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Full text of "City of Los Angeles Building Code, Volume 1"

City of 

Los Angeles 
Building 

Code 



Based on the 2007 CBC and 2006 IBC 




INTERNATIONAL 




2008 City of Los Angeles Building Code — Volume 1 
(Based on the 2007 CBC and the 2006 IBC) 



First Printing 



ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-644-5 



Publication Date: January 2008 



COPYRIGHT© 2008 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 

and 

CALIFORNIA BUILDING STANDARDS COMMISSION 



in 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This publication by the International Code Council, Inc (ICC) and the California Building Standar 
Commission (CBSC) is a jointly copyrighted work. The California Building Standards Commission has copyright ownership of 
California Building Standards Commission modifications to the Uniform Codes and ICC has copyright ownership of the Intern 
tional Codes. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or 
transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example 
and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to 
copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 
1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). ^^ 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Building Code" are tracfli^ 
marks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



REVISION RECORD FOR THE 
CITY OF LOS ANGELES 

Effective Date January, 2008 

By starting with a loose-leaf copy of the 2007 California Building Code, Volume 1, and substituting the Los 
Angeles pages (yellow), the user will have a complete 2008 City of Los Angeles Building Code, Volume 1, in cor- 
rect numerical sequence. It is suggested that original 2007 CBC pages that have been removed and replaced by Los 
Angeles pages be retained in a separate file for possible future reference. 



VOLUME 1 

Remove 2007 California Pages 

Title page and Copyright Page 

iii through xxxiv 

3 through 20 

29 through 46 

279 through 280 

549 through 552 

611 through 612 

615 through 618 

627 through 628 

631 through 632 

637 through 640 



Insert 2008 Los Angeles Pages 

Title page and Copyright Page 

XX through xxvi 

3R through 201R 

29R through 46R 

279R through 280R 

549 through 552R 

611R through 612 

615 through 618bR 

627R through 628 

631R through 632 

637 through 640R 




mn OF BUHDBf^G AHO SAFETY 



CITY OF LOS ANGELES 

ANTONIO R. VILLARAIGOSA, Mayor 

LOS ANGELES CITY COUNCIL 
PLANNING AND LAND USE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE 

ED REYES, Chair 

JOSE HUIZAR, Member 

JACK WEISS, Member 

DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING AND SAFETY 

ANDREW A. ADELMAN, RE. - General Manager 

BOARD OF BUILDING AND SAFETY COMMISSIONERS 

MARSHA L. BROWN, President 
PEDRO BIRBA, Vice-President 

VAN AMBATIELOS, RE. 
HELENA JUBANY 

ELENORE A. WILLIAMS 

MAIN OFFICE: 

201 North Figueroa Street, Los Angeles 90012 



Telephone: 1-888-LA4-BUILD 

1-888-524-2845 (for inside L.A. County) 

1-213-977-6941 (for outside of LA. County) 

Internet: http://www.ladbs.org 
CONSTRUCTION SERVICES COUNTERS: 

Metro District 201 North Figueroa Street, 4th Floor, Los Angeles 90012 

San Fernando Valley District 6262 Van Nuys Boulevard, 2nd Floor Van Nuys 91401 

San Pedro District 638 South Beacon Street, 2nd Floor, San Pedro 90731 

South Los Angeles District 8475 South Vermont Avenue, 2nd Floor, Los Angeles 90044 

West Los Angeles District 1828 Sawtelle Boulevard, 2nd Floor, Los Angeles 90025 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



iT OF BUILDING AND 



2008 Edition of the City of Los Angeles Building Code, Volumes 1 and 2 
2008 Edition of the City of Los Angeles Electrical Code 
2008 Edition of the City of Los Angeles Plumbing Code 
2008 Edition of the City of Los Angeles Mechanical Code 



City of Los Angeles Municipal Code 

City of Los Angeles Planning and Zoning Code 

California Building Standards Code, Parts 7, 8, and 10 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 




DBS 



i «)i»w«mffv,w«At-jffM'g gas 



ENT OF BUIIOING AND SAFETY 



CITY OF LOS ANGELES 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING AND SAFETY 



The mission of the Department of Building and Safety is to protect the lives and safety of the residents and visitors of the City of 
Los Angeles, preserve the City's quality of life, and contribute to the City's economic development. This is accomplished through 
implementation of the Zoning, Building, Plumbing, Mechanical, and Electrical Codes, as well as, the State Energy and Disabled 
Access regulations, and State and local laws for construction and maintenance of commercial, industrial and residential buildings. 

The Department of Building and Safety is the largest organization of its kind in the United States with a dedicated staff of more 
than 870 employees. The Depiartment provides service to a population of more than 3.8 million people in a metropolitan area of 
more than 470 square miles with its 16 offices located throughout the City. 

AWARDS AND COMMENDATIONS: 

The recent innovations and improvements in the City of Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety have been recognized and 
acknowledged by a number of local, state and national organizations. Some of these recent awards and commendations are: 

Building Department of the Year: The Department was named "The 1999 Building Department of the Year" by the Califor- 
nia Building Officials (CALBO) in March 1 999. The Department was recognized for demonstrating excellence and achieving 
success in innovation, community service, education, code development and customer service. 

Innovations In American Government Award: In May 2002, the Department was awarded the prestigious "Innovations In 
American Government Award" from Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government for its use of technology 
and performance measurements to increase productivity and customer service in a large governmental organization. 

Grand Prize for Productivity and Quality : In September 1 999, the Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commis- 
sion awarded its "Grand Prize for Productivity and Quality" to the City of Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety 
and the County of Los Angeles Building Division for their tremendous innovation in creating and developing the Los Angeles 
Regional Uniform Code Program (LARUCP). This program creates regional uniformity and reduces the number of local 
technical amendments to model codes, including the Uniform Building Code, Uniform Plumbing Code, Uniform Mechanical 
Code and the National Electrical Code, as amended by the State of California, for adoption by jurisdictions in the greater Los 
Angeles region. 

National Streamlining Achievement Award: The National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards, Inc. 
(NCS/BCS) in April 1999 announced that City of Los Angeles was the 1999 recipient of the "Streamlining Achievement 
Award." The Department was recognized for its innovation in its Case Management Unit, which assists customers by guiding 
them through City's regulatory agencies, policies and procedures in a timely and efficient manner. 

Building Official of the Year: In March 2000, Department General Manager, Andrew A. Adelman was presented with this 
award by California Building Officials, which represents all Building Officials in the State of California, for his extraordinary 
accomplishments in the City of Los Angeles and in helping others in the building code enforcement profession. 

Los Angeles Downtown Breakfast Club's Rose Award: The Department received the Rose Award from the Downtown 
Breakfast Club in April of 1999 for its outstanding contribution to the enhancement of the City's business climate and eco- 
nomic development, which includes the Department's One Stop Construction Service Center and streamlining the develop- 
ment review process. 

Local Government Official of the Year - West Region: This award was given to the Department of Building and Safety 
from the Building Industry Association in February 2000 in recognition of the improvement and innovations in development 
review and approval that have been implemented by the Department of Building and Safety. 

The Westside Prize 2000 and Westside Prize 2002: In June 2000, the General Manager of the Department of Building and 
Safety, Andrew A. Adelman, received a "Special Award" from the Westside Urban Forum for the outstanding work in creat- 
ing a new culture of customer service in the Department. Then, in June 2002, the City of Los Angeles Department of Building 
and Safety was recognized again by the Westside Urban Forum for the e-Permit project, which allows the Department of 
Building and Safety customers to apply for, pay for and receive express permits via the internet or a fax machine 24 hours a 
day, seven days a week. 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE v 



Treasure of Central City Association: The Los Angeles Central City Association on January 2002 gave an award of "Trea- 
sure of Central City Association" to the Department of Building and Safety for outstanding contributions in community ser- 
vice and for promoting the health and vitality of the City of Los Angeles. 

Public Service Award: In June 2000, the Department of Building and Safety was recognized by the Structural Engineers 
Association of Southern California for its efforts in reorganizing and improving the Department 

Leadership in Engineering for Revitalizing Key Municipal Services: This award was given to the Department in February 
2000 based on the nominations from Consulting Engineers and Land Surveyors of California in recognition of the Depart- 
ment's outstanding contributions to the advancement of the Engineering Profession. 

Special Recognition Award: In October 2001, Andrew Adelman, General Manager of the Department of Building and 
Safety was given this award by the Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce and Construction Industry Awards Committee 
in honor of the outstanding contribution to local construction in the community. 

Award for Dedicated Services to the Los Angeles Regional Uniform Code Program (LARUCP): In June 2003, the 
Department of Building and Safety was recognized by the Structural Engineers Association of Southern California for its 
efforts in participating with the Engineering Community of Los Angeles with the development of Structural and Seismic 
Design standards for the construction of buildings. 

Growing With Our Cities and Communities Award: In October 2002, the Andrew Adelman, General Manager of the 
Department of Building and Safety, was given this award from the Asian- American Architects/ Engineers Association for 
significant achievement in the community. 

City of Los Angeles Productivity Improvement Award: The Department has received 24 Productivity Improvement 
Awards from the City of Los Angeles Quality and Productivity Improvement Commission from 1997 to 2005. The 24 Pro- 
ductivity Improvement Awards are as follows: Building Permit Clearance Handbook, Internet Request for Inspection Sys- 
tem, Code Enforcement Information System (CEIS), Inspection Bureau Performance Report, Van Nuys District Office One 
Stop Construction Services Center, Streamlining the Residential Property Report Process, Customer Call Center, e-Permits, 
Streamlining Over-the-Counter Building Permit Process, Q-Matic Customer Queuing System, Code Enforcement Bureau, 
Proactive Code Enforcement Program, Los Angeles Regional Uniform Code Program, LADBS Information Bulletins Pro- 
gram, Automated Inspection Request System, Centralized Request for Inspections, Vacant Building Abatement Program, 
Citywide Nuisance Abatement Program, Delivering Guaranteed & Responsive Customer Service, Case Management Unit, 
Appointment Plan Check, Automated Certificate of Occupancy System (ACOS), Fire Life Safety Testing Program, and 
Alternative Maritime Power (AMP) Program. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT 

A Few Noteworthy Facts about the Department of Building and Safety: 

° Provides services to Los Angeles City residents through 16 different offices located throughout the City 

° Serves over 500,000 walk-in customers annually 

° Responds to over 822,000 customer phone calls annually 

° Issues over 139,000 permits with a total valuation of over $5.3 biUion annually 

° Conducts over 900,000 inspections annually 

° Issues over 16,900 trade licenses for 16 different occupations annually 

° Provides information for over 80,000 addresses annually 

° Responds to over 43,000 Code Enforcement service requests annually 

° Brings back over 36,000 properties to compliance annually 

° Abate over 640 nuisance and abandoned buildings annually 

° Reviews and approves plans for over 50,000 projects annually 

The Responsibilities of the Department of Building and Safety Are Assigned to Four Bureaus: 

The Engineering Bureau is primarily responsible for the plan checking, report approval, and permit issuance related to 
building projects within privately owned property in the City of Los Angeles. In the course of carrying out these responsibili- 
ties, the Engineering Bureau enforces the structural, building, plumbing, mechanical, electrical, grading and zoning regula- 
tions of the City. In addition, the Engineering Bureau is responsible for reviewing applications for building, plumbing, 
mechanical and electrical product approvals through its Electrical and Mechanical Test Laboratories. 

The Inspection Bureau is responsible for inspection of all construction activities for new and existing buildings, plumbing, 
mechanical, electrical, elevator and pressure vessel systems, the enforcement of applicable State and local laws relating to 
existing buildings and property, and the administration of various special programs mandated by the City Council. 

The Code Enforcement Bureau was created as a part of a reorganization of code enforcement functions in 1999. This 
Bureau is responsible for the enforcement of Municipal Code requirements for all existing buildings in the City of Los 
Angeles, except rental multi-family dwellings. The Bureau handles complaints, citations, processing of vacant and nuisance 
buildings for repair or demolition, Signs, Vehicle Establishment Inspection Program and Proactive Code Enforcement Pro- 
gram among others. 

The Resource Management Bureau is responsible for the direction and coordination of administrative and financial pro- 
jects, systems development, training and acts as the emergency disaster coordinator for all Department operations. 

The Board of Building and Safety Commissioners: 

The Board of Building and Safety Commissioners is a five-member board of citizens residing in the City and appointed by the 
Mayor and confirmed by the City Council. The Commission has the authority to hear and act upon appeals from determinations, 
orders, or actions of the Department or the Superintendent of Building, pertaining to enforcement of the codes under the jurisdiction 
of the Department. In addition, the Commission conducts public hearings, as needed, regarding procedures, new codes and various 
functions of the Department. Finally, the Commission acts in an advisory capacity to the Department and the Superintendent of 
Building. 



2008 CBTY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE 
CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 

The City of Los Angeles Building Code was established in 1 889 with the appointment of the first superintendent of building. In 
1923, the first of 1 8 volumes of the Los Angeles Annual Builder's Guide was published. This guide is a handbook for architects and 
builders and contains a complete cross index of the Los Angeles building ordinances, electrical ordinances and supplementary ml- 
ings and the California State Housing Act. 

After 1936, the building regulations of Chapter IX of the Los Angeles Municipal Code were established by the passage of Ordi- 
nance No. 77,000. But it was 1943 when Ordinance No. 87,000 amended in its entirety Article 1 of Chapter IX of the Los Angeles 
Municipal Code and a new Los Angeles City Building Code was published. This edition of the Los Angeles Municipal Code estab- 
lished the format of the different divisions and sections relevant to the building regulations in the city. 

Through the intervening years, the code has been amended and revised regularly to keep pace with the ever-changing technology 
of the construction industry and new and proven concepts of structural design. 

The State of California has mandated the City of Los Angeles to enforce the California Building Code (CBC). The City Council 
for the City of Los Angeles has passed Ordinance Number 179,324 (operative January 1 , 2008) to amend Article 1 of Chapter IX of 
the Los Angeles Municipal Code and to adopt by reference the 2007 edition of the California Building Code (CBC) and hereinafter 
shall be called the 2008 edition of the City of Los Angeles Building Code. 

Chapter 1 is the general administrative provisions of the City of Los Angeles and replaces Chapter 1 of the CBC. 

Chapters 2 through 35 are the general provisions of the California Building Code. 

Chapters 61 through 72 have been added to the code to provide special requirements of the City of Los Angeles. 

Chapters 81 through 91 are the city code requirements of existing buildings and structures. 

Chapters 92 through 96 are the city standard for voluntary earthquake hazard reduction standards for existing buildings. 

At the end of Volume 2 of the Building Code, "Excerpts" has been added for additional reference to the industry. Excerpts are the 
accumulation of related Los Angeles City codes and municipal and administrative code sections pertaining to Department of Build- 
ing and Safety. 



LA 

\^ This symbol indicates that a City of Los Angeles amendment has been added to the 2007 California Building Code. 

LA 

[For HCD 1] This italicized notation is used to identify which state agency has amended a section of the IBC. 
For a complete listing of state agencies, refer to CBC Section 101.17 et seq. 



2008 CDTY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE vili 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1 



1 ADMINISTRATION 3R 

Section 

101 Title, Purpose and Scope 3R 

102 Unsafe Buildings or Structures 9R 

103 Violations 9R 

104 Organization and Enforcement . . . 9R 

105 Appeals lOR 

106 Permits 14R 

107 Fees 20aR 

108 Department of Housing Development ........ 3R 

108 Inspection 20gR 

109 Division of State Architect 4R 

109 Certificate of Occupancy 20iR 

110 Office of Statewide Health Planning 

and Development , 5R 

110 Responsibility of Permittee 20jR 

1 1 1 Office of the Fire Marshal 6R 

1 1 1 Code Revision 20jR 

1 12 Grading Certificate , . 20jR 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 29R 

Section 

201 General 29R 

202 Definitions 29R 

CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY 

CLASSIFICATION 49 

Section 

301 General 49 

302 Classification 49 

303 Assembly Group A 49 

304 Business Group B 50 

305 Educational Group E - 50 

306 Factory Group F 50 

307 High-hazard Group H 51 

308 Institutional Group I 59 

309 Mercantile Group M 60 

310 Residential Group R 61 

311 Storage Group S 65 

312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 65 



CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 

USE AND OCCUPANCY 71 

Section 

401 Scope 71 

402 Covered Mall Buildings 71 

403 High-rise Buildings 74 

404 Atriums 76 

405 Underground Buildings 76 

406 Motor-vehicle-related Occupancies 77 

407 Group 1-2 .81 

408 Group 1-3 84 

409 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 86 

410 Stages and Platforms 87 

411 Special Amusement Buildings 88 

412 Aircraft-related Occupancies 89 

413 Combustible Storage 91 

414 Hazardous Materials 91 

415 Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 95 

416 Application of Flammable Finishes 108 

417 Drying Rooms 108 

418 Organic Coatings 108 

419 Group I-l, R-1, R-2, R-3, R-3.1, R-4 109 

420 Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms 109 

421 Reserved 110 

422 Reserved 110 

423 Reserved 110 

424 Reserved 110 

425 Special Provisions for Licensed 

24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group I-l, 

R-3.1 or R-4 occupancy [SFM] 110 

426 Group 1-4 [SFM] 113 

427 Reserved 114 

428 Reserved 1 14 

429 Reserved 1 14 

430 Horse Racing Stables [SFM] 114 

431 Pet Kennels [SFM] 1 14 

432 Combustion Engines and 

Gas Turbines [SFM] 114 

433 Fixed Guideway Transit Systems [SFM] 114 

434 Explosives [SFM] 118 

435 Reserved 121 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



436 Winery Caves [SFM] 121 

437 Reserved 122 

438 Reserved 122 

439 Public Libraries [SL & SFM] 122 

440 Group C [SFM] 123 

441 Reserved 125 

442 Group E [SFM] 125 

443 Group L [SFM] 126 

444 Reserved 129 

445 Large-family Day Care Homes [SFM] 129 

CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING 

HEIGHTS AND AREAS. ........ 133 

Section 

501 General 133 

502 Definitions 133 

503 General Height and Area Limitations 133 

504 Height 135 

505 Mezzanines 135 

506 Area Modifications 136 

507 Unlimited Area Buildings 137 

508 Mixed Use and Occupancy 139 

509 Special Provisions 140 

CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION ... 147 
Section 

601 General 147 

602 Construction Classification 147 

603 Combustible Material in Type I and II 

Construction 148 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE-RESISTANCE=RATED 

CONSTRUCTION 153 

Section 

701 General 153 

702 Definitions 153 

703 Fire-resistance Ratings and Fire Tests 154 

704 Exterior Walls 155 

705 Fire Walls 158 

706 Fire Barriers 160 

707 Shaft Enclosures 162 

708 Fire Partitions 164 

709 Smoke Barriers 165 

710 Smoke Partitions 166 

711 Horizontal Assemblies 166 



712 Penetrations 167 

713 Fire-resistant Joint Systems 169 

714 Fire-resistance Rating of 

Structural Members 170 

715 Opening Protectives 171 

716 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 175 

717 Concealed Spaces 178 

718 Fire-resistance Requirements for Plaster 180 

719 Thermal- and Sound-insulating Materials .... 181 

720 Prescriptive Fire Resistance . . . 181 

721 Calculated Fire Resistance 202 

CHAPTER 7A MATERIALS AND 

CONSTRUCTION METHODS 
FOR EXTERIOR WILDFIRE 

EXPOSURE 235 

Section 

701 A Scope, Purpose and Application 235 

702A Definitions 235 

703A Standards of Quality 236 

704 A Materials, Systems and 

Methods of Construction 236 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES 241 

Section 

801 General 241 

802 Definitions 241 

803 Wall and Ceiling Finishes 241 

804 Interior Floor Finish 243 

805 Combustible Materials in Types I 

. and II Construction 244 

806 Decorative Materials and Trim 244 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION 

SYSTEMS 251 

Section 

901 General 251 

902 Definitions 251 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 254 

904 Alternative Automatic 

Fire-extinguishing Systems 260 

905 Standpipe Systems 261 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 264 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 264 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 278 

909 Smoke Control Systems 279R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



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910 Smoke and Heat Vents 285 

91 1 Fire Command Center 287 

912 Fire Department Connections 288 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 293 

Section 

1001 Administration 293 

1002 Definitions 293 

1003 General Means of Egress 294 

1004 Occupant Load 296 

1005 Egress Width 298 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 298 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 299 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 301 

1009 Stairways 306 

1010 Ramps 309 

1011 Exit Signs .310 

1012 Handrails 311 

1013 Guards 312 

1014 Exit Access 313 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 315 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 316 

1017 Corridors 317 

1018 Exits 318 

1019 Number of Exits and Continuity. 318 

1020 Vertical Exit Enclosures 319 

1021 Exit Passageways 321 

1022 Horizontal Exits 322 

1023 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 322 

1024 Exit Discharge 323 

1025 Assembly 324 

1026 Emergency Escape and Rescue 329 

CHAPTER 11 RESERVED .331 

CHAPTER llA HOUSING ACCESSIBILITY .... 335 

Section 

1101 A Application 335 

1 102A Building Accessibility 335 

1 103A Design and Construction 336 

1 104A Group R Occupancies 336 

1105 A Group U Occupancies 336 

1106A Site and Building Characteristics 337 

1107A Definitions 337 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



1108A General Requirements for 
Accessible Parking and 
Exterior Routes of Travel 339 

1 109A Parking Facilities . 340 

1 1 lOA Exterior Routes of Travel 341 

1 1 1 1 A Changes in Level on Accessible Routes. ..... 342 

1 112A Curb Ramps on Accessible Routes. 342 

1113A Walks and Sidewalks on an 

Accessible Route 343 

1114A Exterior Ramps and 

Landings on Accessible Routes 343 

1115A Exterior Stairways Along 

Accessible Routes 345 

1 1 16A Hazards on Accessible Routes 345 

1117A General Requirements for 

Accessible Entrances, Exits, 

Interior Routes of Travel and 

Facility Accessibility 346 

1 1 18A Egress and Areas of Refuge 346 

1 1 19A Interior Routes of Travel 346 

1 120A Interior Accessible Routes 347 

1 121 A Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 347 

1122A Interior Ramps and Landings on 

Accessible Routes 347 

11 23 A Interior Stairways Along 

Accessible Routes 348 

1124A Elevators and Special Access 

(Wheelchair) Lifts 349 

1125A Hazards on Accessible Routes 351 

1 126A Doors 351 

1 127A Common Use Facilities 352 

1 128A Covered Dwelling Units 358 

1129A Reserved 359 

1 130A Accessible Route Within 

Covered Multifamily Dwelling Units. ..... 359 

1131 A Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 359 

1132A Doors 359 

1 133A Kitchens 360 

1 134A Bathing and Toilet Facilities 361 

1 135 A Laundry Rooms 364 

1136A Electrical Receptacle, 

Switch and Control Heights . 364 

1 137 A Other Features and Facilities 365 

1138A Reserved. 365 

1 139 A Accessible Drinking Fountains 365 

1 140A Accessible Telephones 365 

1 141 A Accessible Swimming Pools 366 

xi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1 142 A Electrical Receptacle, Switch and 

Control Heights 367 

1143A Signage 367 

1 144A Reserved . 368 

1145A Reserved. 368 

1146A Reserved 368 

1 147A Reserved 368 

1 148A Reserved 368 

1149A Reserved 368 

1 150A Site Impracticality Tests 368 

CHAPTER IIB ACCESSIBILITY TO 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS, 
PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS, 
COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 
AND PUBLICLY FUNDED 
HOUSING. ...... o ...... o ...... 423 

Section 

IIOIB Scope 423 

1 102B Definitions 423 

1 103B Building Accessibility 426 

1 104B Accessibility for Group A Occupancies 427 

1 105B Accessibility for Group B Occupancies 430 

1 106B Accessibility for Group E Occupancies 43 1 

1 107B Factories and Warehouses 432 

1108B Accessibility for Group H Occupancies 432 

1109B Accessibility for Group I Occupancies 432 

1 1 lOB Accessibility for Group M Occupancies 433 

11 IIB Accessibility for Group R Occupancies. ..... 434 

1 1 12B Reserved 437 

1113B Reserved, i 437 

1 1 14B Facility Accessibility 437 

1 1 15B Bathing and Toilet Facilities 

(Sanitary Facilities) 438 

1116B Elevators and Special Access 

(Wheelchair) Lifts 444 

1 1 17B Other Building Components 447 

1 1 1 8B Space Allowance and Reach Ranges 454 

1 1 19B Special Standards of Accessibility for 

Buildings with Historical Significance .... 454 

1120B Floor and Levels 454 

1121B Transportation Facilities 454 

1 122B Fixed or Built-in Seating, 

Tables and Counters 458 

1123B Access to Employee Areas 458 

1 124B Ground and Floor Surfaces 459 

1125B Storage 459 



1 126B Vending Machines and Other Equipment 459 

1 127B Exterior Routes of Travel 460 

1128B Pedestrian Grade Separations 

(Overpasses and Underpasses) 461 

1 129B Accessible Parking Required 461 

1 130B Parking Structures 463 

1 13 IB Passenger Drop-off and Loading Zones 463 

1 132B Outdoor Occupancies 463 

1 133B General Accessibility for 

Entrances, Exits and Paths of Travel 465 

1134B Accessibility for Existing Buildings ........ 472 

1 1 35B Historic Preservation — 
Special Standards of 
Accessibility for Buildings with 
Historical Significance 473 

CHAPTER lie STANDARDS FOR CARD 
READERS AT GASOLINE 
FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITIES 541 

Section 

1 lOlC Card-reader Devices at 

Fuel-dispensing Equipment 541 

1 102C Application 541 

1 103C Number of Accessible 

Card-reading Devices Required 541 

1104C Required Features 541 

1 105C Protection of Dispensers 

Mounted at Grade 542 

CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT .... 547 
Section 

1201 General .547 

1202 Definitions 547 

1203 Ventilation 547 

1204 Temperature Control 548 

1205 Lighting 549 

1206 Yards or Courts .549 

1207 Sound Transmission 550R 

1208 Interior Space Dimensions 552R 

1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 553 

1210 Surrounding Materials 553 

1211 Garage Door Springs 553 

1212 Reserved 554 

1213 Reserved 554 

1214 Reserved 5.54 

1215 Reserved 554 

1216 Reserved 554 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1217 Reserved 554 

1218 Reserved 554 

1219 Reserved 554 

1220 Reserved 554 

1221 Reserved. 554 

1222 Reserved 554 

1223 Reserved 554 

1224 Hospitals 555 

1225 Skilled Nursing and 

Intermediate-care Facilities 581 

1226 Clinics 586 

1227 Correctional Treatment Centers 589 

1228 Reserved 594 

1229 Reserved 594 

1230 Minimum Standards for 

Juvenile Facilities 594 

1231 Local Detention 598 

1232 Reserved. 603 

1233 Reserved 603 

1234 Reserved 604 

1235 Sanitary Control of Shellfish 

(Plants and Operations) 604 

1236 Laboratory Animal Quarters 604 

1237 Wild Animal Quarantine Facilities 604 

1238 Reserved 605 

1239 Reserved .605 

1240 Meat and Poultry Processing Plants : 605 

1241 Collection Centers and Facilities 606 

1242 Renderers 607 

1 243 Horsemeat and Pet Food Establishments 607 

1244 Reserved 608 

1245 Reserved 608 

1246 Reserved 608 

1247 Reserved. ' ^ . 608 

1248 Reserved 608 

1249 Reserved 608 

1250 Pharmacies 608 

1251 Veterinary Facilities 608 

1252 Barber Colleges and Shops 609 

1253 Schools of Cosmetology, 

Cosmetological Establishments and 

Satellite Classrooms 609 

1254 Acupuncture Offices 609 



CHAPTER 13 ENERGY CONSERVATION . . . 611R 

Section 

1300 General 611R 

1301 Solar Energy Collectors 61 IR 

CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS 615 

Section 

1401 General. 615 

1402 Definitions 615 

1403 Performance Requirements 615 

1404 Materials 616R 

1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 616R 

1406 Combustible Materials on the 

Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 620 

1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 621 

1408 Additional Requirements for 

Anchored and Adhered Veneer 622 

CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 625 

Section 

1501 General 625 

1502 Definitions 625 

1503 Weather Protection 625 

1504 Performance Requirements 626 

1505 Fire Classification 627R 

1506 Materials 628 

1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings 628 

1508 Roof Insulation 637 

1509 Rooftop Structures. 637 

1510 R^eroofing. 638R 

1511 Seismic Anchorage of 

Slate Shingle, Clay and 

Concrete Tile Roof Coverings 639R 

INDEX 641 

HISTORY NOTE 673 

VOLUME 2 

CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 3 

Section 

1601 General 3 

1602 Definitions and Notations 3 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



XIII 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1603 Construction Documents 4 

1604 General Design Requirements 5 

1605 Load Combinations 8 

1606 Dead Loads 9 

1607 Live Loads 10 

1608 Snow Loads 15 

1609 Wind Loads 15 

1610 Soil Lateral Loads 25 

161 1 Rain Loads 25 

1612 Flood Loads 26 

1613 Earthquake Loads 28 

CHAPTER 16A STRUCTURAL DESIGN ......... 53 

Section 

1601A General 53 

1602A Definitions and Notations 53 

1603A Construction Documents 55 

1604 A General Design Requirements 56 

1605A Load Combinations 59 

1606A Dead Loads 60 

1607A Live Loads 60 

1608A Snow Loads 66 

1609A Wind Loads 66 

1610A Soil Lateral Loads 71 

161 lA Rain Loads 71 

1612A Flood Loads 72 

1613A Earthquake Loads 74 

1614A Modifications to ASCE 7 78 

CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS. ...... 87R 

Section 

1701 General 87R 

1702 Definitions 87R 

1703 Approvals . 88R 

1704 Special Inspections 88R 

1705 Statement of Special Inspections 98R 

1706 Contractor Responsibility 99R 

1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance . . 99R 

1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance . . . lOlR 

1709 Structural Observations 102R 

1710 Design Strengths of Materials 102R 

1711 Alternative Test Procedure 102R 

1712 Test Safe Load. . . / 102R 

1713 In-situ Load Tests 102R 



1714 Preconstruction Load Tests 102aR 

1715 Material and Test Standards 102bR 

1716 Certified Licensed Contractors 102bR 

1717 Certified Security Bar Installer ; 102dR 

1718 Prefabricated Construction 102eR 

CHAPTER 17A STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 105 

Section 

1701A General 105 

1702A Definitions 105 

1703A Approvals 106 

1704A Special Inspections 107 

1705 A Statement of Special Inspections 117 

1706 A Contractor Responsibility 118 

1707A Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance ... 1 18 

1708 A Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance .... 119 

1709 A Structural Observations 120 

1710A Design Strengths of Materials 120 

171 1 A Alternative Test Procedure 120 

1712A Test Safe Load 120 

1713A In-situ Load Tests 120 

1714A Preconstruction Load Tests 121 

1715A Material and Test Standards 122 

CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS . . 125R 
Section 

1801 General 125R 

1802 Foundation and Soils Investigations 125R 

1803 Excavation, Grading and Fill 128 

1804 Allowable Load-bearing Values of Soils 129R 

1805 Footings and Foundations 129R 

1806 Retaining Walls 140 

1807 Dampproofing and Waterproofing 140 

1808 Pier and Pile Foundations 141R 

1809 Driven Pile Foundations 146 

1810 Cast-in-place Concrete Pile Foundations 149 

1811 Composite Piles 153 

1812 Pier Foundations 153 

CHAPTER ISA SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS .... 157 
Section 

1801A General 157 

1802A Foundation and Soils Investigations 157 

1803 A Excavation, Grading and Fill 160 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



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1804 A Allowable Load-bearing Values of Soils ..... 161 

1805A Footings and Foundations 161 

1806 A Retaining Walls and Cantilever Walls . 165 

1807 A Dampproofing and Waterproofing 166 

1808A Pier and Pile Foundations 167 

1809A Driven Pile Foundations 172 

1810A Cast-in-place Concrete Pile Foundations 175 

181 lA Composite Piles 178 

1812A Pier Foundations 179 

CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE 183 

Section 

1901 General 183 

1902 Definitions 183 

1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 183 

1904 Durability Requirements 183 

1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 185 

1906 Form work, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints , 185 

1907 Details of Reinforcement 186 

1908 Modifications to ACI 318 186 

1909 Structural Plain Concrete 189R 

1910 Minimum Slab Provisions 190 

1911 Anchorage to Concrete — Allowable 

Stress Design 190 

1912 Anchorage to Concrete — Strength Design. ... 191 

1913 Shotcrete. 191 

1914 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 192 

1915 Concrete-filled Pipe Columns. 192 

CHAPTER 19A CONCRETE. 197 

Section 

1902A General 197 

1902A Definitions 197 

1903 A Specifications for Tests and Materials 197 

1904A Durability Requirements 198 

1905 A Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing ....... 200 

1906 A Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 201 

1907 A Details of Reinforcement 201 

1908A Modifications to ACI 318 202 

1909 A Structural Plain Concrete 208 

1910A Minimum Slab Provisions 208 

1 9 1 1 A Anchorage to Concrete — 

Allowable Stress Design 208 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



1912A Anchorage to Concrete — 

Strength Design 209 

1913A Shotcrete 209 

1914A Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 211 

19 15 A Concrete-filled Pipe Columns 211 

1916A Concrete Testing 211 

19 17 A Existing Concrete Structures 212 

CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM 215 

Section 

2001 General 215 

2002 . Materials 215 

2003 Inspection 215 

CHAPTER 21 MASONRY 219 

Section 

2101 General 219 

2102 Definitions and Notations 219 

2103 Masonry Construction Materials 223 

2104 Construction 226 

2105 Quality Assurance 229 

2106 Seismic Design 230 

2107 Allowable Stress Design 232 

2108 Strength Design of Masonry 232 

2109 Empirical Design of Masonry . 233 

2110 Glass Unit Masonry 239 

2111 Masonry Fireplaces . 241 

2112 Masonry Heaters 243R 

2113 Masonry Chimneys 243R 

CHAPTER 21A MASONRY 251 

Section 

2101A General 251 

2102A Definitions and Notations 251 

2 103 A Masonry Construction Materials 255 

2104A Construction 258 

2 105 A Quality Assurance 263 

2106A Seismic Design 265 

2107A Allowable Stress Design 267 

2 108 A Strength Design of Masonry 268 

2109A Empirical Design of Masonry 268 

2110A Glass Unit Masonry 268 

21 1 1 A Masonry Fireplaces 269 

21 12A Masonry Heaters 271 

21 13A Masonry Chimneys <■ 271 

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2114A Nonbearing Walls 275 

2115A Masonry Screen Walls 276 

CHAPTER 22 STEEL ...,,,,,. 279R 

Section 

2201 General 279R 

2202 Definitions 279R 

2203 Identification and Protection of Steel 

for Structural Purposes 279R 

2204 Connections 279R 

2205 Structural Steel 279R 

2206 Steel Joists 280R 

2207 Steel Cable Structures 280R 

2208 Steel Storage Racks 281 

2209 Cold-formed Steel 281 

2210 Cold-formed Steel Light-framed 

Construction 281 

CHAPTER 22A STEEL. . ...................... 285 

Section 

2201 A General 285 

2202A Definitions 285 

2203 A Identification and Protection of 

Steel for Structural Purposes 285 

2204A Connections 285 

2205A Structural Steel 286 

2206A Steel Joists 288 

2207A Steel Cable Structures 289 

2208A Steel Storage Racks 289 

2209A Cold-formed Steel 289 

2210A Cold-formed Steel Light-framed 

Construction 289 

2211 A Light Modular Steel Moment 

Frames for Public Elementary and 

Secondary Schools, and 

Community Colleges 289 

2212A Testing ° 290 

CHAPTER 23 WOOD 293R 

Section 

2301 General 293R 

2302 Definitions 293R 

2303 Minimum Standards and Quality 295 

2304 General Construction Requirements 299 

2305 General Design Requirements for 

Lateral-force-resisting Systems 309R 

2306 Allowable Stress Design 317R 



2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design 327R 

2308 Conventional Light-frame Construction .... 327R 

CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING. 373 

Section 

2401 General 373 

2402 Definitions 373 

2403 General Requirements for Glass 373 

2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and 

Dead Loads on Glass 373 

2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights 376 

2406 Safety Glazing 377 

2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards 379 

2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilities 379 

2409 Glass in Elevator Hoistway 380 

CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD 

AND PLASTER 383 

Section 

2501 General 383 

2502 Definitions 383 

2503 Inspection 383 

2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies 383 

2505 Shear Wall Construction 384 

2506 Gypsum Board Materials 384 

2507 Lathing and Plastering 384 

2508 Gypsum Construction 385 

2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and 

Water Closets 386 

2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement 

Plaster (Stucco) 386 

251 1 Interior Plaster 387 

2512 Exterior Plaster 387 

2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 388 

CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC 393 

Section 

2601 General 393 

2602 Definitions 393 

2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 393 

2604 Interior Finish and Trim 396 

2605 Plastic Veneer 397 

2606 Light-transmitting Plastics 397 

2607 Light-transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 398 

2608 Light- transmitting Plastic Glazing 399 

2609 Light-transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 399 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



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2610 Light-transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing . . 400 

2611 Light-transmitting Plastic Interior Signs 400 

CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL 403 

Section 

2701 General 403 

2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 403 

CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS 407 

Section 

2801 General 407 

2802 Spark Arresters 407 

CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS 409 

Section 

2901 General 409 

CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS 413R 

Section 

3001 General 413R 

3002 Hoistway Enclosures 413R 

3003 Emergency Operations 414 

3004 Hoistway Venting 416 

3005 Conveying Systems 416 

3006 Machine Rooms 417 

3007 Special Requirements for 

Elevators in Hospitals 417 

CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION .... 421 

Section 

3101 General 421 

3102 Membrane Structures 421 

3103 Temporary Structures 422 

3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 422 

3105 Awnings and Canopies 423 

3106 Marquees , 424R 

3107 Signs . . -. 424R 

3 108 Radio and Television Towers 424R 

3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and 

Safety Devices. 424R 

3110 Patio Covers 427R 

CHAPTER 31B PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS ... 431 

Section 

3101B Scope 431 

3102B Definitions 431 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



3103B Special Pool Classifications 432 

3104B Accessibility to the Physically 

Handicapped Person 432 

3105B Alternate Equipment, Materials and 

Methods of Construction 432 

3106B Pool Construction 432 

3107B Additional Requirements for a 

Temporary Training Pool 433 

3108B Pool Geometry 433 

3109B Permanent Markings . 433 

3110B Steps, Recessed Steps, Ladders and 

Recessed Stairs (Treads) 437 

311 IB Handholds 437 

3112B Diving Boards 437 

3113B Pool Decks 437 

3114B Pool Lighting 438 

3 1 15B Bathhouse Dressing, 

Shower and Toilet Facilities 438 

31 16B Drinking Fountains 438 

3117B Hose Bibbs 439 

31 18B Enclosure of Pool Area 439 

3119B Signs 439 

3120B Indoor Pool Ventilation 441 

3121B Foundations For Pool Equipment 441 

3122B Gas Chlorination Equipment Room 441 

3123B General Requirements 441 

3124B Turnover Time 442 

3125B Recirculation Piping System and 

Components 442 

3126B Recirculation Pump Capacity 442 

3127B Water Supply Inlets 442 

3128B Filters (All Types) 442 

3129B Rapid Sand Pressure Filters 443 

3130B Diatomaceous Earth Filters. 443 

3131B High-rate Sand Filters 443 

3132B Chemical Feeders 443 

3133B Disinfectant Feeders 444 

3134B Pool Fittings 444 

3135B Spa Pool Special Requirements 445 

3136B Cleaning Systems 445 

3137B Waste Water Disposal 445 

3138B Reserved 446 

3139B Reserved 446 

3140B Reserved 446 

3141B Reserved 446 

3142B Reserved 446 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



3143B Reserved 446 

3144B Reserved 446 

3145B Reserved 446 

3146B Reserved 446 

3147B Reserved 446 

3148B Reserved 446 

3149B Reserved 446 

3150B Reserved 446 

31.51B Reserved. 446 

3152B Reserved. . ". 446 

3153B Reserved 446 

3154B Reserved 446 

3155B Reserved 446 

3156B Reserved 446 

3157B Reserved 446 

3158B Reserved 446 

3159B Reserved 446 

3160B 446 

3161B 447 

CHAPTER 31C RADIATION. ...........,.,.,,. 451 

Section 

3101C Scope 451 

3102C Radiation Shielding Barriers 451 

3103C Medical Radiographic and 

Photofluorographic Installations 45 1 

3104C Medical Therapeutic X-ray Installations 451 

CHAPTER 31D FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS 455 

Section 

3101D Scope 455 

3102D Definitions 455 

3I03B Building and Structures ■ 455 

TENTS AND ME^ 
STRUCTURES... 

