6.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall 
include a check of the detection system, alarms and releas- 
ing devices, including manual stations and other associated 
equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, 
and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pres- 
sure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. 
The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed 
and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 



98 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



904.6.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed tempera- 
ture-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper 
operation of the system. 

904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in 
accordance with Title 19 California Code of Regulations, 
Chapters and NFPA 11, NFPA llA and NFPA 16 and their 
listing. 

904.7.1 System test. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with Title 19 
California Code of Regulations, Chapter 5. 

904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with Title 19 California Code of Regu- 
lations, Chapter 5 and NFPA 12 and their listing. 

904.8.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.8.2 High-pressure cylinders. High-pressure cylinders 
shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall 
be verified at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a 
loss in original content of more than 1 percent, the cylinder 
shall be refilled or replaced. 

904.8.3 Low-pressure containers. The liquid-level gauges 
of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week 
intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more 
than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain 
the minimum gas requirements. 

904.8.4 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.8.4.1 Test procedure. Hoses shall be tested at not 
less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) 
for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi 
(6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.8.5 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementaiy alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month 
intervals to ensure that such components ai-e in proper oper- 
ating condition. 

904.9 Halon systems. Halogenated extinguishing systems 
shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested 
in accordance with Title 19 California Code of Regulations, 
Chapter 5 and NFPA 12A and their listing. 

904.9.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
- for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.9.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of containers shall be checked at 6-month intervals. 
Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more 
than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for 
temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be 
refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the con- 
tainer shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 



904.9.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At 5-yeai- intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.9.3.1 Test procedure. For Halon 1301 systems, 
hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 
kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems 
and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 
kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 
hand-hose Une systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi 
(17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi 
(6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.9.4 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month 
intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating 
condition. 

904.10 Clean-agent systems. Clean-agent fixe-extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with Title 19 California Code of Regu- 
lations, Chapter 5 and NFPA 2001 and their listing. 

904.10.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.10.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of the containers shall be checked at 6-month inter- 
vals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of 
more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted 
for temperature, of more than 1 percent, the container shall 
be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the con- 
tainer shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 

904.10.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at 5-yeai' inter- 
vds. 

904.11 Commercial cooking systems. Commercial cooking 
equipment that produces grease laden vapors shall be provided 
with a Type I hood, in accordance with the California Mechani- 
cal Code, and an automatic fire-extinguishing system that is 
listed and labeled for its intended use as follows: 

1. Wet-chemical extinguishing system, complying with UL 
300. 

2. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems. 

3. Automatic fire sprinkler systems. 

All existing dry-chemical and wet-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall comply with UL 300, no later than the second 
required servicing of the system following the effective date of 
this section. 

Exception: Public school kitchens, without deep-fat 
fryers, shall be upgraded to a UL 300 compliant sys- 
tem during state-funded modernization projects that 
are under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State 
Architect. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



99 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



All systems shall be installed in accordance with the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code, appropriate adopted standards, their 
listing and the manufacturers' installation instructions. 

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recircu- 
lating systems that are tested, listed, labeled and 
installed in accordance with UL 71 OB. 

904.11.1 Manual system operation. A manual actuation 
device shall be located at or neai* a means of egress from the 
cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maxi- 
mum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. 
The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 
48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) 
above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard pro- 
tected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force 
of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 
inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be 
required to be equipped with manual actuation means. 

904.11.2 System interconnection. The actuation of the fire 
extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel 
or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The 
fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. 

904.11.3 Carbon dioxide systems. When carbon dioxide 
systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ven- 
tilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically 
arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed 
within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and hori- 
zontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall 
be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and 
shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation 
of the fire-extinguishing system. When the damper is 
installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be imme- 
diately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to pro- 
tect all hazards venting through a common duct simulta- 
neously. 

904.11.3.1 Ventilation system. Commercial-type cook- 
ing equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide 
extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the 
ventilation system upon activation. 

904.11.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commer- 
cial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a 
separate, readily accessible, indicating-type conti'ol valve 
that is identified. 

904.11.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinlders used for the 
protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 
199E, hsted for that application and installed in accor- 
dance with their listing. 

904.11.5 Portable fire extinguishers for commercial 
cooking equipment. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided and maintained in accordance with Title 19 Cali- 
fornia Code of Regulations, Chapter 3. 

904.11.5.1 Portable fire extinguishers for solid fuel 
cooldng appliances. All soUd fuel cooking appliances, 
whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet 



(0.14 m^) or less in volume shall have a minimum 
2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K 
wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in 
accordance with Section 904.1 1.5. 

904.11.5.2 Class K portable fire extinguishers for 
deep fat fryers. When hazai-d areas include deep fat fry- 
ers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided in accordance with Title 19 California Code of 
Regulations, Chapter 3 as follows: 

1. For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking 
medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each. One 
Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 
1.5 gallon (6 L) capacity. 

2. For every additional group of four fryers having a 
maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds 
(36.3 kg) each: One additional Class K portable 
fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5 gallon (6 L) ca- 
pacity shall be provided. 

3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 
m^) in surface area: Class K portable fire 
extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with 
the extinguisher manufacturer's recommenda- 
tions. 

904.11.6 Operations and maintenance. Commercial 
cooking systems shall be operated and maintained in accor- 
dance with Title 19 California Code of Regulations, Chap- 
ter 5 and this section. 

904.11.6.1 Ventilation system. The ventilation system 
in connection with hoods shall be operated at the 
required rate of air movement, and classified grease fil- 
ters shall be in place when equipment under a kitchen 
grease hood is used. 

904.11.6.2 Grease extractors. Where grease extractors 
are installed, they shall be operated when the commer- 
cial-type cooking equipment is used. 

904.11.6.3 Cleaning. Hoods, grease-removal devices, 
fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at 
intervals necessary to prevent the accumulation of 
grease. Cleanings shall be recorded, and records shall 
state the extent, time and date of cleaning. Such records 
shall be maintained on the premises. 

904.11.6.4 Extinguishing system service. Automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least 
every 6 months and after activation of the system. 
Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certifi- 
cate of inspection shall be f orwai'ded to the fire code offi- 
cial upon completion. 

904.11.6.5 Fusible link and sprinkler head replace- 
ment. Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall 
be replaced at least annually, and other protection 

SECTION 905 
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire 



100 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall 
be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose 
threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall 
be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible stor- 
age, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. 

905.2 Installation standard. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. 

905.3 Required installations. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 
905.3.i0.i and in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 
905.5 and 905.6. Standpipe systems are allowed to be com- 
bined with automatic sprinkler systems. 

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group 
R-3 occupancies. 

905.3.1 Building height. Class III standpipe systems shall 
be installed thi-oughout buildings where the floor level of the 
highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above 
the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access, or 
where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 
30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire depart- 
ment vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open 
pai'king garages where the highest floor is located 
not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the low- 
est level of fire department vehicle access. 

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages that are subject to freezing tem- 
peratures, provided that the hose connections are 
located as required for Class 11 standpipes in accor- 
dance with Section 905.5. 

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements 
equipped thi'oughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

5. In determining the lowest level of fne department 
vehicle access, it shall not be requked to consider: 

5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles 
or less, and 

5.2. Conditions where topography makes ac- 
cess from the fire department vehicle to the 
building impractical or impossible. 

905.3.2 Group A. Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be 
provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an 
occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open-au^-seating spaces without enclosed spaces. 

2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry 
standpipes or manual wet standpipes ai'e allowed 
in buildings whei'e the highest floor surface used 



for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or 
less above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. 

905.3.3 Covered mall buildings. A covered mall building 
shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system 
where required by Section 905.3.1. Covered mall buildings 
not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Sec- 
tion 905.3 . 1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections 
connected to a system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons 
per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydi-aulically remote 
outlet. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passage- 
way or corridor. 

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways 
opening directly on the mall. 

3. At exterior pubUc enti-ances to the mall. 

905.3.4 Stages. Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 
m^) in area shall be equipped with a Class m wet standpipe 
system with IVj-inch and 2'/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) 
hose connections on each side of the stage. 

Exception: Where the building or ai'ea is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a IVj 
inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for 
Class n or III standpipes. 

905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. The 1 Vj-inch (38 mm) hose 
connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 
1 Vj-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the 
stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an 
approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabi- 
net or on a rack. 

905.3.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings 
shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or 
manual wet standpipe system. 

905.3.6 Helistops and heliports. Buildings with a helistop 
or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall extend 
the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop or heli- 
port is located in accordance with Section 1107.5. 

905.3.7 Marinas and boatyards. Maiinas and boatyards 
shall be equipped throughout with standpipe systems in 
accordance with NFPA 303. 

905.3.8 Smokeproof enclosures. For smokeproof enclo- 
sures, see California Building Code Section 909.20. 

905.3.9 Group 1-3. Housing units within cell complexes 
where 50 or more inmates are restrained, shall be provided 
with Class I wet standpipes. In addition. Class I wet 
standpipes shall be located so that it will not be necessaij to 
extend hose lines through interlocking security doors and 
any doors in smoke-barrier walls, horizontal fire walls or 
fire barrier walls. Standpipes located in cell complexes may 
be placed in secured pipe chases. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



101 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



905.3.10 Fixed guideway transit systems. Underground 
stations shall be provided with a Class III standpipe system 
designed to comply with the following: 

1. Automatically supply 65 pounds per square inch (psi) 
for each outlet 

2. Supply a 250-gpm (946 L/m)flow to each of the two 
most remote 2'/2-inch (64 mm) outlets when pressur- 
ized through the fire department connection(s). 

905.3.10.1 All other stations shall be provided with a 
Class I manual wet standpipe system; a manual dry 
Class I standpipe system may be allowed in areas subject 
to freezing. 

Exception: Open at-grade stations with unrestricted 
fire department access need not be provided with a 
standpipe system. 

905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections. Class 
I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the fol- 
lowing locations; 

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be 
provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose 
connections shall be located at an intermediate floor 
level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved 
by the fire code official. 

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a 
horizontal exit. 

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal 
exit are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by 
a 30-foot (9 144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached 
to 100 feet (30480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall 
not be required at the horizontal exit. 

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit 
passageway to other areas of a building. 

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior pub- 
lic entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance 
from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. 

5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), each standpipe 
shall be provided with a hose connection located either 
on the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with 
stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection 
shall be provided at the top of the most hydrauUcally re- 
mote standpipe for testing purposes. 

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor 
or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose 
connection or the most remote portion of a sprinldered 
floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a 
hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to re- 
quire that additional hose connections be provided in ap- 
proved locations. 

905.4.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe 
systems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressur- 
ized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resis- 
tance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the 
building in which they are located. 



Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that ai^e not 
located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized 
enclosure are not required to be enclosed within 
fire-resistance-rated construction. 

905.4.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one 
standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be intercon- 
nected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

905.5 Location of Class II standpipe hose connections. 

Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and 
shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 
feet (9144 mm) of a listed variable stream fog nozzle attached 
to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose. 

905.5.1 Groups A-1 and A-2. In Group A-1 and A-2 occu- 
pancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose con- 
nections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each 
side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the bal- 
cony, and on each tier of dressing rooms. 

905.5.2 Protection. Fire-resistance-rated protection of ris- 
ers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required. 

905.5.3 Class n system 1-inch hose. A minimum 1-inch 
(25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in 
light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for 
this service and where approved by the fire code official. 

905.6 Location of Class III standpipe hose connections. 

Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections 
located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and 
shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 
905.5. 

905.6.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class III 
standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I 
systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1. 

905.6.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one 
Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be inter- 
connected at the bottom. 

905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, 
such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire depart- 
ment valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from 

view. 

905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification. Cabinets shall 
be identified in an approved manner by a permanently 
attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
high in a color that conti-asts with the background color, 
indicating the equipment contained therein. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Doors not large enough to accommodate a written 
sign shall be marked with a permanently attached 
pictogram of the equipment contained therein. 

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identifi- 
cation clear glass panel or a complete glass door 
panel are not required to be marked. 



102 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors. Cabinets shall be 
unlocked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other ap- 
proved transpai^ent frangible material that is easily 
broken and allows access. 

2. Approved locking arrangements. 

3. Group 1-3 occupancies. 

905.8 Dry standpipes. Dry standpipes shall not be installed. 

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance 
with NFPA 14. 

905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water supplies 
shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the 
normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal 
at the supervising station requked by Section 903.4. Where a 
fii-e alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted 
to the control unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway 
boxes provided by the municipality or public utility 
do not require supervision. 

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as 
provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a 
fire alarm system. 

905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required dur- 
ing construction and demolition operations shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 1413. 

905.11 Existing buildings. Existing structures with occupied 
floors located more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above or below 
the lowest level of fire department access shall be equipped 
with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905. The 
standpipes shall have an approved fire department connection 
with hose connections at each floor level above or below the 
lowest level of fii-e department access. The fire code official is 
authorized to approve the installation of manual standpipe sys- 
tems to achieve compliance with this section where the 
responding fire depaitment is capable of providing the required 
hose flow at the highest standpipe outlet. 



SECTION 906 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
installed in the following locations. 

1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, 
R-4 and S occupancies. 

2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equip- 
ment. 

3. In ai"eas where flarmnable or combustible liquids ai^e 
stored, used or dispensed. 

4. On each floor of structures under construction, except 
Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 
1415.1. 

5 . Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1. 



6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to labora- 
tories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where re- 
quired by the fire code official. 

7. Large- and small-family day-care homes shall be 
equipped with a portable fire extinguisher having a mini- 
mum 2A:10-B:C rating. 

906.2 General requirements. Portable fire extinguishers shall 
be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this 
section and Chapter 3, Title 19 California Code of Regulations. 

Exceptions: 

1. The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not 
apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 
occupancies. 

2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required for porta- 
ble fir-e extinguishers that are supervised by a listed 
and approved electronic monitoring device, provided 
that all of the following conditions are met: 

2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that 
extinguishers ai^e properly positioned, prop- 
erly charged and unobstructed. 

2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the elec- 
tronic monitoring device shall initiate a trou- 
ble signal. 

2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a 
building or cabinet in a noncorTosive environ- 
ment. 

2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervi- 
sory circuits shall be tested when' extinguisher 
maintenance is performed. 

2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates 
for extinguishers shall be maintained by the 
owner to ensure that hydrostatic tests are con- 
ducted at the frequency required by Chapter 
3, Title 19 California Code of Regulations. 

906.3 Size and distribution. For occupancies that involve pri- 
marily Class A fire hazai^ds, the minimum sizes and distribu- 
tion shall comply with Table 906.3(1). Fii-e extinguishers for 
occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with 
depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be 
selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2). Fire 
extinguishers for occupancies involving flanmiable or com- 
bustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 
mm) or involving combustible metals shall be selected and 
placed in accordance with NFPA 10. Extinguishers for Class C 
fire hazai^ds shall be selected and placed on the basis of the 
anticipated Class A or Class B hazard. 

906.4 Cooking grease fires. Fire extinguishers provided for 
the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved 
type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system 
agent and in accordance with Section 904. 11.5. 

906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers shall 
be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily 
accessible and immediately available for use. These locations 
shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code offi- 
cial determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for 
placement away from normal paths of travel. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



103 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 906.1 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


303.5 


Asphalt kettles 


307.5 


Open burning 


308.4 


Open flames-torches 


309.4 


Powered industrial trucks 


1105.2 


Aircraft towing vehicles 


1105.3 


Aircraft welding apparatus 


1105.4 


Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles 


1105.5 


Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles 


1105.6 


Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations 


1107.7 


Heliports and helistops 


1208.4 


Dry cleaning plants 


1415.1 


Buildings under construction or demolition 


1417.3 


Roofing operations 


1504.4.1 


Spray-fmishing operations 


1505.4.2 


Dip-tank operations 


1506.4.2 


Powder-coating areas 


1904.2 


Lumberyards/woodworking facilities 


1908.8 


Recycling facilities 


1909.5 


Exterior lumber storage 


2003.5 


Organic-coating areas 


2106.3 


Industrial ovens 


2205.5 


Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2210.6.4 


Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2211.6 


Repair garages 


2306.10 


Rack storage 


2404.12 


Tents, canopies and membrane structures 


2508.2 


Tire rebuilding/storage 


2604.2.6 


Welding and other hot work 


2903.6 


Combustible fibers 


3308.11 


Fireworks 


3403.2.1 


Flammable and combustible liquids, general 


3404.3.3.1 


Indoor storage of flammable and combustible Uquids 


3404.3.7.5.2 


Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible 
liquids 


3405.4.9 


Solvent distillation units 


3406.2.7 


Farms and construction sites-flammable and 
combustible liquids storage 


3406.4.10.1 


Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and 
combustible hquids 


3406.5.4.5 


Commercial, industrial, governmental or 
manufacturing establishments-fuel dispensing 


3406.6.4 


Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible Uquids 


3606.5.7 


Flammable sohds 


3808.2 


LP-gas 



906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In 
rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be com- 
pletely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the loca- 
tions of extinguishers. 

TABLE 906.3(1) 
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS 





LIGHT 

(Low) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


ORDINARY 

(Moderate) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


EXTRA 

(High) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


Minimum 
Rated Single 
Extinguisher 


2-A^ 


2-A 


4-A'' 


Maximum 
Floor Area Per 
Unit of A 


3,000 
square feet 


1,500 
square feet 


1,000 
square feet 


Maximum 
Floor Area For 
Extinguisher'' 


11,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


Maximum 
Travel Distance 
to Extinguisher 


75 feet 


75 feet 


75 feet 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Two 2.5-galIoii water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of 
one 4-A rated extinguisher. 

b. Annex E.3 .3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the 
maximum floor area criteria. 

c. T\vo water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the 
equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupan- 
cies. 

TABLE 906.3(2) 

FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

WITH DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCH 



TYPE OF HAZARD 


BASIC MINIMUM 

EXTINGUISHER 

RATING 


MAXIMUM TRAVEL 

DISTANCE TO 

EXTINGUISHERS 

(feet) 


Light (Low) 


5-B 
10-B 


30 
50 


Ordinary (Moderate) 


10-B 
20-B 


30 
50 


Extra (High) 


40-B 
80-B 


30 
50 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

NOTE. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative 
sizing criteria, see Section 4.3 of NFPA 10. 

906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire 
extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the 
hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be 
securely anchored to the mounting suif ace in accordance with 
the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be locked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to mali- 
cious use or damage are provided with a means of 
ready access. 



104 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. In Group 1-3 occupancies and in mental health areas 
in Group 1-2 occupancies, access to portable fire 
extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be 
located in staff locations provided the staff has keys. 

906.9 Height above floor. Portable fire extinguishers having a 
gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed 
so that its top is not more than 5 feet ( 1 524 mm) above the floor. 
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight 
exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that its top is 
not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor. The clear- 
ance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held 
extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm). 

906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled fu:e extinguishers shall be 
conspicuously located in a designated location. 



SECTION 907 
FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 

907.1 General. This section covers the application, installa- 
tion, performance and maintenance of foe alarm systems and 
their components in new and existing buildings and structures. 
The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new build- 
ings and, structures. The requirements of Section 907.3 are 
applicable to existing buildings and structures. 

907.1.1 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review 
and approval prior to system installation. Construction doc- 
uments shall include, but not be limited to, all of the follow- 
ing: 

1 . A floor plan which indicates the use of all rooms. 

2. Locations of alarm-initiating and notification appli- 
ances. 

3. Alarm control and trouble signaling equipment. 

4. Annunciation. 

5. Power connection. 

6. Battery calculations. 

7. Conductor type and sizes. 

8. Voltage drop calculations. 

9. Manufacturers, model numbers and listing informa- 
tion for equipment, devices and materials. 

10. Details of ceiHng height and construction. 

1 1 . The interface of fire safety control functions. 

907.1.2 Equipment. Systems and their components shall be 
California State Fire Marshal hsted and approved for the 
purpose for which they are installed. 

907.1.3 Fire-walls and fire barrier walls. For the purpose 
of Section 907, fire walls and fire barrier walls shall not 
define separate buildings. 

907.1.4 Fire alarm use. A fire alarm system shall not be 
used for any purpose other than fire warning or mass notifi- 
cation unless approved by the enforcing agency. 

907.2 Where required — new buildings and structures. An 

approved manual, automatic or manual and automatic fire 
alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this 



code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and 
structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 
907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with 
Section 907.10, unless other requirements are provided by 
another section of this code. Where automatic sprinkler protec- 
tion installed in accordance with Section 903 .3 . 1 . 1 or 903 .3 . 1 .2 
is provided and connected to the building fire alarm system, 
automatic heat detection required by this section shall not be 
required. 

The automatic fire detectors shall be smoke detectors. 
Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of automatic 
smoke detection, other automatic fire detection shall be 
allowed where approved. 

A minimum of one fire alarm box shall be installed for each 
fire alarm system at a location approved by the enforcing 
agency. 

Exception: Fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall 
control, supervisory service and fire sprinkler monitoring 
only. 

Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire 
alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be 
installed. 

Exception: Where not required to be installed by the local 
enforcing agency. 

907.2.1 Group A. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group A occupancies having an occupant load 
of 300 or more. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied 
for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm 
system as required for the Group E occupancy. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appU- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupancies 
with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activation of 
the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant 
load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an 
emergency voice/alarm communications system in 
accordance with NFPA 72. For Group A occupancies 
with an occupant load of 10,000 or more, see Section 
907.2.1.3. 

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded 
announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated 
for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the 
sole purpose of allowing a Uve voice announcement 
from an approved, constantly attended location. 

907.2.1.2 Emergency power. Emergency voice/alarm 
communications systems shall be provided with an 
approved emergency power source. 

907.2.1.3 Public address system. Pursuant to Health 
and Safety Code Section 13108.9, for all buildings or 
structures constructed on or after July 1 , 1991, which are 
intended for public assemblies of 10,000 or more per- 
sons, a public address system with an emergency backup 
power system shall be required. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



105 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



Existing buildings or structures intended for public 
assemblies of 10,000 or more persons, which, on or after 
January 1, 1991, have or subsequently have installed a 
public address system, shall have an emergency backup 
power system for the public address system. 

907.2.2 Group B. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group B occupancies having an occupant load 
of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.3 Group E. A manual and automatic fire alarm sys- 
tem shall be installed in Group E occupancies with an occu- 
pant load of 50 or more persons or containing more than 
one classroom or one or more rooms used for day care pur- 
pose. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors 
are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to 
the building fire alarm system. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group 
E occupancies where all of the following apply: 

1.1. Interior conidors are protected by smoke 
detectors with alarm verification. 

1.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and 
the like are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

1.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or 
vapors are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

1.4. Off-premises monitoring is provided. 

1.5. The capabiHty to activate the evacuation 
signal from a central point is provided. 

1.6. In buildings where normally occupied 
spaces are provided with a two-way com- 
munication system between such spaces 
and a constantly attended receiving station 
from where a general evacuation alai^m can 
be sounded, except in locations specifi- 
cally designated by the fire code official. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in 
Group E occupancies where the building is 
equipped throu^out with aii approved automatic 
sprinkler system, the notification appliances will 
activate on sprinkler water flow and manual activa- 
tion is provided from a normally occupied loca- 
tion. 

907.2.3.1 System connection. When more than one fire 
alarm control unit is used at the school campus, they 
shall be interconnected and shall operate all notification 
appliances. 

Exception: Interconnection of fire alarm control 
units is not required when: 



1. Buildings that are separated a minimum of 20 
feet (6096 mm) and in accordance with the Cal- 
ifornia Building Code, 

2. There is a method of communication between 
each classroom and the school administrative 
office approved by the fire enforcing agency. 

907.2.3.2 School fire alarms. Except as provided in Sec- 
tion 907.3, every building used for educational pur- 
poses, regardless of occupancy classification shall be 
provided with an approved fire alarm system. This provi- 
sion shall apply to, but shall not necessarily be limited to, 
every elementary school, high school, community col- 
lege and university. 

Exception: Privately owned trade or vocational 
schools or any firm or company which provides edu- 
cational facilities and instructions for its employees. 

907.2.3.3 Notification. The system notification shall be 
consistent with the requirements for audible and visible 
notification requirements of Section 907 andNFPA 72 as 
amended in Chapter 35. Audible notification shall com- 
ply with the American National Standards Institute 
(ANSI) S3. 41 Emergency Evacuation Signal. An audible 
alarm notification appliance shall be mounted on the 
exterior of buildings to alert occupants in and around the 
playground area. 

907.2.3.4 Annunciation. Annunciation of the fire alarm 
system shall comply with the requirements of Section 
907.9.1. 

907.2.3.5 Supervising station. Fire alarm systems shall 
transmit the alarm, supervisory and trouble signals to an 
approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 
72. The supervising station shall be listed as either 
UUFX (Central Station) or UUJS (remote & propri- 
etary) by the Underwriters Laboratory Inc. (UL) or shall 
comply with the requirements of standard FM 3011. 

907.2.3.6 Public schools — smoke detectors. 

907.2.3.6.1 Automatic detection. Smoke detectors 
shall be used as the primary method of automatic 
alarm initiation except, in areas where the environ- 
ment or ambient conditions exceed smoke detector 
installation guidelines, another method of automatic 
detection shall be used. In areas containing sprin- 
klers, heat detectors may be omitted. Smoke detectors 
shall be designed, installed and maintained in accor- 
dance with Section 907 and NFPA 72 as amended in 
Chapter 45. 

Smoke detectors shall be located at the ceiling of 
every room and area, and in "ceiling-plenums" uti- 
lized for environmental air. In buildings provided with 
an approved automatic fire sprinkler system where 
the ceiling creates a "ceiling-plenum" or a space 
above the ceiling for nonenvironmental air, automatic 
sprinklers shall be installed to protect such spaces of 
buildings that house and or serve students from kin- 
dergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) and are sited 
on a new public school campus as defined in Section 
202. 



106 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



Where the ceiling is attached directly to the under- 
side of the roof structure, automatic smoke detectors 
shall be installed on the ceiling only. 

Heat detectors shall be installed in spaces where 
sprinklers are not installed. Heat detectors shall be 
installed and maintained in accordance with Section 
907 and NFPA 72 as amended in Chapter 45. 

907.2.3.7 Public school — automatic fire alarm system 
requirements. 

907.2.3. 7.1 New public school campus. On or after 
Julyl, 2002, a State Fire Marshal approved and listed 
automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in all 
new public school campus as defined in Section 202. 
The approved fire alarm system shall be both auto- 
matic and manual and maintained in accordance with 
Section 907 and Chapter 45. At least one manual box 
shall be installed for the purpose of manually initiat- 
ing the fire alarm system. 

907.2.3. 7.2 Modernization project. A State Fire Mar- 
shal approved and listed fire alarm system shall be 
provided in all modernization projects as defined in 
Section 202. The approved fire alarm system shall be 
both automatic and manual and maintained in accor- 
dance with Section 907 and Chapter 45. When the 
requirements of this section are met, manual fire 
alarm boxes are not required throughout the modern- 
ization project. At least one manual box shall be 
installedfor the purpose of manually initiating the fire 
alarm system. 

907.2.3.8 Portable buildings — automatic fire alarm 
system requirements. 

907.2.3.8.1 Permanent-portable buildings. A porta- 
ble building that is used to serve or house students 
from kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) and 
is certified as a permanent building on a new public 
school campus by the public school administration 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 
907.2.3.7.1. 

907.2.3.8.2 Permanent-portable building modern- 
ization project. A permanent-portable building to 
undergo modernization efforts, and is used to serve or 
house students from kindergarten through twelfth 
grade (K-12} that is certified as a permanent building 
by the public school administration shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 907.2.3.7.2. 

907.2.3.8.3 Exempted portable building. A portable 
building as defined in Section 202 that is certified by 
the public school administration as being sited on 
campus for less than three years is not required to 
install an automatic fire detection system or auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 

907.2.4 Group F. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group F occupancies that are two or more sto- 
ries in height and have an occupant load of 500 or more 
above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 



Exception: Manual fce alai-m boxes ai-e not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.5 Group H. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used 
for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic 
smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic 
gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with 
Chapters 37, 39 and 40, respectively. 

907.2.6 Group I. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group I occupancies. An electrically super- 
vised, automatic smoke detection system shall be provided 
in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1 and 907.2.6.2. 

Exception: Large-family day care. 

907.2.6.1 Group I-l. Corridors, habitable spaces other 
than sleeping units and kitchens, and waiting areas that 
are open to corridors shall be equipped with an automatic 
smoke detection system. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not re- 
quired where the facility is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior 
balconies. 

907.2.6.1.1 Licensed group I-l occupancies. 

Licensed Group I-l occupancies housing more than 
six nonambulatory, elderly clients shall be provided 
with an approved manual and automatic fire alarm 
system. 

Exceptions: Buildings housing nonambulatory 
clients on the first story only and which are pro- 
tected throughout by the following: 

1. An approved and supervised automatic 
sprinkler system, as specified in Sections 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, which upon activa- 
tion will initiate the fire alarm system to no- 
tify all occupants. 

2. A manual fire alarm system. 

3. Smoke alarms requiredbySection907.2. 10. 

907.2.6.2 Group 1-2 and Group 1-2.1. An approved 
manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be pro- 
vided for Group 1-2 and 1-2.1 occupancies. Audible 
appliances shall be used in nonpatient areas. Visible 
appliances may be used in lieu of audible appliances in 
patient-occupied areas. Audible appliances placed in 
patient areas shall be only chimes or similar sounding 
appliances for alerting staff. An automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be provided. 

Exceptions: 

1. Heat detectors may be used in closets, unusable 
space under floor areas, storage rooms, bath- 
rooms, attics, kitchens, laundry rooms and 
rooms of similar use. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



107 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. When an entire facility is used for the housing of 
persons, none of whom are physically or men- 
tally handicapped or nonambulatory, and are 
between the ages of 18 and 64, the buildings or 
structures comprising such facility shall be ex- 
empt from the provisions of this subsection re- 
lating to the installation of an automatic fire 
alarm system. 

In occupancies housing nonambulatory persons 
where restraint is practiced, stajfand attendants shall be 
provided and housed or located in such a manner that 
such supervisory personnel will also be alerted upon 
activation of any detector required by this section. Auto- 
matic-closing doors shall comply with Section 715.4. 7.3. 

907.2.6.2.1 Smoke detectors shall be installed in 
patient and client sleeping rooms. Actuation of such 
detectors shall cause a visual display on the corridor 
side of the room in which the detector is located and 
shall cause an audible and visual alarm at the respec- 
tive nurses' station. A nurse call system listed for this 
function is an acceptable method ofproviding the audi- 
ble and visual alarm at the respective nurses station. 

Exception: In rooms equipped with existing auto- 
matic door closers having integral smoke detec- 
tors, the integral detector may substitute for the 
room smoke detector, provided it meets all required 
alerting functions. 

Operation of the smoke detector shall not include 
any alarm verification feature. 

907.2.6.3 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupan- 
cies shall be equipped with a manual and automatic fiure 
alarm system installed for alerting staff. 

907.2.6.3.1 System initiation. Actuation of any auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarm 
box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire 
alarm signal which automatically notifies staff. 
Presignal systems shall not be used. 

907.2.6.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire 
alarm boxes are not required to be located in accor- 
dance with Section 907.4 where the fire alarm boxes 
are provided at staff-attended locations having direct 
supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes 
have been omitted. 

Manual fire alarm boxes ai'e allowed to be locked in 
areas occupied by detainees, proved that staff mem- 
bers are present within the subject ai'ea and have keys 
readily available to operate the manual fire alarm 
boxes. 

907.2.6.3.3 Smoke detectors. An approved auto- 
matic smoke detection system shall be installed 
throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping 
units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces 
and other common spaces normally accessible to 
inmates. 

Exception: Other approved smoke detection 
arrangements may be used to prevent damage or 



tampering or for other purposes provided the 
function of detecting any fire is fulfilled and the 
location of the detectors is such that the speed of 
detection will be equivalent to that provided by the 
spacing and location required in accordance with 
NFPA 72 as referenced in Chapter 45. This may 
include the location of detectors in return air ducts 
from cells, behind grilles or in other locations. 
Spot type, combination duct and open area smoke 
detectors may be used when located not more than 
14 inches (356 mm) from the return air grille. For 
initiation and annunciation purposes, these detec- 
tors may be combined in groups of four The fire 
code official having jurisdiction, however, must 
approve the proposed equivalent performance of 
the design. 

907.2.6.3.4 System annunciation A staff alerting fire 
alarm shall sound at all staff control stations on the 
floor of activation and an audible and visual signal 
shall be indicated on an annunciator at the facility 
control center upon activation of any automatic extin- 
guishing system, automatic detection system, or any 
smoke detector or manual actuating or initiating 
device. In addition, where there are staff-control sta- 
tions on the floor, an audible, visual and manual 
alarm shall be located in each staff control station. 

Fire and trouble signals of fire alarm systems and 
sprinkler water-flow and supervisory signals of extin- 
guishing systems shall be annunciated in an area des- 
ignated as the facility control center which shall be 
constantly attended by staff personnel. All such sig- 
nals shall produce both an audible signal and visual 
display at the facility control center indicating the 
building, floor zone or other designated area from 
which the signal originated in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.9. 

All local detention facilities within the scope of Sec- 
tion 6031.4 of the Penal Code shall have an automatic 
smoke detection system. A manual fire alarm-initiat- 
ing device shall be installed in all guard control sta- 
tions and shall be capable of alerting personnel in a 
central control point to the presence of fire or smoke 
within the facility. 

907.2.6,4 Large-family day-care. Every large-family 
day-care home shall be provided with at least one man- 
ual device at a location approved by the enforcing 
agency. Such device shall actuate afire alarm signal, 
which shall be audible throughout the facility at a mini- 
mum level of 15 db above ambient noise level. These 
devices need not be interconnected to any other fire 
alarm device, have a control panel or be electrically 
supervised or provided with emergency power. Such 
device or devices shall be attached to the structure and 
may be of any type acceptable to the enforcing agency, 
provided that such devices are distinctive in tone and are 
audible throughout the structure. 

Wl.l.l Group M. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group M occupancies having an occupant load 



108 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. Tire initiation of a 
signal from a manual fire alarm box shall initiate alarm noti- 
fication appliances as required by Section 907.10. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A manual fire alarm system is required in covered 
mall buildings complying with Section' 402 of the 
California Building Code. 

2. Manual fire alai-m boxes ai-e not required where the 
building is equipped thi"oughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will automatically activate upon sprinkler 
water flow. 

907.2.7.1 Occupant notification. During times that the 
building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a 
manual fire alarm box or from a water flow switch shall 
not be requii"ed to activate the alarai notification appli- 
ances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly 
attended location from which evacuation instructions 
shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.2. 

The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, 
provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence 
. over any other use. 

907.2.8 Group R-1 and Group R-4. Fire alarm systems 
shall be installed in Group R-1 and Group R-4 occupancies 
as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.4. 

907.2.8.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fiie 
alarm system shall be installed in Group R-1 occupan- 
cies. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual sleeping units and contigu- 
ous attic and crawl spaces are separated firom 
each other and public or common areas by at 
least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual 
sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public 
way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped tliroughout 
with an automatic sprinlder system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3. 1.2. 

2.2. The notification appliances will activate 
upon sprinkler water flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is in- 
stalled at an approved location. 

907.2.8.2 Automatic fire alarm system. An automatic 
fu-e alai-m system shall be installed throughout all interior 
corridors serving sleeping units. 



Exception: An automatic fire detection system is not 
requked in buildings that do not have interior coiri- 
dors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping 
unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an 
exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit. 

907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be 
installed as required by Section 907.2.10. In buildings 
that are not equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the smoke alarms in sleeping 
units shall be connected to an emergency electrical sys- 
tem and shall be annunciated by sleeping unit at a con- 
stantly attended location from which the fire alarm 
system is capable of being manually activated. 

907.2.8.4 Fire alarm systems in Group R-4 occupan- 
cies. An approved manual and automatic fire alarm sys- 
tem shall be installed in accordance with Section 
907.2.8. 

Exceptions: 

1. Protective social care occupancies housing 
persons none of whom are physically or men- 
tally handicapped or nonambulatory and which 
provide supervisory services such as alcohol- 
ism or drug abuse recovery or treaPnent facili- 
ties, halfway houses operated by the California 
Department of Corrections, and similar facili- 
ties and are provided with a manual fire alann 
box which will actuate a distinctive fire alarm 
signal that can be heard throughout the facility. 

2. Protective social care facilities provided with 
an automatic sprinkler system which complies 
with Chapter 9 and are provided with a manual 
fire alarm box which will actuate a distinctive 
fire alann signal that can be heard throughout 
the facility. 

907.2.9 Group R-2. A manual fu-e alarm system shall be 
installed in Group R-2 occupancies where: 

1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or 
more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge; 

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more 
than one story below the highest level of exit dis- 
charge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit; or 

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or 
sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fh'e alarm system is not required in buildings 
not more than two stories in height where all 
dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous 
attic and crawl spaces are separated from each 
other and public or common areas by at least 
1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public 
way, exit court or yai-d. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



109 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2; and 

2.2. The notification appliances will activate 
upon sprinkler flow. 

3 . A fire alarm system is not required in buildings 
that do not have interior corridors serving 
dwelling units and are protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that dwelling units either have a means of 
egress door opening directly to an exterior exit 
access that leads directly to the exits or are 
served by open-ended corridors designed in ac- 
cordance with Section 1023.6, Exception 4. 

907.2.10 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. 

Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms comply- 
ing with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with the 
provisions of this code and the household fire-waming 
equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

Exception: For Group R occupancies. Afire alarm sys- 
tem with smoke detectors located in accordance with this 
section may be installed in lieu of smoke alarms. Upon 
actuation of the detector, only those notification appli- 
ances in the dwelling unit or guestroom where the detec- 
tor is actuated shall activate. 

907.2.10.1 Where required. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in the locations described 
in Sections 907.2.10.1.1 through 907.2.10.1.3. 

907.2.10.1.1 Group R-1, Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following 
locations in Group R-1: 

1. In sleeping areas. 

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress 
from the sleeping area to the door leading from 
the sleeping unit. 

3 . In each story within the sleeping unit, including 
basements. For sleeping units with split levels 
and without an intervening door between the 
adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the 
upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower 
level provided that the lower level is less than 
one full story below the upper level. 

4. In enclosed common stairwells of multi- 
ple-dwelling complexes. 

907.2.10.1.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-3.1, R-4 and I-l. 

Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be 
installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-3.1, 
R-4 and I-l regardless of occupant load at all of the 
following locations: 



1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate 
sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bed- 
rooms. 

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes. 

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including 
basements but not including crawl spaces and 
uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling 
units with split levels and without an interven- 
ing door between the adjacent levels, a smoke 
alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice 
for the adjacent lower level provided that the 
lower level is less than one full story below the 
upper level. 

4. In enclosed common stairwells of apartment 
complexes and other multiple-dwelling com- 
plexes. 

5. In Group R-3.1 occupancies, in addition to the 
above, smoke alarms shall be provided 
throughout the habitable areas of the dwelling 
unit except kitchens. 

907.2.10.1.3 Group I-l. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in 
sleeping areas in Group I-l occupancies. 

Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke 
alarms shall not be required where the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.2.6. 

907.2.10.1.4 Group 1-4 occupancies. Large-family 
day-care homes shall be equipped with State Fire 
Marshal approved and listed single-station residen- 
tial-type smoke alarms. 

907.2.10.1.5 Group R-3.1. In all facilities housing a 
bedridden client, smoke alarms shall receive their 
primary power from the building wiring when such 
wiring is served from a commercial source and shall 
be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms 
shall be electrically interconnected so as to cause all 
smoke alarms to sound a distinctive alarm signal 
upon actuation of any single smoke alarm. Such 
alarm signal shall be audible throughout the facility 
at a minimal level of 15 db above ambient noise level. 
These devices need not be interconnected to any other 
fire alarm device, have a control panel, or be electri- 
cally supervised or providedwith emergency power 

907.2.10.2 Power source. In new construction and in 
newly classified Group R-3.1 occupancies, required 
smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the 
building wiring where such wiring is served from a com- 
mercial source and shall be equipped with a battery 
backup. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the bat- 
teries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a 
disconnecting switch other than as required for 
overcurrent protection. 

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be 
equipped with battery backup in Group R-1 where 
they are connected to an emergency electrical system. 



110 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



907.2.10.3 Interconnection. Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individ- 
ual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-2, R-3, 
R-3.1, or R-4, or within an individual sleeping unit in 
Group R-1, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in 
such a manner that the activation of one alarm will acti- 
vate all of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm 
shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background 
noise levels with all intervening doors closed. 

907.2.10.4 Acceptance testing. When the installation of 
the alaiTO devices is complete, each detector and inter- 
connecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices 
shall be tested in accordance with the household fire 
warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

907.2.10.5 Existing Group R-3 occupancies. 

907.2.10.5.1 Existing buildings housing Group R-3 
occupancies established prior to the effective date of 
these regulations may have their use continued if they 
conform or are made to conform to provisions of these 
regulations to the extent that reasonable and ade- 
quate life safety against the hazards of fire, panic and 
explosion is substantially provided. Additional means 
of egress, the installation of automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems, automatic fire alarm system or other life safety 
measures, may be required to provide reasonable and 
adequate safety. 

Note: It is the intent of this section that every exist- 
ing occupancy need not mandatorily conform to 
the requirements for new construction. Reason- 
able judgment in the application of requirements 
must be exercised by the enforcing agency. 

907.2.10.5.2 For purposes of clarification. Health 
and Safety Code Section 13113. 7 is repeated. 

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a 
smoke detector, approved and listed by the State 
Fire Marshal pursuant to Section 13114, shall be 
installed, in accordance with tlie manufacturer's 
instructions in each dwelling intended for human 
occupancy within the earliest applicable time 
period as follows: 

■ (1) For all dwelling units intended for human 
occupancy, upon the owner's application on or 
after January 1, 1985, for a permit for alterations, 
repairs, or additions, exceeding one thousand dol- 
lars ($1,000). 

(2) For all other dwelling units intended for human 
occupancy on or after January 1, 1987. 

However, if any local rule, regulation, or ordi- 
nance, adopted prior to the compliance dates 
specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) requires instal- 
lation in a dwelling unit intended for human occu- 
pancy of smoke detector, which receive their power 
from the electrical system of the building and 
requires compliance with the local rule, regula- 
tion, or ordinance at a date subsequent to the dates 
specified in this section, tlie compliance date spec- 
ified in the rule, regulation, or ordinance shall, but 



only with respect to the dwelling units specified in 
this section, take precedence over the dates speci- 
fied in this section. 

The State Fire Marshal may adopt regulations 
exempting dwellings intended for human occu- 
pancy with fire sprinkler systems from the provi- 
sions of this section, if he or she determines that a 
smoke detector is not reasonably necessary for fire 
safety in the occupancy. 

Unless prohibited by local rules, regulations, or 
ordinances, a battery-operated smoke detector 
which otherwise meets the standards adopted pur- 
suant to Section 13114 for smoke detectors, satis- 
fies the requirements of this section. 

(b) "Dwelling units intended for human occu- 
pancy," as used in this section, includes a duplex, 
lodging house, apartment complex, hotel, motel, 
condominium, stock cooperative, time-share pro- 
ject, or dwelling unit of a multiple-unit dwelling 
complex. For the purpose of this part, "dwelling 
units intended for human occupancy" does not 
include manufactured homes as defined in Section 
18007, mobilehomes defined in Section 18008, 
and commercial as defined in 18001.8. 

(c)The owner of each dwelling unit subject to this 
section shall supply and install smoke detectors 
required by this section in the locations and in the 
manner set fortJi in the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions, as approved by the State Fire Marshal's reg- 
ulations. In the case of apartment complexes and 
other multiple-dwelling complexes, a smoke detec- 
tor shall be installed in the common stairwells. All 
fire alarm warning systems supplemental to the 
smoke detector shall also be listed by the State Fire 
Marshal. 

(d) A higJi-rise structure, as defined in subdivision 
(b) of Section 13210 and regulated by Chapter 3 
(commencing with Section 13210), and which is 
used for purposes other than as dwelling units 
intended for human occupancy, is exempt from the 
requirements of this section. 

(e) The owner shall be responsible for testing and 
maintaining detectors in hotels, motels, lodging 
houses, and common stairwells of apartment com- 
plexes and other multiple dwelling complexes. 

An owner or the owner's agent may enter any 
dwelling unit, efficiency dwelling unit, guestroom, 
and suite owned by the owner for the purpose of 
installing, repairing, testing, and maintaining sin- 
gle station smoke detectors required by this sec- 
tion. Except in cases of emergency, the owner or 
owner's agent shall give tJie tenants of each such 
unit, room, or suite reasonable notice in writing of 
the intention to enter and shall enter only during 
normal business hours. Twenty-four hours shall be 
presumed to be reasonable notice in absence of 
evidence to the contrary. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



111 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



The smoke detector shall be operable at the time 
that the tenant takes possession. The apartment com- 
plex tenant shall be responsible for notifying the man- 
ager or owner if the tenant becomes aware of an 
inoperable smoke detector within his or her unit. The 
owner or authorized agent shall correct any reported 
deficiencies in the smoke detector and shall not be in 
violation of this section for a deficient smoke detector 
when he or she has not received notice of the defi- 
ciency. 

(f) A violation of this section is an infraction punish- 
able by a maximum fine of two hundred dollars 
($200.00) for each offense. 

(g) This section shall not affect any rights which the 
parties may have under any other provision of law 
because of the presence or absence of a smoke detec- 
tor. 

(h) This section shall not apply to the installation of 
smoke detectors in single-family dwellings or fac- 
tory-built housing which is regulated by Section 
13113.8, as added by Assembly Bill No. 2285 of the 
1983-84 Regular Session. 

907.2.10.5.3 For purposes of clarification, Health 
and Safety Code Section 13113.8 is repeated. 

(a) On and after January 1, 1986, every sin- 
gle-family dwelling and factory-built housing, as 
defined in Section 19971, which is sold shall have 
an operable smoke detector. The detector shall be 
approved and listed by the State Fire Marshal and 
installed in accordance with the State Fire Mar- 
shal's regulations. Unless prohibited by local 
rules, regulations, or ordinances, a battery-oper- 
ated smoke detector shall be deemed to satisfy the 
requirements of this section. 

(b) On and after January 1, 1986, the transferor of 
any real property containing a single-family 
dwelling, as described in subdivision (a), whether 
the transfer is made by sale, exchange, or real 
property sales contract, as defined in Section 2985 
of the Civil Code, shall deliver to the transferee a 
written statement indicating that the transferor is 
in compliance with this section. The disclosure 
statement shall be either included in the receipt for 
deposit in a real estate transaction, an addendum 
attached thereto, or a separate document. 

(c) The transferor shall deliver the statement 
referred to in subdivision (b) as soon as practica- 
ble before the transfer of title in the case of a sale 
or exchange, or prior to execution of the contract 
where the transfer is by a real property sales con- 
tract, as defined in Section 2985. For purposes of 
this subdivision, "delivery " means delivery in per- 
son or by mail to the transferee or transferor, or to 
any person authorized to act for him or her in the 
transaction, or to additional transferees who have 
requested delivery from the transferor in writing. 
Delivery to the spouse of a transferee or transferor 



shall be deemed delivery to a transferee or trans- 
feror, unless the contract states otherwise. 

(d) This section does not apply to any of the follow- 
ing: 

(1) Transfers which are required to be preceded 
by the furnishing to a prospective transferee of 
a copy of a public report pursuant to Section 
11018.1 of the Business and Professions Code. 

(2) Transfers pursuant to court order, includ- 
ing, but not limited to, transfers ordered by a 
probate court in the administration of an estate, 
transfers pursuant to a writ of execution, trans- 
fers by a trustee in bankruptcy, transfers by emi- 
nent domain, or transfers resulting from a 
decree for specific performance. 

(3) Transfers to a mortgagee by a mortgagor in 
default, transfers to a beneficiary of a deed of 
trust by a trustor in default, transfers by any 
foreclosure sale after default, transfers by any 
foreclosure sale after default in an obligation 
secured by a mortgage, or transfers by a sale 
under a power of sale after a default in an obli- 
gation secured by a deed of trust or secured by 
any other instrument containing a power of 
sale. 

(4) Transfers by a fiduciary in the course of the 
administration of a decedent's estate, guard- 
ianship, conservatorship, or trust. 

(5) Transfers from one co-owner to one or more 
co-owners. 

(6) Transfers made to a spouse, or to a person 
or persons in the lineal line of consanguinity of 
one or more of the transferors. 

(7) Transfers between spouses resulting from a 
decree of dissolution of a marriage, from a 
decree of legal separation, or from a property 
settlement agreement incidental to either of 
those decrees. 

(8) Transfers by the Controller in the course of 
administering the Unclaimed Property Law 
provided for in Chapter 7 (commencing with 
Section 1500) of Title 10 of Part 3 of the Code of 
Civil Procedure. 

(9) Transfers under the provisions of Chapter 7 
(commencing with Section 3691) or Chapter 8 
(commencing with Section 3771) of Part 6 of 
Division 1 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. 

(e) No liability shall arise, nor any action be 
brought or maintained against, any agent of any 
party to a transfer of title, including any person or 
entity acting in the capacity of an escrow, for any 
error, inaccuracy, or omission relating to the dis- 
closure required to be made by a transferor pursu- 
ant to this section. 

However, this subdivision does not apply to a 
licensee, as defined in Section 10011 of the Busi- 



112 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



ness and Professions Code, where the licensee 
participates in the making of the disclosure 
required to be made pursuant to this section with 
actual knowledge of the falsity of the disclosure. 

(g) Except as otherwise provided in this section, 
this section shall not be deemed to create or imply 
a duty upon a licensee, as defined in Section 10011 
of the Business and Professions Code, or upon any 
agent of any party to a transfer of title, including 
any person or entity acting in the capacity of an 
escrow, to monitor or ensure compliance with this 
section. 

(h) Local ordinances requiring smoke detectors in 
single-family dwellings may be enacted or 
amended. However, the ordinances shall satisfy 
the minimum requirements of this section. 

(i) For the purposes of this section, "single-family 
dwelling" does not include a manufactured home 
as defined in Section 18007, a mobile home as 
defined in Section 18008, or a commercial coach 
as defined in Section 18001.8. 

(j) This section shall not apply to the installation of 
smoke detectors in dwellings intended for human 
occupancy, as defined in and regulated by Section 
13113.7 of the Health and Safety Code, as added 
by Senate Bill No. 1448 in the 1983-84 Regular 
■ Session. 

907.2.11 Special amusement buildings. An approved 
automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in spe- 
cial amusement buildings in accordance with this section. 

Exception: In areas where ambient conditions will cause 
a smoke detection system to alarm, an approved alterna- 
tive type of automatic detector shall be installed. 

907.2.11.1 Alarm. Activation of any single smoke 
detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other 
automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound 
an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location 
from which emergency action can be initiated, including 
the capability of manual initiation of requirements in 
Section 907.2.11.2. 

907.2.11.2 System response. The activation of two or 
more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector with 
alarm verification, the automatic sprinkler system or 
other approved fire detection device shall automatically: 

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with 
light of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the 
walking surface level; 

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and vi- 
sual distractions; and 

3. Activate an approved dii-ectional exit mai-king that 
will become apparent in an emergency. 

Such system response shall also include activation of a 
prerecorded message, cleaiiy audible throughout the 
special amusement building, instructing patrons to pro- 
ceed to the neai-est exit. Alarm signals used in conjunc- 
tion with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound 



which is distinctive from other sounds used during nor- 
mal operation. 

The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment 
used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall 
be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.2.11.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
system. An emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem, which is also allowed to serve as a public address 
system, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72 
and be audible throughout the entire special amusement 
building. 

907.2.12 High-rise buildings. High-rise iiuildings shall be 
provided with an automatic fire alarm system and an emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system in accordance 
with Section 907.2.12.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport ti-affic control towers in accordance with 
Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the California 
Building Code. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3 of the California Building Code. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in ac- 
cordance with Section 303.1 of the California 
Building Code. 

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance 
with Section 503.1.1 of the California Building 
Code. 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the Califor- 
nia Building Code. 

907.2.12.1 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detectors 
shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke 
detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm 
system. The activation of any detector required by this 
section shall operate the emergency voice/alarm commu- 
nication system. Smoke detectors shall be located as fol- 
lows: 

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, trans- 
former, telephone equipment or similar room 
which is not provided with sprinkler protection, el- 
evator machine rooms, and in elevator lobbies. 

2. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of 
each air-conditioning system having a capacity 
greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) 
(0.94 mVs). Such detectors shall be located in a 
serviceable area downsti^eam of the last duct inlet. 

3. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serv- 
ing two or more stories from a return air duct or 
plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group 
R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a listed smoke detector 
is allowed to be used in each return-air riser carry- 
ing not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 mVs) and serving 
not more than 10 air-inlet openings. 

907.2.12.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
system. The operation of any automatic fire detector. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



113 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



sprinkler water-flow device or manual fire alarm box 
shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice 
instructions giving approved information and directions 
for a general or staged evacuation on a minimum of the 
alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below in 
accordance with the building's fire safety and evacuation 
plans required by Section 404. Speakers shall be pro- 
vided throughout the building by paging zones. As a 
minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows: 

1. Elevator groups. 

2. Exit stairways. 

3. Each floor. 

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002.1. 

Exception: In Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies, the 
alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a 
general occupant notification shall be broadcast over 
the overhead page. 

907.2.12.2.1 Manual override. A manual override 
for emergency voice communication shall be pro- 
vided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging 
zones. 

907.2.12.2.2 Live voice messages. The emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall also have 
the capability to broadcast live voice messages 
through paging zones on a selective and all-call basis. 

907.2.12.2.3 Standard. The emergency voice/alarm 
communication system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.2.12.3 Fire department communication system. 

An approved two-way, fire department communication 
system designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 
72 shall be provided for fire department use. It shall oper- 
ate between a fure command center complying with Sec- 
tion 509 and elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and 
standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge 
and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department 
communication device shall be provided at each floor 
level within the enclosed exit stairway. 

