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Full text of "City of Denver Plumbing Code"

1 BY AUTHORITY 

2 ORDINANCE NO, 15^2^ COUNCIL BILL NO. ) 

3 SERIES OF 2008 COMMITTEE OF REFERENCE: 

4 Blueprint Denver 

Safety 

5 A BILL 

6 For an ordinance relating to Chapter 10 (Buildings and Building 

7 Regulations), Denver Revised Municipal Code, modifying Section 10-16 

8 (Building and fire code adopted). 
9 

10 BE IT ENACTED BY THE COUNCIL OF THE CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER: 

1 1 Section 1. Section 10-16 (dealing with the adoption of the building and fire codes), of 

12 Chapter 10 (Building and Building Regulations), DRMC shall be amended by deleting the 

13 language stricken and adding the language underlined below to read and be read as follows: 

14 Sec. 10-16 The International Building Code f IBC"), International Energy Conservation Code 

15 ("lECC"), the International Fire Code ("IFC"), the International Fuel Gas Code ("IFGC"), the 

16 International Mechanical Code ("IMC"), the International Plumbing Code ("IPC"), and the 

17 International Residential Code ("IRC"), alt series of 2QQZ 2006 and all amendments thereto and 

18 tThe aAdministration of the Denver Building Code, all as filed May 21, 200 4 March 13, 2008 in 

19 City Clerk File Number 04 421 08-256 are hereby adopted collectively as the Denver Building 

20 and Fire Code. 

2 1 COMMITTEE APPROVAL DATE; 9/1 8/2007. 



22 MAYOR-COUNCIL DATE: 3/11/2008. ^ .0^^ Jl£. 

23 PA^SED^BYtHE COUNCIL ^7^^ ^^M^ "^^^f 



2008 



24 wK^:^^^-^"- -yi,^- ^ ' ' i ■ PRESIDENT 

25 - APPROVED: ^ £M^-'''--- ry*^^.£kC^ L _, ■■-■- .., -I^^YOR ^fa^tl W^ 2008 

26 ATTEST: ' '^'-^ IZ / "---': /^-^ -- ' - CLERK AND RECORDER, 

27 ' 7f " " EX-OFFICIO CLERK OF THE 

28 '- CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER 

29 NOTICE PUBLISHED IN THE DAILY JOURNAL MO^K ZA 2008; m^ZT. 2^^, 2008 

30 PREPARED BY: Timothy J. Carrier, Assistant City Attorney 3/1 1/2008 

3! Pursuant to section 13-12, D.R.M.C., this proposed ordinance has been reviewed by the office of 

32 the City Attorney. We find no irregylarity as to form, and have no legal objection to the proposed 

33 ordinance. The proposed ordinance is not submitted to the City Council for approval pursuant to 

34 §3.2.6 of the Charter. 

35 . ■- ■■ ; ■ ^ /■ .^ - .. 

36 David R. Fine, City Attorney " .• ' .'\: 

37 BY: >— --^ .-- - -- ''-^- < . \:^xr-y~-- City Attorney Date t^ H~^j - cK^ 

Building and Fire Code Ordinance ' ' - '■ 



AMENDMENTS 

TO THE 

BUILDING CODE 

FOR THE 

CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER 



1^ 



DENVER 

THF UI.F IrAir.VA ChTt 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

The review of the International Codes developed by the International Code Council (ICC) was performed in response to 
concerns expressed on behalf of the construction and development industries, businesses, design professionals, 
educational institutions, local government, affordable housing and most of all the citizens of Denver. 

The ICC Codes and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes are written to meet the needs of a variety of 
jurisdictions and need to be fine-tuned to address the specific needs of the City and County of Denver. 

As a result, the Building Code Revision Committee (BCRC), a group of highly qualified individuals who have 
demonstrated knowledge and competence in the design and construction of buildings and structures developed these 
amendments. These individuals participated in the testing of building components and systems, the investigation of fires 
and explosions and in the enforcement of regulations pertaining to life- safety issues from fires, explosions and other 
hazards encountered in buildings and structures. This committee went through this process to recommend the adoption of 
the 2006 Series of I- Codes. 

The committee members have produced a comprehensive set of effective amendments that directly affect safety to life 
within the City and County of Denver. As a result, these Amendments to the 2006 International Building Code and 
International Fire Code were adopted. 

We wish to acknowledge the members of Denver's City Council, the Mayor's Office, City Attorney's Office, Fire 
Department, Building and Construction Sen/ices of Community Planning and Development, the Building Code Revision 
Committee, its subcommittees and the organizations they represented for the time, dedication and professionalism devoted 
to the development of this document. 



MEMBERS OF CITY COUNCIL 



Rick Garcia 


District 1 


Jeanne Faatz 


District 2 


Paul Lopez 


Districts 


Peggy Lehmann 


District 4 


Marcia Johnson 


Districts 


Charlie Brown 


District 6 


Chris Nevitt 


District? 


C aria Madison 


Districts 


Judy Montero 


District 9 


Jeanne Robb 


District 10 


Michael B. Hancock 


District 11 


Carol Boigon 


At Large 


DougLinkhart 


At Large 



COMMITTEE MEMBERS 

BUILDING CODE REVISION COMMITTEE 

Steve Rondinelli, A.I.A., Chair American Institute of Architects 

John Fairbaim Denver Board of Realtors 

Patrick Hilleary Builders Owners and Managers Association 

Rich Haas A ssociated G eneral C ontractor 

Ed Neuberg Commission for People with Disabilities 

Bob Koelbel Home Builders Association 

Jeffrey Sawarynski, P.E. Mechanical Engineers 

Wally Prebis, P.E. Structural Engineers Association of Colorado 

Henry Solano Pipe Fitters, Local 208 

Neal Hall Colorado Building & Trades Council, AFL-CIO 

Mark Guerrero Denver Public Schools 

Joseph Gonzales, Division Chief Fire Prevention Bureau 

Peter Bemelen, P.E. CPD - Building Official 

Valentina Guer^ca CPD - BCRC Secretary 

FIRE CODE REVISION COMMITTEE 

Masoud Sabounchi, P.E., C.B.O., Chair Advanced Consulting Engineers 

Randy Adrian Metro Denver Building Owners and Managers Association 

William H. Campbell, A.I.A. University of Denver 

David Clark, P.E. Fire Prevention Bureau 

G reg Forge M aguire Properties 

George Hadji, P.E. Hadji and Associates, Electrical and Mechanical Engineers 
Marvin Heath Central Fire Protection, Colorado Professional Fire Sprinkler Association 

M ary Hoddinott, P.E . D enver W ater D epartment 

Gary Jensen, P.E. Hensel Phelps Construction, Association of General Contractors 

Ed Kocman, P.E. Denver Building Department 

Shane Mettler, A.I.A. J. G. Johnson Architects, American Institute of Architects 
Gerald Mollendor Lewis Maintenance, Hazardous Materials Mitigation/Remediation Association 

Darwin Neiman, Ph.D. Hazmat Section, Denver Fire Department 

Ed Neuberg Commission for People with Disabilities 
Mike Turzanski Cushman and Wakefield of Colorado, Building Operators Association 

Larry Vair, P.E. Denver Pubhc Schools 

Eric Wilhelm, P.E. FM Global 

Mimi Saylor Staff Assistant, Fire Department 

Joseph Gonzales Division Chief, Fire Department 

Tim Carrier, Esq. City Attorney's Office 

An expression of sincere thanks is extended to the above individuals who have contributed assistance and counsel in the development 
of Denver's Building and Fire Codes. The committee members gave time away from their responsibilities and livelihood to serve as 
volunteers in this effort. The net result is a major contribution toward preserving our well-being and property by providing a safe 
environment for the welfare of the people who live, work and visit the City and County of Denver. In particular, we also wish to 
thank Diane Barrett of the Mayor's Office for her assistance and guidance. 



John W. Hickenlooper 

Mayor 

City & County of Denver 



Peter Park Nick Nuanes 

Manager Chief 

Community Planning and Development Denver Fire Department 



AMnJ. LaCabe, Jr. 

Manager of Safety 
Denver Department of Safety 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



FOR THE 



DENVER AMENDMENTS 



TO THE 



IISTTERNATIONAL CODES 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE 2006 DENVER BUILDING CODE 

CHAPTER 1 2 

ADMINISTRATION 2 

SECTION 101 2 

PURPOSE AND SCOPE 2 

SECTION 102 3 

ORGANIZATION OF BUILDING PERMITTING AND INSPECTION SERVICES 3 

SECTION 103 3 

GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE AGENCY 3 

SECTION 104 4 

SERVICE 4 

SECTION 105 4 

APPLICATION TO EXISTING BUILDINGS 4 

SECTION 106 5 

UNSAFE BUILDINGS OR STRUCTURES 5 

SECTION 107 6 

UNSAFE UTILITY 6 

SECTION 108 8 

NOTICE AND ABATEMENT OF UNSAFE BUILDINGS, STRUCTURES OR UTILITIES 8 

SECTION 109 9 

USED MATERIALS 9 

SECTION 110 9 

ALTERNATE MATERIALS, DESIGN AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT 9 

SECTION 111 10 

PROHIBITIONS, VIOLATIONS, PENALTIES AND REMEDIES 10 

SECTION 112 11 

BOARD OF APPEALS 11 

SECTION 113 14 

APPEALS 14 

SECTION 114 15 

APPEALS FROM DECISIONS OF THE BOARD 15 

SECTION 115 15 

VALIDITY OF BUILDING CODE 15 

SECTION 116 15 

LIABILITY 15 

SECTION 120 16 

LICENSING, CERTIFICATION, REGISTRATION 16 

SECTION 121 16 

AUTHORITY 16 

SECTION 122 16 

LICENSES OR REGISTRATION 16 

SECTION 123 17 

CLASSIFICATION OF LICENSES AND REGISTRATION 17 

SECTION 124 21 

LICENSE FEES 21 

SECTION 125 21 

LICENSE RENEWAL 21 

SECTION 126 21 

REISSUANCE OF LICENSE 21 

SECTION 127 21 

LICENSEE AND REGISTRANT RESPONSIBILITY 21 

SECTION 128 22 

LICENSE AND REGISTRATION CHANGES 22 

SECTION 129 22 

SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF LICENSE 22 

SECTION 130 23 

CERTIFICATES 23 

SECTION 131 24 

CLASSIFICATION OF SUPERVISOR CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION 24 

SECTION 132 25 



ITABLE OF CONTENTS 



CLASSIFICATION OFJOURNEYMAN AND OPERATOR CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION 


25 


SECTION 133 


27 


APPRENTICES AND TRAINEES 


27 


SECTION 134 


28 


CERTIFICATE FEES 


28 


SECTION 135 


28 


CERTIFICATE RENEWAL 


28 


SECTION 136 


28 


REISSUANCE 


28 


SECTION 137 


28 


CERTIFICATE HOLDER RESPONSIBILITY 


28 


SECTION 138 


29 


SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF CERTIFICATE 


29 


SECTION 139 


30 


EXAMINATION STANDARDS AND REVIEW 


30 


SECTION 150 


31 


PERMITS, PLANS, INSPECTIONS, CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 


31 


SECTION 151 


33 


PERMITS 


33 


SECTION 152 


35 


PERMIT FEES 


35 


SECTION 153 


37 


DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS 


37 


SECTION 154 


38 


PREPARATION OF DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS 


38 


SECTION 155 


40 


INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR PREPARATION OF DRAWINGS 


40 


SECTION 156 


41 


FIELD SURVEYS 


41 


SECTION 157 


42 


INSPECTIONS 


42 


SECTION 158 


44 


SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 


44 


SECTION 159 


44 


FINAL INSPECTION APPROVAL/CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE 


44 


SECTION 160 


44 


CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 


44 


SECTION 161 


46 


ADDRESS 


46 


SECTION 162 


46 


PERMITS FOR TEMPORARY BUILDINGS 


46 


SECTION 163 


46 


FOUNDATION PERMITS 


46 


SECTION 164 


47 


PHASED CONSTRUCTION PERMITS 


47 


SECTION 165 


47 


TABLES AND FEES 


47 


AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 




CHAPTER 1 


49 


ADMINISTRATION 


49 


SECTION 101 


49 


GENERAL 


49 


CHAPTER 2 


49 


DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 


49 


SECTION 201 


49 


GENERAL 


49 


SECTION 202 


49 


DEFINITIONS 


49 


CHAPTERS 


52 



[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 52 

SECTION 303 52 

ASSEMBLY GROUPA 52 

SECTION 305 52 

EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 52 

SECTION 308 53 

INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I 53 

SECTION 310 53 

RESIDENTIAL GROUP R 53 

SECTION 312 54 

UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U 54 

CHAPTER 4 54 

SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 54 

SECTION 402 54 

COVERED MALL BUILDINGS 54 

SECTION 403 54 

HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 54 

SECTION 405 55 

UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS 55 

SECTION 406 55 

MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 55 

SECTION 411 55 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS 55 

SECTION 421 55 

LIVE/WORK UNITS 55 

CHAPTER 5 57 

GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 57 

SECTION 507 57 

UNLIMITED AREA BUILDINGS 57 

SECTION 508 57 

MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCIES 57 

CHAPTER 7 58 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 58 

SECTION 704 58 

EXTERIOR WALLS 58 

SECTION 707 59 

SHAFT ENCLOSURES 59 

SECTION 716 59 

DUCTS AND AIR TRANSFER OPENINGS 59 

CHAPTER 9 60 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 60 

CHAPTER 10 60 

MEANS OF EGRESS 60 

SECTION 1004 60 

OCCUPANT LOAD 60 

SECTION 1005 60 

EGRESS WIDTH 60 

SECTION 1007 61 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS 61 

SECTION 1008 62 

DOORS GATES AND TURNSTILES 62 

SECTION 1009 62 

STAIRWAYS 62 

SECTION 1011 63 

EXIT SIGNS 63 

SECTION 1014 63 

EXIT ACCESS 63 

SECTION 1020 64 

VERTICAL EXIT CLOSURES 64 

SECTION 1025 64 



[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ASSEMBLY 64 

CHAPTER 11 65 

ACCESSIBILITY 65 

SECTION 1101 65 

GENERAL 65 

CHAPTER 15 66 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 66 

SECTION 1503 66 

WEATHER PROTECTION 66 

SECTION 1507 66 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ROOF COVERINGS 66 

SECTION 1510 67 

REROOFING 67 

CHAPTER 16 68 

STRUCTURAL DESIGN 68 

SECTION 1607 68 

LIVE LOADS 68 

SECTION 1608 72 

SNOW LOADS 72 

SECTION 1609 72 

WIND LOADS 72 

SECTION 1613 72 

EARTHQUAKE LOADS 72 

CHAPTER 17 73 

STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 73 

SECTION 1704 73 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 73 

CHAPTER 18 73 

SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 73 

SECTION 1805 73 

FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS 73 

SECTION 1810 74 

CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILE FOUNDATIONS 74 

CHAPTER 27 74 

ELECTRICAL 74 

SECTION 2700 74 

GENERAL - DENVER 74 

CHAPTER 29 74 

PLUMBING SYSTEMS 74 

[P] SECTION 2902 74 

MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES 74 

CHAPTER 30 75 

ELEVATORSAND CONVEYING SYSTEMS 75 

SECTION 3001 75 

GENERAL 75 

SECTION 3002 75 

HOISTWAY ENCLOSURES 75 

[F] SECTION 3003 75 

EMERGENCY OPERATIONS 75 

SECTION 3004 75 

HOISTWAY VENTING 75 

SECTION 3005 76 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS 76 

SECTION 3007 76 

ELEVATOR RECALL FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS WITH PRESSURIZED HOISTWAY S 76 

SECTION 3008 76 

ELEVATOR, ESCALATOR AND MOVING SIDEWALK ACCIDENT REPORTING 76 

CHAPTER 31 77 

SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 77 

SECTION 3105 77 

- iv - 



[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

AWNINGS AND CANOPIES 77 

[CDH] SECTION 3110 77 

MANUFACTURED OR FACTORY-BUILT STRUCTURES 77 

CHAPTER 32 78 

ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY 78 

[PW] SECTION 3202 78 

ENCROACHMENTS 78 

CHAPTER 33 79 

SAFEGUARDS DURING CONSTRUCTION 79 

SECTION 3301 79 

GENERAL 79 

SECTION 3302 79 

CONSTRUCTION SAFEGUARDS 79 

SECTION 3303 79 

DEMOLITION 79 

SECTION 3306 80 

PROTECTION OF PEDESTRIANS 80 

SECTION 3307 80 

PROTECTION OF ADJOINING PROPERTY 80 

SECTION 3308 81 

TEMPORARY USE OF STREETS, ALLEY S AND PUBLIC PROPERTY 81 

SECTION 3313 81 

MOVING AND RELOCATION OF STRUCTURES 81 

CHAPTER 34 82 

EXISTING STRUCTURES 82 

[EB] SECTION 3401 82 

GENERAL 82 

[EB] SECTION 3406 82 

CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 82 

SECTION 3410 82 

COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES 82 

CHAPTER 61 83 

REHABILITATION OF EXISTING BUILDING 83 

SECTION 6101 83 

GENERAL 83 

SECTION 6102 83 

COMMITTEE 83 

SECTION 6103 84 

COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES 84 

\SECTION 610 84 

APPLICATION AND FEE 84 

SECTION 6105 84 

APPLICATION REVIEW PROCEDURE 84 

SECTION 6106 85 

DECISION OF THE COMMITTEE 85 

APPENDICES 86 

APPENDIX ADOPTION STATUS 86 

IBC APPENDICES 86 

STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 86 

APPENDIX H 86 

SIGNS 86 

[Z] SECTION HlOl 86 

GENERAL 86 

[Z] SECTION H102 87 

DEFINITIONS 87 

APPENDIX I 88 

PATIO COVERS 88 

SECTION 1104 88 

STRUCTURAL PROVISIONS 88 

APPENDIX K 88 

- V- 



[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CONSTRUCTION IN DESIGNATED SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION ZONES 88 

SECTION K 101 88 

GENERAL 88 

SECTION K 102 88 

GENERAL PROVISIONS 88 

SECTION K 103 88 

HAZARDOUS GASES GENERATED BY LANDFILLS 88 

APPENDIX L 90 

ACCESS CONTROL 90 

SECTION LlOl 90 

INTRODUCTION 90 

SECTION L102 91 

DEFINITIONS 91 

SECTION L103 93 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 93 

SECTION L104 95 

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEMSWITH MAGNETIC LOCKS 95 

SECTION L105 96 

DELAYED EGRESS SYSTEMS 96 

SECTION L106 97 

SECURING AN ELEVATOR LOBBY WITH AN ACCESS CONTROL SY STEM 97 

SECTION L107 98 

SECURING EXIT ENCLOSURE (STAIR TOWER) DOORS 98 

SECTION L108 101 

CONTRACTOR LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCESS CONTROL SY STEMS 101 

SECTION L109 102 

ACCESS CONTROL SY STEM PERMIT REQUIREMENTS 102 

SECTION LllO 105 

ACCESS CONTROL SY STEM PERMIT INSPECTION PROCESS 105 

SECTION Llll 105 

ACCESS CONTROL SY STEM TESTING AND MAINTENANCE 105 

SECTION L113 106 

ACCESS CONTROL - SAMPLE DRAWINGS 106 

APPENDIX M 113 

COLORADO TITLE 9 ARTICLE 5 - STANDARDS FOR ACCESSIBILE HOUSING 113 

9-5-lOl.DEFINITIONS. 113 

9-5-102. DISABILITIES COVERED - PURPOSE. 114 

9-5-103. APPLICABILITY OF STANDARDS - ENFORCEMENT. 114 

9-5-104. RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENFORCING STANDARDS. 115 

9-5-105. EXEMPTIONS FOR CERTAIN PRIVATELY FUNDED PROJECTS. 115 

9-5-106. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN. 116 

APPENDIX N 116 

CONSTRUCTION OF AIRPORT BUILDING SAND STRUCTURES 116 

SECTION NlOl 116 

GENERAL 116 

SECTION N102 116 

DEFINITIONS 116 

SECTION N103 117 

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 117 

SECTION N104 117 

OCCUPANCY 117 

SECTION N105 118 

MEANS OF EGRESS 118 

SECTION N106 119 

AIRPORT RAMP DRAINAGE 119 

SECTION N107 119 

AIRPORT SMOKE CONTROL AND DETECTION 119 

SECTION N108 120 

AIRPORT LIFE SAFETY SYSTEMS 120 

SECTION N109 122 

- vi - 



ITABLE OF CONTENTS 



AIRPORT MECHANICAL 


122 


SECTION NllO 


122 


AIRPORT ELECTRICAL 


122 


SECTION Nlll 


123 


SUBSURFACE TUNNELS 


123 


SECTION N112 


123 


LIQUID FUEL LINES 


123 


SECTION N113 


123 


STANDARDS 


123 


DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 




CHAPTER 1 


127 


ADMINISTRATION 


127 


SECTION 101 


127 


GENERAL 


127 


SECTION 102 


128 


APPLICABILITY 


128 


SECTION 103 


128 


DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION 


128 


SECTION 104 


128 


GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES 


128 


SECTION 105 


131 


PERMITS 


131 


SECTION 106 


142 


INSPECTIONS 


142 


SECTION 107 


143 


MAINTENANCE 


143 


SECTION 108 


144 


BOARD OF APPEALS 


144 


SECTION 109 


144 


VIOLATIONS 


144 


SECTION 110 


145 


UNSAFE BUILDINGS 


145 


SECTION 112 


145 


LICENSES 


145 


SECTION 113 


146 


PUBLIC FIRE EDUCATION 


146 


SECTION 114 


146 


EMERGENCY PLANS AND PROCEDURES 


146 


SECTION 115 


146 


FIRE ALARM MONITORING - PERMITS AND LICENSES 


146 


CHAPTER 2 


148 


DEFINITIONS 


148 


SECTION 202 


148 


GENERAL DEFINITIONS 


148 


CHAPTER 3 


149 


GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 


149 


SECTION 301 


149 


GENERAL 


149 


SECTION 304 


149 


COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL 


149 


SECTION 308 


149 


OPEN FLAMES 


149 


SECTION 309 


150 


POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS 


150 


SECTION 315 


151 


MISCELLANEOUS COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS STORAGE 


151 


CHAPTER 4 


151 


EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 


151 


SECTION 401 


151 



VII 



[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

GENERAL 151 

SECTION 402 152 

DEFINITIONS 152 

SECTION 403 152 

PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGES AND EVENTS 152 

SECTION 404 152 

FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS 152 

SECTION 405 153 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS 153 

CHAPTER 5 154 

FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 154 

SECTION 502 154 

DEFINITIONS 154 

SECTION 503 154 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 154 

SECTION 504 155 

ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS 155 

SECTION 507 156 

HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS 156 

SECTION 508 156 

FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES 156 

SECTION 509 157 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER 157 

SECTION 510 158 

FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT 158 

CHAPTER 6 159 

BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 159 

SECTION 603 159 

FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES 159 

SECTION 604 159 

EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SY STEMS 159 

SECTION 606 161 

MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION 161 

SECTION 608 161 

STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS 161 

CHAPTER 7 162 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 162 

SECTION 704 162 

FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS 162 

CHAPTERS 162 

INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 162 

SECTION 806 162 

DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 162 

CHAPTER 9 164 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 164 

SECTION 903 164 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SY STEMS 164 

SECTION 904 165 

ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SY STEMS 165 

SECTION 905 165 

STAND PIPE SYSTEMS 165 

SECTION 906 166 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 166 

SECTION 907 166 

FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SY STEMS 166 

SECTION 909 185 

SMOKE CONTROL SY STEMS 185 

SECTION 910 201 

SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS 201 

SECTION 913 201 

- viii - 



[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

FIRE PUMPS 201 

SECTION 915 202 

RADIO ENHANCEMENT SYSTEM 202 

CHAPTER 10 203 

MEANS OE EGRESS 203 

SECTION 1027 203 

MEANS OF EGRESS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 203 

CHAPTER 11 203 

AVIATION FACILITIES 203 

SECTION 1106 203 

AIRCRAFT FUELING 203 

SECTION 1107 203 

HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS 203 

CHAPTER 14 204 

FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 204 

SECTION 1401 204 

GENERAL 204 

SECTION 1413 204 

STANDPIPES 204 

SECTION 1418 204 

ASBESTOS OPERATIONS 204 

CHAPTER 15 205 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES 205 

SECTION 1501 205 

GENERAL 205 

SECTION 1504 205 

SPRAY FINISHING 205 

SECTION 1505 205 

DIPPING OPERATIONS 205 

SECTION 1510 205 

FLOOR SURFACING AND FINISHING OPERATIONS 205 

CHAPTER 16 206 

FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING 206 

SECTION 1603 206 

ETHYLENE GAS 206 

CHAPTER 17 206 

FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 206 

SECTION 1701 206 

GENERAL 206 

SECTION 1703 206 

FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 206 

CHAPTER 19 207 

LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 207 

SECTION 1904 207 

FIRE PROTECTION 207 

SECTION 1909 207 

EXTERIOR STORAGE OF FINISHED LUMBER PRODUCTS 207 

CHAPTER 20 207 

MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATING S 207 

SECTION 2005 207 

PROCESS STRUCTURES 207 

CHAPTER 21 208 

INDUSTRIAL OVENS 208 

SECTION 2103 208 

LOCATION 208 

CHAPTER 22 208 

MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 208 

SECTION 2204 208 

DISPENSING OPERATIONS 208 

SECTION 2205 208 



[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 208 

SECTION 2211 209 

REPAIR GARAGES 209 

CHAPTER 23 209 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 209 

SECTION 2301 209 

GENERAL 209 

SECTION 2306 209 

GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY FEATURES 209 

SECTION 2308 211 

RACK STORAGE 211 

SECTION 2310 211 

SPECIALTY STORAGE 211 

SECTION 2311 211 

EXISTING BUILDINGS 211 

SECTION 2312 213 

STORAGE RACK INSTALLATION 213 

CHAPTER 24 213 

TENTS, CANOPIES AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 213 

SECTION 2403 213 

TEMPORARY TENTS, CANOPIES AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 213 

SECTION 2404 213 

TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT TENTS, CANOPIES AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 213 

CHAPTER 25 214 

TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE STORAGE 214 

SECTION 2505 214 

OUTDOOR STORAGE 214 

SECTION 2508 214 

FIRE PROTECTION 214 

CHAPTER 26 214 

WELDING AND OTHER HOT WORK 214 

SECTION 2601 214 

GENERAL 214 

SECTION 2605 214 

GAS WELDING AND CUTTING 214 

CHAPTER 27 215 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS- GENERAL PROVISIONS 215 

SECTION 2701 215 

GENERAL 215 

SECTION 2702 215 

DEFINITIONS 215 

SECTION 2703 216 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 216 

SECTION 2704 216 

STORAGE 216 

SECTION 2705 217 

USE, DISPENSING AND HANDLING 217 

CHAPTER 33 217 

EXPLOSIVES AND FIREWORKS 217 

SECTION 3301 217 

GENERAL 217 

SECTION 3306 218 

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION 218 

CHAPTER 34 218 

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 218 

SECTION 3401 218 

GENERAL 218 

SECTION 3404 218 

STORAGE 218 

SECTION 3406 218 

- X - 



ITABLE OF CONTENTS 



SPECIAL OPERATIONS 


218 


CHAPTER 36 


219 


FLAMMABLE SOLIDS 


219 


SECTION 3602 


219 


DEFINITIONS 


219 


CHAPTER 37 


219 


HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC MATERIALS 


219 


SECTION 3703 


219 


HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 


219 


CHAPTER 38 


219 


LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES 


219 


SECTION 3803 


219 


INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT 


219 


SECTION 3804 


219 


LOCATION OF CONTAINERS 


219 


SECTION 3809 


220 


STORAGE OF PORTABLE LP GAS CONTAINERS AWAITING USE OR RESALE 


220 


CHAPTER 40 


220 


OXIDIZERS 


220 


SECTION 4003 


220 


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


220 


CHAPTER 45 


221 


REFERENCED STANDARDS 


221 


APPENDICES 


222 


APPENDIX ADOPTION STATUS 


222 


IFC APPENDICES 


222 


STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 


222 


APPENDIX B 


223 


FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS 


223 


SECTIONS 104 


223 


FIRE-FLOW CALCULATION AREA 


223 


SECTIONS 105 


223 


FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR SUILDINGS 


223 


APPENDIX C 


223 


FIRE HYDRANT LOCATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION 


223 


SECTION C106 


223 


WATER MAINS SERVING FIRE HYDRANTS 


223 


APPENDIX E 


224 


HAZARD CATEGORIES 


224 


APPENDIX F 


224 


HAZARD RANKING 


224 


APPENDIX G 


224 


CRYOGENIC FLUIDS-WEIGHT AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS 


224 


AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 




CHAPTER 1 


227 


ADMINISTRATION 


227 


SECTION RlOl 


227 


TITLE, SCOPE AND PURPOSE 


227 


CHAPTER 3 


227 


BUILDING PLANNING 


227 


SECTION R301 


227 


DESIGN CRITERIA 


227 


SECTION R305 


228 


CEILING HEIGHT 


228 


[CRS] SECTION R322 


228 


ACCESSISILITY 


228 


CHAPTER 4 


228 


FOUNDATIONS 


228 


SECTION R401 


228 



XI 



[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

GENERAL 228 

CHAPTER 9 229 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES 229 

SECTION R903 229 

WEATHER PROTECTION 229 

SECTION R905 229 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ROOF COVERINGS 229 

CHAPTER 11 230 

ENERGY EFFICIENCY 230 

SECTION NllOl 230 

GENERAL 230 

CHAPTER 26 230 

GENERAL PLUMBING REQUIREMENTS 230 

SECTION P2602 230 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL 230 

SECTION P2604 231 

TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING 231 

IRC APPENDICES 231 

STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 231 

APPENDIX E 231 

MANUFACTURED HOUSING USED AS DWELLING S 231 

SECTION AElOl 231 

SCOPE 231 

DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL MECHANICAL CODE 

CHAPTER 1 235 

ADMINISTRATION 235 

SECTION 101 235 

GENERAL 235 

CHAPTER 4 235 

VENTILATION 235 

SECTION 403 235 

REQUIRED OUTDOOR VENTILATION AIR 235 

SECTION 404 235 

ENCLOSED PARKING GARAGES 235 

CHAPTER 5 235 

EXHAUST SYSTEMS 235 

SECTION 507 235 

COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS 235 

SECTION 513 235 

SMOKE CONTROL SY STEMS 235 

IMC APPENDICES 235 

STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 235 

DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 

CHAPTER 1 239 

ADMINISTRATION 239 

SECTION 101 239 

GENERAL 239 

CHAPTER 3 239 

GENERAL REGULATIONS 239 

SECTION 301 239 

GENERAL 239 

SECTION 306 239 

TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL 239 

SECTION 307 239 

STRUCTURAL SAFETY 239 

CHAPTER 4 240 

FIXTURE, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTING S 240 

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[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

SECTION 401 240 

GENERAL 240 

SECTION 403 240 

MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES 240 

SECTION 413 240 

FOOD WASTE GRINDER UNITS 240 

CHAPTER 6 240 

WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 240 

SECTION 603 240 

WATER SERVICE 240 

SECTION 608 241 

PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 241 

CHAPTER 7 241 

SANITARY DRAINAGE 241 

SECTION 703 241 

BUILDING SEWER 241 

SECTION 708 241 

CLEANOUTS 241 

SECTION 712 241 

SUMPS AND EJECTORS 241 

CHAPTERS 242 

INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 242 

SECTION 803 242 

SPECIAL WASTES 242 

SECTION 805 242 

FOOD WASTE 242 

CHAPTER 9 242 

VENTS 242 

SECTION 904 242 

VENT TERMINALS 242 

SECTION 905 242 

VENT CONNECTIONS AND GRADES 242 

CHAPTER 10 243 

TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 243 

SECTION 1003 243 

INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 243 

SECTION 1005 243 

ABANDONED INTERCEPTORS 243 

CHAPTER 11 243 

STORM DRAINAGE 243 

SECTION 1101 243 

GENERAL 243 

SECTION 1106 243 

SIZE OF CONDUCTORS, LEADERS AND STORM DRAINS 243 

IPC APPENDICES 243 

STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 243 

DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FUEL & GAS CODE 

CHAPTER 1 247 

ADMINISTRATION 247 

SECTION 101 (IFGC) 247 

GENERAL 247 

CHAPTER 4 247 

GAS PIPING INSTALLATIONS 247 

SECTION 403 (IFGC) 247 

PIPING MATERIALS 247 

SECTION 404 (IFGC) 247 

PIPING SYSTEM INSTALLATION 247 

SECTION 406 (IFGC) 247 

INSPECTION, TESTING AND PURGING 247 

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[TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER 5 248 

CHIMNEY S AND VENTS 248 

SECTION 505 (IFGC) 248 

DIRECT VENT, INTEGRAL VENT, MECHANICAL VENT AND VENTILATION /EXHAUST HOOD VENTING 248 

CHAPTER 6 248 

SPECIFIC APPLIANCES 248 

SECTION 602 (IFGC) 248 

DECORATIVE APPLIANCES FOR INSTALLATION IN FIREPLACES 248 

SECTION 609 (IFGC) 248 

FLOOR FURNACES 248 

SECTION 621 (IFGC) 248 

UNVENTED ROOM HEATERS 248 

SECTION 623 (IFGC) 248 

COOKING APPLIANCES 248 

DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY 
CONSERVATION CODE 

CHAPTER 1 251 

ADMINISTRATION 251 

SECTION 101 251 

GENERAL 251 

CHAPTER 4 251 

RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 251 

SECTION 401.2 251 

CHAPTER 5 251 

lECC COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 251 

SECTION 501 251 

GENERAL 251 



- XIV - 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE 2006 

DENVER BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 1 
ADMINISTRATION 

SECTION 101 
PURPOSE AND SCOPE 

101.1 Title. The title of this Ordinance shall be, and this Ordinance shall be cited, the Building Code of the City and 
County of Denver, and referred to hereinafter as the Code. 

101.2 Purpose. The purpose of this Code is to provide minimum standards to safeguard life, health, property and public 
welfare by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use, occupancy, location and 
maintenance of all buildings and structures within the City and County of Denver (hereinafter "City"), and certain 
equipment specifically regulated herein. 

101.3 Scope. The provisions of this Code shall apply to and govern the following: 

101.3.1 New BuildingS; Structures and Utilities. The Code shall regulate the construction, addition, alteration, 
repair, occupancy, use and maintenance of any building, structure or utility hereafter erected within the City, except as 
set forth in subsection 101.3.3 below. 

101.3.2 Existing BuildingS; Structures or Utilities. The Code shall regulate the alteration, addition, repair, 
demolition, removal, moving, change of occupancy and maintenance of any existing building, structure or utility 
heretofore erected within the City. 

101.3.3 BuildingS; Structures and Utilities not Regulated by this Code. The Code shall not regulate the following 
work. 

1. Work located primarily in the public way unless specifically provided for by this Code. 

2. Public utility towers, poles and mechanical equipment used for the production, generation or distribution of 
the utility product or service through the facilities owned and operated by the utility company to the point of 
customer service. 

3. RTD Light Rail construction on RTD right-of-way. Traction power substations, signal/communication relay 
cases and housing, associated conduit and wiring for the operation of the light rail lines and the construction 
of the station platforms. 

Refer to Section 150.1.1 for additional exempt work. 

101.3.4 Most Restrictive. Where in any specific case the requirements of different sections of this Code vary, the 
most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the 
specific requirement shall be applicable. Where there is a conflict between the provisions of this Code and any other 
legally adopted city ordinance, tiie most restrictive shall govern. 

101.3.5 Transition Rules. This Code and implementation of all its provisions and policies shall become effective as 
follows: 

101.3.5.1 Effective date. The effective date of the new Code shall be four months after the date of the adopting 
ordinance to the International Building Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Energy Conservation 
Code, International Plumbing Code, International Residential Code and the International Mechanical Code; 
including amendments. 

Amendments to the National Electric Code: the date of the adopting ordinance. 

101.3.5.2 Continued use of the 2004 Denver Building Code. The option of the use of the 2004 Denver Building 
Code or the new Code shall be allowed for any projects that will be submitted to the Agency after the adopting 
ordinance and before the effective date of this Code. 

Major projects in the design stage during the drafting of the new Code that will be submitted to the Agency after 
the effective date of this Code may be reviewed under the 2004 Denver Building Code. Provided that the owner 
or the owner's agent submits a letter of commitment to the Agency stating: 

1. Election to proceed under the 2004 Denver Building Code or this Code; 

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2 . A ddress of the construction proj ect; 

3. Description, number of stories, floor area, occupancy, etc., of the building; 

4. D ate of beginning design drawings; 

5 . D ate of submitting construction drawings to the A gency . 

6. That the construction of the project will start within 6 months and be completed within 24 months of the 
effective date of this Code if the option is to use the 2004 Denver Building Code. 

A letter of commitment must be submitted by the effective date of this Code. 

101.3.5.3 Type approved. "Type approved" structures approved by the Agency prior to the effective date of the 
new Code are valid for permitting until 6 months after the effective date of the new Code. 

SECTION 102 

ORGANIZATION OF BUILDING PERMITTING AND INSPECTION SERVICES 

102.1 Creation of administering agency. The administrative agency (hereinafter "Agency") responsible for 
administering and enforcing the Code shall be established under the Manager of Community Planning and Development. 

102.2 Building Official. The Manager of Community Planning and Development shall appoint the Building Official. 
The Building Official is hereby authorized and directed to interpret and enforce all provisions of this Code. 

102.3 Employees. In accordance with prescribed procedures, the Building Official shall authorize or appoint engineers, 
technicians, inspectors or other employees to perform duties and exercise powers delegated to the Building Official by 
this Code. 

102.4 Authorization and Identification. Each employee of the Agency shall be provided with an identification card 
bearing information required by the Building Official. This card shall be carried by the person identified, and shall be 
displayed when necessary to identify the person properly to perform official duties. 

SECTION 103 

GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE AGENCY 

103.1 Powers and Duties. This Agency shall administer and enforce this Code and all other ordinances, which are or may 
be assigned to the Agency for enforcement and administration. The Agency is vested with the duties of enforcing and 
administering this Code, and the power necessary for such enforcement. 

103.2 Interpretations; Rules and Regulations. The Building Official shall have the full power to render interpretations 
of this Code and to adopt and enforce Rules and Regulations supplemental to this Code, as may be deemed necessary in 
order to clarify the application of Code provisions. Such interpretations and Rules and Regulations shall be in conformity 
with the intent and purpose of this Code. Rules and Regulations shall be adopted and recorded in accordance with the 
provisions of the Revised Municipal Code. The Board of Appeals may review any appeal of an Agency interpretation 
subject to Section 113 Appeals. 

103.3 Modifications Under Special Circumstances. Whenever there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out 
the provisions of this Code, the Building Official may grant modifications for individual cases, provided the Building 
Official shall first notify the owner of the building, structure or utility and then find that a special individual reason makes 
the strict letter of the code impractical and that the modification is in conformity with the intent and purpose of this Code 
and that such modification does not lessen any fire protection requirements or any degree of structural integrity. The 
details of any action granting modifications shall be sent to the owner and entered in the permit files of the Agency. 

103.4 Authority to Inspect. The Agency shall have the authority to inspect or cause to be inspected all buildings, 
structures or utilities for compliance with this Code. 

103.5 Investigations and Surveys. Incidental to any of these duties and powers, but without limitation of the same, the 
Agency may conduct investigations or sun/eys to determine compliance or noncompliance with the provisions of this 
Code; and further may investigate or cause to be investigated all accidents pertaining to buildings, structures or utilities. 

103.6 Right of Entry. Whenever an authorized representative of the Agency has reasonable cause to believe that there 
exists in any building or upon any premises any condition or Code violation which makes such building or premises an 

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eminent hazard, the representative of the Agency may enter such building or premises and take such action as is necessary 
to abate such hazard. 

Whenever it is necessary to make inspections, investigations or sun/eys to enforce any of the provisions of this Code and 
permission is not obtainable, the Agency may request a court to issue a warrant to inspect or perform any duty imposed 
upon the Agency by this Code. Permission is not obtainable when: 

1 . The Agency' s representative has presented to the occupant of an occupied building or premises proper credentials 
and been refused entry. 

2. The Agency's representative has made a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other persons having charge or 
control of an unoccupied premises and has been unable to locate such person or has been refused entry by such 
person. 

103.7 Orders. Whenever work is or has been performed contrary to the provisions of this Code, or whenever conditions 
exist which are in violation of this Code or any of the several codes or ordinances enforced or administered by this 
Agency, the Agency may: 

1. Order any work stopped until authorized by the Agency to proceed. The owner, once notified of the order, shall 
not allow any further work upon the subject property until authorized by the Agency. 

2. Order the work being performed or that has been performed to be completed or corrected so that the resulting 
work is in accordance with the requirements of this Code or other codes or ordinances enforced or administered 
by the Agency. 

3. Order the use or occupancy of a building, structure or equipment discontinued and the structure, or portion 
thereof, vacated by notice served on any person causing such use to be continued. Such person shall discontinue 
the use within the time prescribed by the Building Official. 

Any such order shall be by written notice served on the owner of the property upon which work was or is being performed 
or where the condition exists, or any person engaged in the work, causing the work to be performed or having a permit to 
perform the work. 

It shall be unlawful to disobey any written lawful order issued by the Agency. 

A copy of any order issued by the Agency shall, when the original order has not been served on the owner, be served upon 
the owner of the property affected by the order. 

The Board of Appeals may review any appeal of an Agency order subject to Section 121. 

SECTION 104 
SERVICE 

Service of any order may be by personal service, as specified in the Colorado Rules of Civil Procedure, or by certified 
mail, return receipt requested, and service shall be deemed complete upon delivery. 

SECTION 105 

APPLICATION TO EXISTING BUILDINGS 

105.1 Additions; Alterations or Repairs. Additions, alterations or repairs may be made to any building or structure 
without requiring the existing building or structure to comply with all the requirements of this Code, provided that the 
addition, alteration or repair conforms to that required for a new building or structure, except as otherwise provided for in 
this Code. The Building Official shall use the 1997 edition of the Uniform Code for Building Conservation, and the 2006 
International Existing Building Code, as guides for granting modifications to the Code for such additions, alterations or 
repairs. 

105.2 When Additions, Alterations or Repairs are Not Allowed. Additions, alterations or repairs shall not be made to 
an existing building or structure which will cause the existing building or structure to be in violation of any of the 
provisions of this Code, unless otherwise provided for in this Code. Any addition, alteration or repair shall not cause an 
existing building or structure to become unsafe. 

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105.3 Materials. Non- structural alterations and repairs may be made with the same materials as the existing building or 
structure, provided they do not adversely effect any structural member, or the fire- resistive rating of any part of the 
building or structure. 

Exception: 

The installation or replacement of glass shall be as required for new installations. 

105.4 Existing Occupancy. 

1. Buildings in existence at the time of the adoption of the Code may have their existing use or occupancy 
continued, if such use or occupancy was legal at the time of the adoption of this Code, provided that such 
continued use is not dangerous to life. 

2. Any change in the use or occupancy of any existing building or structure shall comply with the provisions of the 
Code. 

105.5 Maintenance. All buildings, structures or utilities, both existing and new, and all parts thereof, shall be maintained 
in a safe and sanitary condition. All devices, utilities or safeguards which are required by this Code, or which were 
required under any previous Code or Ordinance, shall be maintained in good working condition. The owner or legally 
responsible person shall maintain such buildings, structures or utilities. To determine compliance with this subsection, the 
Agency may cause any building, structure or utility to be reinspected. 

105.6 Moved and Temporary Buildings or Structures. Buildings or structures moved into the City shall comply with 
the provisions of this Code for new buildings or structures. Temporary structures, such as reviewing stands, and other 
miscellaneous structures, sheds, canopies or fences used in conjunction with special events or construction work may be 
erected by special permit from the Agency for a limited period of time as specified in Section 162. Temporary buildings 
or structures need not comply with the type of construction or fire- resistive requirements except where specifically 
required by this Code. Tents shall be permitted as specified in the Fire Code. Temporary buildings or structures shall be 
completely removed upon the expiration of the time limit stated on the permit. 

105.7 Rehabilitation of Older Buildings. Chapter 61 of this Code may be applied to rehabilitation of older buildings. 

SECTION 106 

UNSAFE BUILDINGS OR STRUCTURES 

106.1 General. Structures, buildings or equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient because of 
inadequate means of egress facilities, or which constitute a fire hazard, or otherwise dangerous to human life or public 
welfare due to damage, vandalism, dilapidation or abandonment, or that involve illegal or improper occupancy, or 
inadequate maintenance or use inferior materials shall be deemed unsafe. 

106.1.1 Additional Conditions. In addition, if any of the following conditions occur, the building or structure shall 
be deemed unsafe. 

1 . Those buildings or structures in which a wall or other vertical structural member lists, leans or buckles to such 
an extent that a plumb line passing through the center of gravity falls outside of the middle third of the base. 

2. Those buildings or structures that show damage or deterioration to: 

A . Any structural or load- bearing member to the extent that the member does not have sufficient strength to 
resist all applicable loads specified in Chapter 16. 

B . Nonbearing exterior walls or enclosures to such an extent that they will not resist the wind pressure or 
lateral forces specified in Chapter 16. 

C. Any exposed exterior member to the extent that the member provides inadequate protection from the 
elements to the occupants of the building or structure. 

3. Those buildings or structures in which the loads upon the walls, floors, roofs or any other necessary structural 
member exceed the maximum design limits specified in Chapter 16. 

4. Those buildings or structures having floors or areas with inadequate means of egress. 



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5. Those building or structures having parts attached in such a manner that they may fall and cause injury to the 
public or property. 

6. Uncompleted buildings or structures when the permit has been canceled. 

7. Open pits, open wells and open excavations of all types when such are determined to be hazardous by the 
Agency. 

8. Trenches or ditches not properly shored or cribbed. 

9. Vacant buildings which are not secure and to which entry may be made through opened or unlocked doors, 
windows or other openings. 

10. Those buildings or structures which are uninhabitable, including but not limited to buildings or structures, 
with any one of the following conditions: 

A . Where building envelope damage or deterioration has caused the interior of the structure to be open to the 
elements. 

B. Where vandalism or deterioration has caused the plumbing system, electrical system or heating system to 
be no longer functional. 

C. Where vandalism or deterioration has caused the internal floor structure or stairways to be incapable of 
supporting the weight of normal occupancy. 

11. Any dilapidated building of whatever kind which is unused by the owner, or uninhabited because of 
deterioration or decay, which condition constitutes a fire hazard or subjects adjoining property to danger of 
damage by deterioration of structural building elements, storm effect, soil erosion or rodent infestation, or 
which becomes a place frequented by trespassers and transients seeking a temporary hideout or shelter. 

SECTION 107 
UNSAFE UTILITY 

107.1 General. An unsafe utility is one which constitutes a fire hazard or a hazard to life, health, property or public 
welfare by reason of use, construction, installation, obsolescence, damage, deterioration, quality of materials, 
abandonment or inadequate maintenance. However, without limitation of the foregoing, any utility in which any one or 
more of the following conditions exist shall constitute an unsafe utility: 

107.2 Gas-Fired; Oil-Fired; Solid Fuel-Fired Devices. Gas- fired, oil-fired or solid- fuel-fired appliances, devices or 
apparatus, which have any of the following, defects: 

1 . B roken or cracked heat exchangers. 

2. Defective or deteriorated vents, venting or flues which permit leakage of flue products. 

3. Defective or improperly installed fuel supply piping. 

4. Insufficient air supply for the combustion of fuel. 

5. Inadequate ventilation of the heating equipment room. 

6. Defective, improperly installed or maladjusted controls and appurtenances. 

7. Defective or improperiy installed heating equipment. 

8. Equipment locations which constitute a fire or explosion hazard. 

9. When a negative air pressure condition exists in a heating equipment room or area. 

10. Excessive corrosion of combustion chambers where the original thickness of the metal is reduced 50% or more. 

11. Warped or distorted combustion chambers or furnace boiler firing doors which permit leakage of combustion 
products. 

12. A listed appliance or appurtenance that is altered or modified. 

13 . Excessive scaling, corrosion, cracks in seams, tube or shell of boilers. 

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14. Defective valves, gauges or cocks of boilers. 

15. Grooving or pitting of boilers. 

16. Boilers with improperly installed or maladjusted controls and appurtenances. 

17. Any unlisted appliance or appurtenance installed without approval of the Agency. 

18. Appliances not provided with required safety controls. 

107.3 Elevators and Similar Conveyances. Elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters, moving walks or similar conveyances or 
apparatus which have any of the following defects: 

1 . Hoisting, counterweight or governor ropes or cables with frayed or broken strands. 

2. Operation in a hoistway used to store material other than elevator equipment. This shall also apply to elevator 
machine rooms, machinery spaces and pits where materials other tiian elevator equipment are maintained or 
stored. 

3. Operation in a hoistway that is in danger as a result of dust or other highly combustible material on the 
mechanism or in the hoistway, penthouse or pit. 

4. Brake mechanism not functioning properly or safely. 

5. Those not safety tested in accordance with the requirements of this Code, or where required safety devices have 
been disconnected or discontinued. 

6. Those safety or operational devices provided in the elevator cab which are not functioning properly or safely. 

7. Where hoistway entrance protection does not meet the requirements of this Code. 

107.4 Electrical Systems. Electrical systems, appliances, devices or apparatus which have any of the following defects: 

1. Bare wiring. 

2. Poor electrical connections. 

3. Overloaded circuits, feeders or services. 

4. Equipment not properly grounded. 

5. D isconnecting means not provided at the appliance. 

6. Over- fused circuits. 

7. Misuse of cord wiring. 

8. W iring not properly supported. 

9. Nonapproved wiring exposed to extreme heat, moisture, gases or other harmful vapors or liquids. 

107.5 Refrigeration Systems. Refrigeration systems which have any of the following defects: 

1. Inadequate ventilation. 

2. Inadequate venting of pressure relief valves. 

3. Unauthorized fuel-fired equipment located in the same room designated for the refrigeration equipment. 

4. Improperly installed cooling towers by reason of location, type, fan, water condition, controls, roof or floor 
overload. 

5. Faulty controls. 

107.6 Plumbing Systems. Plumbing systems or devices which have any of the following defects: 

1. Supply water not meeting the standards of potability as required by the Colorado State Department of Public 
Health. 

2. Water systems subjected to the hazards of backflow or back-siphonage, which might create pollution to the 
potable water supply; i.e., hose bibbs shall have anti-siphon devices. 

3. Inadequate piping not supplying sufficient water to the various appliances. 

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4. Clogged sewers or drains. 

5 . Inadequate or missing trap seals. 

6. Inadequate venting. 

7. Leaking water, sewage or sewer gas within a building or structure. 

8. Trenches or ditches not properly shored or cribbed. 

SECTION 108 

NOTICE AND ABATEMENT OF UNSAFE BUILDINGS, STRUCTURES OR UTILITIES 

108.1 General If, after inspection by the Agency, the building, structure or utility is determined to be unsafe, it shall be 
abated by repair, replacement, removal or demolition upon notice by the Agency. If the building or structure has common 
property line walls, then the Agency shall notify the adjacent building owners that their building may be unsafe and may 
require repair or reinforcement. 

108.2 Unsafe Building or Structure. In the case of an unsafe building or structure, the Agency may order such building 
or structure, or any buildings or structures placed in jeopardy by the unsafe building or structure, vacated immediately. 
The unsafe buildings or structures shall be posted in accordance with the provisions of Section 108.7. 

108.3 Unsafe Utility. 

1. In the case of an unsafe utility, the Agency shall affix an approved warning tag on the unit declared to be unsafe. 
The Agency shall order the unsafe utility disconnected or its use discontinued until the nuisance created thereby is 
abated. In addition, the Agency may order any building, structure or utility which is placed in jeopardy by the 
unsafe utility to be vacated and/or disconnected, and these shall not be reoccupied or reconnected until declared 
safe by the Agency. 

2. It shall be unlawful for anyone to mark any unsafe utility, as herein defined, with any type markings or tags 
declaring them to be unsafe, except as authorized by the Agency. 

108.4 Demolition or Securing by the City. If the owner and/or occupant of an unsafe building, structure or utility fails 
to perform the repairs, rehabilitation, securing or removal required by an order within the time specified in the order or 
any extension of time to comply with said order, the City may, as set forth in Section 108.5, cause the demolition or 
securing of the unsafe building or structure. 

108.5 Emergency Demolition or Securing. In the event an emergency should occur wherein the continued use or 
existence of a building, structure or utility may constitute an immediate hazard to life, health, property or public welfare, 
the Agency may order and/or cause the building, structure or utility to be demolished, removed, disconnected, secured or 
barricaded at once by any means available to the Agency. When feasible, the Agency shall attempt to give notice, by any 
means, to the owner of the building, structure or utility prior to taking any action. Cost and expense of demolition, 
removal, securing or barricading, if borne by the City, shall be recovered as provided for in Section 108. 

108.6 Emergency Barricades. If any building, structure or utility is declared a hazard to life or safety of persons using a 
public way, the public way shall be provided with barricades to prevent public use. The barricades shall be erected on 
order from the Agency. Recovery of cost and expense, if borne by the City, shall be made as provided for in Section 
108.9. 

108.7 Posting of Signs. When necessary to protect life, property, health and public welfare, the Agency may post signs 
which shall prohibit entry into an unsafe building or structure. However, with permission of the Agency, it shall be lawful 
to enter the unsafe building or structure for the purpose of effecting any required repairs, rehabilitation or demolition; or 
by members of the Fire Department. The signs shall be provided and attached to the building or structure by the Agency 
and shall read, in addition to other information, "UNSAFE DO NOT ENTER". See Section 111 for Prohibitions and 
Violations. 

108.8 Procedure for Demolition or Securing by City. Upon the failure of the owner or legally responsible person of a 
building or structure to make any building or structure safe after the issuance of an order, the Agency: 

1 . May obtain competitive bids for the securing or demolition of the building or structure. 



AMENDMENTS TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE 2006 DENVER BUILDING CODE 



2. May, upon receipt of bids, issue a notice of intent to raze or secure the building or structure which shall include 
the estimated cost of demolition or securing plus a fee not to exceed 25% of the cost of demolition or securing, 
with a minimum of $100 to cover administrative and other costs. Such notice shall be served personally or by 
registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, upon the owners of all recorded interests in the property at 
least 10 days prior to the demolition or securing. 

3. If sen/ice cannot be obtained upon any or all parties with record interests as provided in subsection 2 above, may 
post the notice upon the property for 10 days and mail notices to the last known address of each party having a 
record interest. 

4. Ten days after completion of service under subsection 2 or 3 above may proceed with demolition or securing. 

5. Upon completion of the demolition or securing, shall mail a notice of the final cost of demolition or securing and 
of the intent to file a lien against the property to owners of a recorded interest in the property. 

108.9 City's Lien. In the event the owner fails to pay the costs as set forth in the notice sent under Section 108.8.5 within 
15 days of such notice, the amount shall constitute a lien against the real property upon which the building or structure 
was or is situated. The Agency shall thereafter pay the cost and expense of demolition, removal, securing and/or 
barricading, from any appropriation made available for that purpose, and shall certify a statement thereof to the Manager 
of Revenue, who shall assess and charge the same against the property involved and collect the same due, together with 
interest at the rate established by the law for delinquent real property taxes 

1. The lien created thereby shall be superior and prior to other liens, regardless of date, except liens for general and 
specific taxes. 

2. For purposes of this Code, cost and expense shall include the demolition, removal, securing, barricading and 
administrative costs incurred therewith. 

108.10 Right to Appeal. The Board of Appeals may review an Agency decision under Section 108 upon appeal pursuant 
to Section 113. 

SECTION 109 
USED MATERIALS 

Used materials may be used in the construction of any building, structure or utility only with prior approval of the 
Agency. 

SECTION 110 

ALTERNATE MATERIALS, DESIGN AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT 

110.1 GeneraL The provisions of this Code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any 
design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternate has been 
approved. An alternate material, design or method of construction shall be approved where tiie Building Official finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and is for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this 
Code. 

110.2 Application and Fee. An application for approval of an alternate material, design and/or method of construction or 
equipment shall be filed with the Agency. Information shall be that required by the Agency and this Code. Applications 
for alternate materials shall be accompanied by a fee of $200.00, payable to the Manager of Revenue, City and County of 
Denver, and shall be paid in the office of the Agency. No fee shall be required for alternate design and/or method of 
construction or equipment processed in conjunction with plan review fees applicable in accordance with Table No. 152.1 
"Fee Schedule Building Permit Fees". 

110.3 Review and Renewal. Each approved material, method or equipment shall be subject to a review and renewal of 
the approval every 3 years. The fee for each review shall be $75.00 per hour. 

110.4 Agenq^ Decision. The Agency shall notify the applicant in writing of its decision about the application for any 
such alternate methods, materials or equipment. No application shall be approved unless the Agency finds that the 
proposed design is satisfactory and that the alternate is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed 
in this Code. 

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110.5 Requirements and Tests. 

1. When a construction material, assembly, fixture, device, utility or other article different from that provided for in 
this Code is proposed for use, the plans, specifications, details, test data, samples and literature shall be furnished 
to the Agency for review from approved sources. 

2. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material 
or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative 
materials or methods, the Building Official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to 
be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized 
standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the Building Official shall approve the testing 
procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the 
Building Official for the period required for retention of public records. 

110.6 Approved Testing Laboratories. At the discretion of the Agency, new methods and materials may be acceptable 
if tested by a recognized testing laboratory or agency. The testing laboratory or agency must be one approved by the 
Agency and it shall provide listing, labeling and follow-up inspection services. A copy of the Agency approval report or 
the test report shall be submitted to the Agency for approval. 

110.7 Right to Appeal. The Board of Appeals may review an Agency decision upon appeal, subject to Section 113. 

SECTION 111 

PROHIBITIONS, VIOLATIONS, PENALTIES AND REMEDIES 

111.1 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful for anyone to do or cause to be done any act or allow a condition to exist that 
violates or is contrary to the provisions of the Code, any other code, ordinance or rule and regulation promulgated 
thereunder which is enforced and administered by the Agency, and without limitation to the foregoing: 

1. Alternate Methods, Materials or Equipment. It shall be unlawful for anyone to use any method, material or 
equipment as an alternate to the methods, materials or equipment permitted by this Code without first obtaining 
approval in the manner herein provided. 

2. Licensing; Certificate and Registration. It shall be unlawful for any person to perform any work on any 
building or utility without first obtaining a license, certificate or registration in accordance with the requirements 
of this Code, except that the owner of a building, where authorized under Section 150 of this Code, who obtains a 
permit for the work being performed, need not be licensed, certified or registered. 

3. Licensing, Certificate and Registration Holder Responsibility. It shall be unlawful for any license, certificate 
or registration holder to violate any of the responsibilities enumerated in Chapter 1 of this Code. 

4. Permits. It shall be unlawful for any person to perform or cause to perform any work on any building, structure 
or utility without first obtaining a permit for such work from the Agency in accordance with Sections 150 through 
165 of this Code. 

5. Certificate of Occupancy. It shall be unlawful for anyone to occupy a new building or structure or change the 
occupancy of any building or structure without first having obtained a Certificate of Occupancy from the Agency 
as required by the provisions of this Code. A Certificate of Occupancy will not be required for remodeling or 
additions, unless there is a change of occupancy. 

6. Unsafe Building; Structure or UtiUty. It shall be unlawful for any person to maintain or permit to be maintained 
any building, structure or utility which is unsafe as defined in this Code. These provisions shall apply to buildings, 
structures or utilities that are new, existing, under construction, altered or demolished. 

7. Enter, Occupy or Inhabit an Unsafe Building or Structure. It shall be unlawful to enter, occupy or inhabit any 
unsafe building or structure posted in accordance with the provisions of Section 108.7. 

8. Removal of Danger Sign(s). It shall be unlawful to remove or deface a sign required by Section 108.7, without 
specific approval from the Agency. 

9. False Information. It shall be unlawful to furnish the Agency any false information in any application for a 
license, certificate or permit required by this Code or during the course of an investigation conducted by the 
Agency to enforce this Code. 

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10. Operate or Maintain Unsafe Utility. It shall be unlawful for any person to operate or maintain an unsafe utility 
or reconnect the power or fuel supply to any utility declared by the Agency as being unsafe, and to which a City 
red tag has been attached as provided for in Section 108.3.1 of this Code. The owner and occupant of any 
building or structure containing an unsafe utility to which a City red tag has been attached, who has notice that the 
utility has been declared unsafe and so tagged by the Agency, shall not permit said utility to be operated and shall 
take whatever steps are necessary to insure that the utility is not operated. 

Exception: 

A properly Licensed Contractor with a permit may remove a City red tag for purposes of repair of the 
equipment. However, in the case of elevators, it shall be unlawful to allow any person to occupy tie elevator 
except a licensed contractor and his employees during said repairs. Permission shall be obtained from the 
Agency prior to removal of the City red tag. 

11. Removal of City Warning or City Danger Tag. It shall be unlawful for any person to remove a City red tag 
attached to any utility as provided for in Section 108.3.1 of the Code. 

12. Conspiraq^. It shall be illegal for any person to act with another for the purpose of evading requirements of this 
Building Code. 

111.2 Violation. Whenever, by the provisions of this Code, any act is prohibited, or whenever any regulation, dimension 
or limitation is imposed on the erection, alteration, maintenance or occupancy of any building, structure or utility, each 
failure to comply with provisions of this Code shall constitute a violation. Each day on which a violation exists shall 
constitute a separate offense and a separate violation. 

111.3 Penalties. Whenever, in any Section of this Code, or any Section of a Rule or Regulation promulgated thereunder, 
the performance of any act is required, prohibited or declared to be unlawful, and no definite fine or penalty is provided 
for a violation thereof, any person convicted of a violation of any Section shall, for each offense, be fined, imprisoned or 
both fined and imprisoned within the limits established by Section 1-13 of the Denver Revised Municipal Code. The 
suspension or revocation of any license, certificate, permit or other privileges conferred by the City shall not be regarded 
as a penalty for the purpose of this Code. 

111.4 Remedies. In the event any building, structure or utility is erected, constructed, reconstructed, altered, repaired, 
converted, demolished, moved, maintained or used in violation of this Code, the City or any proper person may institute 
an appropriate action or proceedings to prevent the unlawful erection, construction, reconstruction, alteration, repair, 
conversion, maintenance or occupancy, and to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to prevent the occupancy of said 
building, structure or land. The imposition of any penalty thereunder shall not preclude the City or any proper person 
from instituting any appropriate action or proceeding to require compliance with the provisions of this Code, and with 
administrative orders and determination made thereunder. 

SECTION 112 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

112.1 Creation. There is hereby created a Board of Appeals (the "Board"), which shall consist of 5 members and 3 
alternates appointed by the Mayor. The Board shall be comprised of the following persons: 

1 . One professional engineer registered in the state of Colorado. 

2. One architect licensed in the state of Colorado. 

3. One person who is the holder of a City Building Contractor Class A , B or C license. 

4. Two citizen members who are not associated with the building industry. 

Two alternates shall be a professional engineer registered in Colorado and an architect licensed in Colorado, respectively. 
A third alternate shall be a citizen not associated with the building industry. Alternates may appear at all meetings and 
shall be allowed to vote even if not filling a temporary vacancy. 

112.2 Secretary. There shall be a Secretary of the Board, furnished by the Agency. The Secretary shall be the custodian 
of the records, shall conduct official correspondence of the Board and generally be responsible for clerical work of the 
Board. The Secretary shall be present at all meetings and shall present all relevant information regarding appeals to the 

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Board, including the application and other information submitted by the Applicant prior to the hearing. The Secretary 
shall notify all interested parties regarding matters of the Board. 

112.3 Fire Department Representative. The Chief of the Fire Prevention and Investigation Division, or his authorized 
representative, shall be an ex-officio member to the Board without voting power. Terms of office and remuneration shall 
not be applicable to this member. 

112.4 Terms. As of the effective date of this Ordinance, the members of the Board of Appeals as constituted under the 
Amendments to the Building Code for the City and County of Denver, as adopted by Ordnance number 263, Series of 
1999 shall continue to serve for the unexpired portion of their terms. The Mayor shall appoint Board members and 
alternates as necessary to fill expiring terms and such terms shall be for 3 calendar years. No member of the Board shall 
serve more than 3 consecutive full terms or a total of more than 9 consecutive calendar years. Any vacancy that occurs in 
the Board shall be filled by the Mayor for the unexpired term of that Board member. Board members may be removed 
only for cause upon written charges. 

112.5 Procedures - Meetings - Quorum. 

1. Regular Meetings. Regular meetings shall be held once each month, or as often as may be required by the 
Agency. At the first regular meeting of each calendar year, the Board shall elect a Chairman and a V ice- 
Chairman. The Chairman of the Board shall require that all members of the Board be polled during voting at the 
meeting. Three members of the Board shall constitute a quorum. 

2. Special Meetings. Special meetings may be held at the call of the Chairman and at such times as the Board shall 
determine. The Board, the Agency or an appellant may request a special meeting. Any special meeting held at 
the request of an appellant shall be paid for by the appellant in the amount of $150.00. Three members of the 
Board shall constitute a quorum at special meetings. 

3. Business Meetings. Business meetings of the Board may be called by the Chairman of the Board. 

4. Public Notice. Public notice shall be given of all meetings and all meetings shall be open to the public except 
executive sessions or business meetings. 

5. Notice. Due notice of all meetings shall be given by the Secretary to all parties in interest, including the Agency. 
The Agency shall be permitted to intervene, for and on behalf of the City, in all public meetings. 

6. Oath/Subpoena. The Chairman may administer oaths, accept affirmations and compel the attendance of 
witnesses. A failure or refusal to appear in response to a subpoena issued by the Board shall constitute a violation 
of this Code. 

7. Agency/Interested Party. At any public meeting a representative of the Agency and Fire Department and any 
other interested party may appear in person, by agent or by attorney, offer evidence and testimony and 
cross-examine witnesses. All evidence and testimony shall be presented publicly. The Board may take judicial 
notice of facts to the same extent and in the same manner as courts of record and may consider relevant facts 
within the personal knowledge of any member of the Board that are stated into the record by such member. 

8. Recording. All meetings before the Board shall be recorded either by electronic means or by a Certified Court 
Reporter. 

112.6 Powers and Duties of the Board. 

1. Rules and Procedures. The Board shall adopt rules and procedures governing all proceedings before it 
consistent with the provisions set forth herein. The rules and regulations shall include proper procedures and time 
periods for applying to the Board, contents of the application and time allotted for each case. 

2. Powers. Subject to the limitations enumerated herein, the Board shall have and may exercise the following 
powers: 

A. Administrative Review. To hear and decide appeals where it is alleged there is error in any order, 
requirement, decision or determination made by the Agency in the enforcement of this Code. 

B. Variances. To hear, grant or deny requests for a variance from the terms of the Code or from an order or 
decision of the Agency upon finding that the following conditions exist: 

i. That the applicant properly applied for a variance under Section 113. 

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ii. That owing to Exceptional and extraordinaiy circumstances, there are practical difficulties or 
unnecessary hardship involved in carrying out the strict letter of the Code. 

iii. That the variance will not weaken the general purposes of the Code. 

iv. That the variance will be in harmony with the spirit and purposes of the Code. 

V. That the variance will not adversely affect the public health and safety. 

vi. That the variance will not adversely affect the structural integrity of the building. 

vii. That the variance will not adversely affect the fire safety of the building. 

C . Alternate Methods and Materials. To hear and decide appeals from the Agency denial of an application for 
alternate materials and methods of construction and equipment under Section 110 herein, after the applicant 
has obtained an approval or certified test results from an approved testing agency. All relevant information 
and documentation shall be submitted to the Board prior to the hearing. The decision of the Agency shall not 
be overturned unless the Board shall find that the following conditions exist: 

i. That the applicant properly applied under the terms of Section 110. 

ii. That the proposed design is satisfactory and that the alternate is, for the purpose intended, the equivalent 
of that prescribed in this Code. 

iii. That the proposed alternate will not weaken the general purposes of this Code. 

iv. That the proposed alternate will be in harmony with the spirit and purposes of this Code. 

V. That the proposed alternate will not adversely affect the public health and safety. 

vi. That the proposed alternate will not adversely affect the structural integrity of the building. 

vii. That the proposed alternate will not adversely affect the fire safety of the building. 

viii.That a written request for an extension of a temporary certificate of occupancy was filed at least 30 days 
prior to the expiration of any temporary certification of occupancy when applicable. 

D. Stay of Enforcement. The Board shall have the power to stay the enforcement of any order issued by the 
Agency unless the Building Official certifies that a stay of the order or denial would, in the opinion of the 
Building Official based on facts stated in the request for a variance, cause imminent peril to life or property. 
A stay shall not constitute a variance, shall be personal to the applicant and not transferable, and shall be 
subject to the terms and conditions imposed by the Board. 

3. Additional Powers. The Board shall have and exercise the powers hereinafter set forth in connection with 
Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code. In the exercise of its powers, the Board may reverse or affirm, wholly 
or partly, or may modify the order, requirement, decision or determination as ought to be made, and, to that end, 
shall have all the powers of the officer or department from whom the appeal is taken. Notwithstanding the above 
and any other part of this Section 112, the Board shall not have these powers with respect to Articles I, IV, V, and 
VIII of Chapter 10. 

A. Administrative Review. To hear and decide appeals where it is alleged there is error in any order, 
requirement, decision or determination made by an administrative official in the enforcement of Chapter 10 of 
the Revised Municipal Code. 

B. Variations. To authorize, upon appeal in specific cases, such variations from the terms of Chapter 10 of the 
Revised Municipal Code, subject to terms and conditions fixed by the Board, as will not be contrary to the 
public interest where, owing to Exceptional and extraordinary circumstances, literal enforcement of the 
provisions of Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code would result in unnecessary hardship. Every 
variation authorized hereunder shall not be personal to the applicant therefore, but shall not be transferable 
and shall run with the land. No variation shall be authorized hereunder unless the Board shall find that all of 
the following conditions exist: 

i. That the use proposed by the applicant is a permitted use in the zoning district applicable to the subject 
land. 



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ii. That literal enforcement of Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code would preclude a reasonable 
development of the land of the applicant for the use proposed. 

iii. That the development of the land proposed by the applicant would not be such as to defeat the purpose of 
Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code. 

iv. That the development proposed by the applicant is the minimum development which would be needed to 
secure for the applicant from the land a reasonable return in sen/ice, use or income. 

V. That the development proposed by the applicant would not result in damage to neighboring properties or 
public lands. 

4. Decision of the Board. In the exercise of the powers described above, the Board may reverse or affirm, wholly 
or in part, or may modify the order, requirements, decision or determination appealed from; may impose 
conditions or requirements as deemed necessary; and may make such order, decision or determination as ought to 
be made and has the right to hold cases in abeyance until proper information needed by the Board is supplied. 
Decisions shall be filed with the Agency as a matter of public record. 

112.7 Procedure and Notice. Upon written receipt of a request for a variance, notice of the request shall be sent to the 
Fire Department, the City Attorney and the owner of the real estate affected by the request for a variance. No variance 
shall be granted until 15 days after the required notifications are mailed. 

112.8 Limitations of Powers. 

1. The Board shall issue a written decision, based on evidence presented at the public meeting, setting forth the 
necessary findings of fact and the final decision of the Board. A copy of this decision shall be mailed by the 
Secretary to all interested parties who received notice under subsection 112.7, including the Agency. The Board 
may order that a copy of the decision be recorded in the office of the Denver Clerk and Recorder. 

2. The concurring vote of 3 members of the Board, or a majority of those present and voting, whichever is greater, 
shall be necessary to decide any matter upon which the Board is required to pass under this section of this Code. 

3. The Board of Appeals shall have no authority to review administrative decisions or grant variances to the 
provisions of Chapters 1 of this Code except where specifically provided by the following Sections: Section 103.6 
Orders; Section 108 Notice and Abatement of Unsafe Buildings, Structures or Utilities; Section 110 Alternate 
Materials and Methods of Construction and Equipment; Section 122.3 Application and Fee; Section 160 
Certificate of Occupancy; and Section 162 Permits for Temporary Building. 

4. Any determination or order of the Agency shall be presumed to be correct until evidence is introduced that would 
support a contraiy determination. 

5. Findings of Fact. Every decision of the Board shall be based upon findings of fact and every finding of fact shall 
be supported in the record of its proceedings. The enumerated conditions required to existing on any matter upon 
which the Board is authorized to pass under Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code or to effect any variations in 
Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code shall be construed as limitations on the power of the Board to act. A 
mere finding or recitation of the enumerated conditions unaccompanied by findings of specific facts shall not be 
deemed findings of fact and shall not be deemed compliance with Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code. 

6. Powers Construed. Nothing contained in this article shall be construed to empower the Board to change the terms 
of Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code or to effect changes in any map incorporated therein. The powers of 
the Board shall be so construed that the intent of Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code and the maps 
incorporated therein are enforced. 

112.9 Compensation. Each member of the Board shall receive $70.00 per meeting attended regardless of number or type 
of cases heard. 

SECTION 113 
APPEALS 

113.1 Method of Application Fee. Prior to action by the Board, an application shall be filed with the Agency on a form 
providing the necessary information required by the Board. An appeal shall not be considered unless filed with the 
Agency at least 15 days prior to the meeting. Upon filing the application, a fee of $70.00 shall be paid to the City. All 

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checks shall be made payable to the Manager of Revenue, and shall be paid in the office of the Agency. This fee is not 
refundable. 

113.2 Grievance. Any person or city agency aggrieved by a decision of the Agency; any person or city agency claiming 
practical difficulties or unnecessary hardships in complying with the strict letter of the Code or Chapter 10 of the Revised 
Municipal Code; or where it is alleged there is error in any order, requirement, decision or determination made by the 
Agency, may, within 30 days of the date of notice of such decision or order, appeal the decision or order of the Agency by 
filing an application with the Board. 

Exception: 

Appeals of notices issued under Section 108.8, where such notice is personally sen/ed or delivered by overnight 
mail, shall be made within 10 days of the delivery of such notice or the refusal to accept such notice. 

113.3 Unsafe Condition. Whenever the owner or legally responsible person of an alleged unsafe building, structure or 
utility or other condition does not agree with the order from the Agency as to the correction to be made, the owner shall 
have the right to appeal to the Board within 30 days from the date of said order. In the appeal, the owner shall state how 
the owner proposes to make the building, structure, utility or other condition safe and, if required by the Board, the owner 
shall submit detailed engineering analysis or recommendations, accompanied by plans and specifications prepared by a 
Colorado licensed Architect or Colorado registered Professional Engineer, as prescribed in this Building Code. The 
Board may require substantiating data concerning the removal or other remedial steps to be taken to render the building, 
structure, utility or other condition safe. 

113.4 Hazard. In any matter in which an order or notice relating to an unsafe building or structure is appealed, the 
Agency may certify to the Board that the building or structure could become an imminent hazard, in which case the Board 
shall schedule a meeting within 3 work days to hear said appeal. 

SECTION 114 

APPEALS FROM DECISIONS OF THE BOARD 

114.1 Procedure. Any person aggrieved by the City, or any officer. Agency or division of the City may have a decision 
of the Board reviewed in the manner provided by the Colorado Rules of Civil Procedure. The Board shall not be required 
to return the original papers acted upon by it, but shall return copies thereof. The returned copies shall concisely set forth 
other pertinent facts and material to the decision appealed from and shall be verified. 

114.2 Effect of Appeal. The issuance of a writ on a petition hereunder shall not stay proceedings upon the decision 
appealed from; but tiie court, on application after notice to tiie Board and on due cause shown, may grant a restraining 
order. 

114.3 Transcript Costs. Whenever a transcript is demanded by the person taking the appeal, or when a transcript is 
furnished by the Board pursuant to court order, the cost of preparing the transcript of proceedings shall be borne by the 
appellant, in tiie amount of at least $200.00. 

SECTION 115 

VALIDITY OF BUILDING CODE 

If any Section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of tiie Code is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, such 
decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of the Code. 

SECTION 116 
LIABILITY 

The Building Official, or authorized employee or representative charged with the enforcement of this Code, acting in good 
faith and without malice in the discharge of his duties, shall not thereby render themself personally liable for any damage 
that may accrue to persons or property as a result of any act or by reason of any act or omission in the discharge of his 
duties. Any suit brought against the Building Official or employee because of such act or omission performed by them in 
the enforcement of any provision of the Codes or the Charter, or other pertinent laws or ordinances implemented through 

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the enforcement of this Code or enforced by the Agency, shall be defended in accordance with Section 108 of Chapter 24, 
Article 10, C.R.S. 

This Code shall not be construed to relieve from or lessen the responsibility of any person owning, operating or 
controlling any building or structure for any damages to persons or property caused by defects, nor shall the Agency or 
City be held as assuming any such liability by reason of the inspections authorized by this Code or any certificates of 
compliance or occupancy issued under this Code. 

Sections 117 through 119 are reserved. 

SECTION 120 

LICENSING, CERTIFICATION, REGISTRATION 

This Chapter provides for the licensing of all persons, the certification of supervisory personnel, registration and other 
types of certifications. For Fire Department license requirements for fire protection and fire alarm see the Administrative 
Section 112.2 of the International Fire Code Amendments (IFCA) 

SECTION 121 
AUTHORITY 

121.1 Licenses. The Agency is vested with the authority to establish licensing procedures, to qualify applicants for 
licenses and to issue, revoke, renew and suspend licenses. 

121.2 Certificates. The Agency is vested with the authority to establish certification procedures, prequalify applicants 
and issue, revoke, renew and suspend certificates. 

SECTION 122 

LICENSES OR REGISTRATION 

122.1 Definitions. 

1. A license is authority granted by the City to a person, agency or political entity to perform the work authorized by 
the license. 

2. A registration is authority granted by the City to an electrical contractor registered by the State of Colorado to 
perform the work authorized by said registration. 

122.2 Licenses or Registration Required. Licenses shall be required for all types of work described in this Chapter. 
Plumbing contractors shall be licensed by the Agency and shall have a master plumber license issued by the State of 
Colorado as the licensee or a full time employee of the contractor shall be registered as a master plumber. Electrical 
contractors registered by the State of Colorado shall also register with the Agency. Electrical registrants are required to 
comply with all the requirements of this Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Public utility companies will not be required to obtain licenses when engaged in the installation, operation 
and maintenance of their equipment used for the production, generation or distribution of the utility, product 
or service through the facilities owned or operated by the utility company to the point of customer service. 

2. Work performed by a home owner of a single family dwelling buildings, townhouses and U Occupancies 
when work is performed under a permit authorized by Section 151.2.3. 

3. Upon prior approval by the Agency, a licensed Building Contractor Class A, B or C, and a homeowner, when 
constructing single family buildings may have unlicensed subcontractors working under the licensed 
contractor's or homeowner's building permit. This does not apply to Utility or Roofing Contractor. 

122.3 Application. Every applicant for a license shall fill out a form provided by the Agency. The name of the certified 
supervisor shall appear on the license application. The applicant shall be notified of the action taken on the license 
application by the Agency. If the license is approved, the applicant shall procure this license within 90 days after 
notification. Failure of the applicant to procure the license shall require the filing of a new application with fee. If the 

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application for license is disapproved by the Agency, the applicant may appeal to the Board of Appeals in the manner 
provided for in this Building Code. 

122.4 Certified Supervisor Required. Where required each licensee shall be required to have in his employ a supervisor 
who holds a Supen/isor Certificate of Qualification for that particular license. A plumbing contractor, shall be required to 
have in his employ a holder of a State of Colorado Master Plumbers License as the required supervisor. The license shall 
be valid only as long as the named supen/isor remains in the employ of the licensee in an active, full-time capacity. 
"Active, full-time capacity" shall mean that the supervisor shall be available at the local office of the company, at home or 
at the job site within a reasonable period of time. The supervisor shall take an active role in supervising and reviewing all 
work performed and materials used by the company in the process of construction. If the supervisor should leave the 
employ of the licensee, the licensee shall notify the Agency within 3 working days after the termination. Failure of the 
licensee to notify the Agency shall be cause for suspension or revocation of the license. The licensee shall be required to 
obtain a certified supervisor within 30 working days after the date the supervisor leaves the employ of the licensee. If a 
supervisor is not obtained within the 30- working- day period, the license shall be deemed suspended until the supervisor is 
obtained and the Agency notified. 

1. Individual. If the licensee is an individual, the licencee also may qualify as the Supervisor for that license, after 
examination. 



2. Not Required. Electrical registration shall not require a certified supervisor. 



SECTION 123 

CLASSIFICATION OF LICENSES AND REGISTRATION 

123.1 General There shall be various classes of licenses and an electrical registration and the holder thereof shall be 
authorized to perform the following: 

1. Building Contractor Class A (General Contractor ICC Classification). To erect, add to, alter, demolish or repair 
any building or structure. All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Class A 
Construction Supervisor Certificate. 

2. Building Contractor Class B (Building Contractor ICC Classification). To erect, add to, alter or repair any 
building or structure of the following construction types: 

A . Types I or II limited in height to less than a high rise and in area to that allowed for a Type III building. 

B. Type III, IV orV buildings. 

The demolition of any one and two-dwelling unit buildings or one-story building or structure is permitted. The 
contractor may install nonbearing partitions, do interior finish work, or replace windows from the interior side in 
any type of building or structure. All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of Class A or B 
Construction Supervisor Certificate. 

3. Building Contractor Class C (Residential Contractor ICC Classification). To erect, add to, alter or repair one 
and two family dwellings U Occupancy buildings and attached single unit dwellings (townhouses). The 
demolition of any one and two-dwelling unit building or U Occupancy building or structure is permitted. All 
work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of Class A, B or C Construction Supervisor 
Certificate. 

4. Building Specialty Contractor Class D. To perform building construction work which is covered by the Code, 
but is not assigned to any other license listed in this section. All work shall be performed under the supervision of 
the holder of the particular Class D Supervisor's Certificate. Those building construction activities shall be 
approved separately and shall include but not be limited to the following: 

Antennas. Antennas attached to buildings or freestanding. This includes antenna towers. Not allowed to 
alter any structural members of a building. 

Building insulation. 

Concrete and foundations. Combined excavating, shoring, piles, caissons and drilled shafts and cast-in- 
place concrete. 



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Concrete reinforcing steel placers. Placement of reinforcing bars, pre- or post- tensioning steel, bar supports 
and welded wire fabric for reinforced concrete construction. 

Curtain walls. Installation of curtain walls and storefronts. 

Custom size replacement windows. Work limited to townhouses, one and two family dwelling unit 
buildings not requiring any structural alterations. 

Fence structures. 

Fire doors. 

Fireproofing. Application of fireproof ing materials. 

Inside tap and backflow preventor. 

Lathing; plastering and dry wall. Installation of all latiiing, plastering and dry wall including the installation 
of nonbearing partitions, stiacco or exterior texturing of buildings or stiiictures and suspended ceiling systems. 

Masonry. Laying and forming all types of masonry. 

Material handling equipment. 

Non-Structural Residential Remodel. The specifications for this type are two years of field experience in 
framing, drywall, and finish work. This is for single- family, duplex or town home properties for residential 
basement finish, and kitchen and bath remodels only. This is for Non-Bearing and Non- Structural work only. 

Open deck. Including supporting foundation and attachment to buildings. Does not allow construction of 
shade devices or roof structures. Work to be done only on one and two family dwellings. 

Outdoor stage erection: Erection of outdoor stages, mobile stages, platforms or reviewing stands. 

Overhead doors. 

Pneumatic tubes. 

Power-operated door installers. 

Pre-cast concrete building units. The erection of precast concrete stinctiaral units. 

Prefabricated patioS; carports, canopies and awnings. 

Racks for high piled storage. 

Raised access floor. 

Retaining walls. 

Roof covering and waterproofing. Installation of commercial and residential roof coverings, including 
valleys, gutters, downspouts and waterproofing. 

Scaffold erection. 

Security bars, grills and grates. 

Siding. 

Sign Erection (Non-Electrical). The specifications for this type are Two years of field experience in installing 
wall and ground signs not exceeding 200 square feet or exceeding 10 feet in height. 

Structural metals. The fabrication and erection of structiaral metal members for all buildings or structures. 

Swimming pools. Installation of swimming pools required by this Code. 

Temporary prefabricated mobile buildings. Setting up temporary buildings. 

Tenant finish (Commercial). Interior nonbearing and nonstructural work only. Four (4) years of field 
experience as a supen/isor or general contractor in commercial tenant finish work. 

Tile; marble; sandstone; granite; terrazzO; chemical broadcast and troweled floor finish systems. Install 
and remove from existing construction. 

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Trash chute. Factory assembled with all joints welded and installed in accordance with manufacturer's 
installation instructions and approved by Agency. 

Wheelchair and Stair Lift. Installation of wheelchair lift, maximum lift of 4 feet, and stair lift installation in 
1 (one) and 2 (two) family dwellings include townhomes. A separate electrical permit will be required in 
addition to the IR construciton permit for instllation. 

Wood Framing. The fabrication and erection of wood framing for all types of buildings. 

5. Access Control System Contractor. Access Control System Contractor to install, add to, alter or repair control 
units, electric door hardware, wiring and raceways electrically interconnected to control and regulate ingress and 
egress. Voltages shall not exceed 48 volts or the system shall be power limited as defined by the National Electric 
Code. Complete conduit or raceway systems shall not be installed by the holder of this license. All work shall be 
performed under the supervision of the holder of an Access Control Supervisor's Certificate. A certified 
supervisor shall be present at all work sites at all times that work is being performed. 

6. Boilermaker Contractor. To install, assemble or repair steam and hot water boilers, all pressure and 
nonpressure vessels, precipitators, breeching, metal stacks, plates and casings. All work shall be performed under 
the supervision of the holder of a Boilermaker Supervisor Certificate. 

7. Demolition Contractor Class A. To demolish any building, structure, utility or portion thereof. All work shall 
be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Class A Demolition Supervisor Certificate. 

8. DemoUtion Contractor Class B. To demolish any building not more than 30 feet in height. All work shall be 
performed under the supervision of the holder of a Class A or B Demolition Supervisor Certificate. 

9. Electrical Registration. Performs all work authorized by the Registration issued by the State of Colorado. 

10. Electrical Signal Contractor. To install, add to, alter or repair electrical wiring and equipment for fire alarm, fire 
detection, emergency voice communication systems, electrical signaling and control wiring. Voltages shall not 
exceed 48 volts or the system shall be power limited as defined by the National Electrical Code. The holder of this 
license shall not install complete conduit or raceway systems. All work shall be performed under the supervision of 
the holder of an Electrical Signal Supervisor Certificate. 

11. Elevator Contractor. To install, add to, alter or repair elevators, escalators, moving sidewalks, moving ramps, 
dumbwaiters, stage lifts, manlifts and amusement devices which employ ropes, cables, pulleys or platforms. In 
addition, this license shall include electrical work from the elevator controls to elevator equipment. This work does 
not include termination to any fire alarm system. All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of 
an Elevator Supervisor Certificate. 

12. ]F]Fire Protection Contractor Class A. To install, add to, alter or repair fire-extinguishing systems of all types. 
All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Class A Fire Protection Supervisor Certificate. 

13. [FJEire Protection Contractor Class B. To install, add to, alter or repair automatic fire sprinkler and standpipe 
systems of all types. All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Class A or Fire Protection 
Supervisor Certificate. 

14. [FJEire Protection Contractor Class C. To install, add to, alter or repair approved nonwater, factory engineered 
extinguishing systems. All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Class A or C Fire 
Protection Supervisor Certificate. 

15. Gas Service Contractor. To install, add to, alter or repair the following equipment, which utilizes gas or liquid 
fuel: 

A . G as and liquid fuel piping. 

B . G as and liquid fuel controls. 

C. Commercial cooking equipment. 

D. Afterburners. 

E. Ranges. 

F. Dryers. 



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G. Conversion burners. 

H. Venting of domestic water heaters, dryers and incinerators. 

I . W ater heaters not exceeding 1 00 M B tu input. 

J . Low voltage wiring which does not exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in a conduit or raceway. 

All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Gas Service Supervisor Certificate or a 
Heating and Ventilating Class A Supervisor Certificate 

16. Heating and Ventilating Contractor Class A. To install, add to, alter or repair warm air heating, venting, 
ventilation, evaporative cooling, exhaust systems and their appurtenances, ductwork, dust collection systems, 
domestic and commercial range hoods, water heaters not exceeding 100 Mbtu input, gas piping; burners, controls 
and venting, trash and laundry chutes; exterior sheet metal, duct insulation, low voltage wiring which does not 
exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in a conduit or raceway and maximum of 10 tons of refrigeration when it is 
utilized for comfort cooling and the refrigerating system is self-contained. This refrigeration shall not include 
systems with precharged lines or separate air-cooled condenser or chilled water systems. All work shall be 
performed under the supervision of the holder of a Class A Heating and Ventilating Supervisor Certificate. 

17. Heating and Ventilating Contractor Class B. To install, add to, alter or repair, in one or two-family dwellings, 
townhomes or U Occupancies only, warm air heating systems and their appurtenances, ductwork, ventilation, 
evaporative cooling, duct insulation, exterior sheet metal, gas piping; burners, venting and controls, water heaters 
not exceeding 100 Mbtu input and low voltage wiring which does not exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in a 
conduit or raceway. All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Class A or B Heating 
and Ventilating Supervisor Certificate. 

18. Hot Water Contractor. To install, add to, alter or repair, in one or two-family dwellings, townhomes or Group 
U Occupancy only, hot water heating systems and their appurtenances, solar water heating, water heaters, gas 
piping and controls, pipe insulation and low voltage wiring which does not exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in 
a conduit or raceway. All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Steam and Hot Water 
or Hot Water Supervisor Certificate. 

19. Moving Contractor. Moving of all types of buildings or structures. All work shall be performed under the 
supervision of the holder of a Moving Supervisor Certificate. 

20. Plumbing Contractor Class A. To install, add to, alter or repair sanitary plumbing, potable water supply piping 
and appliances connected thereto, storm sewer, gas piping, water heaters, gas ranges, domestic gas incinerators, 
swimming pool and spa piping, solar plumbing utilized for potable water, and all medical gas and vacuum 
systems in health care facilities. All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of a State of 
Colorado Master Plumbers License. 

21. Refrigeration Contractor Class A. To install, add to, alter or repair refrigeration systems and appurtenant 
cooling towers, pipe insulation and low voltage wiring which does not exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in a 
conduit or raceway. A permit or license is not required for the installation of self-contained window type air 
conditioners. All work shall be performed under the supervision of a Class A Refrigeration Supervisor 
Certificate. 

22. Refrigeration Contractor Class B. To install, add to, alter or repair, in Group one and two family dwellings, 
townhouses and Group U Occupancies, refrigeration systems consisting of self-contained refrigeration systems of 
5 tons or less, the installation of precharged systems utilizing Group 1 Refrigerants and gas- fired absorption 
chillers. All work shall be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Class A or B Refrigeration 
Supervisor Certificate. 

23. Sign Contractor. To, install, erect or maintain all types of signs unless exempt by Section 150. All work shall 
be performed under the supervision of the holder of a Sign Supervisor Certificate. 

24. Steam and Hot Water Contractor. To install, add to, alter or repair steam and hot water heating systems, solar 
water heating; process piping and related appurtenances; piping used for the transmission of chemicals, gases, air 
and other products; all items regulated by tiie Mechanical and Plumbing Code for boilers, pressure vessels, steam 
and water heating systems and process piping; low- static gas- fired unit heaters; industrial ovens; burners; 
controls; piping and controls utilizing gas, liquid or solid fuel; water heaters; pipe insulation and low-voltage 

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wiring which does not exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in a conduit or raceway. All work shall be performed 
under the supervision of the holder of a Steam and Hot Water Supervisor Certificate. 

25. Water Service Contractor. To install or repair service lines and appurtenances from the corporation cock on the 
main up to and including: 

A . The first valve downstream of the meter, for an inside meter setting; or 

B . The first valve inside the structure, for an outside meter setting. 

This license shall not permit the installation of the water meter All work shall be performed by or under the 
supervision of the holder of a Water Service Supervisor Certificate or a State of Colorado Master Plumbers 
License. 

SECTION 124 
LICENSE FEES 

124.1 Annual Fees Required. An annual license fee of $80.00 shall be paid to the Agency. 

124.2 License Fee Refund. License fees shall not be refundable. 

SECTION 125 
LICENSE RENEWAL 

All licenses are subject to annual renewal. 

SECTION 126 
REISSUANCE OF LICENSE 

The Agency shall have the authority to reissue a license without the filing of a new application, provided that the 
reissuance is accomplished within one year after the license has expired. 

SECTION 127 

LICENSEE AND REGISTRANT RESPONSIBILITY 

127.1 Licensee Responsibility. Licensees shall be responsible for performing all work in conformity with the provisions 
of the Code, including, but not limited to, the following items: 

1. To report in writing to the Agency, within 3 working days, any accident occurring on any construction which 
results in injury or damage to the building, structure or utility, and any accident occurring during demolition. 

2. To provide minimum safety measures and equipment to protect workmen and the public. 

3. To present the license card when requested by the Agency. 

4. To employ a full-time qualified supervisor certified in accordance with the requirements of this Code. 

5. To employ qualified journeymen certified in accordance with the requirements of this Code. 

6. To obtain a permit when required prior to commencing work. 

7. To faithfully construct, without departure from drawings and specifications filed and approved by the Agency and 
permit issued for same, unless changes are approved by the Agency. 

8. To complete all work authorized by the permit issued under the authority of this Code, unless acceptable cause is 
indicated to the Agency. 

9. To obtain inspection services where required by this Code. 

10. To pay any fee assessed under authority of this Code. 

11. To obey all orders or notices issued under the authority of this Code. 

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AMENDMENTS TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE 2006 DENVER BUILDING CODE 



12. To provide all vehicles used in the operation of the business with the identification in letters a minimum of 2 
inches in height and a color contrasting to the background. The identification shall include the following 
information: 

A. Name of company. 

B. Business address. 

C . B usiness telephone. 

13. To provide toilet facilities prior to and during construction or demolition. 

14. To maintain with the Agency a current mailing address. Any Order, Notice, Summons and Complaint or other 
Agency communication, whether delivered by personal service or by certified, registered or first class mail sent to 
that address, shall constitute service. 

127.2 Registrant Responsibility. Registered electrical contractors shall comply with all provisions of Section 127.1 
above and in addition shall comply with all provisions of the Colorado State Electrical Board. 

127.3 Demolition and moving liability insurance. Any person, firm or corporation demolishing or moving any 
building, structure or utility shall provide insurance to cover bodily injury and property damage to the public or public 
property. A copy of the certificate of liability insurance shall be provided to the Agency. This insurance shall contain a 
noncancellation clause and be valid at all times during demolition or moving operations. 

Exception: 

Homeowners for the demolition of Group R3 or U Occupancies when approved by the Agency. 
127.3.1 Insurance amounts. The minimum amount of insurance to be provided shall be as follows: 
CONTRACTOR INSURANCE COVERAGE 

Class A Wrecking $500,000.00 

Class B Wrecking $300,000.00 

House Moving $300,000.00 

Additional insurance coverage may be required by the Office of Risk Management for contractors utilizing explosives 
in their demolition operations. 

SECTION 128 

LICENSE AND REGISTRATION CHANGES 

128.1 Change of Name. The change of name by a licensee or registrant shall be reported to the Agency within 15 days 
after making the change, on a form provided by the Agency. A $15.00 application fee shall be required. 

128.2 Change of Address. A change of address of a licensee or registrant shall be reported to the Agency within 15 days 
after making the change. 

128.3 New Licenses Required. A new license or registration shall be obtained within 30 days after the creation of a new 
legal entity, even through one or more of the members, officers or directors have a license or are registered. 

128.4 Dissolution. The dissolution of a corporation, partnership or other legal entity, which has been licensed or 
registered, terminates the license or registration and no person may operate under that license or registration. 

SECTION 129 

SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF LICENSE 

129.1 Authority. The Building Official may suspend or revoke a license when the licensee commits one or more of the 
following acts or omissions: 

1. Fails to comply with any of the licensee responsibilities as outlined in this Code. 

2. Conspires with any person to permit a license to be used by another person. 

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3. Acts in any capacity with persons to evade the provisions of this Code. 

4. Willfully violates or disregards any of the provisions of this Code. 

5. Intentionally fails to perform in accordance with any written contract to perform work, which is regulated by this 
Code. 

6. Creates, as a result of work performed, an unsafe condition as defined in Chapter 1 of this Code. 

7. Intentionally or fraudulently misrepresents the condition of any structure or utility, or the requirements of this 
Building Code. 

8. Repeatedly violates the provisions of this Code or repeatedly fails to obey orders in a timely fashion. 

129.2 Procedure. When any of the acts or omissions enumerated herein is committed by a license holder and the 
Building Official deems that the license shall be suspended or revoked, the action shall be as follows: 

1. Notification. The Agency shall send written notice to the license holder, by certified mail or by personal service, 
identifying the acts of omission and indicating that the license will be suspended or revoked. The written notice 
shall advise the license holder that a "Request for Hearing" may be initiated as outlined in item 2. 

2. Request for Hearing. Upon receipt of the notice, the License holder may request a hearing to show cause why 
the License should not be suspended or revoked. This request shall be in writing to the Building Official within 7 
days after receipt of the notice. 

3. Time of Hearing. If a hearing is requested by the License holder, the Manager shall notify the License holder of 
the time, date and place of the hearing. Suspension or revocation of the license shall be stayed until after the 
hearing. In the event the License holder fails to appear, the license may be suspended by the Manager. 

4. Attendance. The License holder, the Agency and other interested parties may be in attendance at the hearing. 
Upon completion of the hearing, the Manager shall take all evidence available as a result of the Agency's 
investigation and all evidence presented at the hearing under advisement, and shall give written notice of the 
findings and ruling to the License holder by certified mail or personal service. 

5. Suspension or Revocation. Unless the license is being suspended or revoked under the emergency provisions of 
Section 129.3, the suspension or revocation shall take effect: 

A . Seven (7) days after receipt by the Licensee of the notification unless a hearing is requested. 

B. Upon the return by the U.S. Postal Service of the notification as undeliverable or refused at the address 
maintained by the licensee with the Agency. 

C. If a hearing has been requested by the licensee which resulted in the affirming of the Building Official's 
decision to suspend or revoke the licensee's license, upon receipt by the Agency of the Manager's decision. 

129.3 Emergency Suspension or Revocation. If the Building Official finds that cause exists for emergency suspension 
or revocation of a license and that continued work under the license could be hazardous to life or property, he may enter 
an order for the immediate suspension or revocation of the license, pending further investigation. The licensee may, 
within 7 days of receiving notice of the suspension, request a hearing before the Manager and such hearing shall be 
granted within 24 hours. The suspension or revocation is not stayed while the hearing is pending. 

129.4 Time of Suspension or Revocation. Time of suspension may be up to one year. Time of revocation may be from 
one year to five years. 

129.5 Delegation of Authority. The Manager may appoint a hearing officer to conduct the hearing. Final decision shall 
be rendered by the Manager. 

129.6 Right to Appeal. Any final decision by the Manager may be reviewed in the manner provided by the Colorado 
Rules of Civil Procedure. See Section 114. 

SECTION 130 
CERTIFICATES 



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130.1 Definition. A Certificate of Qualification is authority to perform certain skills and is issued by the Agency on the 
successful completion of an examination. This certificate is not transferable. The term "Certificate" means Certificate of 
Qualification. 

130.2 Reciprocal Certificate. The Agency may issue a certificate when the applicant has passed an examination 
equivalent, as determined by the Agency, to the examination given by the Agency for a Supervisor Certificate of 
Qualification and the applicant has submitted for Agency approval a completed BID application with supporting 
documents and required fees. 

130.3 Certificate Application. Every applicant for a Certificate shall be required to complete a form provided by the 
Agency. 

130.4 Examinations. All applicants for a Certificate shall have a written examination except for those who apply for a 
Construction D Supervisor Certificate, in which case they shall be examined for experience and training by a standard 
procedure established by the Agency. If an applicant who has successfully passed the examination given by the Agency 
fails to procure this Certificate within 180 days after notification, the Certificate shall be declared to be null and void and 
a new application and fee shall be filed. 

130.5 Certified Supervisors. 

1. Every supervisor required for a particular license shall be examined by the Agency, and if qualified, shall be 
issued a Supervisor Certificate of Qualification. The Certificate holder shall be entitled to perform and supervise 
the work in the particular skill for which he is qualified and certified. This Certificate is personal to that holder 
and shall not be construed to be a license. 

2. The Certificate holder shall actively supervise the workmen of the licensee by whom he is employed in 
accordance with Section 122.4. 

130.6 Certified Journeymen and Operators. 

1. Every Journeyman and Operator required by this Code shall be examined by the Agency and, if qualified, shall be 
issued a Journeyman or Operator Certificate of Qualification. The Certificate holder shall be entitled to perform 
and supervise the work in the particular skill for which he is qualified and certified. This certificate is personal to 
that holder and shall not be construed to be a license. 

2. The Certificate holder shall actively supervise the workmen of the licensee by whom he is employed in 
accordance with Section 132. 

SECTION 131 

CLASSIFICATION OF SUPERVISOR CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION 

A Supervisor Certificate for the particular work to be performed shall permit the holder to be a Supervisor under the 
licenses listed in Table No. 131. 



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TABLE NO. 131 
CLASSIFICATION OF SUPERVISOR 



Contractor License 


Supervisor Certificate Required 


Building Class A 


Construction Class A 


Building Class B 


Construction Class A or B 


Building Class C 


Construction Class A, B or C 


Building Class D 


Construction Class D 


Access Control System 


Access Control System 


Boilermaker 


Boilermaker 


Demolition Class A 


Demolition Class A 


Demolition Class B 


Demolition Class B 


Electrical Registration 


NOT REQUIRED 


Electrical Signal 


Electrical Signal 


Elevator 


Elevator 


Fire Protection Class A 


Fire Protection Class A 


Fire Protection Class B 


Fire Protection Class A or B 


Fire Protection Class C 


Fire Protection Class A or C 


Gas Service 


Gas Service or Heating and Ventilating Class A orB 


Heating & Ventilating Class A 


Heating & Ventilating Class A 


Heating & Ventilating Class B 


Heating & Ventilating Class A orB 


Hot Water 


Hot Water or Steam and Hot Water 


Moving 


Moving 


Plumbing Class A 


State of Colorado Master Plumber's License 


Refrigeration Class A 


Refrigeration Class A 


Refrigeration Class B 


Refrigeration Class A or B 


Sign 


Sign 


Steam and Hot Water 


Steam and Hot Water 


Water Service 


Water Service or State of Colorado Master Plumber's License 



SECTION 132 

CLASSIFICATION OF J OURNEYMAN AND OPERATOR CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION 

132.1 GeneraL Unless otherwise provided for in this Section or in this Building Code, all journeymen and operators 
required to be certified shall perform that work permitted under the provisions of licenses for a particular type of work. 
The work permitted by the certification shall be performed in the employ of the licensee as hereinafter set forth. 

