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Full text of "ICC IBC (2009): International Building Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

$3T All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 

this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 

reference and that failure to comply with such 

requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 

to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 

the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 

responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 

the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 

and in the states and cities contained therein. ~^k 

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* 

ICC IBC (2009), the International Building Code, 
as mandated and incorporated by the States and 
Municipalities including Alabama, Florida, 
Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, 
Montana, Las Vegas (Nevada) , New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North 
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, Utah, West Virginia, Wisconsin, 
et. alia. 



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INTERNATIONAL CODE FAMILY^ 




INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE' 




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A MEMBER OF THE INTERNATIONAL CODE FAMILY® 



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INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL 8 



INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 










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2009 International Building Code® 



First Printing: February 2009 



ISBN: 978-1-58001-725-1 (soft-cover edition) 
ISBN: 978-1-58001-724-4 (loose-leaf edition) 



COPYRIGHT © 2009 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2009 International Building Code®is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Coun- 
cil, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or trans- 
mitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example, and 
not limitation, photocopying or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy 
material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 
1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Building Code" are trade- 
marks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date building code addressing the design and installation of 
building systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Building Code® in this 2009 edition, is 
designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large 
and small. 

This comprehensive building code establishes minimum regulations for building systems using prescriptive and perfor- 
mance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building 
designs. This 2009 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes @(l -Codes (p> published by the International Code 
Council (ICC) @, including the International Energy Conservation Code @ International Existing Building Code @ International 
Fire Code @ International Fuel Gas Code @ International Mechanical Code (2) ICC Performance Code @ International Plumbing 
Code @ International Private Sewage Disposal Code @ International Property Maintenance Code @ International Residential 
Code @ International Wildland-Urban Interface Code™ and International Zoning Code® 

The International Building Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that 
offers an international forum for building professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum pro- 
vides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application 
of provisions. 

Development 

The first edition of the International Building Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1997 by the ICC. This 
included five drafting subcommittees appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the 
International Code Council at that time, including: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), Inter- 
national Conference of Building Officials (1CBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to 
draft a comprehensive set of regulations for building systems consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. 
Technical content of the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development, 
followed by public hearings in 1997, 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed changes. This 2009 edition presents the code as originally 
issued, with changes reflected in the 2003 and 2006 editions and further changes approved through the ICC Code Development Pro- 
cess through 2008. A new edition such as this is promulgated every 3 years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a building code that adequately 
protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not 
restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 

Adoption 

The International Building Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental 
jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing thejurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local 
information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in 
the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page xv addresses several key elements of a code adoption 
ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

Maintenance 

The International Building Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, 
industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an 
open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that 
enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Develop- 
ment Department of the International Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Building Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC, its members and 
those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the 
provisions because ICC does not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the 
governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 

2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® iii 



Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers 

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Development Hearings by the applicable 
ICC Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on the 
proposed change. Proposed changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a dif- 
ferent code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that have [F] in front of them (e.g., [F] 
903.1.1.1) are considered by the ICC Fire Code Development Committee at the code development hearings. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation are maintained by another code development committee in 
accordance with the following : 

\E\ = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee; 

[EB] = International Existing Building Code Development Committee; 

[F] = International Fire Code Development Committee; 

[FG] = International Fuel Gas Code Development Committee; 

[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; and 

[P] = International Plumbing Code Development Committee. 

Marginal Markings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2006 edition. 
Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow (■► ) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table 
has been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted. 

Chapter 7 user note: Chapter 7 of the code has been reorganized from the 2006 edition as a result of an approved code change 
proposal. This proposal renumbered what was Section 714 in the 2006 edition to Section 704 in this edition, which in turn resulted in 
renumbering Sections 704 through 713 in the 2006 edition to Sections 705 through 714 in this edition. Marginal markings are 
included at each section number but have not been included to reflect the subsection renumbering. 

Coordination between the International Building and Fire Codes 

Because the coordination of technical provisions is one of the benefits of adopting the ICC family of model codes, users will find the 
ICC codes to be a very flexible set of model documents. To accomplish this flexibility some technical provisions are duplicated in 
some of the model code documents. While the International Codes are provided as a comprehensive set of model codes for the built 
environment, documents are occasionally adopted as a stand-alone regulation. When one of the model documents is adopted as the 
basis of a stand-alone code, that code should provide a complete package of requirements with enforcement assigned to the entity 
for which the adoption is being made. 

The model codes can also be adopted as a family of complimentary codes. When adopted together there should be no conflict of 
any of the technical provisions. When multiple model codes are adopted in ajurisdiction it is important for the adopting authority to 
evaluate the provisions in each code document and determine how and by which agency(ies) they will be enforced. It is important, 
therefore, to understand that where technical provisions are duplicated in multiple model documents that enforcement duties must 
be clearly assigned by the local adoptingjurisdiction. ICC remains committed to providing state-of-the-art model code documents 
that, when adopted locally, will reduce the cost to government of code adoption and enforcement and protect the public health, 
safety and welfare. 

Italicized Terms 

Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text (except those in Sections 1903 
through 1908 where italics indicate provisions that differ from ACI 318). Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth 
in Chapter 2 does not impart the intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should 
read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Effective Use of the International Building Code 



The International Building Code @(IBC(£) is a model code that provides minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, 
safety and general welfare of the occupants of new and existing buildings and structures. The IBC is fully compatible with the ICC 
family of codes, including: International Energy Conservation CWe®(IECC(8), International Existing Building Code®(IEBC($), 
International Fire Code®(lFC®), International Fuel Gas Code® (IFGC (S), International Mechanical Code® (IMC®), ICC Perfor- 
mance Code®(ICCPC($), International Plumbing Code® (IPC (§), International Private Sewage Disposal Code®(IPSDC($), Interna- 
tional Property Maintenance Code® (IPMC(S), International Residential Code® (IRC(§), International Wildland-Urban Interface 
Code™ (IWUICd) and International Zoning Code® (IZCd). 

The IBC addresses structural strength, means of egress, sanitation, adequate lighting and ventilation, accessibility, energy con- 
servation and life safety in regards to new and existing buildings, facilities and systems. The codes are promulgated on a 3-year cycle 
to allow for new construction methods and technologies to be incorporated into the codes. Alternative materials, designs and meth- 
ods not specifically addressed in the code can be approved by the code official where the proposed materials, designs or methods 
comply with the intent of the provisions of the code (see Section 104.11). 

The IBC applies to all occupancies, including one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses that are not within the scope of the 
IRC. The IRC is referenced for coverage of detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses as defined in the Exception to 
Section 101.2 and the definition for "townhouse" in Chapter 2. The IBC applies to all types of buildings and structures unless 
exempted. Work exempted from permits is listed in Section 105.2. 

Arrangement and Format of the 2009 IBC 

Before applying the requirements of the IBC, it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and format. The IBC, like other codes 
published by ICC, is arranged and organized to follow sequential steps that generally occur during a plan review or inspection. 



Chapters 


Subjects 


1-2 


Administration and definitions 


3 


Use and occupancy classifications 


4,31 


Special requirements for specific occupancies or elements 


5-6 


Height and area limitations based on type of construction 


7-9 


Fire resistance and protection requirements 


10 


Requirements for evacuation 


11 


Specific requirements to allow use and access to a building for persons with disabilities 


12-13,27-30 


Building systems, such as lighting, HVAC, plumbing fixtures, elevators 


14-26 


Structural components-performance and stability 


32 


Encroachment outside of property lines 


33 


Safeguards during construction 


34 


Existing building allowances 


35 


Referenced standards 


Appendices A-K 


Appendices 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



The IBC requirements for high hazard, fire-resistance-rated construction, interior finish, fire protection systems, means of 
egress, emergency and standby power, and temporary structures are directly correlated with the requirements of the IFC. The fol- 
lowing chapters/sections of the IBC are correlated to the IFC: 



IBC 
Chapter/Section 


IFC 
Chapter/Section 


Subject 


Sections 307,414,415 


Chapters 27-44 


High-hazard requirements 


Chapter 7 


Chapter 7 


Fire- resistance- rated construction 


Chapter 8 


Chapter 8 


Interior finish, decorative materials and furnishings 


Chapter 9 


Chapter 9 


Fire protection systems 


Chapter 10 


Chapter 10 


Means of egress 


Chapter 27 


Section 604 


Standby and emergency power 


Section 3103 


Chapter 24 


Temporary structures 



The IBC requirements for smoke control systems, and smoke and fire dampers are directly correlated to the requirements of the 
IMC. IBC Chapter 28 is a reference to the IMC and the IFGC for chimney, fireplaces and barbeques, and all aspects of mechanical 
systems. The following chapters/sections of the IBC are correlated with the IMC: 



IBC 
Chapter/Section 


IMC 
Chapter/Section 


Subject 


Section 716 


Section 607 


Smoke and fire dampers 


Section 909 


Section 513 


Smoke control 



The IBC requirements for plumbing fixtures and toilet rooms are directly correlated to the requirements of the IPC. The following 
chapters/sections of the IBC are correlated with the IPC: 



IBC 
Chapter/Section 


IPC 
Chapter/Section 


Subject 


Chapter 29 


Chapters 3 & 4 


Plumbing fixtures and facilities 



The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the International Building Code. 

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. Chapter 1 establishes the limits of applicability of the code and describes how the code is to 
be applied and enforced. Chapter 1 is in two parts, Part I-Scope and Application (Sections 101-102) and Part 2-Administration 
and Enforcement (Sections 103-1 16). Section 101 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview and references 
other ICC codes as applicable. Standards and codes are scoped to the extent referenced (see Section 102.4). 

The building code is intended to be adopted as a legally enforceable document and it cannot be effective without adequate provi- 
sions for its administration and enforcement. The provisions of Chapter 1 establish the authority and duties of the code official 
appointed by thejurisdiction having authority and also establish the rights and privileges of the design professional, contractor and 
property owner. 

Chapter 2 Definitions. All terms that are defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2. Terms are defined in Chapter 2 
or there is a reference to the section where the definition is located. While a defined term may be listed in one chapter or another, the 
meaning is applicable throughout the code. 

Codes are technical documents and every word, term and punctuation mark can impact the meaning of the code text and the 
intended results. The code often uses terms that have a unique meaning in the code and the code meaning can differ substantially 
from the ordinarily understood meaning of the term as used outside of the code. Where understanding of a term's definition is espe- 
cially key to or necessary for understanding a particular code provision, the term is shown in italics wherever it appears in the code. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally understood meaning 
of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning prescribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the 
code-defined meaning be known. 

Definitions are deemed to be of prime importance in establishing the meaning and intent of the code text that uses the terms. The 
user of the code should be familiar with and consult this chapter because the definitions are essential to the correct interpretation of 
the code and because the user may not be aware that a term is defined. 

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification. Chapter 3 provides for the classification of buildings, structures and parts thereof 
based on the purpose or purposes for which they are used. Section 302 identifies the groups into which all buildings, structures and 
parts thereof must be classified. Sections 303 through 312 identify the occupancy characteristics of each group classification. In 
some sections, specific group classifications having requirements in common are collectively organized such that one term applies 
to all. For example, Groups A-I, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5 are individual groups for assembly-type buildings. The general term 
"Group A," however, includes each of these individual groups. Other groups include Business (B), Educational (E), Factory (F-l, 
F-2), High Hazard (H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5), Institutional (1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4), Mercantile (M), Residential (R-l, R-2, R-3, R-4), Stor- 
age (S-I, S-2) and Utility (U). In some occupancies, the smaller number means a higher hazard, but that is not always the case. 

Defining the use of the buildings is very important as it sets the tone for the remaining chapters of the code. Occupancy works 
with the height, area and construction type requirements in Chapters 5 and 6, as well as the special provisions in Chapter 4, to deter- 
mine" equivalent risk," or providing a reasonable level of protection or life safety for building occupants. The determination of 
equivalent risk involves three interdependent considerations: (1) the level of fire hazard associated with the specific occupancy of 
the facility; (2) the reduction of fire hazard by limiting the floor area(s) and the height of the building based on the fuel load (combus- 
tible contents and burnable building components) and (3) the level of overall fire resistance provided by the type of construction 
used for the building. The greater the potential fire hazards indicated as a function of the group, the lesser the height and area allow- 
ances for a particular construction type. 

Occupancy classification also plays a key part in organizing and prescribing the appropriate protection measures. As such, 
threshold requirements for fire protection and means of egress systems are based on occupancy classification (see Chapters 9 and 
10). Other sections of the code also contain requirements respective to the classification of building groups. For example, Section 
706 deals with requirements for fire wall fire-resistance ratings that are tied to the occupancy classification of a building and Section 
803.9 contains interior finish requirements that are dependent upon the occupancy classification. The use of the space, rather than 
the occupancy of the building is utilized for determining occupant loading (Section 1004) and live loading (Section 1607). 

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based On Use and Occupancy. Chapter 4 contains the requirements for protecting 
special uses and occupancies, which are supplemental to the remainder of the code. Chapter 4 contains provisions that may alter 
requirements found elsewhere in the code; however, the general requirements of the code still apply unless modified within the 
chapter. For example, the height and area limitations established in Chapter 5 apply to all special occupancies unless Chapter 4 con- 
tains height and area limitations. In this case, the limitations in Chapter 4 supersede those in other sections. An example of this is the 
height and area limitations for open parking garages given in Section 406.3.5, which supersede the limitations given in Section 503. 

In some instances, it may not be necessary to apply the provisions of Chapter 4. For example, if a covered mall building complies 
with the provisions of the code for Group M, Section 402 does not apply; however, other sections that deal with a use, process or 
operation must be applied to that specific occupancy, such as stages and platforms, special amusement buildings and hazardous 
materials (Sections 410,411 and 414). 

The chapter includes requirements for buildings and conditions that apply to one or more groups, such as high-rise buildings, 
underground buildings or atriums. Special uses may also imply specific occupancies and operations, such as for Group H, hazard- 
ous materials, application of flammable finishes, drying rooms, organic coatings and combustible storage or hydrogen cutoff 
rooms, all of which are coordinated with the IFC. Unique consideration is taken for special use areas, such as covered mall build- 
ings, motor-vehicle-related occupancies, special amusement buildings and aircraft-related occupancies. Special facilities within 
other occupancies are considered, such as stages and platforms, motion picture projection rooms and storm shelters. Finally, in 
order that the overall package of protection features can be easily understood, unique considerations for specific occupancies are 
addressed: Groups 1-1,1-2,1-3, R-l, R-2, R-3 (by definition R-4), ambulatory care facilities and live/work units. 

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas. Chapter 5 contains the provisions that regulate the minimum type of construc- 
tion for area limits and height limits based on the occupancy of the building. Height and area increases (including allowances for 
basements, mezzanines and equipment platforms) are permitted based on open frontage for fire department access, and the type of 
sprinkler protection provided and separation (Sections 503-506, 509). These thresholds are reduced for buildings over three stories 
in height in accordance with Section 506.4.1. Provisions include the protection and/or separation of incidental accessory occupan- 
cies (Table 508.2.5), accessory occupancies (Sections 508.2) and mixed uses in the same building (Sections 506.5, 508.3, 508.4 and 
509). Unlimited area buildings are permitted in certain occupancies when they meet special provisions (Section 507). 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Table 503 is the keystone in setting thresholds for building size based on the building's use and the materials with which it is con- 
structed. If one then looks at Table 503, the relationship among group classification, allowable heights and areas and types of con- 
struction becomes apparent. Respective to each group classification, the greater the fire-resistance rating of structural elements, as 
represented by the type of construction, the greater the floor area and height allowances. The greater the potential fire hazards indi- 
cated as a function of the group, the lesser the height and area allowances for a particular construction type. 

Chapter 6 Types of Construction. The interdependence of these fire safety considerations can be seen by first looking at Tables 
601 and 602, which show the fire-resistance ratings of the principal structural elements comprising a building in relation to the five 
classifications for types of construction. Type I construction is the classification that generally requires the highest fire-resistance 
ratings for structural elements, whereas Type V construction, which is designated as a combustible type of construction, generally 
requires the least amount of fire-resistance-rated structural elements. The greater the potential fire hazards indicated as a function of 
the group, the lesser the height and area allowances for a particular construction type. Section 603 includes a list of combustible ele- 
ments that can be part of a noncombustible building (Types I and II construction). 

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features. The provisions of Chapter 7 present the fundamental concepts of fire perfor- 
mance that all buildings are expected to achieve in some form. This chapter identifies the acceptable materials, techniques and meth- 
ods which proposed construction can be designed and evaluated against to determine a building's ability to limit the impact of fire. 
The fire-resistance-rated construction requirements within Chapter 7 provide passive resistance to the spread and effects of fire. 
Types of separations addressed include fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, horizontal assemblies, smoke barriers and smoke par- 
titions. A fire produces heat that can weaken structural components and smoke products that cause property damage and place occu- 
pants at risk. The requirements of Chapter 7 work in unison with height and area requirements (Chapter 5), active fire detection and 
suppression systems (Chapter 9) and occupant egress requirements (Chapter 10) to contain a fire should it occur while helping 
ensure occupants are able to safely exit. 

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes. This chapter contains the performance requirements for controlling fire growth within buildings by 
restricting interior finish and decorative materials. Past fire experience has shown that interior finish and decorative materials are 
key elements in the development and spread of fire. The provisions of Chapter 8 require materials used as interior finishes and deco- 
rations to meet certain flame-spread index or flame-propagation criteria based on the relative fire hazard associated with the occu- 
pancy. As smoke is also a hazard associated with fire, this chapter contains limits on the smoke development characteristics of 
interior finishes. The performance of the material is evaluated based on test standards. 

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems. Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active systems of fire protection equip- 
ment to perform the following functions: detect a fire; alert the occupants or fire department of a fire emergency; and control smoke 
and control or extinguish the fire. Generally, the requirements are based on the occupancy, the height and the area of the building, 
because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard of a specific building or portion 
thereof. This chapter parallels and is substantially duplicated in Chapter 9 of the International Fire Code (IFC); however, the IFC 
Chapter 9 also contains periodic testing criteria that are not contained in the IBC. In addition, the special fire protection system 
requirements based on use and occupancy found in IBC Chapter 4 are duplicated in IFC Chapter 9 as a user convenience. 

Chapter 10 Means of Egress. The general criteria set forth in Chapter 10 regulating the design of the means of egress are estab- 
lished as the primary method for protection of people in buildings by allowing timely relocation or evacuation of building occu- 
pants. Both prescriptive and performance language is utilized in this chapter to provide for a basic approach in the determination of a 
safe exiting system for all occupancies. It addresses all portions of the egress system (i.e., exit access, exits and exit discharge) and 
includes design requirements as well as provisions regulating individual components. The requirements detail the size, arrange- 
ment, number and protection of means of egress components. Functional and operational characteristics also are specified for the 
components that will permit their safe use without special knowledge or effort. The means of egress protection requirements work 
in coordination with other sections of the code, such as protection of vertical openings (see Chapter 7), interior finish (see Chapter 
8), fire suppression and detection systems (see Chapter 9) and numerous others, all having an impact on life safety. Chapter 10 of the 
IBC is duplicated in Chapter 10 of the IFC; however, the IFC contains two additional sections on the means of egress system in exist- 
ing buildings. 

Chapter 11 Accessibility. Chapter 11 contains provisions that set forth requirements for accessibility of buildings and their associ- 
ated sites and facilities for people with physical disabilities. The fundamental philosophy of the code on the subject of accessibility 
is that everything is required to be accessible. This is reflected in the basic applicability requirement (see Section 1103.1). The 
code's scoping requirements then address the conditions under which accessibility is not required in terms of exceptions to this gen- 
eral mandate. While the IBC contains scoping provisions for accessibility (e.g., what, where and how many), ICC/ ANSI AI17.1, 
Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, is the referenced standard for the technical provisions (i.e., how). 

There are many accessibility issues that not only benefit people with disabilities, but also provide a tangible benefit to people 
without disabilities. This type of requirement can be set forth in the code as generally applicable without necessarily identifying it 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



specifically as an accessibility-related issue. Such a requirement would then be considered as having been "mainstreamed." For 
example, visible alarms are located in Chapter 9 and ramp requirements are addressed in Chapter 10. 

Accessibility criteria for existing buildings are addressed in Section 341 1. Appendix E is supplemental information included in 
the code to address accessibility for items in the new Americans with Disabilities Act/ Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility 
Guidelines (AD A/ ABA) that were not typically enforceable through the standard traditional building code enforcement approach 
system (e.g., beds, room signage). The International Residential Code (IRC) references Chapter 11 for accessibility provisions; 
therefore, this chapter may be applicable to housing covered under the IRC. 

Chapter 12 Interior Environment. Chapter 12 provides minimum standards for the interior environment of a building. The stan- 
dards address the minimum sizes of spaces, minimum temperature levels, and minimum light and ventilation levels. The collection 
of requirements addresses limiting sound transmission through walls, ventilation of attic spaces and under floor spaces (crawl 
spaces). Finally, the chapter provides minimum standards for walls, partitions and floors to resist water intrusion and damage in 
rooms such as toilet and shower facilities, where water is frequently in use. 

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency. The purpose of Chapter 13 is to provide minimum design requirements that will promote efficient 
utilization of energy in buildings. The requirements are directed toward the design of building envelopes with adequate thermal 
resistance and low air leakage, and toward the design and selection of mechanical, water heating, electrical and illumination systems 
that promote effective use of depletable energy resources. For the specifics of these criteria, Chapter 13 requires design and con- 
struction in compliance with the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). 

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls. This chapter addresses requirements for exterior walls of buildings. Minimum standards for wall cov- 
ering materials, installation of wall coverings and the ability of the wall to provide weather protection are provided. This chapter 
also requires exterior walls that are close to lot lines, or that are bearing walls for certain types of construction, to comply with the 
minimum fire-resistance ratings specified in Chapters 6 and 7. The installation of each type of wall covering, be it wood, masonry, 
vinyl, metal composite material or an exterior insulation and finish system, is critical to its long-term performance in protecting the 
interior of the building from the elements and the spread of fire. Special attention to the use of combustible materials on the exterior 
of the building such as balconies, eaves, decks and architectural trim is the focus of Section 1406. 

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures. Chapter 15 provides standards for both roof assemblies as well as struc- 
tures which sit on top of the roof of buildings. The criteria address roof construction and covering which includes the weather-pro- 
tective barrier at the roof and, in most circumstances, a fire-resistant barrier. The chapter is prescriptive in nature and is based on 
decades of experience with various traditional materials. These prescriptive rules are very important for satisfying performance of 
one type of roof covering or another. Section 1509 addresses rooftop structures including penthouses, tanks, towers and spires. 
Rooftop penthouses larger than prescribed in this chapter must be treated as a story under Chapter 5. 

Chapter 16 Structural Design. Chapter 16 prescribes minimum structural loading requirements for use in the design and construc- 
tion of buildings and structural components. It includes minimum design loads, as well as permitted design methodologies. Stan- 
dards are provided for minimum design loads (live, dead, snow, wind, rain, flood and earthquake as well as load combinations). The 
application of these loads and adherence to the serviceability criteria will enhance the protection of life and property. The chapter 
references and relies on many nationally recognized design standards. A key standard is the American Society of Civil Engineer's 
Minimum Design Loads for BUildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7). Structural design needs to address the conditions of the site 
and location. Therefore maps of rainfall, seismic, snow and wind criteria in different regions are provided. 

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections. Chapter 17 provides a variety of procedures and criteria for testing materi- 
als and assemblies, for labeling materials and assemblies, and for special inspection of structural assemblies. This chapter expands 
on the requirements of Chapter 1 regarding the roles and responsibilities of the building official regarding approval of building com- 
ponents. It also provides additional duties and responsibilities for the owner, contractor, design professionals and special inspectors. 
Proper assembly of structural components, proper quality of materials used, and proper application of materials are essential to 
ensuring that a building, once constructed, complies with the structural and fire-resistance minimums of the code and the approved 
design. To determine this compliance often requires continuous or frequent inspection and testing. Chapter 17 establishes these spe- 
cial inspection and testing standards as well as reporting of the work to the building official. 

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations. Chapter 18 contains minimum requirements for design, construction and resistance to water 
intrusion of foundation systems for buildings and other structures. It provides criteria for the geotechnical and structural consider- 
ations in the selection and installation of adequate support for the loads transferred from the structure above. The uncertainties of 
foundation construction make it extremely difficult to address every potential failure within the text of the code. The chapter 
includes requirements for soils investigation and site preparation for receiving a foundation including the allowed load-bearing val- 
ues for soils and for protecting the foundation from water intrusion. Section 1808 addresses the basic requirements for all founda- 
tion types. Later sections address foundation requirements that are specific to shallow foundations and deep foundations. Due care 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



must be exercised in the planning and design of foundation systems based on obtaining sufficient soils information, the use of 
accepted engineering procedures, experience and good technical judgment. 

Chapter 19 Concrete. This chapter provides minimum accepted practices to the design and construction of buildings and structural 
components using concrete-both plain and reinforced. Chapter 19 is formatted to parallel American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318, 
BUilding Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. The chapter also includes references to additional standards. Structural con- 
crete must be designed and constructed to comply with this code and all listed standards. There are specific sections of the chapter 
addressing concrete slabs, anchorage to concrete, shotcrete, reinforced gypsum concrete and concrete-filled pipe columns. Because 
of the variable properties of material and numerous design and construction options available in the uses of concrete, due care and 
control throughout the construction process is necessary. 

Chapter 20 Aluminum. Chapter 20 contains standards for the use of aluminum in building construction. Only the structural appli- 
cations of aluminum are addressed. The chapter does not address the use of aluminum in specialty products such as storefront or 
window framing or architectural hardware. The use of aluminum in heating, ventilating or air-conditioning systems is addressed in 
the International Mechanical Code (IMC). The chapter references national standards from the Aluminum Association for use of 
aluminum in building construction, AA ASM 35, Aluminum Sheet Metal Work in BUilding Construction, and AA ADM 1, Alumi- 
num Design Manual. By utilizing the standards set forth, a proper application of this material can be obtained. 

Chapter 21 Masonry. This chapter provides comprehensive and practical requirements for masonry construction. The provisions 
of Chapter 21 require minimum accepted practices and the use of standards for the design and construction of masonry structures. 
The provisions address: material specifications and test methods ; types of wall construction; criteria for engineered and empirical 
designs; required details of construction including the execution of construction. Masonry design methodologies including allow- 
able stress design, strength design and empirical design are covered by provisions of the chapter. Also addressed are masonry fire- 
places and chimneys, masonry heaters and glass unit masonry. Fire-resistant construction using masonry is also required to comply 
with Chapter 7. Masonry foundations are also subject to the requirements of Chapter 18. 

Chapter 22 Steel. Chapter 22 provides the requirements necessary for the design and construction of structural steel (including 
composite construction), cold-formed steel, steeljoists, steel cable structures and steel storage racks. The chapter specifies appro- 
priate design and construction standards for these types of structures. It also provides a road map of the applicable technical require- 
ments for steel structures. Steel is a noncombustible building material commonly associated with Types I and II construction; 
however, it is permitted to be used in all types of construction. The code requires that materials used in the design of structural steel 
members conform to designated national standards. Chapter 22 is involved with the design and use of steel materials using the speci- 
fications and standards of the American Institute for Steel Construction, the American Iron and Steel Institute, the Steel Joist Insti- 
tute and the American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Chapter 23 Wood. This chapter provides minimum guidance for the design of buildings and structures that use wood and 
wood-based products in their framing and fabrication . The chapter is organized around three design methodologies : allowable 
stress design (ASD) , load and resistance-factor design (LRFD) and conventional light-frame construction. Included in the chapter 
are references to design and manufacturing standards for various wood and wood-based products; general construction require- 
ments; design criteria for lateral-force-resisting systems and specific requirements for the application of the three design methods. 
In general, only Type III, IV or V buildings may be constructed of wood. Accordingly Chapter 23 is referenced when the combina- 
tion of the occupancy (determined in Chapter 3) and the height and area of the building (determined in Chapter 5) indicate that con- 
struction can be Type III, IV or V. 

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing. This chapter establishes regulations for glass and glazing used in buildings and structures that, 
when installed, are subjected to wind, snow and dead loads. Engineering and design requirements are included in the chapter. Addi- 
tional structural requirements are found in Chapter 16. A second concern of this chapter is glass and glazing used in areas where it is 
likely to have an impact on the occupants. Section 2406 identifies hazardous locations where glazing installed must either be safety 
glazing or blocked to prevent human impact. Safety glazing must meet stringent standards and be appropriately marked or identi- 
fied. Additional standards for glass and glazing in guards, handrails, elevator hoistways and elevator cars, and in athletic facilities 
are provided. 

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster. Chapter 25 contains the provisions and referenced standards that regulate the design, 
construction and quality of gypsum board and plaster. These represent the most common interior and exterior finish materials in the 
building industry. This chapter primarily addresses quality-control-related issues with regard to material specifications and installa- 
tion requirements. Most products are manufactured under the control of industry standards. The building official or inspector pri- 
marily needs to verify that the appropriate product is used and properly installed for the intended use and location. While often 
simply used as wall and ceiling coverings, proper design and application are necessary to provide weather resistance and required 
fire protection for both structural and nonstructural building components. 

Chapter 26 Plastic. The use of plastics in building construction and components is addressed in Chapter 26. This chapter provides 
standards addressing foam plastic insulation, foam plastics used as interior finish and trim, and other plastic veneers used on the 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



inside or outside of a building. Plastic siding is regulated by Chapter 14. Sections 2606 through 2611 address the use of light-trans- 
mitting plastics in various configurations such as walls, roof panels, skylights, signs and as glazing. Requirements for the use of 
fiber reinforced polymers, fiberglass reinforced polymers and reflective plastic core insulation are also contained in this chapter. 
Some plastics exhibit rapid flame spread and heavy smoke density characteristics when exposed to fire. Additionally, exposure to 
the heat generated by a fire can cause some plastics to deform, which can affect their performance. The requirements and limitations 
of this chapter are necessary to control the use of plastic and foam plastic products such that they do not compromise the safety of 
building occupants. 

Chapter 27 Electrical. Since electrical systems and components are an integral part of almost all structures, it is necessary for the 
code to address the installation of such systems. For this purpose, Chapter 27 references the National Electrical Code (NEC). In 
addition, Section 2702 addresses emergency and standby power requirements. Such systems must comply with the International 
Fire Code (IFC) and referenced standards. This section also provides references to the various code sections requiring emergency 
and standby power, such as high-rise buildings and buildings containing hazardous materials. 

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems. Nearly all buildings will include mechanical systems. This chapter provides references to the 
International Mechanical Code (IMC) and the International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC) for the design and installation of mechanical 
systems. In addition, the chapter references Chapter 21 of the IBC for masonry chimneys, fireplaces and barbecues. 

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems. Chapter 29 regulates the minimum number of plumbing fixtures that must be provided for every 
type of building. This chapter also regulates the location of the required fixtures in various types of buildings and the construction of 
toilet rooms. This section requires separate facilities for males and females except for certain types of small occupancies. The regu- 
lations in this chapter come directly from Chapters 3 and 4 of the International Plumbing Code (IPC). 

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems. Chapter 30 provides standards for the installation of elevators into buildings. Ref- 
erenced standards provide the requirements for the elevator system and mechanisms. Detailed standards are provided in the chapter 
for hoistway enclosures, hoistway venting and machine rooms. New provisions are added in the 2009 IBC for Fire Service Access 
Elevators required in high-rise buildings and for the optional choice of Occupant Evacuation Elevators (see Section 403). 

Chapter 31 Special Construction. Chapter 31 contains a collection of regulations for a variety of unique structures and architec- 
tural features. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels connecting two buildings are addressed in Section 3104. Membrane and air-sup- 
ported structures are addressed by Section 3102. Safeguards for swimming pool safety are found in Section 3109. Standards for 
temporary structures, including permit requirements are provided in Section 3103. Structures as varied as awnings, marquees, 
signs, telecommunication and broadcast towers and automatic vehicular gates are also addressed (see Sections 3105 through 3108 
and 3110). 

Chapter 32 Encroachments into the Public Right-of-way. Buildings and structures from time to time are designed to extend over 
a property line and into the public right-of-way. Local regulations outside of the building code usually set limits to such encroach- 
ments, and such regulations take precedence over the provisions of this chapter. Standards are provided for encroachments below 
grade for structural support, vaults and areaways. Encroachments above grade are divided into below 8 feet, 8 feet to 15 feet, and 
above 15 feet, because of headroom and vehicular height issues. This includes steps, columns, awnings, canopies, marquees, signs, 
windows, balconies. Similar architectural features above grade are also addressed. Pedestrian walkways must also comply with 
Chapter 31. 

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction. Chapter 33 provides safety requirements during construction and demolition of 
buildings and structures. These requirements are intended to protect the public from injury and adjoining property from damage. In 
addition the chapter provides for the progressive installation and operation of exit stairways and standpipe systems during construc- 
tion. 

Chapter 34 Existing Structures. The provisions in Chapter 34 deal with alternative methods or reduced compliance requirements 
when dealing with existing building constraints. This chapter allows for a controlled departure from full compliance with the techni- 
cal codes, without compromising the minimum standards for fire prevention and life safety features of the rehabilitated building. 
Provisions are divided by addition, alterations, repairs, change of occupancy and moved structures . There are further allowances for 
registered historic buildings. There are also special allowances for replacement of existing stairways, replacement of glass and 
accessibility requirements. The fire escape requirements in Section 3406 are consistent with the fire escape requirements in Section 
1030 of the International Fire Code (IFC). 

Section 3412, Compliance Alternatives, allows for existing buildings to be evaluated so as to show that alterations, while not 
meeting new construction requirements, will improve the current existing situation. Provisions are based on a numerical scoring 
system involving 18 various safety parameters and the degree of code compliance for each issue. 

Chapter 34 is repeated in the International Existing Building Code (IEBC). Sections 3402 through 3409 are repeated as IEBC 
Chapter 3 and Section 3410 as Chapter 13. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Chapter 35 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that are used to regulate materials and 
methods of construction. Chapter 35 contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code, including the 
appendices. The standards are part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard (see Section 102.4). Compliance with the 
referenced standard is necessary for compliance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and 
installation requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, 
therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the building code official, contractor, designer and owner. 

Chapter 35 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of the referenced standards, alpha- 
betically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or 
numeric order based upon the standard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard 
referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this code that reference the standard. 

Appendices. Appendices are provided in the IBC to offer optional or supplemental criteria to the provisions in the main chapters of 
the code. Appendices provide additional information for administration of the Department of Building Safety as well as standards 
not typically administered by all building departments. Appendices have the same force and effect as the first 35 chapters of the IBC 
only when explicitly adopted by the jurisdiction. 

Appendix A Employee Qualifications. Effective administration and enforcement of the family of International Codes depends on 
the training and expertise of the personnel employed by the jurisdiction and his or her knowledge of the codes. Section 103 of the 
code establishes the Department of Building Safety and calls for the appointment of a building official and deputies such as plans 
examiners and inspectors. Appendix A provides standards for experience, training and certification for the building official and the 
other staff mentioned in Chapter 1. 

Appendix B Board of Appeals. Section 112 of Chapter 1 requires the establishment of a board of appeals to hear appeals regarding 
determinations made by the building official. Appendix B provides qualification standards for members of the board as well as 
operational procedures of such board. 

Appendix C Group V- Agricultural Buildings. Appendix C provides a more liberal set of standards for the construction of agri- 
cultural buildings, rather than strictly following the Utility building provision, reflective of their specific usage and limited occupant 
load. The provisions of the appendix, when adopted, allow reasonable heights and areas commensurate with the risk of agricultural 
buildings. 

Appendix D Fire Districts. Fire districts have been a tool used to limit conflagration hazards in areas of a city with intense and con- 
centrated development. More frequently used under the model codes which preceded the International Building Code (IBC) , the 
appendix is provided to allowjurisdictions to continue the designation and use of fire districts. Fire District standards restrict certain 
occupancies within the district, as well as setting higher minimum construction standards. 

Appendix E Supplemental Accessibility Requirements. The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (U.S. 
Access Board) has revised and updated its accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities covered by the Americans with Dis- 
abilities Act (ADA) and the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) . Appendix E includes scoping requirements contained in the new 
AD A/ ABA Accessibility Guidelines that are not in Chapter 11 and not otherwise mentioned or mainstreamed throughout the code. 
Items in the appendix deal with subjects not typically addressed in building codes (e.g., beds, room signage, transportation facili- 
ties) . 

Appendix F Rodentproofing. The provisions of this appendix are minimum mechanical methods to prevent the entry of rodents 
into a building. These standards, when used in conjunction with cleanliness and maintenance programs, can significantly reduce the 
potential of rodents invading a building. 

Appendix G Flood-resistant Construction. Appendix G is intended to fulfill the flood-plain management and administrative 
requirements of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that are not included in the code. Communities that adopt the Inter- 
national Building Code (IBC) and Appendix G will meet the minimum requirements of NFIP as set forth in Title 44 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations. 

Appendix H Signs. Appendix H gathers in one place the various code standards that regulate the construction and protection of out- 
door signs. Whenever possible, the appendix provides standards in performance language, thus allowing the widest possible appli- 
cation. 

Appendix I Patio Covers. Appendix I provides standards applicable to the construction and use of patio covers. It is limited in 
application to patio covers accessory to dwelling units. Covers of patios and other outdoor areas associated with restaurants, mer- 
cantile buildings, offices, nursing homes or other nondwelling occupancies would be subject to standards in the main code and not 
this appendix. 

Appendix J Grading. Appendix J provides standards for the grading of properties. The appendix also provides standards for 
administration and enforcement of a grading program including permit and inspection requirements. Appendix J was originally 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



developed in the 1960s and used for many years injurisdictions throughout the western states. It is intended to provide consistent 
and uniform code requirements anywhere grading is considered an issue. 

Appendix K Administrative Provisions. Appendix K primarily provides administrative provisions for jurisdictions adopting and 
enforcing NFPA 70-the National Electrical Code (NEC). The provisions contained in this appendix are compatible with adminis- 
trative and enforcement provisions contained in Chapter 1 of the IBC and the other International Codes. Annex H ofNFPA 70 also 
contains administrative provisions for the NEC; however, some of its provisions are not compatible with IBC Chapter 1. Section 
KIIO also contains technical provisions that are unique to this appendix and are in addition to technical standards of NFPA 70. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ORDINANCE 

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2009 International Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that certain factual 
information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. 
The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF 

THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2009 edition of the International Building Code, regulating and governing the 
conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities 
and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the 
condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures in the [JURISDIC- 
TION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the [JURISDICTION] 
and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Building Code, 2009 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Building Code Section 101.2.1, 2009 
edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the [JURISDICTION], in 
the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by 
providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures 
are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and 
use and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; 
and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Building Code on file in the office of the 
[JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, inser- 
tions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF ISSUANCE] 

Section 3412.2. Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all Other ordinances 
or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it 
would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that anyone or more 
sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall anyj ust or legal right or remedy of any character be 
lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® XV 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION. . . . 1 312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 



36 



PART I-SCOPE AND APPLICATION 

Section 

101 General 

102 Applicability 

PART 2-ADMINISTRATION AND 
ENFORCEMENT 

103 Department of Building Safety 

104 Duties and Powers of Building Official 

105 Permits 

106 Floor and Roof Design Loads 

107 Submittal Documents 

108 Temporary Structures and Uses 

109 Fees 

110 Inspections 

111 Certificate of Occupancy 

112 Service Utilities 

113 Board of Appeals 

114 Violations 

115 Stop Work Order 

116 Unsafe Structures and Equipment 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 
Section 

201 General 

202 Definitions 



CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 
USE AND OCCUPANCY 



37 



CHAPTER 3 



USE AND OCCUPANCY 
CLASSIFICATION 



1 
1 


Section 




401 


Scope 


37 




402 


Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings 


37 


2 


403 


High-rise Buildings 


40 


2 


404 


Atriums 


43 


2 


405 


Underground Buildings 


44 


3 


406 


Motor- vehicle-related Occupancies 


45 


5 


407 


Group 1-2 


49 


5 


408 


Group 1-3 


50 


6 


409 


Motion Picture Projection Rooms 


52 


6 


410 


Stages and Platforms 


53 


7 


411 


Special Amusement Buildings 


54 


8 


412 


Aircraft-related Occupancies 


55 


8 


413 


Combustible Storage 


58 


8 


414 


Hazardous Materials 


58 


9 


415 


Groups H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 


62 


9 


416 


Application of Flammable Finishes 


74 


9 


417 


Drying Rooms 


75 


1 


418 


Organic Coatings 


75 




419 


Live/work Units 


75 


1 


420 


Groups 1-1, R-l, R-2, R-3 


76 


1 


421 


Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms 


76 




422 


Ambulatory Health Care Facilities 


77 




423 


Storm Shelters 


77 



23 



Section 

301 General 

302 Classification 

303 Assembly Group A 

304 Business Group B 

305 Educational Group E 

306 Factory Group F 

307 High-hazard Group H 

308 Institutional Group I 

309 Mercantile Group M 

310 Residential Group R 

311 Storage Group S 



CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING 



23 




rtmUrt 1 ^ AINU AKilA^ 


/^ 


23 


Section 




23 


501 


General 


79 


24 


502 


Definitions 


79 


24 


503 


General Building Height and Area Limitations . 


. 79 


24 


504 


Building Height 


79 


25 


505 


Mezzanines 


81 


33 


506 


Building Area Modifications 


82 


34 


507 


Unlimited Area Buildings 


83 


35 


508 


Mixed Use and Occupancy 


84 


35 


509 


Special Provisions 


87 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 

Section 



89 CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS . 
Section 



181 



601 


General 


89 


901 


General 


181 


602 


Construction Classification 


89 


902 


Definitions 


. ... 181 


603 


Combustible Material in 




903 


Automatic Sprinkler Systems 


184 




Type I and II Construction 


91 


904 


Alternative Automatic 

Fire-extinguishing Systems 


188 


CHAPTER 7 FIRE AND SMOKE 




905 


Standpipe Systems 


190 




PROTECTION FEATURES 


93 


906 


Portable Fire Extinguishers 


192 


Section 




907 


Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 


194 


701 


General 


93 


908 


Emergency Alarm Systems 


204 


702 


Definitions 


93 


909 


Smoke Control Systems 


204 


703 


Fire-resistance Ratings and Fire Tests 


94 


910 


Smoke and Heat Vents 


211 


704 


Fire-resistance Rating of 




911 


Fire Command Center 


213 




Structural Members 


95 


912 


Fire Department Connections 


214 


705 


Exterior Walls 


97 


913 


Fire Pumps 


214 


706 


Fire Walls 


101 


914 


Emergency Responder Safety Features 


215 


707 


Fire Barriers 


103 


915 


Emergency Responder Radio Coverage 


215 


708 


Shaft Enclosures 


104 








709 


Fire Partitions 


107 


CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 


217 


710 


Smoke Barriers 


. . . 108 


Section 




711 


Smoke Partitions 


. . . 109 


1001 


Administration 


217 


712 
713 
714 


Horizontal Assemblies 

Penetrations 

Fire-resistant Joint Systems 


109 

...110 

113 


1002 
1003 
1004 
1005 


Definitions 

General Means of Egress 
Occupant Load 
Egress Width 


217 
218 
219 
221 


715 


Opening Protectives 


113 


1006 


Means of Egress Illumination 


221 


716 


Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 


117 


1007 


Accessible Means of Egress 


222 


717 


Concealed Spaces 


121 


1008 


Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 


224 


718 


Fire-resistance Requirements for Plaster 


124 


1009 


Stairways 


230 


719 


Thermal- and Sound-insulating Materials 


124 


1010 


Ramps 


233 


720 


Prescriptive Fire Resistance 


125 


1011 


Exit Signs 


234 


721 


Calculated Fire Resistance 


125 


1012 


Handrails 


235 








1013 


Guards 


236 


CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES 


175 


1014 


Exit Access 


237 


Section 




1015 


Exit and Exit Access Doorways 


238 


801 


General 


175 


1016 


Exit Access Travel Distance 


240 


802 


Definitions 


. . . 175 


1017 


Aisles 


240 


803 


Wall and Ceiling Finishes 


175 


1018 


Corridors 


241 


804 


Interior Floor Finish 


178 


1019 


Egress Balconies 


242 


805 


Combustible Materials in Type I 




1020 


Exits 


243 




and II Construction 


178 


1021 


Number of Exits and Continuity 


243 


806 


Decorative Materials and Trim 


178 


1022 


Exit Enclosures 


244 


807 


Insulation 


179 


1023 


Exit Passageways 


245 


808 


Acoustical Ceiling Systems 


179 


1024 


Luminous Egress Path Markings 


246 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1025 Horizontal Exits 

1026 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 

1027 Exit Discharge 

1028 Assembly 

1029 Emergency Escape and Rescue 

CHAPTER 11 ACCESSIBILITy 

Section 

1101 General 

1102 Definitions 

1103 Scoping Requirements 

1104 Accessible Route 

1105 Accessible Entrances 

1106 Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities 

1107 Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units 

1108 Special Occupancies 

1109 Other Features and Facilities 

1110 Signage 

CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 

Section 

1201 General 

1202 Definitions 

1203 Ventilation 

1204 Temperature Control 

1205 Lighting 

1206 Yards or Courts 

1207 Sound Transmission 

1208 Interior Space Dimensions 

1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 

1210 Surrounding Materials 

CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 

Section 

1301 General 

CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS 

Section 

1401 General 

1402 Definitions 

1403 Performance Requirements 

1404 Materials 

1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 

1406 Combustible Materials on the 

Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 

1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 



247 


1408 


Exterior Insulation and 




248 




Finish Systems (EIFS) 


285 


249 


CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND 




250 




ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 


287 


254 


Section 




257 


1501 
1502 


General 
Definitions 


287 
287 


257 
257 


1503 
1504 


Weather Protection 
Performance Requirements 


287 
288 


257 
258 
259 
260 
260 


1505 
1506 
1507 


Fire Classification 

Materials 

Requirements for Roof Coverings 


289 
289 
290 


1508 
1509 


Roof Insulation 
Rooftop Structures 


299 
300 


264 


1510 


Reroofing 


301 


266 


CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 


303 


269 


Section 




271 


1601 


General 


303 


1602 


Definitions and Notations 


303 


271 


1603 


Construction Documents 


304 


271 


1604 


General Design Requirements 


305 


271 


1605 


Load Combinations 


308 


272 


1606 


Dead Loads 


309 


272 


1607 


Live Loads 


309 


273 


1608 


Snow Loads 


315 


273 


1609 


Wind Loads 


315 


273 


1610 


Soil Lateral Loads 


331 


274 


1611 


Rain Loads 


332 


274 


1612 


Flood Loads 


338 



275 

275 
277 

277 
277 
277 
278 
279 

283 
284 



1613 Earthquake Loads 340 

1614 Structural Integrity 345 

CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 367 

Section 

1701 General 367 

1702 Definitions 367 

1703 Approvals 367 

1704 Special Inspections 368 

1705 Statement of Special Inspections 379 

1706 Special Inspections for Wind Requirements 381 

1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance 381 

1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance 382 

1709 Contractor Responsibility 383 



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1710 Structural Observations 

1711 Design Strengths of Materials 

1712 Alternative Test Procedure 

1713 Test Safe Load 

1714 In-situ Load Tests 

1715 Preconstruction Load Tests 

1716 Material and Test Standards 

CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 

Section 

1801 General 

1802 Definitions 

1803 Geotechnical Investigations 

1804 Excavation, Grading and Fill 

1805 Dampproofing and Waterproofing 

1806 Presumptive Load-bearing Values of Soils 

1807 Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls and 

Embedded Posts and Poles 

1808 Foundations 

1809 Shallow Foundations 

1810 Deep Foundations 

CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE 

Section 

1901 General 

1902 Definitions 

1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 

1904 Durability Requirements 

1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 

1906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 

1907 Details of Reinforcement 

1908 Modifications to ACI 318 

1909 Structural Plain Concrete 

1910 Minimum Slab Provisions 

1911 Anchorage to Concrete-Allowable 

Stress Design 

1912 Anchorage to Concrete-Strength Design 

1913 Shotcrete 

1914 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 

1915 Concrete-filled Pipe Columns 

CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM 

Section 

2001 General 

2002 Materials 



383 


CHA1 


PTER21 MASONRy 


429 


383 


Section 




383 


2101 


General 


429 


384 


2102 


Definitions and Notations 


429 


384 


2103 


Masonry Construction Materials 


432 


384 


2104 


Construction 


433 


385 


2105 


Quality Assurance 


434 




2106 


Seismic Design 


435 


387 


2107 


Allowable Stress Design 


435 




2108 


Strength Design of Masonry 


436 


387 


2109 


Empirical Design of Masonry 


436 


387 


2110 


Glass Unit Masonry 


438 


387 


2111 


Masonry Fireplaces 


438 


389 


2112 


Masonry Heaters 


440 


390 
391 


2113 


Masonry Chimneys 


441 




CHAPTER 22 STEEL 


447 


392 


Section 




398 


2201 


General 


447 


402 


2202 


Definitions 


447 


403 


2203 


Identification and Protection of Steel 
for Structural Purposes 


447 


417 


2204 


Connections 


447 




2205 


Structural Steel 


447 


417 


2206 


Steel Joists 


448 


417 


2207 


Steel Cable Structures 


449 


417 


2208 


Steel Storage Racks 


449 


417 


2209 


Cold-formed Steel 


449 


419 


2210 


Cold-formed Steel Light-frame Construction . 