Section 

3101E General Provisions 459 

3102E Definitions 459 

3103E Tents Having an Occupant of 

Load 10 or More 459 

3104E Location of Tents 459 

3105E Structural Requirements 460 

3106E Exit Requirements 460 

3 107E Heating Equipment 460 



3108E Membrane (Air-supported and 

Air-inflated) Structures 460 

3I09E Alternative Means of Protection 460 

CHAPTER 31F MARINE OIL TERMINALS 465 

Section 

3101F Introduction 465 

3102F Audit and Inspection 466 

3103F Structural Loading Criteria 476 

3104F Seismic Analysis and 

Structural Performance 488 

3105F Mooring and Berthing Analysis and 

Design 494 

3106F Geotechnical Hazards and Foundations 499 

3107F Structural Analysis and 

Design of Components 502 

3108F Fire Prevention, Detection and Suppression . . 514 

3109F Piping and Pipelines 518 

3110F Mechanical and Electrical Equipment 520 

311 IF Electrical Systems 523 

CHAPTER 32 PROJECTIONS FROM BUILDINGS 
AND CONSTRUCTION IN THE 
PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY 527R 

Section 

3201 General 527R 

3202 Encroachments 527R 

CHAPTER 33 SITE WORK DEMOLITION AND 

CONSTRUCTION 531R 

Section 

3301 General 531R 

3302 Construction Safeguards 53 IR 

3303 Demolition 531R 

3304 Site Work 531R 

3305 Toilet Facilities During Construction 53 IR 

3306 Protection of Pedestrians 532R 

3307 Protection of Adjoining Property 533R 

3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and 

Public Property 534R 

3309 Fire Extinguishers 534R 

3310 Exits 534R 

3311 Standpipes 534R 

3312 Automatic Sprinkler System 534R 

CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES 537R 

Section 

3401 General 537R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



3402 Definitions 537R 

3403 Additions, Alterations or Repairs 537R 

3404 Fire Escapes 539 

3405 Glass Replacement 539 

3406 Change of Occupancy 540R 

3407 Historic Buildings 540R 

3408 Moved Structures 540R. 

3409 Reserved 540R 

3410 Compliance Alternatives 540R 

3411 Existing Group R- 1 and 

Group R-2 Occupancies 549 

3412 Existing High-rise Buildings 552 

3413 Existing Group I Occupancies 554 

3414 Existing Group L Occupancies 554 

3415 Earthquake Evaluation and 

Design for Retrofit of 

Existing Buildings 555 

3416 Definitions 557 

3417 Seismic Criteria Selection for 

Existing Buildings 557 

3418 Method A . 560 

3419 Method B 560 

3420 Peer Review Requirements 561 

342 1 Additional Requirements for 

Public Schools 562 

CHAPTER 34A EXISTING STRUCTURES 565 

Section 

3401 A General 565 

3402A Definitions 565 

3403A Additions, Alterations or Repairs 566 

3404A Fire Escapes 567 

3405A Glass Replacement 568 

3406A Change of Occupancy 568 

3407A Historic Buildings 568 

3408A Moved Structures 568 

3409A Reserved 568 

3410A Compliance Alternatives 568 

3411 A Additions, Alterations, Repairs and 
Seismic Retrofit to Existing 
Buildings or Structures 577 

34 1 2 A Earthquake Evaluation and 

Design for Retrofit of Existing 

Hospital Buildings 578 

3413A Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings 579 



34 14 A Peer Review Requirements 582 

CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS. ... 585 

CHAPTER 61 SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS 609 

Section 

6101 Impact Hazard Glazing in 

Existing Buildings 609 

6102 Rubbish Rooms 609 

6103 Shafts, Pits and Similar 

Excavation — Misdemeanor 609 

6104 Fire Districts 609 

6105 Separation from Oil Wells 609 

6109 Swimming Pools and Other Bodies of 

Water — Protective Devices Required 610 

CHAPTER 62 SIGNS 611 

Section 

6201 General Provisions 611 

6202 Definitions 612 

6203 Location 612 

6204 Identification 612 

6205 Design and Construction 612 

6206 Electrical 614 

6207 Combustible Materials 614 

6208 Animated Devices 614 

6209 Ground Signs 614 

6210 Roof Signs 614 

6211 Wall Signs 615 

6212 Projecting Signs 615 

6213 Marquee Signs 615 

6214 Portable Signs 616 

6215 Referenced Standards 616 

6216 Existing Signs 616 

CHAPTER 63 ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS 

FOR SPECIFIC USES 617 

Section 

6301 General 617 

6302 Food Establishment 617 

6303 Service Stations 618 

6304 Residential Uses 618 

6305 Parking Garages Serving Residential Uses ... 618 

6306 Antigraffiti Finish to Exterior Walls 618 

6307 Shower and Locker Facilities 619 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



7 SECURITY PROVISIONS ....,,. 621 
Section 

6701 Purpose 621 

6702 General 621 

6703 Limitations 621 

6704 Alternate Security Provisions 621 

6705 Definitions 621 

6706 Entry Vision 622 

6707 Appurtenant Access 622 

6708 Doors— General 622 

6709 Swinging Doors 622 

6710 Sliding Glass Doors 623 

671 1 Overhead and Sliding Doors 623 

6712 Metal Accordion-Grate or 

Grill-Type Doors 623 

6713 Glazed Opening — General 623 

6714 Glazing 623 

6715 Windows 623 

6716 Openings Other than Doors or 

Glazed Opening 624 

6717 Test— General .624 

CHAPTER 70 GRADING, EXCAVATIONS 

AND FILLS 625 

Section 

7001 Purpose 625 

7002 Scope 625 

7003 Definitions 625 

7004 Grading Designation 626 

7005 General Requirements 626 

7006 Conditions Precedent to Issuing a 

Grading Permit 627 

7007 Safety Precautions During Grading 631 

7008 Professions Inspection and Certification 

for Engineered Grading 631 

7009 Professional Inspection for 

Regular Grading 632 

7010 Excavations 632 

7011 Fills 633 

7012 Planting and Irrigation of Cut and Fill 

Slopes in Hillside Areas 634 

7013 Erosion Control and Drainage Devices 635 

7014 Construction Requirements and Limitations . . 636 

7015 Buttress Fills 636 

7016 Areas Subjected to Slides and 

Unstable Soil 642 



CHAPTER 71 METHANE SEEPAGE 

REGULATIONS 643 

Section 

7101 Purpose 643 

7102 Definitions 643 

7103 General Methane Mitigation Requirements . . . 643 

7104 General Methane Requirements 644 

7105 Existing Building 646 

7106 Testing, Maintenance and Service of 

Gas-detection and Mechanical 

Ventilation Systems 646 

7107 Emergency Procedures 646 

7108 Application of Methane Seepage 

Regulations to Locations or Areas 

Outside.the Methane Zone and 

Methane Buffer Zone Boundaries 646 

7109 Additional Remedial Measures 646 

CHAPTER 72 FIRE DISTRICT 

REGULATIONS ............... 649 

Section 

7200 Purpose 649 

7201 General 649 

7202 Additions to Buildings 651 

7203 General Requirements 65 1 

7204 Special Requirements for 

Fire District No. 1 651 

7205 Provisional Structures 652 

7207 Special Requirements for the Very 

High Fire Hazard Severity Zone 652 

7208 Prohibited Vehicles 653 

CHAPTER 81 EXISTING BUILDINGS AND 
STRUCTURES— GENERAL 
REQUIREMENTS. ...'., 655 

Section 

8101 General Provisions 655 

8102 Enforcement 655 

8103 Existing Building Rights 655 

8104 Basic Maintenance and Repair of 

Existing Buildings and Premises 655 

8105 Illegal Buildings, Construction and Use 656 

8106 Fire District Requirements 656 

8107 Requirements outside of a Fire District 657 

8108 Nuisances, Hazardous Buildings and 

Substandard Residential Buildings 657 

8109 Relocated Building 658 

8110 Unreinforced Masonry Bearing 

Wall Buildings 658 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDUNG CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



8111 Residential Heating 658 

8112 Residential Plumbing 658 

8113 Rod Bracing Systems 658 

81 14 Parapets and Appendages 658 

81 15 Sandblasting. ' .659 

8116 Special Provisions for 

Light-housekeeping Rooms 659 

8117 Fire Watch 660 

8118 Pool Water Clarity 660 

8119 Historical Buildings and Structures 660 

CHAPTER 82 CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY, 
USE AND RATING 
CLASSIFICATION 663 

Section 

8201 General 663 

8202 Change of Rating Classification 663 

8203 Change of Occupancy Group or 

Group Division 663 

8204 Change of Use 663 

8205 Certificate of Building Compliance 664 

CHAPTER 83 RELOCATION PERMIT 665 

Section 

8301 General Application 665 

8302 Permits Required — General 

Considerations 665 

8303 Permit Application — Plans and 

Specifications. 665 

8304 Special Conditions under Which a Permit 

Will Not Be Issued 666 

8305 Guarantee of Completion Required 666 

8306 Terms of Permit 667 

8307 Default in Performance of Conditions 

or Terms of Permits — Failure of 

Complete 667 

8308 Permit Fee 667 

8309 Entry Upon Premises 668 

CHAPTER 85 ALTERNATIVE BUILDING 
STANDARDS FOR JOINT 
LIVING AND WORK 
QUARTERS 669 

Section 

8501 General 669 

8502 Alternative Standards 670 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 86 SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR 

EXISTING BUILDINGS 675 

Section 

8601 General 675 

8602 Group E Occupancies 675 

8603 Fire Protection — Warning System 676 

8604 Fire Safety Standards 677 

8605 Emergency Homeless Shelters 681 

8606 Emergency Lighting Standards for 

Existing Residential Buildings, Group R, 
Division 1 Occupancies 682 

8607 Tenant Safety for Apartment Houses, 

Except for Residential Condominiums .... 683 

CHAPTER 88 EARTHQUAKE HAZARD 

REDUCTION IN EXISTING 
BUILDINGS 685 

Section 

8801 Purpose 685 

8802 Scope 685 

8803 Definitions 685 

8804 Rating Classifications 685 

8805 General Requirements 686 

8806 Administration 686 

8807 Historical Buildings 687 

8808 Analysis and Design 687 

8809 Materials of Construction 688 

8810 Information Required on Plans 690 

8811 Design Check — Compatibility of Roof 

Diaphragm Stiffness to Unreinforced 
Masonry Wall Out-of-plane Stability 691 

8812 Violations 692 

8813 Special Requirements 692 

CHAPTER 89 ABATEMENT OF BUILDINGS, 
STRUCTURES, PREMISES AND 
PORTIONS THEREOF WHICH 
CONSTITUTE A NUISANCE OR 
ARE HAZARDOUS, OR 
SUBSTANDARD 699 

Section 

8901 General 699 

8902 Definitions 699 

8903 Abatement Procedures 702 

8904 Special Provisions for Vacant Property 

Graffiti Removal 705 

8905 Special Provisions for Vacating, 

Barricading, Removing or Demolishing 
Buildings or Structures without Notice .... 707 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



8906 



8907 



8908 



Payment and Recovery of Repair and 
Demolition Funds 



Abatement of Public Nuisance Conditions 
Related to a Declared Local Emergency 

Special Provisions for the Repair 
of Welded Steel Moment Frame 
Buildings Located in High Earthquake 
Damaged Areas 



..707 
..708 

..709 



REDUCTION IN EXISTING 
TILT-UP CONCRETE WALL 



Section 

9101 Purpose 711 

9102 Scope 711 

9103 Definitions 711 

9104 Rating Classifications 711 

9105 General Requirements 711 

9106 Administration 712 

9107 Historical Buildings 712 

9108 Analysis and Design 712 

9109 Materials of Construction 714 

91 10 Information Required on Plans 714 

9111 Required Building Maintenance 714 

9112 Violations — Penalties for Disregarding 

Department Orders 714 

CHAPTER 92 VOLUNTARY— EARTHQUAKE 
HAZARD REDUCTION IN 
WOOD FRAME 



9303 Definitions 721 

9304 General Requirements for Phased 

Construction 722 

9305 Analysis and Design 722 

9306 Materials of Construction 724 

9307 Required Information on Plans 724 

CHAPTER 94 VOLUNTARY— EARTHQUAKE 
HAZARD REDUCTION IN 
EXISTING HILLSIDE 
BUILDINGS 727 

Section 

9401 Purpose 727 

9402 Scope 727 

9403 Definitions . 727 

9404 General Requirements 727 

9405 Pre-design Investigation 727 

9406 Analysis and Design 728 

9407 Historical Buildings. 731 

9408 Quality Control ' 731 

9409 Information Required on Plans 731 

CHAPTER 95 VOLUNTARY— EARTHQUAKE 
HAZARD. REDUCTION IN 
EXISTING REINFORCED 
CONCRETE BUILDINGS AND 

CONCRETE FRAME BUILDINGS 
WITH MASONRY FILL 733 



Section 



Section 


RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WITH 
WEAK CRIPPLE WALLS AND 
UNBOLTED SILL PLATES. ..... 715 


9501 
9502 
9503 


9201 


General 715 


9504 


9202 


Definitions 715 


9505 


9203 


Structural Weaknesses 716 


9508 


9204 


Strengthening Requirements 716 


9509 


9205 


Quality Control 718 


9510 
9511 


CHAPTER 93 VOLUNTARY— EARTHQUAKE 
HAZARD REDUCTION IN 
EXISTING WOOD FRAME 
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WITH 
SOFT, -WEAK OR OPEN FRONT 
WALLS 721 


9512 
9513 


Section 




9514 


9301 


Purpose 721 


9515 


9302 


Scope 721 


9516 



XXII 



Purpose 733 

Scope 733 

Definitions 733 

Reserved 733 

General Requirements 733 

Criteria Selection 733 

Dynamic Lateral Analysis Procedure 734 

Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure 736 

Simplified Analysis Procedure 737 

Minimum Requirements for a Limited 

Structural Analysis 738 

Determination of the Stress-strain 

Relationship of Existing Unreinforced 
Masonry 738 

Evaluation of Existing Structural Conditions . 739 

Materials of Construction 739 

Information Required on the Plans 739 

2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 96 VOLUNTARY— EARTHQUAKE 
HAZARD REDUCTION IN 
EXISTING REINFORCED 
CONCRETE AND REINFORCED 
MASONRY WALL BUILDINGS 
WITH FLEXIBLE 
DIAPHRAGMS 741 

Section 

9601 Purpose 741 

9602 Scope 741 

9603 Definitions 741 

9604 Analysis and Design 741 

9605 Materials of Construction 743 

9606 Information Required on Plans 743 

EXCERPTS FROM RELATED LOS ANGELES CITY 

CODES LOS ANGELES MUNICIPAL CODE 745 

Section 

28.10 Balloon-Use for Advertising 745 

28.1 1 Captive Balloons and Similar Devices 745 



Miscellaneous 746 

Section 

96.02 Excavating, Depositing, Dumping — Earth, 

Sand, Gravel, Etc. — Where Prohibited . . . 746 

96.05 Declaring Certain Area Subject to Inundation 
and Prohibiting Construction of Certain 
Buildings Therein 746 

Division C Fabricator Approvals 748 

Section 

92.200 Statement of Purpose 748 

96.201 Definitions 748 

96.203 Scope and Effect of Approvals 748 

96.204 Issuance of Approval — Procedures 748 

96.205 Suspension and Revocation of Appeals .... 750 



Repost of Residential Property 

Records and Pending and 

Recorded Liens. 751 



Intent 751 

Definitions 75 1 

Reports Required 751 

Application 75 1 

Contents of Reports 752 



Section 

96.300 

96.301 

96.302 

96.303 

96.304 



96.305 Fee for Reports 753 

96.306 Effective Period of Report 753 

96.307 Delivery of the Report 753 

96.308 Exceptions. 753 

96.309 Non-Compliance Not to Invalidate Sale or 

Exchange: Exception 753 

96.309.1 Information Furnished as Ground for 

Rescission 754 

CHAPTER IX 

ARTICLE 8 GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE 

PROVISIONS 755 

Section 

98.0103 Definitions , 755 

98.0105 Inspections 755 

98.0109 Express Permits 756 

Division 4 Appeals and Request for Slight 

Modification Appeal Fees-Availability 
of Records for Inspection-Board 
Related Services-Investigation- 
Powers of Department and Board 
and Penalties 757 

Section 

98.0402 Code Enforcement Costs Incurred: 

Investigation Costs, Fees and Fines 757 

98.0403.1 Powers of the Department and the B'oard ... 758 

98.0403.2 Procedures for Appeals to the 

Department and to the Board 760 

98.0404 Extra Territorial Inspections 761 

98.0405 Charges for Printed Materials and 

Miscellaneous Type Services 761 

980.406 Inspection Fees for Off Hours Inspection . . . 762 

98.0407 Special Enforcement Procedure Fees 762 

98.0408 Issuance of Citations by Designated 

Employees 762 

98.0410 Surcharge for One-stop Permit Center 762 

98.041 1 Non-compliance Fees 762 

98.0412 Inspection Fees 764 

98.0414 Certification Fees 764 

98.0415 Clerical, Issuing or Research Fees and 

Miscellaneous Fees 764 

98.0416 Building and Safety Systems 

Development Surcharge 764 

98.0417 Processing Fees for Miscellaneous 

Certificates of Compliance. 764 



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98.0418 Surcharge for Development of 
Automated Systems for the 
Department of City Planning 764 

98.0420 Refunds of Department Fees 765 

98.0421 Inspection Fee for Code Enforcement 

Inspection 765 

98.0422 Fees for Off Hours Plan Check and 

Other Services 765 



Testing Procedures, 

Regulations and Administration . . 766 

Section 

98.051 Alternate Materials, Devices and 

Methods of Construction 766 

98.0502 Appliances, Fixtures and Equipment 768 

98.0503 Testing Agencies 771 

98.0504 Environmental Reports 772 

Division 6 Expiration and Revocation of Permits, 

Plan Check and Slight Modifications 

and Alternatives 773 

Section 

98.0601 Purpose 773 

98.0602 Expiration of Permits 773 

98.0603 Expiration of Plan Check 773 

98.0604 Expiration of Slight Modifications and 

Alternatives 773 

98.0606 Time Limits of Requests for Extension 774 

Division 7 Abatement of Vacant Buildings . . , 775 

Section 

98.0701 Declaration of Purpose 775 

98.0702 Definitions. 775 

98.0703 Enforcement Authority 775 

98.0704 Enforcement Remedies 775 

98.0705 Strict Liability Offenses 775 

98.0706 Duty to Clean, Fence and Barricade 775 

98.0707 Administrative Abatement Procedures for 

Vacant and Unsecured Structures 775 

98.0708 Standards for Fencing and Barricading 

a Vacant Structure 776 

98.0709 Entry or Interference with 

Notice Prohibited 776 

98.0710 Continuous Abatement Authority 776 

98.0711 Abatement Cost. 776 

98.0712 Continuous Public Nuisances 776 

98.0713 Duty to File a Statement of Intent 776 

98.0714 Posting Name of Responsible Person 777 



XXBV 



98.0715 Reinspection Fee 777 

98.0716 Vacant Structure Penalty 777 

98.0717 Procedures for Barricaded and Vacant 

Structure Penalty 777 

98.0718 Appeal of Barricaded and Vacant 

Structure Penalty 778 

98.0719 Administrative Enforcement Hearing 778 

98.0720 Failure to Pay Penalties 778 

98.0721 Allocation of Vacant Building Penalty 778 

CHAPTER XI 

ARTICLE 1 NOISE REGULATION .779 

Section 

1 1 1.00 Declaration of Policy 779 

111.01 Definitions 779 

1 1 1 .02 Sound Level Measurement Procedure 

and Criteria 779 

1 1 1.03 Minimum Ambient Noise Level 780 

1 1 1 .04 Violations: Additional Remedies, 

Injunctions 781 

1 1 1.05 Enforcement, Citations 781 

ARTICLE 2 SPECIAL NOISE SOURCES , ... 781 
Section 

112.01 Radios, Television Sets, and 

Similar Devices 781 

1 12.02 Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, Heating, 

Pumping, Filtering Equipment .781 

112.03 Construction Noise 781 

1 12.04 Powered Equipment Intended for 

Repetitive Use in Residential Areas 
and Other Machinery, Equipment, and 
Devices 781 

1 12.05 Maximum Noise Level of Powered 

Equipment or Powered Hand Tools 782 

112.06 Places of Public Entertainment 782 

ARTICLE 6 GENERAL NOISE . ..o ......... 782 

Section 

1 16.01 Loud, Unnecessary and Unusual Noise 782 

LOS ANGELES ADMINISTRATIVE CODE 

DIVISION 19, CHAPTER 10 PROCEDURE FOR THE 

REMOVAL OF ILLEGAL SIGNS .783 

19.100 Definitions 783 

19.101 Illegal Signs - Nuisance 783 

19.102 Entry Upon Vacant Private Property 783 

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19.103 Interference Prohibited 783 

19.104 Notice of Illegal Signs 783 

19. 105 Removal of Illegal Sign 783 

19.106 Collection of Costs 783 

INDEX. . , 785 

HISTORY NOTE 



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SECTION 101 
TITLE, PURPOSE AND SCOPE 

101.1 Title. This article shall be known as the "Los Angeles 
Building Code" or "Building Code" or "LABC," a portion of 
the Los Angeles Municipal Code (LAMC), and wherever the 
word "Code" is used in this article it shall mean the "Los 
Angeles Building Code." The Los Angeles Building Code 
adopts by reference portions of the California Building Code. 

101.2 Purpose. The purpose of this article is to safeguard life, 
hmb, health, property and public welfare by regulating and 
controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use 
and occupancy, location and maintenance of all buildings and 
structures erected or to be erected within the city and by regu- 
lating certain grading operations within the city. 

101.3 Application. Chapters I through 96 of the Los Angeles 
Building Code as published by the International Code Council 
(hereinafter referred to as the published code), are Chapters 1 
through 96, respectively, of Article 1, Chapter IX, of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code. For uniformity with the California 
Building Code (CBC), only the division and section numbers 
are stated in the published code. For the complete Los Angeles 
Municipal Code section number, each code section number 
specified in Chapters 1 through 96 of the published code shall 
be presumed to be preceded by two digits and a decimal point 
(specifically "91."). For example, this section is Section 
9 1 . 1 1 . 3 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. Wherever in this 
code reference is made to the appendix, the provisions in the 
appendix shall not apply unless specifically adopted. 

NOTE: For clarification purposes, the following sections of 
the CBC are repeated. 



SECTION 108 

DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND COMMUNITY 

DEVELOPMENT 

108.1 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the min- 
imum requirements necessary to protect the health, safety and 
general welfare of the occupants and the public by governing 
accessibility, erection, construction, enlargement, conversion, 
alteration, repair, moving, removal, demolition, occupancy, 
use, height, court, area, sanitation, ventilation, maintenance, 
safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attrib- 
uted to the built environment. 

108.2 Authority and abbreviations. 

108.2.1 General. The Department of Housing and Commu- 
nity Development is authorized by law to promulgate and 
adopt building standards and regulations for several types 
of building applications. These applications are grouped 
and identified by abbreviation in the Matrix Adoption 
Tables to show which model code sections and amendments 
are applicable to each application. The applications under 
the authority of the Department of Housing and Community 



Development are listed in Sections 108.2.1.1 through 
108.2.1.3. 

108.2.1.1 Housing construction. Application-Hotels, 
motels, lodging houses, apartment houses, dwellings, 
dormitories, condominiums, shelters for homeless per- 
sons, congregate residences, employee housing, fac- 
tory-built housing and other types of dwellings 
containing sleeping accommodations with or without 
common toilet or cooking facilities including accessory 
buildings, facilities, and uses thereto. Sections of this 
code which pertain to applications listed in this section 
are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table using the 
abbreviation "HCD I." 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or 
the Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 
17921, 17922 and 19990. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 
through 17060, 17910 through 17990 and 19960 
through 19997. 

108.2.1.2 Housing accessibility. Application - Covered 
multifamily dwelling units as defined in Chapter HA 
including, but not limited to, lodging houses, dormito- 
ries, timeshares, condominiums, shelters for homeless 
persons, congregate residences, apartment houses, 
dwellings, employee housing, factory-built housing and 
other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommo- 
dations with or without common toilet or cooking facili- 
ties. 

Sections of this code identified in the Matrix Adoption 
Table by the abbreviation "HCD 1-AC" require specific 
accommodations for persons with physical disabilities, 
as defined in Chapter 11 A. The application of such provi- 
sions shall be in conjunction with other requirements of 
this code and apply only to Group R occupancies which 
are newly constructed covered multifamily dwellings as 
defined in Chapter llA of the California Building Code. 
"HCD 1-AC" applications include, but are not limited 
to, the following: 

1. All newly constructed covered multifamily dwell- 
ings as defined in Chapter 11 A. 

2. New common use areas as defined in Chapter 1 lA 
serving existing covered multifamily dwellings. 

3. Additions to existing buildings, where the addition 
alone meets the definition of a "Covered multifam- 
ily dwelling" as defined in Chapter 11 A. 

4. Common use areas serving covered multifamily 
dwellings. 



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''HCD 1-AC" building standards generally do not 
apply to public use areas or public accommodations 
such as hotels and motels. Public use areas, public 
accommodations and housing which is publicly funded 
as defined in Chapters 2, llA and IIB of this code are 
subject to the Division of the State Architect (DSA-AC) 
and are referenced in Section 109.1. 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or 
the Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 
1 7921, 1 7922 and 19990 and Government Code Sec- 
tion 12955.1. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 
through 17060, 17910 through 17990 and 19960 
through 19997 and Government Code Section 
12955.1. 

108.2.1.3 Permanent buildings in mobilehome parks 
and special occupancy parks. Application-Permanent 
buildings, and permanent accessory buildings or struc- 
tures, constructed within mobilehome parks and special 
occupancy parks that are under the control and owner- 
ship of the park operator Sections of this code which per- 
tain to applications listed in this section are identified in 
the Matrix Adoption Table using the abbreviation "HCD 
2." 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or 
other local agency responsible for the enforcement of 
Health and Safety Code Division 13, Part 2.1 com- 
mencing with Section 18200 for mobilehome parks 
and Health and Safety Code Division 13, Part 2.3 
commencing with Section 18860 for special occu- 
pancy parks or the Department of Housing and Com- 
munity Development. 



SECTION 109 
DIVISION OF STATE ARCHITECT 

109.1 Division of the State Architect — Access Compliance. 

General. The purpose of this code is to ensure that barrier-free 
design is incorporated in all buildings, facilities, site work and 
other improvements to which this code applies in compliance 
with state law to ensure that these improvements are accessible 
to and usable by persons with disabilities. Additions, alter- 
ations and structural repairs in all buildings andfacilities shall 
comply with these provisions for new buildings, except as oth- 
erwise provided and specified herein. 

The provisions of these regulations shall apply to any porta- 
ble buildings leased or owned by a school district, and shall 
also apply to temporary and emergency buildings andfacili- 
ties. Temporary buildings and facilities are not of permanent 
construction but are extensively used or are essential for public 
use for a period of time. Examples of temporary buildings or 
facilities covered include, but are not limited to: reviewing 
stands, temporary classrooms, bleacher areas, exhibit areas, 
temporary banking facilities, temporary health screening ser- 



vices or temporary safe pedestrian passageways around a 
construction site. 

In addition, to incorporate standards at least as restrictive 
as those required by the federal government for barrier-free 
design under (1) Title III (Public Accommodations and Com- 
mercial Facilities), Subpart D (New Construction and Alter- 
ation) and Appendix A (Americans with Disabilities Act 
Standards for Accessible Design) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 36), and 
(2) Title II (Public Entities), Section 35.151 (New Construction 
and Alterations) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 35) both from the Ameri- 
cans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and (3) under the Fair Hous- 
ing Amendments Act of 1988. Some of these regulations may be 
more stringent than state law in order to meet the federal 
requirement. 

109.1.1 Application. See Government Code commencing 
with Section 4450. 

Publicly funded buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs 
and related facilities shall be accessible to and usable by 
persons with disabilities as follows: 

109.1.1.1 All buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs and 
related facilities constructed in the state by the use of 
state, county or municipal funds, or the funds of any 
political subdivision of the state. 

109.1.1.2 All buildings, structures andfacilities that are 
leased, rented, contracted, sublet or hired by any munici- 
pal, county or state division of government, or by a spe- 
cial district. 

109.1.1.3 All publicly funded buildings used for congre- 
gate residences or for one- or two-family dwelling unit 
purposes shall conform to the provisions applicable to 
living accommodations. 

109.1.1.4 All existing publicly funded buildings and 
facilities when alterations, structural repairs or addi- 
tions are made to such buildings or facilities. For 
detailed requirements on existing buildings, see Chapter 
IIB, Division IV. 

109.1.1.5 With respect to buildings, structures, side- 
walks, curbs and related facilities not requiring a build- 
ing permit, building standards published in the 
California Building Standards Code relating to access 
for persons with disabilities and other regulations 
adopted pursuant to Government Code Section 4450, 
and in effect at the time construction is commenced, shall 
be applicable. 

109.1.2 Application. See Health and Safety Code com- 
mencing with Section 19952. 

All privately funded public accommodations, as defined 
and commercial facilities, as defined, shall be accessible to 
persons with disabilities as follows: 

Exception: Certain types of privately funded multistory 
buildings do not require installation of an elevator to 
provide access above and below the first floor See Chap- 
ter IIB. 

109.1.2.1 Any building, structure facility, complex or 
improved area, or portions thereof, which are used by the 
general public. 



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109.1.2.2 Any sanitary facilities which are made avail- 
able for the public, clients or employees in such accom- 
modations or facilities. 

109.1.2.3 Any curb or sidewalk intended for public use 
that is constructed in this state with private funds. 

109.1.2.4 All existing privately funded public accommo- 
dations when alterations, structural repairs or additions 
are made to such public accommodations as set forth 
under Chapter IIB. 

109.1.3 Application — Public housing and private housing 
available for public use. See Government Code Sections 
4450 and 12955.1(d). 

109.1.4 Enforcing agency. 

109.1.4.1 The director of the Department of General Ser- 
vices where state funds are utilized for any project or 
where funds of counties, municipalities or other political 
subdivisions are utilized for the construction of elemen- 
tary, secondary or community college projects. 

109.1.4.2 The governing bodies where funds of counties, 
municipalities or other political subdivisions are utilized 
except as otherwise provided above. 

109.1.4.3 The building department of every city, county 
or city and county within the territorial area of its city, 
county or city and county, where private funds are uti- 
lized. "Building department" means the department, 
bureau or officer charged with the enforcement of laws or 
ordinances regulating the erection or construction, or 
both the erection and construction, of buildings. 

109.1.5 Special conditions for persons with disabilities 
requiring appeals action ratification. Whenever reference 
is made in these regulations to this section, the findings and 
determinations required to be renderedby the local enforc- 
ing agency shall be subject to ratification through an 
appeals process. 

109.1.6 Authority cited — Government Code Section 4450. 

109.1.7 Reference cited — Government Code Sections 4450 
through 4461 and 12955.2(d) and Health and Safety Code 
Sections 18949.1, 19952 through 19959. 



SECTION 110 
OFFICE OF STATEWIDE HEALTH 
PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT 

110.1 OSHPD 1. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — General acute care hospitals and acute psychi- 
atric hospitals, excluding distinct part units or distinct part 
freestanding buildings providing skilled nursing or intermedi- 
ate care services. For structural regulations: Skilled nursing 
facilities and/or intermediate care facilities except those 
skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care facilities of sin- 
gle-story, Type V, wood or light steel-frame construction. 



Enforcing agency — Office of Statewide Health Planning and 
Development (OSHPD). The office shall enforce the Division 
of the State Architect — Access Compliance regulations and the 
regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for the above 
stated facility types. 

110.1.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part I, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapters 6 and 7. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 101 and 1 10 of Chapter 1 and Appendix Chapter 1. 

110.1.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, Wand 12. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 110.1. 

OSHPD I adopts the following building standards in Title 
24, Part 2: 

Chapters! through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17 A, 18A, 19A, 

20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34A, 35 and 
Appendix J. 

110.1.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 110.1, amendments appear in this code pre- 
ceded with the acronym [OSHPD 1], unless the entire chap- 
ter is applicable. When the entire chapter is adopted without 
amendments, all references to International Codes shall be 
replaced by equivalent California Codes. 

110.1.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is 
made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 

21, 22 and 34, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 17 A, 
18A, 19A, 21 A, 22 A and 34 A shall apply instead. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129850. 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 19958, 
127010, 127015, 129680, 1275 and 129675 through 
130070. 

110.2 OSHPD 2. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care 
facilities, including distinct part skilled nursing and intermedi- 
ate care services on a general acute care or acute psychiatric 
hospital license, provided either are in a separate unit or a free- 
standing building. For structural regulations: Single-story, 
Type V skilled nursing facility and/or intermediate care facili- 
ties utilizing wood or light steel-frame construction. 

Enforcing agency — Office of Statewide Health Planning and 
Development (OSHPD). The office shall also enforce the Divi- 
sion of the State Architect — Access Compliance regulations 
and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for 
the above-stated facility type. 

110.2.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapter 7. 



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2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 101 and 1 10 of Chapter 1 and Appendix Chapter 1. 

110.2.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 12. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 110.2. 

OSHPD 2 adopts the following building standards in 
Title 24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J . 

110.2.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 110.2, amendments appear in this code pre- 
ceded with the acronym [OSHPD 2]. When the entire chap- 
ter is adopted without amendments, all references to 
International Codes shall be replaced by equivalent Cali- 
fornia Codes. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129850. 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129680. 

110.3 OSHPD 3. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Licensed clinics and any freestanding building 
under a hospital license where outpatient clinical services are 
provided. 

Enforcing agency — Local building department. 

110.3.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapter 7. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 101 and 1 10 of Chapter 1 and Appendix Chapter 1. 

110.3.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 12. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 110.3. 

OSHPD 3 adopts the following building standards in 
Title 24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J. 

110.3.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 110.3, amendments appear in this code 
without the acronym [OSHPD 3[. Adoptions are shown in 
the adoption matrix. When the entire chapter is adopted 
without amendments, all references to International Codes 
shall be replaced by equivalent California Codes. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015 and 1226. 



References — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 129885 and 1226, Government Code Section 
54350 and State Constitution Article 11, Section 7. 

110.4 OSHPD 4. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Correctional treatment centers. 

Enforcing agency— Office of Statewide Health Planning and 
Development (OSHPD). The office shall also enforce the Divi- 
sion of the State Architect — Access Compliance regulations 
and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for 
the above- stated facility types. 

110.4.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapter 7. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 101 and 110 of Chapter 1 and Appendix Chapter 
1. 

110.4.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 12. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 110.4. 

OSHPD 4 adopts the following building standards in Title 
24, Part 1: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17 A, 18A, 19A, 

20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34A, 35 and 
Appendix J. 

110.4.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 110.4, amendments appear in this code pre- 
ceded with the acronym [OSHPD 4], unless the entire chap- 
ter is applicable. When the entire chapter is adopted without 
amendments, all references to International Codes shall be 
replaced by equivalent California Codes. 

110.4.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is 
made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 

21, 22 and 34, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 17 A, 
18A, 19A, 21A, 22A and 34A shall apply instead. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015 and 129790. 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129675 through 130070. 



SECTION 111 
OFFICE OF THE STATE FIRE IVIARSHAL 

111.1 SFM— Office of the State Fire Marshal. 

Any building or structure used or intended for use as an asy- 
lum, jail, mental hospital, hospital, sanitarium, home for the 
aged, children 's nursery, children 's home, school or any simi- 
lar occupancy of any capacity. 

Any theater, dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, assembly 
hall, meeting hall, nightclub, fair building or similar place of 



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assemblage where 50 or more persons may gather together in a 
building, room or structure for the purpose of amusement, 
entertainment, instruction, deliberation, worship, drinking or 
dining, awaiting transportation, or education. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Small family day care homes. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 

1597.45, 1597.54, 13143 and 17921. 

Reference - Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
Large family day care homes. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 

1597.46, 1597.54 and 17921. 

Reference - Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Residentialfacilities and residential facilities for the elderly. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13133. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Any state institution or other state-owned or state-occupied 
building. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13108. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
High-rise structures. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13211. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
Motion picture production studios. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.1. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
Organized camps. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 18897.3. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Residential. 

All hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses arid 
dwellings, including congregate residences and buildings and 
structures accessory thereto. 

Multiple-story structures existing on January 1, 1975, let for 
human habitation, including and limited to, hotels, motels and 
apartment houses, less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the low- 
est floor level having building access, wherein rooms used for 
sleeping are let above the ground floor 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 13143.2 
and 17921. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Residential care facilities. 

Certified family care homes, out-of-home placement facili- 
ties, halfway houses, drug and/or alcohol rehabilitation facili- 
ties and any building or structure used or intended for use as a 
home or institution for the housing of any person of any age 
when such person is referred to or placed within such home or 



institution for protective social care and supervision services 
by any governmental agency. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6. 

Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures used in connection 
with any occupancy. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13116. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Enforcing agency — Pursuant to Section 13146, Health 
and Safety Code. 

Fire alarm devices, equipment and systems in connection 
with any occupancy. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13114. 
Hazardous materials. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.9. 
Flammable and combustible liquids. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6. 

Public School Automatic Fire Detection, Alarm and Sprin- 
kler Systems. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143 
and California Education Code Article 7.5, Sections 
17074.50, 17074.52 and 17074.54. 

Reference — Government Code Section 11152.5, Health 
and Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education 
Code Chapter 12.5, LeroyF. Greene School Facilities Act of 
1998, Article 1. 

Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area. 

Authority cited-^Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, 
13108.5(a) and 18949.2(b) and (c) and Government Code 
Section 51189. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, Gov- 
ernment Code Sections 51176, 51177, 51178 and 51179 
and Public Resources Code Sections 4201 through 4204. 

111.2 Duties and powers of the enforcing agency. 

111.2.1 Enforcement. 

111.2.1.1 The responsibility for enforcement of building 
standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and pub- 
lished in the California Building Standards Code relat- 
ing to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the 
Office of the State Fire Marshal shall be as follows: 

1. The city, county or city and county with jurisdiction 
in the area affected by the standard or regulation 
shall delegate the enforcement of the building stan- 
dards relating to fire and panic safety and other 
regulations of the State Fire Marshal as they relate 
to Group R, Division 3 dwellings, as described in 
Section 310.1 of Part 2 of the California Building 
Standards Code, to either of the following: 

1.1. The chief of the fire authority of the city, 
county or city and county, or an authorized 
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1.2. The chief building official of the city, 
county or city and county, or an authorized 
representative. 

2. The chief of any city or county fire department or of 
any fire protection district, and authorized represen- 
tatives, shall enforce within the jurisdiction the 
building standards and other regulations of the State 
Fire Marshal, except those described in Item 1 or 4. 

3. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to 
enforce the building standards and other regula- 
tions of the State Fire Marshal in areas outside of 
corporate cities and districts providing fire pro- 
tection services. 

4. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to 
enforce the building standards and other regulations 
of the State Fire Marshal in corporate cities and dis- 
tricts providing fire protection services on request of 
the chief fire official or the governing body. 

5. Any fee charged pursuant to the enforcement 
authority of this section shall not exceed the esti- 
mated reasonable cost of providing the service for 
which the fee is charged pursuant to Section 66014 
of the Government Code. 

101.4 Scope. The provisions of this Code shall apply to the 
construction, alteration, moving, demolition, repair, mainte- 
nance and use of any building or structure within this jurisdic- 
tion, except work located primarily in a public way, public 
utility towers and poles, mechanical equipment not specifically 
regulated in this Code and hydraulic flood control structures. 

For additions, alterations, moving and maintenance of build- 
ings and structures, see Chapter 34. For temporary buildings 
and structures, see Section 3103. 

Where, in any specific case, different sections of this Code 
specify different materials, methods of construction or other 
requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is 
a conflict between a general requirement and a specific require- 
ment, the specific requirement shall be applicable. 

Wherever, in this Code, a reference is made to an appendix, 
the provisions in the appendix shall not apply unless specifi- 
cally adopted. 

The metric conversions are provided in parenthesis follow- 
ing the English units. Where industry has made metric conver- 
sions available, the conversions conform to current industry 
standards. Formulas are also provided with metric equivalents. 
Metric equivalent formulas immediately follow the English 
formula and are denoted by "For SI" preceding the metric 
equivalent. Some formulas do not use dimensions and, thus, 
are not provided with a metric equivalent. Multiplying conver- 
sion factors have been provided for formulas where metric 
forms were unavailable. Tables are provided with multiplying 
conversion factors in subheadings for each tabulated units mea- 
surement. 

101.5 Work not tin scope. The provisions of this Code shall not 
apply to any of the following: 

1 . A building accessory to a dwelling and not located in 
Fire District No. 1, provided the building is not more 



than 64 square feet (5.9 m^) in area or 8 feet (2438 mm) 
in height and does not contain any heating, plumbing or 
electrical installation and is located as permitted by the 
Los Angeles Zoning Code. 