132.2 Journeyman Certificate of Qualification. A Journeyman Certificate of Qualification shall be required in the 
following trades and shall entitle the individual to work only in the trade for which he is certified under a Certified 
Supervisor: 

1. Journeyman Boilermaker Certificate. Permits the installation and erection of steam and hot water boilers, 
pressure vessels, precipitators, incinerators, breeching, chimneys, plate and casings. The holder of this Certificate 
may perform this work only in the employ of a Boilermaker Contractor. 

2. Journeyman Electrical Signal Certificate. Permits the installation of electrical wiring and equipment for fire 
alarm, fire detection, emergency voice communication system, and electrical signaling and control wiring. 
Voltages shall not exceed 48 volts or the system shall be power limited as defined in the National Electrical Code. 



AMENDMENTS TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE 2006 DENVER BUILDING CODE 



Complete conduit or raceway systems shall not be installed by the holder of this Certificate. The holder of this 
Certificate shall perform this work only in the employ of an Electrical Signal Contractor. 

3. J ourneyman G as Service Certificate. Permits the installation of the following equipment utilizing gas or liquid 
fuel: 

A. Gas and liquid fuel piping. The low-voltage wiring permitted by this Certificate shall apply to gas or liquid 
fuel-fired appliances only. The holder of this Certificate may perform this work only when in the employ of a 
Gas Service Contractor or a Heating and Ventilating Contractor Class A or B. 

B . G as and liquid fuel controls. 

C. Commercial cooking equipment. 

D. Afterburners. 

E. Ranges. 

F. Dryers. 

G. Conversion burners. 

H. Venting of domestic water heaters, dryers and incinerators. 

I . W ater heaters not exceeding 1 00 B tu input. 

J. Low- voltage wiring which does not exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in a conduit or raceway. 

4. Journeyman Heating and Ventilating Certificate. Permits the installation of warm air heating, ductwork, 
ventilation and evaporative cooling, exterior sheet metal, water heaters not exceeding 100 Mbtu input, gas piping, 
burners, venting and controls, exhaust systems and appurtenances thereof, and low-voltage wiring which does not 
exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in a conduit or raceway. The holder of this Certificate may perform this work 
only in the employ of a Heating and Ventilating Contractor Class A or B. 

5. Journeyman Refrigeration Certificate. Permits the installation of refrigeration systems and appurtenant 
cooling towers, pipe insulation and low-voltage wiring which does not exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in a 
conduit or raceway. The holder of this Certificate may perform this work only in the employ of a Refrigeration 
Contractor Class A or B . 

6. Journeyman Steam Fitter Certificate. Permits the installation of steam and hot water heating systems; solar 
water heating; process and industrial piping and related appurtenances; piping used for the transmission of 
chemicals, gases, air, milk and other products transmitted through piping; and all items regulated by the 
Mechanical and Plumbing Code for boilers, pressure vessels, steam and water heating systems and process piping; 
low- static gas- fired unit heaters; industrial ovens; burners, piping and controls utilizing gas; low- voltage wiring 
which does not exceed 48 volts and is not enclosed in a conduit or raceway; commercial cooking equipment- 
commercial incinerators; and afterburners. The holder of this Certificate may perform this work only in the 
employ of a Steam and Hot Water Contractor or a Hot Water Contractor. 

132.3 Stationary Engineer and Operator Certificates. It shall be unlawful to operate any of the following equipment 
without the personal attendance of a properly Certified Stationaiy Engineer or a properly Certified Operator: 

1. Any steam boiler and appurtenances thereto, steam pumps, steam turbines, and steam engines where the steam 
pressure is in excess of 15 psi working pressure and where the equipment produces a total of 10 boiler horsepower 
or more at Denver altitude. 

2. Water heating systems when the water temperature exceeds 250 degrees F. in the system. 

3. Refrigeration systems having manual or semiautomatic control with charges of 1500 lbs. or more of Safety Group 
A 1 or B 1 refrigerants as outlined in the Mechanical Code. 

4. Built-up grouping of multiple refrigeration units where the refrigeration system charge is 1500 lbs. or more of 
Safety Group A 1 or B 1 refrigerants as outlined in the Mechanical Code. 

5. Refrigeration systems utilizing refrigerant other than Safety Group A 1 or B 1 as defined in the Mechanical Code and 
which contains a charge of 200 lbs. or more. NOTE: As used in this Section, "semiautomatic" shall mean plants or 

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systems which are provided with automatic safety controls by manual load proportioning controls requiring other 
than seasonal adjustments. 

Exception: 

Personal attendance shall not be required for refrigeration units, which are categorized in items 3 and 4 that: 

1. Have fully automatic safety controls which will shut down the unit when any one of the following conditions 
are detected: 

A . Excessive pressure in condenser. 

B . Excessive amperage draw. 

C . Improper voltage balance. 

D . Minimum temperature protection in evaporator. 

2. Are located in a mechanical room that is in compliance with IMC Chapter 11. 

3. Have immediate auto-dial notification to an approved constantly attended location. 

4. Have annual testing and calibration of all operating and safety controls as required by the manufacturers' 
specifications. Records shall be maintained and available for inspection by this Agency and the Fire 
Department. 

5. Have refrigerant vapor detectors that have local audible or visible alarm located inside and outside of the 
refrigeration equipment room. 

6. Have all safety controls that have individual manual reset to be reset only by a Certified Stationary Engineer, 
Refrigeration Operator or Refrigeration Journeyman/Supervisor. The control limits shall be as required by the 
manufacturers specifications for the specific refrigeration unit. 

132.4 Stationary Engineer Certificate. Permits the holder to take charge of and operate all steam boilers and 
appurtenances hereto, steam pumps, steam turbines, steam engines and mechanical refrigeration systems. 

132.5 Boiler Operator Certificate, Class A. Permits the holder to take charge of and operate all steam boilers and 
appurtenances, steam pumps, steam turbines and steam engines. 

132.6 Boiler Operator Certificate, Class B. Permits the holder to take charge of and operate all steam boilers and 
appurtenances, steam pumps, steam turbines and steam engines containing a steam pressure between 15 and 100 psi and 
where the equipment produces a total of between 10 and 100 horsepower at Denver altitude. 

132.7 Refrigeration Operator Certificate. Permits the holder to take charge of and operate mechanical refrigeration 
systems. 

132.8 Hoist Operator Certificate. It shall be unlawful to operate a construction hoist powered by steam, electricity or 
other power when such hoist sen/es buildings or structures under construction or demolition exceeding 25 feet in height 
unless said hoist is operated by a properly Certified Hoist Operator. This Section shall not be construed to include 
elevators as regulated and defined in this Code. 

Exception: 

Single drum material hoists not more than 25 feet in height and not carrying personnel do not require a Hoist 
Operator Certificate Holder. 

SECTION 133 

APPRENTICES AND TRAINEES 

133.1 General. This Section shall govern the crafts listed in this Chapter where a Journeyman Certificate holder is 
required. 

133.2 Requirements. Apprentices and trainees shall not be required to possess a Certificate, but shall be permitted to 
work as prescribed in other Sections of this Chapter. 

133.3 Definition. 

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1. An "apprentice" shall mean any person who has entered into an apprentice agreement which provides for 
participation in a program of training through employment and education in related and supplementary subjects. 

2. A "trainee" shall mean any person working at the trade under the direct supen/ision of a certified Journeyman or 
Supervisor. 

133.4 Work. An apprentice or trainee may perform any work which is distinctive to a specific craft, but only under the 
direction and supervision of a Certified Supervisor or Journeyman of the craft, during working hours. Persons working on 
tasks not distinctive to any specific craft shall not be classed as an apprentice. 

133.5 Employment of Apprentices. Contractors may employ apprentices or trainees for the licensed crafts or trades. 
The ratio of apprentices and trainees to Journeyman or Master Electrician employed shall not exceed one apprentice or 
trainee to one Journeyman or Master Electrician. The ratio of plumbing apprentices or trainees shall be 3 apprentices or 
trainees to one Master Plumber or Journeyman. 

133.6 Employer. All apprentices or trainees shall be in the employ of the licensed crafts where Journeymen Certificate 
holders are required. 

SECTION 134 
CERTIFICATE FEES 

134.1 Fees. Certificates of Qualification fees shall be paid every 3 years to the Agency in the amount as follows: 

Supervisor Certificate $60.00 

Journeyman Certificate $40.00 

Engineer Certificate $40.00 

Operator Certificate $40.00 

Exception: 

The certificate fees for employees of the City shall be waived when performing work for the City or when 
employed by the Agency. 

134.2 Certificate Fee Refund. Certificate fees are not refundable. 

SECTION 135 
CERTIFICATE RENEWAL 

135.1 Renewal and Expiration. Certificates shall be renewed every 3 years and expire on the date specified on the 
Certificate. No work shall commence or continue after the date of expiration. 

SECTION 136 
REISSUANCE 

136.1 General. The Agency shall have the authority to renew a Certificate, provided that the renewal is accomplished 
within the limits set forth herein. 

1. The Certificate may be reissued without a new application, provided that such reissuance is accomplished within 
one year after the Certificate has expired. 

2. If the Certificate holder reapplies within 3 years of the date of expiration, a new Certificate examination shall not 
be required. 

3. If the Certificate holder applies more than 3 years after expiration, a new Certificate examination shall be 
required. 

SECTION 137 

CERTIFICATE HOLDER RESPONSIBILITY 

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137.1 General. All Certificate holders shall be responsible to insure that the work performed by the licensee is in 
accordance with the requirements of this Code, without limitation, and to: 

1 . Have in possession at all times a Certificate. 

2 . Present a C ertif icate when requested by the A gency . 

3. Faithfully construct without departure from or disregard of approved drawings and specifications. 

4. Obey any order issued under authority of this Code. 

5. Pay any fee assessed under the authority of this Code. 

6. Obsen/e the safety requirements of this Code. 

7. Actively supervise and oversee all work performed by or for the licensee by whom he is employed. 

8. Be responsible for all permits being issued prior to the beginning of work. 

9. Maintain a current local mailing address and accept all mail so addressed. 

10. Out of state Certificate holders shall maintain a current local mailing address on file with Contractor Licensing 
and accept all mail so addressed for the duration of the job. 

11. Notify the Agency within 3 days whenever he leaves the employ of licensee. 

12. Provide minimum safety measures and equipment to protect workmen and the public. 

13. Faithfully construct, without departure from drawings and specifications filed and approved by the Agency and 
permit issued for same, unless changes are approved by the Agency. 

14. Complete all work authorized by the permit issued under the authority of the Agency, unless the cause of 
incomplete work is determined by the Agency to be not the fault of the Certificate holder. 

15. Obtain inspection services where required by the Agency. 

SECTION 138 

SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF CERTIFICATE 

138.1 Authority. The Building Official may suspend or revoke a Certificate for any one or more of the following acts or 
omissions: 

1. Incompetence. 

2 . M isuse of the C ertif icate. 

3. Failure to comply with any of the Certificate holder responsibilities outlined in Section 137. 

4. Knowingly conspire with a person to permit a license to be used by another person. 

5. Act as agent, partner, associate or in any capacity with persons to evade the provisions of this Code. 

6. Intentionally or fraudulently misrepresent the condition of any structure or utility or the requirements of this 
Code. 

7. Create, as a result of work performed, an unsafe condition as defined in Chapter 1 of this Code. 

8. Intentionally or fraudulently misrepresent the condition of any structure or utility or the requirements of this 
Code. 

9. Repeatedly or willfully violate the provisions of this Code or repeatedly fail to obey orders in a timely fashion. 

138.2 Procedures. When a Certificate holder commits any acts or omissions enumerated above and the Building Official 
deems that the Certificate shall be suspended or revoked, the action shall be as follows: 

1. Notification. The Agency shall send written notice to the certificate holder, by certified mail or by personal 
service, identifying the acts of omission and indicating that the certificate will be suspended or revoked. The 
written notice shall advise the certificate holder that a "Request for Hearing" may be initiated as outlined in item 
2. 

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2. Request for Hearing. Upon receipt of the notice, the Certificate holder may request a hearing to show cause why 
a certificate should not be suspended or revoked. This request shall be in writing to the Manager within 7 days 
after receipt of the notice. 

3. Time of Hearing. If a hearing is requested by the Certificate holder, the Manager shall notify the Certificate 
holder of the time, date and place of the hearing. Suspension or revocation of the certificate shall be stayed until 
after the hearing. In the event the Certificate holder fails to appear, the Certificate may be suspended by the 
Manager. 

4. Attendance. The Certificate holder, the Agency and other interested parties may be in attendance at the hearing. 
Upon completion of the hearing, the Manager shall take all evidence available as a result of the Agency's 
investigation and all evidence presented at the hearing under advisement, and shall give written notice of the 
findings and ruling to the Certificate holder by certified mail or personal service. 

5. Suspension or Revocation. Unless the certificate is being suspended or revoked under the emergency provisions 
of Section 138.3, the suspension or revocation shall take effect: 

A . Seven days after receipt by the certificate holder of the notification unless a hearing is requested. 

B. Upon the return by the US Postal Service of the notification as undeliverable or refused at the address 
maintained by the certificate holder with the Agency. 

C. If a hearing has been requested by the certificate holder which resulted in the affirming of the Building 
Official's decision to suspend or revoke the certificate holder's certificate, upon receipt by the Agency of the 
Manager's decision. 

138.3 Emergency Suspension or Revocation. If the Building Official finds that cause exists for the emergency 
suspension or revocation of a certificate and that continued work under the certificate could be hazardous to life or 
property, the Manager may enter an order for the immediate suspension of the certificate, pending further investigation. 
The certificate holder may, within 7 days of receiving notice of the suspension or revocation, request a hearing before the 
Manager and such hearing shall be granted within 24 hours. The suspension or revocation is not stayed while the hearing 
is pending. 

138.4 Time of Suspension or Revocation. Time of suspension may be up to one year. Time of revocation may be from 
one year to five years. 

138.5 Delegation of Authority. The Manager may appoint a Hearing Officer to conduct the hearing. The final decision 
shall be rendered by the Manager. 

138.6 Right to Appeal. Any final decision by the Manager may be reviewed in the manner provided by the Colorado 
Rules of Civil Procedure. See Section 114. 

SECTION 139 

EXAMINATION STANDARDS AND REVIEW 

139.1 Examination Standards. The Agency shall develop standards for the examination of applicants for Certificates. 
The standards shall be consistent with the purpose of this Code, which is to provide for the public health, safety and 
welfare to the extent that those persons examined are to be found qualified in terms of their skills. Building Code 
knowledge, practical experience and knowledge of pertinent laws to perform the construction work for which they may be 
certified. 

1. The Agency shall examine applicants in the following areas: 

A . A pplicable areas of the C ode. 

B. Technical knowledge. 

C. Skills. 

2. The Agency shall establish minimum standards for education and experience of the applicants. 

139.2 Citizen Review Board. The Agency may establish an examination standards Citizen Review Board to review and 
monitor the examination testing criteria. The Citizen Review Board members shall be representatives of the various 
segments of the construction industry, which are pertinent to the specific certification examinations. 

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139.3 Annual Review. The Standards shall be reviewed annually or more frequently if necessary to maintain the 
standards current with changes in the Code and building construction practices. 

Sections 140 through 149 are reserved. 

SECTION 150 

PERMITS, PLANS, INSPECTIONS, CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

150.1 Permits required. No person, business, corporation, agency or public, private or governmental institution shall 
erect, construct, enlarge, remodel, alter, repair, move, improve, remove, convert, demolish or change the occupancy of any 
building, structure or utility, or perform any other work regulated by this Code, or cause the same to be performed, in the 
City, without first having obtained a permit from the Agency for the specific work to be performed. This permit shall be 
displayed or available on the job site at all times. 

150.1.1 Pedestrian protection. The erection of covered walkway and railings for the protection of pedestrians 
around a construction, demolition or moving site. 

150.2 Exempted Work. The following construction is exempt from the permit requirements of this Code. Exemption 
from this Code shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner that violates the 
provisions of this Code or any other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction. Wastewater Management, Zoning 
Administration and Fire Department permits may be required. 

1. One-story detached accessory buildings or structures used as tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, 
provided that the projected roof area does not exceed 120 square feet (11 m^) and a maximLim height of 8 feet 

2. Fences of ary type not over 4 feet (1220 mon) hi^ Posthole-dug fences ijp to 8 feet (2440 rnon) hi^ such as chain 
link, cedar pine, redwood and wrou^t iron 

3. Oil demcks. 

4. Nonfixed and movable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions not over 5 feet 9 inches (1750 mn^ hi^ 

5. Retaining walls w^ch are not over 4 feet ( 1220 mn^ in hei^t measurBl from the bottom of the footing to the top of 
the wall, unless supporting a surdiarge or impounding Class I, II or III- A liquids. 

6. Water tanks sipxDrtBd dirBCtly vapon grade wtere the c^^adty does not exceed 5,000 gallons ( 18,930 L) and the ratio 
of hei^t to diameter or width does not exceed 2 to 1. 

7. Sidewalks and drivewcys less than 30 inches (760mn^ above grade and not over ar^ basement or story below and 
are not part of an accessible route. Uncovered decks less than 30 inches above grade and accessory to one and two 
family dwellings and townhomes. 

8. Painting, p^Dering, tiling, floor coverings, countertops, carpeting, caHnets, curtains, dr^Des and similar decoration 
items except those items regulated by Ch^Dter 8, IBC. 

9. Tenporary motion pcture, television and theater stage sets or scenesy . 

10. Window awnings sipported by an exterior wall of one and two family dwellings and townhomes and Groip U 
Ocopandes wtei proj ecting not more than 54 inches (1370 mn^ over privately owned property. 

11. Prefabricated swimnlng pools accessory to one and two fanlly dwellings and U Occipandes in w^ch the pool 
walls are entirely above the acj acent grade and wten utilities are provided 

12. Public utility: Construction, repair or maintenance of public utility equipment and facilities used in the 
distribution of their utility. This exenption includes buildings w^ose primary function is to house utility 
distribution or signal control equipment and not intended for human occipancy. RTD: Traction power 
substations, signal/communication relcy stations and houses and associated conduit and wiring for the operation 
of the light rail lines, the installation of the light rail tracks and associated passenger platforms on RTD ri^t-of- 
way. 

13. State and federal governments, their agencies or subdivisions, or contractors constructing improvements for said 
state and federal governments, their agencies or subdivisions, wten constmcting improvements to be used for and 
maintained entirely and strictly for the operation of said governments. 



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14. Replacement of glass not in hazardous locations (see IBC Section 2406.2). 

15. Site development work including grading, water detention/retention ponds and soil erosion contix)l. The Wastewater 
Division will require permits for this type of work. 

16. Denver Public Schools (D.P.S.): Construction, remodeling or repair of any plumbing or electrical system, except for 
fire alarm and detection systems, in any portion of a building in which instruction is or will be given by any D.P.S. 
school as long as such work is permiti:ed and inspected by the State Examining Board of Plumbers or tie State 
Electiical Board. 

17. All plumbing fixture replacement or repair. 

18. Tents, 200 sq. ft. or less and freestanding canopies 400 sq. ft. (37 m^) or less, open on 3 or moiB sides. 

19. Membrane structures, including tents and canopes of ar^ size, erected for a period of less than 180 dBys. 

20 . Nordllimnated signs of the following types: 
a Cloth signs mountBd directly on a wall. 

b. Wall signs not exceeding 200 sq. ft ( 19 rri ) in area 

c. Grc)und signs not exceeding 150 sq. ft (14 ni ) in area, or not exceeding 6 feet in height to tiie top of the sign. 

d. Arcade signs not exceeding 25 sq. ft (2.3 m^) in area on each side. 

21. Replacement of awning fabrics. 

22. Replacement of windows with no structural alterations and no change in size of opening in one and two family 
dwellings and townhomes. When structure is a designated structure for presentation or is located in a district for 
presentation pursuant to Chapter 30, Denver Revised Municipal Code, a building permit and approval from the 
Landmark Preservation Commission shall be required. 

23. Swings and other playground equipment 

150.2.1 Mechanical. No Permit Required For: 

All general repairs and replacements of like units unless the work involves disconnection and reconnection of any of the 
following: 

1 . Natural gas line (except replacement of gas valve with like unit). 

2 . Flue vent from fuel-fire appliance. 

3. Refrigerant line. 

4. Steam line or hot water line. 

5. Safety contiX)ls on high pressure boilers. 

No mechanical permit shall be required for bath fan installation in existing one and two family dwellings and 
townhouses, however, electrical and construction permits shall be required. 

150.2.2 Electrical. No Permit Required For: 

1 . All general replacements of existing electrical appliances and/or apparatus with like units, or general repairs that 
do not involve altering or changing the electrical system. 

2. G eneral Repairs that do not involve altering or changing the electrical system. 

3. Reconnection of furnaces and air conditioning units in one and two family dwellings and townhouses. 

4. No permit shall be required from Building Permitting and Inspection Services for non- required fire alarm 
systems in one and two family dwellings and townhouses, however, permits for non- required fire alarm systems 
in one and two family dwellings and townhouses shall be issued and inspected by the fire department 

Exceptions: 

1. Permits are required for any work on emergency engine- generator sets, emergency transfer switches, 
emergency system feeders and circuits, and emergency system overcurrent devices. 



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2. Permits are required for any work on fire alarm systems, fire detection systems or automatic fire- 
extinguishing systems. 

3. Permits are required for any work on sen/ice entrance equipment. 
150.2.3 Plumbing. No Permit Required For: 

1. Single- family homes, duplexes, townhouses - general repairs that do not alter existing systems, including 
replacement of like units such as bathroom/kitchen sinks, garbage disposals and water closets. 

2. Commercial buildings - replacement of sinks, garbage disposals and water closets with like units; faucet and 
trap replacement or repair. Permit required for all other plumbing work in commercial buildings. 

SECTION 151 
PERMITS 

151.1 Application. 

1. The owner or the owner's agent shall apply for a permit on forms furnished by the Agency. The applicant should 
exercise care in completing the necessary information, especially addresses, as permits are nontransferable, unless 
the address change is approved by the Plan Review Section of the Agency. 

Exception: 

The Agency may correct minor errors in the address if the change can be made on all copies of the permit and 
initialed by the inspector. 

2. The contractor's signature is not required on the permit application when the construction documents are 
submitted to the Agency for review. 

151.2 Issuance of Permits. The Agency shall issue permits to perform the work shown on submitted documents and as 
specified on the permit when the following conditions are met: 

1. All phases of the project conform to the requirements of this Code, Department of Public Works, Zoning 
Permitting & Inspection, Environmental Health Inspection Division and Fire Department; and 

2. The permit form is signed by one of the following before the permit is issued: 

A . A contractor that is licensed under Chapter 1 of this Code; 

B. An owner applying for a permit under Subsection 151.2.3; or 

C. An owner or owner's agent applying for permits under Subsection 151.2.4. 

3. When the applicant is a natural person who owns and occupies a single- family dwelling, a unit of a duplex, a 
Group U Occupancy or a dwelling unit in a townhouse building, a homeowner's permit may be issued to the 
applicant for additions, alterations and repairs to that unit. When applicant in the above noted category desires to 
construct a single family dwelling or an accessory use Group U Occupancy for his ownership and occupancy, a 
homeowner's permit may be issued to the applicant for the construction of tiie dwelling. Such homeowner permit 
to construct a single family dwelling may be issued once in a five year period to the applicant or family member. 

All work shall be done under the supervision of the applicant of the homeowners permit and the applicant shall be 
ultimately responsible for the work. 

Any work done under a homeowner's permit, including demolition of a dwelling or Group U occupancy structure, 
shall be done by the owner personally unless otherwise approved by the Agency. 

Exceptions: 

A . A permit shall not be issued to the owner of a townhome unit for structural alteration. 

B. The applicant for a permit to perform electrical, heating, cooling or plumbing work shall pass an examination 
related to the work being performed and shall personally perform the work, unless approved by the Agency. 
Upon verification of their State issued electrical or plumbing license, the applicant will not be required to take 
the homeowner's examination. A helper may assist the homeowner in taking the examination and performing 
the work. The helper may not repeatedly act in this capacity for other homeowners' permits. 



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C. A permit for minor work involving the volunteer sen/ices of persons working through a recognized volunteer 
organization, or of other qualified individuals, may be issued to the applicant of a single- family dwelling, 
duplex or miscellaneous building. A request for permit shall be in writing and shall be issued only when 
approved by the Building Official. 

4. When the applicant is the owner or owner's agent of a Group R-1, R-2, R-3 or R-4 occupancy building for the 
purpose of installing battery-operated smoke detectors. 

5. Any work to the exterior or common elements of a townhouse or condominium apartment building must be 
approved by the Homeowner's Association and the permit issued to a licensed contractor. 

6. The applicant is an owner or owner's agent to establish a new certificate of occupancy when no construction work 
is to be done. 

7. Payment of the Systems Development Fee established by the Gateway Regional Metropolitan District and 
imposed on all land within such District. 

8. Evidence of the payment of fees established by the Gateway Village General Improvement District and imposed 
on all land within such District. 

9. Evidence of payment of any impact fees applicable pursuant to Article III of Chapter 50 of the Denver Revised 
Municipal Code for properties within the Gateway impact fee area. 

151.3 Non-transferable. Permits shall be non- transferable. 

Exception: 

Permits for improper address issued to the same contractor may be transferred. A processing fee of $25.00 per 
permit will be charged. Requests for transferable permits must be made within 30 days of issuance of the original 
permit. 

151.3.1 Cancellation of tiie permit by contractor. The contractor may cancel the permit by notifying the Building 
Inspection Division. The owner shall appoint a new contractor to complete the work and provide a written statement 
regarding the change of contractor. The new contractor shall obtain a new permit for the work to be completed. An 
administrative fee of $100 will be charged. Additional administration, plan review and inspection fees may be 
charged to recover the cost incurred by the Agency. 

151.3.2 Replacement of Contractor Set. A set of Agency approved, stamped drawings are required to be posted at 
the job site. If Contractor Set is misplaced the following are required to obtain a copy of the Agency's stamped 
Record Set of drawings: 

1 . A release from the architect / engineer of record. 

2. A copy of the original permit. 

3. An administrative fee of $50 will be charged. 

Once plans have been retrieved by the Agency, they will be released to the contractor for copying at the contractor's 
expense. Failure to return the Agency's drawings may result in the suspension of the contractor's license. 

151.4 Validity. The issuance of a permit or the approval of drawings and specifications shall not be construed to be a 
permit for, nor an approval of, any violation or deviation from the provisions of this Code or other ordinances, laws, rules 
or regulations. The Agency shall take any action it deems necessary to ensure that all work performed meets all 
requirements of this Code. 

151.5 Suspension-Cancellation-New Permits. 

1 . The A gency may cancel a permit when: 

A . Work is not commenced within 60 days from the date of issuance unless this time is extended by the Agency. 

B. Work is suspended or abandoned for a period of 60 days after work is commenced unless this time is 
extended by the Agency. 

C. No request for inspection has been made for a period of 60 days unless this time is extended by the Agency. 

2. A demolition or moving permit may be canceled by the A gency when: 

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A . Work is not commenced within 30 days after tlie date of issuance. 

B . Work is suspended or abandoned for a period of 10 days after work is commenced unless otlierwise approved 
by the Agency. 

3. A new permit may be issued to replace an expired permit, provided that no changes have been made in the 
original drawings and specifications for the work, when: 

A . The holder of a canceled permit demonstrates that the suspension or abandonment of work was occasioned by 
circumstances beyond his control and that it would be an injustice to require a new fee; or 

B . Payment of a fee equal to V2 the current permit fee, provided that the application is made within one year after 
cancellation. 

4. The Agency may suspend or cancel any permit or may stop the work for any of the following reasons: 

A. Whenever there is a violation of any provisions of this Code or any City ordinance which the Agency is 
empowered to enforce. 

B. When the owner or permit holder has failed to comply with the requirements of the Department of Public 
Works, Zoning Administration, Public Health Inspection Division and the Fire Department. 

C. Whenever the continuance of any work becomes dangerous to life or property. 

151.6 Notice. Notice of the suspension or cancellation for reasons stated in Subsection 151.5 shall be in writing and shall 
be served upon the holder of the permit, the owner or the person in charge of the work. If the original notice is not served 
on the owner, a copy of the notice shall be sent to the owner. It shall be unlawful to proceed with any work once the 
notice is sen/ed. 

SECTION 152 
PERMIT FEES 

152.1 Permit Fees. The fee for each permit shall be as set forth in Table No. 152.1. The determination of value or 
valuation under any of the provisions of this Code shall be made by the Building Official. The value to be used in 
computing the building permit and building plan review fees shall be the total value of all construction work for which the 
permit is issued, as well as all finish work, roofing, electrical, plumbing, heating, air conditioning, elevators, fire- 
extinguishing systems and any other permanent equipment. Permit fees provide for the customary inspections only. 

In order to encourage energy consen/ation, water consen/ation and reduction of air pollution, the Building Official is 
authorized to waive or reduce the permit fees for the installation of equipment or appliances which meet the standards for 
achieving conservation of energy or water or which may reduce air pollution. Such waivers shall be in writing and shall 
be for a specific period of time. 

When the "valuation" is in question, the Building Official shall use the latest "Building Valuation Data" table as published 
in the ICC "Building Safety" publication. 



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TABLE NO. 152.1 
FEE SCHEDULE - BUILDING PERMIT FEES 



VALUATION OF WORK 


PERMIT FEE 


PLAN 
REVIEW % 


$1.00 to $500.00 


$20.00 


0% 


$501.00 to $2,000.00 


$35.00 


0% 


$2,001.00 to $25,000.00 


$35.00 for the first $2,000.00 plus $8.00 for each 
additional $1,000.00 or fraction thereof, to and 
including $25,000.00 


50%' 


$25,001.00 to $50,000.00 


$220.00 for the first $25,000.00 plus $8.00 for each 
additional $1,000.00 or fraction thereof, to and 
including $50,000.00 


50%^ 


$50,001.00 to $100,000.00 


$420.00 for the first $50,000.00 plus $7.00 for each 
additional $1,000.00 or frBCtion thereof, to and 
including $100,000.00 


50%^ 


$100,001.00 to $500,000.00 


$770.00 for the first $100,000 plus $5.60 for each 
additional $1,000.00 or fraction thereof, to and 
including $500,000.00 


50%^ 


$500,001.00 to 
$1,000,000.00 


$3,010.00 for the first $500,000.00 plus $4.75 for 
each additional $1,000.00 or fraction thereof to and 
including $1,000,000.00 


50%^ 


$1,000,001.00 and over 


$5,385.00 for the first $1,000,000.00 plus $3.65 for 
each additional $1,000.00 or fraction thereof. 


50%^ 


' Walk-through and type ^proved plans will be charged at the ratB of 10%, with a Hlnimum of 
$50.00 per ^pnaved plans. 




OTHER FEES 


Building Moving 


Per Each Address 


$100.00/hour 


1. Inspections outside of normal business hours (minimum charge of 2 
hours). 


$100.00/hour 


2. Reinspection fees assessed under provisions of Section 157.7 (minimum 
charge 1 hour) 


$ 75.00/hour 


3. Inspections required by the Agency for which no fee is specifically 
indicated. 


$ 50.00/hour 


4. Additional plan review fee for review of modifications to approved plans 


$ 75.00/hour 


^ The Agency mE^ charge the hourly cost incurrHi by the inspection or plan review if gr^alEr than 
the hourly ratB above. 



152.2 Plan Review Fees. When submittal documents are required by Section 153.1, a plan review fee shall be paid at the 
time of submitting the submittal documents for plan review. Said plan review fee shall be the percentage of the building 
permit fee as shown in Table No. 152.1. Where plans are essentially incomplete and not in accordance with Sections 153, 
154 or 155 or changes are made which require additional plan review, an additional fee shall be charged at the rate shown 
in Table No. 152.1. The plan review fees specified in tiiis Section are separate fees from the permit fees specified in 
Section 152.1 and are in addition to the permit fees 

152.3 Type Approval. When construction documents have been approved for a typical structure and duplicate structures 
are to be constructed on the same site by the same contractor, a plan review fee shall be paid at the rate of 10% of permit 
fee in Table No. 152.1. See footnote 1 in Table No. 152.1. 

152.4 Expiration of Plan Review. If no permit is issued within 180 days following the date of application, the 
application shall expire and plans and other data submitted for review may thereafter be returned to the applicant or 
destroyed by the Building Official. The Building Official may extend the time for action by the applicant for a period not 
exceeding 180 days upon a written request showing that circumstances beyond the applicant's control have prevented 
action from being taken. Additional extensions may be granted by the Building Official upon written request. In order to 



AMENDMENTS TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE 2006 DENVER BUILDING CODE 



renew action on an application after expiration, the applicant shall submit a new application with the plans and pay a new 
plan review fee. 

152.5 Allowed Inspections. Permit fees provide for the customary inspections only. 

152.6 Late Fees. When work for which a permit is required by this Code is started without a permit, the permit fees 
stated in Table No. 152.1 shall be doubled with a minimum of $50, based on the work performed without a permit. The 
payment of this late fee shall not relieve any person from fully complying with the requirements of this Code in the 
execution of the work or from other penalties for performing work without a permit. 

Exception: 

For items of work performed on an emergency basis, as determined by the Agency, to maintain an existing 
service or utility when the maintenance is necessary to protect health, life or safety, the penalties stated herein 
shall not apply if application for a permit is made within 3 normal working days after commencement of the 
emergency work. 

152.7 Permit Fees for Denver Agencies. Enterprise Fund agencies of the City and County of Denver which are not 
subsidized by the General Fund shall pay permit fees for all construction and repair work for which building permits are 
required. General Fund agencies and Enterprise Fund agencies subsidized by the General Fund shall pay permit fees for 
new construction projects only. 

152.8 Additional Fees. A supplementary permit shall be obtained for any additional valuation not included in the 
original permit. The fee shall be the difference between the fee paid and the fee that would have been required had the 
original permit included the entire valuation. 

152.9 Additional Plan Review Fees for Rejected Drawings. When drawings are rejected, an additional fee shall be 
charged in accordance with Table No. 152.1. When submittal documents are incomplete or changed so as to require 
additional plan review or when the project involves deferred submittal items as defined in Section 154.1.3.A, an additional 
plan review fee shall be charged at the same rate shown in Table No. 152.1. 

152.10 Refunds. No refund will be granted for any permit fee paid to the Agency. 

Exception: 

Fees for duplicate or out-of-City permits may be refunded. A processing fee of $25.00 per permit will be charged 
and that amount will be deducted from the refund. Request for refund must be made in writing within 60 days of 
the date of the permit. 

152.11 Investigation for Work Without a Permit. Whenever any work for which a permit is required by this Code has 
been commenced without first obtaining a permit, a special investigation shall be made before a permit may be issued for 
the work. 

152.12 Investigation Fee. An investigation fee shall be collected when work has begun without a permit. The 
investigation fee shall be equal to the amount of the permit fee required by this Code. The minimum investigation fee 
shall be the same as the minimum fee set forth in Table No. 152.1. The payment of such investigation fee shall not 
exempt any person from compliance with all other provisions of this Code nor from any penalty or fees prescribed by law. 

SECTION 153 

DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

153.1 General. Drawings and specifications shall be required for review and approval by the Agency prior to the 
issuance of a permit, except as set forth in Subsection 153.6. 

153.2 New Construction, Additions, Alterations or Repairs. Application for a permit shall be accompanied by the 
following: 

1. Drawings including the information required in Section 155. 

2. Copies of an engineering report containing studies and test results concerning the hazards present on the building, 
demolition or moving site when such site is within an area designated as a Special Construction Zone under 
Article VII, Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code . Each report shall contain adequate information as a 
result of tests to allow identification of the hazards present and recommendations as to methods of minimizing the 

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hazards during construction and methods for controlling the identified hazards likely to be present after 
construction. The Public Health Inspection Division and the Fire Department shall approve all reports required by 
this Subsection before any permit is issued. Construction shall comply with Appendix K. 

3. When required by the Agency, additional drawings shall be submitted for approval. 

153.3 Approval. Drawings and specifications complying with the provisions of this Code and approved by the Agency 
shall bear the Agency stamp of approval. When corrections are required, the Agency may require that the drawings and 
specifications be revised and resubmitted for approval prior to the issuance of a permit. 

153.4 Distribution. One set of approved drawings and specifications shall be returned to the Applicant and shall be kept 
on the job site until project is completed. One set of approved drawings and specifications shall remain in the office of the 
Agency. 

153.5 Disposal. Upon completion of the work and the final inspections by the Agency, the Agency copy of the approved 
drawings and specifications may be disposed of after 6 years have elapsed from the date of issuance of the permit. If no 
permit is issued, plans and specifications may be disposed of after 180 days from the date of application. 

153.6 Not Required. Drawings, specifications and an engineering report need not be submitted for the construction, 
demolition or moving of minor buildings, additions, structures or utilities; or for minor alterations and repairs to existing 
buildings, structures or utilities when the Agency is satisfied that the strength, safety, sanitation and fire resistance are 
adequately described on the permit application, or when it is satisfied that such construction, alterations, repair, 
demolition or moving will not substantially increase the hazard present in a Special Construction Zone. 

153.7 Utility Companies. With the approval of the Agency, the design of buildings, structures or utilities for the 
authorized Public Utilities may vary from these Building Code requirements. 

SECTION 154 

PREPARATION OF DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

154.1 Limitations. Any person may submit drawings and specifications with an application for a building permit, subject 
to the following limitations: 

1. Architect and/or engineer required. Construction documents for all buildings, structures, additions, alterations 
or repairs shall bear the seal and signature of the design professional responsible for each design phase except as 
provided in Subsection 7. 

Exception: 

Sprinkler system shop drawings may bear the seal and signature of a NICET Level III or higher certified 
individual. 

2. Seal and Signature 

A . The authorized seal shall be a crimp type, a rubber stamp type, or computer generated type. A seal must be 
applied to either the final reproducible or final reproduction of all of the following. 

1 . Each sheet of drawings produced by or under the direct supervision of the design professional. 

2. The cover, title page and table of contents of specifications bound in book form. 

3. Each sheet of subsequent issues of revisions, addenda clarifications or oliier modifications. 

4. Title page of details bound in book form. 

5. Title or signature page of all engineering reports. 

B . The signature (manual or electronic) of the registrant and date of signature shall be affixed to the document. If 
a manual signature is used, the signature of the registrant and date of signature shall appear through the seal. 

1. Manual Signature. A manual signature is the handwritten name of a person applied to a document that 
identifies the person, sen/es as a means of authentication of the contents of the document, provides 
responsibility for the creation of the document and provides for accountability for the contents of the 
document. 

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2. Electronic Signature. An electronic signature is a digital authentication process attached to or logically 
associated with an electronic document and shall cany the same weight, authority, and effects as a manual 
signature. The electronic signature, which can be generated by using either public key infrastructure or 
signature dynamics technology, must be as follows. 

(i) Unique to the person using it. 

(ii) Capable of verification. 

(iii) Under the sole control of the person using it. 

(iv) Linked to a document in such a manner that the electronic signature is invalidated if any data in the 
document are changed. 

The use of an electronic signature must be pre-approved by the Agency. 

3. Registered Design Professional in Responsible Charge. When it is required that documents be prepared by an 
architect or engineer, the Agency may require the owner to engage and designate on the building permit 
application an architect or engineer who shall act as the Registered Design Professional in Responsible Charge. If 
the circumstances require, the owner may designate a substitute registered design professional in responsible 
charge who shall perform all of the duties required of the original registered design professional in responsible 
charge. The Agency shall be notified in writing by the owner if the registered design professional in responsible 
charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the duties. The registered design professional in responsible 
charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinating all submittal documents prepared by others, including 
deferred submittal items, for compatibility with the design of the building. 

A . Deferred Submittals. For the purposes of this Section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions of the 
design which are not submitted at the time of the application and which are to be submitted to the Agency 
within a specified period. Deferral of any submittal items shall have prior approval of the Building Official. 
The registered design professional in responsible charge shall list the deferred submittals on the plans and 
shall submit the deferred submittal documents for review by the Agency. Submittal documents for deferred 
submittal items shall be submitted to the design professional in responsible charge who shall review them and 
forward them to the Agency with a notation indicating that the deferred submittal documents have been 
reviewed and that they have been found to be in general conformance with the design of the buildings. The 
deferred submittal items shall not be installed until their design and submittal documents have been approved 
by the Agency. 

B. Inspection and Observation Program. When special inspection is required by Section 1704, the registered 
design professional in responsible charge shall prepare an inspection program which shall be submitted in the 
Agency for approval prior to issuance of the building permit. The inspection program shall designate the 
portions of the work that require special inspection and tiie name or names of the individuals or firms who are 
to perform the special inspections, and indicate the duties of the special inspectors. The special inspector 
shall be employed by the owner, the registered design professional in responsible charge, or an agent of the 
owner, but not the contractor or any other person responsible for the work. When structural obsen/ation is 
required by Section 158.2, the inspection program shall name the individuals or firms who are to perform 
structural observation and describe the stages of construction at which structural observation is to occur. The 
inspection program shall include samples of inspection reports and provide time limits for submission of 
reports. 

4. Consultant Drawings. Consultant drawings and specifications prepared by architectural or engineering 
subdisciplines shall be so designated by their name, address and phone number and shall bear the seal and 
signature of the responsible architect or engineer for the subdiscipline. 

5. Statement. When a design professional signs and seals a document, a statement shall also be included setting 
forth the aspects of the project for which the design professional is responsible (i.e., civil, structural, mechanical). 
If there is no statement, it is presumed that the design professional has assumed responsibility for the entire 
document. 

6. Reproducible Drawings. The design professional's seal and signature shall not be placed on reproducible 
drawings that are used for multiple copies or on reproducible drawings that are transferred away from the design 
professional's possession and supen/ision. 

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7. Architect or Engineer not Required. An architect or engineer is not required to prepare drawings and 
specifications for the following buildings, structures, additions, alterations or repairs: 

A . One and two-family dwellings or miscellaneous buildings. 

B. Group R-2 Occupancies and townhouse buildings when the floor area of the building does not exceed 5,000 
square feet and the building is not more than one story without basement or cellar. 

C. Garages, industrial buildings, warehouses, stores, mercantile buildings or office buildings where the floor area 
of the building does not exceed 5,000 square feet and the building is not more than one story, without a 
basement, cellar or excavated subfloor area. 

D. Nonstructural alterations, including alterations to utilities, approved by the Agency, which are to any building 
or structure, provided that the alterations do not affect the stability of the building or the health and safety of 
the occupants. 

E. If after review of the drawings and specifications, the Agency determines that the proposed building or 
structure is inadequately designed, the Agency may require that the drawings and specifications bear the seal 
of an architect and engineer who will be responsible for the design phases of the building or structure. 

SECTION 155 

INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR PREPARATION OF DRAWINGS 

155.1 Information Required. Drawings and specifications shall be complete and of sufficient clarity to indicate the 
entire work proposed and to show in detail that the building, structure or utility conforms to the provisions of this Building 
Code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations. Each set of drawings and specifications shall contain at least 
the following: Architectural, Structural, Mechanical, Electrical Drawings, Specifications and Analysis: 

1. The exact address, legal description and location of the work performed. 

2. The name and address of the owner. 

3. Name and address of the person or firm responsible for the preparation of the drawings and specifications. The 
seal and signature of the architect and or engineer responsible for the preparation of the drawings and 
specifications when required by Section 154. 

4. A plot plan showing the location of the proposed construction and the location of every adjacent existing building 
on the property, roads, walks, utilities and other site improvements, all property lines, streets, alleys, easements 
and other public areas. A plot plan is not required for interior alterations and repairs. The proposed construction 
shall not project beyond property lines except as provided for in Chapter 32. 

5. A completed "Building Profile Form." The form shall be provided by the Agency. 

6. Two complete sets of construction documents showing the construction of architectural, structural, mechanical 
and electrical arrangements. 

7. One copy of specifications or notes that clearly describe the type, quality and finish of materials and the method 
of assembly, erection and installation of equipment to be installed with proper reference to accepted standards. 

8. Architectural drawings and specifications as follows: 

A . Plans showing the arrangement of each floor, elevations, sections and details to show the construction of all 
architectural features, including the location and type of fire- rated construction. 

B. The gross area in square feet of (1) buildings or portions of buildings in which new construction or 
remodeling work is intended; and (2) different occupancy groups. 

C. A complete Code Analysis, including the building occupancy groups, the type of construction, and a 
comparison of actual floor areas and number of stories to those allowed under the provisions of this Code on 
the front sheet of drawings. 

D . The construction documents shall show in sufficient detail the location, construction, size and character of all 
portions of the means of egress in compliance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupancies in 



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Groups R-2, R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, and I-l, the construction documents shall designate the 
number of occupants to be accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms and spaces. 

9. Structural drawings, specifications and analysis as follows: 

A . Design criteria indicating all lateral loads and allowable stresses in all structural materials. 

B. Foundation, floor and roof plans indicating (1) location of concentrated loads and varying live loads; (2) roof 
areas used to impound water; and (3) pressurized shafts required for Chapter 9. 

C. Elevations, sections and details showing all structural requirements. 

D. Foundation design criteria shall be submitted when requested by the Agency for all new construction in 
accordance with a soils investigation report signed and sealed by an engineer responsible for the preparation of 
the report. 

10. Mechanical drawings, specifications and analysis as follows: 

A . Single line drawings, including typical isometric, of plumbing, heating, air treatment systems and gas piping 
layout. 

B. Btu rating of gas units, method of combustion and ventilation air supply, type and horsepower of 
refrigeration, and gas meter locations. 

C. Heating, cooling, ventilating, plumbing and fire protection details, and fire or smoke damper locations. 

D. Plans and details showing (1) the location of impounded water; and (2) shafts used for pressurization as 
required by Chapter 9. 

E. Construction documents for buildings more than two stories in height shall indicate where penetrations will 
be made for mechanical systems, and the materials and methods for maintaining required structural safety, 
fire- resistance rating and fireblocking. 

11. Electrical drawings, specifications and analysis as follows: 

A. One-line diagram showing sizes of sen/ice and feeder conductors, sizes of service and feeder overcurrent 
devices, all major components of service and distribution system, ratings of equipment, and grounding details. 

B . Load study and analysis to justify sizes of system components. 

C . Short-circuit study and analysis to justify short-circuit withstand ratings of all system components. 

D. Panelboard circuit schedules including loads per each circuit, total bus load per phase, AIC rating and NEC 
demand calculations. 

12. A field survey under Section 156 shall be required for all additions and new construction. 

13. A complete elevator and dumbwaiter layout, if applicable. 
155.2 Additional Information When Requested. 

1. Reports from an independent testing agency, which substantiates requirements of this Code regarding structural or 
fire- resistive requirements. 

2. Engineering design calculations. 

3. Other information deemed necessary to determine compliance with the requirements of this Code. 

SECTION 156 
FIELD SURVEYS 

156.1 General. A Land Sun/ey Plat or an Improvement Sun/ey Plat shall be conducted by a land surveyor registered by 
the State of Colorado for the construction of a new building or structure, an addition to an existing building or structure or 
a change of occupancy for an existing building or structure which shall include, but not be limited to the following 
information: 

1 . Scale drawing of the boundaries of the land parcel with all dimensions to establish those boundaries. 

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2. All recorded and apparent rights-of-way and easements. 

3. Improvements locations shall be shown in scale with a minimum of 2 dimensions to the nearest property line to 
locate all improvements. 

156.2 Access for Agency. The contractor or property owner shall provide unobstructed access for the Agency to the 
required comer stakes or markers. 

SECTION 157 
INSPECTIONS 

157.1 General. All work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the Agency and all such work 
shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection until approved by the Agency. In addition, certain types of 
construction shall have continuous inspection as specified in Section 158. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not 
be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this Code or of other City ordinances. Inspections 
presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this Code or of other ordinances shall not be valid. It 
shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection. Neither the 
Agency nor the City shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow 
inspection. A sun/ey of the lot may be required by the Agency to verify that the structure is located in accordance with 
the approved plans. 

157.2 Inspection Record Card. Work requiring a permit shall not be commenced until the permit holder or his agent has 
posted or otherwise made available an inspection record card so as to allow the Agency to conveniently make the required 
entries regarding inspection of the work. This card shall be maintained by the permit holder until final approval has been 
granted by the Agency. 

157.3 Inspection Requests. It shall be the duty of the person doing the work authorized by a permit to notify the Agency 
when such work is ready for inspection. The Agency may require that every request for inspection be filed at least one 
working day before such inspection is desired and such request may be in writing or by telephone. It shall be the duty of 
the person requesting any inspections required by this Code to provide access to and means for inspection of such work. 
It shall be the duty of the Agency to conduct the inspections in a timely manner. 

157.4 Approval Required. Approval by the Agency shall be required at progressive stages of the construction of the 
building or structure and the installation of the mechanical, plumbing and electrical systems. The Agency shall make the 
requested inspections and shall either approve that the completed portion of the construction is satisfactory or shall notify 
the permit holder or his agent that the same fails to comply with tiiis Code. Any portion which does not comply shall be 
corrected and such work shall not be covered or concealed until approved by the Agency. 

There shall be a final inspection and approval of all completed construction before the building, structure or portion 
thereof shall be ready for occupancy and use. 

157.5 Required Inspections. The following inspections shall be required and shall be made by the Agency after proper 
notification. Other inspections may be required. See Sections 157.6 and 158. 

1. Foundation Inspection. 

A. Footings. Inspections shall be conducted prior to pouring concrete. The footing excavation form work and 
any reinforcing steel must be in place. Any clay soil pipe encountered must be replaced with schedule 40 
PVC, ABS/DWV or cast iron pipe by a licensed plumber, under a separate permit. All such work shall be 
approved by the Agency prior to the footing inspection. 

B. Walls. Concrete walls shall have the form work and reinforcing steel inspected prior to the concrete 
placement. Approved treated wood walls shall be inspected as required by AF&PA Technical Report 7-87. 

C. Waterproofing/Dampproofing Inspection. To be conducted after the waterproofing/dampproofing system or 
materials are completely in place and exposed for inspection. 

D . Fxterior wall insulation and drain tile when required. 

2. Concrete slab or under-floor inspection. To be made after all in-slab or under- floor building service 
equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary equipment items are in place, but before any concrete 
is placed or floor sheatiiing installed, including the subfloor. 



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3. Frame Inspection. To be conducted on the completed frame construction with all fire blocking and bracing in 
place. All framing must be exposed to view. Roof and wall sheathing or panel must be complete with windows 
in place. All rough installations or electrical, plumbing and mechanical systems shall have prior approval by the 
Agency. 

4. Insulation Inspection. To be conducted after the installation of the insulation is completed. 

5. Air Infiltration Barrier Inspection. To be conducted after the air infiltration barrier system is in place and 
complete. 

6. Gypsum Board or Lath and Plaster Inspection. To be conducted after all gypsum board or lath, interior and 
exterior, is in place but before gypsum board joints and fasteners are taped and finished or before plastering is 
applied. 

Exception: 

The attachment and taping of gypsum board to partition walls that are not part of a fire- resistance rated 
assembly or a shear wall assembly for construction in occupancies A, B, E, F, M, U and S. 

7. Final Inspection. To be conducted after construction is completed (all sub- permits must have final approval and 
sign- off) and the building or space is ready for occupancy. 

157.6 Other Inspections. The engineer or architect responsible for the structural design work shall include in the 
construction documents the following: 

1 . Special inspections required by Section 1 58. 

2. Other structural inspections required by the engineer or architect in responsible charge of the structural design 
work. 

In addition to the inspections specified, the Building Official may make or require other inspections of any construction 
work to ascertain compliance with the provisions of this Code and other laws, which are enforced by the Agency. Other 
inspections, outside of business hours, requested by the owner, design professional or contractor shall be requested no 
later than 12 noon of the day the inspection is needed. See Table No. 152.1 for fees. 

157.7 Reinspections. A reinspection fee may be assessed for each inspection or reinspection when the inspected work is 
not complete or when corrections called for have not been made. This Subsection is not to be interpreted as requiring 
reinspection fees the first time a job is rejected for failure to comply with the requirements of this Code, but as controlling 
the practice of calling for inspections before the job is ready for inspection or reinspection. Reinspection fees may be 
assessed for failure to properly post the permit card on the work site, for failure to have approved plans readily available 
to the inspector, for failure to provide access on the date for which inspection is requested, or for deviating from plans 
requiring the approval of the Agency. To obtain a reinspection, the applicant shall file an application therefore in writing 
upon a form furnished for that purpose and pay the reinspection fee of a minimum of one hour in accordance with Table 
No. 152.1. Where reinspection fees have been assessed, no additional inspection of the work will be performed until the 
required fees have been paid. 

157.8 BoilerS; Incinerators, Crematories and Pressure Vessel Annual Inspection. 

Annual boiler inspections will be made by the State of Colorado. 

157.9 Vertical and Horizontal Transportation Annual Inspection. The following units shall be inspected by the 
Agency and City-Licensed Elevator Contractors: passenger or passenger service elevators, combination passenger and 
freight elevators, freight and freight service elevators, escalators, moving walks, dumbwaiters, sidewalk elevators, stage 
lifts, orchestra lifts and manlifts. 

A. Required Inspections. The owner, agent or lessee shall, at his expense, cause the elevator to be thoroughly 
inspected by an Elevator Contractor licensed by the City. 

B. Certificate of Inspection. If, after inspection by the Agency, the equipment is found to be in safe condition, the 
Agency shall issue a certificate of inspection stating that the equipment is ready for use and indicating the 
maximum load permitted. Certificates of inspection shall be maintained in the building for which they are issued, 
by the owner, agent or lessee in a manner easily accessible for checking by the Agency or other interested 
persons. Valid elevator certificates of inspection shall be mounted in a tamper- proof frame in the elevator for 



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which they were issued or a metal plaque indicating where the certificate of inspection is located within the 
building may be mounted in the car in lieu of the current certificate of inspection. 

C . Equipment Tag. The owner or operating agent shall cause the equipment to be tagged with an appropriate metal tag 
so as to indicate the contractor's name, date, type of test and work performed. Multiple test dates shall be prohibited. 

D . The annual inspection fee for vertical transportation units shall be as specified in Table No. 157.9. 

E. Inspections required by ASME A17.1 to be performed every six (6) months shall be changed to ANNUAL (12 
month) inspections. 

TABLE NO. 157.9 

ANNUAL INSPECTION FEES 

(VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION) 



TYPE OF INSPECTION 


FEE 


Elevators 


$150.00 (each Unit) 


For each additional landing over 3 


10.00 


Escalators * 


300.00 (each Unit) 


Moving Walks** 


300.00 (each Unit) 


Dumbwaiters 


150.00 (each Unit) 


Stage Lifts 


150.00 (each Unit) 


Orchesti:^a Lifts 


150.00 (each Unit) 


Man Lifts 


150.00 (each Unit) 


Platform Lifts 


150.00 (each Unit) 



* This shall mean each unit, floor to floor, in either direction. 
** This shall mean each unit, in either direction. 

Inspections outside of normal business hours shall be charged per Table No. 152.1 in addition to the fees of Table 
No. 157.9. 

SECTION 158 
SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 

158.1 See Section 1704, IBC - Special Inspections 

158.2 Structural Observation. When required by the Agency, the owner shall employ an engineer to make visits to the 
site to obsen/e general compliance with the approved structural plans specifications and change orders. The engineer 
shall submit a final report in writing to the Agency stating that site visits have been made and that any deficiencies noted 
have been corrected. Reference IBC Section 1709 - Structural Observations. 

SECTION 159 

FINAL INSPECTION APPROVAL/CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE 

A final inspection approval card will be issued by the Agency upon the completion and approval of the work covered by 
the permit. A certificate of compliance will be issued by the Agency, when a Certificate of Occupancy is not required, 
upon the request of the General Building Contractor when the inspection card issued by the Agency is returned indicating 
that all final inspections by the Agency have been made. There shall be a processing fee of $5.00 for each certificate 
issued. 

SECTION 160 

CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

160.1 Required. All new buildings or structures except miscellaneous buildings or structures shall not be used or 
occupied until a Certificate of Occupancy is issued by tiie Agency. No building or portion tiiereof shall be used or 
occupied for an occupancy otiier tiian tiie one designated on tiie certificate until a new Certificate of Occupancy is issued 
by tiie Agency. Issuance of a Certificate of Occupancy shall not be constined as an approval of a violation of tiie 
provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the City and County of Denver. 



AMENDMENTS TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE 2006 DENVER BUILDING CODE 



160.2 Requirements Prior to Issuance. A Certificate of Occupancy shall be issued to the owner after approval by the 
Agency and the following: 

1 . Construction Engineers Division, Wastewater Management and Zoning Administration. 

2. Public Health Inspection Division and the Fire Department when specifically requested by either department in 
writing at the time of application. 

3. Public Health Inspection Division, Fire Department and the Department of Public Works showing compliance 
with all provisions of this Building Code applicable to buildings or structures located in a Special Construction 
Zone designated pursuant to Article 647 of the Revised Municipal Code. 

160.3 Issuance of Certificate. When all the conditions of this Chapter have been fulfilled, the Agency shall issue a 
Certificate of Occupancy indicating: 

1 . The use and occupancy for which the certificate is issued. 

2 . A pproval by the A gency . 

160.4 Duplicate Certificate of Occupancy. Upon payment of $5.00 to the Agency, a duplicate Certificate of Occupancy 
may be secured by the owner, architect, engineer, contractor, permit holder or tenant. 

160.5 Temporary Certificate of Occupancy. The Agency may issue a temporary Certificate of Occupancy to the owner 
where unusual construction difficulties have delayed the completion of the construction work covered by the Building 
Permit. The certificate may be issued provided that no substantial hazard will result from the occupancy and subject to 
the following items being provided to the Agency: 

1. A written request by the owner or the owner's agent, itemizing the uncompleted work and justifying the T.C.O. 
This list shall not waive, reduce or diminish any Code requirements required by the Building Permit. 

2. The process fee shall be $200.00 unless approved by the Building Official. 

3. Approval from the following City Agencies: 

A . Construction Engineering Division. 

B . W astewater M anagement D ivision. 

C . Environmental Health Inspection D ivision. 

D. Fire Department. 

E. Zoning Permitting & Inspection. 

This temporary Certificate of Occupancy may be granted for a period up to 12 months. The temporary Certificate of 
Occupancy may be extended with the approval of the Building Official. After the expiration date of the temporary 
Certificate of Occupancy, the building or structure shall require a permanent Certificate of Occupancy in accordance witii 
other provisions of this Chapter. 

Additional inspections required for the T.C.O. shall be charged as indicated in Table No. 152.1 and shall be paid before 
the permanent Certificate of Occupancy is issued. 

160.6 Change of Use or Occupancy. Changes in the character or occupancy of all buildings or structures shall not be 
made except as specified in Chapter 34, IBC. A new Certificate of Occupancy is required for all such changes. 

160.7 Cancellation of Certificate of Occupancy. A Certificate of Occupancy may be canceled when: 

1 . Whenever the Certificate is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect information supplied. 

2. The owner has failed to comply with the requirements of the Agency after appropriate notice and reasonable time 
to correct. 

3. The continued occupancy of the structure is dangerous to the public health, safety or welfare. 

160.8 Right to Appeal. The Board of Appeals may review any appeal of the Agency's suspension or denial of 
Certificate of Occupancy under Section 113. One extension of a temporary Certificate of Occupancy may be sought from 
the Board of Appeals subject to Section 113. 



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SECTION 161 
ADDRESS 

161.1 On Job Site. The construction permit holder shall post, at the front of the job site in a conspicuous place, a sign 
indicating the following: 

1. The address number and street, avenue, court, parkway or other, as assigned by the Office of the City Engineer. 

2. The name of the firm, address, business phone number and emergency phone number of the permit holder. 

3. The building permit number. 

161.2 Permanent Address. The owner or occupant of every building shall display the permanent address of each 
building in a permanent visible location with numbers made of durable materials and of a size to be visible and legible 
from the street fronting the property 

SECTION 162 

PERMITS FOR TEMPORARY BUILDINGS 

162.1 Permit Issuance. A permit for a temporary building may be issued by the Agency if the applicant can substantiate 
a definite need for the temporary building. The permit may be granted for a period up to 36 months and may be renewed 
upon reapplication and approval by the Agency. The request for a permit shall be in writing, detailing the reason for the 
request. The approval shall be based on the need, extent of time, use and/or type of unit installed. A renewal permit fee 
equal to the original permit fee will be required. 

Exception: 

Temporary buildings for use by licensed contractors at the construction or demolition sites shall not require a 
Building Permit. 

162.2 Right of Appeal. An extension of a permit for a temporary building may be sought from the Board of Appeals 
subject to Section 113. 

162.3 Fee. A building permit fee shall be established by Table No. 152.1 for the valuation of the temporary building 
installation which shall consist of (1) the rental cost or the prorated cost of the temporary buildings based on a ten-year 
life, for the period of the permit, and (2) the cost of the installation and removal of the temporary building 

SECTION 163 
FOUNDATION PERMITS 

163.1 General. A foundation permit for all buildings and structures except one- and two-unit dwellings and 
miscellaneous structures may be issued to a contractor who holds a license qualifying him as a general contractor for the 
entire project, prior to the issuance of the construction permit for the building, provided that: 

1. The total valuation of the project, excluding utilities, exceeds $200,000 or as approved by the Agency. 

2. Drawings of the proposed superstructure containing sufficient detail relating to the design of the foundation or 
substructure are submitted to the Agency. Structural calculations shall be submitted to validate the gravity and 
lateral load design of footings, caissons and all other foundation permit elements. 

3. Approvals required by the appropriate City agencies are obtained prior to issuance of the permit. 

4. For purposes of the Section, the term "Project" shall mean one building only with a valuation in conformance 
with subsection 152.1. 

163.2 Fee. The plan review fee and the permit fee charged at the time of issuance of the foundation permit shall be based 
on the total valuation of the construction for both the substructure and the superstructure, plus an additional 25%. See 
Table No. 152.1. 

163.3 Deviations. Any deviation from the approval foundation permit drawings shall be cause for the cancellation of the 
permit. However, if changes are substantiated by engineering calculations and revised drawings, the deviations may be 
approved by the Agency. 

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163.4 Responsibility. The contractor shall assume full responsibility for the installation of all utilities in the substructure. 
Any changes in design or construction to meet the requirements of this Code for the combined substructure shall be the 
sole responsibility of the contractor. A permit issued under this Section shall not be construed as approval for any portion 
of the structure not covered by the foundation permit. 

163.5 Not Applicable. Foundation permits are not applicable to phased construction. 

SECTION 164 

PHASED CONSTRUCTION PERMITS 

164.1 General. The Department may issue permits for the construction of a portion or phase of a building, structure or 
utility prior to the submission of the complete drawings and specifications, provided that: 

1. The minimum total valuation of the building, structure or utility is more than $1,000,000. 

2. Prior to the submitting the first phase of the project the applicant submits a Phased Construction Proposal (the 
"Proposal") to the Agency outlining the schedule for the phased construction. The Proposal must provide a title 
for, and describe the building system(s) to be reviewed in each of the phased submittal packages. The proposal 
shall state the valuation for each phase and should contain an estimated submittal date for each of the phases. 

3. The valuation of the portion of the work, including utilities, is restated with each phased application. 

4. Drawings for each phase shall, on each sheet, include the title for the phase chosen in the Proposal and the term 
"Phased Construction". 

5. The approval of appropriate City agencies has been obtained prior to issuing such phased permit. 

164.2 Fees. Plan review fees and permit fees for the initial phases shall be assessed at 150% the amount of those 
specified in Table No. 152.1. Plan review fees and permit fees for the final phase shall be assessed at 100% the amount of 
those specified in Table No. 152.1. The total plan review fee shall not be less than that based upon the total valuation of 
the construction for all phases of the project plus an additional 25%. A permit issued under this Section shall not be 
construed as approval for any portion of the structure not covered by the permit. 

SECTION 165 
TABLES AND FEES 

165.1 Permit Fees. The fee specified in Table No. 152.1 shall be assessed for all permits except as otherwise provided 
for in this Chapter. 

165.2 Other Fees. Annual and semiannual fees shall be as specified in Table No. 157.8 and Table No. 157.9. Inspections 
outside of normal business hours shall be charged in accordance with Table No. 152.1. 



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AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 EDITION 
OF THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING 

CODE 

AND APPENDICES AS PUBLISHED BY 
INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL (ICC) 



The content of the sections in this Code that begin with a letter or letters designations are maintained by 
other City or State entities. 



[F] 


Denotes Fire 


[PW] 


Public Works 


[EB] 


Existing Building 


[CDH] 


Colorado Division of Housing 


[IFCA] 


International Fire Code Amendments 


[Z] 


Zoning 



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DE NVE R AME NDME NTS TO THE 2006 INTE RNATIONALBUILDING C ODE 



CHAPTER 1 
ADMINISTRATION 

SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

Section 101.1 Title is amended by inserting "City and County of Denver" for the name of the 
jurisdiction. 

Section 101.4.1 Electrical is amended by deleting this section in its entirety. 

Section 101.4.5 Property Maintenance is amended by deleting this section in its entirety. 

Sections 103 through 115 are amended by deleting these sections in their entirety. The Administration 
of the Denver Building Code shall govern. 



CHAPTER 2 
DEFINmONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 

SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

Section 201 is amended by replacing Section 201.4 in its entirety with the following: 

201.4 G eneral. For purposes of this Building Code, certain words, phrases and terms shall be given the defined meaning. 
Words, phrases and terms not defined in this Code shall be given their usual and customary meanings. Webster's Third 
New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted 
meanings. The word "shall" is mandatory and not permissive; the word "may" is permissive and not mandatory. Other 
terms and abbreviations used only with specialized application are defined in the Chapter in which they are used. 
Definitions are amended or added, and where conflicts occur these definitions shall govern. 

SECTION 202 
DEFINITIONS 

Section 202 is amended by adding the following definitions: 

ABANDON. The desertion of a building, structure or utility. Abandon shall also apply when the building, structure or 
utility is left to the effects of vandalism, dilapidation and deterioration, thereby creating a fire hazard, unsafe condition or 
public nuisance. 

ADEQUATE. Determined to be acceptable to the Agency. 

ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY . The Building Official. 

ADULT DAY CARE. Adult day care is a program designed to meet the needs of adults with functional impairments 
through an individual plan of care. It is a structured, comprehensive program that provides a variety of health, social and 
related support services by persons who are not their relatives or legal guardians, in a protective setting during any part of 
a day but less than 24 hours. See Section 308.5.1 (Occupancy 1-4). 

ADULT DAY CARE CENTER. Adult day care center is any building or portion thereof that provides an adult day care 
program for 5 or more clients over the age of 16 years. See Section 308.5.1 (Occupancy 1-4). 

ADULT DAY CARE HOME. A private residence in a single-unit dwelling or a dwelling unit in a multiple- unit 
dwelling providing less than 24 hours a day care for four 4 or fewer clients over the age of 16 years. See Section 310.1 
(Occupancy R-3). 

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AMBULATORY. A physical or mental condition under which a person is capable of judgment and appropriate action 
for self-preservation under emergency conditions. 

ARCHITECT. An architect licensed by the State of Colorado. 

ASSISTED CARE FACILITIES. See Personal Care Facilities. See Section 308.2 (Occupancy I-l) and Section 310.1 
(Occupancies R-3 and R-4). 

BOARD. The Board of Appeals. 

CHILD CARE CENTER. A facility which provides a comprehensive care service for the child when the parent or 
guardian is employed or otherwise engaged and unavailable to care for the child. The facility is maintained for tie whole 
or part of a day but for less than 24-hour care of 5 or more children from the ages of 6 weeks through 16 years, and not 
related to the owner, operator or manager thereof, whether such facility is operated with or without compensation for such 
care, and with or without compensation for stated educational purposes. The term includes facilities commonly known as 
a "day care center," "day nurseries," "nursery school," "kindergarten," "preschool," "play groups," "school age 
programs," "centers for the developmentally disabled children," "day treatment centers," "extended day programs" and 
"summer playground programs." See Sections 305.2 (Occupancy F), 308.3.1 (Occupancy 1-2) and 308.5.2 (Occupancy I- 
4). 

Child Care Centers shall not include: 

1. Child Care Homes 

2. The Pre- kindergarten and Kindergarten programs which are maintained in connection with a public, private or 
parochial school system of at least 6 grades, providing an educational program for the 2 years preceding entrance 
to the first grade. 

CHILD CARE HOME. A child care home shall be classified as an R Occupancy, Division 2 or 3. A private residence 
in a single-unit dwelling or a dwelling unit in a multiple- unit dwelling providing care and education for periods of less 
than 24 hours a day for 12 or fewer children under the age of 17. 

CONSTRUCTION. The act of using labor and materials used for erection, demolition or removal of a building, 
structure, utility, appliance or device. 

DEMOLITION. The destruction and removal of a building, structure or utility. 

DETERIORATION. The effect upon buildings, structures, utilities, equipment and materials through corrosion, decay, 
wear and tear due to use or abuse, obsolescence, effects of the elements, fire damage, disaster, flood, earthquake, lack of 
maintenance, vandalism or any other cause, including fatigue due to overstressing and disintegration of component parts 
and the separation of materials and structural parts. 

ENGINEER. An Fngineer registered by the State of Colorado as a Professional Fngineer. 

EVACUATION CAPABILITY . The ability of the occupants, residents and staff as a group either to evacuate a building 
or to relocate from the point of occupancy to a point of safety. Following are the levels of evacuation capability: 

1. Prompt. Fvacuation capability equivalent to the capability of the general population to evacuate a facility. 
Fvacuation drill time shall be 3 minutes or less. 

2. Slow. Fvacuation capability of a group to move to a point of safety in a timely manner, with some of the residents 
requiring assistance from the staff. Fvacuation drill time shall be over 3 minutes, but not in excess of 13 minutes. 

3. Impractical. A group that, even with staff assistance, cannot reliably move to a point of safety in a timely 
manner. Fvacuation drill time is more than 13 minutes. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. The Fire Department of the City and County of Denver. 

HOME OCCUPATION. Limited commercial use of a portion of a dwelling unit, single unit dwelling or multiple unit 
dwelling as permitted by the Department of Zoning Administration in accordance with Revised Municipal Code Section 
58-89. "Home occupations allowed". 

INDEPENDENT LIVING . The ability of a resident to provide for and maintain the basic functions of everyday living 
and to recognize and respond to an emergency for self-preservation. 



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[IFCA] LOWEST LEVEL OF FIRE DEPARTMENT VEHICLE ACCESS. The lowest level of Fire Department 
vehicle access shall be measured from the lowest elevation of any required Fire Department access road located no more 
than 30 ft. from any exterior wall of the building. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where the access road is permitted to be farther than 30 ft. to any exterior wall of the building, the lowest 
level of Fire Department vehicle access shall be measured from the lowest elevation of any required Fire 
Department access road located no more than 50 ft. from any exterior wall of the building. 

2. If any topography, waterway, non- negotiable grades or other similar conditions exist that preclude required 
Fire Department vehicular access, the Fire Code official is authorized to require additional fire protection 
systems as required by Chapter 9. 

MAINTENANCE. The normal upkeep of property or equipment to keep it in an existing state, such as minor repairs to 
keep equipment operational. This definition shall not invalidate the requirement for a permit when so determined by the 
Agency as beyond the scope of maintenance. 

NONAMBULATORY . A physical or mental condition under which a person is not capable of judgment and appropriate 
action for self-preservation under emergency conditions. 

NURSING HOME. A facility that is operating in connection with a hospital or where nursing care and medical services 
are prescribed by or performed under the general direction or persons licensed to practice medicine or surgery by the State 
of Colorado or for the accommodation of convalescents or other persons who are not actually ill and not in need of 
hospital care and related services. The term "nursing home" is restricted to facilities designed to provide skilled nursing 
care and related medical services for a period of not less than 24 hours per day. 

OCCUPIED ROOF. The roof of a building or structure used for purposes other than maintenance, repair or servicing of 
the building equipment. 

PERSONAL CARE. Protective care of residents who do not require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. 
Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the resident while inside the building. Personal care may include 
daily awareness by the management of the resident's functioning and whereabouts, making and reminding a resident of 
appointments, the ability and readiness for intervention in the event of a resident experiencing a crisis, supervision in the 
areas of nutrition and medication, and actual provision of transient medical care. 

PERSONAL CARE FACILITY. See Personal Care Service, Section 310.2. 

PUBLIC UTILITY. An authorized or franchised firm given the right to perform services necessary under the 
authorization or franchise. 

RECOGNIZED VOLUNTEER ORGANIZATION. A nonprofit organization, recognized by the Internal Revenue 
Service as a charitable or religious organization. 

SCHOOL: PUBLIC; PRIVATE OR CHARTER. An institution which provides instruction or education at elementary, 
secondary and high school learning levels. 

SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEM. An engineered mechanical and electrical system designed to provide a tenable 
environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants and control the development and movement of smoke. 

STRUCTURE. An assembly of materials forming a construction for a specific use including, among others, buildings, 
stadiums, tents, reviewing stands, platforms, stagings, observation towers, radio and television towers, water tanks, 
swimming and wading pools, retaining walls, open sheds, coal bins, shelters, fences and display signs. This definition 
shall not include utilities. 

TENANT. A person occupying a building or portion thereof and separated from other tenants by walls, floors and 
ceilings. The tenant shall have a lease to occupy tie specified space from the owner. 

USABLE SPACE. Space that may be used. This definition does not apply when usable or potential usable space is 
sealed off so that access to the area is not provided. 

UTILITIES. For the purpose of this Code, utilities shall be defined, without limitation to include the following: 

Refrigeration systems and their appurtenances; electrical systems and all appurtenances, such as motors, etc.; heating 
and ventilation systems and appurtenances; elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators and similar conveyances; fire 

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protection systems and apparatus; air conditioning or air treatment systems, including ductwork; exhaust or 
ventilating systems, including ductwork; plumbing and sanitary systems and all appurtenances; signal and annunciator 
systems; gas, oil and solid fuel- fired appliances, piping, controls, burners and their appurtenances; evaporative 
cooling, antennae, wells and equipment; water heaters; gas lights; swimming pool piping; gasoline pumps; and L.P.G. 
liquid fuel and gasoline tanks and piping. 

VALUE OR VALUATION. The building replacement value for permit purposes including labor, profit, overhead, 
materials, base building equipment and appliances. 

The determination of value or valuation shall be made or directed to be made by the Agency. 

WORK. All construction or repair excluding decoration or maintenance of existing utilities or appliances. 

WRECKING. See Demolition. 



CHAPTERS 
USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 

SECTION 303 
ASSEMBLY GROUP A 

Section 303.2 is added: 

303.2 Fire Command Room In Group A Occupancies With An Occupant Load Of 1000 Or More. A fire command 
room complying with IFCA Section 503 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department. 

SECTION 305 
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 

Section 305.3 is added: 

305.3 Conversion of Existing Buildings to Small Day Care Centers. An existing building may be converted to a small 
day care center without complying with all the requirements for a change of use under Section 305, provided the 
following provisions are met: 

Drawings and specifications need not bear the seal of an architect or engineer. However, after the review of the drawings 
and specifications, the Agency may require that the drawings and specifications bear the seal of an architect and engineer 
who will be responsible for the design phases of the conversion. 

Any building additions or new facilities installed or erected, as part of the conversion shall comply with present Building 
Code provisions. 

The number of occupants, excluding staff, shall not exceed 20 and shall be permitted on the first story only. 

Exceptions: 

1. Basements having floor levels located within 4 feet (1219 mm), measured vertically, from adjacent ground 
level at the level of exit discharge, provided the basement has exterior exit doors at that level. 

2. Any floor level with an exterior door leading directly to the outside where the floor level is within: 

a. Two feet vertically of directly surrounding grade shall be allowed for children 2 72 years or younger. 

b. Five feet vertically of directly surrounding grade shall be allowed for children more than 2 V2 and less 
than 5 years of age. 

c. Eight feet vertically of directly surrounding grade shall be allowed for children over 5 years of age and 
ambulatory adults. 

3. Egress from the floor level to grade may be by stairs or ramps. 

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4. A floor level occupied for day care activities shall have 2 exits. Two exits may include one exit directly to 
grade or as provided in item #3 above with a second exit as an interior stair or ramp. Egress through a 
window shall not be accepted as an exit. 

5. There shall be no dead-end corridors. 

6. Gas- fired heating appliances must comply with the International Mechanical Code. 

7. Existing partitions, walls and ceilings may be approved if the existing surface is of a fire-resistive material 
consisting of lath and plaster or gypsum board of at least V2 inch thickness. 

8. Section 907.2.3 shall apply to all conversions. Residential type multiple single-station smoke detectors may 
be installed with field inspector approval. System type smoke detectors will require drawings signed and 
sealed by an electrical engineer. 

9. Requirements of other City and State agencies must be complied with. When a conflict occurs between 
regulations of different agencies, the most restrictive will govern. 

SECTION 308 
INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I 

Sections 308.5.3 is added: 

Section 308.5.3 Conversion of Existing Buildings to Small Day Care Centers. See Section 305.3. 

SECTION 310 
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R 

Section 310.1 R-2 Residential Occupancies has been amended by adding "Live/Work" units to the list 
of occupancies. 

310.3 Special Provisions for Residential Personal Care Facility. A Personal Care Facility may occupy Group I-l, 
Group R-3, or Group R-4 occupancies with the following provisions: 

1 . Type of ccupancies 

A. Group R-3 Home Occupancy: less tiian 3 occupants 

B. Group R-3 Personal Care Facility: from 3-5 occupants 
Group R-4 Personal Care Facility: from 6 to 16 occupants 
Group I-l Personal Care Facility: more than 16 occupants 

Note: Above occupant load does not include the care provider. 

2. Plans and permit shall indicate the maximum occupant load and for Personal Care Facilities indicate the 
evacuation capability classification. 

3. Plans for the renovation of an existing building or the construction of a new building shall bear the seal and 
signature of the Architect or Engineer responsible for the design phases of the building. See Section 153. 

4. Personal Care Facility Provider shall: 

A. Develop a Facility Personal Care Plan, which specifically establishes the services to be provided to the 
residents (forms provided by the Agency). 

B. Establish an Evacuation Capability by using the "Facility and Resident Characteristics for Establishing 
Evacuation Capability" chart. The actual evacuation capability will be verified by the Fire Department after 
the building is occupied. 



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SECTION 312 

UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U 

Section 312.2 is added: 

312.2 Fences and Retaining Walls. 

312.2.1 General This Section shall apply to all fences or walls in excess of 4 feet in height, all retaining walls in 
excess of 3 feet in height. For exempted work refer to Section 150.2, item #2 and ^. 

312.2.2 Design. All fences, walls and retaining walls shall be designed in accordance with IBC Section 1806 & 1609. 

[F]312.2.3 Prohibition. The following prohibitions shall apply to all fences, walls or retaining walls, regardless of 
height: 

1. The use of barbed wire or any other sharp- pointed material as a fencing material or on top of fences or 
retaining walls is prohibited per IFCA 507.4. 

2. The use of electrically charged fences or on top of fences or retaining walls is prohibited per IFCA 507.4. 



CHAPTER 4 
SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 

SECTION 402 

COVERED MALL BUILDINGS 

[F] Section 402.14.1 is added: 

402.14.1 Fire Command Room In Covered Mall Buildings. A fire command room complying with IFCA Section 
509.3 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department for covered mall buidlings exceeding 50,000 
square feet in total floor area. 

SECTION 403 
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 

[F] 403.5 Automatic Fire Detection is amended by replacing reference to IFCA. 

[F] 403.6 Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication Systems is amended by replacing reference to IFCA. 

[F] 403.7 Fire Department Communications System is amended by replacing it in its entirety with the 
following: 

[F] 403.7 Fire Department Communications System. A fire department communication system shall be provided in 
accordance with IFCA . 

[F] 403.10.1 Fuel Supply is amended by adding the following: 

[F] 403.10.1. Fuel Supply. An on-premises fuel supply, sufficient for not less than 8 hours full-demand operation of 
the system, shall be provided. 

403.12 Stairway Door Operation is deleted in its entirety and locking of stairway doors are addressed 
by Appendix L Access Control Systems. 

Section 403.15 Accessible Means Of Egress And Area Of Refuge Required is added to include the 
following: 

403.15 Accessible Means Of Egress And Area Of Refuge Required. Accessible means of egress shall comply with this 
section. Only one accessible means of egress is required in high-rise buildings possessing hoist way pressurization 
conforming to the provisions of IBC A Section 909.21.4.2. 

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Section 403.15.1 Group A, B, E and M Occupancies. In Group A, B, E and M occupancies, an elevator complying 
with Section 1007.4 and an area of refuge/elevator lobby providing direct access to the elevator shall serve as the 
accessible means of egress. The area of refuge shall be sized in accordance with Section 1007.6.1. Each area of refuge 
shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier complying with Section 709. 

Section 403.15.2 Group Rl, R2 and II Occupancies. In Group Rl, R2, and II occupancies, an elevator complying 
with Section 1007.4, with a fire-resistive corridor providing direct access to the elevator from all dwelling units or 
sleeping units shall serve as the only required accessible means of egress. An enclosed elevator lobby is not required. 

403.16 Area of Refuge/Elevator Lobby Pressurization. The area of refuge/elevator lobby shall be pressurized by the 
transfer of air from the pressurized hoist way through the leakage at the elevator doors. 

SECTION 405 
UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS 

Section 405.1 is amended by tlie addition of Exception 6. 
Exception: 

6. High Rise buildings shall comply with Section 403. 

SECTION 406 

MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

[PW] 406.2.10 is added: 

406.2.10 Motor Vehicle Exiting from Parking Facilities. Where ramps are provided for motor vehicles to exit from 
a parking facility or from a private drive onto the public right of way, the ramps shall be sloped at 0.5% minimum to 
2% maximum for a distance at least 20 feet inside of the building or property line. Vertical curves shall be used at all 
grade breaks. 

Exception: 

When alternate slopes are approved by the "Transportation, Engineering and Planning Division" of Public 
Works. 

SECTION 411 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS 

[F] Section 411.6.1 Fire Command Room for Special Amusement Buildings is added. 

411.6.1 Fire Command Room for Special Amusement Buildings. A fire command room complying with IFCA 
509.4 shall be provided in a location approved by the Fire Department. 

SECTION 421 
LIVE/WORK UNITS 

Section 421 Live/Work Units lias been added. 

421.1 General A live/work unit is a dwelling unit or sleeping unit in which a significant portion of the space includes a 
non- residential use, which is operated, by the dwelling unit or sleeping unit occupant and shall comply with Section 421. 

Exception: 

Dwelling units or sleeping units which conform to the provisions of Section 59-89 of the Revised Municipal Code 
for the City and County of Denver shall be classified as a Home Occupancy, not a live/work unit. 

421.1.1 Limitations. The following shall apply to all live/work areas: 

1 . The live/work unit is permitted to be a maximum of 3,000 square feet. 

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2. The non- residential area is permitted to be a maKimum of 50% of the area of each live/work unit; such 
area shall be further limited to maximum occupant load of 49 persons, as determined by dividing the floor 
area under consideration by the occupant- per- unit- area factor assigned to the occupancy set forth in Table 
1004.1.1. 

3. The non- residential area function shall be limited to the first or main floor only of the live/work unit. 

4. Aggregate amount of flammable and combustible liquids within each live/work unit shall not exceed 10 
gallons. All flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored in liquid storage cabinets in accordance 
with IFC Section 3404.3.2, the amount in use shall not exceed 1 gallon. 

5. Aggregate amount of flammable gas including LPG within each live/work unit shall not exceed 1-one 
pound cylinder in use with 1-one pound cylinder in storage. 

6. Outside storage of any flammable and combustible liquids and flammable gases is prohibited. 

421.2 Occupancies. Live/work units shall be classified as a Group R-2 occupancy. Separation requirements found in 
Section 508.3 shall not apply within the live/unit when it is in compliance with Section 421. Commercial activities shall 
be limited to the following: 

Group B occupancies 

Group M occupancies, except motor fuel- dispensing facilities 

Group F occupancy custom manufacturing establishments primarily engaged in the on-site production of goods by 
hand manufacturing which involve only the use of hand tools or mechanical equipment not exceeding two (2) 
horsepower per piece of equipment not to exceed a total of six horsepower; or a single kiln not exceeding eight (8) 
kilowatts or the equivalent in a gas fired fixture. 

Spray finishing operations shall be limited to those allowed by International Fire Code Section 1504.9. 

The aggregate of area of non- residential storage in the live/work unit shall be limited to 10% of the space dedicated to 
non- residential activities. 

421.3 Fire-resistance-rated construction. The fire- resistance rating required by Sections 708 and 711.3 between units 
shall be a minimum of 1-hour construction. 

421.4 Vertical openings. Floor opening between floor levels of a live/work unit is permitted without enclosure. 

421.5 Fire protection. The live/work unit shall be provided with a fire sprinkler system designed and installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, as applicable, throughout the building. 

An approved automatic fire detection system shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA72 
throughout the non- residential area. Fire alarm system shall be monitored by Class 1 Central Station per IFC 907. 
Residential portions shall be equipped single-or multiple- station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following 
locations: 

1. In sleeping areas 

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit. 

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split-levels and without an 
intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the 
adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level. 

4. Power source shall be in accordance to IFC 907.2.10.2. 

5. Interconnection of smoke detectors shall be in accordance to IFC 907.2.10.3 

Notification appliances shall be installed throughout the live/work area in accordance with the provisions of this 
code and NFPA72 throughout. 

Devices, combinations of devices, appliances and equipment shall comply with Section 907.1.2. 

421.6 Means of egress. Except as modified by this section, the provisions for Group R-2 occupancies in Chapter 10 shall 
apply to the entire live/work unit. 

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421.6.1 Means of egress doors serving the non- residential function area shall provide a floor or landing on each side 
of the door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. 

421.6.2 Emergency escape and rescue openings shall be provided in the residential area in accordance with the 
provisions Section 1026. Section 1036.1, Exception No. 1 is not applicable to live/work units. 

421.7 Accessibility. The applicable requirements of Chapter 11 shall apply to each area within the live/work unit. 

421.8 Ventilation. The applicable requirements of the amended International Mechanical Code shall apply to each area 
within the live/work unit for the function within that space. 

421.9 Structural. Floor loading for the areas within a live/work unit shall be designed to conform to Table 1607.1 based 
on the function within the space. 

421.10 Electrical. The applicable requirements of Chapter 27 shall apply to each area within the live/work unit 421.11 
Plumbing. The applicable requirements of the amended International Plumbing Code shall apply to each area within the 
live/work unit for the function within that space. The non- residential use portion of the live/work unit is not considered to 
be a Group R occupancy for the purpose of applying the provisions of amended IBC Section 2902.9. 



CHAPTERS 
GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 

SECTION 507 

UNLIMITED AREA BUILDINGS 

Section 507.12 is added: 

[EB] 507.12 Existing Buildings. Any building constructed prior to March 26, 1994 and meeting the requirements of one 
of the categories in Table 507.12 is allowed to retain its existing area, provided the existing area does not exceed the 
allowable area of the code under which it was last certified for occupancy, including all applicable Modifications Under 
Special Circumstances and retrofit ordinances. Building additions shall satisfy the current code and Table 507.12. 





TABLE 507 
EXISTING BUILDING UNLIMIl 


.12 

rED AREA ADDITIONS 




Category 


Occupancy Group 


Maximum 
No. of Stories 


Type of 
Construction 


Auto Sprinkler 
Throughout 


Minimum 

Open 

Space* 


1 
2 


B, F, M, S 
F2, S-2 


1 
1 


ALL 
11, III-A 


YES 
NR 


20' 
40' 


NOTE: 


NR= NOT REQUIRED 

* = ENTIRELY SURROUNDED AND ADJOINED BY PUBLIC WAYS OR YARDS NOT LESS 
THAN DISTANCE INDICATED, ADDITIONAL OPEN SPACE MAY BE REQUIRED EO R 
EIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS, SEE FIRECODE. 



SECTION 508 

MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCIES 

Section 508.3.1 Accessory Occupancies lias been amended by adding Exception 4. 
Exception: 

1. Live/work units in accordance with Section IBCA 421 are not considered separate occupancies. 



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CHAPTER? 
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 

SECTION 704 
EXTERIOR WALLS 

Section 704.2 Projections is amended in its entirety. 

704.2 Projections. Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balconies and similar cantilevered or wall hung projections 
extending beyond the floor area shall conform to the requirements of this section and Section 1406. Exterior egress 
balconies and exterior exit stairways shall also comply with Sections 1014.5 and 1023.1, respectively. The distance from 
exterior edges of projections to the closest interior lot line or to an imaginary line between two buildings on the property 
shall not be less than four feet (1220 mm). 

704.2.1 Type I and II construction. Projections from walls of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible 
materials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 1406.3 and 1406.4. 

704.2.2 Type III, IV or V construction. Projections from walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any 
approved material. 

704.2.3 Combustible projections. Combustible projections located where the distance from the exterior edges of 
projection to the closest interior lot line or to an imaginary line between two buildings on the property is less than 6 
feet (1830 mm) shall be of at least 1-hour fire- resistance- rated construction. Type IV construction, fire-retardant- 
treated wood or as required by Section 1406.3. 

Exceptions: 

Type V construction shall be allowed for R-3 occupancies. 

In buildings required by this Section to have fire resistance rated roof assemblies, vent openings in the bottom 
membrane of fire- resistance rated roof overhangs are permitted when buildings are protected by an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

704.2.4 Noncombustible projections. Noncombustible projections shall not be required to have a fire- resistance- 
rating. 

Section 704.8 Allowable Area of Openings. 

Section 704.8.1 Automatic Sprinkler System is amended by adding the following sentence to the end of the 

paragraph. 

704.8.1 Automatic Sprinkler System is applicable to openings with or without windows, duct and air transfer 
openings. 

Section 704.12 Opening Protection. 

704.12 Opening Protection is amended by replacing the Exception in its entirety with the following: 

Exception: 

Where opening protection is provided by ceiling sprinkler heads spaced at 6 ft. on center and placed between 6 to 

12 inches from the wall, area of exterior openings described in Table 704.8 shall not exceed 50% where the fire 
separation distance is greater than 5 and is less than 15 ft. Buildings shall be equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The sprinkler system shall be designed to 
distribute at least 3 gpm per linear foot of wall opening. The sprinkler system serving the floor shall be designed 
to provide adequate water supply to either a hydraulically calculated remote floor area in accordance with NFPA 

13 or to all of the exposure protection heads on any one level of the building, whichever demand is greater. 

Section 704.14 Ducts and transfer openings. 
704.14 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings is amended by adding Exception 2. 
Exception: 

2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

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SECTION 707 
SHAFT ENCLOSURES 

707.2 Shaft Enclosure Required, Exception 2, item 2.1 is amended by replacing the last sentence in its 
entirety with the following: 

For escalator openings this application is limited to openings that do not connect more than four stories for other than 
Group B and M occupancies. For stairway openings, this application is limited to openings that do not connect more 
than three stories for buildings without smoke control capabilities. For buildings with smoke control capabilities this 
application is limited to openings that do not connect more than four stories. The smoke control capabilities shall 
comply with Section 909. In addition, smoke detectors shall be located adjacent to the floor side of the openings. The 
smoke control system for the openings shall be subject to field testing. 

707.4 Fire Resistance Rating is amended by adding the following Exception: 

Exception: 

Shaft enclosures for piping, ducts and vents may be of one hour fire- rated construction in buildings of four stories 
or more and of Construction Types of IIA, IIB, IIIA, VA. 

707.5 Continuity is amended by adding the following Exception: 

Exception: 

Shaft enclosures for piping, ducts and vents in Construction Types of IIB, IIIB and VB may be supported on non 
fire- rated assemblies. 

Section 707.14 Elevator, Dumbwaiter and Other Hoist ways. 

707.14.1 Elevator Lobby is amended by replacing Exception 6 with the following: 

Exception: 

6. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required in non high-rise buildings where the elevator is pressurized in 
accordance with IBCA Section 707.14.2.1. Elevator lobbies in highrise buildings shall comply with IBCA 
Section 403.15 and 403.16. 

Section 707.14.2 Enclosed Elevator Lobby Pressurization Alternative is amended by replacing the title 
of the section with the following: 

707.14.2 Enclosed Elevator Lobby Pressurization Alternative For Non-Highrise Building. Where elevator 
hoistway pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall 
comply with this section. 

Section 707.14.2.1 Pressurization Requirements is amended in its entirety. 

707.14.2.1 Pressurization for Non High Rise Buildings. Elevator hoist ways shall be pressurized to maintain a 
minimum positive pressure of 0.05 inches of water column with respect to the adjacent spaces on all floors with 
the HVAC system off. The supply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated source located a minimum 
distance of ten (10) feet from any air exhaust system or outlet. 

SECTION 716 

DUCTS AND AIR TRANSFER OPENINGS 

716.5.3 Shaft Enclosures Exceptions is amended by deleting exception 1.3 and exception 4 to comply 
with IFCA Section 909. 



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CHAPTERS 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

Other Amendments to this chapter are located in Chapter 9 of the Amendments of the International Fire Code. 

Section 909.20 Smokeproof Enclosures 

Where required by Section 1020.1.7, a smokeproof vertical exit enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with this 
section. A smokeproof vertical exit enclosure shall consist of an enclosed interior exit stair that conforms to Section 
1020.1 with either a natural ventilated outside balcony or pressurized in accordance with DBC Section 909.21. Where 
access to the roof is required by the IFC, such access shall be from the smokeproof enclosure where a smokeproof 
enclosures is required. 

Section 909.20.1 is deleted in its entirety. 

909.20.2 Construction. Smokeproof vertical exit enclosures shall be separated from the remainder of the the 
building by not less than a 2- hour fire- resistance- rated fire barrier without openings other than the required means of 
egress doors. The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accordance with the fire- resistance- rating 
requirements for floor construction. 

909.20.2.1 Door Closers. Doors in a smokeproof enclosure shall be self closing or shall be automatic - closing 
by actuation of a smoke detector installed at the floor-side entrance to the smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of 
the smoke detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all 
levels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.10. 

909.20.4 Mechanical Ventilation Alternative. This section and its subsections are deleted in their 
entirety. 

909.20.5 Stair Pressurization Alternative. Stairway pressurization shall comply with IFCA Section 
909.21.4. 

909.20.6 Ventilation Equipment. This section and its subsection are deleted in their entirety. 



CHAPTER 10 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

SECTION 1004 
OCCUPANT LOAD 

Section 1004.1.1 Areas without fixed seating Exception is amended by replacing tine exception: 

Exception: 

Where approved by the building and fire code officials, the actual number of occupants for whom each occupied 
space, floor or building is designed, although less than those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be used 
in the determination of the design occupant load. 

SECTION 1005 
EGRESS WIDTH 

Amend Table 1005.1 as follows: 



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TABLE 1005.1 
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT SERVED 





WITHOUT SPRINKLER SYSTEM 


WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM' 


Occupancy 


Stairways (inches 
per occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Stairways (inches 
per occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Occupancies other 
than those listed 
below 


0.3 


0.2 


0.25 


0.175 


Hazardous: H-1, H- 
2, H-3andH-4 


0.7 


0.4 


0.3 


0.3 


Institutional: 1-2 


n/a 


n/a 


0.3 


0.2 


Assembly with 
Occupant Loads 
Greater than 400 


0.3 


0.2 


0.3 


0.2 



For SI: 1 inch =25.4 mm 

n/a = Not Applicable 

a. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.1.2. 

SECTION 1007 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS 

Section 1007.1 Accessible means of egress required. 

1007.1 Accessible means of egress required is amended by adding exception 4. 

Exception: 

4. Buildings required to comply with Section 403 of the International Building Code shall be provided with 
accessible means of egress in accordance with IBCA Section 403.15. 

Section 1007.6 Area of refuge is amended by moving the reference to horizontal exits and smoke 
barriers from the last sentence of the first paragraph to one of two exceptions. 

1007.6 Area of refuge. Every area of refuge shall be accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of egress. 
The maximum travel distance from any accessible space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the travel distance permitted 
for the occupancy in accordance witii Section 1016.1. Every required area of refuge shall have direct access to an 
enclosed stairway complying with Section 1007.3 and 1020.1 or an elevator complying Section 1007.4. Where an 
elevator lobby is used as an area of refuge, the shaft and lobby shall comply with IBCA Section 1020.1.7. Areas of refuge 
for high rise buildings shall comply with Section 403.15 and 403.16. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Elevators in an area of refuge formed by a horizontal exit or smoke barrier. 

2. In buildings not required to comply with Section 403 or 405, elevator lobby areas of refuge shall be enclosed 
by smoke barriers in accordance with IFCA Section 909.5. Openings in the elevator shaft enclosure other 
than those directly serving an area of refuge, shall be protected from the intrusion of smoke in accordance 
with IFCA Section 909.5.2. Loss of power to, or the actuation of, any fire detection or suppression device on 
any level shall cause the closure of all automatic opening protectives in the enclosures of all areas of refuge 
and the elevator shafts sen/ing them, except the shaft enclosure doors at the floor level designated for recall in 
accordance with Section 3003.2. 

Replace Section 1007.6.3 as follows: 

1007.6.3 Two-way communication. A two-way communication means between the area of refuge and an approved 
location in the building readily accessible to authorized and emergency personnel shall be provided (see IFCA Section 
509). The means shall be monitored for integrity and annunciated per NFPA 72 (see 2007 NFPA 72 Section 4.4.7; 
the two-way communcation means shall not be considered "supplementary"). 

The two-way communcation means shall comply with the following requirements: 



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1. The user interface in tlie area of refuge must be accessible and usable by people with disabilities. Clearance, 
location, protrusion, labeling, signage and operability of the user interface shall comply with ANSI A 117.1 

2. A push button to activate the two-way communication means shall be provided in the area of refuge. The button 
shall be visible and permanently identified as "HELP" on or adjacent to the button. 

3. Tactile and Braille operating instructions shall be incorporated with or adjacent to the "HELP" button. When the 
button is pushed, the emergency two-way communication means shall initiate a call for help at an approved 
location within the building. A visual indication shall be provided on or adjacent to the "HELP" button, and an 
audible signal shall be provided to acknowledge successful initiation. The visual indication shall remain activated 
at least until two-way voice communication is established, and shall be deactivated by the time two-way voice 
communcation is terminated. 

4. The two-way communication means shall not be transmitted to an automated answering system. The call for help 
shall be answered by authorized personnel. When the approved location is not continuously staffed by authorized 
personnel who can take appropriate action, the call shall also be directed, automatically, within 30 seconds, to a 
listed central supervising station where authorized personnel will make an appropriate response, or to 911 if the 
building does not have a monitored fire alarm system. 

5. The two-way communcation means shall automatically provide to authorized personnel an indication that 
assistance is required, and information that identifies the building location of the actuated user interface. 

6. Audible and visual indications which are activated by authorized personnel shall be provided to acknowledge 
two-way communication has been established. The visual indicator shall be located on or adjacent to the "HELP" 
button. After the call acknowledgement signals are sent, two-way voice communication shall be established 
without any intentional delay or required intervention by a person in the area of refuge. The visual indication 
shall be deactivated only when the two-way voice communication is terminated. 

7. The means of two-way communication shall enable emergency personnel within the building to establish two- 
way voice communication to each refuge area individually. The means shall override communication outside the 
building. Once established, two-way voice communication with emergency personnel shall be discontinued only 
when emergency personnel terminate the call. 

8. The two-way communication means shall be connected to a source of, or automatically transferred to an alternate 
(standby, emergency, etc.) source of power capable of providing for the visual and audible indicators in the area 
of refuge, and the means of voice communication for at least four hours when the normal power supply fails. 

SECTION 1008 

DOORS GATES AND TURNSTILES 

Section 1008.1.3.4 is Access-controlled egress doors. Access-controlled egress doors are addressed 
by Appendix L, Access Control Systems. 

Section 1008.1.8.6 Delayed egress locks is deleted in its entirety and are addressed by Appendix L, 
Access Control Systems. 

Section 1008.1.8.7 Stairway doors is deleted in its entirety and addressed by Appendix L, Access 
Control Systems. 

SECTION 1009 
STAIRWAYS 

Section 1009.11 Stairway to roof 

1009.11.1 Roof access is amended by deleting the exception. 

Add Section 1009.12 as follows: 

Section 1009.12 Roof hatches in buildings four or more stories above grade. All required interior stair enclosures that 
extend to the roof in any building four or more stories above grade, shall have, at the highest point of the stair enclosure, a 
roof hatch per IFCA Section 504.4. 

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Exception: 

Roof hatches are not required on pressurized stair enclosures and on stair enclosures complying with IBCA 
Section 1009.11.1. 

SECTION 1011 
EXIT SIGNS 

Replace Section 1011.2 Illumination as follows: 

1011.2 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally illuminated. 
Exception: 

Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need not be provided with illumination. 
Add Section 1011.4.1 as follows: 

1011.4.1 Graphics. One of the following lettering / field combinations shall be used: 

1 . W hite luminous on green luminous field. 

2. G reen luminous on white luminous field. 

3. White light emitting diodes on green field. 

4. G reen light emitting diodes on white field. 
Add Section 1011.4.2 as follows: 

1011.4.2 Exit sign illumination. Exit signs shall be electrically illuminated to an intensity level of 5.0 foot candles. 
Non-LED signs shall be illuminated by a minimum of two electric lamps. 

Add Section 1011.4.3 as follows: 

1011.4.3 Power source. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. To ensure continued illumination for a 
duration of not less than 90 minutes in case of primaiy power loss, the sign illumination means shall be connected 
to an emergency power system provided from storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The 
installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with IFC Section 604 as amended. 

Delete Section 1011.5. 

SECTION 1014 
EXIT ACCESS 

Section 1014 Common path of egress travel. 