Exception: Fire department radio systems where 
approved by the fire department. 

907.2.13 Atriums connecting more than two stories. A 

fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an 
atrium that connects more than two stories. The system shall 
be activated in accordance with Section 907.7. Such occu- 
pancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system complying with 
the requirements of Section 907.2.12.2. 

907.2.14 High-piled combustible storage areas. An auto- 
matic fure detection system shall be installed throughout 
high-piled combustible storage areas where required by 
Section 2306.5. 

907.2.15 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress 
locks or devices are installed on means of egress doors in 
accordance with Section 1008.1.8.6, an automatic smoke 



detection system shall be installed as required by that sec- 
tion. 

907.2.15.1 In other than Group I occupancies and Group 
R-4 occupancies for single-story buildings, smoke detec- 
tors shall be installed at ceilings throughout all occupied 
areas and mechanical/electrical spaces. For multi- 
ple-story buildings, smoke detectors shall be installed 
throughout all occupied areas and mechanical/electrical 
spaces for the story where delayed egress devices are 
installed. Additional detectors are required on adjacent 
stories where occupants of those stories utilize the same 
means of egress. 

907.2.15.2 For Group I. Smoke detectors shall be 
installed at ceilings throughout all occupied areas, 
restrooms, closets, storage rooms and mechanical/elec- 
trical spaces of smoke compartments where delayed 
egress locks are installed. Heat detectors may be used in 
kitchens, laundry rooms and rooms of similar use. Addi- 
tional detectors are required in adjacent smoke compart- 
ments where occupants of those compartments utilize the 
same means of egress. 

907.2.15.3 For Group R-4. Occupancies licensed as res- 
idential care facilities for the elderly, and housing clients 
with Alzheimer's disease or dementia residential facili- 
ties, smoke detectors shall be installed at ceilings 
throughout all occupied areas, restrooms, closets, stor- 
age rooms and mechanical/electrical spaces. Heat 
detectors may be used in kitchens, laundry rooms and 
rooms of similar use. 

907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses. Aerosol storage rooms and 
general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be 
provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where 
required by this code. 

907.2.17 Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer 
mills. Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall 
be provided with a manual fire alarm system. 

907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke exhaust 

systems. Where a smoke exhaust system is installed in an 
underground building in accordance with the California 
Building Code, automatic fire detectors shall be provided in 
accordance with this section. 

907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. A minimum of one smoke 
detector Usted for the intended purpose shall be installed 
in the following areas: 

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, 
telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar- 
rooms. 

2. Elevator lobbies. 

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each 
air-conditioning system serving more than one 
story and located in a serviceable area downstream 
of the last duct inlet. 

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving 
two or more floors from return air ducts or ple- 
nums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a 



114 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each 
return-air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm 
(2.4 mVs) and serving not more than 10 air inlet 
openings. 

907.2.18.2 Alarm required. Activation of the smoke 
exhaust system shall activate an audible alarm at a con- 
stantly attended location. 

907.2.19 Underground buildings. Where the lowest level 
of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the 
lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be 
equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, 
including an emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

907.2.19.1 Public address system. Where a fire alarm 
system is not required by Section 907.2, a public address 
system shall be provided which shall be capable of trans- 
mitting voice communications to the highest level of exit 
discharge serving the underground portions of the struc- 
ture and all levels below. 

907.2.20 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings 
exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) in total floor area 
shall be provided with an emergency voice/alai'm communi- 
cation system. An emergency voice/alarm communication 
system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be acces- 
sible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

907.2.21 Residential aircraft hangars. A minimum of one 
listed smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential air- 
craft hangar as defined in the California Building Code and 
shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or 
other sounding device to provide an alarm which will be 
audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling. 

907.2.22 Airport traffic control towers. An automatic fire 
detection system shall be provided in airport traffic control 
towers. 

907.2.23 Battery rooms. An approved automatic smoke 
detection system shall be installed in areas containing sta- 
tionary storage battery systems having a liquid capacity of 
more than 50 gallons (189 L). The detection system shall be 
supervised by an approved central, proprietary, or remote 
station service or a local alarm which will sound an audible 
signal at a constantly attended location. 

907.2.24 Motion picture and television production studio 
sound stages and approved production facilities. 

907.2.24.1 Sound stages — solid-ceiling sets and plat- 
forms. All interior solid-ceiling sets over 600 square feet 
(55. 7 m^) in area, and platforms (when provided) over 
600 square feet (55. 7 m^) in area and which exceed 3 feet 
(914 mm) in height shall be protected by one of the fol- 
lowing: 

1. An approved and listed heat detector system. Heat 
detectors shall be spaced 30 feet (9144 mm) on 
center or as required by the manufacturer 's instal- 
lation instructions. Detectors shall be connected 



to an approved and listed central, proprietary or 
remote station service or a local alarm which will 
give an audible signal at a constantly attended lo- 
cation. Such system shall be installed in accor- 
dance with this chapter. 

2. The ceiling shall be positioned to allow for the op- 
eration of the building's automatic fire sprinkler 
system after rehearsal, videotaping, filming, or 
broadcasting of programs has been completed for 
the day. 

3. An approved fire watch. 

4. Special hazards shall be reviewed by the fire code 
official (see Additional Fire Protection Systems, 
Section 901.4.3). 

907.2.24.2 Production locations — solid-ceiling sets 
and platforms. In buildings with existing fire protection 
systems and where production intends to construct 
solid-ceiling sets over 600 square feet (55. 7 w?) in area, 
and platforms over 600 square feet (55. 7 m^) in area and 
which exceed 3 feet (914 mm) in height shall be protected 
by one of the following: 

1. An approved and listed heat detector system. Heat 
detectors shall be spaced 30 feet (9144 mm) on 
center or as required by the manufacturer's instal- 
lation instructions. Detectors shall be connected 
to an approved and listed central, proprietary or 
remote station service or a local alarm which will 
give an audible signal at a constantly attended lo- 
cation. Such system shall be installed in accor- 
dance with this chapter. 

2. The ceiling shall be positioned to allow for the op- 
eration of the building's automatic fire sprinkler 
system after rehearsal, videotaping, filming, or 
broadcasting of programs has been completed for 
the day. 

3. An approved fire watch. 

4. Special hazards shall be reviewed by the enforcing 
agency (see additional fire protection systems, 
Section 901.4.3.). 

907.2.24.3 Fire alarm control units. Fire alarm control 
units shall be California State Fire Marshal listed and 
shall be utilized in accordance with their listing. Control 
units may be temporarily supported by sets, platforms or 
pedestals. 

907.2.24.4 Heat detectors. Heat detection required by 
this section shall be defined as a portable system as it is 
intended to be reinstalled when platforms or sets are 
changed. 

Heat detectors shall be secured to standard outlet 
boxes which may be temporarily supported by sets, plat- 
forms or pedestals. 

Heat detectors shall be provided for solid-ceiling sets 
and platforms where required by Section 4605.3 and 
4611.14. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



115 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



907.2.25 Group C occupancies (Organized Camps). 

907.2.25.1 General. Every building and structure used 
or intended for sleeping purposes shall be provided with 
an automatic smoke-detection system. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings and structures in existence and in op- 
eration prior to January 1, 1985. 

2. Tents, tent structures and buildings and struc- 
tures that do not exceed 25 ft (7620 mm) in any 
lateral dimensions and where such building or 
structure is not more than one story. 

907.2.25.2 Camp fire alarm. Every organized camp 
shall provide and maintain a device or devices suitable 
for sounding afire alarm. Such device or devices may be 
of any type acceptable to the enforcing agency provided 
they are distinctive in tone from all other signaling 
devices or systems and shall be audible throughout the 
camp premises. When an automatic fire alarm system is 
provided, as required by Section 440.6.6 of the Califor- 
nia Building Code, all signaling devices required by this 
section shall be of the same type as'that used in the auto- 
matic system. 

907.2.26 Fixed guideway transits systems fire alarm and 
communication systems. 

907.2.26.1 General. Everyfixed guideway transit station 
shall be provided with an approved fire alarm system. 
The alarm and communication systems shall be propri- 
etary, designed and installed so that damage to any one 
speaker will not render any paging zone of the system 
inoperative. 

Exception: Open stations. 

The voice alarm and public address system may be a 
combined system. When approved by the fire department, 
a communications system may be combined with the 
voice alarm system and the public address system. Such 
combined systems shall meet the requirements of the 
California Electrical Code. 

907.2.26.2 System components. Each station fire alarm 
system shall consist of: 

1. Fire alarm control unit at a location as permitted 
by the enforcing agency. 

2. An alarm annunciator(s). The annunciator(s) 
shall be located at a point acceptable to the enforc- 
ing agency. The annunciator(s) shall indicate the 
type of device and general location of alarm. All 
alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be 
transmitted to the local annunciator(s) and the 

oca 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be provided 
throughout passenger platforms and stations. 

Exception: Voice alarm reporting devices 
(emergency telephones) may be used in lieu of 
manual fire alarm boxes as permitted by the 
enforcing agency. 



Such devices shall provide two-way communication 
between the OCC and each device. Such devices shall be 
located as required for manual fire alarm boxes, and 
shall be distinctly identified by signs, coloring, or other 
means acceptable to the enforcing agency. 

4. Automatic smoke detectors in all ancillary spaces. 

Exceptions: 

1. Ancillary spaces protected by an ap- 
proved fixed automatic extinguishing sys- 
tem; or 

2. Ancillary spaces protected by quick-re- 
sponse sprinklers. 

5. Automatic control of exiting components. 

907.2.26.3 Combined voice alarm/public address sys- 
tem. Each station shall be provided with a one-way pag- 
ing system(s) capable of transmitting voice, tape or 
electronically generated messages to all areas of the sta- 
tion. The system(s) shall be configured such that the mes- 
sages can be initiated from either the Emergency 
Management Panel (EMP) or the OCC. 

907.2.26.4 Emergency telephones. A dedicated emer- 
gency phone system shall be provided in all underground 
stations to facilitate direct communications for emer- 

' gency response between remote locations and the EMP. 

907.2.26.4.1 The remote phones shall be located at 
ends of station platforms, each hose outlet connection 
and station valve rooms. 

907.2.26.4.2 Provisions shall be made in the design of 
this system for extensions of the system to the next pas- 
senger station or guideway portal. 

907.2.27 Winery caves. An approved manual fire alarm sys- 
tem conforming to the provisions of Section 907.2.1 shall be 
provided in all Type 3 winery caves. 

907.3 Where required — retroactive in existing buildings 
and structures. An approved manual, automatic or manual 
and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in existing 
buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.3.1 
through 907.3.1.8. Where automatic sprinkler protection is 
provided in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 
and connected to the building fire alarm system, automatic heat 
detection required by this section shall not be required. 

An approved automatic fire detection system shall be 
installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and 
NFPA 72. Devices, combinations of devices, appliances and 
equipment shall be approved. The automatic fire detectors shall 
be smoke detectors, except an approved alternative type of 
detector shall be installed in spaces such as boiler rooms where, 
during normal operation, products of combustion ai"e present in 
sufficient quantity to actuate a smoke detector. 

907.3.1 Occupancy requirements. A fire alarm system 
shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.3.1.1 
through 907.3.1.8. 

Exception: Occupancies with an existing, previously 
approved fire alarm system. 



116 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



907.3.1.1 Group E. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group E occupancies in accordance 
with Section 907.2.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. A building with a maximum area of 1,000 
square feet (93 m^) that contains a single class- 
room and is located no closer than 50 feet (15 
240 mm) from another building. 

2. Group E with an occupant load less than 50. 

907.3.1.2 Group I-l. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group I-l residential care/assisted 
living facilities. 

Exception: Where each sleeping room has a means of 
egress door opening directly to an exterior egress bal- 
cony that leads directly to the exits in accordance with 
Section 1014.5, and the building is not more than 
three stories in height. 

907.3.1.3 Group 1-2 and Group 1-2.1. A &e alarm sys- 
tem shall be installed in existing Group 1-2 1 and Group 
1-2. 1 occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.6.2. 

907.3.1.3.1 Existing Group I occupancies: In pro- 
jects requiring the Office of Statewide Health Plan- 
ning and Development approval in existing Group 1-2 
and 1-2. 1 occupancies located in buildings defined as 
hospitals in Section 1250 of the Health and Safety 
Code, facilities not equipped with an automatic sprin- 
kler system throughout shall be equipped with an 
automatic fire alarm system which responds to the 
products of combustion other than heat. 

Exception: Heat detectors may be used in closets, 
unusable spaces under floor areas, storage rooms, 
bathrooms, and rooms of similar use. 

907.3.1.4 Group 1-3. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group 1-3 occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.6.3. 

907.3.1.5 Group R-1 hotels and motels. A fue alarm 
system shall be installed in existing Group R- 1 hotels and 
motels more than three stories or with more than 20 
sleeping units. 

Exception: Buildings less than two stories in height 
where all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are 
sepai'ated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion and each sleeping unit has direct access to a pub- 
lic way, exit court or yard. 

907.3.1.6 Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses. A 

fire alai-m system shall be installed in existing Group R-1 
boai'ding and rooming houses. 

Exception: Buildings that have single-station smoke 
alai^ms meeting or exceeding the requirements of Sec- 
tion 907.2.10.1 and where the fu^e alai'm system 
includes at least one manual fire alarm box per floor 
aiTanged to initiate the alarm. 

907.3.1.7 Group R-2. A fire alai-m system shall be 
installed in existing Group R-2 occupancies more than 



three stories in height or with more than 16 dwelling 
units or sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where each living unit is separated from other 
contiguous living units by fire baixiers having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 0.75 hour, 
and where each living unit has either its own in- 
dependent exit or its own independent stairway 
or ramp discharging at grade. 

2. A separate fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings that ar-e equipped throughout with an 
approved supervised automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3. 1. 1 or 903.3. 1.2 and having a local alarm 
to notify all occupants. 

3 . A fire alai'm system is not required in buildings 
that do not have interior corridors serving 
dwelling units and are protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903. 3. 1.1 or 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that dwelling units either have a means of 
egress door opening directly to an exterior exit 
access that leads directly to the exits or are 
served by open-ended corridors designed in ac- 
cordance with Section 1023.6, Exception 4. 

907.3.1.8 Group R-4. A fire alarm system shall be 
installed in existing Group R-4 residential care/assisted 
living facilities. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where there are interconnected smoke alarms 
meeting the requirements of Section 907.2.10 
and there is at least one manual fire alarm box 
per floor arranged to sound continuously the 
smoke alarms. 

2. Other manually activated, continuously sound- 
ing alarms approved by the fire code official. 

907. 3. 1. 9 Existing Group R-1 and Group R-2 high-rise. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 403.20, every 
existing high-rise building used for the housing of a 
Group R-I or Group R-2 occupancies shall have 
installed therein afire alarm system conforming to this 
subsection. 

907.3.1.9.1 General. Every apartment house and 
every hotel shall have installed therein an automatic 
or manually operated fire alarm system. Such fire 
alarm systems shall be so designed that all occupants 
of the building may be warned simultaneously. 

907.3.1.9.2 Installation. The installation of all fire 
alarm equipment shall be in accordance with this 
code. 

907.3.1.10 Existing high-rise buildings. 

907.3.1.10.1 Fire alarm system. Every existing 
high-rise building shall be provided with an approved 
fire alarm system. In department stores, retail sales 
stores and similar occupancies where the general 
public is admitted, such systems shall be of a type 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



117 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



capable of alerting staff and employees. In office 
buildings and all other high-rise buildings, such sys- 
tems shall be of a type capable of alerting all occu- 
pants simultaneously. 

Exceptions: 

1. In areas of public assemblage, the type and 
location of audible appliances shall be as 
determined by the enforcing agency. 

2. When acceptable to the enforcing agency, 
the occupant voice notification system re- 
quired by California Building Code Section 
3412.21 may be used in lieu of the fire alarm 
system. 

907.3.1.10.2 Existing systems. Existing fire-alarm 
systems, when acceptable to the enforcing agency, 
shall be deemed as conforming to the provisions of 
these regulations. 

907.3.1.10.3 Annunciation. When a new fire alarm 
system is installed, it shall be connected to an annun- 
ciator panel installed in a location approved by the 
enforcing agency. 

For purposes of annunciation, zoning shall be in 
accordance with Section 907.9. 

907.3.1.10.4 Monitoring. Shall be in accordance 
with Section 907.15. 

907.3.1.10.5 Systems interconnection. When an 
automatic fire detection system or automatic extin- 
guishing system is installed, activation of such system 
shall cause the sounding of the fire alarm notification 
appliances at locations designated by the enforcing 
agency. 

907.3.1.10.6 Manual fire alarm boxes. A manual fire 
alarm box shall be provided in the locations desig- 
nated by the enforcing agency. Such locations shall be 
where boxes are readily accessible and visible and in 
normal paths of daily travel by occupants of the build- 
ing. 

907.3.1.10.7 Emergency voice/alarm communica- 
tion system. An approved emergency voice/alarm 
communication system shall be provided in every 
existing high-rise building which exceeds 150 feet 
(45720 mm) in height measured in the manner set 
forth in Section 403.2.1. Such system shall provide 
communication from a location available to and des- 
ignated by the enforcing agency to not less than all 
public areas. 

The emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem may be combined with afire alarm system provide 
the combined system has been approved and listed by 
the State Fire Marshal. The sounding of afire alarm 
signal in any given area or floor shall not prohibit 
voice communication to other areas of floors. Combi- 
nation systems shall be designed to permit voice 



transmission to override the fire alarm signal, but the 
fire alarm signal shall not terminate in less than three 
minutes. 

907.3.1.10.8 Fire department system. When it is 
determined by test that portable fire department com- 
munication equipment is ineffective, a communica- 
tion system acceptable to the enforcing agency shall 
be installed within the building to permit emergency 
communication between fire suppression personnel. 

907.3.1.10.9 Smoke control systems. Existing 
air-circulation systems shall be provided with an 
override switch in a location approved by the enforc- 
ing agency which will allow for the manual control of 
shutdown of the systems. 

Exception: Systems which serve only a single 
floor, or portion thereof, without any penetration 
by ducts or other means into adjacent floors. 

907.3.1.10.10 Elevator recall smoke detection. 

Smoke detectionfor emergency operation of elevators 
shall he provided in accordance with Section 607. 

907.3.2 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. Sin- 
gle- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in 
existing Group R and Group I-l occupancies in accordance 
with Sections 907.3.2.1 through 907.3.2.3. 

907.3.2.1 General. Existing Group R and Group I-l 
occupancies not already provided with single-station 
smoke alarms shall be provided with approved sin- 
gle-station smoke alarms. Installation shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.10, except as provided in 
Sections 907.3.2.2 and 907.3.2.3. 

907.3.2.2 Interconnection. Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individ- 
ual dwelling unit in Group R-2, R-3, R-3.1, R-4, and 
Group I-l or within an individual sleeping unit in Group 
R-1, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a 
manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of 
the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be 
clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise 
levels with all intervening doors closed. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Interconnection is not required in buildings that 
are not undergoing alterations, repairs or con- 
stiTiction of any kind. 

2. Smoke alarms in existing areas ai-e not required 
to be interconnected where alterations or re- 
pairs do not result in the removal of interior wall 
or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, un- 
less there is an attic, crawl space or basement 
available which could provide access for inter- 
connection without the removal of interior fin- 
ishes. 

907.3.2.3 Power source. In Group R occupancies, sin- 
gle-station smoke alarms shall receive their primary 



118 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



power from the building wiring provided that such wir- 
ing is served from a commercial source and shall be 
equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall emit 
a signal when the batteries ai'e low. Wiring shall be per- 
manent and without a disconnecting switch other than as 
required for overcurrent protection. 

Exception: Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely 
battery operated: in existing buildings where no con- 
struction or construction, requiring a permit, not 
exceeding $1000 has taken place; in buildings that are 
not served from a commercial power source; and in 
existing areas of buildings undergoing alterations or 
repairs that do not result in the removal of interior 
walls or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless 
there is an attic, crawl space or basement available 
which could provide access for building wiring with- 
out the removal of interior finishes. 

907.3.2.4 Group R-3.1. In all facilities housing a bedrid- 
den client, smoke alarms shall receive their primary 
power from the building wiring when such wiring is 
served from a commercial source and shall be equipped 
with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall be electrically 
interconnected so as to cause all smoke alarms to sound 
a distinctive alarm signal upon actuation of any single 
smoke alarm. Such alarm signal shall be audible 
throughout the facility at a minimal level of 15 db above 
ambient noise level. These devices need not be intercon- - 
nected to any other fire alarm device, have a control 
panel, or be electrically supervised or provided with 
emergency power. 

907.4 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire alai-m boxes shall 
be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 
907.4.5. 

907.4.1 Location. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located 
not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each 
exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so 
that travel distance to the neai'est box does not exceed 200 
feet (60 960 mm). 

Exception: When individual dwelling units are served by 
a single exit stairway, additional boxes at other than the 
ground floor may be omitted. 

907.4.2 Height. The height of the manual fire alarm boxes 
shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maxi- 
mum of 48 inches (1219 mm) measured vertically, from the 
floor level to the [DSA-AC] highest point of the activating 
handle or lever of the box. [DSA-AC] Manual fire alarm 
boxes shall also comply with Chapter IIB, Section 1117B.6 
item 4 of the California Building Code. 

Exception: [DSA-AC] In existing buildings there is no 
requirement to retroactively relocate existing manual fire 
alarm boxes to a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a 
maximum of 48 inches (1219 mm) from the floor level to 
the activating handle or lever of the box. 

907.4.3 Color. Manual fire alai-m boxes shall be red in color. 

907.4.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not monitored 
by a supei-vising station, an approved permanent sign shall 
be installed adjacent to each manual fire alai'm box that 



reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS— CALL FIRE 
DEPARTMENT. . 

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently 
provided this information on the manual fire alarm box. 

907.4.5 Operation. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be opera- 
ble with one hand including boxes with protective covers. 

907.4.6 Protective covers. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require the installation of listed manual fire alai^m 
box protective covers to prevent malicious false alai-ms or to 
provide the manual fire alami box with protection from 
physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent 
or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibihty of 
the manual fire alai-m box. Each cover shall include proper 
operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local 
alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Each 
cover shall not. exceed a combined projection over 4 inches 
from the surface of the wall into walks, halls, corridors, pas- 
sageways or aisles. 

907.5 Power supply. The primary and secondary power supply 
for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with 
NFPA 72. 

907.6 Wiring. Wiring shall comply with the requirements of 
the California Electrical Code and NFPA 72. Wireless protec- 
tion systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices 
shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of 
low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72. 

907.7 Activation. Where an alaim notification system is 
required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by: 

1. Automatic fire alai-m system. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

907.8 Presignal system. Presignal systems shall not be 
installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire 
department. Where a presignal system is installed, 24-hour 
personnel supervision shall be provided at a location approved 
by the fire department, in order that the alarm signal can be 
actuated in the event of fire or other emergency. 

907.9 Zones. Fire alarm systems shall be divided into zones 
where required by this section. For the purposes of annuncia- 
tion and notification, zoning shall be in accordance with the 
following: 

1. Where the fire-protective signaling system serves more 
than one building, each building shall be considered as a 
separate zone. 

2. Each floor of a building shall be considered as a separate 
zone. 

3. Each section of floor of a building that is separated by 
fire walls or by horizontal exits shall be considered as a 
separate zone. 

4. Each zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m^). 
The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 
mm) in any direction. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall 
not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



119 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



5. For Group 1-3 occupancies each cell complex shall be 
considered a separate zone. 

6. Annunciation shall be further divided into zones where 
deemed necessary by the enforcing agency. 

907.9.1 Annunciation. Alarm, supervisory and trouble sig- 
nals shall be annunciated in the main control unit by means 
of an audible signal and a visual display in accordance with 
NFPA 72. Identification of the type of alarm and supervi- 
sory initiating devices, such as manual, automatic, sprin- 
kler waterflow, sprinkler valve supervisory, fire-pump 
supervisory, etc., shall be separately indicated. 

Exception: Group R-3 occupancies. 

907. 9.2 Annunciator panel. An annunciator panel comply- 
ing with Section 907.8.1 and the associated controls shall be 
provided in an approved remote location where deemed 
necessary by the enforcing agency. The visual zone indica- 
tion shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be 
canceled by the operation of an audible alarm-silencing 
switch. 

907.9.3 High-rise buildings. In high-rise buildings, a sepa- 
rate zone by floor shall be provided for all of the following 
types of alarm-initiating devices where provided: 

1. Smoke detectors. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection de- 
vices or suppression systems. 

907.9.4 Notification zoning. Upon activation of initiating 
devices where occupant notification is required for evacua- 
tion, all notification zones shall operate simultaneously 
throughout the building. 

Exceptions: 

1. High-rise buildings as permitted in Section 
907.2.12.2. 

2. In hospitals and convalescent facilities with 
staff-alerting notification appliances or 
voice/alarm communication, zoning shall be in ac- 
cordance with the approved fire plan. 

3. Detention facilities. 

4. Upon approval by the fire code official in buildings 
which are sprinklered throughout, specific notifi- 
cation zoning shall be permitted where the notifi- 
cation zones are separated by a minimum of a 
2-hour fire barrier and 2-hour fire-resistive floor 
assembly. The system shall have the capability to 
activate all other notification zones by automatic 
and manual means. 

5. Upon approval by the fire code official in buildings 
which are sprinklered throughout, specific notifi- 
cation zoning shall be permitted where the acti- 
vated initiating device or fire extinguishing system 



is separated from any nonactive notification zones 
by a minimum horizontal distance of 300 feet. The 
system shall have the capability to activate all 
other notification zones by automatic and manual 
means. 

907.10 Alarm notification appliances. Alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their pur- 
pose. 

907.10.1 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification appU- 
ances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
907.10.1.1 through 907.10.1.5. 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than Groups 1-2 and 1-2.1, visible alarm 
notification appliances are not required in alter- 
ations, except where an existing fire alarm system 
is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system 
is installed. 

2. Visible alai'm notification appliances shall not be 
required in enclosed exit stairways, exterior exit 
stairs, and exterior exit ramps. 

907.10.1.1 Public and common use areas. Visible 
alarm notification apphances shall be provided in public 
use areas and common use areas including but not limited 
to: 

1. Sanitary facilities including restrooms, bath- 
rooms and shower rooms. 

2. Corridors. 

3. Music practice rooms. 

4. Band rooms. 

5. Gymnasiums. 

6. Multipurpose rooms. 

7. Occupational shops. 

8. Occupied rooms where ambient noise impairs 
hearing of the fire alarm. 

9. Lobbies. 

10. Meeting rooms. 

11. Classrooms. 

907.10.1.2 Employee work areas. Where employee 
work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification 
appliance circuits serving the employee work ai-eas shall 
be initially designed with a minimum of 20 percent spare 
capacity to account for the potential of adding visible 
notification apphances in the future to accommodate 
hearing impaired employee(s). 

907.10.1.3 Groups I-l and R-1. Group I-l and R-1 
sleeping units in accordance with Table 907. 10. 1 .3 shall 
be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, 
activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and tiie build- 
ing fire alarm system. 



120 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 907.1 0.1 .3 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS 



NUMBER OF SLEEPING 
UNITS 


SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS 


6 to 25 


2 


26 to 50 


4 


51 to 75 


7 


76 to 100 


9 


101 to 150 


12 


151 to 200 


14 


201 to 300 


17 


301 to 400 


20 


401 to 500 


22 


501 to 1,000 


5% of total 


1,001 and over 


50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000 



Also, see Chapter IIB, Section 11113.4.5, Table llB-3 and Table llB-4 of 
the California Building Code. 

907.10.1.4 Group R-2. In Group R-2 occupancies 
required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all 
dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with 
the capability to support visible alarm notification appli- 
ances in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.10.1.5 Groups I-l, R-3.1 andR-4. Protective social 
care facilities which house persons who are hearing 
impaired, shall be provided with notification appliances 
for the hearing impaired installed in accordance with 
NFPA 72 and which shall activate upon initiation of the 
fire alarm system or the smoke alarms. 

907.10.2 Audible alarms. Audible alarm notification appli- 
ances shall be provided and shall sound a distinctive sound 
that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire 
alarm. The audible alarm notification appliances shall pro- 
vide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the 
average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum 
sound level having duration of at least 60 seconds, which is 
greater, in every occupied space within the building. The 
minimum sound pressure levels shall be: 75 dBA in occu- 
pancies in Group R and I-l; 90 dBA in mechanical equip- 
ment rooms and 60 dBA in other occupancies. The 
maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall he 110 dBA at the minimum hearing 
distance from the audible appliance. Where the average 
ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 
72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be 
required. 

In Group 1-2 occupancies, audible appliances placed in 
patient areas shall be only chimes or similar sounding 
devices for alerting staff. 

Exception: Visible alarm notification appliances shall 
be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appli- 
ances inpatient areas of Group 1-2 occupancies. 



907.10.2.1 Audible alarm signal. The audible signal 
shall be the standard fire alarm evacuation signal, ANSI 
S34.1 Audible Emergency Evacuation Signal, "three 
pulse temporal pattern," as described in NFPA 72. 

Exception: The use of the existing evacuation signal- 
ing scheme shall be permitted where approved by the 
enforcing agency. 

907.11 Fire safety functions. Automatic fire detectors utilized 
for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be con- 
nected to the building's fire alarm control unit where a fire 
alarm system is installed. Detectors shall, upon actuation, per- 
form the intended function and activate the alarm notification 
appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal 
at a constantly attended location. In buildings not required to be 

I equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector 
shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actua- 
tion, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be 
located in accordance with Chapter 5 of NFPA 72. 

907.12 Duct smoke detectors. Duct smoke detectors shall be 
connected to the building's fire alarm control unit when a fire 
alarm system is provided. Activation of a duct smoke detector 
shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a con- 
stantly attended location. Duct smoke detectors shall not be 
used as a substitute for required open area detection. 

Exceptions: 

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended loca- 
tion is not required where duct smoke detectors acti- 
vate the building's alarm notification appliances. 

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fure 
alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall acti- 
vate a visible and an audible signal in an approved lo- 
cation. Smoke detector ttouble conditions shall 
activate a visible or audible signal in an approved lo- 
cation and shall be identified as air duct detector tiou- 
ble. 

907.13 Access. Access shall be provided to each detector for 
periodic inspection, maintenance and testing. 

907.14 Fire-extinguishing systems. Automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems shall be connected to the building fire alarm 
system where a frre alarm system is required by another section 
of this code or is otherwise installed. 

907.15 Monitoring. Fire alarm systems required by this chap- 
ter or by the California Building Code shall be monitored by an 
approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Supervisory service is not required for: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required 
by Section 907.2.10. 

2. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be monitored in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.6.3.4. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family 
dwellings. 

907.16 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Automatic 
telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm 
shall not be connected to any fu'e department telephone number 
unless approved by the fire chief 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



121 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



907.17 Acceptance tests. Upon completion of the installation 
of the fire alarm system, alarm notification appliances and cir- 
cuits, alarm-initiating devices and circuits, supervisory-signal 
initiating devices and circuits, signahng line circuits, primary 
and secondary power supplies fire safety fiA.nction control 
devices and interfaces, and off-site monitoring equipment shall 
be tested in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.18 Record of completion. A record of completion in 
accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been 
installed in accordance with the approved plans and specifica- 
tions shall be provided. 

907.19 Instructions. Operating, testing and maintenance 
instructions and record drawings ("as builts") and equipment 
specifications shall be provided at an approved location. 

907.20 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The mainte- 
nance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and 
fire detection systems shall be in accordance with this section 
and Chapter 10 of NFPA 72. 

907.20.1 Maintenance required. Whenever or wherever 
any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, 
level of protection or any other feature is required for com- 
pliance with the provisions of this code, such device, equip- 
ment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection or 
other feature shall thereafter be continuously maintained in 
accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as 
directed by the fire code official. 

907.20.2 Testing. Testing shall be performed in accordance 
with the schedules in Chapter 10 of NFPA 72 or more fre- 
quently where required by the fire code official. Where 
automatic testing is performed at least weekly by a remotely 
monitored fire alarm control unit specifically listed for the 
application, the manual testing frequency shall be permitted 
to be extended to annual. 

Exception: devices or equipment that are inaccessible 
for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled 
shutdowns where approved by the fu:e code official, but 
not less than every 18 months. 

907.20.3 Detector sensitivity. Smoke detector sensitivity 
shall be checked within one year after installation and every 
alternate year thereafter. After the second caUbration test, 
where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has 
remained within its hsted and marked sensitivity range (or 
4-percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the 
length of time between calibration tests shall be permitted to 
be extended to a maximum of five yeai-s. Where the fre- 
quency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance 
alarms and subsequent trends of these alai-ms shall be main- 
tained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any 
increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be 
performed. 

907.20.4 Method. To ensure that each smoke detector is 
within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be 
tested using either a calibrated test method, the manufac- 
turer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument, listed contirol 
equipment arranged for the purpose, a smoke detector/con- 
ti-ol unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at 
the control unit where its sensitivity is outside its acceptable 



sensitivity range or other calibrated sensitivity test method 
acceptable to the fire code official. Detectors found to have a 
sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range 
shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permit- 
ted to be either adjusted within the hsted and 
marked sensitivity range and cleaned and 
recalibrated or they shall be replaced. 

2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station 
smoke alarms. 

907.20.4.1 Testing device. Detector sensitivity shall not 
be tested or measured using a device that administers an 
unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into 
the detector. 

907.20.5 Maintenance, inspection and testing. The build- 
ing owner shall be responsible for ensuring that the fire and 
life safety systems are maintained in an operable condition 
at all times. Service personnel shall meet the quahfication 
requirements of NFPA 72 for maintaining, inspecting and 
testing such systems. A written record shall be maintained 
and shall be made available to the fire code official. 



SECTION 908 
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS 

908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the detec- 
tion and notification of an emergency condition in Group H 
occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 27. 

908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for notifica- 
tion of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be pro- 
vided as required in Section 1803.12. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accor- 
dance with Section 1803.13. 

908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Where required by 
Section 3704.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided 
for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed 
gases. 

908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. A gas detection system 
shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance 
with Section 3705.3.2. 

908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 221 1 .7.2. 

908.6 Refrigeration systems. Refrigeration system machin- 
ery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in 
accordance with Section 606.8. 



SECTION 909 
SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechanical 
or passive smoke control systems when they are required for 
new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the Califor- 
nia Building Code or this code. The purpose of this section is to 
establish minimum requirements for the design, installation 



122 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are 
intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or 
relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for 
the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of opera- 
tions, or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. 
Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a differ- 
ent purpose than the smoke- and heat- venting provisions found 
in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be 
considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the California 
Mechanical Code. 

909.2 General design requirements. Buildings, structures, or 
parts thereof required by the California Building Code or this 
code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such 
systems designed in accordance with the applicable require- 
ments of Section 909 and the generally accepted and 
well-established principles of engineering relevant to the 
design. The construction documents shall include sufficient 
information and detail to describe adequately the eleinents of 
the design necessaiy for the proper implementation of the 
smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompa- 
nied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate 
compliance with these provisions. 

909.3 Special inspection and test requirements. In addition 
to the ordinary inspection and test requirements to which build- 
ings, structures and paits thereof are required to undergo, 
smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 
shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify 
the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its 
final installed condition. The design submission accompany- 
ing the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures 
and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspec- 
tions and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance 
with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possi- 
ble, based on pubhshed standards for the particular testing 
involved. The special inspections and tests required by this sec- 
tion shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1704 
of the California Building Code. 

909.4 Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of 
smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their 
operations, the systems supporting them, and the methods of 
construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction 
documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the 
items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6. 

909.4.1 Stack effect. The system shall be designed such 
that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect 
will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In 
determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, 
elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be 
used. 

909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and expan- 
sion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 
909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such 
that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system's 
capabilities. 

909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the adverse 
effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with 
the wind-loading provisions of the California Building 
Code. 



909.4.4 Systems. The design shall consider the effects of 
the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) sys- 
tems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall 
include all permutations of systems status. The design shall 
consider the effects of the fu'e on the heating, ventilating and 
aii'-conditioning systems. 

909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects of 
low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air 
inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or 
ice blockage. 

909.4.6 Duration of operation. All portions of active or 
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued 
operation after detection of the fii-e event for a period of not 
less than either 20 minutes or 1 .5 times the calculated egress 
time, whichever is less. 

909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall 
comply with the California Building Code. Smoke barriers 
shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive 
of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area 
shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leak- 
age area ratios: 



1. Walls: 

2. Exit enclosures: 

3. All other shafts: 



AM,^= 0.00100 
A/A,„= 0.00035 
AIA, = 0.00150 



4. Floors and roofs: AIA^, = 0.00050 

where: 

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m^). 

Ap = Unit floor or roof ai-ea of barrier, square feet (m^). 

A,^ = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due 
to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be 
included in calculating the total leakage area. 

909.5.1 Leakage area. Total leakage area of the barrier is 
the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the 
allowable leakage ai-ea ratio, plus the area of other openings 
such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be 
determined by achieving the minimum air pressm^e differ- 
ence across the barrier with the system in the smoke control 
mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive 
smoke control systems tested using other approved means, 
such as door fan testing, shall be as approved by the fii-e code 
official. 

909.5.2 Opening protection. Openings in smoke baixiers 
shall be protected by self-closing devices or automatic-clos- 
ing devices actuated by the required controls for the 
mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be 
protected by fire door assembUes complying with Section 

715.4.3 of the California Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Passive smoke control systems with auto- 
matic-closing devices actuated by spot-type 
smoke detectors listed for releasing service in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 901.11. When 
used in Group 1-2, such detectors shall activate the 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



123 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



building fire alarm system and shall close all the 
smoke barrier doors within the effected zone. 

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are pro- 
tected utilizing the airflow method in other than 
Group 1-2. 

3. In Group 1-2, where doors are installed across cor- 
ridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a 
center mullion or horizontal sliding doors that 
comply with Section 1008.1.3.3. Vision panels 
consisting of fire-rated glazing in approved frames 
shall be provided in each cross-corridor swinging 
door and at each cross-corridor horizontal-sliding 
door in a smoke barrier. The doors shall be close 
fitting within operational tolerances, and shall not 
have undercuts, louvers or grilles. Swinging doors 
shall have head and jamb stops and astragals or 
rabbets at meeting edges. Doors installed across 
corridors shall be automatic closing by smoke de- 
tection in accordance with Section 715.4. 7.3 Cali- 
fornia Building Code. Positive-latching devices 
are required. Doors installed across corridors 
shall comply with Section 1008.1.1. 

4. Group 1-3. 

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling 
heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and 
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as 
determined by the design fire size. 

6. In Group 1-2, smoke damper activation may be ac- 
complished by a fire alarm control unit provided 
that an open area smoke detection system is pro- 
vided within all areas served by an HVAC system. 

909.5.2.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and 
air transfer openings are required to be protected with a 
minimum Class 11, 250°F (121 °C) smoke damper com- 
plying with Section 7 1 6 of the California Building Code. 

909.6 Pressurization method. The primary mechanical 
means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences 
across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment 
is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin. 

909.6.1 Minimum pressure difference. The minimum 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 
0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered 
buildings. 

In buildings allowed to be other tlian fully sprinklered, 
the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pres- 
sure differences at least two times the maximum calculated 
pressure difference produced by the design fire. 

909.6.2 Maximum pressure difference. The maximum air 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be deter- 
mined by required door-opening or closing forces. The 
actual force required to open exit doors when the system is 
in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors 
shall be determined by standard engineering methods for 
the resolution offerees and reactions. The calculated force 



to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be deter- 
mined by: 



F:^F a,+K{WAhP)l2{W-d) 
where: 



(Equation 9-1) 



A = Door area, square feet (m^). 

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet 
(m). 

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N). 

Fjc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds 

(N). 
K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0). 
W = Door width, feet (m). 
AP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa). 

909.7 Airflow design method. When approved by the fire 
code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a per- 
manently open position, which are located between 
smoke-control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be 
permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this 
section. AuHow shall be directed to limit smoke migration 
from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be consid- 
ered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. 

909.7.1 Velocity. The minimum average velocity through a 
fixed opening shall not be less than: 

v=2n.2[hiTf-T, )l (Tf+A6W (Equation 9-2) 

For SI: v = 119.9 [h{Tf-T,)ITfY' 

where: 

h - Height of opening, feet (m). 

Tf - Temperature of smoke, °F (K). 

T„ = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K). 

V = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute). 

909.7.2 Prohibited conditions. This method shall not be 
employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of 
the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke 
control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume 
dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow 
toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). 
Where the formula in Section 909.7. 1 requires airflows to 
exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used. 

909.8 Exhaust method. When approved by the fu-e code offi- 
cial, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, 
such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the 
exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust 
method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B. 

909.8.1 Smoke layer. The height of the lowest horizontal 
surface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be main- 
tained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface 
that forms a portion of a required egress system within the 
smoke zone. 

909.9 Design fire. The design fire shaU be based on a rational 
analysis performed by the registered design professional and 
approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be 



124 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this 
section. 

909.9.1 Factors considered. The engineering analysis shall 
include the chai'acteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects 
included by the fire, and whether the fire is likely to be 
steady or unsteady. 

909.9.2 Separation distance. Determination of the design 
fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spac- 
ing and configuration. 

909.9.3 Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall 
make use of best available data from approved sources and 
shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of 
combustible material. 

909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A docu- 
mented engineering analysis shall be provided for condi- 
tions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of 
sprinkler activation. 

909.10 Equipment. Equipment including, but not limited to, 
fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be 
suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable expo- 
sure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as 
approved by the fire code official. 

909.10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans shall 
be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable 
temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. 
This temperature rise shall be computed by: 

2;=((2c/'"c) + (rj (Equation 9-3) 

where: 

c - Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature, 
Btu/lb°F • (kJ/kg • K). 

m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Q^ = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW). 

T„ = Ambient temperature, °F (K). 

T, - Smoke temperature, °F (K). 

Exception: Reduced T^ as calculated based on the assur- 
ance of adequate dilution air. 

909.10.2 Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capable 
of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to 
which they are exposed as determined in accordance with 
Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported 
in accordance with the California Mechanical Code. Ducts 
shall be lealc tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pres- 
sure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Mea- 
sured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. 
Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation 
procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fii'e-resis- 
tance-rated structural elements of the building by substan- 
tial, noncombustible supports. 

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of 
vibration isolation) complying with the California 
Mechanical Code and which are constructed of approved 
fire-resistance-rated materials. 

909.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment shall 
be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the 



building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall 
be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing 
smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so 
located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the 
building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent 
buildings to an additional fire hazard. 

909.10.4 Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers, 
regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within 
the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the 
requirements of approved recognized standards. 

909.10.5 Fans, In addition to other requirements, 
belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts 
required for the design duty with the minimum number of 
belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable perfor- 
mance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, 
elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan 
curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans 
shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible 
devices in accordance with the structural design require- 
ments of Chapter 16 of the California Building Code. 
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their 
nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from mea- 
surement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum 
service factor of 1 . 1 5 . 

909.11 Power systems. The smoke control system shall be 
supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be 
fi:om the normal building power system. Secondary power 
shall be from an approved standby source complying with the 
California Electrical Code. The standby power source and its 
transfer switches shall be in a separate room from the normal 
power ti-ansformers and switch gear and shall be enclosed in a 
room constructed of not less than 1 -hour fire barriers ventilated 
directly to and from the exterior. Power distiibution from the 
two sources shall be by independent routes. Transfer to full 
standby power shall be automatic and within 60 seconds of fail- 
ure of the primary power. The systems shall comply with this 
code or the California Electrical Code. 

909.11.1 Power sources and power surges. Elements of 
the smoke management system relying on volatile memo- 
ries or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power 
sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary 
power inteiTuption. Elements of the smoke management 
system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably pro- 
tected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved 
means. 

909.12 Detection and control systems. Fire detection systems 
providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke 
control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped 
with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke 
control equipment. 

Conti'ol systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall 
include provisions for verification. Verification shall include 
positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, 
the presence of power downsti'eam of all disconnects and, 
through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnor- 
mal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



125 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



909.12.1 Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements of 
the California Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of 
voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways. 

909.12.2 Activation. Smoke control systems shall be acti- 
vated in accordance with this section. 

909.12.2.1 Pressurizatlon, airflow or exhaust method. 

Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressuriza- 
tion, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely 
automatic control. 

909.12.2.2 Passive method. Passive smoke control sys- 
tems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for 
releasing service shall be permitted. 

909.12.3 Automatic control. Where completely automatic 
control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences 
shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic 
sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3. 1 .1, manual 
controls that are readily accessible to the fire department, 
and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analy- 
sis. 

909.13 Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of suffi- 
cient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be 
flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be 
adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing 
passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and pro- 
tected from abrasion and electrolytic action. 

909.13.1 Materials. Control ak tubing shall be hard drawn 
copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, 
ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and 
ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, sol- 
der type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 
16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate 
tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at 
final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed 
using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F 
(593°C) and hquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux 
shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only. 

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control pan- 
els and at the final connection to devices, provided dl of 
the following conditions are met: 

1. Tubing shall be hsted by an approved agency for 
flame and smoke characteristics. 

2. Tubing and the connected device shall be com- 
pletely enclosed within a galvanized or 
paint-grade steel enclosure of not less than 0.030 
inch (0.76 mm) (No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) 
thickness. Entry to the enclosure shall be by cop- 
per tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene 
or teflon or by suitable brass compression to 
male-barbed adapter. 

3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately docu- 
mented coding. 

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within 
enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or 
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to 
avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be 



protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices 
on doors shall be fastened along hinges. 

909.13.2 Isolation from other functions. Control tubing 
serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated 
by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent sys- 
tem. 

909.13.3 Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at three 
times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes 
without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final 
connection to devices. 

909.14 Marking and identification. The detection and con- 
trol systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses 
and terminations. 

909.15 Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams show- 
ing all devices in the system and identifying their location and 
function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the 
fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command 
center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief. 

909.16 Fire-fighter's smoke control panel. A fire-fighter's 
smoke control panel for fire department emergency response 
purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual con- 
trol or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke 
control systems. The panel shall be located in a fne command 
center complying with Section 509 in high-rise buildings or 
buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other 
buildings, the fire-fighter's smoke control panel shall be 
installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm con- 
trol panel. The fire-fighter's smoke control panel shall comply 
with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3. 

909.16.1 Smoke control systems. Fans within the building 
shall be shown on the fire-fighter's control panel. A clear 
indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of 
components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be 
provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by 
fan and zone and by approved indicators as follows: 

1 . Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
normal status— WHITE. 

2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
off or closed status — RED. 

3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
on or open status — GREEN. 

4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a 
fault status— YELLOW/AMBER. 

909.16.2 Smoke control panel. The fhre-fighter's control 
panel shall provide control capability over the complete 
smoke-control system equipment within the building as fol- 
lows: 

1 . ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of 
operating smoke control equipment that can also be 
controlled from other sources within the building. 
This includes stairway pressurizatlon fans; smoke ex- 
haust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator 
shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or in- 
tended for smoke control purposes. 



126 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. OPEN- AUTO-CLOSE control over individual damp- 
ers relating to smoke control and that are also con- 
trolled from other sources within the building. 

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke con- 
trol and other critical equipment associated with a fire 
or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled 
from the fire-fighter's control panel. 

Exceptions: 

1. Complex systems, where approved, where the 
controls and indicators are combined to control 
and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone 
as a unit. 

2. Complex systems, where approved, where the 
control is accomphshed by computer interface 
using approved, plain English commands. 

909.16.3 Control action and priorities. The fire-fighter's 
control panel actions shall be as follows: 

1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall 
have the highest priority of any control point within 
the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter's con- 
ti'ol panel, no automatic or manual control from any 
other control point within the building shall contra- 
dict the control action. Where automatic means are 
provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equip- 
ment operation or produce a specific result to safe- 
guard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, 
duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, tem- 
perature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such 
means shall be capable of being overridden by the 
fire-fighter's control panel. The last control action as 
indicated by each frre-fighter's control panel switch 
position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions 
require the smoke control system to assume more than 
one configuration at any one time. 

Exception: Power disconnects required by the 
California Electrical Code. 

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position 
fire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow auto- 
matic or manual control action from other control 
points within the building. The AUTO position shall 
be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control 
position. Where a fire-fighter's control panel is in the 
AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, 
off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the 
status indicator described above. When directed by an 
automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, 
the NORMAL position shall become the emergency 
condition for that device or group of devices within 
the zone. In no case shall conti-ol actions require the 
smoke control system to assume more than one con- 
figuration at any one time. 

909.17 System response time. Smoke-control system activa- 
tion shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropri- 
ate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control 
systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers 
and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage 
to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes . 



of smoke control, the fire-fighter's control panel response time 
shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action 
initiated from any other building control point. The total 
response time, including that necessary for detection, shut- 
down of operating equipment and smoke control system 
startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved 
before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke 
condition. The system response time for each component and 
their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required 
rational analysis and verification of their installed condition 
reported in the required final report. 

909.18 Acceptance testing. Devices, equipment, components 
and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addi- 
tion to those required by other provisions of this code, shall 
consist of determination of function, sequence and, where 
applicable, capacity of their installed condition. 

909.18.1 Detection devices. Smoke or fure detectors that are 
a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accor- 
dance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. When 
applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow 
in both minimum and maximum conditions. 

909.18.2 Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control sys- 
tem shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to 
determine actual air quantities. 

909.18.3 Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for function in 
their installed condition. 

909.18.4 Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be read 
using generally accepted practices to determine air quanti- 
ties. 

909.18.5 Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. 
Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per min- 
ute and belt tension shall be made. 

909.18.6 Smoke barriers. Measurements using inclined 
manometers or other approved calibrated measuring 
devices shall be made of the pressure differences' across 
smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for 
each possible smoke control condition. 

909.18.7 Controls. Each smoke zone, equipped with an 
automatic-initiation device, shall be put into operation by 
the actuation of one such device. Each additional device 
within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence 
without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to 
prevent damage. Conti'ol sequences shall be verified 
throughout the system, including verification of override 
from the fire-fighter's conti'ol panel and simulation of 
standby power conditions. 

909.18.8 Special inspections for smoke control. Smoke 
control systems shall be tested by a special inspector. 

909.18.8.1 Scope of testing. Special inspections shall be 
conducted in accordance with the following: 

1 . During erection of ductwork and prior to conceal- 
ment for the purposes of leakage testing and re- 

\ cording of device location. 

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion 
for the purposes of pressure-difference testing. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



127 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



flow measurements, and detection and control ver- 
ification. 

909.18.8.2 Qualifications. Special inspection agencies 
for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection 
engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as 
air balancers. 

909.18.8.3 Reports. A complete report of testing shall 
be prepared by the special inspector or special inspection 
agency. The report shall include identification of all 
devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, 
measured values and identification tag or mark. The 
report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered 
design professional and, when satisfied that the design 
intent has been achieved, the responsible registered 
design professional shall seal, sign and date the report. 

909.18.8.3.1 Report filing. A copy of the final report 
shall be filed with the fire code official and an identi- 
cal copy shall be maintained in an approved location 
at the building. 

909.18.9 Identification and documentation. Charts, 
drawings and other documents identifying and locating 
each component of the smoke control system, and describ- 
ing their proper function and maintenance requirements, 
shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment 
to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall 
have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent 
with the other required documentation and shall be dated 
indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by 
whom. 

909.19 System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof, 
required by this code to comply with this section shall not be 
issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire 
code official determines that the provisions of this section have 
been fully complied with and that the fire department has 
received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both auto- 
matic and manual, of the system. 

Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code 
official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of the 
building to be occupied meet the requirements of this sec- 
tion and that the remainder does not pose a significant haz- 
ard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent 
buildings. 

909.20 Maintenance. Smoke control systems shall be main- 
tained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capa- 
ble of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system 
shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instiixictions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.5. 

909.20.1 Schedule. A routine maintenance and operational 
testing program shall be initiated inmiediately after the 
smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A 
written schedule for routine maintenance and operational 
testing shall be estabhshed. 

909.20.2 Written record. A written record of smoke con- 
trol system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on 
the premises. The written record shall include the date of the 
maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and 



notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the correc- 
tive action taken, including parts replaced. 

909.20.3 Testing. Operational testing of the smoke control 
system shall include all equipment such as initiating 
devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows. 

909.20.4 Dedicated smolce control systems. Dedicated 
smoke control systems shall be operated for each control 
sequence semiannually. The system shall also be tested 
under standby power conditions. 

909.20.5 Nondedicated smolce control systems. 

Nondedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for 
each control sequence annually. The system shall also be 
tested under standby power conditions. 



SECTION 910 
SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS 

910.1 General. Where required by this code or otherwise 
installed, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke exhaust 
systems and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements of 
this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of 
Class I and II commodities where protected by an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Where areas of buildings are equipped with early sup- 
pression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, automatic 
smoke and heat vents shall not be required within 
these areas. 

910.2 Wliere required. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
installed in the roofs of one-story buildings or portions thereof 
occupied for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2.1 through 
910.2.3. 

910.2.1 Group F-1 or S-1. Buildings and portions thereof 
used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more than 
50,000 square feet (4645 m^) of undivided area. 

Exception: Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars. 

910.2.2 Higti-piled combustible storage. Buildings and 
portions thereof containing high-piled combustible stock or 
rack storage in any occupancy group when required by Sec- 
tion 2306.7. 

910.2.3 Exit access travel distance increase. Buildings 
and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy 
where the maximum exit access travel distance is increased 
in accordance with Section 1016.2. 

910.3 Design and installation. The design and installation of 
smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified in 
Sections 910.3.1 flirough 910.3.5.2 and Table 910.3. 