2. Oil derricks. 

3. Towers or poles supporting public utility communica- 
tion lines, antennas or power transmission lines. 

4. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in 
height, measured from the bottom of the footing to the 
top of the wall unless supporting a surcharge or sloping 
earth, or impounding flammable liquids. This exemp- 
tion shall not apply to retaining walls of any height built 
on slopes steeper than 1 vertical to 5 horizontal 
(20-percent slope). 

5 . Water tanks supported directly upon grade if the capac- 
ity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 927 L) and the 
ratio of the height to diameter or width does not exceed 
2tol. 

6. Motion picture sets when not supported by any portion 
of any building. 

7 . Pergolas and lath houses , both of which shall be outside 
of any fire district, not over 400 square feet in area, and 
not supported by or attached to any portion of any 
building. 

8. Work in a public way, dams and drainage structures 
constructed by or under contract with the Board of Pub- 
lic Works, the Department of Water and Power and the 
County Flood Control District, unless the structure 
forms a portion of the support for a building or a struc- 
ture coming within the jurisdiction of the Department 
of Building and Safety. 

9. Portable amusement devices and structures, including 
merry-go-rounds, ferris wheels, rotating conveyances, 
slides, similar devices and portable accessory structures 
whose use is necessary for the operation of such amuse- 
ment devices and structures; any portable accessory 
structure included in the provisions of this subdivision 
shall be limited to a cover or roof over each device, but 
shall not include any storage building or detached struc- 
ture that is not an integral part of the device. 

10. Isolated buildings not larger in area than 16 square feet 
(1.5 m^), including roof projections, and not more than 
8 feet (2438 mm) in height, if separated by a distance of 
20 feet (6096 mm) or more. 

11. Nothing in this Code shall apply to any excavation, 
removal, fill or deposit of any earth or other materials 
from individual interment sites, underground crypts or 
burial vaults within a property which is dedicated or 
used for cemetery purposes, provided that such work 
does not affect the lateral support or increase the 
stresses in or pressure upon any adjacent or contiguous 
property not owned by the cemetery authority. 

12. The surface mining of minerals in a "G" Surface Min- 
ing District as established and provided for in Section 
13.03 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code, or where 
permitted by order of a court of competent jurisdiction. 



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1 3 . The dei)ositing of rubbish or other material at aiiy dump 
operated by the City of Los Angeles, or by. any person 
pursuant to the provisions of Section 66. 15 or J66.25 of 
the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

14. Nothing in this Code shall apply to grading in an iso- 
lated, self-contained area if the Department finds that 
by reason of such isolation and selfTContainment no 
danger to private or public property can now orthereaf- 
ter result from grading operations. 

1 5 . Any portable metal hangar less than 2,000 square feet in 
size, located on a city-owned airport, used for the park- 
ing of aircraft only, and bearing evidence of approval by 
the Department of Motor Vehicles of the State of Cali- 
fornia for movement on any highway. Such structure 
shall, as an integral part of its basic construction, be 
equipped with a hitch or coupling device for towing. It 
shall accommodate, without further major structural 
change, wheel and axle assemblies that will] provide 
such structure with a safe means of portability. No water 
or sanitary faciUties shall be permitted in such structure, 
and it shall be equipped with permanent ventilation as 
required for Group S, Division 3 occupancies. 

16. Tents and trailers used for office or shelter purposes 
accessory to a Christmas tree sales lot during the month 
of December only, provided the aggregate area of all 
tents and trailers does not exceed 600 square feet (55.7 
m?) for each sales lot. (Such tents are regulated by the 
Fire Department under Article 7, Chapter V of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code.) 

17. Tents accessory to a dwelling and not exceeding 450 
square feet in area (41.8 m^). 

18. Signs not exceeding 20 square feet (1.9 m^) in area, 
placed upon the surface of the ground, no part of which 
extends more than 6 feet 6 inches (1981 mm) above the 
underlying ground, which have no mechanical or mov- 
ing parts or to which no electricity or other source of 
illumination or power are attached or made a part 
thereof. Such signs shall be separated from each other a 
minimum distance of 15 feet (4572 mm). 

19. Boards and signs used exclusively to display official 
notices issued by any court or public officer in the per- 
formance of a public duty or by a private person in giv- 
ing legal notice. 



SECTION 102 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS OR STRUCTURES 

The regulations for the abatement of unsafe buildings or struc- 
tures are enumerated in Chapter 89 of this Code. 



SECTION 103 
VIOLATIONS 

1®3.1 GeneraL No person shall construct, alter, repair, demol- 
ish, remove, niove, use, occupy or maintain, within the city, any 
building or structure or any portion thereof, except as provided 
by this Code. 



No person shall grade, excavate or fill any land except as pro- 
vided by this Code. 

The permissive provisions of this Code shall not be pre- 
sumed to waive any limitations imposed by other statutes or 
ordinances of the state or City. 

All of the provisions of this Code shall be limitations for 
safeguarding life, limb, health, property and public welfare. 

If two or more pertinent limitations are not identical, those 
limitations shall prevail which provide the greater safety to life 
or limb, health, property or public welfare. 

103.2 Violation of a building or grading permit. Every per- 
son who knowingly and willfully procures a building and/or 
grading permit without the consent of the owner of record of 
the property for which the permit is issued, or such person's 
agent, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Exception: This subsection shall not apply to building 
and/or grading permits obtained pursuant to and in compli- 
ance with an order of a court of law or a governmental 
agency. 

103.3 Violation of an order. No person shall fail to comply 
with any valid order issued pursuant to any provision or 
requirement of this Code. 

103.4 Making false statements to the Department. It shall be 
unlawful for any person, authorized by the Department to per- 
form inspections, to make a false or misleading statement, or 
misrepresentation in any writing submitted to the Department. 

For purposes of this section a "person authorized by the 
Department to perform inspections" is any person who is a 
registered deputy inspector, a structural inspector, a certified 
welder or a certified licensed contractor. The term "writing" 
shall include, biit is not limited to, forms, applications, approv- 
als, reports or certifications required by the Department. 

Every violation of this section is punishable as a misde- 
meanor. 



SECTION 104 
ORGANIZATION AND ENFORCEMENT 

104.1 Creation of the Department. 

104.2 Powers of the Department and duties of the Superin- 
tendent of Building. 

104.2.1 General. The powers of the Department are enu- 
merated in Section 98.0403.1 of ih& Los Angeles Municipal 
Code. 

The Superintendent of Building shall have the duty to 
render interpretations of this Code and to adopt and enforce 
rules and supplemental regulations to clarify the application 
of its provisions. These interpretations, rules and regula- 
tions shall be in conformance with the intent and purpose of 
this Code. 

The Superintendent of Building shall classify every 
building into one of the occupancies set forth in Chapter 3 of 
this Code according to its use or the character of its occu- 
pancy. The Superintendent of Building shall also classify 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



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every building into one of the types of construction set forth 
in Chapter 6 of this Code. 

104.2.2 Authority to require exposure of work. When- 
ever any work on which called inspections are required, as 
specified in Section 108, is covered or concealed by addi- 
tional work without first having been inspected, the work 
shall be exposed for examination upon written notice by the 
Department. The work of exposing and recovering shall not 
entail expense to the City. 

104.2.3 Right of entry. The authority for right of entry is 
enumerated in Section 98.0105 of the Los Angeles Munici- 
pal Code. 

104.2.4 Authority to stop work. Whenever any construc- 
tion work is being done contrary to the provisions of any law 
or ordinance enforced by the Department, the Department 
shall have the authority to issue a written notice to the 
responsible party to stop work on that portion of the work on 
which the violation has occurred. The notice shall state the 
nature of the violation and no work shall be done on that 
portion until the violation has been rectified and approval 
obtained from the Department. 

104.2.5 Authority to stop use or occupancy. Whenever 
any portion of a building is loaded in excess for which it was 
constructed, or it houses an occupancy other than that for 
which it was constructed, or there is an encroachment upon 
any required court or yard, the Department shall have the 
authority to order by written notice that such violation be 
discontinued. 

The written notice shall state the nature of the violations 
and shall fix a time for the abatement thereof. If the viola- 
tions have not been abated by the expiration of the fixed 
time, the Certificate of Occupancy shall thereupon be can- 
celed. 

104.2.6 Alternate materials, alternate design and meth- 
ods of construction. New or alternate materials and meth- 
ods of construction may be approved by the Department in 
accordance with the provisions of Article 8, Chapter IX of 
the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

104.2.7 Building materials inspection required. 



L2.7.1 No person shall use or cause to be used, in the 
construction of any building or structure for the erection 
of which a permit is required by this chapter, any materi- 
als which are not specifically permitted by this Code, 
without having first secured the approval of said materi- 
als by the Department. 

104.2.7.2 The Department may require that all materials 
to be used in the construction of any building or struc- 
ture, or materials already used or fabricated into a build- 
ing or structure be submitted for test to a testing agency 
approved by the Department. 

104.2.7.3 It is unlawful for any person to fail to submit to 
an approved testing agency within 5 days after having 
received a written notice from the Department a sample, 
sufficient for analysis, of any material to be used in the 
erection or construction of a building or structure, or 



which has been used or fabricated into a building or 
structure. 

104.2.7.4 No material required by the Department to be 
submitted to a testing agency for analysis shall be 
approved by the Department unless the person request- 
ing said approval submits a written report of the analysis 
by such testing agency. 



SECTION 105 
APPEALS 

105.1 General. Appeals or requests for slight modifications in 
individual cases from the requirements of this Code shall be 
made in accordance with the procedure established in Section 
98.0403.2 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

105.2 Building advisory appeal board. The Building Advi- 
sory Appeal Board is hereby abolished. Any duties assigned to 
the Building Advisory Appeal Board by any provision of law 
shall be performed as determined by the Superintendent of 
Building. 

105.3 Engineering geology advisory committee, 

105.3. 1 Function of the committee. It shall be the function 
of the Engineering Geology Advisory Committee to advise 
and counsel the board on appeals involving technical ques- 
tions of soils engineering, geology, geology/seismology 
and related matters. 

105.3.2 Establishment of the committee member list. 
The Board of Building and Safety Commissioners shall 
establish an Engineering Geology Advisory Committee 
member list (hereinafter in this section referred to as the 
"committee member list") which shall consist of not less 
than 10 soils engineers and engineering geologists who ai^e 
available to serve as members of the Engineering Geology 
Advisory Committee. At least two of the engineeiing geolo- 
gist members and two of the soils engineer members shall 
have experience in the field of seismic design and safety. 
Members of said committee shall be exempt from all civil 
service provisions. 

105.3.3 Procedure. When an appeal is made to the board, 
and the board determines that the subject of the appeal 
involves a problem of soils engineering, geology, geol- 
ogy/seismology or a related matter on which it desires fur- 
ther technical advice before it renders a decision thereon, 
the board may select three or more persons from the Engi- 
neering Geology Advisory Committee member list to serve 
on a committee for the purpose of assisting the board in 
seeking a solution to said problem, and may refer the matter 
to such committee members for report and recommenda- 
tion. At least one designated member of the committee shall 
be a soils engineer and one shall be an engineering geolo- 
gist. The members of the committee meeting shall review 
the matter and shall then submit to the board a recommenda- 
tion. When a matter is referred to the committee as in this 
section provided, the board shall consider, but is not bound 
to accept, the recommendation of the committee. 

105.3.4 Compensation of members. Each member of the 
committee who is in attendance at a meeting requested by 






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the board shall be compensated at the rate of $50.00 for each 
four hours or fraction thereof of service. However, in no 
case shall the compensation of the committee members 
exceed the fee paid by the appellant under Section 105.3.6. 

105.3.5 Self insurance by the city for committee mem- 
bers. The provisions of Sections 11.36 through 11.44, 
inclusive, City of Los Angeles Administrative Code, entitled 
"Self Insurance by the City for Officers and Employees 
of Said City," shall apply to each Engiribering Geology 
Advisory Committee member while the member is acting as 
such, and committee members shall be deemed to be fully 
covered by the provisions of said sections even though each 
committee member is retained as an independent person and 
not as an officer or employee of the city. 

105.3.6 Fees. When a matter is referred to the committee as 
provided in this section, the appellant in said matter shall pay a 
referral fee of $50.00 and shall also pay a fee as follows: 

1. Where no more than two lots are involved in the 
appeal, $150.00; 

2. Where not less than three or more than 10 lots are 
involved in the appeal, $300.00; and 

3. Where more than 10 lots are involved in the appeal, 
$600.00. 






LA 105.4 Sign advisory committee. 



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105.4.1 Function of the committee. It shall be the function 
of a Sign Advisory Committee to advise, counsel and pro- 
vide recommendations to the Board of Building and Safety 
Commissioners on matters involving sign regulations. 

105.4.2 Establishment of the committee member list. 

The Board of Building and Safety Commissioners shall 
establish a Sign Advisory Committee member list repre- 
senting the various required fields of interest of persons who 
are available to serve as members of a Sign Advisory Com- 
mittee. Persons selected for the Sign Advisory Committee 
list shall possess experience in the design, fabrication, use 
or application of signs, or shall have demonstrated a back- 
ground in the social and environment impacts of signs or the 
development of sign regulations. Members of said commit- 
tee shall be exempt from all civil service requirements. 

105.4.3 Procedure. When the board determines that a matter is 
significant in nature, the board may refer the matter to a Sign 
Advisory Committee for evaluation and recommendation before 
it renders a decision thereon. When the matter is referred to a Sign 
Advisory Committee, the board shall consider, but is not bound to 
accept, the recommendation of the committee. 

105.4.4 Composition of the committee. The board shall 
select five persons from the Sign Advisory Conmiittee mem- 
ber fist to serve on a committee. The conmiittee shall be com- 
posed of one member from each of the following interests: 

1 . One member of or designated by the Board of Build- 
ing and Safety Commissioners; 

2. One member of or designated by the City Planning 
Commission; and 



3. Three public members, one each from the following 
interests: architecture, sign industry and community 
groups. 

105.4.5 Compensation of members. Each member of the 
committee who is in actual attendance at a meeting requested 
by the board shall be compensated at the rate of $50.00 for each 
four hours or fraction thereof of service. However, in no case 
shall the compensation of the committee members exceed the 
fee paid by the appUcant under Section 105.4.7. 

105.4.6 Self-insurance by the city for committee members. 

The provisions of Sections 11.36 through 11.44, inclusive, of 
the Los Angeles Administrative Code shall apply to each Sign 
Advisory Cornmittee member while the member is acting as 
such, and committee members shall be deemed to be fully cov- 
ered by the provisions of said sections even though each com- 
mittee member is retained as an independent person and not as 
an officer or employee of the city. 

105.4.7 Fees. When a matter is referred to the committee as 
provided in this section, the applicant in said matter shall 
pay a referral fee of $300.00. 

105.5 Disabled access appeals commission. 

105.5.1 Creation of the commission. There is hereby 
established a commission known as the Disabled Access 
Appeals Commission. 

105.5.2 Membership of the commission. The Disabled 
Access Appeals Commission shall be composed of five 
qualified persons. Two members of the commission shall be 
physically disabled persons, and two members shall be per- 
sons experienced in construction. The fifth member may be 
any resident of the City of Los Angeles. Commission mem- 
bers shall be appointed by the Mayor, subject to Council 
approval, and may be removed by the Mayor. In the case of a 
vacancy during the term of office of any member, the same 
shall be filled by appointment by the Mayor for the period of 
the unexpired term subject to the approval of the council by 
a majority vote. The members of the commission shall be 
exempt from all civil service provisions. 

105.5.3 Compensation and term of office. Each member of 
the commission shall be paid $50.00 per meeting attended, but 
not to exceed $250.00 in any one calendar month. 

The term of office of the members of the conmiission shall 
be five years beginning with the first day of July of the respec- 
tive years, except that the terms of office of the original five 
members of the commission appointed pursuant to this sub- 
section shall be such that one term shall expire on the first 
June 30, one term shall expire on the second June 30, one 
term shall expire on the third June 30, one term shall expire on 
the fourth June 30, and one term shall expire on the fifth June 
30 next following the effective date of the appointment of the 
original five members. Thereafter, the terms of the succeed- 
ing members shaU be so designated that the term of office of 
one member shall expire each year. The period of term of 
each member shall be designated in the appointment. 

Each member of the commission shall have the power to 
administer oaths. 



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1(DS.5.4 Authority of the commission. The commission 
shall have and exercise the following powers: 

1 . To hear and determine written appeals brought by any 
person from actions taken by the Department of 
Building and Safety (Department) in the enforcement 
of the requirements of Section 19955, et seq., of the 
California Health and Safety Code, the provisions of 
state law dealing with access to public accommoda- 
tions by physically disabled persons. 

2. To hear and determine written appeals brought by any 
person from the rulings, decisions and determinations 
of the Department granting or denying applications 
for exceptions pursuant to Section 19957 of the 
Health and Safety Code. 

3 . To hear and determine written appeals brought by any 
persons wherein it is alleged that there is error or 
abuse of discretion in any order, requirement, deci- 
sion, interpretation or other determination made by 
the Department in the enforcement or administration 
of Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations, 
Section 101.11 et seq., and any other federal, state or 
municipal handicapped access and adaptability 
requirements. 

All appeals shall be reviewed by the Department. 
The Department may reverse or modify the action 
appealed from at any time prior to final action by the 
commission. Any such new action may then be 
appealed to the commission. 

4. To respond to the department's request for advice on 
any matter within the department's jurisdiction relat- 
ing to access to public accommodations and housing 
by the physically disabled. 

5. To exercise the authority granted in Section 105.6. 

1®5.S.5 Appeals. 

10S.5.S.1 Procedures. An appeal to the commission 
may be filed by any person aggrieved, or by an officer, 
board, department or bureau of the city. An appeal shall 
be in writing and shall be filed in the Office of the Board 
of Building and Safety Commissioners upon appropriate 
forms provided by the Department. An appeal shall set 
forth specifically the points at issue, the reasons for the 
appeal, and wherein the appellant believes there was an 
error or an abuse of discretion by the Department. 

When considering an appeal from an action by the 
Department, the commission shall make its determina- 
tion within 30 days from the filing of the appeal. This 
time limit may be extended by mutual written consent of 
the applicant and the commission. Upon receipt of the 
appeal, the commission shall set the matter for hearing 
and give notice by mail of the time, place and purpose 
thereof to the appellant, to the applicant, to the owner or 
owners of the property involved, and to any interested 
party who has requested in writing to be so notified. Such 
notice shall be in writing and mailed at least 10 days prior 
to said hearing. No other notice thereof need be given 
except in those, cases hereinafter mentioned. 



The commission may grant, conditionally grant, or 
deny any appeal. All actions of the commission shall be 
final. Any action within the jurisdiction of the commis- 
sion shall be final and conclusive as to the Department in 
the absence of fraud or abuse of discretion. 

A separate appeal shall be filed for each single build- 
ing as described in Section 98.0403.2 of the Los Angeles 
Municipal Code. Appeals to the Appeals Commission 
shall be accompanied by a filing fee as set forth in Table 
4-A of Chapter 4 of Article 8, Chapter DC, of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code. 

If the commission fails to act on any appeal within the 
time limit specified in this section, then the action of the 
Department on the matter shall be final. 

105.5.5.2 Decision. The decision upon an appeal shall be 
concurred in by at least three members of the commis- 
sion. The commission may modify or reverse a ruling, 
decision or determination appealed from only upon mak- 
ing written findings setting forth specifically wherein the 
action of the Department was in error or fconstituted an 
abuse of discretion. The commission shall make specific 
written findings supporting any modification or reversal. 

Upon making a decision, a copy of the findings and 
determination shall be furnished the apphcant, the appel- 
lant and the Department of Building and Safety. 

105.5.5.3 Special findings. Before granting or affirming 
the grant of an exception pursuant to Section 19957 of 
the Health and Safety Code, the commission must find 
that the application involves a case of practical difficulty, 
unnecessary hardship, or extreme differences and that it 
is clearly evident that equivalent facilitation and protec- 
tion will be secured. 

105.5.5.4 Revocation of approvals. The commission 
shall revoke or rescind any determination, including the 
grant of an appeal or exception, if made in error in viola- 
tion of any provision of law, or in reliance on any false 
statement or misrepresentation as to a materitil fact. 

105.5.5.5 Time limits. The rights and privileges granted 
by the commission pursuant to any decision, determina- 
tion, approval, appeal or exception shall be void if all 
required building permits are not secured within one year 
of the effective date of such action, or if the permit 
expires under any of the conditions specified in Section 
98.0602 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

However, the commission, and the superintendent 
acting on behalf of the commission, may grant exten- 
sions of time if the applicant submits in writing substan- 
tial evidence that unusual conditions or circumstances 
either precluded the securing of all required permits 
within the allocated time or caused the permit to expire 
as specified in Section 98.0602 of the Los Angeles 
Municipal Code. 

Requests for extensions of time shall be made not later 
than 30 days after the expiration times specified in this 
section. 



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12R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



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105.5.5.6 Additional authority. In considering appeals, 
the commission may exercise the following powers: 

1 . To appoint one or more hearing officers to conduct 
hearings and make recommendations to the same 
extent and in the same manner as the Superinten- 
dent of Building acting pursuant to Section 
98.0602 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

2. To request the attendance of witnesses and the pro- 
duction of evidence before it. 

3. To request the city attorney, or an assistant or dep- 
uty designated by the city attorney to appear at any 
hearing before the commission. 

4. To adopt rules regarding the filing of appeals, the 
conduct of its hearings and any other procedural 
rules in keeping with the provisions of this Chap- 
ter. 

105.5.5.7 Limitations on jurisdiction. Notwithstand- 
ing any other provision of this Code, the commission's 
jurisdiction shall not include the right to hear and deter- 
mine an appeal from a department determination, order 
or action if such appeal is filed: 

1. On or after the date a criminal citation is issued, 
charging the appellant with a violation of law 
based on the facts underlying such determination, 
order or action; or 

2. On or after the date a criminal complaint is filed, 
charging the appellant with a violation of state 
laws based on such determination, order or action. 

Further, the commission's jurisdiction shall not 
include the right to hear appeals from or otherwise 
review any action, order or determination of the Board of 
Building and Safety Commissioners. 

105.6 Administrative penalties for disabled access viola- 
tions. 

105.6.1 Order of abatement and notice of proposed pen- 
alty. If the superintendent determines that a person has vio- 
lated or failed to comply with any requirement of the law 
relating to access to public accommodations and housing by 
the physically disabled, then the superintendent may issue 
an order of abatement and notice of proposed penalty to that 
person. 

The order and notice shall be in writing and shall describe 
with particularity the nature of the violation, including a ref- 
erence to the provision of law that has been violated. The 
order shall fix a reasonable time for correction of the viola- 
tion, and the notice of proposed penalty shall set forth the 
amount of the penalty. 

The order of abatement and notice of proposed penalty 
shall be served upon the person either personally, or by 
deposit in the United States mail in a sealed envelope, post- 
age prepaid to the person's last known address. 

The order and notice shall also set forth the person's right 
to a hearing as described in Section 105.6.2. 

105.6.2 Right to hearing. Any person served with an order 
of abatement or notice of proposed penalty, may apply in 



writing to the Disabled Access Appeals Commission for a 
hearing with respect to the violation alleged, the abatement 
period, and the amount of the penalty. This request shall be 
filed within 15 days after the date of service. 

If the person does not request a hearing within the pre- 
scribed time, then the notice of proposed penalty shall be 
final, and the amount of any penalty included in the notice 
shall immediately be due and owing to the City of Los 
Angeles. The city then shall have the right to bring an action 
in any court of competent jurisdiction to enforce the order 
and collect the amount of the penalty. 

If the Department determines that there has been compli- 
ance with the order of abatement within the time for correc- 
tion, then the Department may rescind the notice of penalty. 

105.6.3 Time of hearing; notice. If the person requests a 
hearing, the superintendent shall cause the matter to be set 
for hearing before the Disabled Access Appeals Commis- 
sion. The hearing shall be scheduled not later than 30 days 
after the date of the application for hearing. This time limit 
may be extended with the mutual consent of the person and 
the commission. It shall be a defense to the affirmation of 
any penalty that the person complied with the order of 
abatement within the time for correction. 

The decision of the commission on the order of abate- 
ment and notice of proposed penalty shall be final, and the 
amount of any penalty affirmed by the commission shall 
immediately be due and owing to the City of Los Angeles. 
The city then shall have the right to bring an action in any 
court of competent jurisdiction to enforce the order and col- 
lect the amount of penalty. 

105.6.4 Civil penalties. Any penalty required to be paid 
under the provisions of this section is a debt owed to the City 
of Los Angeles. Any person owing a penalty due under the 
provisions of this section shall be liable in an action brought 
in the name of the City of Los Angeles in any court of com- 
petent jurisdiction for recovery of any such amount. 

The conviction of any person for violating any law shall 
not relieve the person from the obligation to pay any penalty 
that the person may owe the city, nor shall such payment 
prevent a prosecution under appropriate provisions of law 
for any violation of the law. The remedies provided in this 
section are cumulative. The use of one or more of the reme- 
dies prescribed in this section shall not bar the use of any 
other remedy provided for the enforcement of law. 

105.6.5 Fee schedules. The Superintendent shall submit a 
schedule for the assessment of civil penalties under this sec- 
tion to council for the approval by ordinance. 

This schedule shall give due consideration to the appro- 
priateness of the penalty with respect to the following fac- 
tors: 

1 . The gravity of the violation; 

2. The good faith of the violator being charged; and 

3. The history of previous violations. 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



13R 



ADMINISTRATION 



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SECTION 106 
PERMITS 

106,1 Permits required. 

106.1.1 Biiflldimg permits. No person shall erect, construct, 
alter, repair, demolish, remove or move any building or 
structure, nor shall any person commence any liquid wash- 
ing, compressed air cleaning or steam cleaning of exterior 
surfaces of any building unless said person has obtained a 
permit from the Department. A separate permit shall be 
obtained for each separate building or structure except a 
group of temporary structures erected on one site for a lim- 
ited period of time be included on one permit. 

Where the installation, alteration or repair of ventilation 
equipment or ductwork is not included within the scope of a 
valid building permit, a separate building permit shall be 
obtained for the work. 

Sandblasting, liquid washing, compressed air cleaning, 
steam cleaning of exterior surfaces of buildings adjacent to 
and within 20 feet (6096 mm) of pedestrian walkways in 
dedicated streets in the limits of Fire District No. 1 shall be 
done only between the hours of 1 1:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., or 
on Sundays. 

Where complete plans for a proposed building are filed 
with the Department and where a foundation only permit is 
issued with respect thereto in accordance with rules estab- 
lished by the Superintendent of Building pursuant to Sec- 
tion 22.19 of the Los Angeles Administrative Code, a 
building permit may be issued for the remainder of the 
building within 1 year after the issuance of the foundation 
only permit, provided such plans and specifications comply 
with all applicable Los Angeles Building Code provisions in 
effect at the time of issuance of such foundation only permit. 

106.1.2 Grading permits. No person shall commence or 
perform any grading, and no person shall import or export 
any earth materials to or from any grading site, without first 
having obtained a permit from the Department. No person 
shall perform any grading within areas designated "hill- 
side" unless a copy of the permit is in the possession of a 
responsible person and available at the site for display upon 
request. 

Any grading project involving more than 100 cubic yards 
(76.5 m^) of excavation and involving an excavation in 
excess of 5 feet (1524 mm) in vertical depth at its deepest 
point measured from the original ground surface shall be 
done by a State of California licensed contractor who is 
licensed to perform the work described herein. 

A separate permit shall be required for each grading site. 
One permit may include the entire grading operation at that 
site, however. 

Exception; All other provisions of the Code shall apply, 
but a permit will not be required if the work complies 
with any one of the following conditions: 

1. An excavation which (a) is less than 2 feet (610 
mm) in depth, or (b) which does not create a cut 
slope greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) in height and 
steeper than one unit vertical in two units horizon- 



tal (50 percent slope). This exception shall not 
apply to cut which exceeds 50 cubic yards (38.3 
m^) or which changes the existing drainage pat- 
tern. 

2. A fill less than one foot (305 mm) in depth and 
placed on natural terrain with a slope flatter than 
one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent 
slope). This exception shall not apply when the fill 
exceeds 50 cubic yards (38.3 m^) or when the fill 
changes the existing drainage pattern. 

3. Excavations, located in hillside areas, for caissons 
or piles under buildings or structures authorized by 
valid building permits. 

4. Excavations, not located in hillside areas, for base- 
ments, footings, caissons, piles, swimming pools 
or underground structures which are authorized by 
valid building permits. 

5. Excavations for wells or tunnels or utilities, which 
do not provide vertical or lateral support for build- 
ings, or adversely impact the safety or stability of 
private or public properties. 

Grading permits may be waived by the Department for 
excavations under buildings or structures in hillside areas, if 
the applicant can demonstrate that the site is relatively level, 
or the excavation is entirely for footings and/or grade beams 
not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) deep. 

106.1.3 Temporary permits. Before commencing the con- 
struction of any work for temporary use, a building permit 
authorizing such work shall be obtained from the Depart- 
ment. Such construction shall be occupied or used only for 
the period set forth on the permit application, but shall not 
exceed 120 days. 

Except for tents and bleachers, application for permit 
shall be filed at least seven days prior to the construction, 
erection or operation of any device, structure, or* any work 
regulated by this article for temporary use. 

All temporary construction or installations shall be 
demolished or removed within five days after the expiration 
of the Certificate of Occupancy. Requests for inspection 
must be received by the Department at least 2 days prior to 
public use or occupancy. 

i6.2 Exceptions. Permit not required for: 

1. Where the work regulated by this Code is valued at 
$500.00 or less, unless it affects the structural stability 
of a building, or public safety, or is done to make a 
building conform to the requirements of this Code for a 
change in use or occupancy. 

2. Flag poles and towers not erected upon a building and 
not more than 15 feet (4572 mm) high. Radio and tele- 
vision antennae towers which do not exceed 45 feet (13 
716 mm) in height or light standards which do not 
exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in height. 

3. Construction sheds and sidewalk protection canopies 
built pursuant to Chapter 33. 



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• 









14R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



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4. Sandblasting, liquid washing, compressed air cleaning, 
steam cleaning of buildings outside of Fire Districts No. 
1 and also those exterior surfaces of buildings which are 
located more than 20 feet (6096 nun) from pedestrian 
walkways in dedicated streets. Painting, papering and 
similar work, provided that the values thereof shall be 
included as part of the value of any new construbtion for 
which a permit is required by this Code, for the purpose 
of determining the amount of the fee to be paid for such 
permit; and provided further that this exception does not 
include operations such as hquid washing, compressed 
air cleaning and steam cleaning on the exterior surfaces 
of buildings adjacent and within 20 feet (6096 mm) of 
pedestrian walkways in dedicated streets where such 
operations extend above the first story. 

5. Platforms, walks and driveways not more than 30 
inches (762 mm) above grade and not over any base- 
ment or story below. 

6. Exhibits, booths, partitions and display counters for 
temporary use not exceeding 30 days in conjunction 
with an exhibit or show and not exceeding 12 feet 
(3658 mm) in height above the floor. 

7. Outdoor tents or cloth structures for temporary use not 
exceeding 30 days and not exceeding 12 feet (3658 
nrun) in any dimension, provided such tents are acces- 
sory to an indoor or outdoor assembly use on the site. 

8. Swimming, bathing and wading pools not exceeding 
24 inches (610 mm) in depth or having a surface area 
not exceeding 250 square feet (23.2 m^). 

9. Canopies or awnings located outside of Fire District 
No. 1 extending not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from 
the exterior wall of the building and attached to Group 
R Occupancies. 

10. Impact hazard glazing pursuant to Section 2406.7 of 
this Code. 

11. Work performed by Certified Licensed Contractors in 
accordance with Section 108.12.1. 

12. Any work accomplished under the auspices of and 
owned and controlled by the United States of America, 
by the State of California or the Los Angeles County. 

13. Masonry or concrete fences not over SVj feet (1067 
mm) high, and other fences not over 10 feet (3048 mm) 
high. 

14. Tanks for the storage of combustible liquids, if resting 
upon the surface of the ground and surrounded by an 
impounding basin conforming to the requirements of 
Article 7 of Chapter V of the Los Angeles Municipal 
Code (Fire Code). 

15. Cases, counters and partitions, not over 5 feet 9 inches 
high (1753 mm). 

16. Waterproof pointing of joints in masonry or veneer, 
also cleaning with detergents which are not injurious to 
clothing or skin of persons and are not removed by Hq- 
uid washing, provided work is done from safely 
enclosed scaffolding which will collect any dust, debris 
or dropped tools and materials in use. 



106.3 Permit applications. 

106.3.1 Application. To obtain a permit, the applicant shall 
file an application on a form furnished by the Department. 

One complete application for each permit shall be filed. 
Every such application shall: 

1 . Identify and describe the work to be covered by the 
permit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar 
description that will readily identify and definitely 
locate the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use or occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by plans, diagrams, computations 
and specifications and other data as required in Sec- 
tion 106.3.2. 

5 . State the valuation of any new building or structure or 
any addition, remodeling or alteration to an existing 
building. 

6. Be signed by the permittee or an authorized agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as may be 
required by the Superintendent of Building. 

106.3.2 Plans and speciflcations. 

106.3.2.1 Site plat. A plat of the site shall be filed with 
each application for a permit. 

Exception: The Superintendent of Building may 
grant the omission of a site plat when the proposed 
work is of such a nature that no information is needed 
to determine compliance with all laws relating to the 
location of buildings or occupancies. 

With respect to the site, the plat shall show the bound- 
aries, lot lines, existing and proposed buildings and 
structures, neighboring public ways, and sufficient 
dimensions and other data to enable the Department to 
determine compliance with all laws relating to the loca- 
tion of buildings or occupancies. 

106.3.2.2 Number of sets of plans. Each application for 
a permit shall be accompanied by two sets of plans and 
specifications for plan checking. 

The number of sets of plans and specifications submit- 
ted with each application for a building permit may com- 
ply with the regulations of Sections 107.3.2 and 107.3.3. 

Exception: The Superintendent of Building may 
waive the requirement for plans and specifications as 
required in this article if the superintendent finds that 
the information on the application is sufficient to 
show that the work will conform to the provisions of 
this Code and other relevant laws. 

106.3.2.3 Official stamp. When the plans and specifica- 
tions fully comply with the provisions of Section 
106.3.3, the Department shall place an official stamp of 
approval or an approval perforation on each sheet of each 
set and, upon payment of the permit fee, shall issue one 
set to the applicant. 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



15R 



ADWilNISTRATBON 



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The stamping or 
approval of any plans or specifications shall not be held 
to permit, or to be an approval of, the violation of any 
provision of this Code. 

1(1163.2.5. Alterations to stamped plans. No stamped 
or approved plans or specifications shall be altered in any 
manner, except when and as approved by the Depart- 
ment. 

106.3.2.6 Stamped plans on job. The stamped set of 
plans and specifications issued to the applicant shall be 
kept at the site of the construction or work and shall be 
available to the authorized representative of the Depart- 
ment. There shall be no deviation from the stamped or 
approved application, plans or specifications without 
Department approval. 

106.3.3 Information and certification required on plans 
and specifications. 

106.3.3.1 General. All plans and specifications submit- 
ted to the Department for checldng shall be drawn with 
ink or indelible pencil, or shall be made by a reproduc- 
tion process approved by the Department. The first sheet 
of each set of plans and specifications shall give the street 
address of the work and the name and address of the 
owner of the building. 

The plans and specifications shall be of sufficient clar- 
ity to indicate the nature and extent of the proposed work 
and to show in detail that it will conform to the provisions 
of this Code and of relevant laws, ordinances, rules, regu- 
lations and orders. 

Plans for buildings more than two stories in height of 
other than Group R, Division 3 and Group U occupancies 
shall indicate how required structural and fire resistive 
integrity will be maintained where a penetration will be 
made for electrical, mechanical, plumbing and commu- 
nication conduits, pipes and similar systems. 

In lieu of detailed specifications, the Department may 
approve reference on the plans to a specific section, sub- 
section or paragraph of this Code or other ordinance or 
law. 

Distances and dimensions on the plans, when required 
to show conformity with the provisions of this Code, 
shall be done in figures. 

When required by Section 1704.1.1 of this Code, a 
statement of special inspection prepared by the regis- 
tered engineer or licensed architect responsible for the 
design of the project shall be included with the set of 
plans. 



When a structural design is required for the purpose of 
obtaining a permit, it shall be justified by a written record 
of computations filed with the Department and each 
sheet of the drawings and written record of computations 
shall be signed by or bear the approved stamp of an engi- 
neer or architect licensed by the State of California for 
the type of service performed. On structures which do 
not require an engineer's or architect's signature accord- 



ing to Article 3, Chapter 7, Division 3, of the California 
Business and Professions Code, but do require some 
structural design, the person responsible for the design 
shall sign the calculations and the sheets of the plans with 
the engineering details. 

106.3.3.3 Structural engineering plans. For buildings 
exceeding 160 feet (48 768 mm) in height, each sheet of 
the structural calculations and structural plans shall be 
prepared under the supervision of, and shall bear the sig- 
nature or approved stamp of, a person authorized to prac- 
tice structural engineering by the State of California. In 
addition, all architectural sheets shall bear the signature 
or approved stamp of an architect licensed by the State of 
California. 

106.3.3.4 Yard restriction. The increase in area and 
height permitted by Sections 505.1 and 505.2 of this 
Code shall not be allowed unless or until the owner of the 
required yard shall file with the Department an agree- 
ment binding such owner, heirs and assignees, to set 
aside the required yard as an unobstructed space having 
no improvements. Such agreement shall be recorded in 
the Los Angeles County Recorder's Office. 

'6.4 Permits issuance. 

106.4.1 Issuance. When the Department determines that 
the information on the application and plans is in confor- 
mance with this Code and other relevant codes and ordi- 
nances, the Department shall issue a permit upon receipt of 
the total fees. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold a permit for any building if public sewers 
are not available and the provisions of^ Plumbing 
Code prohibit the use of a private sewage dis- 
posal system on the lot or premises. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapter 7 
of the Plumbing Code as adopted in Section 
94.700.0 of the Plumbing Code to the contrary, 
and for any lot or premises located in whole or in 
part in the San Fernando Valley and certain adja- 
cent areas as described in Section 64.26 A.2 of 
the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

If public sewers are not available and the 
Plumbing Code does not prohibit the use of a pri- 
vate sewage disposal system, a building permit 
may be issued, provided that: 

A. The owner or owners shall install a holding 
tank pursuant to permits from the Depart- 
ment of Building and Safety and the Fire 
Department; and 

B. The owner or owners shall submit a cove- 
nant and agreement with the land that a con- 
nection will be provided to the public sewer 
when it becomes available, or the building 
will be vacated if no connection is made. 
This covenant and agreement shall be signed 



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16R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUBLDING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



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by the owner or owners and filed with the 
County Recorder; or 

C. The permit is for four or fewer dweUing 
units in a residential zone, or for a structure 
that will not result in the discharge of 
wastewater. 

2. The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold permits where the proposed development is 
located in an area subject to slides or unstable soil 
which may have an adverse effect on the pro- 
posed development or access thereto, as deter- 
mined by the Department. If the apparent safety 
of the proposed development can be verified pur- 
suant to the provisions of Sections 7016.4.2 and 
7016.4.3 of this Code, the Department shall issue 
a permit upon receipt of a sworn affidavit which 
has been recorded by the County Recorder, stat- 
ing that the applicant is fully aware that the pro- 
posed development is located in an area subject 
to slides or unstable soil which may have an 
adverse effect on the proposed development or 
access thereto. 

3. The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold a building permit where the proposed build- 
ing site is an area subject to inundation, as 
determined by the Department. If it can be shown 
by authentic past records that any possible inun- 
dation is not likely to be of such extent as to be an 
immediate hazard to occupancy of the proposed 
building, the Department shall issue a building 
permit upon receipt of a sworn affidavit which 
has been recorded by the County Recorder stat- 
ing that said applicant is fully aware of the 
department's finding that the structure is an area 
subject to inundation. 

4. The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold permits on projects located within a Special 
(Fault) Studies Zone established under Chapter 
7.5, Division 2, of the California Public 
Resources Code. Permits may be issued if it can 
be demonstrated through accepted geologic seis- 
mic studies that the proposed structure will be 
located in a safe manner and not over or astraddle 
the trace of an active fault. Acceptable geologic 
seismic studies shall meet the criteria as set forth 
in rules and regulatioris established by the Super- 
intendent of Building to ensure such studies are 
based on sufficient geologic data to determine 
the location or nonexistence of the active fault 
trace on a site. Prior to approval of a project, a 
geologic report defining and delineating any haz- 
ard of surface fault rupture shall be required. If 
the city finds that no undue hazard of this kind 
exists, the geologic report on such hazard may be 
waived, with approval of the state geologist. 