.. 449 


420 


CHAPTER 23 WOOD 


451 


420 


Section 




420 


2301 


General 


451 


423 


2302 


Definitions 


451 


423 


2303 


Minimum Standards and Quality 


452 




2304 


General Construction Requirements 


456 


424 
424 


2305 


General Design Requirements for 
Lateral-foree-resisting Systems 


466 


425 


2306 


Allowable Stress Design 


468 


426 


2307 


Load and Resistance Factor Design 


469 


426 


2308 


Conventional Light-frame Construction 


469 


427 


CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING 

Section 


521 


427 


2401 


General 


521 


427 


2402 


Definitions 


521 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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2403 
2404 


General Requirements for Glass 
Wind, Snow, Seismic and 


521 




Dead Loads on Glass 


521 


2405 


Sloped Glazing and Skylights 


523 


2406 


Safety Glazing 


524 


2407 


Glass in Handrails and Guards 


526 


2408 


Glazing in Athletic Facilities 


526 


2409 


Glass in Elevator Hoistways and 






Elevator Cars 


527 



CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD 

AND PLASTER 529 

Section 

2501 General 529 

2502 Definitions 529 

2503 Inspection 529 

2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies 529 

2505 Shear Wall Construction 529 

2506 Gypsum Board Materials 530 

2507 Lathing and Plastering 530 

2508 Gypsum Construction 530 

2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and 

Water Closets 531 

2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement 

Plaster (Stucco) 532 

25 1 1 Interior Plaster 532 

2512 Exterior Plaster 533 

2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 533 

CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC 535 

Section 

2601 General 535 

2602 Definitions 535 

2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 535 

2604 Interior Finish and Trim 538 

2605 Plastic Veneer. 539 

2606 Light-transmitting Plastics 539 

2607 Light-transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 540 

2608 Light-transmitting Plastic Glazing 541 

2609 Light-transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 541 

2610 Light-transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing 542 

2611 Light-transmitting Plastic Interior Signs 542 

2612 Fiber Reinforced Polymer and 

Fiberglass-reinforced Polymer 543 

2613 Reflective Plastic Core Insulation 544 



CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL 545 

Section 

2701 General 545 

2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 545 

CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SySTEMS 547 

Section 

2801 General 547 

CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS 549 

Section 

2901 General 549 

2902 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 549 

2903 Toilet Room Requirements 552 

CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS 553 

Section 

3001 General 553 

3002 Hoistway Enclosures 553 

3003 Emergency Operations 553 

3004 Hoistway Venting 554 

3005 Conveying Systems 554 

3006 Machine Rooms 555 

3007 Fire Service Access Elevator 555 

3008 Occupant Evacuation Elevators 556 

CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 559 

Section 

3101 General 559 

3102 Membrane Structures 559 

3103 Temporary Structures 560 

3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 560 

3105 Awnings and Canopies 561 

3106 Marquees 562 

3107 Signs 562 

3108 Telecommunication and Broadcast Towers 562 

3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and 

Safety Devices 562 

3110 Automatic Vehicular Gates 563 

CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE 

PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAy 565 

Section 

3201 General 565 

3202 Encroachments 565 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING 
CONSTRUCTION 

Section 



567 



3301 


General 


567 


3302 


Construction Safeguards 


567 


3303 


Demolition 


567 


3304 


Site Work 


567 


3305 


Sanitary 


567 


3306 


Protection of Pedestrians 


568 


3307 


Protection of Adjoining Property 


569 


3308 


Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and 
Public Property 


569 


3309 


Fire Extinguishers 


569 


3310 


Means of Egress 


569 


3311 


Standpipes 


569 


3312 


Automatic Sprinkler System 


570 


CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES 


571 


Section 




3401 


General 


571 


3402 


Definitions 


571 


3403 


Additions 


572 


3404 


Alterations 


572 


3405 


Repairs 


573 


3406 


Fire Escapes 


574 


3407 


Glass Replacement 


575 


3408 


Change of Occupancy 


575 


3409 


Historic Buildings 


575 


3410 


Moved Structures 


575 


3411 


Accessibility for Existing Buildings 


575 


3412 


Compliance Alternatives 


577 



CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS 587 



APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE 

QUALIFICATIONS 

Section 

A101 Building Official Qualifications 

A 102 Referenced Standards 

APPENDIX B BOARD OF APPEALS 

Section 

B101 General 



607 

607 
607 

609 
609 



APPENDIX C GROUP U-AGRICULTURAL 
BUILDINGS 

Section 

C101 General 

CI 02 Allowable Height and Area 

C103 Mixed Occupancies 

CI 04 Exits 

APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS 

Section 

D101 General 

D102 Building Restrictions 

D 103 Changes to Buildings 

D 104 Buildings Located Partially in the 
Fire District 



D 105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District 
D106 Referenced Standards 



611 

611 
611 
611 
611 

613 

613 
613 
614 

614 
614 
615 



APPENDIX E SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY 



REQUIREMENTS 

Section 

E101 General 

El 02 Definitions 

E103 Accessible Route 

E104 Special Occupancies 

El 05 Other Features and Facilities 

E 106 Telephones 

E107 Signage 

E108 Bus Stops 

E 109 Transportation Facilities and Stations 

El 10 Airports 

El 11 Referenced Standards 

APPENDIX F RODENTPROOFING 

Section 

F101 General 

APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT 
CONSTRUCTION 

Section 

G101 Administration 

G102 Applicability 

G103 Powers and Duties 

G104 Permits 

G105 Variances 



617 

617 
617 
617 
617 
618 
618 
619 
620 
620 
621 
621 

623 

623 

625 

625 
625 
625 
626 
626 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



G201 


Definitions 


627 


G301 


Subdivisions 


628 


G401 


Site Improvement. 


628 


G501 


Manufactured Homes 


628 


G601 


Recreational Vehicles 


628 


G701 


Tanks 


629 


G801 


Other Building Work 


629 


G901 


Temporary Structures and 
Temporary Storage 


629 


G1001 


Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 


629 


GII01 Referenced Standards 


630 



APPENDIX H SIGNS 

Section 

HI01 General 

HI02 Definitions 

HI03 Location 

HI04 Identification 

HI 05 Design and Construction 

HI06 Electrical 

HI07 Combustible Materials 

HI08 Animated Devices 

HI09 Ground Signs 

H110 Roof Signs 

Hill Wall Signs 

HI 12 Projecting Signs 

HI 13 Marquee Signs 

HI 14 Portable Signs 

HI1S Referenced Standards 



631 

631 
631 
631 
631 
632 
632 
632 
632 
632 
633 
633 
633 
634 
634 
634 



JI07 Fills 

JI08 Setbacks 

J 109 Drainage and Terracing 

J 110 Erosion Control 

Jill Referenced Standards 

APPENDIX K ADMINISTRATIVE 
PROVISIONS 

Section 

KI01 General 

KI02 Applicability 

KI03 Permits 

K104 Construction Documents 

K105 Alternative Engineered Design 

K106 Required Inspections 

KI07 Prefabricated Construction 

KI08 Testing 

KI09 Reconnection 

KIIO Condemning Electrical Systems 

Kill Electrical Provisions 

INDEX 



638 
638 
640 
640 
640 

641 

641 
641 
641 
642 
642 
642 
642 
643 
643 
643 
643 

645 



APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS 

Section 

1101 General 

1102 Definitions 

1103 Exterior Openings 

1104 Structural Provisions 



635 

635 
635 
635 
635 



APPENDIX J GRADING 

Section 

JI01 General 

JI02 Definitions 

JI03 Permits Required 

JI04 Permit Application and Submittals 

JI05 Inspections 

JI06 Excavations 



637 

637 
637 
637 
637 
638 
638 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 1 

SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



I PART 1 -SCOPE AND APPLICATION 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the BUilding 
Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as 
"this code." 

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the con- 
struction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, 
repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, 
removal and demolition of every building or structure or any 
appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or 
structures. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories above grade plane in height with a sepa- 
rate means of egress and their accessory structures shall 
comply with the International Residential Code. 

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and 
general welfare through structural strength, means of egress 
facilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, 
energy conservation, and safety to life and property from fire 
and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to 
provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders dur- 
ing emergency operations. 

101.4 Referenced codes. The other codes listed in Sections 
101.4.1 through 101.4.6 and referenced elsewhere in this code 
shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the 
prescribed extent of each such reference. 

101.4.1 Gas. The provisions of the International Fuel Gas 
Code shall apply to the installation of gas piping from the 
point of delivery, gas appliances and related accessories as 
covered in this code. These requirements apply to gas piping 
systems extending from the point of delivery to the inlet 
connections of appliances and the installation and operation 
of residential and commercial gas appliances and related 
accessories. 

101.4.2 Mechanical. The provisions of the International 
Mechanical Code shall apply to the installation, alterations, 
repairs and replacement of mechanical systems, including 
equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and/or appurte- 
nances, including ventilating, heating, cooling, air-condi- 
tioning and refrigeration systems, incinerators and other 
energy-related systems. 

101.4.3 Plumbing. The provisions of the International 
Plumbing Code shall apply to the installation, alteration, 
repair and replacement of plumbing systems, including 



equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances, 
and where connected to a water or sewage system and all 
aspects of a medical gas system. The provisions of the Inter- 
national Private Sewage Disposal Code shall apply to pri- 
vate sewage disposal systems. 

101.4.4 Property maintenance. The provisions of the 
International Property Maintenance Code shall apply to 
existing structures and premises; equipment and facilities; 
light, ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire 
safety hazards; responsibilities of owners, operators and 
occupants; and occupancy of existing premises and struc- 
tures. 

101.4.5 Fire prevention. The provisions of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code shall apply to matters affecting or relating 
to structures, processes and premises from the hazard of fire 
and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of 
structures, materials or devices; from conditions hazardous 
to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of struc- 
tures or premises; and from the construction, extension, 
repair, alteration or removal of fire suppression and alarm 
systems or fire hazards in the structure or on the premises 
from occupancy or operation. 

101.4.6 Energy. The provisions of the International Energy 
Conservation Code shall apply to all matters governing the 
design and construction of buildings for energy efficiency. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a general 
requirement and a specific requirement, the specific require- 
ment shall be applicable. Where, in any specific case, different 
sections of this code specify different materials, methods of 
construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall 
govern. 

102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. 

102.3 Application ofreferences. References to chapter or sec- 
tion numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by 
number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or 
provision of this code. 

102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the 
requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such 
reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this 
code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this 
code shall apply. 

102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or provision 
of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the 
effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provi- 
sions. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any struc- 
ture existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to continue without change, except as is specifically 
covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance 
Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary 
by the building officialfor the general safety and welfare of the 
occupants and the public. 



I PART 2-ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Department of 
Building Safety is hereby created and the official in charge 
thereof shall be known as the building official. 

103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the bUilding official shall have the authority to 
appoint a deputy building official, the related technical offi- 
cers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such 
employees shall have powers as delegated by the building offi- 
cial. For the maintenance of existing properties, see the Inter- 
national Property Maintenance Code. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF BUILDING OFFICIAL 

104.1 General. The bUilding officialis hereby authorized and 
directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building 
official sbd\\ have the authority to render interpretations of this 
code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the 
application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and 
procedures shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose 
of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the 
effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this 
code. 

104.2 Applications and permits. The bUilding official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents and issue 
permits for the erection, and alteration, demolition and moving 
of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such 
permitshave been issued and enforce compliance with the pro- 
visions of this code. 

104.3 Notices and orders. The bUilding official shall issue all 
necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

104.4 Inspections. The bUilding official shall make all of the 
required inspections, or the building official shall have the 
authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies 
or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing 
and be certified by a responsible officer of such approved 
agencyorby the responsible individual. The building officialis 
authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary 
to report upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the 
approval of the appointing authority. 



104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspec- 
tion to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the build- 
ing officialhas reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a 
structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or 
in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises 
unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building officialis autho- 
rized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to 
inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided 
that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials 
be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such struc- 
ture or premises is unoccupied, the bUilding official shall first 
make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person 
having charge or control of the structure or premises and 
request entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have 
recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry. 

104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices 
and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records for the period required for retention of public records. 

104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board of 
appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this 
code, while acting for thejurisdiction in good faith and without 
malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or 
other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered 
liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability 
for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of 
any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of 
official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or 
employee because of an act performed by that officer or 
employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provi- 
sions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of 
thejurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. 
The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for 
cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursu- 
ance of the provisions of this code. 

104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equip- 
ment and devices approved by the bUilding official shall be 
constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of used 
materials which meet the requirements of this code for new 
materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices shall 
not be reused unless approvedby the building official. 

104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficul- 
ties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the 
bUilding official shall have the authority to grant modifications 
for individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner's 
representative, provided the building officialshaW first find that 
special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code 
impractical and the modification is in compliance with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, accessibility, life and fire safety, or structural 
requirements. The details of action granting modifications 
shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of 
building safety. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of con- 
struction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not 
intended to prevent the installation of any material or to pro- 
hibit any design or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. An alternative material, design or method of 
construction shall be approvedwhere the building official finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the 
intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, 
method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the 
equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, 
effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. 

104.11.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where neces- 
sary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not 
specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid 
research reports from approve d sources. 

104.11.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence 
that a material or method does not conform to the require- 
ments of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for 
alternative materials or methods, the bUilding official shall 
have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance 
to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods 
shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test 
standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test 
methods, the building official shall approve the testing pro- 
cedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. 
Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building offi- 
cial for the period required for retention of public records. 



SECTION 105 
PERMITS 

105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends 
to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish, or change 
the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, 
enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which 
is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, 
shall first make application to the bUilding official and obtain 
the required permit. 

105.1.1 Annual permit. In lieu of an individual permit for 
each alteration to an already approved electrical, gas, 
mechanical or plumbing installation, the building officially 
authorized to issue an annual permitupon application there- 
for to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing 
one or more qualified tradepersons in the building, structure 
or on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for 
the permit. 

105.1.2 Annual permit records. The person to whom an 
annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alter- 
ations made under such annual permit. The building official 
shall have access to such records at all times or such records 
shall be filed with the building official as designated. 

105.2 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from permit 
requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authori- 
zation for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the 



provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this 
jurisdiction. Permits shall not be required for the following: 

Building: 

1. One-story detached accessory structures used as 
tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, 
provided the floor area does not exceed 120 square 
feet (11 m 2 ). 

2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high. 

3. Oil derricks. 

4. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in 
height measured from the bottom of the footing to 
the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge or 
impounding Class I, II or MA liquids. 

5. Water tanks supported directly on grade if the 
capacity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) 
and the ratio of height to diameter or width does not 
exceed 2:1. 

6. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above adjacent grade, and not over any 
basement or story below and are not part of an 
accessible route. 

1. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, coun- 
ter tops and similar finish work. 

8. Temporary motion picture, television and theater 
stage sets and scenery. 

9. Prefabricated swimming pools accessory to a Group 
R-3 occupancy that are less than 24 inches (610 mm) 
deep, do not exceed 5,000 gallons (18925 L) and are 
installed entirely above ground. 

10. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or 
agricultural purposes, not including service sys- 
tems. 

11. Swings and other playground equipment accessory 
to detached one- and two -family dwellings. 

12. Window awnings supported by an exterior wa//that 
do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from 
the exterior wall and do not require additional sup- 
port of Groups R-3 and U occupancies. 

13. Nonfixed and movable fixtures, cases, racks, coun- 
ters and partitions not over 5 feet 9 inches (1753 
mm) in height. 

Electrical: 

Repairs and maintenance: Minor repair work, includ- 
ing the replacement of lamps or the connection of 
approvedportable electrical equipment to approvedper- 
manently installed receptacles. 

Radio and television transmitting stations: The provi- 
sions of this code shall not apply to electrical equipment 
used for radio and television transmissions, but do apply 
to equipment and wiring for a power supply and the 
installations of towers and antennas. 

Temporary testing systems: A permit shall not be 
required for the installation of any temporary system 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



required for the testing or servicing of electrical equip- 
ment or apparatus. 

Gas: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment 
unsafe. 

Mechanical: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Portable ventilation equipment. 

3. Portable cooling unit. 

4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating 
or cooling equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any part that does not alter its 
approval or make it unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative cooler. 

7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 
pounds (5 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated by 
motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

Plumbing: 

1. The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or 
vent pipe, provided, however, that if any concealed 
trap, drain pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe 
becomes defective and it becomes necessary to 
remove and replace the same with new material, such 
work shall be considered as new work and a permit 
shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in 
this code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures and the removal and reinstal- 
lation of water closets, provided such repairs do not 
involve or require the replacement or rearrangement 
of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replace- 
ments and repairs must be performed in an emergency situa- 
tion, the permit application shall be submitted within the 
next working business day to the bUilding official. 

105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building offi- 
cial is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, 
replacement of lamps or the connection of approved porta- 
ble electrical equipment to approved permanently installed 
receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away 
of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cut- 
ting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the 
removal or change of any required means of egress, or rear- 
rangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress 
requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, 
alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, 
water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, 
vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other 
work affecting public health or general safety. 

105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be 
required for the installation, alteration or repair of genera- 
tion, transmission, distribution or metering or other related 



equipment that is under the ownership and control of public 
service agencies by established right. 

105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the appli- 
cant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form 
furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. 
Such application shall: 

1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the per- 
mit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar 
description that will readily identify and definitely locate 
the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section 107. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant, or the applicant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
bUilding official. 

105.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the bUilding 
official shall reject such application in writing, stating the 
reasons therefor. If the bUilding officially satisfied that the 
proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code 
and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the bUilding 
official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable. 

105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application for 
a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have 
been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, unless such 
application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has 
been issued; except that the bUilding officialis authorized to 
grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods 
not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be 
requested in writing andjustifiable cause demonstrated. 

105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of apermit 
shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any 
violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other 
ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or 
other ordinances of thejurisdiction shall not be valid. The issu- 
ance of a permit based on construction documents and other 
data shall not prevent the bUilding official from requiring the 
correction of errors in the construction documents and other 
data. The building officialis also authorized to prevent occu- 
pancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of 
any other ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid 
unless the work on the site authorized by such permit is com- 
menced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work autho- 
rized on the site by suchpermitis suspended or abandoned for a 
period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The 



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1 



building officialis authorized to grant, in writing, one or more 
extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. 
The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

105.6 Suspension or revocation. The bUilding official is 
authorized to suspend or revoke & permit issued under the pro- 
visions of this code wherever the permitis issued in error or on 
the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or 
in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy shall 
be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the pro- 
ject. 



SECTION 106 
FLOOR AND ROOF DESIGN LOADS 

106.1 Live loads posted. Where the live loads for which each 
floor or portion thereof of a commercial or industrial building 
is or has been designed to exceed 50 psf (2.40 kN/m 2 ) , such 
design live loads shall be conspicuously posted by the owner in 
that part of each story in which they apply, using durable signs. 
It shall be unlawful to remove or deface such notices 

106.2 Issuance of certificate of occupancy. A certificate of 
occupancy required by Section 111 shall not be issued until the 
floor load signs, required by Section 106. 1, have been installed. 

106.3 Restrictions on loading. It shall be unlawful to place, or 
cause or permit to be placed, on any floor or roof of a building, 
structure or portion thereof, a load greater than is permitted by 
this code. 



SECTION 107 
SUBMITTAL DOCUMENTS 

107.1 General. Submittal documents consisting of construc- 
tion documents, statement of special inspections, geotechnical 
report and other data shall be submitted in two or more sets 
with each permit application. The construction documents 
shall be prepared by a registered design professional where 
required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project 
is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the build- 
ing officialis authorized to require additional construction doc- 
uments to be prepared by a registered design professional 

Exception: The building officialis authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not 
required to be prepared by a registered design professional 
if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such 
that review of construction documents is not necessary to 
obtain compliance with this code. 

107.2 Construction documents. Construction documents 
shall be in accordance with Sections 107.2.1 through 107.2.5. 

107.2.1 Information on construction documents. Con- 
struction documents shall be dimensioned and drawn upon 
suitable material. Electronic media documents are permit- 
ted to be submitted when approvedby the bUilding official. 
Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indi- 
cate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed 



and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of 
this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regula- 
tions' as determined by the bUilding official. 

107.2.2 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop draw- 
ings for the fire protection system(s) shall be submitted to 
indicate conformance to this code and the construction docu- 
ments and shall be app r ov e dp rior to the start of system instal- 
lation. Shop drawings shall contain all information as 
required by the referenced installation standards in Chapter 9. 

107.2.3 Means of egress. The construction documents shall 
show in sufficient detail the location, construction, size and 
character of all portions of the means of egress in compli- 
ance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupan- 
cies in Groups R-2, R-3, and 1-1, the construction 
documents shall designate the number of occupants to be 
accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms and spaces. 

107.2.4 Exterior wall envelope. Construction documents 
for all buildings shall describe the exterior wall envelope in 
sufficient detail to determine compliance with this code. 
The construction documents shall provide details of the 
exterior wall envelope as required, including flashing, inter- 
sections with dissimilar materials, corners, end details, con- 
troljoints, intersections at roof, eaves or parapets, means of 
drainage, water-resistive membrane and details around 
openings. 

The construction documents shall include manufac- 
turer's installation instructions that provide supporting doc- 
umentation that the proposed penetration and opening 
details described in the construction documents maintain 
the weather resistance of the exterior wall envelope. The 
supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior 
wall system which was tested, where applicable, as well as 
the test procedure used. 

107.2.5 Site plan. The construction documents submitted 
with the application for permit shall be accompanied by a 
site plan showing to scale the size and location of new con- 
struction and existing structures on the site, distances from 
lot lines, the established street grades and the proposed fin- 
ished grades and, as applicable, flood hazard areas, 
floodways, and design flood elevations; and it shall be 
drawn in accordance with an accurate boundary line survey. 
In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show construc- 
tion to be demolished and the location and size of existing 
structures and construction that are to remain on the site or 
plot. The bUilding officialis authorized to waive or modify 
the requirement for a site plan when the application for per- 
mitis for alteration or repair or when otherwise warranted. 

107.2.5.1 Design flood elevations. Where design flood 
elevations are not specified, they shall be established in 
accordance with Section 1612.3.1. 

107.3 Examination of documents. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined the accompanying submittal 
documents and shall ascertain by such examinations whether 
the construction indicated and described is in accordance with 
the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordi- 
nances. 



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107.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the 
bUilding officialissues ^permit, the construction documents 
shall be approved, in writing or by stamp, as "Reviewed for 
Code Compliance." One set of construction documents so 
reviewed shall be retained by the bUilding official. The other 
set shall be returned to the applicant, shall be kept at the site 
of work and shall be open to inspection by the building offi- 
cialor a duly authorized representative. 

107.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or des- 
ignated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit 
has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully autho- 
rized, and the construction of which has been pursued in 
good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this 
code and has not been abandoned. 

107.3.3 Phased approval. The building officials autho- 
rized to issue apermitfor the construction of foundations or 
any other part of a building or structure before the construc- 
tion documents for the whole building or structure have 
been submitted, provided that adequate information and 
detailed statements have been filed complying with perti- 
nent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit 
for the foundation or other parts of a building or structure 
shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the building oper- 
ation and without assurance that a permit for the entire 
structure will be granted. 

107.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge. 

107.3.4.1 General. When it is required that documents 
be prepared by a registered design professional, the 
bUilding official shall be authorized to require the owner 
to engage and designate on the building permit applica- 
tion a registered design professional who shall act as the 
registered design professional in responsible charge. If 
the circumstances require, the owner shall designate a 
substitute registered design professional in responsible 
chargewho shall perform the duties required of the origi- 
nal registered design professional in responsible charge. 
The bUilding official shall be notified in writing by the 
owner if the registered designpr of essionalin responsible 
charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the 
duties. 

The registered design professional in responsible 
charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinat- 
ing submittal documents prepared by others, including 
phased and deferred submittal items, for compatibility 
with the design of the building. 

107.3.4.2 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this 
section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions 
of the design that are not submitted at the time of the 
application and that are to be submitted to the building 
official within a specified period. 

Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior 
approval of the building official. The registered design 
professional in responsible charge shall list the deferred 
submittals on the construction documents for review by 
the bUilding official. 



Documents for deferred submittal items shall be sub- 
mitted to the registered design professional in responsi- 
ble charge who shall review them and forward them to 
the bUilding official with a notation indicating that the 
deferred submittal documents have been reviewed and 
found to be in general conformance to the design of the 
building. The deferred submittal items shall not be 
installed until the deferred submittal documents have 
been approved^ the building official. 

107.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be 
installed in accordance with the approved construction docu- 
ments, and any changes made during construction that are not 
in compliance with the approved construction documents shall 
be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction 
documents. 

107.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of 
approved construction documents shall be retained by the 
building officialfor a period of not less than 180 days from date 
of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or 
local laws. 



SECTION 108 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

108.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such per- 
mits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be per- 
mitted for more than 180 days. The building official is 
authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

108.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall con- 
form to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, 
accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of 
this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety and gen- 
eral welfare. 

108.3 Temporary power. The building officialis authorized to 
give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part of 
an electric installation before such installation has been fully 
completed and the final certificate of completion has been 
issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall 
comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, 
heat or power in NFPA 70. 

108.4 Termination of approval. The building officialis autho- 
rized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or use 
and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontinued. 



SECTION 109 
FEES 

109.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the 
fees prescribed by law have been paid, nor shall an amendment 
to apermitbc released until the additional fee, if any, has been 
paid. 

109.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, elec- 
trical, gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations 
requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as 
required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the 
applicable governing authority. 



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109.3 Building permit valuations. The applicant for apermit 
shall provide an estimated perm lvalue at time of application. 
Permit valuations shall include total value of work, including 
materials and labor, for which the permitis being issued, such 
as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and perma- 
nent systems. If, in the opinion of the building official, the valu- 
ation is underestimated on the application, the permit shall be 
denied, unless the applicant can show detailed estimates to 
meet the approval of the building official. Final building permit 
valuation shall be set by the building official. 

109.4 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person 
who commences any work on a building, structure, electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the neces- 
sary permits shall be subject to a fee established by the bUilding 
official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees. 

109.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in 
connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 
permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 

109.6 Refunds. The bUilding officially authorized to establish 
a refund policy. 



SECTION 110 
INSPECTIONS 

110.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is 
required shall be subject to inspection by the bUilding official 
and such construction or work shall remain accessible and 
exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a 
result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval 
of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordi- 
nances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of 
other ordinances of thejurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be 
the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain 
accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the 
bUilding officialnor thejurisdiction shall be liable for expense 
entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required 
to allow inspection. 

110.2 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the 
building official is authorized to examine or cause to be exam- 
ined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has 
been filed. 

110.3 Required inspections. The bUilding official, upon noti- 
fication, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 
110.3.1 through 110.3.10. 

110.3.1 Footing and foundation inspection. Footing and 
foundation inspections shall be made after excavations for 
footings are complete and any required reinforcing steel is 
in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall 
be in place prior to inspection. Materials for the foundation 
shall be on the job, except where concrete is ready mixed in 
accordance with ASTM C 94, the concrete need not be on 
the job. 



110.3.2 Concrete slab and under-floor inspection. Con- 
crete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made after 
in- slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service 
equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary 
equipment items are in place, but before any concrete is 
placed or floor sheathing installed, including the subfloor. 

1 10.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. In flood hazard areas, upon 
placement of the lowest floor, including the basement, and 
prior to further vertical construction, the elevation certifica- 
tion required in Section 1612.5 shall be submitted to the 
bUilding official. 

110.3.4 Frame inspection. Framing inspections shall be 
made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, 
fireblocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys 
and vents to be concealed are complete and the rough elec- 
trical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are 
approved. 

110.3.5 Lath and gypsum board inspection. Lath and 
gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and 
gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before 
any plastering is applied or gypsum boardjoints and fasten- 
ers are taped and finished. 

Exception: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly or a shear assembly. 

110.3.6 Fire- and smoke-resistant penetrations. proteC- 1 
tion of joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies, smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall not 
be concealed from view until inspected and approved. 

110.3.7 Energy efficiency inspections. Inspections shall 
be made to determine compliance with Chapter 13 and shall 
include, but not be limited to, inspections for: envelope 
insulation R- and V-values, fenestration V-value, duct sys- 
tem R- value, and HVAC and water-heating equipment effi- 
ciency. 

110.3.8 Other inspections. In addition to the inspections 
specified above, the bUilding official is authorized to make 
or require other inspections of any construction work to 
ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and 
other laws that are enforced by the department of building 
safety. 

110.3.9 Special inspections. For special inspections, see 
Section 1704. 

110.3.10 Final inspection. The final inspection shall be 
made after all work required by the building permitis com- 
pleted. 

110.4 Inspection agencies. The bUilding official is authorized 
to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided 
such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and 
reliability. 

110.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of 
the building permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the 
bUilding official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be 
the duty of the/? ermit holder to provide access to and means for 
inspections of such work that are required by this code. 



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110.6 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the 
point indicated in each successive inspection without first 
obtaining the approval of the bUilding official. The bUilding 
official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections 
and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is 
satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or 
her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any 
portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion 
shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the build- 
ing official. 



building officialshaU set a time period during which the tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

111.4 Revocation. The bUilding official is authorized to, in 
writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or com- 
pletion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the 
certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect infor- 
mation supplied, or where it is determined that the building or 
structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or 
regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 111 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

111.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be 
used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall 
be made, until the building official has issued a certificate of 
occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate 
of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a viola- 
tion of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. 

Exception: Certificates of occupancy are not required for 
work exempt from permits under Section 105.2. 

111.2 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects 
the building or structure and finds no violations of the provi- 
sions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the depart- 
ment of building safety, the bUilding official shall issue a 
certificate of occupancy that contains the following: 

1. The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the require- 
ments of this code for the occupancy and division of 
occupancy and the use for which the proposed occu- 
pancy is classified. 

6. The name of the building official. 

7. The edition of the code under which the permit was 
issued. 

8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 3. 

9. The type of construction as defined in Chapter 6. 

10. The design occupant load. 

11. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided, whether 
the sprinkler system is required. 

12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 

111.3 Temporary occupancy. The building officials autho- 
rized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the 
completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided 
that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The 



SECTION 112 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

112.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make 
connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to 
any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a 
permitis required, until released by the building official. 

112.2 Temporary connection. The bUilding off iciahh^W have 
the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the 
building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or power. 

112.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The bUilding 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of 
utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by 
this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth in 
Section 101.4 in case of emergency where necessary to elimi- 
nate an immediate hazard to life or property or when such util- 
ity connection has been made without the approval required by 
Section 112.1 or 112.2. The bUilding official shall notify the 
serving utility, and wherever possible the owner and occupant 
of the building, structure or service system of the decision to 
disconnect prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to 
disconnecting, the owner or occupant of the building, structure 
or service system shall be notified in writing, as soon as practi- 
cal thereafter. 



SECTION 113 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

113.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, 
decisions or determinations made by the building officialreia- 
tive to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall 
be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of 
appeals shall be appointed by the applicable governing author- 
ity and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt 
rules of procedure for conducting its business. 

113.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the 
rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly inter- 
preted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an 
equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The 
board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this 
code. 

113.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to building construction and are not 
employees of the jurisdiction. 



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SECTION 114 
VIOLATIONS 

114.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, 
remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equip- 
ment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in con- 
flict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

1 14.2 Notice ofviolation. The building officially authorized to 
serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible 
for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, 
moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in viola- 
tion of apermit or certificate issued under the provisions of this 
code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal 
action or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

1 14.3 Prosecution ofviolation. If the notice ofviolation is not 
complied with promptly, the building ojflcialis authorized to 
request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the 
appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or 
abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of 
the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation 
of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made 
pursuant thereto. 

114.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provi- 
sion of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements 
thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or 
structure in violation of the approved construction documents 
or directive of the bUilding official, or of a permit or certificate 
issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION 115 
STOP WORK ORDER 

115.1 Authority. Whenever the building official finds any 
work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either 
contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, 
the bUilding official is authorized to issue a stop work order. 

115.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing and 
shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the 
owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance 
of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. 
The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the 
conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to 
resume. 

115.3 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall continue 
any work after having been served with a stop work order, 
except such work as that person is directed to perform to 
remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



tilation, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dan- 
gerous to human life or the public welfare, or that involve ille- 
gal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be 
deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe structures shall be taken 
down and removed or made safe, as the bUilding official deems 
necessary and as provided for in this section. A vacant structure 
that is not secured against entry shall be deemed unsafe. 

116.2 Record. The building official shall cause a report to be 
filed on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the occu- 
pancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condition. 

116.3 Notice. If an unsafe condition is found, the bUilding offi- 
cial shall serve on the owner, agent or person in control of the 
structure, a written notice that describes the condition deemed 
unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improvements to be 
made to abate the unsafe condition, or that requires the unsafe 
structure to be demolished within a stipulated time. Such notice 
shall require the person thus notified to declare immediately to 
the building official acceptance or rejection of the terms of the 
order. 

116.4 Method of service. Such notice shall be deemed prop- 
erly served if a copy thereof is (a) delivered to the owner per- 
sonally; (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed to the 
owner at the last known address with the return receipt 
requested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as prescribed by 
local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned showing 
that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted 
in a conspicuous place in or about the structure affected by such 
notice. Service of such notice in the foregoing manner upon the 
owner's agent or upon the person responsible for the structure 
shall constitute service of notice upon the owner. 

116.5 Restoration. The structure or equipment determined to 
be unsafe by the bUilding offlcialis permitted to be restored to a 
safe condition. To the extent that repairs, alterations or addi- 
tions are made or a change of occupancy occurs during the res- 
toration of the structure, such repairs, alterations, additions or 
change of occupancy shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 105.2.2 and Chapter 34. 



SECTION 116 
UNSAFE STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

116.1 Conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or 
hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient because of 
inadequate means of egress facilities, inadequate light and ven- 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



10 2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the International Fuel 
Gas Code, International Fire Code, International Mechanical 
Code or International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have 
the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION 202 
DEFINITIONS 

AAC MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

ACCESSIBLE. See Section 1102.1. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. See Section 1102.1. 

ACCESSIBLE UNIT. See Section 1102.1. 

ACCREDITATION BODY. See Section 2302.1. 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height 
of a building or structure. 

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, stabilized. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, unstabilized. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] AEROSOL. See Section 307.2. 

Levell aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 307.2. 

I AGGREGATE. See Section 1502.1. 

AGRICULTURAL, BUILDING. A structure designed and 
constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, live- 
stock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be 
a place of human habitation or a place of employment where 
agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor 
shall it be a place used by the public. 



AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2. 
AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2. 

Double skin. See Section 3102.2. 

Single skin. See Section 3102.2. 

AISLE. See Section 1002.1. 

AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing 
structure other than repair or addition. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002.1. 

AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITY. Buildings or 
portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, 
nursing or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to individu- 
als who are rendered incapable of self-preservation. 

ANCHOR. See Section 2102.1. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ANNULAR SPACE. See Section 702.1. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction. 

APPROVED AGENCY. See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED FABRICATOR. See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or cor- 
poration, approvedby the building official, who is competent 
and experienced in the application of engineering principles to 
materials, methods or systems analyses. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRACOTTA. See Section 2102.1. 

AREA (for masonry). See Section 2102.1. I 

Bedded. See Section 2102.1. 

Gross cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

Net cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

AREA, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 

AREAWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at 
the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard. 

ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 310.2, "Res- 
idential Care/Assisted living facilities." 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



ATRIUM. See Section 404.1.1. 

ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story 
and the roof rafters. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 
See Section 902.1. 

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 
See Section 902.1. 

I [FT AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. See 
Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 
902.1. 

AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by 

I the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of 
a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached. 

• BACKING. See Section 1402.1. 

[F] BALED COTTON. See Section 307.2. 

[F] BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See Section 

307.2. 

I BALLAST. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] BARRICADE. See Section 307.2. 

Artificial barricade. See Section 307.2. 

Natural barricade. See Section 307.2. 
BASE FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 
BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 

I BASEMENT (for other than flood loads). See Section 502.1. 
BASEMENT (for flood loads). See Section 1612.2. 
BEARING WALL STRUCTURE. See Section 1614.2. 
BED JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 
BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1. 
BOARDING HOUSE. See Section 310.2. 
[F] BOILING POINT. See Section 307.2. 
BOND BEAM. See Section 2102.1. 
BRACED WALL LINE. See Section 2302.1. 
BRACED WALL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 
BRICK. See Section 2102.1. 

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). See Section 2102.1. 
Clay or shale. See Section 2102.1. 
Concrete. See Section 2102.1. 

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or 
sheltering any use or occupancy. 

I BUILDING ELEMENT. See Section 702.1. 



BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which 
a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by 
law. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
this code, or a duly authorized representative. 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502 1 

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUC- 
TURE. See Section 3102.2. 

CANOPY. A permanent structure or architectural projection 
of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that pro- 
vides weather protection, identity or decoration, and shall be 
structurally independent or supported by attachment to a build- 
ing on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer 
end. 

[FT CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 
See Section 902.1. 

CAST STONE. See Section 2102.1. 

[FT CEILING LIMIT. See Section 902.1. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. See Section 702.1 . 

CELL. See Section 408.1.1. 

CELL (masonry). See Section 2102.1. 

CELL TIER. See Section 408.1 .1. 

CEMENT PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. See Section 721.1.1. 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. See Section 1702.1. 

CHILD CARE FACILITIES. See Section 308.3.1. I 

CHIMNEY. See Section 2102.1. 

CHIMNEY TYPES. See Section 2102.1. 

High-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

Low-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

Masonry type. See Section 2102.1. 

Medium-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

CIRCULATION PATH. See Section 1102.1. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1. 

CLEANOUT. See Section 2102.1. 

CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. See Section 304.1.1. I 

[FT CLOSED SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 

COLLAR JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

COLLECTOR. See Section 2302.1. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 
702.1. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 307.2. 

[FT COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class II. See Section 307.2. 



12 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



Class I1IA. See Section 307.2. 

Class IIIB. See Section 307.2. 

COMMON USE. See Section 1102.1. 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 
1002.1. 

[F] COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 307.2. 

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. See Sec- 
tion 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. See Section 721.1 .1. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 310.2. 

CONNECTOR. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 
902.1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. 

CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602. 

Type I. See Section 602.2. 

Type II. See Section 602.2. 

Type III. See Section 602.3. 

Type IV. See Section 602.4. 

Type V. See Section 602.5. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See 

Section 415 .2. 

\F] CONTROL AREA. See Section 307.2. 

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A 

self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a 
backfill in place of compacted fill. 

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

See Section 2302.1. 

CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1. 

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when 
exposed to its environment. 

[F] CORROSIVE. See Section 307.2. 



COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, 
bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or 
other enclosing devices. 

COVER. See Section 2102.1. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

Mall. See Section 402.2. 

Open mall. See Section 402.2. 

Open mall building. See Section 402.2. 

CRIPPLE WALL. See Section 2302.1. 

[F] CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 307.2. 

DALLE GLASS. See Section 2402.1. 

DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

DANGEROUS. See Section 3402.1. 

[F] DAY BOX. See Section 307.2. 

DEAD LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

DECORATIVE GLASS. See Section 2402.1. 

[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied 
over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or 
other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and 
surface coverings), and all other materials utilized for decora- 
tive effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, 
vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam 
plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative 
materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window 
shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or 
less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a 
substrate. 

DEEP FOUNDATION. See Section 1802.1. 

[F] DEFLAGRATION. See Section 307.2. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1 . 

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1908.1.1. 

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. See Sec- 
tion 1613.2. 

DESIGN FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 

DESIGN STRENGTH. See Section 1602.1. 

DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. See Section 1702.1. 

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 415.2. 

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. 

See Section 1908.1.1. 

DETECTABLE WARNING. See Section 1102.1. 
[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1. 
[F] DETONATION. See Section 307.2. 
DETOXIFICATION FACILITY. See Section 308.3.1. 
DIAPHRAGM. See Sections 1602.1 and 2302.1. 
Diaphragm, blocked. See Section 1602.1. 



i 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



Diaphragm, boundary. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, chord. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, flexible. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, rigid. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, unblocked. See Section 2302.1. 
DIMENSIONS. See Section 2102.1. 

Actual. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal. See Section 2102.1. 

Specified. See Section 2102.1. 
\F] DISPENSING. See Section 307.2. 
DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 
DORMITORY. See Section 310.2. 
DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702.1. 
DRAG STRUT. See Section 2302.1. 

I DRILLED SHAFT. See Section 1802.1. 
Socketed drilled shaft. See Section 1802.1. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See 
Section 902.1. 

DRY FLOODPROOFING. See Section 1612.2. 

DURATION OF LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let 
or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- 
manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, MULTI- 
STORY. See Section 1102.1. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE A. See 

Section 1102.1. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE B. See 

Section 1102.1. 

EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

I ELEVATOR GROUP. See Section 902.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 
415.2. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See 

Section 1002.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA- 
TIONS. See Section 902.1. 

EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. See Section 1102.1. 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. See Section 502.1. 

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. See Section 1602.1. 

\F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 415.2. 



EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

EXISTING STRUCTURE. See Sections 1612.2 and 3402.1. 

EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. See Section 1002.1. I 

EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. See Section 
802.1. 

[FT EXPLOSION. See Section 307.2. 

[FT EXPLOSIVE. See Section 307.2. 

High explosive. See Section 307.2. 

Low explosive. See Section 307.2. 

Mass detonating explosives. See Section 307.2. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.1. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.2. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.3. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.4. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.5. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.6. See Section 307.2. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM (EIFS). I 
See Section 1402.1. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM 
(EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. See Section 1402.1. 

EXTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

EXTERIOR WALL. See Section 1402.1. 

EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. See Section 1402.1. 

EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. See Section 1402.1 . 

F RATING. See Section 702.1. 

FABRIC PARTITION. See Section 1602.1. 

FABRICATED ITEM. See Section 1702.1. 

[F] FABRICATION AREA. See Section 415.2. 

FACILITY. See Section 1102.1. 

FACTORED LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

FIBER CEMENT SIDING. See Section 1402.1. 

FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER. See Section 2602.1. 

Fiberglass Reinforced Polymer. See Section 2602.1. 

FIBERBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 



i 



14 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

\F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE BARRIER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

\F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1 . 

FIRE DOOR. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to 
allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire laneis not necessar- 
ily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus . 

FIRE PARTITION. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. See Section 702.1. 

\F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE WALL. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FIREBLOCKING. See Section 702.1. 

FIREPLACE. See Section 2102.1. 

FIREPLACE THROAT. See Section 2102.1. 

\F] FIREWORKS. See Section 307.2. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 307.2. 

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 307.2. 
I FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). See Section 412.2. 
FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802.1. 
FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1. 
[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 307.2. 
\F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class IA. See Section 307.2. 

Class IB. See Section 307.2. 

Class IC. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 
\F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS ORFUMES. See Section 415.2. 
• \F] FLASH POINT. See Section 307.2. 
I FLIGHT. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOD OR FLOODING. See Section 1612.2. 



FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Sec- 
tion 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH- VELOC- 
ITY WAVE ACTION. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). See Section 
1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOODWAY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FLY GALLERY. See Section 410.2. 

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 
902.1. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. See Section 2602.1. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 
1002.1. 

FOOD COURT. See Section 402.2. 

FOUNDATION PIER. See Section 2102.1. 

FRAME STRUCTURE. See Section 1614.2. 

\F] GAS CABINET. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GAS ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. See Section 421.2. 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. See Section 2302.1. 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening 
located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 
44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level 
adjacent to the opening. 

GRADE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1. 

GRADE PLANE. See Section 502.1. 

GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1. 

GRIDIRON. See Section 410.2. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. See Section 402.2. 

GROUTED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Grouted hollow-unit masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Grouted multiwythe masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

GUARD. See Section 1002.1. 

GYPSUM BOARD. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. See Section 2502.1 . 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, 
storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See 
Section 902.1. 

[F] HANDLING. See Section 307.2. 

HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1. 

HARDBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

[FT HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 
See Section 415.2. 

HEAD JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, WALLS. See Section 2102.1. 

HELICAL PILE. See Section 1802.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 412.2. 

HELISTOP. See Section 412.2. 

HIGH-RISE BUILDING. A building with an occupied floor 
located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level 
of fire department vehicle access. 

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligi- 
ble for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or 
designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law 
(see Sections 3409 and 3411.9). 

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

I HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. See Section 
308.3.1. 

I HOUSING UNIT. See Section 408.1.1. 

\F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] HPM ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. See Section 1609.2. 

\F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. See Section 421.2. 

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). See Section 415.2. 

IMPACT LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] INERT GAS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1. 

INTENDED TO BE OCCUPIED AS A RESIDENCE. See 

Section 1102.1. 

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

[F] INTERIOR FLOOR- WALL BASE. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. See Section 
802.1. 



INTERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

INTUMESCENT FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. See 

Section 1702.1. 

JOINT. See Section 702.1. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted 
this code under due legislative authority. 

LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer that contains the name of the manufacturer, the func- 
tion and performance characteristics of the product or material, 
and the name and identification of an approved agency and that 
indicates that the representative sample of the product or mate- 
rial has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency (see 
Section 1703.5 and "Inspection certificate," "Manufacturer's 
designation" and "Mark"). 

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which has 
been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a 
nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or 
other organization concerned with product evaluation that 
maintains periodic inspection of the production of the 
above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that 
the equipment, material or product meets identified standards 
or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction 
whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily 
formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel 
framing members. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. 

See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. 

See Section 2602.1. 

LIMIT STATE. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. 

See Section 415.2. 

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included 
in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code 
official and concerned with evaluation of products or services 
that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed 
equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and 
whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product 
or service meets identified standards or has been tested and 
found suitable for a specified purpose. 

LIVE LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). 

See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD EFFECTS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 



I 



16 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
415.2. 

LOWEST FLOOR. See Section 1612.2. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1702.1. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1 . 

MANUFACTURERS DESIGNATION. An identification 
applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a 
product or material complies with a specified standard or set of 
rules (see also "Inspection certificate," "Label' and" Mark"). 

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the func- 
tion of a product or material (see also "Inspection certificate," 
"Label' and "Manufacturer's designation"). 

MARQUEE. A permanent roofed structure attached to and 
supported by the building and that projects into the public 
right-of-way. 

MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Ashlar masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Coursed ashlar. See Section 2102.1. 

Glass unit masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Plain masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Random ashlar. See Section 2102.1. 

Reinforced masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Solid masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Unreinforced (plain) masonry. See Section 2102.1. 
MASONRY UNIT. See Section 2102.1. 

Clay. See Section 2102.1. 

Concrete. See Section 2102.1. 

Hollow. See Section 2102.1. 

Solid. See Section 2102.1. 

MASTIC FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. See Section 
1702.1. 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND 
MOTION. See Section 1613.2. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 

See Section 406.3.2. 

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. See Section 
1502.1. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. See Section 1613.2. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 



MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 
702.1. 

MENTAL HOSPITALS. See Section 308.3.1. I 

MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002.1. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). See Section 
1402.1. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. 

See Section 1402.1. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. See Section 1502.1. 

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. See Section 1502.1. 

MEZZANINE. See Section 502.1. 

MICROPILE. See Section 1802.1. 

MINERAL BOARD. See Section 721.1 .1. 

MINERAL FIBER. See Section 702.1 . 

MINERAL WOOL. See Section 702.1. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. See Section 
1502.1. 

MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. See Section 2102.1. 

MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Section 
1102.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

MULTISTORY UNITS. See Section 1102.1. 

NAILING, BOUNDARY. See Section 2302.1. 

NAILING, EDGE. See Section 2302.1. 

NAILING, FIELD. See Section 2302.1. 

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

Decay resistant. See Section 2302.1. 

Termite resistant. See Section 2302.1. 
NOMINAL LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 
NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 

(NTP). See Section 415.2. 

NOSING. See Section 1002.1. 

NOTIFICATION ZONE. See Section 902 . 1. I 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

NURSING HOMES. See Section 308.3 .1. I 

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. See Section 1602.1. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1. 

OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space designed 
for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occu- 
pants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means 
of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the 
requirements of this code. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. See Section 406.3.2. 

\F] OPEN SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 

[F] OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 307.2. 

ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. See Sec- 
tion 1908.1.1. 

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUC- 
TURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1. 

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE 
WALL. See Section 1908.1.1. 

DP] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 307.2. 

Class! See Section 307.2. 

Class II. See Section 307.2. 

Class III. See Section 307.2. 

Class IV. See Section 307.2. 

Class V. See Section 307.2. 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 307.2. 

ORTHOGONAL. See Section 1613.2. 

OTHER STRUCTURES. See Section 1602.1. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a 
legal or equitable interest in the property. 

\F] OXIDIZER. See Section 307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 

[F] OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 307.2. 

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). See Section 1602.1. 

PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

PARTICLEBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 702.1. 

PENTHOUSE. See Section 1502.1. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
authority havingjurisdiction which authorizes performance of 
a specified activity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 
or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the afore- 
said. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. See Section 310.2. 

I PHOTOLUMINESCENT. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL. See Section 415.2. 



PINRAIL. See Section 410.2. 

PLASTIC, APPROVED. See Section 2602.1. 

PLASTIC GLAZING. See Section 2602.1. 

PLATFORM. See Section 410.2. 

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. See Section 1502.1. 

PREFABRICATED WOOD I- JOIST. See Section 2302.1. 

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

PRIMARY FUNCTION. See Section 3402.1. 

PRIMARY STRUCTURAL FRAME. The primary struc- 
tural frame shall include all of the following structural mem- 
bers: 

1. The columns; 

2. Structural members having direct connections to the col- 
umns, including girders, beams, trusses and spandrels; 

3. Members of the floor construction and roof construction 
having direct connections to the columns; and 

4. Bracing members that are essential to the vertical stabil- 
ity of the primary structural frame under gravity loading 
shall be considered part of the primary structural frame 
whether or not the bracing member carries gravity loads. 

PRISM. See Section 2102.1. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. See Section 410.2. 

PUBLIC ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1. 

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. See Section 1102.1. 

PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] PYROPHORIC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 307.2. 

RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Sec- 
tion 406.3.2. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1. 

REFLECTIVE PLASTIC CORE FOIL INSULATION. 

An insulation material packaged in rolls, that is less than 0.5 
inches thick, with at least one exterior low emittance surface 
(0.1 or less) and a core material containing voids or cells. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPON- 
SIBLE CHARGE. A registered design professional engaged 
by the owner to review and coordinate certain aspects of the 
project, as determined by the building official, for compatibil- 
ity with the design of the building or structure, including 
submittal documents prepared by others, deferred submittal 
documents and phased submittal documents. 

RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion 
thereof intended for the performance of religious services. 



I 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REROOFING. See Section 1502.1. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. See Section 412.2. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILI- 
TIES. See Section 310.2. 

RESISTANCE FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1. 

RETRACTABLE AWNING. See Section 3105.2. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF DECK. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF RECOVER. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPAIR. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPLACEMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF VENTILATION. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBLE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Coursed rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Random rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Rough or ordinary rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

RUNNING BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

I SALLYPORT. See Section 408.1.1. 

SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

SCUPPER. See Section 1502.1. 

SECONDARY MEMBERS. The following structural mem- 
bers shall be considered secondary members and not part of the 
primary structural frame: 

1. Structural members not having direct connections to the 
columns; 

2. Members of the floor construction not having direct con- 
nections to the columns; and 

3. Bracing members other than those that are part of the pri- 
mary structural frame. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. See Section 1613.2. 

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1613.2. 

SELF-CLOSING. See Section 702.1. 

I SELF-LUMINOUS. See Section 1002.1. 

SELF-SERVICE STORAGE FACILITY. See Section 
1102.1. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 415.2. 

SERVICE ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1. 

SHAFT. See Section 702.1. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. See Section 702.1. 



SHALLOW FOUNDATION. See Section 1802.1. I 

SHEAR WALL. See Sections 2102.1 and 2302.1. 

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Perforated shear wall. See Section 2302.1. 

Perforated shear wall segment. See Section 2302.1. 

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

SHELL. See Section 2102.1. 

SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

SITE. See Section 1102.1. 

SITE CLASS. See Section 1613.2. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS. See Section 1613.2. - 

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. See Section I 
802.1. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration 
unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for 
natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while 
preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof. 

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a 
slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing 
material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, 
sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls, are included in this defini- 
tion. 

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, 
which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, 
and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such 
rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not 
sleeping units. 

[F] SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE BARRIER. See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[FT SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



19 



DEFINITIONS 



SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. See Section 902.1. 

\F] SOLID. See Section 415.2. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. See Section 411.2. 

SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION. See Section 1702.1. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION, CONTINUOUS. See Section 
1702.1. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION, PERIODIC. See Section 1702.1. 

I SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1. 

SPECIFIED. See Section 2102.1. 

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 
MASONRY (f'J. See Section 2102.1. 

SPLICE. See Section 702.1. 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Section 
1702.1. 

STACK BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

STAGE. See Section 410.2. 

STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. See Section 
902.1. 

Class I system. See Section 902.1 . 

Class II system. See Section 902.1. 

Class III system. See Section 902.1. 
\F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic wet. See Section 902.1 . 

Manual dry. See Section 902.1. 

Manual wet. See Section 902.1. 

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902.1. 

START OF CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. See Section 
2202.1. 

STEEL JOIST. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (17 -percent slope) . 

STONE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Ashlar stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Rubble stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 



[Fl STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 
415.2. 

STORM SHELTER. See Section 423.2. 

Community storm shelter. See Section 423.2. 

Residential storm shelter. See Section 423.2. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above (also see "Basement," "Mezzanine" and Section 502.1). 
It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two 
successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the 
topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the 
ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the 
roof rafters. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its fin- I 
ished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the 
finished surface of the floor next above is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

STRENGTH. See Section 2102.1. 

Design strength. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Required strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

STRENGTH DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. See Section 
2302.1. 

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). See Section 2302.1. 

Parallel strand lumber (PSL). See Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. See 

Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. See Section 1702.1. 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 

SUBDIAPHRAGM. See Section 2302.1. 

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 1612.2. 

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 1612.2. 

SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. See Section 
3402.1. 

SUITE. See Section 1002.1. 

SUNROOM. See Section 1202.1. 

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1 . 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 
Section 902.1. 

SWIMMING POOLS. See Section 3109.2. 

T RATING. See Section 702.1. 

TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. See Section 3402.1. 



20 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



TENT. A structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without side- 
walls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material sup- 
ported in any manner except by air or the contents it protects. 

THERMAL ISOLATION. See Section 1202.1. 

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THIN-BED MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. See 

Section 702.1. 

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). See Section 2302.1. 

TIE, LATERAL. See Section 2102.1. 

TIE, WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902.1. 

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in 
a group of three or more attached units in which each unit 
extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at 
least two sides. 

[F] TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

TRANSIENT. See Section 310.2. 

I TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. See Section 412.2. 

TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

IFire-retardant-treated wood. See Section 2302.1. 
Preservative-treated wood. See Section 2302.1. 
TRIM. See Section 802.1. 
[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 
TYPE A UNIT. See Section 1102.1. 
TYPE B UNIT. See Section 1102.1. 
UNDERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 

307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). See Section 415.2. 

VAPOR-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or cover- 
ing having a permeance rating of 5 perms (52.9 xl 0- 10 kg/Pa . s • m 2 ) 
or greater, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor-permeable material 
permits the passage of moisture vapor. 

I VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of a material or 
assembly's ability to limit the amount of moisture that passes 



through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be 
defined using the desiccant method of ASTM E 96 as follows: 

Class I: 0.1 perm or less. 

Class II: 0.1 < perm < 1.0 perm. 

Class III: 1.0 < perm < 10 perm. 

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. See Section 1602.1. 

VEHICULAR GATE. See Section 3110.2. I 

VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

VINYL SIDING. See Section 1402.1. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 
See Section 902.1. 

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as 
a pedestrian trafficway. 

WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

Cavity wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Composite wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Parapet wall. See Section 2102.1. 

WALL, LOAD-BEARING. Any wall meeting either of the 
following classifications: 

1. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 
pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 
200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

WALL, NONLOAD-BEARING. Any wall that is not a load- 
bearing wall. 

WALL PIER. See Section 1908.1.1. 

[F] WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. See Section 1402.1. 

WEATHER-EXPOSED SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

WEB. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 
Section 902.1. 

WHEELCHAIR SPACE. See Section 1102.1. 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. See Section 1609.2. 

WINDER. See Section 1002.1. 

WIRE BACKING. See Section 2502.1. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



21 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

Composite panels. See Section 2302.1. 

Oriented strand board (OSB). See Section 2302.1. 

Plywood. See Section 2302.1. 

\F] WORKSTATION. See Section 415.2. 

WYTHE. See Section 2102.1. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 

[F] ZONE. See Section 902.1. 

ZONE, NOTIFICATION. See Section 902.1. 



22 2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 3 

USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occu- 
pancy. 



SECTION 302 
CLASSIFICATION 

302.1 General. Structures or portions of structures shall be 
classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the 
groups listed below. A room or space that is intended to be 
occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply 
with all of the requirements that are applicable to each of the 
purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Struc- 
tures with multiple occupancies or uses shall comply with Sec- 
tion 508. Where a structure is proposed for a purpose that is not 
specifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be 
classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resem- 
bles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved. 

1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-I, A-2, A-3, 
A-4 and A-5 

2. Business (see Section 304): Group B 

3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E 

4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306) : Groups F-l 
and F-2 

5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-l, H-2, H-3, 
H-4 and H-5 

6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups 1-1,1-2,1-3 and 
1-4 

7. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M 

8. Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-l, R-2, R-3 
and R-4 

9. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-l and S-2 

10. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U 



SECTION 303 
ASSEMBLY GROUP A 

303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such 
as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink 
consumption or awaiting transportation. 

Exceptions: 

1. A building or tenant space used for assembly pur- 
poses with an occupant load of less than 50 persons 
shall be classified as a Group B occupancy. 



2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an 
occupant load of "less than 50 persons and accessory 
to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B 
occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is 
less than 750 square feet (70 m 2 ) in area and accessory 
to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B 
occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

4. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occu- 
pancies are not considered separate occupancies 
except when applying the assembly occupancy 
requirements of Chapter 11. 

5. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious 
auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 are 
not considered separate occupancies. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A-I Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for 
the production and viewing of the performing arts or 
motion pictures including, but not limited to : 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Television and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not limited to: 

Banquet halls 
Night clubs 
Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A including, but not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 
Art galleries 
Bowling alleys 
Community halls 
Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink consump- 
tion) 
Exhibition halls 
Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 
Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 
Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 
Lecture halls 
Libraries 
Museums 

Places of religious worship 
Pool and billiard parlors 
Waiting areas in transportation terminals 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



23 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting 
events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 
Skating rinks 
Swimming pools 
Tennis courts 

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing 
outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 

Amusement park structures 

Bleachers 

Grandstands 

Stadiums 



SECTION 304 
BUSINESS GROUP B 

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transac- 
tions, including storage of records and accounts. Business 
occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 

Ambulatory health care facilities 

Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 

Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 

Car wash 

Civic administration 

Clinic-outpatient 

Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations 
and self-service 

Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade 

Electronic data processing 

Laboratories: testing and research 

Motor vehicle showrooms 

Post offices 

Print shops 

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physi- 
cians, engineers, etc.) 

Radio and television stations 

Telephone exchanges 

Training and skill development not within a school or aca- 
demic program 

304.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof 
used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to 
individuals who are not rendered incapable of self-preserva- 
tion by the services provided. 



SECTION 305 
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 

305.1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 



portion thereof, by six or more persons at anyone time for 
educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educa- 
tional rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to 
places of religious worship in accordance with Section 303.1 
and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as 
A -3 occupancies. 

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 
thereof, for educational, supervision ox personal care services 
for more than five children older than 2 V 2 years of age, shall be 
classified as a Group E occupancy. 



SECTION 306 
FACTORY GROUP F 

306.1 Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group 
F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, 
fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or pro- 
cessing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazard- 
ous or Group S storage occupancy. 

306.2 Factory Industrial F-l Moderate-hazard Occupancy. 
Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Factory 
Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-l Moderate 
Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair) 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages: over 16-percent alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas or similar fabric 

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Clothing 

Construction and agricultural machinery 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Millwork (sash and door) 

Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators) 

Musical instruments 

Optical goods 

Paper mills or products 

Photographic film 



24 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Plastic products 

Printing or publishing 

Recreational vehicles 

Refuse incineration 

Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 

Textiles 

Tobacco 

Trailers 

Upholstering 

Wood; distillation 

Woodworking (cabinet) 

306.3 Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. Fac- 
tory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufactur- 
ing of noncombustible materials which during finishing, 
packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard 
shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Beverages: up to and including 16-percent alcohol content 

Brick and masonry 

Ceramic products 

Foundries 

Glass products 

Gypsum 

Ice 

Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 



SECTION 307 
HIGH-HAZARD GROUP H 

[F] 307.1 High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or struc- 
ture, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, 
processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a 
physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those 
allowed in controlareas complying with Section 414, based on 
the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set 
forth in Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2). Hazardous occupancies 
are classified in Groups H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall 
be in accordance with this section, the requirements of Section 
415 and the International Fire Code. Hazardous materials 
stored, or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classified as 
outdoor storage or use and shall comply with the International 
Fire Code. 

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as Group 
H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that they most 
nearly resemble. 

1. Buildings and structures occupied for the applica- 
tion of flammable finishes, provided that such build- 



ings or areas conform to the requirements of Section 
416 and the International Fire Code. 

2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable 
and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies 
conforming to the International Fire Code. 

3. Closed piping system containing flammable or 
combustible liquids or gases utilized for the opera- 
tion of machinery or equipment. 

4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible 
liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) 
or higher in closed systems employing equipment 
listedby an approved testing agency, provided that 
this occupancy is separated from all other areas of 
the building by I-hour fire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or I-hour horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 
712, or both. 

5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent 
having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C). 

6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage. 

7. Refrigeration systems. 

8. The storage or utilization of materials for agricul- 
tural purposes on the premises. 

9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency 
power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommu- 
nication facilities, provided that the batteries are 
provided with safety venting caps and ventilation is 
provided in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

10. Corrosives shall not include personal or household 
products in their original packaging used in retail 
display or commonly used building materials. 

11. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol stor- 
age shall be classified as Group S-I, provided that 
such buildings conform to the requirements of the 
International Fire Code. 

12. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and non- 
flammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous 
materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S 
occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5. 

13. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant 
and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and 
special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, 
M and S, provided such storage conforms to the 
quantity limits and requirements prescribed in the 
International Fire Code. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



25 



[F] TABLE 307.1 (1) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDaj 


m, n, p 




MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 
THE MAXIMUM 
ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY IS 
EXCEEDED 


STORAGE b 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS' 3 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS' 3 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Combustible liquid , i 


n 

I1IA 
TTTR 


H-2 or H-3 
H-2 or H-3 

N/A 


N/A 


120d,e 

330d,e 

13,200e,f 


N/A 


N/A 


120 d 

330 d 

13,200 f 


N/A 


N/A 


30 d 

BOd 

3,300 f 


Combustible fiber 


Loose 
Baledo 


H-3 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(20) 
(200) 


N/A 


Consumer fireworks 
(Class C, Common) 


1.4G 


H-3 


12Sd,e,i 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics, flammable 


N/A 


H-2 


N/A 


4S d 


N/A 


N/A 


4S d 


N/A 


N/A 


IOd 


Cryogenics, inert 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


NL 


N/A 


N/A 


NL 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics, oxidizing 


N/A 


H-3 


N/A 


4S d 


N/A 


N/A 


4S d 


N/A 


N/A 


IOd 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division I.4G 
Division l.S 
Division 1.6 


H-I 
H-I 
H-I or H-2 
H-3 
H-3 
H-I 
H-I 


Ie,g 
Ie,g 
se,g 

soe,g 

12&Ui 

Ie,g 

14e,g 


(De,g 

(De,g 
(s)e,g 
(so)e,g 

N/A 

(De,g 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.2Sg 

0.2S § 

Ig 

sog 

N/A 
0.2S g 

N/A 


(0.2S)g 

(0.2S)g 

(l)g 

(S0)g 

N/A 
(0.2S)g 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.2Sg 

0.2Sg 

Ig 

N/A 
N/A 
0.2Sg 

N/A 


(0.2S)g 

(0.2S)g 

(l)g 

N/A 

N/A 

(0.2S)g 

N/A 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


H-2 


N/A 


N/A 
(lS0)d,e 


l,000d,e 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 
(lS0)d,e 


l,000d,e 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Flammable liquid 


IA 
IB and IC 


H-2 
orH-3 


N/A 


304 e 

120d,e 


N/A 


N/A 


30 d 
120 d 


N/A 


N/A 


IOd 
30 d 


Flammable liquid, 
combination (1A, IB, IC) 


N/A 


H-2 
orH-3 


N/A 


120d,e,h 


N/A 


N/A 


120d,h 


N/A 


N/A 


30d,h 


Flammable solid 


N/A 


H-3 


12Sd,e 


N/A 


N/A 


12S d 


N/A 


N/A 


2S d 


N/A 


Inert gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


Organic peroxide 


UD 
I 

n 
m 

IV 
V 


H-I 
H-2 
H-3 
H-3 

N/A 
N/A 


le,g 

Sd,e 
S0d,e 
12Sd,e 

NL 
NL 


(l)e,g 

(S)d,e 
(S0)d,e 
(12S)d,e 

NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.2S g 
Id 

SOd 
12S d 

NL 
NL 


(0.2S)g 

(1) 

(S0)d 
(12S)d 

NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.2Sg 

Id 

IOd 

2S d 

NL 
NL 


(0.2S)g 
(l)d 
(10)d 

(2S)d 

NL 
NL 


Oxidizer 


4 

3 k 
2 
1 


H-I 

H-2 or H-3 

H-3 

N/A 


Ie,g 

I0d,e 

2S0d,e 

4,000e,f 


(De,g 

(10)d,e 

(2S0)d,e 

(4,000)e,f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.2S g 

2 d 
2S0 d 
4,000f 


(0.2S)g 

(2)d 
(2S0)d 
(4,000)f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.2Sg 

2 d 

SOd 
l,000f 


(0.2S)g 
(2)d 
(S0)d 

(l,000)f 



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8 

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(continued) 



ho 

o 

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m 
73 

z 

> 

O 

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> 

r 

00 

c 



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O 
O 

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[F] TABLE 307.1 (1 )-continued 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDaJ, m, n, P 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 
THE MAXIMUM 
ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY IS 
EXCEEDED 


STORAGE b 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS b 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS b 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Oxidizing gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


H-3 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
(lSO)d,e 


I,SOOd,e 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
(lSO)d,e 


I,S00d,e 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


Pyrophoric material 


N/A 


H-2 


4e,g 


(4)e,g 


soe,g 


19 


(l)g 


109 








Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 
2 
I 


H-I 

H-I or H-2 

H-3 

N/A 


Ie,g 

Sd,e 
S0d,e 

NL 


d)e,g 
(S)d,e 
(S0)d, e 

NL 


109 

S0d,e 
2S0d,e 

NL 


0.2S§ 
Id 
SOd 

NL 


(0.2S)g 
d)d 
(S0)d 

NL 


2e,g 
I0d,e 
2S0d,e 

NL 


0.2S§ 
Id 

IOd 

NL 


(0.2S)g 
d)d 
(IO)d 
NL 


Water reactive 


3 
2 
I 


H-2 
H-3 

N/A 


Sd,e 
S0d,e 

NL 


(S)d,e 
(S0)d,e 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


Sd 
SOd 

NL 


(S)d 
(S0)d 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


Id 

IOd 

NL 


(l)d 
(IO)d 
NL 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales 
occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not 
being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . Where Note e also applies, the increase for 
both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved stomge cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures or in listed safety cans in accordance with Section 
2703.9.10 of the International Fire Code. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

g. Permitted only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class 1A, IB or IC flammable liquids. 

i. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2 of the International Fire Code. 

j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment. Storage contain- 
ers and the manner of storage shall be approved. 

1 . Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks, including packaging, 
shall be used. 

m. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the International Fire Code. 

n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2). 

o. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities: 

1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles. 

2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code. 

3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code. 

4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Mechanical Code. 



C 
</) 
m 

> 

z 

D 
O 
O 

o 

c 

T3 

> 

Z 

o 
-< 

o 






o 
> 

o 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] TABLE 307.1(2) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARDS, c, i 



MATERIAL 


STORAGE d 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS d 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS d 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)e, t 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)e 


Solid 
pounds e 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)e 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)e 


Solid 
pounds e 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)e 


Corrosive 


5,000 


500 


Gaseous 81 f 

Liquefied 

(150)h 


5,000 


500 


Gaseous 81 f 

Liquefied 

(150)h 


1,000 


100 


Highly toxic 


10 


(!0)h 


Gaseous 20 g 
Liquefied (4)g, h 


10 


(10)i 


Gaseous 20 g 
Liquefied (4)g, h 


3 


(3)i 


Toxic 


500 


(500)h 


Gaseous 81 f 

Liquefied 

(150)f,h 


500 


(500) 1 


Gaseous 81 f 

Liquefied 

(150)f,h 


125 


(125) 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics , containing not more than 50 per- 
cent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are pack- 
aged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 
414.2.5(2). 

d. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the 
International Fire Code. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

g. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code. 
h. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

i. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the International Fire Code. 



307.1.1 Hazardous materials. Hazardous materials in any 
quantity shall conform to the requirements of this code, 
including Section 414, and the International Fire Code. 

\F] 307.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol con- 
tainer by a propellant. 

Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calcula- 
tion of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be desig- 
nated Levell, 2 or 3. 

Levell aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British ther- 
mal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g). 

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
ofcombustionthatis greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but 
less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or a glass or plastic 
bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum size of 3 3. 8 fluid ounces (1000 ml) . Glass or 
plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum size of 4 fluid 
ounces (118 ml). 

BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and 
secured with industry accepted materials, usually consisting of 
burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet 
polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands or 



wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) 
and motes (residual materials from the ginning process). 

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Cotton made into 
banded bales with a packing density of at least 22 pounds per 
cubic foot (360 kg/m 3 ), and dimensions complying with the fol- 
lowing: a length of 55 inches (1397 ± 20 mm), a width of 21 
inches (533.4 ± 20 mm) and a height of 27. 6 to 35.4 inches (701 
to 899 mm). 

BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of 
walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid 
release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, 
partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of 
shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial bar- 
rier. 

Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a 
minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm). 

Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as 
hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding 
exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the 
magazine or building containing explosives when the trees 
are bare of leaves. 

BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pres- 
sure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds 
per square inch (psi) (101 kPa) gage or 760 mm of mercury. 
Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material 
in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boil- 
ing point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent 
evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with 
ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid. 



28 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the 
product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal opera- 
tions; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed 
systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed 
through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of 
equipment. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 
420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 
or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burn- 
ing materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, 
cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istlejute, kapok, 
oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, cer- 
tain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does 
not include densely packed baled cotton. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup 
flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall 
be subdivided as follows: 

Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 

Class I1IA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

Class IIIB. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 200°F (93°C). 

The category of combustible liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials, 
that: 

1. Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square 
inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure; and 

2. Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia 
(101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in 
solution, except those gases which have no other health- 
or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be 
compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 
41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C). 

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows: 

1. Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than 
those in solution, which are in a packaging under the 
charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a tempera- 
ture of 68°F (20°C). 

2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packag- 
ing under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a 
temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3. Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that 
are dissolved in a solvent. 

4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or 
more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the 



hazard properties of which are represented by the proper- 
ties of the mixture as a whole. 

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allow- 
able quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or 
handled. See also the definition of "Outdoor control area" in 
the International Fire Code. 

CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, 
or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at 
the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive 
if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method 
described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, such a chemical 
destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the 
point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This 
term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower 
than -150°F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmo- 
sphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa). 

DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive 
materials constructed in accordance with the requirements for 
a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 33 of 
the International Fire Code. 

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the 
extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, 
in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material 
at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have 
an explosive effect. 

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the 
presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and 
maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through 
the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The 
principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. 
Detonations have an explosive effect. 

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material 
from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, 
fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere. 

EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent 
expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock 
wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or struc- 
tures. An explosion could result from any of the following: 

1. Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration 
or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway 
polymerization (usually detonations). 

2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures. 

3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion). 

EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the 
primary or common purpose of which is to function by explo- 
sion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black 
powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety 
fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and display 
fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special). 

The term" explosive" includes any material determined to be 
within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes 
any material classified as an explosive other than consumer 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



29 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



I fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) by the hazardous materi- 
als regulations of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185. 

High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, 
which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test 
blasting cap when unconfined. 

Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or defla- 
grate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction 
that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explo- 
sives include, but are not limited to, black powder; safety 
fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 1.3G 
(Class B, Special) and propellants, 1.3C. 

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 
explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various 
types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be 
expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small 
portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the 
impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable 
discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in 
this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an 
explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to 
adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur imme- 
diately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored 
sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the 
initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so 
that two or more quantities must be considered as one for 
quantity-distance purposes. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification 
system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and "low" 
explosives as defined herein. The following terms further 
define explosives under the current system applied by 
DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 
materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert 
with the division to specify further limitations on each divi- 
sion noted (Le., the letter G identifies the material as a pyro- 
technic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic 
substance and similar materials). 

Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion haz- 
ard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the 
entire load instantaneously. 

Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard 
but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and 
either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard 
or both, but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion 
hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the 
package and no projection of fragments of appreciable 
size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not 
cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the 
entire contents of the package. 

Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division 
is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion 
hazard, but that are so insensitive there is very little prob- 
ability of initiation or of transition from burning to deto- 
nation under normal conditions of transport. 



Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not 
have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised 
of articles that contain only extremely insensitive deto- 
nating substances and which demonstrate a negligible 
probability of accidental initiation or propagation. 

FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of 
producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment pur- 
poses by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the 
definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth 
herein. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. (Formerly Class B, Special Fireworks.) 
Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, 
intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to pro- 
duce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration 
or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks include, but are not lim- 
ited to, firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 
grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing 
more than 40 grams of pyrotechnic composition, and other 
display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 
1.4G fireworks. Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as 
fireworks, UN0335 by the DOTn. 

Fireworks, 1.4G. (Formerly Class C, Common Fireworks.) 
Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts of 
pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce vis- 
ible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks 
which comply with the construction, chemical composition 
and labeling regulations of the DOTn for fireworks, 
UN0336, and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commis- 
sion (CPSC) as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 
1507, are not explosive materials for the purpose of this 
code. 

FLAMMABLE GAS. A material that is a gas at 68°F (20°C) 
or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 
kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68 of 
(20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which: 

1. Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 
percent or less by volume with air; or 

2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of 
at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. 

The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 kPa) 
of pressure and a temperature of 68 °F (20°C) in accordance 
with ASTME 681. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied compressed 
gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a tem- 
perature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash 
point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further cate- 
gorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I cate- 
gory is subdivided as follows: 

Class IA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C). 

Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C). 

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F 
(23°C) and below 100°F (38°C). 



30 



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USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



The category of flammable liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature 
of600°F (316°C) or less. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or 
explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, 
absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or 
retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has an 
ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which burns so 
vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a serious 
hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid as 
determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 
CFR; Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns with a self- sustained 
flame at a rate greater than 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along its 
major axis. 

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahren- 
heit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an 
ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but 
will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be 
determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as spec- 
ified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278. 

HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point 
of storage or use. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances 
that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classi- 
fied in this section and the International Fire Code, whether the 
materials are in usable or waste condition. 

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which 
there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic 
health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The 
term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic or highly 
toxic, and corrosive. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or 
lethal concentration that falls within any of the following catego- 
ries: 

1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD S0 ) of 50 mil- 
ligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when admin- 
istered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 
grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD S0 ) of 200 
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when 
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC S0 ) 
in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or 
vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or 
dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 
hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats 
weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. 

Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as 
water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While 
this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evalua- 
tion that is required for the precise categorization of this type of 



material shall be performed by experienced, technically compe- 
tent persons. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when 
mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates 
heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or 
property. 

INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other mate- 
rials only under abnormal conditions such as high tempera- 
tures' pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within 
the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physi- 
calor health properties as defined (other than acting as a simple 
asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a com- 
pressed gas. Some of the more common inert gases include 
argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon. 

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are 
liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during 
normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and 
liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunc- 
tion with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive 
materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another 
with the use of intraplant or intraline distances. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains 
the bivalent -0-0- structure and which may be considered to be 
a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both 
of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radi- 
cal. Organic peroxides can pose an explosion hazard (detona- 
tion or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can 
also decompose into various unstable compounds over an 
extended period of time. 

Class I. Those formulations that are capable of deflagration 
but not detonation. 

Class II. Those formulations that burn very rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class III. Those formulations that burn rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class IV. Those formulations that burn in the same manner 
as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity 
hazard. 

Class V. Those formulations that burn with less intensity 
than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion 
and that pose no reactivity hazard. 

Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable 
of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high 
explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition. 

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other 
oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate com- 
bustion of combustible materials and, if heated or contami- 
nated' can result in vigorous self-sustained decomposition. 

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction 
due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical 
shock and that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



31 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



combustible materials with which it comes into contact. 
Additionally, the oxidizer causes a severe increase in the 
burning rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combus- 
tibles. 

Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the 
burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes 
in contact. 

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in 
the burning rate of combustible materials with which it 
comes in contact. 

Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the 
burning rate of combustible materials. 

OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate 
combustion of other materials. 

PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evi- 
dence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explosive, 
flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid or liq- 
uid) , oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric 
(solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liquid 
or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liquid). 

PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an autoignition tempera- 
ture in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C). 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture 
that produces visible light displays or sounds through a 
self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is 
initiated by ignition. 

TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following cate- 
gories: 

1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD S0 ) of more 
than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 
milligrams per kilogram of body weight when adminis- 
tered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 
grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD S0 ) of more 
than 200 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 
1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when 
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less 
if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of 
albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC S0 ) 
in air of more than 200 parts per million, but not more 
than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or 
more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 mil- 
ligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when adminis- 
tered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death 
occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 
200 and 300 grams each. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other 
than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially 
produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense 
or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical 
changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or 
shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of 
contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. 
Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows: 



Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of 
detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reac- 
tion at normal temperatures and pressures. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or local- 
ized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures. 

Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detona- 
tion or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but 
which require a strong initiating source or which must be 
heated under confinement before initiation. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechani- 
cal shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable 
and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not det- 
onate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemi- 
cal change with rapid release of energy at normal 
temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent 
chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but 
which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and 
pressure. 

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that 
explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition 
or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or mois- 
ture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without 
requiring heat or confinement. 

Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the 
ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, 
toxic or other hazardous gases or evolve enough heat to 
cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon expo- 
sure to water or moisture. 

Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of 
energy, but not violently. 

[F] 307.3 High-hazard Group H-l. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be 
classified as Group H-l. Such materials shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Detonable pyrophoric materials 

Explosives: 

Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exception: Materials that are used and maintained in 
a form where either confinement or configuration will 
not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explo- 
sion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies. 

Division 1.4 

Exception: Articles, including articles packaged for 
shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under 
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regula- 
tions, or unpackaged articles used in process opera- 
tions that do not propagate a detonation or 
deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 
occupancies. 



32 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable and Class 4 

[F] 307.4 High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard 
from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. 
Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- 
ing: 

Class I, II or I1IA flammable or combustible liquids which 
are used or stored in normally open containers or sys- 
tems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at 
more than 15 psi (103.4 kPa) gage. 

Combustible dusts 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides, Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open 
containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems 
pressurized at more than 15 psi (103 kPa) gage 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials, Class 3 

[F] 307.5 High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such 
materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Class I, II or I1IA flammable or combustible liquids that 
are used or stored in normally closed containers or 
systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge 
(103.4 kPa) or less 

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton 

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) 

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Flammable solids 

Organic peroxides, Class II and III 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2 

Water-reactive materials, Class 2 

[F] 307.6 High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classi- 
fied as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

[F] 307.7 High-hazard Group H-5 structures. Semiconduc- 
tor fabrication facilities and comparable research and develop- 
ment areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) 
are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of 
those listed in Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2) shall be classified 



as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with Section 415.8. 

[F] 307.8 Multiple hazards. Buildings and structures containing 
a material or materials representing hazards that are classified in 
one or more of Groups H-l, H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall conform to the 
code requirements for each of the occupancies so classified. 



SECTION 308 
INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I 

308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a super- 
vised environment, having physical limitations because of 
health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care 
or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or cor- 
rectional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is 
restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as 
Group 1-1,1-2,1-3 or 1-4. 

308.2 Group 1-1. This occupancy shall include buildings, 
structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, on a 
24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other 
reasons, live in a supervised residential environment that pro- 
vides personal care services. The occupants are capable of 
responding to an emergency situation without physical assis- 
tance from staff. This group shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Alcohol and drug centers 
Assisted living facilities 
Congregate care facilities 
Convalescent facilities 
Group homes 
Halfway houses 

Residential board and care facilities 
Social rehabilitation facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. A 
facility such as above, housing at least six and not more than 16 
persons, shall be classified as Group R-4. 

308.3 Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or 
custodial care for persons who are not capable of self-preserva- 
tion. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- 
ing: 

Child care facilities 
Detoxification facilities 
Hospitals 
Mental hospitals 
Nursing homes 

308.3.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

CHILD CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide 
care on a 24-hour basis to more than five children, 2V 2 
years of age or less. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



}} 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that 
serve patients who are provided treatment for substance 
abuse on a 24-hour basis and who are incapable of 
self-preservation or who are harmful to themselves or 
others. 

HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. 

Buildings or portions thereof used on a 24-hour basis for 
the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment 
of inpatients who are incapable of self-preservation. 

NURSING HOMES. Nursing homes are long-term care 
facilities on a 24-hour basis, including both intermediate 
care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, serving more 
than five persons and any of the persons are incapable of 
self-preservation. 

308.4 Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures that are inhabited by more than five persons who are 
under restraint or security. An 1-3 facility is occupied by per- 
sons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to 
security measures not under the occupants' control. This group 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Correctional centers 

Detention centers 

Jails 

Prerelease centers 

Prisons 

Reformatories 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the occu- 
pancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4.1 through 
308.4.5 (see Section 408.1). 

308.4.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy 
is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without 
restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be con- 
structed as Group R. 

308.4.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment 
to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the 
exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

308.4.3 Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a residen- 
tial unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group 
activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-con- 
trolled release of means of egress from such a smoke com- 
partment to another smoke compartment. 

308.4.4 Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to 
permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and 
other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to 
other smoke compartments. 



308.4.5 Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compart- 
ment to other smoke compartments . 

308.5 Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group shall include 
buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who 
receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals 
other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or 
adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared 
for. A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. 
Places of worship during religious functions are not included. 

308.5.1 Adult care facility. A facility that provides accom- 
modations for less than 24 hours for more than five unre- 
lated adults and provides supervision and personal care 
services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A facility where occupants are capable of 
responding to an emergency situation without physical 
assistance from the staff shall be classified as Group R-3. 

308.5.2 Child care facility. A facility that provides supervi- 
sion and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more 
than five children 2 V 2 years of age or less shall be classified 
as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A child day care facility that provides care 
for more than five but no more than 100 children 2V 2 
years or less of age, where the rooms in which the chil- 
dren are cared for are located on a level of exit discharge 
serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms 
has an exitdoor directly to the exterior, shall be classified 
as Group E. 



SECTION 309 
MERCANTILE GROUP M 

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a 
portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise and 
involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to 
such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occu- 
pancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following : 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 

309.2 Quantity of hazardous materials. The aggregate quan- 
tity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed 
in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not 
exceed the quantities in Table 414.2.5(1). 



34 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



SECTION 310 
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R 

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institu- 
tional Group I or when not regulated by the International Resi- 
dential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. Residential 
occupancies shall include the following : 

R-l Residential occupancies containing sleeping units where 
the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 
Hotels (transient) 
Motels (transient) 

Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer 
occupants are permitted to comply with the construction 
requirements for Group R-3. 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more 
than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily per- 
manent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (nontransient) 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 

Hotels (nontransient) 

Live/work units 

Monasteries 

Motels (nontransient) 

Vacation timeshare properties 

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer occupants are 
permitted to comply with the construction requirements for 
Group R-3. 

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primar- 
ily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-l, R-2, 
R-4 or I, including: 

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units. 
Adult care facilities that provide accommodations for five 

or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours. 
Child care facilities that provide accommodations for five or 

fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours. 
Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons. 

Adult care and child care facilities that are within a sin- 
gle-family home are permitted to comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings arranged 
for occupancy as residential care/assisted living facilities 
including more than five but not more than 16 occupants, 
excluding staff. 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for con- 
struction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise pro- 
vided for in this code or shall comply with the International 
Residential Code provided the building is protected by an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.2.7. 



310.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodg- 
ing for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied 
as a single-family unit. 

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part 
thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bath- 
room and/or kitchen facilities . 

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping 
accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of 
closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same 
family group, under joint occupancy and single management, 
as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of residents who do 
not require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. 
Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the resi- 
dent while inside the building. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILI- 
TIES . A building or part thereof housing persons, on a 24- hour 
basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, 
live in a supervised residential environment which provides 
personal care services. The occupants are capable of respond- 
ing to an emergency situation without physical assistance from 
staff. This classification shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: residential board and care facilities, assisted living 
facilities, halfway houses, group homes, congregate care facili- 
ties, social rehabilitation facilities, alcohol and drug abuse cen- 
ters and convalescent facilities. 

TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
for not more than 30 days. 



SECTION 311 
STORAGE GROUP S 

311.1 Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occu- 
pancy. 