1014.3 Common path of egress travel is amended by adding to 903.3.1.2 (NFPA 13R) system to exception 4. 

Exception: 

4. The length of common path of egress travel in a group R-2 occupancy shall not be more than 125 feet, provided 
the building is protected with an approved sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

Section 1014.4.1 Aisles in group B and M is deleted in its entirety and replaced by the following: 

1014.4.1 Aisles in groups B, F, M and S. In Group B, F, M and S occupancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall 
be determined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Non public aisles serving less than 50 people and not required to be handicap accessible shall not be less than 
28 inches (711 mm) in width. 

2. High-piled combustible storage areas shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 23 of the Fire 
Code. 

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SECTION 1020 

VERTICAL EXIT CLOSURES 

Section 1020.1.7 Smoke proof enclosures is amended by adding a reference to IFCA Section 909.20.: 

1020.1.7 Smokeproof enclosures. In buildings required to comply with Section 403 or 405, each of the exits of a 
buildng that serve stories where the floor surface is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of 
fire department vehicle access or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the level of exit discharge serving such floor 
levels shall be a smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway in accordance with IFCA Section 909.20. 

Delete Section 1020.1.7.2. 

SECTION 1025 
ASSEMBLY 

[F] Section 1025.12 Seat stability has been replaced in its entirety as follows: 

1025.12 Seat stability. In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Seats are not required to be fastened to the floor in places of assembly or portions thereof: 

• with 100 or fewer seats, and 

• with an actual net area per occupant greater than or equal to 7 sq. ft, and 

• without ramped or tiered floors for seating. 

2. Seats are not required to be fastened to the floor in places of assembly or portions thereof: 

• with 100 or fewer seats, and 

• with an actual net area per occupant greater than or equal to 7 sq. ft, and 

• with ramped or tiered floors for seating, and 

• where plans showing seating, tiers and aisles were submitted to, reviewed and permitted by the Fire Code 
Official. 

3. Seats are not required to be fastened to the floor in places of assembly or portions thereof: 

• with more than 100 and fewer than 200 seats, and 

• with an actual net area per occupant greater tiian or equal to 7 sq. ft, and 

• without ramped or tiered floors for seating, and 

• with seats fastened together in groups of five or more. 

4. Seats are not required to be fastened to the floor in places of assembly or portions thereof: 

• with seating at tables, and 

• with an actual net area per occupant greater than or equal to 15 sq. ft, and 

• without ramped or tiered floors for seating. 

5. Groups of seats are not required to be fastened to the floor in places of assembly or portions thereof: 

• with 14 or fewer seats per group, and 

• with an actual net area per occupant greater than or equal to 7 sq. ft, and 

• without ramped or tiered floors for seating, and 

• groups are separated from other seating by railings, guards, partial height walls or similar barriers. 

6. Seats intended for musicians or other performers and separated by railings, guards, partial height walls or similar 
barriers shall not be required to be fastened to the floor. 

7. In special events permitted by Section 105.6 of the Fire Code, loose seats, folding chairs or similar seating 
facilities that are not fixed to the floor shall be securely fastened together in groups of five or more. 



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CHAPTER 11 
ACCESSIBILITY 

SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

Section 1101.1 Scope is amended by adding the following sentence: 

1101.1 Scope. In addition to the requirements of this chapter, the provisions of Title 9, Article 5, Colorado Revised 
Statutes , as amended, Standards for Accessible Housing, shall be enforced by this Code. Title 9, Article 5, C.R.S. as 
amended is reproduced in Appendix M of this Code for reference. 

Section 1101.3 Notice and Warning is added, reading as follows: 

1101.3 Notice and Warning. Although the Code enforces the provisions of Title 9, Article 5, C.R.S., as amended, as set 
out in Section 1101.1 above, the Code has not been certified or otherwise conformed by the U.S. Government or State of 
Colorado to the requirements or the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA") the Rehabilitation Act, the HUD Fair 
Housing Act or any other State of Colorado accessibihty laws, including but not limited to the Colorado Anti- 
Discrimination Act ("CADA"). 

Therefore, compliance with the Code does not assure compliance with Titles II or III of the ADA, the Rehabilitation Act, 
the HUD Fair Housing Act or any other Federal or State laws, except as provided in Section 1101.1 above, or any 
regulations or guidelines enacted or promulgated with respect to such laws. The City and County of Denver is not 
responsible for enforcement of the ADA, Rehabilitation Act, HUD Fair Housing Act or such other Federal or State laws, 
except as provided in Section 1101.1 above. 

Building plans submitted under this Code will be reviewed and inspected for compliance with the Code and will not be 
reviewed or inspected for compliance with the requirements of the ADA, Rehabilitation Act, HUD Fair Housing Act or 
other Federal or State laws, except as provided in Section 1101.1 above. Therefore, it is the sole responsibility of the 
developer or building owner to have their plans or facilities independently evaluated by knowledgeable professionals in 
order to comply with the applicable requirements of the above- listed laws. 

Any modification to a building will require a building permit. 

Section 1107.6.2.1 is amended by revising the first paragraph creating categories for "For Sale" and 
"For Rent" Type A Units: The Exceptions following the first paragraph are to remain as stated. Table 
1107.6.2.1 is added. 

1107.6.2.1.1 Type A units. In Group R-2 occupancies. Type A "For Sale" projects containing more than 20 dwelling 
units or sleeping units, at least 2 percent but not less than one of the units shall be a Type A unit. Type A "For Rent" 
dwelling units or sleeping units in Group R-2 occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 1107.6.2.1. All units on a site 
shall be considered to determine the total number of units and the required number of Type A units. Type A units shall be 
dispersed among the various classes of units. 

TABLE 1107.6.2.1 
REQUIRED TYPE A "FOR RENT " DWELLING UNITS 



Total Number of Dwelling Units 
on Site 


Required Number of Type A 
Dwelling Units 


0- 10 


None 


11-20 


1 


21-40 


2 


41-60 


3 


61-80 


4 


81 - 100 


5 


For every 20 units or fractional part thereof, over 100 


1 additional 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONALBUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 15 
ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 

SECTION 1503 
WEATHER PROTECTION 

Section 1503.2 Flashing 
Section 1503.2.2 is added 

1503.2.2 Flashing for Single-ply roof systems. All flashing installations for single- ply roofing systems shall be 
installed per manufacturers' latest recommendations and details for the system. 

Section 1503.2.3 is added 

1503.2.3 Mechanical equipment on roof. Mechanical equipment placed, replaced and reset on roofing shall be 
supported on 8-inch curbs or legs, which shall be flashed to tiie roofing and made watertight. 

Section 1503.4 Roof drainage 

1503.4.2 Drain Installation for Single-Ply System is added. 

1503.4.2 Drain Installation for Single-Ply System. Drains for single-ply roof systems shall be installed per the 
latest manufacturers' details and recommendations. 

Section 1503.6 Vertical Projections is added. 

1503.6 Vertical Projections. All projections through the roof surface shall be properly flashed to prevent moisture entry. 

1. Pipe penetrations shall be completed with a standard roof jack, flashed per manufacturer- recommended details or 
fold flashed. Pitch pans are prohibited. 

2. Pitch pans may be used to flash multiple penetrations with prior approval. Pourable sealer or sheet metal caps 
shall be used to seal pitch pans. 

3. Mechanical penetrations may penetrate through properly sized flashing extended 8 inches above the finished 
roofing deck with a storm collar. 

SECTION 1507 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ROOF COVERINGS 

Section 1507.2 Asphalt Shingles 

Section 1507.2.8 Asphalt Shingles is amended by adding exception. 
Exception: 

An accepted self-adhering polymer modified bitumer sheet can substitute for a double underlayment installation. 

Section 1507.2.9.2 Valleys is amended by adding item 4. 

4. Metal liners shall not be installed in closed valleys. 

Section 1507.3 Clay and Concrete Tile 

Section 1507.3.10 Inspection of Tile Roofs is added. 

1507.3.10 Inspection of Tile Roofs. Mid-roof inspections shall be requested when no more than 30% of the roofing 
is completed. 

Section 1507.6 Mineral Surfaced Roofing 

Section 1507.6.2 is amended by replacing it in its entirety with the following: 

1507.6.2 Deck Slope. Mineral surfaced rolled roofing (90 lbs.) shall not be applied on roof slopes below two units 
vertical in twelve units horizontal. 

Exception: 

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Detached garages, patios and carports open on three sides may have a slope of one unit vertical in twelve units 
horizontal. 

Section 1507.10 Built-up roofs 

Section 1507.10.3 Flashing for Interior Roof Drains is added. 

1507.10.3 Flashing for Interior Roof Drains. Flashing for interior roof drains shall be one of the following: 

A minimum of 2 x 2 feet, 4- pound lead sheet or lead- copper coated sheet, set on completed felts in flashing 
cement. 

The metal shall be turned a minimum of V2 inch into a drain sump and plied with 2 plies of type 4 felt or modified 
bitumen membrane of sufficient dimension to extend a minimum of 6 inches past metal sheet. 

A 2-component drain system. The membrane flashing shall be polyvinylchloride sheet measuring 22 inches in 
length and factory attached to the underside of the strainer flange. The membrane flashing shall be applied on top 
of the completed felt and shall extend a minimum of 6 inches from the outside diameter of the drain throat, shall 
be set into hot asphalt or approved sealants and plied in with 2 plies of type 4 felt. 

Drain details for single- ply systems shall be per manufacturers' specifications. 

Section 1507.10.4 Flashing - New Built-Up Roof Covering is added. 

Section 1507.10.4 Flashing - New Built-Up Roof Covering. Flashing shall be installed on all vertical walls and 
curbs in accordance with the manufacturers' specifications or as follows: 

1. All flashing surfaces shall be primed. 

2. All flashing shall extend at least 8 inches, but not more than 12 inches, up all vertical surfaces and at least 4 
inches out from base of cant or at intervals specified by manufacturer. 

3. The top edges of the flashing shall be fastened at 3- inch inten/als and sealed with plastic cement. 

4. All vertical walls and projections shall be counter- flashed with a 2-piece metal system installed watertight. 

5. Nailer strips shall be provided on vertical walls, drips in edge and curbs which will not accept conventional 
nailing. 

Section 1507.10.5 Stucco is added. 

Section 1507.10.5 Stucco. Stucco on walls extending above the roof shall terminate a minimum of 2 inches above 
the finished roofing of a flat roof and 2 inches above shingle, shake and tile roofs. 

Section 1507.10.6 Drainage testing is added. 

Section 1507.10.6 Drainage testing. Positive drainage shall be required. Approval drainage test shall pass when "no- 
standing" water remains on the roof after 72 hours with an average temperature of 70 degrees. 

SECTION 1510 
REROOFING 

Section 1510 Reroofing of Built-Up Roofs is added. 

Section 1510.7 Reroofing of Built-Up Roofs. Pre- roofing inspection shall be made by this Agency for all 
commercial built-up and single ply systems to verify that the existing roof meets the following conditions: 

The existing roof deck is structurally sound. 

The roof drains and roof drainage are sufficient to prevent the ponding of water 

The existing roofing is secured to the existing roof deck. 

The existing insulation is not wet (a 3"^ party moistuiB scan rm/ be required). 

The fire-retandant classification of the roof shall be maintained 



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CHAPTER 16 
STRUCTURAL DESIGN 

SECTION 1607 
LIVE LOADS 

Section 1607 shall be used in its entirety except as amended below: 

1607.14 Fire Truck Loading. Where fire department access requires travel over or loading of a structure by fire 
department vehicles, the structure shall be analyzed for the three load cases for each of the two vehicle types indicated 
below. Structural members shall be designed for the most severe case. The fire vehicle geometries are shown in Figures 
1607.14(1) and (2). 

Platforai Truck - Figure 1607.14 (1) 

Basic Load Case: 

The front axle load shall be 22,800 pounds (11,400 pounds per tire) with a tire contact area of 12 in. x 13 in. The load 
on each rear axle shall be 27,000 pounds (13,500 pounds per tire) with a tire contact area of 14 in. x 16 in. Impact and 
longitudinal forces imparted by the vehicle loads shall be in accordance with the latest edition of AASHTO standards. 

Static Load Case A: 

A load of 38,500 pounds on one outrigger. The contact area of each outrigger is 24 in. x 24 in. The load is to be 
located so as to produce the maximum stress in the member(s) being analyzed when applied according to the 
geometry of Figure 1607.14. (1). 

Static Load Case B: 

A load of 30,000 pounds on each of two adjacent outriggers (total load is 60,000 pounds). The contact area of each 
outrigger is 24 in. x 24 in. The load is to be located so as to produce the maximum stress in the member(s) being 
analyzed when applied according to the geometry of Figure 1607.14. (1). 

Ladder Truck - Figure 1607.14 (2) 

Basic Load Case: 

The front axle load shall be 22,800 pounds (11,400 pounds per tire) with a tire contact area of 12 in. x 13 in. The load 
on the rear axle shall be 31,000 pounds (15,500 pounds per tire) with a tire contact area of 14 in. x 16 in. Impact and 
longitudinal forces imparted by the vehicle loads shall be in accordance with the latest edition of AASHTO standards. 

Static Load Case A: 

A load of 29,000 pounds on one outrigger. The contact area of each outrigger is 24 in. x 24 in. The load is to be 
located so as to produce the maximum stress in the member(s) being analyzed when applied according to the 
geometry of Figure 1607.14.(2). 

Static Load Case B: 

A load of 20,000 pounds on each of two adjacent outriggers (total load is 40,000 pounds). The contact area of each 
outrigger is 24 in. x 24 in. The load is to be located so as to produce the maximum stress in the member(s) being 
analyzed when applied according to the geometry of Figure 1607.14.(2) 

The Fire Prevention and Investigation Division shall determine the area around any building or structure for which fire 
access and, therefore, the provisions of this section are required. 



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THIS REGION INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 



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DENVER FIRE DEPARTMENT - FIRE TRUCK GEOMETRY 





4- 4'6"._w 



8ft 



Tire contact area, front 
12"xl3"(TYP.of2) 



Tire contact area, rear 
14" X 16"(TYP of 4) 



19'2' 




Each outrigger has a 24" x 
24" pad (TY P. of 4). 



FIGURE 1607.14 (1) - PLATFORM TRUCK 



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DENVER FIRE DEPARTMENT - FIRE TRUCK GEOMETRY 





8 ft 



Tire contact area, front 
12"xl3"(TYP.of2) 



Tire contact area, rear 
14" X 16"(TYP of 2) 



19'2' 




Each outrigger has a 24" x 
24" pad (TY P. of 4). 



FIGURE 1607.14 (2) - LADDER TRUCK 



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SECTION 1608 
SNOW LOADS 

Section 1608 Snow Loads shall be used in its entirety except as amended below: 

1608.1 General Design snow loads shall be determined using whichever of the following criteria produces the largest 
stress in the member(s) being designed. 

1608.1.1 Criteria 1. Design snow loads, including drifting and unbalanced snow loads, shall be determined in 
accordance with Section 7 of ASCE 1, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. 

1608.1.2 Criteria 2. Neglecting drifting, unbalanced loadings, and snow load importance factors, a uniformly applied 
roof snow load (pf orp) shall be: 

A uniformly ^plied load on the entire exposed ar^a of 30 pounds per square foot for all structures in the 
occupancy Categories III and IV of Table 1604.5. 

A uniformly ^plied load on the entire exposed ar^a of 25 pounds per square foot for all other structures. 

Roofs used for paridng of passenger vehicles shall be designed for a total non-reducible uniform load of 55 psf. 
This load need not be combined with other snow loads or other live loads ^plied to the rcof . 

1608.2 Ground Snow Loads. Ground snow load for use with the procedures of ASCE 7 shall be 25 pounds per square 
foot. 

1608.3 Snow Load Importance Factor. The values for the snow load importance factor I, in Table 7-4 of ASCE 7 shall 
be amended as follows: 

Category III 1.2 

Category IV 1.4 

1608.4 Rain-on-Snow Surcharge Load need not be considered. 

1608.5 Additional Criteria. Snow loads are not to be considered as reducible live loads. 

SECTION 1609 
WIND LOADS 

Section 1609 Wind Loads shall be used in its entirety except as amended below: 

1609.1.1.2 Reduction for air density. In calculating velocity pressures using Eq. 6-15 in ASCE 7, the numerical 
constant, 0.00256, may be reduced to account for air density. Any reduction shall comply with ASCE 7, Section 
C6.5.10, but in no case shall the reduction in the numerical constant exceed fifteen percent. 

1609.3 Basic wind speed. The basic wind speed, to be used in the provisions of ASCE 7, shall be 90 miles per hour (Vss, 
three second gust) for all areas in the Qty and County of Denver located east of a line defined as the centedine of Federal 
Boulevani For areas located west of the centedine of Federal Boulevand, the basic wind speed (Vss, three second gust) 
shall be interpolated between the contours as defined in the report titled "Colorado Front Range Gust Map" dated 
February 28, 2006, in which the 90 mph contour is located along the centerline of Federal Boulevard, the 100 mph 
contour is located along the centerline of Sheridan Boulevard, and the 110 mph contour is located along the centerline of 
Kipling Boulevard. The centerlines of Federal Boulevard, Sheridan Boulevard, and Kipling Boulevard, are assumed to be 
projected to the north and south boundaries of the City and County of Denver.^ 

SECTION 1613 
EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

Section 1613 Earthquake Loads, shall be used in its entirety except as amended below: 

1613.5.2 Site C lass Definition. Based on the site class properties, the site shall be classified as either Site Class A, B, 
C, D, E, or F in accordance with Table 1613.5.2. Ai^ assignment of site class NOT based on soil shear wave 
velocity, measured for the top 100 feet of the soil profile, shall conply with the following limitations: 

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No site shall be assigned as Site Class A, B, or C when bedrock has an overburden depth greater than 15 feet, as 
measured from the top of bedrock to the finished grade. 

No site shall be assigned as Site Class A or B when bedrock has an overburden depth less than or equal to 15 feet, as 
measured from the top of bedrock to the finished grade. 

When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the site class. Site Class D shall be used 
unless the building official or geotechnical data determines that Site Class E or F soil is likely to be present at the site. 

1613.5.6.3 Seismic Design Category, Minimum. All buildings and structures in the City and County of Denver 
shall satisfy the requirements of seismic design category B, as a minimum. 



CHAPTER 17 
STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 

SECTION 1704 
SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 

Section 1704.1 General and Section 1704.1.1 Statement of special inspections are amended by 
replacing the reference to Section 109 to Administration of the Denver Building Code and 
Administrative Section 154.1, item 3B. 



CHAPTER 18 
SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 

SECTION 1805 

FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS 

Section 1805 Footings and Foundations shall be used in its entirety except as amended below: 

Section 1805.2.1 Frost Protection. The following sentence is added. The frost line for the City and County of 
Denver is to be 36 inches (915 mm) below the finished grade. 

Section 1805.4.1 Design. Footings shall be so designed that the allowable bearing capacity of the soil is not 
exceeded, and differential settlement is minimized. 

Footing in areas with expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of Section 1805.8. 

Section 1805.5 Foundation Walls shall read as follows: Concrete and masonry foundation walls shall be designed in 
accordance with Chapter 19 or 21. Foundation walls that are laterally supported at the top and bottom and within the 
parameters of Tables 1805.5(1) through 1805.5(4), are permitted to be designed and constructed in accordance with 
Sections 1805.5.1 through 1805.5.5 except that the maximum bar spacing shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). 

Section 1805.5.3 Alternative Foundation Wall Reinforcement shall read as follows: In lieu of the reinforcement 
provisions in Table 1805.5(2), 1805.5(3), or 1805.5(4), alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an 
equivalent cross- sectional area of reinforcement per linear foot (mm) of wall is permitted to be used, provided the 
spacing of reinforcement does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) and reinforcing bar sizes do not exceed No. 11. 



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SECTION 1810 

CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILE FOUNDATIONS 

Section 1810 Cast-in-place Concrete Pile Foundations sliall be used in its entirety except as amended 
below: 

Section 1810.3.2 Dimensions. The length shall not exceed 30 times the average diameter. 

Exception: 

The length of the pile is permitted to exceed 30 times the diameter, provided that the design and installation of the 
pile foundation are under the direct supervision of a registered design professional knowledgeable in the field of 
soil mechanics in compliance with the approved construction documents. 



CHAPTER 27 
ELECTRICAL 

SECTION 2700 
GENERAL - DENVER 

Sections 2700.1 and 2700.2 are added. 

Section 2700.1 Electrical Code References. All references in this Code to the "ICC Electrical Code" are changed to the 
"Electrical Code as adopted ty the State of Colorado". 

Section 2700.2 Service Masts. Where a mast is required to maintain the overhead conductor height required by the 
Electrical Code, the mast shall be a minimum of 2 inch Rigid Metal Conduit or 2 inch Intermediate Metal Conduit. All 
masts over 48 inches in height shall be appropriately guyed to counter stresses from the service drop. 



CHAPTER 29 
PLUMBING SYSTEMS 

[P]SECTI0N 2902 

MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES 

Section 2902.1 is amended by replacing it in its entirety with the following: 

Section 2902. 1 M inimum Number of Fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall be pro^dded for the type of occipaocy and in the 
rdnimum nun±)er shown in Table 2902.1. Type of oocipancies not shown in Table 2902.1 shall be considered 
individually by the Code Official. The nuniDer of occupants shall be debemined by the International Building Code, 
Table 1001. 1.2. Occupancy classification shall be detemined in accondance with the International Building Code. 

Sections 2902.7, 2902.8, 2902.9, ancJ 2902.10 are acJcJecJ: 

[EH] Section 2902.7 Access. There shall be no access through a toilet room to any portion of a building. Access to toilet 
rooms shall not be through food preparation areas, except for toilet room facilities provided exclusively for the use of 
employees in the food preparation area. 

[EH] Section 2902.8 Toilet room accessories. A minimum of one hand-drying facility shall be provided in each toilet 
room where lavatories are provided. 

[EH] Section 2902.9 Location of service sinks. Except for Group R occupancies, sen/ice sinks are required on each 
floor where toilet facilities are required. Service sinks shall not be installed in toilet rooms. 

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Section 2902.10 Restaurants 

1. The number of occupants for a drive-in restaurant or drive-in theater shall be considered as equal to twice the 
number parking stalls. 

2. Employee toilet facilities are not to be included in the above restaurant requirements. 



CHAPTER 30 
ELEVATORS AND CONVEYING SYSTEMS 

SECTION 3001 
GENERAL 

Section 3001.2 Referenced standards is amended by adding the following: 

ASME A 17.1 A-2004 addenda and A 17. IS Supplement Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators 
ASME 18.1-2003 Safety standanl for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts 
ASME A 110.4 later addition Personnel Hoists 

SECTION 3002 
HOISTWAY ENCLOSURES 

Section 3002.3 is amended by adding the following sentence to the end of the paragraph: 

All exit stairs and areas of refuge shall be graphically located on a sign adjacent to the elevator call buttons. Sign shall 

comply with ICC A117.1. 

[F] SECTION 3003 
EMERGENCY OPERATIONS 

[F] Section 3003.1 Standby Power. The title of [F] Section 3003.1 is amended by changing the title to "Emergency 
Power" and any reference to standby power in the subsections of 3003.1 to emergency power to coordinate with IFCA 
Section 604.2.19. 

Section 3003.1.3.1 is added: 

3003.1.3.1 Two or More Elevators in High Rise Building: 

Sufficient emergency power shall be provided to simultaneously operate two elevators for each group of elevators 
controlled by a common operating system. Additional emergency power shall be provided for the elevator car 
that has been designated to accommodate an ambulance stretcher as described in Section 3002.4 if this car is not 
included in one of the groups above. 

Exception: 

Sufficient emergency power shall be provided for only one elevator for each group of elevators controlled by 
a common operating system that serve only open parking levels of the High Rise building. 

SECTION 3004 
HOISTWAYVENTING 

Section 3004.1 is amended by adding exceptions 3, 4 and 5 and specify where permanent open vents 
are permitted. 

Exceptions: 

3. Hoistway in High Rise buildings shall comply with the High Rise provisions of IBC/IFC Chapter 9. 

4. Residential elevators need not to be vented. 

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5. Stand alone open parking garages. 
Permanent open vents shall be permitted in the following hoistways: 

1 . Hoistways in unheated buildings 

2. Unheated outside hoistways 

3. Hoistways that do not extend to the roof of an atrium 

Section 3004.1.1 Vent Operation is added: 

Section 3004.1.1 Vent Operation: All hoistway vents shall be closed, motorized vents (electrically) and shall open 
automatically by activation of the elevator hoistway smoke detector and/or a power failure. Refer to the IFC amendments 
in the Fire alarm System Section for further clarification regarding control and sequencing. 

SECTION 3005 
CONVEYING SYSTEMS 

Section 3005.1 General is amended by adding an exception. 
Exception: 

Material handling conveyors and conveying systems are not regulated by this Code. 

SECTION 3007 

ELEVATOR RECALL FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS WITH PRESSURIZED HOISTWAYS 

Section 3007 Elevator Recall for High Rise Buildings with Pressurized Hoistways is added: 

3007 Elevator Recall for high-rise buildings with pressurized hoist ways. In addition to the requirements of A 17.1, 
Fire Fighters' service, elevator operation within highrise buildings with pressurized hoist ways shall be as follows: 

The elevator doors shall automatically open when the car reaches the approved level. After a period of one minute, 
elevators shall automatically close their doors. The doors shall be responsive by pressing the designated return floor call 
button in the elevator lobby or by pressing the door open button in the interior of the elevator cab. Elevators shall remain 
at that level until manual overrides by the key-operated switch required by ASM E 17.1. 

Only the hall call buttons at the designated return level, the level the car(s) have returned to, shall function as door open 
buttons. All doors shall open simultaneously when operating under normal building power. When operating under 
emergency power, only the cars selected for emergency operation shall open their doors simultaneously. 

During Phase 1 operation, the door recycle shall be 60 seconds. 

Once the car is placed on Phase II, the fire department has control of the elevator; it shall operate per ASME A 17.2 rule 
2113.C, Normal Phase II Operation. 

SECTION 3008 

ELEVATOR, ESCALATOR AND MOVING SIDEWALK ACCIDENT REPORTING 

3008.1 Definitions. For the purpose of this section, "accident" means a malfunction of an escalator or moving sidewalk 
that results in an injury to a person or persons or that results in damage to the affected equipment, other than merely 
cosmetic damage. For the purposes of this section, "injury" means an injury to a person that results in treatment by a 
doctor or other medical professional. 

3008.2 Time to report. Any accident involving an elevator, escalator or moving sidewalk that results in injury shall be 
reported to the Agency within 24 hours after the accident by the owner or managing agent of the property in or on which 
said equipment is located. Any accident that does not involve injury shall be reported to the Agency witiiin 48 hours. A 
written report by the owner or agent shall be filed with the Agency within 72 hours. 

3008.3 After accident operation. When an escalator or moving sidewalk accident causes an injury, the equipment shall 
not be operated until such operation is approved by the Agency. A representative of the Agency shall make an on-site 
visit to examine the equipment within 24 hours of the initial report to the Agency. 

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3008.4 Removal. No portion of equipment involved in an accident that is reported under Section 3008.2 shall be 
removed from the premises until approval for such removal has been granted by the Agency. 



CHAPTER 31 
SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 

SECTION 3105 

AWNINGS AND CANOPIES 

Section 3105.5 Canopy Special Provisions is added: 
Section 3105.5 Canopy Special Provisions. 

A . A canopy may be entirely supported by the building to which it is attached. 

B . Separation between different types of construction shall not be required. 

C. Canopies shall comply with Fire Department access requirements. The minimum height of canopies at locations 
not requiring Fire Department access shall be 8 feet. 

D. Canopies in the public right-of-way shall comply with Section 3202. 

E. Canopies shall not obstruct required exits. 

F. For the purposes of this code, a porte-cochere may be considered a canopy. 
Section 3110 is added: 

[CDH] SECTION 3110 

MANUFACTURED OR FACTORY-BUILT STRUCTURES 

Section 3110.1 Definitions. 

1. Manufactured or Factory-built Structures shall mean factory- assembled structures which are completely finished 
to include all utilities and are transported to a site of permanent installation. This shall include mobile homes, 
factory-built housing and non- residential structures as defined by state and federal regulations. 

2. Federal Act shall mean the National Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974, 42 
USCA, Sections 5401 to 5426, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. 

3. Colorado Housing Act shall mean the Colorado Housing Act of 1980 as amended. Title 24, Article 32, Part 7 of 
the Colorado Revised Statutes. 

Section 3110.2 Factory Approval of Manufactured Structures. 

1. Housing manufactured in or out of state under the Federal Act are inspected and approved by a HUD -authorized 
Product Primary Inspection Agency (IPIA). The manufacturer shall permanently attach a HUD label (seal) to the 
exterior of the home on the tail light end of each transportable section. Each manufactured home shall bear a data 
compliance sheet (plate) permanently affixed to the interior of the home near the electrical panel in a visible 
location. The data compliance sheet (plate) shall show structural zone and snow and wind loads for which the 
home has been designed, thus determining whether the home does or does not meet the Colorado requirements of 
the Federal Act. 

2. Manufactured structures not constructed to the Federal Act shall be constructed in compliance with the Colorado 
Housing Act or the Colorado Factory Build Nonresidential Structures Act. The Colorado Division of Housing 
shall be the inspection agency and shall require a permanent Colorado approval label (seal) with a factory-built 
(FB) certification number attached to each unit. 

3. Other factory-built structures are not allowed. Prefabricated systems for residential or nonresidential use shall 
comply with the other sections of this Chapter. For example: 

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i. Stressed skin panels assembled at the site for roof, floor and walls. 

ii. Shell type units. 

Section 3110.3 Permits Required. The installation of factory- built structures shall comply with all provisions of the 
Building Code except the plans for the MHU are not required when either of the following items are provided to the 
Department: 

A . A data compliance sheet for HUD -approved manufactured housing units. 

B . A copy of the Colorado approval label (seal) with a legible factory-built certification number. 

Section 3110.4 Seal. A Colorado Division of Housing approval label (seal) must be permanently affixed to each factory- 
built structure. 

Section 3110.5 Inspection and Notice. The Federal Act and the Colorado Housing Act preempt the Building Code in 
relation to factory-built structures; therefore the Agency does not inspect them. However, the Agency shall inspect the 
foundation, installation of utilities and installation of the factory- built structures to the foundation. 

1. The following notices shall be given to all persons applying for any permit relating to manufactured homes and 
factory- built structures from any agency of tiie City: 

a. "In accordance with Federal and Colorado law, this manufactured structure has not been inspected by the City 
and County of Denver and may or may not meet the requirements of the Denver Building Code. 

b. "It shall be the obligation of the permit applicant to forward this notice to the owner of the manufactured 
home or factory built structure." 

2. The notice set forth in Subsection A above shall be permanently installed in a visible location by the permit 
applicant adjacent to the date plate required by the Federal Act or in the furnace closet on factory-built structures. 



CHAPTER 32 
ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY 

[PW] SECTION 3202 
ENCROACHMENTS 

Section 3202.2 is deleted in its entirety and replaced with the following: 

Section 3202.2 Encroachments. All encroachments shall comply with the Denver Revised Municipal Code, Chapter 49, 
Rules & Regulations of the Department of Public Works, and all departmental published standards. 

Exception: 

1. Existing doors and windows of historic buildings whether individually designated or contributing buildings in 
a Historic District or in buidings 50 years or older. New entrance / exit doors constructing in historic facades 
may encroach up to 3' into the street frontage of the right of way when a recessed opening is not in character 
witii the existing fagade. 

2. In new construction, doors and windows shall not open or project into the public right of way. 
Section 3202.3 is reserved. 

Section 3202.4 Temporary Encroachments is amended to replace the first sentence with the following: 

Section 3202.4 Temporary Encroachments. Where allowed by the local authority having jurisdiction, vestibules and 
storm enclosures shall not be erected for a period of time exceeding 7 months in any one year and shall not encroach more 
than 3 feet (914 mm) nor more than one- fourth of the width of the sidewalk beyond the street lot line, unless otherwise 
permitted by the Department of Public Works. 



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CHAPTER 33 
SAFEGUARDS DURING CONSTRUCTION 

Section 3303 is amended by replacing it in its entirety with the following: 

SECTION 3301 
GENERAL 

Section 3301.1 shall be deleted and replaced with the following: 

Section 3301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern safety during construction, demolition and moving and 
the protection of adjacent public and private properties. 

Section 3301.3 shall be added: 

Section 3301.1 Demolition and Moving Standard. Unless provided for in other portions of this Building Code, the 
following additional standard shall be utilized in relation to the work covered in this chapter, American National Standard 
Institute publication, "Demolition Safety Requirements A 10.6- 1990". 

SECTION 3302 
CONSTRUCTION SAFEGUARDS 

[PW] Section 3302.2 shall be amended by the addition of the following sentence: 

All adjacent streets, alleys and other public ways and places shall be kept free and clear of all rubbish, refuse and loose 
material resulting from the moving, demolition or demolition removal operations. 

[EH] Section 3302.2.1 Dust shall be added. 

Section 3302.2.1 Dust. All dust resulting from demolition operations shall be settled with water and approved by the 
Agency. 

SECTION 3303 
DEMOLITION 

Section 3303.1.1 shall be added: 

Section 3303.1.1 Registered Design Professionals' Reports. If the building to be demolished shares a common wall 
with an adjacent building, the owner of the building to be demolished shall provide a registered design professional's 
report assessing the effect the removal of the adjacent building will have on the structural capacity and stability of the 
remaining buildings. Should the registered design professional's report indicate adverse effects on the adjacent 
buildings, a demolition permit will not be issued until the stability of the buildings is resolved. Except as approved by 
the Agency, buildings four (4) or more stories in height shall require a registered design professional's report to be 
filed with the Agency as part of the application for a demolition permit being issued. The registered design 
professional's report shall contain, but is not limited to, information as to: 

1 . Type of construction 

2. Method of demolition 

3. A structural survey made to determine the condition of the structure 

4. Determination of the possibility of unplanned collapse of any portion of the building or structure 

5. Street, sidewalk or other public way closures 

6. M ethod of protecting the public 

7. Pertinent data and analysis pertaining to adj acent structures 

The Agency may request additional registered design professionals' reports for other demolition operations when 
deemed necessary. 

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Section 3303.1.2 Shoring and Bracing of Damaged Structures shall be added: 

3303.2.1 Shoring and Bracing of Damaged Structures. When persons are required to work within a structure to be 
demolished which has been damaged by fire, flood, explosion or other cause, the structure shall be braced or shored 
for safety. 

Section 3303.1.3 Asbestos shall be added: 

[EH] 3303.1.3 Asbestos. Buildings, or portions of buildings, being demolished containing friable asbestos shall 
conform to the provisions of the National Emission Standard for Asbestos and all other federal and state regulations. 
A demolition permit shall not be issued until a copy of the notice is submitted to the Agency. 

Section 3303.4 Vacant Lot shall be deleted and replaced by the following: 

3303.4 Vacant Lot. Where a structure has been demolished or removed, the vacated lot shall be filled and maintained to 
the existing grade. Upon completion of the removal of a building, structure or utility, by demolition the ground shall be 
left in a clean, smooth condition. Holes, basements or cellars shall be filled with an inorganic material; provided, 
however, that the top one foot of fill shall be clean earth. The filling of such excavations shall not be required when a 
building permit has been issued for a new building on the site and construction is to be started within 60 days after 
completion of the demolition or moving operations. The holder of the building permit shall provide a temporary barricade 
protecting the excavation on all sides as specified for safety by the Agency. The temporary barricade may remain in 
position for a time not exceeding 3 days, after which a solid barricade or fence shall be provided or the excavation filled. 

Section 3303.6 shall be amended by adding the following sentence: 

All sen/ice utility connections shall be shut off, capped or otherwise controlled outside the building line, or area of 
demolition prior to beginning demolition work. 

Section 3303.6.1 Relocation of Utilities shall be added: 

3303.6.1 Relocation of Utilities. Any power, water or other utilities required to be maintained during demolition 
shall be temporarily relocated and protected. 

Section 3303.6.2 Dangerous Utilities shall be added: 

3303.6.2 Dangerous Utilities. A determination shall be made by the contractor if any type of hazardous chemicals, 
gases, explosives, flammable materials or similarly dangerous substances have been used in any pipes, tanks or other 
equipment on the property. When the presence of any such substance is apparent or suspected, testing and purging 
shall be performed by the demolition contractor and the hazard eliminated prior to demolition operations. 

Section 3303.7 Machine and Explosive Demolition shall be added: 

3303.7 Machine and Explosives Demolition. Machine demolition shall be subject to approval by the Agency. 

Contractors utilizing explosives in their demolition operation shall be specifically approved by the Building Official. For 
storage and transportation of explosives, see the Fire Code for the City and County of Denver. 

SECTION 3306 

PROTECTION OF PEDESTRIANS 

Section 3306.1.1 Safety Watchman shall be added: 

3306.1.1 Safety Watchman. A second person, in addition to the equipment operator shall be present on the job site 
to act as a safety watchman to prevent the entry of unauthorized persons. On demolition sites, when approved by the 
Agency, the safety watchman may be used in lieu of site protection required by Section 3306.1. 

SECTION 3307 

PROTECTION OF ADJ OINING PROPERTY 

Section 3307.1 shall be deleted and replaced with the following: 

3307.1 Protection required. Adjacent public and private property shall be protected from damage during construction, 
excavation, remodeling, demolition, and building relocation work. Protection is the responsibility of the person 
performing the construction, excavation, remodeling, demolition or building relocation work. Protection shall be provided 

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for footings, foundations party walls, chimneys, skylights, roofs, fences and landscaping. Provisions shall be made to 
control water runoff and erosion during construction, excavation, remodeling, demolition or relocation activities. 

Section 3307.1.1 Notification. The person making or causing an excavation, demolition or relocation to be made 
shall provide written notice to the owners of adjacent properties, by certified mail with a return receipt, by personal 
notification or other means calculated to ensure the adjacent owners have actual notice, advising them that the 
excavation demolition or relocation is to be made providing contact information for the person doing the excavation, 
demolition or relocation and shall protect adjacent properties as required by Section 3307.1. Said notification shall be 
delivered not less than 10 days prior to the scheduled starting date of the excavation, demolition and/or relocation. 

Written evidence of notification of adjacent owners or a written, signed statement as to why actual notice could not be 
given, must be given to the Building Official ten (10) working days before an excavation, demolition or relocation 
permit is issued. 

Section 3307.2 Repair of Damage to Public Property shall be added: 

3307.2 Repair of Damage to Public Property. As a condition of obtaining a permit to wreck or move any building, 
structure or utility, the permittee assumes liability for any damage to public property occasioned by such moving, 
demolition or removal operations. The permittee agrees to repair any damage to public property, including any public 
sidewalks, occasioned by such moving, demolition or removal operations. Failure to make such repairs within 30 days 
shall be grounds for the revocation of the contractor's license. 

Section 3307.3 shall be added: 

3307.3 Work Abutting the Public Way. Prior to the issuance of a permit by the Agency for the construction, demolition 
or relocation of any building involving excavation extending within one foot of the angle of repose or a slope of one to 
one under any public sidewalk, street, alley or other public property, the owner of the property or proposed building shall 
submit to the Manager of Public Works an indemnity bond in tie amount determined by tiie Manager in a form approved 
by the City Attorney. 

SECTION 3308 

TEMPORARY USE OF STREETS, ALLEYS AND PUBLIC PROPERTY 

Section 3308.3 shall be added: 

[PW] 3308.3 Transportation Approval. Trucks and other equipment used by the contractor shall not interfere with or 
block either vehicular or pedestrian traffic, except when approved by the Department of Public Works. Where it becomes 
necessary to transport units of a wrecked building, structure or utility upon and through the public streets, alleys or other 
public ways and places, permission to do so shall be obtained from the Department of Public Works. 

Section 3313 shall be added. 

SECTION 3313 

MOVING AND RELOCATION OF STRUCTURES 

Section 3313.1 Scope. Buildings, structures or utilities which are moved from one location to another, within or from the 
City, shall conform to all requirements of this Building Code. These buildings, structures or utilities shall be inspected 
and approved by the Agency prior to moving. 

[PW] Section 3313.2 Transportation Approval. Moving of structures on the public way by the contractor shall not 
interfere with or block either vehicular or pedestrian traffic, except when approved by the Department of Public Works. 
Where it becomes necessary to transport units of a wrecked building, structure or utility upon and through the public 
streets, alleys or other public ways and places, permission to do so shall be obtained from the Department of Public 
Works. As required by Public Works the Contractor shall submit to the Manager of Public Works an indemnity bond in 
the amount determined by the Manager in a form approved by the City Attorney. 

[PW] Section 3313.3 Moving on the Public Way. Moving on the public right of way shall follow Public Works 
regulations. 

Section 3313.4 Storage of Moved Buildings. Buildings, structures or utilities shall not be stored on any property for 
more than 72 hours, unless approved by the Agency. 

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Section 3313.5 Vacated lot. Reference Section 3303.4. 



CHAPTER 34 
EXISTING STRUCTURES 

[EB] SECTION 3401 
GENERAL 

Section 3401.1 is replaced in its entirety with the following: 

3401.1 Scope. The provisions of this Chapter and Section 1027 of the Fire Code shall control the alteration, repair, 
addition and change of occupancy of existing structures. 

Exception: 

Existing bleachers, grandstands and folding and telescopic seating shall comply with ICC 300-02. 

The phrases "change of occupancy" and "change of use" are interchangeable. 

Section 3404.3 is replaced in its entirety with the following: 

Section 3404.3. The fire escape shall be designed to support a live load of 100 pounds per square foot (4788 Pa) and shall 
be constructed of noncombustible materials. 

[EB] SECTION 3406 
CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 

Section 3406.3 is amended by adding the following paragraph: 

Stairways constructed prior to the adoption of the 2004 Denver Building Code using the provision of prior Denver 
Building Codes allowing " A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise greater than 13 feet (3963 mm) between floor 
levels or landings" may continue to utilize this provision and shall not be required to meet present code for the rise 
between floor levels or landings. 

SECTION 3410 

COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES 

Section 3410 Compliance Alternatives shall be used in its entirety except as amended below: 

Section 3410.2 Applicability. For the design and analysis of structural systems and elements, all buildings and structures 
designed under building codes in force prior to September 1976, in which there is work involving additions, alterations, or 
changes of occupancy, shall be made to conform to any one of the following, in its entirety: 

The requirements of this section or the provisions of Sections 3403 through 3407. 

The requirements of the 1997 Uniform Code for Building Conservation. 

The requirements of the 2006 International Existing Building Code. 

For the design and analysis of structural systems and elements, all buildings and structures designed under building codes 
in force subsequent to September 1976, in which there is work involving additions, alterations, or changes of occupancy, 
shall be made to conform to the requirements of the 2006 International Existing Building Code. 

The provisions in Sections 3410.2.1 through 3410.2.5 shall apply to existing occupancies that shall continue to be, or are 
proposed to be, in Groups A, B, E, F, M, R, S, and U. These provisions shall not apply to buildings with occupancies in 
Groups H or I. 

Section 3410.4.1 Structural Analysis. The owner shall have a structural analysis of the existing building made to 
determine the adequacy of structural systems for the proposed alteration, addition or change of occupancy. The 

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existing building shall be capable of supporting the minimum load requirements of Chapter 16. For seismic loads, 
FEMA 273, ASCE 31, or FEMA 356, may be used in lieu of Chapter 16 requirements. 



CHAPTER 61 
REHABILITATION OF EXISTING BUILDING 

SECTION 6101 
GENERAL 

Section 6101.1 Scope. This Chapter applies to the rehabilitation of all existing buildings, structures and utilities of any 
occupancy classification, except Group H Occupancy, which is at least 30 years old. This Chapter shall supersede all the 
requirements of this Code that are in conflict with the provisions of this Chapter, except the requirements of Chapter 1 
relating to unsafe buildings, structures or utilities. 

Section 6101.2 Intent. The intent of this Chapter of the Code is to allow for cost-effective and efficient renovation of 
existing buildings that are at least 30 years old which may not meet the strict letter of present building and fire codes, but 
that still meet basic life-safety standards. 

Section 6101.3 Declaration. It is hereby declared, as a matter of public policy, that the rehabilitation, preservation and 
restoration of older buildings, located within the City and County of Denver, are a public necessity and are required in the 
interest of the general welfare of the people. Special consideration shall be given to buildings that are structures for 
preservation or contributing structures in Districts for Preservation. 

Section 6101.4 Exception for the Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. Buildings, structures and utilities conforming 
with Section 6101.1 of this Code may be granted an Exception from the requirements of this Code, concerning the repair, 
rehabilitation or change of use or occupancy of such building, structure or utility. No Exception shall be granted unless 
the following conditions exist: 

1. The building, structure or utility is at least 30 years old; and 

2. The building, structure or utility is structurally sound and the proposed repair, rehabilitation or change of use or 
occupancy will substantially improve the use, safety and welfare of the occupants. The Committee or Building 
Official, in making this decision, may request an engineer's or architect's report to determine the condition of the 
building, structure or utility. 

SECTION 6102 
COMMITTEE 

Section 6102.1 Creation. There is hereby created the Committee composed of 9 members who shall be appointed by the 
Mayor for terms of 2 years. The terms shall be staggered to allow for continuity. The Board members may petition to be 
considered for additional terms. 

Section 6102.2 Composition. The Committee membership shall consist of at least one representative of the following 
fields: 

1 . Architect with broad based experience in the field of architecture. 

2. Contractor possessing a Building Contractor Class A or Class B license for the City and County of Denver. 

3. Fire Protection engineer or degreed code consultant. 

4. Preservationist, a person with expertise in historic preservation of buildings and structures. 

5. Person with expertise in real estate, real estate development or real estate financing. 

6. Person with expertise in accessible design or construction to represent the Commission of People with Disabilities of 
the City and County of Denver. 

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Section 6102.2.1 Registered Professional Engineer. A registered professional engineer, with expertise in lateral 
stability of structures and expertise in unreinforced masonry buildings, shall be appointed to the committee to advise 
the committee on those subjects. This engineer shall be a non- voting member unless appointed as a voting member by 
the Mayor. 

Section 6102.2.2 City Representation. The Building Official of this Agency and the Chief of the Fire Prevention 
and Investigation Division or their designees shall be ex- officio members of the Committee, but shall have no voting 
power. A liaison to the Mayor's Office shall be established. 

Section 6102.3 Removal. The Mayor may remove any member of the Committee for cause, or when recommended by 
the chair. Cause may include, but is not limited to, absence from more than 3 meetings in a row. 

Section 6102.4 Vacancy. The Mayor may fill any vacancy for the remaining time of the term. 

SECTION 6103 
COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES 

Section 6103.1 Support. The Agency shall provide the Committee with a coordinator and secretary. The coordinator 
may be, but need not be, the Building Official of the Building Agency or his designee. 

Section 6103.2 Meetings. There shall be at least one meeting per month unless there is no work for the Committee to 
conduct. A simple majority of the Committee shall be necessary to conduct business. Guidelines shall be established to 
govern the activities of the Committee. The Committee may hold meetings to inspect the physical condition of subject 
buildings. All meetings of the Committee shall be open to the public. At the meeting, the Committee and the applicant 
are encouraged to discuss the application, the requested variances and possible options and changes to the application in 
order to meet necessary health and safety requirements in a manner that is acceptable to all parties. 

Section 6103.3 Compliance. The Committee shall make a recommendation as to any variances requested by the 
applicant and forward it to the Building Official. The Building Official shall grant the recommended variances within 2 
weeks after receipt of the Committee's recommendation unless the Building Official determines, by clear and convincing 
evidence, that the variance would cause imminent peril to life or property. Such a determination must be made in writing 
and forwarded to the applicant and the Committee. The Chief of the Fire Prevention and Investigation Division shall 
provide written comments concerning the variance to the Building Official. The Building Official shall consider any such 
comments when making such determination and make them part of the record. Failure to comply with present codes shall 
not, in and of itself, constitute clear and convincing evidence of imminent peril to life or property. 

Policy Recommendations: The Board may recommend policies to the Building Official for his review and approval. 

Section 6103.5 Compensation. Each member of the Committee, except those that are city employees, shall be all 
volunteer and are not compensated. 

\SECTION 6104 
APPLICATION AND FEE 

Section 6104.1 Application Form. Prior to any action by the Committee, an application for a variance shall be filed with 
the Agency on a form approved by the Committee. 

Section 6104.2 Application Fee. A nonrefundable fee of $150.00 shall accompany the application. Checks shall be made 
payable to the Manager of Revenue. 

SECTION 6105 

APPLICATION REVIEW PROCEDURE 

Section 6105.1 Submittal of Application. Application for a variance shall be submitted to the Building Official of the 
Agency by the last Wednesday of each month. The Agency shall review the application with the applicant before the first 
Wednesday of the next month. If the issues for a variance cannot be resolved by the first Wednesday of the month, the 
application shall be directed to the Rehabilitation Committee for its review and recommendation at their next meeting. 



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Section 6105.1 Stay of Enforcement. The application for a variance shall stay enforcement of any outstanding order or 
denial unless the Building Official certifies tiiat a stay of the order or denial would cause imminent peril to life or 
property. 

SECTION 6106 

DECISION OF THE COMMITTEE 

Section 6106.1 Acceptance. The decision on the application for variance shall be sent to the applicant and to the 
committee. Decisions shall be filed with the Clerk & Recorder as a matter of public record. 

Section 6106.2 Denial by Committee. A denial of a variance by the Building Official based on a Committee 
recommendation for denial may be appealed to the Board of Appeals under Section 113. 

Section 6106.3 Denial by the Building Official. A denial of a variance by the Building Official contrary to the 
recommendation of the Committee because of clear and convincing evidence that the variance would cause imminent 
peril to life and property may be appealed to the Manager of Community Planning and Development. Upon an appeal, the 
Manager of Community Planning and Development shall decide whether the Building Official has clear and convincing 
evidence of imminent peril to life or property with which to deny the variance. If the Manager of Community Planning 
and Development determines that the Building Official has met the burden of proof, the Building Official's denial of the 
variance shall be upheld. 

Section 6106.4 Denial by Chief of Fire Prevention. A denial of a variance by the Chief of Fire Prevention and 
Investigation Division, contrary to the recommendation of the Committee, may be appealed to the Manager of Safety. 

Section 6106.5 Period of Variance. Variance approved for the rehabilitation of existing buildings, structures and utilities 
pursuant to this Chapter, based on the original application, shall be valid for a period of 2 years from the date of approval, 
after which period tiie variance shall lapse and become void unless a building permit has been issued within said period 
and is not thereafter cancelled. 



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APPENDICES 
APPENDIX ADOPTION STATUS 

IBC APPENDICES 

STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 

All Chapters and Sections of this Appendix are adopted as part of this Code except for those that are 
deleted in this summary. Those that are amended or added shall also be adopted as part of this Code. 



APPENDIX 


TITLE 


STATUS 


A 


Employee Qualifications 


Delete 


B 


Board Of Appeals 


Delete 


C 


Group U - Agricultural Buildings 


Delete 


D 


Fire Districts 


Delete 


E 


Supplementary Accessibility Requirements 


Adopt/As 
Guideline 


F 


Rodent Proofing 


Adopt 


G 


Flood Resistant Construction 


Delete 


H 


Signs 


Adopt As 
Amended 


I 


Patio Covers 


Adopt As 
Amended 


J 


Grading 


Adopt As 
Guideline 


K 


Construction In Designated Special Construction Zones 


Added 


L 


Access Control 


Added 


M 


Colorado Title 9 Article 5 - Standards For Accessibile Housing 


Added 


N 


Construction Of Airport Buildings And Structures 


Added 



APPENDIX H 
SIGNS 

[Z]SECTION HlOl 
GENERAL 

[Z] Section HlOl.l General is amended by adding the following sentence: 

Please also see sign regulations contained in the Zoning Sign Code. Where there is a differeace or conflict betweea the 
reqiiremeats in this Appendix and the Zoning Sign Code, the most restrictive shall govern 

[Z] Section H101.2 Signs Exempt From Permits is amended by adding the following to Exemptions 2 
and 4: 

2. Temporary signs announcing the sale or rent of property. The Zoning Sign Code Section 59-537 (a)(7) allows 
these signs to be erected without a permit with the following limitations: 1 sign per property; not more than 5 
square feet in area per face; not more than 6 feet above grade; shall not be illuminated or animated. 



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4. Projecting signs not exceeding 2.5 square feet (0.23 m^). The Zoning Sign Code Sections 59- 537(c)(3) 7. & 
Section 59- 554(d) allows projecting signs only in the B-5, B-7 & B-8-A Zone Districts. They must be reviewed 
and ^pro^;^ed ty the Planning Office. 

[Z] SECTION H102 
DEFINITIONS 

[Z] Section H102.1 General is amended by adding the following: 

DISPLAY SURFACE / DISPLAY FACE. The area made available by the sign structure for the purpose of displaying 
the message. Zoning Sign Code Section 59-2 (92). 

GROUND SIGN. A sign supported by one or more uprights, poles or braces extending from the ground or an object in or 
on the ground but not attached to any part of any building. Zoning Sign Code Section 59-2 (133). 

POLE SIGN. See Ground Sign. Zoning Sign Code defines a Pole Sign as a Ground Sign per Section 59-2 (133). 

PORTABLE SIGN. A sign that is not permanently affixed to building, structure or the ground. Zoning Sign Code 
Section 59-2 (207) 

NOTE: City Council passed Ord. No. 852-92 on 11/27/92 which added the following language to Section 59-537 (a) 
(6) of the Zoning Sign Code: All portable signs regardless of location are specifically not allowed. 

PROJECTING SIGN. A sign or graphic, other than a wall sign, that is attached to and projects from the wall, soffit, or 
eave of a building, is not in the same plane as the wall, soffit, or eave to which it is attached, and identifies a use within 
that building. Zoning Sign Code Section 59-2 (215) 

ROOF SIGN. Reference Zoning Sign Code Section 59-2 (246) Roof Sign: A sign attached to the roof of a building 
which sign projects above the highest point of the roof of the building or the roof of that portion of the building to which it 
is attached. 

SIGN. Reference Zoning Sign Code Section 59-2 (269) Sign: A sign is any object or device or part thereof situated 
outdoors or indoors which is used to advertise or identify an object, person, institution, organization, business, product, 
service, event or location by any means including words, letters, figures, designs, symbols, fixtures, colors, motion 
illumination or projected images. Signs do not include the following: 

1. Flags of nations, or an organization of nations, states and cities, fraternal, religious and civic organizations; 

2. Merchandise, pictures or models of products or services incorporated in a window display; 

3. Time and temperature devices not related to a product; 

4. National, state, religious, fraternal, professional and civic symbols or crests; 

5. Works of art which in no way identify a product. 

SIGN STRUCTURE. Reference Zoning Sign Code Section 59-2 (281) Structure: Anything which is constructed or 
erected and the use of which requires more or less permanent location on ground or attachment to something having 
permanent location on ground, not, however, including wheels; an edifice or a building of any kind; any production or 
piece of work, artificially built up or composed of parts and joined together in some definite manner. 

WALL SIGN. Reference Zoning Sign Code Section 59-2 (317) Wall Sign: A sign attached to, painted on or erected 
against a wall, fascia, parapet wall or pitched roof of a building or structure, and no part of which sign projects above the 
highest point of the roof and whose display surface is parallel to and extends not more than twenty- four (24) inches from 
the wall to which it is attached and extends not more than eight (8) inches from the fascia to which it is attached or, if 
attached to a pitched roof, the bottom of its display surface does not extend more than six (6) inches vertically from the 
roof surface and the top of its display surface does not extend more than forty-eight (48) inches horizontally from the roof 
surface. 

BILLBOARD. See Outdoor General Advertising Device. 

ILLUMINATED SIGN. Illuminated Sign: A sign lighted by or exposed to artificial lighting either by lights on the sign 
or directed towards the sign. Zoning Sign Code Section 59-2 (145) 

NOTE: Illuminated Signs are not allowed to flash, blink or fluctuate. 

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OUTDOOR GENERAL ADVERTISING DEVICE (BILLBOARD). A Ground Sign relating to products, services or 
uses not on the same zone lot. Zoning Sign Code Section 59-2 (185) 



APPENDIX I 
PATIO COVERS 

SECTION 1104 
STRUCTURAL PROVISIONS 

Appendix I Section 1104.2 is amended by replacing it in its entirety with the following: 

Section 1104.2 Footings. A patio cover may be supported on a concrete slab on grade without footings, provided that the 
slab is not less than 4 inches thick with thickened edges 12 inches below grade, and further provided that the columns do 
not support live and dead loads in excess of 2,000 pounds per column. 



APPENDIX K 
CONSTRUCTION IN DESIGNATED SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION ZONES 

SECTION KlOl 
GENERAL 

Section KlOl Scope. All construction, alteration, repairs, demolition or moving in areas designated under Article VII, 
Chapter 10 of the Revised Municipal Code as Special Construction Zones shall conform to the provisions of this Chapter. 

SECTION K102 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 

Section K 102.1 Permits. No permits for construction, alteration, repairs, demolition or moving in a designated Special 
Construction Zone shall be issued without being in compliance with all recommendations contained in the engineer's 
report if required by Section 155. 

Section K 102.2 Engineers reports. If the applicant is required to prepare an engineer's report pursuant to Section 155, 
the Department may require such additional information and recommendations as it deems necessary and may require 
such additional measures as are necessary to minimize potential hazards during construction and control hazards from the 
completed structure. 

Section K 102.3 Inspections. All construction and excavation sites shall be subject to inspection by the Department, Fire 
Department and the Department of Health and Hospitals, and results of tests or monitoring required by this Chapter shall 
be available at the site for inspection. 

Section K 102.4 Work Stoppage. In the event of a material violation with the requirements of this Chapter, the 
Department may stop all construction activity until it is satisfied that the violation has been corrected. 

SECTION K103 

HAZARDOUS GASES GENERATED BY LANDFILLS 

Section K103.1 New construction. Except as provided in Section 153.6 of this Building Code, all new buildings, 
structures and utilities to be constructed in a Special Construction Zone, which is so designated because of the presence of 
hazardous gases generated by landfills, shall be designed by an engineer registered in the state of Colorado to control and 



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protect against accumulation of over 1.0% by volume of flammable gas in the building, structure or utility. The following 
precautions shall be taken during and after construction activity: 

1. A flammable gas indicator shall be utilized at all times during trenching, excavating, drilling or when working 
within 10 feet of an open excavation. 

2. When trenching, excavating or drilling deeper than 2 feet into the soil or fill, or in the presence of detectable 
concentrations of 1.0% by volume of flammable gas, the operating equipment shall be provided with spark proof 
exhausts. 

3. A dry chemical fire extinguisher, approved by the Fire Department, shall be provided on all equipment used in the 
landfill. 

4. Personnel within or near an open trench or drill hole deeper than 2 feet into the soil or fill shall be fully clothed, 
wear shoes with nonmetallic soles and wear a hard hat and safety goggles or glasses. 

5. Exhaust blowers shall be used in instances where trenches may show a build-up of flammable gas of 1.0% by 
volume or less than 19.5% by volume of oxygen. 

6. Smoking and/or an open flame shall not be permitted in any area within 100 feet of the excavation. 

7. Personnel shall be kept upwind of any open trench unless the trench and the downwind atmosphere are 
continuously monitored. 

8. Before personnel are permitted to enter an open trench, the trench shall be monitored for flammable gas and at 
least a 19.5%-by-volume oxygen sufficiency. When in the excavation, each work party shall be working no more 
than 5 feet from a continuously operating flammable gas and oxygen monitor. 

9. The applicant shall employ an inspector whose duty it shall be to effect continuous compliance with the foregoing 
precautions. The inspector shall be a qualified person approved by the Department or shall be an engineer 
registered with the state of Colorado or a person in the employ of, or subject to, the direct supen/ision and control 
of such an engineer. Said inspector shall submit a written report of his inspection to the applicant and to the 
Department at 10-day inten/als during active construction stating that all new construction is in compliance with 
these regulations, and that all testing and monitoring has been and is being done as required by the Code. 

10. After construction is completed, hazardous gas monitoring devices approved by the Fire Department shall be 
installed in the completed building or structure in such number and in such places within the building or structure 
as may be required by the Fire Department. 

Section K 103.2 Alteration or Repair of Existing Building; Structures or Utilities. Except as provided in Section 
153.6 and K 103.3, no alterations or repairs to any existing building, structure or utility shall be made unless the following 
precautions are taken: 

1. Within 5 days prior to applying for a permit under Chapter 1 of the Building Code to alter or repair an existing 
building, structure or utility, the work site shall be tested for the presence of flammable gas by an engineer registered 
in the state of Colorado. 

2. The applicant shall be exempt from all other requirements of this Section K 103.2 if: 

1. Test results show that there is less than 2.0% of the Lower Explosive Limit (L.E.L.) of hazardous gas, then 
the permit for the work shall be issued; and 

2. Upon completion of the work, the applicant shall install hazardous gas monitoring devices approved by the 
Fire Department in such number and in such places within the building or structure as may be required by the 
Fire Department. 

3. If the test results show that there is 2% or more of the Lower Explosive Limit (L.E.L.) of hazardous gas, then the 
applicant shall take all of the precautions pursuant to Section K 103.1 as if the construction were new construction. 

Section K 103.3 Exemption. Whether or not he is an applicant for a permit, the owner of real property within a Special 
Construction Zone may apply to the Building Agency for a certificate of exemption from the provisions of Article 647 of 
the Revised Municipal Code and Section K 103 of the Building Code. To obtain such exemption, said owner shall have 
his property tested by an engineer registered in the state of Colorado and tests shall meet the following requirements: 



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1 . A test for the presence of flammable gas shall be performed at a time when there is frost on his property to a depth 
of at least 6 inches in the soil, again at a time when there is no frost in the soil, and again within 5 days of the date 
when an exemption certificate is applied for. 

2. The test holes shall be placed along each major boundary line of the real property for which the exemption is 
sought in such number and at such locations as the engineer deems proper. 

3. If the test results show that there is less than 2.0% of the lower explosive limit (L.E.L.) of flammable gas, and if 
such test results are satisfactory to the Department, then the Department shall issue a certificate stating that the 
real property described in the certificate is exempt from the provisions of Article 647 of the Revised Municipal 
Code and Section K 103 of the Building Code. 

4. As a condition of receiving an exemption certificate from the Department, the owner shall acquire and install in 
all existing and future buildings and structures devices approved by the Fire Department to monitor for the 
presence of hazardous gas in such number and in such places within tiie building or structure as may be required 
by the Fire Department. 

5. Upon a finding that flammable gas is present in amounts greater than 2% of the lower explosive limit on any 
property where an exemption certificate has been issued, the Department shall revoke the exemption certificate. 
Further, upon a finding tiiat the monitoring devices on any property for which an exemption certificate has been 
issued are inoperative, the Department may suspend or revoke the exemption certificate. 



APPENDIX L 
ACCESS CONTROL 

SECTION LlOl 
INTRODUCTION 

L 101.1 Background. Since 1990 various written policies have been implemented and applied to establish requirements 
and guidelines for the assessment and permitting of access control systems. Initially, policies were written to address the 
needs that had developed for securing the elevator lobby and stair enclosures in high rise buildings. As the use of these 
systems increased, and as they became more complex, it was necessary to develop a more comprehensive policy to 
address these systems that were being used in ever increasing applications. The development of an expanded policy was 
also driven by the failure of the model building code to respond to the increasing security needs in buildings. The model 
building code did not provide a reasonable balance between life safety concerns and security needs. Further, these systems 
were found to have a detrimental effect on exiting, fire department access and accessibility as well as reducing the 
effectiveness of other life-safety features in buildings. In order to address this need for a more comprehensive policy, an 
Access Control Committee was established to develop the required document. The committee was composed of both 
private and public sector members. On April 18, 1995 the Building Inspection Division began to apply the initial policy 
developed by this committee. The policy was published as Policy Number 32-B068. Since being implemented, the 
original policy was continuously applied and used as the basis for the review and acceptance of access control systems. In 
the year 2000, the Access Control Committee was re-established and began to meet to develop an updated and expanded 
version of the 1995 policy. This committee developed an updated policy but that new version was not implemented 
pending the adoption of the IBC (International Building Code) as the Building Code for the City & County of Denver. 

The DBC includes a number of provisions that relate to access control systems that are similar to some of the systems and 
requirements of the new version of the access control policy. However, these provisions are not as comprehensive as those 
contained in this policy. In order to codify the policy and to provide a more consolidated and organized approach to access 
control it was decided to develop a separate appendix in the building code for access control systems. The newest version 
of the access control policy was used as the basis for this appendix. The provisions of the International Building Code that 
address issues related to access control systems are deleted in the Denver Amendments to the IBC and reference is made 
to this appendix for the appropriate corresponding requirements 

L 101.2 Purpose and intent. The purpose of this appendix is to combine all of the various DBC requirements and 
previous policy requirements for access control systems into one document. The appendix is intended to provide 

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consistency in the design, review, installation and inspection of access control systems and components by providing 
standards and guidelines for these systems. It is anticipated that redundant design efforts and administrative modification 
requests can be avoided by providing safe alternative solutions to some commonly reoccurring security applications where 
the use of access control systems would create conflicts with other requirements of the DBC. Although the appendix 
contains specific solutions for a number of common applications it is not intended to limit the use of this policy to only 
those situations. This appendix can be used to help devise appropriate solutions to other unique situations that require the 
use of access control systems that may also be incompatible with requirements of the DBC. The provisions of the DBC in 
Section 103.3 relating to modifications under special circumstances can be used when other solutions provide an 
equivalent alternative to the provisions of the DBC. The standards and guidelines of this appendix are designed to assist in 
the development of specialized access control systems that are necessary to respond to unique security needs. 

L 101.3 Prevailing poliq^. All access control policies previously applied by Community Planning and Development are 
null and void and superceded by this appendix. These policies include but are not limited to the following policies: 

Policy P-25 Securing of Stair Doors Into Exit Enclosures - Dated 09/04/1999 

Policy P-26 Securing of Elevator Lobbies - Dated 02/05/1993 

Policy P-47 Interim Policy - Electric Door Hardware Applications for Exit Doors - Dated 09/21/1992 

Policy 32-B068 Access Control - Dated 04/18/1995 

The provisions of this policy are not intended to be applied to existing access control systems that were permitted and 
legally installed in accordance with the provisions of the DBC and any Access Control Policy in effect at the time the 
permit was issued. 

L 101.4 Modified IBC provisions. The following IBC sections have been modified and are superceded by the provisions 
of this appendix: 

Section 403.12 Stairway door operation. 

Section 1008.1.3.4 Access- controlled egress doors. 

Section 1008.1.8.6 Delayed egress locks. 

Section 1008.1.8.7 Stairway doors. 

SECTION L102 
DEFINITIONS 

L 102.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this appendix, have the meaning shown 
herein. 

ADBC. Administration of the Denver Building Code. Contains the amendments that have been adopted for the 
administration of the Denver Building Code. Adopted with the Denver Building Code Amendments. 

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM. A group of devices including control unit(s), electric hardware, wiring and raceways 
electrically interconnected to control and regulate ingress and egress. 

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM CONTRACTOR. A contractor licensed to install, add to, alter or repair control units, 
electric hardware, wiring and raceways electrically interconnected to control and regulate ingress and egress. Voltages 
shall not exceed 48 volts or the system shall be power-limited as defined by the NEC. All work shall be performed under 
the supervision of the holder of an Access Control System Supen/isors Certificate. 

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM UNIT. The component(s) of an access control system that provide system logic and 
control (e.g., reader electronic panels, stand-alone keypads, telephone entry controllers, burglar alarm system units with 
access control capability, intercom controllers and door entry buzzers or buttons.) 

APPROVED. Approved as to materials and types of construction, as determined by the Building Official following 
investigation and tests conducted by him, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by recognized authorities, technical 
or scientific organizations. 

CABINET. An enclosure with a hinged or screw lid used primarily to provide a degree of protection against incidental 
contact. 

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CONTACT SENSE EXIT DEVICE. Door mounted hardware designed to electrically sense the touch or immediate 
presence of an occupant moving to open the door. Depends upon the "touch" sensor to initiate a door unlock as opposed 
to more traditional door hardware that depends upon mechanical movement of the hardware to unlock the door. 

CPD. Community Planning & Development (formerly the Building Inspection Division). 

DBC. Denver Building Code. The International Codes as currently adopted including the provisions found in the City 
and County of Denver Amendments to the Denver Building Code and the Adminstration of the Denver Building Code. 

DBC A. The Denver Building Code Amendments. Also includes the provisions of the Administration of the Denver 
Building Code. 

DEC. Denver Fire Code. The IFC as currently adopted including the City and County of Denver amendments. 

DIRECTLY UNLOCK. To directly interrupt power to the locking device, independent of the operation, functionality or 
programming of access control system units. 

ELECTRIC BOLT. Dead- bolt type of lock that is electrically operated and is dependent upon power to either project or 
withdraw the bolt. 

ELECTRIC HARDWARE. Any door hardware or accessory product that is used in a circuit as a conductor, load, 
power supply or switch. 

ELECTRIC STRIKE. Lock strike that is modified to release the latch bolt with the application or removal of electric 
power. 

ELECTRIC LOCK. Any locking or latching door hardware that relies on electrical energy for its operation. 

ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR. Colorado State licensed electrical contractor. 

ELECTRICAL SIGNAL CONTRACTOR. A contractor licensed to install, add to, alter or repair electrical wiring and 
equipment for fire alarm, fire detection, emergency voice communication systems, electrical signaling and control wiring. 
Voltages shall not exceed 48 volts or the system shall be power- limited as defined by the NEC. All work shall be 
performed under the supervision of the holder of an Electrical Signal Supervisor Certificate. 

ELECTRICALLY MODIFIED LOCKSET. A standard builder's hardware lockset that has been modified to operate 
electrically without compromising mechanical free egress. 

ELECTRICALLY OPERATED EXIT DEVICE. An exit device that has been modified to operate electrically without 
compromising mechanical free egress. 

ELECTRIC LOCKS- MASTER SWITCH. An electrical switch configured to immediately and simultaneously unlock 
all connected door locks (typically, but not limited to delayed egress doors, secured elevator lobby doors and stair tower 
doors). The switch shall be located in the building's Fire Command Center or other approved location. The switch shall 
be a two-position, toggle switch labeled "ELECTRIC LOCKS" with its positions labeled "LOCKED" and 
"UNLOCKED". When located in a non-secure area, a two-position, key operated switch may be used when a matching 
key is located in the building's Key Lock Box 

FAIL-SAFE LOCK. A lock that unlocks automatically upon loss of power. 

FAIL-SECURE LOCK. A lock that remains locked during loss of power. 

FIRE ASSEMBLY. An assembly of fire doors, fire windows or fire damper, including all required hardware, anchorage, 
frames and sills. 

FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM. A building that is fully smoke detectored, or smoke detection where required by the 
DBC Section 1807, Smoke Control in High Rise Buildings. 

FPB. Fire Prevention and Investigation Division, of the Denver Fire Department. 

LABEL. Fire doors shall have a label or other identification showing the fire protection rating. Such label shall be 
approved and shall be permanently affixed. The label shall be applied at the factory where fabrication and assembly are 
performed. Inspection shall be made by an approved inspection agency during fabrication and assembly. 

LISTED and LISTING . Terms referring to equipment and materials which are shown in a list published by an approved 
testing agency, qualified and equipped for experimental testing and maintaining an adequate periodic inspection of current 
productions and whose listing states that the equipment complies with recognized safety standards. 

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MAGNETIC LOCK. Lock that relies on magnetic power to lock the door, typically mating a door mounted door-plate 
to a frame mounted lock housing. 

MANUAL UNLOCKING SWITCH. A permanently wired, manually operated, raised, push-type switch with integrated 
time delay which immediately and directly unlocks a door. 

MECHANICAL FREE EGRESS. Door hardware that mechanically unlocks and unlatches the door, from the inside 
(egress side) with a single motion without the use of a key, card or any special knowledge or effort. 

MOTION DETECTOR. A device that is listed by an approved testing laboratory as a request to exit sensor. 

NEC. National Electric Code. 

POWER TRANSFER. Hinge, pivot or door cord that provides routing for the wire to pass from the frame into the door. 

SHEAR-TYPE MAGNETIC LOCK. A magnetic lock that relies on a shear pin, post, concave/convex machining or 
other similar projections to enhance the latching strength of the lock. 

SECTION L103 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

L 103.1 General Requirements. All access control system applications shall comply with all of the requirements 
contained in Section LI 03 unless other specific provisions of Appendix L modify these requirements. 

L 103.1.1 Mechanical Free Egress. All doors shall have mechanical free egress at all times unless otherwise 
approved by CPD. 

L 103.1.2 Fire-Rated Doors. Required fired- rated doors shall remain latched at all times that the door is in a closed 
position. 

L 103.1.3 Modifying Doors and Door Frames. Re-machining fire- rated doors or frames may void the fire label. Re- 
machining shall comply with the manufacturer's specified procedures. 

L 103.1.4 Key Lock Boxes. Provision for ingress by way of an approved key box (e.g., "Knox Box") for entry by 
emergency personnel should be provided and shall be located in a FPB -approved location. 

L 103.1.5 Fail Safe Wiring. When electric locks are held locked by the application of electric power, the wiring 
between the power supply and lock shall be installed in a "fail-safe" arrangement. All portions of the circuit shall be 
configured in a way that parallel conductors in a common cable or raceway shall have conductors of opposite polarity 
in the same cable or raceway. This arrangement assures that the lock releases if wires break or if parallel conductors 
are shorted. 



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Magnetic 
Lock 



Exit 
Motion 
Sensor 



Exit 
Device 

witli ^ 
Integral 
Switch 



Manual 

Unlocking 

Switch 



yi 



Access 

Control 

Unit 



Lock 
Power 
Source 



Fire 
%±. Alarm 
^ Inteface 



Power 
Transfer 
Device 



FIGURE 103.1.5 

L 103.1.6 Access Control System Power. Access control system power supplies shall comply with all of the 
following requirements: 

"Plug-in" Class II power supplies along with their serving outlets shall be enclosed in a protective cabinet. 

All power supplies oliierliian "plug-in" Class II power supplies shall be hardwired to primaiy power. 

When the manufacturer's nameplate primary power requirement exceeds 180 volt- amps, the power supply shall be 
served by a dedicated branch circuit. If power requirement is less than 180 VA, then an existing power outlet may be 
converted to a junction box serving the power supply. 

Fine Print Note (FPN): This section is not intended to preclude the use of emerging technologies such as Power Over Ethernet "POE" 
solutions. It is the intent that power supplies be appropriately listed and that they be reasonably protected against unintentional disconnect. A 
reasonable accommodation for POE solutions may be for the POE hardware to be located in a secure wiring closet. 

L 103.1.7 Hardware Requirements. All access control system applications shall utilize hardware that complies with 
all of the requirements contained in Section L103.1.7 unless specifically excepted by other provisions of Appendix L. 

L 103.1.7.1 Listing. All access control system units shall be listed for liieir intended use by an approved agency, 
such as UL or ETL, or as otherwise approved by CPD. 

L 103.1.7.2 Electrical Compatibility. All components of the operating system shall be matched electrically in all 
ratings (i.e. voltage and current). 

L 103.1.7.3 Electric Strikes. Doors or frames may be equipped with electric strikes that do not affect mechanical 
free egress. Electric strikes used on fire- rated doors shall be fail-secure and shall bear the appropriate fire listing. 

L 103.1.7.4 Electrified Locksets. Approved and listed electrically modified locksets (mortise, cylindrical or unit 
type) that do not affect mechanical free egress are permitted. 

L 103.1.7.5 Electrically Operated Panic Hardware. Approved and listed electrically operated panic hardware 
(rim, mortise, and concealed or vertical rod type) is permitted. The exit device shall bear appropriate fire rating 
when used on fire- rated doors. 

L 103.1.7.6 Electric Bolts. Electric bolts, either flush or surface mounted, shall not be installed, altered or 
repaired. 

L 103.1.7.7 Shear-Type Magnetic Locks. Shear-type magnetic locks shall not be installed, altered or repaired. 

L 103.1.7.8 Non-Binding Hardware. Hardware shall be non-binding in design and function. 



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SECTION L104 

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS WITH MAGNETIC LOCKS 

Section L 104.1. Access Control Systems with Magnetic Locks. Doors in all occupancies except H occupancies are 
permitted to be equipped with magnetic locks that prevent mechanical free egress when the magnetic locking system 
complies with all of the provisions of Section L104. Magnetic locks that are part of a delayed egress system shall comply 
with the provisions of Section L105.. Magnetic locks that are used to secure an elevator lobby shall comply with all of the 
requirements of Section L106. 

L 104.1.1 Fire alarm interface. Activation of the building fire alarm system, automatic sprinkler system or fire 
detection system, if provided, shall directly unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the system has 
been reset. 

L 104.1.2 Loss of power. Loss of power to that part of the access control system which locks the doors shall 
automatically unlock the doors. 

L 104.1.3 Magnetic lock power transfer. Power transfer from the door to the frame shall be listed and approved. 

L 104.1.4 Other locking devices. When magnetic locks are installed on a door, no other locking device shall be used 
on the door that prevents free egress. 

L 104.1.5 Door release hardware. The door shall unlock from the egress side using a combination of any two of the 

following means: 

Door mounted release device. May be either of the following: 

Panic hardware release. Panic hardware may be used to unlock a magnetic lock, provided it is equipped with 
an internally mounted switch. Operation of the panic device shall simultaneously directly unlock the 
magnetic lock and allow the door to open with one motion. The switch shall have a proven operable life, as 
part of the exit device, equal to the listing requirements for the device (typically 250,000 cycles). 

Contact sense exit device release. This device shall directly unlock the magnetic lock. 

Manual unlocking device. A manual, press to operate button may be used to unlock a magnetic lock when all 
the following conditions are met: 

Be located in compliance with the requirements of ICC/ANSI A 117. 1-2003 section308. 

Be located within five feet of either edge of the egress side of the door opening. 

The operable portion of the device shall have a minimum dimension of one inch (1"). 

Be clearly identified by a sign that reads "EXIT" (or similar language) in minimum y^' high letters on a 
contrasting background. 

Directly unlock the magnetic lock. 

Remain unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds. 

Motion Detector Release. The detector shall be arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors from the 
egress side within a six-foot radius of the centerline of the door opening (refer to Figure 104.1 for coverage 
patterns) and upon detection, shall directly unlock the magnetic lock and shall keep it unlocked for a minimum of 
5 seconds. Loss of operating power to the detector shall directly unlock the magnetic lock. 



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COVERAGE PATTERNS 



Figure 2a: Motion Detector 

Coverage, Single Door 



/ 



\ 



Direction of Egress 



Figure 2b: Motion Detector 

Coverage, Double Door 




Direction of Egress 

I 



FIGURE 104.1 



SECTION L105 

DELAYED EGRESS SYSTEMS 

L 105.1 Delayed Egress Locks. Approved, listed, delayed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on doors sen/ing 
any occupancy except Group A, E and H occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with IBC Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system 
installed in accordance with DBG A Section 907 as amended, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 
through 7 below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a delayed 
egress lock before entering an exit. 

The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system. 

The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism. 

The doors unlock when the Electric Locks, Master Switch is in the unlocked position. 

A release device shall initiate an irreversible process that shall unlock the door within a delay period of not more than 
15 seconds. The maximum required force and time to activate the release device shall not exceed 15 pounds (67 N) 
for 1 second. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the 
door is unlocked by the application of force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by manual means only, at the 
door. 

Exception: 

Where approved, a delay period of not more than 30 seconds is permitted. 

A sign shall be provided on the door located above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release device reading: 
PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR GAN BE OPENED IN 15 (30) SEGONDS. 



Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 

The components for the delayed egress lock shall be listed as a complete assembly, 
may not be field assembled to build a delayed egress locking assembly. 



Individual, listed components 



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SECTION L106 

SECURING AN ELEVATOR LOBBY WITH AN ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM 

L 106.1 Secured Elevator Lobby. When all of the provisions of Section L106.1 have been satisfied, elevator lobbies may 
be secured to prevent access from the elevator lobby into a tenant space. 

L 106.1.1 Use of Secured Elevator Lobbies. Secured elevator lobbies are intended to provide a transitional area 
where building occupants can await the arrival of an elevator car or depart from an elevator car. It is not intended to 
be an area where building occupants can work. A secured elevator lobby cannot contain other spaces that are 
considered normally occupied such as restrooms, reception areas or waiting areas. 

L 106.1.2 Exit Path Blockage. Securing of the lobby cannot result in the blockage of exit paths from normally 
occupied areas. A secured lobby cannot interrupt the exit path circulation. 

L 106.1.3 Dead-End Corridors. Securing of the lobby cannot result in dead-end exit corridors with lengths that 
exceed the provisions of IBC Section 1017. 

L 106.1.4 Restroom Facility Access. Securing of the lobby cannot result in elimination of access to required 
restroom facilities from normally occupied areas. Each individual tenant shall have access at all times to required 
toilet facilities. 

L 106.1.5 Electric Load-Center Access. Securing of the lobby cannot eliminate the access required by the NEC to 
electrical overload protection or disconnect equipment. Each tenant shall have the access required by the NEC. 

L 106.1.6 Delayed Egress. Delayed egress hardware is permitted under this section. 

L 106.1.7 Exit Stairway Access. Elevator lobbies shall have at least one means of egress complying with Chapter 10 
and other provisions within this code. 

Exception: 

An elevator lobby may be secured provided all of the following conditions are met: 

Fire System Requirements. The building shall be equipped with either a fire alarm system and be fully 
detectored or be fully sprinkled and have manual fire alarm boxes (pull stations) installed throughout the 
building or be equipped with the life-safety features prescribed under IBC Section 403. 

Electric Locks. All doors connecting the secured lobby with normally occupied areas or with corridors 
leading to the exit stair enclosure can only be secured with a fail-safe electric lock. The lock shall unlock 
when the fire alarm is activated. 

Emergency Communications. One of the following emergency communication devices shall be provided in 
the lobby: 

A manual fire alarm box shall be installed in a clearly visible location within the elevator lobby and 
mounted at a height to comply with the Reach Ranges provisions of ICC/ANSI A 117.1 (2003) Section 
308. The location shall be subject to approval by the FPB. A manual fire alarm box installed under these 
requirements shall transmit to a Class I Central Station. 

An emergency telephone or other approved two-way communication device shall be installed in the 
elevator lobby, and mounted in compliance with the Reach Ranges provisions of ICC/ANSI A 117.1 
(2003) Section 308. The location shall be approved by the FPB. The system/device shall transmit to a 
commercial monitoring service or continuously staffed monitoring service within the building as 
approved by CPD and the FPB. Upon activation, the communications device shall automatically transmit 
a location identification message to the monitoring service. A sign shall be provided at the 
communication device that states that this is an emergency phone and lists the building address and the 
floor number of the elevator lobby. 

Licfhtincf Requirements. The elevator lobby shall be illuminated per IBC Section 1006 (Means of Egress 
Illumination). 



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Compatibility With Accessibility Requirements . All doors into the elevator lobby area from normally 
occupied areas shall have accessible hardware compatible with the requirements of ICC/ANSI A 117.1 (2003) 
Sections 308 and 404.2.6 on each side of the door. 

Areas of Evacuation Assistance (Refuge Areas). When an elevator lobby is used as an Area of Evacuation 
Assistance, all of the following additional, conditions shall be met: 

Electric Lock Requirements. Electric locks shall be designed so that when they are released, the door will 
remain latched. The lock shall also be connected to the Electric Locks - Master Switch. 

Door and Door Hardware Requirements . All doors opening into elevator lobby refuge areas shall be 20- 
minute fire- protection rated assemblies as required by DBC Section 403.9.1. All hardware necessary to 
maintain the fire rating of the door shall be listed and approved fire door hardware. All hardware 
installed on the rated door and frame assembly shall be compatible with the manner in which the door was 
manufactured and shall not reduce the fire rating of the assembly. Field or other modification of rated 
doors and frames is prohibited unless approved in writing by the agency which labeled the fire- rated 
assembly. 

Securing Doors Leading Into the Elevator Lobby . Doors leading into the lobby refuge area from 
normally occupied areas shall be readily openable from the normally occupied side without the use of a 
key or special knowledge or effort. 

Refuge Area Subdivision. A refuge area, which includes the elevator lobby and the corridors that connect 
the lobby to the exit stair enclosures, shall remain as one open area without restriction of movement 
within the refuge area. 

SECTION L107 

SECURING EXIT ENCLOSURE (STAIR TOWER) DOORS 

Section L 107.1 Securing Exit Enclosure Doors. Doors opening into exit enclosures can be secured under certain 
conditions provided all of the applicable requirements of Section L 107.1 are satisfied. 

Section L 107.1.1 Exit Enclosure Door General Hardware Requirements. All doors into exit enclosure shall have 
hardware that complies with the provisions of Section LI 07. 1.1 

Section L 107.1.1.1 Fire Rating and Latching Requirements of Door Hardware. All doors into exit enclosures 
shall be fire- rated assemblies, as required by IBC Section 1020. In order to maintain the fire rating of the door 
assembly, all hardware installed on enclosure doors shall meet the following criteria: 

Latching Requirements. The door shall remain latched at all times that the door is in a closed position as 
required by IBC Section 715.4.7.1. Electric locks or strikes that unlatch the door upon activation of the fire 
alarm system or loss of power are unacceptable. 

Hardware Requirements. All hardware shall be listed for use on fire-rated door assemblies. The hardware 
shall be listed for an hourly rating equal to or greater than the rating of the door assembly. Any field or other 
modification of rated doors and frames is prohibited unless approved in writing by that agency that labels the 
door and frame assembly. Doors that are modified to accommodate hardware without the approval of the 
labeling agency are not approved and shall be replaced with properly labeled doors manufactured to 
accommodate the hardware. 

L 701.1.1.2 Door Hardware Requirements to Provide Accessibility. All new hardware on doors into exit 
enclosures shall be compatible with the requirements of ICC/ANSI 117.1 (2003) Sections 308 and 404.2.6. All 
hardware that was installed after August 1, 1983, shall comply with ICC/ANSI 117.1 (2003) Sections 308 and 
404.2.6. 

L 107.1.2 Requirements for Access ControL All doors into exit enclosures shall be capable of being opened from 
both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort unless otherwise permitted by the provisions of 
Section L107.1. 

L 107.1.3 Exit Enclosure Doors at the Exit Discharge Level. Doors providing the path of egress out of the 
enclosure at the discharge level cannot be locked from the exit enclosure side at any time. 



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Exception: 

Magnetic locks and Delayed Egress Locks are permitted when used in accordance with this appendix. 

Exterior exit enclosure doors at the exit discharge level can be locked to prevent access into the exit enclosure from 
the exterior side. Interior exit enclosure doors at the exit discharge level that are not intended for exit discharge from 
the exit enclosure shall comply with all of the provisions of Section L 107. 1.4. 

L 107.1.4 Access Doors Into Exit Enclosures at Levels Other Than the Exit Discharge Level. Doors that are a 
part of the path of egress into exit enclosures cannot be locked to prevent or restrict access into the exit enclosure at 
any time. Doors shall be operable without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort. The door shall be 
capable of being opened with one operation only. The following types of locking devices are prohibited on the exit 
side of doors into enclosures: 

Key operated mechanical locks. Mechanical locks requiring a key, combination or other special knowledge to 
open the door. 

Combination of mechanical and electrical locks. Combinations of mechanical door hardware and/or electric 
locks which require more than one operation to open the door. 

Electric locks. Electric locking devices which are unlocked by use of a key, card reader, key pad, pressure 
sensitive mat, push button switch or other similar method. 

Electric strikes. Fail-safe electric strikes are prohibited on doors into exit enclosures. The latch point on these 
doors must be maintained and a fail-safe electric strike does not maintain the latch point when power is lost to the 
strike. Fail- secure electric strikes that are not listed for use on a fire rated door assembly are also prohibited on 
doors into exit enclosures. Except as allowed by Section L 107.1.3.2.2. 

After hours locks. Locking devices that are activated after normal business hours or during other timed periods 
and restrict access into the exit enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

Magnetic locks and Delayed Egress locks are permitted when used in accordance with this appendix. 

Parking G arage. In a parking garage that is not intended for use by the general public (or in other garages, when 
approved by CPD & FPB), doors used in a means of egress that also sen/e lobbies, corridors or common areas 
may be locked provided all of the following conditions are met: 

Parking Garage, Lobby, Corridor, Common Area Use. The parking garage, lobby, corridor or common area 
that is accessed by the door may not be accessible to the general public. 

Fire System Requirements. The building shall be equipped with a fire alarm system with manual fire pull 
stations and notification appliances installed throughout the building. Manual pull stations and notification 
appliances shall be provided adjacent to each secured, parking garage door. If the building is provided with 
an automatic sprinkler system or a fire detection system then activation of either of these systems or the fire 
alarm system shall unlock the doors and the doors shall remain unlocked until the system has been reset. 

Electric Lock Requirements. The electric lock must be fail-safe and unlock upon fire alarm activation or loss 
of normal building power. The lock may not be connected to an emergency power source that would keep the 
lock energized when normal building power is lost. 

Signage. A sign shall be provided on the garage side of each door to be locked that reads: DOOR IS 
LOCKED, UNLOCKS UPON FIRE ALARM. The sign shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a 
contrasting background. 

Lighting. The area at the door shall be illuminated per IBC Section 1006 (Means of Egress Illumination). 

L 107.1.5 Doors That Provide Access Out of Exit Enclosures at Non-Discharge Levels. If the locking system 
complies with all of the specific provisions of Section L107.1.5 and the general provisions of Section L107.1 then the 
doors that provide access out of exit enclosures on levels that are not intended for exit discharge may be secured from 
the exit enclosure side. 

L 107.1.5.1 High Rise Buildings. In a high rise building, if all of the provisions of this section are satisfied then 
the enclosure doors can be locked to prevent access out of enclosure on all levels except the exit discharge levels. 



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L 107.1.5.1.1 New Door Locks Which Prevent Access Out of Exit Enclosures. All new lock installations 
in high rise buildings, which prevent access out of an exit enclosure, shall satisfy the following requirements: 

Electric Locks. All new locks shall be electrically modified locksets which shall simultaneously unlock, 
but not unlatch, upon a fire alarm or a power loss or activation of Electric Locks - Master Switch. The 
electrically modified lockset shall be wired to all three of these monitor/power/control points. Each of 
these three conditions shall unlock but not unlatch the stairway doors. These locks shall not be connected 
to an emergency power source that would keep the door locked upon loss of normal building power. 

Mechanical Locks. Conventional keyed, combination or other mechanical locks are not allowed in new 
lock installations 

Fifth Floor Rule. Where doors are locked for more than five consecutive floors, a telephone or other 
approved two-way communication system shall be provided. The travel distance between each phone or 
communication system shall not exceed five floors as required by IBC Section 403. 12. L 

Phone/Communications System. An emergency telephone or other approved two-way communication 
device shall be installed in the stair landing, and mounted at a height to comply with the requirements of 
ICC/ANSI 117.1 (2003) Section 308. The location shall be approved by the CPD. The system/device 
shall transmit to a commercial monitoring sen/ice or continuously staffed monitoring sen/ice within the 
building as approved by CPD . Upon activation, the communications device shall automatically transmit a 
location identification message to the monitoring service. 

Signage. All locked exit enclosure doors shall have the applicable signage required by Section 
L107.1. 5.1.1 and IBC Section 1020.1.6 and comply with ICC/ANSI 117.1 (2003) Sections 703 and 704. 
Signage shall be provided as follows: 

All doors that are locked for more than 5 consecutive floors shall have a sign that reads: THIS 
DOOR IS LOCKED. EMERGENCY PHONES ARE LOCATED ON FLOORS AND . 

All doors that are locked for 5 consecutive floors or less shall have a sign that reads: THIS DOOR IS 

LOCKED. FOR THE NEXT UNLOCKED DOOR GO DOWN TO FLOOR OR UP TO 

FLOOR . 

All emergency phones in exit enclosures shall have a sign that reads: EMERGENCY PHONE. The sign 
shall also provide the address of the building and describe the floor and stair location of the phone. 

L 107.1.5.1.2 Existing Door Locks Which Prevent Access Out of Exit Enclosures. Existing locking 
systems in high-rise buildings that prevent access out of exit enclosures shall satisfy all of the following 
criteria in order to remain in service: 

Existing Lock Definition. An existing lock is a lock that was legally installed with a building permit prior 
to September 21, 1990, the effective date of Policy P-25 "Securing of Stair Doors into Exit Enclosures". 
The lock shall also comply with all of the requirements of the building code in effect at the time it was 
installed. 

Master Keys. Locks must be key operable. Four sets of master keys to operate the locks shall be 
available for Fire Department use in a location approved by the FPB. 

Fifth Floor Rule. Doors shall not be locked for more than five consecutive floors with keyed mechanical 
locks. Where keyed locks are in place for more than five consecutive floors, at least one shall be replaced 
by an electric lock such that the keyed locks do not occur for more than five consecutive levels. The 
electric locks shall comply with all high rise building requirements as required by Section L 107. 1.5. 1.1. 

Existing Mechanical Combination Locks. Existing mechanical combination locks shall be removed and 
replaced with complying electric locks. 

Existing Electric Locks. Existing electric locks on the enclosure side may remain in service if they 
comply with all of the requirements listed in Section LI 07.1. 

L 107.1.5.2 Non-High Rise Buildings. In non-high rise buildings, if all of the provisions of Section 
L107.1.5.2 are satisfied then the enclosure doors can be locked to prevent access out of the enclosure on all 
levels except the discharge levels or other levels required to have access from the enclosure by the provisions 
of Section L107.1.5.2.2. 

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L 107.1.5.2.1 Non-High Rise Buildings Less Than Five Stories. Doors into exit enclosures can be 
locked with any type of mechanical lock or listed electrical lock from the enclosure side to prevent access 
out of the enclosure if all of the following conditions are satisfied: 

The locking hardware does not prevent mechanical free egress into the enclosure at exit doors. 

The door is not a part of the egress path from the enclosure at a discharge level. 

The door locking hardware complies with all of the requirements of Section L 107.1.1.1. 

If listed electric strikes are used as part of the locking system the strike shall be a fail- secure strike. 

The provisions of this section can be applied to locking applications in both new and existing 
buildings. 

L 107.1.5.2.2 Non-High Rise Buildings Greater Than Four Stories. Exit enclosure doors can be locked 
to prevent access out of the enclosure in non-high rise buildings more than four stories in height if the 
locking system complies with all of the general provisions of Section L 107.1 and the specific provisions 
for high rise buildings in Section L 107. 1.5.1. 

SECTION L108 

CONTRACTOR LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS 

Section L 108.1 Contractor Licensing Requirements for Access Control System Work. A licensed access control 
contractor is required to obtain the permit necessary to install access control systems and components, including but not 
limited to, delayed egress systems, telephone entry systems, electric door strikes, magnetic locking hardware, electrified 
locksets, electrically operated panic hardware, card readers, controllers and other access control equipment. The access 
control contractor may perform all of the work related to the installation of the access control system except for the work 
restricted by the provisions of Section L108.1.2. The restricted work shall be performed by a contractor that is licensed to 
perform the work. 

L 108.1.1 Access Control System Contractor License. The access control system contractor license is authorized 
and classified by the provisions of DBC. All of the applicable requirements of Section 122 shall be satisfied in order 
to obtain the access control system contractor license. The access control contractor may perform all work directly 
related to the access control system except as limited by this section. The following types of related work can be 
performed by the access control contractor: 

The installation of all access control system components including but not limited to control panels, magnetic 
locking hardware, electrified locksets, electric strikes, electrically operated panic hardware, card readers and 
power supplies that are not hardwired to the building's electrical power distribution system can be performed. The 
work necessary to connect the access control system to a hard- wired power supply is allowed to be performed. 

The installation of all associated interconnecting wiring between access control system components necessary for 
operation of the system except electrical circuits that are powered with more than 48- Volt- AC/DC can be 
performed. 

The installation of raceways and conduits that only contain wiring for the interconnection of the various access 
control components can be performed. 

The modification of doors and door frames required to install the various access control components can be 
performed if the modification does not void the listing and labeling of a fire rated door and/or door frame. The 
work necessary for the replacement of existing doors and/or doorframes in existing openings is also allowed to be 
performed. 

An electrical contractor or an electrical signal contractor cannot perform the work that requires an access control 
system contractor unless allowed by other provisions of this appendix. The modification of doors and door frames 
can be performed by a properly licensed building contractor (Class A or B) or by one of the Class D building 
specialty contractors licensed to install or perform work on doors. 

L 108.1.2 Requirements for Work Not Performed by Access Control Systems Contractor. Work related to the 
installation of the access control system that cannot be performed by the access control system contractor shall be 
performed by a contractor that is licensed by the classification provisions of DBC to perform the work. The following 



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types of work related to the installation of access control systems cannot be performed by the access control 
contractor and shall be performed by an appropriately licensed contractor as required by Section L108.1.2: 

The wiring and modifications necessary to connect the access control systems to the fire alarm system. This work 
shall be performed by an electrical signal contractor or an electrical registration contractor (Section 123.1, =ff9). 

The wiring and modifications necessary to connect the access control system to elevator control system. This 
work shall be performed by a licensed elevator contractor. 

Any work on electrical circuits that are powered by more than 48 Volt- AC/DC including the hard- wiring of power 
supplies for the access control system to the building's power system. This work shall be performed by an 
electrical registration contractor. 

The installation of conduits or raceways that are intended to contain wiring for any of the following types of 
circuits is not allowed: 

Circuits that carry more than 48 Volts AC/DC. This work shall be performed by an electrical registration 
contractor. 

Circuits that are a part of the building's fire alarm system. This work shall be performed by an electrical 
signal contractor or an electrical registration contractor. 

Circuits that are a part of an elevator control system. This work shall be performed by an elevator contractor. 

The construction of new walls and the installation of new doors and/or door frames in new openings. This work 
shall be performed by a Class A building contractor, Class B building contractor or by one of the Class D building 
specialty contractors licensed to perform the work. 

The work necessary to modify fire rated doors and door frames that is required to be performed by the doors 
manufacture or other approved door fabrication shop approved by the agency that provides the listing for the door 
and door frames. 

SECTION L109 

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM PERMIT REQUIREMENTS 

Section L 109.1 Access Control System Permit. In order perform work on an access control system an access control 
permit shall be obtained prior to the start of work on the system. All of the provisions of Section L 109.1 shall be satisfied 
prior to the issuance of an access control system permit. 

L 109.1.1 Purpose and Background. A specific permit application form was developed for the installation of access 
control systems. This application form was designated as a Type 3B Permit. The SB Permit allows the installation of 
access control systems and electric door locks in existing buildings, additions and new buildings. The 3B Permit 
application is intended to provide a unique permit for access control system work and to simplify the permitting 
process for access control systems. Previously, multiple permit applications had to be submitted for the installation of 
access control systems. The 3B permit allows all of the following types of permits and their corresponding access 
control system related work to be combined into one application (all permit types may not be required for each access 
control system application): 

Type IC Permit - Work performed for the installation of doors or approved modifications to doors and door jambs. 

Type 3A Permit - Work performed for the interconnection of the access control system with the fire alarm and fire 
detection system. 

Type 3 Permit - Work performed for the installation of the access control system or component that require circuits 
that cany more than 48 Volts AC/DC. 

L 109.1.2 Work Requiring an Access Control Permit. An access control system permit is required when a new 
access control system or electric locking systems are being installed or an existing system or electric lock is being 
modified in any new or existing building. An access control permit is also required when the access control system is 
installed outside of a building and anyone of the following conditions occur: 

The exterior access control system limits or affects the occupants of the building in their ability to reach the public 
right-of way or a required safe dispersal area as required by IBC Section 1024.6. 



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The exterior access control system limits or restricts the use of the accessible route into the building. 

The exterior access control system is interfaced and connected with a building's fire alarm system. 

The exterior access control system is interfaced and connected to a building's elevator system. 

L 109.1.3 Scope of Work Covered by a Type 3B Permit. As indicated in Section L109.1.1 the Type 3B permit is 
intended to allow all of the work to be performed, on a single permit, that is directly related to the access control 
system and that must be completed by the following licensed contractors as required by Section L 108. 1.1 and Section 
108.1.2: 

Access Control System Contractor 

Electrical Signal Contractor 

Electrical Registration Contractor 

Building Contractor Class A or B 

Building Specialty Contractor Class D (related to the installation of new door and door frames and the approved 
modification of fire rated and labeled door and door frames). 

Although the name and license number of the elevator contractor is required to be provided on the Type 3B permit, 
the work related to the elevator system is not covered by the Type 3B permit. A separate Type 6 elevator permit shall 
be obtained by a licensed elevator contractor in conjunction with the Type SB permit when the access control system 
interfaces with the elevator system. 

L 109.1.4 Issuance of a Type 3B Permit. A Type 3B permit can only be issued to a properly licensed access control 
system contractor. 

Exception: 

The Type 3B permit can be issued to a properly registered electrical registration contractor if the access 
control system does not require any of the following types of work or cause any of the following conditions to 
occur: 

Limits or restricts mechanical free egress. 

Requires work to install or modify fire rated door and/or door frames. 

Requires work to replace doors and/or door frames. 

CPD will provide a permit inspection record card to the contractor upon issuance of the permit. The Type #3B 
permit contractor is responsible for obtaining the required signatures on this card for all work requiring 
inspection and approval by CPD. 

L 109.1.5 Type 3B Permit Application Requirements. All of the submittal requirements of Section L 109.1.5 shall 
be satisfied prior to acceptance of the Type 3B permit application by CPD. 

L 109.1.5.1 Application Procedures. The applicant for the Type 3B permit shall be the contractor that will be 
performing the access control work or their authorized representative. The applicant is responsible for completing 
the permit application on the form provided by CPD. A complete description of work is to be provided with the 
application. The names and license numbers of the other contractors that will be performing work under the Type 
3B permit shall be provided on the permit application. If the access control system interfaces and connects with 
the building's elevator system the name and license number of the elevator contractor shall be provided on the 
permit application for the Type 3B permit. 

The permit application along with all the other submittal items required by Section L 109. 1.5 shall be presented for 
acceptance in the manner and at the location established by CPD . 

L 109.1.5.2 Plan Submittal Requirements. Two sets of drawings showing the entire scope of the work to be 
performed shall be submitted with the Type 3B permit application. 

L 109.1.5.2.1 Responsible Designer. The drawings shall be prepared under the direction and control of one 
of the following: 



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A licensed access control system contractor. The contractor shall indicate their review and acceptance of 
responsibility for the system's design by providing an original signature and the date of signature along 
witii their contractor license number on each drawing sheet. 