5. The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold a demolition or relocation permit for a resi- 
dential building composed of two or more 



residential rental units, under the following cir- 
cumstances: 

A. When the applicant states that the purpose 
for demolition or relocation is to construct a 
condominium, stock cooperative or commu- 
nity apartment project, permits shall be 
withheld until all necessary tentative tract or 
preliminary parcel maps for such new subdi- 
vision have been approved by the city. 

B. When the applicant states that the demoli- 
tion or relocation is not for the purpose of 
constructing a condominium, stock cooper- 
ative or community apartment project, per- 
mits shall be withheld until the Department 
receives a sworn affidavit from the real 
property owner, which has been recorded by 
the county recorder, stating that said owner 
waives the right to construct on the subject 
lot, a condominium, stock cooperative or 
community apartment proj ect for a period of 
10 years from the date of the demolition or 
relocation, and that such waiver will bind 
any purchaser, encumbrancer, assignee, 
devisee and transferee of said property dur- 
ing said 10 year period. 

C. This Exception 5 shall not apply if the build- 
ing is to be demolished and is: 

(i) Constructed of unreinforced masonry 
construction and built pursuant to a 
building permit issued prior to Octo- 
ber 1,1933, or 

(ii) To be demolished pursuant to a demo- 
lition order issued by the Department 
under authority set forth in Chapter 89 
of this Code. 

D. This Exception 5 shall not apply if the appli- 
cant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the 
Department that the site will be developed 
with housing for low to moderate income 
households, which housing is to be devel- 
oped, constructed or acquired with federal, 
state or local government financial assis- 
tance. 

E. This Exception 5 shall not apply to two fam- 
ily dwellings or to apartment houses and 
apartment hotels containing three dwelling 
units, provided that at least one dwelling unit 
in each such building is occupied by a record 
owner of the property. 

The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold permits on projects located within a Meth- 
ane Zone or Methane Buffer Zone established 
under Sections 7101 etseq. of this Code. Permits 
may be issued upon submittal of detailed plans 
that show adequate protection against flammable 
gas incursion by providing the installation of 
suitable methane mitigation systems. 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



17R 



ADMINISTRATION 



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7. The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold permits for public works capital improve- 
ment projects until receipt of written certification 
from the Cultural Affairs Department that the 
board, bureau or department of the city autho- 
rized by law to construct the project has fully 
complied with the requirements of the city's Pub- 
lic Works Improvements Arts Program. For pur- 
poses of this section, public works capital 
improvement project" includes any capital pro- 
ject paid for wholly or in part by the City of Los 
Angeles or by any board, bureau or department 
of the city authorized by the city charter or other 
law to construct or remodel any building, struc- 
ture, park, utility, street, sidewalk or parking 
facility, or any other type of capital project or any 
portion thereof, within the geographical limits of 
the city. 

8. The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold the building permit where, in the opinion of 
the Superintendent of Building, the design of a 
structure, due to the unusual configuration of the 
structure or parts of the structure or assembly of 
structural materials therein, does not provide at 
least the same safeguard against earthquake as 
provided by the applicable portions of this Code 
when applied in the design of a similar structure 
of customary configuration. 

9. Reserved. 

10. The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold a building permit or relocation permit for a 
site if the Department determines that demolition 
or relocation work has been done on the site with- 
out the benefit of required demolition or reloca- 
tion permits. If the Department, after notice and 
hearing, makes this determination, the Depart- 
ment shall also have the authority to record an 
affidavit with the County Recorder stating that 
no permits for any new development shall be 
issued on the property for a period of 5 years. 

1 1 . The Department shall have the authority to with- 
hold a building permit for a residential building 
composed of two or more residential rental units , 
under the following circumstances: 

A. When the applicant states that the purpose 
for a building permit is to construct a condo- 
minium, stock cooperative or community 
apartment project, permits shall be withheld 
until all necessary tentative tract or prelimi- 
nary parcel maps for the new subdivision 
have been approved by the City. 

B. When the applicant states that the purpose 
for a building permit is for the construction 
of a building other than a condominium, 
stock cooperative or community apartment 
project, a building permit shall be withheld 
until the Department receives a sworn affi- 
davit from the real property owner, which 



has been recorded by the County Recorder, 
stating that the owner waives the right to 
construct on the subject lot, a condominium, 
stock cooperative or community apartment 
project for a period of 10 years from the date 
of the issuance of the building permit, and 
that the waiver will bind any purchaser, 
encumbrancer, assignee, devisee and trans- 
feree of the property during that 10 year 
period. Notwithstanding the above, the 
Department shall have the authority to issue 
a building permit after the Director of Plan- 
ning certifies that the project conforms to all 
of the current standards of approval for new 
condominiums. 

12. The Department of Building and Safety shall 
have the authority to withhold building permits 
for the construction of hotels until a conditional 
use permit allowing the sale of liquor has been 
granted by the Department of City Planning or 
until the Department of Building and Safety 
receives from the property owner a sworn affida- 
vit, signed by the owner and recorded by the Los 
Angeles County Recorder, declaring that the 
hotel shall not sell or serve liquor on the premises 
for a period of not less than 5 years. 

13. The Department of Building and Safety shall 
have the authority to withhold grading permits 
for developments with disturbed areas of one 
acre or more unless the applicant is able to show 
that a Notice of Intent to comply with the State 
Construction Activity Storm Water Permit has 
been filed with the State Water Resources Con- 
trol Board and a Storm Water Pollution Preven- 
tion Plan has been prepared. For the purpose of 
this section, "disturbed area" shall mean an area 
altered as a result of cleaning, grading and/or 
excavation of earth. 

14. The Department of Building and Safety shall 
require applicants, as a condition for issuing a 
grading or building permit, to incorjDorate into 
the plan documents best management practices 
necessary to control stormwater pollution from 
sediments, erosion, and construction materials 
leaving the construction site. Such requirements 
shall be in accordance with the provisions con- 
tained in the ''Development Best Management 
Practices Handbook, Part A Construction 
Activities" adopted by the Board of Public Works 
as authorized by Section 64.72 of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code. 

15. The Department of Building and Safety shall 
have the authority to withhold grading and/or 
building permits for developments until: 

A. The applicant incorporates into the develop- 
ment to the satisfaction of the Bureau of San- 
itation of the Department of Public Works, 
best management practices necessary to 






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18R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



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control stormwater pollution in accordance 
with the "Development Best Management 
Practices Handbook, Part B Planning 
Activities" adopted by the Board of Public 
Works as authorized by Section 64.72 of the 
Los Angeles Municipal Code; and 

B. The Bureau of Sanitation of the Department 
of Public Works receives a Covenant and 
Agreement, signed by the owner and 
recorded with the Los Angeles County 
Recorder, declaring that the best manage- 
ment practices necessary to control storm- 
water pollution shall be installed and/or 
constructed and maintained in proper work- 
ing condition at all times; and 

C. The applicant submits to the Bureau of Sani- 
tation of the Department of Public Works, a 
set of plans and specifications showing com- 
pliance with the Standard Urban Stormwater 
Mitigation Plan or Site Specific Mitigation 
Plan. 

16.4.2 Retemtiom and maieteeance of approved plans. 

106.4.2.1 Retention of plans. The duplicate plans and 
specifications of every building or structure shall be 
stamped and retained by the Department during the life 
of such building. 

Exception: Plans for the following need not be main- 
tained, except where required by the Department: 

1 . Single or multiple dwellings in nonhillside ar- 
eas which are not part of a common interest de- 
velopment (as defined in Section 1351(c) of the 
Civil Code of California), and not more than 
two stories and basement in height. 

2. Garages and other structures appurtenant to 
buildings described in Item 1 of this exception. 

3. Farm or ranch buildings. 

4. Any one story building where the span between 
bearing walls does not exceed 25 feet (7620 
mm). This exception does not, however, apply 
to a steel frame or concrete building. 

5. Alterations to commercial buildings, apart- 
ments and hotels which do not require the sig- 
nature of a licensed civil or structural engineer 
or architect. 

106.4.2.2 Inspection and reproduction of retained 

plans. 

106.4.2.2.1 Inspection of plans. The copy of the 
approved building plans maintained by the Depart- 
ment as provided by Section 106.4.2.1 shall be avail- 
able for inspection only on the premises of the 
Department. 

Exception: Plans or portion of plans for banks, 
other financial institutions or public utilities which 
are maintained by the Department may not be 
inspected without written permission from the 
owner of the building. 



106.4.2.2.2 Reproduction of plans. Plans main- 
tained by the Department under Subdivision 1 of this 
subsection may not be duplicated in whole or in part 
except with the written permission of the certified, 
licensed or registered professional or his or her suc- 
cessor, if any, who signed the original documents, and 
the written permission of the original or current owner 
of the building, or, if the building is part of a common 
interest development, with the written permission of 
the board of directors or governing body of the associ- 
ation established to manage the common interest 
development; or by order of a proper court. In imple- 
menting this provision, the Department shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 19851 of the Health 
and Safety Code. 

The Department shall also furnish the form of an 
affidavit to be completed and signed by the person 
requesting to duplicate the official copy of the plans, 
which contains provisions stating all of the following: 

1 . That the copy of the plans shall only be used for 
the maintenance, operation, and use of the 
building. 

2. That drawings are instruments of professional 
service and are incomplete without the interpre- 
tation of the certified, licensed, or registered 
professional of record. 

3. Section 5536.25(a) of the Business and Profes- 
sions Code states that a licensed architect who 
signs plans, specifications, reports, or docu- 
ments shall not be responsible for damage 
caused by subsequent changes to, or use of, 
those plans, specifications, reports, or docu- 
ments where the subsequent changes or uses, 
including changes or uses made by state or local 
governmental agencies, are not authorized or 
approved by the licensed architect who origi- 
nally signed the plans, specifications, reports, 
or documents, provided that the architectural 
service rendered by the architect who signed 
the plans, specifications, reports, or documents 
was not also a proximate cause of the damage. 

Grading plans which are on file with the Depart- 
ment are public records and may be duplicated. 

The fees specified in the following provisions 1 or 2 
shall be paid by the person requesting duplication of 
plans: 

1 . Building plans that have not been microfilmed 
and are authorized for reproduction, and grad- 
ing plans that are to be duplicated by other than 
City services will be released only to a bonded 
duplicating service which has posted a bond for 
the benefit of the City of Los Angeles in an 
amount at least equal to the value of the plans. 

The cost of duplicating the plans shall be 
paid directly to the duplicating service by the 
persons requesting duplication. That person 
shall pay a service fee of $15.00 for each set of 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



19R 



ADMINISTRATION 



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plans released to a bonded duplicating service 
as herein provided. 

2. Building plans that have been microfilmed and 
are authorized for reproduction shall be dupli- 
cated by City services. The Department shall 
collect an initial service fee of $8.00 for each re- 
quest for reproduction of plans plus a fee of 
$1.00 for each sheet requested to be photocop- 
ied. 

106.4o2.3 Compliance. A certified copy of the microfilmed 
plans shall constitute compliance with the requirement of 
this section. 

106.4.3 Validity off permit 

106.4.3.1 Limit of authorization. The issuance of a permit 
is not an approval or an authorization of the work specified 
therein. A permit is merely an application for inspection, the 
issuance of which entitles the permittee to inspection of the 
work which is described therein. 

Permits issued under the requirements of this Code shall 
not relieve the owner of responsibility for securing required 
permits for work to be done which is regulated by any other 
Code, department or division of the City of Los Angeles. 

All permits are issued subject to the following conditions: 

If the work described by a valid permit is prohibited by a 
change in the Los Angeles Municipal Code, then such work 
may be completed only if the Department determines that 
both substantial habilities have been incurred, and substan- 
tial work has been performed on site, in accordance with the 
terms of that permit. Work performed and liabilities 
incurred pursuant to a demolition or relocation permit shall 
not be considered in determining whether an owner may 
complete a building or structure for which a building permit 
has been issued. 

106.4.3.2 Validity of other laws. Neither the issuance of a 
permit nor the approval by the Department of any document 
shall constitute an approval of any violation of any provi- 
sion of this Code or of any other law or ordinance, and a per- 
mit or other document purporting to give authority to violate 
any law shall not be valid with respect thereto. 

106.4.3.3 Official grades. The applicant shall decide the 
correctness of proposed structure elevations and locations 
with respect to the official grades of public streets and to the 
policy of the Board of Public Works relative to the location 
and length of curb depressions for driveways. 

106.4.3.4 Easements. Before issuing any permit, the 
Department shall require a declaration, under penalty of 
perjury, from the owner or agent having the property 
owner's consent stating that: 

"The proposed work will not destroy or unreasonably 
interfere with any access or utility easement belonging to 
others and located on my property, but in the event such 
work does destroy or unreasonably interfere with such ease- 
ment, a substitute easement(s) satisfactory to the holder(s) 
of the easement will be provided." 

106.4.4 Expiration, suspension or revocation. 



106.4.4.1 General. The regulations concerning the expi- 
ration, suspension and revocation of permits are enumer- 
ated in Chapter DC Article 8, Division 6, of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code. 

106.4.4.2 Making false statements to the Department. 

Any person who willfully or knowingly, with the intent 
to deceive, makes a false statement or representation, or 
knowingly fails to disclose a material fact in any docu- 
mentation required by the Department to ascertain facts 
relative tp this section, to the exception in Section 
107.2.9 or to Section 112, including any oral or written 
evidence presented, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

106.4.4.3 Unfinished buildings or structures; When- 
ever the Department determines by inspection that work 
on any building or structure for which a permit has been 
issued and the work started thereon has been suspended 
for a period of 1 80 days or more, the owner of the prop- 
erty upon which such structure is located, or other person 
or agent in control of said property, upon receipt of notice 
in writing from the Department to do so, shall, within 90 
days from the date of such written notice, obtain a new 
permit to complete the required work and diligently pur- 
sue the work to completion, or shall remove or demolish 
the building or structure within 1 80 days from the date of 
the written notice. 

106.4.5 Permits for historical and cultural buildings. The 

Department shall not issue a permit to demolish, alter or 
remove a building or structure of historical, archaeological 
or architectural consequence if such building or structure 
has been officially designated, or has been determined by 
state or federal action to be eligible for designation, on the 
National Register of Historic Places, or has been included 
on the City of Los Angeles list of historic cultural monu- 
ments, without the Department having first determined 
whether the demolition, alteration or removal may result in 
the loss of or serious damage to a significant historical or 
cultural asset. If the Department determines that such. loss or 
damage may occur, the applicant shall file an application 
and pay all fees for the California Environmental Quality 
Act Initial Study and Check List, as specified in Section 
19.05 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. If the initial study 
and check list identifies the historical or cultural asset as sig- 
nificant, the permit shall not be issued without the Depart- 
ment first finding that specific economic, social or other 
considerations make infeasible the preservation of the 
building or structure. 

106.4.6 Notification and posting in a hillside grading area. 

106.4.6.1 In any area designated as a hillside grading 
area, the Department shall not issue (1) a building permit 
for construction of a building with over 500 square feet 
(46.5 m-) of floor area, or (2) a building permit for any 
addition to an existing building which adds over 500 
square feet (46.5 m^) of floor area, or (3) a grading permit 
for the grading of more than 1,000 cubic yards (7650 m^) 
of earth materials without having first done the following 
at least 10 days prior to issuance of the building or grad- 
ing permit: 



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20R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



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1 . The Department shall send written notices of the 
permit application, by mail, to the owners of all 
property abutting the property at which the con- 
struction or grading will occur. Notices shall also 
be sent to the owners of all property across the 
street or alley when such property is intersected by 
a projection of the lot hues of the property at which 
the construction or grading will occur; and 

2. The Department shall post a notice of the permit 
application on the property at which the construc- 
tion or grading will occur. 

106.4.6.2 The applicant seeking the permit shall provide 
the Department with the names and addresses of all per- 
sons entitled to receive notice pursuant to Section 
106.4.6.1. 

106.4.6.3 The Department shall collect a fee in the 
amount of $60.00 when an application for a building or 
grading permit described in Section 106.4.6.1 above is 
filed with the Department. 

106.4.7 Curb ramps. 

106.4.7.1 Condition of permits. Subject to the provi- 
sions of Section 106.4.7.2, no building or structure shall 
be erected or enlarged, and no building permit issued 
therefor, on any lot, any part of which is within 100 feet 
(30 480 mm) of the straight projection of the intersection 
of the building lines of a corner lot of the block within 
which subject lot fronts, unless the appHcant agrees in 
writing, and submits the necessary surety in the form of a 
bond or cash deposit, to construct a corner curb ramp at 
such corner and in addition, if such lot is within 100 feet 
(30 480 mm) of two such intersections to construct cor- 
ner curb ramps at each of the two adjacent corners at both 
intersections, for a total of two ramps. The curb ramp 
shall comply with the standards contained in Part 2 of 
Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations. Such 
improvements procedure shall, in all respects, be in com- 
pliance with Section 12.37D of the Los Angeles Munici- 
pal Code. 

Exceptions: This section does not apply to the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . One- or two-family dwelling or addition thereto 
located in a tract, parcel map or subdivision re- 
corded prior to the effective date of this section. 

2. A building or structure or addition thereto of 
less than 500 square feet (46.5 m^) in gross floor 
area or when such building, structure or addi- 
tion thereto contains a restaurant or fast food 
restaurant of less than 200 square feet (18.6 m^) 
in gross floor area. 

3. Where sidewalks are neither currently installed 
nor required by the city as a condition of devel- 
opment, at either the location of the proposed 
development or the location of the otherwise 
proposed curb ramp. 

106.4.7.2 It is hereby determined that the requirements 
of Section 106.4.7.1 hereof shall be imposed as a condi- 



tion to the erection of any structure or addition thereto 
wherein handicapped access is otherwise required. 

106.4.8 Construction site notice. 

106.4.8.1 Contents. Any person who obtains the follow- 
ing types of permits shall post a notice, as described 
below, at the construction site: 

1. Permit for new structures, except signs; 

2. Permit for additions to existing buildings; 

3. Change of use or occupancy permit; 

4. Demolition permit; 

5. Relocation permit; 

6. Swimming pool permit; or 

7. Grading permit. 

The notice shall be on a form entitled "Construction 
Site Notice" provided by the Department and shall 
include the following information: job site address, per- 
mit number, name and phone number of the contractor 
and owner or owner's agent, hours of construction 
allowed by code or any discretionary approval for the 
site, and City telephone numbers where violations can be 
reported. 

106.4.8.2 Location. The notice shall be posted and 
maintained at the construction site and displayed in a 
location that is readily visible to the public and approved 
by the Department. 

106.4.8.3 Maintenance of notice. The notice shall be 
displayed after issuance of the permit and prior to the 
start of construction. The notice shall be displayed con- 
tinuously during the process of construction until all the 
work authorized by the permit is inspected and approved 
by the Department. All contact information on the 
notice, including telephone numbers, shall be correct and 
maintained current. Failure to display this notice may 
result in withholding of inspections by the Department. 



SECTION 107 
FEES 

107.1 General. Fees shall be assessed in accordance with the 
provisions of this section. 

107.2 Permit fees. Before issuing any permit required by this 
code, the Department shall collect a fee. 

107.2.1 Building permit. Unless otherwise required below, 
the amount of the permit fee shall be as shown in Table 1-A 
of this code for the total value of all construction work for 
which the building permit is issued, including all painting, 
papering, roofing, electrical work, plumbing, permanent or 
fixed heating equipment, elevator equipment, fire sprinkler 
equipment and any other permanent portions or permanent 
equipment except as provided in Section 106. , 

No portion of any building, including mechanical, elec- 
trical and plumbing work shall be excluded from the valua- 
tion for a building permit because of any other permits 
required by any governing agency. 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



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ADMINISTRATION 



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107.2.2 Combined building-mechanical permit. A com- 
bined building-mechanical permit shall be issued, provided 
a fee is paid. The permit fee shall be as determined by using 
Table 1-A.l of this code. A combined building-mechanical 
permit shall entitle the permittee to the inspection of all 
building, electrical, plumbing, heating, ventilating and air 
conditioning work in the following systems: 

1. A new one- or two-family dwelling. 

2. Any work necessary and in conjunction with alter- 
ations, additions or demolitions to a one- or two-fam- 
ily dwelling. In the event that work in one or more of 
the mechanical trades is not required, the applicable 
fee(s) shall not be collected. 

3. A pool accessory to a one- or two-family dwelling, 
except that for pools which are exempt from a build- 
ing permit but may require a permit for electrical, 
plumbing and heating work, a combined build- 
ing-mechanical permit shall be issued, provided a fee 
is paid. The fee shall be 75 percent of the fee deter- 
mined from Table No. 1-A of this Chapter. 

4. A complete solar heating and/or cooling system 
installation appurtenant to and used exclusively by a 
one- or two-family dwelling; or an individual dwell- 
ing unit or an efficiency dwelling unit in an apartment 
house, apartment-hotel or hotel; or a pool accessory to 
a one-family dwelhng. 

107.2.3 Sign building permit. Before issuing a building 
permit for any sign, the Department shall collect a permit 
fee. The amount of the permit fee shall be equal to 3.50 per- 
cent of the total value of all construction or work, as deter- 
mined by the Department, for which the building permit is 
issued, but in no event shall the permit fee be less than the 
minimum inspection fee as specified in Section 98.0412 (a) 
of the Los Angeles Municipal Code and Note 4 of Table No. 
1-A of this chapter. The sign building permit shall be subject 
to the surcharge specified in Note 1 of Table No. 1-A of this 
chapter. 

107.2.4 Grading permit. Before issuing any grading per- 
mit, the Department shall collect a permit fee, the amount of 
which shall be as shown in Table No. 1-D of this code. 

107.2.5 Earthquake hazard reduction in existing tilt-up 
concrete wall buildings permit. The permit fee for con- 
struction work which the Department determines is neces- 
sary to satisfy the requirements contained in Section 9 108 of 
this code, shall be based on the entire floor area of the build- 
ing requiring any strengthening work. The fee shall be equal 
to $0.0347 per square foot or fraction thereof of the subject 
building. 

107.2.6 Permit issuing fee when plan check is not 
required. See Section 98.0415 of the Los Angeles Munici- 
pal Code. 

107.2.7 Certificate of occupancy for use of land permit. 

A fee of $150.00 shall be charged for each Certificate of 
Occupancy for use of land; however, no fee shall be charged 
when a Certificate of Occupancy is being issued pursuant to 
Section 109 or when any work which requires a building 
permit is done. 



107.2.8 Awning installation permit. Every awning erected 
and arranged so that temporary shelter may be provided 
over any portion of a public way shall be subject to an instal- 
lation fee of $10.00 per awning, but in no event shall the 
installation fee per building be less than the minimum 
inspection fee specified in Section 98.0412 (a) of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code. 

107.3 Plan check and preinspection fees. 

107.3.1 Plan check fees. Before formally accepting a set of 
plans and specifications for checking, the Department shall 
collect a plan check fee. Plan checking shall expire if permit 
is not secured within the time limits specified in Section 
98.0603 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

107.3.1.1 Buildings and structures. Unless otherwise 
required below, the plan check fee for buildings, struc- 
tures or portions thereof shall be equal to 90 percent of 
the building permit fee as shown in Table No. 1-A of this 
code. 

Exception: Where the occupancy of a residential 
building or portion thereof is changed, the plan check- 
ing fee shall be based on a valuation equal to 85 per- 
cent of the replacement value of the building or 
portion changed. 

107.3.1.2 Signs and sign support structures. The plan 
check fee for signs and/or sign suppoit stmctures shall be 
equal to 50 percent of the building permit fee as indicated 
in Section 107.2.3. 

107.3.1.3 Grading work. The plan check fee for grading 
plans shall be 90 percent of the grading permit fee as 
indicated by Section 107.2.4. The fee for grading work 
on two or more contiguous sites may be the amount indi- 
cated for the sum of the total cubic yards in all the sepa- 
rate sites. 

Exception: A grading plan check fee will not be 
required for jobs of 50 cubic yards (38.3 m^) or less. 

107.3.1.4 Hourly plan check fee. The Department may 
collect a plan check fee as specified in Section 
98.0415(e) of the Los Angeles Municipal Code for any 
time not included by the original plan check fee and shall 
be in addition to other fees specified in this code. 

107.3.1.5 Tilt-up concrete wall buildings. The plan 
check fee for construction pursuant to the requirements 
of the earthquake hazard reduction in existing tilt-up 
concrete wall buildings contained in Chapter 91 of this 
code shall be equal to the building permit fee as specified 
in Section 107.2.5. 

107.3.1.6 Plan check fees for more than one building. 

When two or more buildings are to be erected on the 
same site and the following regulations are complied 
with, the plan checking fee, if of a lesser amount, may be 
the fee indicated for the sum of the values of all the sepa- 
rate buildings. 

107.3.1.6.1 All of the buildings shall be shown on the 
one set of plans and specifications. 



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107.3.1.6.2 Applications for separate permits for 
each building shall be filed prior to the checking of the 
plans. 

107.3.1.6.3 Two sets of plans and specifications shall 
be submitted to the Department. 

107.3.1.7 Plan check fees for duplicate buildings. 

When two or more buildings are to be erected from iden- 
tical plans and specifications and the following regula- 
tions are complied with, the plan checking fee, if of a 
lesser amount, may be the fee indicated for the silm of the 
values of all the separate buildings. 

107.3.1.7.1 Applications for separate permits for 
each building shall be filed prior to the checking of the 
plans. 

107.3.1.7.2 A site plat shall accompany each appHca- 
tion for a permit. 

107.3.1.7.3 The number of sets of plans and specifica- 
tions submitted to the Department shall be one more 
than the number of applications for permits. 

107.3.1.7.4 Footings for one or more of the buildings 
may deviate from the plans and specifications pro- 
vided that, in each instance, separate footing plans are 
submitted to the Department. 

107.3.1.8 Fees for rechecking plans. No additional fee 
shall be charged for verification of the corrections 
required by the Department or other Departments. How- 
ever, when plans are revised by the applicant for reasons 
other than plan check correction and require additional 
plan check time to review the plan revisions, the Depart- 
ment shall collect a supplemental plan check fee as speci- 
fied in Section 107.3.1.4. 

When plans are resubmitted for review of changes 
made to previously approved plans, an application for a 
permit shall be filed. 

The plan checking fee in the case of a building permit 
shall be based on an hourly rate as specified in Section 
107.3.1.4 and the plan check fee for a grading permit 
shall be as specified in Section 107.3.1.3 for the number 
of cubic yards replaced, removed or omitted that were 
not previously approved. 

When a permit expires by limitation and the work is 
not completed, the plans shall be resubmitted for check- 
ing before the issuance of a new permit. The plan check- 
ing fee shall be based on the same valuation as specified 
for the permit in Section 106.4.4. 

107.3.2 Preinspection fees. The Department shall collect a 
fee of $80.00 for each of the following: 

1 . Grading preinspection. A grading preinspection fee 
shall be collected for any building permit application 
involving work in the hillside grading area and for all 
grading plans submitted to the Department. 

Exception: The grading preinspection fee may be 
waived when the Department determines that the 
nature of the work does not require preinspection 
of the work site. 



2. Sign preinspection. A sign preinspection fee shall be 
collected when a permit application is filed for con- 
struction, replacement, alteration or repair of a sign. 

Exception: The sign preinspection fee may be 
waived when the Department determines that the 
nature of the sign does not require preinspection of 
the proposed location to determine compliance 
with applicable requirements. 

3. Demolition preinspection. A demolition 
preinspection fee shall be collected for all proposed 

. demolition of buildings (including accessory build- 
ings) or structures on a site and shall be conducted 
before the issuance of a demolition permit. 

Exception: The demolition preinspection and 
demolition preinspection fee may be waived when 
the Department determines that previous inspec- 
tions associated with the Department's abatement 
programs have been made. 

4. Preinspection. Preinspection fee shall be collected 
whenever the Department determines that due to the 
nature of the work involved, an inspection is neces- 
sary. 

107.3.3 Fees for off-hour plan check. Upon request by an 
applicant and accepted by the Department, an off-hour plan 
chisck fee per Section 98.0422 of the Los Angeles Municipal 
Code may be collected. 

107.4 Permit related fees. When applicable, the following 
supplemental fees shall be required prior to issuance of a per- 
mit. 

107.4.1 Supplemental building permit fees. A fee for a 

supplementary building permit to cover any additional valu- 
ation to work included in the original permit shall be the dif- 
ference between the fee paid for the original permit and the 
fee which would have been required had the original permit 
included the entire evaluation. 

A fee for a building permit authorizing changes from 
approved plans or specifications shall be based on a valua- 
tion equal to the increase in valuation caused by the change, 
but no refund shall be made if the change causes a reduction 
of valuation. 

107.4.2 Supplemental grading permit fees. The fee for a 

supplementary grading permit authorizing additional work 
to that under a valid permit shall be the difference between 
the fee paid for the original permit and the fee shown for the 
entire project. 

107.4.3 Plan maintenance fees. Before issuing a building 
permit, the Department shall collect a fee for maintaining 
building plans which are required to be, retained by Section 
106.4.2. 

The amount of the plan maintenance fee shall be 2 per- 
cent of the building permit fee, but not less than $ 10.00 and 
not more than $300.00, and shall be collected for each sepa- 
rate plan to be retained by the Department. 

107.4.4 Fire hydrant fee notice. Before issuing any build- 
ing permit required by this code, if the total value of all new 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



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ADMBNJSTRATION 



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construction or work for which the permit is issued is 
$50,000 or greater, as determined by the Department, the 
Department shall collect a fire hydrant fee. The amount of 
this fee shall be equal to ^V,oo of 1 percent of the total value 
of all construction or work for which the permit is issued. If 
the applicant for a building permit subject to the fire hydrant 
fee pays such fee under protest or refuses to pay such fee, the 
Department may issue the permit, but shall affix to the per- 
mit a Fire Hydrant Fee Notice to read as follows: 

FIRE HYDRANT FEE NOTICE: 

The City of Los Angeles may amend the Fire Hydrant 
Fee Ordinance. 

The owner of the project designated in this permit shall 
be obligated to pay to the Department a fire hydrant fee in 
the amount to be calculated pursuant to any amendment 
to the fire hydrant fee ordinance. This fee will be used to 
provide adequate fire-safety facilities and services for 
new development. 

Exception: A fire hydrant fee shall not apply to any 
permit for demolition of a building or structure. 

The Department of Building and Safety shall cause all 
money collected pursuant to this section to be deposited 
into the Fire Hydrant Installation and Main Replacement 
Fund described in Section 5.114 of the Los Angeles 
Administrative Code for purposes of disbursement as 
permitted therein; except that $5.00 from each fire 
hydrant fee shall be deposited in the general fund pursu- 
ant to Section 5.114 of the Los Angeles Administrative 
Code. 

107.4.5 Metal bars, grilles, grates, security roll-down 
shutters and similar devices. The permit fee for the instal- 
lation of devices for which a permit is required by Section 
6304.3 of this Code shall be $25.00 for each affected dwell- 
ing unit, efficiency dwelling unit, light housekeeping room 
or guest room in a residential building. 

Exceptions: 

1. The Department shall issue a permit without col- 
lection of a fee if it determines that the following 
conditions are met: 

A. The metal bars, grilles, grates, security roll 
down shutters and similar devices were 
installed prior to June 3, 1986, and 

B. The dwelhng unit is in full compliance with 
Section 310.4 when the first inspection is 
conducted pursuant to Section 310.4. 

2. The Department shall issue a permit without the 
collection of a fee for all eligible lower income 
households, as defined by Section 50079.5 of the 
California Health and Safety Code. The Depart- 
ment shall determine whether the applicant meets 
the applicable criteria for eligibility. 

107.4.6 Arts development fee. 

107.4.6.1 Arts fee. The owner of a development project 
for a commercial or industrial building shall be required 



to pay an arts fee in accordance with the requirements of 
this section. 

107.4.6.2 Fee amount. The Department of Building and 
Safety shall collect an arts fee in the following amount: 



1. Office or research and development. For an 
office or research and development building, the 
arts fee shall be $ 1 .57 per square foot. 

2. Retail. All retail establishments shall pay an arts 
fee of $1.31 per square foot. 

3. Manufacturing. For a manufacturing building, 
the arts fee shall be $0.51 per square foot. 

4. Warehouse. For a warehouse building, the arts fee 
shall be $0.39 per square foot. 

5. Hotel. For a hotel building, the arts fee shall be 
$0.52 per square foot. 

In no event shall the required arts fee exceed either 
$1.57 per gross square foot of any structure authorized 
by the permit or 1 percent of the valuation of the project 
designated on the permit, whichever is lower, as deter- 
mined by the Department of Building and Safety. Where 
there are combined uses within a development project or 
portion thereof, the arts fee shall be the sum of the fee 
requirements of the various uses listed above. The Cul- 
tural Affairs Department shall revise the arts fee annually 
by an amount equal to the Consumer Price Index for Los 
Angeles as published by the United States Department of 
Labor. The revised amount shall be submitted to Council 
for adoption by ordinance. 

107.4.6.3 Time of collection. Except as provided in Sec- 
tion 107.4.6, the Department of Building and Safety 
shall collect an arts fee before issuance of a building per- 
mit for commercial and industrial buildings irequired by 
this code. 

107.4.6.4 Exceptions. The arts fee required by Section 
107.4.6 shall not be assessed for the following projects or 
portions thereof: 

L Any project for which the total value of all con- 
struction or work for which the permit is issued is 
$500,000 or less. 

2. The repair, renovation or rehabilitation of a build- 
ing or structure that does not alter the size or occu- 
pancy load of the building. 

3. The repair, renovation or rehabilitation of a build- 
ing or structure for the installation of fire sprin- 
klers pursuant to Chapter 9. 

4. The repair, renovation or rehabilitation of a build- 
ing or structure that has been made to comply with 
Chapter 88 {Earthquake Hazard Reduction in 
Existing Buildings) subsequent to a citation of 
noncompliance with Chapter 88. 



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5. The repair, renovation or rehabilitation of a build- \^ 
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6. All residential buildings or portion thereof. This 
exception does not include hotels. 

107.4.6.5 Use of arts fees acquired pursuant to Sec- 
tion 107.4.6. Any arts fee collected by the Department of 
Building and Safety shall be deposited in the Arts Devel- 
opment Fee Trust Fund. Any fee paid into this fund may 
be used only for the purpose of providing cultural and 
artistic facilities, services and community amenities 
which will be available to the development project and its 
future employees. Any cultural and artistic facilities, ser- 
vices and community amenities provided shall comply 
with the principles and standards set forth in the Cultural 
Master Plan when adopted. 

At or about the time of collection of any fee imposed 
by this section, the Cultural Affairs Department shall 
identify the use to which the arts fee is to be put, and if the 
use is financing public facilities, the facilities shall be 
identified. 

107.4.6.6 Projects covered by Ordinance 164,243. In 

1988, the City enacted Ordinance 164,243 which states 
in part: 

"This ordinance is an interim measure while the City 
of Los Angeles is giving consideration to the enactment 
of an Arts Development Fee Ordinance. The owners of a 
development project shall be obligated to pay an Arts 
Development Fee if such fee is adopted in the future by 
the city. The fee will not exceed 1 percent of the total 
value of work and construction authorized by the build- 
ing permit issued to a development project. This fee 
would be used to provide adequate cultural and artistic 
facilities, services and community amenities for the pro- 
ject." 

By enacting Section 107.4.6, the City has adopted the 
Arts Development Fee referred to by Ordinance 
164,243. Accordingly, an arts fee shall be paid to the City 
of Los Angeles by owners of development projects 
which received building permits between and including 
January 15, 1989, and the effective date of this section. 
This arts fee described in this section shall be paid within 
60 days of receipt of a request for payment of an arts fee. 
All exceptions listed in Section 107.4.6.4 shall apply to 
owners of development projects subject to Ordinance 
164,243. 

The Office of Finance shall bill and collect the Arts 
Development Fee owed by those persons to whom notice 
was given pursuant to this paragraph for the period Janu- 
ary 15, 1989, through May 7, 1991. The amount due shall 
be paid in full within 60 days of the billing date unless an 
agreement to pay in installments pursuant to this para- 
graph is approved by the Office of Finance. Persons 
indebted to the City of Los Angeles for Arts Develop- 
ment Fees may, upon approval by the Office of Finance, 
enter into an agreement with the City of Los Angeles to 
pay such fees in installments over a period not to exceed 
one year. The Office of Finance shall collect a service fee 
of $ 10.00 on each monthly installment to recover the cost 
to the city of processing installment payments. The Cul- 
tural Affairs Department is hereby authorized to negoti- 



ate and accept payment in kind for the Arts Development 
Fee owed by those persons to whom notice was given 
pursuant to this paragraph for the period January 15, 
1989, through May 7, 1 99 1 . The Cultural Affairs Depart- 
ment shall provide notice to the Office of Finance of the 
name of the person on whose account such in kind pay- 
ment was accepted, and whether the in kind payment 
constitutes payment in full or only a specified portion of 
the Arts Development Fee owed. 

The Office of Finance is authorized to record payment 
in full, without further notification to the person billed, 
for cash or in kind Arts Development Fee payments 
received that are within $3.00 of the amount owed. 

107.4.7 Affordable housing mitigation fee notice. Before 
issuance of a building permit for any project or structure, the 
Department of Building and Safety shall affix to the permit 
an Affordable Housing Mitigation Fee Notice to read as fol- 
lows: 

Affordable housing mitigation fee notice: The City of 
Los Angeles is considering the enactment of an Afford- 
able Housing Mitigation Fee Ordinance. The owner of 
the project designated in this permit shall be obligated to 
comply with an Affordable Housing Mitigation Fee 
Ordinance, if such an ordinance is adopted in the future 
by the city. In no event shall the required fee exceed 
either $5.00 per square foot of the structure(s) authorized 
by the permit or 3.5 percent of the valuation of the project 
designated on the permit, as determined by the Depart- 
ment of Building and Safety, whichever is lower. This fee 
shall be used to mitigate any affordable housing needs 
created by the project. 

Exception: The notice required by this section shall 
not be affixed to building permits for the following 
projects or portion thereof: 

1 . Any project for which a building permit is is- 
sued with less than 40,000 square feet (3716 
m^) of new floor area as determined by the De- 
partment of Building and Safety; 

2. Any project located within the boundaries of 
an enterprise zone designated in Section 
12.04 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code; 

3. Any project developed by nonprofit entities 
such as hospitals, schools, religious institu- 
tions, museums, day care providers and other 
similar organizations, where the construction 
is directly related to the nonprofit purpose of 
the organization as determined by the Com- 
munity Development Department. This ex- 
ception shall not apply to nonprofit 
development of leasable commercial office 
space; 

4. Any project or portion of a project for indus- 
trial, warehouse development or parking 
structures as defined by the Los Angeles Mu- 
nicipal Code and determined by the Depart- 
ment of Building and Safety; 



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5. Any project within a current neighborhood 
Community Redevelopment Agency project 
area as defined in Section 12.04 of the Los An- 
geles Municipal Code other than the Bunker 
Hill, Central Business District and Little To- 
kyo redevelopment areas; 

6. Any development project where one or more 
of the following discretionary approvals, initi- 
ated by application of the property owner or 
their representatives, was granted by a gov- 
ernment agency between January 1, 1986, and 
October 1, 1989, and remains valid: zone 
change, conditional use permit, variance, 
height district change, zone boundary adjust- 
ment, specific plan exception, project permit 
pursuant to a moratorium ordinance, develop- 
ment agreement, coastal development permit, 
commercial corner development pursuant to 
Section 12.2718 of the, Los Angeles Municipal 
Code, project permit pursuant to an interim 
control ordinance, parcel map, tract map or 
vesting tentative tract map. 

In addition, prior to the issuance of any 
such building permit, the Department of Plan- 
ning shall certify in writing that the necessary 
environmental clearances were completed 
and that the discretionary approval included a 
determinafion of one or more of the follow- 
ing: building location, height, density, use, 
parking and access of the proposed project. 

7. Any project for which architectural and struc- 
tural plans sufficient for a complete plan 
check for a building permit have been ac- 
cepted by the Depiirtment of Building and 
Safety and for which plan check fees were 
collected on or before the effective date of this 
section and for which no subsequent changes 
are made to those plans which increase the 
height, floor area or occupancy load by more 
than 5 percent. 

8. Any project for an existing building which 
will not result in the addition of over 40,000 
square feet (3716 m^) of new space as deter- 
mined by the Department of Building and 
Safety. 

9. Residential buildings which contain one or 
more dwelling units, efficiency dwelling 
units, apartment units or the residential por- 
tion of a building that has both residential and 
nonresidential uses. This exception shall not 
apply to hotels. 

10. Any project located within the boundaries of 
the Central City West Specific Plan Area, as 
defined in Ordinance No. 163,094, if the de- 
veloper or project owner agrees by covenant 
and agreement or development agreement to 
abide by the linkage fee and replacement 
housing obligations set forth in the Draft Spe- 



cific Plan for the Central City West Specific 
Plan Area, dated November 2, 1989. 