910.3.1 Design. Smoke and heat vents shall be listed and 
labeled to indicate compliance with UL 793. 

910.3.2 Vent operation. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
capable of being operated by approved automatic and man- 
ual means. Automatic operation of smoke and heat vents 
shall conform to the provisions of Sections 910.3.2.1 
through 910.3.2.3. 



128 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 





TABLE 910.3 
REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS^ 




OCCUPANCY GROUP 
AND COMMODITY 
CLASSIFICATION 


DESIGNATED 

STORAGE HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM DRAFT 

CURTAIN DEPTH 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 

FORMED BY DRAFT 

CURTAINS 

(square feet) 


VENT-AREA-TO 

FLOOR-AREA 

RATIO"= 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

VENT CENTERS 

(feet) 


maximum distance 
to vents from 
wall or draft 
. curtain'' 

(feet) 


Group F-1 and S-1 





0.2 X H'' but > 4 


50,000 


1:100 


120 


60 


High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.2) 

I-IV 

(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


10,000 


1:100 


100 


60 


> 20 < 40 


6 


8,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.2) 

I-IV 

(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


3,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


>20<40 


4 


3,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.2) 

High hazard 

(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


6,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


> 20 < 30 


6 


6,000 


1:40 


90 


45 


High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.2) 

High hazard 

(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


4,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


> 20 < 30 


4 


2,000 


1:30 


75 


40 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 

a. Requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 23 . For solid-piled storage heights in excess of those indi- 
cated, an approved engineered design shall be used. 

b. The distance specified is the maximum distance from any vent in a particular draft curtained area to walls or draft curtains which form the perimeter of the draft cur- 
tained area. 

c. Where draft curtains are not required, the vent area to floor area ratio shall be calculated baised on a minimum draft curtain depth of 6 feet (Option 1). 

d. "H" is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor. 



910.3.2.1 Gravity-operated drop out vents. Automatic 
smoke and heat vents containing heat-sensitive glazing 
designed to shrink and drop out of the vent opening when 
exposed to fire shall fully open within 5 minutes after the 
vent cavity is exposed to a simulated fire represented by a 
time-temperature gradient that reaches an air tempera- 
ture of 500°F (260°C) within 5 minutes. 

910.3.2.2 Sprinklered buildings. Where installed in 
buildings equipped with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system, smoke and heat vents shall be designed to 
operate automatically. 

910.3.2.3 Nonsprinklered buildings. Where installed 
in buildings not equipped with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall operate 
automatically by actuation of a heat-responsive device 
rated at between 100°F (56°C) and 220°F (122°C) above 
ambient. 

Exception: Gravity-operated drop out vents comply- 
ing with Section 910.3.2.1. 

910.3.3 Vent dimensions. The effective venting area shall 
not be less than 16 square feet (1.5 m^) with no dimension 
less than 4 feet (1219 mm), excluding ribs or gutters having 
a total width not exceeding 6 inches (152 mm). 

910.3.4 Vent locations. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines 
and fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire bar- 



rier walls. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof 
area above high-piled storage areas, with consideration 
given to roof pitch, draft curtain location, sprinkler location 
and structural members. 

910.3.5 Draft curtains. Where required, draft curtains shall 
be provided in accordance with this section. 

Exception: Where areas of buildings are equipped with 
ESFR sprinklers, draft curtains shall not be provided 
within these areas. Draft curtains shall only be provided 
at the separation between the ESFR sprinklers and the 
conventional sprinklers. 

910.3.5.1 Construction. Draft curtains shall be con- 
structed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum board or 
other approved materials that provide equivalent perfor- 
mance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and connec- 
tions shall be smoke tight. 

910.3.5.2 Location and depth. The location and mini- 
mum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance with 
Table 910.3. 

910.4 Mechanical smoke exhaust. Where approved by the 
fire code official, engineered mechanical smoke exhaust shall 
be an acceptable alternative to smoke and heat vents. 

910.4.1 Location. Exhaust fans shall be uniformly spaced 
within each draft-curtained area and the maximum distance 
between fans shall not be greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



129 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



910.4.2 Size. Fans shall have a maximum individual capac- 
ity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 m^/s). The aggregate capacity of 
smoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation: 

C=Ax300 (Equation 9-4) 

where: 

C = Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in cubic 
feet per minute (mVs). 

A = Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m^) in ac- 
cordance with Table 910.3. 

910.4.3 Operation. Mechanical smoke exhaust fans shall 
be automatically activated by the automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem or by heat detectors having operating characteristics 
equivalent to those described in Section 910.3.2. Individual 
manual controls for each fan unit shall also be provided. 

910.4.4 Wiring and control. Wu:ing for operation and con- 
trol of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of the 
main disconnect and protected against exposure to tempera- 
tures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of not less 
than 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to be imme- 
diately accessible to the fire service from the exterior of the 
building and protected against interior fire exposure by fire 
barriers having a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 hour. 

910.4.5 Supply air. Supply air for exhaust fans shall be pro- 
vided at or near the floor level and shall be sized to provide a 
minimum of 50 percent of required exhaust. Openings for 
supply air shall be uniformly distributed around the periph- 
ery of the area served. 

910.4.6 Interlocics. On combination comfort air-han- 
dling/smoke removal systems or independent comfort 
air-handling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut down 
in accordance with the approved smoke control sequence. 



SECTION 911 
EXPLOSION CONTROL 

911.1 General. Explosion control shall be provided in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1. Where a structure, room or space is occupied for pur- 
poses involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 
911.1. 

2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in Ta- 
ble 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities in 
Table 2703.1.1(1). 

Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagra- 
tion) venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems, 
or barricades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, 
or NFPA 495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not 
be utilized as a means to protect buildings from detonation 
hazards. 

911.2 Required deflagration venting. Areas that are required 
to be provided with deflagration venting shall comply with the 
following: 

1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas 
shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure 
of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The nndni- 



mum internal design pressure shall not be less than five 
times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in 
Section 91 1.2, Item 5. 

2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior 
walls and roofs. 

Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof 
venting cannot be provided because of inadequate 
exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall 
be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the 
exterior of the building. 

3. Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unac- 
ceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagra- 
tion, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of 
sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening in- 
juries to the occupants or other persons on the property or 
adjacent pubhc ways. 

4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices 
shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the con- 
struction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section 
and the maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of 
this section. 

5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance 
with the California Building Code. Vents shall consist of 
any one or any combination of the following to relieve at 
a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square 
foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads required by the 
California Building Code : 

5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward. 

5.2. Hatch covers. 

5.3. Outward swinging doors. 

5.4. Roofs designed to uplift. 

5.5. Venting devices listed for the purpose. 

6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs 
of the building when venting a deflagration shall dis- 
charge directly to the exterior of the building where an 
unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 nmi) in 
width is provided between the exterior walls of the build- 
ing and the property line. 

Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 of this sec- 
tion. 

7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when 
venting a deflagration shall be so located that the dis- 
charge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
vertically from window openings and exits in the build- 
ing and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the 
building, from window openings and exits in adjacent 
buildings on the same property, and from the property 
line. 

8. Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of the 
building. 

911.3 Explosion prevention systems. Explosion prevention 
systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69. 

911.4 Barricades. Barricades shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with NFPA 495. 



130 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 911.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 



MATERIAL 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade 
construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems 




Hazard ( 


Category 


Combustible dusts" 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Cryogenic fluids 


Flammable 


Not required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 


Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not required 
Not requured 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquids 


lA" 


Not required 
Not requured 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


Unclassified detonable 

1 


Required 
Required 


Not permitted 
Not permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not permitted 


Pyrophoric 


Gases 


Not required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 detonable 

3 nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not required 


Not permitted 

Not permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 
2= 


Not required 
Not required 


Required 
Required 


Special Uses 


Acetylene generator rooms 


— 


Not required 


Requked 


Grain processing 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas 
distribution facilities 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards existf" 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not required 


Not penriitted 
Required 



a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufecturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 2. 

b. Storage or use. 

c. In open use or dispensing. 

d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

e. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



131 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 912 
FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS 

912.1 Installation. Fire department connections shall be 
installed in accordance with tiie NFPA standard applicable to 
the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 
through 912.6. 

912.2 Location. With respect to hydrants, driveways, build- 
ings and landscaping, fire department connections shall be so 
located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the 
system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire 
apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall be 
approved. 

912.2.1 Visible location. Fire department connections shall 
be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible and 
recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire depart- 
ment vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the fire 
code official. 

912.2.2 Existing buildings. On existing buildings, wher- 
ever the fire department connection is not visible to 
approaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection 
shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street 
front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the 
letters "FDC" at least 6 inches (152 mm) high and words in 
letters at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) high or an arrow to indicate 
the location. All such signs shall be subject to the approval 
of the fire code official. 

912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connec- 
tions shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction 
by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other object for a mini- 
mum of 3 feet (914 mm). 

Exception: When acceptable to the fire enforcing agency, 
fire department connections for Group 1-3 detention facili- 
ties may be located inside all security walls or fences on the 
property. 

912.3.1 Locking fire department connection caps. The 

fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on fire 
department connections for water-based fire protection sys- 
tems where the responding fire department carries appropri- 
ate key wrenches for removal. 

912.4 Signs. A metal sign with raised letters at least 1 inch (25 
mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department connec- 
tions serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump 
connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRIN- 
KLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION or a com- 
bination thereof as applicable. 

912.5 Backflow protection. The potable water supply to auto- 
matic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected 
against backflow as required by the Health and Safety Code 
13114.7. 

912.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. All fire depart- 
ment connections shall be periodically inspected, tested and 
maintained in accordance with Title 19 California Code of Reg- 
ulations, Chapters. 



SECTION 913 
FIRE PUMPS 

913.1 General. Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed 
in accordance with this section and NFPA 20. 

913.2 Protection against interruption of service. The fire 
pump, driver, and controller shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through 
damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, 
insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse con- 
ditions. 

913.3 Temperature of pump room. Suitable means shall be 
provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or 
pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C). 

913.3.1 Engine manufacturer's recommendation. Tem- 
perature of the pump room, pump house or ai'ea where 
engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum 
recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine 
manufacturer's recommendations for oil heaters shall be 
followed. 

913.4 Valve supervision. Where provided, the fire pump suc- 
tion, discharge and bypass valves, and the isolation valves on 
the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be super- 
vised open by one of the following methods. 

1. Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling 
service. 

2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an 
audible signal at a constantly attended location. 

3. Locking valves open. 

4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspec- 
tion where valves are located within fenced enclosures 
under the control of the owner. 

913.4.1 Test outlet valve supervision. Fire pump test outlet 
valves shall be supervised in the closed position. 

913.5 Testing and maintenance. Fire pumps shall be 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the 
requirements of this section and Title 19 California Code of 
Regulations, Chapter 5. 

913.5.1 Acceptance test. Acceptance testing shall be done 
in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20. 

913.5.2 Generator sets. Engine generator sets supplying 
emergency or standby power to fire pump assemblies shall 
be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. 

913.5.3 Transfer switches. Automatic transfer switches 
shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. 

913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions. Tests of 

pump room environmental conditions, including heating, 
ventilation and illumination shall be made to ensure proper 
manual or automatic operation of the associated equipment. 



132 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 914 

FIRE PROTECTION BASED ON SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS OF USE AND OCCUPANCY 

914.1 GeneraL This section shall specify where fire protection 
systems ai-e requked based on the detailed requirements of use 
and occupancy of the California Building Code. 

914.2 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall 
comply with Sections 914.2.1 through 914.2.4. 

914.2.1 Automatic sprinlcler system. The covered mall 
building and buildings connected shall be equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.1.1, which shall comply with the 
following: 

1 . The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and 
operative tlii'oughout occupied space in the covered 
mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant 
spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly 
protected unless provided with approved alternate 
protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent 
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. 
Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, 
they shall be independently conti'olled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall 
not be required in spaces or areas of open parking 
garages constructed in accordance with Section 
406.2 of the California Building Code. 

914.2.2 Standpipe system. The covered mall building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accor- 
dance with Section 905. 

914.2.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m^) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/ 
alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or 
otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The 
system shall be provided in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.2. 

914.2.4 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or 
areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, 
automatic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, 
suppression or control elements shall be identified for use 
by the fire depaitment. 

914.3 High-rise buildings. High-rise buildings shall comply 
with Sections 914.3.1 through 914.3.5. 

914.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a 
secondary water supply where required by Section 
903.3.5.2. A sprinkler water-flow alarm-initiating device 
and a control valve with a supervisory signal-initiating 
device shall be provided at the lateral connection to the riser 
on each floor. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or ai-eas of: 



1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3 of the California Building Code. 

2. Telecommunication equipment buildings used ex- 
clusively for telecommunications equipment, as- 
sociated electrical power distribution equipment, 
batteries and standby engines, provided that those 
spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an 
automatic fire detection system in accordance with 
Section 907.2 and are sepai-ated from the remain- 
der of the building by fure barriers consisting of not 
less than 1-hour fu'e-resistance-rated walls and 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assem- 
blies. 

914.3.2 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detection shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.1. 

914.3.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

An emergency voice/alann communication system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

914.3.4 Fire department communication system. A 

two-way fu-e department communication system shall be 
provided for fire department use in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.3. 

914.3.5 Fire command. A fire command center complying 
with Section 509 shall be provided in a location approved by 
the fire department. 

914.3.6 Smoke control. 

914.3.6.1 Smoke control system. All portions of 
high-rise buildings shall be provided with a smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with California Building 
Code, Section 909. 

914.3.6.2 Smokeproof exit enclosures. Every exit enclo- 
sure shall comply with California Building Code, Sec- 
tions 909.20 and 1020.1.7. 

914.4 Atriums. Atriums shall comply with Sections 914.4.1 
and 914.4.2. 

914.4.1 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the 
entire building. 

Exceptions: 

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the 
atiium need not be spiinklered, provided that por- 
tion of the building is separated fiom the atrium por- 
tion by not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
fu'e banier or horizontal assembly, or both. 

2. Where the ceilings of the atrium are more than 55 
feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protec- 
tion at the ceiling of the atiium is not required. 

914.4.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.13. 

914.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings shall 
comply with Sections 914.5.1 through 914.5.6. 

914.5.1 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit dischai'ge serving the underground portions of the 
building and all levels below shall be equipped with an auto- ' 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



133 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be 
supervised in accordance with Section 903.4. 

914.5.2 Smoke control system. A smoke control system is 
required to control the migration of products of combustion 
in accordance with Section 909 and provisions of this sec- 
tion. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the 
general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a 
usable condition. 

914.5.3 Compartment smoke control system. Where 
compartmentation is required by Section 405.4 of the Cali- 
fornia Building Code, each compartment shall have an inde- 
pendent smoke-control system. The system shall be 
automatically activated and capable of manual operation in 
accordance with Section 907.2.18. 

914.5.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19. 

914.5.5 Public address. A public address system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19.1. 

914.5.6 Standpipe system. The underground building shall 
be provided throughout with a standpipe system in accor- 
dance with Section 905. 

914.6 Stages. Stages shall comply with Sections 914.6.1 and 
914.6.2. 

914.6.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed 
under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and gal- 
leries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing 
rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory 
to such stages. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height utilized ex- 
clusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided 
the concealed space is separated from the adjacent 
spaces by not less than Vg-inch (15.9 mm) Type X 
gypsum board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1 ,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
or less in height where curtains, scenery or other 
combustible hangings are not reti-actable verti- 
cally. Combustible hangings shall be liinited to a 
single main curtain, borders, legs and a single 
backdrop. 

3 . Sprinklers are not required within portable orches- 
tra enclosures on stages. 

914.6.2 Standpipe system. Standpipe systems shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 905. 

914.7 Special amusement buildings. Special amusement 
buildings shall comply with Sections 914.7.1 and 914.7.2. 

914.7.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Where the special amusement building is temporary, the 



sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary 
means. 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where 
the total floor area of a temporary special amusement 
building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) and the 
travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 
feet (15 240 mm). 

914.7.2 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2. 1 1 . 

914.8 Aircraft-related occupancies. Aircraft-related occu- 
pancies shall comply with Sections 914.8.1 through 914.8.5. 

914.8.1 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traffic 
control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2. 

914.8.2 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409. 

Exception: Group II hangars, as defined in NFPA 409, 
storing private aircraft without major maintenance or 
overhaul are exempt from foam suppression require- 
ments. 

914.8.3 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving the 
use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting shall be 
carried on in a separate detached building equipped with 
automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with 
Section 903. 

914.8.4 Residential aircraft hangar smoke alarms. 

Smoke alarms shall be provided within residential aircraft 
hangars in accordance with Section 907.2.21. 

914.8.5 Aircraft paint hangar fire suppression. Aircraft 
paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as 
required by NFPA 409. 

914.9 Application of flammable finishes. An automatic 
fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and 
immersing spaces and storage rooms, and shall be installed in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

914.10 Drying rooms. Drying rooms designed for high-haz- 
ard materials and processes, including special occupancies as 
provided for in Chapter 4 of the California Building Code, shall 
be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem complying with the provisions of Chapter 9. 

914.11 Motion picture and television production studio 
sound stages, approved production facilities and production 
locations. 

914.11.1 Existing sound stages and approved production 
facilities. All existing sound stages and approved produc- 
tion facilities equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions 
in this chapter. 

914.11.2 New sound stages. All new sound stages shall be 
equipped with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system. 
The system shall be installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions in this chapter and shall meet the minimum design 
requirements of an Extra Hazard, Group 2 system. 



134 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 10 - MEANS OF EGRESS 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Cliapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 




X 




































Adopt only tiiose sections that are 
listed below 












X 




























Chapter / Section 


Codes 


1001.1 


CA 




X 




































1002 


CA 




X 




































Accessible Means of 
Egress 


IFC 












X 




























Area of Refuge 


IPC 












X 




























Exit 


IFC 












X 




























Guard or Guardrail 


CA 












X 




























Handrail 


IFC 












X 




























Photoluminescent 


CA 




X 




































Public Way 


IFC 












X 




























Self-Luminous 


CA 




X 




































Stair 


IFC 












X 




























Stairway 


IFC 












X 




























1003.1 


CA 




X 








X 




























1003.2 


CA 




X 




































1003.3 


CA 




X 




































1003.3.3.1 


CA 




X 




































1003.5 


CA 




X 




































Table 1005.1 


CA 




X 




































1006.1 


CA 




X 




































1007.1 


CA 




X 








X 




























1007.2 


CA 




X 








X 




























1007.3 


CA 












X 




























1007.4 


CA 




X 








X 




























1007.5 


CA 




X 








X 




























1007.5.1 


IFC 












X 




























1007.6 


CA 












X 




























1007.6.1 


CA 




X 








X 




























1007.6.2 . 


CA 




X 








X 




























1007,6.3 


IFC 












X 




























1007.6.3.1 


CA 












X 




























1007.6.4 


CA 












X 




























1007.6.5 


CA 












X 




























1007.7 


CA 












X 




























1007.8 


CA 




X 








X 




























1007.8.1 


CA 












X 




























1007.8.2 


CA 












X 




























1007.8.3 


IFC 












X 




























1007.9 


CA 




X 








X 




























1008-Only 


CA 












X 




























1008.1.1 


CA 




X 




































1008.1.1.1 


CA 




X 




































1008.1.2 


CA 




X 



































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



135 



CHAPTER 10 - MEANS OF EGRESS - (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ctiapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections iisted beiow) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


1008.1.3.4 


CA 




X 




































1008.1.3.6 


CA 




X 




































1008.1.8.1 


CA 




X 




































1008.1.8.6 


CA 




X 




































1008.1.8.6 No.5.1-Only 


CA 












X 




























1008.1.9 . 


CA 




X 




































1009-Only 


CA 












X 




























1009.1 


CA 




X 




































1009.4 


CA 




X 




































1009.10 


CA 




X 




































1010-Only 


CA 












X 




























1011.1 


CA 




X 




































1011.3 


CA 




X 








X 




























1011.6 


CA 




X 




































1011.7 


CA 




X 




































1012-Only 


CA 












X 




























1012.7 


CA 




X 




































1013.1 


CA 




X 








X 




























1013.2 


IFC 












X 




























1013.3 


CA 




X 








X 




























1014.2 


CA 




X 




































1014.2.2 


CA 




X 




































1014.2.2.1 


CA 




X 




































1014.4 last 
paragraph-Only 


CA 












X 




























1015.7 


CA 




X 




































Table 1016.1 


CA 




X 




































Table 1017.1 


CA 




X 




































1017.2 


CA 




X 




































1017.4 


CA 




X 




































1017.5 


CA 




X 




































Table 1019.2 


CA 




X 




































1020.1 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.6.1 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.4 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.6.1 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.6.1.1 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.6.1.2 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.6.1.3 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.6.1.4 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.6.1.5 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.6.2 


CA 




X 








X 





























136 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 10 - MEANS OF EGRESS - (Continued) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


ss 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Cliapter 








































Adopt Entire Cliapter as amended 
] (amended sections iisted beiow) 




X 




































Adopt oniy ttiose sections ttiat are 
iisted beiow 












X 




























Chapter /Section 


Codes 


1020.1.7 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.7.1 


CA 




X 




































1020.1.7.2 


CA 




X 




































1021.2 


. CA 




X 




































1022.5 


CA 




X 




































1023.2 


CA 




X 




































1024.6 


CA 




X 




































1025.1 


CA 




X 




































1025.2 


CA 




X 




































1025,3 


CA 




X 




































1025.3.1 


CA 




X 




































1025.6.1 


CA 




X 




































1025.6.4 


CA 




X 




































1025.9.1 


CA 




X 




































1025.10 


CA 




X 




































1026.1 


CA 




X 




































1026.4 


CA 




X 




































Table 1027.17.2 


CA 




X 















































































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



137 



138 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 10 

MEANS OF EGRESS 



SECTION 1001 
ADMINISTRATION 

1001.1 General. Buildings or portions thereof shall be pro- 
vided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. 
The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, con- 
struction and arrangement of means of egress components 
required to provide an approved means of egress from struc- 
tures and portions thereof. Sections 1003 through 1026 shall 
apply to new construction. Sections 1027 and 1028 shall apply 
to existing buildings. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate 
means of egress and their accessory structures. 

1001.2 Minimum requirements. It shall be unlawful to alter a 
building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of 
exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required 
by this code.. 



[B] SECTION 1002 
DEFINITIONS 

1002.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and 
unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in 
a building or facility to a public way. 

AISLE. An exit access component that defines and provides a 
path of egress travel. 

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that 
leads to an aisle. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a 
series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) 
from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an 
alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on 
the same level at the same time. 

AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use 
stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assis- 
tance during emergency evacuation. 

BLEACHERS. Tiered seating facilities. 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of 
exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before 
two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits ai'e 
available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Com- 
mon paths of egress travel shall be included within the permit- 
ted travel distance. 

CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines 
and provides a path of egress travel to an exit. 



DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted 
hardware so designed as to cause a semicounterbalanced swing 
action when opening. 

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a 
pubhc way for one or more exits. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 

operable window, door or other similar device that provides for 
a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is sepa- 
rated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as 
required to provide a protected path of egress travel between 
the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit 
doors at ground level, exit enclosures, exit passageways, exte- 
rior exit stahs, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits. 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one 
building to an area in another building on approximately the 
same level, or a path of egress travel through or ai^ound a wall or 
partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same 
building, which affords safety from fure and smoke from the 
area of incidence and areas communicating therewith. 

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that 
leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an 
exit. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress sys- 
tem between the termination of an exit and a public way. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The horizontal plane 
located at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit dis- 
chai-ge begins. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is sepai-ated 
from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated consti'uction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or hor- 
izontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated 
from all other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal 
direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hai-dware that is listed for 
use on fire door assemblies. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside per- 
imeter of tlie exterior walls of the building under consideration, 
exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corri- 
dors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, col- 
umns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion 
thereof, not provided with suiTounding exterior walls shall be 
the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



139 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with 
no openings or interior courts. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including 
unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet 
rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating 
facilities having an overall shape and size that are capable of 
being reduced for purposes of moving or storing. 

GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating facilities. 

GUARD (or GUARDRAIL). A building component or a sys- 
tem of building components located at or near the open sides of 
elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a 
fall from the walking surface to a lower level. 

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

ME!ANS of EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path 
of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied por- 
tion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of 
egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit 
access, the exit and the exit discharge. 

MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for dis- 
play of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures 
or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed 
and moveable fixtui'es, cases, racks, counters and partitions as 
indicated in Appendix Chapter 1, Section 105.2 of the Califor- 
nia Building Code from which customers browse or shop. 

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings 
at the top of stairway flights. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the 
means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed. 

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporat- 
ing a device that releases the latch upon the application of a 
force in the direction of egress travel. 

[B] PHOTOLUMINESCENT. The property of emitting light 
as the result of absorption of visible light, which continues for a 
length of time after excitation. 

PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to 
the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedi- 
cated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the pubUc for 
public use and which has a clear width and height of not less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

RAMP. A wallcing surface that has a running slope steeper than 
one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope). 

SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two 
separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure. 

[B] SELF-LUMINOUS. Means powered continuously by a 
self-contained power source other than a battery or batteries, 
such as radioactive tritium gas. A self-luminous sign is inde- 
pendent of external power supplies or other energy for its oper- 
ation. 



SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating 
served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumu- 
lation within or under a structure. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers . 

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or 
interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting 
them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one 
level to another. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least 
one side, except for required structural columns, beams, hand- 
rails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either yards, 
courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway 
need not be open. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the defini- 
tion of an exterior stairway. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular 
form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads 
attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting 
column. 

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. 



[BISECTION 1003 
GENERAL MEANS OF EGRESS 

1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified in 
Sections 1 003 through 1013 shall apply to all three elements of 
the means of egress system, in addition to those specific 
requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge 
detailed elsewhere in this chapter. 

Exception: Exiting requirements for fixed guideway transit 
systems shall be as per Section 433.3 of the California 
Building Code. 

[DSA-AC] In addition to the requirements of this chapter, 
means of egress, which provide access to, or egress from, build- 
ings or facilities where accessibility is required for applica- 
tions listed in Title 24, Part 2, Section 109.1 regulated by the 
Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance shall also 
comply with Chapter llA or Chapter IIB of the California 
Building Code, as applicable. 

1003.2 Ceiling lieight. The means of egress shall have a ceiling 
height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2 of 
the California Building Code. 

2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within 
residential occupancies in accordance with Section 
1208.2 of the California Building Code. 

3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 
1003.3. 

4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.2. 

5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1. 

6. In Group 1-2 occupancies, the means of egress shall 
have a ceiling height of not less than 8 feet (2439 mm). 



140 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1003.3 Protruding objects. Prottuding objects shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4. 

Exception: In Group 1-2 and Group 1-2.1 occupancies, pro- 
truding objects shall not extend more than 12 inches (305 
mm) below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 
1003.2. 

1003.3.1 Headroom. Protruding objects are permitted to 
extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Sec- 
tion 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 80 inches 
(2032 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, 
including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not 
more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress 
shall be reduced in height by protruding objects. 

Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce 
headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm). 

A baiTier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of 
such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maxi- 
mum above the floor. 

1003.3.2 Free-standing objects. A free-standing object 
mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or 
pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the lowest point 
of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 
Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts 
or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons 
is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such 
sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (685 mm) maximum 
or 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum above the finished floor 
or ground. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to sloping 
portions of handrails serving stairs and ramps. 

1003.3.3 Horizontal projections. Structural elements, fix- 
tures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from 
either side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking 
surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 
inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 

Exception: Handrails serving stall's and ramps are per- 
mitted to protrude 4.5 inches (114 mm) from the wall. 

1003.3.3.1 Horizontal projections for Group 1-2 occu- 
pancies. Structural elements, fixtures or furnishings 
shall not project horizontally from either side more than 
V/2 inches (38 mm) into the required width of an exit 
access corridor serving any area caring for one or more 
nonambulatory or bedridden persons. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails are permitted to protrude 3.5 inches 
(89 mm) from the wall. 

2. Alcohol-based hand-rub dispensers are permit- 
ted to protrude 4 inches. 

1003.3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not reduce 
the minimum clear width of accessible routes as required in 
Chapter IIB, Section 1133B.8.6 of the California Building 
Code. 



1003.4 Floor surface. Walking surfaces of the means of egress 
shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached. 

1003.5 Elevation change. Where changes in elevation of less 
than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped 
surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit 
vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps comply- 
ing with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in 
elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be 
equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that 
contrast with adjacent floor finish materials. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches 
(178 mm) is permitted for buildings with occupancies 
in Groups F, H, R-2, R-3, S and U at exterior doors not 
required to be accessible by Chapter llA or IIB of 
the California Building Code. 

2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread 
is permitted at locations not required to be accessible 
by Chapter HA or IIB of the California Building 
Code, provided that the risers and treads comply with 
Section 1009.3, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 
inches (330 mm) and at least one handrail complying 
with Section 1012 is provided within 30 inches (762 
mm) of the centerline of the normal path of egress 
travel on the stair. 

3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a 
difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) 
at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 
llAorllB of the California Building Code, provided 
that the risers and treads comply with Section 1 025 . 1 1 
and the aisle is provided with a handrail complying 
with Section 1025.13. 

Any change in elevation in a corridor or exit passageway 
serving nonambulatory persons in Group 1-2 and Group 1-2.1 
occupancj'ei' shall be by means of a ramp or sloped walkway. 

1003.6 Means of egress continuity. The path of egress travel 
along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any building 
element other than a means of egress component as specified in 
this chapter. Obsti-uctions shall not be placed in the required 
width of a means of egress except projections permitted by this 
chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system 
shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel. 

1003.7 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, 
escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component 
of a required means of egress from any other part of the 
building. 

Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means of egress 
in accordance with Section 1007.4. 



[BISECTION 1004 
OCCUPANT LOAD 

1004.1 Design occupant load. In determining means of egress 
requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of 
egress facilities shall be provided shall be determined in accor- 
dance with this section. Where occupants from accessory ai-eas 
egress through a primary space, the calculated occupant load 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



141 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



for the primary space shall include the total occupant load of 
the primary space plus the number of occupants egressing 
through it from the accessory area. 

1004.1.1 Areas without fixed seating. The number of 
occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per 
unit of area as prescribed in Table 1 004. 1.1. For areas with- 
out fixed seating, the occupant load shall not be less than 
that number determined by dividing the floor area under 
consideration by the occupant per unit of area factor 
assigned to the occupancy as set forth in Table 1004.1.1. 
Where an intended use is not listed in Table 1004.1.1, the 
building official shall establish a use based on a listed use 
that most nearly resembles the intended use. 

Exception: Where approved by the building official, the 
actual number of occupants for whom each occupied 
space, floor or building is designed, although less than 
those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be 
used in the determination of the design occupant load. 

1004.2 Increased occupant load. The occupant load permit- 
ted in any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be 
increased from that number established for the occupancies in 
Table 1004.1.1, provided that all other requkements of the 
code are also met based on such modified number and the occu- 
pant load does not exceed one occupant per 7 square feet (0.65 
m^) of occupiable floor space. Where required by the fire code 
official, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram 
substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submit- 
ted. Where required by the fire code official, such diagram shall 
be posted. 

1004.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is 
an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the 
room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit 
or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs 
shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be 
maintained by the owner or authorized agent. 

1004.4 Exiting from multiple levels. Where exits serve more 
than one floor, only the occupant load of each floor considered 
individually shall be used in computing the required capacity 
of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not 
decrease in the direction of egress travel. 

1004.5 Egress convergence. Where means of egress from 
floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the 
capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence 
shall not be less than the sum of the two floors. 

1004.6 Mezzanine levels. The occupant load of a mezzanine 
level with egress onto a room or area below shall be added to 
that room or area's occupant load, and the capacity of the exits 
shall be designed for the total occupant load thus established. 

1004.7 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and aisles, 
the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed 
seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which 
fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces and wheel- 
chair spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004.1.1 and added to the number of fixed seats. 

For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the 
occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based 
on one person for each 1 8 inches (457 mm) of seating length. 



TABLE 1004.1.1 
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT 



FUNCTION OF SPACE 


FLOOR AREA IN SQ. FT. 
PER OCCUPANT 


Agricultural building 


300 gross 


Aircraft hangars 


500 gross 


Airport terminal 
Baggage claim 
Baggage handling 
Concourse 
Waiting areas 


20 gross 
300 gross 
100 gross 

15 gross 


Assembly 

Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.) 


1 1 gross 


Assembly with fixed seats 


See Section 1004.7 


Assembly without fixed seats 
Concentrated (chairs only — not fixed) 
Standing space 
Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 


7 net 
5 net 
15 net 


Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each 
lane including 15 feet of runway, and for 
additional areas 


7 net 


Business areas 


100 gross 


Courtrooms — other than fixed seating areas 


40 net 


Day care 


35 net 


Dormitories 


50 gross 


Educational 
Classroom area 
Shops and other vocational room areas 


20 net 
50 net 


Exercise rooms 


50 gross 


H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing areas 


200 gross 


Industrial areas 


100 gross 


Institutional areas 
Inpatient treatment areas 
Outpatient areas 
Sleeping areas 


240 gross 
100 gross 
120 gross 


Kitchens, commercial 


200 gross 


Library 
Reading rooms 
Stack area 


50 net 
100 gross 


Locker rooms 


50 gross 


Mercantile 
Areas on other floors 
Basement and grade floor areas 
Storage, stock, shipping areas 


60 gross 
30 gross 
300 gross 


Parking garages 


200 gross 


Residential 


200 gross 


Skating rinks, swimming pools 
Rink and pool 
Decks 


50 gross 
15 gross 


Stages and platforms 


15 net 


Accessory storage areas, mechanical 
equipment room 


300 gross 


Warehouses 


500 gross 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 a?. 



142 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one 
person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length mea- 
sured at the backrest of the seating booth. 

1004.8 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar out- 
door areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants 
shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chap- 
ter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned 
by the fire code official in accordance with the anticipated use. 
Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the 
occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the 
outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress 
requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the 
occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas. 

Exceptions: 

1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the 
building need only have one means of egress. 

2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and in- 
dividual dwelling units of Group R-2. 

1004.9 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two 
or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall 
apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of 
that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of 
the same means of egress system, those egress components 
shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies 
that are served. 



[BISECTION 1005 
EGRESS WIDTH 

1005.1 Minimum required egress width. The means of 
egress width shall not be less than required by this section. The 
total width of means of egress in inclies (mm) shall not be less 
than the total occupant load served by the means of egress mul- 
tiplied by the factors in Table 1005.1 and not less than specified 
elsewhere in this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized 
such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce 
the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required 
capacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a 
building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of 
egress. 

Exception: Means of egress complying with Section 1025. 

TABLE 1005.1 
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT SERVED 



j^aUPANCY 


WITHOUT 
SPRiNKLER SYSTEIVI 


WITH 
SPRINKLER SYSTEM' 


Stairways 
(inches per 
occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Stairways 
(inches per 
occupant) 


, Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Occupancies 
other than those 
listed below'' 


0.3 


0.2 


0.2 


0.15 


Hazardous: H-1, 
H-2, H-3andH-4 


NA 


NA 


0.7 


0.4 


Institutional: 1-2 


NA 


NA 


0.3 


0.2 



For SI: 1 inch— 25.4 mm. NA = Not applicable. 

a. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

b. See Section 1025. 



1005.2 Door encroachment. Doors opening into the path of 
egress travel shall not reduce the required width to less than 
one-half during the course of the swing. When fully open, the 
door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into the 
required width. 

Exception: The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply 
to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units 
of Group R-2 and dweUing units of Group R-3. 



[BISECTION 1006 
MEANS OF EGRESS ILLUMINATION 

1006.1 Illumination required. The means of egress, including 
the exit discharge, shall be illuminated a:t all times the building 
space served by the means of egress is occupied. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies in Group U. 

2. Aisle accessways in Group A. 

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 
and R-3. 

4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies and Group 
R-4. 

1006.2 Illumination level. The means of egress illumination 
level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking 
surface. 

Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls 
and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the 
walking surface is permitted to be reduced during perfor- 
mances to not less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux), provided 
that the required illumination is automatically restored upon 
activation of a premises' fire alarm system where such 
system is provided. 

1006.3 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for 
means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the 
premises' electrical supply. 

( In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical 
system shall automatically illuminate the following areas: 

1. Aisles and unenclosed egress stairways in rooms and 
spaces that require two or more means of egress. 

2. Corridors, exit enclosures and exit passageways in build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

3 . Exterior egress components at other than the level of exit 
discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 
1 024. 1 , in buildings required to have two or more exits . 

5. Exterior landings, as required by Section 1008.1.5, for 
exit discharge doorways in buildings required to have 
two or more exits. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for a 
duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage 
batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installa- 
tion of the emergency power system shall be in accordance 
with Section 2702 of the California Building Code. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



143 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1006.4 Performance of system. Emergency lighting facilities 
shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least 
an average of 1 foot-candle (11 lux) and a minimum at any 
point of 0.1 foot-candle (1 lux) measured along the path of 
egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to 
decline to 0.6 foot-candle (6 lux) average and a minimum at 
any point of 0.06 foot-candle (0.6 lux) at the end of the emer- 
gency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illu- 
mination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. 



[BISECTION 1007 
ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS 

1007.1 Accessible means of egress required. Accessible 
means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible 
spaces shall be provided wilii not less than one accessible 
means of egress. Where more than one means of egress is 
required by Section 1015.1 or 1019.1 from any accessible 
space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by 
accessible means of egress in at least the same number as 
required by Section 1015.1 or 1019.1. In addition to the 
requirements of this chapter, means of egress, which provide 
access to, or egress from, buildings for persons with disabili- 
ties, shall also comply with the requirements of Chapter 11 A or 
IIB of the California Building Code, as applicable. 

Exceptions: 

1. Accessible means of egress are not required in alter- 
ations to existing buildings. 

2. One accessible means of egress is required from an 
accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1007.3, 1007.4 or 1007.5 and Chapter llA or 
IIB of the California Building Code, as applicable. 

3. In assembly spaces with sloped floors, one accessible 
means of egress is required from a space where the 
common path of travel of the accessible route for ac- 
cess to the wheelchair spaces meets the requirements 
in Section 1025.8 and Chapter llA or IIB of the Cal- 
ifornia Building Code, as applicable. 

1007.2 Continuity and components. Each required accessi- 
ble means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and 
shall consist of one or more of the following components: 

1. Accessible routes complying with Chapter 11 A, Sec- 
tions lllOA and 1120A, or Chapter IIB, Section 
11 MB. 1.2, of the California Building Code, as applica- 
ble. 

2. Stairways within vertical exit enclosures complying with 
Sections 1007.3, 1020, and Chapter 11 A, Section 
1123A, or Chapter 1 IB, Section 1133B.4, of the Califor- 
nia Building Code, as applicable. 

3. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 1007.3, 
1023, and Chapter 1 1 A, SectionlllSA, orChapterllB, 
Section 1133B.4, of the California Building Code, as ap- 
plicable. 

4. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4 and Chapter 
Ilk, Section 1124A, or Chapter IIB, Section 1116B.1, 
of the California Building Code, as applicable. 



5. Platform lifts complying with Section 1007.5 and Chap- 
ter HA, Section 1124 A, or Chapter IIB, Sections 
1116B.2 and 1116B.3, of the California Building Code, 
as applicable. 

6. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1022. 

7. Ramps complying with Section 1010 and Chapter llA, 
Sections 11 14 A and 1122 A, or Chapter IIB, Section 
1133B.5, of the California Building Code, as applicable. 

8. Areas of refuge complying with Section 1007.6. 
Exceptions: 

1 . Where the exit discharge is not accessible, an exte- 
rior area for assisted rescue must be provided in ac- 
cordance with Section 1007.8. 

2. Where the exit stairway is open to the exterior, the 
accessible means of egress shall include either an 
area of refuge in accordance with Section 1007.6 
or an exterior area for assisted rescue in accor- 
dance with Section 1007.8. 

1007.2.1 Elevators required. In buildings where a required 
accessible floor is four or more stories above or below a 
level of exit discharge, at least one required accessible 
means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section 
1007.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a hor- 
izontal exit and located at or above the level of exit 
discharge. 

2. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a 
ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 
1010. 

1007.3 Exit stairways. In order to be considered part of an 
accessible means of egress, an exit stairway shall have a clear 
width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between handrails 
and shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an 
enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from either an 
area of refuge complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal 
exit. In addition, exit stairways shall comply with Chapter 1 lA, 
Sections 1115A and 1123A, or Chapter IIB, Section 1133B.4, 
of the California Building Code, as applicable. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unenclosed exit stairways as permitted by Section 
1020.1 are permitted to be considered part of an ac- 
cessible means of egress. 

2. The area of refuge is not required at unenclosed exit 
stairways as permitted by Section 1020. 1 in buildings 
or facilities that are equipped throughout with an au- 
tomatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 



144 



2007 CALIFORNtA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



3. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not requked at exit stairways in buildings 
or facihties equipped thi^oughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required for exit stairways accessed 
from a horizontal exit. 

5. Areas of refuge are not required at exit stairways serv- 
ing open parking garages. 

1007.4 Elevators. In order to be considered part of an accessi- 
ble means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the emer- 
gency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 
2.27 of ASME A17.1. Standby power shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 604.2.5 of this code and Section 3003 
of the California Building Code. The elevator shall be accessed 
from either an area of refuge complying with Section 1007.6 or 
a horizontal exit. 

Exception: Elevators ai'e not required to be accessed from 
an area of refuge or horizontal exit in open parking garages. 

1007.5 Platform lifts. Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall not 
serve as part of an accessible means of egress, except where 
allowed as part of a required accessible route in Chapter HA, 
Section 1121A, or Chapter IIB, Sections 1116B.2.1 through 
1116B.2.4, of the California Building Code, as applicable. 
Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Section 
604.2.6 for platform lifts permitted to serve as part of a means 
of egress. 

[DSA-AC]See Chapter IIB, Section 1116B.3 of the Califor- 
nia Building Code for additional accessible means of egress 
requirements at platform or special access lifts. 

1007.5.1 Openness. Platform lifts on an accessible means 
of egress shall not be installed in a fully enclosed or 
fire-rated shaft. - 

1007.6 Areas of refuge. Every requu-ed ai-ea of refuge shall be 
accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of 
egress. The maximum travel distance from any accessible 
space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the travel distance 
permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 
1016.1. Every required area of refuge shall have direct access 
to an enclosed stairway complying with Sections 1007.3 and 
1020.1 or an elevator complying with Section 1007.4. Where 
an elevator lobby is used as an area of refuge, the shaft and 
lobby shall comply with Section 1020.1.7 for smokeproof 
enclosures except where the elevators ai-e in an area of refuge 
formed by a horizontal exit or smoke barrier. 

[DSA-AC] Areas of refuge shall comply with the require- 
ments of this code and shall adjoin an accessible route of travel 
complying with Chapter IIB, Section 1114B.1.2 of the Califor- 
nia Building Code. 

1007.6.1 Size. Each ai-ea of refuge shall be sized to accom- 
modate two wheelchair- spaces that are not less than 30 
inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) each. The total 
number of such 30-inch by 48-inch (762 mm by 1219 mm) 
spaces per story shall be not less than one for every 200 per- 
sons of calculated occupant load served by the area of ref- 
uge. Such wheelchair spaces shall not reduce the required 



means of egress width. Access to any of the required wheel- 
chair spaces in an area of refuge shall not be obstructed by 
more than one adjoining wheelchair space. 

Exception: The enforcing agency may reduce the size of 
each required area of refuge to accommodate one wheel- 
chair space that is not less than 30 inches by 48 inches 
(762 mm x 1219 mm) on floors where the occupant load 
is less than 200. 

1007.6.2 Separation. Each area of refuge shall be sepai-ated 
from the remainder of the story by a smoke baiTier comply- 
ing with Section 709 of the California Building Code or a 
horizontal exit complying with Section 1022. Each area of 
refuge shall be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke. 

Exception: Areas of refuge located within a vertical exit 
enclosure. 

1007.6.3 Two-way communication. Areas of refuge shall 
be provided with a two-way communication system 
between the area of refuge and a central control point. If the 
central control point is not constantly attended, the area of 
refuge shall also have controlled access to a public tele- 
phone system. Location of the central control point shall be 
approved by the fire department. The two-way coinmunica- 
tion system shall include both audible and visible signals. 

1007.6.3.1 [DSA-AC], A button complying with Chapter 
IIB, Section 1117B.6ofthe California Building Code in 
the area of refuge shall activate both a light in the area of 
refuge indicating that rescue has been requested and a 
light at the central control point indicating that rescue is 
being requested. A button at the central control point 
shall activate both a light at the central control point and 
a light in the area of refuge indicating that the request 
has been received. 

1007.6.4 Instructions. In areas of refuge that have a 
two-way emergency conmiunications system, instructions 
on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be 
posted adjoining the communications system. The instruc- 
tions shall include all of the following and shall comply with 
Section 1117B.5.1 Item2, of the California Building Code: 

1. Directions to find other means of egress. 

2. Persons able to use the exit stakway do so as soon as 
possible, unless they are assisting others. 

3. Information on planned availability of assistance in 
the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators 
and how to summon such assistance. 

4. Directions for use of the emergency communications 
system. 

1007.6.5 Identification. Each door providing access to an 
area of refuge from an adjacent floor area shall be identified 
by a sign complying with Section 1117B.5.1 Item 2 of the 
California Building Code, stating: AREA OF REFUGE, 
and including the International Symbol of Accessibility. 
Where exit sign illumination is required by Section 1011.2, 
the area of refuge sign shall be illuminated. Additionally, 
tactile signage complying with Section 1117B.5.1 Item 1 of 
the California Building Code shall be located at each door to 
an ai'ea of refuge. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



145 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1007.7 Signage. At exits and elevators serving a required 
accessible space but not providing an approved accessible 
means of egress, signage shall be installed indicating the loca- 
tion of accessible means of egress. Signs shall comply with 
Chapter 1 lA or Chapter 1 IB, Section 1117B.5.1 Items 2 and 3, 
of the California Building Code, as applicable. 

1007.8 Exterior area for assisted rescue. The exterior area for 
assisted rescue must be open to the outside air and meet the 
requirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 704 of the California 
Building Code for exterior walls. Where walls or openings are 
between the area for assisted rescue and the interior of the 
building, the building exterior walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) 
horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall 
have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings 
within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less tiian V4 
hour. This consti-uction shall extend vertically from the ground 
to a point 1 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the area for 
assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. 

1007.8.1 Openness. The exterior area for assisted rescue 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 

1007.8.2 Exterior exit stairway. Exterior exit stairways 
that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for 
assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches 
(1219 mm) between handrails. 

1007.8.3 Identification. Exterior areas for assisted rescue 
shall have identification as required for area of refuge that 
complies with Section 1007.6.5. 

1007.9 Alarms/emergency warning systems/accessibility. If 

emergency warning systems are required, they shall activate a 
means of warning the hearing impaired. Emergency warning 
systems as part of the fire-alarm system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72, as amended in Chapter 
45 and Chapter 9, Sections 907.10.1 and 907.10.2. 



[BISECTION 1008 
DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES 

[DSA-AC] In addition to the requirements of this section, 
means of egress, which provide access to, or egress from, build- 
ings or facilities where accessibility is required for applica- 
tions listed in Title 24, Part 2, Section 109.1 regulated by the 
Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance shall also 
comply with Chapter 11 A or Chapter IIB, Section 1133B.2 of 
the California Building Code, as applicable. 

1008.1 Doors. Means of egress doors shall meet the require- 
ments of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system 
shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1018.2. 
Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than 
required by this code shall meet the requirements of this 
section. 

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from 
the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are 



easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting 
materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of 
egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decora- 
tions or similar materials. 

1008.1.1 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door 
opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and 
shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 
mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors 
shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, 
with the door open 90 degrees (1 .57 rad). Where this section 
requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and 
a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, 
one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches 
(813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf 
shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress 
doors in a Group 1-2 occupancy used for the movement of 
beds and litter patients shall provide a clear width not less 
than 44 inches (1118 mm). The height of doors shall not be 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply 
to door openings that are not part of the required 
means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupan- 
cies. 

2. Other than those required to be accessible by 
Chapter IIB of the California Building Code, 
door openings to resident sleeping units in Group 
1-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less 
than 28 inches (711 mm). 

3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 
square feet (0.93 m^) in area shall not be Umited by 
the minimum width. 

4. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply 
with Section 1008.1.3.1 shall not be limited. 

5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in 
height. 

6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and 
sleeping units, other than the required exit door, 
shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in 
height. 

7. In other than Group R-1 occupancies, the mini- 
mum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors 
within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is not 
required to be adaptable or accessible as specified 
in Chapter llA or IIB of the California Building 
Code, as applicable. 

8. Door openings requii'ed to be accessible within 
dwelling units shall have a minimum clear width as 
specified in Chapter HA or HB of the California 
Building Code, as applicable. 

1008.1.1.1 Projections into clear width. There shall not 
be projections into the requked clear width lower than 34 
inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections 
into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 



146 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground 
shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). 

Exception: In a Group 1-2 occupancy, there shall be 
no projections into the clear width of means of egress 
doors used for the movement of beds and litter 
patients in the means of egress. 

1008.1.2 Door swing. Egress doors shall be side-hinged 
swinging. 

Exceptions: 

1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage 
areas with an occupant load of 10 or less. 

2. Group 1-3 occupancies used as a place of deten- 
tion. 

3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within 
suites of health care facilities. 

4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in 
Groups R-2 and R-3. 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving 
doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.1. 

6. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal 
sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.3 
are permitted in a means of egress. 

7. Power-operated doors in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.3.2. 

8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual 
sleeping unit in Group R-1. 

9. In a Group 1-2 occupancy, all required exterior 
egress doors shall open in the direction of egress 
regardless of the occupant load seiyed. 

10. In Group 1-2 and 1-2.1 occupancies, exit doors 
serving an occupant load ofl Oor more may be of 
the pivoted or balanced type. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where 
serving an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group 
H occupancy. 

The opening force for interior side-swinging doors with- 
out closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For 
other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door 
latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) 
force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 
30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open 
position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. Forces 
shall be applied to the latch side. 

1008.1.3 Special doors. Special doors and security grilles 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.3.1 
through 1008.1.3.5. 

1008.1.3.1 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing 
into a bookfold position with parallel egress paths 
providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 
mm). 

2. A revolving door shall not be located within 1 feet 
(3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or escala- 



tors. A dispersal area shall be provided between 
the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors. 

3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving 
door shall not exceed those shown in Table 
1008.1.3.1. 

4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged 
swinging door which complies with Section 
1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of the revolving door. 

TABLE 1008.1.3.1 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 



INSIDE DIAMETER 
(feet-inches) 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


MANUAL-TYPE SPEED 

CONTROL 

(rpm) 


6-6 


11 


12 


7-0 


10 


11 


7-6 ,, 


9 


11 


8-0 


9 


10 


8-6 


8 


9 


9-0 


8 


9 


9-6 


7 


8 


10-0 


7 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

1008.1.3.1.1 Egress component. A revolving door 
used as a component of a means of egress shall com- 
ply with Section 1008.1.3.1 and the following three 
conditions: 

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for 
more than 50 percent of the required egress ca- 
pacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no 
more than a 50-person capacity. 

3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being 
collapsed when a force of not more than 130 
pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 
mm) of the outer edge of a wing. 

1008.1.3.1.2 Other than egress component. A 

revolving door used as other than a component of a 
means of egress shall comply with Section 
1008.1.3.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door 
not used as a component of a means of egress shall not 
be more than 180 pounds (801 N). 

Exception: A collapsing force in excess of 180 
pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force 
is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (578 N) 
when at least one of the following conditions is sat- 
isfied: 

1 . There is a power failure or power is removed 
to the device holding the door wings in posi- 
tion. 

2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprin- 
kler system where such system is provided. 

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection 
system which is installed in accordance with 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



147 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Section 907 to provide coverage in areas 
within the building which are within 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) of the revolving doors. 

4. There is an actuation of a manual control 
switch, in an approved location and clearly 
defined, which reduces the holding force to 
below the 130-pound (578 N) force level. 

1008.1.3.2 Power-operated doors. Where means of 
egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a 
photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon 
the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted 
manual operation, the design shall be such that in the 
event of power failure, the door is capable of being 
opened manually to permit means of egress travel or 
closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. 
The forces required to open these doors manually shall 
not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.2, except 
that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 
pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging 
from any position to the full width of the opening in 
which such door is installed when a force is apphed to the 
door on the side from which egress is made. 
Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA 
A156.10. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall 
comply with BHMA A156.19. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies in Group 1-3. 

2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.3.3. 

3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout 
mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf 
opening shall be exempt from the minimum 
32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of 
Section 1008.1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch 
(813 mm) clear opening is provided when the 
two biparting leaves meeting in the center are 
broken out. 

1008.1.3.3 Horizontal sliding doors. In other than 
Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permitted 
to be a component of a means of egress in accordance 
with Exception 5 to Section 1008.1.2 shall comply with 
all of the following criteria: 

1 . The doors shall be power operated and shall be ca- 
pable of being operated manually in the event of 
power failure. 

2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method 
from both sides without special knowledge or ef- 
fort. 

3 . The force required to operate the door shall not ex- 
ceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion 
and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to 
the minimum required width. 

4. The door shall be openable with a force not to ex- 
ceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 pounds 
( 1 1 00 N) is applied perpendicular to the door adj a- 
cent to the operating device. 



5. The door assembly shall comply with the applica- 
ble fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be 
self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detec- 
tion in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3 of the 
California Building Code, shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 80 and shall comply with 
Section 715. 

6. The door assembly shall have an integrated 
standby power supply. 

7. The door assembly power supply shall be electri- 
cally supervised. 

8. The door shall open to the minimum required 
width within 10 seconds after activation of the op- 
erating device. 

1008.1.3.4 Access-controlled egress doors. The 

entrance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an 
occupancy in Group A, B, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance 
doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, M, 
R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an 
approved entrance and egress access control system 
which shall be installed in accordance with all of the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side ar- 
ranged to detect an occupant approaching the 
doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a 
signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 

2. Loss of power to that part of the access control sys- 
tem which locks the doors shall automatically un- 
lock the doors. 