A licensed access control system supervisor. The supervisor shall indicate their review and acceptance of 
responsibility for the system's design by providing an original signature and the date of signature along 
witii their contractor license number on each drawing sheet. 

A Colorado licensed design professional. The design professional shall indicate that they are the person 
responsible for the design of the system by placing their State of Colorado design professional seal on 
each drawing. The seal shall be original or computer generated and be signed with an original signature 
and the date of signature shall be indicated. 

The name, mailing address and phone number of the person accepting responsibility for the drawings and 
system design shall be indicated on the plans submitted with the permit application. 

L 109.1.5.2.2 Drawing Content. The plans being submitted shall provide all of the following information: 

The address of the building shall be included on the drawings along with a description of the location of 
the work. 

The plans shall clearly indicate all doors that have mechanical free egress. If mechanical free egress is not 
being provided, as allowed by the provisions of this appendix, the plans shall clearly indicate the doors 
that do not provide mechanical free egress. 

Floor plans, drawn to scale, showing the device locations and door swings in plan view(s). The location 
of all equipment involved shall be shown on the plan view(s). The location of exit signs and the path of 
egress shall be shown. The floor plans shall provide sufficient information so that the affect of the access 
control system on the exiting scheme from the floor can be fully evaluated. 

A door and hardware schedule that specifies the type and size of each door and the hardware type and 
function being provided on each door. 

A narrative shall be provided that describes in detail the sequence of operations for the system. 

When the installation of the system requires the penetration of fire rated assemblies, details and/or 
specifications shall be provided that indicate how the fire rating of the assembly will be maintained at the 
penetration in accordance with Chapter 7 of the DBC. 

A one-line diagram of the system design shall be provided. The diagram shall include the source of 
power, battery backup if provided, and interconnection with burglar alarm or fire alarm or elevator 
control systems if provided. All devices in the design shall be shown on the one- line diagram. When the 
source of power is provided by a plug- in power supply such device shall be clearly noted on the diagram. 

Point-to-point wiring details of all connections, including all interconnections to other building systems 
shall be shown. Other building systems include but are not limited to the power distribution system, the 
fire alarm system and the elevator control system. 

Manufacturers specification sheets for all devices that are part of the scope of work shall be provided. 
Specification information shall include the approved testing agency's file number for each device. One 
complete set of specification sheets should be attached to each set of plans. 

Sample access control drawings are included in this Appendix that can be used as examples of how to present 
the required information on the submittal drawings. 

L 109.1.5.3 Other Submittal Requirements. When fire rated door and or door frames are shop modified to 
accommodate the access control system installation, documentation shall be submitted with the permit application 
that indicates the modifications performed and the name of the shop that performed the modifications to the door 
or door frame. All modifications to fire rated door and door frame assemblies shall be performed by a shop that is 
approved by the listing and labeling agency as an approved fabricator. 

L 109.1.5.4 Valuation of Work. The applicant shall provide a statement for the valuation of the work to be 
performed under the access control system permit. The valuation of work shall be provided on a form provided by 
CPD. The valuation of work shall include the contractor's profit, cost of materials, labor and overhead. 



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L 109.1.5.5 Plan Review Fee. Once the Type 3B permit application is reviewed and determined to be complete 
the applicant shall be required to pay the plan review fee required by the DBC. 

L 109.1.6 Plans Review. Upon payment of the plans review fee the Type 3B permit application will be placed in the 
tracking system for the plans review process. The applicant will be given an application tracking number. Once the 
plans review has been performed the applicant will be notified if the application is approved or denied. If the 
application is denied the applicant will be provided with a written list of comments that describe the reasons for the 
denial of the application. Upon resolution of the plans review comments the application will be approved. The permit 
will be issued upon payment of the building permit fee and any additional plan review fee or other fee required by the 
DBC. 

SECTION LllO 

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM PERMIT INSPECTION PROCESS 

L 110.1 Access Control System Permit Inspection Process. All access control system work shall be inspected and 
accepted by CPD prior to starting the operation of the system. All of the requirements of Section 110.1 shall be satisfied 
prior to the final acceptance of the access control system work by CPD inspections. 

L 110.1.1 Required Inspections. The access control system contractor shall be responsible for requesting and 
obtaining a CPD inspector's approval on all required inspections. A separate rough-in inspection and a separate final 
inspection shall be performed for all of the following work: 

Access control system work. 

High voltage electrical work. 

Fire alarm system work. 

Flevator system work. 

The final inspection for the access control system will not be performed until the final inspection has been approved 
for all of the other related work. The access control system shall be ready for inspection prior to requesting the final 
access control system inspection. 

L 110.1.2 CPD Inspector Responsibility. The following CPD inspectors shall be responsible for performing the 
rough-in and final inspections on the access control system work: 

A CPD electrical inspector shall perform all of the inspections required for high voltage electrical work. 

A CPD electrical inspector shall perform all of the inspections required for fire alarm system work. 

A CPD elevator inspector shall perform all inspections required for the elevator system work. 

A CPD public safety inspector shall perform the inspections on all of the work being performed under the 
Type 3B permit that is not inspected by another CPD inspection group. 

L 110.1.2.1 Inspection Related Duties. It will be the responsibility of the CPD public safety inspector to perform 
the following inspection related duties: 

Verify that labeling has been provided on all modified fire- rated doors and frames. 

Performing testing of the access control system. If testing is required to be performed by an electrical or 
elevator inspector, the public safety inspector shall coordinate with the other inspectors to assure that the 
overall systems function as designed. 

Coordinate with the FPB when Fire Department related issues occur during the installation of the access 
control system. 

Assure that the inspections record card has been signed and approved by all of the inspection groups that have 
been required to inspect work on the access control system being installed. 

Finalize the Type SB permit once they complete the final inspection process. 

SECTION Llll 

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM TESTING AND MAINTENANCE 

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L 111.1 Access Control System Testing. This appendix does not require mandatory access control system testing. 
However, it is strongly recommended that the building owner implement a periodic testing program to assure that the 
system and its component parts continue to operate as designed. It is further recommended that a licensed and qualified 
access control system contractor be retained to test and perform maintenance on the system at a maximum inten/al of 
twelve (12) months. 

L 111.2 Access Control System Maintenance. All access control systems shall be maintained to remain in compliance 
with this appendix and the specific operational requirements of the system that was originally permitted. Failure to 
maintain the system in compliance with the requirements of this appendix and the originally approved system design 
requirements and conditions shall be cause to require the operation of the system to be suspended or removed. When the 
access control system interfaces with the buildings fire alarm and/or elevator control systems and these systems are not 
maintained in a fully operational condition, the operation of the access control system may be required to be suspended 
until these related systems are fully operational. 

SECTION L113 

ACCESS CONTROL - SAMPLE DRAWINGS 

L 113.1 Sample Drawings. The sample drawings included in this section are intended to provide general guidance and 
assistance in the preparation of submittal drawings that are required to be submitted by Section 109.1 with the 3B Permit 
application. All of the information shown on these sample drawings shall be incorporated into the drawings that are to be 
used to construct the system. Additional information may be required to be shown on the drawings being submitted when 
unusual conditions occur or when unique systems are being installed. The following sample drawings are included: 

DRAWING ACl - TITLE SHEET - Figure 113.1 (a) 

DRAWING AC2 - SEQUENCE OF OPERATION - Figure 113.1 (b) 

DRAWING AC3 - FLOOR PLAN AND DOOR SCHEDULE - Figure 113.1 (c) 

DRAWING AC4- POINT-TO-POINT DIAGRAM - Figure 113.1 (d) 

DRAWING ACS - ONE LINE DIAGRAM - Figure 113.1 (e) 

DRAWING AC6 - ELEVATION VIEW OF DOORS - Figure 113.1 (f) 



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FIGURE 113.1 (A) - DRAWING ACl - TITLE SHEET 



ACCESS CDNTRDL SYSTEM 
FDR 

XYZ CDRPDRATIDN 

1234 5TH ST, 
DENVER CD 80XXX 

□CCUPANCYi E2 

SYSTEM DESIGNED BYi 

ACHE CCWTRDL SYSTEMS 

678? MAIN ST. 

DENVER, CD SOXXX 

303 123-4567 

ACCESS CDNTRDL CQNTRACTDR LICENSE 14 






PRDJECT SCDPE 




DDDR 1 

t^ADD MAGNETIC LOCK TO MAIN ENTRY. 

|>-ADD CARD REAEER TD MAIN ENTRY, 

t REPLACE THE EXIT HARDWARE ON MAIN ENTRY. 

|>AISD EXIT SENSOR TE MAIN ENTRY, 

t-ADD EXIT BUTTON TC MAIN ENTRY, 

DDDR 101 
^repll^ce existing hardware with electic 
hardware: dn dfeice dodr. 

B-ADIl CARD READER TD OFFICE DDDR, 

B-CDNTRnL EQUIPMENT SHALL BE LCCATEE 
INSIDE THE ELECTRICAL RUDH, 


BYi 






PRINTED NW1E 






DATE 

SlBNflTURE 

INCLUDING SHEETS ACl THRDUGH AC6 


ACME 


H«HE Cam-RDL STSTEMS 


"^^ )CYZ CDRPDRATIDN 

/iCCESS CDNTRDL SVSTtM 

1E34 5TM ST, 

SHreR ca uuxKK 

1 reiXi OO* *S6-5S» 




Mil ACl 




SCALE 




























IkTE 


lY 


1 1 



FIGURE 113.1 (A) 



DE NVE R AME NDME NTS TO THE 2006 INTE RNATIONALBUILDING C ODE 



FIGURE 113.1 (B) - DRAWING AC2 - SEQUENCE OF OPERATION 



SEQUENCE DF DPERATIDN 

MAIN ENTRY DDDR 1 INGRESS (MAGNETIC LDCK) 

Door 1 Is iQca'ted at the west entry of the fad Ltty anol is used by the general pubVtc. 
Door 1 shall lae electronically locKeol after hours. After hours door 1 nay Joe accessed 
by a valid carol read. 

Passing a ca.rci, validated for entry^ through the card reader will cause the Magnetic lock to release 
the door allcvtlnc It to be opered. A validated carol v«lll cause relay Kl ta pwnentartly energize irhlch 
will deactivate the fiagnetic locks. The positive side a¥ the nagnetic lochs power Is wired In series 
with the narnaUy closed contacts of relay Kl. 

MAIN ENTRY DDDR 1 EGRESS 

When e-nerglzed < iankedi , the nagnet I c locik wi II be depnergi zed by "the exit sensoj" upon approaching thie doQr. 
In the event of a malfunction, the nagnetic lock nay be releases! with the 'DDDR UNLDCK' buttor provisled. 
In the event of a Fire Alarm or loss of po*er, the ti&gnetic lock vtlll be deen^rglzed, 
Free egess sha II b? na t nta I ned at all 1 1 nes, 



nrricE dddr loi ingress (electric hardware) 

Door 101 Is an entry into the electrical roon. Door 101 shall be locked at all tines, requirrng a v&lldate 
access control carol or c loulldtng naster key to enter, 

Passing a card, validated for entry, through the curd reader will cause the electric lockset to release 
allowing the lever hanolle to be turned, A validated card reoo( wilt cause reloy K£ to enerolae mhlch wlU 
releose the electric ltKkse~t. The electric lockset wl U be wired In series iKith the norrtftlly open contacts 
of relay KE. When K£ is energized, the contacts will close, whichwiU apply power to the lockset releasine 

It nonentarl ly. Door nod i f 1 cat I ons for irBtcllatlon of the electric lockset shall (oe opproved by a listing 

agency, 



DFFICE DDDR 101 EGRESS 

Soor 101 shall kts equipped with a storproon fijnctinn electric tockset. 
When handle is turned, the spring latch retracts, Free egress shall be 
nalntalned at all tinps 



ACME 



*CHE CnNTRDL STSTEMJ 

£76? HhVIN ST. 

WnVEK, en BCUCKX 

3M IE3-4367 



XYZ CDRPDRATIDN 

ACCESS CONTRnL SYSTEM 

ie34 WH ST. 
BDIVai CD taXKA 
TEL& CMHJ 4H-7e90 



Il«f AC2 



SEOUENEE 7 DPOUTIM 



FIGURE 113.1 (B) 



DE NVE R AME NDME NTS TO THE 2006 INTE RNATIONALBUILDING C ODE 



FIGURE 113.1 (C) - DRAWING AC3 - FLOOR PLAN AND DOOR SCHEDULE 



CD 



^t> 



□ 



n 



DFFICE 



n 



ELECTRICAL 
RDDM 

PM. « I 



(& 



fU 



© 



N 

A 







LEGEND 


k 1 


- CARD READER 


m 


- MftGNETIC LOCK 


bd 


- ELECTRIC LOCK 




:> 


-EXIT SENSDR 


D 


- tXIT EUTTDN 



hqdr 


SCHEDULE 




DR # DDDR SIZE EnOR TYPE 


ERA ME TYPE 


FIRE HATING 


» mi K* vine UBU.BU >ctal 


HOLLW dUIHINUM 
aUS fTIREFDOa 

WLLIM HCTM. 


1 mm 



ACME 



MPC CCMTRDL STSTEMS 

£769 HAIN IT. 

lEMVER, CD BDXyX 

303 ia3-4367 



XYZ CDRPDRATIDN 

ACCESS CDNTRQL SYSTEM 

1H4 51\t SI, 
lEHVER CO eiDHX 



Dwct AC3 



sc/iLE> 1/y ^ r 



HUlPfEhn LDCATION Fli][H>LMt 



FIGURE 113.1 (C) 



DE NVE R AME NDME NTS TO THE 2006 INTE RNATIONALBUILDING C ODE 



FIGURE 113.1 (D) - DRAWING AC4- POINT-TO-POINT DIAGRAM 



^ IS/? CL2 C7 



Jj± 



4 



t 



le/S CLS (B» 



FACP 
INTERFACE 



PQKR 



SUPPLY PI 

ES 

(CCTIW jH 



Bl[ 



DFriCE 
DDDR 101 
ELECTRIC 
HARDWARE 



LDAD CENTER 



power supply shall be 
harduire:i3 into panel a 

BREftKEK « Sj 20A 

CONNECT IDN BY OTHERS 
LQAE LESS THAN i MP @ 



IID 



Mag Lock Pwr 



7^ 



<-> 



^EXAMPLE: 
18/E CL2 (75 

UJ 55 LJ * 

^ I- r uj 
S u "^ 5 



<+> !:+5 



MAG 



y 



(+> 



y 



(+> 



DQDR UNLOCK 

BUT TQM 



C+> 



EXIT 
SENSOR 



NORMALLY CLQSED 

SWITCH 



19/3 CLS 

,lS/5 CLE ( 







,/ 



16/5 CL2 f4) 






■""* ACCESS CIHTiaL PANEL 



« 

^ 

jt ^ E "f^- 

-"^[T] 







'l'l'l'i'fl'l'l T I'l'l "li l T I T 



Sensai" Pmir 



1S/& CL2 SHlELEEn ( 1> 



Ix"' 



ie/6 [X2 SM.D (S) 



b^ 



c 



MftlH ENTRY 
DOUR 1 

RE/^DER 



□FFICE 
mUR LOl 

READER 



NORMALLY CLOSED 
SWITCH 



MAIN ENTRY DDGR 1 



ACME 



6TS9 HAIN ST. 

DENVER^ CO eD)CKX 

IDS l?:i-4S£7 



XYZ CGRPDRATIDN 

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM 

ie3* 9TH ST. 

nfNirEn en gana 
lELD C3Cn> 436-7990 



3m. 



IWBt AC4 



PODfT ni PaiHT DIAQRW 



FIGURE 113.1 (D) 



DE NVE R AME NDME NTS TO THE 2006 INTE RNATIONALBUILDING C ODE 



FIGURE 113.1 (E) - DRAWING ACS - ONE LINE DIAGRAM 



riDDR 1 

MAGNETIC 

LOCK 



MAG 



EXIT 
SENSDR 



DGGR UNLGCK 
BUTTON 



DODR 10 1 
ELECTRIC 
HARDWARE 



ACCESS 
CDNTRDLLER 



EDDR 1 

CARE 
REAI3ER 



IX. 



DEOR 101 

CARD 

READER 



tX 



PnWER 
SUPPLY 



12VDC 



FIRE 

ALARM 

CnNTRDL 

PANEL 



POWER 

LOAD 

CENTER 

PANEL 
A 

BREAKER »6 
eO AMP 



ACME 



ACHE CDNTRO. StSTEHS 

£7ef HAEH £T. 

DEMVER, CO SOXXX 

K3 ]33>4Si7 



XrZ CCRPDRATinN 

ACCESS CDNTBCIL SYSTEM 



TELB (303) *56-TeW 



WG* AC 5 



DHL LINE ]1I««AH 



FIGURE 113.1 (E) 



DE NVE R AME NDME NTS TO THE 2006 INTE RNATIONALBUILDING C ODE 



FIGURE 113.1 (F) - DRAWING AC6 - ELEVATION VIEW OF DOORS 



TO CONTFaLLTR j^ caHlRUVLER 



in CaNTHDLLEH 




EKIT butt™ 



MAIN ENTRY 
DDDR 1 



nrricE LonR 

DDDR 101 



ACME 



M3E CDHriai. SYSTEMS 

C7B9 MAIN ST. 

DEWER. CC HUCOC 

X3 i53-43GT 



XYZ CQRPDRATIDN 
ACCESS CONTROL SrSTEM 

1234 3TTI IT. 
DHVEfl CO BOnU 
lat C3D0J 4»-?SWI 



iv» ACS 



scaii a/y - L' 



mDR ELEVitriras 



FIGURE 113.1 



DE NVE R AME NDME NTS TO THE 2006 INTE RNATIONALBUILDING C ODE 



APPENDIX M 
COLORADO TITLE 9 ARTICLE 5 - STANDARDS FOR ACCESSIBILE HOUSING 

Colorado Statute Title 9, Article 5 is reproduced in this appendix for reference. 

ARTICLE 5 
STANDARDS FOR ACCESSIBLE HOUSING 

Colorado Statutes: TITLE 9 SAFETY - INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL: BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT: 
ARTICLE 5 STANDARDS FOR ACCESSIBLE HOUSING 

9-5-lOl.Definitions. 



As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires: 

(1) "Accessibility point" means a unit of value exchanged for different levels of accessible dwelling types to satisfy 
the requirements for dwelling accessibility contained in this article. 

(2) "Accessible route" means an interior or exterior circulation path that complies with the provisions contained in 
"ANSIA117.1-1998". 

(3) "ANSI A 117. 1-1998" means the 1998 version of the "American National Standard for Buildings and Facilities 
Providing Accessibility and Usability for Physically Handicapped People", promulgated by the American national 
standards institute. 

(4) "Detached residence" means a one- or two-family residence that is separated from adjacent dwellings by an 
unobstructed physical space. A one- or two- family residence that is separated from an adjacent dwelling by a 
physical space of less than three feet shall not be considered a detached residence. 

(5) "Ground story level" means the lowest story in a dwelling unit containing habitable rooms or areas with an 
accessible entrance located on an accessible route that contains living, sleeping, cooking, bathing, and toilet 
facilities. For the purposes of this article, a basement shall not be considered the ground story level if the finished 
basement floor is located more than four feet below the exterior finished grade determined at any point along the 
exposed periphery of the dwelling unit. 

(6) "Project" means the total number of parcels and buildings in a development planned or constructed by the same 
developer, builder, or entity on one site or contiguous sites, and also includes all parcels and structures that are 
parts of the same planned development application or agreement. The separation of contiguous individual 
buildings, units, lots, tracts, or parcels of land by a property line or by a public or private road shall not create a 
separate project. 

(7) "Property" means the site, parcels of land, plats, lots, tracts, individual dwelling units, existing and proposed 
structures, and the built environment. 

(8) "Residential dwelling unit" means any portion of a building that contains living facilities, including a room or 
rooms in a facility that have shared cooking, bathing, toilet, or laundry facilities such as dormitories, shelters, 
assisted living facilities, and boarding homes. "Residential dwelling unit" also means facilities that include 
provisions for sleeping, cooking, bathing, and toilet facilities for one or more persons and are used for extended 
stays, such as time-shares and extended-stay motels. "Residential dwelling unit" does not mean a guest room in a 
motel or hotel. 

(9) "Technically infeasible", in reference to a proposed alteration to a building or facility, means that the proposed 
alteration is not implemented because: 

(a) An existing structural condition or conditions make such alteration labor- or cost- prohibitive; 

(b) The building or facility is in strict compliance with minimum accessibility requirements for new construction 
and, due to existing physical or site constraints, such alteration would negatively impact such compliance. 

(10) "Type A dwelling unit" means a dwelling unitdesigned in accordance with the provisions of ANSI A117. 1-1998, 
section 1002. 

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(11) "Type A multistory dwelling unit" means a multiple story dwelling unit with a ground story level designed in 
accordance with the provisions of ANSI A117. 1-1998, section 1002, and, if provided, accessible laundry facilities 
on the ground story level. 

(12) "Type B dwelling unit" means a dwelling unit with a ground floor level designed in accordance with the 
prx)visionsof ANSI A117.1-1998, section 1003. 

(13) "Type B multistory dwelling unit" means a multiple- story dwelling unit with a ground story level that is designed 
in accordance with the provisions of ANSI A 117. 1-1998, section 1003, and, if provided, accessible laundry 
facilities on the ground story level. 

(14) "Type B visitable ground floor" means a multiple- story dwelling unit with an accessible entrance and toilet 
facility designed in accordance with the provisions of ANSI A117. 1-1998, section 1003. 

(15) "Undue hardship" means a substantial and unusual hardship that is the direct result of unique physical site 
conditions such as topography or geology, or that is the direct result of other unique or special conditions 
encountered on a property, but that are not typically encountered in the jurisdiction in which such property is 
located. Constraints, complications, or difficulties that may arise by complying with these statutory standards for 
accessibility but that do not constitute an undue hardship shall not serve to justify the granting of an exception or 
variance. 

9-5-102. Disabilities covered - purpose. 

(1) This article is intended to provide accessibility standards for residential projects designed to serve persons with 
nonambulatory disabilities, semiambulatory disabilities, sight disabilities, hearing disabilities, disabilities of 
incoordination, and aging. 

(2) Design criteria. Design criteria shall comply with the 1998 version of the "American National Standard for 
Buildings and Facilities Providing Accessibility and Usability for Physically Handicapped People", promulgated 
by the American national standard institute, commonly cited as "ANSI A117. 1-1998". 

9-5-103. Applicability of standards - enforcement. 

(1) The standards and specifications set forth in this article shall apply to all buildings and facilities used for housing 
that are constructed in whole or in part by the use of state, county, or municipal funds or the funds of any political 
subdivision of the state or that are constructed with private funds. All such buildings and facilities to be 
constructed from plans on which architectural drawings are started after July 1, 1975, from any one of these funds 
or any combination thereof shall conform to each of the standards and specifications prescribed in this article. The 
governmental unit responsible for the enforcement of this article shall grant exceptions to or modify any particular 
standard or specification when it is determined that it is impractical and would create an undue hardship. Any 
such exception or modification of the provisions of this article shall be made in writing as a matter of public 
record. These standards and specifications shall be adhered to in those buildings and facilities that are constructed 
or proposed on or after April 29, 2003. This article shall apply to permanent buildings. 

(2) The jurisdiction with responsibility for enforcement of this article pursuant to section 9-5-104 shall designate a 
board of appeals to hear and resolve appeals of orders, decisions, or determinations made by the enforcing agency 
regarding the application and interpretation of this article. 

(3) Any building or facility that would have been subject to the provisions of this article but was under construction 
prior to July 1, 1976, shall comply with the following: 

(a) If the walls or defining boundaries of an element or space are altered, then the altered element or space shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of section 9-5-105, unless such alteration is technically infeasible. If 
full compliance with this article is technically infeasible, compliance shall be implemented up to the point of 
technical infeasibility. No alteration shall be undertaken that negatively impacts accessibility of a building or 
facility pursuant to ANSI A 117.1-1998. This paragraph (a) shall not be construed to require the moving of 
any existing walls not otherwise planned to be moved. 

(b) Any additions to a building or facility shall be treated as new construction for the purposes of enforcement of 
this article. 

(4) The general assembly finds and declares that the standards and specifications set forth in this article are of 
statewide concern. Nothing in this article shall prohibit any municipality or other governmental subdivision from 



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making and enforcing standards and specifications tliat are more stringent, and thus provide greater accessibility, 
than those set forth in this article. 

9-5-104. Responsibility forenforeing standards. 

(1) The responsibility for enforcement of this article is as follows: 

(a) For factory-built residential structures as defined in section 24-32-3302 (10), C.R.S., the division of housing 
created in section 24-32-704, C.R.S.; 

(b) In a political subdivision that does not have a local building code, the division of housing created in section 
24-32-704, C.R.S.; 

(c) For all other housing or in a political subdivision that has adopted a building code, by the building 
department, or its equivalent, of the political subdivision having jurisdiction. 

9-5-105. Exemptions for certain privately funded projects. 

(1) Accessible dwelling units shall be provided as required in this article; except that this article does not apply to 
privately funded projects for the construction of a detached residence or residences or to other types of residential 
property containing less than seven residential units. 

For the purpose of determining the number of accessibility points required pursuant to subsection (2) of this section, 
the accessible dwelling unit types shall have the following point values: 

Accessibility point 

A ccessible dwelling unit type value per dwelling unit 

Type A dwelling unit 6 

Type A multistory dwelling unit 5 

Type B dwelling unit 4 

Type multistory dwelling unit 3 

Type B visitable ground floor 1 

(2) Residential projects. 

(a) A project shall be assigned accessibility points based on the number of units contained within the project as 
follows: 



Number of units within the Accessibility points 


project 

0-6 


required 




7-14 




6 


15-28 




12 


29-42 




18 


43-57 




24 


58-71 




30 


72-85 




36 


86-99 




42 


100-114 




48 


115-128 




54 


129-142 




60 


143-157 




66 


158-171 




72 


172-185 




78 


186-199 
etc. 


84 
-1-6 additional points 
every 14 units or 
fraction thereof 



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(b) A project shall include enough accessible dwelling units to achieve at least the specified number of 
accessibility points required pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (2). A project may use any 
combination of accessible dwelling unit types to comply with this section. 

9-5-106. Implementation plan. 

The builder of any project regulated by this article shall create an implementation plan that guarantees the timely and 
evenly phased delivery of the required number of accessible units. Such plan shall clearly specify the number and type of 
units required and the order in which they are to be completed. Such implementation plan shall be subject to approval by 
the entity with enforcement authority in such project's jurisdiction. The implementation plan shall not be approved if more 
than thirty percent of the project is intended to be completed without providing a portion of accessible units required by 
section 9-5-105; except that, if an undue hardship can be demonstrated, or other guarantees provided are deemed 
sufficient, the jurisdiction having responsibility for enforcement may grant exceptions to this requirement. The 
implementation plan shall be approved by the governmental unit responsible for enforcement before a building permit is 
issued. 



APPENDIX N 
CONSTRUCTION OF AIRPORT BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES 

SECTION NlOl 
GENERAL 

Section N 101.1 General. The provisions of this Ch^tEr ^ply to the special problems that are eaoountered in the 
construction and fire protection of airpDrt buildings and related structures. Due to the exposure of these structures by 
normal airport operations and the large number of people v\^o mEy occupy some of the buildings, special requiremeats are 
required to assure public safety and welfare. 

Section N101.2 Federal Agencies. The facilities, buildings, structures or portions thereof owned, occupied and managed 
by an agency of the federal government may not be subject to the provisions of this Code. 

SECTION N102 
DEFINITIONS 

AIRCRAFT LOADING WALKWAY - An elevated device through which passengers move between a point in a 
passenger terminal building and an aircraft. Included in this category are walkways that may be essentially fixed and 
permanently placed, and walkways (jetways) that are essentially mobile in nature and fold, telescope or pivot from a fixed 
point at the airport terminal building or at a fixed walkway. 

AIRPORT RAMP - Any outdoor area, including aprons and hard-stands, on which aircraft may be positioned, sorted, 
serviced or maintained, irrespective of the nature of the surface of the area. 

CONCOURSE - A fully enclosed portion of the terminal building used for passenger handling and aircraft flight service 
functions with provisions for parking aircraft on one or more sides. 

FREIGHT TERMINAL BUILDING (Air Cargo Buildings) - A structure used for the processing and/or storage of 
incoming or outgoing freight and other necessary functions in connection with air freight operations. 

PASSENGER TERMINAL BUILDING - A structure used for air passenger enplaning or deplaning, including ticket 
sales, flight information, baggage handling and other necessary functions in connection with air transport operations. 
Passenger terminal buildings shall include any concourse or satellite buildings used for passenger handling or aircraft 
flight service functions. Passenger walkways, aircraft loading walkways and "mobile lounges" are excluded. 

PASSENGER WALKWAY - A fully enclosed grade or ramp level walkway that is used for the enplaning or deplaning 
of passengers. 



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SATELLITE PASSENGER TERMINAL BUILDING - A structure which may be adjacent to but separated from the 
main passenger terminal building, accessible above ground or through subway passages, and used to provide flight service 
operations (i.e., passenger check-in, waiting rooms, floor sen/ice, enplaning or deplaning). 

SECTION N103 

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 

Section N 103.1 Passenger Terminal Buildings. Passenger terminal buildings shall be Type I or II as required for the 
areas allowed by Section 503. Section 507 "Unlimited Area" shall not apply to Passenger Terminal Buildings. 

Exception: 

The concourse or part of the concourse of a passenger terminal building may be enclosed by unprotected, 
noncombustible construction (i.e., walls and roof) provided the following conditions exist: 

1 . There is no occupied level above the concourse level or part of the concourse level being considered. 

2. The maximum height of the building is less than 55 feet. This height does not include ramp or Federal 
Aviation Agency control towers. 

3. The passenger terminal building is sprinklered. 

The structures for elevated interior walkways, people movers or interconnecting crossovers within this area of 
unprotected, noncombustible construction shall have the same fire rating as the base building. 

Section N 103.2 Freight Terminal Buildings. Freight terminal buildings shall be of noncombustible construction. 

Section N103.3 Aircraft Loading Walkways (Jetways). Movable jetways and fixed walkways shall meet the 
requirements of NAPA 417 (Aircraft Loading Walkways). No hazardous storage or operations such as fuel supply lines, 
fuel storage tanks, vehicular storage or fueling may occur under or near the aircraft loading walkway. 

Exit doors between walkways and the passenger terminal shall swing into the passenger terminal. Doors held open shall 
have automatic closing devices. All other doors shall have self-closing devices and be equipped with panic hardware on 
the aircraft side. 

Sprinkler protection is not required in the interior or exterior of movable or fixed walkways. 

Section N 103.4 Passenger Walkways on Grade Level Construction shall be at least one- hour noncombustible 
construction. 

Doors and windows shall be ¥4- hour fire- rated assemblies. Glazing area of windows shall not exceed 25% of the wall 
area. All gate doors shall swing outward and have a self-closing device. 

Entrance doors between walkways and the passenger terminal shall swing into the passenger terminal and be equipped 
with panic hardware on the walkway side. 

Section N103.5 Otiier Structures. All other buildings or structures may be of any type of construction allowed for the 
occupancy group by this Code. 

SECTION N104 
OCCUPANCY 

Section N104.1 Occupancy Group. The primary occupancy of the passenger terminal shall be a Group M Occupancy 
with the special provisions specified in this Chapter. Every building or portion thereof shall be classified by the use or the 
character of its occupancy according to the provisions of Chapters 3 and 4. 

Section N104.2 Limitation of Occupancy. Any occupancy considered "extra-hazardous" (as defined in NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems) shall be prohibited in an airport terminal building. 

Section N 104.3 Occupant Load Factors and Occupancy Groups. 



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TABLE N104.3 
OCCUPANT LOAD FACTORS AND OCCUPANCY GROUPS 


USE 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP 


OCCUPANT LOAD 

FACTOR 

Sq. Ft/Occupant 


1. Hold Rooms 

a. Open Areas 

b. Seating Areas 


M 
M 


30 
15 or fixed seat count 


2. Passenger Circulation Space includes ticket 
area, check- in and baggage claim area 


M 


100 


3. Office 


B 


See Table 1003.2.2.2 


4. Retail 


M 


See Table 1003.2.2.2 


5. Drinking and D ining Establishments 

a. Occupant Load less tiian 50 

b. ccupant L oad greater than 50 Stand 
up service without Seating Sit down 
service 


B 

A2 


See Table 1003.2.2.2 
See Table 1003.2.2.2 


6. Baggage Storage/Handling 

a. A reas with vehicular access 

b. A reas without vehicular access 


SI 
SI 


300 gross 


7. Transit Stations 




As required by NFPA 130 



SECTION N105 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

Section N 105.1 Building Means of Egress. Building means of egress shall comply with Chapter 10, unless specifically 
provided for in this Chapter. 

Section N105.2 Emergency Exits. If emergency exits discharge directly onto an airport ramp or sen/ice area, the doors 
shall be clearly marked "Emergency Exit Only" in letters at least 2 inches high with contrasting colors in addition to exit 
signs as required by Section 1003.2.10 or as approved by the Department and the Fire Department. 

Section N105.3 Delay Panic Hardware. All emergency exits from a passenger terminal building that discharge onto an 
airport ramp or sen/ice area shall be equipped with delay panic hardware. The locking device shall release without 
unlatching when activated by 2 alarm devices or by a loss of electrical power. 

Section N 105.4 Numbering. Emergency exit doors shall be numbered on both sides, 3 inches high minimum on the 
inside and 5 inches high minimum on the outside with contrasting colors. 

Section N105.5 Control Tower. There shall be 2 exits from any control tower floor which exceeds 1,500 sq. ft. in area or 
where 2 or more adjacent floors have an occupant load of more than 15. Scissor stairs are allowed with the following 
provisions: 

1 . That the wall between the 2 separate stairs shall be 2-hour fire- rated minimum and with no penetrations allowed. 

2. Both stairs shall be mechanically pressurized on alarm to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.1 5- inch 
water column relative to atmospheric pressure with all doors closed. Activation of the mechanical equipment 
shall be through the Fire Alarm System which shall be provided per Code: 

1 . Provide a smoke detector in front of each stair door on the corridor ceiling of each floor. 

2 . Provide a smoke detector on the ceiling adj acent to the elevator lobby . 

3. For air conditioning systems or pressure air supply serving more than one story, provide a smoke detector in 
the return air duct or plenum on each floor. The activation of any detector shall cause the return air to exhaust 
completely from the building without any recirculation through tie building. 

3. Power for the mechanical equipment and the fire alarm system smoke control shall be provided through the 
required emergency power section of the building electrical supply. 

4. Stair shafts shall be provided with emergency lighting from the emergency power supply described in paragraph 
3. In addition, battery backup supply shall be provided for these fixtures. 

Section N105.6 Exterior Doors. Exterior doors shall include doors opening onto roadways on grade or elevated which 
provide public access/egress to passenger terminals, provided that: 



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1 . The roadways have sidewalks, width based on occupant load, that lead to a dispersal area at grade. 

2. Covered roadways are sprinklered and have at least one side open. 
Section N105.7 Security Grilles and Doors. See Section 402.11. 

SECTION N106 

AIRPORT RAMP DRAINAGE 

Section N 106.1 Scope. The requirements specified herein provide standards for the design of the water drainage system 
of an aircraft fueling ramp to control the flow of fuel which may be spilled on a ramp and to minimize the resultant 
possible danger therefrom. Such a drainage system is intended to limit spread of the fuel spill to aircraft loading 
walkways, terminal structures or passenger loading walkways that might result in liquid or vapors reaching a source of 
ignition or in the accumulation of dangerous or toxic vapors. 

Section N 106.2 Definitions. "Aircraft Fueling Ramp" is defined as any outdoor area at an airport, including aprons and 
hand stands, on which aircraft are normally fueled or defueled. 

Section N106.3 Aircraft Fueling Ramp Slope and Drain Design. Aircraft fueling ramps shall slope away from terminal 
buildings, passenger loading walkways, aircraft hangars and other structures (excluding aircraft loading walkways), with a 
minimum grade of 1% (1:100) for the first 50 feet (15.2 m). Beyond this distance, the slope to drainage inlets may be 
reduced to a minimum of 0.5% (1:200). Drainage inlets, where provided, shall be a minimum of 50 feet (15.2 m) from 
such structures. 

Proximity of ramp drainage inlets and fueling hydrants to aircraft loading walkways shall not be restricted. 

Section N 106.4 Vapor Penetration Protection. Below- grade areas or blind spaces in airport terminal buildings shall be 
protected against flammable fuel or vapor penetration or shall be mechanically ventilated to provide at least 4 complete air 
changes per hour. 

SECTION N107 

AIRPORT SMOKE CONTROL AND DETECTION 

Section N107.1 General. The smoke control systems shall be connected to the smoke detection and/or the automatic 
sprinkler systems, and shall automatically operate when either system is actuated. The smoke control system shall also be 
capable of manual operation from the Fire Command Center. During those hours when the building air conditioning 
systems are not operating, the smoke detection system shall activate the smoke control system. All smoke control 
equipment for both tenant space and terminal buildings shall be in place and operational before any part of the passenger 
terminal buildings is occupied. The level of protection of the fire detection system for unoccupied tenant space shall be 
subject to the approval of the Department and Fire Department. For any space or corridor which exceeds 20 feet in length 
connected to an atrium or passenger terminal area which has separate smoke control zones, provide supply air to the space 
or corridor at the farthest location from the point of connection to the atrium or passenger terminal area. 

Exceptions: 

1. Ramp service and nonpublic ramp level tenant areas of concourse buildings need not be provided with a 
smoke control system. 

2. Unenclosed bag handling tenant areas of concourse or terminal buildings need not be provided with a smoke 
control system. 

Section N107.2 When Required. A mechanically operated air-handling system shall be installed in the main passenger 
terminal building which will restrict the smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain the exiting system in a 
condition that is safe for exiting. The system shall be designed so that exhausted smoke cannot contaminate the outside 
air intake of any system. 

Section N107.3 High Rise Buildings. See Section 403. 

Section N107.4 Atriums. See Section 404. 

Section N107.5 Passenger Terminal Buildings. 

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1. The smoke control equipment for the main passenger terminal building may be separate from that serving tenant 
spaces. 

2. The passenger terminal buildings systems shall have a product of combustion detector located in the supply air 
system after the air filters which will stop the supply fan upon detection. In addition, a product of combustion 
detector shall be provided in the return or the exhaust air stream to activate the smoke control system. 

3. The passenger terminal buildings' public circulation area smoke removal systems shall provide at least 4 air 
changes per hour, and shall be located to preclude accumulation of smoke in any part of the public circulation 
areas zoned not to exceed 52,000 square feet on a single floor and must coincide with required fire sprinkler 
zones. Within that sprinkler zone there may be one or more air moving systems but no single smoke control zone 
shall be larger than the sprinkler zone. The smoke removal system shall also be capable of manual operation from 
the F.D. Operations Center. 

4. The tenant space shall be part of a smoke control zone, not to exceed 52,000 square feet on a single floor. Tenant 
spaces that are within 2 adjacent smoke control zones may be connected to either of the adjacent smoke control 
systems. 

5. The smoke control exhaust system for tenant spaces shall be sized to provide a minimum of 4 air changes per 
hour or 20,000 cfm from each smoke control zone, whichever is greater. 

6. For tenant spaces adjoining the concourse or terminal exceeding 7,500 square feet, a separate smoke control zone 
shall be provided. 

Section N107.6 Smoke Detection. Smoke detection shall be provided as follows: 

1. There shall be an average of one detector per 2,500 square feet for areas with roof/ceilings over 25 feet above an 
occupied floor. 

Exception: 

1. Thermal detectors or cross-zone beam detectors may be used in lieu of smoke detectors where approved by the 
Department and Fire Department. 

2. Detector zones may not exceed 20,000 square feet and no detector zone shall serve more than one smoke control 
zone. 

3. A detector in a smoke control zone shall actuate all the adjacent zone smoke control equipment to pressurize those 
adjacent zones with 100% outside air while the affected smoke control zone goes into exhaust. All other smoke 
control zones shall remain in normal operation. 

Section N107.7 Specific Requirements. The mechanically operated supply and return exhaust systems servicing smoke 
control zones shall be arranged to exhaust at the indicated rates when activated by the smoke detection and/or sprinkler 
systems; all adjoining areas or smoke control zones shall be arranged to supply 100% outside air to prevent smoke 
migration to the unaffected areas. 

In addition to other smoke zone area requirements, passenger holding areas shall be treated as tenant spaces if separate 
systems are used; otherwise, they shall be treated as part of the concourse/passenger terminal public circulation space and 
horizontal smoke control zones shall be limited to 52,000 square feet maximum. 

Section N107.8 Control Tower. Smoke control in the control tower shall be as follows: 

1 . Exhaust the occupied level where the fire alarm is activated at 6 air changes per hour. 

2. Maintain normal HVAC operations on all other adjacent occupied levels. 

3. Provide stairway pressurization and other requirements per Code. 
Section N107.9 Acceptance Testing. See amended Section 910.5. 

SECTION N108 

AIRPORT LIFE SAFETY SYSTEMS 



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Section N 108.1 Fire Sprinkler System. Terminal/concourse buildings shall be fully sprinklered in accordance with 
NFPA 13, Standard for Installation of Sprinkler Systems. Design criteria for terminal buildings shall be in accordance 
with ordinary Hazard Group 2 for retail and service areas and light hazard for office and passenger areas. 

Section N 108. 1.1 Otiier Locations. Other locations for sprinklers shall include: 

Sprinklers shall be installed at 6-foot on center each side of draft stops required at the interface of a main terminal 
building and a concourse building. 

Kiosks or similar structures that are covered or have roofs and are located within the passenger terminal building or the 
concourse shall be protected by an approved automatic fire suppression system. 

Exception: 

No automatic fire suppression system is required if the kiosk is: 

1 . Noncombustible construction and less than 4 feet wide in any dimension; or 

2. Portable vendor carts with a maximum size of 4 feet x 8 feet spaced at more than 10 feet between carts. 

Section N 108.2 Standpipe Systems. All terminal structures and control towers shall have standpipes in compliance with 
this Code. 

Section N 108.3 Manual Pull Stations. Manual pull station zones must be provided at the required exits and shall be 
annunciated separately. There shall be 200 feet maximum between pull stations. 

Section N 108.4 Fire Detection Systems. Detectors shall be located in all nonpublic areas that are not sprinklered and 
shall be annunciated separately. A remote status indicating light shall be located in the terminal or concourse building 
above each entry of an enclosed tenant area greater than 2,500 square feet as approved by the Department and Fire 
Department. Concealed detectors shall also be annunciated immediately outside the concealed space. 

Smoke detectors shall be installed in all occupied levels for smoke control as required by 430.8. 

Area smoke detectors shall be cross-zoned or addressable type with verifiable function. 

Section N108.5 Emergency Communication Systems. Both one-way and 2-way systems shall be installed in all 
passenger terminal buildings in public areas at required exits. Building Fngineering Office, Airport Operations Office, 
each mechanical room, emergency generator room, fire pump room, main switch gear rooms and each elevator cab which 
serves 4 or more stories as allowed by the Fire Department; telephone jack locations shall be approved by the Fire 
Department. 

Section N108.6 Fire Command Center. The F.C.C. shall be provided in a space in each building as required by other 
Sections of this Code and approved by the Department and the Fire Department. 

Section N 108.7 Fire Extinguishers. Hand fire extinguishers shall be provided throughout an airport terminal building in 
accordance with the requirements outlined by the Fire Code for the City and County of Denver. 

Section N 108.8 Security Systems. Security systems shall be separate from fire alarm systems. 

Exception: 

Delay panic hardware systems as required in Section 430.5.3 may be part of the fire alarm system. 

Section N108.9 Zones. Zones for smoke control, sprinklers, detectors, etc., shall be coordinated to have the same zones 
or multiples thereof, not to exceed the maximum area required by other provisions of this Code. 

Section N 108. 10 Interface Openings. An interface shall exist between a passenger terminal concourse and connecting 
concourses, hotel or office occupancy. Where occupancy separations are not required, openings may be provided at the 
interface with the following conditions: 

1. The size of the opening shall be limited to provide effective smoke control which will restrict the migration of 
smoke across the interface. See Section 430.8.8. 

2. A noncombustible draft curtain shall be provided at the interface. 

3. Automatic fire sprinklers shall be located on both sides of the draft curtain, spaced at 6 feet on center. 

N108.il Main Passenger Terminal Building Elevators and Stairs. Pressurized stairs, elevators and exit passageways 
are required unless otherwise approved by the Department and Fire Department. 

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Exception: 

Elevators and enclosed stairways from the transitway station. 

Elevator refuge areas are not required at the transitway station and on levels having adequate exterior doors per Section 
N105.6. 

SECTION N109 
AIRPORT MECHANICAL 

Section N109.1 General. Mechanical requirements shall comply with applicable sections of this Code and referenced 
National Standards. 

Exception: 

Air exhaust openings for air conditioning or ventilating equipment, serving ramp level tenant spaces, shall be 
permitted where the ramp surrounds the building. Such openings shall be located a minimum of 7 feet above the 
ramp. 

SECTION NllO 
AIRPORT ELECTRICAL 

Section NllO.l General Design, installation and materials shall conform to the requirement of NFPA 70, National 
Electrical Code and this Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Runways, taxi ways, ramps and all electrical systems required for their operations which are under FA A 
jurisdiction. 

2. Airplane parking light conduit runs and junction boxes which are fed from building power systems and may 
be within 1-inch minimum of ramp surface covered with FAA approved sealer. 

All electrical materials and equipment shall be of a type tested and listed by an approved laboratory, shall bear its label, 
and shall be approved for the purpose for which the materials and equipment are to be used. 

Section N110.2 Grounding. See the National Electrical Code. 

Section N110.3 Emergency Power. Emergency power systems, emergency generator and/or battery backup shall 
provide power to the following equipment: 

1 . M echanical equipment for smoke control . 

2. Emergency egress and exit lighting. 

3. Emergency elevator power. 

4. Fire alarm and detection systems. 

5. Fire pump/jockey pump. 

6. Emergency communication systems. 

7. Delay panic hardware. 

Section N110.4 Exit Signs. Exit signs with illuminated letters at least 6 inches in height shall be provided at each 
required exit doorway and elsewhere as required to clearly indicate the direction of egress. The letters shall be white on a 
green field and illuminated. Battery-operated exit signs with a minimum of 172 hours of 100% output can be connected to 
a reliable power source. 

Section NllO.4.1 Exit Illumination. Exit illumination shall be connected to an emergency power system. Exit ways 
shall be illuminated to an intensity of one foot-candle at floor level during all times. Battery-operated exit illumination 
with a minimum of 172 hours of 100% output can be connected to a reliable normal power source. 

Section N110.5 Raceways. All wiring for power, lighting, signal, control, computer communications and telephone shall 
be installed in raceways. Cable tray systems shall be allowed for electrical systems not exceeding 50 volts between any 
conductors. Installation shall comply with the National Electrical Code. 

Section N 110.6 Hazardous Areas - Class 1, Division II. 

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1. Hazardous wiring methods shall apply within a 15-foot radius of fuel connection (fuel pit or aircraft). All 
measurements are referenced from the surface of ramp and the 18- inch vertical measurement shall not apply. 

2. Electrical room access off of the apron area is acceptable unless within 15 feet of fueling connections. Electrical 
equipment within 15 feet of a fuel connection shall comply with National Electrical Code Class 1, Division II 
methods. 

SECTION Nlll 
SUBSURFACE TUNNELS 

Section Nlll.l General. All subsurface tunnels shall comply with the provisions of this section; 

Section N111.2 Sprinklers. Utility Tunnels (Ordinary Group I) and Train tunnel Sen/ice Tunnels (Ordinary Group II) 
shall be sprinklered throughout the transit way and shall be sprinklered at the transit stations as approved by the 
Department and Fire Department. 

Section N111.3 Smoke Removal System. A smoke removal system shall be provided. 

Section Nl 11.4 Life Safety System. All life safety systems shall be on an emergency generator. 

Section N111.5 Exits. A walkway with a minimum 74-inch width (2 exit path widths of 22 inches each plus 12 inches 
wall clearance and an 18-inch platform edge clearance) shall be provided within all people-mover transit tunnels. 

Exit doors into adjacent protected tunnels shall be provided at a maximum spacing of 200 feet and shall be monitored by 
the airport operations center. 

Exception: 

The walkway width and exit door spacing may be modified based upon an exit study submitted by the Design 
Professional and approved by the Department and Fire Department. 

Section N111.6 Separation. A minimum 2-hour separation shall be provided between tunnels. 

Section Nlll. 7 Transit Station Separation. The transitway shall be separated from the transit station by a minimum 
two-hour fire- resistance- rated noncombustible walls with iy2-hour fire- protection- rated doors. Windows within these 
walls shall be approved 1 V2- hour fire- protection- rated windows. 

Exception: 

Fire-protection-rated window openings of y4-hour may be used when the window assembly is protected with 
approved directional sprinkler heads 6'0" o.c. both sides of glass. 

Section N111.8 Transit Systems Construction Guide. Fixed Guideway Transit Systems NFPA 130 shall be used as a 
construction guide unless specifically covered by this Code. 

Section N111.9 Transitway Tunnel. The transitway tunnel shall be used exclusively for the movement of passengers 
between stations. 

SECTION N112 
LIQUID FUEL LINES 

Section N 112.1 Liquid Fuel Lines Penetrating Buildings or Structures. Liquid fuel lines that pass through or over any 
building or structure shall be double- walled and monitored for leakage. Liquid fuel lines that pass through buildings shall 
have control valves at the outside of the building penetration and shall be automatically closed upon detection of a break 
or leak. 

SECTION N113 
STANDARDS 

Section N113.1 GeneraL Unless provided for in other portions of this Building Code, the following Standards shall 
apply: 

ORGANIZATION TITLE OF PUBLICATION 

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NFPA Aircraft Fueling Ramp Drainage, Pamphlet 415 - 1997 

Construction and Protection of Airport Terminal Buildings, Pamphlet 416 - 1987 

Construction and Protection of Aircraft Loading Walkways, Pamphlet 417 - 1985 

Fixed Guideway Transit Systems, Pamphlet 130 -1988 

Standard on Aircraft Hangers, Pamphlet 409 - 1995 



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DENV 
EDITI 




E 2006 
AL FIRE 



NCIL 



2008 AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 1 
ADMINISTRATION 

SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

Replace Sections 101.1, 101.2 and 101.3 as follows: 

101.1 Title. The title of this code is and may be cited and referred to as the Fire Code, the Denver Fire Code, or the Fire 
Code of the City and County of Denver. It may be referred to herein as "this code" or "the code/' in both upper and lower 
case. The terms "Denver" and "City" are understood to mean the City and County of Denver. 

101.2 Scope. This code establishes regulations affecting or relating to structures, processes, premises, and safeguards 
including, but not limited to: 

1. Inspection of permanent and temporary buildings, processes, equipment, systems, and other fire- and safety- 
related situations, at intervals established by the fire code official but not to exceed once every 12 months. 

2. Investigation of fires, explosions, hazardous materials incidents, and other related emergency events; the fire 
department shall be responsible for fire/explosion cause determination and subsequent investigation; 

3. Recovery of City costs related to emergency response incidents, including the mitigation of hazardous materials 
incidents; 

4. Storage, use, processing, handling, production and transportation of hazardous materials; 

5. Storage, use, processing, handling, production and transportation of flammable and combustible gases, liquids, 
and solids; 

6. Interior finish, decorations, furnishings, and other combustibles that contribute to fire spread, fire load, and smoke 
production in all occupancies; 

7. Hazards from interior fires in trash, excessive storage of combustibles, production of chemical material, and other 
materials that pose an exposure hazard to adjacent property in all occupancies including single family residences; 

8. Hazards from outside fires in vegetation, trash, storage, vehicles, combustible and flammable materials, building 
debris, and other materials; 

9. Regulation and control including assignment of standby personnel, of special events including, but not limited to, 
assemblage of people, exhibits, trade shows, amusement parks, haunted houses, outdoor events, livestock events, 
large sporting events, and other similar special temporary and permanent occupancies; 

10. Existing occupancies and conditions, 

11. Maintenance and testing of all fire- and life-safety systems; 

12. Access and water supply requirements for Fire Department operations; 

13. Review of design plans and construction documents including drawings, calculations and specifications for the 
design and construction of new buildings, and alterations, additions and repairs of existing buildings; 

14. Review of design plans and construction documents including drawings, calculations and specifications for the 
installation, alteration, addition and repair of life- and fire- safety systems, equipment, features, components, 
devices and apparatus including but not limited to fire protection systems. Fire Department access, water supply, 
flammable and combustible materials, storage, production and use of hazardous materials, commercial processes. 

15. Fire and life safety education of fire brigades, employees, responsible parties, and the general public including the 
review and approval of emergency procedures for all occupancies and evaluation of fire drills; 

16. Control of emergency operations and scenes; 

17. Conditions affecting firefighter safety. 

18. Licensing certification of firms/designers/installers/inspectors/testers of life safety systems equipment referenced 
in this code and standards and property managers, etc., responsible for the safety of others. 

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The provisions of this code shall supplement any and all laws relating to fire- and life- safety and shall apply equally to all 
of the following without restriction: persons, firms, corporations, the government of the United States of America, the 
government of the State of Colorado, the government of the City and County of Denver, and all agencies, subdivisions, 
and departments thereof. The provisions of this Code shall apply to existing conditions as well as to conditions arising 
after the adoption of the Code. 

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall apply. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements, consistent with nationally recognized 
good practice, for providing a reasonable level of occupant and pedestrian fire- and life-safety and property protection 
from the hazards of fire, explosion, production, use, and handling of dangerous and hazardous materials, substances, and 
devices, or dangerous conditions in new and existing buildings, structures, and premises, and to provide safety to 
firefighters and emergency responders during emergency operations. 

SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

Replace Sections 102.6 and 102.7 as follows: 

102.6 Referenced codes and standards. Additional details regarding processes, methods, specifications, equipment 
testing and maintenance, or other pertinent criteria contained in these standards and codes listed in Chapter 45 of this 
Code shall be considered a part of tiiis Code. Volumes 1 through 15 of the National Fire Codes are standards to this code. 
Additionally, all references to the "International Electrical Code, and "ICC Electrical Code," shall be changed to "NFPA 
70, National Electrical Code (NEC)." 

102.7 Subjects not regulated by this code. Where no applicable codes, standards, or requirements are set forth in this 
Code or contained within other laws, codes, regulations, ordinances, or bylaws adopted by tiie City and County of Denver 
Fire Department, compliance with the applicable codes and standards of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 
or other nationally recognized and approved standards shall be deemed as prima facie evidence of compliance with the 
intent of this code. Nothing herein shall derogate from the authority of the City and County of Denver Fire Department to 
determine compliance with codes or standards for those activities or installations within the Denver Fire Department's 
jurisdiction or responsibility. 

SECTION 103 

DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION 

Add Sections 103.1.1 and 103.1.2 as follows: 

103.1.1 Division of Fire Prevention and Investigation Division. The Fire Prevention and Investigation Division is 
established within the Fire Department of the City and County of Denver's Department of Safety under the direction 
of the Division Chief of Fire Prevention and Fire Investigation. This position is and may be referred to as the "Fire 
Code Official," "Fire Official," and "Fire Marshal," in both upper and lower case. This code shall be administrated 
and enforced by the Fire Code Official. 

103.1.2 Rules and Regulations. The Fire Official shall have the full power to adopt, in reference to this Code, any 
rules, restrictions, or measures that may be advisable. 

Replace Section 103.3 as follows: 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures of the City and County of Denver's Department of Safety 
and with the concurrence of the Chief, the Fire Code Official shall have the authority to appoint a Deputy Fire Code 
Official, Chief Fire Protection Engineer, Fire Protection Engineers, other related technical officers, fire inspectors, fire 
investigators, and employees. Their duties shall be those outlined by the Fire Code Official. 

SECTION 104 

GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES 

Replace Section 104.1 as follows: 

104.1 General The Fire Prevention and Investigation Division is authorized to inspect land, buildings, structures, 
utilities, installations, equipment, devices, illegal processes, and materials for fire, explosion, and other emergency 

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hazards and to investigate and ascertain tlie causes of fires, explosions, releases of hazardous materials, false alarms, any 
unsafe conditions that relate to the protection of the public and/or property and other emergencies. The Division shall 
have the authority to investigate fire protection and other life safety systems that are disabled or not functioning. The 
Division shall also have the authority on behalf of the Department of Safety to control the use, location, and transportation 
of flammable or combustible liquids or acids (in a chemical or physical state) or hazardous materials; the issuance of 
permits; the issuance of notices, orders, or Denver County Court summonses for the correction or immediate abatement of 
hazardous situations; the enforcement of this code and otiier laws, ordinances, rules, and regulations, which are within the 
perspective of this Code and standards set forth in Chapter 45 

Replace Section 104.3 as follows: 

104.3 Right of entry. Whenever it is necessaiy to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or whenever 
the fire code official has reasonable suspicion to believe there exists in a building or upon any premises, any vehicle, or 
any vessel, any conditions or violations of this code that make the premises, vehicle, or vessel unsafe, dangerous, or 
hazardous, the fire code official shall have the authority to enter the building, vehicle, or vessel to conduct an inspection 
and, if necessary, an investigation, taking photographs of unsafe, dangerous, or hazardous conditions or for investigative 
or fire investigation purposes or the pursuance of any other emergency, or to perform the duties upon the Fire Code 
Official by this code. If such building, premises, or vehicle is occupied, the Fire Code Official shall present credentials to 
the occupant and request entry. If such building, premises, or vehicle is unoccupied, the fire code official shall first make 
a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the building or premises and request 
entry. If entry is refused, the fire code official has recourse to every remedy provided by law to secure entry. 

Add Sections 104.3.2 and 104.3.3 as follows: 

104.3.2 Interference with enforcement. Persons shall not interfere or cause conditions that would interfere with the 
fire code official carrying out any duties or functions prescribed by this code. 

104.3.3 Power to protect property. The fire code official shall have power to cause the removal of any property 
when necessary to preserve such property from fire, explosion, or other emergency; to prevent the spreading of fire; 
or to protect adjoining property. No person shall be entitled to remove any property in the possession of the fire code 
official saved from any fire until proof of ownership thereof is furnished. 

Add Section 104.4.1 as follows: 

104.4.1 Impersonation. Persons shall not use a badge, uniform, or other credentials to impersonate a fire code 
official - prevention, engineering or investigation. 

Add Section 104.6.2.1 as follows: 

104.6.2.1 Frequency of inspections. Fire safety inspections for tiie specific property /operation shall be required 
at intervals established by the fire code official but not to exceed once every 12 months. 

Replace Section 104.6.3 as follows: 

104.6.3 Fire record. The Fire Department shall keep a record of all fires, explosions, and other emergencies 
occurring within its jurisdiction and of facts concerning the same, including reports (including investigation reports), 
photographs, videos, and statistics as to the extent of such fires and the damage or injury caused thereby, together with 
other information as required by the fire code official. All records shall be maintained for no less than seven (7) years. 

Add Section 104.6.3.1 as follows: 

104.6.3.1 Fire loss information. It shall be the responsibility of any person suffering a fire, explosion, building 
collapse, or other emergency resulting in injury(s) to persons and/or property loss within the City and County of 
Denver to report the incident and to provide the Division in writing with the dollar value of the resulting loss. If 
insured, the person may provide the name and address of the insurance company, in which case the insurance 
company shall supply the final loss figures to the Division. 

Amend second sentence of Section 104.7.2 Technical assistance to read as follows: 

The opinion and report shall be prepared by a professional engineer licensed by the state of Colorado and acceptable 
to the fire code official. The opinion and report shall analyze the fire safety properties of the design, operation or use 
of the building or premises and the facilities and appurtenances situated tiiereon, to recommend necessary changes. 
Whenever the technical opinion and report is required for existing technology, processes, life safety system(s), 

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products, facilities, materials, and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building or premises, the opinion 
and report shall evaluate compliance of all components/equipment to listing and code requirements. 

Add Section 104.7.2.1 as follows: 

104.7.2.1 Final determination. The fire code official shall make the final determination as to whether the 
provisions of this code have been met. 

Add Sections 104.8.1 and 104.8.2 as follows: 

104.8.1 Application for modification. The fire code official is authorized to modify any of the provisions of this 
code upon application in writing by the owner where there are practical difficulties in carrying out the provisions of 
the Code, provided the intent of the code shall be complied with, public safety secured, and substantial justice done. 

104.8.2 Compliance with code. Buildings with equivalency, alternative, or modification approved by the building 
code official and fire code official shall be considered conforming to the code. 

Add Sections 104.9.1 and 104.9.2 as follows: 

104.9.1 Fire protection features. Each application for an alternate fire protection feature shall be filed with the fire 
code official and shall be accomplished by such evidence, letters, statements, test results, or other supporting 
information as required to justify the request. The fire code official shall keep a record of actions on such 
applications, and a signed copy of the Fire code official's decision shall be provided for the applicant. 

104.9.2 Building Code. Whenever the alternate material or method involves matters regulated by the Fire Code and 
Building Code, approvals are also subject to approval of the building code official. 

Replace Sections 104.10 and 104.10.1 as follows: 

104.10 Fire investigations. The Division is authorized to investigate without delay the cause, origin, and circumstances 
of each and every fire or explosion or intent to commit such an act occurring within the City and County of Denver 
involving the loss of life or injury to a person or destruction or damage to property and, if it appears to the fire 
investigators that such fire or explosion is of suspicious origin, the investigators are authorized to take immediate charge 
of all physical evidence relating to the intent or cause of the fire and are authorized to pursue the investigation to its 
conclusion. 

104.10.1 Release of hazardous materials. The fire code official is authorized to investigate the cause, origin, and 
circumstances of unauthorized releases of hazardous materials. The fire code official is authorized to recover from 
the responsible party(s) all costs incurred by the City for mitigation, rendering the release harmless to people or 
property, including personnel and equipment, securing the incident scene, removal of materials released and cleanup. 

Add Sections 104.10.2, 104.10.3, and 104.10.4 as follows: 

104.10.2 Authorization of Denver Police Department. The Denver Police Department is authorized to assist the 
Fire Department in any investigation when requested to do so by the Manager of Safety, the Fire Chief, or the fire 
code official. 

104.10.3 Limiting access. The Fire Department shall have the authority to limit access to buildings, property, 
vehicles, vessels, or other similar conveyances by any vehicle, vessel, or person during an investigation. 

104.10.4 Interference with enforcement. Persons shall not interfere, nor cause conditions that would interfere with, 
the fire investigator carrying out any duties or functions, including arrest of suspects, prescribed by this Code. 

Add Section 104.11.1.1 as follows: 

104.11.1.1 Scene barrier. The incident commander in charge of an emergency scene shall have the authority to 
establish barriers to control access in the vicinity of such emergency and to place, or cause to be placed, ropes, 
guards, barricades, or other obstructions across any public or private street or alley, to delineate an emergency 
scene barrier(s). No person, except as authorized by the incident commander in charge of the emergency, shall be 
permitted to cross barriers established in accordance with Sections 104.11.1 and 104.11.1.1. Whenever the 
emergency incident involves private property, the owner of said property shall be responsible for all costs related 
to placement, rental and use of barricades. 

Add Section 104.11.3.1 as follows: 



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104.11.3.1 Resetting or silencing of alarms. No person shall reset or silence a system unless by direction of the 
fire chief , fire code official or fire department official in charge of the incident. 

Add Sections 104.11.4 and 104.11.5 as follows: 

104.11.4 Emergenq^ power to demolish buildings. When a fire is in progress, the fire code official, or the officer in 
charge of the fire, may order any building that is in close proximity to such fire to be torn down, blown up, or 
otherwise disposed of for the purpose of checking the conflagration. The property owner shall be responsible for all 
costs related to all operations. 

104.11.5 Cost recovery. The property owner shall be responsible for all costs related to placement, rental and use of 
barricades. 

SECTION 105 
PERMITS 

Replace Section 105.1 as follows: 

105.1 General. The Fire code official shall be authorized to establish and issue permits, certificates, notices, approvals, 
or orders pertaining to fire and hazard control and fire and explosion hazards wherever indicated by this Code. A permit 
issued under the provisions of this Code shall continue until revoked or for such a period of time designated therein at the 
time of issuance. Such permit shall not be transferable, and any change in use, occupancy, operation, or ownership shall 
require a new permit. Permits for activities requiring evidence of financial responsibility by the jurisdiction shall not be 
issued unless proof of required financial responsibility is furnished. Any attempt to misrepresent or otherwise deliberately 
or knowingly design; install; service; maintain; operate; sell; represent for sale; falsify records, reports, or applications; or 
act in any related activity in violation of the requirements prescribed by this Code shall be a violation of this Code. Such 
violations shall be cause for immediate suspension or revocation of any related licenses, certificates, or permits issued by 
the Fire code official. In addition, any such violation shall be subject to any other criminal or civil penalties as available 
by the laws of this jurisdiction. An inspection is required prior to the issuance of a permit. Any person who engages in 
any business, operation, or occupation, or uses any premises, after the permit issued therefore has been suspended or 
revoked pursuant to the provisions of this Code, and before such suspended permit has been reinstated or a new permit has 
been issued, shall be in violation of this Code. 

Add Section 105.1.4 as follows: 

105.1.4 Other required permits. The requirements for permits from other City agencies shall not waive the 
requirement for permits required by this Code. Where a permit is required by other City agencies, such permit shall 
be obtained prior to or simultaneous with the issuance of a permit required by this Code. 

Replace Section 105.6 as follows: 

105.6 Required permits. The fire code official is authorized to issue permits for the operations set forth in Sections 
105.6.1 through 105.6.147: 

105.6.1 Abandoned buildings. A permit is required for abandoned buildings. (See IFC Section 311.) 

105.6.2 Aerosol products. A permit is required to manufacture, store or handle an aggregate quantity of Level 1, 
Level 2 or Level 3 aerosol products in excess of 300 pounds (136 kg) net weight. 

105.6.3 Air compressor. A permit is required for building smoke management and fire protection systems - 
certificate of fitness in accordance with ASME Code. 

105.6.4 Aircraft hangar. A permit is required per bay or square footage per NFPA 409. 

105.6.5 Aircraft refueling vehicles. A permit is required for each aircraft refueling vehicle. 

105.6.6 Amusement buildings. A permit is required to operate a special amusement building. 

105.6.7 Appliances fueled by waste petroleum products. A permit is required to operate appliances fueled by 
waste petroleum products. 

105.6.8 Asbestos removal. A permit is required for the removal of asbestos (for each building or portion thereof). 

105.6.9 Asphalt kettles (other than roofing operations). A permit is required to transport and operate an asphalt 
kettle. 

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105.6.10 Automobile wrecking yard. A permit is required for the operation of an automobile wrecking yard. 

105.6.11 Aviation facilities. A permit is required to use a Group H or Group S occupancy for aircraft servicing or 
repair and aircraft fuel servicing vehicles. Additional permits required by other sections of this code include, but are 
not limited to, hot work, hazardous materials, and flammable or combustible products. 

105.6.12 Battery charging. A permit is required to charge batteries on or off powered-industrial trucks and similar 
equipment having an electrolyte capacity in excess of 10 gallons. 

105.6.13 Battery systems. A permit is required for stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity 
in excess of 10 gallons. 

105.6.14 Blank cartridges. A permit is required prior to the purchase of blank pyrotechnic cartridges. No dealer 
shall sell blank cartridges except upon presentation of an authorized permit. 

105.6.15 Bonfires / Rubbish fires. A permit is required for bonfires and rubbish fires. 

105.6.16 Bowling alley refinishing. A permit is required to refinish bowling alleys. 

105.6.17 Building emergency communication system. A permit is required to test the emergency communication 
system. 

105.6.18 Building fire alarm system. A permit is required to test the fire alarm system. 

105.6.19 Building fire protection system. A permit is required to test the fire protection system. 

105.6.20 Building fire standpipe system. A permit is required to test the fire standpipe system. 

105.6.21 Building property manager certification. A permit is required to obtain training and certification for 
building property managers. 

105.6.22 Burning in public places/Open burning. A permit is required for the kindling or maintaining of an open 
fire or a fire on any public street, alley, road, or other public or private ground. Instructions and stipulations of the 
permit shall be adhered to. 

Exception: 

Recreational fires when a fire ban has not been instituted. 

105.6.23 Candles and open flames in assembly areas. A permit is required to use open flames or candles in 
connection with assembly areas, dining areas of restaurants or drinking establishments. 

105.6.24 Canopies. A permit is required to erect a canopy having an area as follows: 

105.6.24.1 Canopies having an area in excess of 300 square feet but less than 500 square feet. 

105.6.24.2 Canopies having an areas in excess of 500 square feet. 

105.6.25 Carnivals and fairs. A permit is required to conduct a carnival or fair. The event coordinator shall be 
responsible for obtaining a permit which can be issued for a single event or annually; vendors shall be responsible for 
individual permits for booths. 

105.6.26 Cellular/wireless signal repeater sites. A permit is required to install and maintain cellular/wireless signal 
repeater sites. 

105.6.27 Cellulose nitrate film. A permit is required to store, handle, use, or display cellulose nitrate film. 

105.6.28 Certification - Construction fire safety officer. Includes point- of- contact relative to permits. 

105.6.29 Chemical tanks/cryogenic towers. A permit is required for use of chemical tanks/cryogenic towers. 

105.6.29.1 Installation/modification of chemical tanks/cryogenic towers. 

105.6.29.2 Removal/Abandonment of chemical tanks/cryogenic towers. 

105.6.30 ChiU roaster. A permit is required to operate a chili roaster as follows: 

105.6.30.1 An LPG fuel permit - 300 lb. maximum 

105.6.30.2 Setbacks must be approved. 



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105.6.31 Combustible fibers. A permit is required for tlie storage and handling of combustible fibers in quantities 
greater than 100 cubic feet (2.8 m^). 

Exception: 

A permit is not required for agricultural storage. 

105.6.32 Combustible material storage. A permit is required to store in any building or upon any premises in 
excess of 2,500 cubic feet (71 m^) gross volume of ooniustible enpty pacMng cases, boxes, bands or similar 
containeis, rubber tires, rubber, coik or similar combustible matmal. 

105.6.33 Commercial rubbish. A permit is required to operate a rubbish or recycling handling facility. 

105.6.34 Compressed gases (not LPG). The minimum quantities of compressed gas requiring permit shall be as set 
forth in Table 105.6.34. 

TABLE 105.6.34 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES 



Type of Gas 


Amount 
(cubic feet at NT P) 


Corrosive, Irritant, Sensitizer 


200 


Flammable (except cryogenic fluids and Liquefied petroleum gases) 


200 


Highly toxic 


Any Amount 


Inert and simple asphyxiant 


6000 


Oxidizing (including oxygen) 


504 


Pyrophoric 


Any Amount 


Radioactive 


Any Amount 


Toxic 


Any Amount 


Unstable (Reactive) 


Any Amount 


Other health hazard 


650 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832m^ 

105.6.35 C ompressed natural gas (C NG ). A permit is required to install, modify, or remove a compressed natural 
gas tank 

105.6.36 C overed mall buildings. A permit is required for: 

1. The placement of retail fixtures and displays, concession equipment, displays of highly combustible goods 
and similar items in the mall. 

2. The display of liquid- or gas-fired equipment in the mall. 

3. The use of open- flame or flame- producing equipment in the mall. 

105.6.37 Cryogenic fluids. A permit is required to produce, store, transport on site, handle or dispense cryogenic 
fluids in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.37. 

TABLE 105.6.37 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 



Type of Cryogenic Fluid 


Inside Building 
(gallons) 


Outside Building 
(gallons) 


Flammable 


More than 1 


60 


Inert 


60 


500 


Oxidizing (includes oxygen) 


10 


50 


Physical or health hazard not 
indicated above 


Any Amount 


Any Amount 



105.6.38 Cutting and welding. A permit is required to conduct cutting or welding operations within the jurisdiction. 

105.6.39 Demolition by explosives. A permit is required for the use of any explosive device for demolition 
operations. 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



105.6.40 Dry cleaning plants. A permit is required to engage in tlie business of dry cleaning or to change to a more 
hazardous cleaning solvent used in existing dry cleaning equipment. 

105.6.41 Dust-producing operations. A permit is required for all dust-producing operations. This permit does not 
include woodworking. 

105.6.42 Emergency/standby electrical generator and fire pump - fuel tank system. A permit is required for fuel 
tank systems per tank— integral day tank, remote day tank and main tank. Generators utilizing natural gas are required 
to have a permit for the natural gas connection. 

105.6.43 Equipment testing. A permit is required to test equipment as follows: 

105.6.43.1 Fire alarm systems. Smoke detector, horn/strobe, etc. Annual permit does not include overtime 
costs. 

105.6.43.2 Fire protection systems. Sprinkler head, flow switch, etc. Annual permit does not include overtime 
costs. 

105.6.43.3 Smoke management systems. Annual permit does not include overtime costs. 

105.6.43.4 Standpipe systems. Annual permit does not include overtime costs. 

105.6.44 Exhibits and trade shows. A permit is required to operate exhibits and trade shows. 

105.6.45 Explosives/blasting agents. A permit is required for the manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of any 
quantity of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks or pyrotechnic special effects within the scope of Chapter 33. 

Exception: 

Storage in Group R-3 occupancies of smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms primers for personal 
use, not for resale and in accordance with Section 3306. 

105.6.46 Failure to obtain a permit. A temporary permit is required when a required permit has not been obtained. 
The fee for this temporary permit shall be double the cost of the required permit. 

105.6.47 File search. A fee is required for the following file searches: 

105.6.47.1 Fire Prevention/Hazardous materials 

105.6.47.2 Amendment packet 

105.6.47.3 Fire investigation records including videotapes 

105.6.47.4 Property records 

105.6.47.5 Inspection and permit records 

105.6.48 Fire alarm signal delay equipment. A permit is required to install and maintain fire alarm signal delay 
equipment integrated with the FA C P. 

105.6.49 Fire department fire alarm radio transmitter (wireless Denver Fire Department radio box). A permit 
is required to install and maintain fire department fire alarm radio equipment for monitoring fire and burglar alarms. 

105.6.50 Fire hydrants and valves. A permit is required to maintain a private fire hydrant system. This applies to 
existing systems only. New private fire hydrant systems are prohibited. 

105.6.51 Fire protection system maintenance. A permit is required to perform maintenance on a private fire 
hydrant system. 

105.6.52 Fire pumps and related equipment. A permit is required to inspect and test fire pumps and related 
equipment. 

105.6.53 Fire watch. A permit is required whenever a fire watch is mandated. 

105.6.54 Fireworks /pyrotechnics. A permit is required for all professional pyrotechnic programs. 

105.6.55 Flammable or combustible liquids. A permit is required: 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



1. To use or operate a pipeline for the transportation within facilities of flammable or combustible liquids. This 
requirement shall not apply to the off-site transportation in pipelines regulated by the Department of 
Transportation (DOTn) nor does it apply to piping systems. 

2. To store, handle or use Class I liquids in excess of 30 gallons (114 L) in a building or in excess of 60 gallons 
(228.6 L) outside of a building, except that a permit is not required for the following: 

2.1. The storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, motorboat, mobile power 
plant or mobile heating plant, unless such storage, in the opinion of the code official, would cause an 
unsafe condition. 

2.2. The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes or similar flammable mixtures when such liquids are stored 
for maintenance, painting or similar purposes for a period of not more than 30 days. 

3. To store, handle or use Class II or IIIA liquids in excess of 60 gallons (228.6 L) in a building or in excess of 
120 gallons (457.1 L) outside a building, except for fuel oil used in connection with oil-burning equipment. 

3.1 To store, handle or use Class IIIB liquids in excess of 1,000 gallons in a building or outside a building. 

4. To remove Class I or Class II liquids from an underground storage tank used for fueling motor vehicles by 
any means other than the approved, stationary on-site pumps normally used for dispensing purposes. 

5. To operate tank vehicles, equipment, tans, plants, terminals, wells, fuel- dispensing stations, refineries, 
distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and combustible liquids are produced, processed, 
transported, stored, dispensed or used. 

6. To place temporarily out of service (for more than 90 days) an underground, protected above-ground or 
above-ground flammable or combustible liquid tank. 

7. To change the type of contents stored in a flammable or combustible liquid tank to a material which poses a 
greater hazard than that for which the tank was designed and constructed. 

8. To manufacture, process, blend or refine flammable or combustible liquids. 

9. To engage in the dispensing of liquid fuels into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles at commercial, industrial, 
governmental or manufacturing establishments. 

10. To utilize a site for the dispensing of liquid fuels from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles at 
commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments. 

11. A site plan shall be submitted showing the following: distances from all buildings, property lines, utility 
poles, power lines, railroad tracks, etc. A Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) may be required 
upon request. 

105.56 Floor cleaning. A permit is required for floor cleaning operations using 3A combustible liquids. 

105.56.1 Single address/ one time 

105.56.2 Annual/same building 

105.56.3 Annual/multiple sites 

105.6.57 Floor finishing. A permit is required for floor finishing or surfacing operations exceeding 350 square feet 
(33 m^) using Class I or Class II liquids. 

105.6.58 Fruit and crop ripening. A permit is required to operate a fruit- or crop-ripening facility or conduct a 
fruit- ripening process using ethylene gas. 

105.6.59 Fumigation/thermal insecticidal fogging. A permit is required to operate a business of fumigation or 
thermal insecticidal fogging and to maintain a room, vault or chamber in which a toxic or flammable fumigant is used. 

105.6.60 G arages. A permit is required for operation of a motor vehicel repair garage. This permit does not include 
other permits required by this code. 

105.6.61 Halogenated agent systems/extinguishers. A permit is required to install and maintain a halogenated 
extinguishing agent system or portable fire extinguishers. 

105.6.62 Halogenated hydrocarbons. A permit is required for the storage or use of halogenated hydrocarbons. 

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105.6.63 Hazardous materials. A permit is required to store, transport on site, dispense, use or handle hazardous 
materials in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.63. 

TABLE 105.6.63 

PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 


AMOUNT 


Carcinogens 
Liquids 
Sohds 


1 gallon 
10 pounds 


Combustible liquids 


See Section 105.6.55 


Corrosive materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Section 105.6.34 
55 gallons 
550 pounds 


Explosive materials 


Any Amount 


Flammable materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 
Cryogenics 


See Section 105.6.34 
See Section 105.6.55 
100 pounds 
See Section 105.6.37 


Highly toxic materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Section 105.6.34 
Any Amount 
Any Amount 


Irritants 

Liquids 
Solids 


55 gallons 
550 pounds 


Other Health Hazards 
Liquids 
Solids 


55 gallons 
550 pounds 


Oxidizing materials 

Gases 

Liquids 

Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Solids 

Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Cryogenics 


See Section 105.6.34 

Any Amount 
1 gallon^ 
10 gallons 
55 gallons 

Any Amount 

10 pounds? 

100 pounds 

500 pounds 

See Section 105.6.37 


Organic peroxides 

Liquids 

Class I 
Class II 
Class III 
Class IV 
Class V 

Solids 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 


Any Amount 
Any Amount 

1 gallon 

2 gallons 

No Permit Required 

Any Amount 
Any Amount 
10 pounds 
20 pounds 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 


AMOUNT 


Class V 


No Permit Required 


Pyrophoric materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Section 105.6.34 
Any Amount 
Any Amount 


Radioactive materials 
Not sealed 
Sealed 


1 microcurie 
1 millicurie 


Sensitizers 

Liquids 
Solids 


55 gallons 
550 pounds 


Toxic materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Section 105.6.34 
Any Amount 
Any Amount 


Unstable (reactive) materials 

Liquids 

Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Solids 

Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Any Amount 
Any Amount 
1 gallon 
10 gallons 

Any Amount 
Any Amount 
10 pounds 
100 pounds 


Water- reactive materials 
Liquids 

Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 
Solids 

Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Any Amount 
5 gallons 
10 gallons 

Any Amount 
50 pounds 
100 pounds 


Biohazard 


Any Amount 



For SI: 1 gallon=3.785L, 1 pound=0.454 kg. 

a. 20 gallons when Table 2703.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in accordance with Section 2703.5 are 
provided for quantities of 20 gallons or less. 

b. 200 pounds when Table 2703.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in accordance with Section 2703.5 are 
provided for quantities of 200 pounds or less. 

105.6.64 Hazardous materials inventory statement plan review. A permit is required for r^ew and comment of 
anyHMIS. 

105.6.64.1 HMIS - with less than 10 entries. 

105.6.64.2 HMIS - with 10 or more entries. 

105.6.65 Hazardous production materials. A pemiit is required to store, handle or use hazardous production 
materials. 

105.6.66 Hazardous waste generator. A permit is required for any operation that generates hazardous waste. 

105.6.67 Heliports and helistops. A permit is required for the operation of any heliport or helistop. 

105.6.68 High-piled storage. A permit is required to use a building or portion thereof as a high-piled storage area 
exceeding 500 square feet (46 m^). 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



105.6.69 Holiday decorations in public assembly occupancies. A permit is required to use any holiday decorations 
- natural vegetation, crepe paper, etc. in any public assembly occupancy. 

105.6.70 Hot work operations. A permit is required for hot work including, but not limited to: 

1 . Public exhibitions and demonstrations where hot work is conducted. 

2 . Use of portable hot work equipment inside a structure. 

3. Fixed- site hot work equipment such as welding booths. 

4. Hot work conducted within a hazardous fire area. 

5. Application of roof coverings with the use of an open- flame device. 

105.6.71 Hypergolic materials. A permit is required to store or use any amount of hypergolic materials. 

105.6.72 Industrial trucks. A permit is required for all industrial trucks in accordance with NFPA 505. 

105.6.73 Insecticides/pesticides/fumigants. A permit is required to apply, sell and manufacture insecticides, 
pesticides or fumigants. 

105.6.73.1 One location/one time 

105.6.73.2 Annual/multiple locations 

105.6.74 Interim permit. An interim permit may be issued allowing work under restrictions or conditions while 
awaiting submittal of installation documents. 

105.6.75 Interior fire alarm system maintenance. A permit is required to maintain fire alarm equipment. 

105.6.76 Laboratories. A permit is required to operate a laboratory that stores or uses hazardous materials or 
flammable substances. 

105.6.77 Limited fueling and other fuel transport operations. A permit is required for each vehicle approved for 
limited fueling and fuel transport operations. 

105.6.78 Liquefied chlorine. A permit is required to store, use, sell and transport liquefied chlorine. 

105.6.79 Liquefied- or gas- fueled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings. A permit is required to display, 
operate or demonstrate liquid- or gas- fueled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings. 

105.6.80 LPG . A permit is required for: 

105.6.80.1 Annual filling or exchange - tank or cage (Amount of gas calculated and assessed separately.) 

105.6.80.2 Install; modify or remove any container or system 

105.6.80.3 Operate/maintain any container or system 

105.6.80.4 Limited operations/construction sites 

105.6.80.5 Roofing operation 

105.6.80.6 Operation of cargo tankers that transport LP gas. 

105.6.81 Lubricating oils. A permit is required to transport, store, sell or use over 100 gallons of lubricating oils. 

105.6.82 Lumber yards. A permit is required for the storage or processing of lumber exceeding 100,000 board feet 
(8,333 ft^) (236 rri). 

105.6.83 Magnesium. A permit is required to melt, cast, heat treat or grind more than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) of 
magnesium. 

106.6.83.1 Matches. A permit is required for bulk storage of matches. 

105.6.83.2 Medical gas systems. A permit is required for each medical gas system. 

105.6.84 Motor fuel storage systems. A permit is required for certification to install, test, alter, repair or remove 
equipment. 

105.6.85 Motorcycle vehicle repair shops. A permit is required to operate a motorcycle vehicle repair shop. 

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105.6.86 Nitrous oxide-piped systems. A permit is required to install and maintain a nitrous oxide- piped system. 

105.6.87 Occupant load increase. A permit is required to increase the occupant load of an assembly occupancy. 
The maximum increase shall be 10% when egress, seating, etc. remain in compliance with this code. This permit 
shall be for one event only. 

105.6.88 Open flame. A permit is required for any open flame equipment. 

105.6.89 Open flames and torches. A permit is required to remove paint with a torch; or to use a torch or open- 
flame device in a hazardous fire area. 

105.6.90 Open flame on aircraft servicing ramp. An annual permit is required to use any open flame equipment on 
an aircraft fuel service ramp. 

105.6.91 Organic coatings. A permit is required for any organic- coating manufacturing operation producing more 
than one gallon (4L) of an organic coating in one day. 

105.6.92 Ovens (industrial baking or drying). A permit is required for operation of industrial ovens regulated by 
Chapter 21. 

105.6.93 Ozone generator. A permit is required to install and operate an ozone generator. 

105.6.94 Pallet storage. A permit is required for indoor or outdoor pallet storage exceeding 2,000 square feet. 

105.6.95 Parade floats. A permit is required for any parade float ground or airborne. 

105.6.96 Places of assembly. A permit is required to operate a place of assembly. 

105.6.96.1 Occupant load > 150 but < 299 

105.6.96.2 Occupant load 300 - 2500 

105.6.96.3 Occupant load >2500 

105.6.97 Plan review. A permit is required for plan review. 

105.6.97.1 Development plan review - assessed in half- hour increments 

105.6.97.2 Pre-plan submittal consultation - assessed in half- hour increments 

105.6.97.3 HMIS; HMMP and hazardous materials generation 

105.6.97.4 Expedited plan review - assessed in half- hour increments 

105.6.97.5 Subsequent plan submittals - 3"^ and subsequent submittals 

105.6.98 Plastic foam products (flammable). A permit is required to store and use over 1,000 lbs. 

105.6.99 Powder coating (See Spray booth; spraying and dipping). 

105.6.100 Pressure vessels. A permit is required to install and use a pressure vessel. 

105.6.101 Private fire hydrants. See Fire hydrants and valves. 

105.6.102 Pyrophoric materials. A permit is required to store or use pyrophoric materials. 

105.6.103 Pyrotechnic special effects material. A permit is required for use and handling of pyrotechnic special 
effects material. 

105.6.104 Pyrotechnic event. A permit is required for all pyrotechnic events 

105.6.104.1 After-hours inspection 

105.6.104.2 Use of fog machine 

105.6.104.3 Indoor/Outdoor pyrotechnic event. 

105.6.104.4 Use of propane effects. 

105.6.104.5 Pyrotechnic inspector during event. (Paid by promoter as after- hours inspection) 

105.6.105 Pyrotechnician. A permit/certificate of fitness is required for all pyrotechnicians. 



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105.6.106 Pyroxylin plastics. A permit is required for storage or handling of more than 25 pounds (11 kg) of 
cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin) plastics and for the assembly or manufacture of articles involving pyroxylin plastics. 

105.6.107 Radioactive material. A permit is required to store, use or handle radioactive material. 

105.6.108 Recycling facilities. A permit is required to operate a recycling facility. 

105.6.109 Refrigeration equipment. A permit is required to operate a mechanical refrigeration unit or system 
regulated by Chapter 6. 

105.6.110 Repair garages and motor fuel-dispensing facilities. A permit is required for operation of repair garages 
and automotive, marine and fleet motor fuel- dispensing facilities. 

105.6.111 Reviewing stands/grandstands. A permit is required to erect and use reviewing stands or grandstands. 

105.6.112 Salvage yard. A permit is required to operate a salvage yard, not including other permits required by this 
code. 

105.6.113 Service station. A permit is required for operation of repair garages and automotive, marine and fleet 
motor fuel- dispensing facilities. Fuel calculated and assessed separately. 

105.6.114 Service station - Fleet/Private service. A permit is required for operation of fleet or private service 
stations. Fuel calculated and assessed separately. 

105.6.115 Special conditional permit. A permit is required for special conditions, such as concealed spaces, vacated 
areas, abandoned tanks, etc. 

105.6.116 Special events. A permit is required for special events. 

105.6.116.1 Places of assembly - any hazardous material or process at temporary events 

105.6.116.2 Places of assembly - refueling operations at temporary events in assembly occupancies 

105.6.116.3 Places of assembly - storage, use and handling of flammable/combustible liquids at temporary 
events 

105.6.116.3 Event within existing facility 

105.6.116.4 Plan submittal less than 14 days prior to event 

105.6.116.5 Outdoor with six ormore fuel-fired cooking/heating units 

105.6.117 Special extinguishing system. A permit is required to install and maintain a special extinguishing system. 

105.6.118 Special fire alarm system. A permit is required to install and maintain a special fire alarm system. 

105.6.119 Special spray application projects. A permit is required for applying flammable or combustible finishes 
to the interior of a structure. 

105.6.120 Spray booth / powder coating. A permit is required to install and use a spray booth or powder coating 
booth. 

105.6.121 Spraying or dipping. A permit is required to conduct a spraying or dipping operation utilizing flammable 
or combustible liquids or tie application of combustible powders regulated by Chapter 15. 

105.6.121.1 One time/one location 

105.6.121.2 Annual/various locations 

105.6.121.3 Spraying of water-based finishes 

105.6.121.4 Per booth 

105.6.122 Storage containers. 

105.6.122.1 Temporary - less than 180 days 

105.6.122.2 Permanent - 180 days or longer 



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105.6.123 Storage of scrap tires and tire by-products. A permit is required to establish, conduct or maintain 
storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts that exceeds 2,500 cubic feet (71 m^) of total volume of scr^ tires and for 
indoor storage of tires and tire byprcducts. 

105.6.124 Storage tanks. 

105.6.124.1 Flammable/combustible dispensing system - install, repair, alter, upgrade (per tank) 

105.6.124.2 Flammable/combustible - remove or abandon in place (annual fee/per tank) 

105.6.125 Stored electrical energy emergency/standby power systems. A permit is required to install or operate 
stored electrical energy emergency /standby power systems. 

105.6.126 Sulphur/sulphur chloride. A permit is required to store, sell or use sulphur or sulphur chloride. 

105.6.127 Supervising station/central station. A permit is required to receive fire alarm signals from a protected 
property. 

105.6.128 Tanks (Change of content). A permit is required to change the contents of a chemical or fuel storage 
tank. 

105.6.129 Temporary fire standpipe. A permit is required to install and maintain a temporary fire standpipe. 

105.6.130 Temporary generator. A permit is required to use a temporary generator. 

105.6.131 Temporary heating appliance. A permit is required to install or use a temporary heating appliance. 

105.6.132 Temporary membrane structures. A permit is required to operate an air-supported temporary membrane 
structure or a tent having an area in excess of 200 square feet ( 19 m^ ) or in excess of 4D0 square feet (37 nS ). 

105.6.133 Tents or air-supported structures. A permit is required for tents or air-supported structures. 

105.6.133.1 An area in excess of 150 sq. ft. but < 700 sq. ft. 

105.6.133.2 An area in excess of 700 sq. ft. 

105.6.134 Tire rebuilding/recapping plants. A permit is required for the operation and maintenance of a tire 
rebuilding or recapping plant. 

105.6.135 Tire storage. A permit is required for tire storage exceeding 2500 cubic ft. in any one control area. 

105.6.136 Trailer. A permit is required for trailers used for office functions. 

105.6.136.1 Temporary - less than 180 days 

105.6.136.2 Permanent - 180 days or longer 

105.6.137 Training fees. A permit is required for Fire Department training. 

105.6.137.1 Hi- rise building evacuation exercise 

105.6.137.2 Low-rise building evacuation exercise 

105.6.137.3 Building management/facility manager emergency procedures certification training (per person) 

105.6.137.4 Fire extinguisher training (2 hours - does not include extinguisher; limited to 5 persons) 

105.6.137.5 Floor warden training (limited to 5 persons) 

105.6.137.6 Hazardous materials closure plan 

105.6.137.7 Hazardous materials waste generation plan 

105.6.137.8 Hazardous materials inventory statement training (2 hours; limited to 5 persons) 

105.6.137.9 Hazardous materials management plan (2 hours; limited to 5 persons) 

105.6.137.10 Hazardous materials release mitigation training (2 hours; limited to 10 persons) 

105.6.137.11 Safety and evacuation training (2 hours; limited to 10 persons) 

105.6.137.12 Fire safety public education presentation 

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105.6.138 Underground hazardous material storage tanks. A permit is required to install and maintain an 
underground hazardous material storage tank (per tank). 

105.6.139 Underground spaces. A permit is required to inspect and certify underground spaces. 

105.6.140 Varnishes. A permit is required to store ore use more than 100 gallons of varnish. 

105.6.141 Waste material handling plant. A permit is require to operate waste material handling plants, wrecking 
yards, junk yards and waste material- handling facilities. 

105.6.142 Waste oil heaters. A permit is required to install or operate a waste oil heater. 

105.6.143 Waste receptacles. A permit is required to install and maintain waste receptacles with a capacity greater 
than 20 cubic feet. 

105.6.144 Waxes. A permit is required to store, sell or use more than 400 lbs. of wax. 

105.6.145 Wood products. A permit is required to store more than 200 cubic ft. of wood products. 

105.6.146 Wooden packing boxes, cases and barrels (empty). A permit is required to store more than 2,000 cubic 
ft. 

105.6.147 Woodworking operations. A permit is required to install and operate a woodworking operation. 

SECTION 106 
INSPECTIONS 

Add Sections as follows: 

106.2.1 Dangerous or hazardous conditions or material. The fire code official shall have the authority to order 
any person(s) to remove or remedy such dangerous or hazardous condition or material as set forth in this code. Any 
person(s) failing to comply with such order shall be in violation of this code. 

106.2.2 Right of entry. The fire code official shall be authorized to inspect any building or premises for dangerous 
or hazardous conditions or materials as set forth in this code. Before entering, the fire code official shall obtain the 
consent of the occupant thereof or obtain a court warrant authorizing entry for the purpose of inspection except in 
those instances where an emergency exists. 

106.2.3 Emergency. As used in 106.2.2, "emergency" means circumstances that the fire code official knows, or has 
reason to believe, exist and can constitute immediate danger to life and property. 

106.2.4 Authorized Personnel. Uniformed fire inspectors, fire investigators, and fire protection engineers shall be 
authorized to enter and inspect buildings, structures, vessels, vehicles, and premises as herein set forth. They shall be 
identified by credentials issued by the Department of Safety. 

106.2.4.1 Impersonation. Persons shall not use a badge, uniform, or other credentials to impersonate the fire 
code official. 

106.2.5 Hazardous Conditions. Where conditions exist and are deemed hazardous to life and property by the fire 
code official, the fire code official shall have the authority to summarily abate such hazardous conditions that are in 
violation of this code. 

106.2.6 Plans and Specification. The fire code official shall have the authority to require plans and specifications to 
ensure compliance with applicable codes and standards. The plans and specifications shall bear the stamp of a 
professional engineer. 

106.2.7 Inspection of construction and installation. The fire code official shall be notified by the person 
performing the work when the installation is ready for a required inspection or for fire protection or other life safety 
systems acceptance tests. All installations shall be complete prior to requesting an inspection or test. All components 
of a life safety system shall be installed prior to testing— no exceptions. 

106.2.7.1 Work in violation. When any construction or installation work is being performed in violation of the 
plans and specifications approved by the fire code official, a written notice shall be issued to the responsible party 
to stop work on that portion of the work that is in violation. The notice shall state the nature of the violation, and 
no work shall be continued on that portion until the violation has been corrected. 

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106.2.8 Stop work or evacuation. The fire code official shall have the authority to order an operation or use stopped 
and the immediate evacuation of any occupied building, area of a building, or other property when such building, area 
of a building, or other property has hazardous conditions that present imminent danger. 

106.2.8.1 Non-complying work. Whenever any work is being done contrary to provisions of this code, the fire 
code official is hereby authorized to order such work stopped. Such work should immediately stop until 
authorized by the fire code official to proceed. 

106.2.9 Standby personnel. When, in the opinion of the fire code official, it is essential for public safety in a tent, 
canopy or membrane structure used as a place of assembly or any other use where people congregate, or any building, 
premises or property where people congregate, because of the number of persons, or the nature of the performance, 
exhibition, display, contest or activity, or when potentially hazardous conditions exist, or an occupant load varies due 
to large crowd movement from one building to another building or one area of a building to another area of the 
building, or there is a reduction in a life safety feature, or there is an impairment to a fire protection feature, the 
owner, agency or lessee shall employ and compensate through approved Department of Safety channels at a rate 
established by the Manger of Safety one or more firefighters of the City and County of Denver, as required by the fire 
code official. Such firefighter(s) shall be subject to the fire code official's orders at all times when so employed and 
shall be in uniform and remain on duty during the times such places are open to the public or when such activity is 
being conducted or, in the case of residential occupancies, whenever occupied. 

106.2.9.1 Owner's responsibility. The owner, agent, or lessee shall employ standby fire personnel in an 
adequate number determined by the fire code official based on the potential hazard or reduction in a fire 
protection system or other life safety feature as described in Section 106.2.9, as required and approved, to be on 
duty. Such standby fire personnel or fire watch personnel shall be subject to the fire code official's orders at all 
times and shall be identifiable and remain actively on duty during the times such places are open to the public, 
when such activity is being conducted, or in residential buildings, whenever occupied. 

106.2.10 Records. The Fire Prevention and Investigation Division shall retain for not less than seven years a record 
of each inspection made showing the findings and disposition of each inspection made. 

106.2.11 Townhouses and condominiums. Portable fire extinguishers shall be mounted on the exterior at each level 
stairway(s) or one (2A lOBC) within each residential unit. When mounted on the exterior, the property 
management/homeowner's association (HO A) shall be responsible for the care, maintenance and recharging, and use 
of the fire extinguisher, including inspection. The homeowner shall submit a report to the property management 
(HO A) on an annual basis. Portable fire extinguishers shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with NFPA 
10. The smoke detector(s) within the residential units shall be tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 72. 
The homeowner shall submit a report to the property management/HOA on an annual basis of each test and battery 
replacement. The property management/HOA shall maintain a log of the inspection/test reports submitted to that 
office and Denver Fire Department Inspection personnel will review that log prior to conducting the inspection. If 
this information is not available, an inspection shall be made to determine that this equipment is in compliance with 
this code. 

Add Section 106.5 as follows: 

106.5 Fees. The Manager of Safety is authorized to adopt an inspection fee schedule necessary to cover administrative 
costs of inspections and record- keeping under this code. 

SECTION 107 
MAINTENANCE 

Add Sections 107.7 and 107.8 as follows: 

107.7 Standby Personnel. The fire code official shall have the authority to require standby fire personnel or an approved 
fire watch when potentially hazardous conditions or a reduction in a fire protection system or other life safety feature exist 
due to the type of performance, display, exhibit, occupancy, contest, or activity; an impairment to a fire protection or other 
life safety system; or the number of persons present. 



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107.8 Owner's responsibility. The owner, agent, or lessee shall employ standby fire personnel in an adequate number 
determined by the fire code official based on the potential hazard or reduction in a fire protection system or other life 
safety feature as described in Section 107.7, as required and approved, to be on duty. Such standby fire personnel or fire 
watch personnel shall be subject to the fire code official's orders at all times and shall be identifiable and remain actively 
on duty during the times such places are open to the public, when such activity is being conducted, or in residential 
buildings, whenever occupied. 

SECTION 108 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

Replace Section 108.1 as follows: 

108.1 Board of appeals established. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions, or determinations made by 
the Fire code official relative to the application and interpretation of this Code, the Manager of Safety can hear the appeal 
alone or appoint a board of appeals consisting of members who are qualified by experience and training to make decisions 
pertinent to hazards of fire, explosions, hazardous conditions, flammable and combustible liquids and gases, the use, 
storage and production of hazardous materials, or fire protection and other life safety systems and features. 

108.1.1 Application. Prior to any action by the Manager of Safety, an application in writing shall be filed in the 
office of the Manager within thirty (30) days after receiving the oixler, decision, or determination made by the fire 
code official on a form provided by the Manager providing the necessary information required. A copy of such 
application shall be furnished to the fire code official by the applicant. A fee of $100, in the form a check made 
payable to the Denver Manager of Revenue, must accompany the application. 

108.1.2 Meetings and records. The Manager of Safety/Board of Appeals shall keep records of its proceedings 
showing the vote of each member on every question and the final decision. 

108.1.3 Appeal from decision of the Manager of Safety. Any person aggrieved by a decision of the Manager of 
Safety may have judicial review of such decision as provided by law. A petition for review shall be filed in the court 
having jurisdiction within thirty (30) days after receiving the decision of the Manager of Safety. 

SECTION 109 
VIOLATIONS 

Add Sections 109.2.2.1 through 1009.2.2.4 as follows: 

109.2.2.1 Failure to comply. It shall be unlawful to violate any provisions of this code, or to fail to cany out an 
order made pursuant to this code or violate any condition attached to a permit, approval, or certificate, or to erect, 
install, alter, repair or do work in violation of approved construction documents, or without the appropriate 
license, permit or directive of the fire official. Violations shall be punishable as prescribed in Section 1-1 3(a) of 
the Denver Revised Municipal Code. 

109.2.2.2 Time limits. Failure to comply with the time limits of an abatement notice or after a corrective order or 
notice of violation is issued by the fire code official shall result in each day that such violation continues being 
regarded as a new and separate violation and a new and separate offense. 

109.2.2.3 Not owner-occupied. If the building or other premises is not owner occupied, under lease or otherwise, 
and the order or notice of violation requires additions or changes in the building or premises that would 
immediately become real estate and be the property of the owner of the building or premises, such orders or 
notices shall be complied with by the owner. 

109.2.2.4 Citation. The fire code official is authorized to issue a citation to persons operating or maintaining an 
occupancy, premises, vessel, vehicle or other property subject to this code who allow a hazard to exist or fail to 
take immediate action to abate a hazard on such occupancy, premises, vessel, vehicle, or other property when 
ordered or notified to do so. 

Replace Section 109.3 as follows: 

109.3 Violation penalties. See Section 109.2.2.1 Failure to comply. 



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SECTION 110 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS 

Replace Section 110.1.1 as follows: 

110.1.1 Unsafe conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe or deficient because 
of inadequate means of egress, or which constitute a fire hazard such as storage of explosives, excessive amounts of 
combustible or flammable materials, vegetation deemed an exposure hazard, manufacture of controlled substances, 
unstable material, hazardous materials, etc., or are otherwise dangerous to human life or to the public welfare, or 
which involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an unsafe condition. A 
vacant structure that is not secured against unauthorized entry shall be deemed unsafe. A structure, including 
residences, that constitutes a fire hazard and an exposure hazard in the event of fire or explosion shall be deemed 
unsafe. The fire code official is authorized to take action to mitigate an unsafe condition, rendering the operation 
harmless to people or property. The property owner shall be responsible for all costs related to all actions. 