311.2 Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-I. Buildings 
occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, 
including, but not limited to, storage of the following: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 

Aircraft hangar (storage and repair) 

Bags: cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboos and rattan 

Baskets 

Belting: canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Dry boat storage (indoor) 

Furniture 



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USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



I 



Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum 

allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in 

Table 307.1 (1) (see Section 406.6) 
Photo engravings 
Resilient flooring 
Silks 
Soaps 
Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 
Upholstery and mattresses 
Wax candles 

311.3 Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials 
such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or 
without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such 
products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic 
trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Group S-2 stor- 
age uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the fol- 
lowing: 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in metal, 

glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Empty cans 
Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 

Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 
Meats 

Metal cabinets 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 

Oil- filled and other types of distribution transformers 
Parking garages, open or enclosed 
Porcelain and pottery 
Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 
Washers and dryers 



SECTION 312 
UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U 

312.1 General. Buildings and structures of an accessory char- 
acter and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific 
occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to 
conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with 
the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family 

residence (see Section 412.5) 
Barns 
Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 
Greenhouses 
Livestock shelters 
Private garages 
Retaining walls 
Sheds 
Stables 
Tanks 
Towers 



36 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED 
ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 401 
SCOPE 

401.1 Detailed use and occupancy requirements. In addition 
to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, 
the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and 
occupancies described herein. 



SECTION 402 
COVERED MALL AND OPEN MALL BUILDINGS 

402.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings or structures defined herein as cover edmall buildings 
not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three 
stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by 
this section, coveredmall buildings shall meet applicable pro- 
visions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-l and R-2 are not 
required to comply with this section. 

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this 
section when they totally comply with other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

402.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a 
group other than H having direct access to a coveredmall build- 
ing but having required means of egress independent of the 
mall. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing 
a number of tenants and occupants, such as retail stores, drink- 
ing and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement 
facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices and other 
similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance 
into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor 
buildings shall not be considered as a part of the coveredmall 
building. The term" coveredmall building" shall include open 
mall buildings as defined below. 

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a 
coveredmall bUilding that serves as access for two or more 
tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each 
other. The term "mall" shall include open malls as defined 
below. 

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a 
number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at 
levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exte- 
rior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade. 

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number 
of tenants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining estab- 



lishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, 
and other similar uses, wherein two or more tenants have a 
main entrance into one or more open malls. For the purpose 
of Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, anchor 
buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall build- 
ing. 

FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that 
serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed 
for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant 
occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions 
to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including 
areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross 
leasable area. 

402.3 Lease plan. Each coveredmall bUilding owner shall pro- 
vide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan 
showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the 
certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or 
changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on 
the lease plan without prior approval of the building official. 

402.4 Means of egress. Each tenant space and the coveredmall 
bUilding shall be provided with means of egress as required by 
this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the 
requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, 
the requirements of this section shall apply. 

402.4.1 Determination of occupant load. The occupant 
loa d permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered 
mall building shall be determined as required by this code. 
Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces 
shall be based on the occupant load thus determined. 

402.4.1.1 Occupant formula. In determining required 
means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for 
whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based 
on gross leasable area of the covered mall building 
(excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant loadfac- 
tor as determined by the following equation. 



a LP= (0.00007) (CLA) + 25 



where: 



(Equation 4-1) 



aLP = The occupant load factor (square feet per per- 
son). 

CLA = The gross leasable area (square feet). 

Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a coveredmall 
building but with a means of egress system that is 
totally independent of the coveredmall bUilding shall 
not be considered as gross leasable area for determin- 
ing the required means of egress for the coveredmall 
bUilding. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



37 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



402.4.1.2 OLF range. The occupant load factor (OLE) 
is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50. 

402.4.1.3 Anchor buildings. The occupant load of 
anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be 
included in computing the total number of occupants for 
the mall. 

402.4.1.4 Food courts. The occupant load of a food 
court shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of 
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant 
loa d shall be added to the occupant load of the covered 
mall bUilding as calculated above. 

402.4.2 Number of means of egress. Wherever the dis- 
tance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant 
space used by persons other than employees exceeds 75 
feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupantload 
of 50 or more, not less than two means of egress shall be 
provided. 

402.4.3 Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly 
occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be 
so located in the covered mall bUilding that their entrance 
will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the 
mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required 
means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the cov- 
ered mall building. 

402.4.3.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required 
means of egress for anchor bUildings shall be provided 
independently from the mall means of egress system. 
The occupant load of anchor bUildings opening into the 
mall shall not be included in determining means of egress 
requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of 
malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls ter- 
minating at an anchor building where no other means of 
egress has been provided shall be considered as a 
dead-end mall. 

402.4.4 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant 
space in a covered mall bUilding, the maximum distance of 
travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall 
not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

The maximum distance of travel from any point within a 
mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

402.4.5 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is 
required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel 
in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. 
The minimum width of an exitpassagewayox corridorfrom 
a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm). 

Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to 
twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest 
location within the dead-end portion of the mall. 

402.4.5.1 Exit passageways. Where exit passageways 
provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, 
doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by 
I-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic- 
closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 
715.4.8.3. 



402.4.6 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. 
Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas 
and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit 
passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated 
from such rooms with not less than I-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. The minimum fire protection rating of openings in the 
fire barriers shall be 1 hour. 

402.5 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required egress, 
malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not 
comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code 
where the width of the mall is as specified in this section. 

402.5.1 Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be suffi- 
cient to accommodate the occupantloadserved. There shall 
be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a 
height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a ten- 
ant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending 
machine, bench, display opening, food court or other 
obstruction to means of egress travel. 

402.5.2 Minimum width open mall. The minimum floor 
and roof opening width above grade shall be 20 feet (9096 
mm) in open malls. 

402.6 Types of construction. The area of any covered mall 
building, including anchor buildings, of Types I, II, IE and IV 
construction, shall not be limited provided the covered mall 
bUilding and attached anchor bUildings and parking garages 
are surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor bUildings do not 
exceed three stories above grade plane. The allowable height 
and area of anchor bUildings greater than three stories above 
grade plane shall comply with Section 503, as modified by 
Sections 504 and 506. The construction type of open parking 
garages and enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sec- 
tions 406.3 and 406.4, respectively. 

402.6.1 Reduced open space. The permanent open space of 
60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not 
less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requ- 
irements are met: 

1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more 
than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered mall 
building and anchor buildings. 

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall 
have a minimum fire -resistance rating of 3 hours. 

3. Openings in the exterior wa//facing the reduced open 
space shall have opening protectives with a minimum 
fire protection rating of 3 hours. 

4. Group E, H, lor R occupancies are not within the cov- 
eredmall building or anchor stores. 

402.7 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resis- 
tance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces 
and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required 
between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall. 

402.7.1 Attached garage. An attached garage for the stor- 
age of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than 



38 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered 
as a separate building where it is separated from the covered 
mall bUilding by not less than 2-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. 

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed 
parking garage is separated from the coveredmall build- 
ing or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. 
Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that attach the open 
parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the cov- 
ered mall bUilding or anchor bUilding shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Section 3104. 

402.7.2 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be 
separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition com- 
plying with Section 709. A tenant separation wall is not 
required between any tenant space and the mall. 

402.7.3 Anchor building separation. An anchor bUilding 
shall be separated from the covered mall bUilding by fire 
walls complying with Section 706. 

Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane that have an occupancy classifi- 
cation the same as that permitted for tenants of the 
covered mall building shall be separated by 2-hour 
fire-resistive fire barriers complying with Section 707. 

402.7.3.1 Openings between anchor building and 
mall. Except for the separation between Group R-l 
sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor 
buildings of Type 1A, IB, IIA and 1IB construction and 
the mall need not be protected. 

402.8 Interior finish. Interior wall mid ceiling finishes within 
the mall and exits shall have a minimum flame spreadindexsmd 
smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 
8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 
804. 

[F] 402.9 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall 
bUilding and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following: 

1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and 
operative throughout occupied space in the coveredmall 
building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. 
Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected 
unless provided with approved alternative protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent 
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where 
tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall 
be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of open parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Section 406.3. 

[F] 402.9.1 Standpipe system. The coveredmall bUilding 
shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as 
required by Section 905.3.3. 



402.10 Smoke control. Where a coveredmall building con- 
tains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 404.5. 

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in cov- 
ered mall bUildings when an atrium connects only two sto- 
ries. 

402.11 Kiosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or 
permanent) shall meet the following requirements : 

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be 
located within the mall unless constructed of any of the 
following materials: 

7.7. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with 
Section 2303.2. 

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat-release 
rate not greater than 100 kilowatts (105 Btu/h) 
when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth 
protocol in UL 1975. 

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a 
flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450 
when tested as an assembly in the maximum 
thickness intended for use in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall 
be provided with approved fire suppression detection 
devices. 

3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or 
groupings thereof and other structures within the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). 

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall 
have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m 2 ). 

402.12 Children's playground structures. Structures 
intended as children's playgrounds that exceed 10 feet (3048 
mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m 2 ) in area shall comply 
with Sections 402.12.1 through 402.12.4. 

402.12.1 Materials. Children's playground structures shall 
be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combusti- 
ble materials that comply with the following: 

7. Fire-retardant-treated wood. 

2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 
2606. 

3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in 
soft-contained play equipment structures) having a 
maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 
kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the 
requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance 
with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the 
maximum thickness intended for use. 

5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA 701. 

6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components 
of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as 
tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides 



i 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



39 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



I 



and decks) exhibiting a peak rate of heat release not 
exceeding 400 kW/m 2 when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m 2 in 
the horizontal orientation at a thickness of 6 mm. 

7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment 
structures, having a maximum heat-release rate not 
greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance 
with UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall 
be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an 
average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls 
shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel 
poultry netting wire mesh. 

8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or 
film meeting the flame propagation performance cri- 
teria of NFP A 701. 

9. The floor covering placed under the children's play- 
ground structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor 
finish classification, as described in Section 804, 
when tested in accordance with NFPA 253. 

402.12.2 Fire protection. Children's playground structures 
located within the mall shall be provided with the same level 
of app roved fire suppression and detection devices required 
for kiosks and similar structures. 

402.12.3 Separation. Children's playground structures 
shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other 
structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 mm). 

402.12.4 Area limits. Children's playground structures 
shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m 2 ) in area, unless a 
special investigation has demonstrated adequate fire safety. 

402.13 Security grilles and doors. Horizontal sliding or verti- 
cal security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of 
egress shall conform to the following : 

1. They shall remain in the full open position during the 
period of occupancy by the general public. 

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed posi- 
tion when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces 
served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying 
spaces served by more than one exit. 

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within with- 
out the use of any special knowledge or effort where the 
space is occupied. 

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a 
horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door. 

[F] 402.14 Standby power. Coveredmall buildings exceeding 
50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) shall be provided with standby 
power systems that are capable of operating the emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. 

[F] 402.15 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. 
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m 2 ) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm 
communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, 
shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 



402.16 Plastic signs. Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of 
any tenant space facing the mall shall be limited as specified in 
Sections 402.16.1 through 402.16.5.2. 

402.16.1 Area. Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of 
the wall area facing the mall. 

402.16.2 Height and width. Plastic signs shall not exceed a 
height of 36 inches (914 mm), except that if the sign is verti- 
cal, the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the 
width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

402.16.3 Location. Plastic signs shall be located a mini- 
mum distance of 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants. 

402.16.4 Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics other 
than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting 
plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a 
self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when 
tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame 
spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed 
index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner 
intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 
or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286. 

402.16.4.1 Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic 
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal. 

402.16.5 Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs shall 
have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a 
maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in 
accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have 
the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam 
plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 
402.16 shall not be required to comply with the flame 
spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 
2603.3. 

402.16.5.1 Density. The minimum density of foam plas- 
tics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per 
cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m 3 ). 

402.16.5.2 Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic 
signs shall not be greater than i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

\F] 402.17 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or 
areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppres- 
sion or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire 
department. 



SECTION 403 
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 

403.1 Applicability. High-rise buildings shall comply with 
Sections 403 .2 through 403.6. 

Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 403.6 
shall not apply to the following buildings and structures: 

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sec- 
tion 412.3. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 



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3. Buildings with a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance 
with Section 303.1. 

4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with 
Section 503.1.1. 

5. Buildings with a Group H-l, H-2 or H-3 occupancy in 
accordance with Section 415. 

403.2 Construction. The construction of high-rise buildings 
shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 
403.2.4. 

403.2.1 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The 
fire-resistance-rating reductions listed in Sections 
403.2.1.1 and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that 
have sprinkler control valves equipped with supervisory ini- 
tiating devices and water-flow initiating devices for each 
floor. 

403.2.1.1 Type of construction. The following reduc- 
tions in the minimum fire- resistance rating of the build- 
ing elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as follows: 

1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in 
bUilding height, the fire-resistance rating of the 
building elements in Type IA construction shall be 
permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resis- 
tance ratings for the building elements in Type IB. 

Exception: The required fire-resistance rating 
of columns supporting floors shall not be per- 
mitted to be reduced. 

2. In other than Group F-l, M and S-l occupancies, 
the fire -resistance rating of the building elements 
in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be 
reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA. 

3. The building height mid building area limitations 
of a building containing building elements with 
reduced fire -resistance ratings shall be permitted 
to be the same as the building without such reduc- 
tions. 

403.2.1.2 Shaft enclosures. For buildings not greater 
than 420 feet (128 m) in bUilding height, the required 
fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers enclosing verti- 
cal shafts, other than exit enclosures and elevator 
hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be reduced to 1 hour 
where automatic sprinklers are installed within the shafts 
at the top and at alternate floor levels . 

403.2.2 Seismic considerations. For seismic consider- 
ations, see Chapter 16. 

403.2.3 Structural integrity of exit enclosures and eleva- 
tor hoistway enclosures. For high-rise buildings of occu- 
pancy category III or IV in accordance with Section 1604.5, 
and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in 
building height, exit enclosures and elevator hoistway 
enclosures shall comply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 
403.2.3.4. 

403.2.3.1 Wall assembly. The wall assemblies making 
up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures 
shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification 



Level 2 as measured by the test method described in 
ASTM C 1629/C 1629M. 

403.2.3.2 Wall assembly materials. The face of the wall 
assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator 
hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior 
of the exit enclosure or elevator hoistway enclosure shall 
be constructed in accordance with one of the following 
methods: 

1. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than 
two layers of impact-resistant construction board 
each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact 
Classification Level 2 as measured by the test 
method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M. 

2. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than 
one layer of impact-resistant construction material 
that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classifi- 
cation Level 3 as measured by the test method 
described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M. 

3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of 
any material, tested in tandem, that meet or exceed 
Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as mea- 
sured by the test method described in ASTM C 
1629/C 1629M. 

403.2.3.3 Concrete and masonry walls. Concrete or 
masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the require- 
ments of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2. 

403.2.3.4 Other wall assemblies. Any other wall assem- 
bly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that 
required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard 
Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the 
test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M, shall 
be permitted. 

403.2.4 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). The 
bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the build- 
ing shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4. 

TABLE 403.2.4 
MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH 



HEIGHT OF BUILDING a 


SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH 


Up to 420 feet 


430 psf 


Greater than 420 feet 


l,000psf 



For 51 : 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (pst) = 0.0479 kWyin 2 . 
a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

[F] 403.3 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary 
water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of: 

1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used 
exclusively for telecommunications equipment, asso- 
ciated electrical power distribution equipment, bat- 
teries and standby engines, provided that those spaces 



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or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic 
fire detection system in accordance with Section 
907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the 
building by not less than I-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or not less 
than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. 

[F] 403.3.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system 
design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are 
more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height shall be sup- 
plied by a minimum of two risers. Each riser shall supply 
sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are 
provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not 
be supplied from the same riser. 

[F] 403.3.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be 
placed in exit enclosures that are remotely located in 
accordance with Section 1015.2. 

[F] 403.3.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. 
Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to a 
minimum of two water mains located in different streets. 
Separate supply piping shall be provided between each con- 
nection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection 
and the supply piping between the connection and the 
pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure 
required for the pumps to operate. 

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be 
permitted provided the main is valved such that an inter- 
ruption can be isolated so that the water supply will con- 
tinue without interruption through at least one of the 
connections. 

403.4 Emergency systems. The detection, alarm and emer- 
gency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sec- 
tions 403.4.1 through 403.4.8. 

[F] 403.4.1 Smoke detection. Smoke detection shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1. 

[F] 403.4.2 Fire alarms systems. A fire alarm system shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13. 

[F] 403.4.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem. An emergency voice/alarm communication system 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 

[F] 403.4.4 Emergency responder radio coverage. Emer- 
gency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code. 

[F] 403.4.5 Fire command. A fire command center com- 
plying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location 
approvedby the fire department. 

403.4.6 Smoke removal. To facilitate smoke removal in 
post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and 
structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ven- 
tilation for removal of products of combustion in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1. Easily identifiable, manually operable windows or 
panels shall be distributed around the perimeter of 
each floor at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) inter- 
vals. The area of operable windows or panels shall not 



be less than 40 square feet (3.7 m 2 ) per 50 linear feet 
(15 240 mm) of perimeter. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Group R-l occupancies, each sleeping 
unit or suite having an exterior wall shall be 
permitted to be provided with 2 square feet 
(0.19 m 2 ) of venting area in lieu of the area 
specified in Item 1. 

2. Windows shall be permitted to be fixed pro- 
vided that glazing can be cleared by fire 
fighters. 

2. Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one 
exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area 
involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved 
directly to the outside without recirculation to other 
portions of the building. 

3. Any other approved design that will produce equiva- 
lent results. 

[F] 403.4.7 Standby power. A standby power system com- 
plying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for standby power 
loads specified in Section 403.4.7.2. 

[F] 403.4.7.1 Special requirements for standby power 
systems. If the standby system is a generator set inside a 
building, the system shall be located in a separate room 
enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. System 
supervision with manual start and transfer features shall 
be provided at the fire command center. 

[F] 403.4.7.2 Standby power loads. The following are 
classified as standby power loads: 

1. Power and lighting for the fire command center 
required by Section 403.4.5; 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equip- 
ment for smokeproof enclosures; and 

3. Standby power shall be provided for elevators in 
accordance with Sections 1007.4,3003,3007 and 
3008. 

\F] 403.4.8 Emergency power systems. An emergency 
power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided 
for emergency power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.1. 

[F] 403.4.8.1 Emergency power loads. The following 
are classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination 
required by Chapter 10; 

2. Elevator car lighting; 

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems; 

4. Automatic fire detection systems; 

5. Fire alarm systems; and 

6. Electrically powered fire pumps. 

403.5 Means of egress and evacuation. The means of egress 
in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 
through 403.5.6. 



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403.5.1 Remoteness of exit stairway enclosures. The 
required exit stairway enclosures shall be separated by a dis- 
tance not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than 
one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal 
dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is 
less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line 
between the nearest points of the exit stairway enclosures. 
In buildings with three or more exit stairway enclosures, at 
least two of the exit stairway enclosures shall comply with 
this section. Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted 
as one exit stairway. 

403.5.2 Additional exit stairway. For buildings other than 
Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in bUilding 
height, one additional exit stairway meeting the require- 
ments of Sections 1009 and 1022 shall be provided in addi- 
tion to the minimum number of exits required by Section 
1021.1. The total width of any combination of remaining 
exit stairways with one exit stairway removed shall not be 
less than the total width required by Section 1005.1. Scissor 
stairs shall not be considered the additional exit stairway 
required by this section. 

Exception: An additional exit stairway shall not be 
required to be installed in buildings having elevators 
used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with 
Section 3008. 

403.5.3 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other 
than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked 
from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from 
the stairway side shall be capable of being unlocked simul- 
taneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire 
command center. 

403.5.3.1 Stairway communication system. A tele- 
phone or other two-way communications system con- 
nected to an approved constantly attended station shall 
be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stair - 
way where the doors to the stairway are locked. 

403.5.4 Smokeproof exit enclosures. Every required level 
exit stairway serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access 
shall comply with Sections 909.20 and 1022.9. 

403.5.5 Luminous egress path markings. Luminous 
egress path markings shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 1024. 

403.5.6 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency escape 
and rescue openings required by Section 1029 are not 
required. 

403.6 Elevators. Elevator installation and operation in 
high-rise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 
403.6.1 and 403.6.2. 

403.6.1 Fire service access elevator. In buildings with an 
occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the 
lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a minimum 
of one fire service access elevator shall be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 3007. 

403.6.2 Occupant evacuation elevators. Where installed 
in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for 



general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant 
self-evacuation. 



SECTION 404 
ATRIUMS 

404.1 General. In other than Group H occupancies, and where 
permitted by Exception 5 in Section 708.2, the provisions of 
this section shall apply to buildings or structures containing 
vertical openings defined herein as 'Atriums." 

404.1.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 

ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories 
other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escala- 
tors, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equip- 
ment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. 
Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies 
within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with 
Section 505. 

404.2 Use. The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other 
than low fire hazard uses and only approvedmatermis and dec- 
orations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall 
be used in the atrium space. 

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for 
any approved use where the individual space is provided 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. 

[F] 404.3 Automatic sprinkler protection. An approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the 
entire building. 

Exceptions: 

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium 
need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the 
building is separated from the atrium portion by not 
less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet 
(16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at 
the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

[F] 404.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.2.14. 

404.5 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 909. 

Exception: Smoke control is not required for atriums that 
connect only two stories. 

404.6 Enclosure of atriums. Atrium spaces shall be separated 
from adjacent spaces by a I-hour fire barrier constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

Exceptions: 

1. A glass wall forming a smoke partition where auto- 
matic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less 
along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room 



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1 



1 



side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, 
and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 
mm) away from the glass and designed so that the 
entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the 
sprinkler system without obstruction. The glass shall 
be installed in a gasketed frame so that the framing 
system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass 
before the sprinkler system operates. 

2. A glass-block wall assembly in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2110 and having a 3/ 4 -hour fire protection rating. 

3. The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium 
shall not be required to be separated from the atrium 
where such spaces are accounted for in the design of 
the smoke control system. 

[F] 404.7 Standby power. Equipment required to provide 
smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system in 
accordance with Section 909.11. 

404.8 Interior finish. The interior finish of walls and ceilings 
of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in 
class for sprinkler protection. 

404.9 Travel distance. In other than the lowest level of the 
atrium, where the required means of egress is through the 
atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within 
the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The 
travel distance requirements for areas of buildings open to the 
atrium and where access to the exits is not through the atrium, 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 1016. 



SECTION 405 
UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS 

405.1 General. The provisions of this section apply to building 
spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest 
level of exit discharge. 

Exceptions: 

1. One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.3. 

2. Parking garages with automatic sprinkler systems in 
compliance with Section 405.3. 

3. Fixed guideway transit systems. 

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar 
facilities . 

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would 
qualify the building as an underground building and 
has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m 2 ) 
and has an occupant load less than 10. 

6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical 
spaces intended only for limited periodic use by ser- 
vice or maintenance personnel. 

405.2 Construction requirements. The underground portion 
of the building shall be of Type I construction. 

[F] 405.3 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building 
and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprin- 



kler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

405.4 Compartmentation. Compartmentation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3. 

405.4.1 Number of compartments. A building having a 
floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished 
floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided 
into a minimum of two compartments of approximately 
equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the 
highest level of exit discharge serving the underground por- 
tions of the building and all levels below. 

Exception: The lowest storyneed not be compartmented 
where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 
m 2 ) and has an occupant load of less than 10. 

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetration. The compartments 
shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in 
accordance with Section 710. Penetrations between the two 
compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical 
piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with 
Section 713. Doorways shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in 
accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 and are installed in 
accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 715.4.3. Where 
provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an 
exhaust system independent of the other compartments. 

405.4.3 Elevators. Where elevators are provided, each 
compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where 
an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator 
lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each 
compartment by a smoke barrierin accordance with Section 
710. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be auto- 
matic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Sec- 
tion 715.4.8.3. 

[F] 405.5 Smoke control system. A smoke control system 
shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 
405.5.2. 

[F] 405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is 
required to control the migration of products of combustion 
in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this 
section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to 
the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress 
in a usable condition. 

[F] 405.5.2 Compartment smoke control system. Where 
compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have 
an independent smoke control system. The system shall be 
automatically activated and capable of manual operation in 
accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19. 

[F] 405.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19. 

405.7 Means of egress. Means ofegress shall be in accordance 
with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2. 

405.7. 1 Number of exits. Each floor level shall be provided 
with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is 
required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have a 



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minimum of one exitand shall also have an exit access door- 
way into the adjoining compartment. 

405.7.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway 
serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the 
finished floor of its level of exit discharge shall comply with 
the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in 
Section 1022.9. 

[F] 405.8 Standby power. A standby power system complying 
with Chapter 27 shall be provided standby power loads speci- 
fied in Section 405.8.1. 

[Fj 405.8.1 Standby power loads. The following loads are 
classified as standby power loads: 

1. Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Section 3003. 

[F] 405.8.2 Pick-up time. The standby power system shall 
pick up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of 
the normal power supply. 

[F] 405.9 Emergency power. An emergency power system 
complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for emergency 
power loads specified in Section 405 .9.1. 

[F] 405.9.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads 
are classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Emergency voicelalarm communications systems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car lighting. 

5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required 
by Chapter 10. 

[F] 405.10 Standpipe system. The underground building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance 
with Section 905. 



SECTION 406 
MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

406.1 Private garages and carports. 

406.1.1 Classification. Buildings or parts of buildings clas- 
sified as Group U occupancies because of the use or charac- 
ter of the occupancy shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 
m 2 ) in area or one story m height except as provided in Sec- 
tion 406.1.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds 
the limitations specified in this section shall be classified in 
the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly 
resembles. 

406.1.2 Area increase. Group U occupancies used for the 
storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no 
repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are permitted 



to be 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ) when the following provi- 
sions are met: 

1. For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior walland 
opening protection for the Group U portion of the 
building shall be as required for the major occupancy 
of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, 
the allowable floor area of the building shall be as per- 
mitted for the major occupancy contained therein. 

2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, 
the exterior wall shall not be required to have a 
fire-resistance rating and the area of openings shall 
not be limited when the fire separation distance is 5 
feet (1524 mm) or more. 

More than one 3, 000- square-foot (279 m^ Group U 
occupancy shall be permitted to be in the same building, 
provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 m 2 ) area is separated 
by fire walls complying with Section 706. 

406.1.3 Garages and carports. Carports shall be open on at 
least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved 
noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two 
sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the 
provisions of this section for garages. 

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level in carports . 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

406.1.4 Separation. Separations shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The private garage shall be separated from the dwell- 
ing unit and its attic area by means of a minimum 
liz-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to the 
garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be 
separated from all habitable rooms above by not less 
than a sis-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or 
equivalent. Door openings between a private garage 
and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either 
solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel 
doors not less than 1 3 / s inches (34.9 mm) thick, or 
doors in compliance with Section 715.4.3. Openings 
from a private garage directly into a room used for 
sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Doors shall 
be self-closing and self-latching. 

2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the 
walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit from the 
garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.019-inch 
(0.48 mm) sheet steel and shall have no openings into 
the garage. 

3. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and 
U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two 
or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above . 

406.1.5 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic 
garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accor- 
dance with UL 325. 



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406.2 Parking garages. 

406.2.1 Classification. Parking garages shall be classified 
as either open, as defined in Section 406.3, or enclosed and 
shall meet the appropriate criteria in Section 406.4. Also see 
Section 509 for special provisions for parking garages. 

406.2.2 Clear height. The clear height of each floor level in 
vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 
feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodat- 
ing van-accessible parking required by Section 1 106.5 shall 
conform to ICC A 117.1. 

406.2.3 Guards. Guards shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1013. Guards serving as vehicle barrier sys- 
tems shall comply with Sections 406.2.4 and 1013. 

406.2.4 Vehicle barrier systems. Vehicle barrier systems 
not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) high shall be placed at 
the end of drive lanes, and at the end of parking spaces 
where the vertical distance to the ground or surface directly 
below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barrier sys- 
tems shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 
1607.7.3. 

Exception: Vehicle storage compartments in a mechani- 
cal access parking garage. 

406.2.5 Ramps. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as 
required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. 
Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as 
well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1: 15 (6.67 
percent). 

406.2.6 Floor surface. Parking surfaces shall be of concrete 
or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

Exceptions: 

1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level. 

2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be 
required to have a sloped surface. 

406.2.7 Mixed occupancy separation. Parking garages 
shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance 
with Section 508.1. 

406.2.8 Special hazards. Connection of a parking garage 
with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall 
be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separa- 
tion. 

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the 
sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches 
(457 mm) above the floor. 

406.2.9 Attached to rooms. Openings from a parking 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall 
not be permitted. 



406.3 Open parking garages. 

406.3.1 Scope. Except where specific provisions are made 
in Sections 406.3.2 through 406.3.13, other requirements of 
this code shall apply. 

406.3.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

MECHANICAL- ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 

Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, 
elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving 
from and to street level and in which public occupancy is 
prohibited above the street level. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a 
structure with the openings as described in Section 
406.3.3.1 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or 
storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 
406.3.4. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open 
parking garages employing a series of continuously rising 
floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors 
permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power 
from and to the street level. 

406.3.3 Construction. Open parking garages shall be of 
Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall 
meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle 
barrier systems, see Section 406.2.4. 

406.3.3.1 Openings. For natural ventilation purposes, 
the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly dis- 
tributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such 
openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 
percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The 
aggregate length of the openings considered to be pro- 
viding natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 
40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall 
be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed 
openings. 

Exception: Openings are not required to be distrib- 
uted over 40 percent of the building perimeter where 
the required openings are uniformly distributed over 
two opposing sides of the building. 

406.3.4 Uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same 
building as an openparking garage subject to the provisions 
of Sections 402.7.1, 406.3.13, 508.1, 509.3, 509.4 and 
509.7. 

406.3.5 Area and height. Area and height of openparking 
garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group 
S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 
508.1. 

406.3.5.1 Single use. When the open parking garage is 
used exclusively for the parking or storage of private 
motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the 
area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 



46 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



406.3.5, along with increases allowed by Section 
406.3.6. 

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to con- 
tain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total 
combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 
m 2 ). Such area need not be separated from the open 
parking garage. 

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping 
floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any 
cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per 
parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage hav- 
ing a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 
mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a 
tier. 

The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 
7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is per- 
mitted in mechanical-access open parking garages 
where approvedby the building official. 

406.3.6 Area and height increases. The allowable area and 
height of open parking garages shall be increased in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides 
open on three-fourths of the building's perimeter are permit- 
ted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in 
height. Garages with sides open around the entire building's 
perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area 
and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under 
the above provisions, the total area of openings along the 
side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of 
the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally dis- 
tributed along the length of the tier. 

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased 
for open parking garages constructed to heights less than 
the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall 
not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least 
three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous 
horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in 
clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of 
the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 
200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In 
addition, each such opening shall face a street or y a rd acces- 
sible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet (9144 mm) for 
the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be pro- 
vided in each such tier. 



Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all 
sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the 
bUilding height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a 
side to be considered open, the total area of openings along 
the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area 
of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally 
distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers 
shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such 
openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in 
Section 406.3.3.1. These openings shall be permitted to be 
provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet 
(6096 mm) for the full width of the openings. 

406.3.7 Fire separation distance. Exterior walls and open- 
ings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. 
The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in 
accordance with Table 602 and Section 705. 

406.3.8 Means of egress. Where persons other than parking 
attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet 
the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no 
persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there 
shall not be less than two 36-inch-wide (914 mm) exit stair- 
ways. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of 
employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by 
noncombustible materials. 

406.3.9 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be installed where 
required by the provisions of Chapter 9. 

406.3.10 Sprinkler systems. Where required by other pro- 
visions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and 
standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 9. 

406.3.11 Enclosure of vertical openings. Enclosure shall 
not be required for vertical openings except as specified in 
Section 406.3.8. 

406.3.12 Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percentage 
of openings specified in Section 406.3.3.1, shall not be 
required. 

406.3.13 Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations 
are not permitted: 

1. Vehicle repair work. 

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles. 



TABLE 406.3.5 
OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


AREA PER TIER 
(square feet) 


HEIGHT (in tiers) 


Ramp access 


Mechanical access 


Automatic sprinkler system 


No 


Yes 


IA 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


IB 


Unlimited 


12 tiers 


12 tiers 


18 tiers 


nA 


50,000 


10 tiers 


10 tiers 


15 tiers 


1IB 


50,000 


8 tiers 


8 tiers 


12 tiers 


IV 


50,000 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 



For 51: 1 square foot = 0.0929 i 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in 
exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means. 

4. Dispensing of fuel. 

406.4 Enclosed parking garages. 

406.4.1 Heights and areas. Enclosed vehicle parking 
garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition 
of open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable 
heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified by Sec- 
tions 504, 506 and 507. Roof parking is permitted. 

406.4.2 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system shall 
be provided in accordance with the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

406.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

406.5.1 Construction. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall be constructed in accordance with the International 
Fire Code and Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.3. 

406.5.2 Vehicle fueling pad. The vehicle shall be fueled on 
noncoated concrete or other approve d paving material hav- 
ing a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by 
the methodology in EN 1081. 

406.5.3 Canopies. Canopies under which fuels are dis- 
pensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less 
than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting ele- 
ment in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their 
supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, 
fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, 
wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing I-hour 
fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a can- 
opy shall comply with one of the following: 

1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible ele- 
ment of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes; 

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a mini- 
mum thickness of 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corro- 
sion-resistant steel having a minimum base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall 
have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a 
smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in 
the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 
84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F 
(343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with 
ASTM D 1929; or 

3. Panels constructed of light- transmitting plastic mate- 
rials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies 
erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station 
fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the 
same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet 
(12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggre- 
gate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 square 
feet (93 m 2 ) . The maximum area of any individual 
panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ). 

406.5.3. 1 Canopies used to support gaseous hydrogen 
systems. Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing 
operations where flammable compressed gases are 



located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance 
with the following: 

1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construc- 
tion requirements. 

2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited 
to refueling only. 

3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that 
prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas. 

406.6 Repair garages. 

406.6.1 General. Repair garages shall be constructed in 
accordance with the International Fire Code and Sections 

406.6.1 through 406.6.6. This occupancy shall not include 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 
406.5. 

406.6.2 Mixed uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the 
same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of 
Section 508.1. 

406.6.3 Ventilation. Repair garages shall be mechanically 
ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the 
entrance to the garage. 

406.6.4 Floor surface. Repair garage floors shall be of con- 
crete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materi- 
als. 

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor 
finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 
W/cm 2 as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted. 

406.6.5 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

\F] 406.6.6 Gas detection system. Repair garages used for 
repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as 
hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an 
app roved flammable gas detection system. 

[F] 406.6.6.1 System design. The flammable gas detec- 
tion system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or 
gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection 
system shall be designed to activate when the level of 
flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive 
limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication 
or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing 
nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles. 

\F] 406.6.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection 
system shall result in all of the following: 

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm sig- 
nals in the repair garage. 

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the 
repair garage. 

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, 
where the system is interlocked with gas detection. 

[Fj 406.6.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Fail- 
ure of the gas detection system shall result in the deacti- 
vation of the heating system, activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system when the system is inter- 



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I 



locked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble 
signal to sound in an approve d location. 



SECTION 407 
GROUP 1-2 

407.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-2 shall comply with 
the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.9 and other appli- 
cable provisions of this code. 

407.2 Corridors. Corridors in occupancies in Group 1-2 shall 
be continuous to the exits and separated from other areas in 
accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to 
Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.4. 

407.2.1 Waiting and similar areas. Waiting areas and sim- 
ilar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be 
permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the fol- 
lowing criteria are met: 

1. The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, 
treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental accessory 
occupancies in accordance with Section 508.2. 

2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907. 

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the 
same smoke compartment, are protected by an auto- 
matic fire detection system installed in accordance 
with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which 
the spaces are located is equipped throughout with 
quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 
903.3.2. 

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to 
the required exits. 

401.22 Nurses' stations. Spaces for doctors' and nurses' 
charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be 
permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are 
constructed as required for corridors. 

407.2.3 Mental health treatment areas. Areas wherein 
mental health patients who are not capable of self-preserva- 
tion are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeu- 
tic spaces other than incidental accessory occupancies in 
accordance with Section 508.2.5, under continuous super- 
vision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the 
corridor, where the following criteria are met: 

1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m 2 ). 

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facil- 
ity staff. 

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to 
the required exits. 

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection 
system installed in accordance with Section 907.2. 

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in anyone 
smoke compartment. 

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as 
required for corridors. 



407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops less than 500 square feet 
(46.5 m 2 ) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corri- 
dor provided the gift shop and storage areas are fully 
sprinklered and storage areas are protected in accordance 
with Section 508.2.5. 

407.3 Corridor walls. Co rridor walls shall be constructed as 
smoke partitions in accordance with Section 711. 

407.3.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors, other than those 
in a wall required to be rated by Section 508.2.5 or for the 
enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a 
required fire protection rating and shall not be required to be 
equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, 
but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of 
smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller 
latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Sec- 
tion 715.4. 

407.3.2 Locking devices. Locking devices that restrict 
access to the patient room from the corridor, and that are 
operable only by staff from the corridor side, shall not 
restrict the means of egress from the patient room except for 
patient rooms in mental health facilities. 

407.4 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment 
and to divide other stories with an occupant loadof 50 or more 
persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories 
shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not 
more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m 2 ) and the travel distance 
from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier 
door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier 
shall be in accordance with Section 710. 

407 .4. 1 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m 2 ) per 
patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corri- 
dors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining 
areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke 
barrier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or 
litter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m 2 ) per occupant shall 
be provided on each side of each smoke barrier -for the total 
number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. 

407.4.2 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originated. 

407.4.3 Horizontal assemblies. Horizontal assemblies 
supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be 
designed to resist the movement of smoke and shall comply 
with Section 712.9. 

\F] 407.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Smoke compartments 
containing patient sleeping units shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. The smoke compartments shall be equipped with 
approved quick-response or residential sprinklers in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.2. 

\F] 407.6 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.2.6. 

[F] 407.7 Automatic fire detection. Corridors in nursing 
homes (both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), 



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1 



detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the 
corridorsby Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic 
fire detection system. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke 
detection as required in Section 407.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where 
patient sleeping units are provided with smoke detec- 
tors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall 
provide a visual display on the corridor side of each 
patient sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm 
at the nursing station attending each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where 
patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with auto- 
matic door-closing devices with integral smoke 
detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance 
with their listing, provided that the integral detectors 
perform the required alerting function. 

407.8 Secured yards. Grounds are permitted to be fenced and 
gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided 
that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m 2 ) for 
bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m 2 ) for ambu- 
latory patients and other occupants are located between the 
building and the fence . Such provided safe dispersal areas shall 
not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building 
they serve. 

407.9 Hyperbaric facilities. Hyperbaric facilities in Group 1-2 
occupancies shall meet the requirements contained in Chapter 
20ofNFPA99. 



SECTION 408 
GROUP 1-3 

408.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall comply with 
the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.10 and other 
applicable provisions of this code (see Section 308.4). 

408.1.1 Definition. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

CELL. A room within a housing unit in a detention or cor- 
rectional facility used to confine inmates or prisoners. 

CELL TIER. Levels of cells vertically stacked above one 
another within a housing unit. 

HOUSING UNIT. A dormitory or a group of cells with a 
common dayroom in Group 1-3. 

SALLYPORT. A security vestibule with two or more doors 
or gates where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous 
and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only 
one door or gate at a time. 

408.2 Other occupancies. Buildings or portions of buildings 
in Group 1-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate 
the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be 
classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as 
other than Group 1-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of 
this code for that occupancy provided provisions are made for 
the release of occupants at all times. 



Means of egress from detention and correctional occupan- 
cies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform 
to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies. 

Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit 
into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to 
detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but 
that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropri- 
ate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H 
use. 

408.3 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided for 
in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply. 

408.3.1 Door width. Doors to resident sleeping units shall 
have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). 

408.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress are 
of the horizontal- sliding type, the force to slide the door to its 
fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a 
perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N). 

408.3.3 Guard tower doors. A hatch or trap door not less 
than 16 square feet (610 m 2 ) in area through the floor and 
having minimum dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 
mm) in any direction shall be permitted to be used as a por- 
tion of the means of egress from guard towers. 

408.3.4 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to 
the requirements of Section 1009.9 are permitted for access 
to and between staff locations. 

408.3.5 Ship ladders. Ship ladders shall be permitted for 
egress from control rooms or elevated facility observation 
rooms in accordance with Section 1009.11. 

408.3.6 Exit discharge. Exits are permitted to discharge 
into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts 
shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum 
of 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 
15 square feet (1.4 m 2 ) per person. 

408.3.7 Sallyports. A sallyport shall be permitted in a 
means of egress where there are provisions for continuous 
and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an 
emergency egress condition. 

408.3.8 Exit enclosures. One of the required exit enclo- 
sures in each building shall be permitted to have glazing 
installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level 
providing access to the enclosure, provided that the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

1. The exit enclosure shall not serve more than four floor 
levels. 

2. Exit doors shall not be less than 3/4-hour fire door 
assemblies complying with Section 715.4 

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not 
exceed 5,000 square inches (3 m 2 ) and individual pan- 
els of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches 
(0.84 m 2 ). 

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an 
automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 
shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface 
of any glazing affected by fire when actuated. 



50 



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5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed 
in such a manner that the framing system will deflect 
without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprin- 
kler system operates. 

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse 
rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be 
installed between the automatic sprinklers and the 
glazing. 

408.4 Locks. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accor- 
dance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a refuge 
area to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu 
of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to 
unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the 
locks shall be operable from both sides of the door. 

408.4.1 Remote release. Remote release of locks on doors 
in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of 
operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release 
locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, 
the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release 
mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the 
minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms 
are capable of being released within 2 minutes. 

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking 
of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not 
required provided that not more than 10 locks are neces- 
sary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one 
smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. 
The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished 
with not more than two separate keys. 

408.4.2 Power-operated doors and locks. Power-operated 
sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors 
shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the 
door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical 
operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities 
with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to 
Section 408.4.1. 

408.4.3 Redundant operation. Remote release, mechani- 
cally operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically 
operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically oper- 
ated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided 
with a redundant remote release control. 

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked under 
emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when 
closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location 
to enable doors to relock. 

408.5 Protection of vertical openings. Any vertical opening 
shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Sec- 
tion 708, or shall be in accordance with Section 408.5.1. 



408.5.1 Floor openings. Openings in floors within a hous- 
ing unit are permitted without a shaft enclosure, provided all 
of the following conditions are met: 

1. The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected 
are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation 
of the areas by supervisory personnel; 

2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient for all occu- 
pants from all interconnected cell tiers and areas; 

3. The height difference between the floor levels of the 
highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet 
(7010 mm); and 

4. Egress from any portion of the cell tier to an exit or 
exit access door shall not require travel on more than 
one additional floor level within the housing unit. 

408.5.2 Shaft openings in communicating floor levels. 

Where a floor opening is permitted between communicat- 
ing floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Section 
408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically staked individ- 
ual cells contained with the housing unit shall be permitted 
without a shaft enclosure. 

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall have 
smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.8 and 710 to 
divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any 
other storyhaving an occupant loadof 50 or more persons, into 
at least two smoke compartments . 

Exception: Spaces having a direct exitto one of the follow- 
ing, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors 
involved complies with the requirements for doors at the 
smoke barrier for the use condition involved: 

1 . A public way. 

2. A building separated from the resident housing area 
by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) of open space. 

3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 
feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 
6 square feet (0.56 m 2 ) or more of refuge area per 
occupant, including residents, staff and visitors. 

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The maximum number of 
residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The 
travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room 
door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 
720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier 
from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 
mm). 

408.6.2 Refuge area. At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m 2 ) per 
occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier fox the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke 
compartments. This space shall be readily available wher- 
ever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier'm a 
fire emergency. 



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1: 



408.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originates. 

408.7 Security glazing. In occupancies in Group 1-3, windows 
and doors in I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance 
with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with 
Section 709 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 710 shall be permitted to have security glazing 
installed provided that the following conditions are met. 

1. Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 
square inches (0.84 m 2 ). 

2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an auto- 
matic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be 
designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire 
surface of any glazing affected by fire. 

3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in 
such a manner that the framing system will deflect with- 
out breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler sys- 
tem operates. 

4. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, 
curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed 
between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing. 

408.8 Subdivision of resident housing areas. Sleeping areas 
and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other 
common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated 
from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.8.1 through 
408.8.4. 

408.8.1 Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4. Each sleeping 
area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated 
from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight parti- 
tion where the travel distance from the sleeping area 
through the common space to the co rri do r exceeds 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

408.8.2 Occupancy Condition 5. Each sleeping area in 
Occupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent 
sleeping areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoke- 
tight partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be sepa- 
rated from the corridor by a smoke-tight partition. 

408.8.3 Openings in room face. The aggregate area of 
openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Condi- 
tions 2,3,4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches (77 419 
mm 2 ). The aggregate area shall include all openings includ- 
ing door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall 
be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In 
Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable 
from the room side. 

408.8.4 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in partitions 
required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be sub- 
stantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of 
smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell 
doors. 

408.9 Windowless buildings. For the purposes of this section, 
a windowless building or portion of a building is one with 
nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or with- 
out windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an 



engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable environ- 
ment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the area of fire 
origin in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless 
smoke compartment. 

[F] 408.10 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3. 