3 . The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a man- 
ual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 
inches (1016 mm to 1 2 1 9 nun) vertically above the 
floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of die secured 
doors. Ready access shall be provided to the man- 
ual unlocking device and the device shall be 
clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO 
EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking de- 
vice shall result in direct interruption of power to 
the lock-independent of the access control system 
electronics-and the doors shall remain unlocked 
for a minimum of 30 seconds. 

4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if pro- 
vided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and 
the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm 
system has been reset. 

5. Activation of the building automatic sprinlder or 
fii-e detection system, if provided, shall automati- 
cally unlock the doors. The doors shall remain un- 
locked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 

6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in 
Group A, B or M shall not be secured from the 
egress side during periods that the building is open 
to the general public. 

1008.1.3.5 Security grilles. In Groups B, F, M and S, 
horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permit- 
ted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside 



148 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort 
during periods that tlie space is occupied. The grilles 
shall remain secured in the full-open position during the 
period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or 
more means of egress are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be 
equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security 
grilles. 

1008.1:3.6 Special provisions. School classrooms con- 
structed after January 1, 1990, not equipped with auto- 
matic sprinkler systems, which have metal grilles or bars 
hn all their windows and do not have at least two exit 
doors within 3 feet (914 mm) of each end of the classroom 
opening to the exterior of the building or to a common 
hallway used for evacuation purposes, shall have an 
inside release for the grilles or bars on at least one win- 
dow farthest from the exit doors. The window or windows 
with the inside release shall be clearly marked as emer- 
gency exits. 

1008.1.4 Floor elevation. There shall be a floor or landing 
on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the 
same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be 
level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to 
have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units hori- 
zontal (2-percent slope). 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 where the following apply: 

1.1. A door is permitted to open at the top step 
of an interior flight of stairs, provided the 
door does not swing over the top step. 

1.2. Screen doors and storm doors are permit- 
ted to swing over stairs or landings. 

2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, 
Exception 1, and Section 1018.2, which are not on 
an accessible route. 

3. In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be Ac- 
cessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the 
landing at an exterior doorway shall not be more 
than 7.75 inches (197 mm) below the top of the 
tlreshold, provided the door, other than an exterior 
storm or screen door, does not swing over the 
landing. 

4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish 
materials, but not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of 
Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces 
and that ai'e not more than 4 inches (102 mm) be- 
low the finished floor level of the adj acent interior 
space of the dwelling unit. 

1008.1.5 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a width 
riot less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever 
is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a 
required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). When 
a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in 
any position shall not reduce the landing to less tlian 



one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length 
measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). 

Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in 
Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group 
R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

1008.1.6 Thresholds. Thresholds at doorways shall not 
exceed 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) in height for sliding doors serv- 
ing dwelhng units or 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. 
Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 0.25 
inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not 
greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal 
(50-percent slope). 

Exception: The threshold height shall be limited to 7.75 
inches (197 mm) where the occupancy is Group R-2 or 
R-3; the door is an exterior door that is not a component 
of the required means of egress; the door, other than an 
exterior storm or screen door does not swing over the 
landing or step; and the doorway is not on an accessible 
route as required by Chapter llA or IIB of the Califor- 
nia Building Code and is not part of an adaptable or 
accessible dwelling unit. 

1008.1.7 Door arrangement. Space between two doors in a 
series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the 
width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series 
shall swing either in the same direction or away from the 
space between the doors. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum distance between horizontal sliding 
power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches 
(1219 mm). - 

2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwell- 
ing units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 
48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door. 

3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 other than within Type A dwelling 
units. 

1008.1.8 Door operations. Except as specifically permitted 
by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from 
the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge 
or effort. 

1008.1.8.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, 
locks and otlier operating devices on doors required to be 
accessible by Chapter 1 lA, Section 1126A.6, or Chapter 
HE, Section 1133B.2. 5, of the California Building Code 
shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or twisting 
of the wrist to operate. 

1008.1.8.2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, 
latches, locks and other operating devices shall be 
installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches 
(1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks 
used only for security purposes and not used for normal 
operation are permitted at any height. 

Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and 
fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be per- 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



149 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



mitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on 
self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maxi- 
mum above the finished floor or ground, provided the 
self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices 
operated by ineans of a key, electronic opener or inte- 
gral combination lock. 

1008.1.8.3 Locks and latches. Locks and latches shall 
be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of 
the following exists: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an oc- 
cupant load of 300 or less. Groups B, F, M and S, 
and in places of religious worship, the main exte- 
rior door or doors are permitted to be equipped 
with key-operated locking devices from the egress 
side provided: 

2.1. The locking device is readily distinguishable 
as locked, 

2.2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on the 
egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: 
THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED 
WHEN BUILDING IS OCCUPIED. The sign 
shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a 
contrasting background, 

2.3. The use of the key-operated locking device is 
revokable by the fire code official for due 
cause. 

3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved au- 
tomatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, 
provided that the door leaf having the automatic 
flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted 
hardware. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units 
of Group R occupancies having an occupant load 
of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a 
night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided 
such devices are openable from the inside without 
the use of a key or tool. 

1008.1.8.4 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush bolts or 
surface bolts are not permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1. On doors not required for egress in individual 
dwelling units or sleeping units. 

2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equip- 
ment room, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the 
inactive leaf. 

1008.1.8.5 Unlatching. The unlatching of any door or 
leaf shall not require more than one operation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Places of detention or restraint. 

2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permit- 
ted by Section 1008.1.8.4. 



3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted 
by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 3. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling units and 
sleeping units of Group R occupancies as per- 
mitted by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 4. 

1008.1.8.6 Delayed egress locks. Approved, listed, 
delayed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on 
doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H 
occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 and an approved automatic smoke 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with 
Items 1 through 9 below. A building occupant shall not 
be required to pass through more than one door equipped 
with a delayed egress lock before entering an exit. 
Delayed egress devices shall conform to all of the follow- 
ing: 

1 . The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system or automatic smoke detection 
system. 

2. The doors unlock upon loss of electrical power to 
any one of the following: 

2.1. The egress-control device itself. 

2.2. The smoke detection system. 

2.3. Means of egress illumination as required by 
Section 1006. 

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being 
unlocked by a signal from a switch located in an 
approved location. 

4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will 
release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when 
a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is ap- 
plied for 1 second to the release device. Initiation 
of the irreversible process shall activate an audible 
signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the door 
lock has been released by the application of force 
to the releasing device, relocking shall be by man- 
ual means only. The time delay established for 
each egress-control device shall not be field ad- 
justable. For applications listed in Section 109.1 
regulated by the Division of the State Architect-Ac- 
cess Compliance, see Chapter IIB, Section 
1133B.2.5 of the California Building Code. 

Exception: In facilities housing Alzheimer's or 
dementia clients, a delay of not more than 30 
seconds is permitted. 

5. A sign shall be provided on the door located above 
and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release de- 
vice reading: "KEEP PUSHING. THIS DOOR 
WILL OPEN IN 15 [30] SECONDS. ALARM 
WILL SOUND." Sign lettering shall be at least 1 
inch (25 mm) in height and shall have a stroke of 
not less than % inch (3.2 mm). 



150 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



5.1. A tactile sign shall also be provided in Braille 
and raised characters, which complies with 
Section 1117B.5.1 Item 1, of the California 
Building Code. 

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 

7. Actuation of the panic bar or other door-latching 
hardware shall activate an audible signal at the 
door. 

8. The unlatching shall not require more than one op- 
eration. 

9. Regardless of the means of deactivation, relocking 
of the egress-control device shall be by manual 
means only at the door. 

1008.1.8.7 Stairway doors. Interior stairway means of 
egress doors shall be openable from both sides without 
the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable 
from the egress side and shall only be locked 
from the opposite side. 

2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in 
accordance with Section 403.12 of the Califor- 
nia Building Code. 

3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, 
doors are permitted to be locked from the side 
opposite the egress side, provided they are 
openable from the egress side and capable of 
being unlocked simultaneously without un- 
latching upon a signal from the fire command 
center, if present, or a signal by emergency per- 
sonnel from a single location inside the main 
entrance to the building. 

1008.1.9 Panic and fire exit hardware. Where panic and 
fire exit hai-dware is installed, it shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . The actuating portion of the releasing device shall ex- 
tend at least one-half of the door leaf width. 

2. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 15 
pounds (67 N). 

Each door in a means of egress from a Group A or assem- 
bly area not classified as an assembly occupancy, E, 1-2 or 
1-2.1 occupancies having an occupant load of 50 or more 
and any Group H occupancy shall not be provided with a 
latch or lock unless it is panic hardware or fire exit hard- 
ware. 

Exception: A main exit of a Group A occupancy in com- 
phance with Section 1008.1.8.3, Item 2. 

Electiical rooms with equipment rated 1,200 amperes or 
more and over 6 feet (1829 mm) wide that contain 
overcurrent devices, switching devices or conti^ol devices 
with exit access doors must be equipped with panic hard- 
ware and doors must swing in the direction of egress. 

If balanced doors ai'e used and panic hai-dware is 
required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and 



the pad shall not extend more then one-half the width of the 
door measured from the latch side. 

1008.2 Gates. Gates serving the means of egress system shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a 
component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable 
requirements for doors. 

Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding 
the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are 
permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium. 

1008.2.1 Stadiums. Panic hardware is not required on gates 
surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant 
immediate supervision while the public is present, and 
where safe dispersal ai^eas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m^) 
per occupant are located between the fence and enclosed 
space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be 
located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed 
space. See Section 1024.6 for means of egress from safe 
dispersal areas. 

1008.3 'I\u-nstiles. Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict 
travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any 
required means of egress. 

Exception: Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited 
with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of the fol- 
lowing provisions ai-e met: 

1. Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress 
travel when primary power is lost, and upon the man- 
ual release by an employee in the area. 

2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 
percent of the required egress capacity. 

3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) 
high. 

4. Each device has at least 16.5 inches (419 mm) clear 
width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) 
and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights 
above 39 inches (991 mm). 

Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles shall 
have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below a height of 
34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 mm) clear width 
between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) and 
shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving device. 

1008.3.1 High turnstile. Turnstiles more than 39 inches 
(991 mm) high shall meet the requii'ements for revolving 
doors. 

1008.3.2 Additional door. Where serving an occupant load 
greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have 
a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 
1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm). 



[BISECTION 1009 
STAIRWAYS 

[DSA-AC] In addition to the requirements of this section, 
means of egress, which provide access to, or egress from, build- 
ings or facilities where accessibility is required for applica- 
tions listed in Title 24, Part 2, Section 109.1 regulated by the 
Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance shall also 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



151 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



comply with Chapter llA or Chapter IIB, Section 1133B.4 of 
the California Building Code, as applicable. 

1009.1 Stairway width. The width of stairways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for 
accessible means of egress stairways. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stairways serving an occupant load of less than 50 
shall have a width of not less than 36 inches (914 
mm). 

2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.8. 

3. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025. 

4. Where an inchne platform lift or stairway chairlift is 
installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group 
R-3, or within dwelhng units in occupancies in Group 
R-2, a clear passage width not less than 20 inches (508 
mm) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can be 
folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured 
from the folded position. 

Means of egress stairs in a Group 1-2 occupancy used for the 
movement of beds and litter patients shall provide a clear width 
not less than 44 inches (1118 mm). 

1009.2 Headroom. Stairways shall have a minimum head- 
room clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically 
from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom 
shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the 
line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the 
bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the 
full width of the stairway and landing. 

Exception: Spiral stairways complying with Section 
1009.8 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clear- 
ance. 

1009.3 Stair treads and risers. Stair riser heights shall be 7 
inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. 
Stair tread depths shall be 1 1 inches (279 mm) minimum. The 
riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading 
edges of adjacent treads. The tread depth shall be measured 
horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projec- 
tion of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's leading 
edge. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 1 1 
inches (279 mm) measured at a right angle to the tread's leading 
edge at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the 
treads are narrower and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches 
(254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Alternating tread devices in accordance with Section 
1009.9. 

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.8. 

3. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair 
pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope 
of the adjacent seating area in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1025.11.2. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies 
that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or acces- 



sory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occu- 
pancies; the maximum riser height shall be 7.75 
inches (197 nam); the minimum tread depth shall be 
10 inches (254 mm); the minimum winder tread depth 
at the walk line shall be 10 inches (254 mm); and the 
minimum winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 
mm). A nosing not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) but 
not more than 1.25 inches (32 mm) shall be provided 
on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is 
less than 11 inches (279 mm). 

5. See Section 1027.10 for the replacement of existing 
stairways. For applications listed in Section 109.1 
regulated by the Division of the State Architect-Ac- 
cess Compliance, see Chapter 1 IB, Section 1134B of 
the California Building Code. 

1009.3.1 Winder treads. Winder treads are not permitted in 
means of egress stairways except within a dweUing unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.7. 

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.8. 

1009.3.2 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and risers 
shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between 
the largest and smallest riser height or between the largest 
and smallest tread depth shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 
mm) in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder tread depth 
at the 12-inch (305 mm) walk line within any flight of stairs 
shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 
nun) measured at a right angle to the tread's leading edge. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs com- 
plying with Section 1025.11.2. 

2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with 
Section 1009.3, differing from rectangular treads 
in the same stairway flight. 

Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping pubhc 
way, walkway or driveway having an estabhshed grade and 
serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to 
be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
height, with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser 
not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-per- 
cent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or leading edges 
of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a dis- 
tinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing 
mai-king provided on the stair flight. The distinctive mark- 
ing stripe shall be visible in descent of the stak and shall 
have a slip-resistant surface. Mai-king stripes shall have a 
width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches 
(51 mm). 

1009.3.3 Profile. The radius of curvature at the leading edge 
of the tread shall be not greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 
Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 
Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped from the under- 
side of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle not 
more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The lead- 



152 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



ing edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1 .25 
inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below and all projections 
of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the 
leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight. 

Exceptions: 

1. Solid risers are not required for stairways that are 
not required to comply with Section 1007.3, pro- 
vided that the opening between treads does not 
permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 
inches (102 mm). 

2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in 
Group 1-3. 

1009.4 Stairway landings. There shall be a floor or landing at 
the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings 
shall not be less than the width of stairways they serve. Every 
landing shall have a minimum dimension measured in the 
direction of travel equal to the widtla of the stairway. Such 
dimension need not exceed 48 inches (1219 ram) where the 
stairway has a straight run. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025. 

2. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the 
landing to less than one-half the required width. 
When fully open, the door shall not project more than 
7 inches (178 mm) into a landing. 

3. In Group R-3 occupancies a floor or landing is not re- 
quired at the top of an interior flight of stairs, includ- 
ing stairs in an enclosed garage, provided a door does 
not swing over the stairs. 

1009.5 Stairway construction. All stairways shall be built of 
materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of 
construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall 
be permitted for all types of construction. 

1009.5.1 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface 
of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped 
steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-per- 
cent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings 
shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be 
securely attached. 

Exception: In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than 
ai-eas of pai'king structures accessible to the public, open- 
ings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited pro- 
vided a sphere with a diameter of 1.125 inches (29 mm) 
■ cannot pass through the opening. 

1009.5.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor stairways and out- 
door approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water 
will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 

1009.5.3 Enclosures under stairways. The walls and sof- 
fits within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unen- 
closed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fire- 
resistance-rated construction or the fire-resistance rating of 
the stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the 
enclosed space shall not be directly from within the stair 
enclosure. 



Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and con- 
tained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group 
R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be protected on the 
enclosed side with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 

There shall be no enclosed usable space under exterior 
exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space 
under exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose. 

1009.6 Vertical rise. A flight of staks shall not have a vertical 
rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or 
landings. 

Exception: Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025. 

1009.7 Curved stairways. Curved stairways with winder 
treads shall have treads and risers in accordance with Section 
1009.3 and the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the 
required width of the stairway. 

Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to curved 
stairways for occupancies in Group R-3 and within individ- 
ual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2. 

1009.8 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted to be 
used as a component in the means of egress only within dwell- 
ing units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) 
in area and serving not more than five occupants, or froni gal- 
leries, catwalks and gridirons in accordance with Section 
1015.6. 

A spiral stairway shall have a 7.5 inch (191 mm) minimum 
clear tread depth at a point 1 2 inches (305 mm) from the narrow 
edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 
inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more 
than 9.5 inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway width shall 
be 26 inches (660 mm). 

1009.9 Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices 
are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of 
Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more than 250 square 
feet (23 m^) in area and which serves not more than five occu- 
pants; in buildings of Group 1-3 from a guard tower, observa- 
tion station or control room not more than 250 squai-e feet (23 
m^) in area and for access to unoccupied roofs. 

1009.9.1 Handrails of alternating tread devices. Hand- 
rails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread 
devices and shall comply with Section 1012. 

1009.9.2 Treads of alternating tread devices. Alternating 
tread devices shall have a minimum projected tread of 5 
inches (127 mm), a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches (216 
mm), a minimum ti'ead width of 7 inches (178 mm) and a 
maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (241 mm). The initial 
tread of the device shall begin at the same elevation as the 
platform, landing or floor surface. 

Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an element 
of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area 
not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) in area which 
serves not more than five occupants shall have a mini- 
mum projected tread of 8.5 inches (216 mm) with amini- 
mum tread depth of 10.5 inches (267 mm). The rise to the 
next alternating tread surface should not be more than 8 
inches (203 mm). 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



153 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1009.10 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each 
side and shall comply with Section 1012. Where glass is used 
to provide the handrail, the handrail shall also comply with 
Section 2407 of the California Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025 provided 
with a center handrail need not have additional hand- 
rails. 

2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and 
aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are per- 
mitted to have a handrail on one side only. 

3 . Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change 
in elevation where the landing depth on each side of 
the change of elevation is greater than what is required 
for a landing do not require handrails. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a continuous run of treads 
orflight of stairs with less than four risers does not re- 
quire handrails. 

5. Changes in room elevations of only one riser within 
dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 occu- 
pancies do not require handrails. 

[DSA-AC] For applications listed in Section 109. 1 regulated 
by the Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance, see 
Chapter IIB, Section 1133B.4.1 of the California Building 
Code. 

1009.11 Stairway to roof. In buildings located four or more 
stories in height above grade plane, one stairway shall extend to 
the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope steeper than four 
units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope). In 
buildings without an occupied roof, access to the roof from the 
top story shall be permitted to be by an alternating tread device. 

1009.11.1 Roof access. Where a stairway is provided to a 
roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a pent- 
house complying with Section 1509.2 of the California 
Building Code. 

Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof, 
access to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch or 
trap door not less than 1 6 square feet (1.5 m^) in area and 
having a minimum dimension of 2 feet (610 mm). 

1009.11.2 Protection at roof hatch openings. Where the 
roof hatch opening providing the required access is located 
within 10 feet (3049 mm) of the roof edge, such roof access 
or roof edge shall be protected by guards installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Section 1013. 



[BISECTION 1010 
RAMPS 

[DSA-AC] In addition to the requirements of this section, 
means of egress, which provide access to, or egress from, build- 
ings or facilities where accessibility is required for applica- 
tions listed in Title 24, Part 2, Section 109.1 regulated by the 
Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance shall also 
comply with Chapter llA or Chapter 1 IB, Section 1133B.5, of 
the California Building Code, as applicable. 



1010.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
ramps used as a component of a means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Other than ramps that are part of the accessible routes 
providing access in accordance with Chapter 11 A or 
Chapter 1 IB of the California Building Code, ramped 
aisles within assembly rooms or spaces shall conform 
with the provisions in Section 1025.1 1. 

2. Curb ramps shall comply with Chapter 11 A or Chap- 
ter 1 IB, Section 1127B.5, of the California Building 
Code, as applicable. 

3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit 
access shall not be required to comply with Sections 
1010.3 through 1010.9 when they are not an accessi- 
ble route serving accessible parking spaces, other re- 
quired accessible elements or part of an accessible 
means of egress. 

1010.2 Slope. Ramps used as part of a means of egress shall 
have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 
units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other pedes- 
trian ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight 
units horizontal (12.5-percent slope). 

Exception: An aisle ramp slope in occupancies of Group A 
shall comply with Section 1025.1 1. 

1010.3 Cross slope. The slope measured perpendicular to the 
direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one unit 
vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

1010.4 Vertical rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be 30 
inches (762 mm) maximum. 

1010.5 Minimum dimensions. The minimum dimensions of 
means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 1010.5.1 
through 1010.5.3. 

1010.5.1 Width. The minimum width of a means of egress 
ramp shall not be less than that required for corridors by 
Section 1017.2. The clear width of a ramp and the clear 
width between handrails, if provided, shall be 36 inches 
(914 mm) minimum. 

1010.5.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts 
of the means of egress ramp shall not be less than 80 inches 
(2032 mm). 

1010.5.3 Restrictions. Means of egress ramps shall not 
reduce in width in the direction of egress travel. Projections 
into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited. 
Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the clear 
width to less than 42 inches (1067 mm). 

1010.6 Landings. Ramps shall have landings at the bottom and 
top of each ramp, points of turning, entrance, exits and at doors. 
Landings shall comply with Sections 1010.6.1 through 
1010.6.5. 

1010.6.1 Slope. Landings shall have a slope not steeper than 
one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in 
any direction. Changes in level are not permitted. 

1010.6.2 Width. The landing shall be at least as wide as the 
widest ramp run adjoining the landing. 



154 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1010.6.3 Length. The landing length shall be 60 inches 
(1525 mm) minimum. 

Exceptions: 

1. Landings in nonaccessible Group R-2 and R-3 in- 
dividual dwelling units are permitted to be 36 
inches (914 mm) minimum. 

2. Where the ramp is not a part of an accessible route, 
the length of the landing shall not be required to be 
more than 48 inches (1220 mm) in the direction of 
ti-avel. 

1010.6.4 Change in direction. Where changes in direction 
of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the 
landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches (1524 mm by 1524 
mm) minimum. 

Exception: Landings in nonaccessible Group R-2 and 
R-3 individual dweUing units ai-e permitted to be 36 
inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) minimum. 

1010.6.5 Doorways. Where doorways are located adjacent 
to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required for 
accessibility are permitted to overlap the required landing 
area as specified in Chapter llA or Chapter IIB, Section 
1133B.5, of the California Building Code. 

1010.7 Ramp construction. All ramps shall be built of materi- 
als consistent with the types permitted for the type of construc- 
tion of the building, except that wood handrails shall be 
permitted for all types of construction. Ramps used as an exit 
shall conform to the applicable requirements of Sections 
1020.1 through 1020.1.3 for exit enclosures. 

1010.7.1 Ramp surface. The surface of ramps shall be of 
slip-resistant materials that are securely attached. 

1010.7.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor ramps and outdoor 
approaches to ramps shall be designed so that water will not 
accumulate on walking surfaces. 

1010.8 Handrails. Ramps with a rise greater than 6 inches 
(152 mm) shall have handrails on both sides. Handrails shall 
comply with Section 1012. 

1010.9 Edge protection. Edge protection complying with Sec- 
tion 1010.9.1 or 1010.9.2 shall be provided on each side of 
ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings. 

Exceptions: 

1. Edge protection is not required on ramps that are not 
required to have handrails, provided they have flared 
sides that comply with the Chapter HA or Chapter 
IIB, Section 1127B.5, of the California Building 
Code curb ramp provisions. 

■ 2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings serving an adjoining ramp run or stairway. 

3. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings having a vertical dropoff of not more than 
0.5 inch (12.7 mm) within 10 inches (254 mm) hori- 
zontally of the required landing area. 

1010.9.1 Curb, rail, wall or barrier. A curb, rail, wall or 
barrier shall be provided that prevents the passage of a 
4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere, where any portion of the 

2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



sphere is within 4 inches (102 mm) of the floor or ground 
surface. 

1010.9.2 Extended floor or ground surface. The floor or 
ground surface of the ramp run or landing shall extend 12 
inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the inside face of a 
handrail complying with Section 1012. 

1010.10 Guards. Guards shall be provided where required by 
Section 1013 and shall be constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1013. 



[BISECTION 1011 
EXIT SIGNS 

1011.1 Where required. Exits and exit access doors shall be 
marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direc- 
tion of egress travel. Access to exits shall be marked by readily 
visible exit signs in cases where the exit or the path of egress 
travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Exit sign 
placement shall be such that no point in a corridor is more than 
100 feet (30 480 mm) or the listed viewing distance for the sign, 
whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign. 

Exceptions: 

1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or ai'eas that re- 
quire only one exit or exit access. 

2. Main exterior exit doors or gates that are obviously 
and clearly identifiable as exits need not have exit 
signs where approved by the fire code official. 

3. Exit signs are not requked in occupancies in Group U 
and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in 
Group R-1, R-2 or R-3. 

4. Exit signs are not required in Group 1-3 occupancies 
where inmates are housed, or held. 

5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are 
not required on the seating side of vomitories or open- 
ings into seating areas where exit signs are provided 
in the concourse that ai'e readily apparent from the 
vomitories. Egress lighting is provided to identify 
each vomitory or opening within the seating area in an 
emergency. 

1011.2 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or exter- 
nally illurhinated. 

Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need 
not be provided with illumination. 

1011.3 Tactile exit signs. For the purpose of Section 1011.3, 
the term "tactile exit signs " shall mean those required signs 
that comply with Section 1117B.5.1 Item 1 of the California 
Building Code. 

Tactile exit signs shall be required at the following locations: 

1. Each grade-level exterior exit door shall be identified by 
a tactile exit sign with the word, "EXIT." 

2. Each exit door that leads directly to a grade-level exte- 
rior exit by means of a stairway or ramp shall be identi- 
fied by a tactile exit sign with the following words as 
appropriate: 

A. "EXIT STAIR DOWN" 



155 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



B. "EXIT RAMP DOWN" 

C. "EXIT STAIR UP" 

D. "EXIT RAMP UP" 

3. Each exit door that leads directly to a grade-level exte- 
rior exit by means of an exit enclosure that does not uti- 
lize a stair or ramp, or by means of an exit passageway, 
shall be identified by a tactile exit sign with the words, 
"EXITROUTE." 

4. Each exit access door from an interior room or area that 
is required to have a visual exit sign, shall be identified by 
a tactile exit sign with the words, "EXIT ROUTE." 

5. Each exit door through a horizontal exit shall be identi- 
fied by a tactile exit sign with the words, "TO EXIT" 

1011.4 Internally illuminated exit signs. Internally illumi- 
nated exit signs shall be listed and labeled and shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Section 
2702 of the California Building Code. Exit signs shall be illu- 
minated at all times. 

1011.5 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally illumi- 
nated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 
1011.5.3. 

1011.5.1 Graphics. Every exit sign and directional exit sign 
shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less 
than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word "EXIT" shall 
have letters having a width not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
wide, except the letter "I," and the minimum spacing 
between letters shall not be less than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). 
Signs larger than the minimum established in this section 
shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to 
their height. 

The word "EXIT" shall be in high contrast with the back- 
ground and shall be clearly discernible when the means of 
exit sign illumination is or is not energized. If a chevron 
directional indicator is provided as part of the exit sign, the 
construction shall be such that the direction of the chevron 
directional indicator cannot be readily changed. 

1011.5.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit sign 
illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity 
of not less than 5 foot-candles (54 lux). 

1011.5.3 Power source. Exit signs shall be illuminated at 
all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of 
not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the 
sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency 
power system provided from storage batteries, unit equip- 
ment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emer- 
gency power system shall be in accordance with Section 
2702 of the California Building Code. 

Exception: Approved exit sign illumination means that 
provide continuous illumination independent of external 
power sources for a dui-ation of not less than 90 minutes, 
in case of primary power loss, are not required to be con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system. 

1011.6 Floor-level exit signs. Where exit signs are required by 
Chapter 10, additional approved low-level exit signs which are 
internally or externally illuminated photoluminescent or 



self-luminous, shall be provided in all interior corridors of 
Group A occupancies, Group I occupancies and in all interior 
rated exit corridors serving guestrooms of hotels in Group R, 
Division I occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. Group A occupancies that are protected throughout 
by an approved supervised fire sprinkler system. 

2. Group I occupancies which are provided with smoke 
barriers constructed in accordance with Section 
407.4. 

3. Group I, Division 3 occupancies. 

The bottom of the sign shall not be less than 6 inches (152 
mm) or more than 8 inches (203 mm) above thefioor level and 
shall indicate the path of exit travel. For exit and exit-access 
doors, the sign shall be on the door or adjacent to the door with 
the closest edge of the sign or marker within 4 inches (102 mm) 
of the doorframe. 

Note: Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143, 
this California amendment applies to all newly constructed 
buildings or structures subject to this section for which a 
building permit is issued (or construction commenced, 
where no building permit is issued) on or after January 1, 
1989. 

[B] 1011.7 Path marking. When exit signs are required by 
Chapter 10, in addition to approved floor-level exit signs, 
approved path marking shall be installed at floor level or no 
higher than 8 inches (203 mm) above thefioor level in all inte- 
rior rated exit corridors of unsprinklered Group A occupan- 
cies, and Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies. Such marking shall 
be continuous except as interrupted by doorways, corridors or 
other such architectural features in order to provide a visible 
delineation along the path of travel. 

Note: Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143, 
the California amendments of this section shall apply to all 
newly constructed buildings or structures subject to this 
section for which a building permit is issued (or construc- 
tion commenced, where no building permit is issued) on or 
after January 1, 1989. 



[BISECTION 1012 
HANDRAILS 

[DSA-AC] In addition to the requirements of this section, 
means of egress, which provide access to, or egress from, build- 
ings or facilities where accessibility is required for applica- 
tions listed in Title 24, Part 2, Section 109.1, regulated by the 
Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance shall also 
comply with Chapter llA or Chapter IIB, Section 1133B.4.1, 
of the California Building Code, as applicable. 

1012.1 Where required. Handrails for stairways and ramps 
shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance 
with Section 1607.7 of the California Building Code. Hand- 
rails required for stairways by Section 1009.10 shall comply 
with Sections 1012.2 thi-ough 1012.8. Handrails required for 
ramps by Section 1010.8 shall comply with Sections 1012.2 
through 1012.7. 



156 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1012.2 Height. Handi-ail height, measured above stair tread 
nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope shall be uniform, not 
less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 
mm). 

1012.3 Handrail graspability. Handrails with a circular 
cross-section shall have an outside diameter of at least 1.25 
inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm) or shall 
provide equivalent graspability. If the handrail is not circular, it 
shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) 
and not greater than 6.25 inches (160 mm) with a maximum 
cross-section dimension of 2.25 inches (57 mm). Edges- shall 
have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm). 

1012.4 Continuity. Handrail-gripping surfaces shaU be con- 
tinuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstruc- 
tions. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be in- 
terrupted by a newel post at a stair or ramp landing. 

2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout or 
starting easing is allowed on the lowest tread. 

3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bottom 
surface of the handrail that do not project horizontally 
beyond the sides of the handrail within 1.5 inches (38 
mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall not be consid- 
ered obstructions. For each 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of ad- 
ditional handrail perimeter dimension above 4 inches 
(102 mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 1.5 
inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced by 
0.125 inch (3 mm). 

1012.5 Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a wall, 
guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the hand- 
rail of an adjacent stak flight or ramp run. At stairways where 
handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails 
shall extend horizontally at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond 
the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread 
beyond the bottom riser. At ramps where handrails are not con- 
tinuous between runs, the handrail shall extend horizontally 
above the landing 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the 
top and bottom of ramp runs. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails within a dweUing unit that is not required to 
be accessible need extend only from the top riser to 
the bottom riser. 

2. Aisle handrails in Group A occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 1025.13. 

1012.6 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a wall 
or other surface shall be a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 mm). A 
handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail 
shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. 

1012.7 Projeetions. On ramps, the clear width between hand- 
rails shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. Projections into 
the required width of stairways and ramps at each handrail shall 
not exceed 4.5 inches (114 mm) at or below the handi-ail height. 



Projections into the required width shall not be limited above 
the minimum headroom height requhed in Section 1009.2. 

Exception: In a Group 1-2 occupancy, on ramps and stair- 
ways used for the movement of bed and litter patients, the 
clear width between handrails shall be 44 inches {11 18 mm) 
minimum. 

1012.8 Intermediate handrails. Stairways shall have inter- 
mediate handrails located in such a manner that all portions of 
the stairway width required for egress capacity ai-e within 30 
inches (762 mm) of a handrail. On monumental stairs, hand- 
rails shall be located along the most direct path of egress travel. 



[BISECTION 1013 
GUARDS 

1013.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along 
open-sided walking surfaces, mezzanines, industrial equip- 
ment platforms, stairways, ramps and landings that are located 
more than 30 inches (762 nun) above the floor or grade below. 
Guards shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accor- 
dance with Section 1607.7 of the California Building Code. 
Where glass is used to provide a guard or as a portion of the 
guard system, the guai'd shall also comply with Section 2407 of 
the California Building Code. Guards shall also be located 
along glazed sides of stairways, ramps and landings that are 
located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade 
below where the glazing provided does not meet the strength 
and attachment requirements in Section 1607.7 of the Califor- 
nia Building Code. 

Exception: Guards are not required for the following loca- 
tions: 

1. On the loading side of loading docks or piers. 

2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, 
including steps leading up to the stage and raised plat- 
forms. 

3. On raised stage and platform floor ai-eas, such as run- 
ways, ramps and side stages used for entertainment or 
presentations. 

4. At vertical openings in the performance area of stages 
and platforms. 

5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages 
and platforms for access to and utilization of special 
lighting or equipment. 

6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the public. 

7. In assembly seating where guards in accordance with 
Section 1025.14 are permitted and provided. 

1013.2 Height. Guai'ds shall form a protective banier not less 
than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, measured vertically above the 
leading edge of the ti-ead, adjacent walking surface or adjacent 
seatboard. 

Exceptions: 

1. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual 
dweUing units in occupancies in Group R-2, guards 
whose top rail also serves as a handi^ail shall have a 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



157 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more 
than 38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from the 
leading edge of the stair tread nosing. 

2. The height in assembly seating areas shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 1025.14. 

1013.3 Opening limitations. Open guards shall have balusters 
or ornamental patterns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) 
sphere cannot pass through any opening. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The triangular openings formed by the riser, tread and 
bottom rail at the open side of a stairway shall be of a 
maximum size such that a sphere of 6 inches (152 
nnan) in diameter cannot pass through the opening. 

2. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of 
electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equip- 
ment, guards shall have balusters or be of soUd mate- 
rials such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches 
(533 mm) cannot pass through any opening. 

3. In areas that are not open to the public within occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, balusters, horizontal 
intermediate rails or other construction shall not per- 
mit a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) to 
pass through any opening. 

4. In assembly seating areas, guards at the end of aisles 
where they terminate at a fascia of boxes, balconies 
and galleries shall have balusters or ornamental pat- 
terns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere 
cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 26 
inches (660 mm). From a height of 26 inches (660 
mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent 
walking surfaces, a sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in di- 
ameter shall not pass. 

5. Within individual dwelling units and sleeping units in 
Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, openings for re- 
quired guards on the sides of stair treads shall not al- 
low a sphere of 4.375 inches (111 mm) to pass 
through. 

1013.4 Screen porclies. Porches and decks which are enclosed 
with insect screening shall be provided with guards where the 
walking surface is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor or grade below. 

1013.5 Meclianical equipment. Guards shall be provided 
where appliances, equipment, fans, roof hatch openings or 
other components that require service are located within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and 
such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be con- 
structed so as to prevent the passage of a 2 1 -inch-diameter (533 
mm) sphere. The guard shall extend not less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) beyond each end of such appliance, equipment, fan 
or component. 

1013.6 Roof access. Guards shall be provided where the roof 
hatch opening is located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof 
edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open 
side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor. 



roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to pre- 
vent the passage of a 21 -inch-diameter (533 mm) sphere. 



[BISECTION 1014 
EXIT ACCESS 

1014.1 General. The exit access arrangement shall comply 
with Sections 1014 through 1017 and the applicable provisions 
of Sections 1003 through 1013. 

1014.2 Egress througli intervening spaces. Egress through 
intervening spaces shall comply with this section. 

1 . Egress from a room or space shall not pass through ad- 
joining or intervening rooms or areas, except where such 
adjoining rooms or areas are accessory to the area served, 
are not a high-hazard occupancy and provide a discern- 
ible path of egress travel to an exit. 

Exception: Means of egress are not prohibited 
through adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces in a 
Group H, S or F occupancy when the adjoining or 
intervening rooms or spaces are the same or a lesser 
hazard occupancy group. 

2. Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, 
closets or spaces used for similar purposes. 

Exceptions: 

1. Means of egress are not prohibited through a 
kitchen area serving adjoining rooms constitut- 
ing part of the same dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit. 

2. Means of egress are not prohibited through 
stockrooms in Group M occupancies when all 
of the following are met: 

2.1. The stock is of the same hazard classifi- 
cation as that found in the main retail 
area; 

2.2. Not more than 50 percent of the exit 
access is through the stockroom; 

2.3. The stockroom is not subject to locking 
from the egress side; and 

2.4. There is a demarcated, minimum 
44-inch- wide (1118 mm) aisle defined 
by full or partial height fixed walls or 
similar construction that will maintain 
the required width and lead directly 
from the retail area to the exit without 
obstructions. 

3. An exit access shall not pass thi'ough a room 
that can be locked to prevent egress. 

4. Means of egress from dwelling units or sleep- 
ing areas shall not lead through other sleeping 
areas, toilet rooms or bathrooms. 

3. Exits shall not pass through any room subject to lock- 
ing except in Group 1-3 occupancies classified as de- 
tention facilities. 

1014.2.1 Multiple tenants. Where more than one tenant 
occupies any one floor of a building or structtire, each tenant 



158 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with 
access to the required exits without passing through adja- 
cent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleeping units. 

Exception: Means of egress shall not be prohibited 
through adjoining tenant space where such rooms or 
spaces occupy less than 10 percent of the area of the ten- 
ant space through which they pass; are the same or simi- 
lar' occupancy group; a discernable path of egress travel 
to an exit is provided; and the means of egress into the 
adjoining space is not subject to locking from the egress 
side. A required means of egress serving the larger tenant 
space shall not pass tlirough the smaller tenant space or 
spaces. 

. 1014.2.2 Group 1-2. Habitable rooms or suites in Group 1-2 
occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly 
to a corridor. 

Exceptions: 

1. Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the out- 
side at ground level. 

2. Patient sleeping rooms are permitted to have one 
intervening room if the intervening room is not 
used as an exit access for more than eight patient 
beds. 

3 . Special nursing suites are permitted to have one in- 
tervening room where the arrangement allows for 
direct and constant Visual supervision by nursing 
personnel. 

4. For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms lo- 
cated within a suite, exit access travel from within 
the suite shall be permitted through one interven- 
ing room where the travel distance to the exit ac- 
cess door is not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

5. For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms lo- 
cated within a suite, exit access travel fi'om within 
the suite shall be permitted through two interven- 
ing rooms where the travel distance to the exit ac- 
cess door is not greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

Suites of sleeping rooms shall not exceed 5,000 square 
feet (465 m^). Suites of rooms other than patient sleeping 
rooms shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 m^). Any 
patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient 
sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) shall 
have at least two exit access doors remotely located from 
each other Any room or suite of rooms other than patient 
sleeping rooms of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m^) 
shall have at least two access doors remotely located from 
each other. The travel distance between any point in a Group 
1-2 occupancy and an exit access door in the room shall not 
exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The travel distance between 
any point in a suite of sleeping rooms and an exit access door 
of that suite shall not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

Each suite of rooms shall be separated from the remain- 
der of the building by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier. 

Egress for portions of the building outside the suite shall 
not require passage through the suite. 



1014.2.2.1 Basement exits. All rooms below grade shall 
have not less than one exit access that leads directly to an 
exterior exit door opening directly to an exit discharge at 
grade plane or the public way. 

1014.3 Common path of egress travel. In occupancies other 
than Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3, the common path of egress 
travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm) . In Group H- 1 , H-2 
and H-3 occupancies, the common path of egress travel shall 
not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). For common path of egress 
travel in Group A occupancies having fixed seating, see Sec- 
tion 1025.8. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The length of a common p ath of egress travel in Group 
B , F and S occupancies shall not be more than 1 00 feet 
(30 480 mm), provided that the building is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Where a tenant space in Group B, S and U occupan- 
cies has an occupant load of not more than 30, the 
length of a common path of egress travel shall not be 
more than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

3. The length of a common path of egress travel in a 
Group 1-3 occupancy shall not be more than 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

4. The length of a common path of egress travel in a 
Group R-2 occupancy shall not be more than 125 feet 
(38 100 mm), provided that the building is protected 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

1014.4 Aisles. Aisles serving as a portion of the exit access in 
the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements 
of this section. Aisles shall be provided from all occupied por- 
tions of the exit access which contain seats, tables, furnishings, 
displays and similar fixtures or equipment. Aisles serving 
assembly areas, other than seating at tables, shall comply with 
Section 1025. Aisles serving reviewing stands, grandstands 
and bleachers shall also comply with Section 1025. 

The required width of aisles shall be unobstructed. 

Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails shall 
not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 
mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required 
width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projec- 
tions such as trim and similar decorative features are permit- 
ted to prject into the required width 1.5 inches (38 mm) for 
each side. 

[DSA-AC] In addition to the requirements of this section, 
means of egress, which provide access to, or egress from, build- 
ings or facilities where accessibility is required for applica- 
tions listed in Title 24, Part 2, Section 109.1, regulated by the 
Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance shall also 
comply with Chapter 11 A or Chapter IIB, Section 1133B.6, of 
the California Building Code, as applicable. 

1014.4.1 Aisles in Groups B and M. In Group B and M 
occupancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall be deter- 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



159 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



mined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but 
shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 people 
and not required to be accessible by Chapter IIB (see 
Sections 1103B.1 Exception 2 and 1123B.2 Exception) 
of the California Building Code need not exceed 28 
inches (711 mm) in width. 

1014.4.2 Aisle accessways in Group M. An aisle 
accessway shall be provided on at least one side of each ele- 
ment within the merchandise pad. The minimum clear 
width for an aisle accessway not required to be accessible 
shall be 30 inches (762 mm). The required clear width of the 
aisle accessway shall be measured perpendicular to the ele- 
ments and merchandise within the merchandise pad. The 
30-inch (762 mm) minimum clear width shall be maintained 
to provide a path to an adjacent aisle or aisle accessway. The 
common path of travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) 
from any point in the merchandise pad. 

Exception: For areas serving not more than 50 occu- 
pants, the common path of travel shall not exceed 75 feet 
(22 880 mm). 

1014.4.3 Seating at tables. Where seating- is located at a 
table or counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle 
accessway, the measurement of required clear width of the 
aisle or aisle accessway shall be made to a line 19 inches 
(483 nun) away from and parallel to the edge of the table or 
counter. The 19-inch (483 mm) distance shall be measured 
perpendicular to the side of the table or counter. In the case 
of other side boundaries for aisle or aisle accessways, the 
clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and 
tread edges, except that handrail projections are permitted. 

Exception: Where tables or counters are served by fixed 
seats, the width of the aisle accessway shall be measured 
from the back of the seat. 

1014.4.3.1 Aisle accessway for tables and seating. 

Aisle accessways serving arrangements of seating at 
tables or counters shall have sufficient clear width to con- 
form to the capacity requirements of Section 1005.1 but 
shall not have less than the appropriate minimum clear 
width specified in Section 1014.4.3.2. 

1014.4.3.2 Table and seating accessway width. Aisle 
accessways shall provide a minimum of 12 inches (305 
nam) of width plus 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of width for each 
additional 1 foot (305 mm), or fraction thereof, beyond 
12 feet (3658 mm) of aisle accessway length measured 
from the center of the seat farthest from an aisle. 

Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a 
length not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) and used by a 
total of not more than four persons. 

1014.4.3.3 Table and seating aisle accessway length. 

The length of travel along the aisle accessway shall not 
exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to the point 
where a person has a choice of two or more paths of 
egress travel to separate exits. 



1014.5 Egress balconies. Balconies used for egress purposes 
shall conform to the same requirements as corridors for width, 
headroom, dead ends and projections. 

1014.5.1 Wall separation. Exterior egress balconies shall 
be separated from the interior of the building by walls and 
opening protectives as required for corridors. 

Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior 
egress balcony is served by at least two stairs and a 
dead-end travel condition does not require travel past an 
unprotected opening to reach a stair. 

1014.5.2 Openness. The long side of an egress balcony 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 



[BISECTION 1015 
EXIT AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAYS 

1015.1 Exit or exit access doorways required. Two exits or 
exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The occupant load of the space exceeds the values in Ta- 
ble 1015.1. 

2. The common path of egress travel exceeds the limita- 
tions of Section 1014.3. 

3. Where required by Sections 1015.3, 1015.4 and 1015.5. 

Exception: Group 1-2 occupancies shall comply with 
Section 1014.2.2. 

TABLE 1015.1 
SPACES WITH ONE MEANS OF EGRESS 



OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD 


A, B, E% F, M, U 


49 


H-l,H-2,H-3 


3 


H-4, H-5, 1-l, 1-3, 1-4, R 


10 


S 


29 



a. Day care maximum occupant load is 10. 

1015.1.1 Three or more exits. Access to three or more exits 
shall be provided from a floor area where required by Sec- 
tion 1019.1. 

1015.2 Exit or exit access doorway arrangement. Required 
exits shall be located in a manner that makes their availability 
obvious. Exits shall be unobstructed at all times. Exit and exit 
access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with Sections 
1015.2.1 and 1015.2.2. 

1015.2.1 Two exits or exit access doorways. Where two 
exits or exit access doorways are required from any portion 
of the exit access, the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than 
one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal 
dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a 
straight line between exit doors or exit access doorways. 



160 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as one exit 
stairway. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where exit enclosures are provided as a portion of 
the required exit and are interconnected by a 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conforming 
to the requirements of Section 1017, the required 
exit separation shall be measured along the short- 
est direct line of travel within the corridor. 

2. Where a building is equipped thi'oughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, die separation dis- 
tance of the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall not be less than one-third of the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area 
served. 

1015.2.2 Three or more exits or exit access doorways. 

Where access to three or more exits is required, at least two 
exit doors or exit access doorways shall be aixanged in 
accordance with the provisions of Section 1015.2.1. 

1015.3 Boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms. Two exit 
access dooiivays are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace 
rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m^) and any 
fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units 
(Btu) (422 000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit access door- 
ways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an 
alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be sepa- 
rated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the room. 

1015.4 Refrigeration machinery rooms. Machinery rooms 
larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) shall have not less than 
two exits or exit access doors. Where two exit access doorways 
are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a 
fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access door- 
ways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to 
one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of room. 

All portions of machineiy rooms shall be within 150 feet (45 
720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in travel 
distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1016.1. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless 
of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and 
self-closing. 

1015.5 Refrigerated rooms or spaces. Rooms or spaces hav- 
ing a floor area of 1,000 square feet (93 m^) or more, containing 
a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 
68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit 
access doors. 

Travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 
1016.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be 
within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access door 
where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. Egress is allowed thi-ough adjoining refriger- 
ated rooms or spaces. 

Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited 
to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code. 



1015.6 Stage means of egress. Where two means of egress are 
required, based on the stage size or occupant load, one means 
of egress shall be provided on each side of the stage. 

1015.6.1 Gallery, gridiron and catwalk means of egress. 

The means of egress from lighting and access catwalks, gal- 
leries and gridirons shall meet the requirements for occu- 
pancies in Group F-2. 

Exceptions: 

1. A minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm) is per- 
mitted for lighting and access catwalks. 

2. Spiral stairs are permitted in the means of egress. 

3. Stairways required by this subsection need not be 
enclosed. 

4. Stairways with aminimum width of 22 inches (559 
mm), ladders, or spiral stairs are permitted in the 
means of egress. 

5. A second means of egress is not required from 
these areas where a means of escape to a floor or to 
a roof is provided. Ladders, alternating tread de- 
vices or spiral stairs are permitted in the means of 
escape. 

6. Ladders are permitted in the means of egress. 

[B] 1015.7 General. Eveij story or basement of a large-family 
day-care home shall be provided with two exits which are 
remotely located from each other. Every required exit shall be 
of a size to permit the installation of a door not less than 32 
inches (813 mm) in clear width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches 
(2,032 mm) in height. A manually operated horizontal sliding 
door may be used as one of the two required exits. 

Where basements are used for day-care purposes, one of the 
two required exits shall provide access directly to the exterior 
without entering the first story. The second exit from the base- 
ment may either pass through the story above or exit directly to 
the exterior 

Rooms used for day-care purposes shall not be located 
above the first story. 

Exception: Buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler 
system throughout and which have at least one of the 
required exits providing access directly to the exterior 
NFPA 13R may be used in large-family day-care homes. The 
sprinkler omissions of NFPA 13R shall not apply unless 
approved by the enforcing agency. 

Exit doors, including manually operated horizontal sliding 
doors, shall be openablefrom the inside without use of a key or 
any special knowledge or effort. 

Tables 1019.1 and 1019.2 are not applicable to this occu- 
pancy classification. 



[B] SECTION 1016 
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE 

1016.1 Travel distance limitations. Exits shall be so located 
on each story such that the maximum length of exit access 
travel, measured from the most remote point within a story to 
the entrance to an exit along the natural and unobstructed path 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



161 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



of egress travel, shall not exceed the distances given in Table 
1016.1. 

Where the path of exit access includes unenclosed stairways 
or ramps within the exit access or includes unenclosed exit 
ramps or stairways as permitted in Section 1 020. 1 , the distance 
of travel on such means of egress components shall also be 
included in the travel distance measurement. The measurement 
along stairways shall be made on a plane parallel and tangent to 
the stair tread nosings in the center of the stairway. 

Exceptions: 

1. Travel distance in open parking garages is permitted 
to be measured to the closest riser of open stairs. 

2. In outdoor faciUties with open exit access compo- 
nents and open exterior stairs or ramps , travel distance 
is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of a 
stair or the closest slope of the ramp. 

3. Where an exit stair is permitted to be unenclosed in 
accordance with Exception 8 or 9 of Section 1020.1, 
the travel distance shall be measured from the most re- 
mote point within a building to an exit discharge. 

1016.2 Roof vent increase. In buildings that are one story in 
height, equipped with automatic heat and smoke roof vents 
complying with Section 910 and equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, the maximum exit access travel distance shall be 
400 feet (122 m) for occupancies in Group F-1 or S-1. 

1016.3 Exterior egress balcony increase. Travel distances 
specified in Section 1016.1 shall be increased up to an additional 
100 feet (30 480 mm) provided the last portion of the exit access 
leading to the exit occurs on an exterior egress balcony con- 
structed in accordance with Section 1014.5. The length of such 
balcony shall not be less than the amount of the increase taken. 



[BISECTION 1017 
CORRIDORS 

1017.1 Construction. Corridors shall be fire-resistance rated 
in accordance with Table 1017.1. The corridor walls required 



TABLE 1016.1 
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE^ 



OCCUPANCY 


WITHOUT SPRINKLER 

SYSTEM 

(feet) 


WITH SPRINKLER 

SYSTEM 

(feet) 


A,E,F-1,I-1,M,R,S-1 


200 


250'' 


B 


200 


300= 


F-2, S-2, U 


300 


400= 


H-1 


Not Permitted 


75= 


H-2 


Not Permitted 


100= 


H-3 


Not Permitted 


150= 


H-4 


Not Permitted 


175= 


H-5 


Not Permitted 


200= 


1-2, 1-3", 1-4 


150 


200= 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. See the following sections for modifications to exit access travel distance 
requirements: 

Section 402: For the distance limitation in malls. 

Section 404: For the distance limitation through an atrium space. 

Section 1016.2 For increased limitations in Groups F-1 and S-1. 

Section 1025.7: For increased limitation in assembly seating. 

Section 1025.7: For increased limitation for assembly open-air seating. 

Section 1019.2: For buildings with one exit. 

Chapter 31 :For the limitation in temporary structures. 

b. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1.2. See Section 903 for occupancies 
where automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 .2 are 
permitted. 

c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

d. Not permitted in nonsprinklered Group 1-2 and Group 1-3 occupancies. 

to be fire-resistance rated shall comply with Section 708 of the 
California Building Code for fire partitions. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
an occupancy in Group E where each room that is 
used for instruction has at least one door directly to 
the exterior and rooms for assembly purposes have at 



[B] TABLE 1017.1 
CORRIDOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 



OCCUPANCY 


OCCUPANT LOAD SERVED BY CORRIDOR 


REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Without sprinkler system 


With sprinkler system" 


H-1, H-2, H-3, L 


All 


Not Permitted 


1 


H-4, H-5 


Greater than 30 


Not Permitted 


1 


A", B, F, M, S, U 


Greater than 30 


1 





R 


Greater than 10 


Not Pemiitted 


1 


I-2M-2. 1,1-4 


Greater than 6 


Not Permitted 


1 


1-1,1-3 


Greater than 6 


Not Permitted 


V 


E 


Greater than 10 


1 


1 



a. For requirements for occupancies in Group 1-2, see Section 407.3 of the California Building Code. 

b. For a reduction in the foe-resistance rating for occupancies in Group 1-3, see Section 408.7 of the California Building Code. 

c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 where alloved. 

d. See Section 1025. 



162 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



least one-half of the required means of egress doors 
opening directly to the exterior. Exterior doors speci- 
fied in this exception are required to be at ground 
level. 

2. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors 
contained within a dwelling or sleeping unit in an oc- 
cupancy in Group R. 

3 . A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
open pai'king garages. 

4. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
an occupancy in Group B which is a space requiring 
only a single means of egress complying with Section 
1015.1. 

1017.2 Corridor width. The minimum corridor width shall be 
as determined in Section 1005.1, but not less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Twenty-four inches (610 mm)-For access to and utili- 
zation of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems 
or equipment. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm)-With a required occu- 
pant capacity of less than 50. 