Add Section 110.1.2.1 as follows: 

110.1.2.1 Unsafe heating or electrical equipment and structural hazards. When the fire code official deems 
any chimney, smokestack, stove, oven, incinerator, furnace, or other heating device, electrical fixture, or any 
appurtenance thereto, or anything regulated under a nationally recognized standard in or upon any building, 
structure, or premises not specifically mentioned in this code, to be unsafe or defective so as to create a hazard, 
the fire code official is authorized to serve upon the owner or the person having control of the property a written 
notice to remove or repair or alter as necessary. The fire code official is authorized to affix a condemnation tag 
prohibiting the use thereof, or until such repairs or alterations are made. 

110.1.2.2 Unsafe operations. When the fire code official deems any operation, interior or exterior, to be unsafe 
so as to create a hazard, the fire code official is authorized to sen/e upon the owner, contractor, or the person 
having control of the property, a written notice to remove or repair or alter as necessary. The fire code official is 
authorized to affix a condemnation tag prohibiting the use thereof, or until such repairs or alterations are made. In 
the event that the unsafe operation resulted in an emergency response, legal action and cost recovery will be 
directed to the responsible party. 

Add Section 112 as follows: 

SECTION 112 
LICENSES 

112.1 General. A license is authority granted to the person to whom it is issued to perform the work authorized by the 
license. 

112.2 Licenses required. Denver Fire Department licenses shall be required for the design, installation, modification, 
inspection, and testing of all Life Safety Systems and equipment. All fitters/technicians shall be licensed to design, 
install, add to, modify, and perform all types of inspections, testing, maintenance, and repair of factory- engineered 
equipment. All persons required to have a permit, license or certificates shall have a current— for calendar year— permit, 
license or certificate. 

112.2.1 Fire sprinkler and standpipe systems. 

112.2.2 Fire pumps. 

112.2.3 Kitchen hood extinguishing systems. 

112.2.4 Dry chemical extinguishing systems. 

112.2.5 Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems. 

112.2.6 Special extinguishing systems. 

112.2.7 Fire alarm systems. 

112.2.8 Fire detection systems. 

112.2.9 Emergency communication systems. 

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112.2.10 Electrical signaling and central wiring. 

112.2.11 Department of safety radio enhancement systems. 

112.2.12 Smoke control systems. 

112.2.13 Firefighter's emergency elevator recall systems. 

112.2.14 Foam extinguishing systems. 

112.2.15 Portable fire extinguishers. 

112.2.16 Refrigerant safety / alarm systems. 

112.2.17 Ammonia safety / alarm systems. 

112.2.18 Carbon monoxide safety / alarm warning systems. 

112.2.19 Clean agent fire extinguishing systems. 
Add Section 113 as follows: 

SECTION 113 

PUBLIC FIRE EDUCATION 

113.1 General. The fire code official shall have the authority to develop and implement a public fire safety education 
program as deemed necessary for the general welfare with respect to the fire hazards within the jurisdiction. 

113.2 Educational programs and messages. The fire code official shall have the authority to ensure that duly authorized 
public fire safety educational programs or public fire safety messages are disseminated to the general public. 

113.2.1 Juvenile firesetters intervention program. Juveniles suspected of firesetting— curious or malicious— 
shall be required to participate in the Denver Fire Department Juvenile Firesetters Intervention Program. 

Add Section 114 as follows: 

SECTION 114 

EMERGENCY PLANS AND PROCEDURES 

114.1 General. Where required, emergency plans, staff training, and emergency evacuation drills are required for all 
occupants. 

114.2. Plan requirements. Fmergency plans and emergency evacuation drills shall be developed in accordance with the 
Denver Fire Department Fire Prevention and Investigation Division's guidelines, NFPA 1600, Standard on 
Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Community Programs, and Chapter 4, Emergency Planning and 
Preparedness, of this code. 

114.3 Review. Emergency plans shall be submitted annually to the Division for review. 

114.4 Maintenance. Emergency plans shall be reviewed and updated annually. Revised plans shall be submitted for 
review and updates shall be provided whenever changes are made in the occupancy or physical arrangement of the 
building or fire protection systems or features. The owner or manager shall provide floor plans to the Denver Fire 
Department Fire Prevention and Investigation Division in a manner approved by the fire code official. The person 
developing/updating the emergency plans shall be certified by the Denver Fire Department. See IFCA Section 403.3. 

Add Section 115 as follows: 

SECTION 115 

FIRE ALARM MONITORING - PERMITS AND LICENSES 

115.1 General The provisions of this section apply to the installation, operation of, and scope of monitoring. 



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115.2 Central alarm station / Supervising station. These facilities, licensed by the Denver Fire Department, monitor 
remote fire alarm signaling systems when personnel licensed by the Denver Fire Department are in attendance at all times 
to take such action as required for the notification of the Denver Fire Department. 

115.3 Permits. Permits shall be obtained annually for central alarm station / supen/ising stations and the operators who 
take such action as required for notification of tiie Denver Fire Department. All central alarm station / supervising 
stations and operators shall have current— for current calendar year— permits and licenses. 

115.4 Definitions. 

CENTRAL ALARM STATION/SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives fire alarm signals and at which 
personnel are in attendance at all times to respond to these signals. A supervising station that is licensed for central 
station service. 

CLASS I FIRE ALARM MONITORING. The monitoring of a fire alarm system by a licensed central station that is 
required by Denver's Building and Fire Codes. 

CLASS II FIRE ALARM MONITORING. The monitoring of a fire alarm system by a licensed central station that is 
not required by Denver's Building and Fire Codes. 

OPERATOR. A competent person employed by a central alarm station and licensed by the Denver Fire Department to 
take such action as required for notification of the Denver Fire Department. 

RUNNER. A qualified person who responds to the location where a reported fire alarm system ahs been activated for the 
purpose of silencing, restoring, or confirming that the system is restored to a normal condition. 

115.5 License required. 

115.5.1 Central alarm station/supervising station. No person or public agency shall monitor fire alarm systems in 
the City and County of Denver without first obtaining a license to operate a Class I or Class II central alarm 
station/supervising station. 

115.5.2 Operator. No person shall be employed as an operator in a central alarm station/supervising station that 
monitors fire alarm systems in the City and County of Denver unless licensed as an apprentice operator or operator by 
the Denver Fire Department. 

115.5.2.1 Class I operator. A Denver Fire Department Class I Operator license shall authorize the holder to act 
as an operator in any central alarm station/supervising station. 

115.5.2.2 Class II operator. A Denver Fire Department Class II Operator license shall authorize the holder to act 
as an operator in any Class II central alarm station/supervising station. 

115.5.2.3 Apprentice operator. A Denver Fire Department Apprentice Operator license shall authorize the 
holder to act as an operator only under the constant supervision of a licensed operator. 

115.5.3 Runner. A Denver Fire Department central alarm station/supervising station Runner license shall authorize 
the holder to act as a runner for any Class I or Class II central alarm station/supervising station. 

115.6 Runner service. The central alarm station/supervising station shall provide runner service to all Class I alarms. 
Maximum response time from receipt of alarm to arrival of runner service shall not exceed 45 minutes. 



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CHAPTER 2 
DEFINITIONS 

SECTION 202 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

Add the following to definitions: 

ALTITUDE. Altitude is the measure of elevation typically relative to sea level. The generally recognized altitude of 
Denver, CO is 5,280 ft. Altitude has a direct impact on design considerations for life safety and property protection 
including but not limited to the physical properties of flammable and combustible liquids. See Section 3401.5.1. 

BIOHAZARD. See Section 2702.1. 

CARCINOGEN. See Section 2702.1. 

CENTRAL ALARM STATION/SUPERVISING STATION. Section 115.4. 

CLASS I FIRE ALARM MONITORING. See Section 115.4. 

CLASS II FIRE ALARM MONITORING. See Section 115.4. 

EMERGENCY shall mean one or more of the following: 

Fire, regardless of size or type 

Explosion 

Building, structure, or utility failure 

Rescue operations involving humans or animals, including people trapped in elevators due to power failure or 
mechanical malfunctions 

Failure of or damage to fire protection or life safety systems 

Exposure to a hazard(s) 

Panic 

Hazardous material leak or spill 

Overcrowding of any building or premises 

Rescue operations involving humans or animals injured or trapped in buildings, trenches, scaffolding, grandstands, 
etc. 

Any other hazard or situation involving or endangering life or property. 

LOWEST LEVEL OF FIRE DEPARTMENT VEHICLE ACCESS. See Section 502.1. 

NON-METALLIC RUBBISH CONTAINERS. See Section 304.3.2.1. 

OPERATOR. See Section 115.4. 

OTHER HEALTH HAZARD MATERIAL. See Section 2702.1. 

PROPERTY. See Section 402.1. 

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 2702.1. 

RELEASE/UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. See Section 2702.1. 

RUNNER. See Section 115.4. 

SENSITIZER. See Section 2702.1. 



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CHAPTERS 
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 

SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

Replace Section 301.2 as follows: 

301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in IFCA Section 105.6 for the activities or uses regulated by IFC 
Section 303-Asphalt Kettles; IFC Section 304- Combustible Waste Material; IFC Section 306-Motion Picture Projection 
Rooms and Film; IFC Section 307-Open Burning and Recreational Fires; IFCA Section 308-Open Flames; Section 309- 
Powered Industrial Trucks and Equipment; Section 311-Vacant Premises; Section 314-Indoor Displays; and 315- 
Miscellaneous Combustible Materials Storage. 

SECTION 304 

COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL 

Add Section 304.2.1 as follows: 

304.2.1 Required storage conditions. Combustible rubbish kept or accumulated within or adjacent to buildings, 
structures or residential dwelling units shall be in containers complying with this code, or in rooms or vaults 
constructed of non- combustible materials. 

Exception: 

Storage, accumulation, use and handling of combustible rubbish and waste, newspapers, magazines, etc. not 
in excess of 10 cubic feet aggregate. 

Add Sections 304.3.2.1, 304.3.4, 304.3.5 and 304.3.5.1 as follows: 

304.3.2.1 Non- metallic rubbish containers. Non- metallic rubbish containers exceeding 40 gallons capacity 
shall be manufactured of materials having a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 KN/m v\^en tEstBd in 
acoonfenoe with nationally recognized standands. Such containeis shall be pennanently labeled indicating 
c^}acity and peak ratB of heat release. 

304.3.4 Removal. Combustible rubbish stored in containers outside of noncombustible vaults or rooms shall be 
removed from buildings at least once each working day. 

304.3.5 Waste material handling operations. Occupancies exclusively performing commercial rubbish handling or 
recycling shall maintain rubbish or product to be processed or recycled as follows: 

1. In approved vaults 

2. In covered metal or metal- lined receptacles or bins, or 

3. Completely baled and stacked in an orderly manner in an approved location. 

304.3.5.1 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6 for a Waste Material Handling Plant. 

SECTION 308 
OPEN FLAMES 

Replace Section 308.3.1 as follows: 

308.3.1 Open-flame devices. No gas-fired grills, charcoal grills, or other similar devices used for cooking, heating, 
or any other purpose, shall be used or kindled on any balcony or under any overhanging portion or within 10 feet (3m) 
of any structure. 

Exceptions: 

1. One- and two-family dwellings. 

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2. LP-gas burners having an LP-gas container with a water capacity not greater than 2.5 pounds [nominal 1 
pound (0.454kg) LP-gas capacity]. Two extra 1 pound LP-gas containers may be stored on the balcony. 

3. Listed natural gas appliances shall be permitted on balconies when installed in accordance with the 
International Fuel Gas Code and supplied by the building's natural gas system. 

4. Listed electric ranges, grills, or similar electrical apparatus shall be permitted. 
Delete Section 308.3.1.1. 

SECTION 309 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS 

Replace Section 309.2 as follows: 

309.2 Battery charging operations. Battery- charging operations shall be located in areas designated for such purpose. 
Where on- board chargers are used, charging shall be accomplished at locations designated for such purpose. 

309.2.1 Battery chargers. Battery chargers shall be of an approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept a 
minimum of 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. 

309.2.2 Battery-charging areas. Battery- charging areas shall be kept free of extraneous combustible materials. 
Battery charging shall not be conducted in areas accessible to the public. 

309.2.2.1 Aggregate electrolyte capacity. For purposes of this section, and section 309.3, "aggregate electrolyte 
capacity" shall mean the total amount of electrolyte within one building. There shall be no maximum aggregate 
electrolyte capacity for any building, but when aggregate electrolyte capacity exceeds certain quantities, fire 
protection, construction and ventilation shall be required in accordance with this section. 

309.2.2.2 Battery-charging area fire protection. Where aggregate electrolyte capacity exceeds 100 gallons, 
battery- charging areas shall be protected with an automatic sprinkler system per IFC Section 903.3.1.1. 

Exception: 

Automatic sprinklers shall not be required where the amount of electrolyte per battery- charging area is 
100 gallons or less and the battery- charging areas are separated by a minimum of 75 feet. 

309.2.2.3 Battery-charging area construction. Where aggregate electrolyte capacity exceeds 100 gallons, 
battery charging areas shall be separated from the other portions of the building with a one-hour fire barrier 
constructed in accordance with International Building Code Chapter 7. 

Exceptions: 

1. One- hour fire barriers shall not be required where the amount of electrolyte per battery- charging area 
is 100 gallons or less and the battery- charging areas are separated by a minimum of 75 feet. 

2. In buildings that are protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system per IFC Section 
903.3.1.1., one- hour fire barriers shall not be required where the amount of electrolyte per battery 
charging area is 200 gallons or less and the battery- charging areas are separated by a minimum of 75 
feet. 

309.2.2.4 Smoking prohibited. Smoking shall be prohibited in battery- charging areas. "No Smoking" signs shall 
be provided in the charging area in accordance with Section 310.3. 

309.2.2.5 Neutralization. An approved method and materials capable of neutralizing a spill from the largest 
battery to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0 shall be provided. 

309.2.2.6 Spill control. Each rack or tray of batteries shall be provided with a liquid- tight 4-inch minimum spill 
control barrier which extends at least one-inch beyond the battery rack in all directions. Alternative methods of 
spill control are subject to approval by the fire code official. 

Exceptions: 

1. Spill control shall not be required where the amount of electrolyte per battery- charging area is 100 
gallons or less and the battery- charging areas are separated by a minimum of 75 feet. 

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2. In buildings that are protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system per IFC Section 
903.3.1.1., spill control shall not be required where the amount of electrolyte per battery charging 
area is 200 gallons or less and the battery- charging areas are separated by a minimum of 75 feet. 

Replace Section 309.3 as follows: 

309.3 Ventilation. Where aggregate electrolyte capacity exceeds 100 gallons, continuous ventilation shall be provided at 
a rate of not less than 1 cu-ft/min/sq. ft. of designated battery- charging area. 

Exceptions: 

1. Ventilation systems shall not be required where the amount of electrolyte per area is 100 gallons or less and 
the battery- charging areas are separated by a minimum of 75 feet. 

2. In buildings that are protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system per IFC A Section 903.3.1.1, 
ventilation systems shall not be required where the amount of electrolyte per battery charging area is 200 
gallons or less and the battery- charging areas are separated by a minimum of 75 feet. 

SECTION 315 

MISCELLANEOUS COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS STORAGE 

Add new Section 315.3.3 as follows: 

315.3.3 Outside storage of combustible material. Combustible material shall be piled with due regard to stability of 
piles and in no case higher than twenty (20) feet. When the area used for outside storage exceeds fifty (50) feet, but is 
less than one hundred fifty (150) feet, in any dimension, aisles of not less than eight (8) feet clear width shall be 
provided between piles. When the area used for outside storage exceeds one hundred fifty (150) feet in any 
dimension, a driveway between and around piles shall be at least fifteen (15) feet in width and maintained free of 
rubbish, equipment or other articles or materials. Driveways shall be so spaced that a maximum grid system unit of 
fifty (50) feet by one hundred fifty (150) feet is produced. 



CHAPTER 4 
EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 

SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

Delete the exception to Section 401.1 - Scope. 

Replace Section 401.3 as follows: 

401.3 Emergenq^ forces notification. In the event an emergency, including but not limited to, unwanted fire, hazardous 
materials discharge, medical incident, or environmental calamity including utility malfunction, occurs on a property, the 
owner, occupant, or any other person in responsible charge of the property or portion thereof, including their tenants and 
employees, shall immediately report the emergency to 911. Building employees and tenants shall implement the 
appropriate emergency plans and procedures. No person shall, by any means, require or otherwise purposely cause any 
delay in the reporting of an emergency. 

Add Section 401.3.4 as follows: 

401.3.4 Evidence of emergency. Upon discovery of evidence of an unwanted fire, hazardous materials discharge, 
medical incident, or environmental calamity, even though it appears to have been extinguished or otherwise stabilized, 
the owner, occupant, or any other person in responsible charge of the property or portion thereof, including their 
tenants and employees shall immediately notify tie Fire Department of the evidence including what is known of the 
location and circumstances. Such evidence shall not be disturbed, thus presen/ing data for the Fire Department to 
conduct an investigation. 

Add Section 401.6 as follows: 

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401.6 False alarm. No person shall deliberately or maliciously report a fire or unauthorized discharge of hazardous 
materials when that person knows that no fire or discharge exists. The person responsible for the false alarm shall 
reimburse the City for the total cost of responding to the false alarm. 

Add Section 401.7 as follows: 

401.7 Misleading information. It shall be unlawful for a person to willfully make any false, fraudulent, misleading, or 
unfounded report or statement or to willfully misrepresent any fact with the intention of misleading any Fire Department 
personnel or interfering with Fire Department operations. 

SECTION 402 
DEFINITIONS 

Add 'PROPERTY' definition to Section 402.1 as follows: 

PROPERTY. As used in this chapter, shall include private and public land in the undeveloped and developed state 
including the buildings, structures, paving and all other immobile improvements; natural features such as trees, shrubbery 
and similar botanical growth; and vehicles, vessels, equipment, materials and similar movable items located on them. 

SECTION 403 

PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGES AND EVENTS 

Replace Section 403.2.1 as follows: 

403.2.1 Contents. The public safety plan, where required by Section 403.2, shall address: 

Emergency vehicle ingress and egress 

Fire hydrant locations 

Local fire protection (suppression and alarm) 

Emergency medical services 

Public assembly areas 

The directing of both attendees and vehicles (including the parking of vehicles) 

Vendor and food concession distribution 

The need for the presence of law enforcement 

Emergency procedures and employee training 

Fire and emergency medical services personnel at the event 

All other conditions possibly hazardous to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy 

Add Section 403.3 as follows: 

403.3 Facility manager certification. All personnel responsible for facility maintenance, fire safety emergency 
procedures, evacuation plans, evacuation drills, employee training and response procedures, hazard communication, 
resident training, tenant identification, emergency response team formulation and training, hazardous materials 
management plans, hazardous materials inventory statement, etc. shall complete a Denver Fire Department training course 
and shall have a current certification by the Denver Fire Department. 

SECTION 404 

FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS 

Replace Section 404.3 as follows: 

404.3 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan contents shall be in accordance with Sections 404.3.1, 404.3.2, and 
Denver Fire Department policy on Emergency Procedures and Emergency Evacuation. 

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Replace Section 404.3.1, Item 1 as follows: 

1. Emergency egress or escape routes and whether evacuation of the building is to be complete or, where approved, 
by selected floors or areas only. Specifically address people with special needs. 

Replace Section 404.3.2, Item 2 as follows: 

2. The life safety strategy and procedures for notifying, relocating or evacuating occupants including those with 
disabilities. Provide a description of the building's life safety systems including fire alarm, fire sprinkler 
(including special suppression, standpipes, fire pumps, etc.), smoke control, elevator recall, areas of refuge, 
emergency power, etc. 

SECTION 405 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS 

Replace Section 405.1 as follows: 

405.1 General. Emergency evacuation drills complying with the provisions of this section shall be conducted as 
specified in Table 405.2 or when required by the fire code official. Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local 
authorities. Complete evacuation from the building of all persons required to participate is required. It shall be unlawful to 
refuse to participate or to interfere with Fire Department personnel conducting an emergency evacuation drill. 

Replace Table 405.2 as follows: 



FIRE AND EVA( 


TABLE 405.2 
CUATION DRILL FREQUENCY AND PARTICIPATION 


GROUP OR 
OCCUPANCY 


FREQUENCY 


PARTICIPATION 


Covered Mall Building*'" 


Annually 


Employees 


High Rise* 


Annually 


All occupants 


A'' 


Quarterly 


Employees 


B" 


Annually 


All occupants 


E 


Monthly' 


All occupants 


H 


Annually on each shift 


All occupants 


Md 


Quarterly on each shift 


All occupants 


1-2, 1-3, 1-4 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees 


M* 


Semiannually on each shift 


Employees 


R-1 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees 


R-2'' 


Four annually 


All occupants 


R-4 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees'* 



a. R-1, R-2, R-4, I-l, 1-2, 1-3, and 1-4 use Frequency and Participation listsd with those occupancies in Table 405.2; use High Rise Frequency and 
Participation for all other occupancies in High Rise buildings. 

b. As listed in Section 404.2. 

c. The frequency shall be allowed to be modified in accordance with Section 408.3.2. 

d. Fire and evacuation drills in residential care assisted living facilites shall include complete evacuation of the premises in accordance with Section 
408.10.5. Where occupants receive habilitation or rehabilitation training, fire prevention and fire safety practices shall be included as part of the 
training program. 

Add Section 405.10 as follows: 

405l1O Extent of EvacuatiGn. Rib and evacuation drills shall include the conplete evacuation from the building of 
all persons required to partidpate. It shall be a violation of this code to refuse to partidpatB or to intEifere with the 
Fire Department peisonnd conducting a fire and evacuation drill. 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



CHAPTERS 
FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 

SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

Amend Section 502.1 by adding the definition as follows: 

LOWEST LEVEL OF FIRE DEPARTMENT VEHICLE ACCESS. The lowest level of Fire Department vehicle 
access shall be measured from the lowest elevation of any required Fire Department access road located no more than 30 
feet from any exterior wall of the building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where the access road is permitted to be farther than 30 feet from any exterior wall of the building, the lowest 
level of fire department vehicle access shall be measured from the lowest elevation of any required Fire 
Department access road located no more than 50 feet from any exterior wall of the building. 

2. If any topography, waterway, non- negotiable grades or other similar conditions exist that preclude required 
Fire Department vehicular access, the fire code official is authorized to require additional fire protection 
systems as required by IFC Chapter 9. 

SECTION 503 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 

Replace Section 503.1.1, Exception #1 as follows: 

1. Where a building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with IFC Sections 903.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the 150 feet dimension may be increased to 250 feet. 
Access into interior courtyards shall be provided from two remote locations and access points shall be 
comprised of breezeways not less than 6 feet wide and having a height not less than the first story of the 
building. Location shall be approved by fire code official. 

Replace Section 503.2.1 as follows: 

503.2.1 Dimensions. The fire apparatus access road shall have an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 13 
feet, 6 inches. Fire apparatus access roads shall have an unobstructed width per Table 503.2. 1-A, except for approved 
security gates in accordance with IFC Section 503.6. 



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TABLE 503.2.1-A 
FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 


Type of Right of Way 


Minimum Clear 
Width 


Private or public streets serving single- family 
detached buildings or townhomes with alleys 


16 feet 


Private or public streets serving single- family 
detached buildings or townhomes, without 
alleys but with driveways that reach the street 


16 feet 


Private or public streets serving single- family 
detached buildings or townhomes, without 
alleys OR driveways that reach the street 


18 feet 


Multi- family buildings, two stories or less, 15 
units maximum per building; buildings with 
interior corridor(s) and a fire standpipe 
system complying with City ordinance 


20 feet 


Multi- family buildings, three or more stories, 
16 or more units 


25 feet 


Non- residential 


25 feet 


Cul de sac 


90 feet in diameter 


Hammerhead turnaround 


20feetwideby90 
feet long 



Replace Section 503.2.3 as follows: 

503.2.3 Surface. Fire apparatus access roads shall be designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of fire 
apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide all-weather driving capabilities. Permanent fire access surfaces shall 
be asphalt, concrete, or an approved surface capable of supporting imposed loads of fire apparatus. Temporary fire 
access surfaces during construction may consist of a gravel road base or asphalt or other approved surface. See IBC, 
Chapter 16 for Fire Department apparatus loading. 

Replace Section 503.2.4 as follows: 

503.2.4 Turning radius. The required turning radius of a fire apparatus access road shall be 25 feet inside and 50 
feet outside. 

Replace Section 503.2.7 as follows: 

503.2.7 Grade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road shall not exceed 5%. Maximum cross-slope shall be 
0.04ft/ft slope from lip to crown. 

Add Sections 503.6.1 and 503.6.2 as follows: 

503.6.1 Width. Security gates across a fire apparatus access road shall be a minimum 16 feet wide. 

503.6.2 Approved means of emergenq^ operation. Security gates across a fire apparatus access road shall be 
openable by one of the following means: 

1. Key box containing keys to gain necessary access, installed in an approved location. (See IFC Section 506.1) 

2. An approved lock. (See Section 506.1.1) 

3. A chain of 74 inch maximum non- case hardened steel. 

4. Emergency operation approved by fire code official. 

SECTION 504 

ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS 

Replace Section 504.1 as follows: 



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504.1 Require d access. Exterior doors and openings required by this code or the IBC, Section 903.2.10, shall be 
maintained readily accessible for emergency access by the Fire Department. An approved access walkway (5 feet 
minimum width) leading from fire apparatus access roads to exterior openings shall be provided. 

Exception: 

A lesser width may be provided when approved by the fire code official. 
Add Sections 504.1.1 and 504.1.2 as follows: 

504.1.1 Secured gate width. Secured gates and barricades shall be a minimum of 3 feet wide. 

504.1.2 Approved means of securing. Secured gates and barricades shall be openable by one of the following 
means: 

1. Key box containing keys to gain necessary access, installed in an approved location. (See IFC Section 506.1) 

2 . An approved lock. ( See IFC Section 506.1 . 1 ) 

3. A chain of 74 inch maximum non-case hardened steel. 

4. Means of securing approved by fire code official. 

Add Section 504.4 as follows: 

504.4 Roof hatches on buildings four or more stories above grade. All required interior stair enclosures that extend to 
the roof in any building four or more stories above grade, shall have, at the highest point of the stair enclosure, an 
approved roof hatch openable to the exterior. The hatch shall be a minimum of 16 square feet (1.5 m^) in area with a 
rdnirmmdimeaision of 2 feet (610 mm). 

Exception: 

Roof hatches are not required on pressurized stair enclosures and on stair enclosures complying with IBCA 
Section 1009.11.1. 

SECTION 507 

HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS 

Add Section 507.4 as follows: 

507.4 Prohibitions. The following prohibitions shall apply to all fences, walls or retaining walls, regardless of height: 

1. The use of barbed wire or any other sharp-pointed material as a fencing material or on top of fences or retaining 
walls is prohibited except when specifically approved by the Fire Department. 

2. The use of electrically charged fences or on top of fences or retaining walls is prohibited, except when specifically 
approved by the Fire Department. 

SECTION 508 

FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES 

Replace Section 508.2 as follows: 

508.2 Type of water supply. A water supply shall be connected to a reliable public water works system. All buildings 
classified by the IBC, Section 403 as a high-rise shall be provided with at least two (2) approved independent water 
supplies from a reliable public water works system. 

Delete Section 508.2.1 

Replace Section 508.2.2 as follows: 

508.2.2 Water tanks. New water tanks for fire protection shall be prohibited. 

Exceptions: 

1. Water tanks for fire protection may be used for NFPA 13D sprinkler systems for existing buildings when all 
of the following criteria are met: 

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a. W hen approved by D enver W ater and D enver Fire D epaitment. 

b. The building is two stories and less. 

c. Total building area is less than 2000 ftl 

d When l^draulic calculations demonstratB that the existing domestic water supply cannot support the 
system sprinkler demand per NFPA 13D. 

e. Occupants are able to evacuate independently in case of an emergency. 

f . Tanks for fire protection shall be installed in accondance with manufacturer. 

2. Existing water tanks for fire protection that were previously ^proved ty the Fire Department These 
tanks shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accondance with NFPA 25. 

Replace Section 508.3 as follows: 

508.3 Fire flow. Fire flow requirements shall be as determined in IFC Appendix B. Fach new or existing fire hydrant as 
required per Appendix C shall be capable of providing not less than 1500 GPM at 20 PSI residual pressure. 

Replace Section 508.5.1 as follows: 

508.5.1 Where required. Fire hydrants shall be located in accordance with IFC Appendix C. 

Replace Section 508.5.3 as follows: 

508.5.3 Private fire service mains and water tanks. Private fire service mains and water tanks are not permitted 
except for existing systems previously approved by the Fire Department and as allowed in IFC A Section 508.2.2. 
Fxisting private service mains and water tanks shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance 
with NFPA 25 at the following intervals: 

1. Private fire hydrants (all types): Inspection annually and after each operation; flow test and maintenance 
annually. 

2. Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, annually; flow test every five years. 

3. Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and maintenance after each use. 

Replace Section 508.5.5 as follows: 

508.5.5 Clear space around hydrants. A five- foot clear space around the circumference of fire hydrants shall be 
maintained except as otherwise required or approved. 

SECTION 509 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER 

Replace Section 509.1 as follows: 

509.1 Fire Command Center (FCC). All buildings classified by IBC Section 403 as a high-rise, shall be provided with 
an FCC in accordance with this section. The FCC shall be used for no other purpose unless approved by tiie Fire 
Department. Scale drawings of the FCC showing the location of all equipment and features, in plan and elevation views, 
shall be submitted for approval prior to installation. 

509.1.1 Fire command center construction. The FCC shall be contained in a room separated from the remainder of 
the building by 1-hour fire resistive construction. The FCC shall be a minimum of 96sf (9 sq m) with a minimum 
dimension of 8 ft. (2.438m). The FCC shall be ventilated and equipped with a smoke detector and high- temperature 
sprinklers. FCC lighting and power outiets and all equipment shall be connected to an approved emergency power 
supply. No piping, ducts or equipment foreign to required fire operations shall be permitted to enter, pass tiirough or 
be installed within the FCC. 

509.1.2 Fire command center location. Unless otherwise approved by the Fire Department: 

1. The FCC shall be located on the ground floor. 

2. The FCC entrance shall be directiy accessible and in immediate proximity to tiie main building entrance. 

509.1.3 Fire command center equipment. The FCC shall contain the following: 

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1. Emergency voice/alarm communication system unit per IFCA Section 907.2.12.2. 

2. Fire Department communication system per IFCA Section 907.2.12.3. 

3. Fire detection and alarm control unit and annunciator per IFCA Sections 907.1.2.2 and 907.2.12.4. 

4. Elevator status/Control panel per IFCA Section 907.2.12.15.1. 

5. Firefighter's smoke control panel per IFCA Section 907.2.24.5 

6. Manual controls for simultaneously unlocking stairway and refuge area doors per IBCA Appendix L. 

7. Emergency generator panel per IFCA Section 907.2.12.7. 

8. Telephone with controlled access to a public telephone network. 

9. Fire pump remote status panel per IFCA Section 907.2.12.8. 

10. Building as-built construction plans indicating typical floor and roof plans, detailing the building core, means 
of egress, fire protection system drawings, fire fighting equipment. Fire Department access, interior generator 
and utility shut-off locations. These drawings shall be protected from damage and immediately accessible to 
the Fire Department, and a storage rack to support these drawing shall be provided. 

11. Building site plan with; "North" orientation, local street intersection, fire hydrants. Fire Department 
connections, building entries, exterior generator and fuel locations and exterior utility shut-off locations. 

12. Work table 3' x 5' and chair. 

13. Public address system equipment, where specifically required by other sections of this code. 

14. A key vault approved by the Fire Department to house keys to access mechanical and electrical equipment. 

15. Two-way communication required by IBC Section 1007.6.3; Appendix L, Section L 106.1.7, Exception 3; and 
IBC Section 3001.2. 

16. Multi-level lighting control. Separately switched lamps or dimming control is acceptable. Dimming of 
fluorescent fixtures shall be by EMI/RFI shielded devices. 

Add Section 509.2 as follows: 

509.2 Fire command room. A fire command room is required in covered mall buildings, special amusement building, 
and all Group A occupancies with a room with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. The fire command room shall be of 1- 
hour fire resistive construction. It shall be a minimum of 24ft^ (2.23rri) vvith anirdrmradear drnension of 3ft (SO.Scn^ 
in front of the control equipment The fire command room shall contain the following equipment, v\taB required: 

1. Emergency voic^alami communication system 

2. Smoke control panel, v\^ere pro^dded 

3. Generator status panel, v\taB pro^dded 

4. Fire punp status panel, v\tere provided 

SECTION 510 

FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT 

Add Section 510.2 as follows: 

510.2 Access to fire pumps. Access to fire pumps in new buildings constructed after adoption of the 2006 IFC shall be 
located at grade level with direct access to outside or located one level below grade. Pump rooms that are located one 
level below grade shall be placed such that there are no intervening rooms between the stairway door serving that level 
and the pump room. Door sen/ing the pump room shall be within 25 ft of the stairway door. The stairway that serves the 
lower level shall exit directly to outside. Where a dedicated stairway is provided to access the pump room and mechanical 
rooms, stairway width shall not be less than 36 inches. 



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CHAPTER 6 
BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 

SECTION 603 
FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES 

Replace Sections 603.4 and 603.4.1 with the following: 

603.4 Portable unvented heaters. Portable unvented fuel-fired heating equipment is prohibited within the City and 
County of Denver. 

Replace Section 603.8.1 as follows: 

603.8.1 Residential incinerators. Residential incinerators are prohibited within the City and County of Denver. 

SECTION 604 

EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS 

Replace Section 604.1 in its entirety as follows: 

604.1 Installation. Emergency and standby power systems required by this code or the IBC shall be installed in 
accordance with this code, NFPA 110 and NFPA 111. Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance with the 
original approval. 

604.1.1 Stationary generators. Stationary emergency and standby power generators shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 37, NFPA 70 (National Electrical Code). NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 and listed per UL 2200. Emergency 
power systems shall be as defined in NFPA 70, Article 700 [NFPA 37 Type 10]. Standby power systems required by 
this or other adopted codes and standards of the local authorities having jurisdiction shall be as defined in NFPA 70, 
Article 701 [NFPA 37 Type 60]. Other standby power systems shall be as defined in NFPA 70, Article 702. 

604.1.1.1 Fuel supply. Fuel systems for internal combustion prime movers of emergency and required standby 
power systems shall be an on-site diesel fuel supply. Optional standby power systems may be fueled from any 
approved source excluding Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Fuel storage and handling shall comply with this 
code. 

604.1.2 Stored energy emergenq^ or standby power systems. Stored energy emergency and standby power systems 
shall be installed in accordance with IFC Section 608 and NFPA 111. 

Replace Section 604.2.1 as follows: 

604.2.1 Group A occupancies. Emergency power shall be provided for emergency voice/alarm communication 
systems in Group A occupancies in accordance with IFCA Section 907.2.1.1.2. 

Replace Section 604.2.2 as follows: 

604.2.2 Smoke control systems. Emergency power shall be provided for smoke control systems in accordance with 
IFC Section 909.11. 

Replace Section 604.2.3 as follows: 

604.2.3 Exit signs. Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs in accordance with IBCA Section 1011.4.3. 

Replace Section 604.2.6 as follows: 

604.2.6 Accessible means of egress platform lifts. Emergency power in accordance with this section or ASME 
A 18.1 shall be provided for platform lifts that are part of an accessible means of egress in accordance with IFC 
Section 1007.5. 

604.2.6.1 Accessible means of egress two-way communication. Emergency power shall be provided for the 
two-way communication system that is part of an accessible means of egress in accordance with IFCA Section 
1007.6.3. 

Replace Section 604.2.14 as follows: 

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602.2.14 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4,645 m^) shall be puvided with 
emagency power systems v\hich are c^Dalle of opessting the emes:gency voioo^dami oonrmnicalion systerq, tlie smoke 
rontrol systHnforfoirac|aoentzonesperIFCA, Section 909.6, tlie fire purrp and one aajessaMedevabor. 

Replace Section 604.2.15 as follows: 

604.2.15 High-rise buildings. Emergency power, light and emergency systems in high-rise buildings shall comply with 
the requirements of IFCA Sections 604.2.15.1 through 604.2.15.3. 

604.2.15.1 Emergenq^ power. An emergency power system shall be provided. Where the emergency system is a 
generator set inside a building, the generator shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers or 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with the International Building Code, or both. System supen/ision 
with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center. A generator set shall be located 
at grade level, or one level below grade, and the filling connection shall be located outside of the building. 

604.2.15.1.1 Fuel supply. An on- premises fuel supply, sufficient for not less than 8-hour full-demand 
operation of tiie system, shall be provided. 

604.2.15.1.2 Capacity. The emergency system shall have a capacity and rating tiiat supplies all required 
equipment simultaneously. 

Exception: 

Elevator operation on emergency power shall comply with IFCA Section 604.2.15.1.3. 

604.2.15.1.3 Connected facilities. Electrical power and lighting for the fire command center and all life 
safety systems equipment, elevators specified in IBC Sections 403.8 and 403.9, emergency egress lighting, 
exit signs, equipment installed to maintain fire protection systems at no less than 40°F (4°C), radio 
enhancement systems, electrically powered fire pumps, fuel transfer pumps for fire pump(s) and generator 
set(s), shall be capable of being powered by tiie emergency generator set simultaneously. Sufficient 
emergency power shall be provided to simultaneously operate two elevators for each group of elevators 
controlled by a common operation system. Additional emergency power shall be provided for the elevator car 
that has been designated to accommodate an ambulance stretcher as described in IBC A Section 3002.4 if this 
car is not included in one of the groups above and be transferable to any elevator. 

Exception: 

Sufficient emergency power shall be provided for only one elevator for each group of elevators 
controlled by a common operating system that serve only open parking levels of the high-rise 
building. 

604.2.15.2 Separate circuits and luminaires. Separate lighting circuits and luminaires shall be required to 
provide sufficient light with an intensity of not less than 1 foot- candle (11 lux) measured at floor level in all 
means of egress corridors, stairways, smokeproof enclosures, elevator cars and lobbies, and other areas which are 
clearly a part of tiie escape route. 

604.2.15.2.1 Other circuits. Circuits supplying lighting for the fire command center and mechanical equipment 
rooms shall be transferable to the emergency source. 

604.2.15.3 Emergency systems. Exit signs, exit illumination as required by IFC Chapter 10, and elevator car 
lighting are classified as emergency systems and shall operate within 10 seconds of failure of the normal power 
supply and shall be capable of being transferred to the emergency source. 

604.2.15.4 Fire pumps. An emergency power source shall be provided for electric motor driven fire pumps in 
accoMance witii NFPA 70 Article 700 and installed per NFPA 20 and NFPA 70, Article 695. 

Replace Section 604.2.16 as follows: 

604.2.16 Underground buildings. Emergency power systems in underground buildings covered in IBC Chapter 4 
shall comply witii IFC Sections 604.2.16.1 and 604.2.16.2. 

604.2.16.1 Emergency power. An emergency power system complying with NFPA 70 shall be provided for 
emergency power loads as specified in Section 604.2.16.1.1. 

604.2.16.1.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads are classified as emergency power loads: 

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1 . Emergency voice/alarm communication systems 

2. Fire alarm systems 

3. Automatic fire detection systems 

4. Elevator car lighting 

5. Means of egress lighting and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10 

6. Smoke control system 

7. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures 

8. Fire pumps 

9. Elevators in accordance with IBC Section 3003 

Add Section 604.2.19.5 as follows: 

604.2.19.5 Two or more elevators in a high-rise building. Sufficient emergency power shall be provided to 
simultaneously operate two elevators for each group of elevators controlled by a common operating system. 
Additional emergency power shall be provided for the elevator car that has been designated to accommodate an 
ambulance stretcher as described in IBC Section 3002.4 if this car is not included in one of the groups above. 

Exception: 

Sufficient emergency power shall be provided for only one elevator for each group of elevators controlled 
by a common operating system that serves only open parking levels of the high-rise building. 

SECTION 606 

MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION 

Replace Section 606.8 with the following: 

606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The 
detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will 
concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the 
International Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved 
locations. Alarm notification devices shall be located on the interior and exterior of the machinery room. Refrigerant leak 
alarms shall be interconnected with the base building fire alarm system. The refrigerant alarm device shall be distinctly 
annunciated as a separate alarm zone at the building annunciator panel. 

SECTION 608 

STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS 

Replace Section 608.5 as follows: 

608.5 Spill control and neutralization. An approved method and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of 
electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead- acid, nickel- cadmium or other types of batteries with free- flowing 
liquid electrolyte. Each rack of batteries or groups of racks shall be provided witii a liquid- tight 4-inch (101.6mm) 
minimum spill-control barrier which extends at least 1-inch (25.4 mm) beyond the battery rack in all directions. For the 
purposes of this paragraph, a "spill" is defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte. 

Exception: 

VRLA, lithium-ion or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill control. 



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CHAPTER? 
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 

SECTION 704 

FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS 

Replace Section 704.1 as follows: 

704.1 Enclosure. Existing interior vertical shafts, including but not limited to stairways, elevator hoistways, service and 
utility shafts, shall be enclosed and protected with assemblies and features specified in the building and fire codes, 
including applicable Modifications Under Special Circumstances and retrofit ordinances, under which the building or 
structure in which it is located was last certified for occupancy. Protection features and required fire- resistance ratings of 
existing enclosures shall be maintained. 

New shaft enclosures shall comply with the International Building Code and IBCA except laundry and refuse chutes shall 
also comply with NFPA 82. 

Delete Table 704.1. 



CHAPTERS 
IISTTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 

SECTION 806 

DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

Replace 806.1.1, Exception 1 as follows: 

1. Trees located in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
IFC Sections 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall not be prohibited in Group M. 

Add Section 806.6 as follows: 

806.6 Natural combustible vegetation. Natural combustible vegetation is prohibited in A, E, 1-3, R-1, R-2 dormitory, 
and R-4 occupancies. 

Exception: 

Limited quantities of natural combustible vegetation shall be permitted in these occupancies where the fire code 
official determines that adequate safeguards are provided based on the quantity and nature of the natural 
combustible vegetation. Flame resistance or flame retardance shall be demonstrated by each individual natural 
combustible vegetation item in an approved manner. The use of unlisted electrical wiring and lighting on natural 
combustible vegetation shall be prohibited 

Replace Section 807.4.3.2 as follows: 

807.4.3.2 Classroom artwork and teaching material. Artwork and teaching material attached directly to the school 
classroom walls shall be in accordance with the following provisions: 

Classroom walls may be used to attach student artwork, other artwork, and teaching materials not to exceed fifty 
(50) percent of the area of each wall when the school is not protected throughout by an automatic fire sprinkler 
system and eighty (80) percent of the area of each wall when the school is protected throughout by an automatic 
fire sprinkler system. The area of each wall is defined as being the height from the floor to the ceiling multiplied 
by the length of the wall, excluding door and window openings. Artwork and teaching materials shall not be 
attached to any wall within eighteen (18) inches of the exit access door. Doors and windows, including 
window/view panels of interior exit access doors, shall not be covered. The use of crepe paper that is not listed as 
flame resistant is prohibited. 

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Exceptions: 

1. Building interior finish materials (e.g., metal lockers). 

2. Artwork or teaching materials that are listed as non- combustible. 

3. Artwork or teaching materials that are contained within non- combustible containers or coverings 
(e.g., metal and glass display cases). 

Add Section 807.4.3.3 as follows: 

807.4.3.3 Exit corridor artwork and teaching materials. Artwork and teaching material attached directly to the 
school exit corridor walls shall be in accordance with the following provisions: 

Exit corridor walls may be used to attach student artwork, other artwork, and teaching materials not to exceed 
thirty (30) percent of the area of each corridor wall when the school is not protected throughout by an automatic 
fire sprinkler system and sixty (60) percent when the school is protected throughout by an automatic fire sprinkler 
system. The area of each corridor wall is defined as being the height from the floor to the ceiling multiplied by 
the length of each wall, excluding door and window openings. Artwork and teaching materials shall not be 
attached to any wall within eighteen (18) inches of the exit access door. Doors and windows, including 
window/view panels of interior exit access doors, shall not be covered. The use of crepe paper that is not listed as 
flame resistant is prohibited. 

Exceptions: 

1 . B uilding interior finish materials (e.g., metal lockers) . 

2 . A rtwork or teaching materials that are listed as non-combustible. 

3. Artwork or teaching materials that are contained within non-combustible containers or coverings 
(e.g., metal and glass display cases). 

Add Section 807.4.3.4 as follows: 

807.4.3.4 Ceiling artwork and teaching materials. Artwork and teaching materials suspended from classroom and 
exit corridor ceilings shall be in accordance with the following provisions: 

1. The total area of materials suspended from ceilings shall be deducted from the percent of wall space for 
classrooms and for exit or access corridors that artwork and teaching materials can be attached to in accordance 
with IFCA Sections 807.4.3.2 and 807.4.3.3. 

2. Wires or cords used to suspend student artwork and teaching materials from the ceiling cannot be strung from 
comer to comer and cannot be stmng parallel to any wall more than six (6) inches from the walls. 

3. Display of student artwork and teaching materials on wires or cords perpendicular to exit corridor walls 
stmng from corridor wall to corridor wall shall not form a continuous combustible curtain. There shall be a 
minimum clearance of seven (7) feet from the floor to the lowest portion of the display. 

4. Display of student artwork and teaching materials shall not impair visibility or distract attention from the exit 
sign. 

5. No material shall be attached to light fixtures; thermal or smoke detectors; exit signs; fire sprinkler piping, 
valves, or sprinkler heads, etc. The ceiling stmcture must be capable of supporting the student artwork and/or 
teaching materials. 

6. The display of student artwork or teaching materials shall not obstmct or compromise in any manner the fire 
sprinkler or fire detection system. 



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CHAPTERS 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

SECTION 903 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

Add Exception to Section 903.1.1 as follows: 
Exception: 

Chapter 21 Section 21.20 in 2007 NFPA 13 shall be deleted. 
Add Section 903.2.7.1 as follows: 

903.2.7.1 Balconies. Sprinkler protection shall be provided for all balconies and ground floor patios of dwelling 
units of all construction types. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be located such that 
their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members, and a maximum 
distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck, or as listed by the sprinkler manufacturer. 

Exception: 

Sprinklers are not required for noncombustible balconies where the balcony is not supplied by fuel gas 
and one of the following is met: 

1. The roof or other overhead structure does not cover more than 50% of the entire balcony area; or, 

2. The balcony has openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings must be at least 20 
percent of the total perimeter wall area of the balcony. The aggregate length of the openings shall 
constitute a minimum of 40 percent of the perimeter of the balcony. 

Add Section 903.2.7.2 as follows: 

903.2.7.2 Townhouses. When two or more contiguous residential dwelling units constructed as townhouses, 
including those permitted under the International Residential Code, are protected by a single, monitored sprinkler 
system, that system shall be configured so flow is annunciated separately at the fire alarm control panel for each 
dwelling unit and each protected common area. 

Amend Section 903.2.8.1 by adding Items #4 and #5 as follows: 

4. Repair garages with a spray booth and/or a mixing area greater than 16 square feet utilizing flammable 
finishes. 

Exception: 

It is not necessary to install sprinklers throughout the entire building when replacing a previously- 
approved, existing booth. 

5. Repair garages using open flame or welding of any type where the garage floor area exceeds 3,000 square 
feet. 

Amend Section 903.3.1.1 by adding the following after the last sentence: 

Exception: 

Provisions of Section 903.3.1.1.1 shall not apply for new construction of elevator hoistways and machine 
rooms or spaces. New or retrofit elevators installed in existing buildings shall comply with Department 
policy. Where required by NFPA 13, hoistways and machine rooms/spaces shall be protected by 286 degree 
F sprinklers. Coverage shall be designed for Ordinaiy Hazard Group One. Sprinklers shall be supplied from 
a separate, independent branch line with a readily accessible indicating shut-off valve located outside the 
hoistway or room. Valves shall carry identification signs. Where machine room- less (MRL) elevator 
equipment is installed in an elevator hoistway, sprinkler protection shall be provided at the top of the shaft in 
all instances. 

Amend Section 903.3.1.2 by adding the following after the last sentence: 

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Exception: 

Where machine room-less (MRL) elevator equipment is installed in an elevator hoistway, sprinkler protection 
shall be provided at the top of the hoistway. Sprinklers shall be 286 degree F. Coverage shall be designed for 
Ordinary Hazard Group One. Sprinklers shall be supplied from a separate, independent branch line with a 
readily accessible indicating shut-off valve located outside the hoistway. Valves shall carry identification 
signs. 

Replace Section 903.3.5.1 as follows: 

903.3.5.1 Domestic service. Domestic service for water supply to automatic fire sprinklers for fire suppression 
shall be prohibited. 

Exceptions: 

1. Water supply for new NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Refer to IFCA Section 508.2.2 for water tanks. 

2. UL-300 listed fire suppression system in buildings that are not required by IFC Section 903 to be 
equipped with automatic sprinklers. 

Delete Section 903.3.5.1.1 

Delete Section 903.3.5.1.2 

Replace Section 903.3.7 as follows: 

903.3.7 Fire department connections. The location of fire department connections shall be field approved by the 
fire code official prior to installation. 

Replace Section 903.4.2 as follows: 

903.4.2 Alarms. Approved audible/visible devices (24 VDC supervised) shall be connected to every automatic 
sprinkler system. Such sprinkler water flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a 
single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall be provided on the exterior of 
the building at least 10 feet above grade and within 25 feet of and visible from the fire department connections. 
Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire 
alarm system. 

SECTION 904 

ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Replace Section 904.3.5 as follows: 

904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire- extinguishing systems shall be 
monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with IFCA Section 907. 

904.3.5.1 Releasing panel. Alternative automatic fire- extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with 
IFCA Section 907.14.1. 

SECTION 905 
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

Replace Section 905.1 as follows: 

905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire 
hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with Denver Fire 
Department hose threads - 2. 5- inch hose thread is national standard; 1.5- inch hose thread is a special 11.5 threads per 
inch. The location of Fire Department hose connections shall be approved by the fire code official. Standpipe valve 
outlets, including ancillary equipment (PRVs, drains, etc.) shall not reduce the required width of stairway. 

905.1.1 Standpipe hose outlets. Each outlet shall have a cap and chain. Outlets shall be at least 36 inches and not 
more than 52 inches above finished floor. The valves shall have no less than 3 inches clearance around control valve 
and outlet cabinet shall not impede attachment of hose. 

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Replace Section 905.2 as follows: 

905.2 Installation standard. Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance witli this section and NFPA 14. When 
water pressure at a standpipe outlet exceeds 175 psi residual at 250 gpm flow, a pressure- reducing valve shall be provided. 
The required pressure- reducing valves shall be located at the hose valve outlet. The pressure- reducing valves shall not be 
located on the standpipe riser. Only field- adjustable valves that have a nested spring design utilizing two custom springs 
allowing low torque field adjustment of the pressure- reducing functions shall be allowed. The valve shall have five (5) 
field-adjustable valve settings (A-E) on a color-coded indication label. Pin-in hex security screws shall be installed to 
secure tiie hand wheel and a high- impact plastic shield covering the pressure- reducing adjustment mechanism. A pin- in 
hex bit shall be supplied with each valve. The pressure adjustment mechanism shall be actuated using an aluminum 
adjustment rod provided with each valve and actuated by rotating in either a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. 
Pressure gauge taps shall be provided on inlet and discharge sides of each valve. A reflective decal shall be installed on 
the high-impact plastic shield with arrows and words indicating the direction to increase or decrease pressure. If special 
tools are required to make field adjustments, a minimum of four (4) such tools shall be provided at locations approved by 
the Fire Department. 

Replace Exceptions in Section 905.3.1 as follows: 

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with IFC Sections 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 subject to the provisions of IFCA Section 913. 

2. Class I automatic dry standpipes are allowed in single use or mixed- use open parking garages in accordance 
with IFCA Section 913.6(2) where the highest floor is located not more than seventy-five (75) feet above the 
lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access. In a mixed- use parking garage, the standpipe system serving 
the open parking garage shall be integrated with the fire protection system serving the other occupancies, and 
not be a stand-alone system. Hose connections shall be located as required for Class II standpipes in 
accordance with IFC Section 905.5. 

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in single use open parking garages where the highest floor is less 
than 55 feet from the lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access. Hose connections shall be located as 
required for Class II standpipes in accordance with IFC Section 905.5. This provision is applicable to open 
parking garages with one level of underground enclosed parking garage. 

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system. 

5. Intentionally deleted. 

Delete Section 905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. 

Delete Section 905.5.3 Class II system 1-inch hose. 

SECTION 906 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

Amend Section 906.1 by deleting Exception to Item #1. 

Add Section 906.2.1 as follows: 

906.2.1 Verification of service collars. Every portable fire extinguisher, regardless of type, shall have a verification of 
sen/ice collar in accordance with NFPA 10 Section 7.3.3.2. Only collars available at the Denver Fire Department are 
allowed. Collars shall not be cut. 

Add Section 906.3.1 as follows: 

906.3.1 Distribution in R-1 and R-2 occupancies. In R-1 and R-2 occupanices with entrances to dwelling units 
opening to outside, the maximum travel distance to a fire extinguisher from any point in the occupancy shall be 
placed no more than 75 feet. Alternatively, fire extinguishers may be placed inside each dwelling unit when 
approved by the Fire Department. 

SECTION 907 

FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 

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Replace Section 907.1 as follows: 

907.1 General requirements. This section covers tlie application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm 
systems and their components. Fire alarm systems, automatic fire detectors, emergency voice/alarm communication 
systems and notification devices shall be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 72. Installation 
system wiring shall also be in accordance with NFPA 70 {National Electrical Code) and NFPA 72 {National Fire Alarm 
Code). 

907.1.1 Construction documents. Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for permit 
application as a deferred submittal per IBCA Section 154. Document review and approval is required prior to issuance 
of a permit for system installation. Two sets of scaled, engineered installation shop drawings shall be submitted. 
Documents shall be of sufficient clarity and detail to fully describe the scope of work. Handwritten notes and 
comments on reproduced drawings are not acceptable. Documents shall include, but are not limited to, the following 
as applicable: 

1. Completed permit application with exact address, location of work, name and address of responsible design 
agency and original seal and signature of the design professional. 

2. Building occupancy classification and occupant load for each occupancy classification. 

3. Manufacturers' specification sheets for all equipment and devices. 

4. Code reference used as a basis of design, including any administrative modifications or Board of Appeals 
decisions. 

5. Identification of system as code-required, non- required code- compliant or user-defined. 

6. V oice message content and language(s) for voice evacuation systems. 

7. Complete sequence of operation including: 

a. Elevator recall 

b. Smoke control 

c. HV AC system shutdown 

d. Alarm conditions 

e. Trouble and supervisory conditions 

f. Emergency voice/alarm communication system 

g. Two-way firefighter's voice communication system in accordance with IFCA Section 907.2.12.3. 

h. Special systems, e.g., dry/pre- action sprinkler systems, clean agent suppression systems, kitchen hoods, 
laundry and trash chutes, etc. 

8. Identification of air-handling units with airflow exceeding 2,000 cfm (.94cu m/s) and 15,000 cfm (7.08cu 
m/s). 

9. Identification of air- handling units used for smoke control. 

10. Voltage-drop calculations using either the device- by- device method or where the entire load is lumped at the 
end of the circuit. The calculations shall use the listed RMS current draw at 20.4volts for new systems. The 
voltage on a circuit shall not drop below 16 volts at the last appliance. The "R" values used for conductors 
shall be per NFPA 70 (NEC) for uncoated copper conductors. Voltage-drop calculations for additional 
devices on existing system shall be done in the same manner with the same values, as the original calculations 
for the system. 

11. Battery calculations for control panels and power supplies. Calculation to include 20% de- rating. 

12. Scale drawings of each area where work on the fire alarm is to be performed, including north arrow, building 
address and local street intersections. The drawings shall show location of all equipment and devices, 
including existing devices and end-of-line resistors, room identification by number and function (as 
applicable), attic and ceiling details for areas with automatic detection. 

13. Mounting heights of wall mounted devices. 

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14. Symbol list with quantities of each device. Symbols shall comply with NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety 
Symbols. 

15. Power supply connection details. System single line riser showing all devices. 

16. A separate single line drawing of the pre- amps, amplifiers, interconnecting wiring, and methods used to 
provide sun/ivability of the voice communication system. 

17. Fire alarm circuit identification, in accordance with NFPA 72, including wire color code. 

18. Interconnection wiring. 

19. Central station designation. 

20. Full-scale drawings of annunciators, zone maps and firefighter's smoke control panels. 

21. Reflected ceiling plan, where full smoke detection is provided. 

22. Conduit- fill calculations 
Exceptions: 

1. A permit may be issued for fire alarm "conduit only rough-in" without approved plans. A "conduit only 
rough-in" permit may be issued to a contractor with either an electrical or electrical signal contractor's 
license. This permit shall not authorize installation of any system devices. The "conduit only rough-in" 
permit applies to device back boxes and conduit stubs. The contractor shall be responsible for any 
changes required by the Department plan review. 

2. Fire alarm "walk-thru" permits may be issued in accordance with the following: 

a) Circumstances in which permits may be requested: 

1. New devices or appliances connected to existing fire alarm systems in other than Group H and I 

occupancies. Installation shall be limited to a maximum of twelve notification appliances (audible 
and/or visible) and/or six initiating devices. Initiating devices connected to access control 
systems, or installed in battery rooms, are not permitted for "walk- thru." 

2. Transferring existing monitoring companies to a new provider and new dialer. 

3. Emergency fire alarm panel replacement for existing system. The panel shall be compatible and 

functional to the panel being replaced. 

b) Limitations: 

1. Hours: Monday through Friday from 7:30 to 11:30 a.m. (except for holidays). 

2. Maximum number of permits reviewed or issued shall be limited to three per day per contractor. 

c) Two sets of shop drawings shall be provided. The shop drawings submission shall include the 
following as applicable: 

1. Completed permit application. 

2. Building code occupancy classification. 

3. Manufacturers' specification sheets and equipment listing sheets for new equipment and devices. 

4. Installation codes and standards used. 

5. Type of system and reason system is provided (required, non- required). 

6. Sequence of operation. 

7. Identification of duct detectors in air-handling units exceeding 2,000 cfm (.94cu m/s) (not 
required in VAV boxes less than 2000cfm (.94cu m/s) each, but aggregate air flow exceeding 
2000cfm (.94cu m/s) boxes served by central fan system). 

8. Voltage drop calculations and battery calculations. 

9. Description of annunciation assignments (complete zone schedule). 



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10. Shop drawings, drawn to scale, including a drawing for each building level involved, with a north 
arrow for compass orientation and depicting all control and annunciation panels and peripheral 
devices. Shop drawings shall bear the seal and signature of a Professional Engineer licensed by 
the State of Colorado or NICET Level III. 

11. Plan for upgrading existing annunciator panel, if applicable. 

12. Mine diagram showing scope of work and identifying new devices 

13. Site address, identification of each room's usage, and areas having automatic detection. 

14. Provide building details (i.e., attics, ceiling cavities, etc.). 

15. Mounting heights for manual fire alarm boxes and strobes. 

16. Primary power supply connection details and symbol list. 

907.1.2 Equipment. Systems and their components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are 
installed. Installation locations of all control panels and annunciators are subject to field approval by the Fire 
Department. Keys for all equipment required to be accessible to the Fire Department shall be maintained in an 
approved location per IFC Section 506. All components shall be compatible with the system in which installed. 

907.1.2.1 Connections to other systems. A fire alarm system shall not be used for any purpose other than fire 
warning or as specifically approved (e.g. pool alarm, access control release per IBCA, elevator recall and shunt 
trip, and emergency alarms perlFCA Section 907.2.5.1). 

907.1.2.2 Control units, annunciator panels and access keys. All fire alarm control units and annunciator 
panels shall be UL 864 listed or equivalent. Locations should be within 10' (3.048m) of the main building 
entrance, unless specifically approved for an alternate location, and are subject to field approval prior to 
installation. Installation shall comply with NFPA 72. Access keys to locked fire alarm equipment shall be 
maintained in an approved location. Fire alarm control units shall not be equipped with a key or special numeric 
code to access system reset and silence functions. Access to the reset and silence operator interface shall be 
secured behind a locked door. Field modification of control units or annunciators is not permitted. System zone 
and device disable functions shall not be accessible without a maintenance-level access code. Alarm signals shall 
be protected from unauthorized deactivation. This applies to disconnection of the panel alarm transmission to the 
monitoring station and the alarm output circuit(s) to notification appliances. Deactivation shall only be allowed 
by Fire Department personnel or authorized entities responsible for system testing and maintenance. Any system 
deactivation shall be reported to the monitoring station and the Fire Department. Facilities whose systems are 
estimated to be deactivated for 10 hours or more shall be provided with a fire watch. 

Exception: 

In existing buildings undergoing a panel replacement, remote annunciators with silence and reset 
functions may be provided when approved by the Fire Department. These units shall not be equipped with 
"enable/disable" switches and shall be contained behind a transparent, lockable cover. 

907.1.3 Central station connection. All fire alarm systems required by this code or by special agreement shall be 
monitored by an approved Class I central station (as defined in tiie Denver Municipal Code) licensed by the Denver 
Fire Department. Multiple central station connections from one building are not permitted. Alternatively, Fire 
Department radio boxes may be installed at locations approved by the Fire Department. These boxes shall typically 
be installed at locations of high- hazard, high occupancy that require immediacy of response due to limitations in the 
occupants' capabilities for self-preservation. Under no circumstances shall a radio box be removed from a protected 
premise without written approval of the Fire Department. 

907.1.4 Multiple systems in a single building. Only one system shall be installed per building. Multiple points of 
silence and reset are prohibited on a single system. 

Exceptions: 

1 . When permitted by the Fire Code official, portions of a building separated by fire walls without openings 
and identified with separate legitimate addresses are allowed to be considered separate buildings. When 
protected by an automatic sprinkler system, each portion of the building so considered shall be protected 
by a separate independent sprinkler system or a portion of a single sprinkler system dedicated to the 
separated portion of the building. 

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2. Multiple points of silence and reset as allowed by Section 907.1.2.2. 

907.1.5 Problematic systems. Fire alarm and detection systems that generate two (2) or more unintentional false 
alarms within twenty-four (24) hours, three (3) or more within thirty (30) days, or ten (10) or more within one year 
shall be immediately repaired or replaced as necessary. A fine will be imposed for any unintentional false alarms 
exceeding ten within one year. A permit must be obtained for all work. 

907.1.6 Systems out of service. Systems undergoing maintenance or modification shall not have any portion of the 
system out of sen/ice for more than ten hours. During maintenance or modification, all manual pull stations and 
notification appliances shall remain operational. Fire watch must be provided to all areas of the building where 
maintenance or modification will place any portion of the system out of service. Tenant finish operations shall be in 
accordance with Building and Fire Department policy. 

Replace Section 907.2.1.1 as follows: 

907.2.1.1 Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. 

907.2.1.1.1 Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more per 
space, or an occupant load of 300 or more per space and with a cumulative Group A occupant load of 1000 or 
more, shall immediately initiate an approved prerecorded message announcement using an approved 
emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with IFCA Section 907.2.12.2 as applicable. In 
very high noise areas, such as theaters, night clubs, ballrooms and dance halls, the system shall be designed to 
reduce or eliminate the background noise upon alarm initiation. 

Exception to remain. 

907.2.1.1.2 Emergency power. Emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided with an 
approved emergency power source in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.2.1.1.3. Annunciation. If required by other sections of this code, point-lit graphic annunciation shall be 
provided. 

907.2.1.1.4. Illumination of means of egress. Illumination levels shall comply with IFC Section 1006.2 and 
be interfaced to the fire alarm control unit as required. 

Delete Section 907.2.1.2. 

Replace Section 907.2.2 Exceptions as follows: 

1. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system and the alarm notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. At least 
one manual pull box shall be installed at an approved location. 

2. Buildings more than four stories in height constructed prior to the adoption of this code. 

Replace Section 907.2.3 as follows: 

907.2.3 Group E. Group E occupancies shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm and automatic 
detection system throughout the occupancy. See also IFC Section 907.2.1. 

Exceptions: 

1 . If less than 50 occupants, the system is not required to be monitored by a central station. 

2. A manual fire alarm system is not required if 20 or less occupants and 120v AC single- or multiple- 
station residential smoke detectors with battery back-up, wired to an un-switched source is provided. 

3. In mixed occupancies where the E occupancy is accessory to the A occupancy, a manual fire alarm system 
is not required in the A occupancy except as identified in IFC Section 907.2.1. Any exit paths for the E 
occupancy through the A occupancy shall be provided with automatic fire detection. 

4. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all the following apply: 

a. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors. 

b. System central station monitoring is provided. 

c. Manual boxes are provided in locations supen/ised by staff. 



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5. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where the building is equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system. Notification appliances shall activate on 
sprinkler water flow and a manual pull station shall be provided in locations supervised by staff (e.g., 
teachers' lounge, custodial office, boiler room, auditorium, or cafeteria). 

Add Section 907.2.5.1 as follows: 

907.2.5.1 Emergency alarms. Where emergency alarms are required by IPC Section 908 and a fire alarm or 
sprinkler alarm system is provided, emergency alarm initiating devices and notification appliances shall be 
connected to the fire alarm or sprinkler alarm system and transmit an alarm signal to the monitoring station, where 
provided. The emergency alarm devices serving this area shall be distinctly annunciated as a separate zone at the 
building annunciator panel and provide a local alarm to notify occupants. Where emergency alarms are required 
and a fire alarm system is not provided, manual alarm initiating devices shall be installed in an approved location 
adjacent to each exit door from the area and local audible/visible appliances shall be provided to notify occupants 
in accordance with IPC Chapter 27. 

Replace Section 907.2.6 as follows: 

907.2.6 Group I. A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I occupancies. Group I occupancies shall be 
provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system per IFCA Section 907.2.12.2, where partial 
evacuation is provided. 

Exceptions: 

1. Manual fire alarm boxes in patient sleeping areas of Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies shall not be required 
at exits if located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such 
stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in IPC Section 907.4.1 
are not exceeded. 

2. Visible alarm- signaling devices are allowed to substitute for audible devices in patient use areas. 

3. A pre-signal system may be installed if approved by the Fire Department. Twenty-four hour personnel 
supervision is required at approved locations. Chimes may be installed in lieu of audible notification 
appliances. A Denver Fire Department permit is required for pre-signal or alarm verification equipment. 

4. Automatic fire detectors are not required in sprinklered areas less than 24 sq. ft. (2.23sq m). 

Replace Section 907.2.6.1 as follows: 

907.2.6.1 Group I-l. Corridors, habitable spaces, sleeping rooms, and waiting areas that are open to corridors 
shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detection system. Smoke detectors shall be located on the ceiling or 
wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the vicinity of bedrooms, and in each room used for sleeping 
purposes. 

Amend Section 907.2.6.2 by adding the following: 

Patient room smoke detectors. Automatic detection shall be provided in patient rooms. Actuation of patient 
room system smoke-detectors shall cause a visible display on the corridor side of the rooms in which the detector 
is located and shall cause an audible and visible alarm at the respective nurse's station. Actuation of patient room 
smoke detectors shall not activate the building visible and audible fire alarm appliances. 

Delete 907.6.2 Exceptions 1 and 2. 

Add Sections 907.2.6.3.4 and 907.2.6.3.5 as follows: 

907.2.6.3.4 Zoning and annunciation. Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be annunciated at the 
annunciation panel and be transmitted to the central station. Alarm signals shall indicate the type of alarm 
and the zone of origin, in accordance with NFPA 72. Separate zones shall be provided for individual fire 
protection systems, buildings, building levels, cell complexes and sections of floors constructed as smoke 
compartments. 

907.2.6.3.5 Monitoring. The fire alarm system shall be monitored by an approved central station service or 
by transmission of a local alarm which will give audible and visible signals at an approved constantly 
attended location. 

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Replace 907.2.8.2 as follows: 

907.2.8.2 Automatic fire alarm system. An automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in all common areas 
and interior corridors. 

Exception to remain. 

Replace Section 907.2.8.3 as follows: 

907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be provided as required in IFC Section 907.2.10. Such devices shall 
not be connected to the fire alarm system unless for supervision only. 

Add Section 907.2.8.4 as follows: 

907.2.8.4 Visible notification appliances. Group R-1 sleeping units shall be provided with visible notification 
activated by an integral in- room smoke alarm. Visible notification appliances shall also be provided which are 
activated by the building fire alarm and/or automatic sprinkler system. The minimum number of sleeping units to 
be provided with visible notification appliances shall be in accordance with IFC Table 907.10.1.3. 

Add Section 907.2.9.1 as follows: 

907.2.9.1 Visible notification appliances. Where a fire alarm and/or automatic sprinkler system is installed in R2 
occupancies, visible notification appliances shall be provided within type " A" dwelling units and/or sleeping 
units as follows: 

1. Single and multiple- station smoke alarms (120 Vac) shall have integrated visible notification appliances 
for occupant notification within each dwelling unit or sleeping unit. 

2. Visible notification appliances activated by the building fire alarm system shall be provided in dwelling 
units and sleeping units. These visible notification appliances shall be located in the living rooms, 
sleeping rooms, kitchens and toilet rooms to provide coverage as required by NFPA 72. 

Amend Section 907.2.10.1.2 by deleting references to "1-1" in the first and third lines. 

Add Section 907.2.10.1.2.1 as follows: 

907.2.10.1.2.1 Visible notification appliances in R3 and R4 occupancies. Sleeping rooms shall be 
provided with visible notification activated by an integral in- room smoke alarm. Visible notification 
appliances shall also be provided which shall be activated by the building fire alarm and/or sprinkler 
system, where provided. 

Amend Section 907.2.10.1.3 by changing "single- or multiple-station smoke alarms" to "system smoke 
detectors with listed audible notification capability." Exception is deleted. 

Delete Section 907.2.10.2 Exception. 

Amend Section 907.2.12 by inserting, "and manual" after the word "automatic" in the 4^ line. 

Replace 907.2.12.1 as follows: 

907.2.12.1 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke 
detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this 
section shall operate the emergency voice/alarm communication system and shall place into operation all 
equipment necessary to prevent the re- circulation of smoke in accordance with IFC Section 909. Smoke detectors 
shall be located as follows: 

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room, elevator 
machine rooms and in all elevator lobbies. 

2. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-handling system having a capacity greater than 
2,000cfm (0.9mVs) in accoKlanoe witii IntEmational Mechanical Code (IMC) Section 606.2.1. Where 
multiple air-handing systEms share common supply or retum air ducts or plenums with a combined 
c^}acity greater than 2,000cfm (0.9cu nVs), smoke detBctois shall be pnavided in accordance with IMC 
Seztion 606.2.2. Such detBctois shall be locatBd in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet 
Duct type smoke detBctois shall cause a supervisory signal, not an alann signal, at the building 
annunciator panel. Detectors shall be listed for tiie air velocity in which they are installed. 

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Exception: . 

Smoke detectors are not required for automatic shut- off of evaporative coolers or units that 
supply un- tempered 100% outside air. 

3. In the outlet of fans used for pressurization of stairways, hoistways and refuge areas. Activation of these 
smoke detectors shall cause a supervisory signal, not an alarm signal at the building annunciator panel. 
Detectors shall be listed for the air velocity in which they are installed. 

4. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum 
on an air- handling system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies a listed smoke detector is allowed to be 
used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4mVs) and serving not moiB than 10 air 
inlet openings. These detectors are not required at return openings located in a corridor that is protected 
by full corridor or full floor area detectiorL 

5.. In all interior corridors serving as a means of egress for GriDup R-1, R-2 and R-4 occupancies, with an 
occupant load of 10 or more. 

6.. Not less than one foot but no more than thr^e feet on the occupied side of each door that enters an ar^a of 
evacuation assistance, elevator lobby and exit stairwc^ v\^ch does not dirBctly exit from an ar^a of 
evacuation assistance, for occupancies other than R- 1, R-2 and R-4. 

7. At unenclosed openings, where shaft enclosures are not requirBl in acconjance with Exception 2, 7 or 1 1 
to Section 707.2 of the IBC or IBCA. Detectors shall be located at the perimeter of the opening, on each 
level, not less than 4ft (1.219n^ and not more than 8ft (2.4384n^ from the edge of the opening. 
Detectors at the highest level shall be installed to provide coverage 30ft (9.144n^ beyond the perimeter 
of the proj ecbed opening. (For atriums as defined by this code, see IFCA Section 907.2. 13.) 

8. At vertical openings for non-rn^uirBd stairwells/escalators in Groijp B and M occupancies. Smoke 
detectors shall be installed acjacent to the floor side of each opening v\^ere the area of the floor opening 
between stories does not exceed twice the horizontal projected area of the escalator or stairwcy and a 
smoke management system is provided in accordance with IFC Section 909. 

9. At the top of stairwells and in elevator hoistweys. These devices shall initiate an alann condition and 
illuminate the respective indicator at the gr^iiic annunciator. They shall not initiate occupant notification 
or the smoke control sequence. 

907.2.12.1.1 Large assembly areas (occupant load of 1000 or more). Smoke detection shall be provided as 

follows: 

1. Electrical equipment rooms. 

2. Detector zones may not exceed 22,500 sq. ft (2090.318sq m) and no detector zone shall serve more 
than one smoke control zone. 

Where ceiling heights are 25 ft (7.62m) or greater, air sampling-type smoke detection systems or approved 
beam detection shall be provided in lieu of ceiling spot smoke detection. 

Replace 907.2.12.2 as follows: 

907.2.12.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems 
shall be connected to a UL 864 listed fire alarm system and located in an area constructed in accordance with the 
International Building Code as amended. Components shall be listed under UL product category code designation 
UOXX or UUMW. The operation of any manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector or water flow device shall 
automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a 
general or staged evacuation to the following areas as a minimum: 

1 . Elevators (selective activation from the fire command center only) 

2. The fire floor; the floors immediately above and below the flre floor; and the level where the flre command 
center is located. 



3. Exit stairways (selective activation from the flre command center only), 

4. Each assembly room of 1,000 occupants or more. 



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5. Areas of refuge as defined in IFC Section 1002.1. 
Exceptions: 

1. In Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general 
occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page. 

2. In special amusement buildings only general notification is required. 

907.2.12.2.1 Manual override. A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a 
selective and all-call basis for all paging zones. 

907.2.12.2.2 Live voice messages. The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall also have the 
capability to broadcast live voice messages on a selective and all-call basis to all areas indicated in IFCA 
Section 907.2.12.2. 

907.2.12.2.2.1 In very high noise areas, such as theaters, nightclubs, ballrooms and dance halls, the system 
shall be designed to reduce or eliminate the background noise upon alarm initiation. 

907.2.12.2.3 Standard. The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with IFCA Section 907.2.12.2 and NFPA 72. 

907.2.12.2.4 System design. The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be designed such that 
no more than 72 the speakers on a floor shall be affected by loss of any one amplifier, pre- amplifier or cable 
within the floor or communication zone. Class A wiring configuration is acceptable. Communication riser shall 
be installed in metallic conduit and shall comply with NFPA 70. 

Replace Section 907.2.12.3 as follows: 

907.2.12.3 Fire Department communications system. Two-way telephone communications service shall be 
connected to a UL 864 listed fire alarm system. Design of the Fire Department communications system shall 
consist of both of the following: 

1. Hardwired components, in accordance with IFCA Section 907.2.12.3.2, consisting of plug-in phone jacks, 
permanent handsets, amplifiers and cable system for selective and "all-call' operation. Components shall be 
listed under UL product category code designation UOXX, and; 

2. Radio communications using the "Department of Safety Radio Communications System" in accordance with 
IFCA Section 907.2.12.3.3. 

907.2.12.3.1 Operation. Both hardwired and radio communication systems shall operate between the FCC 
and the following locations: 

1 . Elevators and elevator lobbies 

2. Emergency and standby power rooms 

3. Standpipe hose connection locations 
Exception: 

Phone jacks are not required at standpipe outlet locations within stair enclosures. 

4. The building engineer's office 

5. Mechanical rooms 

6. Elevator equipment rooms 

7. Fire pump rooms 

8. Areas of refuge 

9. Entries into required exit stairways 

10. Rooms containing the primary means to disconnect electrical service 

907.2.12.3.2 Hardwired systems. An approved two-way. Fire Department communication system shall be 
provided for Fire Department use. Each circuit on the two-way Fire Department communication system shall 
have a separate control switch on the fire alarm control panel. The vertical riser shall be installed in 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



accordance with the National Electrical Code and shall be run in a minimum two- hour rated enclosure or 
listed two- hour cable. 

907.2.12.3.2.1 Handsets. Both permanently mounted and mobile telephone handsets shall be provided. 

907.2.12.3.2.1.1 Permanent handsets. Each permanently mounted handset shall initiate a signal 
from the handset to the FCC. Permanently mounted telephone handsets shall be provided in the 
locations listed below: 

1 . B uilding engineer' s office 

2. Each mechanical room with fans used for smoke control 

3. Emergency and standby power rooms 

4. Each fire pump room 

5. Rooms containing the primary means to disconnect electrical service 

6. Each elevator equipment room 

907.2.12.3.2.1.2 Mobile handsets. A minimum of six mobile handsets shall be provided in an approved 
cabinet located in the FCC. When a mobile handset is plugged into any Fire Department communication 
system jack, the jack shall eliminate feedback by disconnecting any voice communication speaker system 
in the immediate area. Wiring supervision to the disconnected speaker(s) is not required to be maintained 
during handset use. 

907.2.12.3.3 Radio systems. New high-rise buildings shall be equipped throughout with an approved 
Department of Safety Radio Enhancement System (RES) for radio communications in accordance with this 
section. The RES shall use bi-directional amplifiers with radiating ("leaky coax") cable, or a discrete 
distributed antenna system or an equivalent technology. Radio communications systems shall operate on the 
frequencies range of 800 MHz to 870 MHz. Amplifiers shall be powered by a dedicated uninterruptible 
power source (UPS) with a minimum backup time of eight (8) hours with all amplifiers at rated output. The 
UPS input circuit shall be a dedicated circuit and connected to the emergency generator, where provided. The 
circuit shall be provided with a "lock-on" device. 

907.2.12.3.3.1 Definitions . 

Coverage Requirement . The radio system control channel signal level shall exceed -lOOdBm at 90% or more of the 
locations measured within each grid area. Equivalently, the service area reliability shall be 90% or greater on each 
floor of the structure and parking areas. 

Radio Frequency Maintenance Plan . The Radio Frequency Maintenance Plan is a document developed by the 
Fire Department and distributed by the building owner for the purpose of maintaining the Department of 
Safety radio system from harmful interference generated on the property or otherwise under the control of the 
owner. At a minimum, it shall: 

• Prohibit the use of any electronic systems known to degrade the effectiveness of Department of Safety 
radio communications. 

• Permit Department site access during reasonable business hours when necessary to assess the source of 
interference to Department of Safety radio communications. 

Department of Safety Radio Enhancement System (RES) . The RES is a network of amplifiers, fiber optic 
cable, coaxial cable, and radiating cable and/or discrete antennas or an equivalent technology installed on or 
inside the property to enhance indoor radio communications. 

907.2.12.3.3.2 Requirements . The system shall effectively operate throughout the structure. In addition to 
the areas identified in IFCA Section 907.2.12.3.1, radio communication is required throughout the parking 
garage and all areas below grade. Those areas which shield radio communication will be remedied through 
the use of currently acceptable technology, i.e. bi-directional amplifiers or (leaky coax) amplifier systems. 
Acceptance of the completed communication system will be based upon Fire Department approval of the 
acceptance test as described below. 



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1. Acceptance Test. Measurement locations shall be uniformly distributed to the extent practical. 
There shall be at least 10 sampling measurements per 2,250 sq ft. (209.025 sq m) of gross building 
square footage. Adequate radio coverage shall be determined for the structure and parking areas 
separately. Elevators, stairways, and enclosed areas within each grid must be included in the testing. 
Execute the following steps: 

a. Create a uniform grid over each floor with 15 ft. (4.57 m) centers. 

b. At each accessible grid location, using a test receiver with sensitivity and thermal noise floor 
equal to or better than the Department of Safety radio, take at least one sample measurement of 
the radio system control channel. 

c. Repeat Step b for each grid point. 

d. Calculate the service area reliability: 

Service Area Reliability (%) = Ip.100% 

Tt 

Where ^ p is the total number of grid points passed (i.e., control chamd > -lOOdBn^ Tt is the total 
number of grid points measured 

If the building fails to achieve the coverage requirement the building owner shall install additional 
RES and conduct anew acceptance test. 

Measurements shall be taken with calibrated radio receivers by Denver Fire Department radio 
technicians or technicians with ^propriate knov\^edge and training v\to are licensed by the Denver 
Rib Department to install RES systems, at the City's option Test results shall be certified by a 
professional engineer licensed by the state of Colorado or ty Denver Fire Department rajio 
technicians. Random spot testing by Denver Fire and/or Police officials rrey take place at any time. 

2. Radio Frequenq^ Maintenance Plan. A radio frequency maintenance plan shall be developed 
which prohibits use of electrical/electronic equipment which cause degradation to the RES. The radio 
frequency maintenance plan shall be incorporated into the lease of every tenant. 

3. Periodic Testing of RES. Periodic testing of the RES shall be conducted as follows: 

If the radio enhancement system appears to have degraded or if the tests fail to demonstrate adequate 
system performance in compliance with this standard, the owner of the building or structure is 
required to restore the system to a condition consistent with the original approval criteria. If the 
degradation to the system is due to building additions or renovation, the owner of the building shall 
restore/extend the system to all areas of the building in a condition consistent with the original 
approval criteria. Random spot testing by Denver Fire and/or Police officials may take place at any 
time. 

a. Annual testing. All active components of the system, such as amplifiers, power supplies and 
backup batteries, shall be tested annually. Alternatively, the RES may be continuously monitored 
electronically with remote fault alarms. Amplifiers shall be tested or monitored to ensure that the 
gain has not degraded from the installed value. Backup batteries and power supplies shall be 
tested under load for a period of at least one hour to verify that they will property operate during 
an actiaal power outage. Annual tests shall be performed in accordance witii tiie acceptance test 
procedures described above and shall be conducted in all common areas, garages, stairwells, 
elevators and corridors. Measurements shall be taken with calibrated radio receivers by Denver 
Fire Department radio technicians or technicians with appropriate knowledge and training and 
licensed by the Denver Fire Department. Test results shall be certified by a professional engineer 
licensed by the state of Colorado or by Denver Fire Department radio technicians. 

b. Five-year testing. Every five (5) years, a radio coverage test in accordance witii tiie Acceptance 
Test procedure described above shall be performed to ensure the system provides adequate radio 
coverage. Documentation of test results shall be submitted to the Fire Department. 

4. Failure detection. RES equipment shall have failure detection circuitry which provides detection of 
mechanical, electrical and power failure of the RES, as well as oscillation detection capability which 

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will reduce the amplifier output to zero in the event of system oscillation. Detection of any failure 
shall result in a distinct audible notification at a constantly attended location approved by the Fire 
Department. 

5. Permits. A #3A permit is required prior to installation. Repair, alteration or replacement of any RES 
system or component shall require issuance of a #3A permit. Submittal and approval of shop 
drawings are required to obtain a permit for RES system installations. Permits shall only be issued to 
companies possessing a valid Fire Department issued certificate. 

6. Information signs. A legible sign stating "THIS BUILDING IS EQUIPPED WITH A RADIO 
REPEATER SY STEM" shall be conspicuously posted in the fire command center. 

Add Section 907.2.12.4 as follows: 

907.2.12.4 Smoke control system activation. Smoke control systems shall be automatically activated by 
automatic detection devices, water flow, manual pull station and manual operation from the fire command center 
(FCC). After the initial alarm activation, any subsequent automatic alarm activation on another floor shall initiate 
the floor exhaust sequence per IFCA Section 907.2.12.4.2. Activation by any alarm initiating device shall be as 
described herein. 

Exception: 

Main sprinkler system water flow, heat or smoke detectors located in stairwells or hoistways and sprinkler 
system waterflow in building service chutes or elevator hoistways. Where building shafts are protected 
with automatic sprinklers for reduction in shaft construction fire rating, a separate riser shall be provided. 

907.2.12.4.1 Activation of pressurization. Activation of stairway and elevator hoistway pressurization shall 
be automatic by: 

1 . A ctivation of any smoke or heat detector or water flow device. 

2. Activation of any manual fire alarm box. 

907.2.12.4.2 Smoke control exhaust. Exhaust in a smoke control zone shall be automatically activated by 
any automatic fire alarm initiating device within the respective smoke control zone. 

Exception: 

Where floors are open to each other as permitted by IBC or IBC as amended, each floor shall be 
considered a separate smoke control zone. 

907.2.12.4.3 Operation. Upon activation of any initiating device as described in IFCA Section 907.2.12.4.2, 
the following sequence shall occur: 

1 . pen exhaust dampers on the floor in alarm. 

2. Start exhaust fans. 

3. Close exhaust dampers to all other floors. 

4. Turn off all supply and make-up air fans. 

5. Close all floor supply air dampers. 

6. Start stair and hoistway pressurization fans. 

907.2.12.4.4 Large assembly areas (occupant load of 1000 or more). Where required by IFC Section 
909.21.7.1, the smoke control system shall be activated automatically by any alarm initiated from a smoke 
detector, heat detector, sprinkler waterflow alarm or air sampling-type smoke detector. Operation shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . pen exhaust dampers for zone in alarm 

2 . Start zone exhaust fan 

3. Close supply dampers to zone in alarm 

4. Start stair and hoistway pressurization fans 

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5. Adjacent zones go to 100% outside air 

6. All other systems maintain normal operation. 
Add Section 907.2.12. 5 as follows: 

907.2.12.5 Annunciation. Point- lit graphic annunciation shall be provided in accordance with IFCA Section 
907.9.1.2. 

Add Section 907.2.12.6 as follows: 

907.2.12.6 Elevator recall and shunt trip. All elevators shall be provided with Phase I and Phase II emergency 
recall per IFC Section 607. System smoke detectors shall be located in elevator lobbies, hoistways and machine 
rooms. Activation of these smoke detectors shall return to grade level, nonstop, all elevators serving that alarm 
zone, except for the smoke detector in the elevator lobby at grade level which shall return the elevators to an 
alternate level. Elevators without a landing at grade level shall be returned to the landing that is closest to grade 
level or other approved level. The alternate level shall be approved by the fire code official. Elevators shall remain 
at the level where they returned in accordance with Amended IBC Section 3003, until being manually overridden 
by the operator key switch required by ASME A 17.1 or the elevator control panel in the FCC. Elevator power 
shunt trip shall be provided for elevator shut down prior to sprinkler operation in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.2.12.6.1 Elevator status/Control panel. An elevator status/control panel shall be provided. The elevator 
status/control panel shall: 

1. Identify each elevator cab numerically and the floors it sen/es. Identify corresponding cab number in 
elevator cab at permanent handset; 

2. Indicate which elevator(s) are on emergency power; 

3. Have a placard at elevator status/control panel stating how many elevators can operate under 

emergency power simultaneously; 

4. Indicate elevator car position; and 

5. Have key switches as required for selective activation of cars, if all are not provided with emergency 
power for simultaneous operation. 

Add Section 907.2.12.7 as follows: 

907.2.12.7 Emergency generator panel. An emergency generator panel shall be provided. The emergency 
generator panel shall show: 

1. Operating status (on-off) and malfunction indication panel as required by NFPA 110 

2. Indication of transfer switch position (normal-emergency) 

3. Indication that generator is in automatic mode 

4. Main fuel oil storage tank low fuel level alarm. 
Add Section 907.2.12.8 as follows: 

907.2.12.8 Fire pump panel. A fire pump panel shall be provided. The fire pump panel shall have: 

1. Remote operating status indication panel as required by NFPA 20. 

2. Motor/engine running/on or off. Pump running indication shall be transmitted to the fire alarm control 
panel as a supervisory signal and distinctly annunciated. 

3. Low fuel level alarm for fire pump fuel tank. 

4. If pumping is required from a main fuel tank to a diesel engine a duplex pumping system shall be 
provided. Emergency fuel flow controls are required in the FCC. 

Replace Section 907.2.13 as follows: 

907.2.13 Atriums connecting more than two stories. A fire detection and smoke exhaust system shall be installed 
in accordance with IFCA Sections 907.2.13.1 and 907.2.13.2 in occupancies with an atrium tiiat connects more than 
two stories. The system shall be activated in accordance with this section. 

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907.2.13.1 Activation. Activation of two smoke detectors in the atrium shall initiate the atrium exhaust 
sequence below. In high-rise buildings, activation of a smoke detector located in areas separated from the atrium 
by a smoke barrier shall operate in accordance with IFCA Section 907.2.12.4. 

907.2.13.1.1 Operation. Upon activation of initiating devices, the following sequence shall occur: 

1 . pen atrium exhaust dampers. 

2. Start exhaust fans. 

3. Close exhaust dampers on all floors. 

4. Start stair and hoistway pressurization fans, where provided. 

5. Open supply dampers to atrium. 

907.2.13.1.2 Detection. Detection shall be as follows: 

1. Area type smoke detectors, spaced in accordance with NFPA 72, shall be installed at the atrium 

ceiling where the ceiling is 30 feet (9.144m) or less from the floor of the atrium. If the ceiling is 
greater than 30 feet (9.144m) from the atrium floor, beam type detectors shall be installed. A 
detection system with alarm verification may be installed. The initial device in alarm shall initiate 
a supervisory condition at the fire alarm panel. 

2. On the underside of projections into the atrium, spaced in accordance with NFPA 72. 

3. Around the perimeter of the atrium opening on all floors open to the atrium. The detectors shall 

be spaced not more than 30 feet (9.144 m) on center and shall be located within 15 feet (4.572 m) 
of the atrium opening. 

4. In high-rise buildings, where any part of the floor is open to an atrium, smoke detectors shall be 
located throughout the floor not included in the atrium area for every 2500 sq. ft. (232.258 sq m) 
of occupied floor space. No smoke detector shall serve more than one smoke zone. 

5. All smoke detectors shall be accessible for maintenance and testing. 
Delete Section 907.2.14. 

Amend Section 907.2.15 by adding tlie following to the end of the last sentence: 

"... .and in compliance with International Building Code Amendments Appendix L." 
Amend Section 907.2.18.2 by adding the following to the end of the last sentence: 

"... where provided, or a local alarm to notify occupants. 
Add Section 907.2.18.3 as follows: 

907.2.18.3 Annunciation. Point- lit graphic annunciation shall be provided per IFCA Section 907.9.1.2. 
Add Section 907.2.18.4 as follows: 

907.2.18.4 Fire department communications system. A radio communication system complying with IFCA 
Section 907.2.12.3.2 shall be provided. 

Add Section 907.2.19.2 as follows: 

907.2.19.2 Annunciation. Point- lit graphic annunciation shall be provided per IFCA Section 907.9.1.2. 
Add Section 907.2.19.3 as follows: 

907.2.19.3 Fire Department communications system. A radio communications system complying with IFCA 
Section 907.2.12.3.2 shall be provided. 

Add Section 907.2.20. 1 as follows: 

907.2.20.1 Annunciation. Point-lit graphic annunciation shall be provided per IFCA Section 907.9.1.2. 
Alternatively, a "backlit" zone type annunciator may be provided where specifically approved by the Fire 
Department. 

Add Sections 907.2.20.2 and 907.2.20.3 as follows: 

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907.2.20.2 Smoke detection in covered malls. For covered malls having a smoke control system per IFCA Section 
909, smoke detection shall be provided as follows: 

907.2.20.2.1 Tenant space and anchor stores: 

1. On the tenant side at each opening into the mall and at each exit from the tenant space. For openings 
larger than 30 lineal feet 9.144m), an additional detector shall be provided for each 30 lineal feet 
(9.144m) or fraction thereof. 

2. Electrical equipment rooms. 

3. Detector zones may not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090.318 sq m) and no detector zone shall sen/e 
more than one smoke control zone. 

4. Detectors in individual tenant spaces shall be spaced not to exceed 2,500 sq. ft. (232.258 sq m) per 
detector. 

907.2.20.2.2 Covered mall area: A smoke detector shall be located in the supply system sen/ing the 
covered mall area, after the filters, which will stop the supply fan and provide a supen/isory signal. In 
addition, a smoke detector shall be provided in the return or exhaust air stream over 2,000 cfm (.94cu m/s). 

907.2.20.3 Smoke control activation. The smoke control system for covered malls shall be activated by any 
alarm initiated from the smoke detection or sprinkler system, inclusive, in accordance with the sequence below. 
All smoke control equipment for both tenant space and the covered mall building shall be in place and operational 
before any portion of the covered mall building is occupied. The level of protection of the fire detection system 
for unoccupied tenant space shall be subject to the approval of the Fire Department. 

1 . pen zone exhaust dampers. 

2. Start zone exhaust fans. 

3. Close supply dampers to zone in alarm 

4. Immediately adjacent zones go to 100% outside air. 

5. All other systems remain in normal operation. 
Replace Section 907.2.23 as follows: 

907.2.23 Battery rooms. An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing 
stationary storage battery systems having a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189L). The detection system 
shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary, or remote station service or a local alarm which will sound an 
audible signal at an approved location on tiie premises outside the battery room. Where a local alarm is installed, 
provide signage indicating; "BATTERY ROOM ALARM - CALL 911". In buildings with a monitored sprinkler or 
fire alarm/detection system, the battery room detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm control panel. 

Exception: 

A dedicated, detached on grade structure not to exceed 1000 square feet. 
Add Section 907.2.24 as follows: 

907.2.24 Passenger terminal and concourse buildings. See IB C A Appendix N. 
Delete Exceptions 1 and 2 to Section 907.3.1.1. 

Amend Section 907.3.2 by adding the following after the last sentence: 

Smoke alarms should be replaced 10 years from date of manufacture, in accordance with NFPA 72 Section 10.4.7. 

Replace Section 907.4.4 as follows: 

907.4.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign that 
reads: LOCAL ALARM ONLY, PULL AND CALL 911 shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alami box. 
Where additional digits are required to access the public telephone system, signage shall reflect the additional digits 
required. 

Exception: 



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Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box. 

Replace Section 907.6 as follows: 

907.6 Wiring. Fire alarm system and communications wiring shall comply with provisions of NFPA 72 and NFPA 70 
(NEC) Article 760, requirements for fire alarm and communications systems. Wiring color code shall be consistent 
throughout the entire system and permanently posted inside the fire alarm control panel. Separate colors shall be used for 
each type of initiating circuit, indicating circuit and control circuit. Color-coding shall be by continuous colored 
insulation or by application of 6-inch (15.24cm) long colored heat-shrink tubing at the end of each conductor at all splices, 
taps and terminations. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio- frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the 
special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72. 

Amend Section 907.7 by adding the following exceptions: 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke alarms in dwelling units and rooms used for sleeping purposes in hotel and lodging houses. Duct 
detectors shall initiate a supervisory signal only. See IFCA Section 907.12. 

2. Occupant notification is not required upon activation of detectors at the top of stairwells and in elevator 
hoistways. 

Replace Section 907.9 as follows: 

907.9 Zones. All fire alarm systems shall be divided into alarm zones. When two or more alarm zones are provided, 
visible annunciation shall be provided at an approved location. Zones shall comply with this section unless otherwise 
approved by the Fire Department. Trouble and supervisory signals shall be annunciated in accordance with this section 
and NFPA 72. Annunciator panels shall comply with IFCA Section 907.9.1. Annunciation zones shall comply with the 
following. 

Each building level shall be annunciated separately as follows: 

1. All manual devices. 

2. All automatic devices. No single zone shall exceed 22,500 sq ft (2090.318sq m). No detection zone shall exceed 
300 ft (91.44m) in length in any direction. 

3. Each fire sprinkler water flow detection device. Sprinkler zones shall comply with NFPA 13. 
Separate visible indication shall be provided for: 

1 . Main fire sprinkler flow. Individual risers per 903. 

2. Each special extinguishing system. 

3. Each non-required system. 

4. Each special detection system. 

5. Each stairway (where detection is provided). 

6. Each elevator hoistway and machine room 

7. System trouble. 

8. Sprinkler control valves (supervisory only). Maximum 20 devices per zone. 

9. Duct detectors (supervisory only). Maximum 20 devices per zone. 

10. Fire pump running (supervisory only) 

Replace Section 907.9.1 as follows: 

907.9.1 Annunciator panels. Annunciator panels shall be point-lit graphic or a directory LED point display type. 
Upon initiation of an alarm, supervisory or trouble condition the panel shall record the status and "lock- in" until the 
fire alarm system is reset with a dedicated reset switch located at the main fire alarm control panel. Annunciation 
lights shall be red for "Alarm" and yellow for "Trouble" and "Supervisory" signals. Each signal type shall be 
distinctly identified. 

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907.9.1.1 Directory annunciator. A directory annunciator shall be provided as required. Location shall be field 
approved. The annunciator shall be provided with individual alarm and trouble indications per IFCA Section 
907.9 for each zone. Indicators shall be of sufficient size and intensity to be visible in normal lighting. 

Building plans shall be permanently mounted adjacent to directory type annunciator panels. Plans shall be 
of durable construction, easily readable in normal lighting, have a smooth plastic surface and shall clearly indicate 
the building outline and boundary of each zone and have a "you are here" with North orientation arrow. The 
plans shall clearly show: 

a) Building address 

b) Each stairwell uniquely identified 

c) Each elevator uniquely identified 

d) Emergency and standby power equipment locations 

e) Fuel storage locations 

f) Fire pump location 

g) Sprinkler valve locations 
h) Standpipe outlet locations 
i) Main electrical room 

j) Each initiating device 
k) Site plan with: 

1. Adjacent streets 

2. Local fire hydrants 

3. Utility shut-off equipment 

4. Fire department connection 

1) Other features required by the fire code official. 

907.9.1.2 Point-lit graphic annunciator. A graphic annunciator shall be provided as required. Location shall be 
field approved. The annunciator shall consist of building plans per IFCA Section 907.9.1.1 with the addition of 
discrete indication for each alarm and supen/isory initiating device. The annunciator shall be provided with a 
momentary push-button "Lamp Test." Separate indications for "Trouble" and "Supervisory" conditions shall be 
provided. 

907.9.1.2.1 Where required. A point-lit graphic annunciator is required for the following; underground 
buildings, high-rise buildings, buildings with a smoke control system per IFC Section 909 and where required 
for a pre- action fire sprinkler or clean agent extinguishing system per IFCA Section 907.14.1.1. 

Delete Section 907.9.2. 

Replace Section 907.10 as follows: 

907.10 Alarm notification appliances. Audible and visible alarm notification shall be provided to alert occupants of the 
area having a fire alarm system as well as in the means of egress serving the occupancy. The fire alarm control panel shall 
incorporate an alarm silencing switch that shall only de- activate the audible notification appliances until the system is 
manually reset. Alarms shall be provided per IFCA Sections 907.10.1 and 907.10.2, and as required by other sections of 
this code. 

907.10.1 Visible alarms. Visible notification shall be provided in toilet rooms accessible to the disabled, in corridors, 
public and common areas and in areas of assembly. In residential occupancies visible notification shall be installed in 
toilet rooms, bedrooms and living rooms of units accessible to the disabled. Visible alarms shall be installed in 
accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exceptions: 

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1. Visible alarm signals in patient and inmate areas of Group I occupancies may be provided per IFCA 
Section 907.2.6. 

2. Visible notification appliances shall not be installed in stairwells. 

3. In existing buildings with only audible alarms, visible alarms are not required to be added during the 
course of any tenant finish or fire alarm system modification work. If a building owner desires to install 
visible alarms, the number and location shall be at the owner's discretion. A separate circuit between the 
fire alarm control panel and the visible appliances is not required. This exception does not apply if the 
building is undergoing a change in use or visible alarms are required as part of the equivalent construction 
to correct an exiting deficiency. 

Delete Section 907.10.1.1. 

Delete Section 907.10.1.2. 

Delete Section 907.10.1.3. 

Retain Table 907.10.1.3. 

Delete Section 907.10.1.4. 

Amend Section 907.10.2 by adding the following after the last sentence: 

In theaters, nightclubs, dance halls, ballrooms and similar areas, means shall be provided to reduce or eliminate 
background noise upon activation of the fire alarm system. The fire alarm system shall produce a sound level at 
least 15 dBA above the reduced average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a 
duration of at least 60 seconds whichever is greater The reduced sound level shall not require audible 
notification to exceed 115 dBA. 

Replace Exception to Section 907.10.2 as follows: 

Exception: 

This audible notification is not required for systems using prerecorded or live voice message announcement. 

Amend Section 907.12 by adding the following after the last sentence: 

Spot- type smoke detectors may be used for return air system connection to vertical risers serving two or more stories 
per NFPA 72. Detectors shall be listed for the maximum anticipated airflow velocity. Detectors concealed above the 
ceiling shall be provided with a remote indicating light mounted on the ceiling directly below the device, in 
accordance with IFCA Section 907.23. 

Delete Exception 1 to Section 907.12. 

Add Section 907.14.1 as follows: 

907.14.1 Pre-action and clean agent extinguishing systems. Pre-action and clean agent extinguishing systems shall have 
a dedicated releasing panel and annunciator connected to the building fire alarm system where provided. Pre-action 
systems shall be installed per NFPA 13. Clean agent systems shall comply with IFC Section 904.10. Control panels shall 
be listed for releasing sen/ice. Control panel and annunciator shall be located outside the protected area in a location 
approved by the Fire Code official. Areas protected by a single system shall be contiguous. Shop drawings for system 
installations shall be submitted per IFCA Section 907.1.1, NFPA 13 and NFPA 2001. Cross-zoned detection systems shall 
transmit a building alarm on activation of the first initiating device. Fire protection piping and initiating device, control and 
annunciation drawings shall be submitted together Clean agent systems are supplemental and not permitted to substitute for 
required automatic sprinkler systems unless specifically approved by the Chief. 

907.14.1.1 Annunciation. Pre-action and clean agent systems shall be provided with a local directory annunciator 
zoned for manual, smoke detector, flow alarm and tamper supervisory indications. Systems with under floor and/or 
above ceiling detection devices shall be provided with a point-lit graphic annunciator in accordance with IFCA 
Section 907.9.1.2. Systems shall annunciate alarm and supervisory conditions at the main building fire alarm 
panel. 