SECTION 409 
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS 

409.1 General. The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 
409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose ace- 
tate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electric 
arc, xenon or other light- source projection equipment that 
develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose 
nitrate film is utilized or stored, such rooms shall comply with 
NFPA40. 

409.1.1 Projection room required. Every motion picture 
machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of 
this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurte- 
nant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers 
and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an 
adjacent room of equivalent construction. 

409.2 Construction of projection rooms. Every projection 
room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the 
construction requirements for the type of building in which the 
projection room is located. Openings are not required to be pro- 
tected. 

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square 
feet (7.44 m 2 ) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet 
(3.7 m 2 ) for each additional machine. Each motion picture pro- 
jector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall 
have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 
inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear 
thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two 
adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appur- 
tenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 
inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection 
equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall 
between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings 
shall be provided with glass or other approvedmaterial, so as to 
close completely the opening. 

409.3 Projection room and equipment ventilation. Ventila- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

409.3.1 Supply air. Each projection room shall be provided 
with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide 
well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts 
shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of 
air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permit- 
ted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces 
within the building, provided the volume and infiltration 
rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning sys- 
tem, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air 
when other systems are not in operation. 

409.3.2 Exhaust air. Projection rooms are permitted to be 
exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp 



52 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the 
lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the 
required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the 
exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air 
cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. 
The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also 
serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind 
rooms. 

409.3.3 Projection machines. Each projection machine 
shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air 
from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the 
building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust 
air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. 
Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible 
connector approvedfor the purpose. The projection lamp or 
projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be 
combined but shall not be interconnected with any other 
exhaust or return system, or both, within the building. 

409.4 Lighting control. Provisions shall be made for control 
of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting sys- 
tems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at 
least one other convenient point in the building. 

409.5 Miscellaneous equipment. Each projection room shall 
be provided with rewind and film storage facilities. 



SECTION 410 
STAGES AND PLATFORMS 

410.1 Applicability. The provisions of Sections 410.1 through 
410.7 shall apply to all parts of buildings and structures that 
contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances as herein 
defined. 

410.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from which 
the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects 
are controlled. 

GRIDIRON. The structural framing over a stage supporting 
equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage 
effects. 

PINRAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belaying 
pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened. 

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for wor- 
ship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; 
the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers 
and speakers ; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the-round 
stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead 
hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than 
lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for 
not more than 30 days. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage 
from the auditorium or assembly seating area. 

STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment 
or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, 
drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. 



410.3 Stages. Stage construction shall comply with Sections 
410.3.1 through 410.3.7. 

410.3.1 Stage construction. Stages shall be constructed of 
materials as required for floors for the type of construction 
of the building in which such stages are located. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stages of Type 1IB or IV construction with a nomi- 
nal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the 
stage is separated from other areas in accordance 
with Section 410.3.4. 

2. In buildings of Types IIA, I1IA and VA construc- 
tion, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, 
provided the space below the stage is equipped 
with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Section 903 or 904. 

3. In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be 
constructed of wood or approved noncombustible 
materials. Openings through stage floors shall be 
equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors 
with approved safety locks. 

410.3.1.1 Stage height and area. Stage areas shall be 
measured to include the entire performance area and 
adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from 
the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest 
point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or 
floor deck above the stage. 

410.3.2 Galleries, gridirons, catwalks and pinrails. 
Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed 
theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of approved materials consistent with the 
requirements for the type of construction of the building; 
and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These 
areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezza- 
nines or levels in applying this code. 

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of any approved material. 

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of open- 
ings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with 
fire door assemblies that comply with Section 715 . Exterior 
openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or 
loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be 
open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed 
with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium. 

410.3.4 Proscenium wall. Where the stage height is greater 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be 
completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium 
wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating 
extending continuously from the foundation to the roof. 

410.3.5 Proscenium curtain. Where a proscenium wall is 
required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening 
shall be provided with a fire curtain complying with NFPA 
80 or an approved water curtain complying with Section 
903.3.1.1 or, in facilities not utilizing the provisions of 
smoke-protected assembly seating in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1028.6.2, a smoke control system complying with Sec- 



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53 



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I 



tion 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the 
smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the 
means of egress. 

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and 
scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria 
ofNFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the Inter- 
national Fire Code. Foam plastics and materials containing 
foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the Inter- 
national Fire Code. 

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be 
provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) in 
floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 
mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 
or 410.3.7.2. 

410.3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed to 
open automatically by approved heat-activated devices 
and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 
5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the 
center and above the highest part of the stage area. Sup- 
plemental means shall be provided for manual operation 
of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for 
skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled. 

[F] 410.3.7.2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accor- 
dance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the 
smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) 
above the highest level of the assembly seating or above 
the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium 
wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4. 

410.4 Platform construction. Permanent platforms shall be 
constructed of materials as required for the type of construction 
of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Per- 
manent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retar- 
dant-treated woodfor Types I, II and IV construction where the 
platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the 
main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area 
and not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ) in area. Where the 
space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any 
purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor 
assembly shall not be less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform 
is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside 
of the permanent platform need not be protected. 

410.4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a 
period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be con- 
structed of any materials permitted by the code. The space 
between the floor and the platform above shall only be used 
for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment. 

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and appur- 
tenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 
410.5.3. 

410.5.1 Separation from stage. The stage shall be sepa- 
rated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, 
workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to 
the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours 



for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and 1 
hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less. 

410.5.2 Separation from each other. Dressing rooms, 
scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and 
compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated 
from each other by not less than I-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. 

410.5.3 Stage exits. At least one approvedmeans of egress 
shall be provided from each side of the stage and from each 
side of the space under the stage. At least one means of 
escape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the 
gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread device or spiral 
stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a 
scuttle in the stage roof. 

[F] 410.6 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed under 
the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over 
the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, per- 
former lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such 
stages. 

Exceptions: 

1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 
4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized 
exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided 
the concealed space is separated from the adjacent 
spaces by not less than 5/ s -inch (15.9 mm) Type X 
gypsum board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square 
feet (93 m 2 ) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or 
less in height where curtains, scenery or other com- 
bustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Com- 
bustible hangings shall be limited to a single main 
curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop. 

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra 
enclosures on stages. 

[F] 410.7 Standpipes. Standpipe systems shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 905. 



SECTION 411 
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS 

411.1 General. Special amusement buildings having an occu- 
pant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for 
the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 
through 411.8. Amusement buildings having an occupant load 
of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group 
B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. 

Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that 
are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the 
accumulation of smoke. 

For flammable decorative materials, see the International 
Fire Code. 



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411.2 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the 
purpose of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meaning shown herein. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amuse- 
ment bUilding is any temporary or permanent building or por- 
tion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or 
educational purposes and that contains a device or system that 
conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or 
over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of 
egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio dis- 
tractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily avail- 
able because of the nature of the attraction or mode of 
conveyance through the building or structure. 

[F] 411.3 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement build- 
ings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system 
in accordance with Section 907. 

[F] 411.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where 
the special amusement bUilding is temporary, the sprinkler 
water supply shall be of an approve d temporary means. 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the 
total floor area of a temporary special amusement building 
is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) and the travel distance 
from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

\F] 411.5 Alarm. Actuation of a single smoke detector, the 
automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection 
device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a 
constantly attendedlocation from which emergency action can 
be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of 
requirements in Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 411.6 Emergency voice/alarm communications system. 
An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be 
provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12 and 907.5.2.2, 
which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and 
shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement 
bUilding. 

411.7 Exit marking. Exit signs shall be installed at the 
required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings 
in accordance with this section and Section 1011. Approved 
directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mir- 
rors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path 
of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved and 
listedlow-Ievel exit signs that comply with Section 101 1.4, and 
directional path markings listed in accordance with UL 1994, 
shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) 
above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress 
travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. 
The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic 
fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

411.7.1 Photo luminescent exit signs. Where photo lumi- 
nescent exit signs are installed, activating light source and 
viewing distance shall be in accordance with the listing and 
markings of the signs. 

411.8 Interior finish. The interior finish shall be Class A in 
accordance with Section 803.1. 



SECTION 412 
AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

412.1 General. Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply 
with Sections 412.1 through 412.7 and the International Fire 
Code. 

412.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business 
granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport 
and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, 
tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and 
flight instruction. 

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for the use, for the landing and taking 
off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or 
intended for use, for heliport buildings or other heliport facili- 
ties. 

HELISTOP. The same as "heliport," except that no fueling, 
defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is per- 
mitted. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory 
building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m 2 ) and 20 feet (6096 
mm) in building height constructed on a one- or two-family 
property where aircraft are stored. Such use will be considered 
as a residential accessory use incidental to the dwelling. 

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another location 
and at the transient location for not more than 90 days. 

412.3 Airport traffic control towers. 

412.3.1 General. The provisions of Sections 412.3.1 
through 412.3.6 shall apply to airport traffic control towers 
not exceeding 1,500 square feet (140 m 2 ) per floor occupied 
only for the following uses: 

1. Airport traffic control cab. 

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms. 

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms. 

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation. 

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities. 

412.3.2 Type of construction. Airport traffic control tow- 
ers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area 
limitations of Table 412.3.2. 

TABLE 412.3.2 

HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT 

TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS 



TYPE OF 
CONSTRUCTION 


HEIGHT a 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 
(square feet) 


IA 


Unlimited 


1,500 


IB 


240 


1,500 


IIA 


100 


1,500 


UB 


85 


1,500 


I1IA 


65 


1,500 



For 51: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 
a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor. 



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412.3.3 Egress. A minimum of one exit stairway shall be 
permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height pro- 
vided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. 
The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 
1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a 
minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area 
served measured in a straight line. The exit stairway and ele- 
vator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft 
enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 
4-hour fire barrierhaving no openings. Such stairway shall 
be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water column 
(43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 
Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors 
closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in 
Section 1009.11. The provisions of Section 403 do not 
apply. 

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Sec- 
tion 1022.9 are not required where required stairways 
are pressurized. 

[F] 4123 A Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traf- 
fic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2. 

[F] 412.3.5 Standby power. A standby power system that 
conforms to Chapter 27 shall be provided in airport traffic 
control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. 
Power shall be provided to the following equipment: 

1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and 
lighting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

412.3.6 Accessibility. Airport traffic control towers need not 
be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 11. 

412.4 Aircraft hangars. Aircraft hangars shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6. 

412.4.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 
feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a 
fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours. 

412.4.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, floors 
over basements shall be of Type IA construction and shall be 
made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. There 
shall be no opening or communication between basements 
and the hangar. Access to basements shall be from outside 
only. 

412.4.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained 
to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor 
drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer 
or to an outside vented sump . 

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease 
spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m 2 ) each in 
which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted 
and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded 
toward the door, but shall not require a separator. 



412.4.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a 
vestibule providing a two-doorway separation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating 
equipment suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) 
above the upper surface of wings or engine enclo- 
sures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be 
housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) 
above the floor in shops, offices and other sections 
of the hangar communicating with storage or ser- 
vice areas. 

2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided 
the sources of ignition in the appliances are at least 
18 inches (457 mm) above the floor. 

412.4.5 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving use 
of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be car- 
ried on in a separate detached building equipped with auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with 
Section 903. 

412.4.6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance 
with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar 
given in Table 412.4.6. 

Exception: When a fixed base operator has separate 
repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a 
fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft 
only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system 
is exempt from foam requirements. 

412.4.6.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III air- 
craft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains 
hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the 
following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire sup- 
pression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as appli- 
cable: 

1. Doping. 

2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, 
torch cutting and torch soldering. 

3 . Fuel transfer. 

4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including 
defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, 
inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled. 

5. Spray finishing operations. 

6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the 
unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 
gallons (6057 L). 

7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maxi- 
mum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons 
(28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with S ection 903 .3.1.1. 



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[F] TABLE 412.4.6 
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c 



MAXIMUM SINGLE 
FIRE AREA, SQ. FT. 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


IA 


IB 


IIA 


MB 


NiA 


1MB 


IV 


VA 


VB 


> 40,001 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


40,000 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


30,000 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


20,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


15,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


Group III 


Group II 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


12,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


8,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


5,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 - 

a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area. 

b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409 . 

c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar. 



412.4.6.2 Separation ofmaximum single fire areas. Max- 
imum single fire areas established in accordance with han- 
gar classification and construction type in Table All A. 6 
shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 706. 

412.5 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft han- 
gars as defined in Section 412.2 shall comply with Sections 
412.5.1 through 412.5.2. 

412.5.1 Fire separation. A hangar shall not be attached to a 
dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a 
fire -resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separa- 
tion shall be continuous from the foundation to the under- 
side of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the 
dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit must be 
equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the 
requirements of Section 715 with at least a 4- inch (102 mm) 
noncombustible raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly 
into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permit- 
ted. 

412.5.2 Egress. A hangar shall provide two means ofegress. 
One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as 
meeting only one of the two means ofegress. 

[F] 412.5.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be pro- 
vided within the hangar in accordance with Section 
907.2.21. 

412.5.4 Independent systems. Electrical, mechanical and 
plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed 
within the hangar shall be independent of the systems 
installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be 
permitted to be connected outside the structures. 

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electri- 
cal subpanels in the hangar. 



412.5.5 Height and area limits. Residential aircraft han- I 
gars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m 2 ) in area and 
20 feet (6096 mm) in building height. 

\F] 412.6 Aircraft paint hangars. Aircraft painting opera- 
tions where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 
307.7(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that 
complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 
412.6.6. 

[F] 412.6.1 Occupancy group. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
comply with the applicable requirements of this code and 
the International Fire Code for such occupancy. 

412.6.2 Construction. The aircraft paint hangar shall be of 
Type I or 1 1 construction. 

[F] 412.6.3 Operations. Only those flammable liquids nec- 
essary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities 
less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
in Table 307.1 (1) . Spray equipment cleaning operations shall 
be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing room. 

[F] 412.6.4 Storage. Storage of flammable liquids shall be 
in a liquid storage room. 

[F] 412.6.5 Fire suppression. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409. 

412.6.6 Ventilation. Aircraft paint hangars shall be pro- 
vided with ventilation as required in the International 
Mechanical Code. 

412.7 Heliports and helistops. Heliports and helistops shall 
be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where 
they are constructed in accordance with Sections 412.7.1 
through 412.7.4. 



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412.7.1 Size. The landing area for helicopters less than 
3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of20 feet (6096 
mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be sur- 
rounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum aver- 
age width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no 
width less than 5 feet (1524 mm). 

412.7.2 Design. Helicopter landing areas and the supports 
thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible 
construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any 
flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and pro- 
visions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any 
exitor stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a 
structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural 
design requirements, see Section 1605.4. 

412.7.3 Means of egress. The means of egress from heli- 
ports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of 
Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures 
shall have two or more means of egress. For landing areas 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length or less than 2,000 
square feet (186 m 2 ) in area, the second means of egress is 
permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or lad- 
der leading to the floor below. 

412.1 A Rooftop heliports and helistops. Rooftop heli- 
ports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418. 



SECTION 413 
COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 

413.1 General. High-piled stock or rack storage in any occu- 
pancy group shall comply with the International Fire Code. 

413.2 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combusti- 
ble materials shall be protected on the storage side as required 
for I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall 
be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of 
noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 
l 3 / 4 inch (45 mm) in thickness. 

Exceptions: 

1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. 



2. Group R-3 and U occupancies. 



SECTION 414 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

[F] 414.1 General. The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 
414.7 shall apply to buildings and structures occupied for the 
manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of haz- 
ardous materials. 

[F] 414.1.1 Other provisions. Buildings and structures 
with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the 
applicable provisions of Section 415 and the International 
Fire Code. 

\F] 414.1.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous mate- 
rial occupancies is material dependent. Individual material 
requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in 



the International Mechanical Code and the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414.1.2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products 
shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. See Section 311 .2 and the Inter- 
national Fire Code for occupancy group requirements. 

[F] 414.1.3 Information required. A report shall be sub- 
mitted to the building official identifying the maximum 
expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, 
used in a closed system and used in an open system, and sub- 
divided to separately address hazardous material classifica- 
tion categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The 
methods of protection from such hazards, including but not 
limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group 
H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the 
construction documents. The opinion and report shall be 
prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation 
approved by the building official and provided without 
charge to the enforcing agency. 

For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group 
H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the 
locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to 
reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building 
and structure. 

\F] 414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall comply with Sec- 
tions 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the International Fire Code. 

414.2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall 
be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

[F] 414.2.2 Percentage of maximum allowable quanti- 
ties. The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of 
hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor 
level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.2. 

[F] 414.2.3 Number. The maximum number of control 
areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.2. 

414.2 .4 Fire-resistance-rating requirements. The re- 
quired fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in 
accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the 
control area and the construction supporting the floor of the 
control area shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance 
rating. 

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and 
the construction supporting the floor of the control area 
are allowed to be I-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings 
of Types IIA, I1IA and VA construction, provided that 
both of the following conditions exist: 

1. The building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1; and 

2. The building is three stories or less above grade 
plane. 



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[F] TABLE 414.2.2 
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS 



FLOOR LEVEL 


PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA a 


NUMBER OF CONTROL 
AREAS PER FLOOR 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 
FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURS b 


Above grade 
plane 


Higher than 9 

7-9 

6 

5 
4 

3 
2 
1 


5 

5 
12.5 
12.5 
12.5 
50 
75 
100 


1 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


Below grade 
plane 


1 

2 

Lower than 2 


75 

50 

Not Allowed 


3 

2 

Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 



a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) , with all increases allowed in the notes to those 
tables. 

b. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building. 



[F] 414.2.5 Hazardous material in Group M display and 
storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The aggre- 
gate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted 
within a single control area of a Group M display and stor- 
age area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area 
is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
per control area specified in Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2) 
without classifying the building or use as a Group H occu- 
pancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored 
in accordance with the International Fire Code and quanti- 
ties do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in 
Table 414.2.5(1). 

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, 
indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall 
not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control 
area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the 
materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. 

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M 
occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to 
retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 414.3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in 
which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or 
highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be 
emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of 
materials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the 
International Fire Code and the International Mechanical 
Code. 

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or 
dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building with- 
out entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or 
through ducts and plenums. 

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flam- 
mable constituents less than 25 percent of their lower flam- 
mable limit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other 
spaces. 



Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the 
area in which they are generated as specified in the Interna- 
tional Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code. 

The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust 
air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required 
by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to 
the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the 
break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SyS- 
TEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF. 

[F] 414.4 Hazardous material systems. Systems involving 
hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended applica- 
tion. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from 
entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the 
intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where pro- 
vided, shall be designed to be fail safe. 

\F] 414.5 Inside storage, dispensing and use. The inside stor- 
age, dispensing and use of hazardous materials in excess of the 
maximum allowable quantities per control area of Tables 
307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2) shall be in accordance with Sections 
414.5.1 through 414.5.5 of this code and the International Fire 
Code. 

\F] 414.5.1 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be 
provided in accordance with the International Fire Code as 
required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous 
materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allow- 
able quantities in Table 307.1 (1) or where a structure, room 
or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion haz- 
ards as required by Section 415 or the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414.5.2 Monitor control equipment. Monitor control 
equipment shall be provided where required by the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

\F] 414.5.3 Automatic fire detection systems. Group H 
occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.2. 



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[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES 

NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd,e,f 



CONDITION 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA 


Material 


Class 


Solids 
pounds 


Liquids 
gallons 


A. Health-hazard materials-nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids 


1. Corrosives ,c 


Not Applicable 


9,750 


975 


2. Highly taxies 


Not Applicable 


20b, c 


2b, c 


3. Toxics", c 


Not Applicable 


1,000 


100 


B. Physical-hazard materials-nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids 


1. Oxidizers ,c 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


1,1508 


115 


2 


2,250 h 


225 


1 


18,000i,j 


i,8ooy 


2. Unstable (reactives)b,c 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


550 


55 


2 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


3. Water (reactives) 


3b, c 


550 


55 


2b, c 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code. 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903 .3. 1. 1. When Note c also applies, the 
increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When 
Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas. 

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307. 

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas. 

g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or 
packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each. 

h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or 

packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each, 
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance withSection 903.3.1.1. 
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area. 

TABLE [F] 414.2.5(2) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREA a 



TYPE OF LIQUID 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons) 


Sprinklered in accordance with note b 
densities and arrangements 


Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 

3404.3.6.3(4) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 

3404.3.7.5.1 of the International Fire Code 


Nonsprinklered 


Class IA 


60 


60 


30 


Class IB, IC, II and I1IA 


7,500 c 


15,000c 


1,600 


Class I1IB 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


13,200 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m 2 . 

a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a I-hour fire barrier wall. 

b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities 
as follows: 

1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a mini- 
mum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2. 

2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quanti- 
ties are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area. 

c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for 
each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The 
cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons. 



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[F] TABLE 414.5.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 3 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems b 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


Combustible dusts 




Not Required 


Required 


Cryogenic flammables 


- 


Not Required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 


Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquid 


lAd 
IBe 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


U 

I 


Required 
Required 


Not Permitted 
Not Permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not Permitted 


Pyrophoric gas 




Not Required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 Detonable 

3 Nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not Required 


Not Permitted 

Not Permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 

2g 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


SPECIAL USES 


Acetylene generator rooms 




Not Required 


Required 


Grain processing 


- 


Not Required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities 


- 


Not Required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist f 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not Required 


Not Permitted 
Required 



a. See Section 414.1.3. 

b. See the International Fire Code. 

c. As generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of "Combustible dust" in Chapter 3. 

d. Storage or use. 

e. In open use or dispensing. 

f. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



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[F] 414.5.4 Standby or emergency power. Where mechan- 
ical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, 
alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are 
required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency 
or standby power system in accordance with Chapter 27. 

Exceptions: 

1. Mechanical ventilation for storage of Class IB and 
Class IC flammable and combustible liquids in 
closed containers not exceeding 6.5 gallons (25 L) 
capacity. 

2. Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers. 

3. Storage areas for Class II, III, IV and V organic 
peroxides. 

4. Storage, use and handling areas for asphyxiant, 
irritant and radioactive gases. 

5. For storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic 
or toxic materials, see Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 
3704.3.4.2 of the International Fire Code. 

6. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treat- 
ment systems and temperature control systems 
shall not be required where an approved fail-safe 
engineered system is installed. 

\F] 414.5.5 Spill control, drainage and containment. 
Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid 
and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a 
means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage 
and fire protection water discharged in the storage area 
where required in the International Fire Code. The methods 
of spill control shall be in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6 Outdoor storage, dispensing and use. The outdoor 
storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6.1 Weather protection. Where weather protection 
is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material stor- 
age or use areas, such areas shall be considered outdoor 
storage or use when the weather protection structure com- 
plies with Sections 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3. 

[F] 414.6.1.1 Walls. Walls shall not obstruct more than 
one side of the structure. 

Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct por- 
tions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that 
the obstructed area does not exceed 25 percent of the 
structure's perimeter. 

[F] 414.6.1.2 Separation distance. The distance from 
the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means 
of egress to a public way shall not be less than the dis- 
tance required for an outside hazardous material storage 
or use area without weather protection. 

[F] 414.6.1.3 Noncombustible construction. The overhead 
structure shall be of approved noncombustible construction 
with a maximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 m 2 ). 

Exception: The increases permitted by Section 506 
apply. 



[F] 414.7 Emergency alarms. Emergency alarms for the 
detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group 
H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein. 

[F] 414.7.1 Storage. An approved manual emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas 
used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency 
alarm -initiating devices shall be installed outside of each 
interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms 
or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm- initiating device 
shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency 
situation involving hazardous materials. 

[F] 414.7.2 Dispensing, use and handling. Where hazard- 
ous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accor- 
dance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or 
exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone sys- 
tem, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-ini- 
tiating device at not more than ISO-foot (45 720 mm) 
intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway through- 
out the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an 
approved central, proprietary or remote station service or 
constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a 
local audible alarm. 

[F] 414.7.3 Supervision. Emergency alarm systems shall 
be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at 
a constantly attended on-site location. 



SECTION 415 
GROUPS H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 AND H-5 

[F] 415.1 Scope. The provisions of Sections 415.1 through 
415.8 shall apply to the storage and use of hazardous materials 
in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
listed in Section 307.1. Buildings and structures with an occu- 
pancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provi- 
sions of Section 414 and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

\F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas 
detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained 
in continuous operation and sampling is performed without 
interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical 
basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

\F] DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story bUild- I 
ing, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or 
use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance 
from all structures. 

\F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved 
location on the premises where signals from emergency equip- 
ment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

\F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of 
equipment that consists of a top, a back and two sides providing 
a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and 
mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume 
hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to locally 
retain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could 



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be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, 
in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures. 

\F] FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor 
fabrication facility and related research and development areas 
in which there are processes using hazardous production mate- 
rials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas 
such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to 
the fabrication area processes. 

\F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentra- 
tion of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of 
their lower flammable limit (LFL). 

[F] GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclo- 
sure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed 
gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for 
exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating con- 
trols are allowed to be included. 

[F] GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room 
in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and 
supplies are stored or used. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 
A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufac- 
turing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, 
flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 
704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or pro- 
duction processes which have as their end product materials 
that are not hazardous. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is 
defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or 
Class MA combustible liquid. 

\F] HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving 
a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and 
which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contami- 
nants which poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed per- 
manent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent 
escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentra- 
tion level is established by the National Institute of Occupational 
Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and 
flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by 
volume (ppmv/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m 3 ). If ade- 
quate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH con- 
centrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, 
industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other 
source approved by the bUilding official shall make such 
determination. 

[F] LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to 
or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 
68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) 
(101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "liqUid" 
includes both flammable and combustible liquids. 

\F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a 
Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or 
combustible liquids in a closed condition. 



[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. 

A room in which Class I, II and MA flammable or combustible 
liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum 
concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will 
occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is some- 
times referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit." 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 
(NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmo- 
sphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)]. 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL. A concentration of air-borne contaminants, normally 
expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter 
(mg/m 3 ), that represents the concentration at which persons can 
sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or 
other quick-acting physiological response. When used in 
conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) the physio- 
logical warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classi- 
fication system used to establish the PEL. See the definition of 
"Permissible exposure limit (PEL)" in the International Fire Code. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used 
for transporting HPM and purposes other than required means 
ofegress. 

[F] SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or 
sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C) . 

[FT STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 

1. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials 
in closed containers, tanks, cylinders or similar vessels, or 

2. Vessels supplying operations through closed connec- 
tions to the vessel. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, includ- 
ing solids, liquids and gases. 

[F] WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent prin- 
cipal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area 
where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research 
activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage 
cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serv- 
ing a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A 
workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire 
protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and 
other processing and scientific equipment. 

[F] 415.3 Fire separation distance. Group H occupancies 
shall be located on property in accordance with the other provi- 
sions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 
percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exte- 
rior wall 

Exceptions: 

1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a 
floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m 2 ) 
need not be located on the outer perimeter of the 
building where they are in accordance with the Inter- 
national Fire Code and NFPA 30. 



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2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) need not be located on 
the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with 
the International Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

3. Spray paint booths that comply with the International 
Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter. 

[F] 415.3.1 Group" occupancy minimum fire separa- 
tion distance. Regardless of any other provisions, buildings 
containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to the 
minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Items 1 
through 4 below. Distances shall be measured from the 
walls enclosing the occupancy to lot lines, including those 
on a public way. Distances to assumed lot lines established 
for the purpose of determining exterior wall and opening 
protection are not to be used to establish the minimum fire 
separation distance for buildings on sites where explosives 
are manufactured or used when separation is provided in 
accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for 
explosive materials in the International Fire Code. 

1. Group H-l. Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not 
less than required by the International Fire Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireworks manufacturing buildings sepa- 
rated in accordance with NFPA 1124. 

2. Buildings containing the following materi- 
als when separated in accordance with Table 
415.3.1: 



2.1. Organic peroxides, 
detonable. 



unclassified 



2.2. Unstable reactive materials, Class 4. 

2.3. Unstable reactive materials, Class 3 
detonable. 

2.4. Detonable pyrophoric materials. 

2. Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where 
the area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet 
(93 m 2 ) and it is not required to be located in a 
detached building. 

3. Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 
mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 
415.3.2). 

4. Groups H-2 and H-3. Occupancies containing materi- 
als with explosive characteristics shall be separated as 
required by the International Fire Code. Where sepa- 
rations are not specified, the distances required shall 
not be less than the distances required by Table 
415.3.1. 

[F] 415.3.2 Detached buildings for Group "-1, "-2 or 
"-3 occupancy. The storage of hazardous materials in 
excess of those amounts listed in Table 415.3.2 shall be in 
accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 415 .4 
and 415.5. Where a detached building is required by Table 
415.3.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening pro- 
tection based on fire separation distance. 

[F] 415.4 Special provisions for Group "-1 occupancies. 
Group H-l occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other 



purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without 
basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs 
shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insu- 
lation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decompo- 
sition temperature. Group H-l occupancies containing 
materials that are in themselves both physical and health haz- 
ards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities 
per control area in Table 307.1. (2) shall comply with require- 
ments for both Group H-l and H-4 occupancies. 

[F] 415.4.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unsta- 
ble (reactive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombust- 
ible construction. 

[F] 415.5 Special provisions for Groups "-2 and "-3 occu- 
pancies. Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 
415.3.2 shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall 
not exceed one storyin height and shall be without basements, 
crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. 

Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive 
materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for con- 
veying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing 
water reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight con- 
struction. 

Exception: Fire protection piping. 

[F] 415.5.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materi- 
als' unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids 
and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible con- 
struction. 

[F] 415.5.2 Waterproof room. Rooms or areas used for the 
storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be con- 
structed in a manner that resists the penetration of water 
through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying 
water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems shall not be within such rooms or areas. 

\F] 415.6 Group "-2. Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 415.6.1 through 415.6.4 
and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.1 Combustible dusts, grain processing and 
storage. The provisions of Sections 415.6.1.1 through 
415.6.1.6 shall apply to buildings in which materials that 
produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings 
that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the 
applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 85, NFPA 120, 
NFPA 484, NFPA 654, NFPA 655 and NFPA 664, and the 
International Fire Code. 

\F] 415.6.1.1 Type of construction and height excep- 
tions. Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with 
the height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group 
H-2; except that where erected of Type I or II construc- 
tion, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar 
structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV con- 
struction, the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 
mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maxi- 
mum height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 
85 feet (25 908 mm). 



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[F] TABLE 415.3.1 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL a 


MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


Lot lines b and inhabited buildings 


Separation of magazines d ,e, t 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded d 


Unbarricaded 


2 


5 


70 


140 


12 


5 


10 


90 


180 


16 


10 


20 


110 


220 


20 


20 


30 


125 


250 


22 


30 


40 


140 


280 


24 


40 


50 


150 


300 


28 


50 


75 


170 


340 


30 


75 


100 


190 


380 


32 


100 


125 


200 


400 


36 


125 


150 


215 


430 


38 


150 


200 


235 


470 


42 


200 


250 


255 


510 


46 


250 


300 


270 


540 


48 


300 


400 


295 


590 


54 


400 


500 


320 


640 


58 


500 


600 


340 


680 


62 


600 


700 


355 


710 


64 


700 


800 


375 


750 


66 


800 


900 


390 


780 


70 


900 


1,000 


400 


800 


72 


1,000 


1,200 


425 


850 


78 


1,200 


1,400 


450 


900 


82 


1,400 


1,600 


470 


940 


86 


1,600 


1,800 


490 


980 


88 


1,800 


2,000 


505 


1,010 


90 


2,000 


2,500 


545 


1,090 


98 


2,500 


3,000 


580 


1,160 


104 


3,000 


4,000 


635 


1,270 


116 


4,000 


5,000 


685 


1,370 


122 


5,000 


6,000 


730 


1,460 


130 


6,000 


7,000 


770 


1,540 


136 


7,000 


8,000 


800 


1,600 


144 


8,000 


9,000 


835 


1,670 


150 


9,000 


10,000 


865 


1,730 


156 


10,000 


12,000 


875 


1,750 


164 


12,000 


14,000 


885 


1,770 


174 


14,000 


16,000 


900 


1,800 


180 


16,000 


18,000 


940 


1,880 


188 


18,000 


20,000 


975 


1,950 


196 


20,000 


25,000 


1,055 


2,000 


210 


25,000 


30,000 


1,130 


2,000 


224 


30,000 


35,000 


1,205 


2,000 


238 


35,000 


40,000 


1,275 


2,000 


248 



(continued) 



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TABLE 415.3.1-continued 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 







MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL 3 


Lot lines b and inhabited buildings 


Separation of magazines d ,e, i 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded d 


Unbarricaded 


40,000 


45,000 


1,340 


2,000 


258 


45,000 


50,000 


1,400 


2,000 


270 


50,000 


55,000 


1,460 


2,000 


280 


55,000 


60,000 


1,515 


2,000 


290 


60,000 


65,000 


1,565 


2,000 


300 


65,000 


70,000 


1,610 


2,000 


310 


70,000 


75,000 


1,655 


2,000 


320 


75,000 


80,000 


1,695 


2,000 


330 


80,000 


85,000 


1,730 


2,000 


340 


85,000 


90,000 


1,760 


2,000 


350 


90,000 


95,000 


1,790 


2,000 


360 


95,000 


100,000 


1,815 


2,000 


370 


100,000 


110,000 


1,835 


2,000 


390 


110,000 


120,000 


1,855 


2,000 


410 


120,000 


130,000 


1,875 


2,000 


430 


130,000 


140,000 


1,890 


2,000 


450 


140,000 


150,000 


1,900 


2,000 


470 


150,000 


160,000 


1,935 


2,000 


490 


160,000 


170,000 


1,965 


2,000 


510 


170,000 


180,000 


1,990 


2,000 


530 


180,000 


190,000 


2,010 


2,010 


550 


190,000 


200,000 


2,030 


2,030 


570 


200,000 


210,000 


2,055 


2,055 


590 


210,000 


230,000 


2,100 


2,100 


630 


230,000 


250,000 


2,155 


2,155 


670 


250,000 


275,000 


2,215 


2,215 


720 


275,000 


300,000 


2,275 


2,275 


770 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m 2 - 

a. The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive. 

b. The distance listed is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways. 

c. For the purpose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same lot that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings containing 
explosives or magazines are located on the same lot, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings and, 
in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for" Separation of magazines, " except that the quantity of explosive materi- 
als contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator buildings or magazines from buildings or magazines con- 
taining other explosive materials. If any two or more buildings or magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified "Separation of Magazines" 
distances, then such two or more buildings or magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials 
stored in such group shall be treated as if the explosive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group, and shall 
comply with the minimum distance specified from other magazines or inhabited buildings. 

d. Barricades shall effectively screen the building containing explosives from other buildings, public ways or magazines . Where mounds or revetted walls of earth are 
used for barricades, they shall not be less than 3 feet in thickness. A straight line from the top of any side wall of the building containing explosive materials to the 
eave line of any other building, magazine or a point 12 feet above the centerline of a public way shall pass through the barricades. 

e. Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 
square feet in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, hONever, all magazines shall comply with the International Fire Code. 

f. The distance listed is permitted to be reduced by 50 percent where approved natural or artificial barriers are provided in accordance with the requirements in Note d. 



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[F] TABLE 415.3.2 
DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED 




A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN 


Material 


Class 


Solids and Liquids (tons)a, b 


Gases (cubic feet)a, b 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4c 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

1 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizers 


Class 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Unstable (reactives) detonable 


Class 3 or 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Oxidizer, liquids and solids 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1,200 
2,000 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Organic peroxides 


Detonable 
Class I 
Class II 
Class III 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

25 
50 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Unstable (reactives) nondetonable 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 

25 


2,000 
10,000 


Water reactives 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 

25 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric gases 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


2,000 



For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in Table 415 .3. 1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the 
material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 33 the International Fire Code. For all other materials, the distance shall be as indicated in Section 
415.3.1. 

b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.7(1) . 

c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco 
and Firearms (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing 
the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound. 



[F] 415.6.1.2 Grinding rooms. Every room or space 
occupied for grinding or other operations that produce 
combustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizon- 
tal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 
712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall 
be 2 hours where the area is not more than 3,000 square 
feet (279 m 2 ) , and 4 hours where the area is greater than 
3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ). 

[F] 415.6.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping and 
similar equipment passing through the enclosures of 
rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor 
tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials 
complying with Chapter 30. 

[F] 415.6.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided as specified in the International Fire 
Code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent 
mechanical ventilation complying with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

\F] 415.6.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt 
houses and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be 
located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or 
structures on the same lot, except where erected along a 
railroad right-of-way. 

[F] 415.6.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from 



structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less 
than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along 
a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of construc- 
tion of such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) 
in building height shall be Type IV. 

\F] 415.6.2 Flammable and combustible liquids. The 
storage, handling, processing and transporting of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids in Groups H-2 and H-3 occu- 
pancies shall be in accordance with Sections 415.6.2.1 
through 415.6.2.10, the International Mechanical Code and 
the International Fire Code. 

\F] 415.6.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where the storage 
tank area is located in a building of two or more occupan- 
cies and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maximum 
allowable quantity for one control area, the use shall be 
completely separated from adjacent occupancies in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 508.4. 

[F] 415.6.2.1.1 Height exception. Where storage 
tanks are located within a building no more than one 
story above grade plane, the height limitation of Sec- 
tion 503 shall not apply for Group H. 

[F] 415.6.2.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be 
noncombustible and protected from physical damage. 
Fire barriers or horizontal assemblies or both around the 



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storage tank(s) shall be permitted as the method of pro- 
tection from physical damage. 

[F] 415.6.2.3 Tanks. Storage tanks shall be approved 
tanks conforming to the requirements of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

\F] 415.6.2.4 Suppression. Group H shall be equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, installed in accordance with Section 903 . 

[F] 415.6.2.5 Leakage containment. A liquid-tight con- 
tainment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be 
provided. The method of spill control, drainage control 
and secondary containment shall be in accordance with 
the International Fire Code. 

Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage 
tanks conforming to Section 415.6.2.3 are used to 
store Class I, II and MA flammable and combustible 
liquids shall not be required to have a leakage contain- 
ment area. 

[F] 415.6.2.6 Leakage alarm. An approved automatic 
alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage 
tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 
15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of 
entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is 
located. An approvedsign shall be posted on every entry 
door to the tank storage room indicating the potential 
hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall 
state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE 
ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE 
HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be super- 
vised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble 
signal. 

[F] 415.6.2.7 Tank vent. Storage tank vents for Class I, 
II or I1IA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

\F] 415.6.2.8 Room ventilation. Storage tank areas stor- 
ing Class I, II or MA liquids shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation sys- 
tem shall be in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.9 Explosion venting. Where Class I liquids 
are being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.10 Tank openings other than vents. Tank 
openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings 
shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concen- 
trations are not released inside the building. 

[F] 415.6.3 Liquefied petroleum gas facilities. The con- 
struction and installation of liquefied petroleum gas facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with the requirements of this 
code, the International Fire Code, the International 
Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and 
NFPA58. 



[F] 415.6.4 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and 
installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance 
with the requirements of this code, the International 
Mechanical Code, the International Plumbing Code and 
NFPA 32. Dry cleaning solvents and systems shall be classi- 
fied in accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.7 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be 
constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
this code and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.7.1 Flammable and combustible liquids. The 
storage, handling, processing and transporting of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids in Group H-3 occupancies shall 
be in accordance with Section 415.6.2. 

[F] 415.7.2 Gas rooms. When gas rooms are provided, such 
rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than 
I-hom fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 
707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance 
with Section 712, or both. 

[F] 415.7.3 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materials 
shall be of liquid- tight, noncombustible construction. 

[F] 415.7.4 Separation-highly toxic solids and liquids. 
Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approvedhaz- 
ardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from 
other hazardous materials storage by not less than I-hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 712, or both. 

[F] 415.8 Group H-5. 

[F] 415.8.1 General. In addition to the requirements set 
forth elsewhere in this code, Group H-5 shall comply with 
the provisions of Sections 415.8.1 through 415.8.11 and the 
International Fire Code. 

\F] 415.8.2 Fabrication areas. 

[F] 415.8.2.1 Hazardous materials in fabrication 
areas. 

[F] 415.8.2.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggregate 
quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a 
single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities 
set forth in Table 415.8.2.1.1. 

Exception: The quantity limitations for any haz- 
ard category in Table 415.8.2.1.1 shall not apply 
where the fabrication area contains quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area established 
by Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2). 

[F] 415.8.2.1.2 Hazardous production materials. 
The maximum quantities of hazardous production 
materials (HPM) stored in a single fabrication area 
shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
per control area established by Tables 307.1 (1) and 
307.1(2). 



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[F] TABLE 415.8.2.1.1 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5 a 



HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds per square feet) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons per square feet) 


GAS 
(feet 3 @ NTP/square feet) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Note b 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber Loose 
Baled 


Note b 
Notes b,c 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid II 

I1IA 
I1JB 

Combination Class I, II and MA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas Flammable 
Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
1.25 


Explosives 


Note b 


Note b 


Note b 


Flammable gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
Noted 


Flammable liquid IA 
IB 
IC 

Combination Class 1A,IB and IC 
Combination Class I, II and MA 


Not Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 

Unclassified detonable 
Class I 
Class II 
Class m 
Class IV 
Class V 


Note b 

Note b 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 

Combination of gaseous 
and liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 

1.25 


Oxidizer Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Combination Class 1, 2,3 


Note b 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Note b 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 


Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric material 


Noteb 


0.00125 


Notes d and e 


Unstable reactive Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Note b 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Note b 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Note b 

Note b 

Note b 

Not Limited 


Water reactive Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Note b 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxic 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m 2 , 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m 2 , 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m 3 @ NTP/m 2 , 
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m 3 . 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP. 

e. The aggregate quantity ofpyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.3.2. 



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[F] 415.8.2.2 Separation. Fabrication areas, whose 
sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials 
allowed by Table 415.8.2.1.1, shall be separated from 
each other, from corridors and from other parts of the 
building by not less than l-hour fire barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies 
constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors within such //re barrier walls, including 
doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing 
fire door assemblies having a fire protection 
rating of not less than 3/ 4 hour. 

2. Windows between fabrication areas and cor- 
ridors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed 
and labeled for a fire protection rating of at 
least 3/ 4 hour in accordance with Section 715. 

[F] 415.8.2.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied 
levels of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the 
first story above grade plane. 

[F] 415.8.2.4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors within 
fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible construc- 
tion. 

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are per- 
mitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels 
are used solely for mechanical equipment directly 
related to such fabrication areas (see also Section 
415.8.2.5). 

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall 
be liquid tight. 

[F] 415.8.2.5 Shafts and openings through floors. Ele- 
vator shafts, vent shafts and other openings through 
floors shall be enclosed when required by Section 708. 
Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabri- 
cation area shall not extend through more than two 
floors. The annular space around penetrations for 
cables, cable trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall 
be sealed at the floor level to restrict the movement of air. 
The fabrication area, including the areas through which 
the ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a 
single conditioned environment. 

[F] 415.8.2.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per 
square foot [0.0051 m 3 /(s .m 2 )] of floor area shall be pro- 
vided throughout the portions of the fabrication area 
where HPM are used or stored. The exhaust air duct sys- 
tem of one fabrication area shall not connect to another 
duct system outside that fabrication area within the 
building. 

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and 
exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations. 

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be 
connected to the same exhaust system where either one 
or the combination of the substances removed could con- 
stitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction 
within the exhaust duct system. 



Exhaust ducts penetrating occupancy separations 
shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not pene- 
trate fire walls. 

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts. 

[F] 415.8.2.7 Transporting hazardous production 
materials to fabrication areas. HPM shall be trans- 
ported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or 
tubing systems that comply with Section 415.8.6.1, 
through service corridors complying with Section 
415.8.4, or in corridors as permitted in the exception to 
Section 415.8.3. The handling or transporting of HPM 
within service corridors shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2.8 Electrical. 

[F] 415.8.2.8.1 General. Electrical equipment and 
devices within the fabrication area shall comply with 
NFPA 70. The requirements for hazardous locations 
need not be applied where the average air change is at 
least four times that set forth in Section 415.8.2.6 and 
where the number of air changes at any location is not 
less than three times that required by Section 
415.8.2.6. The use of recirculated air shall be permit- 
ted. 

\F] 415.8.2.8.2 Workstations. Workstations shall not 
be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. 
See Section 415.8.2.6 for workstation exhaust venti- 
lation requirements. 

[F] 415.8.3 Corridors. Corridors shall comply with Chap- 
ter 10 and shall be separated from fabrication areas as speci- 
fied in Section 415.8.2.2. Corridors shall not contain HPM 
and shall not be used for transporting such materials, except 
through closed piping systems as provided in Section 
415.8.6.3. 

Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are altered 
or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing 
corridors, subject to the following conditions: 

1. Corridors. Corridors adjacent to the fabrication 
area where the alteration work is to be done shall 
comply with Section 1018 for a length determined 
as follows: 

1.1. The length of the common wall of the cor- 
ridor and the fabrication area; and 

1.2. For the distance along the corridor to the 
point of entry of HPM into the corridor 
serving that fabrication area. 

2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emer- 
gency telephone system, a local manual alarm sta- 
tion or other approved alarm-initiating device 
within corridors at not more than ISO-foot (45720 
mm) intervals and at each exit and doorway. The 
signal shall be relayed to an approve d central, pro- 
prietary or remote station service or the emergency 
control station and shall also initiate a local audible 
alarm. 



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3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire 
protection rating of 'not less than 1 hour shall sepa- 
rate pass-throughs from existing corridors. 
Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for 
the corridors and protected by an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system. 

[F] 415.8.4 Service corridors. 

[F] 415.8.4.1 Occupancy. Service corridors shall be 
classified as Group H-5. 

[F] 415.8.4.2 Use conditions. Service corridors shall be 
separated from corridors as required by Section 
415.8.2.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a 
required corridor. 

[F] 415.8.4.3 Mechanical ventilation. Service corridors 
shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 
415.8.2.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour, 
whichever is greater. 

[F] 415.8.4.4 Means of egress. The maximum distance 
of travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, 
exit access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall 
not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall not 
exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less 
than two exits, and not more than one-half of the required 
means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication 
area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the 
direction of egress travel and shall be self-closing. 

[F] 415.8.4.5 Minimum width. The minimum clear 
width of a service corridor shall be 5 feet (1524 mm), or 
33 inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart or truck 
used in the corridor, whichever is greater. 

[F] 415.8.4.6 Emergency alarm system. Emergency 
alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with this 
section and Sections 414.7.1 and 414.7.2. The maximum 
allowable quantity per control area provisions shall not 
apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.1 Service corridors. An emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, 
with at least one alarm device in each service corridor. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclo- 
sures. Emergency alarms for exit access corridors 
and exit enclosures shall comply with Section 
414.7.2. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.3 Liquid storage rooms, "PM rooms 
and gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage 
rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with 
Section 414.7.1. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.4 Alarm-initiating devices. An 
approved emergency telephone system, local alarm 
manual pull stations, or other approvedalarm-initiat- 
ing devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm -initiating devices. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the 
emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm 
and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. 



[F] 415.8.5 Storage of hazardous production materials. 

[F] 415.8.5.1 General. Storage of HPM in fabrication 
areas shall be within approved ox listed storage cabinets 
or gas cabinets or within a workstation. The storage of 
HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Section 
1804.2 of the International Fire Code shall be in liquid 
storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate 
for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous 
materials shall be in accordance with other applicable 
provisions of this code and the International Fire Code. 

\F] 415.8.5.2 Construction. 

\F] 415.8.5.2.1 "PM rooms and gas rooms. HPM 
rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other 
areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum 
fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours where the area 
is 300 square feet (27.9 m 2 ) or more and 1 hour where 
the area is less than 300 square feet (27.9 m 2 ). 

[F] 415.8.5.2.2 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid stor- 
age rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the 
following requirements: 

1. Rooms in excess of 500 square feet (46.5 m 2 ) 
shall have at least one exterior door approved 
for fire department access. 

2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. The fire -resistance rating shall be not less 
than 1 hour for rooms up to 150 square feet 
(13.9 m 2 ) in area and not less than 2 hours where 
the room is more than 150 square feet (13.9 m 2 ) 
in area. 

3. Shelving, racks and wainscotting in such areas 
shall be of noncombustible construction or 
wood of not less than I-inch (25 mm) nominal 
thickness. 

4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flamma- 
ble liquids shall not be located in a basement. 

[F] 415.8.5.2.3 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors of 
HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of 
noncombustible liquid-tight construction. Raised 
grating over floors shall be of noncombustible materi- 
als. 

[F] 415.8.5.3 Location. Where HPM rooms, liquid stor- 
age rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have at 
least one exterior walland such wall shall be not less than 
30 feet (9144 mm) from lotlines, including lotlines adja- 
cent to public ways. 

[F] 415.8.5.4 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1. 



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\F] 415.8.5.5 Exits. Where two exits are required from 
HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one 
shall be directly to the outside of the building. 

[F] 415.8.5.6 Doors. Doors in afire barrier wall, includ- 
ing doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire door 
assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less 
than 3/ 4 hour. 

[F] 415.8.5.7 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM 
rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic 
foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/s/m 2 ) of floor 
area or six air changes per hour, whichever is greater, for 
categories of material. 

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to 
operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surround- 
ing areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust 
system. 

[F] 415.8.5.8 Emergency alarm system. An approved 
emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM 
rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms. 

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed 
outside of each interior exit door of such rooms. 

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device 
shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the 
emergency control station. 

An approved emergency telephone system, local 
alarm manual pull stations or other approve d alarm -initi- 
ating devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm -initiating devices. 

[F] 415.8.6 Piping and tubing. 

[F] 415.8.6.1 General. Hazardous production materials 
piping and tubing shall comply with this section and 
ASMEB31.3. 

[F] 415.8.6.2 Supply piping and tubing. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.1 "PM having a health-hazard rank- 
ing of 3 or 4. Systems supplying HPM liquids or 
gases having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be 
welded throughout, except for connections, to the 
systems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the 
material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage 
or containment is provided for the connections if the 
material is a liquid. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.2 Location in service corridors. Haz- 
ardous production materials supply piping or tubing 
in service corridors shall be exposed to view. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.3 Excess flow control. Where HPM 
gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping 
above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 
kPa) , excess flow control shall be provided. Where 
the piping originates from within a liquid storage 
room, HPM room or gas room, the excess flow con- 
trol shall be located within the liquid storage room, 
HPM room or gas room. Where the piping originates 
from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be 
located as close to the bulk source as practical. 



[F] 415.8.6.3 Installations in corridors and above 
other occupancies. The installation of HPM piping and 
tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors 
and the floor or roof above, or in concealed spaces above 
other occupancies, shall be in accordance with Section 
415.8.6.2 and the following conditions: 

1. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the 
space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 
mm) in the least dimension. 

2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour 
shall be provided. The space shall not be used to 
convey air from any other area. 

3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport 
HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below 
such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be 
designed to collect any discharge or leakage and 
drain it to an approvedlocation. The I-hour enclo- 
sure shall not be used as part of the receptor. 

4. HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic 
waste lines shall be separated from the corridor 
and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by 
fire barriers that have a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is 
used, joints on the piping side of the enclosure are 
not required to be taped, provided the joints occur 
over framing members. Access openings into the 
enclosure shall be protected by approved fire pro- 
tection-rated assemblies. 

5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely 
activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall 
be installed on piping and tubing other than waste 
lines at the following locations: 

5.1. At branch connections into the fabrication 
area. 

5.2. At entries into corridors. 

Exception: Transverse crossings of the 
corridors by supply piping that is 
enclosed within a ferrous pipe or tube for 
the width of the corridorneed not comply 
with Items 1 through 5. 

[F] 415.8.6.4 Identification. Piping, tubing and HPM 
waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI 
A 13.1 to indicate the material being transported. 

[F] 415.8.7 Continuous gas detection systems. A continu- 
ous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases 
when the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is 
at a higher level than the accepted PEL for the gas and for 
flammable gases in accordance with Sections 415.8.7.1 and 
415.8.7.2. 

[F] 415.8.7.1 Where required. A continuous gas detec- 
tion system shall be provided in the areas identified in 
Sections 415.8.7.1.1 through 415.8.7.1.4. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided in fabrication 
areas when gas is used in the fabrication area. 



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[¥] 415.8.7.1.2 TM rooms. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided in HPM rooms 
when gas is used in the room. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures 
and gas rooms. A continuous gas detection system 
shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclo- 
sures. A continuous gas detection system shall be pro- 
vided in gas rooms when gases are not located in gas 
cabinets or exhausted enclosures. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.4 Corridors. When gases are trans- 
ported in piping placed within the space defined by 
the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the 
corridor, a continuous gas detection system shall be 
provided where piping is located and in the corridor. 

Exception: A continuous gas detection system is 
not required for occasional transverse crossings of 
the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a 
ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor. 

[F] 415.8.7.2 Gas detection system operation. The 
continuous gas detection system shall be capable of 
monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas 
is located at or below all the following gas concentra- 
tions: 

1. Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) 
values when the monitoring point is within an 
exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas 
cabinet. 

2. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) levels when the 
monitoring point is in an area outside an exhausted 
enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet. 

3. For flammable gases, the monitoring detection 
threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in 
excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit 
(LFL) when the monitoring is within or outside an 
exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas 
cabinet. 

4. Except as noted in this section, monitoring for 
highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with 
Chapter 37 of the International Fire Code. 

\F] 415.8.7.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system 
shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the 
emergency control station when a short-term hazard 
condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visual 
and audible and shall provide warning both inside and 
outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible 
alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms. 

[F] 415.8.7.2.2 Shutoff ofgas supply. The gas detec- 
tion system shall automatically close the shutoff valve 
at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related 
to the system being monitored for which gas is 
detected when a short-term hazard condition is 
detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall 
comply with the following: 

1. Where the gas detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff 



valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure 
for the specific gas detected shall automatically 
close. 

2. Where the gas detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
room and compressed gas containers are not in 
gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the 
shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific 
gas detected shall automatically close. 

3. Where the gas detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
piping distribution manifold enclosure, the 
shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the 
compressed gas container of the specific gas 
detected shall automatically close. 

Exception: Where the gas detection sampling 
point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at 
the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a 
branch line downstream of a piping distribution 
manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line 
located in the piping distribution manifold enclo- 
sure shall automatically close. 

[F] 415.8.8 Manual fire alarm system. An approvedman- 
ual fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings 
containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall 
initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency 
control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Section 907. 

[F] 415.8.9 Emergency control station. An emergency 
control station shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tions 415.8.9.1 through 415.8.9.3. 

[F] 415.8.9.1 Location. The emergency control station 
shall be located on the premises at an approvedlocation 
outside the fabrication area. 

[F] 415.8.9.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall continu- 
ously staff the emergency control station. 

[F] 415.8.9.3 Signals. The emergency control station 
shall receive signals from emergency equipment and 
alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equip- 
ment and alarm and detection systems shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following where such equipment or 
systems are required to be provided either in this chapter 
or elsewhere in this code: 

1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring 
systems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous gas detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 

7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 



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8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required 
in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 415.8.10 Emergency power system. An emergency 
power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies 
where required in Section 415.8.10.1. The emergency 
power system shall be designed to supply power automati- 
cally to required electrical systems when the normal electri- 
cal supply system is interrupted. 

[F] 415.8.10.1 Required electrical systems. Emer- 
gency power shall be provided for electrically operated 
equipment and connected control circuits for the follow- 
ing systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems. 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 

7. Manual fire alarm systems. 

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and 
alarm systems. 

9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive 
liquids required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the 
International Fire Code. 

10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and 
Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust 
ventilation systems required in Section 
1805.2.3.4 of the International Fire Code. 

11. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere 
in this code or in the International Fire Code 
applicable to the use, storage or handling of 
HPM. 

[F] 415.8.10.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust 
ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to operate 
at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the 
emergency power system where it is demonstrated that 
the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere. 

[F] 415.8.11 Automatic sprinkler system protection in 
exhaust ducts for "PM. 

[F] 415.8.11.1 Exhaust ducts for "PM. An approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust 
ducts conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts 
generated from HPM in accordance with this section and 
the International Mechanical Code. 

[F] 415.8.11.2 Metallic and noncombustible nonme- 
tallic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible 



nonmetallic exhaust ducts when all of the following con- 
ditions apply: 

1. Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal 
to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors 
or fumes. 

[F] 415.8.11.3 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust 
ducts. Automatic sprinkler system protection shall be 
provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts 
where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is 
equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Ducts listed or approvedfor applications with- 
out automatic fire sprinkler system protection. 

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in 
length installed below ceiling level. 

[F] 415.8.11.4 Automatic sprinkler locations. Sprin- 
kler systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) 
intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. 
In vertical ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top 
and at alternate floor levels. 



SECTION 416 
APPLICATION OF FLAMMABLE FINISHES 

[F] 416.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
the construction, installation and use of buildings and struc- 
tures, or parts thereof, for the spraying of flammable paints, 
varnishes and lacquers or other flammable materials or mix- 
tures or compounds used for painting, varnishing, staining or 
similar purposes. Such construction and equipment shall com- 
ply with the International Fire Code. 

\F] 416.2 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be enclosed with 
not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance 
with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. Floors shall be water- 
proofed and drained in an app roved manner. 

[F] 416.2.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray rooms 
shall be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the 
free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and 
to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed 
to confine residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be 
used. 

[F] 416.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be venti- 
lated with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of 
flammable mist or vapors in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. Where such spaces are not separately 
enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to 
restrict the spread of flammable vapors. 

[F] 416.3.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spraying 
spaces shall be smooth and continuous without edges; shall 
be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air 
from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and 



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cleaning; and shall be so designed to confine residues within 
the spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used. 

[F] 416.4 Spray booths. Spray booths shall be designed, con- 
structed and operated in accordance with the International Fire 
Code. 

\F] 416.5 Fire protection. An automatic fire-extinguishing 
system shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces 
and storage rooms and shall be installed in accordance with 
Chapter 9. 



SECTION 417 
DRYING ROOMS 

[F] 417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed within a 
building shall be constructed entirely of approved 
noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials reg- 
ulated by the approve d rules or as required in the general and 
specific sections of Chapter 4 for special occupancies and 
where applicable to the general requirements of Chapter 28. 

[F] 417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall have 
a clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from combustible 
contents in the dryer. 

[F] 417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of the 
dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insu- 
lated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined 
with 1/4-inch (6.35 mm) insulating mill board or other approved 
equivalent insulation. 

[F] 417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for 
high-hazard materials and processes, including special occu- 
pancies as provided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an 
approve d automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with 
the provisions of Chapter 9. 



SECTION 418 
ORGANIC COATINGS 

[F] 418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coat- 
ings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or 
basements. 

[F] 418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing opera- 
tions and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall 
not be located in buildings having other occupancies. 

[F] 418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clearances 
and that process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such 
as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or 
noncombustible structure. 

[F] 418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and com- 
bustible liquid tanks inside of structures shall be located at or 
above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by 
not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance 
with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. 

[F] 418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall 
be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room 
enclosed with no less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in 



accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

[F] 418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished prod- 
ucts that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be sepa- 
rated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour fire 
barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or hori- 
zontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, 
or both. 



SECTION 419 
LIVE/WORK UNITS 

419.1 General. A live/work unit is a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unitin which a significant portion of the space includes a non- 
residential use that is operated by the tenant and shall comply 
with Sections 419.1 through 419.8. 

Exception: Dwelling or sleeping units that include an 
office that is less than 10 percent of the area of the dwell- 
ing unit shall not be classified as a live/work unit. 

419.1.1 Limitations. The following shall apply to all 
live/work areas: 

1. The live/work unit is permitted to be a maximum of 
3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ); 

2. The nonresidential area is permitted to be a maximum 
50 percent of the area of each live/work unit; 

3. The nonresidential area function shall be limited to 
the first or main floor only of the live/work unit; and 

4. A maximum of five nonresidential workers or 
employees are allowed to occupy the nonresidential 
area at anyone time. 

419.2 Occupancies. Live/work units shall be classified as a 
Group R-2 occupancy. Separation requirements found in Sec- 
tions 420 and 508 shall not apply within the live/work unit 
when the live/work unit is in compliance with Section 419. 
High-hazard and storage occupancies shall not be permitted in 
a live/work unit. The aggregate area of storage in the nonresi- 
dential portion of the live/work unit shall be limited to 10 per- 
cent of the space dedicated to nonresidential activities. 

419.3 Means of egress. Except as modified by this section, the 
provisions for Group R-2 occupancies in Chapter 10 shall 
apply to the entire live/work unit. 

419.3.1 Egress capacity. The egress capacity for each ele- 
ment of the live/work unit shall be based on the occupant 
load for the function served in accordance with Table 
1004.1.1. 

419.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means ofegress&iz 
of the horizontal- sliding type, the force to slide the door to 
its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) 
with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds 
(220 N). 

419.3.3 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to 
the requirements of Section 1009.9 shall be permitted. 

4193 A Locks. Egress doors shall be permitted to be locked 
in accordance with Exception 4 of Section 1008.1.9.3. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



75 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



419.4 Vertical openings. Floor openings between floor levels 
of a live/work unit are permitted without enclosure. 

419.5 Fire protection. The live/work unit shall be provided 
with a monitored fire alarm system where required by Section 
907.2.9 and an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.2.8. 

419.6 Structural. Floor loading for the areas within a 
live/work unit shall be designed to conform to Table 1607.1 
based on the function within the space. 

419.7 Accessibility. Accessibility shall be designed in accor- 
dance with Chapter 11. 

419.8 Ventilation. The applicable requirements of the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code shall apply to each area within the 
live/work unit for the function within that space. 



SECTION 420 
GROUPS 1-1, R-1, R-2, R-3 

420.1 General. Occupancies in Groups 1-1, R-1, R-2 and R-3 
shall comply with the provisions of this section and other appli- 
cable provisions of this code. 

420.2 Separation walls. Walls separating dwelling units in the 
same building, walls separating sleeping units in the same 
building and walls separating dwelling or sleeping units from 
other occupancies contiguous to them in the same building 
shall be constructed as fire partitions in accordance with Sec- 
tion 709. 

420.3 Horizontal separation. Floor assemblies separating 
dwelling units in the same buildings, floor assemblies separat- 
ing sleeping units in the same building and floor assemblies 
separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupancies 
contiguous to them in the same building shall be constructed as 
horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 712. 



SECTION 421 
HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOMS 

[F] 421.1 General. When required by the International Fire 
Code, hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 421.1 through 421.8. 

[F] 421.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of 
piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, con- 
tain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-con- 
taining mixture having at least 95-percent hydrogen gas by 
volume and not more than I-percent oxygen by volume. Gas- 
eous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed 
gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure 
regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, com- 
pressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls. 

\F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. A room or space that is 
intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system. 

[F] 421.3 Location. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall not be 
located below grade. 



[F] 421.4 Design and construction. Hydrogen cutoff rooms 
shall be classified with respect to occupancy in accordance 
with Section 302.1 and separated from other areas of the build- 
ing by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both; or as required by Section 
508.2, 508.3 or 508.4, as applicable. 

[F] 421.4.1 Opening protectives. Doors within the fire bar- 
riers, including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing in 
accordance with Section 715. Interior door openings shall 
be electronically interlocked to prevent operation of the 
hydrogen system when doors are opened or ajar or the room 
shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust ventilation sys- 
tem designed in accordance with Section 421.4.1.1. 

[F] 421.4.1.1 Ventilation alternative. When an exhaust 
system is used in lieu of the interlock system required by 
Section 421.4.1, exhaust ventilation systems shall oper- 
ate continuously and shall be designed to operate at a 
negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. The 
average velocity of ventilation at the face of the door 
opening with the door in the fully open position shall not 
be less than 60 feet per minute (0.3048 m/s) with a mini- 
mum of 45 feet per minute (0.2287 m/s) at any point in 
the door opening. 

[F] 421.4.2 Windows. Operable windows in interior walls 
shall not be permitted. Fixed windows shall be permitted 
when in accordance with Section 715. 

[F] 421.5 Ventilation. Cutoff rooms shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation in accordance with the applicable pro- 
visions for repair garages in Chapter 5 of the International 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 421.6 Gas detection system. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall 
be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system 
in accordance with Sections 421 .6.1 through 421 .6.3. 

[F] All. 6.1 System design. The flammable gas detection 
system shall be listed for use with hydrogen and any other 
flammable gases used in the room. The gas detection system 
shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable 
gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammability limit 
(LFL) for the gas or mixtures present at their anticipated 
temperature and pressure. 

[F] 421.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection sys- 
tem shall result in all of the following: 

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals 
both inside and outside of the cutoff room. 

2. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system. 

[F] 421.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of 
the gas detection system shall result in activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system, cessation of hydrogen gen- 
eration and the sounding of a trouble signal in an approved 
location. 

[F] 421.7 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Chapter 9 of the International Fire 
Code. 



76 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] 421.8 Standby power. Mechanical ventilation and gas 
detection systems shall be connected to a standby power sys- 
tem in accordance with Chapter 27. 



Residential storm shelter. A storm shelter serving occu- 
pants of dwelling units and having an occupant load not 
exceeding 16 persons. 



i 



SECTION 422 
AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES 

422.1 General. Occupancies classified as Group B ambulatory 
health care facilities shall comply with the provisions of Sec- 
tions 422.1 through 422.6 and other applicable provisions of 
this code. 

422.2 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide every ambulatory care facility greater than 10,000 
square feet (929 m 2 ) into a minimum of two smoke compart- 
ments per story. The travel distance from any point in a smoke 
compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet 
(60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 710. 

422.3 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m 2 ) per 
nonambulatory patient shall be provided within the aggregate 
area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or 
dining areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each 
smoke barrier. 

422.4 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be pro- 
vided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barri- 
ers without having to return through the smoke compartment 
from which means of egress originated. 

422.5 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accor- 
dance with Section 903.2.2. 

422.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.2.2.1. 



SECTION 423 
STORM SHELTERS 

423.1 General. In addition to other applicable requirements in 
this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance 
with ICC-SOO. 

423.1.1 Scope. This section applies to the construction of 
storm shelters constructed as separate detached buildings or 
constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the purpose 
of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high 
winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. Such structures 
shall be designated to be hurricane shelters, tornado shel- 
ters, or combined hurricane and tornado shelters. 

423.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

STORM SHELTER. A building, structure or portions(s) 
thereof, constructed in accordance with ICC S00 and desig- 
nated for use during a severe wind storm event, such as a hurri- 
cane or tornado. 

Community storm shelter. A storm shelter not defined as a 
"Residential Storm Shelter." 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



77 



78 2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter control the height 
and area of structures hereafter erected and additions to exist- 
ing structures. 

\F] 501.2 Address identification. New and existing buildings 
shall be provided with approved address numbers or letters. 
Each character shall be a minimum 4 inches (102 mm) high and 
a minimum of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) wide. They shall be installed 
on a contrasting background and be plainly visible from the 
street or road fronting the property. Where access is by means 
of a private road and the building address cannot be viewed 
from the public way, a monument, pole or other approvedsign 
or means shall be used to identify the structure. 



SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding 
exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of 
vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with 
surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such 
areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof 
or floor above. 

BASEMENT. A storythatis not a story above grade plane (see 
"Story above grade plane" in Section 202). 

The definition of "Basement" does not apply to the provi- 
sions of Section 1612 for flood loads (see "Basement" in Sec- 
tion 1612.2). 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated plat- 
form used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial 
process equipment, including the associated elevated walk- 
ways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to 
access the platform (see Section 505.5). 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average 
of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior 
walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the 
exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the 
lowest points within the area between the building and the lot 
line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from 
the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) 
from the building. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 



MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the 
floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 
505. 



SECTION 503 

GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHT AND 

AREA LIMITATIONS 

503.1 General. The bUilding height and area shall not exceed 
the limits specified in Table 503 based on the type of construc- 
tion as determined by Section 602 and the occupancies as 
determined by Section 302 except as modified hereafter. Each 
portion of a building separated by one or more fire walls com- 
plying with Section 706 shall be considered to be a separate 
building. 

503.1.1 Special industrial occupancies. Buildings and 
structures designed to house special industrial processes 
that require large areas and unusual bUilding heights to 
accommodate craneways or special machinery and equip- 
ment, including, among others, rolling mills; structural 
metal fabrication shops and foundries; or the production 
and distribution of electric, gas or steam power, shall be 
exempt from the building height and area limitations of 
Table 503. 

503.1.2 Buildings on same lot. Two or more buildings on 
the same lot shall be regulated as separate buildings or shall 
be considered as portions of one building if the bUilding 
height of each building and the aggregate building area of 
the buildings are within the limitations of Table 503 as mod- 
ified by Sections 504 and 506. The provisions of this code 
applicable to the aggregate building shall be applicable to 
each building. 

503.1.3 Type I construction. Buildings of Type I construc- 
tion permitted to be of unlimited tabular building heights 
and areas are not subject to the special requirements that 
allow unlimited area buildings in Section 507 or unlimited 
building height in Sections 503.1.1 and 504.3 or increased 
building heights and areas for other types of construction. 



SECTION 504 
BUILDING HEIGHT 

504.1 General. The bUilding height permitted by Table 503 
shall be increased in accordance with this section. 

Exception: The building height of one-story aircraft han- 
gars, aircraft paint hangars and buildings used for the manu- 
facturing of aircraft shall not be limited if the building is 
provided with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Chapter 9 and is entirely surrounded by 
public ways oryards not less in width than one and one-half 
times the bUilding height. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



79 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 

TABLE 503 
ALLOWABLE BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 3 
Building height limitations shown in feet above grade plane. Story limitations shown as stories above 
Building area limitations shown in square feet, as determined by the definition of "Area, building," 



grade plane, 
per story 







TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 




TYPE 1 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPE V 






A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


HT 


A 


B 


GROUP 


HEIGHT(feet) 


UL 


160 


65 


55 


65 


55 


65 


50 


40 


STORIES(S) 

AREA (A) 


A-I 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
5,500 


A-2 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-3 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-5 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


B 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


5 
28,500 


3 
19,000 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


E 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


5 
UL 


3 
26,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
23,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,500 


F-l 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


11 
UL 


4 
25,000 


2 
15,500 


3 
19,000 


2 
12,000 


4 
33,500 


2 
14,000 


1 

8,500 


F-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


4 
28,500 


3 
18,000 


5 
50,500 


3 
21,000 


2 
13,000 


H-l 


S 

A 


1 
21,000 


1 
16,500 


1 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


1 
9,500 


1 

7,000 


1 
10,500 


1 

7,500 


NP 
NP 


H-2 d 


S 

A 


UL 

21,000 


3 
16,500 


2 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


2 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


2 
10,500 


1 

7,500 


l 
3,000 


H-3 d 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


6 
60,000 


4 
26,500 


2 
14,000 


4 
17,500 


2 
13,000 


4 
25,500 


2 
10,000 


1 
5,000 


H-4 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


7 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
28,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
6,500 


H-5 


S 

A 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


3 
28,500 


3 
19,000 


3 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


1-1 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


9 
55,000 


4 
19,000 


3 
10,000 


4 
16,500 


3 
10,000 


4 
18,000 


3 
10,500 


2 
4,500 


1-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 

11,000 


1 
12,000 


NP 

NP 


1 
12,000 


1 
9,500 


NP 

NP 


1-3 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 

10,000 


2 
10,500 


l 

7,500 


2 
12,000 


2 
7,500 


l 
5,000 


1-4 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


5 
60,500 


3 
26,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
23,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,000 


M 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


11 
UL 


4 
21,500 


2 
12,500 


4 
18,500 


2 
12,500 


4 
20,500 


3 
14,000 


1 
9,000 


R-l 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-2 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-3 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
UL 


3 
UL 


R-4 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


S-l 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
48,000 


4 
26,000 


2 
17,500 


3 
26,000 


2 
17,500 


4 

25,500 


3 
14,000 


1 
9,000 


S_2b, c 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


11 
79,000 


5 
39,000 


3 
26,000 


4 
39,000 


3 
26,000 


5 
38,500 


4 
21,000 


2 
13,500 


u 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
35,500 


4 
19,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


4 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


1 
5,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 - 

A = building area per story, S = stories above grade plane, UL = Unlimited, NP = Not permitted. 

a. See the following sections for general exceptions to Table 503 : 

1. Section 504.2, Allowable building height and story increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

2. Section 506.2, Allowable building area increase due to street frontage. 

3. Section 506.3, Allowable building area increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

4. Section 507, Unlimited area buildings. 

b. For open parking structures, see Section 406.3. 

c. For private garages, see Section 406.1. 

d. See Section 415.5 for limitations. 



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GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



504.2 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the value 
specified in Table 503 for maximum bUilding height is 
increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of 
stories is increased by one. These increases are permitted in 
addition to the building area increase in accordance with Sec- 
tions 506.2 and 506.3. For Group R buildings equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, the value specified in Table 
503 for maximum bUilding height is increased by 20 feet (6096 
mm) and the maximum number of stories is increased by one, 
but shall not exceed 60 feet (18 288 mm) or four stories, respec- 
tively. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a 
Group 1-2 occupancy of Type 1IB, III, IV or V con- 
struction. 

2. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a 
Group H-l, H-2, H-3 or H-5 occupancy. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance 
with Table 601, Note d. 

504.3 Roof structures. Towers, spires, steeples and other roof 
structures shall be constructed of materials consistent with the 
required type of construction of the building except where 
other construction is permitted by Section 1509.2.4. Such 
structures shall not be used for habitation or storage. The struc- 
tures shall be unlimited in height if of noncombustible materi- 
als and shall not extend more than 20 feet (6096 mm) above the 
allowable bUilding height if of combustible materials (see 
Chapter 15 for additional requirements). 



SECTION 505 
MEZZANINES 

505.1 General. A mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance 
with Section 505 shall be considered a portion of the story m 
which it is contained. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to 
either the bUilding area or number of stories as regulated by 
Section 503.1. The area of the mezzanine shall be included in 
determining the fire area defined in Section 902. The clear 
height above and below the mezzanine floor construction shall 
not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm) . 

505.2 Area limitation. The aggregate area of a mezzanine or 
mezzanines within a room shall not exceed one-third of the 
floor area of that room or space in which they are located. The 
enclosed portion of a room shall not be included in a determina- 
tion of the floor area of the room in which the mezzanine is 
located. In determining the allowable mezzanine area, the area 
of the mezzanine shall not be included in the floor area of the 
room. 

Exceptions: 

1. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and 
structures of Type I or II construction for special 
industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 
503.1.1 shall not exceed two-thirds of the floor area of 
the room. 



2. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and 
structures of Type lor II construction shall not exceed 
one-half of the floor area of the room in buildings and 
structures equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and an approved emergency 
voice/alarm communication system in accordance 
with Section 907.5.2.2. 

505.3 Egress. Each occupant of a mezzanine shall have access 
to at least two independent means of egress where the common 
path of egress travel exceeds the limitations of Section 1014.3. 
Where a stairway provides a means of exit access from a mez- 
zanine, the maximum travel distance includes the distance trav- 
eled on the stairway measured in the plane of the tread nosing. 
Accessible means of egress shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1007. 

Exception: A single means of egress shall be permitted in 
accordance with Section 1015.1. 

505.4 Openness. A mezzanine shall be open and unobstructed 
to the room in which such mezzanine is located except for walls 
not more than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, columns and posts. 

Exceptions: 

1. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the occupant load of the aggregate area 
of the enclosed space does not exceed 10. 

2. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress is 
not required to be open to the room in which the mez- 
zanine is located if at least one of the means of egress 
provides direct access to an exit from the mezzanine 
level. 

3. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the aggregate floor area of the enclosed 
space does not exceed 10 percent of the mezzanine 
area. 

4. In industrial facilities, mezzanines used for control 
equipment are permitted to be glazed on all sides. 

5. In occupancies other than Groups H and I, that are no 
more than two stories above grade plane and 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, a mezza- 
nine having two or more means of egress shall not be 
required to be open to the room in which the mezza- 
nine is located. 

505.5 Equipment platforms. Equipment platforms in build- 
ings shall not be considered as a portion of the floor below. 
Such equipment platforms shall not contribute to either the 
building area or the number of stories as regulated by Section 
503.1. The area of the equipmentplatform shall not be included 
in determining the fire area in accordance with Section 903. 
Equipment platforms shall not be a part of any mezzanine and 
such platforms and the walkways, stairs, alternating tread 
devices and ladders providing access to an equipmentplatform 
shall not serve as a part of the means of egress from the build- 
ing. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



81 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



i 

1 



505.5.1 Area limitations. The aggregate area of all equip- 
mentplatforms within a room shall not exceed two-thirds of 
the area of the room in which they are located. Where an 
equipment platform is located in the same room as a mezza- 
nine, the area of the mezzanine shall be determined by Sec- 
tion 505.2 and the combined aggregate area of the 
equipment platforms and mezzanines shall not exceed 
two-thirds of the room in which they are located. 

[F] 505.5.2 Fire suppression. Where located in a building 
that is required to be protected by an automatic sprinkler 
system, equipment platforms shall be fully protected by 
sprinklers above and below the platform, where required by 
the standards referenced in Section 903.3. 

505.5.3 Guards. Equipment platforms shall have guards 
where required by Section 1013.1. 



SECTION 506 
BUILDING AREA MODIFICATIONS 

506.1 General. The bUilding areas limited by Table 503 shall 
be permitted to be increased due to frontage (IJ and automatic 
sprinkler system protection (I) in accordance with the follow- 
ing: 



4={>W4 x/ '] + [4 x/ 4 



(Equation 5-1) 



where: 

A a = Allowable bUilding area per story (square feet). 

A t — Tabular bUilding area per story in accordance with 
Table 503 (square feet). 

I f = Area increase factor due to frontage as calculated in 
accordance with Section 506.2. 

= Area increase factor due to sprinkler protection as cal- 
culated in accordance with Section 506.3. 

506.2 Frontage increase. Every building shall adjoin or have 
access to a public way to receive a bUilding area increase for 
frontage. Where a building has more than 25 percent of its per- 
imeter on a, public way or open space having a minimum width 
of 20 feet (6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be determined 
in accordance with the following: 



lf==[F/P-0.25]W/30 



(Equation 5-2) 



where: 

If = Area increase due to frontage. 

F = Building perimeter that fronts on a public way or open 
space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum width 
(feet) . 

P = Perimeter of entire building (feet). 

W = Width of public way or open space (feet) in accordance 
with Section 506.2.1. 

506.2.1 Width limits. The value of Wshall be at least 20 
feet (6096 mm). Where the value of Wvaries along the per- 
imeter of the building, the calculation performed in accor- 
dance with Equation 5-2 shall be based on the weighted 
average of each portion of exterior wall and open space 



where the value of Wis greater than or equal to 20 feet (6096 
mm). Where the value of Wexceeds 30 feet (9144 mm), a 
value of 30 feet (9144 mm) shall be used in calculating the 
weighted average, regardless of the actual width of the open 
space. Where two or more buildings are on the same lot, W 
shall be measured from the exterior face of a building to the 
exterior face of an opposing building, as applicable. 

Exception: The value of W divided by 30 shall be per- 
mitted to be a maximum of 2 when the building meets all 
requirements of Section 507 except for compliance with 
the 60-foot (18288 mm) public wayoxyardrequirement, 
as applicable. 

506.2.2 Open space limits. Such open space shall be either 
on the same lot or dedicated for public use and shall be 
accessed from a street or approved fire lane. 

506.3 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler systemin accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the building 
area limitation in Table 503 is permitted to be increased by an 
additional 200 percent (I s = 2) for buildings with more than one 
story above grade plane and an additional 300 percent (I s = 3) 
for buildings with no more than one story above grade plane. 
These increases are permitted in addition to the height and 
story increases in accordance with Section 504.2. 

Exception: The building area limitation increases shall not 
be permitted for the following conditions: 

1. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not 
apply to buildings with an occupancy in Group H-l. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not 
apply to the bUilding area of an occupancy in Group 
H-2 or H-3. For buildings containing such occupan- 
cies, the allowable building area shall be determined 
in accordance with Section 508.4.2, with the sprinkler 
system increase applicable only to the portions of the 
building not classified as Group H-2 or H-3. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance 
with Table 601, Note d. 

506.4 Single occupancy buildings with more than one story. 
The total allowable bUilding area of a single occupancy build- 
ing with more than one story above grade plane shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with this section. The actual aggregate 
building area at all stories in the building shall not exceed the 
total allowable building area. 

Exception: A single basement need not be included in the 
total allowable bUilding area, provided such basement does 
not exceed the area permitted for a building with no more 
than one story above grade plane. 

506.4.1 Area determination. The total allowable building 
area of a single occupancy building with more than one 
story above grade plane shall be determined by multiplying 
the allowable building area per story (A^, as determined in 
Section 506.1, by the number of stories above grade plane 
as listed below: 

1. For buildings with two stories above grade plane, 
multiply by 2; 



82 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



2. For buildings with three or more stories above grade 
plane, multiply by 3; and 

3. No story shall exceed the allowable bUilding area per 
story (Aa), as determined in Section 506.1, for the 
occupancies on that story. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unlimited area buildings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 507. 

2. The maximum area of a building equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be deter- 
mined by multiplying the allowable area per story 
(A J, as determined in Section 506.1, by the num- 
ber of stories above grade plane. 

506.5 Mixed occupancy area determination. The total allow- 
able building area for buildings containing mixed occupancies 
shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provi- 
sions of this section. A single basement need not be included in 
the total allowable bUilding area, provided such basement does 
not exceed the area permitted for a building with no more than 
one story above grade plane. 

506.5.1 No more than one story above grade plane. For 
buildings with no more than one story above grade plane 
and containing mixed occupancies, the total building area 
shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provi- 
sions of Section 508.1. 

506.5.2 More than one story above grade plane. For 
buildings with more than one story above grade plane and 
containing mixed occupancies, each storyshall individually 
comply with the applicable requirements of Section 508.1. 
For buildings with more than three stories above grade 
plane, the total building area shall be such that the aggregate 
sum of the ratios of the actual area of each story divided by 
the allowable area of such stories based on the applicable 
provisions of Section 508.1 shall not exceed 3. 



SECTION 507 
UNLIMITED AREA BUILDINGS 

507.1 General. The area of buildings of the occupancies and 
configurations specified herein shall not be limited. 

507.2 Nonsprinklered, one story. The area of a Group F-2 or 
S-2 building no more than one storyin height shall not be lim- 
ited when the building is surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.3 Sprinklered, one story. The area of a Group B, F, M or S 
building no more than one story above grade plane, or a Group 
A-4 building no more than one story above gradeplane of other 
than Type V construction, shall not be limited when the build- 
ing is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and 
adjoined by public ways oxyardsnoi less than 60 feet (18 288 
mm) in width. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings and structures of Types I and II construc- 
tion for rack storage facilities that do not have access 



by the public shall not be limited in height, provided 
that such buildings conform to the requirements of 
Sections 507.3,903.3.1.1 and Chapter 23 of\h& Inter- 
national Fire Code. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system shall not be required 
in areas occupied for indoor participant sports, such 
as tennis, skating, swimming and equestrian activities 
in occupancies in Group A-4, provided that: 

2.1. Exit doors directly to the outside are provided 
for occupants of the participant sports areas; 
and 

2.2. The building is equipped with a fire alarm sys- 
tem with manual fire alarm boxes installed in 
accordance with Section 907. 

507.3.1 Mixed occupancy buildings with Groups A-I 
and A-2. Group A-I and A-2 occupancies of other than 
Type V construction shall be permitted within mixed occu- 
pancy buildings of unlimited area complying with Section 
507.3, provided: 

1. Group A-I and A-2 occupancies are separated from 
other occupancies as required for separated occupan- 
cies in Section 508.4.4 with no reduction allowed in 
the fire -resistance ratingoi 'the separation based upon 
the installation of an automatic sprinkler system; 

2. Each area of the portions of the building used for 
Group A-lor A-2 occupancies shall not exceed the 
maximum allowable area permitted for such occu- 
pancies in Section 503.1; and 

3. All exit doors from Group A-I and A-2 occupancies 
shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building. 

507.4 Two story. The area of a Group B, F, M or S building no 
more than two stories above grade plane shall not be limited 
when the building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and is 
surrounded and adjoined by public ways oryardsnoi less than 
60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.5 Reduced open space. The public ways or yards of 60 
feet (18 288 mm) in width required in Sections 507.2, 507.3, 
507.4,507.6 and 507.11 shall be permitted to be reduced to not 
less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width provided all of the fol- 
lowing requirements are met: 

1. The reduced width shall not be allowed for more than 75 
percent of the perimeter of the building. 

2. The exterior walls facing the reduced width shall have a 
minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours. 

3. Openings in the exterior walls facing the reduced width 
shall have opening protectives with a minimum fire pro- 
tection rating of 3 hours. 

507.6 Group A-3 buildings of Type II construction. The area 
of a Group A-3 building no more than one story above grade 
plane, used as a place of religious worship, community hall, 
dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, indoor 
swimming pool or tennis court of Type II construction, shall 
not be limited when all of the following criteria are met: 

1. The building shall not have a stage other than a platform. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



83 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways ovyards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.7 Group A-3 buildings of Types III and IV construc- 
tion. The area of a Group A-3 building no more than one story 
above grade plane, used as aplace ofreligious worship, com- 
munity hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture 
hall, indoor swimming pool or tennis court of Type III or IV 
construction, shall not be limited when all of the following cri- 
teria are met: 

1 . The building shall not have a stage other than a platform. 

2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3. The assembly floor shall be located at or within 21 inches 
(533 mm) of street or grade level and all exits are pro- 
vided with ramps complying with Section 1010.1 to the 
street or grade level. 

4. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways ovyards not less than 60 feet (18288 mm) in width. 

507.8 Group H occupancies. Group H-2, H-3 and H-4 occu- 
pancies shall be permitted in unlimited area buildings contain- 
ing Group F and S occupancies, in accordance with Sections 
507.3 and 507.4 and the limitations of this section. The aggre- 
gate floor area of the Group H occupancies located at the per- 
imeter of the unlimited area building shall not exceed 10 
percent of the area of the building nor the area limitations for 
the Group H occupancies as specified in Table 503 as modified 
by Section 506.2, based upon the percentage of the perimeter 
of each Group H floor area that fronts on a street or other unoc- 
cupied space. The aggregate floor area of Group H occupancies 
not located at the perimeter of the building shall not exceed 25 
percent of the area limitations for the Group H occupancies as 
specified in Table 503. Group H occupancies shall be separated 
from the rest of the unlimited area building and from each other 
in accordance with Table 508.4. For two- story unlimited area 
buildings, the Group H occupancies shall not be located more 
than one story above grade plane unless permitted by the 
allowable height in stories and feet as set forth in Table 503 
based on the type of construction of the unlimited area build- 
ing. 

507.9 Aircraft paint hangar. The area of a Group H-2 aircraft 
paint hangar no more than one story above grade plane shall 
not be limited where such aircraft paint hangar complies with 
the provisions of Section 412.6 and is surrounded and adjoined 
by public ways or yards not less in width than one and one-half 
times the building height. 

507.10 Group E buildings. The area of a Group E building no 
more than one story above grade plane, of Type II, I1IA or IV 
construction, shall not be limited when all of the following cri- 
teria are met: 

1. Each classroom shall have not less than two means of 
egress, with one of the means ofegressbzing a direct exit 



to the outside of the building complying with Section 
1020. 

2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. The building is surrounded and adjoined by public ways 
or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.11 Motion picture theaters. In buildings of Type II con- 
struction, the area of a motion picture theater located on the 
first story above grade plane shall not be limited when the 
building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system 
throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and is sur- 
rounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 
feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.12 Covered mall buildings and anchor stores. The area 
of covered mall buildings and anchor stores not exceeding 
three stories in height that comply with Section 402.6 shall not 
be limited. 



SECTION 508 
MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY 

508.1 General. Each portion of a building shall be individually 
classified in accordance with Section 302.1. Where a building 
contains more than one occupancy group, the building or por- 
tion thereof shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sec- 
tion 508.2,508.3 or 508.4, or a combination of these sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies separated in accordance with Section 
509. 

2. Where required by Table 415.3.2, areas of Group 
H-l, H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be located in a 
separate and detached building or structure. 

3. Uses within live/work units, complying with Section 
419, are not considered separate occupancies. 

508.2 Accessory occupancies. Accessory occupancies are 
those occupancies that are ancillary to the main occupancy of 
the building or portion thereof. Accessory occupancies shall 
comply with the provisions of Sections 508.2.1 through 
508.2.5.3. 

508.2.1 Area limitations. Aggregate accessory occupan- 
cies shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the building 
area of the story in which they are located and shall not 
exceed the tabular values in Table 503, without building 
area increases in accordance with Section 506 for such 
accessory occupancies. 

508.2.2 Occupancy classification. Accessory occupancies 
shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 
302. 1. The requirements of this code shall apply to each por- 
tion of the building based on the occupancy classification of 
that space. 

508.2.3 Allowable building area and height. The allow- 
able building area and height of the building shall be based 
on the allowable bUildingarea andheightfov the main occu- 
pancy in accordance with Section 503.1. The height of each 
accessory occupancy shall not exceed the tabular values in 



84 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



Table 503, without increases in accordance with Section 
504 for such accessory occupancies. The bUilding area of 
the accessory occupancies shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 508.2.1. 

508.2.4 Separation of occupancies. No separation is 
required between accessory occupancies and the main 
occupancy. 

Exceptions: 

1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 occupancies shall be 
separated from all other occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 508.4. 

2. Incidental accessory occupancies required to be 
separated or protected by Section 508.2.5. 

3. Group 1-1, R-I, R-2 and R-3 dwelling units and 
sleeping units shall be separated from other dwell- 
ingor sleeping units and from accessory occupan- 
cies contiguous to them in accordance with the 
requirements of Section 420. 

508.2.5 Separation of incidental accessory occupancies. 
The incidental accessory occupancies listed in Table 



508.2.5 shall be separated from the remainder of the 
building or equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing 
system, or both, in accordance with Table 508.2.5. 