3. Thirty-six inches (914 mm)-Within a dwelling unit. 

4. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm)-In Group E with a 
corridor having a required capacity of 100 or more. 

5. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm)-In corridors serving 
surgical Group I, health care centers for ambulatory 
patients receiving outpatient medical care, which 
causes the patient to be not capable of self-preserva- 
tion. 

6. Ninety-six inches (2438 mm)-In Group 1-2 in areas 
where required for bed movement. 

7. Corridors serving any area caring for one or more 
nonambulatory persons shall not be less than 8 feet 
(2438 mm) in width. 

1017.3 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit access 
doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that 
there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 feet (6096 
mm) in length. 

Exceptions: 

1 . In occupancies in Group 1-3 of Occupancy Condition 
2, 3 or 4 (see Section 202), the dead end in a corridor 
shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

2. In occupancies in Groups B and F where the building 
is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the 
length of dead-end conidors shall not exceed 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

3. A dead-end corridor shall not be limited in length 
where the length of the dead-end corridor is less than 
2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corridor. 

1017.4 Air movement in corridors. Coixidors shall not serve 
as supply, return, exhaust, relief or ventilation air ducts when 



required to be fire-resistive rated in accordance with Table 
1017.1. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Use of a corridor as a source of makeup air for exhaust 
systems in small rooms of 30 square feet or less that 
open directly onto such corridors, including toilet 
rooms, bathrooms, dressing rooms, and janitor clos- 
ets, shall be permitted, provided that each such corri- 
dor is directly supplied with outdoor ak at a rate 
greater than die rate of makeup air taken from the 
corridor. 

2. Where located within a dwelling unit, the use of corri- 
dors for conveying return air shall not be prohibited. 

3. Where located within tenant spaces of 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area, utilization of corridors for 
conveying return air is permitted. 

4. For health care facilities under the jurisdiction of the 
Office of Statewide Health Planning and Develop- 
ment (OSHPD), see the California Mechanical Code. 

1017.4.1 Corridor ceiling. Use of the space between the 
conidor ceihng and the floor or roof structure above as a 
return air plenum is permitted for one or more of the follow- 
ing conditions: 

1. The corridor is not required to be of fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction; 

2. The corridor is separated from the plenum by fire-re- 
sistance-rated construction; 

3. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon activation of the air-handling unit smoke 
detectors required by the California Mechanical 
Code. 

4. The aii'-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon detection of sprinkler waterflow where 
the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system; or 

5. The space between the corridor ceiling and the floor 
or roof sti^ucture above the corridor is used as a com- 
ponent of an approved engineered smoke control 
system. 

1017.5 Corridor continuity. Fire-resistance-rated corridors 
shall be continuous from the point of entiy to an exit, and shall 
not be interrupted by intervening rooms. 

Exception: 

1. Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms constructed as re- 
quired for conidors shall not be construed as inter- 
vening rooms. 

2. In fully sprinklered office buildings, corridors may 
lead through enclosed elevator lobbies if all areas of 
the building have access to at least one required exit 
without passing through the elevator lobby. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



163 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



[BISECTION 1018 
EXITS 

1018.1 General. Exits shall comply with SectionslOlS 
through 1023 and the applicable requirements of Section 1003 
through 1013. An exit shall not be used for any purpose that 
interferes with its function as a means of egress. Once a given 
level of exit protection is achieved, such level of protection 
shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge. 

1018.2 Exterior exit doors. Buildings or structures used for 
human occupancy shall have at least one exterior door that 
meets the requirements of Section 1008.1.1. 

1018.2.1 Detailed requirements. Exterior exit doors shall 
comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1 008 . 1 . 

1018.2.2 Arrangement. Exterior exit doors shall lead 
directly to the exit discharge or the public way. 



[BISECTION 1019 
NUMBER OF EXITS AND CONTINUITY 

1019.1 Minimum number of exits. All rooms and spaces 
within each story shall be provided with and have access to the 
minimum number of approved independent exits required by 
Table 1019.1 based on the occupant load of the story, except as 
modified in Section 1015.1 or 1019.2. For the purposes of this 
chapter, occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required 
for stories. The required number of exits from any story, base- 
ment or individual space shall be maintained until arrival at 
grade or the public way. 

TABLE 1019.1 
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS FOR OCCUPANT LOAD 



OCCUPANT LOAD 
(persons per story) 


MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS 
(per story) 


1-500 


2 


501-1,000 


3 


More than 1,000 


4 



1019.1.1 Parldng structures. Parking structures shall not 
have less than two exits from each parking tier, except that 
only one exit is required where vehicles are mechanically 
parked. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required 
exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. 

1019.1.2 Helistops. The means of egress from helistops 
shall comply with the provisions of this chapter, provided 
that landing areas located on buildings or structures shall 
have two or more exits. For landing platforms or roof areas 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long, or less than 2,000 
square feet (186 m^) in area, the second means of egress is 
permitted to be a fire escape or ladder leading to the floor 
below. 

1019.2 Buildings witii one exit. Only one exit shall be 
required in buildings as described below: 

1. Buildings described in Table 1019.2, provided that the 
building has not more than one level below the first story 
above grade plane. 

2. Buildings of Group R-3 occupancy. 



3. Single-level buildings with the occupied space at the 
level of exit discharge provided that the story or space 
complies with Section 1015. 1 as a space with one means 
of egress. 

TABLE 1019.2 
BUILDINGS WITH ONE EXIT 



OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF 

BUILDING ABOVE 

GRADE PLANE 


MAXIMUM OCCUPANTS 

(OR DWELLING UNITS) 

PER FLOOR AND 

TRAVEL DISTANCE 


A, B", E^ F, M, U 


1 Story 


49 occupants and 75 feet 
travel distance 


H-2, H-3 


1 Story 


3 occupants and 25 
feet travel distance 


H-4, H-5, 1, R 


1 Story 


10 occupants and 75 feet 
travel distance 


1-2 


1 Story 


8 occupants and 50 feet 
travel distance 


S" 


1 Story 


29 occupants and 100 
feet travel distance 


B^ F, M, S" 


2 Stories 


30 occupants and 75 feet 
travel distance 


R-2 


2 Stories'^ 


4 dwelling units and 50 
feet travel distance 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For the required number of exits for parking structures, see Section 1019.1.1. 

b. For the required number of exits for air traffic control towers, see Section 
412.1 of the California Building Code. 

c. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped tliroughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1 .2 and pro- 
vided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1026 shall have a maximum height of three stories above grade plane. 

d. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 with an occupancy in Group B shall have a 
maximum travel distance of 100 feet. 

e. Day care maximum occupant load is 10. 

1019.3 Exit continuity. Exits shall be continuous from the 
point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge. 

1019.4 Exit door arrangement. Exit door arrangement shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 1015.2 through 1015.2.2. 



[BISECTION 1020 
VERTICAL EXIT ENCLOSURES 

1020.1 Enclosures required. Interior exit stairways and inte- 
rior exit ramps shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 706 of the California Building 
Code or horizontal assembhes constructed in accordance with 
Section 711 of the California Building Code, or both. Exit 
enclosures shall have a fii-e-resistance rating of not less than 2 
hours where connecting four stories or more and not less than 1 
hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of 
stories connected by the exit enclosure shall include any base- 
ments but not any mezzanines. An exit enclosure shall not be 
used for any purpose other than means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . In all occupancies, other than Group H and I occupan- 
cies, a stairway is not required to be enclosed when 



164 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



the stairway serves an occupant load of less than 10 
and the stairway complies with either Item 1 . 1 or 1 .2. 
In all cases, the maximum number of connecting open 
stories shall not exceed two. 

1.1. The stairway is open to not more than one 
story above the story at the level of exit dis- 
chai"ge, or 

1.2. The stairway is open to not more than one 
story below the story at the level of exit dis- 
charge. 

2. Exits in buildings of Group A-5 where all portions of 
the means of egress ai^e essentially open to the outside 
need not be enclosed. 

^ 3. Stairways serving and contained within a single resi- 
dential dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-1, 
R-2 or R-3 occupancies are not required to be 
enclosed. 

4. Stairways that are not a required means of egress ele- 
ment ai-e not required to be enclosed where such stair- 
ways comply with Section 707.2 of the California 
Building Code. 

5. Stairways in open parking sti-uctures that serve only 
the parking sti-ucture are not required to be enclosed. 

6. Stairways in Group 1-3 occupancies, as provided for 
in Section 408.3.6 of the California Building Code, 
are not required to be enclosed. 

7. Means of egress stairways as requured by Section 
410.5.3 of the California Building Code are not re- 
quired to be enclosed. 

8. In other than Group H and I occupancies, a maximum 
of 50 percent of egress staii'ways serving one adjacent 
floor are not required to be enclosed, provided at least 
two means of egress are provided from both floors 
served by the unenclosed stairways. Any two such in- 
terconnected floors shall not be open to other floors. 
Unenclosed exit stairways shall be remotely located 
as requu'ed in Section 1015.2. 

9. In other than Group H and I occupancies, interior 
egress stairways serving only the first and second sto- 
ries of a building equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903 .3 . 1 . 1 ai-e not requked to be enclosed, provided at 
least two means of egress ai'e provided from both 
floors served by the unenclosed stairways. Such inter- 
connected stories shall not be open to other stories. 
Unenclosed exit stairways shall be remotely located 
as required in Section 1015.2. 

1020.1.1 Openings and penetrations. Exit enclosure 
opening protectives shall be in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section 715 of the California Building Code. 

Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6 of the California 
Building Code, openings in exit enclosures other than 
unprotected exterior openings shall be limited to those nec- 
essary for exit access to the enclosure from normally occu- 
pied spaces and for egress from the enclosure. 



Where interior exit enclosures are extended to the exte- 
rior of a building by an exit passageway, the door assembly 
from the exit enclosure to the exit passageway shall be pro- 
tected by a fire door assembly conforming to the require- 
ments in Section 715.4 of the California Building Code. 
Fire door assemblies in exit enclosures shall comply with 
Section 715.4.4 of the California Building Code. 

Elevators shall not open into an exit enclosure. 

1020.1.2 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings 
through an exit enclosure ai-e prohibited except for required 
exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for inde- 
pendent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, elec- 
trical raceway for fire department communication systems 
and electrical raceway serving the exit enclosure and termi- 
nating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 
m^). Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with 
Section712 of the California Building Code. There shall be 
no penetrations or communication openings, whether 
protected or not, between adjacent exit enclosures. 

1020.1.3 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for exit 
enclosure ventilation as permitted by Section 1020.1.2 shall 
comply with one of the following items: 

1. Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exte- 
rior to tlie building and shall be directly connected to 
the exit enclosure by ductwork enclosed in construc- 
tion as required for shafts. 

2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located 
within the exit enclosure, the intake air shall be taken 
directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be 
discharged directly to the outdoors, or such air shall 
be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construction 
as required for shafts. 

3. Where located within the building, such equipment 
and ductwork shall be separated from the remainder 
of the building, including other mechanical equip- 
ment, with consti^uction as required for shafts. 

In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance 
and operation and shall be protected by opening protectives 
in accordance with Section 715 of the California Building 
Code for shaft enclosures. 

Exit enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent 
of other building ventilation systems. 

1020.1.4 Exit enclosure exterior walls. Exterior walls of 
an exit enclosure shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 704 of the California Building Code for exterior walls. 
Where nom'ated walls or unprotected openings enclose the 
exterior of the stairway and the walls or openings are 
exposed by other parts of the building at an angle of less than 
180 degrees (3.14 rad), the building exterior walls within 10 
feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unpro- 
tected opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less 
than 1 hour. Openings within such exterior walls shaU be 
protected by opening protectives having a fke protection 
rating of not less than V4hour. This consttucdon shall extend 
vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



165. 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



above the topmost landing of the stakway or to the roof line, 
whichever is lower. 

1020.1.5 Discharge identification barrier. A stairway in 
an exit enclosure shall not continue below the level of exit 
discharge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level 
of exit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally 
continuing into levels below. Directional exit signs shall be 
provided as specified in Section 101 1. 

1020.1.6 Stairway floor number signs. A sign shall be 
provided at each floor landing in interior exit enclosures 
connecting more than three stories designating the floor 
level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the stair enclo- 
sure and the identification of the stair. The signage shall also 
state the story of, and the direction to the exit discharge and 
the availability of roof access from the stairway for the fire 
department. The sign shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) 
above the floor landing in a position that is readily visible 
when the doors are in the open and closed positions. 

[B] 1020.1.6.1 Sign details. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall apply to signs required by Section 1020.1.6. 

[B] 1020.1.6.1.1 Size. Signs shall be a minimum 12 
inches (305mm) by 12 inches (305mm). 

[B] 1020.1.6.1.2 Stairway location. The stairway 
location, such as STAIR NO. 1 or WEST STAIR, 
shall be placed at the top of the sign in 1 -inch-high 
(25.4 mm) block lettering with 'A-inch (6.4 mm) 
strokes. 

[B] 1020.1.6.1.3 Upper terminus. The stairway's 
upper terminus, such as ROOF ACCESS or NO 
ROOF ACCESS, shall be placed under the stairway 
identification in 1-inch-high (25.4 mm) block letter- 
ing with 'A-inch (6.4 mm) strokes. 

[B] 1020.1.6.1.4 Floor level numbering. The floor 
level number shall be placed in the middle of the sign 
in 5-inch-high (127 mm) lettering with V4-inch (19 
mm) strokes. The mezzanine levels shall have the let- 
ter "M" preceding the floor level. Basement levels 
shall have the letter "B" preceding the floor number 

[B] 1020.1.6.1.5 Lower terminus. The lower and 
upper terminus of the stairway shall be placed at the 
bottom of the sign in 1-inch-high (25.4 mm) block let- 
tering with 'A-inch (6.4 mm) strokes. 

[B] 1020.1.6.2 Tactile floor designation signs in stair- 
ways. When accessibility is required, tactile floor desig- 
nation signs that comply with Section 1117B.5.1 Item 1 
of the California Building Code shall be located at the 
landing of each floor level, placed adjacent to the door 
on the latch side, in all enclosed stairways in buildings 
two or more stories in height to identify the floor level. At 
the exit discharge level, the sign shall include a raised 
five-pointed star located to the left of the identifying floor 
level. The outside diameter of the star shall be the same 
as the height of the raised characters. 

1020.1.7 Smokeproof enclosures. In buildings required to 
comply with Section 403 or 405 of the California Building 
Code, each of the exit enclosures shall be a smokeproof 



enclosure or pressurized stairway in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.20 of the California Building Code. 

1020.1.7.1 Enclosure exit. A smokeproof enclosure or 
pressurized stairway shall exit into a public way or into 
an exit passageway, yard or open space having direct 
access to a public way. The exit passageway shall be 
without other openings and shall be separated from the 
remainder of the building by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a 
smokeproof enclosure are permitted where the 
exit passageway is protected and pressurized in 
the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure, 
and openings are protected as required for ac- 
cess from other floors. 

2. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stair- 
way shall be permitted to egress through areas 
on the level of discharge or vestibules as permit- 
ted by Section 1024. 

1020.1.7.2 Enclosure access. Access to the stairway 
within a smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vesti- 
bule or an open exterior balcony. 



[BISECTION 1021 
EXIT PASSAGEWAYS 

1021.1 Exit passageway. Exit passageways serving as an exit 
component in a means of egress system shall comply with the 
requirements of this section. An exit passageway shall not be 
used for any purpose other than as a means of egress. 

1021.2 Width. The width of exit passageways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1 but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1118 nmi), except that exit passageways 
serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall not be less than 
36 inches (914 mm) in width. 

The required width of exit passageways shall be unob- 
structed. 

Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails, shall 
not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 
mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required 
width by more than one-half. Other nonsti-uctural projec- 
tions such as trim and similar decorative features are permit- 
ted to project into the requhed width 1 .5 inches (38 mm) on 
each side. 

The clear width of exit passageways in a Group 1-2 occu- 
pancy used for the movement of beds and litters shall be 44 
inches (1118 mm) minimum. 

1021.3 Construction. Exit passageway enclosures shall have 
walls, floors and ceihngs of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance 
rating, and not less than that required for any connecting exit 
enclosure. Exit passageways shall be consti-ucted as fire barri- 
ers in accordance with Section 706 of the California Building 
Code. 



166 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1021.4 Openings and penetrations. Exit passageway opening 
protectives shiall be in accordance with the requirements of 
Section 715 of the California Building Code. 

Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6 of the California 
Building Code, openings in exit passageways other than unex- 
posed exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for 
exit access to the exit passageway from normally occupied 
spaces and for egress from the exit passageway. 

Where interior exit enclosures are extended to the exterior of 
a building by an exit passageway, the door assembly from the 
exit enclosure to the exit passageway shall be protected by a fire 
door conforming to the requirements in Section 715.4 of the 
California Building Code. Fire door assemblies in exit pas- 
sageways shall comply with Section 715.4.4 of the California 
Building Code. 

Elevators shall not open into an exit passageway. 

1021.5 Penetrations. Penettations into and openings through 
an exit passageway are prohibited except for required exit 
doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent 
pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway 
for fire department communication and electrical raceway 
serving the exit passageway and terminating at. a steel box not 
exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m^). Such penetrations shall 
be protected in accordance with Section 712 of the California 
Building Code. There shall be no penetrations or communicat- 
ing openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit 

) passageways. 



[BISECTION 1022 
HORIZONTAL EXITS 

1022.1 Horizontal exits. Horizontal exits serving as an exit in 
a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of 
this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit 
from a portion of a building, and where two or more exits are 
required, not more than one-half of the total number of exits or 
total exit width shall be horizontal exits. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Horizontal exits ai^e permitted to comprise two-thirds 
of the requiiBd exits from any building or floor area 
for occupancies in Group 1-2. 

2. Horizontal exits ai'e permitted to comprise 100 per- 
cent of the exits required for occupancies in Group 
1-3 . At least 6 square feet (0.6 m^) of accessible space 
per occupant shall be provided on each side of the hor- 
izontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining 
compaitments. 

Every fke compartment for which credit is allowed in con- 
nection with a horizontal exit shall not be required to have a 
stairway or door leading directly outside, provided the adjoin- 
ing fire compaitments have stairways or doors leading directly 
outside and are so arranged that egress shall not require the 
occupants to return through the compartment from which 
egress originates. 

The area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be provided 
with exits adequate to meet the occupant requirements of this 
chapter, but not including the added occupant capacity 



imposed by persons entering it through horizontal exits from 
another ai^ea. At least one of its exits shall lead directly to the 
exterior or to an exit enclosure. 

1022.2 Separation. The separation between buildings or ref- 
uge areas connected by a horizontal exit shall be provided by a 
fire wall complying with Section 705 of the California Build- 
ing Code or a fire barrier complying with Section 706 of the 
California Building Code and having a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 2 hours. Opening protectives in horizontal exit 
walls shall also comply with Section 715 of the California 
Building Code. The horizontal exit sepai'ation shall extend ver- 
tically thi'ough all levels of the building unless floor assemblies 
have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours with no 
unprotected openings. 

Exception: A fire-resistance rating is not required at hori- 
zontal exits between a building area and an above-grade 
pedestrian walkway constructed in accordance with Section 
3 1 04 of the California Building Code, provided that the dis- 
tance between connected buildings is more than 20 feet 
(6096 mm). 

Horizontal exit walls constructed as fire baixiers shall be 
continuous firom exterior wall to exterior wall so as to divide 
completely the floor served by the horizontal exit. 

1022.3 Opening protectives. Fire doors in horizontal exits 
shall be self-closing or automatic-closing when activated by a 
smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3 of the 
California Building Code. Doors, where located in a cross-cor- 
ridor condition, shall be automatic-closing by activation of a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3 
of the California Building Code. 

1022.4 Capacity of refuge area. The refuge area of a horizon- 
tal exit shall be a space occupied by the same tenant or a public 
area and each such refuge area shall be adequate to accommo- 
date the original occupant load of the refuge areaplus the occu- 
pant load anticipated from the adjoining compartment. The 
anticipated occupant load from the adjoining compartment 
shall be based on the capacity of the horizontal exit doors enter- 
ing the refuge area. The capacity of the refuge area shall be 
computed based on a net floor area allowance of 3 square feet 
(0.2787 m^) for each occupant to be accommodated therein. 

Exception: The net floor area allowable per occupant shall 
be as follows for the indicated occupancies: 

1 . Six squai-e feet (0.6 m^) per occupant for occupancies 
in Group 1-3. 

2. Fifteen square feet (1 .4 m^) per occupant for ambula- 
tory occupancies in Group 1-2. 

3. Thirty square feet (2.8 m^) per occupant for 
nonambulatory occupancies in Group 1-2. 

[B] 1022.5 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air 
transfer openings through fire walls or fire barriers, forming a 
horizontal exit, shall be designed and protected in accordance 
with Section 716 of the California Building Code in order to 
afi^ord safety from both fire and smoke in the refuge area. All 
ducts and air transfer openings shall be protected by listed 
combination fire/smoke dampers. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



167 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



[BISECTION 1023 
EXTERIOR EXIT RAMPS AND STAIRWAYS 

1023.1 Exterior exit ramps and stairways. Exterior exit 
ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means 
of egress shall comply with this section. 

Exception: Exterior exit ramps and stairways for outdoor 
stadiums complying with Section 1020.1, Exception 2. 

1023.2 Use in a means of egress. Exterior exit ramps and stair- 
ways shall not be used as an element of a required means of 
egress for Group 1-2 occupancies. For occupancies in other 
than Group 1-2, exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be per- 
mitted as an element of a required means of egress for buildings 
not exceeding six stories above grade plane or buildings 
defined as a high-rise. 

1023.3 Open side. Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving as 
an element of a required means of egress shall be open on at 
least one side. An open side shall have a minimum of 35 square 
feet (3.3 m^) of aggregate open area adjacent to each floor level 
and the level of each intermediate landing. The required open 
area shall be located not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above 
the adjacent floor or landing level. 

1023.4 Side yards. The open areas adjoining exterior exit 
ramps or stairways shall be either yards, courts or public ways; 
the remaining sides are permitted to be enclosed by the exterior 
walls of the building. 

1023.5 Location. Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be 
located in accordance with Section 1024.3. 

1023.6 Exterior ramps and stairway protection. Exterior 
exit ramps and stairways shall be separated from the interior of 
the building as required in Section 1020.1. Openings shall be 
limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied 
spaces. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for occupancies, other than those in Group R- 1 
or R-2, in buildings that are no more than two stories 
above grade plane where the level of exit discharge is 
the first story above grade plane. 

2. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired where the exterior ramp or stairway is served 
by an exterior ramp and/or balcony that connects two 
remote exterior stairways or other approved exits with 
a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. To be 
considered open, the opening shall be a minimum of 
50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, with the 
top of the openings no less than 7 feet (2134 mm) 
above the top of the balcony. 

3. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for an exterior ramp or stairway located in a 
building or structure that is permitted to have unen- 
closed interior stairways in accordance with Section 
1020.1. 

4. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for exterior ramps or stairways connected to 
open-ended corridors, provided that Items 4.1 
thi'ough 4.4 are met: 



4.1. The building, including corridors and ramps 
and/or stairs, shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Sec- 
tion 1017. 

4.3. The open-ended coixidors are connected on 
each end to an exterior exit ramp or stairway 
complying with Section 1023. 

4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor 
where a change of direction exceeding 45 de- 
grees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of not 
less than 35 square feet (3.3 m^) or an exterior 
ramp or stairway shall be provided. Where 
clear openings are provided, they shall be lo- 
cated so as to minimize the accumulation of 
smoke or toxic gases. 



[BISECTION 1024 
EXIT DISCHARGE 

1024.1 General. Exits shall discharge directly to the exterior of 
the building. The exit discharge shall be at grade or shall pro- 
vide direct access to grade. The exit discharge shall not reenter 
a building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity 
of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through 
areas on the level of discharge provided all of the fol- 
lowing are met: 

1.1. Such exit enclosures egress to a free and unob- 
structed way to the exterior of the building, 
which way is readily visible and identifiable 
from the point of termination of the exit enclo- 
sure. 

1 .2. The entire area of the level of discharge is sep- 
arated from areas below by construction con- 
forming to the fire-resistance rating for the 
exit enclosure. 

1 .3. The egress path from the exit enclosure on the 
level of discharge is protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system. All 
portions of the level of discharge with access 
to the egress path shall either be protected 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, or separated from the 
egress path in accordance with the require- 
ments for the enclosure of exits. 

2. Amaximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity 
of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through a 
vestibule provided all of the following are met: 

2.1. The entire area of the vestibule is separated 
from areas below by construction conforming 
to the fire-resistance rating for the exit enclo- 
sure. 



168 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



2.2. The depth from the exterior of the building is 
not greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) and the 
length is not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm). 

2.3. The area is separated from the remainder of 
the level of exit discharge by construction pro- 
viding protection at least the equivalent of ap- 
proved wired glass in steel frames. 

2.4. The area is used only for means of egress and 
exits directly to the outside. 

3. Stairv/ays in open parking garages complying with 
Section 1020.1, Exception 5, are permitted to egress 
through the open parking garage at the level of exit 
discharge. 

1024.2 Exit discharge capacity. The capacity of the exit dis- 
charge shall be not less than the required discharge capacity of 
the exits being served. 

1024.3 Exit discharge location. Exterior balconies, stairways 
and ramps shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 nrnn) from 
adjacent lot lines and from other buildings on the same lot 
unless the adjacent building exterior walls and openings are 
protected in accordance with Section 704 of the California 
Building Code based on fire separation distance. 

1024.4 Exit discharge components. Exit discharge compo- 
nents shall be sufficiently open to the exterior so as to minimize 
the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases. 

1024.5 Egress courts. Egress courts serving as a portion of the 
exit discharge in the means of egress system shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 1024. 

1024.5.1 Width. The width of egress courts shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall 
not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except as specified 
herein. Egress courts serving Group R-3 and U occupancies 
shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. 

The required width of egress courts shall be unobstructed 
to a height of 7 feet (2134 mm) . 

Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails 
shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches 
(178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the 
required width by more than one-half. Other 
nonstructural projections such as trim and similar deco- 
rative features are permitted to project into the required 
width 1.5 inches (38 mm) from each side. 

Where an egress court exceeds the minimum required 
width and the width of such egress court is then reduced 
along the path of exit travel, the reduction in width shall be 
gradual. The ti-ansition in width shall be affected by a guard 
not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall not cre- 
ate an angle of more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) with respect 
to the axis of the egress court along the path of egress travel. 
In no case shall the width of the egress court be less than the 
required minimum. 

1024.5.2 Construction and openings. Where an egress 
court serving a building or portion thereof is less than 10 
feet (3048 mm) in width, the egress court walls shall have 
not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a 
distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor of the court. 



Openings within such walls shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than V4 
hour. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Egress courts serving an occupant load of less than 
10. 

2. Egress courts serving Group R-3. 

1024.6 Access to a public way. The exit discharge shall pro- 
vide a direct and unobstructed access to a public way. 

Exception: Where access to a pubhc way cannot be pro- 
vided, a safe dispiersal area shall be provided where all of the 
following are met: 

1. The area shall be of a size to accommodate at least 5 
square feet (0.28 m^) for each person. 

2. For other than Group E buildings, the area shall be lo- 
cated on the same lot at least 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
away from the building requiring egress. For Group E 
buildings, the area shall be located on the same lot at 
least 50 feet (15 240 mm) away from any building. 

3. The area shall be permanently maintained and identi- 
fied as a safe dispersal area. 

4. The area shall be provided with a safe and unob- 
structed path of travel from the building. 



[BISECTION 1025 
ASSEMBLY 

1025.1 General. All occupancies in Group A including those 
which contain seats, tables, displays, equipment or other mate- 
rial shall comply with this section. 

1025.1.1 Bleachers. Bleachers, grandstands, and folding 
and telescopic seating shall comply with ICC 300. 

1025.2 Assembly main exit. Group A occupancies that have 
an occupant load of greater than 300 shall be provided with a 
main exit. The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accom- 
modate not less than one-half of the occupant load, but such 
width shall not be less than the total required width of all means 
of egress leading to the exit. Where the building is classified as 
a Group A occupancy, the main exit shall front on at least one 
street or an unoccupied space of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) 
in width that adjoins a street or public way. 

Exception: In assembly occupancies where there is no 
well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are pro- 
vided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the 
perimeter of the building provided that the total width of 
egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width. At 
least one exit shall discharge on a street or an unoccupied 
space of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in width that 
adjoins a street or public way. 

Group A occupancies that have an occupant load greater 
than 300 shall be provided with at least 0.20 inch (5. 1 mm) total 
exit width for each occupant served. 

Exception: Smoke-protected seating complying with Sec- 
tion 1025.6.2. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



169 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1025.3 Assembly other exits. In addition to having access to a 
main exit, each level in a Group A occupancy having an occu- 
pant load greater than 300 shall be provided with additional 
means of egress that shall provide an egress capacity for at least 
one-half of the total occupant load served by that level and 
comply with Section 1015.2. At least V^ of the additional 
means of egress required by this section shall be directly to an 
exit, or through a lobby, that is not used to access the main exit, 
to an exit, or to a 1-hour rated corridor to an exit. 

Exception: In assembly occupancies where there is no 
well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are pro- 
vided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the 
perimeter of the building, provided that the total width of 
egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width. At 
least one exit shall discharge on a street or an unoccupied 
space of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in width that 
adjoins a street or public way. 

Group A occupancies that have an occupant load greater 
than 300 shall beprovidedwith at least 0.20 inch (5. 1 mm) total 
exit width for each occupant served. 

Exception: Smoke-protected seating complying with Sec- 
tion 1025.6.2. 

1025.3.1 Occupant loads less than 300. For Group A occu- 
pancies, at least one exit shall discharge on a street or an 
unoccupied space of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in 
width that adjoins a street or public way. Group A occupan- 
cies that have an occupant load of 100 or more and less than 
300, shall have at least one of the required means of egress 
directly to an exit, or through a lobby, that is not used to 
access the main exit, to an exit, or to a 1 -hour rated corridor 
to an exit or continuous through a 1-hour rated lobby to an 
exit. 

1025.4 Foyers and lobbies. In Group A-1 occupancies, where 
persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not 
available and ai'e allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space, 
such use of lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the 
required clear width of the means of egress. Such waiting areas 
shall be separated from the required means of egress by sub- 
stantial permanent partitions or by fixed rigid railings not less 
than 42 inches (1067 mm) high. Such foyer, if not directly con- 
nected to a public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall 
have a straight and unobstructed corridor or path of travel to 
every such main entrance or exit. 

1025.5 Interior balcony and gallery means of egress. For 

balconies or galleries having a seating capacity of 50 or more 
located in Group A occupancies, at least two means of egress 
shall be provided, with one from each side of every balcony or 
gallery and at least one leading directly to an exit. 

1025.5.1 Enclosure of balcony openings. Interior stair- 
ways and other vertical openings shall be enclosed in an exit 
enclosure as provided in Section 1020.1, except that stair- 
ways are permitted to be open between the balcony and the 
main assembly floor in occupancies such as theaters, places 
of religious worship and auditoriums. At least one accessi- 
ble means of egress is required from a balcony or gallery 
level containing accessible seating locations in accordance 
with Section 1007.3 or 1007.4. 



1025.6 Width of means of egress for assembly. The clear 
width of aisles and other means of egress shall comply with 
Section 1025.6.1 where smoke-protected seating is not pro- 
vided and with Section 1025.6.2 or 1025.6.3 where 
smoke-protected seating is provided. The clear width shall be 
measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges except for 
permitted projections. 

1025.6.1 Without smoke protection. The clear width of 
the means of egress shall provide sufficient capacity in 
accordance with all of the following, as applicable: 

1 . At least 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) of width for each occupant 
served shall be provided on stairs having riser heights 
7 inches (178 mm) or less and tread depths 1 1 inches 
(279 mm) or greater, measured horizontally between 
tread nosings. 

2. At least 0.005 inch (0.127 mm) of additional stair 
width for each occupant shall be provided for each 
0.10 inch (2.5 mm) of riser height above 7 inches (178 
mm). 

3. Where egress requires stair descent, at least 0.075 
inch (1.9 mm) of additional width for each occupant 
shall be provided on those portions of stair width hav- 
ing no handrail within a horizontal distance of 30 
inches (762 nun). 

4. Ramped means of egress, where slopes are steeper 
than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent 
slope), shall have at least 0.22 inch (5.6 mm) of clear 
width for each occupant served. Level or ramped 
means of egress, where slopes are not steeper than one 
unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope), 
shall have at least 0.20 inch (5.1 mm) of clear width 
for each occupant served. 

5. Group A occupancies that have an occupant load 
greater than 300 shall be provided with at least 0.20 inch 
(5.1 mm) total exit width for each occupant served. 

1025.6.2 Smoke-protected seating. The clear width of the 
means of egress for smoke-protected assembly seating shall 
not be less than the occupant load served by the egress ele- 
ment multipUed by the appropriate factor in Table 1025.6.2. 
The total number of seats specified shall be those within the 
space exposed to the same smoke-protected environment. 
Interpolation is permitted between the specific values shown. 
A life safety evaluation, complying with NFPA 101, shall be 
done for a facility utilizing the reduced width requirements of 
Table 1025.6.2 for smoke-protected assembly seating. 

Exception: For an outdoor smoke-protected assembly 
with an occupant load not greater than 18,000, the clear 
width shall be determined using the factors in Section 
1025.6.3. 

1025.6.2.1 Smoke control. Means of egress serving a 
smoke-protected assembly seating area shall be provided 
with a smoke control system complying with Section 
909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the 
smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of 
the means of egress. 

1025.6.2.2 Roof height. A smoke-protected assembly 
seating area with a roof shall have the lowest portion of 



170 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



TABLE 1025.6.2 
WIDTH OF AISLES FOR SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 



TOTAL NUMBER OF SEATS IN THE 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 

OCCUPANCY 


INCHES OF CLEAR WIDTH PER SEAT SERVED 


Stairs and aisle steps with 
handrails within 30 inches 


Stairs and aisle steps without 
handrails within 30 inches 


Passageways, doorways and ramps 
not steeper than 1 in 10 in slope 


Ramps steeper 
than 1 in 10 in slope 


Equal to or less than 5,000 


0.200 


0.250 


0.150 


0.165 


10,000 


0.130 


0.163 


0.100 


0.110 


15,000 


0.096 


0.120 


0.070 


0.077 


20,000 


0.076 


0.095 


0.056 


0.062 


Equal to or greater than 25,000 


0.060 


0.075 


0.044 


0.048 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

the roof deck not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the 
highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

Exception: A roof canopy in an outdoor stadium 
shall be permitted to be less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the highest aisle or aisle accessway provided 
that there are no objects less than 80 inches (2032 
mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

1025.6.2.3 Automatic sprinklers. Enclosed areas with 
walls and ceilings in buildings or structures containing 
smoke-protected assembly seating shall be protected 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. The floor area used for contests, performances 
or entertainment provided the roof construction 
is more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above the 
floor level and the use is restricted to low fire 
hazard uses. 

2. Press boxes and storage facilities less than 
1,000 square feet (93 m^) in area. 

3 . Outdoor seating facilities where seating and the 
means of egress in the seating area are essen- 
tially open to the outside. 

1025.6.3 Width of means of egress for outdoor 
smoke-protected assembly. The clear width in inches 
(mm) of aisles and other means of egress shall be not less 
than the total occupant load served by the egress element 
multipUed by 0.08 (2.0 mm) where egress is by aisles and 
stairs and multiplied by 0.06 (1.52 mm) where egress is by 
ramps, coixidors, tunnels or vomitories. 

Exception: The clear width in inches (mm) of aisles and 
other means of egress shall be permitted to comply with 
Section 1025.6.2 for the number of seats in the outdoor • 
smoke-protected assembly where Section 1025.6.2 per- 
mits less width. 

[BJ1025. 6.4 Public address system. See Section 907.2.1.3. 

1025.7 Travel distance. Exits and aisles shall be so located that 
the travel distance to an exit door shall not be greater than 200 
feet (60 960 mm) measured along the line of travel in 
nonsprinklered buildings. Travel distance shall not be more 
than 250 feet (76 200 mm) in sprinklered buildings. Where 
aisles are provided for seating, the distance shall be measured 



along the aisles and aisle accessway without travel over or on 
the seats. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke-protected assembly seating: The ti-avel dis- 
tance from each seat to the nearest entrance to a 
vomitory or concourse shall not exceed 200 feet (60 
960 mm). The travel distance from the entrance to the 
vomitory or concourse to a stair, ramp or walk on the 
exterior of the building shall not exceed 200 feet (60 
960 mm). 

2. Open-air seating: The travel distance from each seat 
to the building exterior shall not exceed 400 feet (122 
m). The travel distance shall not be limited in facilities 
of Type I or n construction. 

1025.8 Common path of egress travel. The common path of 
egress travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat 
to a point where an occupant has a choice of two paths of egress 
travel to two exits. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For areas serving less than 50 occupants, the common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 
mm). 

2. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 
mm). 

1025.8.1 Path through adjacent row. Where one of the 
two paths of travel is across the aisle through a row of seats 
to another aisle, there shall be not more than 24 seats 
between the two aisles, and the minimum clear width 
between rows for the row between the two aisles shall be 12 
inches (305 mm) plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each addi- 
tional seat above seven in the row between aisles. 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating there 
shall not be more than 40 seats between the two aisles 
and the minimum clear width shall be 12 inches (305 
mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) for each additional seat. 

1025.9 Assembly aisles are required. Every occupied portion 
of any occupancy in Group A that contains seats, tables, dis- 
plays, similar fixtures or equipment shall be provided with 
aisles leading to exits or exit access doorways in accordance 
with this section. Aisle accessways for tables and seating shall 
comply with Section 1014.4.3. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



171 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1025.9.1 Minimum aisle widtli. The minimum clear width 
for aisles shall be as shown: 

1. Forty-eight inches (1219 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on each side. 

Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the 
aisle serves less than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on only one side. 

3. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an aisle stair 
handrail or guard and seating where the aisle is subdi- 
vided by a handrail. 

4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped 
aisles having seating on both sides. 

Exceptions: 

1. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle 
serves less than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle does 
not serve more than 14 seats. 

5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles 
having seating on only one side. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle does 
not serve more than 14 seats. 

2. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an 
aisle stair handrail and seating where an aisle 
does not serve more than five rows on one 
side. 

6. Libraries with open book stacks shall have main 
aisles not less than 44 inches (1118 mm) in width, and 
side, range and end aisles not less than 36 inches (914 
mm) in width. 

1025.9.2 Aisle width. The aisle width shall provide suffi- 
cient egress capacity for the number of persons accommo- 
dated by the catchment area served by the aisle. The 
catchment area served by an aisle is that portion of the total 
space that is served by that section of the aisle. In establish- 
ing catchment areas, the assumption shall be made that there 
is a balanced use of all means of egress, with the number of 
persons in proportion to egress capacity. 

1025.9.3 Converging aisles. Where aisles converge to form 
a single path of egress travel, the required egress capacity of 
that path shall not be less than tlie combined required capac- 
ity of the converging aisles. 

1025.9.4 Uniform width. Those portions of aisles, where 
egress is possible in either of two directions, shall be uni- 
form in required width. 

1025.9.5 Assembly aisle termination. Each end of an aisle 
shall terminate at cross aisle, foyer, doorway, vomitory or 
concourse having access to an exit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Dead-end aisles shall not be greater than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in length. 



2. Dead-end aisles longer than 20 feet (6096 mm) are 
permitted where seats beyond the 20-foot (6096 
mm) dead-end aisle are no more than 24 seats from 
another aisle, measured along a row of seats hav- 
ing a minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) 
plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each additional seat 
above seven in the row. 

3. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
dead-end aisle length of vertical aisles shall not ex- 
ceed a distance of 21 rows. 

4. For smoke-protected assembly seating, a longer 
dead-end aisle is permitted where seats beyond the 
21 -row dead-end aisle are not more than 40 seats 
from another aisle, measured along a row of seats 
having an aisle accessway with a minimum clear 
width of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) 
for each additional seat above seven in the row. 

1025.9.6 Assembly aisle obstructions. There shall be no 
obstructions in the required width of aisles except for hand- 
rails as provided in Section 1025.13. 

1025.10 Clear width of aisle accessways serving seating. 

Where seating rows have 14 or fewer seats, the minimum clear 
aisle accessway width shall not be less than 12 inches (305 
mm) measured as the clear horizontal distance from the back of 
the row ahead and the nearest projection of the row behind. 
Where chairs have automatic or self-rising seats, the measure- 
ment shall be made with seats in the raised position. Where any 
chair in the row does not have an automatic or self-rising seat, 
the measurements shall be made with the seat in the down posi- 
tion. For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing shall be 
determined with the tablet arm down. 

Exception: When tablet arm chairs are used, the minimum 
clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) between rows may be 
measured with tablet arms in the stored position only where 
all tablet arms are raised manually in one motion to a verti- 
cal position and fall to the stored position by force of gravity. 

1025.10.1 Dual access. For rows of seating served by aisles 
or doorways at both ends, there shall not be more than 1,00 
seats per row. The minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 
mm) between rows shall be increased by 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) 
for every additional seat beyond 14 seats, but the minimum 
clear width is not required to exceed 22 inches (559 mm). 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
row length limits for a 12-inch-wide (305 nun) aisle 
accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum 
clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1025.10.1. 

1025.10.2 Single access. For rows of seating served by an 
aisle or doorway at only one end of the row, the minimum 
clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) between rows shall be 
increased by 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for every additional seat 
beyond seven seats, but the minimum clear width is not 
required to exceed 22 inches (559 nun). 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
row length limits for a 12-inch-wide (305 mm) aisle 
accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum 
clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1025.10.1. 



172 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



TABLE 1025.10.1 
SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY AISLE ACCESSWAYS 



TOTAL NUMBER OF 
SEATS IN THE SMOKE- 
PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 
OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SEATS PER ROW 

PERMITTED TO HAVE A MINIMUM 12-INCH 

CLEAR WIDTH AISLE ACCESSWAY 


Aisle or doorway at 
both ends of row 


Aisle or doorway at 
one end of row only 


Less than 4,000 


14 


7 


4,000 


15 


7 


7,000 


16 


8 


10,000 


17 


8 


13,000 


18 


9 


16,000 


19 


9 


19,000 


20 


10 


22,000 and greater 


21 


11 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

1025.11 Assembly aisle walking surfaces. Aisles with a slope 
not exceeding one unit vertical in eight units horizontal 
(12.5-percent slope) shall consist of a ramp having a sHp-resis- 
tant walking surface. Aisles with a slope exceeding one unit 
vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope) shall con- 
sist of a series of risers and treads that extends across the full 
width of aisles and complies with Sections 1025.11.1 through 
1025.11.3. 

1025.11.1 Treads. Tread depths shall be a minimum of 1 1 
inches (279 mm) and shall have dimensional uniformity. 

Exception: The tolerance between adjacent treads shall 
not exceed 0.188 inch (4.8 mm). 

1025.11.2 Risers. Where the gradient of aisle stairs is to be 
the same as the gradient of adjoining seating areas, the riser 
height shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) nor more 
than 8 inches (203 mm) and shall be uniform within each 
flight. 

Exceptions: 

1. Riser height nonuniformity shall be limited to the 
extent necessitated by changes in the gradient of 
the adjoining seating area to maintain adequate 
sightlines. Where nonuniformities exceed 0.188 
inch (4.8 mm) between adjacent risers, the exact 
location of such nonuniformities shall be indicated 
with a distinctive marking stripe on each tread at 
the nosing or leading edge adjacent to the nonuni- 
form risers. Such stripe shall be a minimum of 1 
inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 inches (51 
nam), wide. The edge marking stripe shall be dis- 
tinctively different from the contrasting marking 
stripe. 

2. Riser heights not exceeding 9 inches (229 mm) 
shall be permitted where they are necessitated by 
the slope of the adjacent seating areas to maintain 
sightlines. 

1025.11.3 Tread contrasting marking stripe. A contrast- 
ing mai-king stripe shall be provided on each tread at the nos- 
ing or leading edge such that the location of each tread is 



readily apparent when viewed in descent. Such stripe shall 
be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 
inches (51 mm), wide. 

Exception: The contrasting marking stripe is permitted 
to be omitted where tread surfaces are such that the loca- 
tion of each tread is readily apparent when viewed in 
descent. 

1025.12 Seat stability. In places of assembly, the seats shall be 
securely fastened to the floor. 

Exceptions: 

1. In places of assembly or portions thereof without 
ramped or tiered floors for seating and with 200 or 
fewer seats, the seats shall not be required to be fas- 
tened to the floor. 

2. In places of assembly or portions thereof with seating 
at tables and without ramped or tiered floors for seat- 
ing, the seats shall not be required to be fastened to the 
floor. 

3. In places of assembly or portions thereof without 
ramped or tiered floors for seating and with greater 
than 200 seats, the seats shall be fastened together in 
groups of not less than three or the seats shall be se- 
curely fastened to the floor. 

4. In places of assembly where flexibility of the seating 
arrangement is an integral part of the design and func- 
tion of the space and seating is on tiered levels, a max- 
imum of 200 seats shall not be required to be fastened 
to the floor. Plans showing seating, tiers and aisles 
shall be submitted for approval. 

5. Groups of seats within a place of assembly separated 
from other seating by raihngs, guards, pai-tial height 
walls or similar barriers with level floors and having 
no more than 14 seats per group shall not be required 
to be fastened to the floor. 

6. Seats intended for musicians or other performers and 
separated by railings, guards, partial height walls or 
similar baiTiers shall not be requked to be fastened to 
the floor. 

1025.13 Handrails. Ramped aisles having a slope exceeding 
one unit vertical in 15 units horizontal (6.7-percent slope) and 
aisle stairs shall be provided with handrails located either at the 
side or within the aisle width. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails are not required for ramped aisles having a 
gradient no greater than one unit vertical in eight units 
horizontal (12.5-percent slope) and seating on both 
sides. 

2. Handrails are not required if, at the side of the aisle, 
there is a guard that complies witli the graspability re- 
quirements of handrails, 

1025.13.1 Discontinuous handrails. Where there is seat- 
ing on both sides of the aisle, the handrails shall be discon- 
tinuous with gaps or breaks at intervals not exceeding five 
rows to facilitate access to seating and to permit crossing 
from one side of the aisle to the other. These gaps or brealcs 
shall have a clear width of at least 22 inches (559 mm) and 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



173 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



not greater than 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizon- 
tally, and the handrail shall have rounded terminations or 
bends. 

1025.13.2 Intermediate handrails. Where handrails are 
provided in the middle of aisle stairs, there shall be an addi- 
tional intermediate handrail located approximately 12 
inches (305 mm) below the main handrail. 

1025.14 Assembly guards. Assembly guards shall comply 
with Sections 1025.14.1 through 1025.14.3. 

1025.14.1 Cross aisles. Cross aisles located more than 30 
inches (762 mm) above the iloor or grade below shall have 
guards in accordance with Section 1013. 

Where an elevation change of 30 inches (762 mm) or less 
occurs between a cross aisle and the adjacent floor or grade 
below, guards not less than 26 inches (660 mm) above the 
aisle floor shall be provided. 

Exception: Where the backs of seats on the front of the 
cross aisle project 24 inches (610 nun) or more above the 
adjacent floor of the aisle, a guard need not be provided. 

1025.14.2 Sightline-constrained guard heights. Unless 
subject to the requirements of Section 1025. 14.3, a fascia or 
railing system in accordance with the guard requirements of 
Section 1013 and having a minimum height of 26 inches 
(660 mm) shall be provided where the floor or footboard 
elevation is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or 
grade below and the fascia or railing would otherwise inter- 
fere with the sightlines of immediately adjacent seating. At 
bleachers, a guard must be provided where the floor or foot- 
board elevation is more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the 
floor or grade below and the fascia or railing would other- 
wise interfere with the sightlines of the immediately 
adjacent seating. 

1025.14.3 Guards at the end of aisles. A fascia or railing 
system complying with the guard requirements of Section 
1013 shall be provided for the full width of the aisle where 
the foot of the aisle is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor or grade below. The fascia or railing shall be a min- 
imum of 36 inches (914 nun) high and shall provide a mini- 
mum 42 inches (1067 mm) measured diagonally between 
the top of the rail and the nosing of the nearest ti^ead. 

1025.15 Bench seating. Where bench seating is used, the num- 
ber of persons shall be based on one person for each 1 8 inches 
(457 mm) of length of the bench. 



[BISECTION 1026 
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE 

1026.1 General. In addition to the means of egress required by 
this chapter, provisions shall be made for emergency escape 
and rescue in Group R and I-l occupancies. Basements and 
sleeping rooms below the fourth story above grade plane shall 
have at least one exterior emergency escape and rescue opening 
in accordance with this section. Where basements contain one 
or more sleeping rooms, emergency egress and rescue open- 
ings shall be required in each sleeping room, but shall not be 
required in adjoining areas of the basement. Such openings 



shall open directly into a public way or to a yard or court that 
opens to a public way. 

Exceptions: 

1. The emergency escape and rescue opening is permit- 
ted to open onto a balcony within an atrium in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Section 404 of the 
California Building Code, provided the balcony pro- 
vides access to an exit and the dwelling unit or sleep- 
ing unit has a means of egress that is not open to the 
atrium. 

2. B asements with a ceiling height of less than 80 inches 
(2032 mm) shall not be required to have emergency 
escape and rescue windows. 

3. High-rise buildings in accordance with Section 403 of 
the California Building Code door or exit access door 
that opens directly into public way or to a yard, court 
or exterior exit balcony that provides access to a 
public way. 

4. Basements without habitable spaces and having no 
more than 200 square feet (18.6 m^) in floor area shall 
not be required to have emergency escape windows. 

1026.2 Minimum size. Emergency escape and rescue open- 
ings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet 
(0.53 m^). 

Exception: The minimum net clear opening for emergency 
escape and rescue grade-floor openings shall be 5 square 
feet (0.46 m^). 

1026.2.1 Minimum dimensions. The minimum net clear 
opening height dimension shall be 24 inches (610 mm). The 
nainimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 
inches (508 mm). The net clear opening dimensions shall be 
the result of normal operation of the opening. 

1026.3 Maximum height from floor. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings shall have the bottom of the clear opening not 
greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor. 

1026.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and res- 
cue openings and any exit doors shall be maintained free of any 
obstructions other than those allowed by this section and shall 
be operational from the inside of the room. Bars, grilles, grates 
or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency 
escape and rescue openings provided the minimum net clear 
opening size complies with Section 1026.2 and such devices 
shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use 
of a key, tool, special knowledge or effort or force greater than 
that which is required for normal operation of the escape and 
rescue opening. Where such bars, grilles, grates or similar 
devices are installed, smoke alarms shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Sections 907.2.10 regardless of the valuation of the 
alteration. The release mechanism shall be maintained 
operable at all times. 

Such bars, grilles, grates or any similar devices shall be 
equipped with an approved exterior release device for use by 
the fire department only when required by the enforcing 
agency. 

Where security bars (burglar bars) are installed on emer- 
gency egress and rescue windows or doors, on or after July 1, 



174 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



2000, such devices shall comply with the standards of the Cali- 
fornia Building Standards Code, Part 12, Chapter 12-3 and 
other applicable provisions of Part 2. 

Group R-1 occupancies provided with a monitored fire 
sprinkler system is accordance with Section 903.2.7 and 
designed in accordance with NFPA 13 may have openable win- 
dows permanently restricted to a maximum 4-inch (102 mm) 
open position. 

1026.5 Window wells. An emergency escape and rescue open- 
ing with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground level 
shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Sec- 
tions 1026.5.1 and 1026.5.2. 

1026.5.1 Minimum size. The minimum horizontal area of 
the window well shall be 9 square feet (0. 84 m^), with a min- 
imum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the 
window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue 
opening to be fully opened. 

1026.5.2 Ladders or steps. Window wells with a vertical 
depth of more than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped 
with an approved permanently affixed ladder or steps. Lad- 
ders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches 
(305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the 
wall and shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) 
on center (o.c.) vertically for the full height of the window 
well. The ladder or steps shall not encroach into the required 
dimensions of the window well by more than 6 inches (152 
mm). The ladder or steps shall not be obstructed by the 
emergency escape and rescue opening. Ladders or steps 
required by this section are exempt from the stairway 
requirements of Section 1009. 



SECTION 1027 
MEANS OF EGRESS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 

1027.1 General. Means of egress in existing buildings shall 
comply with Sections 1003 through 1026, except as amended 
in Section 1027. 

Exception: Means of egress conforming to the require- 
ments of the building code under which they were con- 
sti'ucted shall be considered as complying means of egress 
if, in the opinion of the fire code official, they do not consti- 
tute a distinct hazai'd to life. 

1027.2 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, 
escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component 
of a required means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Elevators used as an accessible means of egress where 
allowed by Section 1007.4. 

2. Previously approved escalators and moving walks in 
existing buildings. 

1027.3 Exit sign illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or 
externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated 
from an external source, shall have an intensity of not less than 



5 foot-candles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall pro- 
vide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose. 

Exception: Approved self-luminous signs that provide 
evenly illuminated letters shall have a minimum luminance 
of 0.06 foot-lamberts (0.21 cd/m^). 

1027.4 Power source. Where emergency illumination is 
required in Section 1027.5, exit signs shall be visible under 
emergency illumination conditions. 

Exception: Approved signs that provide continuous illumi- 
nation independent of external power sources are not 
required to be connected to an emergency electrical system. 

1027.5 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for 
means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the 
premises' electrical supply. In the event of power supply fail- 
ure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an 
emergency system for the following occupancies where such 
occupancies require two or more means of egress: 

1. Group A having 50 or more occupants. 

Exception: Assembly occupancies used exclusively 
as a place of worship and having an occupant load of 
less than 300. 

2. Group B buildings three or more stories in height, build- 
ings with 1 00 or more occupants above or below the level 
of exit discharge, or buildings with 1,000 or more total 
occupants. 