1 1 . The repair, renovation or rehabilitation of a 
building or structure of historical, archaeolog- 
ical or architectural consequence, if such 
building or structure has been officially desig- 
nated, or has been determined by state or fed- 
eral action to be eligible for designation, on 
the National Register of Historic Places, or 
has been included on the City of Los Angeles 
list of Historic Cultural Monuments. 

The Department of Building and Safety 
shall determine which exceptions apply to any 
project based on documentation submitted by 
the applicant prior to the issuance of the build- 
ing permit. 

107.5 Additional fees. 

107.5.1 Investigation fees. In addition, the Department 
shall have the authority to collect investigation fees. For 
investigation fees of work done without a valid building per- 
mit, see Section 98.0402 of the Los Angeles Municipal 
Code. 

107.5.2 Other fees. The Department shall have the author- 
ity to collect a fee to cover any additional costs incurred by 
the Department in obtaining code compliance or issuing a 
permit for work that was done prior to obtaining the 
required permit. This fee shall be in addition to any other 
fees required by the Los Angeles Municipal Code. The 
Superintendent of Building shall prepare a fee schedule for 
this purpose for adoption by ordinance. The fee schedule for 
inspections shall be those fees referenced in Section 
98.0412 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

107.6 Refund of fees. See Section 98.0420 of the Los Angeles 
Municipal Code for the procedure. 

107.7 Processing fees for security bar certificates of compli- 
ance. The Department of Building and Safety shall charge a 
$20.00 fee for the processing of each Security Bar Certificate 
of Compliance. The Department shall maintain on file Security 
Bar Certificates of Compliance. 

Certified security bar installers shall file Security Bar Certif- 
icates of Compliance in accordance with provisions of Section 
108.12.3.2. 

107.8 Processing fees for soils engineering, foundation 
investigation, geology and seismology report and for review 
of division of land requests. 

107.8.1 SoOs engineering, foundation investigation, geol- 
ogy and seismology report. A fee shall be charged for the 
processing of each soil, foundation investigation, geology, 
or seismology report and the amount of the fee shall be 
determined from Table 1-C. 

107.8.2 Division of land. Where the Department is required 
to review a division of land request as part of the City Plan- 
ning Division of Land procedures, a fee of $300.00, shall be 
paid prior to the initiation of such review. 



L^P^ 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



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SECTION 108 
INSPECTION 

108.1 General. All construction or work for which a permit is 
required shall be subject to inspection by authorized employ- 
ees of the Department, and certain types of construction shall 
have continuous inspection by Registered Deputy Inspectors as 
specified in Section 1704 of this Code. Prior to the issuance of a 
Certificate of Occupancy as specified in Section 109, a final 
inspection shall be made by the Department of all construction 
or work for which a permit has been issued. 

Exceptions: 

1. When a permit is obtained for reroofing in compli- 
ance with Section 1510 of this code, the Department 
may waive inspections provided the following per- 
sons certify that the materials used comply with Sec- 
tion 1510 of this Code and work is performed by: 

A. A licensed contractor, or 

B. The owner of the property who either did the 
work or used employees of the owner to do the 
work pursuant to Section 7044 of the Business 
and Professions Code. 

2. When a permit is obtained for any work performed by 
certified licensed contractors complying with the 
requirements of Section 108.12. 

108.2 Inspection record card. With each permit issued, the 
Department shall furnish a card to the applicant showing the 
location and nature of the work to be done and the number of 
the permit. 

The permit card shall be posted in a place designated by the 
Superintendent of Building. 

108.3 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the person 
doing the work authorized by a permit to notify the Superinten- 
dent of Building that such work is ready for inspection. The 
Superintendent of Building may require that every request for 
inspection be filed at least one working day before such inspec- 
tion is desired. Such request may be in writing or by telephone 
at the option of the Superintendent of Building. 

It shall be the duty of the person requesting any inspections 
requked by this Code to provide access to and means for 
inspection of such work. 

108.4 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the 
point indicated in each successive inspection without first 
obtaining the approval of the Superintendent of Building. The 
Superintendent of Building, upon notification, shall make the 
requested inspections and shall either indicate that portion of 
the construction is satisfactory as completed or shall notify the 
permit holder or an agent of the permit holder wherein the same 
fails to comply with this Code. Any portions which do not com- 
ply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or 
concealed until authorized by the Superintendent of Building. 

There shall be a final inspection and approval of all buildings 
and structures when completed and ready for occupancy and 

use. 



S Required inspections. The permittee or his agent shall 
notify the Department when the building or portion thereof is 
ready for each of the following inspections: 



1 . Foundations. When the excavation for footings is com- 
plete and footing forms and required reinforcing steel are 
in place, but before any concrete is placed. 

2. Wood framing, ventilation equipment installation. 

When all roof, walls and floor framing, fire stopping and 
bracing are complete and all pipes, chimneys, vents and 
ductwork are in place, but before any of this work is cov- 
ered. 

3 . Wall covering. When the backing and lath or dry wall are 
in place ready for plaster, stucco or taping. 

4. Reinforced concrete. When forms and reinforcing steel 
are in place ready for concrete. 

5. Reinforced masonry. In grouted masonry when vertical 
reinforcing steel is in place and other reinforcing steel 
distributed and ready for placing, but before any units are 
laid up. 

6. Structural steel. When structural steel members are in 
place and required connections are complete, but before 
concealing any members or connection. 

7. Final. When the construction or work is completed and 
the structure ready for occupancy, but before being occu- 
pied. 

The permittee or the permittee's agent shall notify the 
Department on the day prior to the day on which inspection is 
desired. 

The Department shall approve that portion of the work 
inspected or notify the responsible person if the work fails to 
comply with the law. Any portions which do not comply with 
the law shall be corrected and no portion shall be covered or 
concealed with additional work until approved. 

When any of the above required inspections have been made 
and that portion of the work approved, the inspector shall so 
record on the permit card posted on the job. 

108.6 Other inspections. In addition to the called inspections 
specified above, the Department may make any other inspec- 
tions of any construction work to ascertain compliance with the 
provisions of this Code and other laws which the Department 
enforces. 

108.7 Reinspections. Fees for additional inspections shall be 
assessed in accordance with Section 98.0412 of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code. 

108.8 Surveys. In the absence of any designation of the proper 
location of the lot on which a building is to be erected, for 
which building a permit has been issued, the Department may 
require the owner to have the lot surveyed and staked by a regis- 
tered land surveyor or registered civil engineer so that the 
proper location of the building on the lot may be determined. 

108.9. Inspection of excavation and fills. The permittee or the 
permittee's agent shall notify the Department when the grading 
operation is ready for each of the following inspections: 

1 . Initial meeting/inspection. When the permittee is ready 
to begin work, but before any grading operation or brush- 
ing is started, a meeting shall be held at the project site 
with the contractor and the inspectors to discuss the ap- 
proved plans, soil reports and the sequence of the grading 
operations. 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



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ADWIINISTRATION 



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2. Toe inspection. After the natural ground is exposed and 
prepared to receive fill, but before any fill is placed. 

3. Excavation inspection. After the excavation is started, 
but before the vertical depth of the excavation exceeds 1 
feet. 

4. Fill inspection. After the fill emplacement is started, but 
before the vertical height of the lifts exceeds 10 feet. 

5 . Drainage device inspection. After forms and pipe are in 
place, but before any concrete is placed. 

6. Rough grading. When all rough grading has been com- 
pleted. This inspection may be called for at the comple- 
tion of the rough grading without the necessity of the 
Department having previously reviewed and approved 
the reports. 

7. Final. When all work, including installation of all drain- 
age structures and other protective devices, has been 
completed and the as-graded plan and required reports 
have been submitted. 

The Department shall approve the work inspected or notify 
the permittee or owner wherein the work fails to comply with 
the law. Any portion of the work which does not comply with 
the law shall be corrected. 

108.10 Revised grading plan. If the inspector finds that the 
soil or other conditions are not as stated in the application for a 
grading permit, the inspector may refuse to approve further 
work until a revised grading plan is obtained which conforms 
to the existing conditions. 

108.11 Approved fabricators. The inspections provided for in 
this section shall not be required for construction or installation 
work done on the premises of a Type II fabricator to whom an 
approval has been issued pursuant to the provisions of Division 
C of Article 6 of Chapter IX of the Los Angeles Municipal 
Code. 

108.12 Inspections by certified licensed contractors of work 
performed on detached single-family dwellings. 

108.12.1 In lieu of the inspections made by employees of 
the Department, as specified in Section 108, a certified 
licensed contractor, employed by the owner, upon notifica- 
tion to the Department prior to the commencement of work, 
may install, inspect and certify the following work as being 
performed in compliance with the provisions of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code for a detached single-family 
dwelling: 

1 . The replacement of defective water heaters with one 
of the equivalent gallonage, Btu rating and vent 
capacity when the vent does not require relocation 
or replacement. 

2. The replacement of defective forced-air units with 
one of equivalent size, Btu rating and vent capacity 
when the vent does not require relocation or replace- 
ment. 

3. The replacement of defective air-conditioning units 
with one of equivalent size and Btu rating. 

4. The replacement of plumbing fixtures and solar 
panels with equal kind and quality. 



5 . The replacement of defective domestic water piping 
within a dwelhng, with piping of equivalent size and 
quality when the installation does not exceed 50 feet 
in length. 

6. The replacement of defective metalhc water service 
piping with piping of equivalent size, quality and 
conductivity. 

7. The removing of existing roofing and the replace- 
ment of roofing materials which is in compliance 
with Part II of Division 15 (FIX in here and Ordi- 
nance) and which does not require any alteration to 
the roof support system. 

8. The replacement of defective smoke detectors. 

9. The replacement of shower pans with the same size 
and capacity. 

10. The installation or replacement of masoniy and con- 
crete fences not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) in 
height. 

108.12.2 The employment of a certified licensed contractor 
by the owner on any work shall not prohibit the Department 
from performing inspections of any work described in Sec- 
tion 108.12.1. The called inspections required by Section 
108.5 may be delegated to the certified licensed contractor 
performing the work by the Superintendent of Building. 

108.12.3 Department inspection. The Department may 
allow the use of the certification by a certified licensed con- 
tractor in lieu of inspections made by employees of the 
Department provided there is compliance with all of the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The certified licensed contractor has a valid Certifi- 
cate of Registration obtained in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1705 of this Code. 

2. The certified licensed contractor has filed with the 
Department a Certificate of Compliance for each 
installation. 

The Certificate of Compliance shall be on a form 
provided by the Department and shall be signed by 
the property owner and the certified licensed contrac- 
tor. The Department may require that the certified 
licensed contractor affix a certification label obtained 
from the Department on certain types of installations 
to identify the work certified; 

The Certificate of Compliance shall describe tlie 
work performed and state that the certified licensed 
contractor wan-ants, from personal knowledge, that 
the materials installed and the work performed are in 
compliance with approved manufacturer's instruc- 
tions, specifications and appHcable requirements of 
the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

For the work described in Items 1 , 2 and 3 of Sec- 
tion 108.12.1, the term "personal knowledge" as 

used in the Certificate of Compliance means that the 
certified licensed contractor has actual personal 
knowledge of the facts certified to, or knowledge 
acquired from an employee of the certified licensed 
contractor, which employee provided continuous 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



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observation of the work or installation at the site in all 
stages of its progress. 

For work set forth in Items 4, 5 and 6 of Section 
108.12.1, the term "personal knowledge" means the 
certified licensed contractor has actual p^ersonal 
knowledge or knowledge acquired from another cer- 
tified licensed contractor or a qualified installer. 

3. The Certificate of Compliance processing ifee has 
been paid in accordance with Section 98.0417 of the 
Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

4. The certified licensed contractor has filed the kpplica- 
tion for a Certificate of Compliance with the Depart- 
ment within 15 days after completion* of the 
installation. 

The certified licensed contractor has submitted a 
report to the Department describing the work the cer- 
tified licensed contractor performed and declaring 
that the work complies with all applicable prttvisions 
of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 'The repprt shall 
be made on forms supplied by the Departnjent and 
shall be filed in the records of the Department. 

108.12.4 The certified licensed contractor shall notify the 
Department of the certified licensed contractor's com- 
mencement of work for which the certified licensed con- 
tractor has been engaged. This notification shall be made no 
later than the last business day preceding the corhmence- 
ment of work. 

The certified licensed contractor shall inspect all materi- 
als to be used or concealed within such work. 

While engaged in the work, the certified licensed contrac- 
tor shall not undertake or engage in any other task or occu- 
pation which will interfere with the proper performance of 
the certified licensed contractor's duties of inspection. The 
certified licensed contractor shall report all Violations of this 
Code which have occurred relating to the construction work 
to the Superintendent of Building, and such other informa- 
tion relating to the installation work as requested by the 
Superintendent of B uilding . 

The Department may refuse to issue a Certificate of Com- 
pliance if it finds that the contractor has failed to comply 
with any of these requirements. 

108.13 Whenever the Department determines by inspection 
that construction or grading activities create excessive dust 
emissions where the dust remains visible in the atrriosphere 
beyond the property line of the emission source or constitutes a 
nuisance or otlier hazard, the Department may order that such 
activity cease Or be controlled through watering practices using 
reclaimed water if available, or by other means, to the satisfac- 
tion of the Department. The Department may order the owner 
of the property to employ a person, subject to Department 
approval, to monitor the watering practices. 



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SECTION 109 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

109.1 Certificate required. In order to safeguard life and limb, 
health, property and public welfare, every building or structure 



and every trailer park shall conform to the construction require- 
ments for the subgroup occupancy to be housed therein, or for 
the use to which the building or structure or trailer park is to be 
put, as set forth in this article. 

No building or structure or portion thereof and no trailer park 
or portion thereof shall be used or occupied until a Certificate 
of Occupancy has been issued thereof. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Unless it is specifically required by other provisions 
of this article, no existing building or portion thereof 
shall require a Certificate of Occupancy, provided: 

A. The occupancy housed therein is the same for 
which the original building permit was issued; 
and 

B . The use of a building or portion thereof housing 
a Group A or E occupancy and constructed 
prior to 1934 has not been discontinued for a 
period of more than 6 months. 

2. No structure, the architecture of which inhibits occu- 
pancy, shall require a Certificate of Occupancy. 

109.2 Change of occupancy. See Chapter 82. 

109.3 Issuance of certificates. When required by Secfion 
109.1, after the receipt and approval of the final inspection 
report from each of the divisions of the Department, and after 
the city engineer has reported that all required public improve- 
ments have been completed, the Superintendent of Building 
shall issue a Certificate of Occupancy, without charge, to the 
owner of the building. Duplicates of the certificate may be 
secured upon the payment of the duplication fee required by 
ordinance. 

When a Certificate of Occupancy is issued, it shall supersede 
every certificate previously issued for that portion of the build- 
ing described thereon. 

109.4 Contents of certificate. Each certificate shall contain 
the following: 

1. The building permit numbers. 

2. The address of the building. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the building for which the 
certificate is issued. 

5. For Group A and E occupancies, the maximum occupant 
load allowed. 

6. A statement that the described portion of the building 
complies with the construction requirements of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code for the group of occupancies in 
which the proposed occupancy is classified. 

7. A statement that establishes relevant requirements of the 
Los Angeles Zoning Code. 

8 . The signature of the Superintendent of Building or an au- 
thorize representative of the Superintendent of Building. 

109.5 Temporary certificates. Notwithstanding the provi- 
sions of Section 109.4, if the Superintendent of Building finds 
that no substantial hazard will result from the occupancy of any 
building, or portion thereof, before the same is completed, and 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



20iR 



ADWIINISTRATION 



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satisfactory evidence is submitted that the work could not have 
been completed prior to the time such occupancy is desired 
because of its magnitude or because of unusual construction 
difficulties, and the city engineer has reported that all required 
public improvements have been completed, the Superintendent 
of Building may issue a temporary Certificate of Occupancy 
for any building or portion thereof. The Superintendent of 
Building may issue a temporary Certificate of Occupancy not- 
withstanding the fact that all required public improvements 
have not been completed, if the superintendent finds that the 
failure to complete the public improvements was due to cir- 
cumstances over which the person applying for the Certificate 
of Occupancy had no control. 

In addition, the Superintendent of Building may issue a tem- 
porary Certificate of Occupancy for an existing building, or 
portion thereof, provided no substantial hazard will result and 
satisfactory evidence is submitted justifying the need for such 
temporary occupancy. The Department shall collect a fee for 
each temporary Certificate of Occupancy. The amount of the 
fee shall be $100.00 plus an addifional fee as shown in Table 
1-B of this Code. 

Such temporary Certificate of Occupancy shall be valid for a 
period not to exceed 6 months. The Department may issue 
additional temporary Certificates of Occupancy. After the 
expiration of a temporary Certificate of Occupancy, the build- 
ing or structure shall require a Certificate of Occupancy in 
accordance with other provisions of this section. Duplicates of 
the certificate or temporary certificate may be secured upon the 
payment of the duplication fee required by ordinance. 

109.6 EevocatiOE. The Superintendent of Building shall have 
the authority, in writing, to suspend or revoke a Certificate of 
Occupancy or Temporary Certificate of Occupancy issued 
under the provisions of this Code whenever the certificate is 
issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information sup- 
plied, or when it is determined that the building or structure or 
portion of the building or structure is in violation of any ordi- 
nance or regulation or any of the provisions of this Code. 

1(0)9.7 Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 109.4, when- 
ever public improvements are required in connection with the 
replacement or restoration of a building destroyed or damaged 
during the local emergency declared by the Mayor in April, 
1992, the completion of those public improvements may be 
deferred until June 1, 1995, and a temporary Certificate of 
Occupancy may issue for the new or restored building or a por- 
tion thereof prior to the completion of the public improve- 
ments. The temporary Certificate of Occupancy shall issue 
only if the Superintendent of Building finds that no substantial 
hazard will result from the occupancy of the building or portion 
thereof prior to the completion of the public improvements. 
This Section 109.7 does not affect any requirement of a bond or 
other security to warrant the proper completion of the required 
public improvements. 

109.8 Fire department notfficatiop. For each Group A and E 
occupancy, a copy of the certificate shall be forwarded to the 
Los Angeles Fire Department. 



SECTION 110 
RESPONSIBILITY OF PERf 



EE 



Building permits shall be presumed to incorporate the provi- 
sion that the applicant, the applicant's agent, employees or con- 
tractors shall carry out the proposed work in accordance with 
the approved plans and with all requirements of this Code and 
any other laws or regulations applicable thereto, whether speci- 
fied or not. 

No approval shall relieve or exonerate any person from the 
responsibility of complying with the provisions and intent of 
this Code. 



SECTION 111 
CODE REVISION 

111.1 The Superintendent of Building shall determine what 
changes in the Code are necessary to more adequately protect 
the public health, safety and welfare, based on studies of the 
following: 

1 . Schedules of requests for deviation fi^om the provisions 
of the Code and for approval of materials and methods of 
construction; 

2. Schedules of violations of the provisions of this Code; 

3. Schedules of convictions and nonconvictions, and the 
reasons for nonconvictions, by the city attorney's office; 

4. Changes and improvements in materials, methods of 
construction and design; and 

5 . Investigations of fire and structural damage to buildings . 

111.2 Upon request, the board shall consult with and provide 
advice to the Superintendent of Building on any matter relating 
to proposed changes of this Code. 



SECTION 112 
GRADING CERTIFICATE 

112.1 Certificate required. No owner of property or other per- 
son or agent in control of property shall permit or allow any 
grading made after October 17, 1952, and not expressly within 
the exceptions set forth in Section 106, to exist on such prop- 
erty unless a Grading Certificate has been issued therefor or 
unless the grading is being carried on under the authorization 
of a valid grading permit. 

112.2 Issuance of certificate. If upon final inspection of any 
excavation or fill it is found that the work authorized by the 
grading permit has been satisfactorily completed in accordance 
with the requirements of this Code, the Department shall issue 
to the owner a Grading Certificate covering the work. On the 
owner's request a separate certificate will be issued for each lot 
for which building permits have been issued or applied for 
prior to the completion of the grading. 



# 



:^VP 






• 



20jR 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



TABLE 1-A 
PERMIT FEES "'^•^•^ 



TOTAL VALUATION 


FEE 


From 


To 


$0.00 


$100 inclusive 


None 


100.01 


2,000 inclusive 


$65.00 


2,000.01 


20,000 inclusive 


$40.00 plus $1.25 per $100 or fraction thereof of total valuation 


20,000.01 


50,000 inclusive 


$ 170.00 plus 6.00 per $ 1 ,000 or fraction thereof of total valuation 


50,000.01 


100,000 inclusive 


$195.00 plus $5.50 per $1,000 or fraction thereof of total valuation 


100,000.01 


500,000 inclusive 


$395.00 plus $3.50 per $1,000 or fraction thereof of total valuation 


500,000.01 


1,000,000 inclusive 


$520.00 plus $3.25 per $1,000 or fraction thereof of total valuation 


Over 1,000,000 


$920.00 plus $2.85 per $1,000 'or fraction thereof of total valuation 



a. The building permit fee specified in this table shall be increased by a surcharge pursuant to Section 2705, Chapter 8, Division 2 of the Pubhc Resources Code of the 
State of California (State Strong Motion Instrumentation Program). This surcharge shall not be included in the building permit fee for the purpose of determining 
the plan check fee. 

b. The permit fee specified in the table above shall be increased by 1 percent for all construction or work required to comply with the rules and regulations adopted by 
the General Resources Conservation and Development Commission of the State of California. This increase in fee shall be included in the building permit fee for 
the purpose of determining the plan checking fee. 

c. The permit fee specified in this table shall be increased by 12.5 percent for all construction or work required to comply with Tide 24, Part 2, California Code of Reg- 
ulations, Section 101 . 17, et seq., the state's disabled access and adaptability requirements. The increase in fee shall be included in the building permit fee for the 
purpose of determining the plan check fee. 

d. The minimum permit fee for projects that require more than one inspection shall be double the minimum inspection fee specified in Section 98.041 2 (a) of the Los 
Angeles Municipal Code. 



TABLE 1-A.1 
COMBINED PERMIT FEES 



(R-3 OCCUPANCY) 


BUILDING 


ELECTRICAL 


PLUMBING 


MECHANICAL 


COMBINED FEES 


New Construction 


See Table 1-A 


26% of building 
permit fee 


26% of building 
permit fee 


13% of building 
permit fee 


165% of building permit fee 
determined from Table 1-A 


Alteration 


See Table 1-A 


26% of building 
permit fee 


26% of building 
permit fee 


13% of building 
permit fee 


165% of building permit fee 
determined from Table 1-A 


Swimming Pool 


See Table 1-A 


— 


— 


— 


175% of building permit fee 
determined from Table 1-A 


Solar Heating and 
Cooling System 


See Table 1-A 


— 


— 


— 


— 



TABLE 1-B 
TEMPORARY CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY ADDITIONAL FEES 



ITEMS ^ 


ADDITIONAL FEE 


A Occupancy 


$65.00 each assembly room or area 


E Occupancy 


$65.00 each classroom 


I Occupancy 


$65.00 each floor or portion thereof 


H Occupancy 


$65.00 each floor or portion thereof 


B, F, M, or S Occupancy 


$65.00 each floor or portion thereof 


Rl Occupancy 


$125.00 each floor or portion thereof 


R3 Occupancy, 


No additional fee 



LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



20kR 



ADMINISTRATION 



TABLE 1-C 
REPORT FEES ^ "'='"' 



REPORT 


FEES 


Foundation investigation'' 


$240.00 


Soils engineering or geology report^ 

For the first lot plus $2.80 for each additional lot or for the first acre 
plus $14.00 for each additional acre or fraction thereof, whichever is the greater fee. 


$240.00 


Seismology report 


$240.00 


Supplemental fee 

For each supplemental foundation investigation, soils engineering, geology or seismology report. 


$120.00 



a. Combined reports when submitted together may have the total fee reduced by $70.00. 

b. Report fees for minor work (structures, additions, slope repairs or grading) may be reduced to one half of the calculated fee, as determined by the Department. 

c. Fees are based on single projects and contiguous properties. 

d. Additional fees for division of land review shall be collected as required by Section 107.8. 

e. The fees in this table shall be increased by 50 percent, when the reports are reviewed during off- hours at the request of the appHcant and acceptance by the Depart- 
ment. 

f. May include soil period evaluation. 

g. May include special studies zones evaluation. 



TABLE 1-D 
GRADING PERMIT FEES 



GRADING 


FEE 


100 cubic yards or less 


$160.00 


101- 1,000 cubic yards 


$160.00 for the first 100 cubic yards, 
plus $135.00 for each additional 100 cubic yards or fraction thereof. 


1,001 -10,000 cubic yards 


$1,375.00 for the first 1,000 cubic yards, 
plus $150.00 for each additional 1,000 cubic yards or fraction thereof. 


10,001 - 100,000 cubic yards 


$2,725.00 for the first 10,000 cubic yards, 
plus $500.00 for each additional 10,000 cubic yards or fraction thereof. 


100,001 cubic yards or more 


$7,225.00 for the first 100,000 cubic yards, 
plus $250.00 for each additional 10,000 cubic yards or fraction thereof. 



20IR 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the California Fire Code, 
California Mechanical Code or California Plumbing Code, 
such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those 
codes. 

LA 201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms, phrases and words are 
[^^ not defined they shall have the ordinarily accepted meaning as 
LA the context implies. The definitions in Webster's Third New 
[^International Dictionary of the English Language, 
LA Unabridged shall be considered as providing ordinarily 
LA accepted meanings. 

For applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, where terms are not defined through 
the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have 
ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Web- 
ster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage, Unabridged, shall be considered as providing 
ordinarily accepted meanings. 



SECTION 202 
DEFINITIONS 

AAC MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

ACCESS AISLE. [DSA-AC]See Chapter 1 IB, Section 11028. 

ACCESSIBILITY. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, 
Section 1107A.1-A, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.1-A, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 1 IB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chap- 
ter llA, Sectidn 1107A.1-A. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE OF TRAVEL. [DSA-AC] See Chap- 
ter 1 IB, Sectidn 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE SPACE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 1 IB, Section 
1102B. 

ACCREDITATION BODY. See Section 2302.1. 



ADAPTABILITY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

ADAPTABLE DWELLING UNIT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 

See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.1-A. 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height 
of a building or structure. 

[DSA-AC] "Addition" is an extension, expansion or 
increase in floor area or height of a building, facility or struc- 
ture. 

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, stabilized. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, unstabilized. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] AEROSOL. See Section 307.2. 

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 307.2. 

AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION. See Section 310. 

AGRICULTURAL, BUILDING. A structure designed and 
constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, live- 
stock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be 
a place of human habitation or a place of employment where 
agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor 
shall it be a place used by the public. 

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102 2. 

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2. 

Double skin. See Section 3102.2. 

Single skin. See Section 3102.2. 
AISLE. See Section 1002.1. 

[DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

AISLE, EMPLOYEE AREAS. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, 
Section 1102B. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902. 1 . 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



29R 



DEFINITIONS 



ALTERATION or ALTER. Any construction or renovation to 
an existing structure other than repair or addition. 

[DSA-AC] "Alteration or alter" is any change, addition or 
modification in construction or occupancy or structural repair 
or change in primary function to an existing structure made by, 
on behalf of or for the use of a public accommodation or com- 
mercial facility that affects or could affect the usability of the 
building or facility or part thereof. Alterations include, but are 
not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, recon- 
struction, historic restoration, changes or rearrangement of 
the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrange- 
ment in the plan configuration of walls and full-height parti- 
tions. 

ALTERNATE CARD READER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
lie. Section 1101 C.l. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002.1. 

ANCHOR. See Section 2102.1. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ANNULAR SPACE. See Section 702.1. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1. 

ANSI [DSA-AC] means the American National Standards 
Institute. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction. 

[DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] "Approved" means meeting 
the approval of the enforcing agency, except as otherwise 
provided by law, when used in connection with any system, 
material, type of construction, fixture or appliance as the 
result of investigations and tests conducted by the agency, or 
by reason of accepted principles or tests by national author- 
ities or technical, health or scientific organizations or agen- 
cies. 

Notes: [HCD 1 & HCD 2] 

1. See Health and Safety Code Section 17920 for 
"Approved" as applied to residential construction 
and buildings or structures accessory thereto, as 
referenced in Section 108.2.1.1. 

2. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.1 for 
"Approved" as applied to the use of hotplates in 
residential construction referenced in Section 
108.2.1.1. 

3. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.3 for 
"Approved" as applied to low-flush water closets 
in residential construction, as referenced in Sec- 
tion 108.2.1.1. 

4. See Health and Safety Code Section 19966 for 
"Approved" as applied to factory -built housing as 
referenced in Section 108.3.2.5. 

5. See Health and Safety Code Section 18201 for 
"Approved" as applied to mobilehome parks as 
referenced in Section 108.2. 



6. See Health and Safety Code Section 18862.1 for 
"Approved" as applied to special occupancy 
parks as referenced in Section 108.2. 

APPROVED AGENCY. See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED LISTING AGENCY [HCD 1 & HCD 2] is any 

agency approved by the enforcing agency, unless otherwise 
provided by statute, which is in the business of listing and label- 
ing and which makes available at least an annual published 
report of such listings in which specific information is included 
that the product has been tested to recognized standards and 
found to comply. 

APPROVED TESTING AGENCY [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 

2] is any agency, which is determined by the enforcing agency, 
except as otherwise provided by statute, to Imve adequate per- 
sonnel and expertise to carry out the testing of systems, materi- 
als, types of construction, fixtures or appliances. 

APPROVED FABRICATOR. See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or cor- 
poration, approved by the building official, who is competent 
and experienced in the application of engineering principles to 
materials, methods or systems analyses. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. See Section 2102. 1 . 

AREA. See Section 2102.1. 

Bedded. See Section 2102.1. 

Gross cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

Net cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

AREA, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 

ARE AWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at 
the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard. 

ASSEMBLY AREA. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 31 0.2, 
"Residential care/Assisted living facilities." 

ASSISTIVE DEVICE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
11 A, Section 1107A.1-A. 

ATRIUM. See Section 404. 1.1. 

ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story 
and the roof rafters. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 
See Section 902.1. 

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC DOOR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1107.A.1-A, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINJOLER SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 



30 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 
902.1. 

AWNING, An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by 
the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of 
a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a covering is 
attached. 

BACKING, See Section 1402.1. 

BALCONY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1 602, 1 . 

BALED COTTON. See Section 307.2. 

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See Section 

307.2. 

[F] BARRICADE. See Section 307.2. 

Artificial barricade. See Section 307.2. 

Natural barricade. See Section 307.2. 

BASE FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 

BASEMENT. See Sections 502.1 and 1612.2. 

BATHROOM. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.2-B. 



JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

BEDRIDDEN PERSON. See Section 310. 

BLEACHERS, See Section 1002.1. 

[^ BOARD. The Board of Building and Safety Comniissioners of 
LA the City of Los Angeles. 

BOARDING HOUSE. See Section 310.2. 

[F] BOILING POINT. See Section 307.2. 

BEAM. See Section 2102.1. 

REINFORCING. See Section 2102. 1 . 

BRACED WALL LINE. See Section 2302.1. 

BRACED WALL PANEL. See Section 2302. 1 . 

BRICK..See Section 2102.1. 

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). See Section 2102.1. 

Clay or shale. See Section 2102.1. 

Concrete. See Section 2102. 1 . 

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or 
sheltering any use or occupancy. 

Exception: [HCD 1, HCD 2 & HCD 1-AC] For applica- 
tions listed in Section 108.2 regulated by the Department of 
Housing and Community Development, "Building" shall 
not include the following: 

1. Any mobilehome as defined in Health and Safety 
Code Section 18008. 

2. Any manufactured home as defined in Health and 
Safety Code Section 18007. 

3. Any commercial modular as defined in Health and 
Safety Code Section 18001.8 or any special purpose 
commercial modular as defined in Section 18012.5. 



4. Any recreational vehicle as defined in Health and 
Safety Code Section 18010. 

5. Any multi-unit manufactured housing as defined in 
Health and Safety Code Section 18008.7. 

For additional information, see Health and Safety 
Code Section 18908. 

Note: [SFM] "Building " shall have the same meaning as 
defined in Health and Safety Code Sections 17920 and 
18908 for the applications specified in Section 111. 

BUILDING, EXISTING [DSA-AC & HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a 

building erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for 
which a legal building permit has been issued. 

BUILDING CODE (CODE). The Los Angeles City Building [^ 
Code, Article 1 of Chapter IX of the Los Angeles Municipal la 
Code. "-^ 

BUILDING ENTRANCE ON AN ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. 
[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, Section 1 1 07A.2-B. 

BUILDING LINE. Any private property line coterminous la 
with a public way; or a building line established by City ordi- [^ 
nance. la 

LA 

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The Superintendent of Building for la 
the City of Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety, la 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. See Section 1 502. 1 . 

BUTTRESS. See Section 2102.1. 

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUC- 
TURE. See Section 3102.2. 

CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE (CBC). Part 2, Title 24 la 
of the California Code of Regulations as adopted by the Call- la 
fornia Building Standards Commission and published as the la 
2007 Edition of the California Building Code which in part la 
incorporates by adoption the 2006 Edition of the International [-^ 
Building Code. la 

CANOPY. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is supported by the build- 
ing to which it is attached and at the outer end by not less than 
one stanchion. A canopy is comprised of a rigid structure over 
which a covering is attached. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 

See Section 902.1. 

CARE AND SUPERVISION. See Section 310. 

CAST STONE. See Section 2 102. 1 . 

CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED. See Section 310. 

CCR [DSArAC] means the California Code of Regulations. 

[F] CEILING LIMIT. See Section 902.1. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

CELL. See Sections 308.4.6 and 2102.1. 

CELLULAR CONCRETE [HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a lightweight 
product consisting ofportland cement and selected gas-form- 
ing chemicals or foaming agents which create homogeneous 
voids in the hardened concrete. 

CEMENT PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



31 R 



DEFliSJmONS 



JKET. See Section 721.1.1. 
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. See Section 17Q2.1. 
LA CHIEF OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT. The Fire Chief of 

LA 

LA the Los Angeles Fire Department or a duly authorized repre- 
LA sentative. 



or CHILDREN. See Section 31 0. 

CHILD CARE CENTER. See Section 310. 

f. See Section 2102.1. 

TYPES. See Section 2102.1. 

appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

Low-lheat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

Masonry type. See Section 2102.1. 

Medium-Ikeat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

>FM] See Section 310. 

. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chap- 
ter 11 B, Section 11 02B. 

[^ CITY. The City of Los Angeles, Cahfornia. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902. 1 . 

CLEANOUT. See Section 2102.1.- 

CLEAR. [DSA'AC] See Chapter LIB, Section 1102B. 

CLEAR FLOOR SPACE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEPHONE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 

COLLAR JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

L See Section 2302.1. 

r. See Section 2102.1. 

L See Section 
702.1. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class II. See Section 307.2. 

Class IIIA. See Section 307.2. 

Class IIIB. See Section 307.2. 

COMMERCIAL FACILITIES [DSA-AC] are facilities that 
are intended for nonresidential use and whose operations will 
affect commerce, including factories, warehouses, office build- 
ings and other buildings in which employment may occur. 
Commercial facilities shall not include railroad locomotives, 
railroad freight cars, railroad cabooses, railroad cars covered 
under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or 
facilities that are covered or expressly exempted from coverage 
under the Fair Housing Amendment Act of 1988 (42 USC 
3601-3631, etseq). 

. See Section 



COMMON USE AREAS. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chap- 
ter 11 A, Section 1 107 A. 3 -C, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

COMPOSITE ACTION. See Section 2102.1. 

COMPOSITE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 307.2. 

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See Section 
721.1.1. See "Cellular concrete." 

. See Sec- 



tion 721.1.1. 



.See Section 721.1.1. 

'. See Section 



721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 3 10.2. 

See 



Section 310. 

CONGREGATE RESIDENCE. See Section 310. 
L See Section 2102.1. 



[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 
902.1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. 

CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602. 

Type L See Section 602.2. 

lype II. See Section 602.2. 

Type in. See Section 602.3. 

Type IV. See Section 602.4. 

Type V. See Section 602.5. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS-DETECTION SYSTEM. See 
Section 415.2. 

[F] CONTROL AREA.. See Section 307.2. 

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A 
self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a 
backfill in place of compacted fill. 



STRUCTION. See Section 2302.1. 
L See Section 1002.1. 



1002.1, 



RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when 
exposed to its environment. 



32R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] CORROSIVE. See Section 307.2. 

COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, 
bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or 
other enclosing devices. 



LA 

m 



L See Section 2102.1. 
COVERED MALL BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS. [DSA-AC & 

HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 1107A.3-C. 

CRIPPLE WALL. See Section 2302.1. 

CROSS SLOPE. [DSA~AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.3-C, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 307.2. 

CURB CUT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Sec- 
tion 1107A.3-C, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

CURB RAMP. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.3-C, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

DALLE GLASS. See Section 2402.1. 

L See Section 702.1. 

BOX. See Section 307.2. 

DAY CARE. See Section 310. 

DAY CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY. See Section 310. 

DAY CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY. See Section 310. 

LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

I. See Section 1602.1. 

DECORATIVE GLASS. See Section 2402.1. 

[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials appUed 
over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or 
other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and 
surface coverings), and all other materials utilized for decora- 
tive effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, 
vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam 
plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative 
materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window 
shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or 
less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a 
substrate. 

[F] DEFLAGRATION. See Section 307.2. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

LA DEPARTMENT. The Department of Building and Safety. 

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1908.1.3. 

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. See Sec- 
tion 1613.2. 

DESIGN FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 

DESIGN STRENGTH. See Section 1602.1. 

DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. See Section 1702.1. 

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 307.2. 



DETATCHED SINGLE-FAMILY DWELLING [HCD 1 & 

HCD 2] is any single-family dwelling which is separated from 
adjacent property lines by 3 feet (914 mm) or more or is sepa- 
rated from adjacent buildings by 6 feet (1829 mm) or more. 

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. 

See Section 1908.1.3. 

DETECTABLE WARNING. [DSA-AC & HCD I-AC] See 

Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.4-D, and Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1. 

[F] DETONATION. See Section 307.2. 

DIAPHRAGM. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Diaphragm, blocked. See Sections 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, boundary. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, chord. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, flexible. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, rigid. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, unblocked. See Section 2302.1. 
DIMENSIONS. See Section 2102.1. 

Actual. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal. See Section 2102.1. 

Specified. See Section 2102.1. 

DIRECTIONAL SIGN [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a pub- 
licly displayed notice which indicates by use of words or sym- 
bols a recommended direction or route of travel. 

DISABILITY. [DSA-AC] is (1) a physical or mental impair- 
ment that limits one or more of the major life activities of an 
individual, (2) a record of such an impairment, or (3) being 
regarded as having such an impairment. 

DISABLED. [DSA-AC] See "Disability." 

DISPENSING. See Section 307.2. 

DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 

DORMITORY. See Sections 308.4.6 and 310.2. 

DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702.1. 

DRAG STRUT. See Section 2302. 1 . 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See 

Section 902.1. 

DRY FLOODPROOFING. See Section 1612.2. 

DURATION OF LOAD. See Section 1602.1 . 

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let 
or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons including per- 
manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.4-D, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



33R 



DEFDWmOMS 



EFFECTIVE HEIGHT. See Section 2102.1. 



1] is a dwelling 
unit containing only one habitable room and includes an effi- 
ciency unit as defined by Health and Safety Code Section 
17958.1. See Section 1208.4. 

EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

ELECTRIC VEHICLE. See Section 406.7. 

LA ELECTRICAL CODE. The Los Angeles City Electrical 
LA Code, Article 3 of Chapter IX of the Los Angeles Municipal 
LA Code. 

ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ELEVATOR, PASSENGER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, 
Section 1102B. 

LA ELEVATOR CODE. The Los Angeles City Elevator Code, 
LA Article 2 of Chapter IX of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902. 1 . 

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 
415.2. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See 
Section 1002.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA= 
JS. See Section 902.1. 



ENFORCEMENT. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] The applicable section 
of the Health and Safety Code is repeated here for clarity and 
reads as follows. ■ 

Section 17920. "Enforcement" means diligent effort to 
secure compliance, including review of plans and permit 
applications, response to complaints, citation of violations, 
and other legal process. Except as otherwise provided in 
this part, "Enforcement" may, but need not, include inspec- 
tions of existing buildings on which no complaint or permit 
application has been filed, and effort to secure compliance 
as to these existing buildings. 

ENFORCING AGENCY [DSA-AC, HCD 1, HCD 2 & SFMJ 
is the designated department or agency as specified by statute 
or regulation. 

ENTRANCE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

L See Section 502.1. 

DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 
See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.5-E, and Chapter IIB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 415.2. 

-AC] See "Building, exist- 



ing. 

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

EXISTING STRUCTURE. A structure erected prior to the 
date of adoption of the appropriate code, or one for which a 
legal building permit has been issued. See also Section 1612.2. 

EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

See Section 1002.1. 



EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 



See Section 
802.1. 

[F] EXPLOSION. See Section 902.1. 

[F] EXPLOSIVE. See Section 307.2. 

High explosive. See Section 307.2. 

Low explosive. See Section 307.2. 

Mass detonating explosives. See Section 307.2. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives, See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.1. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.2. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.3. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.4. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.5. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.6. See Section 307.2. 

EXTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

EXTERIOR WALL. See Section 1402. 1 . 

EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. See Section 1402.1. 

EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. See Section 1402.1. 

F RATING. See Section 702. 1 . 

JS. See Section 1602.1. 

I. See Section 1702.1. 

[F] FABRICATION AREA. See Section 415.2. 

FACIUTY (OR FACILITIES). [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 
Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.6-F, and Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

FACTORED LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

FAMILY [HCD 1] is an individual or two or more persons who 
are related by blood or marriage; or otherwise, live together in 
a dwelling unit. 

FIBER CEMENT SIDING. See Section 1402.1. 

FIBERBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE AREA. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE BARRIER. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE CODE. The Los Angeles City Fire Code, Article 7 of 
Chapter V of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 902.1. 



u^^ 



34R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



FIRE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902. 1 . 

LA FIRE DISTRICT. Any portion of the City of Los Angeles as 
LA described in Chapter 72 of this Code. 

FIRE DOOR. See Section 702.1. 

DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702. 1 . 



FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to 
allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessar- 
ily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. 

FIRE PARTITION. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING.- See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIREPROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

i. See Section 702.1. 



FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RETARDANT TREATED WOOD [SFMJ is any wood 
product impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process or 
other means during manufacture, and which, when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84-05 for a period of 30 minutes, 
shall have aflame spread of not over 25 and show no evidence 
of progressive combustion. In addition, the flame front shall not 
progress more than 10^/2 feet (3200 mm) beyond the center line 
of the burner at any time during the test. Materials that may be 
exposed to the weather shall pass the accelerated weathering 
test and be identified as Exterior type, in accordance with 
ASTMD 2898-94 and ASTM D 3201-94. Where material is not 
directly exposed to rainfall but exposed to high humidity condi- 
tions, it shall be subjected to the hygroscopic test and identified 
as Interior Type A in accordance with ASTM D 2898-94 and 
ASTM D 3201-94. 

All materials shall bear identification showing the fire per- 
formance rating thereof. Such identifications shall be issued by 
an approved agency having a service for inspection of materi- 
als at the factory. 

Fire-retardant-treated wood shall not be construed as 
"noncombustible. " 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE WALL. See Section 702. 1 . 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. See Section 702. 1 . 

T. See Section 702.1. 

:. See Section 2102.1. 

FIREPLACE THROAT. See Section 2102.1. 



[S. See Section 307.2. 

IS, 1.3G. See Section 307.2. 
J, 1.4G. See Section 307.2. 
FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802. 1 . 
FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1. 



[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class lA. See Section 307.2. 

Class IB. See Section 307.2. 

Class IC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 
415.2. 

[F] FLASH POINT. See Section 307.2. 

FLEXURAL LENGTH. See Section 1808.1. 

FLOOD OR FLOODING. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Sec- 
tion 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH VELOC- 
ITY WAVE ACTION. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). See Section 
1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOODWAY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FLY GALLERY. See Section 410.2. 

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 
902.1. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. See Section 2602.1. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 
1002.1. 

FOOD COURT. See Section 402.2. 

FOUNDATION-ONLY PERMIT. A building permit issued |-A 
for that portion of a building, which constitutes the footings for la 
the building and which, subject to the approval of the Depart- j-^ 
ment, may include those portions of the building below the la 
grade level. 

FOUNDATION PIER. See Section 2102.1. 



LA 



FREE-STANDING PEDESTAL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
lie. Section IIOIC.I. 

FULL-TIME CARE. See Section 310. 

[F] GAS CABINET. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GAS ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. See Section 420.2. 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

GLASS UNIT MASONRY. See Section 2102. 1 . 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



35R 



DEFBNDTIONS 



GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. See Section 2302.1. 



[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Sec- 
tion 1107A.7-G, and Chapter 11 B, Section 1102B. 

GRADE (Adjacent Ground Elevation) [DSA-AC] is the lowest 
point of elevation of the finished surface of the ground, paving 
or sidewalk within the area between the building and the prop- 
erty line or, when the property line is more than 5 feet (1524 mm) 
from the building, between the building and a line 5 feet (1524 
mm) from the building. See Health and Safety Code Section 
19955.3(d). 

GRADE. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See Section 502.1. 

GIMDE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening 
located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 
44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level 
adjacent to the opening. 

). See Section 2302.1. 

.See Section 502.1. 

LA GRADING. Shall mean soil excavation or fill or any combina- 
LA tion of soil excavation or fill and shall include the conditions 
LA resulting from any soil excavation or fill. 

LA 

^^ GRAFFITI. Shall mean any unauthorized inscripfion, work, 
LA figure or design which is marked, etched, scratched, drawn or 
[]^ painted on any structural component of any building, structure 
LA or other facility regardless of the nature of the material of that 
LA structural component. Graffiti shall constitute a nuisance. 



D. See Section 1002.1. 

L See Section 410.2. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. See Secfion 402.2. 

GROUND FLOOR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 11 07A.7-G. 



.See Section 2102.1. 
unit masoEry. See Section 2102.1. 
e masonry. See Section 2102.1. 



in 

GUARD [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] or GUARDRAIL. See 
Section 1002.1. 

GYPSUM BOARD. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. See Section 2502. 1 . 



L A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, 
storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See 
Section 902.1. 

[F] HANDLING. See Section 307.2. 

..See Section 1002.1. 

D. See Section 2302.1. 

[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HFM). 
See Section 415.2. 



HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE [SFM] is a substance which, 
by reason of being explosive, flammable, toxic, poisonous, 
corrosive, oxidizing, irritant or otherwise harmful, is likely to 
cause injury. 

JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

(Bonder). See Section 2102.1. 



HEALTH CARE PROVIDER. [DSA-AC] See "Professional 
Office of a Health Care Provider" in Chapter HE, Section 
1102B. 

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, STORY. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, WALLS. See Section 2102.1. 

[.See Section 412.5.1. 

[STOP. See Section 412.5.1. 

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

HIGH-RISE BUILDING. [SFM] As used in this code: 

1 . "Existing high-rise structure " means a high-rise struc- 
ture, the construction of which is commenced or com- 
pleted prior to July 1, 1974. 

2. "High-rise structure " means every building of any type 
of construction or occupancy having floors used for hu- 
man occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
above the lowest floor level having building access (see 
Section 403.1.2), except buildings used as hospitals as 
defined in Health and Safety Code Section 1250. 

3. "New high-rise structure " means a high-rise structure, 
the construction of which is commenced on or after July 
1, 1974. 

HISTORICAL BUILDINGS. [DSA-AC] See "Qualified his- 
torical building or property," C.C.R., Title 24, Part 8. 

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

HOTEL or MOTEL [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] is any 
building containing six or more guest rooms intended or 
designed to be used, or which are used, rented or hired out to 
be occupied, or which are occupied for sleeping purposes by 
guests. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] HPM ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. See Section 1609.2. 

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. See Section 420.2. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). See Section 415.2. 

IMPACT INSULATION CLASS (IIC). See Chapter 12, Sec- 
tion 1207.2. 

IMPACT LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

INDEPENDENT ENTITY [DSA-AC] is a not-for-profit 
product safety testing and certification organization, dedi- 
cated to testing for public safety. An independent entity would 



36R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



m 



operate for the testing, certification and quality assessment of 
products, systems and services. 

INDUSTRIAL CATERING TRUCK. An industrial catering 
truck is a motor vehicle used for the purpose of dispensing and 
selling liquids from sanitary dispensers and/or ready-to-eat 
food and beverages that have been prepared and sealed or pack- 
aged on premises so long as the owner and operator have a valid 
health permit authorizing the preparation of food. The above 
items may be prepared on any industrial catering truck so long 
as the owner and operator have a valid health permit for that 
preparation. 

INFANT. [SFMJ See Section 310. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. . 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1. 

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. See Section 802. 1 . 

INTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. See Section 
802.1. 

INTERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

INTERNATIONAL SYMBOL OF ACCESSIBILITY. 

[DSA-AC&HCD I'ACJSee Chapter llA, Section 1107A.9-I, 
and Chapter HE, Section 1102B. 

JOINT. See Section 702.1. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted 
this code under due legislative authority. 

KICK PLATE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.11-K, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

LABEL, See Section 1 702. 1 . , 

LEVEL ACCESSIBLE AREA. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIC, 
Section 11 Old. 

LEVEL AREA. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.12-L, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

LIFT, SPECIAL ACCESS. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 
"Special access lift" Chapter HA, Section 1107A.12-L, and 
Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction 
whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily 
formed by a system of repetitive wood or light gage steel fram- 
ing members. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. 

See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. 
See Section 2602.1. 

LIMIT STATE. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 415.2. 



[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. 

See Section 415.2. 

LISTED. See Section 902. 1 . 

[HCD 1 & 2] "Listed" means all products that appear in a 
list published by an approved testing or listing agency. For 
additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 
17920(h). 

For applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, "Listed" shall also mean equipment 
or materials accepted by the State Fire Marshal as conforming 
to the provisions of the State Fire Marshal's regulations and 
which are included in a list published by the State Fire Mar- 
shal. 

LISTING AGENCY [HCD 1&2] means an agency approved 
by the department that is in the business of listing and labeling 
products, materials, equipment and installations tested by an 
approved testing agency, and that maintains a periodic inspec- 
tion program on current production of listed products, equip- 
ment and installations, and that, at least annually, makes 
available a published report of these listings. For additional 
information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(i). 

LIVE LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). 

See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD EFFECTS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOBBY [HCD 1, HCD 2 & SFM] is an area not defined as a 
waiting room at the entrance of a building through which per- 
sons must pass. 

LODGING HOUSE [HCD 1] is any building or portion 
thereof containing not more than five guest rooms where rent is 
paid in money, goods, labor or otherwise. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
415.2. 

LOWEST FLOOR. See Section 1612.2. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1702.1. 

MALL. See Section 402.2. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. See Section 
1702.1. 

MARK. See Section 1702.1. 

MARKED CROSSING. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
11 A, Section 1107A.13-M, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



37R 



DEFliSimOMS 



A permanent roofed structure attached to and 
supported by the building and that projects into the pubhc 
right-of-way. 

MASONRY. See Section 2 1 02. 1 . 

AsMar masoniry. See Section 2102.1. 

sMar. See Section 2102.1. 

masomry. See Section 2102.1. 

aim masomry. See Section 2102.1. 

asMar. See Section 2102.1. 

masoEiry. See Section 2102.1. 

Solid masoery. See Section 2102.1. 

Umreimforced (plaim) masomry. See Section 2102.1. 

MASONRY UNIT. See Section 2102.1. 

Clay. See Section 2102.1. 

Comcrete. See Section 2102.1. 

s'. See Section 2102.1. 

See Section 2102.1. 



MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND 
See Section 1613.2. 



MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE. See Section 2102.1. 
CSS. See Section 1002.1. 



LA MECHANICAL CODE. The Los Angeles City Mechanical 
LA Code, Article 5 of Chapter IX of the Los Angeles Municipal 
LA Code. 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 
See Section 406.3.2. 

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. See Section 
1502.1. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. See Section 1613.2. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE, See 
Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. See 
Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See Section 702. 1 . 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 
702.1. 



SEVERELY. See Section 310. 

ISE PAD. See Section 1002.1. 



METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). See Section 
1402.1. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. 
See Section 1402.1. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. See Section 1502.1. 

SHINGLE, See Section 1502.1. 

C. See Section 502.1. 

iS. See Section 1808.1. 



D). See Section 721.1.1. 
.See Section 702.1. 
See Section 702.1. 



IS any construction 
effort that has an estimated total cost in excess of $200, 000 that 
is intended to modify a permanent school building or structure 
and/or the addition of a new school building or structure used 
to serve or house students from kindergarten through 12'^ 
grade (K-12). Modernization efforts shall apply strictly to a 
public school that was established prior to July 1, 2002, and is 
funded pursuant to the Education Code, Section 17074.56, and 
Education Code commencing with Section 17070.10. Modern- 
ization projects that are to be completed in more than one 
phase may defer the installation of the automatic fire detection 
and alarm systems until the final phase of the modernization 
project. Solely for the purposes of Education Code Section 
17074.20, routine maintenance and repair work shall not be 
considered a modernization project. 

. See Section 



1502.1. 



See Section 2102.1. 



See Section 2102.1. 

MOTEL. [DSA'AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] See "Hotel orMoteL 



ter 46, California Fire Code. 

MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY 
1102.1. 



'. See Chap- 
SEATING. See Section 



[DSA-AC] is a room that has more than one sanitary fixture, is 
intended for the use of more than one person at a time and 
which usually is provided with privacy compartments or 
screens shielding some fixtures from view. A. bathroom serving 
a hotel guest room and a privacy toilet in small offices, stores 
and similar locations are not included in this category. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 



I. See Section 
902.1. 

MULTISTORY DWELLING UNIT.. [DSA-AC & HCD l-AC] 
See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.13-M. 

DARY. See Section 2302.1. 

i. See Section 2302.1. 

NAILING, FIELD. See Section 2302.1. 

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

Decay resSstaet See Section 2302. 1 . 

Termite resistant. See Section 2302. 1 . 

NEWLY CONSTRUCTED. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 
Chapter llA, Section 1107A.14-N. 

NEW PUBLIC SCHOOL CAMPUS [SFM] is an educational 
institution established on or after July 1, 2002 that houses 



38R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDSNG CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



and/or serves students from kindergarten through 12"' grade 
(K-12) and is funded pursuant to the Education Code, com- 
mencing with Section 17070.10. 

NFPA [DSA-AC] is the National Fire Protection Association. 

NONAMBULATORY PERSONS. See Section 310. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE, [SFM] as applied to building con- 
struction material, means a material which, in the form in 
which it is used, is either one of the following: 

1. Material of which no part will ignite and burn when sub- 
jected to fire. Any material passing ASTM 136 shall be 
considered noncombustible. 

2. Material having a structural base of noncombustible 
material as defined in Item 1 above, with a surfacing ma- 
terial not over '/g inch (3.2 mm) thick which has a 
flame-spread rating of 50 or less. 

"Noncombustible" does not apply to surface finish materi- 
als. Material required to be noncombustible for reduced clear- 
ances to flues, heating appliances or other sources of high 
temperature shall refer to material conforming to Item 1. No 
material shall be classed as noncombustible, which is subject 
to increase in combustibility or flame spread rating, beyond the 
limits herein established, through the ejfectsofage, moisture or 
other atmospheric condition. 

NOMINAL LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

NOMINAL SIZE. (LUMBER).. See Section 2302.1. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

NORMAL [HCD I & HCD 2] shall mean conforming to a pat- 
tern or standard regarded as usual or typical. 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 

(NTP). See Section 415.2. 

NOSING (or NOSE). See Section 1002.1. [DSA-AC & HCD 
1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.14-N and Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 



LA 



[2 OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building, or part of a 
LA building, is used or intended to be used. The term "occupancy" 
LA as used in this Code shall include the room housing that occu- 
LA pancy and the space immediately above a roof or structure if 
LA used or intended to be used for other than a shelter. 

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. See Section 1602.1. 

OCCUPANTiiLOAD. See Section 1002. 1 . 

OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space designed 
for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for 
amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occu- 
pants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means 
of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the 
requirements of this code. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. See Section 406.3.2. 

OPEN RISER. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.15-O, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] OPEN SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 



OPERABLE PART. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 307.2. 

ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. See Sec- 
tion 1908.1.3. 

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUC- 
TURAL WALL. See Section 1908. 1 .3. 

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE 
WALL. See Section 1908.1.3. 

[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 307.2. 

Class I. See Section 307.2. 

Class II. See Section 307.2. 

Class in. See Section 307.2. 

Class IV. See Section 307.2. 

Class V. See Section 307.2. 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 307.2. 

ORGANIZED CAMPS. [SFM] See Section 440. 

ORTHOGONAL. See Section 1613.2. 

OTHER STRUCTURES. See Section 1602.1. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a 
legal or equitable interest in the property. 

[F] OXIDIZER. See Section 307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 

[F] OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 307.2. 

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). See Section 1602.1. 

PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002. 1. 

PARTICLEBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

PASSAGE DOOR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, 
Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PASSENGER ELEVATOR. [DSA-AC] See "Elevator, pas- 
senger" in Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

[HCD 1 & HCD 2] "Passenger elevator" is an elevator used 
primarily to carry persons. For additional information, see 
California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 7, Article 7-6, 
Section 3009 of the 2001 California Building Code. 

PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTOR [HCD 1] uses 
architectural components, rather than mechanical compo- 
nents, to provide heating or cooling for a building interior 

PATH OF TRAVEL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

PEDESTRIAN. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, 
Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PEDESTRIAN GRADE SEPARATION. [DSA-AC] See 

Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



39R 



DERNmONS 



PEDESTRIAN RAMP. [DSA-AC&HCD l-AC] See Chapter 
11 A, Section 1107A3. 16-P, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

PEDESTRIAN WAY. [DSA-AC & HCD hAC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1107A, 16-P, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOR See Section 702.1. 

PENTHOUSE. See Section 1502.1. 

PERMANENT [DSA-AC] shall mean facilities which, are 
intended to be used for periods longer than those designated in 
this code under the definition of "Temporary." 

PERMANENT PORTABLE BUILDING [SFM] is a portable 
building that is used to serve or house students and is certified 
as a permanent building on a new public school campus by the 
public school administration shall comply with the require- 
ments of new campus buildings. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
authority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of 
a specified activity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 
or their successors or assigns, Or the agent of any of the 
aforesaid. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. See Section 310.2. 

PERSONS WITH DISABLITIES. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 
See Chapter llA, Section 1107A.16-P. 

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. [SFM] See Section 1002. 

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL. See Section 415.2. 

PIER FOUIWATIONS. See Section 1808.1. 

Belled piers. See Section 1808.1. 
PILE FOUNDATIONS. See Section 1808.1. 

Aeger imcased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Caisson piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Concrete-filed steel pipe and tube piles. See Section 
1808.1. 

Driven encased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Enlarged base piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Steel-cased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Timber piles. See Section 1808.1. 
PINRAIL. See Section 410.2. 
PLASTIC, APPROVED. See Section 2602.1. 
PLASTIC GLAZING. See Section 2602.1. 
PLASTIC HINGE. See Section 2102.1. 
L See Section 410.2. 



LA PLUMBING CODE. The Los Angeles City Plumbing Code, 
LA Article 4, Chapter IX of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

PORTABLE BUILDING [SFM] is a classroom building or 
structure of modular design and construction that houses 
and/or serves students from kindergarten through twelfth 



grade (K-12) and is funded pursuant to the Education CodCi 
commencing with Section 17070.10 and meets all of the follow- 
ing criteria: 

" The portable building or structure is designed and con- 
structed to be relocatable and transportable over public 
streets. 

° The portable building or structure is designed and con- 
structed for relocation without detaching the roof or the 
floor from the building or structure. 

° The portable building or structure is sited upon a tempo- 
rary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit 
easy removal. 

® The portable building or structure has a floor area of 
2,000 square feet (186 m^) or less when measured from 
the extent of the exterior walls. 

® The portable building shall be removed within three years 
of installation or the school administration may request a 
three-year extension pursuant to Education Code Section 
17074.54(a) and (b). 

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. See Section 1502.1. 

POWDER ROOM. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, 
Section 1107A.16-P. 

POWER-ASSISTED DOOR [DSA-AC] is a door used for 
human passage with a mechanism that helps to open the door, 
or relieves the opening resistance of a door, upon the activation 
of a switch or a continued force applied to the door itself. 

PREFABRICATED WOOD I-JOIST. See Section 2302.1. 

PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

PRIMARY ENTRY. [HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.16-R 

PRIMARY ENTRY LEVEL. [HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.16-P. 

PRIMARY FUNCTION, See Section 3402.1. 

PRISM. See Section 2102.1. 

PROFESSIONAL OFFICE OF A HEALTH CARE PRO- 
VIDER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. See Section 410.2. 

PROTECTIVE SOCIAL CARE [SFM] is the housing and 
care of any person of any age when such person is referred to or 
placed within such home or facility for care and supervision 
services by any governmental agency. 

PUBLIC ACCOMMODATION [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] 
includes, but is not limited to, any building or facility or other 
specific public use facilities not listed in Items 1 through 12 if 
they fall into one or more of the following categories: 

1. Places of public lodging. 

2. Establishments serving food or drink open to public 
use. 

3. Places of exhibition or entertainment open to public 
use. 

4. Places of public gathering. 



40R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



5. Sales or rental establishments open to public use. 
6.' Service establishments open to public use. 

7. Stations used for public transportation. 

8. Places of public display or collection. 

9. Places of public recreation. 

10. Places of public education. 

11. Social service center establishments open to the gen- 
eral public. 

12. Places of exercise or recreation open to public use. 

Examples of public accommodations for purposes of this 
code shall include, but not be limited to, the following private 
entities: 

1. An inn, hotel, motel or other place of public lodging, ex- 
cept for a lodging house located within a builHing that 
contains not more than five rooms for rent or hire and 
that is /actually occupied by the proprietor of such es- 
tablishment as the residence of such proprietor. 

2. A restaurant, bar or other establishment serving food 
or drink. 

3. A motion picture house, theater, concert hall, stadium 
or other place of exhibition or entertainment. 

4. An auditorium, convention center, lecture hall or other 
place of public gathering. 

5. A bakery, grocery store, clothing store, hardware store, 
shopping center or other sales or retail establishment. 

6. A laundromat, dry cleaner, bank, barber shop, beauty 
shop, travel service, shoe repair service, funeral parlor, 
gas station, office of an accountant or lawyer, phar- 
macy, insurance office, professional office of a health 
care provider, hospital or other service establishment. 

7. A terminal, depot or other station used for specified 
public transportation. 

8. A museum, library, gallery or other place of public dis- 
play or collection. 

9. A park, zoo, amusement park or other place of recre- 
ation. 

10. A nursery, elementary, secondary, undergraduate or 
postgraduate private school, or other place of educa- 
tion. 

11. A day care center, senior citizen center, homeless shel- 
ter, food bank, adoption agency or other social service 
center establishment. 

12. A gymnasium, health spa, bowling alley, golf course or 
other place of exercise. 

13. A church. 

14. An office building. 

15. A public curb or sidewalk. 

PUBLIC ENTRANCE [HCD 1-AC] is an entrance that is not 
a service entrance or a restricted entrance. 

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. [DSA-AC & HCD l-AC] See Chap- 
ter 1 lA, Section 1 1 07 A. 1 6-P, and Chapter IIB, Section 1 1 02B. 

PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1. 



PUBLICLY FUNDED [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] for the 

purpose of housing, all buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs 
and related facilities constructed in the state and used or 
intended to be used as a public use area, as defined in Section 
1107A.16-P, shall comply with the accessibility standards of 
Chapter IIB of this code when state, county or municipal 
funds, or funds of any political subdivision of the state are used. 

[F] PYROPHORIC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 307.2. 

QUALIFIED HISTORICAL BUILDING (or PROPERTY). 

[DSA-AC] See C. C.R. Title 24, Part 8. 

RAIL TRANSIT BOARDING PLATFORM. [DSA-AC] See 

"transit boarding platform" in Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.18-R. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Sec- 
tion 406.3.2. 

REASONABLE PORTION [DSA-AC] shall mean that seg- 
ment of a building, facility, area, space or condition, which 
would normally be necessary if the activity therein is to be 
accessible by persons with disabilities. 

RECOMMEND [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] does not require 
mandatory acceptance, but identifies a suggested action that 
shall be considered for the purpose of providing a greater 
degree of accessibility to persons with disabilities. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1. 

REFERENCE RESISTANCE {D ). See Section 2302.1. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

REINFORCED PLASTIC, GLASS FIBER. See Section 
2602.1. 

RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OE A building or portion 
thereof intended for the performance of religious services. 

REMODELING. [DSA-AC] See "Alteration or Alter." 

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REQUIRED STRENGTH. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

REROOFING. See Section 1502.1. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. See Section 

412.3.1. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILI- 
TIES. See Section 310.2. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONI- 
CALLY ILL (RCF/CI). See Section 310. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE ELDERLY 
(RCFE). See Section 310. 

RESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF). See Section 310. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



41 R 



DEFINITIONS 



RESISTANCE FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

RESTRAINT [§FM] shall mean the physical retention of a 
person within a room, cell or cell block by any means, or within 
the exterior walls of a building by means of locked doors inop- 
erable by the person restrained. "Restraint" shall also mean 
the physical binding, strapping or similar restriction of any 
person in a chair, walker, bed or other contrivance for the pur- 
pose of deliberately restricting the free movement of ambula- 
tory persons. 

''Restraint" shall not be construed to include 
nonambulatory persons nor shall it include the use of bandage 
material, strip sheeting or other fabrics or materials (soft ties) 
used to restrain persons in hospital-type beds or wheelchairs to 
prevent injury, provided an approved method of quick release is 
maintained. Facilities employing the use of soft ties, however, 
shall be classified as a building used to house nonambulatory 
persons. 

""Restraint" shall not be practiced in licensed facilities clas- 
sified as Group I-l, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies unless con- 
structed as a Group 1-3 occupancy. For Group 1-3 occupancies 
see Section 308.2. 

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE [HCD 1, HCD 2 & HCD 
1-AC] is an entrance that is made available for common use on 
a controlled basis, but is not public use, and that is not a service 
entrance. 

RETRACTABLE AWNING. See Section 3105.2. 

RISER. [DSA-AC, HCD I & HCD 2] See Chapter 11 A, Sec- 
tion 1107A.18-R, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. 

, ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF DECK. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF RECOVER. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPAIR. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPLACEMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF VENTILATION. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBLE MASONRY, See Section 2102.1. 

Coursed rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Raedom rubble. See Section 2102.1.. 

Rough or ordinary rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

RUNNING BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

RUNNING SLOPE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

SANITARY FACILITY [DSA-AC, HCD I & HCD 2] is any 
single water closet, urinal, lavatory, bathtub or shower, or a 
combination thereof, together with the room or space in which 
they are housed. 

SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

SCUPPER. See Section 1502.1. 



SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. See Section 1613.2. 

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1613.2. 

SELF-CLOSING. See Section 702. 1 . 

SELF-LUMINOUS. See Section 1002. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 415.2. 

SERVICE ENTRANCE [HCD I -AC] is an entrance 
intended primarily for the delivery of goods or services. 

SHAFT. See Section 702.1. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. See Section 702.1. 

SHALL [DSA-AC] as used in this code means mandatory. 

SHEAR WALL. See Sections 2102.1 and 2302.1. 

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Ordinary plain masonry shear wail. See Section 2 102. 1 . 

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Perforated shear wall. See Section 2302.1. 

Perforated shear wall segment. See Section 2302.1. 

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

SHELL. See Section 2102.1. 

SHOPPING CENTER (or SHOPPING MALL). [DSA-AC & 
HCD 2] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

SHOULD. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] See "Recommend." 

SIDEWALK [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] is a surfaced pedestrian 
way contiguous to a street used by the public. (As differentiated 
from the definition of "Walk" in Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.23-W, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B.) 

SIGNAGE [DSA-AC] is displayed verbal, symbolic, tactile, 
and/or pictorial information. 

SINGLE-ACCOMMODATION SANITARY FACILITY 
[DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a room that has not more than 
one of each type of sanitary fixture, is intended for use by only 
one person at a time, has no partition around the toilet and has 
a door that can be locked on the inside by the room occupant. 

SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



SITE [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] is a parcel of land bounded 
by a property line or a designated portion of a public 
right-of-way. 

SITE CLASS. See Section 1613.2. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS. See Section 1613.2. 

SITE DEVELOPMENT [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] is "on-site " 
and "off-site " work, including, but not limited to, walks, side- 
walks, ramps, curbs, curb ramps, parking facilities, stairs, 
planting areas, pools, promenades, exterior gathering or 
assembly areas and raised or depressed paved areas. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration 
unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for 
natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while 
preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof. 

SKYLIGHTS' AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope 
of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing mate- 
rial in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, 
roofs and sloped walls, are included in this definition. 

■SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS. [DSA-AC & HCD 
1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 1107A.19-S, and Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, 
which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, 
and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such 
rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not 
sleeping units. 

SLOPE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.19-S. 

[F] SMOKE ALARM, See Section 902. 1 . 

SMOKE BARRIER. See Section 702. 1 . 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. See Section 702. 1 . 

SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902. 1 . 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SOLID. See Section 415.2. 

SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS (STC). [HCD 1] See 
Chapter 12, Section 1207.2. 

SPACE [DSA-AC & HCD 2] is a definable area, e.g., a room, 
toilet room, hall, assembly area, entrance, storage room, 
alcove, courtyard, or lobby. 

SPECIAL ACCESS LIFT [DSA-AC & HCD-lAC]See Chap- 
ter llA, Section 1 107 A.19-S, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. See Section 411.2. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION. See Section 1702.1. 

Special inspection, continuous. See Section 1702.1. 

Special inspection, periodic. See Section 1702.1. 



SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

SPECIFIED. See Section 2102.1. 

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 
MASONRY if' J. See Section 2102.1. 

SPECIFIED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION. [DSA-AC] See 
Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

SPLICE. See Section 702.1. 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Section 
1702.1. 

STACK BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

STAGE. See Section 410.2. 

STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002. 1 . 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OE See Section 
902.1. 

Class I system. See Section 902.1. 

Class II system. See Section 902.1. 

Class III system. See Section 902.1. 
[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OR See Section 902.1. 

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic wet. See Section 902. 1 . 

Manual dry. See Section 902. 1 . 

Manual wet. See Section 902.1. 

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902. 1 . 

START OF CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

STATE-OWNED/LEASED BUILDING [SFM] is a building 
or portion of a building that is owned, leased or rented by the 
state. State-leased buildings shall include all required exits to a 
public way serving such leased area or space. Portions of state- 
leased buildings that are not leased or rented by the state shall 
not be included within the scope of this section unless such por- 
tions present an exposure hazard to the state-leased area or 
space. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. See Section 
2202.1. 

STEEL JOIST. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (17-percent slope). 

STONE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Ashlar stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Rubble stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 

415.2. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



43R 



DEFINITIONS 



STORY. The portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above (also see "Mezzanine" and Section 502.1). It is mea- 
sured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive 
tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost 
story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling 
joists, or where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof raf- 
ters. 

[DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its fin- 
ished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a 
basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane 
where the finished surface of the floor above the basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

STORY, FIRST. [DSA-AC]See Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 
STRENGTH. See Section 2102.1. 

Design strength. See Section 2102.1. 

Nomimal streogth. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Required strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

STRENGTH DESIGN. See Secfion 1602.1. 

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. See Section 
2302.1. 

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). See Section 2302.1. 

Parallel strand lumber (PSL). See Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL FRAME. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Sec- 
tion 1J02B. 

STRUCTURAL GLUED -LAMINATED TIMBER. See 
Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. See Section 1702.1. 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 

SUBDIAPHRAGM. See Section 2302.1. 

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 1612.2. 

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 1612.2. 

SUNROOM ADDITION. See Section 1202.1. 

LA SUPERINTENDENT OF BUILDING. The General Man- 
L^ ager of the Department of Building and Safety of the City of 
LA Los Angeles or a duly authorized representative. 

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 

[F]SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 
Section 902.1. 

SWIMMING POOLS. See Section 3109.2. 

T RATING. See Section 702. 1 . 

TACTILE [DSA-AC & HCD 2] describes an object that can be 
perceived using the sense of touch. 



TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. See Section 3402. 

[DSA-AC] "Technically infeasible" means, with respect to 
an alteration of a building or a facility, that it has little likeli- 
hood of being accomplished because existing structural 
conditions would require removing or altering a load-bear- 
ing member which is an essential part of the structural 
frame; or because other existing physical or site constraints 
prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces or fea- 
tures which are in full and strict compliance with the mini- 
mum requirements for new construction and which are 
necessary to provide accessibility. 

TEMPORARY. Shall mean buildings and facilities intended ^J 
for use at one location for not more than 120 days and seats l, 
intended for use at one location for not more than 90 days. l^- 

TEMPORARY [DSA-AC] shall mean buildings and facilities 
intended for use at one location for not more than one year and 
seats intended for use at one location for not more than 90 

days. 

TENT. Any structure, enclosure or shelter which is con- 
structed of canvas or pliable material supported in any manner 
except by air or the contents it protects. 

TERMINALLY ILL. See Section 310. 

TESTING AGENCY [HCD-I & HCD- 2] means an agency 
approved by the department as qualified and equipped for test- 
ing products, materials, equipment and installations in accor- 
dance with nationally recognized standards. For additional 
information, see Health and Safety Code Section 1 7920(m). 

TEXT TELEPHONE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

THERMAL ISOLATION. See Section 1202. 1 . 

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. See Section 2602. 1 . 

THIN-BED MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. See 

Section 702.1. 

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). See Section 2302.1. 

TIE, LATERAL. See Section 2102.1. 

TIE, WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OE See Section 902.1. 

TOEBOARD. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter HA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.20-T. 

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelhng unit constructed in 
a group of three or more attached units in which each unit 
extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at 
least two sides. 

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] For applications required to pro- 
vide accommodations for persons with disabilities, see Chap- 
ter 11 A, Section 1107A.20-T. 



44R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 
TRANSIENT. See Section 310.2. 

TRANSIENT LODGING. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 

Chapter IIB, Section 1102B and Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.20-T. 

TRANSIT BOARDING PLATFORM. [DSA-AC] See Chap- 
ter 11 B, Section 11 02B. 

TREAD. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
I107A.20-T, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

TREAD DEPTH. [DSA-AC & HCD I- AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.20-T, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

TREAD RUN. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.20-T, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

TRIM. See Section 802.1. 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902. 1 . 

TYPE OF MOTOR FUEL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIC, Sec- 
tion IIOIC.I. 

UNDERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

UNREASONABLE HARDSHIP [DSA-AC] exists when the 
enforcing agency finds that compliance with the building stan- 
dard would make the specific work of the project affected by the 
building standard unfeasible, based on an overall evaluation of 
the following factors: 

1. The cost of providing access. 

2. The cost of all construction contemplated. 

3. The impact of proposed improvements on financial feasi- 
bility of the project. 

4. The nature of the accessibility which would be gained or 
lost. 

5. The nature of the use of the facility under construction 
and its availability to persons with diasbilities. 

The details of any finding of unreasonable hardship shall be 
recorded and entered in the files of the enforcing agency. 

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 
307.2. 

Class 4, See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2.' 

Class 1, See" Section 307.2. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). See Section 415.2. 

VAPOR-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or cover- 
ing having a permeance rating of 5 perms (52.9 x 10" '"kg/Pa • s • 
m^) or greater, when tested in accordance with the dpssicant 
method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor-permeable 
material permits the passage of moisture vapor. 

VAPOR RETARDER. A vapor-resistant material, membrane 
or covering such as foil, plastic sheeting or insulation facing 
having a permeance rating of 1 perm (5.7 x 10" kg/Pa • s • m^) 
or less, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. Vapor retarders limit the 



amount of moisture vapor that passes through a material or wall 
assembly. 

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. See Section 1602.1. 

VEHICULAR OR PEDESTRIAN ARRIVAL POINTS. 

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.22-V. 

VEHICULAR WAY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

VERY HIGH FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY ZONE 
(VHFHSZ). A Fire District in the City of Los Angeles estab- 
lished by the Board of Forestry and the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal and described in Chapter 72. 

VINYL SIDING. See Section 1402.1. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 

See Section 902.1. 

WAITING ROOM [SFM] is a room or area normally provided 
with seating and used for persons waiting. 

WALK. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.23-W, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as 
a pedestrian trafficway. 

WALL. See Section 2102. 1-. 

Cavity wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Composite wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Parapet wall. See Section 2102.1. 

WALL, LOAD-BEARING. Any wall meeting either of the 
following classifications: 

1 . Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 1 00 
pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertical load in ad- 
dition to its own weight. 

2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 
200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

WALL, NONLOAD-BEARING. Any wall that is not a 
load-bearing wall. 

WALL PIER. See Section 1908.1.3. 

[F] WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 
WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. See Section 1402. 
WEATHER-EXPOSED SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 
WEB. See Section 2102.1. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



45R 



DEHiSIITIONS 



[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 
Section 902.1. 

WHEELCHAIR [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] is a chair mounted 
on wheels to be propelled by its occupant manually or with the 
aid of electric power, of a size and configuration conforming to 
the recognized standard models of the trade. 

WHEELCHAIR OCCUPANT (or WHEELCHAIR USER) 
[DSA-AC] is an individual who, due to a physical impairment 
or disability, utilizes a wheelchair for mobility. 

WHEELCHAIR SPACE [HCD I-ACJ is space for a single 
wheelchair and its occupant. 

"BORNE DEBRIS REGION. See Section 1609.2. 

See Section 1002.1. 

CAVES. See Section 436. 

See Section 2502.1. 



[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 



..See Section 2302.1. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

Composite panels. See Section 2302.1. 

Orlemted strand board (OSB). See Section 2302.1. 

Plywood. See Section 2302.1. 
[F] WORKSTATION. See Section 415.2. 

[DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 11023. 

WYTHE. See Section 2102.1. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 

[F] ZONE. See Section 902.1. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



gas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in 
accordance with Section 415.8.7. 

[F] 908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. A gas detection sys- 
tem shall be provided to detect the presence of gas at or below the 
permissible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit of the gas for 
which detection is provided. The system shall be capable of moni- 
toring the discharge from the treatment system at or below one- 
half the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) Umit. 

Exception: A gas-detection system is not required for toxic 
gases when the physiological warning threshold level for 
the gas is at a level below the accepted PEL for the gas. 

[F] 908.3.1 Alarms. The gas detection system shall initiate a 
local alarm and transmit a signal to a constantly attended con- 
trol station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The 
alarm shaU be both visible and audible and shall provide warn- 
ing both inside and outside the area where gas is detected. The 
audible alarrri shall be distinct from all other alarms. 

Exception: Signal transmission to a constantly attended 
control station is not required when not nlore than one 
cylinder of highly toxic or toxic gas is stored. 

[F] 908.3.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas detection sys- 
tem shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source 
on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being 
monitored for whichever gas is detected. 

Exception; Automatic shutdown is not required for 
reactors utilized for the production of highly toxic or 
toxic compressed gases where such reactors are: 

1. Operated at pressures less than 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa). 

2. Constantly attended. 

3. Provided with readily accessible emergency shut- 
off valves. 

[F] 908,3.3 Valve closure. The automatic closure of shutoff 
valves shall be in accordance with the following: 

1. When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or 
exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabi- 
net or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas de- 
tected shall automatically close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a gas room and 
compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or 
exhausted enclosures, the shutoff valves on all gas lines 
for the specific gas detected shall automatically close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribu- 
tion manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve for the 
compressed container of specific gas detected supply- 
ing the manifold shall automatically close. 

Exception: When the gas-detection samphng point 
initiating the gas-detection system alarm is at a use 
location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch 
line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, 
the shutoff valve in the gas valve enclosure for the 
branch line located in the piping distribution mani- 
fold enclosure shall automatically close. 



[F] 908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. Ozone gas-generator 
rooms shall be equipped with a continuous gas-detection sys- 
tem that will shut off the generator and sound a local alarm 
when concentrations above the PEL occur. 

[F] 908.5 Repair garages. A flamijiable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 406.6.6. 

[F] 908.6 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall con- 
tain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The 
detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall 
be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concen- 
trate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the 
corresponding TLV-TWA values for the refrigerant classifica- 
tion indicated in the California Mechanical Code. Detectors 
and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. 

SECTION 909 
SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

[F] 909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechanical 
or passive smoke control systems when they are required by other 
provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is to establish 
minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance 
testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a 
tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. 
These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, 
the timely restoration of operations or for assistance in fire sup- 
pression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated 
by this section serve a different purpose than the smoke- and 
heat- venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke 
control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under 
Chapter 5 of the California Mechanical Code. 

[F] 909.2 General design requirements. Buildings, structures 
or parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control 
system or systems shall have such systems designed in accor- 
dance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the 
generally accepted and well-established principles of engi- 
neering relevant to the design. The construction documents 
shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately 
describe the elements of the design necessary for the proper 
implementation of the smoke control systems. These docu- 
ments shall be accompanied by sufficient information and 
analysis to demonstiate compliance with these provisions. 