Exception: Incidental accessory occupancies within and 
serving a dwelling unit are not required to comply with 
this section. 

508.2.5.1 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Where 
Table 508.2.5 specifies a fire-resistance-rated separa- 
tion, the incidental accessory occupancies shall be sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the bUildingby afire barrier 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizon- 
tal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 
712, or both. Construction supporting I-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated fire barriers or horizontal assemblies used 
for incidental accessory occupancy separations in build- 
ings of Type 1IB, IIIB and VB construction are not 
required to be fire-resistance rated unless required by 
other sections of this code. 

508.2.5.2 Nonfire-resistance-rated separation and 
protection. Where Table 508.2.5 permits an automatic 
fire-extinguishing system without afire barrier, the inci- 



TABLE 508.2.5 
INCIDENTAL ACCESSORY OCCUPANCIES 



ROOM OR AREA 


SEPARATION AND/OR PROTECTION 


Furnace room where any piece of equipment is over 400,000 Btu per 
hour input 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Rooms with boilers where the largest piece of equipment is over 15 
psi and 10 horsepower 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Refrigerant machinery room 


1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system 


Hydrogen cutoff rooms, not classified as Group H 


1 hour in Group B, F, M, Sand U occupancies; 2 hours in Group A, 
E, I and R occupancies. 


Incinerator rooms 


2 hours and automatic sprinkler system 


Paint shops, not classified as Group H, located in occupancies other 
than Group F 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Laboratories and vocational shops, not classified as Group H, located 
in a Group E or 1-2 occupancy 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Laundry rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Group 1-3 cells equipped with padded surfaces 


1 hour 


Group 1-2 waste and linen collection rooms 


1 hour 


Waste and linen collection rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Stationary storage battery systems having a liquid electrolyte 
capacity of more than 50 gallons, or a lithium-ion capacity of 1,000 
pounds used for facility standby power, emergency power or 
uninterrupted power supplies 


1 hour in Group B, F, M, Sand U occupancies; 2 hours in Group A, 
E, I and R occupancies. 


Rooms containing fire pumps in nonhigh-rise buildings 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic sprinkler system throughout 
the building 


Rooms containing fire pumps in high-rise buildings 


2 hours 



For 51 : 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.9 kPa, 1 British thermal unit (Btu) per hour = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 
1 gallon = 3.785 L. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



85 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



dental accessory occupancies shall be separated from the 
remainder of the building by construction capable of 
resisting the passage of smoke. The walls shall extend 
from the top of the foundation or floor assembly below to 
the underside of the ceiling that is a component of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor assembly or roof assembly 
above or to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, 
deck or slab above. Doors shall be self- or automatic- 
closing upon detection of smoke in accordance with Sec- 
tion 715.4.8.3. Doors shall not have air transfer openings 
and shall not be undercut in excess of the clearance per- 
mitted in accordance with NFPA 80. Walls surrounding 
the incidental accessory occupancy shall not have air 
transfer openings unless provided with smoke dampers 
in accordance with Section 711.7. 

508.2.5.3 Protection. Except as specified in Table 
508.2.5 for certain incidental accessory occupancies, 
where an automatic fire-extinguishing system or an 
automatic sprinkler system is provided in accordance 
with Table 508.2.5, only the space occupied by the inci- 
dental accessory occupancy need be equipped with such 
a system. 

508.3 Nonseparated occupancies. Buildings or portions of 
buildings that comply with the provisions of this section shall 
be considered as nonseparated occupancies. 

508.3.1 Occupancy classification. Nonseparated occupan- 
cies shall be individually classified in accordance with Sec- 
tion 302.1. The requirements of this code shall apply to each 
portion of the building based on the occupancy classifica- 



tion of that space except that the most restrictive applicable 
provisions of Section 403 and Chapter 9 shall apply to the 
building or portion thereof in which the nonseparated occu- 
pancies are located. 

508.3.2 Allowable building area and height. The allow- 
able building area and height of the building or portion 
thereof shall be based on the most restrictive allowances for 
the occupancy groups under consideration for the type of 
construction of the building in accordance with Section 
503.1. 

508.3.3 Separation. No separation is required between 
nonseparated occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 occupancies shall be 
separated from all other occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 508.4. 

2. Group 1-1, R-l, R-2 and R-3 dwelling units and 
sleeping units shall be separated from other dwell- 
ing or sleeping units and from other occupancies 
contiguous to them in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section 420. 

508.4 Separated occupancies. Buildings or portions of build- 
ings that comply with the provisions of this section shall be 
considered as separated occupancies. 

508.4.1 Occupancy classification. Separated occupancies 
shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 
302.1. Each separated space shall comply with this code 



TABLE 508.4 
REQUIRED SEPARATION OF OCCUPANCIES (HOURS) 



OCCUPANCY 


Ad, E 


1-1,1-3,1-4 


1-2 


R 


F-2, 5-2 b , U 


B, F-1, M, 5-1 


H-1 


H-2 


H-3, H-4, H-5 


5 


N5 


5 


N5 


5 


N5 


5 


N5 


5 


N5 


5 


N5 


5 


N5 


5 


N5 


5 


N5 


Ad, E 


N 


N 


1 


2 


2 


NP 


1 


2 


N 


1 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


3 a 


1-1,1-3,1-4 


- 


- 


N 


N 


2 


NP 


1 


NP 


1 


2 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


1-2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


N 


N 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


R 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


N 


N 


lc 


2 C 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


F-2,S-2 b , U 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


N 


N 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


3 a 


B, F-l, M, 
S-l 






















N 


N 


NP 


NP 


2 


3 


1 


2 a 


H-l 


























N 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


H-2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


N 


NP 


1 


NP 


H-3, H-4, H-5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


kf 


NP 



For SI : 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

S = Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

NS = Buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

N = No separation requirement. 

NP = Not permitted. 

a. For Group H-5 occupancies, see Section 903.2.5.2. 

b. The required separation from areas used only for private or pleasure vehicles shall be reduced by 1 hour but to not less than 1 hour. 

c. See Section 406.1.4. 

d. Commercial kitchens need not be separated from the restaurant seating areas that they serve. 

e. Separation is not required between occupancies of the same classification. 

f. For H-5 occupancies, see Section 415.8.2.2. 



86 



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GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



based on the occupancy classification of that portion of the 
building. 

508.4.2 Allowable building area. In each story, the build- 
ing area shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the actual 
bUilding area of each separated occupancy divided by the 
allowable building area of each separated occupancy shall 
not exceed 1. 

508.4.3 Allowable height. Each separated occupancy shall 
comply with the building height limitations based on the 
type of construction of the building in accordance with Sec- 
tion 503.1. 

Exception: Special provisions permitted by Section 
509. 

508.4.4 Separation. Individual occupancies shall be sepa- 
rated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with Table 
508.4. 

508.4.4.1 Construction. Required separations shall be 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 
or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with 
Section 712, or both, so as to completely separate adja- 
cent occupancies. 



SECTION 509 
SPECIAL PROVISIONS 

509.1 General. The provisions in this section shall permit the 
use of special conditions that are exempt from, or modify, the 
specific requirements of this chapter regarding the allowable 
heights and areas of buildings based on the occupancy classifi- 
cation and type of construction, provided the special condition 
complies with the provisions specified in this section for such 
condition and other applicable requirements of this code. The 
provisions of Sections 509.2 through 509.8 are to be consid- 
ered independent and separate from each other. 

509.2 Horizontal building separation allowance. A building 
shall be considered as separate and distinct buildings for the 
purpose of determining area limitations, continuity of fire 
walls, limitation of number of stories and type of construction 
where all of the following conditions are met: 

1. The buildings are separated with a horizontal assembly 
having a minimum 3-hour fire -resistance rating. 

2. The building below the horizontal assembly is no more 
than one story above grade plane. 

3. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type 
IA construction. 

4. Shaft, stairway, ramp and escalator enclosures through 
the horizontal assembly shall have not less than a 2-hour 
fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accor- 
dance with Section 715.4. 

Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the hor- 
izontal assembly have not less than a 3-hour fire-resis- 
tance rating with opening protectives in accordance 
with Section 715.4, the enclosure walls extending 



above the horizontal assembly shall be permitted to 
have a I-hour fire-resistance rating, provided: 

1. The building above the horizontal assembly is 
not required to be of Type I construction; 

2. The enclosure connects less than four stories; 
and 

3. The enclosure opening protectives above the 
horizontal assembly have a minimum I-hour 
fire protection rating. 

5. The building or buildings above the horizontal assembly 
shall be permitted to have multiple Group A occupancy 
uses, each with an occupant load of less than 300, or 
Group B, M, R or S occupancies. 

6. The building below the horizontal assembly shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and shall 
be permitted to be any of the following occupancies: 

6.1. Group S-2 parking garage used for the parking 
and storage of private motor vehicles; 

6.2. Multiple Group A, each with an occupantloadof 
less than 300; 

6.3. Group B; 

6.4. Group M; 

6.5. Group R; and 

6.6. Uses incidental to the operation of the building 
(including entry lobbies, mechanical rooms, 
storage areas and similar uses). 

7. The maximum bUilding height in feet (mm) shall not 
exceed the limits set forth in Section 503 for the building 
having the smaller allowable height as measured from 
the grade plane. 

509.3 Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with Group S-2 
open parking garage above. A Group S-2 enclosed parking 
garage with no more than one story above grade plane and 
located below a Group S-2 openparkinggarage shall be classi- 
fied as a separate and distinct building for the purpose of deter- 
mining the type of construction where all of the following 
conditions are met: 

1. The allowable area of the building shall be such that the 
sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the allow- 
able area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed 1. 

2. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is of Type I or II 
construction and is at least equal to the fire -resistance 
requirements of the Group S-2 open parking garage. 

3. The height and the number of tiers of the Group S-2 open 
parking garage shall be limited as specified in Table 
406.3.5. 

4. The floor assembly separating the Group S-2 enclosed 
parking garage and Group S-2 openparkinggarage shall 
be protected as required for the floor assembly of the 
Group S-2 enclosed parking garage. Openings between 
the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 



i 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



87 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



open parking garage, except exit openings, shall not be 
required to be protected. 

5. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is used exclu- 
sively for the parking or storage of private motor vehi- 
cles, but shall be permitted to contain an office, waiting 
room and toilet room having a total area of not more than 
1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ), and mechanical equipment 
rooms incidental to the operation of the building. 

509.4 Parking beneath Group R. Where a maximum one 
story above grade plane Group S-2 parking garage, enclosed or 
open, or combination thereof, of Type I construction or open of 
Type IV construction, with grade entrance, is provided under a 
building of Group R, the number of stories to be used in deter- 
mining the minimum type of construction shall be measured 
from the floor above such a parking area. The floor assembly 
between the parking garage and the Group R above shall com- 
ply with the type of construction required for the parking 
garage and shall also provide a fire-resistance rating not less 
than the mixed occupancy separation required in Section 
508.4. 

509.5 Group R-l and R-2 buildings of Type I1IA construc- 
tion. The height limitation for buildings of Type I1IA construc- 
tion in Groups R-l and R-2 shall be increased to six stories and 
75 feet (22 860 mm) where the first floor assembly above the 
basement has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours 
and the floor area is subdivided by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
fire walls into areas of not more than 3,000 square feet (279 
m 2 ). 

509.6 Group R-l and R-2 buildings of Type IIA construc- 
tion. The height limitation for buildings of Type IIA construc- 
tion in Groups R-l and R-2 shall be increased to nine stories 
and 100 feet (30 480 mm) where the building is separated by 
not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any other building on 
the lot and from lot lines, the exits are segregated in an area 
enclosed by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire walland the first 
floor assembly has afire-resistance rating of not less than lV 2 
hours. 

509.7 Open parking garage beneath Groups A, I, B, M and 
R. Open parking garages constructed under Groups A, I, B, M 
and R shall not exceed the height and area limitations permitted 
under Section 406.3. The height and area of the portion of the 
building above the open parking garage shall not exceed the 
limitations in Section 503 for the upper occupancy. The height, 
in both feet and stories, of the portion of the building above the 
open parking garage shall be measured from grade plane and 
shall include both the open parking garage and the portion of 
the building above the parking garage. 

509.7.1 Fire separation. Fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712 between the 
parking occupancy and the upper occupancy shall corre- 
spond to the required fire -resistance rating prescribed in 
Table 508.4 for the uses involved. The type of construction 
shall apply to each occupancy individually, except that 
structural members, including main bracing within the open 
parking structure, which is necessary to support the upper 
occupancy, shall be protected with the more restrictive 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies of the groups involved as 



shown in Table 601. Means of egress for the upper occu- 
pancy shall conform to Chapter 10 and shall be separated 
from the parking occupancy by fire barriershaving at least a 
2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 706 
with self-closing doors complying with Section 715 or hori- 
zontal assemblies having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance 
rating as required by Section 712, with self-closing doors 
complying with Section 715. Means of egress from the open 
parking garage shall comply with Section 406.3. 

509.8 Group B or M with Group 5-2 open parking garage. 
Group B or M occupancies located no higher than the first story 
above grade plane shall be considered as a separate and distinct 
building for the purpose of determining the type of construc- 
tion where all of the following conditions are met: 

1. The buildings are separated with a horizontal assembly 
having a minimum 2-hour fire -resistance rating. 

2. The occupancies in the building below the horizontal 
assembly arc limited to Groups Band M. 

3. The occupancy above the horizontal assembly is limited 
to a Group S-2 open parking garage. 

4. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type I 
or II construction but not less than the type of construc- 
tion required for the Group S-2 open parking garage 
above. 

5. The height and area of the building below the horizontal 
assembly does not exceed the limits set forth in Section 
503. 

6. The height and area of the Group S-2 open parking 
garage does not exceed the limits set forth in Section 
406.3. The height, in both feet and stories, of the Group 
S-2 open parking garage shall be measured from grade 
plane and shall include the building below the horizontal 
assembly. 

7. Exits serving the Group S-2 open parking garage dis- 
charge directly to a street or public wayand are separated 
from the building below the horizontal assembly by 
2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 707 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. 

509.9 Multiple buildings above Group 5-2 parking garages. 
Where two or more buildings are provided above the horizon- 
tal assembly separating a Group S-2 open or closed parking 
garage from the buildings above in accordance with the special 
provisions in Sections 509.2, 509.3 or 509.8, the buildings 
above the horizontal assembly shall be regarded as separate 
and distinct buildings from each other and shall comply with all 
other provisions of this code as applicable to each separate and 
distinct building. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of buildings as to type of construction. 



SECTION 602 
CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 

602.1 General. Buildings and structures erected or to be 
erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classified 
in one of the five construction types defined in Sections 602.2 
through 602.5. The building elements shall have a fire-resis- 
tance rating not less than that specified in Table 601 and exte- 
rior walls shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that 
specified in Table 602. Where required to have afire-resistance 
ratingby Table 601, building elements shall comply with the 
applicable provisions of Section 703 .2. The protection of open- 
ings, ducts and air transfer openings in building elements shall 
not be required unless required by other provisions of this code. 



602.1.1 Minimum requirements. A building or portion 
thereof shall not be required to conform to the details of a 
type of construction higher than that type which meets the 
minimum requirements based on occupancy even though 
certain features of such a building actually conform to a 
higher type of construction. 

602.2 Types I and II. Types I and II construction are those 
types of construction in which the building elements listed in 
Table 601 are of noncombustible materials, except as permitted 
in Section 603 and elsewhere in this code. 

602.3 Type III. Type III construction is that type of construc- 
tion in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materi- 
als and the interior building elements are of any material 
permitted by this code. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exte- 
rior wall assemblies of a 2-hour rating or less. 

602.4 Type IV. Type IV construction (Heavy Timber, HT) is 
that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of 
noncombustible materials and the interior building elements 
are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces. The 



TABLE 601 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING ELEMENTS (hours) 



BUILDING ELEMENT 


TYPE I 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPE V 


A 


B 


Ad 


B 


Ad 


B 


HT 


Ad 


B 


Primary structural frame g 
(see Section 202) 


3 a 


2 a 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Bearing walls 
Exterior f , g 
Interior 


3 

3 a 


2 
2 a 


1 
1 






2 
1 


2 



2 
1/HT 


1 
1 






Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Exterior 


See Table 602 


Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Interior 6 




















See Section 602.4.6 








Floor construction and secondary 
members (see Section 202) 


2 


2 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Roof construction and secondary 
members (see Section 202) 


1 1 / 2 b 


1b, c 


1b, c 


oc 


1b, c 





HT 


1b, c 






For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Roof supports: Fire-resistance ratings of primary structural frame and bearing walls are permitted to be reduced by 1 hour where supporting a roof only. 

b. Except in Group F-l, H, M and S-l occupancies, fire protection of structural members shall not be required, including protection of roof framing and decking 
where every part of the roof construction is 20 feet or more above any floor immediately below. Fire-retardant-treated wood members shall be allowed to be used 
for such unprotected members. 

c. In all occupancies, heavy timber shall be allowed where a I-hour or less fire-resistance rating is required. 

d. An approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be allowed to be substituted for I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, pro- 
vided such system is not otherwise required by other provisions of the code or used for an allowable area increase in accordance with Section 506.3 or an allowable 
height increase in accordance with Section 504.2. The I-hour substitution for the fire resistance of exterior walls shall not be permitted. 

e. Not less than the fire-resistance rating required by other sections of this code. 

f. Not less than the fire-resistance rating based on fire separation distance (see Table 602). 

g. Not less than the fire-resistance rating as referenced in Section 704.10 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



89 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



details of Type IV construction shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this section. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exte- 
rior wall assemblies with a 2-hour rating or less. Minimum 
solid sawn nominal dimensions are required for structures built 
using Type IV construction (HT) . For glued-laminated mem- 
bers the equivalent net finished width and depths correspond- 
ing to the minimum nominal width and depths of solid sawn 
lumber are required as specified in Table 602.4. 

602.4.1 Columns. Wood columns shall be sawn or glued 
laminated and shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), 
nominal, in any dimension where supporting floor loads and 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not 
less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth where sup- 
porting roof and ceiling loads only. Columns shall be con- 
tinuous or superimposed and connected in an approved 
manner. 

602.4.2 Floor framing. Wood beams and girders shall be of 
sawn or glued-laminated timber and shall be not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not less than 10 
inches (254 mm) nominal in depth. Framed sawn or 
glued-laminated timber arches, which spring from the floor 
line and support floor loads, shall be not less than 8 inches 
(203 mm) nominal in any dimension. Framed timber trusses 



supporting floor loads shall have members of not less than 8 
inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimension. 

602.4.3 Roof framing. Wood-frame or glued-laminated 
arches for roof construction, which spring from the floor 
line or from grade and do not support floor loads, shall have 
members not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width 
and have not less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth 
for the lower half of the height and not less than 6 inches 
(152 mm) nominal in depth for the upper half. Framed or 
glued-laminated arches for roof construction that spring 
from the top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber 
trusses and other roof framing, which do not support floor 
loads, shall have members not less than 4 inches (102 mm) 
nominal in width and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nomi- 
nal in depth. Spaced members shall be permitted to be com- 
posed of two or more pieces not less than 3 inches (76 mm) 
nominal in thickness where blocked solidly throughout 
their intervening spaces or where spaces are tightly closed 
by a continuous wood cover plate of not less than 2 inches 
(51 mm) nominal in thickness secured to the underside of 
the members. Splice plates shall be not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in thickness. Where protected by approved 
automatic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members 
shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in width. 



TABLE 602 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE 3 , . 



FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE =X 

(feet) 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUPH f 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP F-1, M, S-19 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP A, B, E, F-2, 1, R, S-29, U b 


X< 5 C 


All 


3 


2 


1 


5<X<10 


IA 
Others 


3 
2 


2 

1 


1 
1 


10<X<30 


IA,IB 
IIB, VB 
Others 


2 

1 
1 


1 

1 


l d 

l d 


X>30 


All 












For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Load-bearing exterior walls shall also comply with the fire-resistance rating requirements of Table 601. 

b. For special requirements for Group U occupancies, see Section 406.1.2. 

c. See Section 706. 1. 1 for party walls. 

d. Open parking garages complying with Section 406 shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating. 

e. The fire-resistance rating of an exterior wall is determined based upon the fire separation distance of the exterior wall and the story in which the wall is located. 

f. For special requirements for Group H occupancies, see Section 415.3. 

g. For special requirements for Group S aircraft hangars, see Section 412.4.1. 

TABLE 602.4 
WOOD MEMBER SIZE 



MINIMUM NOMINAL SOLID SAWN SIZE 


MINIMUM GLUED-LAMINATED NET SIZE 


Width, inch 


Depth, inch 


Width, inch 


Depth, inch 


8 


8 


63/ 4 


8% 


6 


10 


5 


10 1 / 2 


6 


8 


5 


8% 


6 


6 


5 


6 


4 


6 


3 


6 7 >s 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



90 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



602 .4 .4 Floors. Floors shall be without concealed spaces. 
Wood floors shall be of sawn or glued-laminated planks, 
splined or tongue-and-groove, of not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in thickness covered with I-inch (25 mm) 
nominal dimension tongue-and-groove flooring, laid cross- 
wise or diagonally, or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) particleboard or 
planks not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in width set 
on edge close together and well spiked and covered with 
I-inch (25 mm) nominal dimension flooring or i5/ 32 -inch 
(12 mm) wood structural panel or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) 
particleboard. The lumber shall be laid so that no continu- 
ous line of joints will occur except at points of support. 
Floors shall not extend closer than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) to 
walls. Such 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) space shall be covered by a 
molding fastened to the wall and so arranged that it will not 
obstruct the swelling or shrinkage movements of the floor. 
Corbeling of masonry walls under the floor shall be permit- 
ted to be used in place of molding. 

602.4.5 Roofs. Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and 
wood roof decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined 
or tongue-and-groove plank, not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
nominal in thickness, lVs-inch-thick (32 mm) wood struc- 
tural panel (exterior glue), or of planks not less than 3 inches 
(76 mm) nominal in width, set on edge close together and 
laid as required for floors. Other types of decking shall be 
permitted to be used if providing equivalent fire resistance 
and structural properties. 

602.4.6 Partitions. Partitions shall be of solid wood con- 
struction formed by not less than two layers of I-inch (25 
mm) matched boards or laminated construction 4 inches 
(102 mm) thick, or of I-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

602.4.7 Exterior structural members. Where a horizontal 
separation of 20 feet (6096 mm) or more is provided, wood 
columns and arches conforming to heavy timber sizes shall 
be permitted to be used externally. 

602.5 Type V. Type V construction is that type of construction 
in which the structural elements, exterior walls and interior 
walls are of any materials permitted by this code. 



SECTION 603 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN TYPE I 

AND II CONSTRUCTION 

603.1 Allowable materials. Combustible materials shall be 
permitted in buildings of Type I or II construction in the follow- 
ing applications and in accordance with Sections 603.1.1 
through 603.1.3: 

1. Thermal and acoustical insulation, other than foam 
plastics, having aflame spread index of noi more than 

25. 

Exceptions: 

1. Insulation placed between two layers of 
noncombustible materials without an interven- 
ing airspace shall be allowed to have a flame 
spread index of noi more than 100. 



2. Insulation installed between a finished floor 
and solid decking without intervening airspace 
shall be allowed to have aflame spreadindexof 
not more than 200. 

2. Foam plastics in accordance with Chapter 26. 

3. Roof coverings that have an A, B or C classification. 

4. Interior floor finish and floor covering materials 
installed in accordance with Section 804. 

5. Millwork such as doors, door frames, window sashes 
and frames. 

6. Interior wall and ceiling finishes installed in accor- 
dance with Sections 801 and 803. 

7. Trim installed in accordance with Section 806. 

8. Where not installed over 15 feet (4572 mm) above 
grade, show windows, nailing or furring strips and 
wooden bulkheads below show windows, including 
their frames, aprons and show cases. 

9. Finish flooring installed in accordance with Section 
805. 

10. Partitions dividing portions of stores, offices or similar 
places occupied by one tenant only and that do not 
establish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or 
more shall be permitted to be constructed of fire -retar- 
dant-treated wood, I-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction or of wood panels or similar light construction 
up to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height. 

11. Stages and platforms constructed in accordance with 
Sections 410.3 and 410.4, respectively. 

12. Combustible exterior wall coverings, balconies and 
similar projections and bay or oriel windows in accor- 
dance with Chapter 14. 

13. Blocking such as for handrails, millwork, cabinets and 
window and door frames. 

14. Light-transmitting plastics as permitted by Chapter 26. 

15. Mastics and caulking materials applied to provide flex- 
ible seals between components of exterior wall con- 
struction. 

16. Exterior plastic veneer installed in accordance with 
Section 2605.2. 

17. Nailing or furring strips as permitted by Section 803.4. 

18. Heavy timber as permitted by Note c to Table 601 and 
Sections 602.4.7 and 1406.3. 

19. Aggregates, component materials and admixtures as 
permitted by Section 703.2.2. 

20. Sprayed fire-resistant materials and intumescent and 
mastic fire-resistant coatings, determined on the basis 
of fire-resistance tests in accordance with Section 
703.2 and installed in accordance with Sections 
1704.12 and 1704.13, respectively. 

21. Materials used to protect penetrations in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies in accordance with Section 713. 

22. Materials used to protect joints in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies in accordance with Section 714. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



91 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



23. Materials allowed in the concealed spaces of buildings 
of Types I and II construction in accordance with Sec- 
tion 717.5. 

24. Materials exposed within plenums complying with 
Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code. 

25. Fire-retardant-treated woo d shall be permitted in: 

25.1. Nonbearing partitions where the required 
fire-resistance ratingis 2 hours or less. 

25.2. Nonbearing exterior walls where no fire rating 
is required. 

25.3. Roof construction, including girders, trusses, 
framing and decking. 

Exception: In buildings of Type IA construc- 
tion exceeding two stories above grade plane, 
fire-retardant-treated woodis not permitted in 
roof construction when the vertical distance 
from the upper floor to the roof is less than 20 
feet (6096 mm). 

603.1.1 Ducts. The use of nonmetallic ducts shall be per- 
mitted when installed in accordance with the limitations of 
the International Mechanical Code. 

603.1.2 Piping. The use of combustible piping materials 
shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the 
limitations of the International Mechanical Code and the 
International Plumbing Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical. The use of electrical wiring methods 
with combustible insulation, tubing, raceways and related 
components shall be permitted when installed in accor- 
dance with the limitations of this code. 



92 2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



I 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, systems and assemblies used for structural fire resis- 
tance and fire-resistance-rated construction separation of adja- 
cent spaces to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke 
within a building and the spread of fire to or from buildings. 



SECTION 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ANNULAR SPACE. The opening around the penetrating 
item. 

I BUILDING ELEMENT. A fundamental component of build- 
ing construction, listed in Table 601, which mayor may not be 
of fire-resistance-rated construction and is constructed of 
materials based on the building type of construction. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. A listeddevice installed 
in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically the radiative heat 
transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed 
device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to 
close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the 
passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to operate 
automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and 
where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire com- 
mand center. 

DAMPER. See "Ceiling radiation damper," "Combination 
fire/smoke damper, " "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper. " 

DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to 
restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics. 

F RATING. The time period that the through-penetration 
firestop system limits the spread of fire through the penetration 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479. 

FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of 
materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which conti- 
nuity is maintained. 

FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detec- 
tion of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are 
classified for use in either static systems that will automatically 
shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that con- 
tinue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested 
and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow. 



FIRE DOOR. The door component of afire door assembly. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of afire door, 
frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a 
specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 

FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are pro- 
tected. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an 
opening protective will maintain the ability to confine a fire as 
determined by tests prescribed in Section 715. Ratings are 
stated in hours or minutes. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their 
assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive 
heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a build- 
ing element, component or assembly maintains the ability to 
confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, 
or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on 
tests, prescribed in Section 703. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of 
specific materials or products that are designed, tested and 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 or 
UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of 
fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured 
from the building face to one of the following: 

1. The closest interior lot line; 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or 

3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the prop- 
erty. 

The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face 
of the wall. 

FIRE WALL. A fire- resistance- rated wall having protected 
openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends contin- 
uously from the foundation to or through the roof, with suffi- 
cient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse 
of construction on either side without collapse of the wall. 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. A window constructed and 
glazed to give protection against the passage of fire. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials or materials for use as 
fireblocking, installed to resist the free passage of flame to 
other areas of the building through concealed spaces. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. A combination of afire 
door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in a hor- 
izontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire 
protection to a through-opening in a fire-resistance-rated floor 
(see Section 712.8). 



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HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor 
or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of 
fire in which continuity is maintained. 

JOINT. The linear opening in or between adjacent fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies that is designed to allow independent 
movement of the building in any plane caused by thermal, seis- 
mic, wind or any other loading. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. An opening made through 
one side (wall, floor or ceiling membrane) of an assembly. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A material, 
device or construction installed to resist for a prescribed time 
period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a pro- 
tective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable trays, 
conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items. 

MINERAL FIBER. Insulation composed principally of fibers 
manufactured from rock, slag or glass, with or without binders. 

MINERAL WOOL. Synthetic vitreous fiber insulation made 
by melting predominately igneous rock or furnace slag, and 
other inorganic materials, and then physically forming the melt 
into fibers. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A through penetration 
firestop or a membrane-penetration firestop. 

SELF-CLOSING. As applied to afire door or other opening 
protective, means equipped with an device that will ensure 
closing after having been opened. 

SHAFT. An enclosed space extending through one or more 
stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in succes- 
sive floors, or floors and roof. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. The walls or construction forming 
the boundaries of a shaft. 

SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical 
or horizontal, such as a wall, floor or ceiling assembly, that is 
designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and 
bottom. 

SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The 
device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a 
smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of 
being positioned from a fire command center. 

SPLICE. The result of a factory and/or field method ofjoining 
or connecting two or more lengths of a fire-resistant joint sys- 
tem into a continuous entity. 

T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop sys- 
tem, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum tem- 
perature rise to 325°F (163°C) above its initial temperature 
through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. An opening that passes 
through an entire assembly. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An 

assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, 
tested and fire-resistance rated to resist for a prescribed period 



of time the spread of fire through penetrations. The F and T 
rating criteria for penetration firestop systems shall be in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479. See definitions of "F rat- 
ing" and "T rating." 



SECTION 703 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS AND FIRE TESTS 

703.1 Scope. Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance 
shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. 

703.2 Fire-resistance ratings. The fire-resistance rating of 
building elements, components or assemblies shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with the test procedures set forth in 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 or in accordance with Section 703.3. 
Where materials, systems or devices that have not been tested 
as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are incorporated into 
the building element, component or assembly, sufficient data 
shall be made available to the building officialto show that the 
required fire-resistance rating is not reduced. Materials and 
methods of construction used to protect joints and penetrations 
in fire-resistance-rated building elements, components or 
assemblies shall not reduce the required fire-resistance rating. 

Exception: In determining the fire-resistance rating of 
exterior bearing walls, compliance with the ASTM E 119 or 
UL 263 criteria for unexposed surface temperature rise and 
ignition of cotton waste due to passage of flame or gases is 
required only for a period of time corresponding to the 
required fire-resistance rating of an exterior nonbearing 
wall with the same fire separation distance, and in a build- 
ing of the same group. When the fire-resistance rating 
determined in accordance with this exception exceeds the 
fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with ASTM 
E 119 or UL 263, the fire exposure time period, water pres- 
sure and application duration criteria for the hose stream test 
of ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall be based upon the 
fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with this 
exception. 

703.2.1 Nonsymmetrical wall construction. Interior walls 
and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the 
assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration 
obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263. When evidence is furnished to 
show that the wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side 
exposed to the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building 
official, the wall need not be subjected to tests from the 
opposite side (see Section 705.5 for exterior walls). 

703.2.2 Combustible components. Combustible aggre- 
gates are permitted in gypsum and portland cement concrete 
mixtures for fire-resistance-rated construction. Any compo- 
nent material or admixture is permitted in assemblies if the 
resulting tested assembly meets the fire-resistance test 
requirements of this code. 

703.2.3 Restrained classification. Fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies tested under ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 shall not be 
considered to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory to 
the bUilding official is furnished by the registered design 
professional showing that the construction qualifies for a 



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restrained classification in accordance with ASTM E 119 or 
UL 263. Restrained construction shall be identified on the 
plans. 

703.3 Alternative methods for determining fire resistance. 

The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this 
section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance crite- 
ria specified in ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263. The required fire resis- 
tance of a building element, component or assembly shall be 
permitted to be established by any of the following methods or 
procedures: 

1. Fire-resistance designs documented in sources. 

2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building 
elements, components or assemblies as prescribed in 
Section 720. 

3. Calculations in accordance with Section 721 . 

4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building 
element, component or assemblies designs having 
fire-resistance ratings as determined by the test proce- 
dures set forth in ASTM E 119 or UL 263. 

5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

703.4 Noncombustibility tests. The tests indicated in Sections 
703.4.1 and 703.4.2 shall serve as criteria for acceptance of 
building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 602.3 and 

602.4 in Type I, II, III and IV construction. The term 
"noncombustible" does not apply to the flame spread charac- 
teristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not 
be classified as a noncombustible building construction mate- 
rial if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or flame 
spread beyond the limitations herein established through the 
effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions. 

703.4.1 Elementary materials. Materials required to be 
noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 
136. 

703.4.2 Composite materials. Materials having a struc- 
tural base of noncombustible material as determined in 
accordance with Section 703.4.1 with a surfacing not more 
than 0.125 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has aflame spread 
index not greater than 50 when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 or UL 723 shall be acceptable as 
noncombustible materials. 

703.5 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resistance-rated 
glazing, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 
263 and complying with the requirements of Section 707, shall 
be permitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall bear a label or 
other identification showing the name of the manufacturer, the 
test standard and the identifier "W-XXX," where the "XXX" is 
the fire-resistance rating in minutes. Such label or identifica- 
tion shall be issued by an agency and shall be permanently 
affixed to the glazing. 

703.6 Marking and identification. Fire walls, fire barriers, 
fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions or any 
other wall required to have protected openings or penetrations 



shall be effectively and permanently identified with signs or 
stenciling. Such identification shall: 

1. Be located in accessible concealed floor, floor-ceiling or 
attic spaces; 

2. Be repeated at intervals not exceeding 30 feet (914 mm) 
measured horizontally along the wall or partition; and 

3. Include lettering not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in 
height, incorporating the suggested wording: "FIRE 
AND/OR SMOKE BARRIER-PROTECT ALL 
OPENINGS," or other wording. 

Exception: Walls in Group R-2 occupancies that do 
not have a removable decorative ceiling allowing 
access to the concealed space. 



SECTION 704 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 

STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 

704.1 Requirements. The fire-resistance ratings of structural 
members and assemblies shall comply with this section and the 
requirements for the type of construction as specified in Table 
601. The fire-resistance ratings shall not be less than the rat- 
ings required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies supported 
by the structural members. 

Exception: Fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers 
and horizontal assemblies as provided in Sections 707.5, 
709.4, 710.4 and 712.4, respectively. 

704.2 Column protection. Where columns are required to be 
fire-resistance rated, the entire column shall be provided indi- 
vidual encasement protection by protecting it on all sides for 
the full column length, including connections to other struc- 
tural members, with materials having the required fire-resis- 
tance rating. Where the column extends through a ceiling, the 
encasement protection shall be continuous from the top of the 
foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below through the ceiling 
space to the top of the column. 

704.3 Protection of the primary structural frame other 
than columns. Members of the primary structural frame other 
than columns that are required to have a fire-resistance rating 
and support more than two floors or one floor and roof, or sup- 
port a load-bearing wall or a nonload-bearing wall more than 
two stories high, shall be provided individual encasement pro- 
tection by protecting them on all sides for their full length, 
including connections to other structural members, with mate- 
rials having the required fire-resistance rating. 

Exception: Individual encasement protection on all sides 
shall be permitted on all exposed sides provided the extent 
of protection is in accordance with the required fire-resis- 
tance rating, as determined in Section 703 . 

704.4 Protection of secondary members. Secondary mem- 
bers that are required to have a fire-resistance rating shall be 
protected by individual encasement protection, by the mem- 
brane or ceiling of a horizontal assembly in accordance with 
Section 712, or by a combination of both. 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



704.4.1 Light-frame construction. King studs and bound- 
ary elements that are integral elements in load-bearing 
walls of light-frame construction shall be permitted to have 
required fire-resistance ratings provided by the membrane 
protection provided for the load-bearing wall. 

704.5 Truss protection. The required thickness and construc- 
tion of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing trusses shall 
be based on the results of full-scale tests or combinations of 
tests on truss components or on appro vedcalculations based on 
such tests that satisfactorily demonstrate that the assembly has 
the required fire resistance. 

704.6 Attachments to structural members. The edges of 
lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural mem- 
bers shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 mm) of the 
surface of the fire protection. 

704.7 Reinforcing. Thickness of protection for concrete or 
masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside of the 
reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral reinforcement ties 
are permitted to project not more than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) into 
the protection. 

704.8 Embedments and enclosures. Pipes, wires, conduits, 
ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the 
required fire protective covering of a structural member that is 
required to be individually encased. 

704.9 Impact protection. Where the fire protective covering 
of a structural member is subject to impact damage from mov- 
ing vehicles, the handling of merchandise or other activity, the 
fire protective covering shall be protected by corner guards or 
by a substantialjacket of metal or other noncombustible mate- 
rial to a height adequate to provide full protection, but not less 
than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor. 

I Exception: Corner protection is not required on concrete 
columns in open or enclosed parking garages. 

704.10 Exterior structural members. Load-bearing struc- 
tural members located within the exterior walls or on the out- 
side of a building or structure shall be provided with the highest 
fire-resistance ratings determined in accordance with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. As required by Table 601 for the type of building ele- 
ment based on the type of construction of the building; 

2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls 
based on the type of construction; and 

3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on the 
fire separation distance. 

704.11 Bottom flange protection. Fire protection is not 
required at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates, 
spanning not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) whether part of the 
primary structural frame or not, and from the bottom flange of 
lintels, shelf angles and plates not part of the primary structural 
frame, regardless of span. 

704.12 Seismic isolation systems. Fire-resistance ratings for 
the isolation system shall meet the fire -re si stance rating 
required for the columns, walls or other structural elements in 
which the isolation system is installed in accordance with Table 
601. Isolation systems required to have afire-resistance rating 
shall be protected with approved materials or construction 



assemblies designed to provide the same degree of fire resis- 
tance as the structural element in which it is installed when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 (see Section 
703.2). 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator 
unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying 
capacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after exposure 
to the standard time-temperature curve fire test prescribed in 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 for a duration not less than that 
required for the fire-resistance rating of the structure element 
in which it is installed. 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to 
dislodge, loosen, sustain damage or otherwise impair its ability 
to accommodate the seismic movements for which the isolator 
unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the purpose of 
providing the required fire-resistance protection. 

704.13 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). Sprayed 
fire-resistant materials (SFRM) shall comply with Sections 
704.13.1 through 704.13.5. 

704.13.1 Fire-resistance rating. The application of SFRM 
shall be consistent with the fire-resistance rating and the 
listing, including, but not limited to, minimum thickness 
and dry density of the applied SFRM, method of applica- 
tion, substrate surface conditions and the use of bonding 
adhesives, sealants, reinforcing or other materials. 

704.13.2 Manufacturer's installation instructions. The 
application of SFRM shall be in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's installation instructions. The instructions shall 
include, but are not limited to, substrate temperatures and 
surface conditions and SFRM handling, storage, mixing, 
conveyance, method of application, curing and ventilation. 

704.13.3 Substrate condition. The SFRM shall be applied 
to a substrate in compliance with Sections 704.13.3.1 
through 704.13.3.2. 

704.13.3.1 Surface conditions. Substrates to receive 
SFRM shall be free of dirt, oil, grease, release agents, 
loose scale and any other condition that prevents adhe- 
sion. The substrates shall also be free of primers, paints 
and encapsulants other than those fire tested and listedby 
a nationally recognized testing agency. Primed, painted 
or encapsulated steel shall be allowed, provided that test- 
ing has demonstrated that required adhesion is main- 
tained. 

704.13.3.2 Primers, paints and encapsulants. Where 
the SFRM is to be applied over primers, paints or 
encapsulants other than those specified in the listing, the 
material shall be field tested in accordance with ASTM E 
736. Where testing of the SFRM with primers, paints or 
encapsulants demonstrates that required adhesion is 
maintained, SFRM shall be permitted to be applied to 
primed, painted or encapsulated wide flange steel shapes 
in accordance with the following conditions: 

1. The beam flange width does not exceed 12 inches 
(305 mm); or 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



2. The column flange width does not exceed 16 
inches (400 mm); or 

3. The beam or column web depth does not exceed 16 
inches (400 mm). 

4. The average and minimum bond strength values 
shall be determined based on a minimum of five 
bond tests conducted in accordance with ASTM E 
736. Bond tests conducted in accordance with 
ASTM E 736 shall indicate a minimum average 
bond strength of 80 percent and a minimum indi- 
vidual bond strength of 50 percent, when com- 
pared to the bond strength of the SFRM as applied 
to clean uncoated l/ s -inch-thick (3-mm) steel plate. 

704.13.4 Temperature. A minimum ambient and substrate 
temperature of 40°F (4.44°C) shall be maintained during 
and for a minimum of 24 hours after the application of the 
SFRM, unless the manufacturer's installation instructions 
allow otherwise. 

704.13.5 Finished condition. The finished condition of 
SFRM applied to structural members or assemblies shall 
not, upon complete drying or curing, exhibit cracks, voids, 
spalls, delamination or any exposure of the substrate. Sur- 
face irregularities of SFRM shall be deemed acceptable. 



SECTION 705 
EXTERIOR WALLS 

705.1 General. Exterior walls shall comply with this section. 

705.2 Projections. Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balco- 
nies and similar projections extending beyond the exterior wall 
shall conform to the requirements of this section and Section 
1406. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit stairways 
shall also comply with Sections 1019 and 1026, respectively. 
Projections shall not extend beyond the distance determined by 
the following three methods, whichever results in the lesser 
projection: 

1. A point one-third the distance from the exterior face of 
the wall to the lot line where protected openings or a 
combination of protected and unprotected openings are 
required in the exterior wall 

2. A point one-half the distance from the exterior face of the 
wall to the lot line where all openings in the exterior wall 
are permitted to be unprotected or the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed under the provisions of Section 705.8.2. 

3. More than 12 inches (305 mm) into areas where open- 
ings are prohibited. 

Buildings on the same lot and considered as portions of one 
building in accordance with Section 705 .3 are not required to 
comply with this section. 

705.2.1 Type land II construction. Projections from walls 

of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible 
materials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 
1406.3 and 1406.4. 



705.2.2 Type III, IV or V construction. Projections from 
walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any 
approved material. 

705.2.3 Combustible projections. Combustible projec- 
tions located where openings are not permitted or where 
protection of openings is required shall be of at least I-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction, Type IV construction, 
fire-retardant-treated wood or as required by Section 

1406.3. 

Exception: Type V construction shall be allowed for R-3 
occupancies. 

705.3 Buildings on the same lot. For the purposes of deter- 
mining the required wall and opening protection and roof-cov- 
ering requirements, buildings on the same lot shall be assumed 
to have an imaginary line between them. 

Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as an 
existing building, the location of the assumed imaginary line 
with relation to the existing building shall be such that the exte- 
rior wall mid opening protection of the existing building meet 
the criteria as set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8. 

Exception: Two or more buildings on the same lot shall 
either be regulated as separate buildings or shall be consid- 
ered as portions of one building if the aggregate area of such 
buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 for a sin- 
gle building. Where the buildings contain different occu- 
pancy groups or are of different types of construction, the 
area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy 
or construction. 

705.4 Materials. Exterior walls shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 

705.5 Fire-resistance ratings. Exterior walls shall be 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602 and 
this section. The required fire -resistance rating of exterior 
walls with a fire separation distance of greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from the inside. 
The required fire -resistance rating of exterior walls with afire 
separation distance of less than or equal to 10 feet (3048 mm) 
shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides. 

705.6 Structural stability. The wall shall extend to the height 
required by Section 705 .11 and shall have sufficient structural 
stability such that it will remain in place for the duration of time 
indicated by the required fire-resistance rating. 

705.7 Unexposed surface temperature. Where protected 
openings are not limited by Section 705.8, the limitation on the 
rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls 
as required by ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall not apply. Where 
protected openings are limited by Section 705.8, the limitation 
on the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior 
walls as required by ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall not apply 
provided that a correction is made for radiation from the unex- 
posed exterior wall surface in accordance with the following 
formula: 



A e =A+(A f xFJ 

where: 

A e = Equivalent area of protected openings. 



(Equation 7-1) 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



A = Actual area of protected openings. 

A f = Area of exterior wall surface in the sto ry under consid- 
eration exclusive of openings, on which the tempera- 
ture limitations of ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 for walls are 
exceeded. 

F eo = An "equivalent opening factor" derived from Figure 
705.7 based on the average temperature of the unex- 
posed wall surface and the fire-resistance rating of the 
wall. 