3. Group E in interior stairs, corridors, windowless areas 
with student occupancy, shops and laboratories. 

4. Group F having more than 100 occupants. 

Exception: Buildings used only during daylight 
hours which are provided with windows for natural 
light in accordance with the California Building 
Code. 

5. Group! 

6. Group M. 

Exception: Buildings less than 3,000 square feet 
(279 m^) in gross sales area on one story only, exclud- 
ing mezzanines. 

7. Group R-1. 

Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct 
access to the outside of the building at grade. 

8. Group R-2. 

Exception: Where each dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
has direct access to the outside of the building at 
grade. 

9. Group R-4. 

Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct 
access to the outside of the building at ground level. 

1027.5.1 Emergency power duration and installation. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for not 
less than 60 minutes and consist of storage batteries, unit 
equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



175 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



emergency power system shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 604. 

1027.6 Guards. Guards complying with this section shall be 
provided at the open sides of means of egress that are more than 
30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below. 

1027.6.1 Height of guards. Guards shall form a protective 
barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high. 

Exceptions: 

1. Existing guards on the open side of stairs shall be 
not less than 30 inches (760 mm) high. 

2. Existing guards within dwelling units shall be not 
less than 36 inches (910 mm) high. 

3. Existing guards in assembly seating areas. 

1027.6.2 Opening limitations. Open guards shall have bal- 
usters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch diameter 
(152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a 
height of 34 inches (864 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . At elevated walking surfaces for access to, and use 
of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or 
equipment, guards shall have balusters or be of 
solid materials such that a sphere with a diameter 
of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass through any 
opening. 

2. In occupancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, the clear 
distance between intermediate rails measured at 
right angles to the rails shall not exceed 21 inches 
(533 mm). 

3. Approved existing open guards. 

1027.7 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door open- 
ing shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall 
provide a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). 
Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 28 
inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves 
without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width 
of 28 inches (711 mm). The maximum width of a swinging 
door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of 
egress doors in an occupancy in Group 1-2 used for the move- 
ment of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41.5 
inches (1054 nrni). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 
inches (2032 nam). 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to 
door openings that are not part of the required means 
of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and R-3. 

2. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square 
feet (0.93 m^) in area shall not be limited by the mini- 
mum width. 

3. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply 
with Section 1008.1.3.1 shall not be limited. 

4. Door openings within a dwelling unit shall not be less 
than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height. 



5. Exterior door openings in dwelling units, other than 
the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches 
(1930 mm) in height. 

6. Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 
square feet (6.5 m^) shall be not less than 24 inches 
(610 mm) in door width. 

1027.8 Opening force for doors. The opening force for inte- 
rior side-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 
5-pound (22 N) force. For other side-swinging, sliding and 
folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 
force of not more than 15 pounds (66 N). The door shall be set 
in motion when subjected to a force not exceeding a 30-pound 
(133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open position 
when subjected to a force of not more than 50 pounds (222 N). 
Forces shall be applied to the latch side. 

1027.9 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall comply with 
the following: 

1. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairs or escalators. A dis- 
persal area shall be provided between the stairs or escala- 
tors and the revolving doors. 

2. The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall not 
exceed those shown in Table 1027.9. 

3. Each revolving door shall have a conforming 
side-hinged swinging door in the same wall as the re- 
volving door and within 10 feet (3048 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. A revolving door is permitted to be used with- 
out an adjacent swinging door for street floor 
elevator lobbies provided a stairway, escalator 
or door from other parts of the building does not 
discharge through the lobby and the lobby does 
not have any occupancy or use other than as a 
means of travel between elevators and a street. 

2. Existing revolving doors where the number of 
revolving doors does not exceed the number of 
swinging doors within 20 feet (6096 mm). 

TABLE 1027.9 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 



INSIDE DIAMETER 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 
SPEED CONTROL (RPIUl) 


MANUAL-TYPE 
SPEED CONTROL (RPM) 


6'6" 


11 


12 


TO" 


10 


11 


76" 


9 


11 


8'0" 


9 


10 


8'6" 


8 


9 


9'0" 


8 


9 


9'6" 


V 


8 


lO'O" 


7 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



176 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1027.9.1 Egress component. A revolving door used as a 
component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 
1027.9 and all of the following conditions: 

1 . Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more 
than 50 percent of the required egress capacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with not more 
than a 50-person capacity. 

3. Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed 
when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is 
applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a 
wing. 

1027.10 Stair dimensions for existing stairs. Existing stairs 
in buildings shall be permitted to remain if the rise does not 
exceed 8.25 inches (210 mm) and the run is not less than 9 
inches (229 mm). Existing stairs can be rebuilt. 

Exception: Other stairs approved by the fire code official. 

1027.10.1 Stair dimensions for replacement stairs. The 

replacement of an existing staii-way in a structure shall not 
' be required to comply with the new stairway requirements 
of Section 1009 where the existing space and construction 
will not allow a reduction in pitch or slope. 

1027.11 Winders. Existing winders shall be allowed to remain 
in use if they have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) 
and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) at a point 12 
inches (305 mm) from the narrowest edge. 

1027.12 Circular stairways. Existing circular stairs shall be 
allowed to continue in use provided the minimum depth of 
tread is 10 inches (254 mm) and the smallest radius shall not be 
less than twice the width of the stairway. 

1027.13 Stairway handrails. Stairways shall have handrails 
on at least one side. Handrails shall be located so that all por- 
tions of the staii-way width required for egress capacity are 
within 44 inches (1118 mm) of a handrail. 

Exception: Aisle stairs provided with a cehter handrail are 
not required to have additional handrails. 

1027.13.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair 
tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 
mm) and not more than 42 inches (1067 mm). 

1027.14 Slope of ramps. Ramp runs utilized as part of a means 
of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit 
vertical in ten units horizontal (10-percent slope). The slope of 
other ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight 
units horizontal (12.5-percent slope). 

1027.15 Width of ramps. Existing ramps are permitted to 
have a minimum width of 30 inches (762 mm) but not less than 
the width required for the number of occupants served as deter- 
mined by Section 1005.1. 

1027.16 Fire escape stairs. Fii"e escape stairs shall comply 
with Sections 1027.16.1 thi'ough 1027.16.7. 

1027.16.1 Existing means of egress. Fire escape stairs 
shall be permitted in existing buildings but shall not consti- 
tute more than 50 percent oiF the required exit capacity. 

1027.16.2 Protection of openings. Openings within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of fure escape stairs shall be protected by fire 



door assemblies having a minimum V4-hour fire-resistance 
rating. 

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, opening protec- 
tion is not required. 

1027.16.3 Dimensions. Fire escape stairs shall meet the 
minimum width, capacity, riser height and tread depth as 
specified in Section 1027.10. 

1027.16.4 Access. Access to a fire escape from a corridor 
shall not be through an intervening room. Access to a fire 
escape stair shall be from a door or window meeting the cri- 
teria of Table 1005.1. Access to a fire escape stair shall be 
directly to a balcony, landing or platform. These shall be no 
higher than the floor or window sill level and no lower than 8 
inches (203 mm) below the floor level or 18 inches (457 
mm) below the window sill. 

1027.16.5 Materials and strength. Components of fire 
escape stairs shall be constructed of noncombustible materials . 

Fire escape stairs and balconies shall support the dead 
load plus a live load of not less than 100 pounds per square 
foot (4.78 kN/m^). Fire escape stairs and balconies shall be 
provided with a top and intermediate handrail on each side. 

The fire code official is authorized to require testing or 
other satisfactory evidence that an existing fire escape stair 
meets the requirements of this section. 

1027.16.6 Termination. The lowest balcony shall not be 
more than 18 feet (5486 mm) from the ground. Fire escape 
stairs shall extend to the ground or be provided with coun- 
terbalanced stairs reaching the ground. 

Exception: For fire escape stairs serving 10 or fewer 
occupants, an approved fire escape ladder is allowed to 
serve as the termination for a fire escape stairs. 

1027.16.7 Maintenance. Fure escapes shall be kept clear 
and unobstructed at all times and shall be maintained in 
good working order. 

1027.17 Corridors. Corridors serving an occupant load 
greater than 30 and the openings therein shall provide an effec- 
tive barrier to resist the movement of smoke. Transoms, lou- 
vers, doors and other openings shall be closed or be 
self-closing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridors in occupancies other than in Group H, 
which are equipped throughout with an approved au- 
tomatic sprinkler system. 

2. Patient room doors in corridors in occupancies in 
Group 1-2 where smoke barriers are provided in ac- 
cordance with the California Building Code. 

3. Corridors in occupancies in Group E where each room 
utilized for instruction or assembly has at least one-half 
of the required means of egress doors opening directly 
to the exterior of the building at ground level. 

4. Corridors that are in accordance with the California 
Building Code. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



177 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1027.17.1 Corridor openings. Openings in corridor walls 
shall comply with the requirements of the California Build- 
ing Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where 20-minute fire door assemblies are re- 
quired, solid wood doors at least 1.75 inches (44 
mm) thick or insulated steel doors are allowed. 

2. Openings protected with fixed wire glass set in 
steel frames. 

3. Openings covered with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gyp- 
sum wallboard or 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) plywood 
on the room side. 

4. Opening protection is not required when the build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 



1027.17.2 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit 
access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged 
such that dead ends do not exceed the limits specified in 
Table 1027.17.2. 

Exception: A dead-end passageway or corridor shall not 
be limited in length where the length of the dead-end pas- 
sageway or corridor is less than 2.5 times the least width 
of the dead-end passageway or corridor. 

1027.17.3 Exit access travel distance. Exits shall be 
located so that the maximum length of exit access travel, 
measured from the most remote point to an approved exit 
along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel, 
does not exceed the distances given in Table 1027.17.2. 

1027.17.4 Common path of egress travel. The common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed the distances given 
Table 1027.17.2. 



TABLE 1027.17.2 
COMMON PATH, DEAD-END AND TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS (by occupancy) 






OCCUPANCY 


COMMON PATH LIMIT 


DEAD-END LIMIT 


TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMIT 


Unsprinklered 
(feet) 


Sprinklered 
(feet) 


Unsprinklered 
(feet) 


Sprinklered 
(feet) 


Unsprinklered 
(feet) 


Sprinklered 
(feet) 


Group A 


20/75^ 


20/75" 


20'' 


20'' 


200 


250 


Group B 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group E 


75 


75 


20 


20 


200 


250 


Groups F-1,S-1'» 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Groups F-2, S-2'' 


75 


100 


50 


50 


300 


400 


Group H-1 


25 


25 








75 


75 


Group H-2 


50 


100 








75 


100 


Group H-3 


50 


100 


20 


20 


100 


150 


Group H-4 


75 


75 


20 


20 


150 


175 


Group H-5 


75 


75 


20 


50 


150 


200 


Group I- 1 


75 


75 


20 


20 


200 


250 


Group 1-2 (Health Care) 


NR 


NR 


20 


20 


150 


200= 


Group 1-3 (Detention and Correctional- 
Use Conditions H, m, IV, V 


100 


100 


NR 


NR 


150= 


200= 


Group 1-4 (Day Care Centers) 


NR 


NR 


20 


20 


200 


250 


Group M (Covered Mall) 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


400 


Group M (Mercantile) 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group R-1 (Hotels) 


75 


75 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group R-2 (Apartments) 


75 


75 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group R-3 (One- and Two-Family); 
Group R-4 (Residential Care/Assisted 
Living) 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


Group U 


75 


75 


20 


20 


200 


250 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. 20 feet for common path serving 50 or more persons; 75 feet for common path serving less than 50 persons. 

b. See Section 1025.9.5 for dead-end aisles in Group A occupancies. 

c. This dimension is for the total travel distance, assuming incremental portions have fully utilized their allowable maximums. For travel distance within the room, 
and from the room exit access door to the exit, see the appropriate occupancy chapter. 

d. See the California Building Code for special requirements on spacing of doors in aircraft han^s. 
NR = No requirements. 



178 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1027.18 Stairway discharge identification. A stairway in an 
exit enclosure which continues below the level of exit dis- 
charge shall be an'anged and mai-ked to make the direction of 
egress to a public way readily identifiable. 

Exception: Stairs that continue one-half story beyond the 
level of exit discharge need not be provided with barriers 
where the exit discharge is obvious. 

1027.19 Exterior stairway protection. Exterior exit stairs 
shall be separated from the interior of the building as required 
in Section 1023.6. Openings shall be limited to those necessary 
for egress from normally occupied spaces. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for buildings that are two stories or less above 
grade where the level of exit discharge is the first story 
above grade. 

2. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired where the exterior stairway is served by an ex- 
terior balcony that connects two remote exterior 
stairways or other approved exits, with a perimeter 
that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered 
open, the opening shall be a minimum of 50 percent of 
the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the 
opening not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the top 
of the balcony. 

3. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quhed for an exterior stairway located in a building or 
structure that is permitted to have unenclosed interior 
stairways in accordance with Section 1020.1. 

4. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for exterior stairways connected to 
open-ended corridors, provided that: 

4.1. The building, including corridors and stairs, is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Sec- 
tion 1017. 

4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on 
each end to an exterior exit stairway comply- 
ing with Section 1023.1. 

4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor 
where a change of du-ection exceeding 45 de- 
grees occurs, a clear opening of not less than 
35 square feet (3 m^) or an exterior stairway 
shall be provided. Where clear openings are 
provided, they shall be located so as to mini- 
mize the accumulation of smoke or toxic 
gases. 

1027.20 Minimum aisles width. The minimum clear width of 
aisles shall be: 

1. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for aisle stairs having seat- 
ing on each side. 

Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the 
aisle serves less than 50 seats. 



2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for stepped aisles having 
seating on only one side. 

Exception: Thirty inches (760 nrni) for catchment 
areas serving not more than 60 seats. 

3. Twenty inches (508 mm) between a stepped aisle hand- 
rail or guard and seating when the aisle is subdivided by 
the handrail. 

4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped aisles 
having seating on both sides. 

Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the 
aisle serves less than 50 seats. 

5. Thirty-six inches (914 nam) for level or ramped aisles 
having seating on only one side. 

Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment 
areas serving not more than 60 seats. 

6. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between a stepped stair 
handrail and seating where an aisle does not serve more 
than five rows on one side. 

1027.21 Stairway floor number signs. Existing stairs shall be 
marked in accordance with Section 1020.1.6. 



SECTION 1028 
MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS OF EGRESS 

1028.1 General. The means of egress for buildings or portions 
thereof shall be maintained in accordance with this section. 

ip28.2 Reliability. Requii-ed exit accesses, exits or exit dis- 
chai-ges shall be continuously maintained free from obstruc- 
tions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or 
other emergency when the areas served by such exits are occu- 
pied. Security devices affecting means of egress shall be sub- 
ject to approval of the fire code official. 

1028.3 Obstructions. A means of egress shall be free from 
obstructions that would prevent its use, including the accumu- 
lation of snow and ice. 

1028.4 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be installed and maintained 
in accordance with Section 1011. Decorations, furnishings, 
equipment or adjacent signage that impairs the visibility of exit 
signs, creates confusion or prevents identification of the exit 
shall not be allowed. 

1028.5 Furnishings and decorations. Furnishings, decora- 
tions or other objects shall not be placed so as to obstruct exits, 
access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility thereof Hang- 
ings and draperies shall not be placed over exit doors or other- 
wise be located to conceal or obstruct an exit. Mirrors shall not 
be placed on exit doors. Mirrors shall not be placed in or adja- 
cent to any exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of 
exit. 

1028.6 Emergency escape openings. Required emergency 
escape openings shall be maintained in accordance with the 
code in effect at the time of construction, and the following: 
Requked emergency escape and rescue openings shall be oper- 
ational from the inside of the room without the use of keys or 
tools. Bai-s, grilles, grates or similar devices are allowed to be 
placed over emergency escape and rescue openings provided 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



179 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



the minimum net clear opening size complies with the code that 
was in effect at the time of construction and such devices shall 
be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a 
key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal 
operation of the escape and rescue opening. 

1028.7 Testing and maintenance. All two-way communica- 
tion systems for areas of refuge shall be inspected and tested on 
a yearly basis to verify that all components are operational. 
When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of 
the fire code official. 



1 80 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 1 1 - AVIATION FACILITIES 



Adopting Agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Cliapter 




X 




































Adopt Entire Chapter as 
amended (amended 
sections listed beiow) 








































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 








































Chapter/ 
Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



181 



1 82 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 11 

AVIATION FACILITIES 



SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. Airports, heliports, helistops and aircraft han- 
gars shall be in accordance with this chapter. 

1101.2 Regulations not covered. Regulations not specifically 
contained herein pertaining to airports, aircraft maintenance, 
aircraft hangars and appurtenant operations shall be in accor- 
dance with nationally recognized standards. 

1101.3 Permits. For permits to operate aircraft-refueling vehi- 
cles, application of flammable or combustible finishes, and hot 
work, see Appendix Chapter 1, Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1102 
DEFINITIONS 

1102.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). Any area used or 
intended for use for the parking, taxiing, takeoff, landing or 
other ground-based aircraft activity. 

AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is used, or 
intended for use, for the landing and taking off of aircraft with 
an overall length greater than 39 feet (11 887 mm) and an over- 
all exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and 
any appurtenant areas that are used or intended for use for air- 
port buildings and other airport facilities. 

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off 
of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which ai'e used, or 
intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport facili- 
ties. 

HELISTOP. The same as "Heliport," except that no fueling, 
defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is per- 
mitted. 



SECTION 1103 
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 

1103.1 Sources of ignition. Open flames, flame-producing 
devices and other sources of ignition shall not be permitted in a 
hangar, except in approved locations or in any location within 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of an aircraft-fueling operation. 

1103.2 Smolcing. Smoking shall be prohibited in aircraft-refu- 
eling vehicles, aircraft hangars and aircraft operation areas 
used for cleaning, paint removal, painting operations or fuel- 
ing. "No Smoking" signs shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 310. 

Exception: Designated and approved smoking areas. 



1103.3 Housekeeping. The aircraft operation area (AOA) and 
related areas shall be kept free from combustible debris at all 
times. 

1103.4 Fire department access. Fire apparatus access roads 
shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Chapter 
5. Fire apparatus access roads and aircraft parking positions 
shall be designed in a manner so as to preclude the possibility 
of fire vehicles traveling under any portion of a parked aircraft. 

1103.5 Dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids. 

The dispensing, transferring and storage of flammable and 
combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this chapter 
and Chapter 34. Aircraft motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall 
be in accordance with Chapter 22. 

1103.6 Combustible storage. Combustible materials stored in 
aircraft hangars shall be stored in approved locations and con- 
tainers. 

1103.7 Hazardous material storage. Hazardous materials 
shall be stored in accordance with Chapter 27. 



SECTION 1104 
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 

1104.1 Transferring flammable and combustible liquids. 

Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be dispensed into 
or removed from a container, tank, vehicle or au'craft except in 
approved locations. 

1104.2 Application of flammable and combustible liquid 
finishes. The application of flammable or Class II combustible 
liquid finishes is prohibited unless both of the following condi- 
tions are met: 

1 . The application of the liquid finish is accomplished in an 
approved location. 

2. The application methods and procedures are in accor- 
dance with Chapter 15. 

1104.3 Cleaning parts. Class lA flammable liquids shall not 
be used to clean aircraft, aircraft parts or air-craft engines. 
Cleaning with other flammable and combustible liquids shall 
be in accordance with Section 3405.3.6. 

1104.4 Spills. This section shall apply to spills of flammable 
and combustible liquids and other hazai'dous materials. Fuel 
spill control shall also comply with Section 1106.11. 

1104.4.1 Cessation of work. Activities in the affected area 
not related to the mitigation of the spill shall cease until the 
spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been 
mitigated. 

1104.4.2 Vehicle movement. Aircraft or other vehicles 
shall not be moved through the spill area until the spilled 
material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



183 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



1104.4.3 Mitigation. Spills shall be reported, documented 
and mitigated in accordance with the provisions of this 
chapter and Section 2703.3. 

1104.5 Running engines. Aircraft engines shall not be run in 
aircraft hangars except in approved engine test areas. 

1104.6 Open flame. Repairing of aircraft requiring the use of 
open flames, spark-producing devices or the heating of parts 
above 500°F (260°C) shall only be done outdoors or in an area 
complying with the provisions of the California Building Code 
for a Group F-1 occupancy. 



SECTION 1105 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

1105.1 General. Portable fire extinguishers suitable for flam- 
mable or combustible Hquid and electrical-type fires shall be 
provided as specified in Sections 1105.2 through 1105.6 and 
Section 906. Extinguishers required by this section shall be 
inspected and maintained in accordance with Section 906. 

1105.2 On towing vehicles. Vehicles used for towing aircraft 
shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire 
extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a mini- 
mum rating of 20-B:C. 

1105.3 On welding apparatus. Welding apparatus shall be 
equipped with a minimum of one Usted portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum 
rating of 2-A:20-B:C. 

1105.4 On aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles. Aircraft 
fuel-servicing tank vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum 
of two listed portable fire extinguishers complying with Sec- 
tion 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B :C. A portable 
fire extinguisher shall be readily accessible from either side of 
the vehicle. 

1105.5 On hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles. Hydrant fuel-ser- 
vicing vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum of one Usted 
portable fixe extinguisher complying with Section 906, and 
having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. 

1105.6 At fuel-dispensing stations. Portable fire 
extinguishers at fuel-dispensing stations shall be located such 
that pumps or dispensers are not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from one such extinguisher. Fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided as follows: 

1. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is not more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s), 
a minimum of two listed portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 
20-B:C shall be provided. 

2. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s) but 
not more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a mini- 
mum of one listed wheeled extinguisher complying with 
Section 906 and having a minimum extinguishing rating 
of 80-B:C, and a minimum agent capacity of 125 pounds 
(57 kg), shall be provided. 

3. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueUng 
system is more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a 



minimum of two listed wheeled extinguishers comply- 
ing with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 
80-B:C each, and a minimum capacity agent of 125 
pounds (57 kg) of each, shall be provided. 

1105.7 Fire extinguisher access. Portable fire extinguishers 
required by this chapter shall be accessible at all times. Where 
necessary, provisions shall be made to clear accumulations of 
snow, ice and other forms of weather-induced obstructions. 

1105.7.1 Cabinets. Cabinets and enclosed compartments 
used to house portable fire extinguishers shall be clearly 
marked with the words FIRE EXTINGUISHER in letters at 
least 2 inches (51 mm) high. Cabinets and compartments 
shall be readily accessible at all times. 

1105.8 Reporting use. Use of a fire extinguisher under any cir- 
cumstances shall be reported to the manager of the airport and 
the fire code official immediately after use. 



SECTION 1106 
AIRCRAFT FUELING 

1106.1 Aircraft motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Aircraft 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 22. 

1106.2 Airport fuel systems. Airport fuel systems shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 407. 

1106.3 Construction of aircraft-fueling vehicles and acces- 
sories. Aircraft-fueUng vehicles shall comply with this section 
and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
NFPA 407. 

1106.3.1 Transfer apparatus. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be equipped and maintained with an approved transfer 
apparatus. 

1106.3.1.1 Internal combustion type. Where such 
transfer apparatus is operated by an individual unit of the 
intemal-combustion-motor type, such power unit shall 
be located as remotely as practicable from pumps, pip- 
ing, meters, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels, 
and similar equipment, and shall be housed in a separate 
compartment from any of the aforementioned items. The 
fuel tank in connection therewith shall be suitably 
designed and installed, and the maximum fuel capacity 
shall not exceed 5 gallons (19 L) where the tank is 
installed on the engine. The exhaust pipe, muffler and tail 
pipe shall be shielded. 

1106.3.1.2 Gear operated. Where operated by gears or 
chains, the geai's, chains, shafts, bearings, housing and 
all parts thereof shall be of an approved design and shall 
be installed and maintained in an approved manner. 

1106.3.1.3 Vibration isolation. Flexible connections 
for the purpose of eliminating vibration are allowed if the 
material used therein is designed, installed and main- 
tained in an approved manner, provided such connec- 
tions do not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) in length. 

1106.3.2 Pumps. Pumps of a positive-displacement type 
shall be provided with a bypass rehef valve set at a pressure 
of not more than 35 percent in excess of the normal working 



184 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



pressure of such unit. Such units shall be equipped and 
maintained with a pressure gauge on the discharge side of 
the pump. 

1106.3.3 Dispensing hoses and nozzles. Hoses shall be 
designed for the transferring of hydrocarbon liquids and 
shall not be any longer than necessary to provide efficient 
fuel transfer operations. Hoses shall be equipped with an 
approved shutoff nozzle. Fuel-transfer nozzles shall be 
self-closing and designed to be actuated by hand pressure 
only. Notches and other devices shall not be used for hold- 
ing a nozzle valve handle in the open position. Nozzles shall 
be equipped with a bonding cable complete with proper 
attachment for aircraft to be serviced. 

1106.3.4 Protection of electrical equipment. Electric wir- 
ing, switches, lights and other sources of ignition, when 
located in a compartment housing piping, pumps, air 
eliminators, water separators, hose reels or similar equip- 
ment, shall be enclosed in a vapor-tight housing. Electrical 
motors located in such a compartment shall be of a type 
approved for use as specified in California Electrical Code. 

1106.3.5 Venting of equipment compartments. Compart- 
rnents housing piping, pumps, air eliminators, water separa- 
tors, hose reels and similar equipment shall be adequately 
ventilated at floor level or within the floor itself. 

1106.3.6 Accessory equipment. Ladders, hose reels and 
similar accessory equipment shall be of an approved type 
and constructed substantially as follows: 

1. Ladders constructed of noncombustible material are 
allowed to be used with or attached to aircraft-fueling 
vehicles, provided the manner of attachment or use of 
such ladders is approved and does not constitute an 
additional fire or accident hazard in the operation of 
such fueling vehicles. 

2. Hose reels used in connection with fueling vehicles 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and 
shall be provided with a packing gland or other device 
which will preclude fuel leakage between reels and 
fuel manifolds. 

1106.3.7 Electrical bonding provisions. Transfer appara- 
tus shall be metallically interconnected with tanks, chassis, 
axles and springs of aircraft-fueling vehicles. 

1106.3.7.1 Bonding cables. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be provided and maintained with a substantial 
heavy-duty electrical cable of sufficient length to be 
bonded to the aircraft to be serviced. Such cable shall be 
metallically connected to the transfer apparatus or chas- 
sis of the aircraft-fueling vehicle on one end and shall be 
provided with a suitable metal clamp on the other end, to 
be fixed to the aircraft. 

1106.3.7.2 Bonding cable protection. The bonding 
cable shall be bare or have a ti^ansparent protective sleeve 
and be stored on a reel or in a compartment provided for 
no other purpose. It shall be carried in such a manner that 
it will not be subjected to sharp kinks or accidental break- 
age under conditions of general use. 



1106.3.8 Smoking. Smoking in aircraft-fuehng vehicles is 
prohibited. Signs to this effect shall be conspicuously 
posted in the driver's compartment of all fuehng vehicles. 

1106.3.9 Smoking equipment. Smoking equipment such 
as cigarette lighters and ash trays shall not be provided in 
aircraft-fueling vehicles. 

1106.4 Operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling 
vehicles. The operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fuel- 
ing vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.4.1 
through 1 106.4.4 and other applicable provisions of this chap- 
ter. 

1106.4.1 Proper maintenance. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
and all related equipment shall be properly maintained and 
kept in good repair. Accumulations of oil, grease, fuel and 
other flammable or combustible materials is prohibited. 
Maintenance and servicing of such equipment shall be 
accomplished in approved areas. 

1106.4.2 Vehicle integrity. Tanks, pipes, hoses, valves and 
other fuel delivery equipment shall be maintained leak free 
at all times. 

1106.4.3 Removal from service. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
and related equipment which are in violation of Section 
1106.4.1 or 1106.4.2 shall be immediately defueled and 
removed from service and shall not be returned to service 
until proper repairs have been made. 

1106.4.4 Operators. Aircraft-fueling vehicles that are 
operated by a person, firm or corporation other than the 
permittee or the permittee's authorized employee shall be 
provided with a legible sign visible from outside the vehicle 
showing the name of the person, firm or corporation operat- 
ing such unit. 

1106.5 Fueling and defueling. Aircraft-fueling and defueling 
operations shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.5.1 
through 1106.5.5. 

1106.5.1 Positioning of aircraft-fueling vehicles. Air- 
craft-fueling vehicles shall not be located, parked or permit- 
ted to stand in a position where such unit would obstruct 
egress from an aircraft should a fire occur during fuel-trans- 
fer operations. Tank vehicles shall not be located, parked or 
permitted to stand under any portion of an aircraft. 

1106.5.1.1 Fueling vehicle egress. A clear path shall be 
maintained for aircraft-fueling vehicles to provide for 
prompt and timely egress from the fueling area. 

1106.5.1.2 Aircraft vent openings. A clear space of at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be maintained between air- 
craft fuel-system vent openings and any part or portion 
of an aircraft-fueling vehicle. 

1106.5.1.3 Parking. Prior to leaving the cab, the air- 
craft-fueling vehicle operator shall ensure that the park- 
ing brake has been set. At least two chock blocks not less 
than 5 inches by 5 inches by 12 inches (127 mm by 127 
nun by 305 nmi) in size and dished to fit the contour of 
the tires shall be utihzed and positioned in such a manner 
as to preclude movement of the vehicle in any direction. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



185 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



1106.5.2 Electrical bonding. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be electrically bonded to the aircraft being fueled or 
defueled. Bonding connections shall be made prior to mak- 
ing fueling connections and shall not be disconnected until 
the fuel-transfer operations are completed and the fueling 
connections have been removed. 

Where a hydrant service vehicle or cart is used for fuel- 
ing, the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant 
system prior to bonding the fueling equipment to the 
aircraft. 

1106.5.2.1 Conductive liose. In addition to the bonding 
cable required by Section 1106.5.2, conductive hose 
shall be used for all fueling operations. 

1106.5.2.2 Bonding conductors on transfer nozzles. 

Transfer nozzles shall be equipped with approved bond- 
ing conductors which shall be clipped or otherwise posi- 
tively engaged with the bonding attachment provided on 
the aircraft adjacent to the fuel tank cap prior to removal 
of the cap. 

Exception: In the case of overwing fueling where no 
appropriate bonding attachment adjacent to the fuel 
fill port has been provided on the aircraft, the fueling 
operator shall touch the fuel tank cap with the nozzle 
spout prior to removal of the cap. The nozzle shall be 
kept in contact with the fill port until fueling is com- 
pleted. 

1106.5.2.3 Funnels. Where required, metal funnels are 
allowed to be used during fueling operations. Direct con- 
tact between the fueling receptacle, the funnel and the 
fueling nozzle shall be maintained during the fueling 
operation. 

1106.5.3 Training. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be 
attended and operated only by persons instructed in meth- 
ods of proper use and operation and who are qualified to use 
such fueling vehicles in accordance with minimum safety 
requirements. 

1106.5.3.1 Fueling hazards. Fuel-servicing personnel 
shall know and understand the hazards associated with 
each type of fuel dispensed by the airport fueling-system 
operator. 

1106.5.3.2 Fire safety training. Employees of fuel 
agents who fuel aircraft, accept fuel shipments or other- 
wise handle fuel shall receive approved fire safety train- 
ing. 

1106.5.3.2.1 Fire extinguisher training. Fuel-ser- 
vicing personnel shall receive approved training in 
the operation of fire-extinguishing equipment. 

1106.5.3.2.2 Documentation. The airport fuel- 
ing-system operator shall maintain records of all 
training administered to its employees. These records 
shall be made available to the fire code official on 
request. 

1106.5.4 Transfer personnel. During fuel-transfer opera- 
tions, a qualified person shall be in control of each transfer 
nozzle and another qualified person shall be in immediate 
control of the fuel-pumping equipment to shut off or other- 



wise control the flow of fuel from the time fueling 
operations are begun until they are completed. 

Exceptions: 

1. For underwing refueling, the person stationed at 
the point of fuel intake is not required. 

2. For overwing refueling, the person stationed at the 
fuel pumping equipment shall not be required 
where the person at the fuel dispensing device is 
within 75 feet (22 800 mm) of the emergency shut- 
off device, is not on the wing of the aircraft and has 
a clear and unencumbered path to the fuel pumping 
equipment; and, the fuel dispensing line does not 
exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length. 

The fueling operator shall monitor the panel of the fuel- 
ing equipment and the aircraft control panel during pressure 
fueling or shall monitor the fill port during overwing 
fuehng. 

1106.5.5 Fuel flow control. Fuel flow-control valves shall 
be operable only by the direct hand pressure of the operator. 
Removal of the operator's hand pressure shall cause an 
immediate cessation of the flow of fuel. 

1106.6 Emergency fuel shutoff. Emergency fuel shutoff con- 
trols and procedures shall comply with Sections 1106.6.1 
through 1106.6.4. 

1106.6.1 Accessibility. Emergency fuel shutoff controls 
shall be readily accessible at all times when the fueling sys- 
tem is being operated. 

1106.6.2 Notification of the fire department. The fuel- 
ing-system operator shall estabhsh a procedure by which 
the fire department will be notified in the event of an activa- 
tion of an emergency fuel shutoff control. 

1106.6.3 Determining cause. Prior to reestablishment of 
normal fuel flow, the cause of fuel shutoff conditions shall 
be determined and corrected. 

1106.6.4 Testing. Emergency fuel shutoff devices shall be 
operationally tested at intervals not exceeding three months. 
The fuehng-system operator shall maintain suitable records 
of these tests. 

1106.7 Protection of hoses. Before an aircraft-fueling vehicle 
is moved, fuel transfer hoses shall be properly placed on the 
approved reel or in the compartment provided, or stored on the 
top decking of the fueling vehicle if proper height rail is pro- 
vided for security and protection of such equipment. 
Fuel-transfer hose shall not be looped or draped over any part 
of the fueling vehicle, except as herein provided. Fuel-transfer 
hose shall not be dragged when such fueling vehicle is moved 
from one fueling position to another. 

1106.8 Loading and unloading. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be loaded only at an approved loading rack. Such loading 
racks shall be in accordance with Section 3406.5.1.12. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aircraft-refueling units may be loaded from the fuel 
tanks of an aircraft during defueling operations. 

2. Fuel transfer between tank vehicles is allowed to be 
performed in accordance with Section 3406.6 when 



186 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



the operation is at least 200 feet (60 960 mm) from an 
aircraft. 

Tile fuel cargo of such units shall be unloaded only by 
approved transfer apparatus into the fuel tanks of aircraft, 
underground storage tanks or approved gravity storage tanks. 

1106.9 Passengers. Passenger traffic is allowed during the 
time fuel transfer operations are in progress, provided the fol- 
lowing provisions are strictly enforced by the owner of the air- 
craft or the owner's authorized employee: 

1 . Smoking and producing an open flame in the cabin of the 
aircraft or the outside thereof within 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
of such aircraft shall be prohibited. 

A qualified employee of the aircraft owner shall be 
responsible for seeing that the passengers are not 
allowed to smoke when remaining aboard the aircraft or 
while going across the ramp from the gate to such air- 
craft, or vice versa. 

2. Passengers shall not be permitted to linger about the 
plane, but shall proceed directly between the loading 
gate and the aircraft. 

3. Passenger loading stands or walkways shall be left in 
loading position until all fuel transfer operations are 
completed. 

4. Fuel transfer operations shall not be performed on the 
main exit side of any aircraft containing passengers ex- 
cept when the owner of such aircraft or a capable and 
qualified employee of such owner remains inside the air- 
craft to direct and assist the escape of such passengers 
through regular and emergency exits in the event fire 
should occur during fuel transfer operations. 

1106.10 Sources of ignition. Smoking and producing open 
flames within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a point where fuel is 
being transferred shall be prohibited. Electrical and 
motor-driven devices shall not be connected to or disconnected 
from an aircraft at any time fueling operations are in progress 
on such aircraft. 

1106.11 Fuel spill prevention and procedures. Fuel spill pre- 
vention and the procedures for handling spills shall comply 
with Sections 1106.11.1 through 1106.11.7. 

1106.11.1 Fuel-service equipment maintenance. Aircraft 
fuel-servicing equipment shall be maintained and kept free 
from leaks. Fuel-servicing equipment that malfunctions or 
leaks shall not be continued in service. 

1106.11.2 Transporting fuel nozzles. Fuel nozzles shall be 
carried utilizing appropriate handles. Dragging fuel nozzles 
along the ground shall be prohibited. 

1106.11.3 Drum fueling. Fueling from drums or other con- 
tainers having a capacity greater than 5 gallons (19 L) shall 
be accomplished with the use of an approved pump. 

1106.11.4 Fuel spill procedures. The fueling-system oper- 
ator shall establish procedures to follow in the event of a fuel 
spill. These procedures shall be comprehensive and shall 
provide for at least all of the following: 

1. Upon observation of a fuel spill, the aircraft-fueling 
operator shall immediately stop the delivery of fuel by 



releasing hand pressure frona the fuel flow-control 
valve. 

2. Failure of the fuel control valve to stop the continued 
spillage of fuel shall be cause for the activation of the 
appropriate emergency fuel shutoff device. 

3. A supervisor for the fueling-system operator shall re- 
spond to the fuel spill area immediately. 

1106.11.5 Notification of the fire department. The fire 
department shall be notified of any fuel spill which is con- 
sidered a hazard to people or property or which meets one or 
more of the following criteria: 

1. Any dimension of the spill is greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

2. The spill area is greater than 50 square feet (4.65 m^). 

3. The fuel flow is continuous in nature. 

1106.11.6 Investigation required. An investigation shall 
be conducted by the fueling-system operator of all spills 
requiring notification of the fire department. The investiga-, 
tion shall provide conclusive proof of the cause and verifica- 
tion of the appropriate use of emergency procedures. Where 
it is determined that corrective measures are necessary to 
prevent future incidents of the same nature, they shall be 
implemented immediately. 

1106.11.7 Multiple fuel delivery vehicles. Simultaneous 
delivery of fuel from more than one aircraft-fueling vehicle 
to a single aircraft-fueling manifold is prohibited unless 
proper backflow prevention devices are installed to prevent 
fuel flow into the tank vehicles. 

1106.12 Aircraft engines and heaters. Operation of aircraft 
onboard engines and combustion heaters shall be terminated 
prior to commencing fuel service operations and shall remain 
off until the fuel-servicing operation is completed. 

Exception: In an emergency, a single jet engine is allowed 
to be operated during fuel servicing where all of the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

1. The emergency shall have resulted from an onboard 
failure of the aircraft's auxiliary power unit. 

2. Restoration of auxiliary power to the aircraft by 
ground support services is not available. 

3. The engine to be operated is either at the rear of the 
aircraft or on the opposite side of the aircraft from the 
fuel service operation. 

4. The emergency operation is in accordance with a 
written procedure approved by the fii-e code official. 

1106.13 Vehicle and equipment restrictions. During aircraft- 
fueling operations, only the equipment actively involved in the 
fueling operation is allowed within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the 
aircraft being fueled. Other equipment shall be prohibited in 
this area until the fueling operation is complete. 

Exception: Aircraft-fueling operations utilizing sin- 
gle-point refueling with a sealed, mechanically locked fuel 
line connection and the fuel is not a Class I flammable 
liquid. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



187 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



A clear space of at least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be main- 
tained between aircraft fuel-system vent openings and any part 
or portion of aircraft-servicing vehicles or equipment. 

1106.13.1 Overwing fueling. Vehicles or equipment shall 
not be allowed beneath the trailing edge of the wing when 
akcraft fueling takes place over the wing and the aircraft 
fuel-system vents are located on the upper surface of the 
wing. 

1106.14 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment, includ- 
ing but not limited to, battery chargers, ground or auxiliary 
power units, fans, compressors or tools, shall not be operated, 
nor shall they be connected or disconnected firom their power 
source, during fuel service operations. 

1106.14.1 Otiier equipment. Electrical or other spark-pro- 
ducing equipment shall not be used within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of fueling equipment, aircraft fill or vent points, or spill 
areas unless that equipment is intrinsicdly safe and 
approved for use in an explosive atmosphere. 

1106.15 Open flames. Open flames and open-flame devices 
are prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 nun) of any aircraft 
fuel-servicing operation or fueling equipment. 

1106.15.1 Otlier areas. The fure code official is authorized 
to establish other locations where open flames and 
open-flame devices are prohibited. 

1106.15.2 Matches and lighters. Personnel assigned to 
and engaged in fuel-servicing operations shall not carry 
matches or lighters on or about their person. Matches or 
lighters shall be prohibited in, on or about aircraft-fueling 
equipment. 

1106.16 Lightning procedures. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require the airport authority and the fueling-system 
operator to establish written procedures to follow when light- 
ning flashes are detected on or near the airport. These proce- 
dures shall establish criteria for the suspension and resumption 
of aircraft-fueling operations. 

1106.17 Fuel-transfer locations. Aircraft fuel-transfer opera- 
tions shall be prohibited indoors. 

Exception: In aircraft hangars built in accordance with the 
provisions of the California Building Code for Group F-1 
occupancies, aircraft fuel-transfer operations are allowed 
where: 

1 . Necessary to accomphsh aircraft fuel-system mainte- 
nance operations. Such operations shall be performed 
in accordance with nationally recognized standai'ds; 
or 

2. The fuel being used has a flash point greater than 
100°F (37.8°C). 

1106.17.1 Position of aircraft. Aircraft being fueled shall 
be positioned such that any fuel system vents and other fuel 
tank openings are a minimum of: 

1 . Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) from buildings or struc- 
tures other than jet bridges; and 

2. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) from air intake vents for boiler, 
heater or incinerator rooms. 



1106.17.2 Fire equipment access. Access for fire service 
equipment to aircraft shall be maintained during fuel-ser- 
vicing operations. 

1106.18 Defueling operations. The requirements for fueling 
operations contained in this section shall also apply to aircraft 
defueling operations. Additional procedures shall be estab- 
lished by the fueling-system operator to prevent overfilling of 
the tank vehicle used in the defueling operation. 

1106.19 Maintenance of aircraft-fueling hose. Aircraft-fuel- 
ing hoses shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 
1106.19.1 through 1106.19.4. 

1106.19.1 Inspections. Hoses used to fuel or defuel aircraft 
shall be inspected periodically to ensure their serviceability 
and suitability for continued service. The fuel-service oper- 
ator shall maintain records of all tests and inspections per- 
formed on fueling hoses. Hoses found to be defective or 
otherwise damaged shall be immediately removed from 
service. 

1106.19.1.1 Daily inspection. Each hose shall be 
inspected daily. This inspection shall include a complete 
visual scan of the exterior for evidence of damage, blis- 
tering or leakage. Each coupling shall be inspected for 
evidence of leaks, slippage or misahgnment. 

1106.19.1.2 Monthly inspection. A more thorough 
inspection, including pressure testing, shall be accom- 
plished for each hose on a monthly basis. This inspection 
shall include examination of the fuel delivery inlet screen 
for rubber particles, which indicates problems with the 
hose lining. 

1106.19.2 Damaged hose. Hose that has been subjected to 
severe abuse shall be immediately removed from service. 
Such hoses shall be hydrostatically tested prior to being 
returned to service. 

1106.19.3 Repairing hose. Hoses are allowed to be 
repaired by removing the damaged portion and recoupHng 
the undamaged end. When recoupling hoses, only cou- 
plings designed and approved for the size and type of hose in 
question shall be used. Hoses repaired in this manner shall 
be visually inspected and hydrostatically tested prior to 
being placed back in service. 

1106.19.4 New hose. New hose shall be visually inspected 
prior to being placed into service. 

1106.20 Aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles parking. Unat- 
tended aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles shall be parked in ai-eas 
tliat provide for botli the unencumbered dispersal of vehicles in 
the event of an emergency and the control of leakage such that 
adjacent buildings and storm drains are not contaminated by 
leaking fuel. 

1106.20.1 Parking area design. Parking areas for tank 
vehicles shall be designed and utilized such that a clearance 
of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained between each parked 
vehicle for fire department access. In addition, a minimum 
clearance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall be maintained 
between tank vehicles and parked aircraft and structures 
other than those used for the maintenance and/or garaging 
of aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles. 



188 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



1106.21 Radar equipment. Aircraft fuel-servicing operations 
shall be prohibited while the weather-mapping radar of that air- 
craft is operating. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flamma- 
ble liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be con- 
ducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of an operating aircraft 
surveillance radar. ' 

Aircraft fuel-servicing operations shall not be conducted 
within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of airport flight traffic surveil- 
lance radar equipment. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flamma- 
ble liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be con- 
ducted within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of airport ground traffic 
surveillance radar equipment. 

1106.21.1 Direction of radar beams. The beam from 
ground radar equipment shall not be directed towai-d fuel 
storage or loading racks. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 300 
feet (91 440 mm) from airport flight traffic surveil- 
lance equipment. 

2. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 100 
feet (30 480 mm) from airport ground traffic sur- 
veillance equipment. 



SECTION 1107 
HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS 

1107.1 General. Helistops and heliports shall be maintained in 
accordance with Sections 1107. 2 tiirough 1107.8. Helistops 
and heliports on buildings shall be constructed in accordance 
with the California Building Code. 

1107.2 Clearances. The touchdown area shall be surrounded 
on all sides by a clear area having minimum average width at 
roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but no width less than 5 feet 
(1524 mm). The clear area shall be maintained. 

1107.3 Flammable and Class II combustible liquid spillage. 

Landing areas on structures shall be maintained so as to confine 
flammable or Class II combustible liquid spillage to the land- 
ing area itself, and provisions shall be made to drain such spill- 
age away from exits or stairways serving the helicopter landing 
ai-ea or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. 

1107.4 Exits. Exits and stairways shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with Section 412.5 of the California Building Code. 

1107.5 Standpipe systems. Where a building with a rooftop 
helistop or heliport is equipped with a standpipe system, the 
system shall be extended to the roof level on which the helistop 
or heliport is located. All portions of the helistop and heliport 
area shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of a 2.5-inch (63.5 
mm) outlet on a Class I or HI standpipe. 

1107.6 Foam protection. Foam fire-protection capabilities 
shall be provided for rooftop heliports. Such systems shall be 
designed, installed and maintained in accordance with the 
applicable provisions of Sections 903, 904 and 905. 



1107.7 Fire extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire 
extinguisher having a minimum 80-B:C rating shall be pro- 
vided for each permanent takeoff and landing area and for the 
aircraft parking areas. Installation, inspection and maintenance 
of these extinguishers shall be in accordance with Section 906. 

1107.8 Federal approval. Before operating helicopters from 
helistops and heliports, approval shall be obtained from the 
Federal Aviation Administration. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



189 



■■ 90 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 12 -DRY CLEANING 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


i;ac 


AC 


SS 


1 


' 2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Ctiapter 




X 




































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 








































Chapter /Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



191 



1 92 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 12 

DRY CLEANING 



SECTION 1201 
GENERAL 

1201.1 Scope. Dry cleaning plants and their operations shall 
comply with the requirements of this chapter. 

1201.2 Permit required. Permits shall be required as set forth 
in Appendix Chapter 1, Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1202 
DEFINITIONS 

1202.1 DeJSnitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the puiposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt, grease, 
paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, tex- 
tiles, fabrics and rugs by use of nonaqueous liquids (solvents). 

DRY CLEANING PLANT. A facility in which diy cleaning 
and associated operations are conducted, including the office, 
receiving area and storage rooms. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a 
building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the 
installation of solvent-handling equipment or the storage of dry 
cleaning solvents. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Machinery or equipment in 
which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which 
dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles. 

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. A method 
for classifying solvents or hquids according to the following 
classes: 

Class I solvents. Liquids having a flash point below 100°F 
(38°C). 

Class II solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 

Class IIIA solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or 
above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

Class IIIB solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
200°F(93°C). 

Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable. 



SECTION 1203 
CLASSIFICATIONS 

1203.1 Solvent classification. Dry cleaning solvents shall be 
classified according to their flash points as follows: 

1 . Class I solvents ai-e liquids having a flash point below 
100°F (38°C). 

2. Class II solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 



3. Class IHA solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above WOT (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

4. Class IIIB solvents are liquids having a flash point at or. 
above 200°F (93°C). 

5 . Class IV solvents are liquids classified as nonflammable. 

1203.2 Classification of dry cleaning plants and systems. 

Dry cleaning plants and systems shall be classified based on the 
solvents used as follows: 

1. Type I — systems using Class I solvents. 

2. Type II — systems using Class II solvents. 

3. Type III- A — systems using Class IDA solvents. 

4. Type III-B — systems using Class IIIB solvents. 

5. Type IV — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is not conducted by the public. 

6. Type V — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is conducted by the public. 

Spotting and pretreating operations conducted in accor- 
dance with Section 1206 shall not change the type of the dry 
cleaning plant. 

1203.2.1 Multiple solvents. Dry cleaning plants using 
more than one class of solvent for dry cleaning shall be clas- 
sified based on the numerically lowest solvent class. 

1203.3 Design. The occupancy classification, design and con- 
struction of dry cleaning plants shall comply with the applica- 
ble requirements of the California Building Code. 



SECTION 1204 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

1204.1 Prohibited use. Type I dry cleaning plants shall be pro- 
hibited. Limited quantities of Class I solvents stored and used 
in accordance with this section shall not be prohibited in dry 
cleaning plants. 

1204.2 Building services. Building services and systems shall 
be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with this 
section and Chapter 6. 

1204.2.1 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 502 of the California Mechanical 
Code andDOL29 CFRPart 1910.1000, where applicable. 

1204.2.2 Heating. In Type n dry cleaning plants, heating 
shall be by indirect means using steam, hot water or hot oil 
only. 

1204.2.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment in dry cleaning rooms or other locations 
subject to flammable vapors shall be installed in accordance 
with the California Electrical Code. 

1204.2.4 Bonding and grounding. Storage tanks, treat- 
ment tanks, filters, pumps, piping, ducts, dry cleahing units, 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



193 



DRY CLEANING 



stills, tumblers, drying cabinets and other such equipment, 
where not inherently electrically conductive, shall be 
bonded together and grounded. Isolated equipment shall be 
grounded. 



SECTION 1205 
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS 

1205.1 General. The operation of dry cleaning systems shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 1205.1.1 through 
1205.3. 

1205.1.1 Written instructions. Written instructions cover- 
ing the proper installation and safe operation and use of 
equipment and solvent shall be given to the buyer. 

1205.1.1.1 Type II, ni-A, III-B and IV systems. In 

lype II, III-A, III-B and IV dry cleaning systems, 
machines shall be operated in accordance with the oper- 
ating instructions furnished by the machinery manufac- 
turer. Employees shall be instructed as to the hazards 
involved in their departments and in the work they 
perform. 

1205.1.1.2 Type V systems. Operating instructions for 
customer use of Type V dry cleaning systems shall be 
conspicuously posted in a location near the dry cleaning 
unit. A telephone number shall be provided for emer- 
gency assistance. 

1205.1.2 Equipment identification. The manufacturer 
shall provide nameplates on dry cleaning machines indicat- 
ing the class of solvent for which each machine is designed. 

1205.1.3 Open systems proliibited. Dry cleaning by 
immersion and agitation in open vessels shall be prohibited. 

1205.1.4 Prohibited use of solvent. The use of solvents 
with a flash point below that for which a machine is 
designed or listed shall be prohibited. 

1205.1.5 Equipment maintenance and housekeeping. 

Proper maintenance and operating practices shall be 
observed in order to prevent the leakage of solvent or the 
accumulation of lint. The handling of waste material gener- 
ated by dry cleaning operations and the maintenance of 
facilities shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

1205.1.5.1 Floors. Class I and 11 liquids shall not be used 
for cleaning floors. 

1205.1.5.2 Filters. Filter residue and other residues con- 
taining solvent shall be handled and disposed of in cov- 
ered metal containers. 

1205.1.5.3 Lint. Lint and refuse shall be removed from 
traps daily, deposited in approved waste cans, removed 
from the premises, and disposed of safely. At all other 
times, traps shall be held securely in place. 

1205.1.5.4 Customer areas. In Type V dry cleaning sys- 
tems, customer areas shall be kept clean. 

1205.2 Type II systems. Special operating requirements for 
Type II dry cleaning systems shall comply with the provisions 
of Sections 1205.2.1 through 1205.2.3. 



1205.2.1 Inspection of materials. Materials to be dry 
cleaned shall be searched thoroughly and foreign materials, 
including matches and metallic substances, shall be 
removed. 

1205.2.2 Material transfer. In removing materials from the 
washer, provisions shall be made for minimizing the drip- 
ping of solvent on the floor. Where materials are transferred 
from a washer to a drain tub, a nonferrous metal drip apron 
shall be placed so that the apron rests on the drain tub and the 
cylinder of the washer. 

1205.2.3 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system 
which is designed to exhaust 1 cubic foot of air per minute 
for each square foot of floor area [0.0058 mV(s • m^)] shall 
be installed in dry cleaning rooms and in drying rooms. The 
ventilation system shall operate automatically when the dry 
cleaning equipment is in operation and shall have manual 
controls at an approved location. 

1205,3 Type TV and V systems. Type IV and V dry cleaning 
systems shall be provided with an automatically activated 
exhaust ventilation system to maintain a minimum of 100 feet 
per minute (0.51 m/s) air velocity through the loading door 
when the door is opened. Such systems for dry cleaning equip- 
ment shall comply with the California Mechanical Code. 

Exception: Dry cleaning units are not required to be pro- 
vided with exhaust ventilation where an exhaust hood is 
installed immediately outside of and above the loading door 
which operates at an airflow rate as follows: 



Q=100xA,o 



(Equation 12-1) 



where: 

Q = flow rate exhausted through the hood, cubic feet per 
minute (mVs). 

Ald= area of the loading door, square feet (m^). 



SECTION 1206 
SPOTTING AND PRETREATING 

1206.1 General. Spotting and pretreating operations and 
equipment shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1206.2 
through 1206.5. 

1206.2 Type I solvents. The maximum quantity of Type I sol- 
vents permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). 
Class I solvents shall be stored in appfoved safety cans or in 
sealed DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of not more 
than 1 -gallon (4 L) capacity. Dispensing shall be from 
approved safety cans. 