Add Section 907.21 as follows: 



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907.21 Monitoring Integrity. Conductors and connections that interconnect equipment, devices and appliances shall be 
monitored for integrity, as set forth in NFPA 72. 

Add Section 907.22 as follows; 

907.22 Survivability. Where occupant relocation or partial evacuation is part of the building life- safety plan, fire alarm 
system sun/ivability shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72. Audible and visible notification appliance circuits 
shall be designed and installed such that attack by fire within an evacuation zone shall not impair control and operation of 
the notification appliances outside the evacuation signaling zone. 

Exception: 

Notification appliance circuits shall not be run in stairwells, except for the specific devices located in the stair 
enclosure. 

Add Section 907.23 as follows: 

907.23 Remote indicating lights. A remote indicating light shall be installed for detector(s) within each room with an 
entry door. The indicating light shall be located on the wall or ceiling above the door and within 12 inches (30.48cm), on 
the exit corridor side. This shall include each door leading through adjoining or inten/ening rooms from an exit corridor 
to that room (progressive type). Remote indicating lights shall be installed on the ceiling directly below detectors located 
above ceilings. Remote indicating lights for duct detectors shall be installed in an accessible area directly below or 
adjacent to the detector. Remote indicating lights shall remain lit until the fire alarm system is reset. 

Exception: 

Remote indicating lights may be deleted where a point-lit graphic annunciator is provided. 
Add Section 907.24 as follows: 

907.24 Elevator recall and shutdown. Elevator recall and shunt trip shall be provided for all elevators in accordance 
with IFC Section 607. Fixed temperature 190 degree F heat and smoke detectors shall be located in accordance with 
NFPA 72. Where environmental or other conditions prohibit installation of smoke detectors for recall, 135 degree F fixed 
temperature heat detectors shall be permitted to substitute for the required recall smoke detectors. In buildings with a fire 
alarm system, these detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system. In buildings without a fire alarm 
system, system smoke detectors and a dedicated fire alarm system control unit shall be provided that is designated as an 
"elevator recall control and supervisory panel." The system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 
and ASME A 17.1. Where required, elevator power shunt trip shall be provided prior to sprinkler operation in accordance 
with NFPA 72. Where MRL elevator equipment is installed, smoke and heat detectors shall be provided at the top of the 
hoistway. Recall smoke detectors shall be installed in the control equipment space. Shunt trip heat detectors shall be 
installed in the control equipment space if it is protected by sprinklers. Shunt trip circuit breakers shall be located in either 
the main power distribution room or installed in the elevator machinery room/space in a NEMA 3R enclosure. 

Exception: 

For existing buildings, an administrative modification shall be submitted for approval where an existing 
complying fire alarm control unit cannot be expanded within its listing to accommodate the additional devices for 
recall and shunt trip. Upon approval, a dedicated "elevator recall and supervisory panel" shall be installed in 
accordance with the provisions for buildings without a fire alarm system. The administrative modification shall 
state the practical difficulties involved in incorporating the recall/shunt trip devices into the existing fire alarm 
system. 

907.24.1 Hoistway vent operation. All hoistway vents shall be electrically closed motorized vents and shall open 
automatically by any one of the following: 

1. 'The elevator hoistway smoke detector 

2. 'Elevator lobby smoke detector 

3. 'Power failure to the vent 

On activation of the hoistway vent or elevator lobby smoke detector, the elevator(s) shall be placed in the fire 
recall mode. The hoistway vent and elevator lobby smoke detectors shall be connected to the control unit as 
required by Section 907.24 above. A manual override shall be provided by a keyed switch located adjacent to the 
fire alarm control panel. The switch shall be labeled "hoistway vent" and shall indicate an open and closed 

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position. The hoistway vents shall return to the closed position by resetting the fire alarm control panel and placing 
the "hoistway vent" switch in the closed position. 

Add Section 907.25 as follows: 

907.25 Non-required full or partial systems. Fire alarm systems and fire detection systems not required in this Code or 
by special agreement are not required to be connected to a central station. Where non- required fire alarm and/or fire 
detection systems are connected to a central station, the central station shall be an approved Class I central station. 
Multiple central station connections from one building are not permitted. Non- required full or partial fire alarm or fire 
detection systems are required to comply with NFPA 72. Annunciation shall be provided in accordance with IFCA 
Section 907.9. Annunciator and control panels for non- required or partial systems shall be of an approved type and have 
permanent signage indicating "Non- required System" or "Partial System." Partial fire alarm and/or fire detection systems 
installed in a building having a required fire alarm system shall be annunciated separately on the building fire alarm 
annunciator panel. 

907.25.1 General system design and installation requirements. Shop drawings must be submitted for approval. 
Documents shall be stamped and signed by a Colorado registered engineer and shall comply with IFCA Section 
907.1.1. Non- required systems installed in a building with a required fire alarm system shall have the non- required 
system connected to the required fire alarm control panel. Each non-required system shall annunciate as a separate 
zone at the required fire alarm control panel. Multiple fire alarm control panels are not allowed where a required 
system is installed. 

Replace Section 909 as follows: 

SECTION 909 

SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems when they are required 
by other provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, 
installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the 
evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the presentation of contents, the timely 
restoration of operations or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by 
this section sen/e a different purpose than the smoke- and heat-venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical 
smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code. 

909.2 General design requirements. Buildings, structures or parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control 
system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and 
the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents 
shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately describe the elements of the design necessaiy for the proper 
implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied by sufficient information and 
analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions. 

909.2.1 Specific Requirements - Pressurization Systems. Stairway pressurization systems and hoistway 
pressurization systems shall be provided for all high-rise buildings. The inclusion of these systems may be used to 
offset specific requirements for other building components, as described in other Sections of the Code; however, the 
use of other building components may not be used to circumvent the requirement for including these systems. 

Exception: 

Where stairway enclosures directly open into open exterior balconies. 

909.2.2 Specific Requirements - Smoke Exhaust Systems. A smoke exhaust system(s) shall be provided for all 
high-rise buildings. The smoke exhaust system(s) shall be configured and controlled to exhaust the fire floor or fire 
zone. This requirement shall be applicable to the Occupancy Groups as follows: A; B; E; M; Rl; R2, and II and 13. 

909.2.3 Specific Requirements - Construction Document Submittals. Construction documents for smoke control 
systems shall be submitted for permit application with the construction drawings for the project per IBCA Section 154 
including the seal and signature of the design professional responsible for the coordination of the smoke control 
design package. Included within this submittal shall be the following. 



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1. Code reference used as a basis of design, including any administrative modifications or Board of Appeals 
decisions. 

2. Plans identifying each smoke control zone including a listing of smoke control equipment (fans) associated 
with each respective zone. A combination of vertical (section), horizontal (plan) and/or schematic views may 
be necessary to clearly depict each zone. 

3. Plans shall identify location of smoke control duct inlet/discharge locations and all fire/smoke damper 
locations. 

4. Detailed description of the systems interface to the emergency power system and plans detailing locations of 
panels (with schedules) and associated circuits and disconnects. 

5. Plans shall identify HVAC systems operating status (i.e. on/off) during a smoke control scenario, e.g., toilet 
exhaust, general HVAC, etc. 

6. Written narrative sequence of operation for the complete smoke control system. 

7. Basic fire alarm drawings shall be developed with sufficient detail to demonstrate system control/sequence. 

8. Fans sizing calculations for each zone including stairways and hoistways. 

9. Preliminary acceptance testing plan and procedure. 

909.2.4 Specific Requirements - Shop Drawing Submittals (Deferred Submittal). The deferred submittal shall be 
consistent with the approved construction document submittal and reviewed by the engineer of record prior to 
submission to the Denver Fire Department. Included within this submittal shall be tie following. 

1. Code reference used as a basis of design, including any Administrative Modifications or Board of Appeals 
decisions. 

2. Plans identifying each smoke control zone including a listing of smoke control equipment (fans) associated 
with each respective zone. A combination of vertical (section) and/or horizontal (plan) views may be 
necessary to clearly depict each zone. 

3. Fire protection shop drawings. 

4. Plans identifying control equipment including wiring diagrams and tubing schematics as applicable. 

5. Manufacturers' specification sheets for all equipment and devices associated with the smoke control system 
including but not limited to the following: Fire alarm system, fans, dampers, louvers, door release hardware, 
automatic door opening harware, CT switches, end-switches, pressure sensors, control tubing, etc. 

6. Detailed description of the required applicable UUKL criteria and plans/procedures for complying with the 
weekly self- test. Printed reports must be maintained on-site in the fire command center. 

7. Final Acceptance testing plan indicating systems testing.. Refer to Section 909.18 Acceptance Testing. 

909.3 Special inspection and test requirements. Refer to Section 909.18. 

909.4 Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of 
operation, the systems supporting them and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the submitted 
construction documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6. 
Refer to Section 909.21 Alternative design approach. 

909.4.1 Stack effect. The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect 
will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, 
elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used. 

909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 
909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the 
system's capabilities. 

909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent 
with the wind-loading provisions of IBC Chapter 16. 



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909.4.4 HVAC systems. The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
(HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The 
design shall consider the effects of the fire on the HVAC systems. 

909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air 
inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage. 

909.4.6 Duration of operation. All portions of active or passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued 
operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated 
egress time, whichever is less. 

909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall comply with Section 709, and shall be constructed and sealed to 
limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area 
calculated using the following leakage area ratios: 

1. Walls: ^Z4, =0.00100 

2. Exit enclosures: A/A^ = 0.00035 

3. All other shafts: A/A^ = 0.00150 

4. Floors and roofs: A/Af = 0.00050 
where: 

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m^). 

Af = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m^ ). 

A^ =Unitwall areaof barrier, square feet (rri). 

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be 
included in calculating the total leakage area. 

909.5.1 Leakage area. The total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied 
by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance 
shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke 
control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive smoke control systems tested using other approved 
means such as door fan testing shall be as approved by the fire code official. 

909.5.2 Opening protection. Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic- closing devices actuated by 
the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies complying with Section 715.4.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic- closing devices actuated by spot- type smoke detectors 
listed for releasing sen/ice installed in accordance with Section 907.11. 

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method. 

3. In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite- swinging doors without a 
center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire protection- rated glazing materials in fire 
protection- rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting 
within operational tolerances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head 
and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic- closing by smoke detection 
in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3. Positive- latching devices are not required. 

4. Group 1-3. 

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank- 
down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size. 

909.5.2.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a 
minimum Class II, 250°F (12rC) smoke damper complying with Section 716. Section 716.5.3 exceptions 1.3 and 
1 .4 are not permitted for shaft enclosures. 

909.6 Pressurization method. The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences 
across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenaible environment is not required in the smoke control zone of fire origin. 



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909.6.1 Minimum pressure difference. The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch 
water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings. In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the 
smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences at least two times the maximum calculated 
pressure difference produced by the design fire. 

909.6.2 Maximum pressure difference. The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 
determined by required door- opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system 
is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors 
shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force 
to set a side- hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by: 

F=Fdc +K{WAAP)l2{W-d) (Equation 9-1) 

where: 
^ = Door area, square feet (m2). 

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m). 
F = Total door opening force, pounds (N). 
Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N). 
^ = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0). 
PF = Door width, feet(m). 
/IP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa). 

909.7 Airflow design metiiod. When approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a 
permanently open position, which are located between smoke control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be 
permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration 
from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. 

909.7.1 Velocity. The minimum average velocity through a fixed opening shall not be less than: 

V = 217.2 [h [Tf- To)l{Tj+ 460)]^^^ (Equation 9-2) 
ForSI:v = 119.9[/2(7>-rj/7>f2 

where: 

h = Height of opening, feet (m). 

Tf = Temperature of smoke, °F (K). 

To = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K). 

V = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute). 

909.7.2 Prohibited conditions. This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of 
the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume 
dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall air flow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). 
Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflow to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used. 

909.8 Exhaust method. When approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, 
such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust 
method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B . 

909.8.1 Smoke layer. The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be 
maintained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system 
within the smoke zone. 

909.9 Design fire. The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional 
and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and 
this section. 

909.9.1 Factors considered. The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects 
included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady. 

909.9.2 Separation distance. Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel 
spacing and configuration. 

R=[Q/{12nq")f'^ (Equation 9-8) 

where: 
q" = Incident radiant heat flux required for nonpiloted ignition, Btu/ft2 ■ s (W/m2). 

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Q = Heat release from fire, Btu/s (kW). 

R = Separation distance from target to center of fuel package, feet (m). 

909.9.3 Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and 
shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material. 

909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions 
that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation. 

909.10 Equipment. Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall 
be suitable for its intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates and as 
approved by the fire code official. Provide fire/smoke dampers at shaft enclosures. Section 716.5.3 exceptions 1.3 and 1.4 
are not permitted. Provide fire damper rating of no less the 250 Deg. F. For systems where the probable temperature rise 
to which the damper will be exposed may be higher the 250 Deg. F the temperature shall be computed in 909.10.1. 

909.10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for an operating 
temperature rating of no less than 250 Deg F. For systems where the probable temperature rise to which the 
components will be exposed may be higher than 250 degrees F. then the temperature rise shall be computed by: 

Ts = [QJmc) + [Ta) (Equation 9-9) 

where: 
c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, 
Btu/lb°F-(kJ/kg-K). 

m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 
Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW). 
t; = Ambient temperature, °F (K). 
t; = Smoke temperature, °F (K). 

Exoepticn: 

Reduced 7; as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air. 

909.10.2 Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to 
which they are exposed during smoke control operating conditions. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design 
pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design 
flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from 
fire- resistance- rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports. 

Exception: 

Flexible connections (for the purpose of vibration isolation) complying with the International Mechanical 
Code, that are constructed of approved fire- resistance- rated materials. 

909.10.3 Equipment; inlets and outlets. Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the 
building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing 
smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the 
building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard. 

909.10.4 Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the 
smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved, recognized standards. 

909.10.5 Fans. In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required 
for the design duty, with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based 
on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan curves shall 
be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in 
accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16. Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate 
horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a minimum service 
factor of 1.15. 

909.11 Power systems. The smoke control system shall be supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be 
from the normal building power system. Secondary power shall be from an approved emergency source complying with 
the ICC Electrical Code. The emergency power source and its transfer switches shall be in a separate room from the 



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normal power transformers and switch gear and shall be enclosed in a room constructed of not less than 1-hour fire 
barriers ventilated directly to and from the exterior. Power distribution from the two sources shall be by independent 
routes. Transfer to full emergency power shall be automatic and within 10 seconds of failure of the primary power. The 
systems shall comply with this code or the ICC Electrical Code. 

909.11.1 Power sources and power surges. Elements of the smoke management system relying on volatile memories 
or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptible power sources of sufficient duration to span a 15- minute primary 
power interruption. Elements of the smoke management system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably 
protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means. 

909.12 Detection and control systems. Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical 
smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be 
equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment. Control systems for 
mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive 
confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal 
conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. 

909.12.1 Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements of the ICC Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of voltage, 
shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways in mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, elevator equipment rooms 
and vertical risers. Wiring shall not be painted. 

909.12.2 Activation. Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with Section 907. 

909.12.2.1 PressurizatioU; airflow or exhaust method. Mechanical smoke control systems using the 
pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control. 

909.12.2.2 Passive method. Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot- type detectors listed for 
releasing service shall be permitted. 

909.12.3 Automatic control. Refer to Section 907.2. 

909.13 Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall 
be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing 
passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action. 

909.13.1 Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard drawn copper. Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, 
ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and ASTMB280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, 
solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with 
appropriate tool bends. Brass compression- type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall 
be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solids above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquids below 1,500°F (816°C). 
Brazing flux shall be used on copper- to- brass joints only. 

Exception: 

Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices, provided that all of the 
following conditions are met: 

1. Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for flame and smoke characteristics. 

2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely enclosed within galvanized or paint- grade steel 
enclosure of not less than 0.030 inch (0.76 mm) (No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) thickness. Entry to 
the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or Teflon or by 
suitable brass compression to male- barbed adapter. 

3 Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding. 

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or 
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be 
protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges. 

909.13.2 Isolation from other functions. Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated 
by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system. 

909.13.3 Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes 
without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices. 

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909.14 Marking and identification. The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses 
and terminations. 

909.15 Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and 
function shall be maintained current and kept on file with building management and in the fire command center in an 
approved format and manner. 

909.16 Firefighter's smoke control panel. A firefighter's smoke control panel meeting the requirements of UL 864 and 
listed for smoke control under UL product category guide designation UUKL shall be provided and shall include manual 
control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. Upon an alarm, the fire alarm system shall 
take direct control of all smoke control system components such as fans, dampers, activation of dedicated pressure control 
systems and status indication. The fire alarm system shall provide a signal to any temperature control or building 
automation systems for HVAC system enable/disable control and status. Where HVAC systems are utilized for smoke 
control the fire alarm system shall take direct control of those HVAC system components utilized for smoke control. 
Hard- wired interlock is acceptable. The fire alarm system shall provide automatic and manual override control and status. 
Terminal air distribution units may remain under their own normal building automation control. The panel shall be located 
in a fire command center complying with Section 509 in high rise buildings or buildings with smoke- protected assembly 
seating. In all other buildings, the firefighter's smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to 
the fire alarm control panel. The firefighter's smoke control panel shall comply with IFCA Sections 909.16.1 through 
909.16.3. 

909.16.1 Smoke control systems. The firefighter's control panel shall be provided for manual or override of 
automatic control of mechanical smoke control systems. This panel shall graphically depict the individual smoke 
control system fan and damper controls, their relative location within the building, stairwells, hoistways, building 
pressurization and exhaust airflow, refuge area pressurization and all other smoke control zones that apply. This panel 
shall clearly show the building arrangement and smoke control zones sen/ed by the systems. The graphic panel shall 
be oriented to the building and include a North reference compass point. A combination of vertical (section) and/or 
horizontal (plan) graphic arrangement may be necessary. The operating control and status indicators on the FSCP 
shall have a maximum height from the floor of 6 feet, 6 inches and a minimum of 2 feet, inches, and may require 
more than one section to accommodate height limitations. Layout, labeling and location of the fire fighters control 
panel shall be reviewed and approved by Fire Department prior to fabrication. The following features shall be 
incorporated and color- coded as follows: 

1 . G eneral building layout (black lines on white background) 

2. Exhaust systems - RED 

3. Pressurization systems - GREEN 

4. Garage supply and exhaust systems shall be energized manually to purge smoke (On - OFF only). System 
need not be connected to emergency power. The status of smoke control equipment shall be indicated by LED 
lamps and appropriate legends. Fans, major ducts and dampers within the building that are components of the 
smoke control systems shall be clearly identified as to purpose (e.g. STAIR PRESSURIZATION FAN) on the 
FSCP. Lettering shall be 16 point Helvetica bold; equipment identification (e.g. SPF-1) shall be 12 point 
Helvetica bold. 

LED status indicators shall be provided for each component of the smoke control system as follows: 

1. Fans operating, dampers open, power on - GREEN 

2. Fans off, dampers closed - Y ELLOW 

3. Fans and dampers in automatic mode shall indicate a fault status - Y ELLOW . 

4. Duct detectors as required per Section 907.12 shall be identified - Y ELLOW. 

5. Provide lamp test with momentary contact push button(s) to illuminate all LED' s simultaneously. 

6. All status LED's shall be active all the time. 

a. Control switches are active only during alarm condition except through a secured and supen/ised bypass 
method approved by the Fire Department. 



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909.16.2 Smoke control panel. The firefighter's control panel shall provide control capability over the complete 
smoke-control system equipment within the building as follows: 

1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be 
controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust 
fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans and other operating equipment used or intended for 
smoke control purposes. 

2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled 
from other sources within the building. 

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or 
smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire- fighter's control panel. 

Exceptions: 

1. Complex systems, where approved by the Denver Fire Department, where the controls and 
indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit. 

2. Complex systems, where approved by the Denver Fire Department, where the control is 
accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands. 

909.16.3 Control action and priorities. The firefighter's control panel actions shall be as follows: 

L ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the 
building. Once issued from the firefighter's control panel, no automatic or manual control from any other 
control point within the building shall contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to 
interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or 
equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high- temperature cutouts, temperature- actuated 
linkage and similar devices), such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire- fighter's control 
panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire- fighter's control panel switch position shall prevail. In 
no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any 
one time. 

Exception: 

Power disconnects required by the ICC Electrical Code. 

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow automatic or 
manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the 
NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a firefighter's control panel is in the AUTO 
position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status 
indicator described above. When directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the 
NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. 
In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at 
any one time. 

909.17 System response time. Smoke control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an 
appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such 
as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other 
equipment. The total response time for individual smoke control systems to achieve their desired operating mode shall not 
exceed the following time periods: 

Fan operating at desired state - 75 seconds 

Damper position travel - 60 seconds 

909.18 Testing of smoke control systems. Before the Fire Department accepts the smoke control systems and prior to 
initial occupancy, the smoke control systems shall be tested in their presence to confirm that the systems operate in 
compliance with this Section. In addition, all smoke control systems shall be tested annually and shall be maintained to 
perform its intended purpose under the code version with which it was built. 

909.18.1 Acceptance testing. The requirements of acceptance testing defined hereinafter shall be the minimum 
requirements. All acceptance tests shall be witnessed by a Fire Department representative. 



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1. Furnish a testing procedure, reviewed by the smoke control system design professional engineer, to the Fire 
Department 72 hrs in advance of the acceptance tests being performed. The procedure shall define how 
compliance with the Code will be demonstrated. The procedure shall also identify what instrumentation, 
including artificial smoke generating equipment, will be used during the testing. 

2. Smoke control systems testing shall include the following subsystems to the extent that they affect the operation 
of the smoke- control system: 

a. Fire alarm system (See NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code) 

b. Building Automation & Temperature Control System 

c. HVAC equipment 

d. Electrical equipment 

e. Power sources including Emergency or Standby power 

f. Automatic suppression systems 

g. Automatic operating doors and closers 

h. Dedicated and Non- dedicated smoke- control systems 
i. Emergency elevator operation 

3. Prior to witnessed acceptance testing of the smoke control systems, the design professional engineer shall confirm 
and advise the Fire Department in writing that the entire smoke control system has been installed, air balanced 
and tested in accordance with its design, plans, specifications and this Code. 

4. The following shall be notified so that they may witness the acceptance testing: 

a. Design Professional Engineer-of-Record 

b. Building contractor 

c . wner' s representative 

d. D enver Fire D epartment 

e. D enver B uilding D epartment 

5. Unless otherwise approved by the Fire Department, sufficient smoke shall be generated to produce at least the 
volume of the smoke zone being tested within approximately 5 minutes. All smoke- generating devices shall be 
supplied by the owner or his representative and shall meet with the approval of the Fire Department. 

6. Acceptance testing shall demonstrate that the correct outputs are produced for a given input for each control 
sequence specified. The following control sequences shall demonstrate complete smoke-control sequence. 

a. Normal mode 

b. A utomatic smoke- control mode for first alarm 

c. Manual override of normal and automatic smoke- control modes 

d. Return to normal 

7. After the smoke control system is activated, smoke shall not continue to migrate to other smoke zones of the 
building. 

8. Smoke control systems shall demonstrate the ability to inhibit smoke from migrating across smoke zone 
boundaries to other areas and containment within the active smoke zone. Smoke control system shall also 
demonstrate the continual reduction of smoke concentration from within the active smoke zone. 

909.18.2 Testing requirements: Tests shall be performed in full automatic mode with the building operating under 
both normal power and emergency power. Test equipment shall include; manometer (calibrated within last 12 
months), spring scale and other equipment as necessary to adequately measure and record system performance. 
Communications shall be provided between the test locations and the fire command center. 

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1. For a building that is not a high rise, multiple tests on more than one floor or smoke zone shall be required to 
demonstrate proper operation. 

2. For high rise buildings, tests shall be conducted at a minimum of 5 locations. 

a. A floor in the lower third, a floor in the middle third and a floor in the upper third of the building. 

b. With a floor in alarm, an additional automatic alarm shall be initiated on a floor immediately above or below 
the initial floor in alarm. All floors in alarm shall go to exhaust mode 

c. With a floor in alarm, a manual pull station on another floor shall be activated. Smoke control operation shall 
not be affected. 

d. For atriums, more than one test may be required depending upon the atrium configuration, its relationship to 
adjacent spaces and if the atrium is located in a high-rise. 

e. Activation of one smoke detector in each smoke control zone on each floor being tested 

f . A ctivation of at least one sprinkler flow switch. 

g. Activation of at least one manual pull station. 

3. For high rise buildings, pressure differentials shall be measured across stairway doors, across 
elevator/lobby /refuge corridor area doors and adjoining spaces, between atriums and areas immediately adjacent 
to atriums where atriums are part of a high rise building. Door opening force into stair enclosures or refuge areas 
shall not exceed 30 lbs. under any conditions. 

4. Upon activation of the fire alarm system for each test, confirm that the smoke control system fans and dampers 
have assumed the correct operating condition for the type of alarm initiating device and the location of the 
initiating device. This shall be confirmed also at the smoke control panel in the fire command center. 

5. Manually override the operation of a sampling of fans and dampers during each test, taking care not to damage 
system components. Return all override switches to their "auto" position after each test. 

909.18.3 Annual tests. Annual tests shall be performed in accordance with 909.18.3.1 and 909.18.3.2, on all smoke 
control systems including those installed prior to adoption of this code. It is recognized that smoke control systems 
installed prior to adoption of this Code could have parameters that are different than those described in this Section. In 
those cases, smoke control tests shall be adjusted accordingly to meet the intent of this section. 

909.18.3.1 Equipment operating tests. The following equipment operating tests shall be conducted annually on 
the smoke control system components: 

1. Verify the proper control and status indication of smoke control dampers (i.e., "OPEN/CLOSED") and fans 
(i.e., "ON/OFF") by visual obsen/ation at each damper and fan location and at the smoke control 
status/control panel in the fire command center. 

2. Verify that all smoke control dampers and fans assume the correct operating position under both normal and 
fire modes and when the manual override switches at the smoke control status/control panel are placed in the 
"auto" position. 

3. Verify that the manual override switches function property for smoke control dampers and fans. 

4. Items 1, 2 and 3 above may be performed by qualified service technicians who are familiar with the proper 
operation of the smoke control systems and equipment. The engineer responsible for conducting the smoke 
control system performance tests shall develop the test procedures to be used and review the results obtained 
by the service technicians, including an actual sampling to confirm the accuracy of the test. A statement 
summarizing this review shall be included in the performance test report described in section 909.18.4 that is 
required to be submitted by the engineer to the Fire Department. 

5. A copy of the written test procedure and an accurate log of tests shall be maintained in the fire command 
center and at either the building management office or the maintenance office. A copy of the previous test 
report shall be submitted to the engineer responsible for the smoke control performance tests for the 
engineer's review and approval prior to the smoke control test. Any defects, system modifications and repairs 
shall be recorded in the log. Necessary corrections shall be made prior to the smoke control performance test. 



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909.18.3.2 Performance tests. Within 30 days after completion of annual equipment operating tests defined 
above, conduct the following smoke control system performance tests. The annual smoke control systems tests 
shall be conducted under the direct supen/ision of a professional engineer qualified in the testing of such smoke 
control systems. 

1. Activate the smoke control systems manually for tests used to confirm minimum pressure differentials 
defined in this Section. 

2. Activate the smoke control systems automatically through the fire alarm system for tests used to confirm 
proper sequencing of the system components. Measure actual relative pressure differentials between areas in 
alarm and adjacent areas and actual door opening forces. 

3. For high rise buildings, conduct smoke control tests, obsen/ations and measurements of all aspects of the 
smoke control system at a minimum of 3 locations: a floor in the lower third, a floor in the middle third and a 
floor in the upper third of the building. Smoke control tests in subsequent years shall be conducted on 
previously untested floors, as may be practical so that all floors ultimately are tested. 

4. For all other buildings, conduct smoke control tests, observations and measurements of all aspects of the 
smoke control system at a minimum number of locations to demonstrate proper performance as approved by 
the Fire Department. Each test shall attempt to involve as many different fan systems as practical. Smoke 
control tests in subsequent years shall be conducted on previously untested locations, as may be practical so 
that all locations ultimately are tested over a three year period. 

5. Tests of the smoke control system shall be conducted by activation of at least one smoke detector in each 
smoke control zone on each floor being tested. One test of at least one of the smoke control zones shall 
include activation of one sprinkler flow switch. In addition, the smoke control tests shall include activation of 
at least one manual fire alarm box. For high rise buildings, pressure differentials shall be measured across 
stairway doors, between floors in alarm and floors immediately above and below floors in alarm, across 
elevator/lobby /refuge corridor area doors and adjoining spaces in Group Rl, R2 or II occupancies, and 
between atriums and areas immediately adjacent to atriums where atriums are part of high rise buildings. 

6. Upon activation of the fire alarm system for each test, confirm that the smoke control system fans and 
dampers have assumed the correct operating condition for the type of alarm initiating device and the location 
of the initiating device. This shall be confirmed also at the smoke control panel in the fire command center. 

7. Manually override the operation of a sampling of fans and dampers during each test, taking care not to 
damage system components. Return all override switches to their "auto" position after each test. 

909.18.4 Test reports. Within 30 days of completing any smoke control test, submit a test report to the Fire 
Department. A copy of the previous and current test reports shall be kept in the fire command center. The test report 
shall be written by the professional engineer who conducted the testing. The test report shall bear the seal and 
signature of the professional engineer. Any defects, modifications and repairs shall be recorded in a log kept in the 
fire command center and at either the building management office or the maintenance office. The test report shall 
include, but is not limited to the following: 

1. Provide a brief description of the smoke control system installed in the building being tested, and state the year 
the building received its construction permit for the smoke control system. Provide a sequence of operation for 
the smoke control system. 

2. Describe in general terms the equipment operating test procedures. Include a list of the equipment operating and 
smoke control test deficiencies along with a schedule of the proposed corrective action. 

3. Describe detailed procedures followed during the equipment operating tests. Describe detailed procedures 
followed during the smoke control tests. 

4. List test equipment used and outside air temperature and wind conditions at the time the smoke control tests were 
conducted. 

5. State sequences and timing of the system operations during all smoke control tests (e.g., smoke detector activation 
time, fan start times, time for dampers to assume the correct position, etc.) 

6. List the location of test measurements and the measured values for pressure differentials and door-opening forces 
for each test location. 

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7. Record any operational defects and performance deficiencies with respect to the requirements of this Section, and 
state recommendations for corrective action. Include a schedule to re-test each deficiency. Submit results of any 
subsequent tests performed after completion of the corrective action. 

8. Engineer's assessment indicating that the smoke control system, as installed and tested, conforms to the 
requirements of Section 909. 

909.18.5 System repairs and maintenance. All deficiencies noted in the annual report will be corrected within 30 
days and, if required by the engineer, the smoke control system shall be re- tested. All smoke control systems will be 
maintained to perform its intended purpose under the code version with which it was built. As stated in IPC Section 
107.5, correction and abatement of violations of this code shall be the responsibility of the owner. With approval of 
the Denver Building Department and the Denver Fire Department smoke control systems may be remodeled to 
comply with current code. 

909.19 System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be 
issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section 
have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both 
automatic and manual, of the system. 

Exception: 

In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code official, 
shall be allowed provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section 
and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent 
buildings. 

909.20 Smokeproof enclosures. For buildings required to comply with Section 403 or 405, a smokeproof enclosure shall 
consist of an enclosed, pressurized stairway conforming to IBCA Section 1020.1and IFCA Section 909.21. 

909.20.1 Construction. Smokeproof vertical exit enclosures shall be separated from the remainder of the building by 
not less than a 2- hour fire- resistance- rated fire barrier without openings other than the required means of egress doors. 
The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accordance with the fire-resistance-rating requirements for floor 
construction. 

909.20.1.1 Door closers. Doors in a smokeproof enclosure shall be self-closing or shall be automatic closing by 
actuation of a smoke detector installed at the floor-side entrance to the smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of the 
smoke detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all 
levels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.10. 

909.20.2 Stair pressurization alternative. Stairway pressurization shall comply with Section 909.21.4 

909.20.3 Ventilating equipment. The activation of ventilating equipment shall be as required in Section 907.2. 

909.20.3.1 Ventilation systems. Smokeproof enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent of other building 
ventilation systems. The equipment and ductwork shall comply with one of the following: 

1. Equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and directly connected to the smokeproof 
enclosure or connected to the smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by 2-hour fire barriers. 

2. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust directly 
from and to the outside or through ductwork enclosed by 2- hour fire barriers. 

3. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within the building if separated from the remainder of the building, 
including other mechanical equipment, by 2-hour fire barriers. 

909.20.3.2 Emergency power. Mechanical hoistway and stair shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire 
detection systems shall be powered by an approved emergency power system conforming to IFC Section 403.10.1 
and Chapter 27. 

909.20.3.3 Acceptance and testing. In accordance with Section 909.18. 

909.21 Alternative design approach 

909.21.1 Scope and purpose. The alternative approach for the design of smoke control systems, which is described 
in this Section, has been developed over 25 years within the City of Denver and uses a prescriptive approach for the 

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design, installation and performance verification of smoke control systems and applies to mechanical smoke control 
systems. The purpose of this Section is to establish minimum requirements for the design and installation of smoke 
control systems, which are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. 
These provisions are not intended for the preservation of content or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul 
activities. Nothing within these requirements is intended to apply when smoke control is not otherwise required by 
this Code. Smoke control systems will not be accepted as a substitute for automatic fire sprinkler system protection. 

909.21.2 Design criteria. 

909.21.2.1 Minimum pressure differential. The minimum pressure differential across stairway and hoistway 
fire and smoke proof enclosures, on non-fire floors, shall be 0.05-inch water gauge (0.0124 kPa), positive from 
the stairway or hoistway to the fire floor. 

909.21.2.2 Maximum door opening force. The maximum pressure difference across a fire barrier shall be 
determined by the required door-opening or door-closing forces. Door opening force shall not exceed 30 pounds 
applied horizontally at the latch side of the door on the door- opening device under any operating condition. 
Maximum door opening force shall not exceed 15 pounds during a non-fire mode of operation. 

909.21.2.3 Resistance to smoke recirculation. Locate outdoor air intakes for pressurization systems remote 
from points of discharge for smoke exhaust systems, in order to minimize the potential for recirculation of smoke 
to the outdoor air intakes. The minimum separation distance shall be 10 ft. in any direction. 

909.21.2.4 Determination of the volume of a space. Certain prescriptive criteria contained within this 
alternative design approach are associated with the sizing of smoke control systems. The volume of a given 
building element shall be defined as the space that is contained between the finished floor slab(s) of one level and 
the underside of the floor or roof element above, and the walls or partitions that form the boundaries of the space. 

909.21.2.5 Fire/Smoke damper temperature rating. The temperature rating for the fusible link in fire and 
combination fire/smoke dampers, where they are applied in smoke exhaust systems, shall be no less than 250 
Deg. F. For systems where the probable temperature rise to which the damper will be exposed may be higher than 
250 Deg. F the temperature shall be computed as in 909.10.1. 

909.21.3 Smoke control systems for atriums (where required by Section 404). 

909.21.3.1 Requirements. The prescriptive approach described hereinafter may be used when approved by the 
Denver Fire Department. The operation of the smoke control systems shall be controlled through the fire alarm 
system and shall comply with the requirements of this Section. The atrium volume shall include all spaces not 
separated from the atrium by the provisions of IBC Section 404.5. 

909.21.3.2 Atriums 55 feet or less in height with a volume of 600,000 cubic feet or less. The system shall 
exhaust a minimum of six air changes per hour Gravity supply or fan powered supply shall be provided within 
10 feet of the lowest level of the atrium and shall be sized for 75 percent of the exhaust air rate. A maximum 
velocity of 200 feet per minute shall be maintained across the net free area of the supply air openings. 

909.21.3.3 Atriums 55 feet or less in height with a volume in excess of 600,000 cubic feet. The system shall 
exhaust a minimum of four air changes per hour Gravity supply or fan powered supply shall be provided within 
10 feet of the lowest level of the atrium and shall be sized for 75 percent of the exhaust air rate. A maximum 
velocity of 200 feet per minute shall be maintained across the net free area of the supply air openings 

909.21.3.4 Atriums in excess of 55 feet in height. The system shall exhaust a minimum of four air changes per 
hour. A minimum of 50 percent of the volume of supply air shall be sized and introduced via gravity supply or fan 
powered inlets within 10 feet of the lowest level of the atrium. The total volume of supply air shall be 75 percent 
of the required volume of exhaust air 

909.21.3.5 Exhaust openings. Exhaust openings shall be located in the ceiling or in a smoke trap area 
immediately adjacent to the ceiling at the top of the atrium. The lowest level of the exhaust openings shall be 
above the top of the highest elevation of door openings into the atrium. 

909.21.4 Smoke control systems for high-rise buildings. 

909.21.4.1 Stairway pressurization systems. 

909.21.4.1.1 Requirements. Each interior enclosed exit stairway and associated exit passageway shall be 
mechanically pressurized with outdoor air, via a separate, dedicated pressurization system. The operation of 

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each stairway pressurization system shall be controlled through the fire alarm system, as described in 
subsequent Articles of this Section. Stairway pressurization system ductwork shall not include fire or smoke 
dampers; however, isolation dampers may be included in the outdoor air intake ductwork systems, where such 
dampers are controlled via hard-wired interlock, and are configured to be "fail" open from a control 
standpoint. 

909.21.4.1.2 Operation. Each stairway pressurization system shall be enclosed in a two-hour fire-resistive 
enclosure, from the outdoor air intake to the stairway enclosure penetration. Each fan discharge shall be 
provided with a duct smoke detector that shall be annunciated as a supen/isory signal at the fire command 
center (graphic panel) and illuminate a lamp adjacent to the fan status indicator on the firefighters smoke 
control panel. The capability to manually override the operation of each fan shall be provided to Fire 
Department personnel in the fire command center. Fans shall not shut off until manually overridden by Fire 
Department personnel or until the fire alarm system is reset. 

909.21.4.1.3 Design. The air volume introduced into the stairway shall be as follows: 15 floors or less, at least 
1,000 cfm per floor; 16 floors or more, at least 15,000 cfm, plus 200 cfm per floor level in excess of 15 floors 
with 1.0 inch w.c. static pressure minimum at duct penetration into the stairway. Static pressure control shall 
be provided for stairway pressurization fan systems. Variable frequency drives may be utilized for this 
purpose. 

909.21.4.2 Hoistway pressurization systems. 

909.21.4.2.1 Requirements. Each elevator hoistway shall be mechanically pressurized with outside air, via a 
separate, dedicated pressurization system. The operation of each hoistway pressurization system shall be 
controlled through the fire alarm system. Elevator hoistway pressurization system ductwork shall not include 
fire or smoke dampers; however, isolation dampers may be included, in the outdoor air intake ductwork 
systems, where such dampers are controlled via hardwired interlock, and are configured to be "fail" open 
from a control standpoint. 

909.21.4.2.2 Operation. Each pressurization system shall be enclosed in a two-hour fire resistive enclosure, 
from outside air intake to the hoistway penetration. Each fan discharge shall be provided with a duct smoke 
detector that shall be annunciated as a supen/isoiy signal at the fire command center graphic panel and 
illuminate a lamp adjacent to the fan status indicator on the firefighters smoke control panel. Fans shall not 
shut off until manually overridden by Fire Department personnel or until the fire alarm system is reset. 

909.21.4.2.3 Design. Elevator hoistway pressurization systems shall be sized for a minimum of 15,000 CFM 
per bank (shaft) of elevators, plus 300 CFM per door opening per floor, with 1.0 inch water gauge static 
pressure, minimum, at the duct penetration into hoistway. Static pressure control shall be provided for 
hoistway pressurization fan systems. Variable frequency drives may be utilized for this purpose. Hoistway 
pressurization system performance shall not interfere with the opening and closing of elevator doors. Refer to 
Chapter 30 for door activation. 

909.21.4.2.4 Smoke venting to exterior. Smoke venting of pressurized elevator hoistways to the exterior of 
the building shall not be required. 

909.21.4.2.5 Elevator machine rooms. Elevator machine rooms may be pressurized indirectiy via the 
elevator hoistway pressurization system through the cable slots in the machine room floor. 

909.21.4.2.6 Lobby/Refuge areas. Elevator lobbies designated as refuge areas may have the elevator 
lobby/refuge area pressurized using the elevator hoistway pressurization system by transferring air to the 
elevator lobby /refuge area from the hoistway. Use of transfer openings protected with fire/smoke dampers 
between tiie hoistway and tiie lobby/refuge area is acceptable. 

909.21.4.3 G eneral building smoke exhaust. 

909.21.4.3.1 Requirements. A general smoke exhaust system(s) shall be provided in buildings with a high- 
rise classification, for the occupancies indicated. This system(s) shall be controlled via the fire alarm system, 
to operate in conjunction with the other applicable smoke control systems for the building, in order to achieve 
the objectives as follows: 1) To maintain a zone of negative pressure on the fire floor (or smoke zone) relative 
to the other floors or smoke zones, and 2) To maintain a maximum stairway door opening force on the fire 
floor. The prescriptive approach described hereinafter is not intended to preclude the use of a performance- 

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based approach, such as that defined by NFPA, for smoke control; however, the values listed hereinafter 
represent the minimum level of performance that must be achieved. 

909.21.4.3.2 Configuration. The general smoke exhaust system shall include motorized combination 
fire/smoke dampers or a motorized smoke and a fire damper on each floor of a multi- level building sen/ed by 
the system(s). The exhaust damper(s) on the fire floor shall be commanded open, in order to exhaust that 
floor, and the smoke exhaust fan commanded to the operating mode. The exhaust dampers on the non-fire 
floors shall be driven to, or shall remain in, the closed position. The use of smoke dampers shall not preclude 
the provision of fire dampers, where required by other Sections of this code. 

909.21.4.3.3 Design criteria. The general building smoke exhaust system(s) for each floor/smoke zone shall 
be sized in accordance with the following: 1) The assumption that make-up air will be available on the fire 
floor; 2) The smoke exhaust system shall be sized to remove a minimum of five air changes per hour on the 
fire floor in Occupancy Groups A, B, E and M; 3) The smoke exhaust system shall be sized to remove a 
minimum of fifteen air changes per hour in the typical floor corridors, the typical floor corridors/elevator 
lobbies, or the typical floor elevator lobbies in Occupancy Groups Rl, R2, II and 13; 4) That appropriate 
consideration be made for damper leakage on non-fire floors connected to a central riser system, when 
selecting the smoke exhaust fan(s). 

909.21.4.3.4 Street level retail exception. General building pressurization and smoke exhaust systems will 
not be required to sen/e individual retail areas located on the level of egress and that have at least one exit 
directly to the exterior. 

909.21.4.4 Smoke control systems for parking garages within high rise structures. 

909.21.4.4.1 Requirements. Elevator lobbies designated as refuge areas on all floors within an enclosed 
parking structure shall have the elevator lobby/refuge area pressurized using the elevator hoistway 
pressurization system by transferring air to the elevator lobby /refuge area. Use of transfer openings protected 
with fire/smoke dampers between the hoistway and the lobby /refuge area is acceptable. 

909.21.4.4.2 Open parking garages. A general building smoke control system shall not be required for 
elevator lobbies that are enclosed and that sen/e an open parking garage, if direct access without stairs or 
obstructions is available for people with special needs to exit from the elevator lobby to the open parking 
garage level or directly to a public way. 

909.21.4.4.3 Enclosed garages. Exhaust fans associated with an enclosed parking structure shall be capable 
of manual operation from the fire command center. Such exhaust fans will not require a redundant source of 
electrical power, and this shall be indicated at the fire command center with the words, "Not on Emergency 
Power". 

909.21.5 G eneral building smoke exhaust for large spaces. 

909.21.5.1 Requirements. Each floor area shall be a compartment and smoke control zone not to exceed 
52,000 square feet on a single floor. Smoke control zones shall be separated from each other by a wall that 
shall extend from the floor to the underside of the floor or roof above, except for the following: 

1 . penings into atriums. 

2. Pedestrian bridges between two buildings. 

3. Non- required stair enclosures between floors. 

4. Open escalators between multiple floors. 

909.21.5.2 Design criteria. Building construction shall be configured in order to support the performance of 
the general building smoke exhaust system, in accordance with the following: 

1. Draft stops shall be provided between smoke control zones without wall separation, in order to prevent 
migration of smoke throughout the building, whereby the configuration of the draft stops shall be 
approved by the Building and Fire Departments. 

2. A smoke control zone in alarm shall actuate the respective general building smoke exhaust system, while 
the smoke exhaust systems in the adjacent smoke control zones shall remain inactive. 



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3. The minimum static pressure differential shall be maintained in the adjacent non-fire zones, with respect 
to the smoke control zones in alarm, where smoke control zones have wall separations. 

4. Sprinkler zones shall coincide with smoke zones. 

5. Products of combustion must be demonstrated to be contained within the zone of origin, for smoke zones 
without wall separations, and the failure to restrict products of combustion to the floor or area of origin 
will be considered as not complying with the requirements for the smoke control system. 

909.21.6 Smoke control systems for covered mall buildings (where required by Section 404). 

909.21.6.1 Requirements. A mechanically operated smoke control system, which shall operate to restrict smoke 
to the general area of fire origin and to maintain the exiting system in a condition that is safe for exiting, shall be 
installed in covered mall buildings. 

909.21.6.2 Smoke control systems for tenant space and anchor stores. 

909.21.6.2.1 Requirements. The spaces shall be compartmentalized into smoke control zones not to exceed 
52,000 square feet on a single floor. Except for openings between the covered mall area and tenant spaces, 
smoke control zones shall be separated from each other by wall construction having a fire resistance rating per 
IBC Section 402.7.2 and 402.7.3. The walls shall extend from the floor to the underside of the floor or roof 
above. 

909.21.6.2.2 Design criteria. The tenant space and anchor store smoke control exhaust system shall be sized 
to exhaust a minimum of 6 air changes per hour or 20,000 cfm from each smoke control zone, whichever is 
greater. 

909.21.6.3 Smoke control systems for covered mall areas. 

909.21.6.3.1 Requirements. A smoke exhaust system shall be provided to serve covered mall areas. Smoke 
exhaust locations shall be configured in order to preclude accumulation of smoke in any area of the covered 
mall. The smoke exhaust system shall be activated by the fire alarm system. If multiple smoke control zones 
for the mall area are provided either by zone area requirements of this Section or by system design, then only 
the smoke exhaust system for the zone in alarm shall be activated. Smoke exhaust systems for adjacent 
covered mall zones shall not operate. 

909.21.6.3.2 Design criteria. The smoke control equipment for the covered mall areas shall be separate from 
that serving tenant spaces. The covered mall area smoke removal system shall provide at least 6 air changes 
per hour. 

909.21.7 Smoke control for large assembly areas. 

909.21.7.1 Requirements. A mechanically operated air- handling system, which shall restrict the smoke to the 
general area of fire origin and maintain the exiting system in a condition that is safe for exiting, shall be installed 
in buildings with assembly areas or similar areas where the occupant load of each area is 1,000 or greater, as 
calculated per 2006 IBC Section 1004, and smoke control is required per Sections 909.21.3 (atriums) and 
909.21.4 (high- rises). The spaces shall be compartmentalized into smoke control zones. Large assembly areas 
shall be separated from other adjacent areas, or smoke control zones by smoke partitions. Detector zones may not 
exceed 22,500 square feet and no detector zone shall serve more than one smoke control zone. 

Exceptions: 

1. Large assembly smoke zones shall be separated from adjacent zones by draft stops located 
immediately adjacent to each smoke zone. The draft stops shall be at least 18 inches deep. The draft 
stops shall be of non combustible or limited combustible material that will stay in place before and 
during sprinkler operation. 

2. Large assembly areas smoke zones separation from adjacent smoke zones is not required for ceiling 
heights 18 feet and greater. 

909.21.7.2 Design criteria. The smoke control exhaust system shall exhaust a minimum of 6 air changes per hour 
or 20,000 cfm from each smoke control zone, whichever is greater. 

909.21.8 Retrofit of smoke control systems in existing high rise buildings. 



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909.21.8.1 Requirements. Smoke control systems shall be maintained in operational condition as required by the 
code under which the system was installed. System upgrades shall generally comply with the requirements of 
Section 909. Construction drawings and system sequence of operation shall be submitted for approval. The 
upgraded system shall be considered the new requirement and documented as approved by the Denver Building 
Department and the Denver Fire Department. Future work shall not be allowed to adversely affect the 
performance of the system. 

SECTION 910 

SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS 

Amend Table 910.3 by deleting Option 2 rows under column heading "Occupancy Group and 
Commodity Classification" for both commodity classes "l-IV" and "High Hazard." 

Delete Section 910.3.1.1. Gravity vents. 

SECTION 913 
FIRE PUMPS 

Amend Section 913.1 by adding the following after the last sentence: 

Limited service controllers are not permitted. 

Add Section 913.6 as follows: 

913.6 Fire pump requirement for non-high-rise structures. Where standpipes are required by other provisions of this 
code, a fire pump shall be provided. Installation of a fire pump is not required subject to the following exceptions. A 
written request for approval of omission of the fire pump, substantiating compliance with this provision, shall be 
submitted to the fire department. Where required, fire pump shall have a water flow rate of 500 gpm or the sprinkler 
system flow demand, whichever results in a larger fire pump. The fire pump shall be capable of delivering the required 
sprinkler system pressure demand. 

Exceptions: 

1. The requirement of a fire pump may be waived in all occupancies except H and I occupancies where all of the 
following are met: 

a. Buildings shall be equipped throughout by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with IFC Sections 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 with quick response or residential sprinkler heads. 

b. City water pressure, as tested at the site, must be capable of hydraulically supporting the sprinkler system 
witiiout a fire pump or augmentation by the Fire Department. 

c. Standpipes shall be installed or be existing and, when a fire pump is not provided, shall be capable of 
providing water flow as follows: 

For Class I standpipe systems, the minimum flow rate for the hydraulically most remote standpipe shall 
be 500 gpm, and the calculation procedure shall be in accordance with NFPA 14. The minimum flow rate 
for additional standpipes shall be 250 gpm per standpipe, with the total not to exceed 1000 gpm for 
buildings that are sprinklered throughout per NFPA 13 or NFPA 13R. Minimum pressure for system 
design shall be as required by NFPA 14 with Fire Department pumpers augmenting the system with a 
maximum flow rate of 1,000 gpm and a maximum pressure of 135 psi at each fire department connection 
(FDC). 

d. Projects must have approved Fire Department access for fire- fighting apparatus to the building FDC or 
connections located on the exterior face of the building. The distance from the centerline of fire 
department access to the primary FDC shall not exceed 50 feet. 

e. If the building floor plate exceeds 12,500 sq. ft, two separate and remote FDCs shall be provided. One 
FDC shall be within 100 ft of a fire hydrant. 

f. A graphic or a directory type annunciation panel shall be provided. Each level shall be provided with a 
flow switch and shall be annunciated as a separate zone. The main flow switch shall also be annunciated 

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as a separate zone. Tamper switches may be annunciated on one zone. Valve monitoring and waterflow 
alarm and trouble signals shall be distinctiy annunciated. 

2. The requirement of a fire pump may be waived in mixed- use or single- use open parking garages with 
standpipes, including those with enclosed parking levels under the open garage. This exception is applicable 
where tiie elevation of the highest tier/floor does not exceed 75 ft above the lowest level of Fire Department 
vehicle access and the following provisions are met: 

a. The building is constructed in accordance with IBC Section 406.3. 

b. Standpipes shall be installed or be existing and, when a fire pump is not provided, shall be capable of 
providing water flow as follows: 

For Class I automatic dry standpipe systems, the minimum flow rate for the hydraulically most remote 
standpipe shall be 500 gpm, and the calculation procedure shall be in accordance with NFPA 14. The 
minimum flow rate for additional standpipes shall be 250 gpm per standpipe, with the total not to exceed 
1000 gpm. Minimum pressure for system design shall be as required by NFPA 14 with Fire Department 
pumpers augmenting tiie system witii a maximum flow rate of 1,000 gpm and a maximum pressure of 135 
psi at each fire department connection (FDC). 

c. Standpipes are installed in accordance with IFCA Section 905 and NFPA 14. 

d. Projects must have approved Fire Department access for fire fighting apparatus to the building FDC 
located on the exterior face of the building. The distance from the centerline of fire department access to 
the primary FDC shall not exceed 50 feet. 

Add Section 915 as follows: 

SECTION 915 

RADIO ENHANCEMENT SYSTEM 

915.1 Radio Enhancement System for underground buildings. All underground buildings shall comply with 
Department of Safety Radio Enhancement Systems (RES) requirements as defined in IFCA Section 907.2.12.3.3. 

915.2 Radio Enhancement System for buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet of building area. All buildings 
exceeding 50,000 total square feet of floor area shall comply with Department of Safety Radio Enhancement Systems 
(RES) requirements as defined in IFCA Section 907.2.12.3.3. 

The Department of Safety radio frequency range— 800 MHz to 870 MHz— shall operate effectively throughout the 
structure at a radio control channel signal level of no less than -100 dBm at 90% or more of the locations measured within 
each grid area. Equivalently, the service area reliability shall be 90% or greater on each floor of the structure and parking 
levels. 

Upon completion of major construction and prior to occupancy of the building, radio acceptance testing by Denver Fire 
Department Technicians or technicians with appropriate knowledge and training who are licensed by the Denver Fire 
Department shall be performed. 

Exception: 

Where an RES is not installed at time of construction, an empty two- inch (2") vertical metallic raceway or conduit 
shall be provided near each required stairway enclosure and in each elevator lobby. Where the radio signal 
coverage does not comply with provisions of Sections 915.2 and 907.2.12.3.3, the 2" empty conduits shall be used 
for installation of RES. Installation of RES shall be completed prior to issuance of the Certificate of Occupancy. 



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CHAPTER 10 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

All amendments to Sections 1001 through 1026 of this chapter are located in Chapter 10 of the Denver 
Amendments to the International Building Code (IBCA). 

SECTION 1027 

MEANS OF EGRESS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 

Replace Section 1027.16.3 as follows: 

1027.16.3 Dimensions. Fire escape stairs shall meet the minimum width, riser height and tread depth as specified in 
IBCA Sections 3404.4 and 105.1. 



CHAPTER 11 
AVIATION FACILITIES 

SECTION 1106 
AIRCRAFT FUELING 

Add Section 1106.12.1 as follows: 

1106.12.1 Auxiliary power unit (APU). Fuel servicing shall not be performed on a fixed-wing aircraft while an 
onboard engine, APU or heater, is operating. 

Exception: 

In an emergency resulting from the failure of an onboard auxiliary power unit on a jet aircraft, and in the 
absence of suitable ground support equipment, a jet engine mounted at the rear of the aircraft or on the wing on 
the side opposite the fueling point shall be permitted to be operated during fueling or defueling to provide 
power, provided that the operation follows written procedures approved by Denver International Airport and 
the Denver Fire Department. 

SECTION 1107 

HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS 

Add Section 1107.9 as follows: 

1107.9 Helistops on roofs. In addition to other applicable portions of this Code, helistops located on roofs shall comply 
with the following: 

1 . Smoking is prohibited on the roof operating area during landing and takeoff operations. 

2. Persons, other than helistop personnel, shall be restricted to designated protected or fenced waiting areas during 
landing and take-off operations. 

3. Loose material such as gravel is prohibited. 

4. Openings in the roof shall not be permitted in the immediate landing area. 

5. Major repair and maintenance operations are not permitted on the helistop except in cases of emergency, and only 
wilii prior notification to the department. 

6. Communication facilities shall be provided from the helistop to the department and building personnel for emergency 
notification. 

7. Helistop personnel shall be trained in the use of communication and fire extinguishing equipment. 

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8. The storage of flammable liquids or highly combustible materials on the roof is prohibited. 

9. An exterior (weatherproof) manual pull station shall be provided by each exit and shall be connected to the building 
alarm system. 

10. At least 100 feet of approved 1.5-inch hose equipped with an approved fog nozzle and a 2.5-inch male NST reduced 
to a 1.5- inch male Denver thread shall be provided in a weatherproof cabinet adjacent to the roof standpipe. 



CHAPTER 14 
FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 

SECTION 1401 
GENERAL 

1401.3 Permit Required (Addition) 

Add new subsection as follows: 

1401.3 Permit required. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6 for the activities or uses regulated by 
sections 1403 - Temporary Heating Equipment, 1404.3 - Open Burning, 1404.5 - Fire Watch, 1404.6 - Cutting and 
Welding, 1405.1 Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1405.2 - Class I and Class II Liquids, 1406.1 - Storage 
and Handling (Flammable Gases), 1407.1 - Storage and Handling (Explosive Materials), 1417 - Safeguarding Roofing 
Operations, and 1418 - Asbestos Operations. 

SECTION 1413 
STANDPIPES 

Replace Section 1413.1 as follows: 

1413.1 Where required. Buildings four or more stories in height shall be provided with not less than one standpipe for 
use during construction. Such standpipes shall be installed when the progress of construction is not more than 30 feet in 
height above the lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access or where the floor level of the lowest story is located 
more than 30 feet below the highest level of Fire Department vehicle access. Such standpipes shall be provided with Fire 
Department hose connections at accessible locations adjacent to usable stairs. Such standpipes shall be extended as 
consturction progresses to within one floor of the highest point of construction having secured decking or flooring. One 
fire department connection [not less than two (2) 2.5-inch inlets with 4-inch piping] shall be provided for buildings less 
than 200 feet in height. Where building exceeds 200 feet in height, two (2) separate 6- inch manual dry standpipes shall be 
required. These standpipes shall be located adjacent to a usable stair with a 200 feet maximum separation between 
standpipes. Each standpipe shall be connected to two (2) 2.5-inch inlet fire department connections. Each fire department 
connection shall be signed indicating which standpipe it serves. The fire department connection(s) shall be provided at a 
location visible from the public way, accessible to fire apparatus and approved by Fire Prevention personnel. Refer to IFC 
Chapter 9. 

Add new section as follows: 

SECTION 1418 
ASBESTOS OPERATIONS 

1418.1 General. Operations involving asbestos or asbestos- containing materials in buildings and other structures 
regulated by this code shall be in accordance with IFC Section 1418. 

1418.2 Notification. The fire code official shall be notified 24 hours prior to the commencement and closure of asbestos 
operations. The permit applicant shall notify the building official when asbestos abatement involves the removal of 
materials which were used as a feature of the building's fire resistance. 

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1418.3 Signs. Approved signs shall be posted at the entrance, exit, decontamination areas and waste- disposal areas for 
asbestos operations. The signs shall state asbestos abatement operations are in progress in the area, asbestos is a suspected 
carcinogen and proper respiratory protection is required. Signs shall have a reflective surface and lettering shall be a 
minimum of two inches (51 mm) in height. 



CHAPTER 15 
FLAMMABLE FINISHES 

SECTION 1501 
GENERAL 

Replace Section 1501.1, Item #4 as follows: 

4. Floor surfacing or finishing operations involving flammable finishes. 
Replace Section 1501.1, Item #6 as follows: 

6. Spraying and dipping operations, including spraying noncombustible materials (water based). 

SECTION 1504 
SPRAY FINISHING 

Replace Section 1504.6.1.2.1, Item #3 as follows: 

3. Have the ventilating system maintain a concentration 25 percent below the lower flammable limit (LFL) 
within the spray booth or spray room during the drying process and automatically shut off drying 
apparatus in the event of a failure of the ventilating system. 

SECTION 1505 
DIPPING OPERATIONS 

Replace Section 1505.7 as follows: 

1505.7 Ventilation of flammable vapor areas. Mechanical ventilation shall be provided to maintain airborne 
concentrations below 25 percent the lower flammability limit (LFL). Required ventilation systems shall be arranged such 
that the failure of any ventilating fan shall automatically stop the dipping conveyor system. 

SECTION 1510 

FLOOR SURFACING AND FINISHING OPERATIONS 

Replace Section 1510.1 as follows: 

1510.1 Scope. Floor surfacing and finishing operations using Class I or Class II liquids shall comply with IFC Sections 

1510.2 through 1510.5. 



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CHAPTER 16 
FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING 

SECTION 1603 
ETHYLENE GAS 

Add Sections 1603.3 and 1603.4 as follows: 

1603.3 Storage. Containers other than those connected for use shall be stored outside of ripening process buildings or in 
a special building. 

Exception: 

Storage of not more than two portable containers complying with Section 3003.1 and approved for transportation 
is allowed in ripening process buildings. 

1603.4 Piping. Piping containing ethylene shall be constructed of iron. Flexible connectors and hose, when used, shall 
be of an approved type. Tubing shall be of brass, copper, or stainless steel with not less than 0.049- inch (1.2 mm) 
wall thickness. 

CHAPTER 17 
FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 

SECTION 1701 
GENERAL 

Replace Section 1701.2 as follows: 

1701.2 Permits. No person shall engage in the actual operation of fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging without first 
obtaining a permit. No fumigation room, vault, or chamber using toxic or flammable fumigant shall be used or 
maintained without first obtaining a permit. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6. 

AcJcJ Section 1701.3 as follows: 

1701.3 License. No person shall conduct fumigation or insecticidal operations without first obtaining a license from the 
City and County of Denver Department of Excise and Licenses as required by the Revised Municipal Code. 

SECTION 1703 

FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 

AcJcJ Sections 1703.1.1 ancJ 1703.1.2 as follows: 

1703.1.1 Usage warning signs. Where fumigants and thermal insecticidal fogging products are used, approved 
warning signs bearing the "skull and crossbones" emblem with the warning "DANGER! POISON GAS! KEEP 
OUT!" and notices pertaining to the type of chemicals being used shall be posted. The notices pertaining to the type 
of chemicals for fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging shall be printed in red ink on a white background. 
Letters in the headlines shall be at least 2 inches (51 mm) in height and shall state the date and time of the operation, 
the name and address of the person, the name of the operator in charge, and a warning stating that the occupied 
premises shall be vacated at least 1 hour before the operation begins and shall not be reentered until the danger signs 
have been removed by the proper authorities. 

1703.1.2 Storage warning signs. Where fumigants and thermal insecticidal fogging products are stored NFPA 704 
placard guidelines shall be followed. 

Replace Section 1703.3.1 as follows: 

1703.3.1 Warning signs. Approved warning signs indicating the danger, type of chemical involved and necessary 
precautions shall be posted on all doors and entrances to the premises, including interior rooms and areas. Where 

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fumigants and thermal insecticidal fogging products are used, approved warning signs bearing the "skull and 
crossbones" emblem with the warning "DANGER! POISON GAS! KEEP OUT!" shall be posted. Such notices shall 
be printed in red ink on a white background. Letters in the headlines shall be at least two (2) inches (51 mm) in 
height and shall state the date and time of the operation, the name and address of the person, the name of the operator 
in charge, and a warning stating that the occupied premises shall be vacated at least one (1) hour before the operation 
begins and shall not be reentered until the danger signs have been removed by the proper authorities. 

Add Section 1703.3.1.1 as follows: 

1703.3.1.1 Storage warning signs. Where fumigants and thermal insecticidal fogging products are stored, NFPA 
704 placard guidelines shall be followed. 

CHAPTER 19 
LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 

SECTION 1904 
FIRE PROTECTION 

Replace Section 1904.2 as follows: 

1904.2 Portable fire extinguishers and standpipes. Portable fire extinguishers or standpipes supplied from an approved 
water system shall be provided within 50 feet (15240 mm) of travel distance to any machine producing shavings or 
sawdust. Extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with IFC Section 906 for extra- high hazards. 

SECTION 1909 

EXTERIOR STORAGE OF FINISHED LUMBER PRODUCTS 

Replace Section 1909.5 as follows: 

1909.5 Fire protection. An approved hydrant and portable fire- extinguishing equipment suitable for the fire hazard 
involved shall be provided for open storage yards. Hydrant systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 24. 
Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 shall be located so that the travel distance to the nearest unit does 
not exceed 75 feet (22860 mm). Portable fire extinguishers located in open storage yards shall be protected from weather 
and shall be maintained per NFPA 10. Portable fire extinguishers complying with IFC Section 906 and with a minimum 
rating of 4-A:40-B:C shall be provided on all vehicles operating in a lumber storage yard. 

CHAPTER 20 
MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 

SECTION 2005 
PROCESS STRUCTURES 

Replace Section 2005.5 as follows: 

2005.5 Ventilation. Enclosed structures involving organic coating processes in which flammable or combustible liquids 
are processed or handled shall be mechanically ventilated at a continuous rate of not less than 1 cfm/ft2 [0.00508 m3/(s . 
m2)] of net floor area. Exhaust systems shall be designed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust 
system inlets shall be located in the area of origin and area of greatest concentration of contaminants. Make-up air shall 
be introduced in such a manner that all portions of the room or structure are provided with uniformly distributed air 
movement. 



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CHAPTER 21 
INDUSTRIAL OVENS 

SECTION 2103 
LOCATION 

Add Sections 2103.5, 2103.6 and 2103.7 as follows: 

2103.5 Location. Ovens, oven heaters and related equipment shall be located with due regard to the possibility of fire 
resulting from overheating or the escape of fuel gas or fuel oil and the possibility of damage to the building and injury to 
persons resulting from explosion. 

1 . Ovens shall be located at or above grade. 

Exception: 

Ovens shall be permitted in basements where at least 50% of the wall area of the room in which the oven is 
located is above grade. 

2. Ovens shall be located to be readily accessible for inspection and maintenance and with adequate clearances to 
permit the proper functioning of explosion vents. 

2103.6 Relief (explosion) vents. Ovens which may contain flammable air-gas mixtures shall be equipped with relief 
vents for freely relieving internal explosion pressures. 

2103.7 Ductwork. All ductwork shall be constructed of approved non- combustible material. Ducts shall be made tight 
throughout and shall have no openings other than those required for the proper operation and maintenance of the system. 
Ducts passing through combustible walls, ceilings, floors or roofs shall provide adequate insulation and clearances to 
prevent surface temperatures from exceeding 160 degrees F. Exhaust ducts shall not discharge within 10 feet of doors, 
windows or other air intakes in a manner that will permit re-entry of vapors into the building. 



CHAPTER 22 
MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 

SECTION 2204 
DISPENSING OPERATIONS 

Replace Section 2204.3 as follows: 

2204.3 Unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Unattended public self-service motor fuel- dispensing 
facilities are prohibited. 

SECTION 2205 

OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 

AcJcJ Section 2205.6.1 as follows: 

2205.6.1 Lettering. Warning signs shall have the word "WARNING" in letters of not less than 1.5 inches in height 
and the remainder of the signs shall have letters of not less than one (1) inch in height on a background of contrasting 
color (but avoiding contrasts that are invisible to colorblind people). 



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SECTION 2211 
REPAIR GARAGES 

Replace Section 2211.4.3 as follows: 

2211.4.3 Ventilation. Where Class I liquids or LP-gas are stored or used within a building having a basement or pit 
wherein flammable vapors could accumulate, the basement or pit shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code, at a minimum rate of 1.5 cubic feet per minute per square foot 
(cfm/ft^) [0.008 rrf/(s rrf )] to p^vent the accumulation of flammable v^dois. The fan shall be configured in such a 
Wc^ that it runs continuously and the exhaust inlet is placed within 12" of the pit floor 

Add Sections 2211.4.4, 2211.4.5 and 2211.4.6 as follows: 

2211.4.4 Fire protection systems. In buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system, pits and below-grade 
work areas shall be protected. Sprinkler systems in pits and below-grade work areas shall be separately zoned and the 
control valve shall be located outside the pit or below-grade work area. 

2211.4.5 Flammable vapor monitoring. Pits and below-grade work areas shall be equipped with a flammable 
vapor- monitoring alarm. Alarm notification shall be local only and provided in an approved location(s). 

2211.4.6 Warning sign(s). Pits and below grade work areas shall be identified as required. Doors or openings 
leading to a pit or below grade work area shall be plainly marked with the word OPEN PIT in red letters at least 6 
inches high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible. 



CHAPTER 23 
HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 

SECTION 2301 
GENERAL 

Replace Section 2301.1 Item #4 as follows: 

4. Storage of combustible paper records shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, 230 and 232. 
Add Section 2301.3 Item #15 as follows: 

15. Submit Hazardous Material Inventory Statement (HMIS). 

SECTION 2306 

GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY FEATURES 

Replace Table 2306.2 in its entirety as follows: 



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TABLE 2306.2 
GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 



COMMODITY 
CLASS 


SIZE OF HIGH- 
PILED 
STORAGE 
AREA* 
(square feet) 

(see Sections 

2306.2 and 

2306.4) 


ALL STORAGE AREAS 
(See Sections 2306, 2307, and 2308) ^ 


SOLID-PILED STORAGE, SHELF STORAGE 
AND PALLETIZED STORAGE 

(See Section 2307.3) 


Automatic 
fire- 
extinguishing 
system 

(see Section 
2306.4) 


Building 
A ccess 

(see Section 
2306.6) 


Smoke and 
heat removal 

(see Section 
2306.7) 


Draft curtains 

(see Section 
2306.7) 


Maximum 

pile 
dimension ' 

(feet) 


Maximum 

pemissible 

storage height 

(feet) 


Maximum 
pile volume 

(cubic feet) 


I-IV 


0-500 


Not Required 

a 


Not Required 

e 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


501-2,500 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 

k 


100 


40 


100,000 


2,501-12,000 


Yes 


Not Required 

e 


Not Required 


Not Required 


100 


40 


400,000 


12,001-20,000 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes' 


Not Required 

k 


100 


40 


400,000 


20,001-500,000 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes' 


Not Required 


100 


40 


400,000 


G reater than 
500,000' 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes' 


Not Required 

k 


100 


40 


400,000 


High hazard 


0-500 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 

k 


50 


Not Required 


Not Required 


501-2,500 
Public accessible 


Yes 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 

k 


50 


30 


75,000 


501-2,500 
Nonpublic 
accessible 


Yes 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 

k 


50 


30 


75000 


2,501-300,000 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Not Required 

k 


50 


30 


75,000 


300,001-500,000 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Not Required 

k 


50 


30 


75000 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8mm, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832m^ 1 square foot =0.0929ni 

a When automatic sprinklers are required for reasons other tlian those in Chapter 23, the portion of the sprinkler system protecting tiie high-piled storage area shall 

be designed and installed in accordance witii Sections 2307 and 2308. 
b. For aisles, see Section 2306.9 

c Hies shall be separated by aisled conplying with Section 2306.9 
d. For storage in excess of the height indcated, special fire protection shall be provided in accordance with note g vArni required by tiie fire code official . See also 

Chapters 28 and 34 for special limitations for aerosols and flammable and combustible liquids, respectively, 
a Section 503 shall apply for fire apparatus access, 
f Intentionally ddeted 
g. Special fire protection provisions including, but not limited to, fire protection of exposed steel columns; increased sprinkler density; additional in rack sprinklers, 

witiiout associated reductions in ceiling sprinkler density; or additional fire department hose connections shall be provided 'v\iien required by tiie fire code official, 
h. High- piled storage areas shall not exceed 500,000 square feet. A 2- hour fire Wl constructed in accordance with ^International Building Code shall be used to 

divide high-piled storage exceeding 500,000 square feet in area, 
i. Intentionally deleted. 

j. Not required when storage areas are protected by eariy suppression fast response (ESFR) sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13. 
k. For requirements refer to Section 910.3.5 and NFPA 13 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



Replace Section 2306.7 as follows: 

2306.7 Smoke and heat removal. Where smoke and heat removal is required by Table 2306.2, smoke heat vents shall be 
provided in accordance with Table 910.3. Where draft curtains are required by IFC Section 903.3.1.1, they shall be 
provided in accordance with IFC Section 910.3.5. 

SECTION 2308 
RACK STORAGE 

Replace Section 2308.4 as follows: 

2308.4 Column protection. Steel building columns shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 13, 230 and 232. 

SECTION 2310 
SPECIALTY STORAGE 

Replace Section 2310.1 General, as follows: 

2310.1 General. Records storage facilities used for the rack or shelf storage of combustible paper records greater than 12 
feet (3658 mm) in height shall be in accoixlance with IFC Sections 2306 and 2308 and NFPA 13, NFPA 230 and NFPA 
232. Palletized storage of records shall be in accordance with IFC Section 2307. Any storage compartment exceeding 
50,000 ft^ will be oonadered at least a reoDiids oeatEr and must oonply with NFPA 232 regandless of reoDiids 
classificatiorL 

Add Section 2311 Existing Buildings as follows: 

SECTION 2311 
EXISTING BUILDINGS 

2311.1 Scope - Existing buildings constructed prior to October 1990. This section is applicable to high-piled or rack 
storage in existing buildings as follows: 

1. Any modification to the existing commodities stored in an existing tenant space where storage height is increased 
or classification of the commodities is placed in a higher category per IFC 2303. 

2. New tenant spaces in existing buildings. 

3. Existing tenant spaces with new tenants. 

4. In buildings that were built and occupied by a tenant with high-piled combustible stock prior to the adoption of 
the Uniform Codes on October 1, 1990; as long as that tenant remains in operation, it will be up to the Fire 
Department inspection to identify any unsafe conditions per IFC Section 110. 

2311.2 Storage of Class I commodity - as defined by NFPA 13. 

2311.2.1 Automatic sprinklers. Where an automatic sprinkler system is required by Table 2306.2, an approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with IFC Section 903.3. 

Exception: 

Existing automatic sprinkler system will be accepted, provided it is certified by a licensed Colorado 
professional engineer or a NICET Level III certified individual to provide a protection level equal to at least 
70% design density of IFC Section 903.3. 

2311.2.2 Building access. Building access from fire apparatus access roads in accordance with IFCA Section 503 
shall be provided within 200 feet of all portions of the exterior walls of a building used for high- piled storage. 

2311.2.2.1 Access doors. Fire Department access doors shall be provided in accordance with IFC Section 
2306.6.1. Access doors shall be accessible without the use of a ladder. Roll-up doors shall not be used unless 
approved. 

2311.2.3 Aisles. Shall be in accordance with IFC Sections 2306.9 or 903.3.1; the most restrictive shall govern. 

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2311.2.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Shall be in accordance with IFC Section 2306.10. 

2311.3 Storage of Class II and III commodity - as defined by NFPA 13. 

2311.3.1 Automatic sprinklers. Where an automatic sprinkler system is required by IFCA Table 2306.2, an approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with IFC Section 903.3.1. 

Exception: 

Existing automatic sprinkler system will be accepted, provided it is certified by a licensed Colorado 
professional engineer or a NICET Level III certified individual to provide a protection level equal to at least 
70% design density of IFC Section 903.3. 

2311.3.2 Building access. Building access from fire apparatus access roads in accordance with IFCA Section 503 
shall be provided within 200 feet of all portions of the exterior walls of a building used for high- piled storage. 

2311.3.2.1 Access doors. Fire Department access doors shall be provided in accordance with IFC Section 
2306.6.1. Access doors shall be accessible without the use of a ladder. Roll-up doors shall not be used unless 
approved. 

2311.3.3 Smoke and heat removal. Smoke and heat vents shall be provided in accordance with IFCA Section 2306.7 
with a vent area to floor area ratio of 1:200. Draft curtains shall not be required when separation between high- piled 
storage and non high-piled storage is in accordance with IFC Section 2306.3 and not required per IFC Section 
903.3.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. When the installation of smoke and heat vents is determined by the fire code official to be impractical, 
mechanical smoke- removal systems are allowed to be provided in accordance with IFC Section 910.4. 

2. Frozen food storage classified as a Class II commodity is not required to be provided with smoke and heat 
vents or mechanical smoke removal when protected by an automatic sprinkler system. 

3. Existing roof openings such as skylights may be used as smoke vents when approved by the fire code 
official. 

2311.3.4 Aisles. Shall be in accordance with IFC Sections 2306.9 or 903.3.1; the most restrictive shall govern. 

2311.3.5 Portable fire extinguishers. Shall be in accordance with IFC Section 2306.10. 

2311.4 Storage of Class IV; high-hazards and plastics commodities - as defined by NFPA 13. 

2311.4.1 Automatic sprinklers. Where an automatic sprinkler system is required by Table 2306.2, an approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with IFC Section 903.3. 

2311.4.2 Building access. Building access from fire apparatus access roads in accordance with IFCA Section 503 
shall be provided within 100 feet of all portions of the exterior walls of building used for high- piled storage. 

2311.4.2.1 Access doors. Fire Department access doors shall be provided in accordance with IFC Section 
2306.6.1. Access doors shall be accessible without the use of a ladder. Roll-up doors shall not be used unless 
approved. 

2311.4.3 Smoke and heat removal. Smoke and heat vents shall be provided in accordance with IFCA Section 2306.7 
with vent area to floor area ratio accordance with IFCA Table 910.3. Draft curtains shall not be required when 
separation between high-piled storage and non high-piled storage is in accordance with IFC Section 2306.3 and not 
required per IFC Section 903.3.1. 

Exception: 

When the installation of smoke and heat vents is determined by the fire code official to be impractical, 
mechanical smoke- removal systems are allowed to be provided in accordance with IFC Section 910.4. 

2311.4.4 Aisles. Shall be in accordance with IFC Sections 2306.9 or 903.3.1; the most restrictive shall govern. 

2311.4.5 Portable fire extinguishers. Shall be in accordance with IFC Section 2306.10. 
Add Section 2312 Storage Rack Installation as follows: 

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DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



SECTION 2312 

STORAGE RACK INSTALLATION 

2312 Storage rack installation. A building permit shall be required for all high-piled storage rack system installations. 

1. Drawings must be submitted to the Denver Fire Department for review prior to the issuance of a permit, showing: 

a. Scaled plans. 

b. The rack arrangement in the warehouse area with sufficient detail to allow an exiting analysis per IBC Chapter 10. 

c. A typical section view showing the height of the racks. 

d. Completed Hazards Material Inventory Statement (HMIS) and height of all commodities. 

2. Indicate the location of any required smoke and heat vents and draft curtains in relation to the rack locations. 

3. Structural analysis per IBC Chapters 16 and 22 will be required on rack systems. Installation and application shall be 
in accordance with the rack manufacturers' recommendations.. 



CHAPTER 24 
TENTS, CANOPIES AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 

SECTION 2403 

TEMPORARY TENTS,CANOPIES AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 

Replace Section 2403.2 as follows: 

2403.2 Approval required. Tents and membrane structures having an area in excess of 200 square feet and canopies in 
excess of 300 square feet shall not be erected, operated, or maintained for any purpose without first obtaining a permit and 
approval from the fire code official. 

Exception: 

Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes. 

SECTION 2404 

TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT TENTS, CANOPIES AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 

Replace Section 2404.20 as follows: 

2404.20 Standby personnel. When, in the opinion of the fire code official, it is essential for public safety in a tent, 
canopy, or membrane structure used as a place of assembly or any other use where people congregate, or any building 
premise or property where people congregate, because of the number of persons, or the nature of the performance, 
exhibition, display, contest, or activity, or when potentially hazardous conditions exist, or an occupant load varies due to 
large crowd movement from one building to another building or one area of a building to another area of the building, or 
there is a reduction in a life safety feature, or there is an impairment to a fire protection feature, the owner, agency, or 
lessee shall employ and compensate through Department of Safety channels, at a rate established by the Manager of 
Safety, one or more firefighters of the City and County of Denver, as required by the fire code official. Such firefighter(s) 
shall be subject to the fire code official's orders at all times when so employed and shall be in uniform and remain on duty 
during the times such places are open to the public or when such activity is being conducted or, in the case of residential 
occupancies, whenever occupied. 



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CHAPTER 25 
TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE STORAGE 

SECTION 2505 
OUTDOOR STORAGE 

Amend Section 2505.4 by adding Exception as follows: 

Exception: 

Outside storage shall be limited to 5,000 square feet of tire storage. Storage in excess of 5,000 square feet (464.5 
square meters) does not meet this exception. Tire storage piles shall be located at least 10 feet from lot lines and 
buildings if storage is no higher than 6 feet. Storage heights from 6 feet to 10 feet shall be no closer to lot lines 
and buildings than 20 feet. 

SECTION 2508 
FIRE PROTECTION 

Add Section 2508.3 as follows: 

2508.3 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 
903.2.8.2. 



CHAPTER 26 
WELDING AND OTHER HOT WORK 

SECTION 2601 
GENERAL 

Add Item #6 to Section 2601.3 as follows: 

6. Areas where uncleaned or improperly prepared drums, tanks, or other containers and equipment that have 
previously contained materials tiiat could develop explosive atmospheres. 

SECTION 2605 

GAS WELDING AND CUTTING 

Replace Section 2605.2 as follows: 

2605.2 Cylinder and container storage, handling and use. Storage, handling and use of compressed gas cylinders, 
containers and tanks shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 30. Ordinary rope slings or electromagnets shall 
not be used as defined and described in Section 3005.10 of this code. 

SECTION 2608 

ACETYLENE GENERATORS 

Replace Section 2608.1 as follows: 

2608.1 Use of acetylene generators. The use of acetylene generators shall comply with this section and NFPA 51 and 
51A. 



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CHAPTER 27 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS-GENERAL PROVISIONS 

SECTION 2701 
GENERAL 

Replace 2701.1, Exception 1 as follows: 

1. The quantities of alcoholic beverages, medicines, foodstuffs, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent 
by volume of water- miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, in mercantile 
occupancies, are unlimited when packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L). 

Replace Section 2701.3 as follows: 

2701.3 Performance-based design alternative. When approved by the fire code official, buildings and facilities 
where hazardous materials are stored, used or handled shall be permitted to comply with this section as an alternative to 
compliance with the other requirements set forth in this chapter and Chapters 28 through 44. Written approval shall be 
obtained from the fire code official prior to submitting a performance- based design. 

Replace Section 2701.5.2, Item #5 as follows: 

5. Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) identification number required. United Nations (UN) and North 
America (NA) identification numbers may be provided as additional information. 

Add Section 2701.7 as follows: 

2701.7 Laboratories using chemicals. Laboratory buildings, laboratory units, and laboratory work areas in which 
chemicals are handled or stored shall be in accordance with NFPA 45 and this code. 

SECTION 2702 
DEFINITIONS 

Add the following definitions to Section 2702.1: 

BIO HAZARD. An infectious agent or hazardous biological material that presents a risk or potential risk to the health 
of humans, animals or the environment. The risk can be direct through infection or indirect through damage to the 
environment. Biohazardous materials include certain types of recombinant DNA; organisms and viruses infectious to 
humans, animals or plants (e.g. parasites, viruses, bacteria, fungi, prions, rickettsia); and biologically active agents (i.e. 
toxins, allergens, venoms) that may cause disease in other living organisms or cause significant impact or the environment 
or community. 

CARCINOGEN. A substance that causes the development of cancerous growths in living tissue. A chemical is 
considered to be a carcinogen if: 

1. It has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (lARC) and found to be a carcinogen or 
potential carcinogen, or 

2. It is listed as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen in the latest edition of the Annual Report on Carcinogens 
published by the National Toxicology Program, or 

3. It is regulated by SHA as a carcinogen. 

OTHER HEALTH HAZARD MATERIAL. A hazardous material which affects target organs of the body, including 
but not limited to, those materials which produce liver damage, kidney damage, damage to the nervous system, act on the 
blood to decrease hemoglobin function, deprive the body tissue of oxygen, or affect reproductive capabilities, including 
mutations (chromosomal damage) or teratogens (effects on fetuses). 

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL. Any material or combination of materials that spontaneously emits ionizing radiation. 

RELEASE/UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. Any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, 
discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment (including the abandonment or 
discharging of barrels, containers, and other receptacles containing any hazardous substances or pollutant or contaminant). 

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SENSITIZER. A chemical that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic 
reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical. 

SECTION 2703 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

Replace Table 2703.1.1(1) Footnote c as follows: 

c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in mercantile occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are 
packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In mercantile occupancies the quantities of 
medicines, foodstuffs and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water- miscible liquids 
with the remainder of the solution not being flammable shall not be limited, provided that such materials are 
packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

Replace Table 2703.1.1(2) Footnote b as follows: 

b. In mercantile occupancies the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs and cosmetics containing not more than 50 
percent by volume of water- miscible liquids with the remainder of the solution not being flammable shall not be 
limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

Replace Section 2703.4 as follows: 

2703.4 Material Safety Data Sheets. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) shall be readily available on the premises 
{hard copy shall always be required) for hazardous materials regulated by this chapter. Material Safety Data Sheets shall 
be located at the main entrance or a location approved by the Fire Department. When a hazardous substance is developed 
in a laboratory, available information shall be documented and maintained at a Fire Department approved location. The 
Denver Fire Department sen/es as the reporting agency for the City and County of Denver, the authority having 
jurisdiction (AHJ). 

Add Section 2703.5.2 as follows: 

2703.5.2 Confined spaces. Tanks that contain materials that would not contain enough oxygen to support life shall 
have a confined space sign at the entrance to the tank. 

SECTION 2704 
STORAGE 

Replace Section 2704.9 as follows: 

2704.9 Emergenq^ alarm. An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas 
used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm- initiating devices shall be installed in an approved location 
adjacent to each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm- 
initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials. The 
Denver Fire Department, based on the specific hazards associated with materials being stored, shall determine the type of 
alarm, including the location and type of alarm- initiating devices and notification appliances. The emergency alarm for 
hazardous materials shall be connected to the fire alarm system and shall be annunciated as a separate zone(s) in 
accordance with IFCA Section 907.2.5.1. System components (equipment) shall be listed for the worst-case weather and 
temperature ranges to which the equipment will be exposed. 

Replace Section 2704.10 as follows: 

2704.10 Supervision. Emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire- extinguishing systems required by Section 2704 
shall be supen/ised by an approved Class I central station service. 

Replace Section 2704.12 as follows: 

2704.12 Noncombustible floor. Except for surfacing, floors, walkways, ramps, structures for walkways and ramps of 
storage areas shall be of noncombustible construction. 



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SECTION 2705 

USE, DISPENSING AND HANDLING 

Replace Section 2705.1.2 as follows: 

2705.1.2 Noncombustible floor. Except for surfacing, floors, walkways, ramps, structures for walkways and 
ramps of areas where liquid or solid hazardous materials are dispensed or used in open systems shall be of 
noncombustible, liquid- tight construction. 

Replace Section 2705.2.1.1 as follows: 

2705.2.1.1 Ventilation. Where gases, liquids or solids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with 
NFPA 704 are dispensed or used, mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided to capture fumes, mists or 
vapors at the point of generation. Use as a reference for capture velocity the American Association of 
Industrial Hygienists (AAICH) handbook. Volume 25. 

Exception: Gases, liquids or solids which can be demonstrated not to create harmful fumes, mists or 
vapors. 



CHAPTER 33 
EXPLOSIVES AND FIREWORKS 

SECTION 3301 
GENERAL 

Delete all Exceptions to Section 3301.1. 

Delete Exceptions 1, 2, and 4 to Section 3301.1.3. 

Replace Section 3301.2.4 as follows: 

3301.2.4 Financial responsibility. Before a peardt is issued, as required by Section 3301.2, the ^plicant shall file 
with the Fire Prevention and Investigation Division a suresty bond in the principal sum of $2,000,000 or a public 
liaHlity insurance policy for the same amount, for the purpose of the pcyment of all damages to persons or property 
which arise from, or are caused ty, the conduct of any act authorized h/ the pernit upon v\^ch ai^ judicial judgment 
results. The fire code official is authorized to specify a greater or lesser amount v\^en, in his or her opnion, 
conditions at the location of use indicate a greater or lesser amount is required Government entities shall be exempt 
form this bond requirement 

Replace Section 3301.4 as follows: 

3301.4 Qualifications. Persons in charge of magazines, blasting, fireworks display, or pyrotechnic special effect 
operations shall obtain the appropriate State of Colorado and City and County of Denver Fire Department license. For 
pyrotechnic special effect operations, the license is that required for an outdoor display operator. Persons in charge of 
magazines, blasting, fireworks display, or pyrotechnic special effect operations shall not be under the influence of alcohol 
or drugs which impair sensory or motor skills, shall be at least 21 years of age, and shall demonstrate knowledge of all 
safety precautions related to the storage, handling, or use of explosive, explosive material, or fireworks. 

Replace Section 3301.5 as follows: 

3301.5 Supervision The fire code official is authorized to require operations permitted under the provisions of Section 
3301.2 to be supen/ised at any time by the fire code official in order to determine compliance with all safety and fire 
regulations. The Denver Fire Department Fire Prevention pyrotechnics personnel shall be retained for fire watch and to 
inspect all equipment and powder charges. The pyrotechnics firm to which the permit is issued/granted shall be 
responsible for the cost of this/these personnel. 



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SECTION 3306 

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION 

Add Section 3306.4.3 as follows: 

3306.4.3 Small arms cartridges. No more than 10,000 small arms cartridges shall be stored in any Group R occupancy. 



CHAPTER 34 
FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

SECTION 3401 
GENERAL 

Replace Section 3401.2, Item #2 as follows: 
3401.2 Nonapplicability 

2. Unlimited quantities of: 

a. Alcoholic beverages, medicines, foodstuffs and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of 
water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solution not being flammable, in mercantile 
occupancies, when packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 liters). 

b. Consumer or industrial products with a closed cup flash point at or above 200 degrees F (93C) in mercantile 
occupancies when packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 liters). 

Add Section 3401.5.1 as follows: 

3401.5.1 Altitude correction. Altitude has a direct impact on the physical properties of flammable and 
combustible liquids and shall be accounted in the design considerations of life safety and property protection 
systems. Flash point and boiling point information for flammable and combustible liquids is referenced to sea 
level. In Denver, Colorado, the flash point and boiling point of flammable and combustible liquids will reduce by 
8°F and may cause reclassification of flammable and combustible liquids. 

SECTION 3404 
STORAGE 

Delete Section 3404.3.8.5. 

Replace exception to Section 3404.4.3 as follows: 

Exception: 

Containers stored on approved containment pallets in accordance with Section 2704.2.3 and containers stored in 
cabinets and lockers witii integral spill containment. Liquids classified as a combustible Class III-B shall not be 
required to have secondaty containment. 

SECTION 3406 
SPECIAL OPERATIONS 

Replace Section 3406.2.5 as follows: 

3406.2.5 Type of tank. Tanks shall be provided with top opemings only. Dispensing by use of gravity is prohibited. 
Replace Section 3406.2.5.2 as follows: 

3406.2.5.2 Tanks for gravity discharge. Dispensing by use of gravity is prohibited. 

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CHAPTER 36 
FLAMMABLE SOLIDS 

SECTION 3602 
DEFINITIONS 

3602.1 Definitions. Replace the definition of 'FLAMMABLE SOLID' as follows: 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive, capable of causing fire through friction, 
absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retain heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has an 
ignition temperature below 212 degrees F (100 degrees C) or which bums so vigorously and persistently when ignited as 
to create serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid as determined in accordance with the test 
method of CPSC 16 CFR:Part 1500.44, if it ignites and bums with self- sustained flame at a rate greater than 0.1 inch 
(2.5mm) per second along its major axis. Flammable solids include finely divided solid materials which, when dispersed 
in air as a cloud, could be ignited and cause an explosion. 



CHAPTER 37 
HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC MATERIALS 

SECTION 3703 

HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 

Replace Section 3703.1.2 as follows: 

3703.1.2 Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area. The indoor storage or use of 
highly toxic and toxic solids or liquids in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set 
forth in Table 2703.1.1(2) shall be in accordance with IFC Sections 3701 through 3703.1.5 and Chapter 27. 



CHAPTER 38 
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES 

SECTION 3803 

INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT 

Add the following to the end of Section 3803.2.1.7: 

Such containers shall not exceed a water capacity of 2.5 lbs. 
Add the following to the end of Section 3803.3: 

Not allowed for permanent use if within 300 feet of a natural gas source. 

SECTION 3804 

LOCATION OF CONTAINERS 

Add Exceptions 2 and 3 to Section 3804.2 as follows: 
Exception: 



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1. For single- family dwellings, a maximum of 40 pounds of propane [or two (2) 20-lb. cylinders— one for 
use and one spare bottle] shall be permitted on the premises. For quantity limits inside the actual 
dwelling unit, see NFPA 58, Chapter 5, Section 3.4. 

2. For multi-family dwellings, one (1) 20-lb. propane cylinder is allowed to be stored in each detached 
garage or storage area. 

SECTION 3809 

STORAGE OF PORTABLE LP GAS CONTAINERS AWAITING USE OR RESALE 

Replace Section 3809.6 as follows: 

3809.6 Storage on roofs. LP-gas storage on roofs is not permitted. 



CHAPTER 40 
OXIDIZERS 

SECTION 4003 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

Replace Section 4003.1.1.3 as follows: 

4003.1.1.3 Oxidizing gases. Except for cylinders not exceeding a capacity of 250 cubic feet/ 7m3, (one in use and one in 
storage) each used for maintenance purposes, patient care or operation of equipment, oxidizing gases shall not be stored or 
used in Group A, B, E, I or R occupancies. Eor each individual dwelling unit in R occupancies, the maximum quantity of 
an oxidizing gas shall be less than 504 cubic feet/14 m3 - which is less than the permittable amount per Section 105.6. 
The aggregate quantities of gases used for maintenance purposes and operation of equipment shall not exceed the 
maximum allowable quantity per control area listed in Table 2703.1.1(1). Medical gas systems and medical gas supply 
cylinders shall also be in accordance with Sections 3003 and 3006. The use of an open flame or smoking within a 
residential unit where compressed gas is used is prohibited. 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 45 
REFERENCED STANDARDS 

Replace the specific NFPA Standards listed in Chapter 45 with the following: 

NFPA National Fire Protection A ssociation 

Battery March Park 
Quincy, MA 02269 

NFPA Codes and Standaixls- 2007 Edition 
Volumes 1 through 15 



Addition: Reference the following standard: 

National Chlorine Institute 

NFPA 70 

Addition: Reference the following standard: 

Institute of Makers of Explosives 



Addition: Reference the following standards: 



Chlorine Manual 

6th printing- 2000 

2005 National Electrical Code 



Institute of Makers of Explosives 
1575 I Street N.W., Suite ^50 
Washington, D.C. 20005 



Pamphlet 1 
Pamphlet 3 
Pamphlet 14 
Pamphlet 17 
Pamphlet 20 

Pamphlet 21 
Pamphlet 22(b) 

Pamphlet 23 

ANSI/ASHRAE 
ASMEB31 



Construction Guide for Storage Magazines - 2006 
Suggested Code Regulations - 2003 

Handbook for the Transportation and Distribution of Explosive Materials - 2007 
Safety in the Transportation, Storage, Handling and Use of Explosives - 2007 
Safety Guide for the Prevention of Radio Frequency Radiation Hazards in the Use of Electric Blasting 
Caps - 2001 

Destruction of Commercial Explosives 

IMF Standard for the Safe Transportation of Class C Detonators (Blasting Caps) in a Vehicle with 
Certain Other Explosives (1995) 

Recommendations for the Transportation of Explosives, Division 1.5, Ammonium Nitrate, Emulsion, 
Division 5.1, Combustible Liquids, Class 3, and Corrosives, Class 8 in Bulk Packaging - 2007 
15 Safety for Refrigeration Systems - 2004 
Standard for Pressure Piping 



Deletion: lEC International Electrical Code 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



APPENDICES 
APPENDIX ADOPTION STATUS 

IFC APPENDICES 

STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 

All Chapters and Sections of this Appendix are adopted as part of this Code except for those that are 
deleted in this summary. Those that are amended or added shall also be adopted as part of this Code. 



APPENDIX 


TITLE 


STATUS 


A 


Board of Appeals 


Delete 


B 


Fire- Flow Requirements for Buildings 


Adopt As 
Amended 


C 


Fire Hydrants Locations and Distribution 


Adopt As 
Amended 


D 


Fire Apparatus Access Road 


Delete 


E 


Hazard Categories 


Adopt/As 
Reference 


F 


Hazard Categories 


Adopt 


G 


Cryogenic Fluids-Weight and Volume Equivalents 


Adopt/As 
Reference 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



APPENDIX B 
FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS 

SECTION B104 

FIRE-FLOW CALCULATION AREA 

Replace Section B 104.1 as follows: 

B104.1 General The fire- flow calculation area shall be the total area of all floor levels within the exterior walls, and 
under the horizontal projections of the roof of a building, except as modified in Section B 104.3. In buildings with mixed 
construction types as defined in IBC, the fire-flow calculations shall follow the method described in the 2006 
International Fire Code Commentary. 

SECTION B105 

FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS 

Replace B 105.2 with the following: 

B 105.2 Buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings. The minimum fire flow and flow duration for buildings 
other than one- and two-family dwellings shall be as specified in Table B 105.1. 

Exception: 

A reduction in required fire flow of up to 50 percent, as approved, is allowed when the building is protected 
throughout with an automatic fire sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the 
Installation of Sprinkler System, or NFPA 13R, Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies Up To and 
Including Four Stories in Height. The resulting fire flow shall not be less than 1,500 gallons per minute (5,678 
L/min) for the prescribed duration as specified in Table B 105.1. Any existing hydrant shall flow no less than 
1,500 gpm with a minimum residual pressure of 20 psi. 

Delete Footnote a in Table B 105.1. 



APPENDIX C 
FIRE HYDRAISrr LOCATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION 

Add Section C106 as follows: 

SECTION C106 

WATER MAINS SERVING FIRE HYDRANTS 

Add Section C106 as follows: 

C 106.1 Water mains serving fire hydrants. Water mains supplying fire hydrants, fire protection systems, and building 
fire flows shall be sized to provide fire flows for required fire hydrants. Water mains supplying fire hydrants shall be 
looped as required by the Denver Water Department Operating Rules Section 8.03 unless specifically approved by the 
D enver W ater D epartment. 



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APPENDIX E 
HAZARD CATEGORIES 

Adopt Appendix E as reference. 

APPENDIX F 
HAZARD RANKING 

Adopt Appendix F as code. 

APPENDIX G 
CRYOGENIC FLUIDS— WEIGHT AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS 

Adopt Appendix G as reference. 



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AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 

EDITION OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL 

RESIDENTIAL CODE 

AND APPENDICES AS 

PUBLISHED BY 

INTERNATIONAL CODE 

COUNCIL (ICC) 



The content of the sections in this Code that begin with a letter or letters designations are 
maintained by other City or State entities. 

[B] Denotes International Building Code 

[P] International Plumbing Code 

[R] International Residential Code 

[EB] Existing Building 

[CRS] Colorado Revised Statute 

[PW] Public Works /Wastewater Management 



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CHAPTER 1 
ADMINISTRATION 

SECTION RlOl 

TITLE, SCOPE AND PURPOSE 

Section RlOl.l is amended by deletion and replacement with the following 

R 101.1 Title. These provisions shall be known as the Residential Code for One and Two- Family Dwellings of the City 
and County of Denver, and shall be cited as such and will be referred to herein as "this Code". 

R 101.2 Scope. The provisions of the International Residential Code for One and Two-family Dwellings shall apply to the 
construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, removal 
and demolition of detached one and two-family dwellings and townhouses not more than three stories above grade in 
height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures. 

That section R102.4 of the Denver Amendments to the 2006 International Residential Code, adopted as part of the Denver 
Building Code is hereby amended by adding and enacting subsection R 102. 4.1 to read and be read as follows: 

R 102.4.1. Chapter 33 "Safeguards During Construction" of the IBC and the Denver Amendments thereto shall apply to 
all work regulated by the IRC. 

Sections R103 through R114 are amended by deleting those sections in their entirety. The 
"Administration of the 2007 Denver Building Code" provisions shall govern. 



CHAPTERS 
BUILDING PLANNING 

SECTION R301 
DESIGN CRITERIA 

Table R301.2(l)is amended as follows: 

TABLE R301.2(l) 
CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHIC DESIGN CRITERIA 



GROUND 
SNOW 
LOAD 


WIND' 
SFttU 
(MEH) 


SEISMIC 

DESIGN 

CATEGOR 

Y 


SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM 


WINIER 
EESIGN 
TEMP 


EE 
aiEID 

lAMVEVT 
WIJUFED 


FLOOD 
HAZARDS 


AIR 

FREEZING 

INDEX 


MEAN 

ANNUAL 

TEMP 


Weatfaering 


FiDstline 
defitfa 


T^nite 


Decay 


25psf 


90/100 


B 


Severe 


36 


Slight/Mod 


None/ Slight 


1" 


No 


1978 


712 


40-45 



*1. Wind Speed: See IBCA Section 1609 For Additional Information. 

Section R302.1 is amended by adding Exception 4. 
Exjoeption: 

4. Where the zoning ordinance establishes a minimum ten feet clear separation distance between the exterior 
walls of adjacent one and two family dwellings located on separated properties and allows one building to be 
closer to actual property line than the other, the imaginary line provision of IBC Section 704.3 may be used. 
The exterior wall shall not be located less than three feet to the actual property line. 

The location of the assumed imaginary line with relation to both buildings shall be such that the exterior wall, 
openings, projections and penetrations meet the criteria set forth in Section R302.1 and Table 302.1. 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



SECTION R305 
CEILING HEIGHT 

[E Bisection R305.1 Exception 2 is amended by adding the following to the last sentence. 

Ceiling height in unfinished basements built prior to October 1990 shall be a minimum ceiling height of 6' 8" with a 
minimum clearance of 6' 0" to any ceiling projection caused by beams, ducts or pipes. If unusual circumstances are 
present, ceiling heights lower than 6' 8" are subject to the approval of the Building Official. 

[CRS] SECTION R322 
ACCESSIBILITY 

Section R322.1 is amended by adding the following sentence: 

In addition to the requirements of this section, the provisions of the Colorado Revised Statute 9-5 shall be applicable. 
CRS 9-5 is reproduced in Appendix M of the Denver Amendments to the IBC. 



CHAPTER 4 
FOUNDATIONS 

SECTION R401 
GENERAL 

[PW] Section R401.1 is amended by adding the following sentence: 

Wastewater Management Division of Public Works regulates the requirements for excavation, grading and earthwork 
construction, including fills and embankments. 

Section R401.4 is amended by deleting in its entirety and replacing with the following: 

R401.4 Soil tests. The classification of the soil at each building site shall be determined when required by the Building 
Official. The Building Official may require that this determination be made by an engineer or architect licensed by the 
state to practice as such. 