9093 Special inspection and test requirements. In addition to the la 
ordinary inspection and test requirements, which buildings, struc- la 
tures and parts of buildings and stmctures are required to undergo, [-^ 
smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall la 
undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper [-^ 
commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed con- la 
dition. The design submission accompanying the constmction docu- ^ 
ments shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the la 
items subject to the inspections and tests. The commissioning shall be ^ 
in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, la 
where possible, based on published standards for the particular test- l^ 
ing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this sec- la 
tion shall be in compliance with Section 1704 of this Code. la 

LA 

A copy of the final report of the results of the special inspec- la 
tions and tests shall be filed with the Superintendent of Building j^^ 
and the fire department and an identical copy shall be maintained la 
in an approved location at the building. ""^ 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



279R 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEWiS 



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)3A System testing. Prior to the issuance of a Certificate 
of Occupancy, all of the smoke-control systems shall be 
tested as required by the Department of Building and Safety 
and the fire department and shall show compliance with the 
minimum standards of both Departments. The tests shall be 
conducted in the presence of an authorized representative 
from both Departments. A report of the results shall be sub- 
mitted to both Departments. 

909.3.2 Periodic retestieg. After occupancy of the building, 
all operating parts of the smoke-control systems shall be 
retested every 6 months in accordance with the retest require- 
ments established by the Department of Building and Safety 
and the fire department. The retest shall be conducted by an 
approved inspection agency or by the owner or the owner's 
representative when so approved by both Departments,- Also, a 
report of the test results shall be submitted to both Departments. 

[F] 909.4 Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of 
smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of opera- 
tion, the systems supporting them and the methods of construc- 
tion to be utilized shall accompany the submitted construction 
documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items 
indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6. 

[F] 909.4.1 Stack effect The system shall be designed such 
that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect wUl 
not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In deter- 
mining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, 
weather history and interior temperatures shall be used. 

[F] 909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and 
expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed 
such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the 
system's capabilities. 



4. Floors and roofs: 
where: 



A/A. =0.00050 



[F] 909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the 
adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consis- 
tent with the wind-loading provisions of Chapter 16. 

[F] 909.4,4 HVAC systems. The design shaU consider the 
effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) 
systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall 
include all permutations of systems status. The design shall 
consider the effects of the fire on the HVAC systems. 

[F] 909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects 
of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. 
Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow 
or ice blockage. 

[F] 909.4.6 Deration of operation. All portions of active or 
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued 
operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not 
less than either 20 minutes or 1 .5 times the calculated egress 
time, whichever is less. 

[F] 909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 709, and shall be constructed and sealed 
to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The 
maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area 
calculated using the following leakage area ratios: 

1. Walls: A/A, = 0.00 100 

2. Exit enclosures: A/A ^ = 0.00035 

3. All other shafts: A/A „ =0.00150 



A = Total leakage area, square feet (m^). 

Af = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

A^^ = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings 
due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall 
be included in calculating the total leakage area. 

[F] 909.5.1 Leakage area. The total leakage area of the barrier 
is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the 
allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings 
such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be 
determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference 
across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode 
for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive smoke control 
systems tested using other approved means such as door fan 
testing shall be as approved by the fire code official. 

909.5.2 Opening protection. Openings in smoke barriers 
shall be protected by self-closing devices or automatic-clos- 
ing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechani- 
cal smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected 
by fire door assemblies complying with Section 715.4.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Passive smoke control systems with auto- 
matic-closing devices actuated by spot-type 
smoke detectors listed for releasing service in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 907.10. When 
used in a Group 1-2, such detectors shall activate 
the fire alarm system. 

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are pro- 
tected utilizing the airflow method in other than 
Group 1-2. 

3. In Group 1-2, where doors are installed across coni- 
dors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a 
center muUion or horizontal sliding doors that com- 
ply with Section 1008.1.3.3 shall be installed. Vision 
panels consisting of fire-rated glazing in approved 
frames shall be provided in each cross-corridor 
swinging door and at each cross-corridor horizon- 
tal-sliding door in a smoke barrier The doors shall 
be close fitting within operational tolerances, and 
shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. Swinging 
doors shall have head and jamb stops and astragals or 
rabbets at meeting edges. Doors installed across cor- 
ridors shall be automatic closing by smoke detection 
in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3. Positive-latch- 
ing devices are required. Doors installed across cor- 
ridors shall comply with Section 1008.1.1. 

4. Group 1-3. 

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling 
heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and 
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as 
determined by the design fire size. 

6. In Group 1-2, smoke damper activation may be ac- 
complished by a fire alarm control unit, provided 
that an open area smoke detection system is pro- 
vided within all areas served by an HVAC system. 



• 



280R 



2008 CBTY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 



4. [HCD 1] When a passive solar energy collector is de- 
signed as a conditioned area it shall comply with the 
California Energy Code, Title 24, Part 6. 
Nonconditioned passive solar energy collectors are 
exempt from Title 24, Part 6. 



SECTION 1205 
LIGHTING 

1205.1 General. Every space intended for human occupancy 
shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed 
openings in accordance with Section 1205.2 or shall be pro- 
vided with artificial light in accordance with Section 1205.3. 
Exterior glazed openings shall open directly onto a public way 
or onto a yard or court in accordance with Section 1206. 

[HCD 1] Glazed openings may open into a passive solar 
energy collector provided the area of exterior glazed opening 
in the passive solar energy collector is increased to compen- 
sate for the area required by the interior space. 

1205.2 Natural light. The minimum net glazed area shall not 
be less than 8 percent of the floor area of the room served. 

1205.2.1 Adjoining spaces. For the purpose of natural 
lighting, any room is permitted to be considered as a portion 
of an adjoining room where one-half of the area of the com- 
mon wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening 
of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior 
room or 25 square feet (2.32 m^), whichever is greater. 

Exception: Openings required for natural light shall be 
permitted to open into a thermally isolated sunroom 
addition or patio cover where the common wall provides 
a glazed area of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of 
the interior room or 20 square feet (1.86 m^), whichever 
is greater. 

1205.2.2 Exterior openings. Exterior openings required by 
Section 1205.2 for natural light shall open directly onto a 
public way, yard or court, as set forth in Section 1206. 

Exceptions: 

1. Required exterior openings are permitted to open 
into a roofed porch where the porch: 

1.1. Abuts a public way, yard or court. 

1.2. Has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 
(2134 mm). 

1.3. Has a longer side at least 65 percent open 
and unobstructed. 

2. Skylights are not required to open directly onto a 
public way, yard or court. 

1205.3 Artificial light. Artificial light shall be provided that is 
adequate to provide an average illumination of 10 foot-candles 
(107 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 
mm) above the floor level. 

1205.4 Stairway illumination. Stairways within dwelling 
units and exterior stairways serving a dwelling unit shall have 
an illumination level on tread runs of not less than 1 foot-candle 
(11 lux). Stairs in other occupancies shall be governed by 
Chapter 10. 



1205.4.1 Controls. The control for activation of the 
required stairway lighting shall be in accordance with the 
California Electrical Code. 

1205.5 Emergency egress lighting. The means of egress shall 
be illuminated in accordance with Section 1006.1. 

1205.6 Campus lighting for parking facilities and primary 
walkways at California state universities, colleges and com- 
munity colleges. [BSC] Artificial light shall be provided for 
parking facilities and primary walkways at California state 
universities, colleges, and community colleges in accordance 
with provisions of this subsection. This subsection shall not 
apply to the University of California unless the Regents of the 
University of California, by resolution, make it applicable. 

1205.6.1 Light requirements. Based on the recommenda- 
tions of the most current edition of the Illuminating Engi- 
neering Society Lighting Handbook, for the following 
lighting standards shall be used for all new construction of 
open parking facilities, covered parking facilities and pri- 
mary walkways. 

1. Open and covered parking facilities. 

LI. Medium-level activity usage when medium 
usage is present. 

1.2. High-level activity usage when high usage is 
present. 

2. Primary campus walkways. 

2.1. Medium-level activity usage when medium 
usage is present. 

2.2. High-level activity usage when high usage is 
present. 



SECTION 1206 
YARDS OR COURTS 

1206.1 General. This section shall apply to yards and courts 
adjacent to exterior openings that provide natural light or venti- 
lation. Such yards and courts shall be on the same property as 
the building. 

1206.2 Yards. Yards shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm) in 
width for one- and two-story buildings. For buildings more 
than two stories in height, the minimum width of the yard shall 
be increased at the rate of 1 foot (305 mm) for each additional 
story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required 
width of the yard shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories. 

1206.3 Courts. Courts shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm) in 
width. Courts having windows opening on opposite sides shall 
not be less than 6 feet (1829 mm) in width. Courts shall not be 
less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in length unless bounded on one 
end by a public way or yard. For buildings more than two sto- 
ries in height, the court shall be increased 1 foot (305 mm) in 
width and 2 feet (310 mm) in length for each additional story. 
For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required 
dimensions shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories. 

1206.3.1 Court access. Access shall be provided to the bot- 
tom of courts for cleaning purposes. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



549 



INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 



1206.3.2 Air intake. Courts more than two stories in height 
shall be provided with a horizontal air intake at the bottom 
not less than 10 square feet (0.93 m^) in area and leading to 
the exterior of the building unless abutting a yard or public 
way. 

1206.3.3 Court drainage. The bottom of every court shall 
be properly graded and drained to a public sewer or other 
approved disposal system complying with the California 
Plumbing Code. 



SECTION 1207 [HCD] 
SOUND TRANSMISSION 

j^^ 1207.1 Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section is to 
LA establish uniform minimum noise insulation performance 
[^ standards to protect persons within new hotels, motels, dormi- 
LA tories, residential care facilities, apartment houses, dwellings, 
[^ private schools, and places of worship from the effects of 
LA excessive noise, including but not limited to, hearing loss or 

LA ' o ' o 

LA impairment and interference with speech and sleep. 

1207.2 Definitions. The following special definitions shall 
apply to this section: 

SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS (STC) is a single-number 
rating used to compare walls, floor-ceiling assemblies and 
doors for their sound-insulating properties with respect to 
speech and small household appliance noise. The STC is 
derived from laboratory measurements of sound transmission 
loss across a series of 16 test bands. 

Laboratory STC ratings should be used to the greatest extent 
possible in determining that the design complies with this sec- 
tion. 

FIELD SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS (FSTC) is a sin- 
gle-number rating similar to STC, except that the transmission 
loss values used to derive the FSTC are measured in the field. 
All sound transmitted from the source room to the receiving 
room is assumed to be through the separating wall or 
floor-ceiling assembly. 

This section does not require determination of the FSTC, and 
field-measured values of noise reduction should not be 
reported as transmission loss. 

IMPACT INSULATION CLASS (IIC) is a single-number rat- 
ing used to compare the effectiveness of floor-ceiling assem- 
blies in providing reduction of impact- generated sounds such 
as footsteps. The IIC is derived from laboratory measurements 
of impact sound pressure level across a series of 16 test bands 
using a standardized tapping machine. Laboratory IIC ratings 
should be used to the greatest extent possible in determining 
that the design complies with this section. 

FIELD IMPACT INSULATION CLASS (FIIC) is a sin- 
gle-number rating similar to the IIC, except that the impact 
sound pressure levels are measured in the field 

NOISE ISOLATION CLASS (NIC) is a single-number rating 
derived from measured values of noise reduction between two 
enclosed spaces that are connected by one or more paths. The 
NIC is not adjusted or normalized to a standard reverberation 
time, i 



NORMALIZED NOISE ISOLATION CLASS (NNIC) is a 
single-number rating similar to the NIC, except that the mea- 
sured noise reduction values are normalized to a reverberation 
time of one -half second. 

NORMALIZED A'WEIGHTED SOUND LEVEL DIFFER- 
ENCE (Dn) means for a specified source room sound spec- 
trum, Dn is the difference, in decibels, between the average 
sound levels produced in two rooms after adjustment to the 
expected acoustical conditions when the receiving room under 
test is normally furnished. 

DAY-NIGHT AVERAGE SOUND LEVEL (Ldn) is the 
A-weighted equivalent continuous sound exposure level for a 
24-hour period with a lOdb adjustment added to sound levels 
occurring during nighttime hours (10 p.m. to 7 a.m.). 

COMMUNITY NOISE EQUIVALENT LEVEL (CNEL) is a 
metric similar to the Ldn, except that a 5 db adjustment is 
added to the equivalent continuous sound exposure level for 
evening hours (7p.m. to 10p.m.) in addition to the 10 db night- 
time adjustment used in the Ldn. 

1207.3 Relevant standards. The current edition of the follow- 
ing standards is generally applicable for determining compli- 
ance with this section. Copies may be obtained from the 
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) at 100 
Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959. 

ASTM C 634, Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to 
Environmental Acoustics. 

ASTM E 90, Standard Method for Laboratory Measurement 
of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building Parti- 
tions. 

ASTM E 336, Standard Test Method for Measurement of 
Airborne Sound Insulation in Buildings. 

ASTM E 413, Standard Classification for Determination of 
Sound Transmission Class. 

ASTM E 492, Standa rd Method of Laboratory Measurement 
of Impact Sound Transmission Through Floor-Ceiling 
Assemblies Using the Tapping Machine. 

ASTM E 497, Standard Recommended Practice for Installa- 
tion of Fixed Partitions of Light Frame Type for the Purpose 
of Conserving Their Sound Insulation Efficiency. 

ASTM E 597, Recommended Practice for Determining a 
Single-Number Rating of Airborne Sound Isolation in 
Multi-unit Building Specifications. 

ASTM E 966, Standard Guide for Field Measurement of Air- 
borne Sound Insulation of Building Facades and Facade 
Elements. 

ASTM E 989, Standard Classification for Determination of 
Impact Insulation Class (IIC). 

ASTM E 1007, Standard Test Method for Field Measure- 
ment of Tapping Machine Impact Sound Transmission 
Through Floor-Ceiling Assemblies and Associated Support 
Structures. 

ASTM E 1014, Standard Guide for Measurement of Out- 
door A-Weighted Sound Levels. 

1207.4 Complaints. Where a complaint as to noncompliance 
with this chapter requires a field test, the complainant shall 
post a bond or adequate funds in escrow for the cost of said 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 



testing. Such costs shall be chargeable to the complainant if the 
field tests show compliance with this chapter. If the tests show 
noncompliance, testing costs shall be borne to the owner or 
builder. 

1207.5 Local modification. The governing body of any city or 
county or city and county may, by ordinance, adopt changes or 
modifications to the requirements of this section as set forth in 
Section 1 7922. 7 of the Health and Safety Code. 

1207.6 Interdwelling sound transmission control. 

1207.6.1 Wall and floor-ceiling assemblies. Wall and 
floor-ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units or guest 
rooms from each other and from public or service areas such 
as interior corridors, garages and mechanical spaces shall 
provide airborne sound insulation for walls, and both air- 
borne and impact sound insulation for floor-ceiling assem- 
blies. 

Exception: Impact sound insulation is not required for 
floor-ceiling assemblies over nonhabitable rooms or 
spaces not designed to be occupied, such as garages, 
mechanical rooms or storage areas. 

1207.7 Airborne sound insulation. All such acoustically rated 
separating wall and floor-ceiling assemblies shall proUde air- 
borne sound insulation equal to that required to meet a sound 
transmission class (STC) rating of 50 based on laboratory tests 
as defined in ASTM E 90 and E 413. Field-tested assemblies 
shall meet a noise isolation class (NIC) rating of 45 for occu- 
pied units and a normalized noise isolation class (NINIC) rat- 
ing of 45 for unoccupied units as defined in ASTM E 336 and E 
413. 

ASTM E 597 may be used as simplified procedure for field 
tests of the airborne sound isolation between rooms in unoccu- 
pied buildings. In such tests, the minimum value ofDnis 45 db 
for compliance. 

Entrance doors from interior corridors together with their 
perimeter seals shall have STC ratings not less than 26. Such 
tested doors shall operate normally with commercially avail- 
able seals. 

Solid-core wood-slab doors 7% inches (35 mm) thick mini- 
mum or 18 gauge insulated steel-slab doors with compression 
seals all around, including the threshold, may be considered 
adequate without other substantiating information. 

Field tests of corridor walls should not include segments 
with doors. If such tests are impractical, however, the NIC or 
NNIC rating for the composite wall-door assembly shall not be 
less than 30. 

Penetrations or openings in construction assemblies for pip- 
ing, electrical devices, recessed cabinets, bathtubs, soffits or 
heating, ventilating or exhaust ducts shall be sealed, lined, 
insulated or otherwise treated to maintain the required ratings. 

1207.8 Impact sound insulation. All acoustically rated sepa- 
rating floor-ceiling assemblies shall provide impact sound 
insulation equal to that required to meet a IIC rating of 50 
based on laboratory tests as defined in ASTM E 492 and E 989. 
Field-tested assemblies shall meet a field impact insulation 
class (FIIC) rating of 45 for both occupied and unoccupied 
units as defined in ASTM E 1007 and E 989, with the exception 
that the measured impact sound pressure levels shall not be 



normalized to a standard amount of absorption in the receiving 
room. 

Floor coverings may be included in the assembly to obtain the 
required ratings. These coverings must be retained as a perma- 
nent part of the assembly and may be replaced only by other floor 
coverings that provide the required impact sound insulation. 

1207.9 Tested assemblies. Laboratory-tested wall or 
floor-ceiling designs having STC or IIC ratings of 50 or more 
may be used by the building official to determine compliance 
with this section during review phase. Field tests shall be 
required by the building official when evidence of sound leaks 
of flanking paths is noted, or when the separating assembly is 
not built according to the approved design. 

Generic sound transmission control systems as listed in the 
Catalog of STC and IIC Ratings for Wall and Floor-Ceiling 
Assemblies, as published by the Office of Noise Control, Califor- 
nia Department of Health Services, or the Fire Resistance Design 
Manual, as published by the Gypsum Association, may be used to 
evaluate construction assemblies for their sound transmission 
properties. Other tests from recognized laboratories may also be 
used. When ratings for essentially similar assemblies differ, and 
when ratings are below STC or ICC 50, field testing may be used 
to demonstrate that the building complies with this section. 

For field testing, rooms should ideally be large and reverber- 
ant for reliable measurements to be made in all test bands. This 
is often not possible for bathrooms, kitchens, hallways or 
rooms with large amounts of sound-absorptive materials. Field 
test results should, however, report the measured values in all 
bands, noting those which do not meet relevant ASTM criteria 
for diffusion. 

It should be noted that STC ratings do not adequately char- 
acterize the sound insulation of construction assemblies when 
the intruding noise is predominantly low-pitched, as is often 
produced by amplified music or by large pieces of mechanical 
equipment. 

It should also be noted that the transmission of impact sound 
from a standardized tapping machine may vary considerably 
for a given design due to differences in specimen size, flanking 
transmission through associated structure and the acoustical 
response of the room below. Laboratory IIC values should 
therefore be used with caution when estimating the perfor- 
mance of hard- surfaced floors in the field. Additionally, IIC 
ratings may not always be adequate to characterize the subjec- 
tively annoying creak or boom generated by footfalls on a 
lumber floor 

1207.10 Certification. Field testing, when required, shall be 
done under the supervision of a person experienced in the field 
of acoustical testing and engineering, who shall forward test 
results to the building official showing that the sound isolation 
requirements stated above have been met. Documentation of 
field test results should generally follow the requirements out- 
lined in relevant ASTM standards. 

1207.11 Exterior sound transmission control. 

1207.11.1 Application consistent with local land-use la 
standards. All structures identified in Section 1207.1 la 
located in noise critical areas, such as proximity to high- la 
ways, county roads, city streets, railroads, rapid transit la 
lines, airports or industrial areas shall be designed to prevent "-^ 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



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the intrusion of exterior noises beyond prescribed levels. 
Proper design shall include, but shall not be limited to, ori- 
entation of the structure, setbacks, shielding and sound 
insulation of the building itself. 

1207.11.2 Allowable interior noise levels. Interior noise 
levels attributable to exterior sources shall not exceed 45 db 
in any habitable room. The noise metric shall be either the 
day-night average sound level (Ldn) or the community noise 
equivalent level (CNEL), consistent with the noise element 
of the local general plan. 

Note: Ldn is the preferred metric for implementing these 
standards. Worst-case noise levels, either existing or 
future, shall be used as the basis for determining compli- 
ance with this section. Future noise levels shall be pre- 
dicted for a period of at least 10 years from the time of 
building permit application. 

1207.11.3 Airport noise sources. Residential structures 
and all other structures identified in Section 1207.1 located 
where the annual L^„ or CNEL (as defined in Title 21, 
Subchapter 6, California Code of Regulations) exceeds 60 
db, shall require an acoustical analysis showing that the pro- 
posed design will achieve prescribed allowable interior 
level. 

Exception: New single family detached dwellings and 
all nonresidential noise sensitive structures located out- 
side the noise impact boundary of 65 db CNEL are 
exempt from Section 1207. 

Alterations or additions to all noise sensitive structures, 
within the 65db and greater CNEL shall comply with the 
Section 1207. If the addition or alteration cost exceeds 75 
percent of the replacement cost of the existing structure, 
then the entire structure must comply with Section 1207. 

For public-use airports or heliports, the L^„ or CNEL shall 
be determined from the Aircraft Noise Impact Area Map 
prepared by the Airport Authority. For military bases, the 
L^„ shall be determined from the facility Air Installation 
Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) plan. For all other airports 
or heliports, or public-use airports or heliports for which a 
land-use plan has not been developed, the L^„ or CNEL shall 
be determined from the noise element of the general plan of 
the local jurisdiction. 

When aircraft noise is not the only significant source, 
noise levels from all sources shall be added to determine the 
composite site noise level. 

1207.11.4 Other noise sources. All structures identified in 
Section 1207.1 located where the L^,, or CNEL exceeds 
60db shall require an acoustical analysis showing that the 
proposed design will limit exterior noise to the prescribed 
allowable interior level. The noise element of the local gen- 
eral plan, shall be used to the greatest extent possible to iden- 
tify sites with noise levels potentially greater than 60db. 

1207.12 Compliance. Evidence of compliance shall, be sub- 
mitted with the application for a building permit for all struc- 
tures identified in Section 1207.1. Evidence of compliance 
shall consist of the submittal of an acoustical analysis report 
prepared under the supervision of a person experienced in the 
field of acoustical engineering or the use of prescriptive stan- 
dards as determined by the Superintendent of Building for resi- 



dential structures. The report shall show topographical rela- 
tionships of noise sources and dwelling sites, identification of 
noise sources and their characteristics, predicted noise spectra 
and levels at the exterior of the proposed stiTicture considering 
present and future land usage, the basis for the prediction (mea- 
sured or obtained from published data), the noise attenuation 
measures to be applied, and an analysis of the noise insulation 
effectiveness of the proposed construction showing that the 
prescribed interior level requirements are met. 

If interior allowable noise levels are met by requiring that 
windows be unopenable or closed, the design for the structure 
must also specify a ventilation or air-conditioning system to 
provide a habitable interior environment. The ventilation sys- 
tem must not compromise the interior room noise reduction. 

1207.13 Field testing. When inspection indicates that the con- 
struction is not in accordance with the approved design, or that 
the noise reduction is compromised due to sound leaks or flank- 
ing paths, field testing may be required. A test report showing 
compliance or noncompliance with prescribed interior allow- 
able levels shall be submitted to the building official. 

Measurements of outdoor sound levels shall generally fol- 
low the guidelines in ASTM E 1014. 

Field measurements of the A-weighted airborne sound insu- 
lation of buildings from exterior sources shall generally follow 
the guidelines in ASTM E 966. 

For the purpose of this standard, sound level differences 
measured in unoccupied units shall be normalized to a receiv- 
ing room reverberation time of one-half second. Sound level 
differences measured in occupied units shall not be normalized 
to a standard reverberation time. 



SECTION 1208 
INTERIOR SPACE DIMENSIONS 

1208.1 Minimum room widths. Habitable spaces, other than a 
kitchen, shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any plan 
dimension. Kitchens shall have a clear passageway of not less 
than 3 feet (914 mm) between counter fronts and appliances or 
counter fronts and walls. 

[HCD 1] For limited-density owner-built rural dwellings, there 
shall be no requirements for room dimensions, provided there is 
adequate light and ventilation and adequate means of egress. 

1208.2 Minimum ceiling heights. Occupiable spaces, habit- 
able spaces and corridors shall have a ceiling height of not less 
than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). Bathrooms, toilet rooms, kitch- 
ens, storage rooms and laundry rooms shall be permitted to 
have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. In one- and two-family dwellings, beams or girders 
spaced not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center and 
projecting not more than 6 inches (152 mm) below the 
required ceiling height. 

2. If any room in a building has a sloped ceiling, the pre- 
scribed ceiling height for the room is required in 
one-half the area thereof. Any portion of the room 
measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the fin- 
ished floor to the ceiling shall not be included in any 
computation of the minimum area thereof. 



9 



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2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



« 






CHAPTER 13 

- ENERGY CONSERVATION 

LA 
LA 
LA 

tJ SECTION 1300 

A GENERAL 

LA In order to comply with the purpose of this Chapter, buildings 
L^ shall be designed to comply with requirements of Part 6, Title 
LA 24 of the California Building Standards Code — California 
l;^ Energy Code, 1998 Edition. 

LA 
LA 

A SECTION 1301 

IIa solar ENERGY COLLECTORS 

LA Approved collectors which function as building components 
LA shall comply with the applicable provisions of the Code. 

[-^ Approved collectors located above or upon a roof and not 
LA functioning as building components shall not reduce the 
j-^ required fire-resistance or fire-retardancy classification of the 
LA roof-covering materials. 

LA 

LA Exceptions: 

LA 1 . Approved collectors installed in one- and two-family 

LA dwellings outside the Very High Fire Hazard Severity 

LA Zone. 

LA 

A 2. Approved noncombustible collectors located on 

A buildings not over three stories in height or 9,000 

[-^ square feet (836 m^) in total floor area. 

[-A 3. Approved collectors that comply with the provisions 

LA of Section 2603 . 1 4 of this Code. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 611 R 



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612 2008 CDTY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 14 

EXTERIOR WALLS 



SECTION 1401 
GENERAL 

14©1.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall establish the 
minimum requirements for exterior walls; exterior wall cover- 
ings; exterior wall openings; exterior windows and doors; 
architectural trim; balconies and similar projections; and bay 
and oriel windows. 



SECTION 1402 
DEFINITIONS 

1402.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ADBERED MASONRY VENEEM. Veneer secured and sup- 
ported through the adhesion of an approved bonding material 
applied to an approved backing. 

ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. Veneer secured with 
approved mechanical fasteners to an approved backing. 

BACKING. The wall or surface to which the veneer is secured. 

EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is 
used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire wall, 
and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1 .05 rad) or greater with the 
horizontal plane. 

EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. A material or assembly of 
materials applied on the exterior side of exterior walls for the 
purpose of providing a weather-resisting barrier, insulation or 
for aesthetics, including but not limited to, veneers, siding, 
exterior insulation and finish systems, architectural trim and 
embellishments such as cornices, soffits, facias, gutters and 
leaders. 

EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. A system or assembly of 
exterior wall components, including exterior wall finish mate- 
rials, that provides protection of the building structural mem- 
bers, including framing and sheathing materials, and 
conditioned interior space, from the detrimental effects of the 
exterior environment. 

FIBER CEMENT SIDING. A manufactured, fiber-reinforc- 
ing product made with an inorganic hydraulic or calcium sili- 
cate binder formed by chemical reaction and reinforced with 
organic or inorganic nonasbestos fibers, or both. Additives that 
enhance manufacturing or product performance are permitted. 
Fiber cement siding products have either smooth or textured 
faces and are intended for exterior wall and related applica- 
tions. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). A fac- 
tory-manufactured panel consisting of metal skins bonded to 
both faces of a plastic core. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. 
An exterior wall finish system fabricated using MCM in a spe- 



cific assembly including joints, seams, attachments, substrate, 
framing and other details as appropriate to a particular design. 

VENEER. A facing attached to a wall for the purpose of pro- 
viding ornamentation, protection or insulation, but not counted 
as adding strength to the wall. 

VINYL SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from 
rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that is used as an exterior wall 
covering. 

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an 
exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water that 
has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further 
intruding into the exterior wall assembly. 



SECTION 1403 
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS 

1403.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
exterior walls, wall coverings and components thereof. 

1403.2 Weather protection. Exterior walls shall provide the 
building with a weather-resistant exterior wall envelope. The 
exterior wall envelope shall include flashing, as described in 
Section 1405.3. The exterior wall envelope shall be designed 
and constructed in such a manner as to prevent the accumula- 
tion of water within the wall assembly by providing a 
water-resistive barrier behind the exterior veneer, as described 
in Section 1404.2, and a means for draining water that enters 
the assembly to the exterior. Protection against condensation in 
the exterior wall assembly shall be provided in accordance with 
the California Energy Code, Section 150 of Title 24, Part 6. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A weather-resistant exterior wall envelope shall not 
be required over concrete or masonry walls designed 
in accordance with Chapters 19 and 2 1 , respectively. 

2. Compliance with the requirements for a means of 
drainage, and the requirements of Sections 1404.2 
and 1405.3, shall not be required for an exterior wall 
envelope that has been demonstrated through testing 
to resist wind-driven rain, including joints, penetra- 
tions and intersections with dissimilar materials, in 
accordance with ASTM E 331 under the following 
conditions: 

2.1. Exterior wall envelope test assemblies shall 
include at least one opening, one control j oint, 
one wall/eave interface and one wall sill. All 
tested openings and penetrations shall be rep- 
resentative of the intended end-use configura- 
tion. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



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EXTERIOR WALLS 



2.2. Exterior wall envelope test assemblies shall be 
at least 4 feet by 8 feet (1219 mm by 2438 
mm) in size. 

2.3. Exterior wall envelope assemblies shall be 
tested at a minimum differential pressure of 6.24 
pounds per square foot (psf) (0.297 kN/m^). 

2.4. Exterior wall envelope assemblies shall be 
subjected to a minimum test exposure dura- 
tion of 2 hours. 

3. [OSHPD 1, 2 and 4] OSHPD regulated facilities are 
exempt from requirements of Title 24, Part 6. 

The exterior wall envelope design shall be considered 
to resist wind-driven rain where the results of testing indi- 
cate that water did not penetrate control joints in the exte- 
rior wall envelope, joints at the perimeter of openings or 
intersections of terminations with dissimilar materials. 

3 StructmraL Exterior walls and the associated openings 
LA shall be designed and constructed to resist, safely, the superim- 
LA posed loads required by Chapter 16 of this Code. 

i_A In no case shall veneer be considered as part of the wall in com- 
LA puting strength or deflection, nor shall it be considered a part of 
LA the required thickness of the wall. Deflection of lateral support of 
LA veneer, including wood studs, shall be no greater than h/500. 



1404.3.1 Basic hardboard. Basic hardboard shall conform 
to the requirements of AHA A 135. 4. 



\A Fire resistance. Exterior walls shall be fire-resistance 
rated as required by other sections of this code with opening 
protection as required by Chapter 7. 



1 resistance. For buildings in flood hazard areas as 
established in Section 1612.3, exterior walls extending below 
the design flood elevation shall be resistant to water damage. 
Wood shall be pressure-preservative ti'eated in accordance with 
AWPA Ul for the species, product and end use using a preser- 
vative listed in Section 4 of AWPA Ul or decay -resistant heart- 
wood of redwood, black locust or cedar. 

14(0)3.6 Flood resistance for high- velocity wave action areas. 
For buildings in flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity 
wave action as established in Section 1612.3, electrical, 
mechanical and plumbing system components shall not be 
mounted on or penetrate through exterior walls that are 
designed to break away under flood loads. 



SECTION 1404 



1.1 General. Materials used for the construction of exterior 
walls shall comply with the provisions of this section. Materi- 
als not prescribed herein shall be permitted, provided that any 
such alternative has been approved. 



1.2 Water-resistive barrier. A minimum of one layer of 
No. 15 asphalt felt, complying with ASTM D 226 for Type 1 
felt or other approved materials, shall be attached to the studs or 
sheathing, with flashing as described in Section 1405.3, in such 
a manner as to provide a continuous water-resistive barrier 
behind the exterior wall veneer. 



.3.2 Hardboard siding. Hardboard siding shall con- 
form to the requirements of AHA A 135. 6 and, where used 
structurally, shall be so identified by the label of an 
approved agency. 

1404.4 Masonry. Exterior walls of masonry construction shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with this section 
and Chapter 21. Masonry units, mortar and metal accessories 
used in anchored and adhered veneer shall meet the physical 
requirements of Chapter 21. The backing of anchored and 
adhered veneer shall be of concrete, masoniy, steel framing or 
wood framing. 



1.5 Metal. Exterior walls of formed steel construction, 
structural steel or lightweight metal alloys shall be designed in 
accordance with Chapters 22 and 20, respectively. 

1404.5.1 Aluminum siding. Aluminum siding shall con- 
form to the requirements of A AM A 1402. 

1404.5.2 Cold-rolled copper. Copper shall conform to the 
requirements of ASTM B 370. 

1404.5.3 Lead-coated copper. Lead-coated copper shall 
conform to the requirements of ASTM B 101. 

1404.6 Concrete. Exterior walls of concrete construction shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with Chapter 19. 

1404.7 Glass-unit masonry. Exterior walls of glass-unit 
masonry shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
Chapter 21. 



Plastic panel, apron or spandrel walls as 
defined in this code shall not be limited in thickness, provided 
that such plastics and their assemblies conform to the require- 
ments of Chapter 26 and are constructed of approved 
weather-resistant materials of adequate strength to resist the 
wind loads for cladding specified in Chapter 16. 

1404.9 Vinyl siding. Vinyl siding shall be certified and labeled 
as conforming to the requirements of ASTM D 3679 by an 
approved quality control agency. 

1404.10 Fiber cement siding. Fiber cement siding shall con- 
form to the requirements of ASTM C 1 1 86 and shall be so iden- 
tified on labeling listing an approved quality control agency. 



SECTION 1405 
INSTALLATION OF WALL 



1405.1 General. Exterior wall coverings shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
this section. 

^ 1405.1.1 Additional requirements. [DSA-SS & OSHPD 1, 
2 and 4] In addition to the requirements of 1405.5, 1405.6, 
1405.7, 1405.8 and 1405.9, the installation of anchored or 
adhered veneer shall comply with applicable provisions of 
Section 1408. 



Exterior walls of wood construction shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with Chapter 23. 



)5.2 Weather protection. Exterior walls shall provide 
weather protection for the building. The materials of the mini- 
mum nominal thickness specified in Table 1405.2 shall be 
acceptable as approved weather coverings. 



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TABLE 1405.2 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF WEATHER COVERINGS 



COVERING TYPE 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 
(inches) 


Adhered masonry veneer 


0.25 


Aluminum siding 


0.019 


Anchored masonry veneer 


2.625 


Asbestos-cement boards 


0.125 


Asbestos shingles 


0.156 


Cold-rolled copper^ 


0.0216 nominal 


Copper shingles'' 


. 0.0162 nominal 


Exterior plywood (with sheathing) 


0.313 


Exterior plywood (without sheathing) 


See Section. 2304.6 


Fiber cement lap siding 


0.25'^ 


Fiber cement panel siding 


0.25"^ 


Fiberboard siding 


0.5 


Glass-fiber reinforced concrete panels 


0.375 


Hardboard siding'^ 


0.25 


High-yield copper'' 


0.0162 nominal 


Lead-coated copper'' 


0.0216 nominal 


Lead-coated high-yield copper 


0.0162 nominal 


Marble slabs 


1 


Particleboard (with sheathing) 


See Section 2304.6 


Particleboard (without sheathing) 


See Section 2304.6 


Precast stone facing 


0.625 


Steel (approved corrosion resistant) 


0.0149 


Stone (cast artificial) 


1.5 


Stone (natural) 


2 


Structural glass 


0.344 


Stucco or exterior portland cement plaster 




Three-coat work over: 




Metal plaster base 


0.875'^ 


Unit masonry 


0.6251^ 


Cast-in-place or precast concrete 


0.625'' 


Two-coat work over: 




Unit masonry 


0.5" 


Cast-in-place or precast concrete 


0.375" 


Terra cotta (anchored) 


1 


Terra cotta (adhered) 


0.25 


Vinyl siding 


0.035 


Wood shingles 


0.375 


Wood siding (without sheathing)^ 


0.5 



ForSL 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Wood siding of thicknesses less than 0.5 inch shall be placed over sheathing 
that conforms to Section 2304.6. 

b. Exclusive of texture. 

c. As measured at the bottom of decorative grooves. 

d. 16 ounces per square foot for cold-rolled copper and lead-coated copper, 1 2 
ounces per square foot for copper shingles, high-yield copper and 
lead-coated high-yield copper. 



1405.3 Flashing. Flashing shall be installed in such a manner 
so as to prevent moisture from entering the wall or to redirect it 
to the exterior. Flashing shall be installed at the perimeters of 
exterior door and window assemblies, penetrations and termi- 
nations of exterior wall assemblies, exterior wall intersections 
with roofs, chimneys, porches, decks, balconies and similar 
projections and at built-in gutters and similar locations where 
moisture could enter the wall. Flashing with projecting flanges 
shall be installed on both sides and the ends of copings, under 
sills and continuously above projecting trim. 

1405.3.1 Exterior wall pockets. In exterior walls of build- 
ings or structures, wall pockets or crevices in which mois- 
ture can accumulate shall be avoided or protected with caps 
or drips, or other approved means shall be provided to pre- 
vent water damage. 

1405.3.2 Masonry. Flashing and weep holes shall be 
located in the first course of masonry above finished ground 
level above the foundation wall or slab, and other points of 
support, including structural floors, shelf angles and lintels 
where anchored veneers are designed in accordance with 
Section 1405.5. 

1405.4 Wood veneers. Wood veneers on exterior walls of 
buildings of Type I, II, III and IV construction shall be not less 
than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness, 0.438-inch (11.1 mm) 
exterior hardboard siding or 0.375-inch (9.5 mm) exterior-type 
wood structural panels or particleboard and shall conform to 
the following: 

1 . The veneer shall not exceed three stories in height, mea- 
sured from the grade plane. Where fire-retardant-treated 
wood is used, the height shall not exceed four stories. 

2. The veneer is attached to or furred from a 
noncombustible backing that is fire-resistance rated as 
required by other provisions of this code. 

3. Where open or spaced wood veneers (without concealed 
spaces) are used, they shall not project more than 24 
inches (610 mm) from the building wall. 

1405.5 Anchored masonry veneer. Anchored masonry 
veneer shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1405.5, 
1405.6, 1405.7 and 1405.8 and Sections 6.1 and 6.2 of ACI 
530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. 

1405.5.1 Tolerances. Anchored masonry veneers in accor- 
dance with Chapter 14 are not required to meet the toler- 
ances in Article 3.3 Gl of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602. 

1405.5.2 Seismic requirements. Anchored masonry 
veneer located in Seismic Design Category C, E or F shall 
conform to the requirements of Section 6.2.2. 10 of ACI530/ 
ASCE5/ TMS 402. Anchored masonry veneer located in 
Seismic Design Category D shall conform to the require- 
ments for Seismic Design Category E or F. 

) 

1405.6 Masonry or stone veneer. Support of masonry and j-^ 

stone veneer shall be designed, unless the masonry or stone la 
veneer complies with the following. ^^ 

LA 

1405.6.1 Masonry and stone units [5 inches (127 mm) la 
maximum in thickness]. Masonry and stone veneer not ^^ 
exceeding 5 inches (127 mm) in thickness may be anchored la 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



61 7R 



EXTERIOR WALLS 



LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LL 
LA 
LA 



directly to structural masonry, concrete or studs in one of the 
following manners: 

1. Wall ties shall be corrosion resistant, made of sheet 
metal, have a minimum thickness of 0.0785 inch 
(2.00 mm) (No. 14 galvanized sheet gage) by 1 inch 
(25.4 mm) and shall be attached to the backing, as the 
veneer is laid, by minimum #10 hex head galvanized 
screws with penetration of at least 2 inches (5 1 nrni) 
into the framing member, placed not more than 
'/4-inch (6.35 mm) above the extended leg of the angle 
tie. Wall ties shall be spaced so as to support not more 
than 2 square feet (0.19 m^) of wall area but shall not 
be more than 24 inches (610 mm) on center horizon- 
tally. In Seismic Zone 4, wall ties shall have a lip or 
hook on the extended leg that will engage or enclose a 
horizontal joint reinforcement wire having a 
0.148-inch (3.76 mm) diameter (No. 9 B.W. gage) or 
equivalent. The joint reinforcement shall be continu- 
ous with butt splices between ties permitted. 

When applied over wood stud construction, the 
studs shall be spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 
mm) on center and approved paper, a minimum 30# 
fiberglass felt, 4-inch (102 mm) minimum on hori- 
zontal laps and 6-inch (152 mm) minimum on end 
laps shall first be applied over minimum 'V32-inch (12 
mm) plywood sheathing, except as otherwise pro- 
vided in Section 1402, and an air space of at least one 
inch (25 mm) shall be maintained between the back- 
ing and the veneer. Spot bedding at all ties shall be of 
cement mortar. 