1206.3 Type 11 and III solvents. Scouring, brushing, and spot- 
ting and pretreating shall be conducted with Class II or III sol- 
vents. The maximum quantity of Type II or III solvents 
permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). In other 
than a Group H-2 occupancy, the aggregate quantities of sol- 
vents shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per 
control area for use-open system. 

1206.3.1 Spotting tables. Scouring, brushing or spotting 
tables on which articles are soaked in solvent shall have a 
liquid-tight top with a curb on all sides not less than 1 inch 



194 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



DRY CLEANING 



(25 mm) high. The top of the table shall be pitched to ensure 
thorough draining to a 1 .5-inch (38 mm) drain connected to 
an approved container. 

1206.3.2 Special handling. When approved, articles that 
cannot be washed in the usual washing machines are 
allowed to be cleaned in scrubbing tubs. Scrubbing tubs 
shall comply with the following: 

1. Only Class II or III liquids shall be used. 

2. The total amount of solvent used in such open con- 
tainers shall not exceed 3 gallons (1 1 L). 

3. Scrubbing tubs shall be secured to the floor. 

4. Scrubbing tubs shall be provided with permanent 1 .5- 
inch (38 mm) drains. Such drain shall be provided 
with a ti'ap and shall be connected to an approved con- 
tainer. 

1206.3.3 Ventilation. Scrubbing tubs, scouring, brushing 
or spotting operations shall be located such that solvent 
vapors are captured and exhausted by the ventilating 
system. 

1206.3.4 Bonding and grounding. Metal scouring, brush- 
ing and spotting tables and scrubbing tubs shall be perma- 
nently and effectively bonded and grounded. 

1206.4 Type IV systems. Flammable and combustible liquids 
used for spotting operations shall be stored in approved safety 
cans or in sealed DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of 
not more than 1 gallon (4 L) in capacity. Dispensing shall be 
from approved safety cans. Aggregate amounts shall not 
exceed 10 gallons (38 L). 

1206.5 Type V systems. Spotting operations using flammable 
or combustible liquids are prohibited in Type V dry cleaning 
systems. 



SECTION 1207 
DRY CLEANING SYSTEMS 

1207.1 General equipment requirements. Dry cleaning sys- 
tems, including dry cleaning units, washing machines, stills, 
drying cabinets, tumblers, and their appurtenances, including 
pumps, piping, valves, filters and solvent coolers, shall be 
installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 32. The 
construction of buildings in which such systems are located 
shall comply with tlie requii-ements of this section and the Cali- 
fornia Building Code. B:C portable &e extinguishers shall be 
provided near the doors inside dry cleaning rooms containing 
Type II, Type III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 

1207.2 Type II systems. Type II dry cleaning and solvent tank 
storage rooms shall not be located below grade or above the 
lowest floor level of the building and shall comply with Sec- 
tions 1207.2.1 through 1207.2.3. 

Exception: Solvent storage tanks installed underground, in 
vaults or in special enclosures in accordance with Chapter 
34. 

1207.2.1 Fire-fighting access. Type II dry cleaning plants 
shall be located so that access is provided and maintained 



from one side for fire-fighting and fire control purposes in 
accordance with Section 503. 

1207.2.2 Number of means of egress. Type II dry cleaning 
rooms shall have not less than two means of egress doors 
located at opposite ends of the room, at least one of which 
shall lead directly to the outside. 

1207.2.3 Spill control and secondary containment. 

Curbs, di'ains, or other provisions for spill control and sec- 
ondary containment shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 2704.2 to collect solvent leakage and fire protection 
water and direct it to a safe location. 

1207.3 Solvent storage tanks. Solvent storage tanks for Class 
II, niA and niB liquids shall conform to the requirements of 
Chapter 34 and be located underground or outside, above 
ground. 

Exception: As provided in NFPA 32 for inside storage or 
treatment tanks. 



SECTION 1208 
FIRE PROTECTION 

1208.1 General. Where requii-ed by this section, fire protec- 
tion systems, devices and equipment shall be installed, 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9. 

1208.2 Automatic sprinkler system. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 
throughout dry cleaning plants containing Type n. Type III-A 
or Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 

1208.3 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. Type 11 dry 
cleaning units, washer-extractors, and drying tumblers in Type 
n dry cleaning plants shall be provided with an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system installed and maintained in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

Exception: Where approved, a manual steam jet not less 
than 0.75 inch (19 mm) with a continuously available steam 
supply at a pressure not less than 15 pounds per square inch 
gauge (psig) (103 kPa) is allowed to be substituted for the 
automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

1208.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in 
accordance with this section and Section 906. A minimum of 
two 2-A:10-B:C portable fire extinguishers shall be provided 
near the doors inside diy cleaning rooms containing Type II, 
Type III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



195 



1 96 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 13 - COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING OPERATIONS 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


i;ac 


AC 


SB 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 




X 




































Adopt Entire Cliapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 








































Adopt only ttiose sections tliat are 
listed below 








































Chapter /Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



197 



1 98 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 13 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING OPERATIONS 



SECTION 1301 
GENERAL 

1301.1 Scope. The equipment, processes and operations 
involving dust explosion hazards shall comply with tihie provi- 
sions of this chapter. 

1301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required for combustible 
dust-producing operations as set forth in Appendix Chapter 1, 
Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1302 
DEFINITIONS 

1302.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meaning shown herein. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material which 
is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 
or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 



SECTION 1303 
PRECAUTIONS 

1303.1 Sources of ignition. Smoking or the use of heating or 
other devices employing an open flame, or the use of spark- 
producing equipment is prohibited in areas where combustible 
dust is generated, stored, manufactured, processed or handled. 

1303.2 Houseiceeping. Accumulation of combustible dust 
shall be kept to a minimum in the interior of buildings. Accu- 
mulated combustible dust shall be collected by vacuum clean- 
ing or other means that will not place combustible dust into 
suspension in air. Forced air or similar methods shall not be 
used to remove dust from surfaces. 



SECTION 1304 
EXPLOSION PROTECTION 

1304.1 Standards. The fire code official is authorized to 
enforce applicable provisions of the codes and standards listed 
in Table 1304.1 to prevent and control dust explosions. 

TABLE 1304.1 
EXPLOSION PROTECTION STANDARDS 



STANDARD 


SUBJECT 


NFPA61 


Agricultural and Food Products 


NFPA69 


Explosion Prevention 


NFPA 85 


Boiler and Combustion System 
Hazards 


NFPA 120 


Coal Preparation Plants 


NFPA 484 


Combustible Metals, Metal Powders 
and Metal Dusts 


NFPA 654 


Manufacturing, Processing and 
Handling of Combustible 
Particulate Solids 


NFPA 655 


Prevention of Sulfur Fires and 
Explosions 


NFPA 664 


Prevention of Fires and Explosions 
in Wood Processing and 
Woodworking Facilities 


California Electrical 
Code 


Electrical Installations 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



199 



200 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 14 - FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AG 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 




X 




































Adopt Entire Cliapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 








































Chapter /Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



201 



202 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 14 

FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 



SECTION 1401 
GENERAL 

1401.1 Scope. This chapter shall apply to structures in the 
course of construction, alteration, or demolition, including 
those in underground locations. Compliance with NFPA 241 is 
required for items not specifically addressed herein. 

1401.2 Purpose. This chapter prescribes minimum safeguards 
for construction, alteration, and demolition operations to pro- 
vide reasonable safety to life and property from fire during 
such operations. 



SECTION 1402 
DEFINITIONS 

1402.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 1403 
TEMPORARY HEATING EQUIPMENT 

1403.1 Listed. Temporary heating devices shall be listed and 
labeled in accordance with the California Mechanical Code. 
Installation maintenance and use of temporary heating devices 
shall be in accordance with the terms of the listing. 

1403.2 Oil-fired lieaters. Oil-fired heaters shall comply with 
Section 603. 

1403.3 LP-gas lieaters. Fuel supplies for hquefied-petroleum 
gas-fii'ed heaters shall comply with Chapter 38 and the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code. 

1403.4 Refueling. Refueling operations for liquid-fueled 
equipment or appliances shall be conducted in accordance with 
Section 3405. The equipment or appliance shall be allowed to 
cool prior to refueling. 

1403.5 Installation. Cleai'ance to combustibles from tempo- 
rary heating devices shall be maintained in accordance with the 
labeled equipment. When in operation, temporally heating 
devices shall be fixed in place and protected from damage, 
dislodgement or overturning in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

1403.6 Supervision. The use of temporaiy heating devices 
shall be supervised and maintained only by competent person- 
nel. 



SECTION 1404 
PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 

1404.1 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited except in 
approved areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Sec- 
tion 310. In approved areas where smoking is permitted. 



approved ashtrays shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tion 310. 

1404.2 Waste disposal. Combustible debris shall not be accu- 
mulated within buildings. Combustible debris, rubbish and 
waste material shall be removed from buildings at the end of 
each shift of work. Combustible debris, rubbish and waste 
material shall not be disposed of by burning on the site unless 
approved. 

1404.3 Open burning. Open burning shall comply with Sec- 
tion 307. 

1404.4 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to spon- 
taneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed dis- 
posal container. . 

1404.5' Fire watch. When required by the fire code official for 
building demolition that is hazardous in nature, qualified per- 
sonnel shall be provided to serve as an on-site fii"e watch. Fire 
watch personnel shall be provided with at least one approved 
means for notification of the fii-e depaitment and their sole duty 
shall be to perform constant patrols and watch for the occur- 
rence of fire. 

1404.6 Cutting and welding. Operations involving the use of 
cutting and welding shall be done in accordance with Chapter 
26. 

1404.7 Electrical. Temporaiy wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations used in connection with the construction, 
alteration or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or 
similar activities shall comply with the California Electrical 
Code. 



SECTION 1405 
FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

1405.1 Storage of flammable and combustible liquids. Stor- 
age of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 3404. 

1405.2 Class I and Class II liquids. The storage, use and han- 
dling of flammable and combustible liquids at construction 
sites shall be in accordance with Section 3406.2. Ventilation 
shall be provided for operations involving the application of 
materials containing flammable solvents. 

1405.3 Housekeeping. Flammable and combustible liquid 
storage ai'eas shall be maintained clear of combustible vegeta- 
tion and waste materials. Such storage ai'eas shall not be used 
for the storage of combustible materials. 

1405.4 Precautions against fire. Sources of ignition and 
smoking shall be prohibited in flammable and combustible liq- 
uid storage areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with 
Section 310. 

1405.5 Handling at point of final use. Class I and II liquids 
shall be kept in approved safety containers. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



203 



FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 



1405.6 Leakage and spills. Leaking vessels shall be immedi- 
ately repaired or taken out of service and spills shall be cleaned 
up and disposed of properly. 



SECTION 1406 
FLAMMABLE GASES 

1406.1 Storage and handling. The storage, use and handling 
of flammable gases shall comply with Chapter 35. 



SECTION 1407 
EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 

1407.1 Storage and handling. Explosive materials shall be 
stored, used and handled in accordance with Chapter 33. 

1407.2 Supervision. Blasting operations shall be conducted in 
accordance with Chapter 33. 

1407.3 Demolition using explosives. Approved fire hoses for 
use by demolition personnel shall be maintained at the demoli- 
tion site whenever explosives are used for demolition. Such fire 
hoses shall be connected to an approved water supply and shall 
be capable of being brought to bear on post-detonation fires 
anywhere on the site of the demolition operation. 



SECTION 1408 

OWNER'S RESPONSIBILITY FOR FIRE 

PROTECTION 

1408.1 Program superintendent. The owner shall designate a 
person to be the Fire Prevention Program Superintendent who 
shall be responsible for the fire prevention program and ensure 
that it is carried out through completion of the project. The fire 
prevention program superintendent shall have the authority to 
enforce the provisions of this chapter and other provisions as 
necessary to secure the intent of this chapter. Where guard ser- 
vice is provided, the superintendent shall be responsible for the 
guard service. 

1408.2 Prefire plans. The fire prevention program superinten- 
dent shall develop and maintain an approved prefire plan in 
cooperation with the fire chief. The fire chief and the fire code 
official shall be notified of changes affecting the utilization of 
information contained in such prefire plans. 

1408.3 Training. Training of responsible personnel in the use 
of fire protection equipment shall be the responsibility of the 
fire prevention program superintendent. 

1408.4 Fire protection devices. The fire prevention program 
superintendent shall determine that all fire protection equip- 
ment is maintained and serviced in accordance with this code. 
The quantity and type of fire protection equipment shall be 
approved. 

1408.5 Hot work operations. The fire prevention program 
superintendent shall be responsible for supervising the permit 
system for hot work operations in accordance with Chapter 26. 

1408.6 Impairment of fire protection systems. Impairments 
to any fire protection system shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 901. 



1408.7 Temporary covering of fire protection devices. Cov- 
erings placed on or over fire protection devices to protect them 
from damage during construction processes shall be immedi- 
ately removed upon the completion of the construction pro- 
cesses in the room or area in which the devices are installed. 



SECTION 1409 
FIRE REPORTING 

1409.1 Emergency telephone. Readily accessible emergency 
telephone facihties shall be provided in an approved location at 
the construction site. The street address of the construction site 
and the emergency telephone number of the fire department 
shall be posted adjacent to the telephone. 



SECTION 1410 
ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING 

1410.1 Required access. Approved vehicle access for fire 
fighting shall be provided to all construction or demoUtion 
sites. Vehicle access shall be provided to within 100 feet (30 
480 mm) of temporary or permanent fibre department connec- 
tions. Vehicle access shall be provided by either temporary or 
permanent roads, capable of supporting vehicle loading under 
all weather conditions. Vehicle access shall be maintained until 
permanent fire apparatus access roads are available. 

1410.2 Key boxes. Key boxes shall be provided as required by 
Chapter 5. 



SECTION 1411 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

[B] 1411.1 Stairways required. Where a building has been 
constructed to a height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) or four 
stories, or where an existing building exceeding 50 feet (15 240 
mm) in height is altered, at least one temporary Ughted stairway 
shall be provided unless one or more of the permanent stair- 
ways are erected as the construction progresses. 

1411.2 Maintenance. Required means of egress shall be main- 
tained during construction and demolition, remodeling or 
alterations and additions to any building. 

Exception: Approved temporary means of egress systems 
and facilities. 



SECTION 1412 
WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

1412.1 When required. An approved water supply for fire 
protection, either temporary or permanent, shall be made avail- 
able as soon as combustible material anives on the site. 



SECTION 1413 
STANDPIPES 

1413.1 Where required. Buildings four or more stories in 
height shall be provided with not less than one standpipe for 
use during construction. Such standpipes shall be installed 
when the progress of construction is not more than 40 feet (12 



204 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 



192 mm) in height above the lowest level of fire department 
access. Such standpipe shall be provided with fire department 
hose connections at accessible locations adjacent to usable 
stairs. Such standpipes shall be extended as construction pro- 
gresses to within one floor of the highest point of construction 
having secured decking or flooring. 

1413.2 Buildings being demolished. Where a building is 
being demoHshed and a standpipe is existing within such a 
building, such standpipe shall be maintained in an operable 
condition so as to be available for use by the fire department. 
Such standpipe shall be demolished with the building but shall 
not be demolished more than one floor below the floor being 
demolished. 

1413.3 Detailed requirements. Standpipes shall be installed 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 905. 

Exception: Standpipes shall be either temporary or perma- 
nent in 'nature, and with or without a water supply, provided 
that such standpipes comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 905 as to capacity, outlets and materials. 



SECTION 1414 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM 

1414.1 Completion before occupancy. In buildings where an 
automatic sprinkler system is required by this code or the Cali- 
fornia Building Code, it shall be unlawful to occupy any por- 
tion of a building or structure until the automatic sprinkler 
system installation has been tested and approved, except as 
provided in Appendix Chapter 1, Section 105.3.3. 

1414.2 Operation of valves. Operation of sprinkler control 
valves shall be allowed only by properly authorized personnel 
and shall be accompanied by notification of duly designated 
parties. When the sprinkler protection is being regularly turned 
off and on to facihtate connection of newly completed seg- 
ments, the sprinkler control valves shall be checked at the end 
of each work period to ascertain that protection is in service. 



SECTION 1416 
MOTORIZED EQUIPMENT 

1416.1 Conditions of use. Internal-combustion-powered con- 
sti'uction equipment shall be used in accordance with all of the 
following conditions: 

1. Equipment shall be located so that exhausts do not dis- 
charge against combustible material. 

2. Exhausts shall be piped to the outside of the building. 

3. Equipment shall not be refueled while in operation. 

4. Fuel for equipment shall be stored in an approved ai-ea 
outside of the building. 



SECTION 1417 
SAFEGUARDING ROOFING OPERATIONS 

1417.1 General. Roofing operations utilizing heat-producing 
systems or other ignition sources shall be performed by a con- 
tractor licensed and bonded for the type of roofing process to be 
performed. 

1417.2 Asphalt and tar kettles. Asphalt and tar kettles shall be 
operated in accordance with Section 303. 

1417.3 Fire extinguishers for roofing operations. Fire 
extinguishers shall comply with Section 906. There shall be not 
less than one multipurpose portable fire extinguisher with a 
minimum 3-A 40-B:C rating on the roof being covered or 
repaired. 



SECTION 1415 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

1415.1 Where required. Structures under construction, alter- 
ation or demolition shall be provided with not less than one 
approved portable fire extinguisher in accordance with Section 
906 and sized for not less than ordinary hazard as follows: 

1. At each stairway on all floor levels where combustible 
materials have accumulated. 

2. In every storage and constniction shed. 

3. Additional portable fire extinguishers shall be provided 
where special hazards exist including, but not limited to, 
the storage and use of flammable and combustible liq- 
uids. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



205 



206 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 15 - FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Cliapter 




X 




































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 








































Chapter /Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



207 



208 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 15 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



SECTION 1501 
GENERAL 

1501.1 Scope. This chapter shall apply to locations or areas 
where any of the following activities are conducted: 

1. The application of flammable or combustible paint, var- 
nish, lacquer, stain, fiberglass resins or other llammable 
or combustible liquid applied by means of spray appara- 
tus in continuous or intermittent processes. 

2. Dip-tank operations in which articles or materials are 
passed through contents of tanks, vats or containers of 
flammable or combustible liquids, including coating, 
finishing, treatment and similar processes. 

3. The application of combustible powders when applied 
by powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, 
fluidized beds or electrostatic fluidized beds. 

4. Floor surfacing or finishing operations in areas exceed- 
ing 350 square feet (32.5 m^). 

5. The application of dual-component coatings or Class I or 
II liquids when applied by brush or roller in quantities ex- 
ceeding 1 gallon (4 L). 

6. Spraying and dipping operations. 

1501.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in 
Appendix Chapter 1, Sections 105.6 and 105.7. 



SECTION 1502 
DEFINITIONS 

1502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the puiposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet 
coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by 
passing it through an electrostatic field. 

DIP TANK. A tank, vat or container of flammable or combus- 
tible liquid in which aiticles or materials are inamersed for the 
purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar processes. 

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding 
powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to 
form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material that is 
electrically charged with a charge opposite to that of the object 
to be coated. Such object is transported through the container 
immediately above the chai-ged and aerated materials in order 
to be coated. 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Material coatings in which the 
material being applied is a flammable liquid, combustible liq- 
uid, combustible powder or flammable or combustible gel 
coating. 

FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. An area in which the con- 
centi-ation of flammable constituents (vapor, gas, fume, mist or 
dust) in ail" exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit 



(LFL) because of the flammable finish processes operation. It 
shall include: 

1. The interior of spray booths. 

2. The interior of ducts exhausting from spraying pro- 
cesses. 

3. Any area in the direct path of spray or any area contain- 
ing dangerous quantities of air-suspended powder, com- 
bustible residue, dust, deposits, vapor or mists as a result 
of spraying operations. 

4. The area in the vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards or asso- 
ciated drying, conveying or other equipment during op- 
eration or shutdown periods. 

The frre code official is authorized to determine the extent of 
the flammable vapor area, taking into consideration the mate- 
rial characteristics of the flammable materials, the degree of 
sustained ventilation and the nature of the operations. 

FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating 
material that is aerated from below so as to form an aii-sup- 
ported expanded cloud of such material through which the pre- 
heated object to be coated is immersed and transported. 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which operations 
for touch-up or spot painting of a surface area of 9 square feet 
(0.84 m^) or less are conducted. 

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An ai-ea where reinforced 
plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay-up or 
spray-fabrication methods. 

ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and 
impregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are 
passed directly through a tank or trough containing flammable ■ 
or combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving 
partially submerged in a flammable or combustible Hquid. 

SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of 
varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or 
accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the 
escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely. 

SPRAY ROOM. A room designed to accommodate spraying 
operations constructed in accordance with the California 
Building Code and sepai-ated from the remainder of the build- 
ing by a minimum l-hour fire bairier. 

SPRAYING SPACE. An ai-ea in which dangerous quantities 
of flammable vapors or combustible residues, dusts or deposits 
ai-e present due to the operation of spraying processes. The fire 
code official is authorized to define the limits of the spraying 
space in any specific case. 



SECTION 1503 
PROTECTION OF OPERATIONS 

1503.1 General. Operations covered by this chapter shall be 
protected as required by Sections 1503.2 through 1503.4.4. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



209 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1503.2 Sources of ignition. Protection against sources of igni- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1503.2.1 
through 1503.2.8. 

1503.2.1 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment shall comply with this chapter and the 
California Electrical Code. 

1503.2.1.1 Flammable vapor areas. Electrical wiring 
and equipment in flammable vapor areas shall be of an 
explosionproof type approved for use in such hazardous 
locations. Such ai'eas shall be considered to be Class I, 
Division 1 or Class II, Division 1 hazardous locations in 
accordance with the California Electrical Code. 

1503.2.1.2 Areas subject to deposits of residues. Elec- 
trical equipment, flammable vapor areas or drying oper- 
ations that are subject to splashing or dripping of liquids 
shall be specifically approved for locations containing 
deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive 
vapors. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This provision shall not apply to wiring in rigid 
conduit, threaded boxes or fittings not contain- 
ing taps, splices or terminal connections. 

2. This provision shall not apply to electrostatic 
equipment allowed by Section 1507. 

In resin application areas, electrical wiring and equip- 
ment that is subject to deposits of combustible residues 
shall be Hsted for such exposure and shall be installed as 
required for hazardous (classified) locations. Electrical 
wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combus- 
tible residues shall be installed as required for ordinary 
hazard locations. 

1503.2.1.3 Areas adjacent to spray booths. Electrical 
wiring and equipment located outside of, but within 5 
feet (1524 mm) horizontally and 3 feet (914 mm) verti- 
cally of openings in a spray booth or a spray room, shall 
be approved for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 
hazardous locations, whichever is applicable. 

1503.2.1.4 Areas subject to overspray deposits. Elec- 
trical equipment in flanunable vapor areas located such 
that deposits of combustible residues could readily accu- 
mulate thereon shall be specifically approved for loca- 
tions containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and 
explosive vapors in accordance with the California Elec- 
trical Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Wiring in rigid conduit. 

2. Boxes or fittings not containing taps, splices or 
terminal connections. 

3. Equipment allowed by Sections 1504 and 1507 
and Chapter 21. 

1503.2.2 Open flames and sparks. Open flames and 
spark-producing devices shall not be located in flammable 
vapor areas and shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 
mm) of such areas unless separated by a permanent parti- 
tion. 



Exception: Drying and baking apparatus complying 
with Section 1504.6.1.2. 

1503.2.3 Hot surfaces. Heated surfaces having a tempera- 
ture sufficient to ignite vapors shall not be located in flam- 
mable vapor areas. Space-heating appliances, steam pipes 
or hot surfaces in a flammable vapor area shall be located 
such that they are not subject to accumulation of deposits of 
combustible residues. 

Exception: Drying apparatus complying with Section 
1504.6.1.2. 

1503.2.4 Equipment enclosures. Equipment or apparatus 
that is capable of producing sparks or particles of hot metal 
that would fall into a flammable vapor area shall be totally 
enclosed. 

1503.2.5 Grounding. Metal parts of spray booths, exhaust 
ducts and piping systems conveying Class I or II liquids 
shall be electrically grounded in accordance with the Cali- 
fornia Electrical Code. Metallic parts located in resin appli- 
cation areas, including but not limited to exhaust ducts, 
ventilation fans, spray application equipment, workpieces 
and piping, shall be electrically grounded. 

1503.2.6 Smoking prohibited. Smoking shall be prohib- 
ited in flammable vapor areas and hazardous materials stor- 
age rooms associated with flammable finish processes. "No 
Smoking" signs complying with Section 310 shall be con- 
spicuously posted in such areas. 

1503.2.7 Welding warning signs. Welding, cutting and 
similar spark-producing operations shall not be conducted 
in or adjacent to flammable vapor areas or dipping or coat- 
ing operations unless precautions have been taken to pro- 
vide safety. Conspicuous signs with the following warning 
shall be posted in the vicinity of flammable vapor areas, dip- 
ping operations and paint storage rooms: 

NO WELDING 
THE USE OF WELDING OR CUTTING 
EQUIPMENT IN OR NEAR THIS AREA 

IS DANGEROUS BECAUSE OF FIRE 

AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS. WELDING 

AND CUTTING SHALL BE DONE ONLY 

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE 

PERSON IN CHARGE. 

1503.2.8 Powered industrial trucks. Powered industrial 
trucks used in electrically classified areas shall be listed for 
such use. 

1503.3 Storage, use and handling of flammable and com- 
bustible liquids. The storage, use and handling of flammable 
and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this section 
and Chapter 34. 

1503.3.1 Use. Containers supplying spray nozzles shall be 
of a closed type or provided with metal covers, which are 
kept closed. Containers not resting on floors shall be on 
noncombustible supports or suspended by wire cables. Con- 
tainers supplying spray nozzles by gravity flow shall not 
exceed 10 gallons (37.9 L) in capacity. 

1503.3.2 Valves. Containers and piping to which a hose or 
flexible connection is attached shall be provided with a shut- 



210 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



off valve at the connection. Such valves shall be kept shut 
when hoses ai'e not in use. 

1503.3.3 Pumped liquid supplies. Where flanunable or 
combustible liquids ai'e supplied to spray nozzles by posi- 
tive displacement pumps, pump discharge lines shall be pro- 
vided with an approved relief valve discharging to pump 
suction or a safe detached location. 

1503.3.4 Liquid transfer. Where a flammable mixture is 
transferred from one portable container to another, a bond 
shall be provided between the two containers. At least one 
container shall be grounded. Piping systems for Class I and 
n liquids shall be permanently grounded. 

1503.3.5 Class I liquids as solvents. Class I liquids used as 
solvents shall be used in spray gun and equipment cleaning 
machines that have been Usted and approved for such pur- 
pose or shall be used in spray booths or spray rooms in 
accordance with Sections 1503.3.5.1 and 1503.3.5.2. 

1503.3.5.1 Listed devices. Cleaning machines for spray 
guns and equipment shall not be located in areas open to 
the public and shall be separated from ignition sources in 
accordance with theii- listings or by a distance of 3 feet 
(914 mm), whichever is greater. The quantity of solvent 
used in a machine shall not exceed the design capacity of 
the machine. 

1503.3.5.2 Within spray booths and spray rooms. 

When solvents are used for cleaning spray nozzles and 
auxiliary equipment within spray booths and spray 
rooms, the ventilating equipment shall be operated dur- 
ing cleaning. 

1503.3.6 Class 11 and III liquids. Solvents used outside of 
spray booths, spray rooms or listed and approved spray gun 
and equipment cleaning machines shall be restricted to 
Class II and III liquids. 

1503.4 Operations and maintenance. Flammable vapor 
ai-eas, exhaust fan blades and exhaust ducts shall be kept free 
from the accumulation of deposits of combustible residues. 
Where excessive residue accumulates in such areas, spraying 
operations shall be discontinued until conditions are corrected. 

1503.4.1 Tools. Scrapers, spuds and other tools used for 
cleaning purposes shall be constructed of nonsparking 
materials. 

1503.4.2 Residue. Residues removed during cleaning and 
debris contaminated with residue shall be immediately 
removed from the premises and properly disposed. 

1503.4.3 Waste cans. Approved metal waste cans equipped 
with self-closing lids shall be provided wherever rags or 
waste ai-e impregnated with finishing material. Such rags 
and waste shall be deposited therein immediately after 
being utilized. The contents of waste cans shall be properly 
disposed of at least once daily and at the end of each shift. 

1503.4.4 Solvent recyding. Solvent distillation equipment 
used to recycle and clean dirty solvents shall comply with 
Section 3405.4. 



SECTION 1504 
SPRAY FINISHING 

1504.1 General. The application of flammable or combustible 
hquids by means of spray appai-atus in continuous or intermit- 
tent processes shall be in accordance with the requirements of 
Sections 1503 and 1504. 

1504.2 Location of spray-finishing operations. Spray finish- 
ing operations conducted in buildings used for Group A, E, I or 
R occupancies shall be located in a spray room protected with 
an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3 . 1 . 1 and separated vertically and hori- 
zontally from other areas in accordance with the California 
Building Code. In other occupancies, spray-finishing opera- 
tions shall be conducted in a spray room, spray booth or spray- 
ing space approved for such use. 

Exceptions: 

1. Automobile undercoating spray operations and 
spray-on automotive lining operations conducted in 
areas with approved natural or mechanical ventilation 
shall be exempt from the provisions of Section 1504 
when approved and where utilizing Class niA or IIIB 
combustible liquids. 

2. In buildings other than Group A, E, I or R occupan- 
cies, approved hmited spraying space in accordance 
with Section 1504.9. 

3 . Resin application areas used for manufacturing of re- 
inforced plastics complying with Section 1509 shall 
not be required to be located in a spray room, spray 
booth or spraying space. 

1504.3 Design and construction. Design and construction of 
spray rooms, spray booths and spray spaces shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 1504.3 through 1504.3.3.1. 

1504.3.1 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be constructed 
and designed in accordance with this section and the Cali- 
fornia Building Code, and shall comply with Sections 
1504.4 through 1504.8. 

1504.3.1.1 Floor. Combustible floor consfruction in 
spray rooms shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where 
combustible coverings, including but not limited to thin 
paper or plastic and stiippable coatings, ai^e utihzed over 
noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning opera- 
tions in spray rooms. 

1504.3.2 Spray booths. The design and construction of 
spray booths shall be in accordance with Sections 
1504.3.2.1 through 1504.3.2.6, Sections 1504.4 through 
1504.8 and NFPA 33. 

1504.3.2.1 Construction. Spray booths shall be con- 
structed of approved noncombustible materials. Alumi- 
num shall not be used. Where walls or ceiling assemblies 
are constructed of sheet metal, single-skin assemblies 
shall be no thinner than 0.0478 inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) 
and each sheet of double-skin assemblies shall be no 
thinner than 0.0359 inch (20 gage) (0.9 mm). Structural 
sections of spray booths are allowed to be sealed with 
latex-based or similar caulks and sealants. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



211 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1504.3.2.2 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray 
booths shall be smooth; shall be constructed so as to per- 
mit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the 
interior, and to facilitate washing and cleaning; and shall 
be designed to confine residues within the booth. Alumi- 
num shall not be used. 

1504.3.2.3 Floor. Combustible floor construction in 
spray booths shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where 
combustible coverings, including but not Umited to thin 
paper or plastic and strippable coatings, are utilized over 
noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning opera- 
tions in spray booths. 

1504.3.2.4 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be 
provided in accordance with Chapter 10. 

Exception: Means of egress doors from 
premanufactured spray booths shall not be less than 
30 inches (762 mm) in width by 80 inches (2032 mm) 
in height. 

1504.3.2.5 Clear space. Spray booths shall be installed 
so that all parts of the booth are readily accessible for 
cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
shall be maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This 
clear space shall be kept free of any storage or combusti- 
ble construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a 
spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to or di- 
rectly against an interior partition, wall or 
floor/ceiUng assembly that has a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than 1 hour, provided the spray 
booth can be adequately maintained and 
cleaned. 

2. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a 
spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an 
exterior wall or a roof assembly, provided the 
wall or roof is constructed of noncombustible 
material and the spray booth can be adequately 
maintained and cleaned. 

1504.3.2.6 Size. The aggregate area of spray booths in a 
building shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of the 
area of any floor of a building or the basic area allowed 
for a Group H-2 occupancy without area increases, as set 
forth in the California Building Code. The ai"ea of an 
individual spray booth in a building shall not exceed the 
lesser of the aggregate size limit or 1,500 square feet 
(139 m2). 

Exception: One individual booth not exceeding 500 
square feet (46 m^). 

1504.3.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with the California 
Building Code and Sections 1504.3.3.1 and 1504.4 and 
through 1504.8 of this code. 



1504.3.3.1 Floor. Combustible floor construction in 
spraying spaces shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible nonsparking material, except where 
combustible coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and 
strippable coatings, are utilized over noncombustible 
materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spraying 
spaces. 

1504.4 Fire protection. Spray booths and spray rooms shall be 
protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system 
complying with Chapter 9. Protection shall also extend to 
exhaust plenums, exhaust ducts and both sides of dry filters 
when such filters are used. 

1504.4.1 Fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers 
complying with Section 906 shall be provided for spraying 
areas in accordance with the requirements for an extra 
(high) hazard occupancy. 

1504.5 Housekeeping, maintenance and storage of hazard- 
ous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of 
hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3, 1503.4, 1504.5.1 and 1504.5.2. 

1504.5.1 Different coatings. Spray booths, spray rooms 
and spraying spaces shall not be alternately utilized for dif- 
ferent types of coating materials where the combination of 
materials is conducive to spontaneous ignition, unless all 
deposits of one material are removed from the booth, room 
or space and exhaust ducts prior to spraying with a different 
material. 

1504.5.2 Protection of sprinklers. Automatic sprinklers 
installed in flammable vapor areas shall be protected from 
the accumulation of residue from spraying operations in an 
approved manner. Bags used as a protective covering shall 
be 0.003-inch-thick (0.076 mm) polyethylene or cellophane 
or shall be thin paper. Automatic sprinlders contaminated 
by overspray particles shall be replaced with new automatic 
sprinklers. 

1504.6 Sources of ignition. Control of sources of ignition shall 
be in accordance with Sections 1503.2 and 1504.6.1 through 
1504.6.2.4. 

1504.6.1 Drying operations. Spray booths and spray 
rooms shall not be alternately used for the purpose of drying 
by arrangements or methods that could cause an increase in 
the surface temperature of the spray booth or spray room 
except in accordance with Sections 1504.6.1.1 and 
1504.6.1.2. Except as specifically provided in this section, 
drying or balcing units utilizing a heating system having 
open flames or that are capable of producing sparks shall not 
be installed in a flammable vapor ai'eas. 

1504.6.1.1 Spraying procedure. The spraying proce- 
dure shall use low- volume spray application. 

1504.6.1.2 Drying apparatus. Fixed drying apparatus 
shall comply with this chapter and the applicable provi- 
sions of Chapter 21. When recirculation ventilation is 
provided in accordance with Section 1504.7.2, the heat- 
ing system shall not be within the reckculation air path. 



212 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1504.6.1.2.1 Interlocks. The spraying apparatus, 
drying apparatus and ventilating system for the spray 
booth or spray room shall be equipped with interlocks 
aiTanged to: 

1. Prevent operation of the spraying apparatus 
while drying operations ai-e in progress. 

2. Purge spray vapors from the spray booth or 
spray room for a period of not less than 3 min- 
utes before the drying apparatus is rendered op- 
erable. 

3. Have the ventilating system maintain a safe at- 
mosphere within the spray booth or spray room 
during the drying process and automatically 
shut off drying apparatus in the event of a fail- 
ure of the ventilating system. 

4. Shut off the drying apparatus automatically if 
the air temperature within the booth exceeds 
200°F (93°C). 

1504.6.1.2.2 Portable infrared apparatus. When a 
portable infrared drying apparatus is used, electrical 
wiring and portable infrared drying equipment shall 
comply with the California Electrical Code. Electri- 
cal equipment located within 18 inches (457 mm) of 
floor level shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 
hazai'dous locations. Metallic parts of drying appara- 
tus shall be electrically bonded and grounded. During 
spraying operations, portable drying apparatus and 
electrical connections and wiring thereto shall not be 
located within spray booths, spray rooms or other 
areas where spray residue would be deposited 
thereon. 

1504.6.2 Illumination. Where spraying spaces, spray 
rooms or spray booths are illuminated through glass panels 
or other transparent materials, only fixed luminaires shall be 
utilized as a source of illumination. 

1504.6.2.1 Glass panels. Panels for luminaires or for 
observation shall be of heat-treated glass, wired glass or 
hammered wire glass and shall be sealed to confine 
vapors, mists, residues, dusts and deposits to the flamma- 
ble vapor ai'ea. Panels for luminaires shall be separated 
from the luminaire to prevent the surface temperature of 
the panel from exceeding 200°F (93°C). 

1504.6.2.2 Exterior luminaires. Luminaires attached to 
the walls or ceilings of a flammable vapor ai-ea, but out- 
side of any classified area and separated from the flam- 
mable vapor ai'eas by vapor-tight glass panels, shall be 
suitable for use in ordinaiy hazai-d locations. Such 
luminaires shall be serviced from outside the flammable 
vapor ai'eas. 

1504.6.2.3 Integral luminaires. Luminaires that ai'e an 
integral part of the walls or ceiling of a flammable vapor 
area are allowed to be separated from the flammable 
vapor area by glass panels that are an integral part of the 
luminaire. Such luminaires shall be Usted for use in Class 
I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 locations, whichever 
is applicable, and also shall be suitable for accumulations 
of deposits of combustible residues. Such luminau'es ai-e 



allowed to be serviced from inside the flammable vapor 
area. 

1504.6.2.4 Portable electric lamps. Portable electric 
lamps shall not be used in flammable vapor areas during 
spraying operations. Portable electric lamps used during 
cleaning or repairing operations shall be of a type 
approved for hazardous locations. 

1504.7 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation of flammable 
vapor areas shall be provided in accordance with Section 510 
of the California Mechanical Code. 

1504.7.1 Operation. Mechanical ventilation shall be kept 
in operation at all times while spraying operations are being 
conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to allow 
vapors from drying coated articles and finishing material 
residue to be exhausted. Spraying equipment shall be inter- 
locked with the ventilation of the flammable vapor areas 
such that spraying operations cannot be conducted unless 
the ventilation system is in operation. 

1504.7.2 Recirculation. Air exhausted from spraying oper- 
ations shall not be recirculated. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed 
to be recirculated as makeup air for unmanned 
spray operations, provided that: 

1.1. The solid particulate has been removed. 

1.2. The vapor concentration is less than 25 
percent of the LFL. 

1.3. Approved equipment is used to monitor the 
vapor concentration. 

1.4. When the vapor concentration exceeds 25 
percent of the LFL, the following shall oc- 
cur: 

a. An alarm shall sound; and 

b. Spray operations shall automatically 
shut down. 

1.5. In the event of shutdown of the vapor con- 
centration monitor, 100 percent of the air 
volume specified in the California Me- 
chanical Code is automatically exhausted. 

2. Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed 
to be recirculated as makeup air to manned spray- 
ing operations where all of the conditions provided 
in Exception 1 are included in the installation and 
documents have been prepared to show that the in- 
stallation does not pose a life safety hazard to per- 
sonnel inside the spray booth, spraying space or 
spray room. . 

1504.7.3 Air velocity. Ventilation systems shall be 
designed, installed and maintained such that the average air 
velocity over the open face of the booth, or booth cross sec- 
tion in the direction of airflow during spraying operations, 
shall not be less than 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s). 

1504.7.4 Ventilation obstruction. Articles being sprayed 
shall be positioned in a manner that does not obstruct collec- 
tion of overspray. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



213 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1504.7.5 Independent ducts. Each spray booth and spray 
room shall have an independent exhaust duct system dis- 
charging to the outside. 

Exceptions: 

1. Multiple spray booths having a combined frontal 
area of 1 8 square feet (1 .67 m^) or less are allowed 
to have a common exhaust when identical spray 
finishing material is used in each booth. If more 
than one fan serves one booth, fans shall be inter- 
connected such that all fans will operate 
simultaneously. 

2. Where treatment of exhaust is necessary for air 
pollution control or for energy conservation, ducts 
shall be allowed to be manifolded if all of the fol- 
lowing conditions are met: 

2.1. The sprayed materials used are compatible 
and will not react or cause ignition of the 
residue in the ducts. 

2.2. Nitrocellulose-based finishing material 
shall not be used. 

2.3. A filtering system shall be provided to re- 
duce the amount of overspray carried into 
the duct manifold. 

2.4. Automatic sprinkler protection shall be 
provided at the junction of each booth ex- 
haust with the manifold, in addition to the 
protection required by this chapter. 

1504.7.6 Termination point. The termination point for 
exhaust ducts discharging to the atmosphere shall not be 
less than the following distances: 

1. Ducts conveying explosive or flammable vapors, 
fumes or dusts: 30 feet (9144 mm) from the property 
line; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings into the build- 
ing; 6 feet (1829 nun) from exterior walls and roofs; 
30 feet (9144 mm) from combustible walls or open- 
ings into the building that are in the direction of the 
exhaust discharge; 10 feet (3048 mm) above 
adjoining grade. 

2. Other product-conveying outlets: 10 feet (3048 mm) 
firom the property line; 3 feet (914 mm) from exterior 
walls and roofs; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings 
into the building; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining 
grade. 

1504.7.7 Fan motors and belts. Electiic motors driving 
exhaust fans shall not be placed inside booths or ducts. Fan 
rotating elements shall be nonferrous or nonsparking or the 
casing shall consist of, or be lined with, such material. Belts 
shaU not enter the duct or booth unless the belt and pulley 
within the duct are tightly enclosed. 

1504.7.8 Filters. Air intake filters that are part of a wall or 
ceiling assembly shall be Hsted as Class I or II in accordance 
with UL 900. Exhaust filters shall be required. 

1504.7.8.1 Supports. Supports and holders for filters 
shall be consti'ucted of noncombustible materials. 



1504.7.8.2 Attacliment. Overspray collection filters 
shall be readily removable and accessible for cleaning or 
replacement. 

1504.7.8.3 Maintaining air velocity. Visible gauges, 
audible alarms or pressure-activated devices shall be 
installed to indicate or ensure that the required air veloc- 
ity is maintained. 

1504.7.8.4 Filter rolls. Spray booths equipped with a fil- 
ter roll that is automatically advanced when the air veloc- 
ity is reduced to less than 1 00 feet per minute (0.51 m/s) 
shall be arranged to shut down the spraying operation if 
the filter roll fails to advance automatically. 

1504.7.8.5 Filter disposal. Discarded filter pads shall be 
immediately removed to a safe, detached location or 
placed in a noncombustible container with a tight-fitting 
lid and disposed of properly. 

1504.7.8.6 Spontaneous ignition. Spray booths using 
diy filters shall not be used for spraying materials that are 
highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition. 
Filters shall be changed prior to spraying materials that 
could react with other materials previously collected. An 
example of a potentially reactive combination includes 
lacquer when combined with varnishes, stains or 
primers. 

1504.7.8.7 Waterwash spray booths. Waterwash spray 
booths shall be of an approved design so as to prevent 
excessive accumulation of deposits in ducts and residue 
at duct outlets. Such booths shall be arranged so that air 
and overspray are drawn through a continuously flowing 
water curtain before entering an exhaust duct to the 
building exterior. 

1504.8 Interlocks. Interlocks for spray application finishes 
shall be in accordance with Secdons 1504.8.1 through 
1504.8.2. 

1504.8.1 Automated spray application operations. 

Where protecting automated spray application operations, 
automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be equipped 
with an approved interlock feature that wiU, upon discharge 
of the system, automatically stop the spraying operations 
and workpiece conveyors into and out of the flammable 
vapor areas. Where the building is equipped with a fire 
alarm system, discharge of the automatic fire-extinguishing 
system shall also activate the building alarm notification 
appliances. 

1504.8.1.1 Alarm station. A manual fire alarm and 
emergency system shutdown station shall be installed to 
serve each flammable vapor ai'ea. When activated, the 
station shall accomplish the functions indicated in Sec- 
tion 1504.8.1. 

1504.8.1.2 Alarm station location. At least one manual 
fire alarm and emergency system shutdown station shall 
be readily accessible to operating personnel. Where 
access to this station is likely to involve exposure to dan- 
ger, an additional station shall be located adjacent to an 
exit from the area. 



214 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1504.8.2 Ventilation interlock prohibited. Air makeup 
and flammable vapor area exhaust systems shall not be 
interlocked with the fire alarm system and shall remain in 
operation during a fire alarm condition. 

Exception: Where the type of fire-extinguishing system 
used requires such ventilation to be discontinued, air 
makeup and exhaust systems shall shut down and damp- 
ers shall close. 

1504.9 Limited spraying spaces. Limited spraying spaces 
shall comply with Sections 1504.9.1 through 1504.9.4. 

1504.9.1 Job size. The aggregate surface area to be sprayed 
shall not exceed 9 square feet (0.84 m^). 

1504.9.2 Frequency. Spraying operations shall not be of a 
continuous nature. 

1504.9.3 Ventilation. Positive mechanical ventilation pro- 
viding a minimum of six complete air changes per hour shall 
be installed. Such system shall meet the requirements of this 
code for handling flammable vapor areas. Explosion vent- 
ing is not required. 

1504.9.4 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the floor and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally 
of the limited spraying space shall be designed for Class I, 
Division 2 locations in accordance with the California Elec- 
trical Code. 



SECTION 1505 
DIPPING OPERATIONS 

1505.1 General. Dip-tank operations shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 1503 and this section. 

1505.2 Location of dip-tank operations. Dip-tank operations 
conducted in buildings used for Group A, I or R occupancies 
shall be located in a room designed for that purpose, equipped 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system and separated 
vertically and horizontally from other areas in accordance with 
the California Building Code. 

1505.3 Construction of dip tanks. Dip tanks shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 1505.3.1 through 
1505.3.4.3 and NFPA 34. Dip tanks, including drain boards, ■ 
shall be constiucted of noncombustible material and their sup- 
ports shall be of heavy metal, reinforced concrete or masonry. 

1505.3.1 Overflow. Dip tanks greater than 150 gallons (568 
L) in capacity or 10 squai'e feet (0.93 m^) in liquid surface 
area shall be equipped with a trapped overflow pipe leading 
to an approved location outside the building. The bottom of 
the overflow connection shall not be less than 6 inches (152 
mm) below the top of the tank. 

1505.3.2 Bottom drains. Dip tanks greater than 500 gallons 
(1893 L) in liquid capacity shall be equipped with bottom 
drains that are arranged to automatically and manually drain 
the tank quickly in the event of a fire unless the viscosity of 
the liquid at normal atmospheric temperature makes this 
impractical. Manual operation shall be from a safe, accessi- 
ble location. Where gravity flow is not practicable, auto- 
matic pumps shall be provided. Such drains shall be trapped 



and discharged to a closed, vented salvage tank or to an 
approved outside location. 

Exception: Dip tanks containing Class IIIB combustible 
liquids where the liquids are not heated above room tem- 
perature and the process area is protected by automatic 
sprinklers. 

1505.3.3 Dipping liquid temperature control. Protection 
against the accumulation of vapors, self-ignition and exces- 
sively high temperatures shall be provided for dipping liq- 
uids that are heated directly or heated by the surfaces of the 
object being dipped. 

1505.3.4 Dip-tank covers. Dip-tank covers allowed by 
Section 1505.4. 1 shall be capable of manual operation and 
shall be automatic closing by approved automatic-closing 
devices designed to operate in the event of a fire. 

1505.3.4.1 Construction. Covers shall be constructed of 
noncombustible material or be of a tin-clad type with 
enclosing metal applied with locked joints. 

1505.3.4.2 Supports. Chain or wire rope shall be uti- 
lized for cover supports or operating mechanisms. 

1505.3.4.3 Closed covers. Covers shall be kept closed 
when tanks are not in use. 

1505.4 Fire protection. Dip-tank operations shall be protected 
in accordance with Sections 1505.4.1 through 1504.4.2. 

1505.4.1 Fixed fire-extinguishing equipment. An 

approved automatic fire-extinguishing system or dip-tank 
cover in accordance with Section 1505.3.4 shall be provided 
for the following dip tanks: 

1. Dip tanks less than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 
10 square feet (0.93 m^) in liquid surface area. 

2. Dip tanks containing a liquid with a flash point below 
1 10°F (43 °C) used in such manner that the liquid tem- 
perature could equal or be greater than its flash point 
from artificial or natural causes, and having both a ca- 
pacity of more than 10 gallons (37.9 L) and a liquid 
surface area of more than 4 square feet (0.37 m^). 

1505.4.1.1 Fire-extinguishing system. An approved 
automatic fu:e-extinguishing system shall be provided 
for dip tanks with a 150-gallon (568 L) or more capacity 
or 10 square feet (0.93 m^) or lai-ger in a liquid surface 
area. Fire-extinguishing system design shall be in accor- 
dance with NFPA 34. 

1505.4.2 Portable fire extinguishers. Areas in the vicinity 
of dip tanks shall be provided with portable fire 
extinguishers complying with Section 906 and suitable for 
flammable and combustible liquid fires as specified for 
extra (high) hazard occupancies. 

1505.5 Housekeeping, maintenance and storage of hazard- 
ous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of 
hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3 and 1503.4. 

1505.6 Sources of ignition. Contirol of sources of ignition shall 
be in accordance with Section 1503.2. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



215 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1505.7 Ventilation of flammable vapor areas. Flammable 
vapor areas shall be provided with mechanical ventilation ade- 
quate to prevent the dangerous accumulation of vapors. 
Required ventilation systems shall be arranged such that the 
failure of any ventilating fan shall automatically stop the 
dipping conveyor system. 

1505.8 Conveyor interlock. Dip tanlcs utihzing a conveyor 
system shall be aiTanged such that in the event of a fire, the con- 
veyor system shall automatically cease motion and the required 
tank bottom drains shall open. 

1505.9 Hardening and tempering tanks. Hardening and tem- 
pering tanks shall comply with Sections 1505.3 through 
1505.3.3, 1505.4.2 and 1505.8 but shall be exempt from other 
provisions of Section 1505. 

1505.9.1 Location. Tanks shall be located as far as practical 
from furnaces and shall not be located on or near combusti- 
ble floors. 

1505.9.2 Hoods. Tanks shall be provided with a 
noncombustible hood and vent or other approved venting 
means, terminating outside of the structure to serve as a vent 
in case of a fire. Such vent ducts shall be treated as flues and 
proper clearances shall be maintained from combustible 
materials. 

1505.9.3 Alarms. Tanks shall be equipped with a high-tem- 
perature limit switch arranged to sound an alarm when the 
temperature of the quenching medium reaches 50°F (10°C) 
below the flash point. 

1505.9.4 Fire protection. Hardening and tempering tanks 
greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in capacity or 25 square 
feet (2.3 m^) in liquid surface area shall be protected by an 
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying 
with Chapter 9. 

1505.9.5 Use of air pressure. Air under pressure shall not 
be used to fill or agitate oil in tanks. 

1505.10 Flow-coating operations. Flow-coating operations 
shall comply with the requirements for dip tanks. The area of 
the sump and any areas on which paint flows shall be consid- 
ered to be the area of a dip tank. 

1505.10.1 Paint supply. Paint shall be supplied by a gravity 
tank not exceeding 10 gallons (38 L) in capacity or by direct 
low-pressure pumps arranged to shut down automatically in 
case of a fire by means of approved heat-actuated devices. 

1505.11 RoII-coating operations. Roll-coating operations 
shall comply with Section 1505.10. In roll-coating operations 
utilizing flammable or combustible liquids, sparks from static 
electricity shall be prevented by electrically bonding and 
grounding all metallic rotating and other parts of machinery 
and equipment and by the installation of static collectors, or by 
maintaining a conductive atmosphere such as a high relative 
humidity. 



SECTION 1506 
POWDER COATING 

1506.1 General. Operations using finely ground particles of 
protective finishing material applied in dry powder form by a 



fluidized bed, an electrostatic fluidized bed, powder spray guns 
or electrostatic powder spray guns shall comply with this sec- 
tion. In addition to Section 1506, Section 1507 shall apply to 
fixed electrostatic equipment used in powder coating 
operations. 

1506.2 Location. Powder coating operations shall be con- 
ducted in enclosed rooms constructed and protected in accor- 
dance with Section 1506. 

1506.3 Construction of powder coating rooms and booths. 

Powder coating rooms and booths shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials, enclosed powder coating facilities 
that are ventilated or ventilated spray booths complying with 
Section 1504.3.2. 

Exception: Listed spray-booth assemblies that are con- 
structed of other materials shall be allowed. 

1506.4 Fire protection. Areas used for powder coating shall 
be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem complying with Chapter 9. 

1506.4.1 Additional protection for fixed systems. Auto- 
mated powder application equipment shall be protected by 
the installation of an approved, supervised flame detection 
apparatus that shall react to the presence of flame within 0.5 
second and shall accomphsh all of the following: 

1 . Shutting down of energy suppUes (electiical and com- 
pressed air) to conveyor, ventilation, application, 
transfer and powder collection equipment. 

2. Closing of segregation dampers in associated 
ductwork to interrupt airflow from application equip- 
ment to powder collectors. 

3. Activation of an alarm that is audible throughout the 
powder coating room or booth. 

1506.4.2 Fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers 
complying with Section 906 shall be provided for areas used 
for powder coating in accordance with the requirements for 
an extra hazard occupancy. 

1506.5 Operation and maintenance. Powder coating areas 
shall be kept free from the accumulation of powder coating 
dusts, including horizontal surfaces such as ledges, beams, 
pipes, hoods, booths and floors. 

1506.5.1 Cleaning. Surfaces shall be cleaned in such a man- 
ner so as to avoid scattering dusts to other places or creating 
dust clouds. Vacuum sweeping equipment shall be of a type 
approved for use in hazardous locations. 

1506.6 Sources of ignition. Conti-ol of sources of ignition shall 
be in accordance with Sections 1503.2 and 1506.6.1 through 
1506.6.4. 