R401.4.1 Investigation. The classification shall be based on observation and any necessary tests of the materials 
disclosed by borings or excavations made in appropriate locations. Additional studies may be necessary to evaluate 
soil strength, the effect of moisture variation on soil bearing capacity, compressibility, liquefaction, and 
expansiveness. 

R401.4.2 Reports. The soil classification and design bearing capacity shall be shown on the plans, unless the 
foundation conforms to Table R403.1. The Building Official may require submission of a written report of the 
investigation, which shall include, but need not be limited to the following information: 

1 . A plot showing the location of the test borings and/or excavations. 

2. Description and classifications of the materials encountered. 

3. Elevation of the water table, if encountered. 

4. Recommendations for foundation type and design criteria, including bearing capacity, provisions to mitigate 
the effects of expansive soils, provisions to mitigate the effects of liquefaction and soil strength, and the 
effects of adjacent loads. 

5. Expected total and differential settlement. 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



CHAPTERS 
ROOF ASSEMBLIES 

SECTION R903 
WEATHER PROTECTION 

Section R903.2.2 is added. 

R903.2.2 Flashing for Single-ply roof systems. All flashing installations for single-ply roofing systems shall be 
installed per manufacturer's latest recommendations and details for the system. 

Section R903.2.3 is added. 

R903.2.3 Flashing for interior roof drains. Flashing for interior roof drains shall be one of the following: 

1. A minimum of 2 x 2 feet, 4-pound lead sheet or lead-copper coated sheet, set on completed felts in flashing 
cement. 

2. The metal shall be turned a minimum of Vi inch into a drain sump and plied with 2 plies of Type 4 felt or 
modified bitumen membrane of sufficient dimension to extend a minimum of 6 inches past metal sheet. 

3. A 2-component drain system. The membrane flashing shall be polyvinylchloride sheet measuring 22 inches 
in length and factory- attached to the underside of the strainer flange. The membrane flashing shall be applied 
on top of the completed felt, shall extend a minimum of 6 inches from the outside diameter of the drain throat, 
shall be set into hot asphalt or approved sealants and plied in with 2 plies of Type 4 felt. 

4. Drain details for single- ply systems shall be installed per manufacturers' specifications. 

Section R903.2.4 is added. 

R903.2.5.1 Equipment on roof. Equipment placed over roofing shall be supported by 8 inch legs or pads, which shall 
not inhibit the flow of water from the roof. 

Section R903.4.5 is added. 

R903.4.5 Vertical Projections. All projections through the roof surface shall be properly flashed to prevent moisture 
entry. 

1. Pipe penetrations shall be completed with a standard roof jack or manufacturer- recommended detail. 

2. Pitch pans may be used to flash multiple penetrations with prior approval. Chem-curb, pourable sealer or 
sheet metal caps shall be used to seal pitch pans. 

SECTION R905 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ROOF COVERINGS 

R905.2 ASPHALT SHINGLES 
R905.2.7 is amended by adding exception. 
Exception: 

An accepted self-adhering polymer modified bitumer sheet can substitute for a double underlayment installation. 
R905. 2.8.2 item 3 is amended by adding the following: 

3. Metal valley liners shall not be allowed in closed valleys. 
Section R905.3 is added. 

R905.3 CLAY AND CONCRETE TILE 

R905.3 Inspection of tile roofs. Mid-roof inspections shall be made to inspect battens and flashings. No more than 30% 
of the roofing shall be completed when requesting the inspection. 

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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



R905.5 MINERAL-SURFACED ROLL ROOFING 

Section R905.5.2 is deleted and replaced by the following: 

R905.5.2 Deck Slope. Mineral surfaced rolled roofing (90 lbs.) shall not be applied on roof slopes below two units 
vertical in twelve units horizontal. 

Exception: 

Detached garages, patios and carports open on three sides may have a slope of one unit vertical in twelve 
units horizontal. 

R905.9BUILTUP ROOFS 

Section R905.9.4 is added. 

R905.9.4 Flashing - new built-up roof covering. Flashing shall be installed on all vertical walls and curbs in 
accordance with the manufacturers' specifications and: 

1. All old wall flashing shall be removed prior to installation of new flashing. 

2. All flashings shall extend at least 8 inches, but not more than 12 inches, up all vertical surfaces and at least 4 inches 
from base of cant. 

3. The top edges of the flashing shall be fastened at 3- inch inten/als and sealed with plastic cement. 

4. Fnd laps shall be at least 3 inches long, and covered with 4 inches of mesh embedded in plastic cement. 

5. All vertical walls and projections shall be counterflashed with a 2-piece metal system installed watertight. 

6. Nailer strips shall be provided on vertical walls, drips in edge and curbs which will not accept conventional nailing. 



CHAPTER 11 
ENERGY EFFICIENCY 

SECTION NllOl 
GENERAL 

Section N1101.2 Compliance is amended by adding the following items: 

The results from a code compliant software program can be utilized to show compliance "RFScheck^^" - Residential 
Enei^ Code Conpliance Software is one program currently being aooepbed This pDgram developed ty the Department 
of Enei^ can be downloaded for free at http://vwvw/enerovcodes.aov/comp[iance tpols-stm 



CHAPTER 26 
GENERAL PLUMBING REQUIREMENTS 

SECTION P2602 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL 

Section P2602 is amended by adding: 

P2602.3 Existing buildings. Plumbing in existing buildings may have their use continued, if such use was legal at the 
time of enforcement of the Plumbing Code in force at the time of construction and such use is not detrimental to the health 
and safety requirements of the current use or occupancy. 

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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



Any change in the use or occupancy of any existing building or structure shall comply with the provisions of this Code. 
Deviations may be approved by the building official if they are determined to not be detrimental to the health and safety 
requirements. 

SECTION P2604 

TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING 

Section P2604.5 Trench safety is amended by adding: 

P2604.5 Trench safety. All excavations shall follow OSHA guidelines and/or requirements of this Code. The most 
restrictive rules shall apply. 

IRC APPENDICES 

STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 

All Chapters and Sections of this Appendix are adopted as part of this Code except for those that are deleted in this 
summary. Those that are amended or added shall also be adopted as part of this Code. 



APPENDIX 


TITLE -SUBJECT 


STATUS 


A 


Sizing and Capacity of Gas Piping (IFGS) 


Informative 


B 


Sizing of Venting Systems Sen/ing Appliances (IFGS) 


Informative 


C 


Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-Vent 
Ventilating Systems (IFGS) 


Informative 


D 


Recommended Procedures for Safety Inspection of an 
Existing Appliance Installation (IFGS) 


Informative 


E 


Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings (IBC) 


Amended 


F 


Radon Control Methods 


Deleted 


G 


Swimming Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs 


Amended 


H 


Patio Covers 


Adopted 


I 


Private Sewage Disposal 


Deleted 


J 


Existing Buildings and Structures 


Deleted 


K 


Sound Transmission 


Adopted 


L 


IRC Electrical Provisions / NEC Cross Reference 


Cross Reference 



APPENDIX E 
MANUFACTURED HOUSING USED AS DWELLINGS 

SECTION AElOl 
SCOPE 

Appendix E is amended in its entirety. 

Manufactured housing used as dwellings shall comply with Section 3110 IBC Amendment . 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 

EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL 

MECHANICAL CODE 

AND APPENDICES 

AS PUBLISHED BY 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL (ICC) 



The content of the sections in this Code that begin with a letter or letters designations are maintained 
by other City or State entities. 

[F] Denotes International Fire Code 

[IFCA] Denver Fire Code Amendments to the IFC 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL MECHANICAL CODE 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL MECHANICAL CODE 



CHAPTER 1 
ADMINISTRATION 

SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

Section 101.1 Title. Is amended by inserting "City and County of Denver" for the name of the 
jurisdiction. 

Section 103 through 106, 108 and 109 are amended by deleting those sections in their entirety. The "Administration of 
the 2007 Denver Building" provisions shal govern. 

CHAPTER 4 
VEISrriLATION 

SECTION 403 

REQUIRED OUTDOOR VENTILATION AIR 

Section 403 is amended by adding Section 403.4: 

The ventilation rates indicated by Table 403.3 may be reduced for spaces with intermittent or variable occupancy in 
accordance with ASHRAE 62-1999, Section 6.1.3.4. 

SECTION 404 

ENCLOSED PARKING GARAGES 

Section 404.1 is amended by adding Section 404.1.1 as follows: 

404.1.1 Where the system is arranged to operate automatically upon detection of a concentration of carbon monoxide, 
the limit shall be set at 25 parts per million (ppm). 

CHAPTER 5 
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 

SECTION 507 

COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS 

Section 507.2.1.1 Operation is deleted in its entirety. 

SECTION 513 

SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

Section 513 is amended by adding the following sentence: All sections that begin with the letter [F] designation shall be 
coordinated with Section 909 of the IFC and IFC A . 

IMC APPENDICES 

STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 



Appendix A is Adopted 
Appendix B is deleted. 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL MECHANICAL CODE 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL MECHANICAL CODE 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 
EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL 

PLUMBING CODE 

AND 

APPENDICES AS PUBLISHED 

BY THE 
INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL (ICC) 



The content of the sections in this Code that begin with a letter or letters designations are maintained 
by other City or State entities. 

[PW] Denotes Public Works 

[EB] Existing Buildings 

[CC] City Council 

[EH] Environmental Health 

[CPB] Colorado Plumbing Board 

[DW] Denver Water 

[FCWA] Federal Clean Water Act 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



2008 AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 1 
ADMINISTRATION 

SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

Amend Section 101.1 Title. By inserting "City and County of Denver" for the name of the jurisdiction. 

Section 101.2.1 is amended by adding section: 

101.2.1 Swimming poolS; spas and hot tubs. 

The International Codes shall be used in the design of all swimming pools, spas and hot tubs. In those instances where 
the International Codes have no reference to items specific to the design of swimming pools, spas, and hot tubs, the 
2006 Uniform Swimming Pool, Spa, and Hot Tub code shall be used. 

IPC Sections 103 through 106, 108 and 109 are amended by deleting these sections in their entirety. The 
"Administration of the 2007 Denver Building Code" provisions shall govern. 



CHAPTERS 
GENERAL REGULATIONS 

SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

[EB] Section 301 is amended by adding sections: 

301.8 Existing buildings. Plumbing in existing buildings may have their use continued, if such use was legal at the time 
of enforcement of the Plumbing Code in force at the time of construction and such use is not detrimental to the health or 
safety requirements of current occupancy or use. 

Any change in the use or occupancy of any existing building or structure shall comply with the provisions of the IPC. 
Any deviations may be approved by the Building Official if they are determined to not be detrimental to health or safety 
requirements. 

SECTION 306 

TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL 

[PW] Section 306 is amended by adding section: 

306.2.4 Trench safety. All excavations shall follow guidelines as required by OSHA and/or the Administrative 
Authority. The most restrictive rules shall apply. 

SECTION 307 
STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

Section 307.5 is amended to read: 

307.5 Trench location. Trenches excavated parallel to footings of building structures shall not extend below the 45- 
degree bearing plane of the footing or wall unless authorized by the Administrative Authority. Where re-routing is 
necessary, the person(s) and/or Contractor responsible for obtaining the permit shall be required to submit drawings for 
approval. 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 4 
FIXTURE, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 

SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

[CC] Section 401.3.1 is added. 

401.3.1 Rain sensing. An approved rain sensing system shall be installed on all new automatic lawn sprinkler 
systems. Said rain sensing system shall be capable of turning the lawn sprinkler system off in the event adequate rain 
has fallen. 

[CC] Section 401.3.2 is added. 

401.3.2 Metering. Each individual dwelling unit shall be metered in such a way that all water used by said dwelling 
unit can be recorded and billed. The maintenance and repair of said meters shall be the responsibility of the owner of 
the metered property. 

SECTION 403 

MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES 

[EH] Section 403.4 is added. 

403.4 Access. There shall be no access through a toilet room to any portion of a building. Access to toilet rooms shall not 
be through food preparation areas, except for toilet room facilities provided exclusively for the use of employees in the 
food preparation area. 

This shall not apply to residential occupancies within the unit. 

SECTION 413 

FOOD WASTE GRINDER UNITS 

[CPB] Section 413.2 is amended to read: 

413.2 Domestic food waste grinder outlets. Domestic food waste outlets may be 1 V2" but shall be connected to a drain 
of at least 2" in diameter. 

[PW] Section 413.3 is amended by adding: 

413.3.1 Discharge into grease interceptor. All food waste disposals in commercial kitchens shall be connected to 
and discharge into the grease interceptor. 

Exception: 

Vegetable preparation area disposal may discharge to either sanitary or grease waste system. 



CHAPTERS 
WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 

SECTION 603 
WATER SERVICE 

[DW] Section 603.1 is amended to read: 

603.1 Size of water service pipe. The water sen/ice pipe shall be sized to supply water to the structure in the quantities 
and at the pressures required in this code. The minimum diameter of water sen/ice pipes shall be ¥4 inch (19 mm). The 
service line shall remain the same size from tap through meter, then may be increased in size thereafter. 

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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



SECTION 608 

PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 

[DW, FCWA] Section 608.1 is amended by adding: 

608.1.1 Backflow devices. Backflow devices installed in water service lines shall be inspected and maintained per 
Denver Water/State of Colorado Clean Water Act, and the Colorado Cross- Connection Control Manual, most recent 
edition, as published by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Water Quality Control Division. 

Section 608.7 is amended by adding exception. 

608.7 Stop-and-waste valves prohibited. 

Exception: 

Combination stop and waste valves may be installed underground if an approved means of removing wastewater 
from the seep hole is provided, such as a gravel bedding etc. 

Section 608.15.2 is amended by adding: 

608.15.2.1 Waste Discharge. The waste discharge from a reduced pressure device shall be discharged to an 
approved location. If this discharge is by means of a pump, the pump shall be sized to handle the maximum 
discharge of the device. 



CHAPTER 7 
SANITARY DRAINAGE 

SECTION 703 
BUILDING SEWER 

[PW] Section 703 is amended by adding the following section: 

703.6 Slope of building sewer piping. Building sewers shall be installed at uniform grade or slope. The minimum grade 
of building sewers shall be in accordance with Denver Wastewater Management Standards. 

SECTION 708 
CLEANOUTS 

[PW] Section 708.3.3 is deleted and replaced with ttie following: 

708.3.3 Changes of direction. Cleanouts shall be installed at each change of direction of the building drain or 
horizontal waste or soil lines greater than 135 degrees (2.36 rad.). Where more than one change of direction occurs in 
a run of piping, only one cleanout shall be required for each 40 feet (12 192 mm) of developed length of the drainage 
piping. 

[PW] Section 708.3.5 is deleted and replaced with the following: 

708.3.5 Building drain and building sewer junction. There shall be a cleanout at the junction of the building sewer. 
An approved two-way cleanout shall be used and brought up to finished grade. Minimum size shall be 4" or as 
approved by Denver Waste Water Management. 

SECTION 712 

SUMPS AND EJECTORS 

Section 712.4 is amended by adding the following: 

712.4 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors. In public use occupancies, dual (duplex) sewage ejectors shall be required 
and shall be arranged to function independently in case of mechanical failure. All dual ejectors shall be alarmed to 
provide visual and/or audible notification of failure. 

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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Exception: 

A single ejector pump may be used in commercial application when it is used for a single use kitchen sink and/or 
dishwasher and/or disposer. 



CHAPTERS 
INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 

SECTION 803 
SPECIAL WASTES 

[DW] Section 803.4 is added. 

803.4 Cooling water. Domestic water used for cooling purposes shall be consumed or recycled and shall not be wasted 
to storm drain, above-ground drainage or below- ground drainage unless specifically approved by Denver Water. 

Exception: 

Diesel driven fire pump. 

SECTION 805 
FOOD WASTE 

[EH] Section 805.1 is added. 

805.1 Food waste disposers. An approved food waste disposer shall be required whenever food is to be prepared either 
commercially or in area containing a refrigerator, sink and stove. 

Exception: 

A food waste disposer may be deleted for the following facilities: (1) all food is prepared off site and/or is 
prepackaged; (2) all food is served with disposable plates or trays and utensils. 



CHAPTER 9 

VEisrrs 

SECTION 904 
VENTTERMINALS 

Section 904.1 is deleted and replaced with the following: 

904.1 Roof extension. All open vent pipes that extend through a roof shall be terminated at least 12 inches (305 mm) 
above the roof, except that where a roof is to be used for any purpose other than weather protection, the vent extensions 
shall be run at least 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof. 

SECTION 905 

VENT CONNECTIONS AND GRADES 

Section 905.4 is amended by deleting the exception and replacing with the following: 

Exception: 

If structural conditions do not allow the vent to be taken off vertically, the vent shall be run horizontally to the 
nearest wall. All fittings shall be drainage type. A cleanout shall be installed in the vent line. 

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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 10 
TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 

SECTION 1003 

INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 

[PW] Section 1003.2 is deleted and replaced with the following: 

1003.2 Approval. The size, type and location of each interceptor and of each separator shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and the requirements of this section based on the anticipated conditions 
of use. Wastes that do not require treatment or separation shall not be discharged into any interceptor or separator. Prior 
to installation of any interceptor or separator and their associated piping, plans shall be submitted to Wastewater 
Management for approval. 

Section 1005 is added. 

SECTION 1005 

ABANDONED INTERCEPTORS 

[PW] Section 1005.1 Abandoned food/oil grease interceptors and sand/oil interceptors. All food/oil/grease 
interceptors and sand/oil interceptors that are to be abandoned or by- passed, shall have all piping removed, the structure 
capped or plugged and the lid broken as to make it unusable. It shall be pumped clean and filled with granular material to 
satisfy Denver Wastewater Management standards. 



CHAPTER 11 
STORM DRAINAGE 

SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

[PW] Section 1101.1 is deleted and replaced with the following: 

1101.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of storm 
drainage. That portion of the storm drainage system from the building to the public storm sewer shall be as required by 
D enver W astewater M anagement. 

SECTION 1106 

SIZE OF CONDUCTORS, LEADERS AND STORM DRAINS 

Section 1106.1 is deleted and replaced with the following: 

1106.1 General. The size of the vertical conductors and leaders, building storm sewers and any horizontal branches of 
such drains shall be based on 3" (7.6 mm) per hour. 

IPC APPENDICES 

STATUS OF APPENDICES ON ADOPTION 

The following Appendices are adopted: 
Appendix E Sizing of Water Piping 
Appendix F Structural Safety 

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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 

EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL 

FUEL & GAS CODE 

AND 

APPENDICES 

AS PUBLISHED BY 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL (ICC) 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FUEL & GAS CODE 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FUEL & GAS CODE 



CHAPTER 1 
ADMINISTRATION 

SECTION lOl(IFGC) 
GENERAL 

Section 101.1 Title. Is amended by inserting "City and County of Denver" for the name of the 
jurisdiction. 

Sections IFGC 103 through 106, 108 and 109 are amended by deleting those sections in their entirety. 
The "Administration of the 2007 Denver Building Code" provisions shall govern. 



CHAPTER 4 
GAS PIPING INSTALLATIONS 

SECTION 403 (IFGC) 
PIPING MATERIALS 

Section 403.4.3 Copper and brass is deleted in its entirety and replaced with the following: 

Copper and brass pipe shall not be used. 

Section 403.5.2 Copper and brass tubing is deleted in its entirety and replaced with the following: 

Copper and brass tubing shall not be used. 

SECTION 404 (IFGC) 

PIPING SYSTEM INSTALLATION 

Section 404.1 Prohibited locations is amended by adding the following paragraph: 

Gas meters shall not be located in or under any building unless the meter is located in its own dedicated, adequately 
ventilated vault. 

SECTION 406 (IFGC) 

INSPECTION, TESTING AND PURGING 

Section 406.4.1 is deleted and replaced with the following: 

406.4.1 Test pressure. The test pressure to be used shall be no less than IV2 times the proposed maximum working 
pressure, but not less than 10 psig (69 kPa gauge), irrespective of design pressure. For welded piping and for piping 
carrying gas at pressures exceeding 14 inches water column (3.5 kPa gauge) pressure, the test pressure shall be no less 
than 60 psig (414 kPa gauge). Where the test pressure exceeds 125 psig (862 kPa gauge), the test pressure shall not exceed 
a value that produces a hoop stress in the piping greater than 50 percent of the specified minimum yield strength of the 
pipe. 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FUEL & GAS CODE 



CHAPTERS 
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 

SECTION 505 (IFGC) 

DIRECT VENT, INTEGRAL VENT, MECHANICAL VENT AND VENTILATION /EXHAUST HOOD VENTING 

Section 505.1.1 Commercial cooking appliances vented by exhaust hoods is amended by modifying 
the second to last sentence as follows: 

Where a solenoid valve is installed in the gas piping as part of an interlock system, gas piping shall not be installed to 
bypass such valve except where such a bypass is intended and sized for standing pilot light(s). If a bypass is installed to 
maintain the function of standing pilot light(s), the entire interlocked solenoid and bypass assembly must be installed 
external to the equipment and downstream of any emergency shut- off solenoid valve. 



CHAPTERS 
SPECIFIC APPLIANCES 

SECTION 602 (IFGC) 

DECORATIVE APPLIANCES FOR INSTALLATION IN FIREPLACES 

Section 602 is amended by adding the following paragraph: 

602.4 Wood-burning appliances. Installation of new factory-built wood- burning appliances is restricted to certified 
wood stoves as approved by the Environmental Protection Agency. Appliances must be listed by an approved testing lab. 
If a wood- burning appliance is not on the EPA approved list, it cannot be installed unless it is converted to a gas log 
fireplace in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6. 

SECTION 609 (IFGC) 
FLOOR FURNACES 

Section 609 Floor Furnaces is deleted in its entirety and replaced with the following. 

Floor furnaces are prohibited in Denver. 

SECTION 621 (IFGC) 
UNVENTED ROOM HEATERS 

Section 621 Unvented Room Heaters is deleted in its entirety and replaced with the following. 

Unvented room heaters are prohibited in Denver. 

SECTION 623 (IFGC) 
COOKING APPLIANCES 

Section 623.3 is amended by adding the following paragraph: 

623.3.1 Residential cooking appliances vented by exhaust hoods. Where residential cooking appliances are gas- fired, a 
fan powered exhaust system shall be installed and must be vented to the outside. System shall be sized and installed in 
accordance with manufacturer's instructions. 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL FUEL & GAS CODE 



DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 

EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL 

ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 

AND APPENDICES AS PUBLISHED BY 
INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL (ICC) 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TOTHE 2006 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 



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DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 



CHAPTER 1 
ADMINISTRATION 

SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

Section 101.1 Title is deleted and replaced with the following: 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Energy Code of the City and County of Denver, and shall be cited as 
such. It is referred to herein as "this code". 



CHAPTER 4 
RESIDEISrriAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 

SECTION 401.2 

Section 401.2 is amended by adding tlie following: 

3. The results from a code complain software program can be utilized to show compliance. "REScheck^^" - 
Residential Energy Code Conpliance Software is one program currently being accepted This prc)gram was 
developed by the Department of Energy can be downlo^ed for free at 
http://wvwv.ene3Wccdes.gov/cornpliancetools.stm 



CHAPTER 5 
lECC COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 

SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

Section 501.2 is amended by adding the following: 

The results from a code compliant software can be utilized to show compliance. "COMcheck™ " - Commercial Energy 
Code Compliance Software is one program currently being accepted. This program developed by the Department of 
Energy can be downloaded for free at http://www.energycodes.gov/compliance_tools.stm . 

Section 505.2, 505.3, ASHRAE 90.1 Section 9.4.1, 9.4.2 Lighting controls is amended by adding the 
following exception: 

Exception: 

Tenant finishes and remodels which do not require a Certificate of Occupancy. 



-251- 
DENVER AMENDMENTS TO THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 



A Member of the International Code Family® 

International 

Plumbing 

Code" 




INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL® 



2006 



2006 International Plumbing Code^ 



First Printing: January 2006 



ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-259-1 (soft-cover) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-259-0 (soft-cover) 
ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-258-4 (loose-leaf) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-258-2 (loose-leaf) 

ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-307-9 (e-document) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-307-4 (e-document) 



COPYRIGHT© 2006 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2006 International Plumbing Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code 
Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or 
transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example, 
and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to 
copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795. 
Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Plumbing Code" are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modem, up-to-date plumbing code addressing the design and installation of 
plumbing systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Plumbing Code®, in this 2006 edition, is 
designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large 
and small. 

This comprehensive plumbing code establishes minimum regulations for plumbing systems using prescriptive and perfor- 
mance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new plumbing 
designs. This 2006 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes® (I-Codes®) published by the International Code 
Council (ICC)®, including the International Building Code®, ICC Electrical Code®, International Energy Conservation Code®, 
International Existing Building Code®, International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, International Mechanical Code®, 
ICC Performance Code®, International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, International Property Maintenance Code®, Interna- 
tional Residential Code®, International Wildland-Urban Interface Code™ and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Plumbing Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that 
offers an international forum for plumbing professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum 
provides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the applica- 
tion of provisions. 

Development 

The first edition of the International Plumbing Code (1995) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1994 by a development 
committee appointed by the ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the International Code Council 
at that time, including: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Build- 
ing Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive set of 
regulations for plumbing systems consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the 
latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development. This 2006 edition pres- 
ents the code as originally issued, with changes as reflected in the subsequent editions through 2003 ane with changes approved 
through the ICC Code Development Process through 2005. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a plumbing code that adequately 
protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not 
restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 

Adoption 

The International Plumbing Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental 
jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings estabhshing the jurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local 
information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in 
the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code adoption 
ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

Maintenance 

The International Plumbing Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, 
industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an 
open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that 
enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Develop- 
ment Department of the International Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Plumbing Code ensures the highest degree of care, ICC and ICC's mem- 
bers and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance 
with the provisions, since ICC and its members do not have the power or authority to pohce or enforce compliance with the contents 
of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® Hi 



Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers 

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Development Hearings by the ICC 
Plumbing Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on 
the proposed change. Proposed changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a 
different code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that have [B] in front of them (e.g. [B] 
309.2) are considered by the ICC Building Code Development Committee at the code development hearings. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation are maintained by another code development committee in 
accordance with the following: 

[B] = International Building Code Development Committee; 

[E] = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee; 

[F] = International Fire Code Development Committee; 

[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee. 

IVIarginal l\/larl(ings 

SoUd vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2003 edition. 
Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow ( ^ ) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table 
has been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE*" 



ORDINANCE 

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2006 International Plumbing Code as an enforceable regulation governing plumbing systems should ensure that certain factual 
information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. 
The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF 

THE INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2006 edition of the International Plumbing Code, regulating and governing the 
design, construction, quality of materials, erection, installation, alteration, repair, location, relocation, replacement, addition to, use 
or maintenance of plumbing systems in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; 
repealing Ordinance No. of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section l.That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Plumbing Code, 2006 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED], as published by the International Code Council, be and is 
hereby adopted as the Plumbing Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] regulating and governing the design, con- 
struction, quality of materials, erection, installation, alteration, repair, location, relocation, replacement, addition to, use or mainte- 
nance of plumbing systems as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all 
of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Plumbing Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are 
hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and 
changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 106.6.2. Insert: [APPROPRIATE SCHEDULE] 

Section 106.6.3. Insert: [PERCENTAGES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 108.4. Insert: [OFFENSE, DOLLAR AMOUNT, NUMBER OF DAYS] 

Section 108.5. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 305.6.1. Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 904.1. Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all Other ordinances 
or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it 
would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more 
sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Plumbing Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be 
lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® v 



vi 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION 1 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

103 Department of Plumbing Inspection 2 

104 Duties and Powers of the Code Official 2 

105 Approval 2 

106 Permits 3 

107 Inspections and Testing 5 

108 Violations 6 

109 Means of Appeal 6 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 9 

Section 

201 General 9 

202 General Definitions 9 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REGULATIONS 17 

Section 

301 General 17 

302 Exclusion of Materials Detrimental 

to the Sewer System 17 

303 Materials 17 

304 Rodentproofing 17 

305 Protection of Pipes and Plumbing 

System Components 18 

306 Trenching, Excavation and Backfill 18 

307 Structural Safety 19 

308 Piping Support 19 

309 Flood Hazard Resistance 20 

310 Washroom and Toilet Room 

Requirements 20 

311 Toilet Facilities for Workers 21 

312 Tests and Inspections 21 

313 Equipment Efficiencies 22 

314 Condensate Disposal 22 

CHAPTER 4 FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND 

FIXTURE FITTINGS 25 

Section 

401 General 25 

402 Fixture Materials 25 

403 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 25 

404 Accessible Plumbing Facilities 28 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



405 Installation of Fixtures 28 

406 Automatic Clothes Washers 29 

407 Bathtubs 29 

408 Bidets 29 

409 Dishwashing Machines 30 

410 Drinking Fountains 30 

411 Emergency Showers and Eyewash 

Stations 30 

412 Floor and Trench Drains 30 

413 Food Waste Grinder Units 30 

414 Garbage Can Washers 30 

415 Laundry Trays 30 

416 Lavatories 30 

417 Showers 31 

418 Sinks 32 

419 Urinals 32 

420 Water Closets 32 

421 Whirlpool Bathtubs 32 

422 Health Care Fixtures and Equipment 32 

423 Specialty Plumbing Fixtures 33 

424 Faucets and Other Fixture Fittings 33 

425 Flushing Devices for Water Closets 

and Urinals 34 

426 Manual Food and Beverage 

Dispensing Equipment 34 

427 Floor Sinks 34 

CHAPTERS WATER HEATERS 35 

Section 

501 General 35 

502 Installation 35 

503 Connections 35 

504 Safety Devices 35 

505 Insulation 36 

CHAPTER 6 WATER SUPPLY AND 

DISTRIBUTION 37 

Section 

601 General 37 

602 Water Required 37 

603 Water Service 37 

604 Design of Building Water Distribution 

System 38 

605 Materials, Joints and Connections 39 



VII 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



606 Installation of the Building Water 

Distribution System 44 

607 Hot Water Supply System 45 

608 Protection of Potable Water Supply 46 

609 Health Care Plumbing 50 

610 Disinfection of Potable Water System 51 

611 Drinking Water Treatment Units 51 

612 Solar Systems , 51 

613 Temperature Control Devices and Valves 51 

CHAPTER 7 SANITARY DRAINAGE 53 

Section 

701 General 53 

702 Materials 53 

703 Building Sewer 55 

704 Drainage Piping Installation 55 

705 Joints 55 

706 Connections Between Drainage Piping 

and Fittings 58 

707 Prohibited Joints and Connections 59 

708 Cleanouts 59 

709 Fixture Units 60 

710 Drainage System Sizing 60 

711 Offsets in Drainage Piping in Buildings 

of Five Stories or More 60 

712 Sumps and Ejectors 63 

713 Health Care Plumbing 64 

714 Computerized Drainage Design 65 

715 Backwater Valves 65 

CHAPTER 8 INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 67 

Section 

801 General 67 

802 Indirect Wastes 67 

803 Special Wastes 68 

804 Materials, Joints and Connections 68 

CHAPTER 9 VENTS 69 

Section 

901 General 69 

902 Materials 69 

903 Outdoor Vent Extension 69 

904 Vent Terminals 69 

905 Vent Connections and Grades 70 

906 Fixture Vents 70 

907 Individual Vent 70 



908 Common Vent , , ., 70 

909 Wet Venting 70 

910 Waste Stack Vent : . .71 

911 Circuit Venting 71 

912 Combination Drain And Vent System ......... 72 

913 Island Fixture Venting 72 

914 Relief Vents— Stacks of More Than 

10 Branch Intervals 72 

915 Vents for Stack Offsets 73 

916 Vent Pipe Sizing 73 

917 Air Admittance Valves 74 

918 Engineered Vent Systems 75 

919 Computerized Vent Design .75 

CHAPTER 10 TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND 

SEPARATORS 77 

Section 

1001 General 77 

1002 Trap Requirements ., 77 

1003 Interceptors and Separators 77 

1004 Materials, Joints and Connections 79 

CHAPTER 11 STORM DRAINAGE 81 

Section 

1101 General : .• 81 

1102 Materials : 81 

1103 Traps 82 

1 104 Conductors and Connections 82 

1 105 Roof Drains 82 

1106 Size of Conductors, Leaders and 

Storm Drains ;, . 82 

1107 Secondary (Emergency) Roof Drains 89 

1 108 Combined Sanitary and Storm System .90 

1 109 Values for Continuous Flow 90 

1110 Controlled Flow Roof Drain Systems 90 

1111 Subsoil Drains 90 

1112 Building Subdrains 90 

1113 Sumps and Pumping Systems 90 

CHAPTER 12 SPECIAL PIPING AND 

STORAGE SYSTEMS 91 

Section 

1201 General 91 

1202 Medical Gases 91 

1203 Oxygen Systems 91 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 13 REFERENCED STANDARDS 93 

APPENDIX A PLUMBING PERMIT FEE 

SCHEDULE 101 

Pennit Issuance 101 

Unit Fee Schedule 101 

Other Inspections and Fees 101 

APPENDIX B RATES OF RAINFALL FOR 

VARIOUS CITIES 103 

APPENDIX C GRAY WATER RECYCLING 

SYSTEMS 105 

Section 

ClOl General 105 

CI 02 Systems for Flushing Water Closets 

and Urinals 105 

CI 03 Subsurface Landscape Irrigation Systems ..... 106 

APPENDIX D DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN 

TEMPERATURES Ill 

APPENDIX E SIZING OF WATER PIPING 

SYSTEM 117 

Section 

ElOl General 117 

E102 Information Required 117 

E103 Selection of Pipe Size .117 

E201 Selection of Pipe Size 134 

APPENDIX F STRUCTURAL SAFETY 137 

Section 

FlOl Cutting, Notching and Boring in 

Wood Members 137 

APPENDIX G VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM . . 139 

INDEX 141 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® Ix 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Interna- 
tional Plumbing Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION] hereinafter 
referred to as "this code." 

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the 
erection, installation, alteration, repairs, relocation, replace- 
ment, addition to, use or maintenance of plumbing systems 
within this jurisdiction. This code shall also regulate nonflam- 
mable medical gas, inhalation anesthetic, vacuum piping, 
nonmedical oxygen systems and sanitary and condensate vac- 
uum collection systems. The installation of fuel gas distribu- 
tion piping and equipment, fuel-gas-fired water heaters and 
water heater venting systems shall be regulated by the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories high with separate means of egress and 
their accessory structures shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to provide minimum 
standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property and pubhc 
welfare by regulating and controlling the design, construction, 
installation, quality of materials, location, operation and main- 
tenance or use of plumbing equipment and systems. 

101.4 Severability. If any section, subsection, sentence, clause 
or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the vahdity of the remain- 
ing portions of this code. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 General. The provisions of this code shall apply to all 
matters affecting or relating to structures, as set forth in Section 
101 . Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code 
specify different materials, methods of construction or other 
requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. 

102.2 Existing installations. Plumbing systems lawfully in 
existence at the time of the adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to have their use and maintenance continued if the use, 
maintenance or repair is in accordance with the original design 
and no hazard to life, health or property is created by such 
plumbing system. 

102.3 Maintenance. All plumbing systems, materials and 
appurtenances, both existing and new, and all parts thereof, 
shall be maintained in proper operating condition in accor- 
dance with the original design in a safe and sanitary condition. 
All devices or safeguards required by this code shall be main- 
tained in compliance with the code edition under which they 
were installed. 



The owner or the owner's designated agent shall be responsi- 
ble for maintenance of plumbing systems. To determine com- 
pliance with this provision, the code official shall have the 
authority to require any plumbing system to be reinspected. 

102.4 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, alter- 
ations, renovations or repairs to any plumbing system shall 
conform to that required for a new plumbing system without 
requiring the existing plumbing system to comply with all the 
requirements of this code. Additions, alterations or repairs 
shall not cause an existing system to become unsafe, insanitary 
or overloaded. 

Minor additions, alterations, renovations and repairs to 
existing plumbing systems shall be permitted in the same man- 
ner and arrangement as in the existing system, provided that 
such repairs or replacement are not hazardous and are 
approved. 

102.5 Change in occupancy. It shall be unlawful to make any 
change in the occupancy of any structure that will subject the 
structure to any special provision of this code without approval 
of the code official. The code official shall certify that such 
structure meets the intent of the provisions of law governing 
building construction for the proposed new occupancy and that 
such change of occupancy does not result in any hazard to the 
public health, safety or welfare. 

102.6 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code relating 
to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, 
relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be 
mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and 
classified by the state or local jurisdiction as historic buildings 
when such buildings or structures are judged by the code offi- 
cial to be safe and in the public interest of health, safety and 
welfare regarding any proposed construction, alteration, 
repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of build- 
ings. 

102.7 Moved buildings. Except as determined by Section 
102.2, plumbing systems that are a part of buildings or struc- 
tures moved into or within the jurisdiction shall comply with 
the provisions of this code for new installations. 

102.8 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in 
Chapter 13 and such codes and standards shall be considered as 
part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of 
each such reference. Where the differences occur between pro- 
visions of this code and the referenced standards, the provi- 
sions of this code shall be the minimum requirements. 

102.9 Requirements not covered by code. Any requirements 
necessary for the strength, stability or proper operation of an 
existing or proposed plumbing system, or for the public safety, 
health and general welfare, not specifically covered by this 
code shall be determined by the code official. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF PLUMBING INSPECTION 

103.1 General. The department of plumbing inspection is 
hereby created and the executive official in charge thereof shall 
be known as the code official. 

103.2 Appointment. The code official shall be appointed by 
the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction, and the code 
official shall not be removed from office except for cause and 
after full opportunity to be heard on specific and relevant 
charges by and before the appointing authority. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the code official shall have the authority to appoint a 
deputy code official, other related technical officers, inspectors 
and other employees. 

103.4 Liability. The code official, officer or employee charged 
with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdic- 
tion, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally, and is 
hereby relieved from all personal liability for any damage 
accruing to persons or property as a result of any act required or 
permitted in the discharge of official duties. 

Any suit instituted against any officer or employee because 
of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful 
discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall 
be defended by the legal representative of the jurisdiction until 
the final termination of the proceedings. The code official or 
any subordinate shall hot be liable for costs in any action, suit 
or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of 
this code, and any officer of the department of plumbing 
inspection, acting in good faith and without malice, shall be 
free from liability for acts performed under any of its provi- 
sions or by reason of any act or omission in the performance of 
official duties in connection therewith. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE CODE OFFICIAL 

104.1 General. The code official shall enforce all of the provi- 
sions of this code and shall act on any question relative to the 
installation, alteration, repair, maintenance or operation of all 
plumbing systems, devices and equipment except as otherwise 
specifically provided for by statutory requirements or as pro- 
vided for in Sections 104.2 through 104.8. 

104.2 Rule-making authority. The code official shall have 
authority as necessary in the interest of public health, safety 
and general welfare to adopt and promulgate rules and regula- 
tions to interpret and implement the provisions of this code to 
secure the intent thereof and to designate requirements applica- 
ble because of local climatic or other conditions. Such rules 
shall not have the effect of waiving structural or .fire perfor- 
mance requirements specifically provided for in this code, or of 
violating accepted engineering practice involving public 
safety. 

104.3 Applications and permits. The code official shall 
receive applications and issue permits for the installation and 
alteration of plumbing, inspect the premises for which such 



permits have been issued, and enforce compliance with the pro- 
visions of this code. 

104.4 Inspections. The code official shall make all the 
required inspections, or shall accept reports of inspection by 
approved agencies or individuals. All reports of such inspec- 
tions shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer 
of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The 
code official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as 
deemed necessary to report on unusual technical issues that 
arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority. 

104.5 Right of entry. Whenever it is necessary to make an 
inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or whenever 
the code official has reasonable cause to believe that there 
exists in any building or upon any premises any conditions or 
violations of this code that make the building or premises 
unsafe, insanitary, dangerous or hazardous, the code official 
shall have the authority to enter the building or premises at all 
reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed 
upon the code official by this code, ff such building or premises 
is occupied, the code official shall present credentials to the 
occupant and request entry. If such building or premises is 
unoccupied, the code official shall first make a reasonable 
effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or con- 
trol of the building or premises and request entry, ff entry is 
refused, the code official shall have recourse to every remedy 
provided by law to secure entry. 

When the code official shall have first obtained a proper 
inspection warrant or other remedy provided by law to secure 
entry, no owner or occupant or person having charge, care or 
control of any building or premises shall fail or neglect, after 
proper request is made as herein provided, to promptly permit 
entry therein by the code official for the purpose of inspection 
and examination pursuant to this code. 

104.6 Identification. The code official shall carry proper iden- 
tification when inspecting structures or premises in the perfor- 
mance of duties under this code. 

104.7 Notices and orders. The code official shall issue all nec- 
essary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this code. 

104.8 Department records. The code official shall keep offi- 
cial records of applications received, permits and certificates 
issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices and 
orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records as long as the building or structure to which such 
records relate remains in existence unless otherwise provided 
for by other regulations. 



SECTION 105 
APPROVAL 

105.1 Modifications. Whenever there are practical difficulties 
involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the code 
official shall have the authority to grant modifications for indi- 
vidual cases, provided the code official shall first find that spe- 
cial individual reason makes the strict letter of this code 
impractical and the modification is in conformity with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered 
in the files of the plumbing inspection department. 

105.2 Alternative materials, methods and equipment. The 

provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installa- 
tion of any material or to prohibit any method of construction 
not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such 
alternative has been approved. An alternative material or 
method of construction shall be approved where the code offi- 
cial finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies 
with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the mate- 
rial, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at 
least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quaUty, 
strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. 

105.3 Required testing. Whenever there is insufficient evi- 
dence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evi- 
dence that a material or method does not conform to the 
requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for 
alternate materials or methods, the code official shall have the 
authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made 
at no expense to the jurisdiction. 

105.3.1 Test methods. Test methods shall be as specified in 
this code or by other recognized test standards. In the 
absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the code 
official shall approve the testing procedures. 

105.3.2 Testing agency. All tests shall be performed by an 
approved agency. 

105.3.3 Test reports. Reports of tests shall be retained by 
the code official for the period required for retention of pub- 
lic records. 

105.4 Alternative engineered design. The design, documen- 
tation, inspection, testing and approval of an alternative engi- 
neered design plumbing system shall comply with Sections 
105.4.1 through 105.4.6. 

105.4.1 Design criteria. An alternative engineered design 
shall conform to the intent of the provisions of this code and 
shall provide an equivalent level of quality, strength, effec- 
tiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Material, 
equipment or components shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions. 

105.4.2 Submittal. The registered design professional shall 
indicate on the permit application that the plumbing system 
is an alternative engineered design. The permit and perma- 
nent permit records shall indicate that an alternative engi- 
neered design was part of the approved installation. 

105.4.3 Technical data. The registered design professional 
shall submit sufficient technical data to substantiate the pro- 
posed alternative engineered design and to prove that the 
performance meets the intent of this code. 

105.4.4 Construction documents. The registered design 
professional shall submit to the code official two complete 
sets of signed and sealed construction documents for the 
alternative engineered design. The construction documents 
shall include floor plans and a riser diagram of the work. 
Where appropriate, the construction documents shall indi- 



cate the direction of flow, all pipe sizes, grade of horizontal 
piping, loading, and location of fixtures and appliances. 

105.4.5 Design approval. Where the code official deter- 
mines that the alternative engineered design conforms to the 
intent of this code, the plumbing system shall be approved. 
If the alternative engineered design is not approved, the 
code official shall notify the registered design professional 
in writing, stating the reasons thereof. 

105.4.6 Inspection and testing. The alternative engineered 
design shall be tested and inspected in accordance with the 
requirements of Sections 107 and 312. 

105.5 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, equipment 
and devices shall not be reused unless such elements have been 
reconditioned, tested, placed in good and proper working con- 
dition and approved. 



SECTION 106 
PERMITS 

106.1 When required. Any owner, authorized agent or con- 
tractor who desires to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, 
demolish or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or 
to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or 
replace any plumbing system, the installation of which is regu- 
lated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall 
first make application to the code official and obtain the 
required permit for the work. 

106.2 Exempt work. The following work shall be exempt 
from the requirement for a permit: 

1 . The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent 
pipe provided, however, that if any concealed trap, 
drainpipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defec- 
tive and it becomes necessary to remove and replace the 
same with new material, such work shall be considered 
as new work and a permit shall be obtained and inspec- 
tion made as provided in this code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstalla- 
tion of water closets, provided such repairs do not 
involve or require the replacement or rearrangement of 
valves, pipes or fixtures. 

Exemption from the permit requirements of this codeshall 
not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in 
violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or 
ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

106.3 Application for permit. Each application for a permit, 
with the required fee, shall be filed with the code official on a 
form furnished for that purpose and shall contain a general 
description of the proposed work and its location. The applica- 
tion shall be signed by the owner or an authorized agent. The 
permit application shall indicate the proposed occupancy of all 
parts of the building and of that portion of the site or lot, if any, 
not covered by the building or structure and shall contain such 
other information required by the code official. 

106.3.1 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments, engineering calculations, diagrams and other such 
data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each appli- 



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ADMINISTRATION 



cation for a permit. The code official shall require construc- 
tion documents, computations and specifications to be 
prepared and designed by a registered design professional 
when required by state law. Construction documents shall 
be drawn to scale and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate 
the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and 
show in detail that the work conforms to the provisions of 
this code. Construction documents for buildings more than 
two stories in height shall indicate where penetrations will 
be made for pipe, fittings and components and shall indicate 
the materials and methods for maintaining required struc- 
tural safety, fire-resistance rating and fireblocking. 

Exception: The code official shall have the authority to 
waive the submission of construction documents, calcu- 
lations or other data if the nature of the work applied for 
is such that reviewing of construction documents is not 
necessary to determine compliance with this code. 

106.4 By whom application is made. Application for a permit 
shall be made by the person or agent to install all or part of any 
plumbing system. The applicant shall meet all qualifications 
established by statute, or by rules promulgated by this code, or 
by ordinance or by resolution. The full name and address of the 
applicant shall be stated in the application. 

106.5 Permit issuance. The application, construction docu- 
ments and other data filed by an applicant for permit shall be 
reviewed by the code official. If the code official finds that the 
proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and 
all laws and ordinances applicable thereto, and that the fees 
specified in Section 106.6 have been paid, a permit shall be 
issued to the applicant. 

106.5.1 Approved construction documents. When the 
code official issues the permit where construction docu- 
ments are required, the construction documents shall be 
endorsed in writing and stamped "APPROVED." Such 
approved construction documents shall not be changed, 
modified or altered without authorization from the code 
official. All work shall be done in accordance with the 
approved construction documents. 

The code official shall have the authority to issue a permit 
for the construction of a part of a plumbing system before 
the entire construction documents for the whole system 
have been submitted or approved, provided adequate infor- 
mation and detailed statements have been filed complying 
with all pertinent requirements of this code. The holders of 
such permit shall proceed at their own risk without assur- 
ance that the permit for the entire plumbing system will be 
granted. 

106.5.2 Validity. The issuance of a permit or approval of 
construction documents shall not be construed to be a per- 
mit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provi- 
sions of this code or any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. 
No permit presuming to give authority to violate or cancel 
the provisions of this code shall be valid. 

The issuance of a permit based upon construction docu- 
ments and other data shall not prevent the code official from 
thereafter requiring the correction of errors in said construc- 
tion documents and other data or from preventing building 



operations being carried on thereunder when in violation of 
this code or of other ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

106.5.3 Expiration. Every permit issued by the code offi- 
cial under the provisions of this code shall expire by limita- 
tion and become null and void if the work authorized by 
such permit is not commenced within 180 days from the 
date of such permit, or if the work authorized by such permit 
is suspended or abandoned at any time after the work is 
commenced for a period of 1 80 days. Before such work can 
be recommenced, a new permit shall be first obtained and 
the fee therefor shall be one-half the amount required for a 
new permit for such work, provided no changes have been 
made or will be made in the original construction docu- 
ments for such work, and provided further that such suspen- 
sion or abandonment has not exceeded 1 year. 

106.5.4 Extensions. Any permittee holding an unexpired 
permit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the 
time within which the permittee will commence work under 
that permit when work is unable to be commenced within 
the time required by this section for good and satisfactory 
reasons. The code official shall extend the time for action by 
the permittee for a period not exceeding 180 days if there is 
reasonable cause. No permit shall be extended more than 
once. The fee for an extension shall be one-half the amount 
required for a new permit for such work. 

106.5.5 Suspension or revocation of permit. The code 
official shall revoke a permit or approval issued under the 
provisions of this code in case of any false statement or mis- 
representation of fact in the application or on the construc- 
tion documents upon which the permit or approval was 
based. 

106.5.6 Retention of construction documents. One set of 

construction documents shall be retained by the code offi- 
cial until final approval of the work covered therein. One set 
of approved construction documents shall be returned to the 
applicant, and said set shall be kept on the site of the build- 
ing or work at all times during which the work authorized 
thereby is in progress. 

106.6 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees pre- 
scribed in Section 106.6.2 have been paid, and an amendment 
to a permit shall not be released until the additional fee, if any, 
due to an increase of the plumbing systems, has been paid. 

106.6.1 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any 

person who commences any work on a plumbing system 
before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to 
100 percent of the usual permit fee in addition to the 
required pemiit fees. 

106.6.2 Fee schedule. The fees for all plumbing work shall 
be as indicated in the following schedule: 

[JURISDICTION TO INSERT APPROPRIATE SCHEDULE] 

106.6.3 Fee refunds. The code official shall authorize the 
refunding of fees as follows: 

1 . The full amount of any fee paid hereunder that was 
erroneously paid or collected. 



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ADMINISTRATION 



2. Not more than [SPECIFY PERCE^^^AGE] percent of the 
permit fee paid when no work has been done under a 
permit issued in accordance with this code. 

3. Not more than [SPECIFY PERCENTAGE] percent of the 
plan review fee paid when an appUcation for a permit 
for which a plan review fee has been paid is with- 
drawn or canceled before any plan review effort has 
been expended. 

The code official shall not authorize the refunding of any 
fee paid except upon written application filed by the original 
permittee not later than 180 days after the date of fee 
payment. 



SECTION 107 
INSPECTIONS AND TESTING 

107.1 Required inspections and testing. The code official, 
upon notification from the permit holder or the permit holder's 
agent, shall make the following inspections and such other 
inspections as necessary, and shall either release that portion of 
the construction or shall notify the permit holder or an agent of 
any violations that must be corrected. The holder of the permit 
shall be responsible for the scheduling of such inspections. 

1. Underground inspection shall be made after trenches or 
ditches are excavated and bedded, piping installed, and 
before any backfill is put in place. 

2. Rough-in inspection shall be made after the roof, fram- 
ing, fireblocking, firestopping, draftstopping and brac- 
ing is in place and all sanitary, storm and water 
distribution piping is roughed-in, and prior to the instal- 
lation of wall or ceiling membranes. 

3. Final inspection shall be made after the building is com- 
plete, all plumbing fixtures are in place and properly con- 
nected, and the structure is ready for occuancy. 

107.1.1 Approved agencies. Test reports submitted to the 
code official for consideration shall be developed by 
approved agencies that have satisfied the requirements as to 
qualifications and reliabiUty. 

107.1.2 Evaluation and follow-up inspection services. 

Prior to the approval of a closed, prefabricated plumbing 
system and the issuance of a plumbing permit, the code offi- 
cial shall require the submittal of an evaluation report on 
each prefabricated plumbing system indicating the com- 
plete details of the plumbing system, including a description 
of the system and its components, the basis upon which the 
plumbing system is being evaluated, test results and similar 
information, and other data as necessary for the code official 
to determine conformance to this code. 

107.1.2.1 Evaluation service. The code official shall 
designate the evaluation service of an approved agency 
as the evaluation agency, and review such agency's eval- 
uation report for adequacy and conformance to this code. 

107.1.2.2 Follow-up inspection. Except where ready 
access is provided to all plumbing systems, service 
equipment and accessories for complete inspection at the 
site without disassembly or dismantling, the code official 
shall conduct the frequency of in-plant inspections nec- 



essary to ensure conformance to the approved evaluation 
report or shall designate an independent, approved 
inspection agency to conduct, such inspections. The 
inspection agency shall furnish the code official with the 
follow-up inspection manual and a report of inspections 
upon request, and the plumbing system shall have an 
identifying label permanently affixed to the system indi- 
cating that factory inspections have been performed. 

107.1.2.3 Test and inspection records. All required test 
and inspection records shall be available to the code offi- 
cial at all times during the fabrication of the plumbing 
system and the erection of the building, or such records 
as the code official designates shall be filed. 

107.2 Special inspections. Special inspections of alternative 
engineered design plumbing systems shall be conducted in 
accordance with Sections 107.2.1 and 107.2.2. 

107.2.1 Periodic inspection. The registered design profes- 
sional or designated inspector shall periodically inspect and 
observe the alternative engineered design to determine that 
the installation is in accordance with the approved construc- 
tion documents. All discrepancies shall be brought to the 
immediate attention of the plumbing contractor for correc- 
tion. Records shall be kept of all inspections. 

107.2.2 Written report. The registered design professional 
shall submit a final report in writing to the code official upon 
completion of the installation, certifying that the alternative 
engineered design conforms to the approved construction 
documents. A notice of approval for the plumbing system 
shall not be issued until a written certification has been sub- 
mitted. 

107.3 Testing. Plumbing work and systems shall be tested as 
required in Section 312 and in accordance with Sections 
107.3.1 through 107.3.3. Tests shall be made by the permit 
holder and observed by the code official. 

107.3.1 New, altered, extended or repaired systems. New 

plumbing systems and parts of existing systems that have 
been altered, extended or repaired shall be tested as pre- 
scribed herein to disclose leaks and defects, except that test- 
ing is not required in the following cases: 

1. In any case that does not include addition to, replace- 
ment, alteration or relocation of any water supply, 
drainage or vent piping. 

2. In any case where plumbing equipment is set up tem- 
porarily for exhibition purposes. 

107.3.2 Equipment, material and labor for tests. All 

equipment, material and labor required for testing a plumb- 
ing system or part thereof shall be furnished by the permit 
holder. 

107.3.3 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or 
installation does not pass any initial test or inspection, the 
necessary corrections shall be made to comply with this 
code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to 
the code official for inspection and testing. 

107.4 Approval. After the prescribed tests and inspections 
indicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a 
notice of approval shall be issued by the code official. 



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107.5 Temporary connection. The code official shall have the 
authority to authorize the temporary connection of the building 
or system to the utility source for the purpose of testing plumb- 
ing systems or for use under a temporary certificate of occu- 
pancy. 



SECTION 108 
VIOLATIONS 

108.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demol- 
ish or utilize any plumbing system, or cause same to be done, in 
conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this 
code. 

108.2 Notice of violation. The code official shall serve a notice 
of violation or order to the person responsible for the erection, 
installation, alteration, extension, repair, removal or demoli- 
tion of plumbing work in violation of the provisions of this 
code, or in violation of a detail statement or the approved con- 
struction documents thereunder, or in violation of a permit or 
certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order 
shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition 
and the abatement of the violation. 

108.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is not 
complied with promptly, the code official shall request the legal 
counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceed- 
ing at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such viola- 
tion, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful 
occupancy of the structure in violation of the provisions of this 
code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto. 

108.4 Violation penalties. Any person who shall violate a pro- 
vision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the 
requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter or repair 
plumbing work in violation of the approved construction docu- 
ments or directive of the code official, or of a permit or certifi- 
cate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a 
[SPECIFY OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than 
[AMOUNT] dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding [NUMBER 
OF DAYS], or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a 
violation continues after due notice has been served shall be 
deemed a separate offense. 

108.5 Stop work orders. Upon notice from the code official, 
work on any plumbing system that is being done contrary to the 
provisions of this code or in a dangerous or unsafe manner shall 
immediately cease. Such notice shall be in writing and shall be 
given to the owner of the property, or to the owner's agent, or to 
the person doing the work. The notice shall state the conditions 
under which work is authorized to resume. Where an emer- 
gency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a 
written notice prior to stopping the work. Any person who shall 
continue any work in or about the structure after having been 
served with a stop work order, except such work as that person 
is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condi- 
tion,shall be liable to a fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or 
more than [AMOUNT] dollars. 

108.6 Abatement of violation. The imposition of the penalties 
herein prescribed shall not preclude the legal officer of the 
jurisdiction from instituting appropriate action to prevent 



unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a viola- 
tion, or to prevent illegal occupancy of a building, structure or 
premises, or to stop an illegal act, conduct, business or utiliza- 
tion of the plumbing on or about any premises. 

108.7 Unsafe plumbing. Any plumbing regulated by this code 
that is unsafe or that constitutes a fire or health hazard, insani- 
tary condition, or is otherwise dangerous to human life is 
hereby declared unsafe. Any use of plumbing regulated by this 
code constituting a hazard to safety, health or public welfare by 
reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obsolescence, 
fire hazard, disaster, damage or abandonment is hereby 
declared an unsafe use. Any such unsafe equipment is hereby 
declared to be a public nuisance and shall be abated by repair, 
rehabilitation, demolition or removal. 

108.7.1 Authority to condemn equipment. Whenever the 
code official determines that any plumbing, or portion 
thereof, regulated by this code has become hazardous to life, 
health or property or has become insanitary, the code offi- 
cial shall order in writing that such plumbing either be 
removed or restored to a safe or sanitary condition. A time 
limit for compliance with such order shall be specified in the 
written notice. No person shall use or maintain defective 
plumbing after receiving such notice. 

When such plumbing is to be disconnected, written 
notice as prescribed in Section 108.2 shall be given. In cases 
of immediate danger to life or property, such disconnection 
shall be made immediately without such notice. 

108.7.2 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The code 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection 
of utility service to the building, structure or system regu- 
lated by the technical codes in case of an emergency, where 
necessary, to eliminate an immediate danger to life or prop- 
erty. Where possible, the owner and occupant of the build- 
ing, structure or service system shall be notified of the 
decision to disconnect utility service prior to taking such 
action. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or 
occupant of the building, structure or service systems shall 
be notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter. 

108.7.3 Connection after order to disconnect. No person 
shall make connections from any energy, fuel, power supply 
or water distribution system or supply energy, fuel or water 
to any equipment regulated by this code that has been dis- 
connected or ordered to be disconnected by the code official 
or the use of which has been ordered to be discontinued by 
the code official until the code official authorizes the 
reconnection and use of such equipment. 

When any plumbing is maintained in violation of this 
code, and in violation of any notice issued pursuant to the 
provisions of this section, the code official shall institute any 
appropriate action to prevent, restrain, correct or abate the 
violation. 



SECTION 109 
MEANS OF APPEAL 

109.1 Application for appeal. Any person shall have the right 
to appeal a decision of the code official to the board of appeals. 
An appUcation for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have 
been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not 
fully apply, or an equally good or better form of construction is 
proposed. The application shall be filed on a form obtained 
from the code official within 20 days after the notice was 
served. 

109.2 Membership of board. The board of appeals shall con- 
sist of five members appointed by the chief appointing author- 
ity as follows: one for 5 years, one for 4 years, one for 3 years, 
one for 2 years and one for 1 year. Thereafter, each new mem- 
ber shall serve for 5 years or until a successor has been 
appointed. 

109.2.1 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist 
of five individuals, one from each of the following profes- 
sions or disciplines: 

1. Registered design professional who is a registered 
architect; or a builder or superintendent of building 
construction with at least 10 years' experience, 5 
years of which shall have been in responsible charge 
of work. 

2. Registered design professional with structural engi- 
neering or architectural experience. 

3. Registered design professional with mechanical and 
plumbing engineering experience; or a mechanical 
and plumbing contractor with at least 10 years' expe- 
rience, 5 years of which shall have been in responsible 
charge of work. 

4. Registered design professional with electrical engi- 
neering experience; or an electrical contractor with at 
least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which shall have 
been in responsible charge of work. 

5. Registered design professional with fire protection 
engineering experience; or a fire protection contrac- 
tor with at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which 
shall have been in responsible charge of work. 

109.2.2 Alternate members. The chief appointing author- 
ity shall appoint.two alternate members who shall be called 
by the board chairman to hear appeals during the absence or 
disqualification of a member. Alternate members shall pos- 
sess the qualifications required for board membership, and 
shall be appointed for 5 years or until a successor has been 
appointed. 

109.2.3 Chairman. The board shall annually select one of 
its members to serve as chairman. 

109.2.4 Disqualification of member. A member shall not 
hear an appeal in which that member has any personal, pro- 
fessional or financial interest. 

109.2.5 Secretary. The chief administrative officer shall 
designate a qualified clerk to serve as secretary to the board. 
The secretary shall file a detailed record of all proceedings 
in the office of the chief administrative officer. 

109.2.6 Compensation of members. Compensation of 
members shall be determined by law. 



109.3 Notice of meeting. The board shall meet upon notice 
from the chairman, within 10 days of the fiUng of an appeal or 
at stated periodic meetings. 

109.4 Open hearing. All hearings before the board shall be 
open to the public. The appellant, the appellant's representa- 
tive, the code official and any person whose interests are 
affected shall be given an opportunity to be heard. 

109.4.1 Procedure. The board shall adopt and make avail- 
able to the public through the secretary procedures under 
which a hearing will be conducted. The procedures shall not 
require compliance with strict rules of evidence, but shall 
mandate that only relevant information be received. 

109.5 Postponed hearing. When five members are not present 
to hear an appeal, either the appellant or the appellant's repre- 
sentative shall have the right to request a postponement of the 
hearing. 

109.6 Board decision. The board shall modify or reverse the 
decision of the code official by a concurring vote of three mem- 
bers. 

i09.6.1 Resolution. The decision of the board shall be by 
resolution. Certified copies shall be furnished to the appel- 
lant and to the code official. 

109.6.2 Administration. The code official shall take imme- 
diate action in accordance with the decision of the board. 

109.7 Court review. Any person, whether or not a previous 
party of the appeal, shall have the right to apply to the appropri- 
ate court for a writ of certiorari to correct errors of law. Appli- 
cation for review shall be made in the manner and time required 
by law following the fiUng of the decision in the office of the 
chief administrative officer. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words stated in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the International Build- 
ing Code, International Fire Code, ICC Electrical Code, Inter- 
national Fuel Gas Code or the International Mechanical Code, 
such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those 
codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
impHes. 



SECTION 202 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE. That which 
conforms to accepted principles, tests or standards of nation- 
ally recognized technical or scientific authorities. 

ACCESS (TO). That which enables a fixture, appliance or 
equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first 
requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar 
obstruction (see "Ready access"). 

ACCESS COVER. A removable plate, usually secured by 
bolts or screws, to permit access to a pipe or pipe fitting for the 
purposes of inspection, repair or cleaning. 

ADAPTER FITTING. An approved connecting device that 
suitably and properly joins or adjusts pipes and fittings which 
do not otherwise fit together. 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. One-way valve designed to 
allow air to enter the plumbing drainage system when negative 
pressures develop in the piping system. The device shall close 
by gravity and seal the vent terminal at zero differential pres- 
sure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pressures. 
The purpose of an air admittance valve is to provide a method 
of allowing air to enter the plumbing drainage system without 
the use of a vent extended to open air and to prevent sewer gases 
from escaping into a building. 

AIR BREAK (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in 
which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges 
indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a 
point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal. 

AIR GAP (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical dis- 
tance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of the 



waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which 
the waste pipe is discharging. 

AIR GAP (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed 
vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the low- 
est opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, 
plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the 
receptacle. 

ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN. A plumbing 
system that performs in accordance with the intent of Chapters 
3 through 12 and provides an equivalent level of performance 
for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. The sys- 
tem design is not specifically regulated by Chapters 3 through 
12. 

ANCHORS. See "Supports." 

ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical 
devices that eliminate siphonage. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or other author- I 
ity having jurisdiction. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency approved by the code official and that is regularly 
engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services. 

AREA DRAIN. A receptacle designed to collect surface or 
storm water from an open area. 

ASPIRATOR. A fitting or device supplied with water or other 
fluid under positive pressure that passes through an integral 
orifice or constriction, causing a vacuum. Aspirators are also 
referred to as suction apparatus, and are similar in operation to 
an ejector. 

BACKFLOW. Pressure created by any means in the water dis- 
tribution system, which by being in excess of the pressure in the 
water supply mains causes a potential backflow condition. 

Backpressure, low head. A pressure less than or equal to 
4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot 
(3048 mm) column of water. 

Backsiphonage. The backflow of potentially contaminated 
water into the potable water system as a result of the pres- 
sure in the potable water system falling below atmospheric 
pressure of the plumbing fixtures, pools, tanks or vats con- 
nected to the potable water distribution piping. 

Backwater valve. A device or valve installed in the build- 
ing drain or sewer pipe where a sewer is subject to backflow, 
and which prevents drainage or waste from backing up into 
a low level or fixtures and causing a flooding condition. 

Drainage. A reversal of flow in the drainage system. 

Water supply system. The flow of water or other liquids, 
mixtures or substances into the distribution pipes of a pota- 
ble water supply from any source except the intended 
source. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



9 



DEFINITIONS 



BACKFLOW CONNECTION. Any arrangement whereby 
backflow is possible. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent 
backflow. 

BALL COCK. See "Fill valve." 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. A reference point, determined 
in accordance with the building code, based on the depth or 
peak elevation of flooding, including wave height, which has a 
1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of occurring in 
any given year. 

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures consisting of a 
water closet, lavatory, bathtub or shower, including or exclud- 
ing a bidet, an emergency floor drain or both. Such fixtures are 
located together on the same floor level. 

BEDPAN STEAMER OR BOILER. A fixture utilized for 
scalding bedpans or urinals by direct application of steam or 
boiling water. 

BEDPAN WASHER AND STERILIZER. A fixture 
designed to wash bedpans and to flush the contents into the san- 
itary drainage system. Included are fixtures of this type that 
provide for disinfecting utensils by scalding with steam or hot 
water. 

BEDPAN WASHER HOSE. A device suppUed with hot and 
cold water and located adjacent to a water closet or cUnical sink 
to be utilized for cleansing bedpans. 

BRANCH. Any part of the piping system except a riser, main 
or stack. 

BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 
8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the 
connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Mea- 
surements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal 
branch connection. 

BRANCH VENT. A vent connecting one or more individual 
vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

BUILDING. Any structure occupied or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any occupancy. 

BUILDING DRAIN. That part of the lowest piping of a drain- 
age system that receives the discharge from soil, waste and 
other drainage pipes inside and that extends 30 inches (762 
mm) in developed length of pipe beyond the exterior walls of 
the building and conveys the drainage to the building sewer. 

Combined. A building drain that conveys both sewage and 
storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary. A building drain that conveys sewage only. 

Storm. A building drain that conveys storm water or other 
drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that 
extends from the end of the building drain and conveys the dis- 
charge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage dis- 
posal system or other point of disposal. 

Combined. A building sewer that conveys both sewage and 
storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary. A building sewer that conveys sewage only. 



Storm. A building sewer that conveys storm water or other 
drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SUBDRAIN. That portion of a drainage system 
that does not drain by gravity into the building sewer. 

BUILDING TRAP. A device, fitting or assembly of fittings 
installed in the building drain to prevent circulation of air 
between the drainage system of the building and the building 
sewer. 

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drain- 
age branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or 
trapped fixtures connected into a battery. 

CISTERN. A small covered tank for storing water for a home 
or farm. Generally, this tank stores rainwater to be utilized for 
purposes other than in the potable water supply, and such tank 
is placed underground in most cases. 

CLEANOUT. An access opening in the drainage system uti- 
lized for the removal of obstructions. Types of cleanouts 
include a removable plug or cap, and a removable fixture or fix- 
ture trap. 

CODE. These regulations, subsequent amendments thereto, or 
any emergency rule or regulation that the administrative 
authority having jurisdiction has lawfully adopted. 

CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority 
charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, 
or a duly authorized representative. 

COMBINATION FIXTURE. A fixture combining one sink 
and laundry tray or a two- or three-compartment sink or laun- 
dry tray in one unit. 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A spe 

cially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizon- 
tal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of 
a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free 
movement of air above the flow line of the drain. 

COMBINED BUILDING DRAIN. See "Building drain, 
combined." 

COMBINED BUILDING SEWER. See "Building sewer, 
combined." 

COMMON VENT. A vent connecting at the junction of two 
fixture drains or to a fixture branch and serving as a vent for 
both fixtures. 

CONCEALED FOULING SURFACE. Any surface of a 
plumbing fixture which is not readily visible and is not scoured 
or cleansed with each fixture operation. 

CONDUCTOR. A pipe inside the building that conveys storm 
water from the roof to a storm or combined building drain. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. All of the written, 
graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for 
describing the design, location and physical characteristics of 
the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a building 
permit. The construction drawings shall be drawn to an appro- 
priate scale. 

CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quahty of the 
potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health 



10 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, 
industrial fluids or waste. 

CRITICAL LEVEL (C-L). An elevation (height) reference 
point that determines the minimum height at which a backflow 
preventer or vacuum breaker is installed above the flood level 
rim of the fixture or receptor served by the device. The critical 
level is the elevation level below which there is a potential for 
backflow to occur. If the critical level marking is not indicated 
on the device, the bottom of the device shall constitute the criti- 
cal level. 

CROSS CONNECTION.Any physical connection or 
arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, 
one of which contains potable water and the other either water 
of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas or chemical, 
whereby there exists the possibility for flow from one system to 
the other, with the direction of flow depending on the pressure 
differential between the two systems (see "Backflow"). 

DEAD END. A branch leading from a soil, waste or vent pipe; 
a building drain; or a building sewer, and terminating at a devel- 
oped length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more by means of a plug, cap 
or other closed fitting. 

DEPTH OF WATER SEAL. The depth of water that would 
have to be removed from a full trap before air could pass 
through the trap. 

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the 
"design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum 
specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard 
map. 

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured 
along the centerline of the pipe and fittings. 

DISCHARGE PIPE. A pipe that conveys the discharges from 
plumbing fixtures or appliances. 

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries wastewater or water-borne 
wastes in a building drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. Type of fitting or fittings utiUzed in 
the drainage system. Drainage fittings are similar to cast-iron 
fittings, except that instead of having a bell and spigot, drainage 
fittings are recessed and tapped to eliminate ridges on the 
inside of the installed pipe. 

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT 

Drainage (dfu). A measure of the probable discharge into 
the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures. 
The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture 
depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the 
time duration of a single drainage operation and on the aver- 
age time between successive operations. 

DRAINAGE SYSTEM. Piping within a pubUc or private 
premise that conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid wastes 
to a point of disposal. A drainage system does not include the 
mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage 
treatment or disposal plant. 

Building gravity. A drainage system that drains by gravity 
into the building sewer. 

Sanitary. A drainage system that carries sewage and 
excludes storm, surface and ground water. 



Storm. A drainage system that carries rainwater, surface 
water, subsurface water and similar liquid wastes. 

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area 
at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed 
in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the opening is not circu- 
lar, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. 
For faucets and similar fittings, the effective opening shall be 
measured at the smallest orifice in the fitting body or in the sup- 
ply piping to the fitting. 

EMERGENCY FLOOR DRAIN. A floor drain that does not 
receive the discharge of any drain or indirect waste pipe, and 
that protects against damage from accidental spills, fixture 
overflows and leakage. 

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. 

Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene 
glycol; mineral oil; polydimethylsiloxane; 
hydrochlorofluoro-carbon, chlorofluorocarbon and carbon 
refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for 
steam boilers. 

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, waste 
or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more 
including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refrig- 
erants and hydrazine. 

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system regu- 
lated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective 
date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been 
issued. 

FAUCET. A valve end of a water pipe through which water is 
drawn from or held within the pipe. 

FILL VALVE. A water supply valve, opened or closed by 
means of a float or similar device, utilized to supply water to a 
tank. An antisiphon fill valve contains an antisiphon device in 
the form of an approved air gap or vacuum breaker that is an 
integral part of the fill valve unit and that is positioned on the 
discharge side of the water supply control valve. 

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture." 

FIXTURE BRANCH. A drain serving two or more fixtures 
that discharges to another drain or to a stack. 

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to a 
junction with any other drain pipe. 

FIXTURE FITTING 

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or 
directional flow of water and is either attached to or accessi- 
ble from a fixture, or is used with an open or atmospheric 
discharge. 

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys 
the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connec- 
tion to the sanitary drainage system. 

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water supply pipe connecting a fix- 
ture to a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main water 
supply pipe. 

FLOOD LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptacle from which 
water overflows. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two 
areas: 

1. The area within a flood plain subject to a 1 -percent or 
greater chance of flooding in any given year. 

2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a commu- 
nity's flood hazard map or as otherwise legally desig- 
nated. 

FLOW CONTROL (Vented). A device installed upstream 
from the interceptor having an orifice that controls the rate of 
flow through the interceptor and an air intake (vent) down- 
stream from the orifice that allows air to be drawn into the flow 
stream. 

FLOW PRESSURE. The pressure in the water supply pipe 
near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or water outlet is 
wide open and flowing. 

FLUSH TANK. A tank designed with a fill valve and flush 
valve to flush the contents of the bowl or usable portion of the 
fixture. 

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air 
accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predeter- 
mined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes. 

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A valve attached to a pressurized 
water supply pipe and so designed that when activated it opens 
the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and quantity to 
operate the fixture properly, and then gradually closes to reseal 
fixture traps and avoid water hammer. 

GREASE INTERCEPTOR. A plumbing appurtenance that 
is installed in a sanitary drainage system to intercept oily and 
greasy wastes from a wastewater discharge. Such device has 
the ability to intercept free-floating fats and oils. 

GREASE-LADEN WASTE. Effluent discharge that is pro- 
duced from food processing, food preparation or other sources 
where grease, fats and oils enter automatic dishwater prerinse 
stations, sinks or other appurtenances. 

GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE, AUTOMATIC (GRD). A 

plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage 
system to intercept free-floating fats, oils and grease from 
wastewater discharge. Such a device operates on a time- or 
event-controlled basis and has the ability to remove free-float- 
ing fats, oils and grease automatically without intervention 
from the user except for maintenance. 

GRIDDED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. A water 
distribution system where every water distribution pipe is inter- 
connected so as to provide two or more paths to each fixture 
supply pipe. 

HANGERS. See "Supports." 

HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN. A drainage branch pipe 
extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, 
with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the 
discharge from two or more fixture drains or branches and con- 
ducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building 
drain. 

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle 
of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal. 



HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 
110°F (43°C). 

HOUSE TRAP. See "Building trap." 

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that does not con- 
nect directly with the drainage system, but that discharges into 
the drainage system through an air break or air gap into a trap, 
fixture, receptor or interceptor. 

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system 
for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank,cess- 
pool or mechanical treatment, designed for utilization apart 
from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building. 

INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap 
and connects with the vent system above the fixture served or 
terminates in the open air. 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A water supply that serves 
one or more families, and that is not an approved pubUc water 
supply. 

INTERCEPTOR. A device designed and installed to separate 
and retain for removal, by automatic or manual means, delete- 
rious, hazardous or undesirable matter from normal wastes, 
while permitting normal sewage or wastes to discharge into the 
drainage system by gravity. 

JOINT 

Expansion. A loop, return bend or return offset that pro- 
vides for the expansion and contraction in a piping system 
and is utilized in tall buildings or where there is a rapid 
change of temperature, as in power plants, steam rooms and 
similar occupancies. 

Flexible. Any joint between two pipes that permits one pipe 
to be deflected or moved without movement or deflection of 
the other pipe. 

Mechanical. See "Mechanical joint." 

Slip. A type of joint made by means of a washer or a special 
type of packing compound in which one pipe i^ slipped into 
the end of an adjacent pipe. 

LEAD-FREE PIPE AND FITTINGS. Containing not more 
than 8.0-percent lead. 

LEAD-FREE SOLDER AND FLUX. Containing not more 
than 0.2-percent lead. 

LEADER. An exterior drainage pipe for conveying storm 
water from roof or gutter drains to an approved means of dis- 
posal. 

LOCAL VENT STACK. A vertical pipe to which connections 
are made from the fixture side of traps and through which vapor 
or foul air is removed from the fixture or device utilized on bed- 
pan washers. 

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. An assembly consist- 
ing of a water closet and sump with a macerating pump that is 
designed to collect, grind and pump wastes from the water 
closet and up to two other fixtures connected to the sump. 

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches are con- 
nected. 

MANIFOLD. See "Plumbing appurtenance." 



12 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



MECHANICAL JOINT. A connection between pipes, fit- 
tings, or pipes and fittings that is not screwed, caulked, 
threaded, soldered, solvent cemented, brazed or welded. A 
joint in which compression is applied along the centerline of 
the pieces being joined. In some applications, the joint is part of 
a coupling, fitting or adapter. 

MEDICAL GAS SYSTEM. The complete system to convey 
medical gases for direct patient application from central supply 
systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compressors), 
with pressure and operating controls, alarm warning systems, 
related components and piping networks extending to station 
outlet valves at patient use points. 

MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS. A system consisting of 
central- vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and oper- 
ating controls, shutoff valves, alarm- warning systems, gauges 
and a network of piping extending to and terminating with suit- 
able station inlets at locations where patient suction may be 
required. 

NONPOTABLE WATER. Water not safe for drinking, per- 
sonal or culinary utilization. 

NUISANCE. Pubhc nuisance as known in common law or in 
equity jurisprudence; whatever is dangerous to human life or 
detrimental to health; whatever structure or premises is not suf- 
ficiently ventilated, sewered, drained, cleaned or lighted, with 
respect to its intended occupancy; and whatever renders the air, 
or human food, drink or water supply unwholesome. 

OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building or portion 
thereof is utilized or occupied. 

OFFSET. A combination of approved bends that makes two 
changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line 
but into a line parallel with the other section. 

OPEN AIR. Outside the structure. 

PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures utilized in 
the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all 
piping, fixtures, plumbing appliances and plumbing appurte- 
nances, within or adjacent to any structure, in connection with 
sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities; venting systems; 
and public or private water supply systems. 

PLUMBING APPLIANCE. Any one of a special class of 
plumbing fixtures intended to perform a special function. 
Included are fixtures having the operation or control dependent 
on one or more energized components, such as motors, con- 
trols, heating elements, or pressure- or temperature-sensing 
elements. 

Such fixtures are manually adjusted or controlled by the 
owner or operator, or are operated automatically through one or 
more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature 
range, a pressure range, a measured volume or weight. 

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A manufactured device, 
prefabricated assembly or an on-the-job assembly of compo- 
nent parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and 
plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no additional 
water supply and does not add any discharge load to a fixture or 
to the drainage system. 



PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is either 
permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution 
system of the premises and demands a supply of water there- 
from; discharges wastewater, liquid-borne waste materials or 
sewage either directly or indirectly to the drainage system of 
the premises; or requires both a water supply connection and a 
discharge to the drainage system of the premises. 

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distri- 
bution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water-treating or 
water-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and sanitary 
and storm sewers and building drains; in addition to their 
respective connections, devices and appurtenances within a 
structure or premises. 

POLLUTION. An impairment of the quahty of the potable 
water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public 
health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aes- 
thetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use. 

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in 
amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological 
effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical 
quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking 
Water Standards or the regulations of the public health author- 
ity having jurisdiction. 

PRIVATE. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "private" 
applies to fixtures in residences and apartments, and to fixtures 
in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and similar 
installations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures are 
intended for utilization by a family or an individual. 

PUBLIC OR PUBLIC UTILIZATION. In the classification 
of plumbing fixtures, "pubUc" applies to fixtures in general toi- 
let rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, airports, bus and 
railroad stations, public buildings, bars, pubUc comfort sta- 
tions, office buildings, stadiums, stores, restaurants and other 
installations where a number of fixtures are installed so that 
their utilization is similarly unrestricted. 

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for pubhc uti- 
lization controlled by public authority. 

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes 
automatically when released manually or that is controlled by a 
mechanical means for fast-action closing. 

READY ACCESS. That which enables a fixture, appliance or 
equipment to be directly reached without requiring the removal 
or movement of any panel, door or similar obstruction and 
without the use of a portable ladder, step stool or similar device. 

REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW 
PREVENTER. A backflow prevention device consisting of 
two independently acting check valves, internally force-loaded 
to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate 
chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means 
of venting to the atmosphere, internally loaded to a normally 
open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and 
with a means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening 
of the relief means. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice professional architec- 
ture or engineering as defined by the statutory requirements of 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in 
which the project is to be constructed. 

RELIEF VALVE 

Pressure relief valve. A pressure-actuated valve held 
closed by a spring or other means and designed to relieve 
pressure automatically at the pressure at which such valve is 
set. 

Temperature and pressure relief (T&P) valve. A combi- 
nation relief valve designed to function as both a tempera- 
ture relief and a pressure relief valve. 

Temperature relief valve. A temperature-actuated valve 
designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at 
which such valve is set. 

RELIEF VENT. A vent whose primary function is to provide 
circulation of air between drainage and vent systems. 

RIM. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture. 

RISER. See "Water pipe, riser." 

ROOF DRAIN. A drain installed to receive water collecting 
on the surface of a roof and to discharge such water into a leader 
or a conductor. 

ROUGH-IN. Parts of the plumbing system that are installed 
prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, 
water supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports 
and any fixtures that are built into the structure. 

SELF-CLOSING FAUCET. A faucet containing a valve that 
automatically closes upon deactivation of the opening means. 

SEPARATOR. See "Interceptor." 

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable 
matter in suspension or solution, including liquids containing 
chemicals in solution. 

SEWAGE EJECTORS. A device for lifting sewage by 
entraining the sewage in a high-velocity jet of steam, air or 
water. 

SEWER 

Building sewer. See "Building sewer." 

Public sewer. A common sewer directly controlled by pub- 
lic authority. 

Sanitary sewer. A sewer that carries sewage and excludes 
storm, surface and ground water. 

Storm sewer. A sewer that conveys rainwater, surface 
water, subsurface water and similar liquid wastes. 

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a hori- 
zontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in 
units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe. 

SOIL PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage containing fecal mat- 
ter to the building drain or building sewer. 

SPILLPROOF VACUUM BREAKER. An assembly con- 
sisting of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air-inlet 
vent valve force-loaded open to atmosphere, positioned down- 
stream of the check valve, and located between and including 
two tightly closing shutoff valves and a test cock. 



STACK. A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, vent 
or inside conductor piping that extends through at least one 
story with or without offsets. 

STACK VENT. The extension of a soil or waste stack above 
the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. 

STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures 
through the soil or waste stack. 

STERILIZER 

Boiling type. A boiling-type sterilizer is a fixture of a 
nonpressure type utilized for boiling instruments, utensils 
or other equipment for disinfection. These devices are por- 
table or are connected to the plumbing system. 

Instrument. A device for the sterilization of various instru- 
ments. 

Pressure (autoclave). A pressure vessel fixture designed to 
utilize steam under pressure for sterilizing. 

Pressure instrument washer sterilizer. A pressure instru- 
ment washer sterilizer is a pressure vessel fixture designed 
to both wash and sterilize instruments during the operating 
cycle of the fixture. 

Utensil. A device for the sterilization of utensils as utilized 
in health care services. 

Water. A water sterilizer is a device for sterilizing water and 
storing sterile water. 

STERILIZER VENT. A separate pipe or stack, indirectly 
connected to the building drainage system at the lower termi- 
nal, that receives the vapors from nonpressure sterilizers, or the 
exhaust vapors from pressure sterilizers, and conducts the 
vapors directly to the open air. Also called vapor, steam, atmo- 
spheric or exhaust vent. 

STORM DRAIN. See "Drainage system, storm." 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed or a portion 
thereof. 

SUBSOIL DRAIN. A drain that collects subsurface water or 
seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal. 

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or liquid waste, 
located below the normal grade of the gravity system and that 
must be emptied by mechanical means. 

SUMP PUMP. An automatic water pump powered by an elec- 
tric motor for the removal of drainage, except raw sewage, from 
a sump, pit or low point. 

SUMP VENT. A vent from pneumatic sewage ejectors, or sim- 
ilar equipment, that terminates separately to the open air. 

SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fix- 
tures and equipment. 

SWIMMING POOL. Any structure, basin, chamber or tank 
containing an artificial body of water for swimming, diving or 
recreational bathing having a depth of 2 feet (610 mm) or more 
at any point. 

TEMPERED WATER. Water having a temperature range 
between 85°F (29°C) and 110°F (43°C). 



14 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An 

approved agency operating a product or material certification 
sytem that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and 
surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system. 

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the 
manufacturer indicating that the function and performance 
characteristics of a product or material have been determined 
by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third-party 
certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the form of 
identification in accordance with the requirements of the 
third-party certification agency. 

THIRD-PARTY TESTED. Procedure by which an approved 
testing laboratory provides documentation that a product, 
material or system conforms to specified requirements. 

TRAP. A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to prevent 
the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the 
flow of sewage or wastewater through the trap. 

TRAP SEAL. The vertical distance between the weir and the 
top of the dip of the trap. . 

UNSTABLE GROUND. Earth that does not provide a uni- 
form bearing for the barrel of the sewer pipe between the joints 
at the bottom of the pipe trench. 

VACUUM. Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmo- 
sphere. 

VACUUM BREAKER. A type of backflow preventer 
installed on openings subject to normal atmospheric pressure 
that prevents backflow by admitting atmospheric pressure 
through ports to the discharge side of the device. 

VENT PIPE. See "Vent system." 

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the 
purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of 
the drainage system. 

VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of 
air to or from a drainage system, or to provide a circulation of 
air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and 
backpressure. 

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 
45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal. 

WALL-HUNG WATER CLOSET. A wall-mounted water 
closet installed in such a way that the fixture does not touch the 
floor. 

WASTE. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or 
appurtenance that does not contain fecal matter. 

WASTE PIPE. A pipe that conveys only waste. 

WATER-HAMMER ARRESTOR. A device utilized to 
absorb the pressure surge (water hammer) that occurs when 
water flow is suddenly stopped in a water supply system. 

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that 
heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot 
water distribution system. 

WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe or system of pipes, 
installed and maintained by a city, township, county, public 
utility company or other public entity, on public property, in the 



street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or com- 
munity use. 

WATER OUTLET. A discharge opening through which water 
is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into an 
open tank that is part of the water supply system), to a boiler or 
heating system, or to any devices or equipment requiring water 
to operate but which are not part of the plumbing system. 

WATER PIPE 

Riser. A water supply pipe that extends one full story or 
more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures. 

Water distribution pipe. A pipe within the structure or on 
the premises that conveys water from the water service pipe, 
or from the meter when the meter is at the structure, to the 
points of utilization. 

Water service pipe. The pipe from the water main or other 
source of potable water supply, or from the meter when the 
meter is at the public right of way, to the water distribution 
system of the building served. 

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water service pipe, water 
distribution pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, 
control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the struc- 
ture or premises. 

WELL 

Bored. A well constructed by boring a hole in the ground 
with an auger and installing a casing. 

Drilled. A well constructed by making a hole in the ground 
with a drilling machine of any type and installing casing and 
screen. 

Driven. A well constructed by driving a pipe in the ground. 
The drive pipe is usually fitted with a well point and screen. 

Dug. A well constructed by excavating a large-diameter 
shaft and instalhng a casing. 

WHIRLPOOL BATHTUB. A plumbing appliance consist- 
ing of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a circu- 
lating piping system designed to accept, circulate and 
discharge bathtub water upon each use. 

YOKE VENT. A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste 
stack to a vent stack for the purpose of preventing pressure 
changes in the stacks. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



15 



1 6 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL REGULATIONS 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
general regulations regarding the installation of plumbing not 
specific to other chapters. 

301.2 System installation. Plumbing shall be installed with 
due regard to preservation of the strength of structural mem- 
bers and prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces thr- 
ough fixture usage. 

301.3 Connections to the sanitary drainage system. All 

plumbing fixtures, drains, appurtenances and appliances used 
to receive or discharge liquid wastes or sewage shall be directly 
connected to the sanitary drainage system of the building or 
premises, in accordance with the requirements of this code. 
This section shall not be construed to prevent the indirect waste 
systems required by Chapter 8. 

301.4 Connections to water supply. Every plumbing fixture, 
device or appliance requiring or using water for its proper oper- 
ation shall be directly or indirectly connected to the water sup- 
ply system in accordance with the provisions of this code. 

301.5 Pipe, tube and fitting sizes. Unless otherwise specified, 
the pipe, tube and fitting sizes specified in this code are 
expressed in nominal or standard sizes as designated in the ref- 
erenced material standards. 

301.6 Prohibited locations. Plumbing systems shall not be 
located in an elevator shaft or in an elevator equipment room. 

Exception: Floor drains, sumps and sump pumps shall be 
permitted at the base of the shaft provided they are indirectly 
connected to the plumbing system. 

301.7 Conflicts. Where conflicts between this code and the 
conditions of the listing or the manufacturer's installation 
instructions occur, the provisions of this code apply. 

Exception: Where a code provision is less restrictive than 
the conditions of the listing of the equipment or appliance or 
the manufacturer's installation instructions, the conditions 
of the listing and manufacturer's installation instructions 
shall apply. 



SECTION 302 

EXCLUSION OF MATERIALS DETRIMENTAL 

TO THE SEWER SYSTEM 

302.1 Detrimental or dangerous materials. Ashes, cinders or 
rags; flammable, poisonous or explosive liquids or gases; oil, 
grease or any other insoluble material capable of obstructing, 
damaging or overloading the building drainage or sewer sys- 
tem, or capable of interfering with the normal operation of the 
sewage treatment processes, shall not be deposited, by any 
means, into such systems. 

302.2 Industrial wastes. Waste products from manufacturing 
or industrial operations shall not be introduced into the public 



sewer until it has been determined by the code official or other 
authority having jurisdiction that the introduction thereof will 
not damage the public sewer system or interfere with the func- 
tioning of the sewage treatment plant. 



SECTION 303 
MATERIALS 

303.1 Identification. Each length of pipe and each pipe fitting, 
trap, fixture, material and device utilized in a plumbing system 
shall bear the identification of the manufacturer. 

303.2 Installation of materials. All materials used shall be 
installed in strict accordance with the standards under which 
the materials are accepted and approved. In the absence of such 
installation procedures, the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions shall be followed. Where the requirements of referenced 
standards or manufacturer's installation instructions do not 
conform to minimum provisions of this code, the provisions of 
this code shall apply. 

303.3 Plastic pipe, fittings and components. All plastic pipe, 
fittings and components shall be third-party certified as con- 
forming to NSF 14. 

303.4 Third-party testing and certification. All plumbing 
products and materials shall comply with the referenced stan- 
dards, specifications and performance criteria of this code and 
shall be identified in accordance with Section 303.1. When 
required by Table 303.4, plumbing products and materials shall 
either be tested by an approved third-party testing agency or 
certified by an approved third-party certification agency. 



SECTION 304 
RODENTPROOFiNG 

304.1 General. Plumbing systems shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Sections 304.2 through 304.4 to 
prevent rodents from entering structures. 

304.2 Strainer plates. All strainer plates on drain inlets shall 
be designed and installed so that all openings are not greater 
than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in least dimension. 

304.3 Meter boxes. Meter boxes shall be constructed in such a 
manner that rodents are prevented from entering a structure by 
way of the water service pipes connecting the meter box and 
the structure. 

304.4 Openings for pipes. In or on structures where openings 
have been made in walls, floors or ceilings for the passage of 
pipes, such openings shall be closed and protected by the 
installation of approved metal collars that are securely fastened 
to the adjoining structure. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



17 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



TABLE 303.4 
PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS REQUIRING THIRD-PARTY TESTING AND THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION 



PRODUCT OR MATERIAL 


THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED 


THIRD-PARTY TESTED 


Potable water supply system components and potable 
water fixture fittings 


Required 


— 


Sanitary drainage and vent system components 


Plastic pipe, fittings and pipe-related components 


All others 


Waste fixture fittings 


Plastic pipe, fittings and pipe-related components 


All others 


Storm drainage system components 


Plastic pipe, fittings and pipe-related components 


All others 


Plumbing fixtures 


— 


Required 


Plumbing appliances 


Required 


— 


Backflow prevention devices 


Required 


— 


Water distribution system safety devices 


Required 


— 


Special waste system components 


— 


Required 


Subsoil drainage system components 




Required 



SECTION 305 

PROTECTION OF PIPES AND 

PLUMBING SYSTEM COMPONENTS 

305.1 Corrosion. Pipes passing through concrete or cinder 
walls and floors or other corrosive material shall be protected 
against external corrosion by a protective sheathing or wrap- 
ping or other means that will withstand any reaction from the 
lime and acid of concrete, cinder or other corrosive material. 
Sheathing or wrapping shall allow for expansion and contrac- 
tion of piping to prevent any rubbing action. Minimum wall 
thickness of material shall be 0.025 inch (0.64 mm). 

305.2 Breakage. Pipes passing through or under walls shall be 
protected from breakage. 

305.3 Stress and strain. Piping in a plumbing system shall be 
installed so as to prevent strains and stresses that exceed the 
structural strength of the pipe. Where necessary, provisions 
shall be made to protect piping from damage resulting from 
expansion, contraction and structural settlement. 

305.4 Sleeves. Annular spaces between sleeves and pipes shall 
be filled or tightly caulked in an approved manner. Annular 
spaces between sleeves and pipes in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies shall be filled or tightly caulked in accordance with 
the International Building Code. 

305.5 Pipes through or under footings or foundation walls. 

Any pipe that passes under a footing or through a foundation 
wall shall be provided with a relieving arch, or a pipe sleeve 
pipe shall be built into the foundation wall. The sleeve shall be 
two pipe sizes greater than the pipe passing through the wall. 

305.6 Freezing. Water, soil and waste pipes shall not be 
installed outside of a building, in attics or crawl spaces, con- 
cealed in outside walls, or in any other place subjected to freez- 
ing temperature unless adequate provision is made to protect 
such pipes from freezing by insulation or heat or both. Exterior 
water supply system piping shall be installed not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) below the frost line and not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) below grade. 



305.6.1 Sewer depth. Building sewers that connect to pri- 
vate sewage disposal systems shall be a minimum of [NUM- 
BER] inches (mm) below finished grade at the point of septic 
tank coimection. Building sewers shall be a minimum of 
[NUMBER] inches (mm) below grade. 

305.7 Waterproofing of openings. Joints at the roof and 
around vent pipes, shall be made water tight by the use of lead, 
copper, galvanized steel, aluminum, plastic or other approved 
flashings or flashing material. Exterior wall openings shall be 
made water tight. 

305.8 Protection against physical damage. In concealed 
locations where piping, other than cast-iron or galvanized steel, 
is installed through holes or notches in studs, joists, rafters or 
similar members less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) from the nearest 
edge of the member, the pipe shall be protected by shield plates . 
Protective shield plates shall be a minimum of 
0.062-inch-thick (1.6 mm) steel, shall cover the area of the pipe 
where the member is notched or bored, and shall extend a mini- 
mum of 2 inches (51 mm) above sole plates and below top 
plates. 

305.9 Protection of components of plumbing system. Com- 
ponents of a plumbing system installed along alleyways, drive- 
ways, parking garages or other locations exposed to damage 
shall be recessed into the wall or otherwise protected in an 
approved manner. 



SECTION 306 
TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL 

306.1 Support of piping. Buried piping shall be supported 
throughout its entire length. 

306.2 Trenching and bedding. Where trenches are excavated 
such that the bottom of the trench forms the bed for the pipe, 
solid and continuous load-bearing support shall be provided 
between joints. Bell holes, hub holes and coupling holes shall 
be provided at points where the pipe is joined. Such pipe shall 
not be supported on blocks to grade. In instances where the 



18 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE'' 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



materials manufacturer's installation instructions are more 
restrictive than those prescribed by the code, the material shall 
be installed in accordance with the more restrictive require- 
ment. 

306.2.1 Overexcavation. Where trenches are excavated 
below the installation level of the pipe such that the bottom 
of the trench does not form the bed for the pipe, the trench 
shall be backfilled to the installation level of the bottom of 
the pipe with sand or fine gravel placed in layers of 6 inches 
(152 mm) maximum depth and such backfill shall be com- 
pacted after each placement. 

306.2.2 Rock removal. Where rock is encountered in 
trenching, the rock shall be removed to a minimum of 3 
inches (76 mm) below the installation level of the bottom of 
the pipe, and the trench shall be backfilled to the installation 
level of the bottom of the pipe with sand tamped in place so 
as to provide uniform load-bearing support for the pipe 
between joints. The pipe, including the joints, shall not rest 
on rock at any point. 

306.2.3 Soft load-bearing materials. If soft materials of 
poor load-bearing quality are found at the bottom of the 
trench, stabilization shall be achieved by overexcavating a 
minimum of two pipe diameters and backfilling to the 
installation level of the bottom of the pipe with fine gravel, 
crushed stone or a concrete foundation. The concrete foun- 
dation shall be bedded with sand tamped into place so as to 
provide uniform load-bearing support for the pipe between 
joints. 

306.3 Backfilling. Backfill shall be free from discarded con- 
struction material and debris. Loose earth free from rocks, bro- 
ken concrete and frozen chunks shall be placed in the trench in 
6-inch (152 mm) layers and tamped in place until the crown of 
the pipe is covered by 12 inches (305 mm) of tamped earth. The 
backfill under and beside the pipe shall be compacted for pipe 
support. Backfill shall be brought up evenly on both sides of the 
pipe so that the pipe remains aligned. In instances where the 
manufacturer's installation instructions for materials are more 
restrictive than those prescribed by the code, the material shall 
be installed in accordance with the more restrictive require- 
ment. 

306.4 Tlinneling. Where pipe is to be installed by tunneling, 
jacking or a combination of both, the pipe shall be protected 
from damage during installation and from subsequent uneven 
loading. Where earth tunnels are used, adequate supporting 
structures shall be provided to prevent future settling or caving. 



SECTION 307 
STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

307.1 General. In the process of installing or repairing any part 
of a plumbing and drainage installation, the finished floors, 
walls, ceilings, tile work or any other part of the building or pre- 
mises that must be changed or replaced shall be left in a safe 
structural condition in accordance with the requirements of the 
International Building Code. 



307.2 Cutting, notching or bored holes. A framing member 
shall not be cut, notched or bored in excess of limitations speci- 
fied in the International Building Code. 

307.3 Penetrations of floor/ceiling assemblies and 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies and assemblies required to have a fire-resis- 
tance rating shall be protected in accordance with the 
International Building Code. 

[B] 307.4 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and compo- 
nents shall not be cut, drilled, notched, spliced or otherwise 
altered in any way without written concurrence and approval of 
a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the 
addition of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, water 
heater) shall not be permitted without verification that the truss 
is capable of supporting such additional loading. 

307.5 Trench location. Trenches installed parallel to footings 
shall not extend below the 45 -degree (0.79 rad) bearing plane 
of the footing or wall. 

307.6 Piping materials exposed within plenums. All piping 
materials exposed within plenums shall comply with the provi- 
sions of the International Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 308 
PIPING SUPPORT 

308.1 General. All plumbing piping shall be supported in 
accordance with this section. 

308.2 Piping seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are 
applicable in accordance with the building code, plumbing pip- 
ing supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic 
forces in accordance with the International Building Code. 

308.3 Materials. Hangers, anchors and supports shall support 
the piping and the contents of the piping. Hangers and strap- 
ping material shall be of approved material that will not pro- 
mote galvanic action. 

308.4 Structural attachment. Hangers and anchors shall be 
attached to the building construction in an approved manner. 

308.5 Interval of support. Pipe shall be supported in accor- 
dance with Table 308.5. 

Exception: The interval of support for piping systems 
designed to provide for expansion/contraction shall con- 
form to the engineered design in accordance with Section 
105.4. 

308.6 Sway bracing. Rigid support sway bracing shall be pro- 
vided at changes in direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) 
for pipe sizes 4 inches (102 mm) and larger. 

308.7 Anchorage. Anchorage shall be provided to restrain 
drainage piping from axial movement. 

308.7.1 Location. For pipe sizes greater than 4 inches (102 
mm), restraints shall be provided for drain pipes at all 
changes in direction and at all changes in diameter greater 
than two pipe sizes. Braces, blocks, rodding and other suit- 
able methods as specified by the coupling manufacturer 
shall be utilized. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



19 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



TABLE 308.5 
HANGER SPACING 



PIPING MATERIAL 


MAXIMUM 
HORIZONTAL 
SPACING (feet) 


MAXIMUM 

VERTICAL 

SPACING 

(feet) 


ABS pipe 


4 


10" 


Aluminum tubing 


10 


15 


Brass pipe 


10 


10 


Cast-iron pipe 


5^ 


15 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


12 


10 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 
1 V4-inch diameter and smaller 


6 


10 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 
1 V2-inch diameter and larger 


10 


10 


Cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX) pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


10" 


Cross-linked polyethylene/ 
aluminum/cross-linked 
polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) 
pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4b 


CPVC pipe or tubing, 1 inch 
and smaller 


3 


10" 


CPVC pipe or tubing, IV4 inches 
and larger 


4 


10" 


Steel pipe 


12 


15 


Lead pipe 


Continuous 


4 


PB pipe or tubing 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4 


Polyethylene/aluminumy 

polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4" 


Polypropylene (PP) pipe or 
tubing 1 inch and smaller 


2.67 (32 inches) 


10" 


Polypropylene (PP) pipe or 
tubing, 1 V4 inches and larger 


4 


10" 


PVC pipe 


4 


10" 


Stainless steel drainage systems 


10 


10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The maximum horizontal spacing of cast-iron pipe hangers shall be 
increased to 10 feet where 10-foot lengths of pipe are installed. 

b. Midstory guide for sizes 2 inches and smaller. 



308.8 Expansion joint fittings. Expansion joint fittings shall 
be used only where necessary to provide for expansion and 
contraction of the pipes. Expansion joint fittings shall be of the 
typical material suitable for use with the type of piping in 
which such fittings are installed. 

308.9 Parallel water distribution systems. Piping bundles for 
manifold systems shall be supported in accordance with Table 
308.5. Support at changes in direction shall be in accordance 



with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Hot and cold 
water piping shall not be grouped in the same bundle. 



SECTION 309 
FLOOD HAZARD RESISTANCE 

309.1 General. Plumbing systems and equipment in structures 
erected in flood hazard areas shall be constructed in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Building Code. 

[B] 309.2 Flood hazard. For structures located in flood hazard 
areas, the following systems and equipment shall be located at 
or above the design flood elevation. 

Exception: The following systems are permitted to be 
located below the design flood elevation provided that the 
systems are designed and installed to prevent water from 
entering or accumulating within their components and the 
systems are constructed to resist hydrostatic and hydrody- 
namic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, 
during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood eleva- 
tion. 