2. Veneer may be applied with a 1-inch minimum (25 
mm) grouted backing space, which is reinforced by 
not less than 2-inch by 2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) 
0.065 of an inch thick (1.65 mm) (No. 16 B.W. gage) 
galvanized wire mesh placed over waterproof paper 
backing and anchored directly to stud construction. 
Construction shall not exceed a height of 4 feet (1219 
mm) above grade. 

The stud spacing shall not exceed 16 inches (406 
mm) on center. The galvanized wire mesh shall be an- 
chored to wood studs by galvanized steel wire furring 
nails at 4 inches (102 mm) on center or by barbed gal- 
vanized nails at 6 inches (152 mm) on center with a 
IVg-inch minimum (29 mm) penetration. The galva- 
nized wire mesh may be attached to steel studs by 
equivalent wire ties. If this method is applied over 
solid sheathing, the mesh shall be furred for 
embedment in grout. The wire mesh shall be attached 
at the top and bottom with not less than 8d common 
wire nails. The grout fill shall be placed to fill the 
space intimately around the mesh and veneer facing. 

1405.6.2 Stone umlts [10 inches (254 mm) maximum in 
thickness]. Stone veneer units not exceeding ten inches 
(254 mm) in thickness may be anchored directly to struc- 
tural masonry or concrete. Anchor ties shall not be less than 
0.109 inch (2.77 mm) (No. 12 B.W. gage) galvanized wire, 
or an approved equal, formed as an exposed eye and extend- 
ing not less than Vj inch (12.7 mm) beyond the face of the 
backing. The legs of the loops shall not be less than 6 inches 



(152 mm) in length bent at right angles and laid in the 
masonry mortar joint and spaced so that the eyes or loops are 
12 inches (254 mm) maximum on center in both directions. 
There shall be provided not less than a 0.109-inch (2.77 
mm) (No. 12 B.W. gage) galvanized wire tie, or approved 
equal, threaded through the exposed loops for every 2 
square feet (0. 19 m^) of stone veneer. This tie shall be a loop 
having legs not less than 15 inches (381 mm) in length bent 
so that it will lie in the stone veneer mortar joint. The last 2 
inches (5 1 mm) of each wire leg shall have a right angle 
bend. One inch (25 mm) of cement grout shall be placed 
between the backing and the stone veneer. 

1405.7 Siab-type veneer. Slab-type veneer units not exceed- 
ing 2 inches (5 1 mm) in thickness shall be anchored directly to 
masonry, concrete or stud construction. For veneer units of 
marble, travertine, granite or other stone units of slab form ties 
of corrosion-resistant dowels in drilled holes shall be located in 
the middle third of the edge of the units, spaced a maximum of 
24 inches (610 m) apart around the periphery of each unit with 
not less than four ties per veneer unit. Units shall not exceed 20 
square feet (1.9 m^) in area. If the dowels are not tight fitting, 
the holes shall be drilled not more than 0.063 inch (1.6 mm) 
larger in diameter than the dowel, with the hole countersunk to 
a diameter and depth equal to twice the diameter of the dowel in 
order to provide a tight-fitting key of cement mortar at the 
dowel locations when the mortar in the joint has set. Veneer ties 
shall be corrosion-resistant metal capable of resisting, in ten- 
sion or compression, a force equal to two times the weight of 
the attached veneer. If made of sheet metal, veneer ties shall be 
not smaller in area than 0.0336 by 1 inch (0.853 by 25 mm) or, 
if made of wire, not smaller in diameter than 0. 1483-inch (3.76 
mm) wire. 

1405.8 Terra cotta. Anchored terra cotta or ceramic units not 
less than 1 .625 inches (41 mm) thick shall be anchored directly 
•to masonry, concrete or stud construction. Tied terra cotta or 
ceramic veneer units shall be not less than 1.625 inches (41 
mm) thick with projecting dovetail webs on the back surface 
spaced approximately 8 inches (203 mm) o.c. The facing shall 
be tied to the backing wall with corrosion-resistant metal 
anchors of not less than No. 8 gage wire installed at the top of 
each piece in horizontal bed joints not less than 12 inches (305 
mm) nor more than 18 inches (457 mm) o.c; these anchors 
shall be secured to 0.25-inch (6.4 ihm) corrosion-resistant pen- 
cil rods that pass through the vertical aligned loop anchors in 
the backing wall. The veneer ties shall have sufficient strength 
to support the full weight of the veneer in tension. The facing 
shall be set with not less than a 2-inch (5 1 mm) space from the 
backing wall and the space shall be filled solidly with portland 
cement grout and pea gravel. Immediately prior to setting, the 
backing wall and the facing shall be drenched with clean water 
and shall be distinctly damp when the grout is poured. 

1405.9 Adhered masonry veneer. Adhered masonry veneer 
shall comply with the applicable requirements in Section 
1405.9.1 and Sections 6.1 and 6.3 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 
402. 









• 



)5.9.1 Interior adhered masonry veneers. Interior 
adhered masonry veneers shall have a maximum weight of 
20 psf (0.958 kg/m^) and shall be installed in accordance 
with Section 1405.9. Where the interior adhered masonry 



61 8R 



2008 C8TY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



EXTERIOR WALLS 



veneer is supported by wood construction, the supporting 
members shall be designed to liniit deflection to Vgoo of the 
span of the supporting members. 

1405.1(1) Metal veneers. Veneers of metal shall be fabricated 
from approved corrosion-resistant materials or shall be pro- 
tected front and back with porcelain enamel, or otherwise be 
treated to render the metal resistant to corrosion. Such veneers 
shall not be less than 0.0149-inch (0.378 mm) nominal thick- 
ness sheet steel mounted on wood or metal furring strips or 
approved sheathing on the wood construction. 

1405.10.1 Attachment. Exterior metal veneer shall be 
securely attached to the supporting masonry or framing 
members with corrosion-resistant fastenings, metal ties or 
by other approved devices or methods. The spacing of the 
fastenings' or ties shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) either 
vertically or horizontally, but where units exceed 4 square 
feet (0.4 m^) in area there shall be not less than four attach- 
ments per unit. The metal attachments shall have a 
cross-sectional area not less than provided by W 1.7 wire. 
Such attachments and their supports shall be capable of ■ 
resisting a horizontal force in accordance with the wind 
loads specified in Section 1609, but in no case less than 20 
psf (0.958 kg/m2). 

1405.10.2 Weather protection. Metal supports for exterior 
metal veneer shall be protected by painting, galvanizing or 
by other equivalent coating or treatment. Wood studs, fur- 
ring strips or other wood supports for exterior metal veheer 
shall be approved pressure-treated wood of protected as 
required in Section 1403.2. Joints and edges exposed to the 
weather shall be caulked with approved durable waterproof- 
ing material or by other approved means to prevent penetra- 
tion of moisture. 

1405.10.3 Backup. Masonry backup shall not be required 
for metal veneer except as is necessary to meet the fire-resis- 
tance requirements of this code. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 618aR 



618bR 2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUlLDiNG CODE 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 



TABLE 1504.8 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE MEAN ROOF HEIGHT PERMITTED FOR 

BUILDINGS WITH GRAVEL OR STONE ON THE ROOF IN AREAS 

OUTSIDE A HURRICANE-PRONE REGION 



BASIC WIND SPEED 

FROM FIGURE 1609 

(mph)" 


MAXIMUM MEAN ROOF HEIGHT (ft)°'<= 


Exposure category 


B 


C 


D 


85 


170 


60 


30 


90 


110 


35 


15 


95 


75 


20 


NP 


100 


55 


15 


NP 


105 


40 


NP 


NP 


110 


30 


NP 


NP 


115 


20 


NP 


NP 


120 


15 


NP 


NP 


Greater than 120 


NP 


NP 


NP 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Mean roof height in accordance with Section 1609.2. 

b. For intermediate values of basic wind speed, the height associated with the 
next higher value of wind speed shall be used, or direct interpolation is per- 
mitted. 

c. NP = gravel and stone not permitted for any roof height. 



SECTION 1505 
FIRE CLASSIFICATION 

[^ 1505.1 General. Roof assemblies shall be divided into the 
LA classes defined below. Class A, B and C roof assemblies and 
\^ roof coverings required to be listed by this section shall be 
LA tested in accordance with ASTM E 108 or UL 790. The mini- 

LA 

LA mum roof coverings installed on buildings shall comply with 
LA Table 1505. 1 based on the type of construction of the building. 

LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 



Exception: Skylights and sloped glazing shall comply with 
Chapter 24 or Section 2610 of this Code. 

No wood shake or wood shingle roof covering is permitted 



LA anywhere in the City of Los Angeles. <* 

TABLE 1505.r 

MINIMUM ROOF COVERING CLASSIFICATION 

FOR TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



lA 


IB 


IIA 


HB 


IIIA 


niB 


IV 


VA 


VB 


B 


B 


B 


C 


B 


C 


B 


B 


C 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = .0.0929 m^. 

a. Unless otherwise required in accordance with Chapter 7 A. 

1505.1.1 Real coverings within very high fire hazard 
severity zones. The entire roof covering of every existing 
structure where more than 50 percent of the total roof area is 
replaced within any one-year period, the entire roof cover- 
ing of every new structure, and any roof covering applied in 
the alteration, repair or replacement of the roof of every 
existing structure, shall be a fire-retardant roof covering 
that is at least Class A. 

Exception: The requirements shall not apply in any 
jurisdiction that adopts the model ordinance approved 
by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to Section 51189 of 
the Government Code or an ordinance that substantially 



conforms to the model ordinance and transmits a copy to 
the State Fire Marshal. 

1505.1.2 Real coverings within state responsibility areas. 

The entire roof covering of every existing structure where 
more than 50 percent of the total roof area is replaced within 
any one-year period, the entire roof covering of every new 
structure and any roof covering applied in the alteration, 
repair or replacement of the roof of every existing structure 
shall be a fire-retardant roof covering that is at least Class 
B. 

Exception: Areas designated as moderate fire hazard 

severity zones. 

1505.1.3 Roof coverings within all other areas. The entire 
roof covering of every existing structure where more than 50 
percent of the total roof area is replaced within any one-year 
period, the entire roof covering of every new structure, and 
any roof covering applied in the alteration, repair or 
replacement of the roof of every existing structure, shall be a 
fire-retardant roof covering that is at least Class C. 

1505.1.4 Roofing requirements in a Wildland-Urban 
Interface Fire Area. Roofing requirements for structures 
located in a Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area shall also 
comply with Section 704A.1. 

1505.2 Class A roof assemblies. Class A roof assemblies are 
those that are effective against severe fire test exposure. Class 
A roof assemblies and roof coverings shall be listed and identi- 
fied as Class A by an approved testing agency. Class A roof 
assemblies shall be permitted for use in buildings or structures 
of all types of construction. 

Exception: Class A roof assemblies include those with cov- 
erings of brick, masonry, slate, clay or concrete roof tile, 
exposed concrete roof deck, ferrous or copper shingles or 
sheets. 

1505.3 Class B roof assemblies. Class B roof assemblies are 
those that are effective against moderate fire-test exposure. 
Class B roof assemblies and roof coverings shall be listed and 
identified as Class B by an approved testing agency. 

Exception: Class B roof assemblies include those with cov- 
erings of metal sheets and shingles. 

1505.4 Class C roof assemblies. Class C roof assemblies are 
those that are effective against light fire-test exposure. Class C 
roof assemblies and roof coverings shall be listed and identi- 
fied as Class C by an approved testing agency. 

1505.5 Nonclassified roofing. Nonclassified roofing is 
approved material that is not listed as a Class A, B or C roof 
covering. 

1505.6 Fire-retardant-treated wood shingles and shakes. 

Fire-retardant-treated wood shakes and shingles are wood 
shakes and shingles complying with UBC Standard 15-3 or 
15-4 which are impregnated by the full-cell vacuum-pressure 
process with fire-retardant chemicals, and which have been 
qualified by UBC Standard 15-2 for use on Class A, B or C 
roofs. 

Fire-retardant-treated wood shakes and shingles shall com- 
ply with ICC-ES EG107 and with the weathering requirements 
contained in Health and Safety Code Section 13132. 7(j). Each 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



627R 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 



bundle shall bear labels from an ICC accredited quality control 
agency identifying their roof-covering classification and indi- 
cating their compliance with ICC-ES EG107 and with the 
weathering requirements contained in Health and Safety Code 
Section 13132. 7(j). 

Health and Safety Code Section 13132.7(j). No wood roof 
covering materials shall be sold or applied in this state unless 
both of the following conditions are met: 

(1) The materials have been approved and listed by the 
State Fire Marshal as complying with the requirements 
of this section. 

(2) The materials have passed at least five years of the 
10-year natural weathering test. The 10-year natural 
weathering test required by this subdivision shall be 
conducted in accordance with standard 15-2 of the 
1994 edition of the Uniform Building Code at a testing 
facility recognized by the State Fire Marshal. 

1505,7 Special purpose roofs. Special purpose wood shingle 
or wood shake roofing shall conform with the grading and 
application requirements of Section 1507.8 or 1507.9. In addi- 
tion, an underlayment of 0.625-inch (15.9 mm) Type X 
water-resistant gypsum backing board or gypsum sheathing 
shall be placed under minimum nominal 0.5-inch-thick (12.7 
mm) wood structural panel solid sheathing or 1-inch (25 mm) 
nominal spaced sheathing. 



SECTION 1506 
MATERIALS 

15®6.1 Scope, The requirements set forth in this section shall 
apply to the application of roof-covering materials specified 
herein. Roof coverings shall be applied in accordance with this 
chapter and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Instal- 
lation of roof coverings shall comply with the applicable provi- 
sions of Section 1507. 

1506.2 Compatibility of materials. Roofs and roof coverings 
shall be of materials that are compatible with each other and 
with the building or structure to which the materials are 
applied. 

1506.3 Material specifications and physical characteristics. 
Roof-covering materials shall conform to the applicable stan- 
dards listed in this chapter. In the absence of applicable stan- 
dards or where materials are of questionable suitability, testing 
by an approved agency shall be required by the building official 
to determine the character, quality and limitations of 
application of the materials. 

1506.4 Prodmct identification. Roof-covering materials shall 
be delivered in packages bearing the manufacturer's identify- 
ing marks and approved testing agency labels required in 
accordance with Section 1505. Bulk shipments of materials 
shall be accompanied with the same information issued in the 
form of a certificate or on a bill of lading by the manufacturer. 



SECTION 1507 
REQUIREMENTS FOR ROOF COVERINGS 

1507.1 Scope. Roof coverings shall be applied in accordance 
with the applicable provisions of this section and the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

1507.2 Asphalt shingles. The installation of asphalt shingles 
shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

1507.2.1 Deck requirements. Asphalt shingles shall be fas- 
tened to solidly sheathed decks. 

1507.2.2 Slope. Asphalt shingles shall only be used on roof 
slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-per- 
cent slope) or greater. For roof slopes from two units vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope) up to four units ver- 
tical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope), double 
underlayment appUcation is required in accordance with 
Section 1507.2.8. 

1507.2.3 Underlayment. Unless otherwise noted, required 
underlayment shall conform to ASTM D 226, Type I, 
ASTM D 4869, Type I, or ASTM D 6757. 

1507.2.4 Self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet. 
Self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet shall com- 
ply with ASTM D 1970. 

1507.2.5 Asphalt shingles. Asphalt shingles shall have 
self-seal strips or be interlocking and comply with ASTM D 
225 or ASTM D 3462. Asphah shingle packaging shall bear 
labeling indicating compliance with ASTM D 3 1 6 1 or a list- 
ing by an approved testing agency in accordance with the 
requirements of Section 1609.5.2. 

1507.2.6 Fasteners. Fasteners for asphalt shingles shall be 
galvanized, stainless steel, aluminum or copper roofing 
nails, minimum 12 gage [0.105 inch (2.67 mm)] shank with 
a minimum 0.375 inch-diameter (9.5 mm) head, of a length 
to penetrate through the roofing materials and a minimum of 
0.75 inch(19.1 mm) into the roof sheathing. Where the roof 
sheathing is less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) thick, the nails 
shall penetrate through the sheathing. Fasteners shall 
comply withASTM F 1667. 

1507.2.7 Attachment. Asphalt shingles shall have the min- 
imum number of fasteners required by the manufacturer and 
Section 1504. 1 . Asphalt shingles shall be secured to the roof 
with not less than four fasteners per strip shingle or two fas- 
teners per individual shingle. Where the roof slope exceeds 
20 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (166-percent slope), 
asphalt shingles shall be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's printed installation instructions for 
steep-slope roof applications. 

1507.2.8 Underlayment application. For roof slopes from 
two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope) 
and up to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-per- 
cent slope), underlayment shall be two layers applied in the 
following manner. Apply a minimum 19-inch- wide (483 
mm) strip of underlayment felt parallel with and starting at 
the eaves, fastened sufficiently to hold in place. Starting at 
the eave, apply 36-inch- wide (914 mm) sheets of 
underlayment overlapping successive sheets 19 inches (483 
mm), by fastened sufficiently to hold in place. Distortions in 



628 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 



TABLE 1507.3.7 
CLAY AND CONCRETE TILE ATTACHMENT^' "^ 



GENERAL— CLAY OR CONCRETE ROOF TILE 


Maximum basic 

wind speed 

(mph) 


Mean roof 
height 
(feet) 


Roof slope up to < 3:12 


Roof slope 3:12 and over 


85 


0-60 


Two fasteners per tile. 


Two fasteners per tile. 


100 


0-40 


100 


> 40-60 


The head of all tiles shall be nailed. The nose of all eave tiles shall be fastened with approved clips. All rake 
tiles shall be nailed with two nails. The nose of all ridge, hip and rake tiles shall be set in a bead of roofer's 
mastic. 


110 


0-60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


120 


0-60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


130 


0-60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


All 


>60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


INTERLOCKING CLAY OR CONCRETE ROOF TILE WITH PROJECTING ANCHOR LUGS"'^ 
(Installations on solid sheathing with battens) 


Maximum basic 

wind speed 

(mph) 


Mean roof 
height 
(feet) 


Roof slope up to < 5:12 


Roof slope 5:12 < 12:12 


Roof slope 12:12 and over 


85 


0-60 


Minimum slope is 4: 12. 
One fastener per tile. 


One fastener per tile. Tiles with 
installed weight less than 9 
Ibs./sq. ft. require a minimum of 
one fastener per tile. 


One fastener required for every tile. Tiles 
with installed weight less than 9 Ibs./sq. ft. 
require a minimum of one fastener per tile. 


100 


0-40 


100 


> 40-60 


The head of all tiles shall be nailed. The nose of all eave tiles shall be fastened with approved clips. All rake 
tiles shall be nailed with two nails The nose of all ridge, hip and rake tiles shall be set in a bead of roofers' s 
mastic. 


110 


0-60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


120 


0-60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


130 


0-60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


All 


>60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


INTERLOCKING CLAY OR CONCRETE ROOF TILE WITH PROJECTING ANCHOR LUGS 
(Installations on solid sheathing without battens) 


Maximum basic 

wind speed 

(mph) 


Mean roof 
height 
(feet) 


Minimum roof slopes 4 units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
Maximum slope 7 units vertical in 12 units horizontal 


85 


0-60 


One fastener per tile. 


100 


0-40 


One fastener per tile. 


100 


> 40-60 


The head of all tiles shall be nailed. The nose of all eave tiles shall be fastened with approved clips. All rake 
tiles shall be nailed with two nails The nose of all ridge, hip and rake tiles shall be set in a bead of roofer's 
mastic. 


110 


0-60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


120 


0-60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


130 


0-60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 


All 


>60 


The fastening system shall resist the wind forces in Section 1609.5.2. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kgW. 

a. Minimum fastener size. Hot dipped galvanized ring shank or other corrosion-resistant nails not less than No. 1 1 gage with ^/,g-inch head. Fasteners shall be long LA 
enough to penetrate into the sheathing 0.75 inch or through the thickness of the sheathing, whichever is less. Attaching wire for clay and concrete tile shall not be h ^ 
smaller than 0.083 inch and shall be copper, brass or stainless steel. 

b. Snow areas. A minimum of two fasteners per tile are required or battens and one fastener. 

c. Roof slopes greater than 24: 12. The nose of all tiles shall be securely festened. 

d. Horizontal battens. Battens shall be not less than 1 inch by 2 inch nominal. Provisions shall be made for drainage by a minimum of Vg-inch riser at each nail or by 
4-foot-long battens with at least a 0.5-inch separation between battens. Horizontal battens are required for slopes wer 7:12. 

e. Perimeter fastening areas include three tile courses but not less than 36 inches from either side of hips or ridges and edges of eaves and gable rakes. 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



631 R 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 



TABLE 1507.4.3(11) 
lETAL ROOF COVERINGS 



ROOF COVERING TYPE 


STANDARD APPLICATION 
RATEyTHICKNESS 


Aluminum 


ASTM B 209, 0.024 inch minimum 
thickness for roll-formed panels and 0.019 
inch minimum thickness for press-formed 
shingles. 


Aluminum- zinc alloy 
coated steel 


ASTM A 792 AZ 50 


Cold-rolled copper 


ASTM B 370 minimum 16 oz/sq. ft. and 
12 oz./sq. ft. high yield copper for 
metal-sheet roof covering systems: 12 
oz/sq. ft. for preformed metal shingle 
systems. 


Copper 


16 oz./sq. ft. for metal-sheet roof-covering 
systems; 12 oz./sq. ft. for preformed metal 
shingle systems. 


Galvanized steel 


ASTM A 653 G-90 zinc-coated^ 


Hard lead 


2 lbs./sq. ft. 


Lead-coated copper 


ASTM B 101 


Prepainted steel 


ASTM A 755 


Soft lead 


3 lbs./sq. ft. 


Stainless steel 


ASTM A 240, 300 Series Alloys 


Steel 


ASTM A 924 


Teme and 
terne-coated stainless 


Terne coating of 40 lbs. per double base 
box, field painted where applicable in 
accordance with manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 


Zinc 


0.027 inch minimum thickness; 99.995% 
electrolytic high grade zinc with alloy 
additives of copper (0.08% - 0.20%), 
titanium (0.07% - 0.12%) and aluminum 
(0.015%). 



For SI: 1 ounce per square foot = 0.0026 kg/m^, 

1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kgAn^, 

1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 
a. For Group U buildings, the minimum coating thickness for ASTM A 653 
galvanized steel roofing shall be G-60. 



TABLE 1507.4.3(2) 
MINIMUM CORROSION RESISTANCE 



55% Aluminum-Zinc Alloy Coated Steel 


ASTM A 792 AZ 50 


5% Aluminum Alloy-coated steel 


ASTM A875 GF60 


Aluminum-coated steel 


ASTM A463 T2 65 


Galvanized Steel 


ASTM A 653 G-90 


Prepainted Steel 


ASTM A 755" 



a. Paint systems in accordance with ASTM A 755 shall be applied over steel 
products with corrosion resistant coatings complying with ASTM A 792, 
ASTM A 875, ASTM A 463, or ASTM A 653. 



15®7.4.4 Attachmemlt. Metal roof panels shall be secured to 
the supports in accordance with the approved manufac- 



turer's fasteners. In the absence of manufacturer 
recommendations, the following fasteners shall be used: 

1. Galvanized fasteners shall be used for steel roofs. 

2. 300 series stainless- steel fasteners shall be used for 
copper roofs. 

3 . Stainless-steel fasteners are acceptable for all types of 
metal roofs. 

1507.5 Metal roof shingles. The installation of metal roof 
shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

1507.5.1 Deck requirements. Metal roof shingles shall be 
applied to a solid or closely fitted deck, except where the 
roof covering is specifically designed to be applied to 
spaced sheathing. 

1507.5.2 Deck slope. Metal roof shingles shall not be 
installed on roof slopes below three units vertical in 12 units 
horizontal (25 -percent slope). 

1507.5.3 Underlayment. Underlayment shall comply with 
ASTM D 226, Type I or ASTM D 4869. In areas where there 
has been a history of ice forming along the eaves causing a 
backup of water, an ice barrier that consists of at least two 
layers of underlayment cemented together or of a 
self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet shall be 
used in lieu of normal underlayment and extend from the 
eave's edge to a point at least 24 inches (610 mm) inside the 
exterior wall line of the building. 

Exception: Detached accessory structures that contain 
no conditioned floor area. 

1507.5.4 Material standards. Metal roof shingle roof cov- 
erings shall comply with Table 1507.4.3(1). The materials 
used for metal-roof shingle roof coverings shall be naturally 
corrosion resistant or provided with corrosion resistance in 
accordance with the standards and minimum thicknesses 
specified in the standards listed in Table 1507.4.3(2). 

1507.5.5 Attachment. Metal roof shingles shall be secured 
to the roof in accordance with the approved manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

1507.5.6 Flashing. Roof valley flashing shall be of corro- 
sion-resistant metal of the same material as the roof cover- 
ing or shall comply with the standards in Table 1507.4.3(1). 
The valley flashing shall extend at least 8 inches (203 nrun) 
from the centerline each way and shall have a splash diverter 
rib not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) high at the flow line 
formed as part of the flashing. Sections of flashing shall 
have an end lap of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). In areas 
where the average daily temperature in January is 25 °F 
(-4°C) or less or where there is a possibility of ice forming 
along the- eaves causing a backup of water, the metal valley 
flashing shall have a 3 6-inch- wide (914 mm) underlayment 
directly under it consisting of either one layer of 
underlayment running the full length of the valley or a 
self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheet complying 
with ASTM D 1970, in addition to uriderlayment required 
for metal roof shingles. The metal valley flashing 
underlayment shall be solidly cemented to the roofing 
underlayment for roof slopes under seven units vertical in 



632 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUJLDING CODE 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 



1507.13 Thermoplastic single-ply roofing. The installation 
of thermoplastic single-ply roofing shall comply with the pro- 
visions of this section. 

1507.13.1 Slope. Thermoplastic single-ply membrane 
roofs shall have a design slope of a minimum of one-fourth 
unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

1507.13.2 Material standards. Thermoplastic single-ply 
roof coverings shall comply with ASTM D 4434, ASTM D 
6754, ASTM D 6878 or CGSB CAN/CGSB 37-54. 

1507.14 Sprayed polyurethane foam roofing. The installa- 
tion of sprayed polyurethane foam roofing shall comply with 
the provisions of this section. 

1507.14.1 Slope. Sprayed polyurethane foam roofs shall 
have a design slope of a minimum of one-fourth unit vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage. 

1507.14.2 Material standards. Spray-applied polyure- 
thane foam insulation shall comply with ASTM C 1029. 

1507.14.3 Application. Foamed-in-place roof insulation 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. A liquid-applied protective coating that com- 
plies with Section 1507.15 shall be applied no less than 2 
hours nor more than 72 hours following the application of 
the foam. 

1507.14.4 Foam plastics. Foam plastic materials and instal- 
lation shall comply with Chapter 26. 

1507.15 Liquid-applied coatings. The installation of hq- 
uid-applied coatings shall comply with the provisions of this 
section. 

1507.15.1 Slope. Liquid-applied roofs shall have a design 
slope of a minimum of one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units 
horizontal (2-percent slope). 

1507.15.2 Material standards. Liquid-applied roof coat- 
ings shall comply with ASTM C 836, ASTM C 957, ASTM 
D 1227 orASTMD 3468, ASTM D 6083 orASTMD 6694. 



SECTION 1508 
ROOF INSULATION 

1508.1 General. The use of above-deck thermal insulation 
shall be permitted provided such insulation is covered with an 
approved roof covering and passes the tests of FM 4450 or UL 
1256 when tested as an assembly. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Foam plastic roof insulation shall conform to the ma- 
terial and installation requirements of Chapter 26. 

2. Where a concrete roof deck is used and the 
above-deck thermal insulation is covered with an ap- 
proved roof covering. 

1508.1.1 Cellulosic fiberboard. Cellulosic fiberboard roof 
insulation shall conform to the material and installation 
requirements of Chapter 23. 

1508.2 Material standards. Above-deck thermal insulation 
board shall comply with the standards in Table 1508.2. 



TABLE 1508.2 
MATERIAL STANDARDS FOR ROOF INSULATION 



Cellular glass board 


ASTM C 552 


Composite boards 


ASTM C 1289, Type III, IV, V or VI 


Expanded polystyrene 


ASTM C 578 


Extruded polystyrene board 


ASTM C. 578 


Perlite board 


ASTM C 728 


Polyisocyanurate board 


ASTM C 1289, Type I or Type II 


Wood fiberboard 


ASTM C 208 



SECTION 1509 
ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 

1509.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
construction of rooftop structures. 

1509.2 Penthouses. A penthouse or other projection above the 
roof in structures of other than Type I construction shall not 
exceed 28 feet (8534 mm) above the roof where used as an 
enclosure for tanks or for elevators that run to the roof and in all 
other cases shall not extend more than 1 8 feet (5486 mm) above 
the roof. The aggregate area of penthouses and other rooftop 
structures shall not exceed one-third the area of the supporting 
roof. A penthouse, bulkhead or any other similar projection 
above the roof shall not be used for purposes other than shelter 
of mechanical equipment or shelter of vertical shaft openings 
in the roof. Provisions such as louvers, louver blades or flash- 
ing shall be made to protect the mechanical equipment and the 
building interior from the elements. Penthouses or bulkheads 
used for purposes other than permitted by this section shall 
conform to the requirements of this code for an additional 
story. The restrictions of this section shall not prohibit the plac- 
ing of wood flagpoles or similar structures on the roof of any 
building. 

1509.2.1 Type of construction. Penthouses shall be con- 
structed with walls, floors and roof as required for the build- 
ing. 

Exceptions: 

1 . On buildings of Type I and II construction, the ex- 
terior walls and roofs of penthouses with a fire sep- 
aration distance of more than 5 feet (1524 mm) and 
less than 20 feet (6096 mm) shall be of at least 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated noncombustible con- 
struction. Walls and roofs with a fire separation 
distance of 2iO feet (6096 mm) or greater shall be of 
noncombustible construction. Interior framing 
and walls shall be of noncombustible construction. 

2. On buildings of Type III, IV and Y construction, 
the exterior walls of penthouses with a fire separa- 
tion distance of more than 5 feet (1524 mm) and 
less than 20 feet (6096 mm) shall be at least 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction. Walls with a fire 
separation distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) or greater 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



637 



ROOF ASSEWiBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 



from a common property line shall be of Type IV 
or noncombustible construction. Roofs shall be 
constructed of materials and fire-resistance rated 
as required in Table 601. Interior framing and 
walls shall be Type IV or noncombustible 
construction. 

3. Unprotected noncombustible enclosures housing 
only mechanical equipment and located with a 
minimum fire separation distance of 20 feet (6096 
mm) shall be permitted. 

4. On one-story buildings, combustible unroofed me- 
chanical equipment screens, fences or similar en- 
closures are permitted where located with a fire 
separation distance of at least 20 feet (6096 mm) 
from adjacent property lines and where not ex- 
ceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height above the roof 
surface. 

5. Dormers shall be of the same type of construction 
as the roof on which they are placed, or of the exte- 
rior walls of the building. 

1S09.3 Tanks. Tanks having a capacity of more than 500 gal- 
lons (2 m^) placed in or on a building shall be supported on 
masonry, reinforced concrete, steel or Type IV construction 
provided that, where such supports are located in the building 
above the lowest story, the support shall be fire -resistance rated 
as required for Type lA construction. 

15093.1 Valve. Such tanks shall have in the bottom or on 
the side near the bottom, a pipe or outlet, fitted with a suit- 
able quick opening valve for discharging the contents in an 
emergency through an adequate drain. 

15©9.3.2 Locatfloe. Such tanks shall not be placed over or 
near a line of stairs or an elevator shaft, unless there is a solid 
roof or floor underneath the tank. 

1509.3,3 Tank cover. Unenclosed roof tanks shall have cov- 
ers sloping toward the outer edges. 



Cooling towers in excess of 250 
square feet (23.2 m^) in base area or in excess of 15 feet (4572 
mm) high where located on building roofs more than 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) high shall be of noncombustible construction. 
Cooling towers shall not exceed one-third of the supporting 
roof area. 

Exceptiom; Drip boards and the enclosing construction of 
wood not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness, pro- 
vided the wood is covered on the exterior of the tower with 
noncombustible material. 

1509.5 Towers, spires, domes and cupolas. Any tower, spire, 
dome or cupola shall be of a type of construction not less in 
fire-resistance rating than required for the building to which it 
is attached, except that any such tower, spire, dome or cupola 
that exceeds 85 feet (25 908 mm) in height above grade plane, 
exceeds 200 square feet (18.6 m^) in horizontal area or is used 
for any purpose other than a belfry or an architectural embel- 
lishment shall be constructed of and supported on Type I or II 
construction. 



height above the highest point at which it comes in contact 
with the roof, or that exceeds 200 square feet (18.6 m^) in 
area at any horizontal section, or which is intended to be 
used for any purpose other than a belfry or architectural 
embellishment, shall be entirely constructed of and sup- 
ported by noncombustible materials. Such structures shall 
be separated from the building below by construction hav- 
ing a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 hours with 
openings protected with aminimum 1.5-hour fire-protec- 
tion rating. Structures, except aerial supports 12 feet (3658 
mm) high or less, flagpoles, water tanks and cooling towers, 
placed above the roof of any building more than 50 feet (15 
240 mm) in height, shall be of noncombustible material and 
shall be supported by construction of noncombustible 
material. 



.5.2 Towers and spires. Towers and spires where 
enclosed shall have exterior walls as required for the build- 
ing to which they are attached. The roof covering of spires 
shall be of a class of roof covering as required for the main 
roof of the rest of the structure. 



SECTION 1510 
REROOFING 

1510.1 General. Materials and methods of application used 
for recovering or replacing an existing roof covering shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Chapter 15. 

Exception; Reroofing shall not be required to meet the min- 
imum design slope requirement of one-quarter unit vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in Section 1507 for 
roofs that provide positive roof drainage. 

1510.2 Structural and construction loads. Structural roof 
components shall be capable of supporting the roof-covering 
system and the material and equipment loads that will be 
encountered during installation of the system. 

1510.3 Recovering versus replacement. New roof coverings 
shall not be installed without first removing all existing layers 
of roof coverings where any of the following conditions occur: 

1 . Where the existing roof or roof covering is water soaked 
or has deteriorated to the point that the existing roof or 
roof covering is not adequate as a base for additional 
roofing. 

2. Where the existing roof covering is wood shake, slate, 
clay, cement or asbestos-cement tile. 

3. Where the existing roof has two or more applications of 
any type of roof covering. 



9 



1509.5.1 Noncombustible construction required. Any 
tower, spire, dome or cupola that exceeds 60 feet ( 1 8 288) in 



1. Complete and separate roofing systems, such as 
standing-seam metal roof systems, that are designed 
to transmit the roof loads directly to the building's 
structural system and that do not rely on existing roofs 
and roof coverings for support shall not require the re- 
moval of existing roof coverings. 

2. The application of a new protective coating over an 
existing spray polyurethane foam roofing system 
shall be permitted without tear-off of existing roof 
coverings. - 



m 



m 



638R 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDJNG CODE 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 



TABLE 1510.1 
ALLOWABLE REROOFS OVER EXISTING ROOFING 



EXISTING ROOFING 


NEW OVERLAY ROOFING 


Built up 


Asphalt shingle 


Tile roof 


Metal roof 


Modified bitumen 


Spray 
polyurethane form 


Built Up 


Yes 


Yes 
(2:12) 


Yes 

(2.5:12) 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Asphalt Shingle 


NP 


Yes 


Yes 
(2.5:12) 


Yes 


Yes 


NP 


Asphalt over Asphalt 


NP 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


NP 


Tile Roof 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


Metal Roof 


NP 


NP 


NP 


Yes 


NP 


NP 


Modified Bitumen 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 
(2.5:12) 


Yes 


Yes 


NP 



NP = Not Permitted. 

Note: (Minimum Roof Slope). 



LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 
LA 



LA 1510.4 Roof recovering. Roof covering may be applied over 
LA existing roofing in accordance to Table 1510.1 of this Code. 

1510.5 Reinstallation of materials. Existing slate, clay or 
cement tile shall be permitted for reinstallation, except that 
damaged, cracked or broken slate or tile shall not be reinstalled. 
Existing vent flashing, metal edgings, drain outlets, collars and 
metal counterflashings shall not be reinstalled where rusted, 
damaged or deteriorated. Aggregate surfacing materials shall 
not be reinstalled. 

1510.6 Flashings. Flashings shall be reconstructed in accor- 
dance with approved manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Metal flashing to which bituminous materials are to be adhered 
shall be primed prior to installation. 



SECTION 151 1 [DSA-SS & OSHPD 1, 2 and 4] 

SEISMIC ANCHORAGE OF SLATE SHINGLE, CLAY 

AND CONCRETE TILE ROOF COVERINGS 

1511.1 Fasteners. Nails shall be long enough to penetrate into 
the sheathing % inch (19 mm). Where sheathing is less than % 
inch (19 mm) in thickness, nails shall be driven into supports, 
unless nails with ring shanks are used. 

All fasteners shall be corrosion resistant and fabricated of 
copper, stainless steel or brass, or shall have a hot-dipped gal- 
vanized coating not less than LO ounce of zinc per square foot 
(458 gnt/m^). 

Nails for slate shingles and clay or concrete tile shall be cop- 
per, brass or stainless steel with gage and length per common 
ferrous nails. 

1511.2 Wire. Wire for attaching slate shingles and clay or con- 
crete tile shall be copper, brass or stainless steel capable of 
supporting four times the weight of tile. 

Wire supporting a single tile or shingle shall not be smaller 
than Vyg inch (1.6 mm) in diameter. Continuous wire ties sup- 
porting more than one tile shall not be smaller than 0.084 inch 
(2 mm) in diameter. 



1511.3 Metal strips. Metal strips for attaching slate shingles 
and clay or concrete tile shall be copper, brass or stainless steel 
capable of supporting four times the weight of tile. 

1511.4 Clay or concrete tiles. Clay or concrete tile shall be 
installed in accordance with Table 1507.3.7 and as described 
herein. 

1. On wood roofs or roofs of other material to which wood 
strips are secured, every cover or top tile when fastened 
with nails shall be nailed directly into 1 V^ inches (32 mm) 
sound grain soft wood strips of sufficient height to sup- 
port the tile. 

Pan or bottom tiles shall be nailed directly to the roof 
sheathing or to wood strips. Wood strips shall be secured 
to the roof by nails spaced not over 12 inches (305 mm) 
apart. 

2. On concrete roofs, wires shall be secured in place by wire 
loops embedded into the concrete not less than 2 inches 
(51 mm). The wire loops shall be spaced not more than 
36 inches (914 mm) on center parallel to the eaves, and 
spaced vertically to allow for the minimum 3 inches (76 
mm) lapping of the tile. 

3. Where continuous ties of twisted wire, interlocking wires 
or metal strips extending from the ridge to eave are used 
to attach tile, the ties shall be attached to the roof con- 
struction at the ridge, eave and at intervals not exceeding 
10 feet (3048 mm) on center. The ties within 2 feet (610 
mm) of the rake shall be attached at intervals of 5 feet 
(1524 mm). 

Attachment for continuous ties shall be nails, screws, 
staples or approved clips of the same material as the ties 
and shall not be subjected to withdrawal forces. Attach- 
ments for continuous ties shall have an allowable work- 
ing stress shear resistance of not less than twice the dead 
weight of the tile tributary to the attachment, but not less 
than 300 pounds (136 kg). 

4. Tile with projecting anchor lugs at the bottom of the tiles 
shall be held in position by means of 1 -inch by 2-inch (25 



2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE 



639R 



ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 



mm by 5 1 mm) wood stripping nailed to the roof sheath- 
ing over the underlay. 

5. Clay or concrete tile on roofs with slopes exceeding 24 
units vertical in 12 units horizontal (200-percent slope) 
shall be attached as required for veneer in Chapter 14. 
The nose of all tiles shall be securely fastened. 

6. Clay or concrete tile shall have a minimum of two fasten- 
ers per tile. Tiles that are 8 inches (203 mm) in width or 
less are permitted to be fastened at the center of the head 
with one fastener per tile. 

7. Interlocking clay or concrete tile shall have a minimum 
of one nail near center of head or two wire ties per tile. 

1511.5 Slate shingles. Slate shingles on roofs with slopes 
exceeding 24 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (200-percent 
slope) shall be attached as required for veneer per Chapter 1 4. 

1511.6 Alternative design. An alternative design of the fasten- 
ing system used to resist seismic loads is permitted, provided 
that an engineering analysis or test report based on cyclic test- 
ing is provided to the enforcement agency. 

The fastening system shall be designed to resist seismic 
forces per ASCE 7, Section 13.3. Testing of alternative fasten- 
ing system shall comply with ASCE 7, Section 13.2.5. 



640R 2008 CITY OF LOS ANGELES BUILDING CODE