1506.6.1 Drying, curing and fusion equipment. Drying, 
curing and fusion equipment shall comply with Chapter 2 1 . 

1506.6.2 Spark-producing metals. Iron or spark-produc- 
ing metals shall be prevented from being introduced into the 
powders being applied by magnetic separators, filter-type 
separators or by other approved means. 

1506.6.3 Preheated parts. When parts are heated prior to 
coating, the temperature of the parts shall not exceed the 
ignition temperature of the powder to be used. 



216 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1506.6.4 Grounding and bonding. Precautions shall be 
taken to minimize the possibility of ignition by static electii- 
cal spai'ks through static bonding and grounding, where 
possible, of powder transport, application and recovery 
equipment. 

1506.7 Ventilation. Exhaust ventilation shall be sufficient to 
maintain the atmosphere below one-half the minimum explo- 
sive concentration for the material being applied. 
Nondeposited, air-suspended powders shall be removed 
through exhaust ducts to the powder recovery system. 



SECTION 1507 
ELECTROSTATIC APPARATUS 

1507.1 General. Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in 
connection with paint-spraying and paint-detearing operations 
shall be of an approved type. 

1507.2 Location and clear space. A space of at least twice the 
sparking distance shall be maintained between goods being 
painted or deteared and electrodes, electrostatic atomizing 
heads or conductors. A sign stating the sparking distance shall 
be conspicuously posted near the assembly. 

1507.3 Construction of equipment. Electrodes and electro- 
static atomizing heads shall be of approved construction, rig- 
idly supported in permanent locations and effectively insulated 
from ground. Insulators shall be nonporous and 
noncombustible. 

1507.3.1 Barriers. Booths, fencing, railings or guards shall 
be placed about the equipment such that either by their loca- 
tion or character, or both, isolation of the process is main- 
tained from plant storage and personnel. Raihngs, fencing 
and guards shall be of conductive material, adequately 
grounded and shall be at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from pro- 
cessing equipment. 

1507.4 Fire protection. Ai'eas used for electrostatic spray fin- 
ishing with fixed equipment shall be protected with an 
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with 
Chapter 9 and Section 1507.4. 1. 

1507.4.1 Protection for automated liquid electrostatic 
spray application equipment. Automated liquid electio- 
static spray application equipment shall be protected by the 
installation of an approved, supervised flame detection 
apparatus that shall, in the event of ignition, react to the 
presence of flame within 0.5 second and shall accompUsh 
all of the following: 

1 . Activation of a local alarm in the vicinity of the spray- 
ing operation and activation of the building alarm sys- 
tem, if such a system is provided. 

2. Shutting down of the coating material delivery sys- 
tem. 

3. Termination of all spray application operations. 

4. Stopping of conveyors into and out of the flammable 
vapor ai^eas. 

5. Disconnection of power to the high-voltage elements 
in the flammable vapor areas and disconnection of 
power to the system. 



1507.5 Housekeeping, maintenance and storage of hazard- 
ous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of 
hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3, 1503.4 and Sections 1507.5.1 and 507.5.2. 

1507.5.1 Maintenance. Insulators shall be kept clean and 
dry. Drip plates and screens subject to paint deposits shall be 
removable and taken to a safe place for cleaning. 

1507.5.2 Signs. Signs shall be posted to provide the follow- 
ing information: 

1 . Designate the process zone as dangerous with respect 
to fire and accident. 

2. Identify the grounding requii^ements for all electri- 
cally conductive objects in the flammable vapor area, 
including persons. 

3. Restrict access to qualified personnel only. 

1507.6 Sources of ignition. Transformers, power packs, con- 
trol apparatus and all other electrical portions of the equipment, 
except high-voltage grids and electrostatic atomizing heads 
and connections, shall be located outside of the flammable 
vapor areas or shall comply with Section 1503.2. 

1507.7 Ventilation. The flammable vapor area shall be venti- 
lated in accordance with Section 1504.7. 

1507.8 Emergency shutdown. Electrostatic apparatus shall be 
equipped with automatic controls operating without time delay 
to disconnect the power supply to the high- voltage transformer 
and signal the operator under any of the following conditions: 

1. Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating 
equipment from any cause. 

2. Stoppage of the conveyor carrying articles past the 
high- voltage grid. 

3. Occurrence of a ground or an imminent ground at any 
point of the high- voltage system. 

4. Reduction of clearance below that required in Section 
1507.2. 

1507.9 Ventilation interlock. Hand electi-ostatic equipment 
shall be interlocked with the ventilation system for the spraying 
area so that the equipment cannot be operatedunless the venti- 
lating system is in operation. 



SECTION 1508 

ORGANIC PEROXIDES AND 

DUAL-COMPONENT COATINGS 

1508.1 GeneraL Spraying operations involving the use of 
organic peroxides and other dual-component coatings shall be 
in accordance with the requkements of Section 1503 and this 
section. 

1508.2 Use of organic peroxide coatings. Spraying opera- 
tions involving the use of organic peroxides and other 
dual-component coatings shall be conducted in approved 
sprinklered spray booths complying with Section 1504.3.2. 

1508.3 Equipment. Spray guns and related handling equip- 
ment used with organic peroxides shall be of a type manufac- 
tured for such use. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



217 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1508.3.1 Pressure tanks. Separate pressure vessels and 
inserts specifically for the application shall be used for the 
resin and for the organic peroxide, and shall not be inter- 
changed. Organic peroxide pressure tank inserts shall be 
constructed of stainless steel or polyethylene. 

1508.4 Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of haz- 
ardous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and 
use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3 and 1503.4 and Sections 1508.4.1 through 1508.4.7. 

1508.4.1 Contamination prevention. Organic peroxide 
initiators shall not be contaminated with foreign substances. 

1508.4.2 Spilled material. Spilled organic peroxides shall 
be promptly removed so there are no residues. Spilled mate- 
rial absorbed by using a noncombustible absorbent shall be 
promptly disposed of in accordance with the manufacturer's 
recommendation. 

1508.4.3 Residue control. Materials shall not be contami- 
nated by dusts and overspray residues resulting from the 
sanding or spraying of finishing materials containing 
organic peroxides. 

1508.4.4 Handling. Handling of organic peroxides shall be 
conducted in a manner that avoids shock and friction that 
produces decomposition and violent reaction hazards. 

1508.4.5 Mixing. Organic peroxides shall not be mixed 
directly with accelerators or promoters. 

1508.4.6 Personnel qualifications. Personnel working 
with organic peroxides and dual-component coatings shall 
be specifically trained to work with these materials. 

1508.4.7 Storage. The storage of organic peroxides shall 
comply with Chapter 39. 

1508.5 Sources of ignition. Only nonsparking tools shall be 
used in areas where organic peroxides are stored, mixed or 
applied. 



SECTION 1509 

INDOOR MANUFACTURING OF REINFORCED 

PLASTICS 

1509.1 General. Indoor manufacturing processes involving 
spray or hand application of reinforced plastics and using more 
than 5 gallons (19 L) of resin in a 24-hour period shall be in 
accordance with this section. 

1509.2 Resin application equipment. Equipment used for 
spray application of resin shall be installed and used in accor- 
dance with Sections 1508 and 1509. 

1509.3 Fire protection. Resin application areas shall be pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 
design shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, 
Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3 ,000 square feet (279 
m^). Where the materials or storage arrangements are required 
by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprin- 
kler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system pro- 
tection shall be provided. 

1509.4 Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of haz- 
ardous materials. Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and 



use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
1503.3 and 1503.4 and Sections 1509.4.1 through 1509.4.3. 

1509.4.1 Handling of excess catalyzed resin. A 

noncombustible, open-top container shall be provided for 
disposal of excess catalyzed resin. Excess catalyzed resin 
shdl be drained into the container while still in the hquid 
state. Enough water shall be provided in the container to 
maintain a minimum 2-inch (51 mm) water layer over the 
contained resin. 

1509.4.2 Control of overchop. In areas where chopper 
guns are used, exposed wall and floor surfaces shall be cov- 
ered with paper, polyethylene film or other approved mate- 
rial to allow for removal of overchop. Overchop shall be 
allowed to cure for not less than 4 hours prior to removal. 

1509.4.2.1 Disposal. Following removal, used wall and 
floor covering materials required by Section 1509.4.2 
shall be placed in a noncombustible container and 
removed from the facility. 

1509.4.3 Storage and use of hazardous materials. Stor- 
age and use of organic peroxides shall be in accordance with 
Section 1508 and Chapter 39. Storage and use of flammable 
and combustible hquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 
34. Storage and use of unstable (reactive) materials shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 43. 

1509.5 Sources of ignition in resin application areas. 

Sources of ignition in resin application areas shall comply with 
Section 1503.2. 

1509.6 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation shall be provided 
throughout resin application areas in accordance with Section 
1504.7. The ventilation rate shall be adequate to maintain the 
concentration of flammable vapors in the resin application area 
at or below 25 percent of the LFL. 

Exception: Mechanical ventilation is not required for 
buildings that have 75 percent of the perimeter unenclosed. 

1509.6.1 Local ventilation. Local ventilation shall be pro- 
vided inside of workpieces where personnel will be under or 
inside of the workpiece. 



SECTION 1510 
FLOOR SURFACING AND FINISHING OPERATIONS 

1510.1 Scope. Floor surfacing and finishing operations 
exceeding 350 square feet (33 m^) and using Class I or II liquids 
shall comply with Sections 1510.2 through 1510.5. 

1510.2 Mechanical system operation. Heating, ventilation 
and air-conditioning systems shall not be operated during 
resurfacing or refinishing operations or within 4 hours of the 
application of flammable or combustible hquids. 

1510.3 Business operation. Floor surfacing and finishing 
operations shall not be conducted while an estabUshment is 
open to the pubhc. 

1510.4 Ignition sources. The power shall be shut down to all 
electiical sources of ignition within the flammable vapor area, 
unless those devices are classified for use in Class I, Division 1 
hazardous locations. 



218 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



FLAWIMABLE FINISHES 



1510.5 Ventilation. To prevent the accumulation of flammable 
vapors, mechanical ventilation at a minimum rate of 1 cubic 
foot per minute per squai-e foot [0.00508 m^ /(s • m^)] of area 
being finished shall be provided. Such exhaust shall be by 
approved temporary or portable means. Vapors shall be 
exhausted to the exterior of the building. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 21 9 






220 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 16 - FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING 

(Not adopted by the State Fire Marshal) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Cliapter 








































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed beiow) 








































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 








































Chapter /Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



221 



222 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 16 

FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING 



SECTION 1601 
GENERAL 

1601.1 Scope. Ripening processes where ethylene gas is intro- 
duced into a room to promote the ripening of fruits, vegetables 
and other crops shall comply with this chapter. 

Exception: Mixtures of ethylene and one or more inert 
gases in concentrations which prevent the gas from reaching 
greater than 25 percent of the lower explosive Umit (LEL) 
when released to the atmosphere. 

1601.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in 
Appendix Chapter 1, Section 105.6. 

1601.3 Ethylene generators. Approved ethylene generators 
shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 
1606. 



SECTION 1602 
DEFINITIONS 

1602.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 1603 
ETHYLENE GAS 

1603.1 Location. Ethylene gas shall be discharged only into 
approved rooms or enclosures designed and constructed for 
this purpose. 

1603.2 Dispensing. Valves conti-oUing discharge of ethylene 
shall provide positive and fail-closed control of flow and shall 
be set to limit the concentration of gas in air below 1 ,000 parts 
per million (ppm). 



SECTION 1604 
SOURCES OF IGNITION 

1604.1 Ignition prevention. Sources of ignition shall be con- 
trolled or protected in accordance with this section and Chapter 
3. 

1604.2 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring 
and equipment, including luminaires, shall be approved for use 
in Class I, Division 2, Group C hazardous (classified) 
locations. 

1604.3 Static electricity. Containers, piping and equipment 
used to dispense ethylene shall be bonded and grounded to pre- 
vent the discharge of static spai-ks or arcs. 

1604.4 Lighting. Lighting shall be by approved electric lamps 
or luminaires only. 

1604.5 Heating. Heating shall be by indirect means utilizing 
low-pressure steam, hot water, or warm air. 



Exception: Electric or fuel-fired heaters approved for use in 
hazai'dous (classified) locations which are installed and 
operated in accordance with the applicable provisions of the 
California Electrical Code, the California Mechanical 
Code. 



SECTION 1605 
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE 

1605.1 Housekeeping. Empty boxes, cartons, pallets and other 
combustible waste shall be removed from ripening rooms or 
enclosures and disposed of at regular intervals in accordance 
with Chapter 3. 



SECTION 1606 
ETHYLENE GENERATORS 

1606.1 Ethylene generators. Ethylene generators shall be 
listed and labeled by an approved testing laboratory, approved 
by the fire code official and used only in approved rooms in 
accordance with the ethylene generator manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. The listing evaluation shall include documentation that 
the concentration of ethylene gas does not exceed 25 percent of 
the lower explosive limit (LEL). 

1606.2 Ethylene generator rooms. Ethylene generators shall 
be used in rooms having a volume of not less than 1,000 cubic 
feet (28 m^). Rooms shall have air circulation to ensure even 
distribution of ethylene gas and shall be free from sparks, open 
flames or other ignition sources. 



SECTION 1607 
WARNING SIGNS 

1607.1 When required. Approved warning signs indicating 
the danger involved and necessary precautions shall be posted 
on all doors and entrances to the premises. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



223 



224 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 17 - FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 

(Not adopted by the State Fire Marshal) 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


i;ag 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 








































Adopt Entire Cliapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed beiow 








































Chapter /Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



225 



226 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 17 

FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 



SECTION 1701 
GENERAL 

1701.1 Scope. Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging 
operations within structures shall comply with this chapter. 

1701.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in 
Appendix Chapter 1, Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1702 
DEFINITIONS 

1702.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination 
with any other substance emits or liberates a gas, fume or vapor 
utilized for the destruction or control of insects, fungi, vermin, 
germs, rats or other pests, and shall be distinguished from 
insecticides and disinfectants which are essentially effective in 
the solid or liquid phases . Examples are methyl bromide, ethyl- 
ene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide and 
sulfuryl fluoride. 

FUMIGATION. The utiHzation within an enclosed space of a 
fumigant in concentrations that are hazardous or acutely toxic 
to humans. 

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization 
of insecticidal liquids passed through thermal fog-generating 
units where, by means of heat, pressure and turbulence, such 
liquids are transformed and discharged in the form of fog or 
mist blown into an area to be treated. 



SECTION 1703 
FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 

1703.1 General. Structures in which fumigation and thermal 
insecticidal fogging operations are conducted shall comply 
with the fire protection and safety requirements of Sections 

1703.2 thi-ough 1703.7. 

1703.2 Sources of ignition. Fires, open flames and similar 
sources of ignition shall be eliminated from the space under 
fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging. Heating, where 
needed, shall be of an approved type. 

1703.2.1 Electricity. Electricity shall be shut off. 

Exception: Circulating fans that have been specifically 
designed for utilization in hazardous atmospheres and 
installed in accordance with the California Electrical 
Code. 

1703.3 Notification. The fire code official and fire chief shall 
be notified in writing at least 24 houi-s before the structure is to 
be closed in connection with the utihzation of any toxic or 
flanmiable fumigant. Notification shall give the location of the 
enclosed space to be fumigated or fogged, the occupancy, the 



fumigants or insecticides to be utilized, the person or persons 
responsible for the operation, and the date and time at which 
the operation will begin. Notice of any fumigation or thermal 
insecticidal fogging shall be served with sufficient advance 
notice to the occupants of the enclosed space involved to enable 
the occupants to evacuate the premises. 

1703.3.1 Warning signs. Approved warning signs indicat- 
ing the danger, type of chemical involved and necessary pre- 
cautions shall be posted on all doors and entrances to the 
premises and upon all gangplanks and ladders from the 
deck, pier or land to the ship. Such notices shall be printed in 
red ink on a white background. Letters in the headlines shall 
be at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) in height and shall state the date 
and time of the operation, the name and address of the per- 
son, the name of the operator in charge, and a warning stat- 
ing that the occupied premises shall be vacated at least 1 
hour before the operation begins and shall not be reentered 
until the danger signs have been removed by the proper 
authorities. 

1703.3.2 Breathing apparatus. Persons engaged in the 
business of fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging shall 
maintain and have available approved protective breathing 
apparatus. 

1703.3.3 Watch personnel. During the period fumigation 
is in progress, except when fumigation is conducted in a 
gas-tight vault or tanic, a capable, alert watcher shall remain 
on duty at the entrance or entrances to the enclosed fumi- 
gated space until after the fumigation is completed and the 
premises properly ventilated and safe for occupancy. Suffi- 
cient watchers shall be provided to prevent persons from 
entering the enclosed space under fumigation without being 
observed. 

1703.4 Thermal insecticidal fogging liquids. Thermal insec- 
ticidal fogging liquids with a flash point below 100°F (38°C) 
shall not be utilized. 

1703.5 Sealing of buildings. Paper and other similar materials 
that do not meet the flame propagation performance criteria of 
NFPA 701 shall not be used to wrap or cover a building in 
excess of that required for the sealing of cracks, casements and 
similar openings. 

1703.6 Venting and cleanup. At tlie end of the exposure 
period, fumigators shall safely and properly ventilate the pre- 
mises and contents; properly dispose of fumigant containers, 
residues, debris and other materials used for such fumigation; 
and clear obstructions from gas-fired appliance vents. 

1703.7 Flammable fumigants restricted. The use of caibon 
disulfide and hydrogen cyanide shall be restricted to agricul- 
tural fumigation. 



2006 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



227 



228 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 18 - SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Chapter 




X 




































Adopt Entire Chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed beiow) 








































Adopt oniy those sections that are 
iisted below 








































Chapter /Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



229 



230 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 18 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



SECTION 1801 
GENERAL 

1801.1 Scope. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and com- 
pai'able research and development ai'eas classified as Group 
H-5 shall comply with this chapter and the California Building 
Code. The use, storage and handling of hazardous materials in 
Group H-5 shall comply with this chapter, other applicable pro- 
visions of this code and the California Building Code. 

1801.2 Application. The requirements set forth in this chapter 
are requirements specific only to Group H-5 and shall be 
applied as exceptions or additions to applicable requirements 
set forth elsewhere in this code. 

1801.3 Multiple hazards. Where a material poses multiple 
hazards, all hazards shall be addressed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2701.1. 

1801.4 Existing buildings and existing fabrication areas. 

Existing buildings and existing fabrication areas shall comply 
with this chapter, except that transportation and handling of 
HPM in exit access corridors and exit enclosures shall be 
allowed when in compliance with Section 1805.3.2 and the 
California Building Code. 

1801.5 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in 
Appendix Chapter 1, Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1802 
DEFINITIONS 

1802.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas 

detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained 
in continuous operation and sampling is performed without 
interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical 
basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved loca- 
tion on the premises where signals from emergency equipment 
ai-e received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

FABRICATION AREA. An ai-ea within a semiconductor fab- 
rication facility and related research and development areas in 
which there are processes using hazardous production materi- 
als. Such ai-eas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas 
such as dressing rooms and offices that ai-e directly related to 
the fabrication area processes. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A 

solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufactur- 
ing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or 
reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is 
used directly in research, laboratory or production processes 
which have as their end product materials that are not 
hazai-dous. 



HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is 
defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class 11 or 
Class IIIA combustible liquid. 

HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a 
Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which 
is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

PASS-THROUGH. An enclosure installed in a wall with a 
door on each side that allows chemicals, HPM, equipment, and 
parts to be transferred from one side of the wall to the other. 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. A 

building or a portion of a building in which electrical cii-cuits or 
devices are created on solid crystaUine substances having elec- 
trical conductivity greater than insulators but less than conduc- 
tors. These circuits or devices are commonly known as 
semiconductors. 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for 
transporting HPM and purposes other than requked means of 
egress. 

TOOL. A device, storage container, workstation, or process 
machine used in a fabrication area. 

WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent princi- 
pal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area 
where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research 
activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage 
cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets 
serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A 
workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire 
protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and 
other processing and scientific equipment. 



SECTION 1803 
GENERAL SAFETY PROVISIONS 

1803.1 Emergency control station. An emergency control 
station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1 803 .1.1 
through 1803.1.3. 

1803.1.1 Location. The emergency conti-ol station shall be 
located on the premises at an approved location outside the 
fabrication area. 

1803.1.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall continuously 
staff the emergency control station. 

1803.1.3 Signals. The emergency control station shall 
receive signals from emergency equipment and alai-m and 
detection systems. Such emergency equipment and alarm 
and detection systems shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following where such equipment or systems are required 
to be provided either in this chapter or elsewhere in this 
code: 

1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring 
systems. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



231 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous gas detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 

7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids 
required by Section 1805.2.3.5. 

8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids 
cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required by Sec- 
tion 1805.2.3.5. 

1803.2 Systems, equipment and processes. Systems, equip- 
ment and processes shall be in accordance with Sections 
1803.2.1 through 1803.2.3.2. 

1803.2.1 Application. Systems, equipment and processes 
shall include, but not be limited to, containers, cylinders, 
tanks, piping, tubing, valves and fittings. 

1803.2.2 General requirements. In addition to the require- 
ments in Section 1803.2, systems, equipment and processes 
shall also comply with Section 2703.2, other applicable pro- 
visions of this code, the California Building Code and the 
California Mechanical Code. 

1803.2.3 Additional requirements for HPM supply pip- 
ing. In addition to the requirements in Section 1 803 .2, HPM 
supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids shall 
comply with this section. 

1803.2.3.1 General requirements. The requirements 
set forth in Section 2703.2.2.2 shall apply to supply pip- 
ing and tubing for HPM gases and liquids. 

1803.2.3.2 Health-hazard ranking 3 or 4 HPM. Sup- 
ply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids having a 
health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be welded 
throughout, except for connections located within a ven- 
tilation enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved 
method of drainage or containment provided for connec- 
tions if the material is a liquid. 

1803.3 Construction requirements. Construction of semi- 
conductor fabrication facilities shall be in accordance with 
Sections 1803.3.1 through 1803.3.9. 

1803.3.1 Fabrication areas. Construction and location of 
fabrication areas shall comply with the California Building 
Code. 

1803.3.2 Pass-throughs in exit access corridors. 

Pass-throughs in exit access corridors shall be constructed 
in accordance with the California Building Code. 

1803.3.3 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage rooms 
shall comply with Chapter 34 and the California Building 
Code. 

1803.3.4 HPM rooms. HPM rooms shall comply with the 
California Building Code. 

1803.3.5 Gas cabinets. Gas cabinets shall comply with 
Section 2703.8.6. 



1803.3.6 Exhausted enclosures. Exhausted enclosures 
shall comply with Section 2703.8.5. 

1803.3.7 Gas rooms. Gas rooms shall comply with Section 
2703.8.4. 

1803.3.8 Service corridors. Service corridors shall comply 
with Section 1805.3 and the California Building Code. 

1803.3.9 Cabinets containing pyrophoric liquids or 
water-reactive Class 3 liquids. Cabinets in fabrication 
areas containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 water-reac- 
tive liquids in containers or in amounts greater than 0.5 gal- 
lon (2 L) shall comply with Section 1805.2.3.5. 

1803.4 Emergency plan. An emergency plan shall be estab- 
lished as set forth in Section 408.4. 

1803.5 Maintenance of equipment, machinery and pro- 
cesses. Maintenance of equipment, machinery and processes 
shall comply with Section 2703.2.6. 

1803.6 Security of areas. Areas shall be secured in accordance 
with Section 2703.9.2. 

1803.7 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring 
and equipment in HPM facilities shall comply with Sections 
1803.7.1 through 1803.7.3. 

1803.7.1 Fabrication areas. Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment in fabrication areas shall comply with the California 
Electrical Code. 

1803.7.2 Workstations. Electrical equipment and devices 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of workstations in which flamma- 
ble or pyrophoric gases or flammable liquids are used shall 
comply with the California Electrical Code for Class I, 
Division 2 hazardous locations. Workstations shall not be 
energized without adequate exhaust ventilation in accor- 
dance with Section 1803.14. 

Exception: Class I, Division 2 hazardous electrical 
equipment is not required when the air removal from the 
workstation or dilution will prevent the accumulation of 
flammable vapors and fumes on a continuous basis. 

1803.7.3 Hazardous production material (HPM) rooms, 
gas rooms and liquid storage rooms. Electrical wiring and 
equipment in HPM rooms, gas rooms and liquid storage 
rooms shall comply with the California Electrical Code. 

1803.8 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. Hazardous 
materials shall not be used or stored in exit access corridors or 
exit access enclosures. 

1803.9 Service corridors. Hazai'dous materials shall not be 
used in an open-system use condition in service corridors. 

1803.10 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
1803.10.1 through 1803.10.5 and Chapter 9. 

1803.10.1 Workstations and tools. The design of the sprin- 
kler system in the area shall take into consideration the spray 
pattern and the effect on the equipment. 

1803.10.1.1 Combustible workstations. A sprinkler 
head shall be installed within each branch exhaust con- 
nection or individual plenums of workstations of com- 
bustible construction. The sprinkler head in the exhaust 



232 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



connection or plenum shall be located not more than 2 
feet (610 mm) from the point of the duct connection or 
the connection to the plenum. When necessary to prevent 
corrosion, the sprinkler head and connecting piping in 
the duct shall be coated with approved or listed corro- 
sion-resistant materials. The sprinkler head shall be 
accessible for periodic inspection. 

Exceptions: 

1. Approved alternative automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems are allowed. Activation of 
such systems shall deactivate the related pro- 
cessing equipment. 

2. Process equipment which operates at tempera- 
tures exceeding 932°F (500°C) and is provided 
with automatic shutdown capabihties for haz- 
ai'dous materials. 

3. Exhaust ducts 10 inches (254 mm) or less in di- 
ameter from flammable gas storage cabinets 
that are part of a workstation. 

4. Ducts listed or approved for use without inter- 
nal automatic sprinkler protection. 

1803.10.1.2 Combustible tools. Where the horizontal 
surface of a combustible tool is obsti'ucted from ceiling 
sprinkler discharge, automatic sprinkler protection that 
covers the horizontal surface of the tool shall be 
provided. 

Exceptions: 

1. An automatic gaseous fire-extinguishing local 
surface apphcation system shall be allowed as 
an alternative to sprinklers. Gaseous-extin- 
guishing systems shall be actuated by infrared 
(IR) or ultraviolet/infrared (UVIR) optical 
detectors. 

2. Tools constructed of materials that ai'e listed or 
approved for "use without internal fire extin- 
guishing system protection. 

1803.10.2 Gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. An 

approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in 
gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures containing HPM 
compressed gases. 

Exception: Gas cabinets located in an HPM room other 
than those cabinets containing pyrophoric gases. 

1803.10.3 Pass-throughs in existing exit access corri- 
dors. Pass-throughs in existing exit access coixidors shall be 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

1803.10.4 Exhaust ducts for HPM. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts 
conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated 
from HPM in accordance with this section and the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code. 

1803.10.4.1 MetalUc and noncombustible nonmetal- 
lic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible 
nonmetallic exhaust ducts when all of the following con- 
ditions apply: 



1 . When the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal 
to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts ai'e conveying flammable gases, vapors 
or fumes. 

1803.10.4.2 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. 

An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be pro- 
vided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts when 
the lai-gest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to 
or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out automatic sprinkler system protection. 

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in 
length installed below ceiling level. 

1803.10.4.3 Exhaust connections and plenums of 
combustible workstations. Automatic fii-e-extinguish- 
ing system protection for exhaust connections and ple- 
nums of combustible workstations shall comply with 
Section 1803.10.1.1. 

1803.10.4.4 Exhaust duct sprinkler system require- 
ments. Automatic sprinklers installed in exhaust duct 
systems shall be hydi-aulically designed to provide 0.5 
gallons per minute (gpm) (1.9 L/min) over an area 
derived by multiplying the distance between the sprin- 
klers in a horizontal duct by the width of the duct. Mini- 
mum dischai-ge shall be 20 gpm (76 L/min) per sprinkler 
from the five hydraulically most remote sprinklers. 

1803.10.4.4.1 Sprinkler head locations. Automatic 
sprinklers shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) 
intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direc- 
tion. In vertical runs, automatic sprinklers shall be 
installed at the top and at alternate floor levels. 

1803.10.4.4.2 Control valve. A sepai-ate indicating 
control valve shall be provided for sprinklers installed 
in exhaust ducts. 

1803.10.4.4.3 Drainage. Drainage shall be provided 
to remove sprinkler water discharged in exhaust 
ducts. 

1803.10.4.4.4 Corrosive atmospheres. Where cor- 
rosive atmospheres exist, exhaust duct sprinlders and 
pipe fittings shall be manufactured of corrosion- 
resistant materials or coated with approved materials. 

1803.10.4.4.5 Maintenance and inspection. Sprin- 
klers in exhaust ducts shall be accessible for periodic 
inspection and maintenance. 

1803.10.5 Sprinkler alarms and supervision. Automatic 
sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised and pro- 
vided with alai-ras in accordance with Chapter 9. Automatic 
sprinkler system alarm and supervisory signals shall be 
transinitted to the emergency conti-ol station. 

1803.11 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fce alarm sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout buildings containing a Group 
H-5 occupancy. Activation of the alann system shall initiate a 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



233 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control sta- 
tion. Manual fire alarm systems shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with Section 907. 

1803.12 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm sys- 
tems shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1803.12.1 
through 1803.12.3, Section 2704.9 and Section 2705.4.4. The 
maximum allowable quantity per control area provisions of 
Section 2704.1 shall not apply to emergency alarm systems 
required for HPM. 

1803.12.1 Where required. Emergency alarm systems 
shall be provided in the areas indicated in Sections 
1803.12.1.1 through 1803.12.1.3. 

1803.12.1.1 Service corridors. An approved emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, with 
at least one alarm device in the service corridor. 

1803.12.1.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. 

Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and exit 
enclosures shall comply with Section 2705.4.4. 

1803.12.1.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and 
gas rooms. Emergency alarms for hquid storage rooms, 
HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with Section 
2704.9. 

1803.12.2 Alarm-initiating devices. An approved emer- 
gency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations, or 
other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be 
used as emergency alarm-initiating devices. 

1803.12.3 Alarm signals. Activation of the emergency 
alarm system shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal 
to the emergency control station. 

1803.13 Continuous gas detection systems. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided for HPM gases when the 
physiological warning threshold level of the gas is at a higher 
level than the accepted permissible exposure Umit (PEL) for 
the gas and for flammable gases in accordance with Sections 
1803.13.1 through 1803.13.2.2. 

1803.13.1 Where required. A continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sections 
1803.13.1.1 through 1803.13.1.4. 

1803.13.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous gas detec- 
tion system shall be provided in fabrication areas when 
gas is used in the fabrication area. 

1803.13.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided in HPM rooms when gas is used 
in the room. 

1803.13.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures and 
gas rooms. A continuous gas detection system shall be 
provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A 
continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas 
rooms when gases are not located in gas cabinets or 
exhausted enclosures. 

1803.13.1.4 Exit access corridors. When gases are 
transported in piping placed within the space defined by 
the walls of an exit access corridor and the floor or roof 
above the exit access corridor, a continuous gas detection 



system shall be provided where piping is located and in 
the exit access corridor. 

Exception: A continuous gas detection system is not 
required for occasional transverse crossings of the 
corridors by supply piping which is enclosed in a fer- 
rous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor. 

1803.13.2 Gas detection system operation. The continu- 
ous gas detection system shall be capable of monitoring the 
room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at or 
below the permissible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit 
of the gas for which detection is provided. For flammable 
gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be 
vapor concenti-ations in excess of 20 percent of the lower 
flanmiable limit (LFL). Monitoring for highly toxic and 
toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 37. 

1803.13.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system shall ini- 
tiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency 
control station when a short-term hazard condition is 
detected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and 
shall provide warning both inside and outside the area 
where the gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be dis- 
tinct from all other alarms. 

1803.13.2.2 Shut off of gas supply. The gas detection 
system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the 
source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the sys- 
tem being monitored for which gas is detected when a 
short-term hazard condition is detected. Automatic clo- 
sure of shutoff valves shall comply with the following: 

1. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating 
the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabi- 
net or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the 
gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific 
gas detected shall automatically close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating 
the gas detection system alarm is within a room 
and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabi- 
nets or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valves on 
all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall auto- 
matically close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating 
the gas detection system alarm is within a piping 
distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve 
supplying the manifold for the compressed gas 
container of the specific gas detected shall 
automatically close. 

Exception: Where the gas-detection sampling point 
initiating the gas detection system alarm is at the use 
location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch 
line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the 
shutoff valve for the branch line located in the piping 
distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically 
close. 

1803.14 Exhaust ventilation systems for HPM. Exhaust ven- 
tilation systems and materials for exhaust ducts utilized for the 
exhaust ofHPM shall comply with Sections 1803.14.1 through 
1803.14.3, other applicable provisions of this code, the Cali- 
fornia Building Code and the California Mechanical Code. 



234 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



1803.14.1 Where required. Exhaust ventilation systems 
shall be provided in the following locations in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the California 
Building Code: 

1. Fabrication areas: Exhaust ventilation for fabrication 
areas shall comply with the California Building Code. 
The fire code official is authorized to requke addi- 
tional manual control switches. 

2. Workstations: A ventilation system shall be provided 
to capture and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at 
workstations. 

3. Liquid storage rooms: Exhaust ventilation for liquid 
storage rooms shall comply with Section 2704.3.1 
and the California Building Code. 

4. HPM rooms: Exhaust ventilation for HPM rooms 
shall comply with Section 2704.3.1 and the Califor- 
nia Building Code. 

5. Gas cabinets: Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets 
shall comply with Section 2703.8.6.2. The gas cabi- 
net ventilation system is allowed to connect to a work- 
station ventilation system. Exhaust ventilation for gas 
cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall 
also comply with Chapter 37. 

6. Exhausted enclosures: Exhaust ventilation for ex- 
hausted enclosures shall comply with Section 
2703.8.5.2. Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclo- 
sures containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also 
comply with Chapter 37. 

7. Gas rooms: Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall 
comply with Section 2703.8.4.2. Exhaust ventilation 
for gas cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic gases 
shall also comply with Chapter 37. 

8. Cabinets containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 wa- 
ter-reactive liquids: Exhaust ventilation for cabinets 
in fabrication ai'eas containing pyrophoric liquids or 
Class 3 water-reactive liquids shall be as required in 
Section 1805.2.3.5. 

1803.14.2 Penetrations. Exhaust ducts penetrating fire bar- 
rier assemblies shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent 
fire-resistance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not 
peneti-ate fu-e walls. Fke dampers shall not be installed in 
exhaust ducts. 

1803.14.3 Treatment systems. Treatment systems for 
highly toxic and toxic gases shall comply with Chapter 37. 

1803.15 Emergency power system. An emergency power 
system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies where 
required by Section 604. The emergency power system shall be 
designed to supply power automatically to required electiical 
systems when the normal supply system is inteiTupted. 

1803.15.1 Required electrical systems. Emergency power 
shall be provided for electiically operated equipment and 
connected conti'ol circuits for the following systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems. 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 



4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 

7. Manual frre alarm systems. 

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm 
systems. 

9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids required in Section 1805.2.3.5. 

10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and 
Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust venti- 
lation systems required in Section 1805.2.3.5. 

11. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in 
this code or in the California Building Code applica- 
ble to the use, storage or handUng of HPM. 

1803.15.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust ventila- 
tion systems are allowed to be designed to operate at not less 
than one-half the normal fan speed on the emergency power 
system when it is demonstrated that the level of exhaust will 
maintain a safe atmosphere. 



SECTION 1804 
STORAGE 

1804.1 General. Storage of hazardous materials shall comply 
with Section 1803 and this section and other applicable provi- 
sions of this code. 

1804.2 Fabrication areas. Hazardous materials storage and 
the maximum quantities of hazardous materials in use and stor- 
age allowed in fabrication areas shall be in accordance with 
Sections 1804.2.1, through 1804.2.2.1. 

1804.2.1 Location of BnPM storage in fabrication areas. 

Storage of HPM in fabrication areas shall be within 
approved or listed storage cabinets, gas cabinets, exhausted 
enclosures or within a workstation as follows. 

1. Flanunable and combustible liquid storage cabinets 
shall comply with Section 3404.3.2. 

2. Hazardous materials storage cabinets shall comply 
with Section 2703.8.7. 

3. Gas cabinets shall comply with Section 2703.8.6. Gas 
cabinets for highly toxic or toxic gases shall also com- 
ply with Section 3704.1.2. 

4. Exhausted enclosures shall comply with Section 
2703.8.5. Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic or 
toxic gases shall also comply with Section 3704.1 .3. 

5. Workstations shall comply with Section 1805.2.2. 

1804.2.2 Maximum aggregate quantities in fabrication 
areas. The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials 
stored or used in a single fabrication area shall be limited as 
specified in this section. 

Exception: Fabrication areas containing quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allow- 
able quantities per control area estabhshed by Sections 
2703.1.1, 3404.3.4 and 3404.3.5. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



235 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



TABLE 1804.2.2.1 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5^ 



HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds/square foot) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons/square foot) 


GAS 
(cubic feet@NTP/square foot) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber 
Loose 
Baled 


Noteb 
Notes b, c 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid 
Class n 
Class niA 
Class IILB 
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas 
Flammable 
Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas 
Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
Noted 


Flammable liquid 
Class lA 
Class IB 
Class IC 

Combination Class lA, IB and IC 
Combination Class 1, 11 and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 

Unclassified detonable 

Class I 

Class n 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas 
Gaseous 
Liquefied 
Combination of Gaseous and Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 
1.25 


Oxidizer 

Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 
Combination oxidizer Class 1, 2, 3 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Noteb 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 


Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric 


Noteb 


0.00125 


Notes d and e 


Unstable reactive 
Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 



(continued) 



236 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



TABLE 1804.2.2.1— continued 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5^ 



HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds/square foot) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons/square foot) 


GAS 
(cubic feet@NTP/square foot) 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m^, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m-, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m' @NTP/m^ 
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 ml 

a. Hazai'dous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 2703. 1 . 1 ( 1 ) and 2703. 1 . 1 (2). 

c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP. 

e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 2703.8.2. 



1804.2.2.1 Storage and use in fabrication areas. The 

maximum quantities of hazardous materials stored or 
used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the 
quantities set forth in Table 1804.2.2.1. 

1804.3 Indoor storage outside of fabrication areas. The 

indoor storage of hazardous materials outside of fabrication 
areas shall be in accordance with Sections 1804.3.1 through 
1804.3.3. 

1804.3.1 HPM storage. The indoor storage of HPM in 
quantities greater than those listed in Sections 2703.1.1 and 
3404.3.4 shall be in a room complying with the require- 
ments of the California Building Code and this code for a 
liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room as appropriate 
for the materials stored. 

1804.3.2 Other hazardous materials storage. The indoor 
storage of other hazardous materials shall comply with Sec- 
tions 2701, 2703 and 2704 and other applicable provisions 
of this code. 

1804.3.3 Separation of incompatible hazardous materi- 
als. Incompatible hazardous materials in storage shall be 
separated from each other in accordance with Section 
2703.9.8. 



SECTION 1805 
USE AND HANDLING 

1805.1 General. The use and handling of hazardous materials 
shall comply with this section. Section 1803 and other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

1805.2 Fabrication areas. The use of hazardous mateiials in 
fabiication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 1 805.2. 1 
through 1805.2.3.5. 

1805.2.1 Location of HPM in use in fabrication areas. 

Hazardous production materials in use in fabrication areas 
shall be within approved or listed gas cabinets, exhausted 
enclosures or a workstation. 

1805.2.2 Maximum aggregate quantities in fabrication 
areas. The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials in a 
single fabrication area shall comply with Section 1804.2.2, 
and Table 1 804.2.2. 1 . The quantity of HPM in use at a work- 



station shall not exceed the quantities hsted in Table 
1805.2.2. 

1805.2.2.1 Protection of vessels. Vessels containing 
HPM located in or connected to a workstation shall be 
protected from physical damage and shall not project 
from the workstation. Hazardous gas and liquid vessels 
located within a workstation shall be protected from seis- 
mic forces in an approved manner in accordance with the 
California Building Code. Protection for HPM com- 
pressed gases shall also comply with Chapter 30. 

1805.2.3 Workstations. Workstations in fabrication areas 
shall be in accordance with Sections 1805.2.3.1 through 
1805.2.3.5. 

1805.2.3.1 Construction. Workstations in fabrication 
areas shall be constructed of materials compatible with 
the materials used and stored at the workstation. The por- 
tion of the workstation that serves as a cabinet for HPM 
gases and HPM flammable liquids shall be 
noncombustible and, if of metal, shall be not less than 
0.0478-inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) steel. 

1805.2.3.2 Protection of vessels. Vessels containing 
hazardous materials located in or connected to a work- 
station shall be protected as follows: 

1. HPM: Vessels containing HPM shall be protected 
from physical damage and shall not project from 
the workstation. 

2. Hazardous cryogenic fluids, gases and liquids: 
Hazardous cryogenic fluid, gas and liquid vessels 
located within a workstation shall be protected 
from seismic forces in an approved manner in ac- 
cordance with the California Building Code. 

3. Compressed gases: Protection for compressed gas 
vessels shall also comply with Section 3003.5. 

4. Cryogenic fluids: Protection for cryogenic fluid 
vessels shall also comply with Section 3203.3. 

1805.2.3.3 Drainage and containment for HPM liq- 
uids. Each workstation utilizing HPM liquids shall have , 
all of the following: 

1. Drainage piping systems connected to a compati- 
ble system for disposition of such liquids; 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



237 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



TABLE 1805.2.2 
MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF HPM AT A WORKSTATION^ 



HPM CLASSIFICATION 


STATE 


WIAXIMUIUI QUANTITY 


Flammable, highly toxic, 
pyrophoric and toxic 
combined 


Gas 


3 cylinders 


Flammable 


Liquid 
Sohd 


15 gallons"- ■'•" 
5 pounds''- " 


Corrosive 


Gas 
Liquid 

Sohd 


3 cylinders 
Use-open system 

25 gallons"-" 

Use-closed system: 

150 gallons"-"-' 

20 pounds''-" 


Highly toxic 


Liquid 
Solid 


15 gallons"-" 
5 pounds'' 


Oxidizer 


Gas 
Liquid 

SoUd 


3 cyhnders 
Use-open system 

12 gallons" 

Use-closed system 

60 gallons"-" 

20 pounds"-" 


Pyrophoric 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon''- 8 
See Table 1804.2.2.1 


Toxic 


Liquid 
Solid 


Use-open system 

15 gallons" 

Use-closed system 

60 gallons"-" 

5 pounds"-" 


Unstable reactive Class 3 


Liquid 
SoUd 


0.5 gallon"-" 
5 pounds"-" 


Water-reactive Class 3 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon"- 8 
See Table 1804.2.2.1 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. DOT shipping containers with capacities of greater than 5.3 gallons shall not 
be located within a workstation. 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent for closed 
system operations. When Note c also apphes, the increase for both notes 
shall be allowed. 

c. Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 100 percent when workstations 
are internally protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing or 
suppression system complying with Chapter 9. When Note b also applies, 
the increase for both notes shall be allowed. When Note f also applies, the 
maximum increase allowed for both Notes c and f shall not exceed 100 per- 
cent. 

d. Allowed only in workstations that are internally protected with an approved 
automatic iire-extinguishing or fire protection system complying with 
Chapter 9 and compatible with the reactivity of materials in use at the work- 
station. 

e. The quantity limits apply only to materials classified as HPM. 

f . Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 1 00 percent for nonflammable, 
noncombustible corrosive liquids when the materials of construction for 
workstations are listed or approved for use without internal fire-extin- 
guishing or suppression system protection. When Note c also applies, the 
maximum increase allowed for both Notes c and f shall not exceed 1 00 per- 
cent. 

g. A maximum quantity of 5.3 gallons shall be allowed at a workstation when 
conditions are in accordance with Section 1805.2.3.5. 



2. The work surface provided with a slope or other 
means for directing spilled materials to the con- 
tainment or drainage system; and 

3. An approved means of containing or directing 
spilled or leaked liquids to the drainage system. 

1805.2.3.4 Clearances. Workstations where HPM is 
used shall be provided with horizontal servicing clear- 
ances of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) for electrical 
equipment, gas-cylinder connections and similar hazard- 
ous conditions. These clearances shall apply only to nor- 
mal operational procedures and not to repair- or 
maintenance-related work. 

1805.2.3.5 Pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reac- 
tive liquids. Pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reac- 
tive liquids in containers greater than 0.5-gallon (2 L) but 
not exceeding 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be 
allowed at workstations when located inside cabinets 
and the following conditions are met: 

1. Maximum amount per cabinet: The maximum 
amount per cabinet shall be limited to 5.3 gallons 
(20 L). 

2. Cabinet construction: Cabinets shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the following: 

2.1. Cabinets shall be constructed of not less than 
0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (12 gauge) steel. 

2.2. Cabinets shall be permitted to have self-clos- 
ing limited access ports or noncombustible 
windows that provide access to equipment 
controls. 

2.3. Cabinets shall be provided with self- or man- 
ual-closing doors. Manual-closing doors shall 
be equipped with a door switch that will initi- 
ate local audible and visual alarms when the 
door is in the open position. 

3. Cabinet exhaust ventilation system: An exhaust 
ventilation system shall be provided for cabinets 
and shall comply with the following: 

3.L The system shall be designed to operate at a 
negative pressure in relation to the surround- 
ing area. 

3.2. The system shall be equipped with a pressure 
monitor and a flow switch alarm monitored at 
the on-site emergency control station. 

4. Cabinet spill containment: Spill containment shall 
be provided in each cabinet, with the spill contain- 
ment capable of holding the contents of the aggre- 
gate amount of liquids in containers in each 
cabinet. 

5. Valves: Valves in supply piping between the prod- 
uct containers in the cabinet and the workstation 
served by the containers shall fail in the closed po- 
sition upon power failure, loss of exhaust ventila- 
tion and upon actuation of the fire control system. 



238 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



6. Fire detection system: Each cabinet shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire detection system 
. complying with the following conditions: 

6.1. Automatic detection system: UV/IR, high- 
sensitivity smoke detection (HSSD) or other 
approved detection systems shall be provided 
inside each cabinet. 

6.2. Automatic shutoff: Activation of the detection 
system shall automatically close the shutoff 
valves at the source on the liquid supply. 

6.3. Alarms and signals: Activation of the detec- 
tion system shall initiate a local alarm within 
the fabrication area and transmit a signal to the 
emergency conti-ol station. The alarms and 
signals shall be both visual and audible. 

1805.3 Transportation and handling. The transportation and 
handhng of hazardous materials shall comply with Sections 
1805.3.1 through 1805.314.1 and other applicable provisions of 
this code. 

1805.3.1 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. Exit 
access corridors and exit enclosui'es in new buildings or 
serving new fabrication areas shall not contain HPM except 
as permitted for exit access corridors by Section 415.8.6.3 
of the California Building Code. 

1805.3.2 Transport in existing exit access corridors. 

When existing fabrication areas axe altered or modified in 
existing buildings, HPM is allowed to be transported in 
existing exit access corridors when such exit access corri- 
dors comply with the California Building Code. Transporta- 
tion in exit access corridors shall comply with Section 
2703.10. 

1805.3.3 Service corridors. When a new fabrication area is 
constructed, a service corridor shall be provided where it is 
necessary to transport HPM from a liquid storage room, 
HPM room, gas room or from the outside of a building to the 
perimeter wall of a fabrication area. Service corridors shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with the Califor- 
nia Building Code. 

1805.3.4 Carts and trucks. Carts and trucks used to trans- 
port HPM in exit acess corridors and exit enclosures in 
existing buildings shall comply with Section 2703.10.3. 

1805.3.4.1 Identification. Carts and tnacks shall be 
marked to indicate the contents. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



239 



240 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE- MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 19 - LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 



Adopting Agency 




BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DHS 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 




1 


2 


1/AC 


AC 


SS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt Entire Cliapter 




X 




































Adopt Entire Cliapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections that are 
listed below 








































Chapter /Section 


Codes 













































2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



241 



242 2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 19 

LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 



SECTION 1901 
GENERAL 

1901.1 Scope. The storage, manufacturing and processing of 
timber, lumber, plywood, veneers and byproducts shall be in 
accordance with this chapter. 

1901.2 Permit. Permits shall be required as set forth in Appen- 
dix Chapter 1, Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1902 
DEFINITIONS 

1902.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

COLD DECK. A pile of unfinished cut logs. 

FINES. Small pieces or spUnters of wood byproducts that will 
pass through a 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) screen. 

HOGGED MATERIALS. Wood waste materials produced 
from the lumber production process. 

PLYWOOD and VENEER MILLS. FaciUties where raw 
wood products are processed into finished wood products, 
including waferboard, oriented strandboard, fiberboard, com- 
posite wood panels and plywood. 

RAW PRODUCT. A mixtui-e of natural materials such as tree, 
brush trimmings, or waste logs and stumps. 

STATIC PILES. Piles in which processed wood product is 
mounded and is not being turned or moved. 

TIMBER and LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. 

Facilities where raw wood products are processed into finished 
wood products. 



SECTION 1903 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

1903.1 Open yards. Open yai'ds required by the California 
Building Code shall be maintained around structures. 

1903.2 Dust control. Equipment or machinery located inside 
buildings which generates or emits combustible dust shall be 
provided with an approved dust collection and exhaust system 
installed in accordance with Chapter 13 and the California 
Mechanical Code. Equipment or systems that are used to col- 
lect, process or convey combustible dusts shall be provided 
with an approved explosion control system. 

1903.2.1 Explosion venting. Where a dust explosion haz- 
ard exists in equipment rooms, buildings or other enclo- 
sures, such areas shall be provided with explosion 



(deflagration) venting or an approved explosion suppres- 
sion system complying with Section 911. 

1903.3 Waste removaL Sawmills, planning mills and other 
woodworking plants shall be equipped with a waste removal 
system that will collect and remove sawdust and shavings. 
Such systems shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 13 
and the California Mechanical Code. 

Exception: Manual waste removal when approved. 

1903.3.1 Housekeeping. Provisions shall be made for a 
systematic and thorough cleaning of the entire plant at suffi- 
cient intervals to prevent the accumulations of combustible 
dust and spilled combustible or flammable liquids. 

1903.3.2 Metal scrap. Provision shall be made for sepa- 
rately collecting and disposing of any metal scrap so that 
such scrap will not enter the wood handling or processing 
equipment. 

1903.4 Electrical equipment. Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment shall comply with the California Electrical Code. 

1903.5 Control of ignition sources. Protection from ignition 
sources shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1903.5. 1 
through 1903.5.3. 

1903.5.1 Cutting and welding. Cutting and welding shall 
comply with Chapter 26. 

1903.5.2 Static electricity. Static electricity shall be pre- 
vented from accumulating on machines and equipment sub- 
ject to static electricity buildup by permanent grounding and 
bonding wires or other approved means. 

1903.5.3 Smoking. Where smoking constitutes a fire haz- 
ard, the fire code official is authorized to order the owner or 
occupant to post approved "No Smoking" signs complying 
with Section 310. The fire code official is authorized to des- 
ignate specific locations where smoking is allowed. 

1903.6 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access 
roads shall be provided for buildings and facilities in accor- 
dance with Section 503. 

1903.7 Access plan. Where storage pile configurations could 
change because of changes in product operations and process- 
ing, the access plan shall be submitted for approval when 
required by the fii^e code official. 



SECTION 1904 
FIRE PROTECTION 

1904.1 Fire alarms. An approved means for transmitting 
alarms to the fire department shall be provided in timber and 
lumber production mills and plywood and veneer mills. 



2007 CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE 



243 



LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 



1904.1.1 Manual fire alarms. A manual fire alarm system 
complying with Section 907.2 shall be installed in areas of 
timber and lumber production mills and for plywood and 
veneer mills that contain product dryers. 

Exception: Where dryers or other sources of ignition are 
protected by a supervised automatic sprinkler system 
complying with Section 903. 

1904.2 Portable fire extinguishers and hose. Portable fire 
extinguishers or standpipes and hose supplied from an 
approved water system shall be provided within 50 feet (15 240 
mm) of travel distance to any machine producing shavings or 
sawdust. Extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 906 for extra-high hazards. 

1904.3 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler 
systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 



SECTION 1905 

PLYWOOD, VENEER AND 

COMPOSITE BOARD MILLS 

1905.1 General. Plant operations of plywood, veneer and 
composite board mills shall comply with this section. 

1905.2 Dryer protection. Dryers shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, automatic deluge water-spray suppression 
system complying with Chapter 9. Deluge heads shall be 
inspected quarterly for pitch buildup. Deluge heads shall be 
flushed during regular maintenance for functional operation. 
Manual activation valves shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 
mm) of the drying equipment. 

1905.3 Thermal oil-heating systems. Facilities that use heat 
transfer fluids to provide process equipment heat through 
piped, indirect heating systems shall comply with this code and 
NFPA 664. 



SECTION 1906 
LOG STORAGE AREAS 

1906.1 General. Log storage areas shall comply with this sec- 
tion. 

1906.2 Cold decks. Cold decks shall not exceed 500 feet 
(152.4 m) in length, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height. Cold decks shall be separated from adja- 
cent cold decks or other exposures by a minimum of 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

Exception: The size of cold decks shall be determined by 
the fire code official where the decks are protected by spe- 
cial fire protection including, but not limited to, additional 
fire flow, portable turrets and deluge sets, and hydrant hose 
houses equipped with approved fire-fighting equipment 
capable of reaching the entire storage area in accordance 
with Chapter 9. 

1906.3 End stops. Log and pole piles shall be stabilized by 
approved means. 



SECTION 1907 

STORAGE OF WOOD CHIPS AND HOGGED 

MATERIAL ASSOCIATED WITH TIMBER AND 

LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

1907.1 General. The storage of wood chips and hogged mate- 
rials associated with timber and lumber production facilities 
shall comply with this section. 

1907.2 Size of piles. Piles shall not exceed 60 feet (18 288 mm) 
in height, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 500 feet (152 m) 
in length. Pil