1. All water service pipes. 

2. Pump seals in individual water supply systems where 
the pump is located below the design flood elevation. 

3. Covers on potable water wells shall be sealed, except 
where the top of the casing well or pipe sleeve is ele- 
vated to at least 1 foot (305 mm) above the design 
flood elevation. 

4. All sanitary drainage piping. 

5. All storm drainage piping. 

6. Manhole covers shall be sealed, except where ele- 
vated to or above the design flood elevation. 

7. All other plumbing fixtures, faucets, fixture fittings, 
piping systems and equipment. 

8. Water heaters. 

9. Vents and vent systems. 

[B] 309.3 Flood hazard areas subject to high- velocity wave 
action. Structures located in flood hazard areas subject to 
high- velocity wave action shall meet the requirements of Sec- 
tion 309.2. The plumbing systems, pipes and fixtures shall not 
be mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to break 
away under flood loads. 



SECTION 310 
WASHROOM AND TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS 

310.1 Light and ventilation. Washrooms and toilet rooms 
shall be illuminated and ventilated in accordance with the 
International Building Code and International Mechanical 
Code. 

310.2 Location of fixtures and piping. Piping, fixtures or 
equipment shall not be located in such a manner as to interfere 
with the normal operation of windows, doors or other means of 
egress openings. 



20 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE*' 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



310.3 Interior finish. Interior finish surfaces of toilet rooms 
shall comply with the International Building Code. 

310.4 Water closet compartment. Each water closet utilized 
by the public or employees shall occupy a separate compart- 
ment with walls or partitions and a door enclosing the fixtures 
to ensure privacy. 

Exceptions: 

1. Water closet compartments shall not be required in a 
single-occupant toilet room with a lockable door. 

2. Toilet rooms located in day care and child-care facili- 
ties and containing two or more water closets shall be 
permitted to have one water closet without an enclos- 
ing compartment. 

310.5 Urinal partitions. Each urinal utiUzed by the public or 
employees shall occupy a separate area with walls or partitions 
to provide privacy. The construction of such walls or partitions 
shall incorporate waterproof, smooth, readily cleanable and 
nonabsorbent finish surfaces. The walls or partitions shall 
begin at a height not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from and 
extend not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the finished 
floor surface. The walls or partitions shall extend from the wall 
surface at each side of the urinal a minimum of 18 inches (457 
mm) or to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the 
outermost front lip of the urinal measured from the finished 
back wall surface, whichever is greater. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Urinal partitions shall not be required in a single occu- 
pant or unisex toilet room with a lockable door. 

2. Toilet rooms located in day care and child care facili- 
ties and containing two or more urinals shall be per- 
mitted to have one urinal without partitions. 



SECTION 311 
TOILET FACILITIES FOR WORKERS 

311.1 General. Toilet facilities shall be provided for construc- 
tion workers and such facihties shall be maintained in a sani- 
tary condition. Construction worker toilet facilities of the 
nonsewer type shall conform to ANSI Z4.3. 



SECTION 312 
TESTS AND INSPECTIONS 

312.1 Required tests. The permit holder shall make the appli- 
cable tests prescribed in Sections 312.2 through 312.9 to deter- 
mine compliance with the provisions of this code. The permit 
holder shall give reasonable advance notice to the code official 
when the plumbing work is ready for tests. The equipment, 
material, power and labor necessary for the inspection and test 
shall be furnished by the permit holder and the permit holder 
shall be responsible for determining that the work will with- 
stand the test pressure prescribed in the following tests. All 
plumbing system piping shall be tested with either water or, for 
piping systems other than plastic, by air. After the plumbing 
fixtures have been set and their traps filled with water, the entire 
drainage system shall be submitted to final tests. The code offi- 
cial shall require the removal of any cleanouts if necessary to 



ascertain whether the pressure has reached all parts of the sys- 
tem. 

312.1.1 Test gauges. Gauges used for testing shall be as fol- 
lows: 

1. Tests requiring a pressure of 10 pounds per square 
inch (psi) (69 kPa) or less shall utilize a testing gauge 
having increments of 0.10 psi (0.69 kPa) or less. 

2. Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 10 psi (69 
kPa) but less than or equal to 100 psi (689 kPa) shall 
utilize a testing gauge having increments of 1 psi (6.9 
kPa) or less. 

3 . Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 1 00 psi (689 
kPa) shall utilize a testing gauge having increments of 
2 psi (14 kPa) or less. 

312.2 Drainage and vent water test. A water test shall be 
applied to the drainage system either in its entirety or in sec- 
tions. If applied to the entire system, all openings in the piping 
shall be tightly closed, except the highest opening, and the sys- 
tem shall be filled with water to the point of overflow. If the sys- 
tem is tested in sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged 
except the highest openings of the section under test, and each 
section shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested 
with less than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water. In testing 
successive sections, at least the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
next preceding section shall be tested so that no joint or pipe in 
the building, except the uppermost 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
system, shall have been submitted to a test of less than a 10-foot 
(3048 mm) head of water. This pressure shall be held for at least 
15 minutes. The system shall then be tight at all points. 

312.3 Drainage and vent air test. An air test shall be made by 
forcing air into the system until there is a uniform gauge pres- 
sure of 5 psi (34.5 kPa) or sufficient to balance a 10-inch (254 
mm) column of mercury. This pressure shall be held for a test 
period of at least 15 minutes. Any adjustments to the test pres- 
sure required because of changes in ambient temperature or the 
seating of gaskets shall be made prior to the beginning of the 
test period. 

312.4 Drainage and vent final test. The final test of the com- 
pleted drainage and vent system shall be visual and insufficient 
detail to determine compliance with the provisions of this code 
except that the plumbing shall be subjected to a smoke test 
where necessary for cause. Where the smoke test is utilized, it 
shall be made by filling all traps with water and then introduc- 
ing into the entire system a pungent, thick smoke produced by 
one or more smoke machines. When the smoke appears at stack 
openings on the roof, the stack openings shall be closed and a 
pressure equivalent to a 1-inch water column (248.8 Pa) shall 
be held for a test period of not less than 15 minutes. 

312.5 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a sec- 
tion of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion 
completed shall be tested and proved tight under a water pres- 
sure not less than the working pressure of the system; or, for 
piping systems other than plastic, by an air test of not less than 
50 psi (344 kPa). This pressure shall be held for at least 1 5 min- I 
utes. The water utilized for tests shall be obtained from a pota- | 
ble source of supply. The required tests shall be performed in 
accordance with this section and Section 107. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



21 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



312.6 Gravity sewer test. Gravity sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the public sewer, filling the building sewer with water, 
testing with not less than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water 
and maintaining such pressure for 15 minutes. 

312.7 Forced sewer test. Forced sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the public sewer and applying a pressure of 5 psi (34.5 
kPa) greater than the pump rating, and maintaining such pres- 
sure for 15 minutes. 

312.8 Storm drainage system test. Storm drain systems 
within a building shall be tested by water or air in accordance 
with Section 312.2 or 312.3. 

312.9 Inspection and testing of backflow prevention assem- 
blies. Inspection and testing shall comply with Sections 
312.9.1 and 312.9.2. 

312.9.1 Inspections. Annual inspections shall be made of 
all backflow prevention assemblies and air gaps to deter- 
mine whether they are operable. 

312.9.2 Testing. Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer assemblies, double check- valve assemblies, pres- 
sure vacuum breaker assemblies, reduced pressure detector 
fire protection backflow prevention assemblies, double 
check detector fire protection backflow prevention assem- 
blies, hose connection backflow preventers, and spill-proof 
vacuum breakers shall be tested at the time of installation, 
immediately after repairs or relocation and at least annually. 
The testing procedure shall be performed in accordance 
with one of the following standards: 

ASSE 5013, ASSE 5015, ASSE 5020, ASSE 5047, 
ASSE 5048, ASSE 5052, ASSE 5056, CSA B64. 10 or CSA 
B64.10.1. 



SECTION 313 
EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCIES 

313.1 General. Equipment efficiencies shall be in accordance 
with the International Energy Conservation Code. 



SECTION 314 
CONDENSATE DISPOSAL 

[M] 314.1 Fuel-burning appliances. Liquid combustion 
byproducts of condensing appliances shall be collected and 
discharged to an approved plumbing fixture or disposal area in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Condensate piping shall be of approved corrosion-resistant 
material and shall not be smaller than the drain connection on 
the appliance. Such piping shall maintain a minimum horizon- 
tal slope in the direction of discharge of not less than 
one-eighth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent 
slope). 

[M] 314.2 Evaporators and cooling coils. Condensate drain 
systems shall be provided for equipment and appliances con- 
taining evaporators or cooling coils. Condensate drain systems 
shall be designed, constructed and installed in accordance with 
Sections 314.2.1 through 314.2.4. 



[M] 314.2.1 Condensate disposal. Condensate from all 
cooling coils and evaporators shall be conveyed from the 
drain pan outlet to an approved place of disposal. Conden- 
sate shall not discharge into a street, alley or other areas so as 
to cause a nuisance. 

[M] 314.2.2 Drain pipe materials and sizes. Components 
of the condensate disposal system shall be cast iron, galva- 
nized steel, copper, cross-Unked polyethylene, polybutylene, 
polyethylene, ABS, CPVC, or PVC pipe or tubing. All com- 
ponents shall be selected for the pressure and temperature rat- 
ing of the installation. Condensate waste and drain Une size 
shall not be less than %-inch (19 mm) internal diameter and 
shall not decrease in size from the drain pan connection to the 
place of condensate disposal. Where the drain pipes fi"om 
more than one unit are manifolded together for condensate 
drainage, the pipe or tubing shall be sized in accordance with 
an approved method. All horizontal sections of drain piping 
shall be installed in uniform aUgnment at a uniform slope. 

[M] 314.2.3 Auxiliary and secondary drain systems. In 

addition to the requirements of Section 314.2. 1 , a secondary 
drain or auxiliary drain pan shall be required for each cool- 
ing or evaporator coil or fuel-fired appliance that produces 
condensate, where damage to any building components will 
occur as a result of overflow from the equipment drain pan 
or stoppage in the condensate drain piping. One of the fol- 
lowing methods shall be used: 

1. An auxiliary drain pan with a separate drain shall be 
provided under the coils on which condensation will 
occur. The auxiliary pan drain shall discharge to a 
conspicuous point of disposal to alert occupants in the 
event of a stoppage of the primary drain. The pan shall 
have a minimum depth of 1.5 inches (38 mm), shall 
not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) larger than the unit 
or the coil dimensions in width and length and shall be 
constructed of corrosion-resistant material. Metallic 
pans shall have a minimum thickness of not less than 
0.0276-inch (0.7 mm) galvanized sheet metal. Non- 
metallic pans shall have a minimum thickness of not 
less than 0.0625 inch (1.6 mm). 

2. A separate overflow drain line shall be connected to 
the drain pan provided with the equipment. The over- 
flow drain shall discharge to a conspicuous point of 
disposal to alert occupants in the event of a stoppage 
of the primary drain. The overflow drain line shall 
connect to the drain pan at a higher level than the pri- 
mary drain connection. 

3. An auxihary drain pan without a separate drain line 
shall be provided under the coils on which condensate 
will occur. The pan shall be equipped with a 
water-level detection device conforming to UL 508 I 



that will shut off the equipment served prior to over- 
flow of the pan. The auxiliary drain pan shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Item 1 of this section. 

4. A water level detection device conforming to UL 508 
shall be provided that will shut off the equipment 
served in the event that the primary drain is blocked. 
The device shall be installed in the primary drain line, 
the overflow drain line or in the equipment-supplied 



r 



22 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



drain pan located at a point higher than the primary 
drain hne connection and below the overflow rim of 
such pan. 

Exception: Fuel-fired appliances that automati- 
cally shut down operation in the event of a stop- 
page in the condensate drainage system. 

[M] 314.2.3.1 Water level monitoring devices. On 

downflow units and all other coils that have no secondary 
drain and no means to install an auxiliary drain pan, a 
water level monitoring device shall be installed inside the 
primary drain pan. This device shall shut off the equip- 
ment served in the event that the primary drain becomes 
restricted. Externally installed devices and devices 
installed in the drain line shall not be permitted. 

[M] 314.2.4 Traps. Condensate drains shall be trapped as 
required by the equipment or appliance manufacturer. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 23 



24 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

401.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of plumbing fixtures, faucets and fixture fit- 
tings in accordance with the type of occupancy, and shall pro- 
vide for the minimum number of fixtures for various types of 
occupancies. 

401.2 Prohibited fixtures and connections. Water closets 
having a concealed trap seal or an unventilated space or having 
walls that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge in 
accordance with ASME Al 12.19.2M shall be prohibited. Any 
water closet that permits siphonage of the contents of the bowl 
back into the tank shall be prohibited. Trough urinals shall be 
prohibited. 

401.3 Water conservation. The maximum water flow rates 
and flush volume for plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings 
shall comply with Section 604.4. 



SECTION 402 
FIXTURE MATERIALS 

402.1 Quality of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall be con- 
structed of approved materials, with smooth, impervious sur- 
faces, free from defects and concealed fouling surfaces, and 
shall conform to standards cited in this code. All porcelain 
enameled surfaces on plumbing fixtures shall be acid resistant. 



402.2 Materials for specialty fixtures. Materials for specialty 
fixtures not otherwise covered in this code shall be of stainless 
steel, soapstone, chemical stoneware or plastic, or shall be 
lined with lead, copper-base alloy, nickel-copper alloy, corro- 
sion-resistant steel or other material especially suited to the 
application for which the fixture is intended. 

402.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper for general apphcations 
shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh less than 12 
ounces per square foot (3.7 kg/m^). 

402.4 Sheet lead. Sheet lead for pans shall not weigh less than 
4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m^) coated with an asphalt 
paint or other approved coating. 



SECTION 403 
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES 

403.1 Minimum number of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall 
be provided for the type of occupancy and in the minimum 
number shown in Table 403. 1 . Types of occupancies not shown 
in Table 403 . 1 shall be considered individually by the code offi- 
cial. The number of occupants shall be determined by the Inter- 
national Building Code. Occupancy classification shall be 
determined in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 



TABLE 403.1 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES' 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 



NO. 


CLASSIFICATION 


OCCUPANCY 


DESCRIPTION 


WATER CLOSETS (URINALS 
SEE SECTION 419.2). 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 
FOUNTAIN 

(SEE 

SECTION 

410.1) 


OTHER 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


1 


Assembly (see 
Sections 403.2, 
403.4 and 
403.4.1) 


A-l" 


Theaters and other 
buildings for the 
performing arts and 
motion pictures 


1 per 125 


1 per 65 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


A-2'' 


Nightclubs, bars, tav- 
erns, dance halls and 
buildings for similar 
purposes 


1 per 40 


1 per 40 


1 per 75 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


Restaurants, banquet 
halls and food courts 


1 per 75 


1 per 75 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


A-3'* 


Auditoriums without 
permanent seating, 
art galleries, exhibi- 
tion halls, museums, 
lecture halls, librar- 
ies, arcades and gym- 
nasiums 


1 per 125 


1 per 65 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


Passenger terminals 
and transportation 
faciUties 


1 per 500 


1 per 500 


1 per 750 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 


Places of worship 
and other religious 
services. 


1 per 150 


1 per 75 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



(continued) 



25 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1— continued 
MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES^ 













See Sections 


403.2 and 403.3) 












NO. 


CLASSIFICATION 


OCCUPANCY 


DESCRIPTION 


WATER CLOSETS 

(URINALS SEE SECTION 

419.2) 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 
FOUNTAIN 

(SEE 

SECTION 

410.1) 


OTHER 




MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 








A-4 


CoUseums, arenas, 
skating rinks, 
pools and tennis 
courts for indoor 
sporting events and 
activities 


1 per 75 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 120 
for the remain- 
der exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 40 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 60 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 200 


1 per 150 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 




A-5 


Stadiums, 
amusement parks, 
bleachers and 
grandstands for 
outdoor sporting 
events and 
activities 


1 per 75 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 120 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 40 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 60 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 200 


1 per 150 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 


1 


2 


Business (see 
Sections 403.2, 
403.4 and 
403.4.1) 


B 


Buildings for the 
transaction of 
business, 
professional 
services, other 
services involving 
merchandise, 
office buildings, 
banks, Ught 
industrial and 
similar uses 


1 per 25 for the first 50 and 1 

per 50 for the remainder 

exceeding 50 


1 per 40 for the first 80 

and 1 per 80 for the 
remainder exceeding 80 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 




3 


Educational 


E 


Educational 
facilities 


1 per 50 


1 per 50 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 




4 


Factory and 
industrial 


F-landF-2 


Structures in 
which occupants 
are engaged in 
work fabricating, 
assembly or 
processing of 
products or 
materials 


1 per 100 


1 per 100 


(see Section 
411) 


1 per 400 


1 service 
sink 




5 


Institutional 


I-l 


Residential care 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


lper8 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 




1-2 


Hospitals, 
ambulatory nursing 
home patients'' 


1 per room '^ 


1 per room "^ 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service 

sink per 

floor 




Employees, other 
than residential 
care'' 


1 per 25 


1 per 35 


— 


1 per 100 


— 




Visitors, other than 
residential care 


1 per 75 


1 per 100 


— 


1 per 500 


— 




1-3 


Prisons'' 


1 per cell 


1 per cell 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 




1-3 


Reformitories, 
detention centers, 
and correctional 
centers'' 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 


1 


1-4 


Adult day care and 
child care 


1 per 15 


— 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 



(continued) 



26 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1— continued 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES" 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 











WATER CLOSETS 






DRINKING 












(URINALS SEE SECTION 






FOUNTAIN 












419.2) 


LAVATORIES 




(SEE 




















BATHTUBS/ 


SECTION 




NO. 


CLASSIFICATION 


OCCUPANCY 


DESCRIPTION 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


SHOWERS 


410.1) 


OTHER 


6 


Mercantile (see 
Sections 403.2, 




Retail stores, 
service stations, 










1 service 
sink 




403.4,403.4.1 and 


M 


shops, salesrooms. 


1 per 500 


1 per 750 


— 


1 per 1,000 




403.4.2) 




markets and 
















shopping centers 












7 


Residential 


R-1 


Hotels, motels, 
boarding houses 
(transient) 


1 per sleeping unit 


1 per sleeping unit 


1 per 
sleeping unit 


— 


1 service 
sink 




Dormitories, 


















fraternities. 










1 service 
sink 






R-2 


sororities and 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


IperS 


1 per 100 








boarding houses 
















(not transient) 
























1 kitchen 


















sink per 


















dwelling 


















unit; 1 














1 per 




automatic 






R-2 


Apartment house 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dweUing unit 


dwelling 
unit 




clothes 

washer 

connection 

per 20 

dwelling 

units 














1 kitchen 


















sink per 


















dwelling 


















unit; 1 








One- and 






1 per 




automatic 






R-3 


two-family 
dwellings 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dwelling unit 


dwelling 
unit 




clothes 

washer 

connection 

per 

dwelling 

unit 




Residential 










1 service 
sink 






R-4 


care/assisted living 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


IperS 


1 per 100 








facilities 










8 


Storage (see 
Sections 403.2, 




Structures for the 
storage of goods. 














403.4 and 403.4.1) 


S-1 
S-2 


warehouses, 
storehouse and 
freight depots. Low 
and Moderate 
Hazard. 


1 per 100 


1 per 100 


See 
Section 41 1 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 



a. The fixtures shown are based on one fixture being the minimum required for the number of persons indicated or any fraction of the number of persons indicated. 

The number of occupants shall be determined by the International Building Code, 
h. Toilet faciUties for employees shall be separate from facilities for inmates or patients. 

c. A single-occupant toilet room with one water closet and one lavatory serving not more than two adjacent patient sleeping units shall be permitted where such room 
is provided with direct access from each patient room and with provisions for privacy. 

d. The occupant load for seasonal outdoor seating and entertainment areas shall be included when determining the minimum number of fecilities required. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



27 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



[B] 403.1.1 Unisex toilet and bath fixtures. Fixtures 
located within unisex toilet and bathing rooms complying 
with Section 404 are permitted to be included in determin- 
ing the minimum required number of fixtures for assembly 
and mercantile occupancies. 

403.2 Separate facilities. Where plumbing fixtures are 
required, separate facilities shall be provided for each sex. 

Exceptions: 

1. Separate facilities shall not be required for dweUing 
units and sleeping units. 

2. Separate facilities shall not be required in structures 
or tenant spaces with a total occupant load, including 
both employees and customers, of 15 or less. 

3. Separate facilities shall not be required in mercantile 
occupancies in which the maximum occupant load is 
50 or less. 

403.3 Number of occupants of each sex. The required water 
closets, lavatories, and showers or bathtubs shall be distributed 
equally between the sexes based on the percentage of each sex 
anticipated in the occupant load. The occupant load shall be 
composed of 50 percent of each sex, unless statistical data 
approved by the code official indicate a different distribution of 
the sexes. 

403.4 Required public toilet facilities. Customers, patrons 
and visitors shall be provided with public toilet facilities in 
structures and tenant spaces intended for public utilization. The 
accessible route to public facilities shall not pass through kitch- 
ens, storage rooms, closets or similar spaces. Employees shall 
be provided with toilet facilities in all occupancies. Employee 
toilet facilities shall be either separate or combined employee 
and public toilet facilities. 

403.4.1 Location of toilet facilities in occupancies other 
than covered malls. In occupancies other than covered 
malls, the required public and employee toilet facilities shall 
be located not more than one story above or below the space 
required to be provided with toilet facilities, and the path of 
travel to such facilities shall not exceed a distance of 500 
feet (152 m). 

Exception: The location and maximum travel distances 
to required employee facilities in factory and industrial 
occupancies are permitted to exceed that required by this 
section, provided that the location and maximum travel 
distance are approved. 

403.4.2 Location of toilet facilities in covered malls. In 

covered mall buildings, the required public and employee 
toilet faciUties shall be located not more than one story 
above or below the space required to be provided with toilet 
facilities, and the path of travel to such facilities shall not 
exceed a distance of 300 feet (91 440 mm). In covered mall 
buildings, the required facilities shall be based on total 
square footage, and facilities shall be installed in each indi- 
vidual store or in a central toilet area located in accordance 
with this section. The maximum travel distance to central 
toilet facilities in covered mall buildings shall be measured 
from the main entrance of any store or tenant space. In cov- 
ered mall buildings, where employees' toilet facilities are 



not provided in the individual store, the maximum travel 
distance shall be measured from the employee's work area 
of the store or tenant space. 

403.4.3 Pay facilities. Where pay facilities are installed, 
such facilities shall be in excess of the required minimum 
facilities. Required facilities shall be free of charge. 

403.5 Signage. Required public facilities shall be designated 
by a legible sign for each sex. Signs shall be readily visible and 
located near the entrance to each toilet facility. 



SECTION 404 
ACCESSIBLE PLUMBING FACILITIES 

404.1 Where required. Accessible plumbing facilities and 
fixtures shall be provided in accordance with the International 
Building Code. 



SECTION 405 
INSTALLATION OF FIXTURES 

405.1 Water supply protection. The supply lines and fittings 
for every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent 
backflow. 

405.2 Access for cleaning. Plumbing fixtures shall be installed 
so as to afford easy access for cleaning both the fixture and the 
area around the fixture. 

405.3 Setting. Fixtures shall be set level and in proper align- 
ment with reference to adjacent walls. 

405.3.1 Water closets, urinals, lavatories and bidets. A 

water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet shall not be set closer 
than 15 inches (381 mm) from its center to any side wall, 
partition, vanity or other obstruction, or closer than 30 I 
inches (762 mm) center-to-center between adjacent fix- | 
tures . There shall be at least a 2 1 -inch (533 mm) clearance in 
front of the water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet to any wall, 
fixture or door. Water closet compartments shall not be less 
than 30 inches (762 mm) wide and 60 inches (1524 mm) I 
deep (see Figure 405.3.1). ■ 

405.3.2 Public lavatories. In employee and public toilet 
rooms, the required lavatory shall be located in the same 
room as the required water closet. 

405.4 Floor and wall drainage connections. Connections 
between the drain and floor outlet plumbing fixtures shall be 
made with a floor flange. The flange shall be attached to the 
drain and anchored to the structure. Connections between the 
drain and wall-hung water closets shall be made with an 
approved extension nipple or horn adaptor. The water closet 
shall be bolted to the hanger with corrosion-resistant bolts or 
screws. Joints shall be sealed with an approved elastomeric 
gasket, flange-to-fixture connection complying with ASME 
Al 12.4.3 or an approved setting compound. | 

405.4.1 Floor flanges. Floor flanges for water closets or 
similar fixtures shall not be less than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) 
thick for brass, 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick for plastic, and 0.25 
inch (6.4 mm) thick and not less than a 2-inch (51 mm) 
caulking depth for cast-iron or galvanized malleable iron. 



28 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE*' 








21 IN. CLEARANCE 



( TUB 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



dimension or other approved arrangement so as to provide 
access to the shp joint connections for inspection and repair. 

405.9 Design and installation of plumbing fixtures. Integral 
fixture fitting mounting surfaces on manufactured plumbing 
fixtures or plumbing fixtures constructed on site, shall meet the 
design requirements of ASME A112.19.2M or ASME 
A112.19.3M. 



-COMPARTMENT 



m m Q Q 



WC WC 21 IN 



c 



FIGURE 405.3.1 
FIXTURE CLEARANCE 

Floor flanges of hard lead shall weigh not less than 1 
pound, 9 ounces (0.7 kg) and shall be composed of lead 
alloy with not less than 7.75-percent antimony by weight. 
Closet screws and bolts shall be of brass. Flanges shall be 
secured to the building structure with corrosion-resistant 
screws or bolts. 

405.4.2 Securing floor outlet fixtures. Floor outlet fixtures 
shall be secured to the floor or floor flanges by screws or 
bolts of corrosion-resistant material. 

405.4.3 Securing wall-hung water closet bowls. 

Wall-hung water closet bowls shall be supported by a con- 
cealed metal carrier that is attached to the building structural 
members so that strain is not transmitted to the closet con- 
nector or any other part of the plumbing system. The carrier 
shall conform to ASME Al 12.6.1M or ASME Al 12.6.2. 

405.5 Water-tight joints. Joints formed where fixtures come 
in contact with walls or floors shall be sealed. 

405.6 Plumbing in mental health centers. In mental health 
centers, pipes or traps shall not be exposed, and fixtures shall 
be bolted through walls. 

405.7 Design of overflows. Where any fixture is provided with 
an overflow, the waste shall be designed and installed so that 
standing water in the fixture will not rise in the overflow when 
the stopper is closed, and no water will remain in the overflow 
when the fixture is empty. 

405.7.1 Connection of overflows. The overflow from any 
fixture shall discharge into the drainage system on the inlet 
or fixture side of the trap. 

Exception: The overflow from a flush tank serving a 
water closet or urinal shall discharge into the fixture 
served. 

405.8 Slip joint connections. Slip joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric gasket and shall only be installed on the 
trap outlet, trap inlet and within the trap seal. Fixtures with con- 
cealed slip-joint connections shall be provided with an access 
panel or utility space at least 12 inches (305 mm) in its smallest 



SECTION 406 
AUTOMATIC CLOTHES WASHERS 

406.1 Approval. Domestic automatic clothes washers shall 
conform to ASSE 1007. 

406.2 Water connection. The water supply to an automatic 
clothes washer shall be protected against backflow by an air 
gap installed integrally within the machine conforming to 
ASSE 1007 or with the installation of a backflow preventer in 
accordance with Section 608. 

406.3 Waste connection. The waste from an automatic clothes 
washer shall discharge through an air break into a standpipe in 
accordance with Section 802.4 or into a laundry sink. The trap 
and fixture drain for an automatic clothes washer standpipe 
shall be a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter. The auto- 
matic clothes washer fixture drain shall connect to a branch 
drain or drainage stack a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) in 
diameter. Automatic clothes washers that discharge by gravity 
shall be permitted to drain to a waste receptor or an approved 
trench drain. 



SECTION 407 
BATHTUBS 

407.1 Approval. Bathtubs shall conform to ANSI Z124.1, 
ASME A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.4M, ASME 
Al 12.19.9M, CSA B45.2, CSA B45.3 or CSA B45.5. 

407.2 Bathtub waste outlets. Bathtubs shall have waste out- 
lets a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. The waste 
outlet shall be equipped with an approved stopper. 

407.3 Glazing. Windows and doors within a bathtub enclosure 
shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

407.4 Bathtub enclosure. Doors within a bathtub enclosure 
shall conform to ASME A112.19.15. 



SECTION 408 
BIDETS 

408.1 Approval. Bidets shall conform to ASME Al 12. 19.2M, 
ASME A112.19.9M or CSA B45.1. 

408.2 Water connection. The water supply to a bidet shall be 
protected against backflow by an air gap or backflow preventer 
in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.3, 
608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

408.3 Bidet water temperature. The discharge water temper- I 
ature from a bidet fitting shall be limited to a maximum temper- I 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



29 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



I ature of 1 10°F (43 °C) by a water temperature limiting device 



conforming to ASSE 1070. 



have a minimum outlet of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in 
diameter. 



SECTION 409 
DISHWASHING MACHINES 

409.1 Approval. Domestic dishwashing machines shall con- 
form to ASSE 1006. Conmiercial dishwashing machines shall 
conform to ASSE 1 004 and NSF 3 . 

409.2 Water connection. The water supply to a dishwashing 
machine shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or 
backflow preventer in accordance with Section 608. 

409.3 Waste connection. The waste connection of a 
dishwashing machine shall comply with Section 802.1.6 or 
802.1.7, as applicable. 



SECTION 410 
DRINKING FOUNTAINS 

410.1 Approval. Drinking fountains shall conform to ASME 
A112.19.1M,ASMEA112.19.2MorASMEA112.19.9Mand 
water coolers shall conform to ARI 1010. Drinking fountains 
and water coolers shall conform to NSF 61, Section 9. Where 
water is served in restaurants, drinking fountains shall not be 
required. In other occupancies, where drinking fountains are 
required, water coolers or bottled water dispensers shall be per- 
mitted to be substituted for not more than 50 percent of the 
required drinking fountains. 

410.2 Prohibited location. Drinking fountains shall not be 
installed in public restrooms. 



SECTION 411 

EMERGENCY SHOWERS AND 

EYEWASH STATIONS 

411.1 Approval. Emergency showers and eyewash stations 
shall conform to ISEA Z358.1. 

411.2 Waste connection. Waste connections shall not be 
required for emergency showers and eyewash stations. 



SECTION 412 
FLOOR AND TRENCH DRAINS 

412.1 Approval. Floor drains shall conform to ASME 
A112.6.3, ASME Al 12.3.1 or CSA B79. Trench drains shall 
comply with ASME Al 12.6.3. 

412.2 Floor drains. Floor drains shall have removeable strain- 
ers. The floor drain shall be constructed so that the drain is 
capable of being cleaned. Access shall be provided to the drain 
inlet. 

412.3 Size of floor drains. Floor drains shall have a minimum 
2-inch-diameter (51 mm) drain outlet. 

412.4 Public laundries and central washing facilities. In 

public coin-operated laundries and in the central washing facil- 
ities of multiple-family dwellings, the rooms containing auto- 
matic clothes washers shall be provided with floor drains 
located to readily drain the entire floor area. Such drains shall 



SECTION 413 
FOOD WASTE GRINDER UNITS 

413.1 Approval. Domestic food waste grinders shall conform 
to ASSE 1008. Conunercial food waste grinders shall conform 
to ASSE 1009. Food waste grinders shall not increase the 
drainage fixture unit load on the sanitary drainage system. 

413.2 Domestic food waste grinder waste outlets. Domestic 
food waste grinders shall be connected to a drain of not less 
than 1.5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. 

413.3 Commercial food waste grinder waste outlets. Com- 
mercial food waste grinders shall be connected to a drain a min- 
imum of 2 inches (5 1 mm) in diameter. Commercial food waste 
grinders shall be connected and trapped separately from any 
other fixtures or sink compartments. 

413.4 Water supply required. All food waste grinders shall be 
provided with a supply of cold water. 



SECTION 414 
GARBAGE CAN WASHERS 

414.1 Water connection. The water supply to a garbage can 
washer shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or a 
backflow preventer in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 
608.13.2, 608.13.3, 608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

414.2 Waste connection. Garbage can washers shall be 
trapped separately. The receptacle receiving the waste from the 
washer shall have a removable basket or strainer to prevent the 
discharge of large particles into the drainage system. 



SECTION 415 
LAUNDRY TRAYS 

415.1 Approval. Laundry trays shall conform to ANSI 
Z124.6, ASME A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.3M, ASME 
Al 12.19.9M, CSA B45.2 or CSA B45.4. 

415.2 Waste outlet. Each compartment of a laundry tray shall 
be provided with a waste outlet a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 
mm) in diameter and a strainer or crossbar to restrict the clear 
opening of the waste outlet. 



SECTION 416 
LAVATORIES 

416.1 Approval. Lavatories shall conform to ANSI Z124.3, 
ASME A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.2M, ASME 
Al 12. 19.3M, ASME Al 12. 19.4M, ASME Al 12. 19.9M, CSA 
B45 . 1 , CS A B45 .2, CSA B45 .3 or CSA B45 .4. Group wash-up 
equipment shall conform to the requirements of Section 402. 
Every 20 inches (508 mm) of rim space shall be considered as 
one lavatory. 

416.2 Cultured marble lavatories. Cultured marble vanity 
tops with an integral lavatory shall conform to ANSI Z124.3 or 
CSA B45.5. 



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FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



416.3 Lavatory waste outlets. Lavatories shall have waste 
outlets not less than 1.25 inches (32 mm) in diameter. A 
strainer, pop-up stopper, crossbar or other device shall be pro- 
vided to restrict the clear opening of the waste outlet. 

416.4 Moveable lavatory systems. Moveable lavatory sys- 
tems shall comply with ASME A112.19.12. 

416.5 Tempered water for public hand-washing facilities. 

Tempered water shall be delivered from public hand- washing 
facilities through an approved water temperature limiting 
device that conforms to ASSE 1070. 



SECTION 417 
SHOWERS 

417.1 Approval. Prefabricated showers and shower compart- 
niients shall conform to ANSI Z124.2, ASME Al 12.19.9M or 
CSA B45.5. Shower valves for individual showers shall con- 
form to the requirements of Section 424.3. 

417.2 Water supply riser. Every water supply riser from the 
shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or 
not, shall be attached to the structure in an approved manner. 

417.3 Shower waste outlet. Waste outlets serving showers 
shall be at least 1 Vj inches (38 mm) in diameter and, for other 
than waste outlets in bathtubs, shall have removable strainers 
not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter with strainer open- 
ings not less than 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) in minimum dimension. 
Where each shower space is not provided with an individual 
waste outlet, the waste outlet sfhall be located and the floor 
pitched so that waste from one shower does not flow over the 
floor area serving another shower. Waste outlets shall be fas- 
tened to the waste pipe in an approved manner. 

417.4 Shower compartments. All shower compartments shall 
have a minimum of 900 square inches (0.58 m^) of interior 
cross-sectional area. Shower compartments shall not be less 
than 30 inches (762 mm) in minimum dimension measured 
from the finished interior dimension of the compartment, 
exclusive of fixture valves, showerheads, soap dishes, and 
safety grab bars or rails. Except as required in Section 404, the 
minimum required area and dimension shall be measured from 
the finished interior dimension at a height equal to the top of the 
threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline and shall be 
continued to a height not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) above 
the shower drain outlet. 

Exception: Shower compartments having not less than 25 
inches (635 mm) in minimum dimension measured from the 
finished interior dimension of the compartment, provided 
that the shower compartment has a minimum of 1,300 
square inches (.838 m^) of cross-sectional area. 

417.4.1 Wall area. The wall area above built-in tubs with 
installed shower heads and in shower compartments shall be 
constructed of smooth, noncorrosive and nonabsorbent 
waterproof materials to a height not less than 6 feet (1829 
mm) above the room floor level, and not less than 70 inches 
(1778 mm) where measured from the compartment floor at 
the drain. Such walls shall form a water-tight joint with each 
other and with either the tub, receptor or shower floor. 



417.4.2 Access. The shower compartment access and egress 
opening shall have a minimum clear and unobstructed fin- 
ished width of 22 inches (559 mm). Shower compartments 
required to be designed in conformance to accessibility pro- 
visions shall comply with Section 404.1. 

417.5 Shower floors or receptors. Floor surfaces shall be con- 
structed of impervious, noncorrosive, nonabsorbent and water- 
proof materials. 

417.5.1 Support. Floors or receptors under shower com- 
partments shall be laid on, and supported by, a smooth and 
structurally sound base. 

417.5.2 Shower lining. Floors under shower compart- 
ments, except where prefabricated receptors have been pro- 
vided, shall be linedand made water tight utilizing material 
complying with Sections 417.5.2.1 through 417.5.2.4. Such 
liners shall turn up on all sides at least 2 inches (51 mm) 
above the finished threshold level. Liners shall be recessed 
and fastened to an approved backing so as not to occupy the 
space required for wall covering, and shall not be nailed or 
perforated at any point less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the 
finished threshold. Liners shall be pitched one-fourth unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) and shall be 
sloped toward the fixture drains and be securely fastened to 
the waste outlet at the seepage entrance, making a 
water-tight joint between the liner and the outlet. 

Exception: Floor surfaces under shower heads provided 
for rinsing laid directly on the ground are not required to 
comply with this section. 

417.5.2.1 PVC sheets. Plasticized polyvinyl chloride 
(PVC) sheets shall be a minimum of 0.040 inch (1.02 
mm) thick, and shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 
455 1 . Sheets shall be joined by solvent welding in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

417.5.2.2 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) sheets. ^, 

Nonplasticized chlorinated polyethylene sheet shall be a 
minimum 0.040 inch (1 .02 mm) thick, and shall meet the 
requirements of ASTM D 4068. The liner shall be joined 
in accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. 

417.5.2.3 Sheet lead. Sheet lead shall not weigh less 
than 4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m^) coated with 
an asphalt paint or other approved coating. The lead 
sheet shall be insulated from conducting substances 
other than the connecting drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) 
asphalt felt or its equivalent. Sheet lead shall be joined by 
burning. 

417.5.2.4 Sheet copper. Sheet copper shall conform to 
ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh less than 12 ounces per 
square foot (3.7 kg/m^). The copper sheet shall be insu- 
lated from conducting substances other than the connect- 
ing drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) asphalt felt or its 
equivalent. Sheet copper shall be joined by brazing or 
soldering. 

417.6 Glazing. Windows and doors within a shower enclosure 
shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



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31 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



SECTION 418 
SINKS 

418.1 Approval. Sinks shall conform to ANSI Z 124.6, ASME 
A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.2M, ASME A112.19.3M, 
ASME A112.19.4M, ASME A112.19.9M, CSA B45.1, CSA 
B45.2, CSA B45.3 or CSA B45.4. 

418.2 Sink waste outlets. Sinks shall be provided with waste 
outlets a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. A 
strainer or crossbar shall be provided to restrict the clear open- 
ing of the waste outlet. 

418.3 Moveable sink systems. Moveable sink systems shall 
comply with ASME Al 12.19.12. 



SECTION 419 
URINALS 

419.1 Approval. Urinals shall conform to ANSI Z124.9, 
ASME A112.19.2M, CSAB45.1 or CSAB45.5. Urinals shall 
conform to the water consumption requirements of Section 
604.4. Water supplied urinals shall conform to the hydrauUc 
performance requirements of ASME Al 12. 19.6, CSA B45.1 
or CSA B45.5. 

419.2 Substitution for water closets. In each bathroom or toi- 
let room, urinals shall not be substituted for more than 67 per- 
cent of the required water closets in assembly and educational 
occupancies. Urinals shall not be substituted for more than 50 
percent of the required water closets in all other occupancies. 

[B] 419.3 Surrounding material. Wall and floor space to a 
point 2 feet (610 mm) in front of a urinal lip and 4 feet (1219 
mm) above the floor and at least 2 feet (610 mm) to each side of 
the urinal shall be waterproofed with a smooth, readily 
cleanable, nonabsorbent material. 



SECTION 420 
WATER CLOSETS 

420.1 Approval. Water closets shall conform to the water con- 
sumption requirements of Section 604.4 and shall conform to 
ANSI Z124.4, ASME A112.19.2M, CSA B45.1, CSA B45.4 
or CSA B45.5. Water closets shall conform to the hydraulic 
performance requirements of ASME Al 12.19.6. Water closet 
tanks shall conform to ANSI Z124.4, ASME Al 12. 19.2, 
ASME A112.19.9M, CSA B45.1, CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5. 
Electro-hydraulic water closets shall comply with ASME 
A112.19.13. 

420.2 Water closets for public or employee toilet facilities. 

Water closet bowls for public or employee toilet facilities shall 
be of the elongated type. 

420.3 Water closet seats. Water closets shall be equipped with 
seats of smooth, nonabsorbent material. All seats of water clos- 
ets provided for public or employee toilet facilities shall be of 
the hinged open-front type. Integral water closet seats shall be 
of the same material as the fixture. Water closet seats shall be 
sized for the water closet bowl type. 

420.4 Water closet connections. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm 
by 76 mm) closet bend shall be acceptable. Where a 3-inch (76 
mm) bend is utilized on water closets, a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 



mm by 76 mm) flange shall be installed to receive the fixture 
horn. 



SECTION 421 
WHIRLPOOL BATHTUBS 

421.1 Approval. Whirlpool bathtubs shall comply with ASME 
A112.19.7M or with CSA B45.5 and CSA B45 (Supplement 
1). 

421.2 Installation. Whirlpool bathtubs shall be installed and 
tested in accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. The pump shall be located above the weir of the 
fixture trap. I 

421.3 Drain. The pump drain and circulation piping shall be 
sloped to drain the water in the volute and the circulation piping 
when the whirlpool bathtub is empty. 

421.4 Suction fittings. Suction fittings for whirlpool bathtubs 
shall comply with ASME Al 12.19.8M. 

421.5 Access to pump. Access shall be provided to circulation 
pumps in accordance with the fixture or pump manufacturer's 
installation instructions. Where the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions do not specify the location and minimum size of field-fab- 
ricated access openings, a 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305 
mm) minimum sized opening shall be installed to provide 
access to the circulation pump. Where pumps are located more 
than 2 feet (609 mm) from the access opening, an 18-inch by 
1 8-inch (457 mm by 457 mm) minimum sized opening shall be 
installed. A door or panel shall be permitted to close the open- 
ing. In all cases, the access opening shall be unobstructed and 
of the size necessary to permit the removal and replacement of 
the circulation puinp. 

421.6 Whirlpool enclosure. Doors within a whirlpool enclo- 
sure shall conform to ASME Al 12.19.15. 



SECTION 422 
HEALTH CARE FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

422.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to the requirements of this section in addition to the other 
requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall 
apply to the special devices and equipment installed and main- 
tained in the following occupancies: nursing homes, homes for 
the aged, orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, psychiatric 
facilities, clinics, professional offices of dentists and doctors, 
mortuaries, educational facilities, surgery, dentistry, research 
and testing laboratories, establishments manufacturing phar- 
maceutical drugs and medicines, and other structures with sim- 
ilar apparatus and equipment classified as plumbing. 

422.2 Approval. All special plumbing fixtures, equipment, 
devices and apparatus shall be of an approved type. 

422.3 Protection. All devices, appurtenances, appliances and 
apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as ster- 
ilization, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or 
foods, and that connect to either the water supply or drainage 
system, shall be provided with protection against backflow, 



32 



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FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



flooding, fouling, contamination of the water supply system 
and stoppage of the drain. 

422.4 Materials. Fixtures designed for therapy, special cleans- 
ing or disposal of waste materials, combinations of such pur- 
poses, or any other special purpose, shall be of smooth, 
impervious, corrosion-resistant materials and, where subjected 
to temperatures in excess of 180°F (82°C), shall be capable of 
withstanding, without damage, higher temperatures. 

422.5 Access. Access shall be provided to concealed piping in 
connection with special fixtures where such piping contains 
steam traps, valves, relief valves, check valves, vacuum break- 
ers or other similar items that require periodic inspection, ser- 
vicing, maintenance or repair. Access shall be provided to 
concealed piping that requires periodic inspection, mainte- 
nance or repair. 

422.6 Clinical sink. A clinical sink shall have an integral trap 
in which the upper portion of a visible trap seal provides a water 
surface. The fixture shall be designed so as to permit complete 
removal of the contents by siphonic or blowout action and to 
reseal the trap. A flushing rim shall provide water to cleanse the 
interior surface. The fixture shall have the flushing and cleans- 
ing characteristics of a water closet. 

422.7 Prohibited usage of clinical sinks and service sinks. A 

clinical sink serving a soiled utility room shall not be consid- 
ered as a substitute for, or be utilized as, a service sink. A ser- 
vice sink shall not be utilized for the disposal of urine, fecal 
matter or other human waste. 

422.8 Ice prohibited in soiled utility room. Machines for 
manufacturing ice, or any device for the handling or storage of 
ice, shall not be located in a soiled utility room. 

422.9 Sterilizer equipment requirements. The approval and 
installation of all sterihzers shall conform to the requirements 
of the International Mechanical Code. 

422.9.1 Sterilizer piping. Access for the purposes of 
inspection and maintenance shall be provided to all steril- 
izer piping and devices necessary for the operation of steril- 
izers. 

422.9.2 Steam supply. Steam supplies to sterilizers, includ- 
ing those connected by pipes from overhead mains or 
branches, shall be drained to prevent any moisture from 
reaching the sterilizer. The condensate drainage from the 
steam supply shall be discharged by gravity. 

422.9.3 Steam condensate return. Steam condensate 
returns from sterilizers shall be a gravity return system. 

422.9.4 Condensers. Pressure sterilizers shall be equipped 
with a means of condensing and cooling the exhaust steam 
vapors. Nonpressure sterilizers shall be equipped with a 
device that will automatically control the vapor, confining 
the vapors within the vessel. 

422.10 Special elevations. Control valves, vacuum outlets and 
devices protruding from a wall of an operating, emergency, 
recovery, examining or delivery room, or in a corridor or other 
location where patients are transported on a wheeled stretcher, 
shall be located at an elevation that prevents bumping the 
patient or stretcher against the device. 



SECTION 423 
SPECIALTY PLUMBING FIXTURES 

423.1 Water connections. Baptisteries, ornamental and lily 
pools, aquariums, ornamental fountain basins, swimming 
pools, and similar constructions, where provided with water 
supplies, shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with Section 608. 

423.2 Approval. Specialties requiring water and waste con- 
nections shall be submitted for approval. 



SECTION 424 
FAUCETS AND OTHER FIXTURE FITTINGS 

424.1 Approval. Faucets and fixture fittings shall conform to 
ASME A112.18.1 or CSA B125. Faucets and fixture fittings 
that supply drinking water for human ingestion shall conform 
to the requirements of NSF 61, Section 9. Flexible water con- 
nectors exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to the 
requirements of Section 605.6. 

424.1.1 Faucets and supply fittings. Faucets and supply 
fittings shall conform to the water consumption require- 
ments of Section 604.4. 

424.1.2 Waste fittings. Waste fittings shall conform to 
ASME Al 12. 18.2, ASTM F 409, CSA B 125 or to one of the 
standards listed in Tables 702. 1 and 702.4 for above-ground 
drainage and vent pipe and fittings. 

424.2 Hand showers. Hand-held showers shall conform to 
ASME A112.18.1 or CSA B125.1. Hand-held showers shall 
provide backflow protection in accordance with ASME 
A112.18.1 or CSA B 125.1 or shall be protected against 
backflow by a device complying with ASME A 11 2. 18.3. 

424.3 Individual shower valves. Individual shower and 
tub-shower combination valves shall be balanced-pressure, 
thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic 
valves that conform to the requirements of ASSE 1016 or CSA 
B125 and shall be installed at the point of use. Shower and | 
tub-shower combination valves required by this section shall 
be equipped with a means to limit the maximum setting of the 
valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field adjusted in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions. In-line thermo- I 
static valves shall not be utilized for compliance with this I 
section. 

424.4 Multiple (gang) showers. Multiple (gang) showers sup- 
plied with a single-tempered water supply pipe shall have the 
water supply for such showers controlled by an approved auto- 
matic temperature control mixing valve that conforms to ASSE 
1069 or CSA B125, or each shower head shall be individually 
controlled by a balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combina- 
tion balanced-pressure/thermostatic valve that conforms to 
ASSE 1016 or CSA B125 and is installed at the point of use. 
Such valves shall be equipped with a means to limit the maxi- 
mum setting of the valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field 
adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

424.5 Bathtub and whirlpool bathtub valves. The hot water 
supplied to bathtubs and whirlpool bathtubs shall be limited to 
a maximum temperature of 120°F (49°C) by a water tempera- 
ture limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070, except where 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



33 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



I such protection is otherwise provided by a combination 
tub/shower valve in accordance with Section 424.3. 

424.6 Hose-connected outlets. Faucets and fixture fittings 
with hose-connected outlets shall conform to ASME 

I A112.18.3MorCSAB125. 

424.7 Temperature-actuated, flow reduction valves for 
individual fixture fittings. Temperature-actuated, flow reduc- 
tion devices, where installed for individual fixture fittings, 
shall conform to ASSE 1062. Such valves shall not be used 
alone as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or 
combination shower valves required in Section 424.3. 

424.8 Transfer valves. Deck-mounted bath/shower transfer 
valves containing an integral atmospheric vacuum breaker 
shall conform to the requirements of ASME A112.18.7. 



SECTION 425 

FLUSHING DEVICES FOR WATER CLOSETS AND 

URINALS 

425.1 Flushing devices required. Each water closet, urinal, 
clinical sink and any plumbing fixture that depends on trap 
siphonage to discharge the fixture contents to the drainage sys- 
tem shall be provided with a flushometer valve, flushometer 
tank or a flush tank designed and installed to supply water in 
quantity and rate of flow to flush the contents of the fixture, 
cleanse the fixture and refill the fixture trap. 

425.1.1 Separate for each fixture. A flushing device shall 
not serve more than one fixture. 

425.2 Flushometer valves and tanks. Flushometer valves and 
tanks shall comply with ASSE 1037. Vacuum breakers on 
flushometer valves shall conform to the performance require- 
ments of ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. Access shall be pro- 
vided to vacuum breakers. Flushometer valves shall be of the 
water-conservation type and shall not be utilized where the 
water pressure is lower than the minimum required for normal 
operation. When operated, the valve shall automatically com- 
plete the cycle of operation, opening fully and closing posi- 
tively under the water supply pressure. Each flushometer valve 
shall be provided with a means for regulating the flow through 
the valve. The trap seal to the fixture shall be automatically 
refilled after each valve flushing cycle. 

425.3 Flush tanks. Flush tanks equipped for manual flushing 
shall be controlled by a device designed to refill the tank after 
each discharge and to shut off completely the water flow to the 
tank when the tank is filled to operational capacity. The trap 
seal to the fixture shall be automatically refilled after each 
flushing. The water supply to flush tanks equipped for auto- 
matic flushing shall be controlled with a timing device or sen- 
sor control devices. 

425.3.1 Fill valves. All flush tanks shall be equipped with 
an antisiphon fill valve conforming to ASSE 1002 or CSA 
B125. The fill valve backflow preventer shall be located at 
least 1 inch (25 mm) above the full opening of the overflow 
pipe. 

425.3.2 Overflows in flush tanks. Flush tanks shall be pro- 
. vided with overflows discharging to the water closet or uri- 
nal connected thereto and shall be sized to prevent flooding 



the tank at the maximum rate at which the tanks are supplied 
with water according to the manufacturer's design condi- 
tions. The opening of the overflow pipe shall be located 
above the flood level rim of the water closet or urinal or 
above a secondary overflow in the flush tank. 

425.3.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper utilized for flush tank 
linings shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh 
less than 10 ounces per square foot (0.03 kg/m^). 

425.3.4 Access required. All parts in a flush tank shall be 
accessible for repair and replacement. 

425.4 Flush pipes and fittings. Flush pipes and fittings shall 
be of nonferrous material and shall conform to ASME 
A112.19.5orCSAB125. 



SECTION 426 

MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE DISPENSING 

EQUIPMENT 

426.1 Approval. Manual food and beverage dispensing equip- 
ment shall conform to the requirements of NSF 18. 



SECTION 427 
FLOOR SINKS 

427.1 Approval. Sanitary floor sinks shall conform to the 
requirements of ASME Al 12.6.7. 



34 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

WATER HEATERS 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design and installation of water heaters and the 
related safety devices and appurtenances. 

501.2 Water heater as space heater. Where a combination 
potable water heating and space heating system requires water 
for space heating at temperatures higher than 140°F (60°C), a 
master thermostatic mixing valve complying with ASSE 1017 
shall be provided to limit the water supplied to the potable hot 
water distribution system to a temperature of 140°F (60°C) or 
less. The potability of the water shall be maintained throughout 
the system. 

501.3 Drain valves. Drain valves for emptying shall be 
installed at the bottom of each tank-type water heater and hot 
water storage tank. Drain valves shall conform to ASSE 1005. 

501.4 Location. Water heaters and storage tanks shall be 
located and connected so as to provide access for observation, 
maintenance, servicing and replacement. 

501.5 Water heater labeling. All water heaters shall be 
third-party certified. 

501.6 Water temperature control in piping from tankless 
heaters. The temperature of water from tankless water heaters 
shall be a maximum of 140°F (60°C) when intended for 
domestic uses. This provision shall not supersede the require- 
ment for protective shower valves in accordance with Section 
424.3. 

501.7 Pressure marking of storage tanks. Storage tanks and 
water heaters installed for domestic hot water shall have the 
maximum allowable working pressure clearly and indelibly 
stamped in the metal or marked on a plate welded thereto or 
otherwise permanently attached. Such markings shall be in an 
accessible position outside of the tank so as to make inspection 
or reinspection readily possible. 

501.8 Temperature controls. All hot water supply systems 
shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capable 
of adjustments from the lowest to the highest acceptable tem- 
perature settings for the intended temperature operating range. 



SECTION 502 
INSTALLATION 

502.1 General. Water heaters shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Oil-fired 
water heaters shall conform to the requirements of this code 
and the International Mechanical Code. Electric water heaters 
shall conform to the requirements of this code and provisions 
of the ICC Electrical Code. Gas-fired water heaters shall con- 
form to the requirements of the International Fuel Gas Code. 



502.2 Rooms used as a plenum. Water heaters using soUd, Uq- 
uid or gas fuel shall not be installed in a room containing 
air-handling machinery when such room is used as a plenum. 

502.3 Water heaters installed in attics. Attics containing a 
water heater shall be provided with an opening and unob- 
structed passageway large enough to allow removal of the 
water heater. The passageway shall not be less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) high and 22 inches (559 mm) wide and not more than 
20 feet (6096 mm) in length when measured along the center- 
line of the passageway from the opening to the water heater. 
The passageway shall have continuous solid flooring not less 
than 24 inches (610 mm) wide. A level service space at least 30 
inches (762 mm) deep and 30 inches (762 mm) wide shall be 
present at the front or service side of the water heater. The clear 
access opening dimensions shall be a minimum of 20 inches by 
30 inches (508 mm by 762 mm) where such dimensions are 
large enough to allow removal of the water heater. 

502.4 Seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are applica- 
ble in accordance with the International Building Code, water 
heater supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic 
forces in accordance with the International Building Code. 



SECTION 503 
CONNECTIONS 

503.1 Cold water line valve. The cold water branch line from 
the main water supply line to each hot water storage tank or 
water heater shall be provided with a valve, located near the 
equipment and serving only the hot water storage tank or water 
heater. The valve shall not interfere or cause a disruption of the 
cold water supply to the remainder of the cold water system. 
The valve shall be provided with access on the same floor level 
as the water heater served. 

503.2 Water circulation. The method of connecting a circulat- 
ing water heater to the tank shall provide proper circulation of 
water through the water heater. The pipe or tubes required for 
the installation of appliances that will draw from the water 
heater or storage tank shall comply with the provisions of this 
code for material and installation. 



SECTION 504 
SAFETY DEVICES 

504.1 Antisiphon devices. An approved means, such as a cold 
water "dip" tube with a hole at the top or a vacuum relief valve 
installed in the cold water supply line above the top of the 
heater or tank, shall be provided to prevent siphoning of any 
storage water heater or tank. 

504.2 Vacuum relief valve. Bottom fed water heaters and bot- 
tom fed tanks connected to water heaters shall have a vacuum 
relief valve installed. The vacuum relief valve shall comply 
with ANSI Z21. 22. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



35 



WATER HEATERS 



504.3 Shutdown. A means for disconnecting an electric hot 
water supply system from its energy supply shall be provided 
in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. A separate valve 
shall be provided to shut off the energy fuel supply to all other 
types of hot water supply systems. 

504.4 Relief valve. All storage water heaters operating above 
atmospheric pressure shall be provided with an approved, 
self-closing (levered) pressure relief valve and temperature 
relief valve or combination thereof. The relief valve shall con- 
form to ANSI Z21.22. The relief valve shall not be used as a 
means of controlling thermal expansion. 

504.4.1 Installation. Such valves shallbe installed in the 
shell of the water heater tank. Temperature relief valves 
shall be so located in the tank as to be actuated by the water 
in the top 6 inches (152 mm) of the tank served. For installa- 
tions with separate storage tanks, the valves shall be 
installed on the tank and there shall not be any type of valve 
installed between the water heater and the storage tank. 
There shall not be a check valve or shutoff valve between a 
relief valve and the heater or tank served. 

504.5 Relief valve approval. Temperature and pressure relief 
valves, or combinations thereof, and energy cutoff devices 
shall bear the label of an approved agency and shall have a tem- 
perature setting of not more than 210°F (99°C) and a pressure 
setting not exceeding the tank or water heater manufacturer's 
rated working pressure or 150 psi (1035 kPa), whichever is 
less. The relieving capacity of each pressure relief valve and 
each temperature relief valve shall equal or exceed the heat 
input to the water heater or storage tank. 

504.6 Requirements for discharge piping. The discharge 
piping serving a pressure relief valve, temperature relief valve 
or combination thereof shall: 

1. Not be directly connected to the drainage system. 

2. Discharge through an air gap located in the same room 
as the water heater. 

3. Not be smaller than the diameter of the outlet of the 
valve served and shall discharge full size to the air gap. 

4. Serve a single relief device and shall not connect to pip- 
ing serving any other relief device or equipment. 

5. Discharge to the floor, to an indirect waste receptor or 
to the outdoors. Where discharging to the outdoors in 
areas subject to freezing, discharge piping shall be first 
piped to an indirect waste receptor through an air gap 
located in a conditioned area. 

6. Discharge in a manner that does not cause personal 
injury or structural damage. 

7. Discharge- to a termination point that is readily observ- 
able by the building occupants. 

8. Not be trapped. 

9. Be installed so as to flow by gravity. 

10. Not terminate more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the 
floor or waste receptor. 

1 1 . Not have a threaded connection at the end of such pip- 
ing. 



12. Not have valves or tee fittings. 

13. Be constructed of those materials listed in Section 
605.4 or materials tested, rated and approved for such 
use in accordance with ASME Al 12.4.1. 

504.7 Required pan. Where water heaters or hot water storage 
tanks are installed in locations where leakage of the tanks or 
connections will cause damage, the tank or water heater shall 
be installed in a galvanized steel pan having a minimum thick- 
ness of 24 gage, or other pans approved for such use. 

504.7.1 Pan size and drain. The pan shall be not less than 
1.5 inches (38 mm) deep and shall be of sufficient size and 
shape to receive all dripping or condensate from the tank or 
water heater. The pan shall be drained by an indirect waste 
pipe having a minimum diameter of 0.75 inch (19 mm). Pip- 
ing for safety pan drains shall be of those materials listed in 
Table 605.4. 

504.7.2 Pan drain termination. The pan drain shall extend 
full-size and terminate over a suitably located indirect waste 
receptor or floor drain or extend to the exterior of the build- 
ing and terminate not less than 6 inches (152 mm) and not 
more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the adjacent ground 
surface. 



SECTION 505 
INSULATION 

[E] 505.1 Unfired vessel insulation. Unfired hot water storage 
tanks shall be insulated so that heat loss is limited to a maxi- 
mum of 15 British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) per square 
foot (47 W/m^) of external tank surface area. For purposes of 
determining this heat loss, the design ambient temperature 
shall not be higher than 65 °F (18°C). 



36 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE*' 



CHAPTERS 

WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of water supply systems, both hot and cold, for 
utilization in connection with human occupancy and habitation 
and shall govern the installation of individual water supply sys- 
tems. 

601.2 Solar energy utilization. Solar energy systems used for 
heating potable water or using an independent medium for 
heating potable water shall comply with the applicable require- 
ments of this code. The use of solar energy shall not compro- 
mise the requirements for cross connection or protection of the 
potable water supply system required by this code. 

601.3 Existing piping used for grounding. Existing metallic 
water service piping used for electrical grounding shall not be 
replaced with nonmetallic pipe or tubing until other approved 
means of grounding is provided. 

601.4 Tests. The potable water distribution system shall be 
tested in accordance with Section 312.5. 



SECTION 602 
WATER REQUIRED 

602.1 General. Every structure equipped with plumbing fix- 
tures and utilized for human occupancy or habitation shall be 
provided with a potable supply of water in the amounts and at 
the pressures specified in this chapter. 

602.2 Potable water required. Only potable water shall be 
supplied to plumbing fixtures that provide water for drinking, 
bathing or cuUnary purposes, or for the processing of food, 
medical or pharmaceutical products. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided in this code, potable water shall be supplied to all plumb- 
ing fixtures. 

602.3 Individual water supply. Where a potable public water 
supply is not available, individual sources of potable water sup- 
ply shall be utilized. 

602.3.1 Sources. Dependent on geological and soil condi- 
tions and the amount of rainfall, individual water supplies 
are of the following types: drilled well, driven well, dug 
well, bored well, spring, stream or cistern. Surface bodies of 
water and land cisterns shall not be sources of individual 
water supply unless properly treated by approved means to 
prevent contamination. 

602.3.2 Minimum quantity. The combined capacity of the 
source and storage in an individual water supply system 
shall supply the fixtures with water at rates and pressures as 
required by this chapter. 

602.3.3 Water quality. Water from an individual water sup- 
ply shall be approved as potable by the authority having 
jurisdiction prior to connection to the plumbing system. 



602.3.4 Disinfection of system. After construction or 
major repair, the individual water supply system shall be 
purged of deleterious matter and disinfected in accordance 
with Section 610. 

602.3.5 Pumps. Pumps shall be rated for the transport of 
potable water. Pumps in an individual water supply system 
shall be constructed and installed so as to prevent contami- 
nation from entering a potable water supply through the 
pump units. Pumps shall be sealed to the well casing or cov- 
ered with a water-tight seal. Pumps shall be designed to 
maintain a prime and installed such that ready access is pro- 
vided to the pump parts of the entire assembly for repairs. 

602.3.5.1 Pump enclosure. The pump room or enclo- 
sure around a well pump shall be drained and protected 
from freezing by heating or other approved means. 
Where pumps are installed in basements, such pumps 
shall be mounted on a block or shelf not less than 18 
inches (457 mm) above the basement floor. Well pits 
shall be prohibited. 



SECTION 603 
WATER SERVICE 

603.1 Size of water service pipe. The water service pipe shall 
be sized to supply water to the structure in the quantities and at 
the pressures required in this code. The minimum diameter of 
water service pipe shall be % inch (19.1 mm). 

603.2 Separation of water service and building sewer. Water 
service pipe and the building sewer shall be separated by 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of undisturbed or compacted earth. 

Exceptions: 

1. The required separation distance shall not apply 
where the bottom of the water service pipe within 5 
feet (1524 mm) of the sewer is a minimum of 12 
inches (305 mm) above the top of the highest point of 
the sewer and the pipe materials conform to Table 
702.3. 

2. Water service pipe is permitted to be located in the 
same trench with a building sewer, provided such 
sewer is constructed of materials listed in Table 
702.2. 

3. The required separation distance shall not apply 
where a water service pipe crosses a sewer pipe, pro- 
vided the water service pipe is sleeved to at least 5 feet 
(1524 mm) horizontally from the sewer pipe center- 
hne on both sides of such crossing with pipe materials 
listed in Table 605.3, 702.2 or 702.3. 

603.2.1 Water service near sources of pollution. Potable 
water service pipes shall not be located in, under or above 
cesspools, septic tanks, septic tank drainage fields or seepage 
pits (see Section 605. 1 for soil and groundwater conditions). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE'' 



37 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



SECTION 604 

DESIGN OF BUILDING WATER 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

604.1 General. The design of the water distribution system 
shall conform to accepted engineering practice. Methods uti- 
lized to determine pipe sizes shall be approved. 

604.2 System interconnection. At the points of interconnec- 
tion between the hot and cold water supply piping systems and 
the individual fixtures, appliances or devices, provisions shall 
be made to prevent flow between such piping systems. 

604.3 Water distribution system design criteria. The water 
distribution system shall be designed, and pipe sizes shall be 
selected such that under conditions of peak demand, the capac- 
ities at the fixture supply pipe outlets shall not be less than 
shown in Table 604.3. The minimum flow rate and flow pres- 
sure provided to fixtures and appliances not listed in Table 
604.3 shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's installa- 
tion instructions. 

TABLE 604.3 

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA 

REQUIRED CAPACITY AT FIXTURE SUPPLY PIPE OUTLETS 



FIXTURE SUPPLY 
OUTLET SERVING 


FLOW RATE^ 

(gpm) 


FLOW 
PRESSURE (psi) 


Bathtub 


4 


8 


Bidet 


2 


4 


Combination fixture 


4 


8 


Dishwasher, residential 


2.75 


8 


Drinking fountain 


0.75 


8 


Laundry tray 


4 


8 


Lavatory 


2 


8 


Shower 


3 


8 


Shower, temperature controlled 


3 


20 


Sillcock, hose bibb 


5 


8 


Sink, residential 


2.5 


8 


Sink, service 


3 


8 


Urinal, valve 


15 


15 


Water closet, blow out, 
flushometer valve 


35 


25 


Water closet, flushometer tank 


1.6 


15 


Water closet, siphonic, 
flushometer valve 


25 


15 


Water closet, tank, close coupled 


3 


8 


Water closet, tank, one piece 


6 


20 



604.4 Maximum flow and water consumption. The maxi- 
mum water consumption flow rates and quantities for all 
plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall be in accordance 
with Table 604.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Blowout design water closets having a maximum I 
water consumption of 3.5 gallons (13 L) per flushing 
cycle. 

2. Vegetable sprays. 

3. Clinical sinks having a maximum water consumption I 
of 4.5 gallons (17 L) per flushing cycle. . I 

4. Service sinks. 

5. Emergency showers. 

TABLE 604.4 

MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION FOR 

PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



PLUMBING FIXTURE 
OR FIXTURE FITTING 


MAXIMUM FLOW RATE 
OR QUANTITY" 


Lavatory, private 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 


Lavatory, pubUc, (metering) 


0.25 gallon per metering cycle 


Lavatory, public 

(other than metering) 


0.5 gpm at 60 psi 


Shower head'' 


2.5 gpm at 80 psi 


Sink faucet 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 


Urinal 


1.0 gallon per flushing cycle 


Water closet 


1.6 gallons per flushing cycle 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 
a. For additional requirements for flow rates and quantities, see Section 604.4. 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. A hand-held shower spray is a shower head. 

b. Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standards. 

604.5 Size of fixture supply. The minimum size of a fixture 
supply pipe shall be as shown in Table 604.5. The fixture sup- 
ply pipe shall not terminate more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
from the point of connection to the fixture. A reduced-size flex- 
ible water connector installed between the supply pipe and the 
fixture shall be of an approved type. The supply pipe shall 
extend to the floor or wall adjacent to the fixture. The minimum 
size of individual distribution lines utilized in gridded or paral- 
lel water distribution systems shall be as shown in Table 604.5. 

604.6 Variable street pressures. Where street water main 
pressures fluctuate, the building water distribution system shall 
be designed for the minimum pressure available. 

604.7 Inadequate water pressure. Wherever water pressure 
from the street main or other source of supply is insufficient to 
provide flow pressures at fixture outlets as required under 
Table 604.3, a water pressure booster system conforming to 
Section 606.5 shall be installed on the building water supply 
system. 



38 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 604.5 
MINIMUM SIZES OF FIXTURE WATER SUPPLY PIPES 



FIXTURE 


MINIMUM PIPE SIZE 
(inch) 


Bathtubs^ (60" x 32" and smaller) 


\ 


Bathtubs^ (larger than 60" x 32'0 


% 


Bidet 


\ 


Combination sink and tray 


\ 


Dishwasher, domestic^ 


% 


Drinking fountain 


% 


Hose bibbs 


\ 


Kitchen sink* 


'k 


Laundry, 1, 2 or 3 compartments* 


% 


Lavatory 


% 


Shower, single head* 


% ■ 


Sinks, flushing rim 


% 


Sinks, service 


% 


Urinal, flush tank 


% 


Urinal, flush valve 


% 


Wall hydrant 


% 


Water closet, flush tank 


% 


Water closet, flush valve 


1 


Water closet, flushometer tank 


\ 


Water closet, one piece* 


% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Where the developed length of the distribution line is 60 feet or less, and the 
available pressure at the meter is a minimum of 35 psi, the minimura size of 
an individual distribution Une supplied from a manifold and installed as part 
of a parallel water distribution system shall be one nominal tube size smaller 
than the sizes indicated. 

604.8 Water-pressure reducing valve or regulator. Where 
water pressure within a building exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) 
statiCj an approved water-pressure reducing valve confomiing 
to ASSE 1003 with strainer shall be installed to reduce the pres- 
sure in the building water distribution piping to 80 psi (552 
kPa) static or less. 

Exception: Service lines to sill cocks and outside hydrants, 
and main supply risers where pressure from the mains is 
reduced to 80 psi (552 kPa) or less at individual fixtures. 

604.8.1 Valve design. The pressure-reducing valve shall be 
designed to remain open to permit uninterrupted water flow 
in case of valve failure. 

604.8.2 Repair and removal. All water-pressure reducing 
valves, regulators and strainers shall be so constructed and 
installed as to permit repair or removal of parts without 
breaking a pipeline or removing the valve and strainer from 
the pipeline. 

604.9 Water hammer. The flow velocity of the water distribu- 
tion system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of 



water hammer. A water-hammer arrestor shall be installed 
where quick-closing valves are utilized. Water-hammer 
arrestors shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's specifications. Water-hammer arrestors shall conform 
to ASSE 1010. 

604.10 Gridded and parallel water distribution system 
manifolds. Hot water and cold water manifolds installed with 
gridded or parallel connected individual distribution lines to 
each fixture or fixture fitting shall be designed in accordance 
with Sections 604.10.1 through 604.10.3. 

604.10.1 Manifold sizing. Hot water and cold water mani- 
folds shall be sized in accordance with Table 604. 10. 1 . The 
total gallons per minute is the demand of all outlets sup- 
plied. 

TABLE 604.10.1 
MANIFOLD SIZING 



NOMINAL SIZE 

INTERNAL DIAMETER 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEMAND (gpm) 


Velocity at 4 feet 
per second 


Velocity at 8 feet 
per second 


% 


2 


5 


% 


6 


11 


1 


10 


20 


IV4 


15 


31 


IV2 


22 


44 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 foot per second = 0.305 ni/s. 

604.10.2 Valves. Individual fixture shutoff valves installed 
at the manifold shall be identified as to the fixture being sup- 
plied. 

604.10.3 Access. Access shall be provided to manifolds. 

604.11 Individual pressure balancing in-line valves for 
individual fixture fittings. Where individual pressure balanc- 
ing in-line valves for individual fixture fittings are installed, 
such valves shall comply with ASSE 1066. Such valves shall be 
installed in an accessible location and shall not be utilized 
alone as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or 
combination shower valves required in Section 424.3. 



SECTION 605 
MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

605.1 Soil and ground water. The installation of a water ser- 
vice or water distribution pipe shall be prohibited in soil and 
ground water contaminated with solvents, fuels, organic com- 
pounds or other detrimental materials causing permeation, cor- 
rosion, degradation or structural failure of the piping material. 
Where detrimental conditions are suspected, a chemical analy- 
sis of the soil and ground water conditions shall be required to 
ascertain the acceptability of the water service or water distri- 
bution piping material for the specific installation. Where detri- 
mental conditions exist, approved alternative materials or 
routing shall be required. 

605.2 Lead content of water supply pipe and fittings. Pipe 
and pipe fittings, including valves and faucets, utilized in the 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



39 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



water supply system shall have a maximum of 8-percent lead 
content. 

605.3 Water service pipe. Water service pipe shall conform to 
NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards hsted in 
Table 605.3. All water service pipe or tubing, installed under- 
ground and outside of the structure, shall have a minimum 
working pressure rating of 160 psi (1 100 kPa) at 73.4°F (23°C). 
Where the water pressure exceeds 160 psi (1 100 kPa), piping 
material shall have a minimum rated working pressure equal to 
the highest available pressure. Water service piping materials 
not third-party certified for water distribution shall terminate at 
or before the full open valve located at the entrance to the struc- 
ture. All ductile iron water service piping shall be cement mor- 
tar lined in accordance with AWWA CI 04. 

605.3.1 Dual check-valve-type backflow preventer. 

Where a dual check- valve backflow preventer is installed on 
the water supply system, it shall comply with ASSE 1024 or 
CSA B64.6. 

605.4 Water distribution pipe. Water distribution pipe shall 
conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards 
listed in Table 605.4. All hot water distribution pipe and tubing 
shall have a minimum pressure rating of 100 psi (690 kPa) at 
180°F (82°C). 

605.5 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed and shall conform to the 



respective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
605.5. All pipe fittings utilized in water supply systems shall 
also conform to NSF 61. The fittings shall not have ledges, 
shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing 
flow in the piping. Ductile and gray iron pipe fittings shall be 
cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA C104. 

605.5.1 Mechanically formed tee fittings. Mechanically 
extracted outlets shall have a height not less than three times 
the thickness of the branch tube wall. 

605.5.1.1 Full flow assurance. Branch tubes shall not 
restrict the flow in the run tube. A dimple/depth stop shall 
be formed in the branch tube to ensure that penetration 
into the collar is of the correct depth. For inspection pur- 
poses, a second dimple shall be placed 0.25 inch (6.4 
mm) above the first dimple. Dimples shall be aligned 
with the tube run. 

605.5.1.2 Brazed joints. Mechanically formed tee fit- 
tings shall be brazed in accordance with Section 
605.14.1. 

605.6 Flexible water connectors. Flexible water connectors 
exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to ASME 
Al 12.18.6. Access shall be provided to all flexible water con- 
nectors. 



TABLE 605.3 
WATER SERVICE PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 1527; ASTM D 2282 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 296 


Brass pipe ' 


ASTM B 43 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B 137.6 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447 


Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; CSA B 137.5 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) pipe 


ASTM F 1281; CSA B137.10M 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-HDPE) 


ASTM F 1986 


Ductile iron water pipe 


AWWA C151; AWWA CI 15 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Polybutylene (PB) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 2662; ASTM D 2666; ASTM D 3309; CSA B137.8M 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2239; CSA B137.1 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic tubing 


ASTM D 2737; CSA B 137.1 


Polyethylene/aluminum/polethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe 


ASTM F 1282; CSA B 137.9 


Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing 


ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.il 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 1785; ASTM D 2241; ASTM D 2672; CSA B 137.3 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/316L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 



40 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 605.4 
WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447 


Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 877; CSA B 137.5 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) pipe 


ASTM F 1281; CSAB137.10M 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-HDPE) 


ASTM F 1986 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Polybutylene (PB) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 3309; CSA B137.8M 


Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) composite pipe 


ASTM F 1282 


Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing 


ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.il 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/31 6L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 



TABLE 605.5 
PIPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic 


ASTM D 2468 


Cast-iron 


ASME B16.4; ASME B16.12 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic 


ASTM F 437; ASTM F 438; ASTM F 439; CSA B 137.6 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASME B16.15; ASME B16.18; ASME B16.22; ASME B16.23; 
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-HDPE) 


ASTM F 1986 


Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 877; ASTM F 1807; ASTM F 1960; ASTM F 2080; 
ASTM F 2159; CSA B 137.5 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWA CI 10; AWWA C153 


Malleable iron 


ASMEB16.3 


Metal (brass) insert fittings for 

Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) and Cross-linked 
Polyethylene/ Aluminum/Polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) 


ASTM F 1974 


Polybutylene (PB) plastic 


CSAB137.8 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic 


ASTM D 2609; CSA B137.1 


Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing 


ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.il 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic 


ASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466; ASTM D 2467; CSA B 137.2 


Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel (Type 316/316L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Steel 


ASME B16.9; ASME B16.il; ASME B 16.28 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



41 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



605.7 Valves. All valves shall be of an approved type and com- 
patible with the type of piping material installed in the system. 
Ball valves, gate valves, globe valves and plug valves intended 
to supply drinking water shall meet the requirements of NSF 
61. 

605.8 Manufactured pipe nipples. Manufactured pipe nip- 
ples shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 605.8. 

TABLE 605.8 
MANUFACTURED PIPE NIPPLES 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Brass-, copper-, chromium-plated 


ASTM B 687 


Steel 


ASTM A 733 



605.9 Prohibited joints and connections. The following 
types of joints and connections shall be prohibited: 

1. Cement or concrete joints. 

2. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific 
installation. 

3. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic 
pipe. 

4. Saddle-type fittings. 

605.10 ABS plastic. Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.3. 

605.10.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on water 
pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall only be installed in 
underground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed only in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

605.10.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The 
joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be 
made in accordance with ASTM D 2235. Solvent-cement 
joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

605.10.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1 .20. 1 . Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.11 Asbestos-cement. Joints between asbestos-cement 
pipe or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same 
composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring con- 
forming to ASTM D 1869. 

605.12 Brass. Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall com- 
ply with Sections 605.12.1 through 605.12.4. 

605.12.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 . 8 . 

605.12.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 



605.12.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.12.4 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

605.13 Gray iron and ductile iron joints. Joints for gray and 
ductile iron pipe and fittings shall comply with AWWA CI 1 1 
and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

605.14 Copper pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.14.1 through 
605.14.5. 

605.14.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 . 8 . 

605.14.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.14.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of 
water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solder and 
fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical composition 
equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 

605.14.4 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.14.5 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

605.15 Copper tubing. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.15.1 through 
605.15.4. 

605.15.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 .8 . 

605.15.2 Flared joints. Flared joints for water pipe shall be 
made by a tool designed for that operation. 

605.15.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.15.4 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of 
water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solders 
and fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical composition 
equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 

605.16 CPVC plastic. Joints between CPVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.16.1 through 605.16.3. 



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605.16.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.16.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture, and an approved primer shall be 
applied. Solvent cement, orange in color and conforming to 
ASTM F 493, shall be apphed to all joint surfaces. The joint 
shall be made while the cement is wet, and in accordance 
with ASTM D 2846 or ASTM F 493. Solvent-cement joints 
shall be permitted above or below ground. 

Exception: A primer is not required where all of the fol- 
lowing conditions apply: 

1. The solvent cement used is third-party certified as 
conforming to ASTM F 493. 

2. The solvent cement used is yellow in color. 

3. The solvent cement is used only for joining Vj inch 
(12.7 mm) through 2 inch (51 mm) diameter 
CPVC pipe and fittings. 

4. The CPVC pipe and fittings are manufactured in 
accordance with ASTM D 2846. 

605.16.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe, but the pressure rating of the pipe shall be 
reduced by 50 percent. Thread by socket molded fittings 
shall be permitted. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall 
be applied on the male threads only. 

605.17 Cross-linked polyethylene plastic. Joints between 
cross-linked polyethylene plastic tubing or fittings shall com- 
ply with Sections 605.17.1 and 605.17.2. 

605.17.1 Flared joints. Flared pipe ends shall be made by a 
tool designed for that operation. 

605.17.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic 
tubing as described in ASTM F 877, ASTM F 1807, ASTM 
F 1960, and ASTM F 2080 shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.18 Steel. Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 605.18.1 and 605.18.2. 

605.18.1 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.18.2 Mechanical joints. Joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.19 Polybutylene plastic. Joints between polybutylene 
plastic pipe and tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 
605.19.1 through 605.19.3. 

605.19.1 Flared joints. Flared pipe ends shall be made by a 
tool designed for that operation. 

605.19.2 Heat-fusion joints. Joints shall be of the 
socket-fusion or butt-fusion type. Joint surfaces shall be 



clean and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be 
heated to melt temperature and joined. The joint shall be 
undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance 
with ASTM D 2657, ASTM D 3309 or CAN3-B137.8M. 

605.19.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. Metallic lock rings employed with insert fittings as 
described in ASTM D 3309 or CAN3-B137.8M shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.20 Polyethylene plastic. Joints between polyethylene 
plastic pipe and tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 
605.20.1 through 605.20.4. 

605.20.1 Flared joints. Flared joints shall be permitted 
where so indicated by the pipe manufacturer. Flared joints 
shall be made by a tool designed for that operation. 

605.20.2 Heat-fusion joints. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be heated to 
melt temperature and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed 
until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 
2657. 

605.20.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.20.4 Installation. Polyethylene pipe shall be cut 
square, with a cutter designed for plastic pipe. Except where 
joined by heat fusion, pipe ends shall be chamfered to 
remove sharp edges. Kinked pipe shall not be installed. The 
minimum pipe bending radius shall not be less than 30 pipe 
diameters, or the minimum coil radius, whichever is greater. 
Piping shall not be bent beyond straightening of the curva- 
ture of the coil. Bends shall not be permitted within 10 pipe 
diameters of any fitting or valve. Stiffener inserts installed 
with compression-type couplings and fittings shall not 
extend beyond the clamp or nut of the coupling or fitting. 

605.21 Polypropylene (PP) plastic. Joints between PP plastic 
pipe and fittings shall comply with Section 605.21.1 or 
605.21.2. 

605.21.1 Heat-fusion joints. Heat-fusion joints for poly- 
propylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with 
socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings, butt-fusion 
polypropylene fittings or electrofusion polypropylene fit- 
tings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. 
The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be 
made in accordance with ASTM F 2389. 

605.21.2 Mechanical and compression sleeve joints. 

Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.22 PVC plastic. Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.22.1 through 605.22.3. 

605.22.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on water 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in 
above-ground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 



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605.22.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in 
color and conforming to ASTM D 2564 or CSA-B 137.3 
shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made 
while the cement is wet and shall be in accordance with 
ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted 
above or below ground. 

605.22.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe, but the pressure rating of the pipe shall be 
reduced by 50 percent. Thread by socket molded fittings 
shall be permitted. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall 
be applied on the male threads only. 

605.23 Stainless steel. Joints between stainless steel pipe and 
fittings shall comply with Sections 605.23.1 and 605.23.2. 

605.23.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.23.2 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded autogenously or with an approved 
filler metal as referenced in ASTM A 312. 

605.24 Joints between different materials. Joints between 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type, or as per- 
mitted in Sections 605.24.1, 605.24.2 and 605.24.3. Connec- 
tors or adapters shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 1869 or ASTM F 477. Joints shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.24.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized 
steel pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing 
and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass fitting 
or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be soldered to 
the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be 
screwed to the threaded pipe. 

605.24.2 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material. 

Joints between different grades of plastic pipe or between 
plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an 
approved adapter fitting. 

605.24.3 Stainless steel. Joints between stainless steel and 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical sealing type or a 
dielectric fitting. 



SECTION 606 

INSTALLATION OF THE BUILDING 

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

606.1 Location of full-open valves. Full-open valves shall be 
installed in the following locations: 

1 . On the building water service pipe from the public water 
supply near the curb. 

2. On the water distribution supply pipe at the entrance into 
the structure. 

3. On the discharge side of every water meter. 



4. On the base of every water riser pipe in occupancies 
other than multiple-family residential occupancies that 
are two stories or less in height and in one- and two-fam- 
ily residential occupancies. 

5 . On the top of every water down-feed pipe in occupancies 
other than one- and two-family residential occupancies. 

6. On the entrance to every water supply pipe to a dwelling 
unit, except where supplying a single fixture equipped 
with individual stops. 

7. On the water supply pipe to a gravity or pressurized 
water tank. 

8. On the water supply pipe to every water heater. 

606.2 Location of shutoff valves. Shutoff valves shall be 
installed in the following locations: 

1 . On the fixture supply to each plumbing fixture other than 
bathtubs and showers in one- and two-family residential 
occupancies, and other than in individual sleeping units 
that are provided with unit shutoff valves in hotels, 
motels, boarding houses and similar occupancies. 

2. On the water supply pipe to each sillcock. 

3. On the water supply pipe to each appliance or mechani- 
cal equipment. 

606.3 Access to valves. Access shall be provided to all 
full-open valves and shutoff valves. 

606.4 Valve identification. Service and hose bibb valves shall 
be identified. All other valves installed in locations that are not 
adjacent to the fixture or appliance shall be identified, indicat- 
ing the fixture or appliance served. 

606.5 Water pressure booster systems. Water pressure 
booster systems shall be provided as required by Sections 
606.5.1 through 606.5.10. 

606.5.1 Water pressure booster systems required. Where 
the water pressure in the pubUc water main or individual 
water supply system is insufficient to supply the minimum 
pressures and quantities specified in this code, the supply 
shall be supplemented by an elevated water tank, a 
hydropneumatic pressure booster system or a water pres- 
sure booster pump installed in accordance with Section 
606.5.5. 

606.5.2 Support. All water supply tanks shall be supported 
in accordance with the International Building Code. 

606.5.3 Covers. All water supply tanks shall be covered to 
keep out unauthorized persons, dirt and vermin. The covers 
of gravity tanks shall be vented with a return bend vent pipe 
with an area not less than the area of the down-feed riser 
pipe, and the vent shall be screened with a corrosion-resis- 
tant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch (630 by 
787 mesh per m). 

606.5.4 Overflows for water supply tanks. Each gravity or 
suction water supply tank shall be provided with an over- 
flow with a diameter not less than that shown in Table 
606.5.4. The overflow outlet shall discharge at a point not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the roof or roof drain; 
floor or floor drain; or over an open water-supplied fixture. 



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The overflow outlet shall be covered with a corrosion-resis- 
tant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch (630 by 
787 mesh per m) and by 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) hardware cloth 
or shall terminate in a horizontal angle seat check valve. 
Drainage from overflow pipes shall be directed so as not to 
freeze on roof walks. 

TABLE 606.5.4 
SIZES FOR OVERFLOW PIPES FOR WATER SUPPLY TANKS 



MAXIMUM CAPACITY OF WATER 
SUPPLY LINE TO TANK (gpm) 


DIAMETER OF OVERFLOW PIPE 
(inches) 


0-50 


2 


50 - 150 


1\ 


150 - 200 


3 


200 - 400 


4 


400-700 


5 


700-1,000 


6 


Over 1,000 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

606.5.5 Low-pressure cutoff required on booster pumps. 

A low-pressure cutoff shall be installed on all booster 
pumps in a water pressure booster system to prevent cre- 
ation of a vacuum or negative pressure on the suction side of 
the pump when a positive pressure of 10 psi (68.94 kPa) or 
less occurs on the suction side of the pump. 

606.5.6 Potable water inlet control and location. Potable 
water inlets to gravity tanks shall be controlled by a fill valve 
or other automatic supply valve installed so as to prevent the 
tank from overflowing. The inlet shall be terminated so as to 
provide an air gap not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the 
overflow. 

606.5.7 Tank drain pipes. A valved pipe shall be provided 
at the lowest point of each tank to permit emptying of the 
tank. The tank drain pipe shall discharge as required for 
overflow pipes and shall not be smaller in size than specified 
in Table 606.5.7. 

TABLE 606.5.7 
SIZE OF DRAIN PIPES FOR WATER TANKS 



TANK CAPACITY (gallons) 


DRAIN PIPE (Inches) 


Up to 750 


1 


751 to 1,500 


\% 


1,501 to 3,000 


2 


3,001 to 5,000 


2\ 


5,000 to 7,500 


3 


Over 7,500 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

606.5.8 Prohibited location of potable supply tanks. 

Potable water gravity tanks or manholes of potable water 
pressure tanks shall not be located directly under any soil or 
waste piping or any source of contamination. 



606.5.9 Pressure tanks, vacuum relief. All water pressure 
tanks shall be provided with a vacuum relief valve at the top 
of the tank that will operate up to a maximum water pressure 
of 200 psi (1380 kPa) and up to a maximum temperature of 
200°F (93°C). The minimum size of such vacuum relief 
valve shall be 0.50 inch (12.7 mm). 

Exception: This section shall not apply to pressurized 
captive air diaphragm/bladder tanks. 

606.5.10 Pressure relief for tanks. Every pressure tank in a 
hydropneumatic pressure booster system shall be protected 
with a pressure relief valve. The pressure relief valve shall 
be set at a maximum pressure equal to the rating of the tank. 
The relief valve shall be installed on the supply pipe to the 
tank or on the tank. The relief valve shall discharge by grav- 
ity to a safe place of disposal. 

606.6 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a sec- 
tion of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion 
completed, shall be tested in accordance with Section 312. 



SECTION 607 
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 

607.1 Where required. In residential occupancies, hot water 
shall be supphed to all plumbing fixtures and equipment uti- 
lized for bathing, washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laun- 
dry or building maintenance. In nonresidential occupancies, 
hot water shall be supplied for culinary purposes, cleansing, 
laundry or building maintenance purposes. In nonresidential 
occupancies, hot water or tempered water shall be supphed for 
bathing and washing purposes. Tempered water shall be sup- 
plied through a water temperature limiting device that con- 
forms to ASSE 1070 and shall limit the tempered water to a 
maximum of 1 10°F (43°C). This provision shall not supersede 
the requirement for protective shower valves in accordance 
with Section 424.3. 

607.2 Hot water supply temperature maintenance. Where 
the developed length of hot water piping from the source of hot 
water supply to the farthest fixture exceeds 100 feet (30 480 
mm), the hot water supply system shall be provided with a 
method of maintaining the temperature in accordance with the 
International Energy Conservation Code. 

607.2.1 Piping insulation. Circulating hot water system 
piping shall be insulated in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Energy Conservation Code. 

[E] 607.2.2 Hot water system controls. Automatic circu- 
lating hot water system pumps or heat trace shall be 
arranged to be conveniently turned off, automatically or 
manually, when the hot water system is not in operation. 

607.2.3 Recirculating pump. Where a thermostatic mixing 
valve is used in a system with a hot water recirculating 
pump, the hot water or tempered water return line shall be 
routed to the cold water inlet pipe of the water heater and the 
cold water inlet pipe or the hot water return connection of 
the thermostatic mixing valve. 

607.3 Thermal expansion control. A means of controlling 
increased pressure caused by thermal expansion shall be pro- 



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vided where required in accordance with Sections 607.3.1 and 
607.3.2. 

607.3.1 Pressure-reducing valve. For water service system 
sizes up to and including 2 inches (5 1 mm), a device for con- 
trolling pressure shall be installed where, because of ther- 
mal expansion, the pressure on the downstream side of a 
pressure-reducing valve exceeds the pressure-reducing 
valve setting. 

607.3.2 Backflow prevention device or clieck valve. 

Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other 
device is installed on a water supply system utilizing storage 
water heating equipment such that thermal expansion 
causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling pres- 
sure shall be installed. 

607.4 Flow of hot water to fixtures. Fixture fittings, faucets 
and diverters shall be installed and adjusted so that the flow of 
hot water from the fittings corresponds to the left-hand side of 
the fixture fitting. 

Exception: Shower and tub/shower mixing valves con- 
forming to ASSE 1016 or CSA B 125, where the flow of hot 
water corresponds to the markings on the device. 



SECTION 608 
PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 

608.1 General. A potable water supply system shall be 
designed, installed and maintained in such a manner so as to 
prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or gases 
being introduced into the potable water supply through 
cross-connections or any other piping connections to the sys- 
tem. Backflow preventer applications shall conform to Table 
608.1, except as specifically stated in Sections 608.2 through 
608.16.10. 

608.2 Plumbing fixtures. The supply lines and fittings for 
every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent 
backflow. Plumbing fixture fittings shall provide backflow 
protection in accordance with ASME Al 12.18.1. 

608.3 Devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus. 

All devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus intended 
to serve some special function, such as sterilization, distilla- 
tion, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or foods, and that 
connect to the water supply system, shall be provided with pro- 
tection against backflow and contamination of the water supply 
system. Water pumps, filters, softeners, tanks and all other 
appliances and devices that handle or treat potable water shall 
be protected against contamination. 

608.3.1 Special equipment, water supply protection. The 

water supply for hospital fixtures shall be protected against 
backflow with a reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer, an atmospheric or spill-proof vacuum breaker, or 
an air gap. Vacuum breakers for bedpan washer hoses shall 
not be located less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. 
Vacuum breakers for hose connections in health care or lab- 
oratory areas shall not be less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above 
the floor. 

608.4 Water service piping. Water service piping shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Sections 603.2 and 603.2.1. 



608.5 Chemicals and other substances. Chemicals and other 
substances that produce either toxic conditions, taste, odor or 
discoloration in a potable water system shall not be introduced 
into, or utilized in, such systems. 

608.6 Cross-connection control. Cross connections shall be 
prohibited, except where approved protective devices are 
installed. 

608.6.1 Private water supplies. Cross connections 
between a private water supply and a potable public supply 
shall be prohibited. 

608.7 Stop-and-waste valves prohibited. Combination 
stop-and-waste valves or cocks shall not be installed under- 
ground. 

608.8 Identification of potable and nonpotable water. In all 

buildings where two or more water distribution systems, one 
potable water and the other nonpotable water, are installed, 
each system shall be identified either by color marking or metal 
tags in accordance with Sections 608.8.1 through 608.8.3. 

608.8.1 Information. Pipe identification shall include the 
contents of the piping system and an arrow indicating the 
direction of flow. Hazardous piping systems shall also con- 
tain information addressing the nature of the hazard. Pipe 
identification shall be repeated at maximum intervals of 25 
feet (7620 mm) and at each point where the piping passes 
through a wall, floor or roof. Lettering shall be readily 
observable within the room or space where the piping is 
located. 

608.8.2 Color. The color of the pipe identification shall be 
discemable and consistent throughout the building. 

608.8.3 Size. The size of the background color field and let- 
tering shall comply with Table 608.8.3. 

TABLE 608.8.3 
SIZE OF PIPE IDENTIFICATION 



PIPE DIAMETER 
(inches) 


LENGTH BACKGROUND 

COLOR FIELD 

(inches) 


SIZE OF 
LETTERS 
(inches) 


3/4 to 11/4' 


8 


0.5' 


lV2to2 


8 


0.75 


2V, to 6 


12 


1.25 


8 to 10 


24 


2.5 


over 10 


32 


3.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

608.9 Reutilization prohibited. Water utilized for the cooling 
of equipment or other processes shall not be returned to the 
potable water system. Such water shall be discharged into a 
drainage system through an air gap or shall be utilized for non- 
potable purposes. 

608.10 Reuse of piping. Piping that has been utilized for any 
purpose other than conveying potable water shall not be uti- 
lized for conveying potable water. 

608.11 Painting of water tanks. The interior surface of a pota- 
ble water tank shall not be lined, painted or repaired with any 
material that changes the taste, odor, color or potability of the 
water supply when the tank is placed in, or returned to, service. 



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TABLE 608.1 
APPLICATION OF BACKFLOW PREVENTERS 




DEVICE 


DEGREE OF HAZARD^ 


APPLICATION" 


APPLICABLE STANDARDS 


Air gap 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 


ASMEA112.1.2 


Air gap fittings for use with plumbing 
fixtures, appliances and appurtenances 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 


ASMEA112.1.3 


Antisiphon-type fill valves for gravity 
water closet flush tanks 


High hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


ASSE1002,CSAB125 


Backflow preventer for carbonated 
beverage machines , 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 1/4"- 3//' 


ASSE1022,CSAB64.3.1 


Backflow preventer with intermediate 
atmospheric vents 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 1/4" - 3/4" 


ASSE 1012, CSA B64.3 


Barometric loop 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


(See Section 608.13.4) 


Double check backflow prevention 
assembly and double check fire 
protection backflow prevention assembly 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes %" - 16" 


ASSE 1015, AWWAC510, 
CSAB64.5,CSAB64.5.1 


Double check detector fire protection 
backflow prevention assembhes 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
(Fire sprinkler systems) 
Sizes 2" - 16" 


ASSE 1048 


Dual-check-valve-type backflow preventer 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 1/4" - 1" 


ASSE 1024, CSA B64.6 


Hose connection backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure, rated 
working pressure, backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes 1/2"-!" 


ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2. 1.1 


Hose connection vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes V2", 3/4", 1" 


ASSE 1011, CSA B64.2, 
CSAB64.2.1 


Laboratory faucet backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure and 
backsiphonage 


ASSE 1035, CSA B64.7 


Pipe-applied atmospheric-type vacuum 
breaker 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes V4"- 4" 


ASSE 1001, CSA B64.1.1 


Pressure vacuum breaker assembly 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 

Sizes V2"- 2" 


ASSE 1020, CSA B64. 1.2 


Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer and reduced pressure principle 
fire protection backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes Vg"- 16" 


ASSE 1013, AWWAC511, 
CSAB64.4,CSAB64.4.1 


Reduced pressure detector fire protection 
backflow prevention assembhes 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 
(Pure sprinkler systems) 


ASSE 1047 


Spillproof vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes .V4"-2" 


ASSE 1056 


Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, 
frost-resistant, automatic draining type 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes %", 1" 


ASSE 1019, CSA B64.2.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Low hazard-See Pollution (Section 202). 
High hazard-See Contamination (Section 202). 

b. See Backpressure (Section 202). 

See Backpressure, low head (Section 202). 
See Backsiphonage (Section 202). 



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608.12 Pumps and other appliances. Water pumps, filters, 
softeners, tanks and all other devices that handle or treat pota- 
ble water shall be protected against contamination. 

608.13 Backflow protection. Means of protection against 
backflow shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
608.13.1 through 608.13.9. 

608.13.1 Air gap. The minimum required air gap shall be 
measured vertically from the lowest end of a potable water 
outlet to the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle into 
which such potable water outlet discharges. Air gaps shall 
comply with ASME Al 12. 1 .2 and air gap fittings shall com- 
ply with ASME Al 12. 1.3. 

608.13.2 Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventers. Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventers shall conform to ASSE 1013, AWWA C511, 
CSA B64.4 or CSA B64.4.1. Reduced pressure detector 
assembly backflow preventers shall conform to ASSE 1047. 
These devices shall be permitted to be installed where sub- 
ject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening 
shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being 
submerged. 

608.13.3 Backflow preventer with intermediate atmo- 
spheric vent. Backflow preventers with intermediate atmo- 
spheric vents shall conform to ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.3. 
These devices shall be permitted to be installed where sub- 
ject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening 
shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being 
submerged. 

608.13.4 Barometric loop. Barometric loops shall precede 
the point of connection and shall extend vertically to a 
height of 35 feet (10 668 mm). A barometric loop shall only 
be utilized as an atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum 
breaker. 

608.13.5 Pressure-type vacuum breakers. Pressure-type 
vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1020 or CSA 
B64.1.2 and spillproof vacuum breakers shall comply with 
ASSE 1056. These devices are designed for installation 
under continuous pressure conditions when the critical level 
is installed at the required height. Pressure-type vacuum 
breakers shall not be installed in locations where spillage 
could cause damage to the structure. 

608.13.6 Atmospheric-type vacuum breakers. Pipe- 
applied atmospheric-type vacuum breakers shall conform 
to ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. Hose-connection vacuum 
breakers shall conform to ASSE 1011, ASSE 1019, ASSE 
1035, ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2, CSA B64.2.1, CSA 
B64.2. 1.1, CSA B64.2.2 or CSA B64.7. These devices shall 
operate under normal atmospheric pressure when the criti- 
cal level is installed at the required height. 

608.13.7 Double check-valve assembUes. Double check- 
valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1015, CSA B64.5, 
CSA B64.5.1 or AWWA C510. Double-detector 
check- valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1048. These 
devices shall be capable of operating under continuous pres- 
sure conditions. 

608.13.8 Spillproof vacuum breakers. Spillproof vacuum 
breakers (SVB) shall conform to ASSE 1056. These devices 



are designed for installation under continuous-pressure 
conditions when the critical level is installed at the required 
height. 

608.13.9 Chemical dispenser backflow devices. Back- 
flow devices for chemical dispensers shall comply with 
ASSE 1055 or shall be equipped with an air gap fitting. 

608.14 Location of backflow preventers. Access shall be pro- 
vided to backflow preventers as specified by the installation 
instructions of the approved manufacturer. 

608.14.1 Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention 
devices. Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention 
devices shall comply with ASSE 1060. 

608.15 Protection of potable water outlets. All potable water 
openings and outlets shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.15.1, 608.15.2, 608.15.3, 
608.15.4, 608.15.4.1 or 608.15.4.2. 

608.15.1 Protection by air gap. Openings and outlets shall 
be protected by an air gap between the opening and the fix- 
ture flood level rim as specified in Table 608. 1 5. 1 . Openings 
and outlets equipped for hose connection shall be protected 
by means other than an air gap. 

608.15.2 Protection by a reduced pressure principle 
backflow preventer. Openings and outlets shall be pro- 
tected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

608.15.3 Protection by a backflow preventer with inter- 
mediate atmospheric vent. Openings and outlets shall be 
protected by a backflow preventer with an intermediate 
atmospheric vent. 

608.15.4 Protection by a vacuum breaker. Openings and 
outlets shall be protected by atmospheric-type or pres- 
sure-type vacuum breakers. The critical level of the vacuum 
breaker shall be set a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above 
the flood level rim of the fixture or device. Fill valves shall 
be set in accordance with Section 425 .3 . 1 . Vacuum breakers 
shall not be installed under exhaust hoods or similar loca- 
tions that will contain toxic fumes or vapors. Pipe-applied 
vacuum breakers shall be installed not less than 6 inches 
(152 mm) above the flood level rim of the fixture, receptor 
or device served. 

608.15.4.1 Deck-mounted and integral vacuum 
breakers. Approved deck-mounted or equip- 
ment-mounted vacuum breakers and faucets with inte- 
gral atmospheric or spillproof vacuum breakers shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions and the requirements for labeling with the critical 
level not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the flood level 
rim. 

608.15.4.2 Hose connections. Sillcocks, hose bibbs, 
wall hydrants