705.8 Openings. Openings in exterior walls shall comply with 
Sections 705.8.1 through 705.8.6. 

705.8.1 Allowable area of openings. The maximum area of 
unprotected and protected openings permitted in an exterior 
wall in any story of a building shall not exceed the percent- 
ages specified in Table 705.8. 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than Group H occupancies, unlimited 
unprotected openings are permitted in the first 
story above grade either: 

1.1. Where the wall faces a street and has afire 
separation distance of more than 15 feet 
(4572 mm); or 



1.2. Where the wall faces an unoccupied space. 
The unoccupied space shall be on the same 
lot or dedicated for public use, shall not be 
less than 30 feet (9144 mm) in width and 
shall have access from a street by a posted 
fire lane in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

2. Buildings whose exterior bearing walls, exterior 
nonbearing walls and exterior primary structural 
frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated 
shall be permitted to have unlimited unprotected 
openings. 

705.8.2 Protected openings. Where openings are required 
to be protected, fire doors and fire shutters shall comply 
with Section 715.4 and fire window assemblies shall comply 
with Section 715.5. 

Exception: Opening protectives are not required where 
the building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 
and the exterior openings are protected by a water curtain 
using automatic sprinklers approved for that use. 

705.8.3 Unprotected openings. Where unprotected open- 
ings are permitted, windows and doors shall be constructed 
of any approved materials. Glazing shall conform to the 
requirements of Chapters 24 and 26. 



at 

c 
"c 

2L 



o- 

LU 



For 51: °C = [(OF) -32] / 1.8. 



1.0 
0.9 
0.8 

' 0.7 

0.6 
0.5 

0.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 



O200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 
Average temperature of unexposed surface (OF) 



FIGURE 705.7 
EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR 

























3 
















§1 


J 






















4 


r H 












i 







































































































































98 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 705.8 
MAXIMUM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE AND DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION 



FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE 

(feet) 


DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION 


ALLOWABLE AREA a 


Oto less than 3 b ,c 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


Not Permitted 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 


Not Permitted 


Protected (?) 


Not Permitted 


3 to less than 5 d ,e 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


Not Permitted 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 


15% 


Protected (P) 


15% 


5 to less than 10 e ,f 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


10%h 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 


25% 


Protected (P) 


25% 


10 to less than 15 e ,f, g 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


15%h 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 


45% 


Protected (?) 


45% 


15 to less than 20 f , g 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


25% 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 


75% 


Protected (?) 


75% 


20 to less than 25 f , g 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


45% 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 


No Limit 


Protected (?) 


No Limit 


25 to less than 30 f , g 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


70% 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 


No Limit 


Protected (?) 


No Limit 


30 or greater 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


No Limit 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 


Not Required 


Protected (?) 


Not Required 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

UP, NS = Unprotected openings in buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
UP, S = Unprotected openings in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
P = Openings protected with an opening protective assembly in accordance with Section 705.8.2. 

a. Values indicated are the percentage of the area of the exterior wall, per story. 

b. For the requirements for fire walls of buildings with differing heights, see Section 706.6.1. 

c. For openings in a fire wall for buildings on the same lot, see Section 706.8. 

d. The maximum percentage of unprotected and protected openings shall be 25 percent for Group R-3 occupancies. 

e. Unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a :fire separation distance of less than 15 feet for Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies. 

f. The area of unprotected and protected openings shall not be limited for Group R-3 occupancies, with afire separation distance of 5 feet or greater. 

g. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a :fire separation distance of 10 feet or greater shall not be limited, 
h. Includes buildings accessory to Group R-3. 

i. Not applicable to Group H-l, H-2 and H-3 occupancies. 



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705.8.4 Mixed openings. Where both unprotected and pro- 
tected openings are located in the exterior wall in any story 
of a building, the total area of openings shall be determined 
in accordance with the following: 



(AJa) + (AJa u )<l 
where: 



(Equation 7-2) 



A p = Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent 
area of protected openings, A e (see Section 705.7). 

a p = Allowable area of protected openings. 

Au = Actual area of unprotected openings. 

au = Allowable area of unprotected openings. 

705.8.5 Vertical separation of openings. Openings in exte- 
rior walls in adjacent stories shall be separated vertically to 
protect against fire spread on the exterior of the buildings 
where the openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of each 
other horizontally and the opening in the lower storyis not a 
protected opening with a fire protection rating of not less 
than 3/ 4 hour. Such openings shall be separated vertically at 
least 3 feet (914 mm) by spandrel girders, exterior walls or 
other similar assemblies that have a fire-resistance rating of 
at least 1 hour or by flame barriers that extend horizontally 
at least 30 inches (762 mm) beyond the exterior wall Flame 
barriers shall also have a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 
hour. The unexposed surface temperature limitations speci- 
fied in ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall not apply to the flame 
barriers or vertical separation unless otherwise required by 
the provisions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to buildings that are 
three stories or less above grade plane. 

2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

3. Open parking garages. 

705.8.6 Vertical exposure. For buildings on the same lot, 
opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not 
less than 3/4 hour shall be provided in every opening that is 
less than 15 feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an 
adjacent building or structure based on assuming an imagi- 
nary line between them. The opening protectives are 
required where the fire separation distance between the 
imaginary line and the adjacent building or structure is less 
than 15 feet (4572 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Opening protectives are not required where the 
roof assembly of the adjacent building or structure 
has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour 
for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
the exterior wall facing the imaginary line and the 
entire length and span of the supporting elements 
for the fire-resistance-rated roof assembly has a 
fire-resistance rating of noi less than 1 hour. 

2. Buildings on the same lot and considered as por- 
tions of one building in accordance with Section 



705.3 are not required to comply with Section 
705.8.6. 

705.9 Joints. Joints made in or between exterior walls required 
by this section to have a fire-resistance rating shall comply 
with Section 714. 

Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to 
have unprotected openings. 

705.9.1 Voids. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assem- 
bly shall be protected in accordance with Section 714.4. 

705.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by air 
ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior 
walls required to have protected openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 

Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with 
this code are permitted. 

705.11 Parapets. Parapets shall be provided on exterior walls 
of buildings. 

Exceptions: A parapet need not be provided on an exterior 
wall where any of the following conditions exist: 

1. The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in 
accordance with Table 602 because of fire separation 
distance. 

2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 
square feet (93 m 2 ) on any floor. 

3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, 
including the deck or slab and supporting construc- 
tion, is constructed entirely of noncombustible mate- 
rials. 

4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that ter- 
minate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or 
slab, provided: 

4.1. Where the roof/ceiling framing elements are 
parallel to the walls, such framing and ele- 
ments supporting such framing shall not be of 
less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a width of 4 feet (1220 mm) for 
Groups Rand U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for 
other occupancies, measured from the interior 
side of the wall. 

4.2. Where roof/ceiling framing elements are not 
parallel to the wall, the entire span of such 
framing and elements supporting such fram- 
ing shall not be of less than I-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 

4.3. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the I-hour fire- re- 
sistance-rated exterior wall fox Groups Rand 
U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupan- 
cies, measured from the interior side of the 
wall. 

4.4. The entire building shall be provided with not 
less than a Class B roof covering. 



100 



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5. In Groups R-2 and R-3 where the entire building is 
provided with a Class C roof covering, the exterior 
wall shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
the roof sheathing or deck in Type III, IV and V con- 
struction, provided: 

5.1. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials or of 
fire-retardant-treated woodfox a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm); or 

5.2. The roof is protected with 0.625-inch (16 
mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath 
the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, 
supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch 
(51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the 
roof framing members for a minimum dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1220 mm). 

6. Where the wall is permitted to have at least 25 percent 
of the exterior wall areas containing unprotected 
openings based on fire separation distance as deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 705.8. 

705.11.1 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the 
same fire -resistance rating as that required for the support- 
ing wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, shall 
have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches 
(457 mm), including counterflashing and coping materials. 
The height of the parapet shall not be less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the point where the roof surface and the 
wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at a 
slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(16.7 -percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same 
height as any portion of the roof within afire separation dis- 
tance where protection of wall openings is required, but in 
no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm). 



SECTION 706 
FIRE WALLS 

706.1 General. Each portion of a building separated by one or 
more fire walls that comply with the provisions of this section 
shall be considered a separate building. The extent and location 
of such fire walls shall provide a complete separation. Where a 
fire wall also separates occupancies that are required to be sep- 
arated by afire barrier wall, the most restrictive requirements 
of each separation shall apply. 

706.1.1 Party walls. Any wall located on a lot line between 
adjacent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service 
between the two buildings, shall be constructed as afire wall 
in accordance with Section 706. Party walls shall be con- 
structed without openings and shall create separate build- 
ings. 

Exception: Openings in a party wall separating an 
anchor building and a mall shall be in accordance with 
Section 402.7.3.1. 

706.2 Structural stability. Fire walls shall have sufficient 
structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of 
construction on either side without collapse of the wall for the 



duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance rat- 
ing. 

706.3 Materials. Fire walls shall be of any approved 
noncombustible materials. 

Exception: Buildings of Type V construction. 

706.4 Fire-resistance rating. Fire walls shall have afire-resis- 
tance rating of not less than that required by Table 706.4. 

TABLE 706.4 
FIRE WALL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS 



GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


A, B, E, H-4, I, R-l, R-2, U 


3 a 


F-l, H-3 b , H-S, M, 5-1 


3 


H-l, H-2 


4 b 


F-2, 5-2, R-3, R-4 


2 



a. In Type II or V construction, walls shall be permitted to have a 2-hour 
fire-resistance rating. 

b. For Group H-l, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.4 and 415.5. 

706.5 Horizontal continuity. Fire walls shall be continuous 
from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 18 
inches (457 mm) beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or sid- 
ing provided the exterior wall has a fire-resistance 
rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of at 
least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 
Openings within such exterior walls shall be pro- 
tected by opening protectives having a fire protection 
rating of not less than 3/ 4 hour. 

2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, 
exterior siding or other noncombustible exterior fin- 
ishes provided the sheathing, siding, or other exterior 
noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance 
of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire 
wall. 

3. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing 
where the building on each side of the fire wallis pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

706.5.1 Exterior walls. Where the fire wall intersects exte- 
rior walls, the fire-resistance rating and opening protection 
of the exterior walls shall comply with one of the following: 

1. The exterior walls on both sides of the fire wall shall 
have a I-hom fire-resistance rating with 3/4-hour pro- 
tection where opening protection is required by Sec- 
tion 705.8. The fire-resistance rating of the exterior 
wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet (1220 mm) on 
each side of the intersection of the fire wallto exterior 
wall. Exterior wall intersections at //re walls that form 
an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 
rad) do not need exterior wall protection. 



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2. Buildings or spaces on both sides of the intersecting 
fire wall shall assume to have an imaginary lot line at 
the fire wall and extending beyond the exterior of the 
fire wall. The location of the assumed line in relation 
to the exterior walls and the fire wa//shall be such that 
the exterior wall and opening protection meet the 
requirements set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8. 
Such protection is not required for exterior walls ter- 
minating at fire walls that form an angle equal to or 
greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad). 

706.5.2 Horizontal projecting elements. Fire walls shall 
extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements 
such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and 
similar projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the 
fire wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Horizontal projecting elements without concealed 
spaces, provided the exterior wall behind and 
below the projecting element has not less than 
I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a dis- 
tance not less than the depth of the projecting ele- 
ment on both sides of the fire wall. Openings 
within such exterior walls shall be protected by 
opening protectives having afire protection rating 
of not less than Ji 4 hour. 

2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, provided a minimum 
I-hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through 
the concealed space. The projecting element shall 
be separated from the building by a minimum of 
I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a dis- 
tance on each side of the fire wa//equal to the depth 
of the projecting element. The wall is not required 
to extend under the projecting element where the 
building exterior wall is not less than I-hour 
fire- resistance rated for a distance on each side of 
the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting 
element. Openings within such exterior walls shall 
be protected by opening protectives having a fire 
protection rating of not less than 3/ 4 hour. 

3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only 
extend through the concealed space to the outer 
edges of the projecting elements. The exterior wall 
behind and below the projecting element shall be 
of not less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a distance not less than the depth of 
the projecting elements on both sides of the fire 
wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be 
protected by opening protectives having a 
fire-protection rating of not less than 3/ 4 hour. 

706.6 Vertical continuity. Fire walls shall extend from the 
foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) 
above both adjacent roofs. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 
706.6.1. 



2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls shall be permit- 
ted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, 
deck or slab, provided: 

2.1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet (1220 
mm) of the wall has not less than a I-hour 
fire-resistance rating and the entire length 
and span of supporting elements for the rated 
roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1 hour. 

2.2. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

2.3. Each building shall be provided with not less 
than a Class B roof covering. 

3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside 
of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck or slabs 
where both buildings are provided with not less than a 
Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall not 
be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

4. In buildings of Type III, IV and V construction, walls 
shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
combustible roof sheathing or decks, provided: 

4.1. There are no openings in the roof within 4 feet 
(1220 mm) of the fire wall, 

4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B 
roof covering, and 

4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
fire-retardant-treated woodfor a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the wall or the 
roofis protected with 5/ s -inch (15.9 mm) Type 
X gypsum board directly beneath the under- 
side of the roof sheathing or deck, supported 
by a minimum of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal 
ledgers attached to the sides of the roof fram- 
ing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet 
(1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 

5. In buildings designed in accordance with Section 
509.2, fire walls located above the 3 -hour horizontal 
assembly required by Section 509.2, Item 1 shall be 
permitted to extend from the top of this horizontal 
assembly. 

706.6.1 Stepped buildings. Where a fire wall serves as an 
exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having 
different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof level, 
provided the exterior wall fox a height of 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the lower roof is not less than I-hour fire- resis- 
tance-rated construction from both sides with openings pro- 
tected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of 
not less than 31 4 hour. 

Exception: Where the fire wall terminates at the under- 
side of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower roof, 
provided: 

1. The lower roof assembly within 10 feet (3048 mm) 
of the wall has not less than a I-hour fire-resis- 
tance rating and the entire length and span of sup- 



102 



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porting elements for the rated roof assembly has a 
fire- resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the fire wall. 

706.7 Combustible framing in fire walls. Adjacent combusti- 
ble members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wa//from 
opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 mm) dis- 
tance between embedded ends. Where combustible members 
frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, hollow spaces 
shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a 
distance not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above, below and 
between the structural members, with noncombustible materi- 
als approved fox fireblocking. 

706.8 Openings. Each opening through afire wall shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715.4 and shall not exceed 
156 square feet (15 m 2 ). The aggregate width of openings at 
any floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the 
wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings are not permitted in party walls constructed 
in accordance with Section 706.1.1. 

2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) where both buildings are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

706.9 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire walls shall comply 
with Section 713. 

706.10 Joints. Joints made in or between fire walls shall com- 
ply with Section 714. 

706.11 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air trans- 
fer openings shall not penetrate fire walls. 

Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings 
of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed pro- 
vided the penetrations comply with Section 716. The size 
and aggregate width of all openings shall not exceed the lim- 
itations of Section 706.8. 



SECTION 707 
FIRE BARRIERS 

707.1 General. Fire barriers installed as required elsewhere in 
this code or the International Fire Code shall comply with this 
section. 

707.2 Materials. Fire barriers shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 

707.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of fire 
barriers shall comply with this section. 

707.3.1 Shaft enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from a shaft shall com- 
ply with Section 708.4. 

707.3.2 Exit enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from an exitshall com- 
ply with Section 1022.1. 



707.3.3 Exit passageway. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from an exit passage- 
way shall comply with Section 1023.3. 

707.3.4 Horizontal exit. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas connected by a horizon- 
tal exit shall comply with Section 1025.1. 

707.3.5 Atriums. The fire -resistance rating of the fire bar- 
rier separating atriums shall comply with Section 404.6. 

707.3.6 Incidental accessory occupancies. The fire bar- I 
rierseparating incidental accessory occupancies from other 
spaces in the building shall have & fire-resistance rating of 
not less than that indicated in Table 508.2.5. 

707.3.7 Control areas. Fire barriers separating control 
areas shall have afire-resistance rating of not less than that 
required in Section 414.2.4. 

707.3.8 Separated occupancies. Where the provisions of 
Section 508.4 are applicable, the fire barrier separating 
mixed occupancies shall have afire-resistance rating of not 
less than that indicated in Table 508.4 based on the occupan- 
cies being separated. 

707.3.9 Fire areas. The //re barriers or horizontal assem- 
blies, or both, separating a single occupancy into different 
fire areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
that indicated in Table 707.3.9. The fire barriers or horizon- 
tal assemblies, or both, separating fire areas of mixed occu- 
pancies shall have afire-resistance rating of not less than the 
highest value indicated in Table 707.3.9 for the occupancies 
under consideration. 



TABLE 707.3.9 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE 

BARRIER ASSEMBLIES OR HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

BETWEEN FIRE AREAS 



OCCUPANCY GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


H-l, H-2 


4 


F-l, H-3,5-1 


3 


A, B,E, F-2, H-4, H-5, 
I, M, R, 5-2 


2 


U 


1 



707.4 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated shaft or exitenclosure, or separa- 
tion, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 
705 for exterior walls and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure or 
separation requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1019 for exterior egress 
balconies, Section 1022.6 for exit enclosures and Section 
1026.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

707.5 Continuity. Fire barriers shall extend from the top of the 
floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, slab or deck above and shall be securely 
attached thereto. Such//r£ barriers shall be continuous through 
concealed spaces, such as the space above a suspended ceiling. 



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707.5.1 Supporting construction. The supporting con- 
struction for a fire barrier shall be protected to afford the 
required fire-resistance rating of "the fire barrier supported. 
Hollow vertical spaces within a fire barrier shall be 
fireblocked in accordance with Section 717.2 at every floor 
level. 

Exceptions: 

1. The maximum required fire -resistance rating for 
assemblies supporting fire barriers separating 
tank storage as provided for in Section 415.6.2.1 
shall be 2 hours, but not less than required by Table 
601 for the building construction type. 

2. Shaft enclosures shall be permitted to terminate at 
a top enclosure complying with Section 708.12. 

3. Supporting construction for I-hour fire barriers 
required by Table 508.2.5 in buildings of Type 
1IB, IIIB and VB construction is not required to be 
fire-resistance rated unless required by other sec- 
tions of this code. 

707.6 Openings. Openings in afire barrier shall be protected 
in accordance with Section 715. Openings shall be limited to a 
maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the 
wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall not 
exceed 156 square feet (15 m 2 ). Openings in exit enclosures 
and exit passageways shall also comply with Sections 1022.3 
and 1023.5, respectively. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) where adjoining floor areas are equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective is afire door 
serving an exit enclosure. 

3. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective has been 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 and 
has a minimum fire-resistance rating not less than the 
fire-resistance rating of the wall. 

4. Fire window assemblies permitted in atrium separa- 
tion walls shall not be limited to a maximum aggre- 
gate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall. 

5. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective is afire door 
assembly in afire barrier separating an exit enclosure 
from an exit passageway in accordance with Section 
1022.2.1. 

707.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire barriers shall comply 
with Section 713. 

707.7.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations into an exit 
enclosure or an ^xzYpassageway shall be allowed only when 
permitted by Section 1022.4 or 1023.6, respectively. 



707.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire barriers, andjoints 
made at the intersection of fire barriers with underside of the 
floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above, shall comply with 
Section 714. 

707.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in afire 
barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 



SECTION 708 
SHAFT ENCLOSURES 

708.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
shafts required to protect openings and penetrations through 
floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling assemblies. Shaft enclosures 
shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 
707 or horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 712, 
or both. 

708.2 Shaft enclosure required. Openings through a 
floor/ceiling assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure 
complying with this section. 



I 



Exceptions: 



A shaft enclosure is not required for openings totally 
within an individual residential dwelling unit and 
connecting four stories or less. 

A shaft enclosure is not required in a building 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 for an esca- 
lator opening or stairway that is not a portion of the 
means of egress protected according to Item 2.1 or 
2.2. 

2.1. Where the area of the floor opening between 
stories does not exceed twice the horizontal 
projected area of the escalator or stairway and 
the opening is protected by a draft curtain and 
closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFPA 13. In other than Groups Band M, this 
application is limited to openings that do not 
connect more than four stories. 

2.2. Where the opening is protected by approved 
power-operated automatic shutters at every 
penetrated floor. The shutters shall be of 
noncombustible construction and have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 
hours. The shutter shall be so constructed as to 
close immediately upon the actuation of a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with 
Section 907.3 and shall completely shut off 
the well opening. Escalators shall cease oper- 
ation when the shutter begins to close. The 
shutter shall operate at a speed of not more 
than 30 feet per minute (152.4 mm/s) and shall 
be equipped with a sensitive leading edge to 
arrest its progress where in contact with any 
obstacle, and to continue its progress on re- 
lease therefrom. 



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3. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
pipe, tube, conduit, wire, cable and vents protected 
in accordance with Section 713.4. 

4. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
ducts protected in accordance with Section 716.6. 
Grease ducts shall be protected in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, a shaft enclo- 
sure is not required for floor openings complying 
with the provisions for atriums in Section 404. 

6. A shaft enclosure is not required for approved 
masonry chimneys where annular space is 
fireblocked at each floor level in accordance with 
Section 717.2.5. 

7. In other than Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a shaft enclosure is 
not required for a floor opening or an air transfer 
opening that complies with the following: 

7.1. Does not connect more than two stories. 

7.2. Is not part of the required means of egress sys- 
tem. 

7.3. Is not concealed within the construction of a 
wall or a floor/ceiling assembly. 

7.4. Is not open to a corridorin Group I and R oc- 
cupancies. 

7.5. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered 
floors in any occupancy. 

7.6. Is separated from floor openings and air trans- 
fer openings serving other floors by construc- 
tion conforming to required shaft enclosures. 

7.7. Is limited to the same smoke compartment. 

8. A shaft enclosure is not required for automobile 
ramps in open and enclosed parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 406.3 and 
406.4, respectively. 

9. A shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings 
between a mezzanine and the floor below. 

10. A shaft enclosure is not required for j oints protected 
by a fire-resistant joint system in accordance with 
Section 714. 

11. A shaft enclosure shall not be required for floor 
openings created by unenclosed stairs or ramps in 
accordance with Exception 3 or 4 in Section 1016.1. 

12. Floor openings protected by floor fire doors in 
accordance with Section 712.8. 

13. In Group 1-3 occupancies, a shaft enclosure is not 
required for floor openings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 408.5. 

14. A shaft enclosure is not required for elevator 
hoistways in open or enclosed parking garages that 
serve only the parking garage. 

15. In open or enclosed parking garages a shaft enclo- 
sure is not required to enclose mechanical exhaust or 



supply duct systems when such duct system is con- 
tained within and serves only the parking garage. 

16. Where permitted by other sections of this code. 

708.3 Materials. The shaft enclosure shall be of materials per- 
mitted by the building type of construction. 

708.4 Fire-resistance rating. Shaft enclosures shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of 'not less than 2 hours where connecting 
four stories or more, and not less than 1 hour where connecting 
less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the 
shaft enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezza- 
nines. Shaft enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating not 
less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 
hours. Shaft enclosures shall meet the requirements of Section 
703.2.1. 

708.5 Continuity. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire 
barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both, and 
shall have continuity in accordance with Section 707.5 for fire 
barriers or Section 712.4 for horizontal assemblies as applica- 
ble. 

708.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required shaft enclosure, such walls shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the 
fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1019.2 for exterior egress 
balconies, Section 1022.6 for exit enclosures and Section 
1026.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

708.7 Openings. Openings in a shaft enclosure shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715 as required for fire barri- 
ers. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing by smoke 
detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3. 

708.7.1 Prohibited openings. Openings other than those 
necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted 
in shaft enclosures. 

708.8 Penetrations. Penetrations in a shaft enclosure shall be 
protected in accordance with Section 713 as required for fire 
barriers. 

708.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations other than 
those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be per- 
mitted in shaft enclosures. 

708.9 Joints. Joints in a shaft enclosure shall comply with Sec- 
tion 714. 

708.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of a 
shaft enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Section 716. 

708.11 Enclosure at the bottom. Shafts that do not extend to 
the bottom of the building or structure shall comply with one of 
the following: 

1. They shall be enclosed at the lowest level with construc- 
tion of the same fire-resistance ratings the lowest floor 
through which the shaft passes, but not less than the rat- 
ing required for the shaft enclosure. 



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2. They shall terminate in a room having a use related to the 
purpose of the shaft. The room shall be separated from 
the remainder of the building by fire barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies 
constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The 
fire-resistance rating and opening protectives shall be at 
least equal to the protection required for the shaft enclo- 
sure. 

3. They shall be protected by approved fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing at the lowest 
floor level within the shaft enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

1. The fire-resistance-rated room separation is not 
required, provided there are no openings in or pen- 
etrations of the shaft enclosure to the interior of the 
building except at the bottom. The bottom of the 
shaft shall be closed off around the penetrating 
items with materials permitted by Section 717.3.1 
for draftstopping, or the room shall be provided 
with an approved automatic fire suppression sys- 
tem. 

2. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse chute or 
laundry chute shall not be used for any other pur- 
pose and shall terminate in a room protected in 
accordance with Section 708.13.4. 

3. The fire-resistance-rated room separation and the 
protection at the bottom of the shaft are not 
required provided there are no combustibles in the 
shaft and there are no openings or other penetra- 
tions through the shaft enclosure to the interior of 
the building. 

708.12 Enclosure at the top. A shaft enclosure that does not 
extend to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the 
building shall be enclosed at the top with construction of the 
same fire-resistance rating as the topmost floor penetrated by 
the shaft, but not less than the fire -resistance rating required for 
the shaft enclosure. 

708.13 Refuse and laundry chutes. Refuse and laundry 
chutes, access and termination rooms and incinerator rooms 
shall meet the requirements of Sections 708.13.1 through 
708.13.6. 

Exception: Chutes serving and contained within a single 
dwelling unit. 

708.13.1 Refuse and laundry chute enclosures. A shaft 
enclosure containing a refuse or laundry chute shall not be 
used for any other purpose and shall be enclosed in accor- 
dance with Section 708.4. Openings into the shaft, includ- 
ing those from access rooms and termination rooms, shall 
be protected in accordance with this section and Section 
715. Openings into chutes shall not be located in corridors. 
Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon the actuation 
of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3, 
except that heat-activated closing devices shall be permitted 
between the shaft and the termination room. 



708.13.2 Materials. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse 
or laundry chute shall be constructed of materials as permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

708.13.3 Refuse and laundry chute access rooms. Access 
openings for refuse and laundry chutes shall be located in 
rooms or compartments enclosed by not less than I-hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 712, or both. Openings into the access rooms shall be 
protected by opening protectives having a fire protection 
rating of not less than 3/4 hour. Doors shall be self- or auto- 
matic-closing upon the detection of smoke in accordance 
with Section 715.4.8.3. 

708.13.4 Termination room. Refuse and laundry chutes 
shall discharge into an enclosed room separated from the 
remainder of the building by not less than I-hour fire barri- 
ers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizon- 
tal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, 
or both. Openings into the termination room shall be pro- 
tected by opening protectives having afire protection rating 
of not less than 3/4 hour. Doors shall be self- or auto- 
matic-closing upon the detection of smoke in accordance 
with Section 715.4.8.3. Refuse chutes shall not terminate in 
an incinerator room. Refuse and laundry rooms that are not 
provided with chutes need only comply with Table 508.2.5. 

708.13.5 Incinerator room. Incinerator rooms shall com- 
ply with Table 508.2.5. 

708.13.6 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 903.2.11.2. 

708.14 Elevator, dumbwaiter and other hoistways. Elevator, 
dumbwaiter and other hoistway enclosures shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Section 708 and Chapter 30. 

708.14.1 Elevator lobby. An enclosed elevator lobby shall 
be provided at each floor where an elevator shaft enclosure 
connects more than three stories. The lobby enclosure shall 
separate the elevator shaft enclosure doors from each floor 
by fire partitions. In addition to the requirements in Section 
709 fox fire partitions, doors protecting openings in the ele- 
vator lobby enclosure walls shall also comply with Section 
715.4.3 as required for corridor walls and penetrations of 
the elevator lobby enclosure by ducts and air transfer open- 
ings shall be protected as required for corridors in accor- 
dance with Section 716.5.4. 1. Elevator lobbies shall have at 
least one means of egress complying with Chapter 10 and 
other provisions within this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required at the 
street floor, provided the entire street floor is 
equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in 
accordance with Section 708.2 are not required to 
have enclosed elevator lobbies. 

3. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
additional doors are provided at the hoistway 



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opening in accordance with Section 3002.6. Such 
doors shall be tested in accordance with UL 1784 
without an artificial bottom seal. 

4. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
the building is protected by an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. This exception shall not 
apply to the following : 

4.1. Group 1-2 occupancies; 

4.2. Group 1-3 occupancies; and 

4.3. High-rise buildings. 

5. Smoke partitions shall be permitted in lieu of fire 
partitions to separate the elevator lobby at each 
floor where the building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903 .3.1.1 or 903.3.1 .2. In 
addition to the requirements in Section 711 for 
smoke partitions, doors protecting openings in the 
smoke partitions shall also comply with Sections 
711.5.2, 711.5.3, and 715.4.8 and duct penetra- 
tions of the smoke partitions shall be protected as 
required for corridors in accordance with Section 
716.5.4.1. 

6. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
the elevator hoistway is pressurized in accordance 
with Section 708.14.2. 

7. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
the elevator serves only open parking garages in 
accordance with Section 406.3. 

708.14.1.1 Areas of refuge. Areas of refuge shall be pro- 
vided as required in Section 1007. 

708.14.2 Enclosed elevator lobby. Where elevator hoist- 
way pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed 
elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall comply 
with this section. 

708.14.2.1 Pressurization requirements. Elevator 
hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum 
positive pressure of 0.10 inches of water (25 Pa) and a 
maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inches of water (67 
Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. 
This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each 
hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall 
and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all 
other hoistway doors closed. The opening and closing of 
hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated dur- 
ing this test. The supply air intake shall be from an out- 
side, uncontaminated source located a minimum 
distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) from any air exhaust sys- 
tem or outlet. 

708.14.2.2 Rational analysis. A rational analysis com- 
plying with Section 909.4 shall be submitted with the 
construction documents. 

708.14.2.3 Ducts for system. Any duct system that is 
part of the pressurization system shall be protected with 
the same fire-resistance rating as required for the eleva- 
tor shaft enclosure. 



708.14.2.4 Fan system. The fan system provided for the 
pressurization system shall be as required by this section. 

708.14.2.4.1 Fire resistance. When located within 
the building, the fan system that provides the pressur- 
ization shall be protected with the same fire-resis- 
tance ra^mg required for the elevator shaft enclosure. 

708.14.2.4.2 Smoke detection. The fan system shall 
be equipped with a smoke detector that will automati- 
cally shut down the fan system when smoke is 
detected within the system. 

708.14.2.4.3 Separate systems. A separate fan sys- 
tem shall be used for each elevator hoistway. 

708.14.2.4.4 Fan capacity. The supply fan shall 
either be adjustable with a capacity of at least 1,000 
cfm (.4719 m 3 /s) per door, or that specified by a regis- 
tered design professionals meet the requirements of 
a designed pressurization system. 

708.14.2.5 Standby power. The pressurization system 
shall be provided with standby power from the same 
source as other required emergency systems for the 
building. 

708.14.2.6 Activation of pressurization system. The 
elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon 
activation of the building fire alarm system or upon acti- 
vation of the elevator lobby smoke detectors . Where both 
a building fire alarm system and elevator lobby smoke 
detectors are present, each shall be independently capa- 
ble of activating the pressurization system. 

708.14.2.7 Special inspection. Special inspection for 
performance shall be required in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.18.8. System acceptance shall be in accordance 
with Section 909.19. 

708.14.2.8 Marking and identification. Detection and 
control systems shall be marked in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.14. 

708.14.2.9 Control diagrams. Control diagrams shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 909.15. 

708.14.2.10 Control panel. A control panel complying 
with Section 909 . 16 shall be provided. 

708.14.2.11 System response time. Hoistway pressur- 
ization systems shall comply with the requirements for 
smoke control system response time in Section 909.1 7. 



SECTION 709 
FIRE PARTITIONS 

709.1 General. The following wall assemblies shall comply 
with this section. 

1. Walls separating dwelling units in the same building as 
required by Section 420.2. 

2. Walls separating sleeping units in the same building as 
required by Section 420.2. 

3. Walls separating tenant spaces in coveredmall buildings 
as required by Section 402.7.2. 



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4. Corridor walls as required by Section 1018.1. 

5. Elevator lobby separation as required by Section 
708.14.1. 

709.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

709.3 Fire-resistance rating. Fire partitions shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor walls permitted to have a i/ 2 hour fire-resis- 
tance rating by Table 1018.1. 

2. Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in build- 
ings of Type 1IB, IIIB and VB construction shall have 
fire-resistance ratings of not less than i/ 2 hour in 
buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

709.4 Continuity. Fire partitions shall extend from the top of 
the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the under- 
side of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above or to the 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
above, and shall be securely attached thereto. If the partitions 
are not continuous to the sheathing, deck or slab, and where 
constructed of combustible construction, the space between the 
ceiling and the sheathing, deck or slab above shall be 
fireblocked or draftstopped in accordance with Sections 717.2 
and 717.3 at the partition line. The supporting construction 
shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating 
of the wall supported, except for walls separating tenant spaces 
in covered mall buildings, walls separating dwelling units, 
walls separating sleeping units and corridor walls in buildings 
of Type 1IB, IIIB and VB construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. The wall need not be extended into the crawl space 
below where the floor above the crawl space has a 
minimum I-hour fire -resistance rating. 

2. Where the room-side fire-resistance-rated membrane 
of the corridor is carried through to the underside of 
the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor or roof above, the ceiling of the cor- 
ridor shall be permitted to be protected by the use of 
ceiling materials as required for a I-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor or roof system. 

3. Where the corri dor ceiling is constructed as required 
for the corridorwalls, the walls shall be permitted to 
terminate at the upper membrane of such ceiling 
assembly. 

4. The fire partitions separating tenant spaces in a cov- 
ered mall bUilding, complying with Section 402.7.2, 
are not required to extend beyond the underside of a 
ceiling that is not part of a fire-resistance-rated assem- 
bly. A wall is not required in attic or ceiling spaces 
above tenant separation walls . 

5. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in Group R-2 buildings that do not 



exceed four stories above grade plane, provided the 
attic space is subdivided by draftstopping into areas 
not exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ) or above 
every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller. 

6. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in buildings equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that 
automatic sprinklers are installed in combustible 
floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling spaces. 

709.5 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated separation, such walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls, and 
the fire-resistance-rated separation requirements shall not 
apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1019.2 for exterior egress 
balconies, Section 1022.6 for exit enclosures and Section 
1026.6 for exterior £;nYramps and stairways. 

709.6 Openings. Openings in afire partition shall be protected 
in accordance with Section 715. 

709.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire partitions shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

709.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire partitions shall 
comply with Section 714. 

709.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in afire 
partition by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 



SECTION 710 
SMOKE BARRIERS 

710.1 General. Smoke barriers shall comply with this section. 

710.2 Materials. Smoke barriers shall be of materials permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

710.3 Fire-resistance rating. A I-hour fire -resistance rating 
is required for smoke barriers. 

Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 
0.10-inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group 1-3 buildings. 

710.4 Continuity. Smoke barriers shall form an effective 
membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall and 
from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below 
to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab 
above, including continuity through concealed spaces, such as 
those found above suspended ceilings, and interstitial struc- 
tural and mechanical spaces. The supporting construction shall 
be protected to afford the required fire -resistance rating of the 
wall or floor supported in buildings of other than Type 1IB, IIIB 
or VB construction. 

Exception: Smoke-barrier walls are not required in intersti- 
tial spaces where such spaces are designed and constructed 
with ceilings that provide resistance to the passage of fire 
and smoke equivalent to that provided by the smoke-barrier 
walls. 



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710.5 Openings. Openings in a smoke barrier shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Group 1-2, where doors are installed across corri- 
dors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a cen- 
ter mullion shall be installed having vision panels 
with fire-protection-rated glazing materials in 
fire-protection-rated frames, the area of which shall 
not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close fitting 
within operational tolerances, and shall not have 
undercuts in excess of 3/ 4 -inch, louvers or grilles. The 
doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or 
rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-clos- 
ing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 
715.4.8.3. Where permitted by the door manufac- 
turer's listing, positive-latching devices are not 
required. 

2. In Group 1-2, horizontal sliding doors installed in 
accordance with Section 1008.1.4.3 and protected in 
accordance with Section 715. 

710.6 Penetrations. Penetrations of smoke barriers shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

710.7 Joints. Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 714. 

710.8 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a 
smoke barrierby ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Section 716. 



SECTION 711 
SMOKE PARTITIONS 

711.1 General. Smoke partitions installed as required else- 
where in the code shall comply with this section. 

711.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

71 1.3 Fire-resistance rating. Unless required elsewhere in the 
code, smoke partitions are not required to have a fire -resistance 
rating. 

Ill A Continuity. Smoke partitions shall extend from the top 
of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of the 
ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to 
limit the transfer of smoke. 

711.5 Openings. Windows shall be sealed to resist the free pas- 
sage of smoke or be automatic-closing upon detection of smoke. 
Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with this section. 

711.5.1 Louvers. Doors in smoke partitions shall not 
include louvers. 

711.5.2 Smoke and draft control doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall meet 
the requirements for a smoke and draft control door assem- 
bly tested in accordance with UL 1784. The air leakage rate 
of the door assembly shall not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per min- 
ute per square foot (0.015424 m 3 / (s . m 2 )) of door opening at 
0.10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient tempera- 



ture test and the elevated temperature exposure test. 
Installation of smoke doors shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 105. 

711.5.3 Self- or automatic-closing doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be 
self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance 
with Section 715.4.8.3. 

711.6 Penetrations andjoints. The space around penetrating 
items and in joints shall be filled with an approve d material to 
limit the free passage of smoke. 

711.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. The space around a 
duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an 
approved material to limit the free passage of smoke. Air trans- 
fer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a smoke 
damper complying with Section 716.3.2.2. 

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will 
interfere with the operation of a required smoke control sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative 
protection shall be utilized. 



SECTION 712 
HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

712.1 General. Floor and roof assemblies required to have a 
fire-resistance rating shall comply with this section. 
Nonfire-resistance-rated floor and roof assemblies shall com- 
ply with Section 713.4.2. 

712.2 Materials. The floor and roof assemblies shall be of 
materials permitted by the building type of construction. 

712.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of 
floor and roof assemblies shall not be less than that required by 
the building type of construction. Where the floor assembly 
separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 

508.4 based on the occupancies being separated. Where the 
floor assembly separates a single occupancy into different fire 
areas, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than that required by Section 707.3.9. Horizontal assem- 
blies separating dwelling units in the same building and hori- 
zontal assemblies separating sleeping units in the same 
building shall be a minimum of I-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. 

Exception: Dwelling unit Mid sleeping unit separations in 
buildings of Type 1IB, IIIB and VB construction shall have 
fire-resistance ratings of not less than i/ 2 hour in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

712.3.1 Ceiling panels. Where the weight of lay-in ceiling 
panels, used as part of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assemblies, is not adequate to resist an upward 
force of 1 pound per square foot (48 Pa), wire or other 
approved devices shall be installed above the panels to pre- 
vent vertical displacement under such upward force. 

712.3.2 Access doors. Access doors shall be permitted in 
ceilings of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and roof/ceil- 
ing assemblies provided such doors are tested in accordance 



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with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 as horizontal assemblies and 
labeled by an approved agency for such purpose. 

712.3.3 Unusable space. In I-hour fire-resistance-rated 
floor assemblies, the ceiling membrane is not required to be 
installed over unusable crawl spaces. In I-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated roof assemblies, the floor membrane is not 
required to be installed where unusable attic space occurs 
above. 

712.4 Continuity. Assemblies shall be continuous without 
openings, penetrations orjoints except as permitted by this sec- 
tion and Sections 708.2,713.4,714 and 1022.1. Skylights and 
other penetrations through a fire-resistance-rated roof deck or 
slab are permitted to be unprotected, provided that the struc- 
tural integrity of the fire-resistance-rated roof assembly is 
maintained. Unprotected skylights shall not be permitted in 
roof assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated in accor- 
dance with Section 704.10. The supporting construction shall 
be protected to afford the required fire -resistance rating of the 
horizontal assembly supported. 

Exception: In buildings of Type 1IB, IIIB or VB construc- 
tion, the construction supporting the horizontal assembly is 
not required to be fire-resistance-rated at the following: 

1. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of incidental 
uses as specified by Table 508.2.5, provided the 
required fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 
hour. 

2. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of dwelling 
units and sleeping units as required by Section 420.3. 

3. Horizontal assemblies at smoke barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 710. 

712.5 Penetrations. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies 
shall comply with Section 713. 

712.6 Joints. Joints made in or between horizontal assemblies 
shall comply with Section 714. The void created at the intersec- 
tion of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall 
assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 714.4. 

712.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in hori- 
zontal assemblies^ ducts and air transfer openings shall com- 
ply with Section 716. 

712.8 Floor fire door assemblies. Floor fire door assemblies 
used to protect openings in fire-resistance-rated floors shall be 
tested in accordance with NFPA 288, and shall achieve a 
fire -resistance rating not less than the assembly being pene- 
trated. Floor fire door assemblies shall be labeled by an 
approved agency. The label shall be permanently affixed and 
shall specify the manufacturer, the test standard and the 
fire-resistance rating. 

112.9 Smoke barrier. Where horizontal assemblies are 
required to resist the movement of smoke by other sections of 
this code in accordance with the definition of smoke barrier, 
penetrations and joints in such horizontal assemblies shall be 
protected as required for smoke barriers in accordance with 
Sections 713.5 and 714.6. Regardless of the number of stories 
connected by elevator shaft enclosures, doors located in eleva- 
tor shaft enclosures that penetrate the horizontal assembly shall 
be protected by enclosed elevator lobbies complying with Sec- 



tion 708.14.1. Openings through horizontal assemblies shall 
be protected by shaft enclosures complying with Section 708. 
Horizontal assemblies shall not be allowed to have unprotected 
vertical openings. 



SECTION 713 
PENETRATIONS 

713.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect through 
penetrations and membrane penetrations of horizontal assem- 
blies and fire-resistance-rated wall assemblies. 

713.1.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts that are not protected 
with dampers shall comply with Sections 713.2 through 
713.3.3. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies not pro- 
tected with a shaft as permitted by Exception 4 of Section 
708.2, and not required to be protected with fire dampers by 
other sections of this code, shall comply with Sections 713.4 
through 713 .4. 2.2. Ducts and air transfer openings that are 
protected with dampers shall comply with Section 716. 

713.2 Installation details. Where sleeves are used, they shall 
be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space 
between the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself 
and any space between the sleeve and the assembly penetrated 
shall be protected in accordance with this section. Insulation 
and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not penetrate 
the assembly unless the specific material used has been tested 
as part of the assembly in accordance with this section. 

713.3 Fire-resistance-rated walls. Penetrations into or 
through fire walls, fire barriers, smoke barrier walls and fire 
partitions shall comply with Sections 713 .3 . 1 through 713 .3.3. 
Penetrations in smoke barrier walls shall also comply with 
Section 713.5. 

713.3.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Section 
713.3.1.1 or 713.3.1.2. 

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular 
space between the penetrating item and the fire- resis- 
tance-rated wall is permitted to be protected as follows: 

1. In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrat- 
ing item is a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter and the area of the opening through the 
wall does not exceed 144 square inches (0.0929 
m 2 ) , concrete, grout or mortar is permitted where it 
is installed the full thickness of the wall or the 
thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance 
rating, or 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time-temperature fire 
conditions under a minimum positive pressure dif- 
ferential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the loca- 
tion of the penetration for the time period 



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equivalent to the fire -resistance rating of the con- 
struction penetrated. 

713.3.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in an approvedfire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

713.3.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. 
Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved 
penetration firestop system installed as tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum 
positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of 
water and shall have an F rating of not less than the 
required fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated. 

713.3.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetrations 
shall comply with Section 713.3.1. Where walls or parti- 
tions are required to have a fire -resistance rating, recessed 
fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire-resis- 
tance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel 
electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square 
inches (0.0103 m 2 ) in area, provided the aggregate 
area of the openings through the membrane does 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m 2 ) in any 
100 square feet (9.29 m 2 ) of wall area. The annular 
space between the wall membrane and the box 
shall not exceed i/ s inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on 
opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be sepa- 
rated by one of the following: 

1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm) where the wall or parti- 
tion is constructed with individual 
noncommunicating stud cavities; 

1.2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the 
depth of the wall cavity where the wall cav- 
ity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, 
rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation; 

1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

1.4. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed 
putty pads; or 

1.5. By other liste d materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes 
of any material, provided such boxes have been 
tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
and are installed in accordance with the instruc- 
tions included in the listing. The annular space 
between the wall membrane and the box shall not 
exceed i/ s inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. 
Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or parti- 
tion shall be separated by one of the following: 

2.1. By the horizontal distance specified in the 
listing of the electrical boxes; 

2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 



2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

2.4. By other liste d materials and methods. 

3. Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of any 
size or type, which have been listed as part of a 
wall opening protective material system for use in 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed 
in accordance with the instructions included in the 
listing. 

4. Membrane penetrations by boxes other than elec- 
trical boxes, provided such penetrating items and 
the annular space between the wall membrane and 
the box, are protected by an approved membrane 
penetration firestop system installed as tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a 
minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 
inch (2.49 Pa) of water, and shall have an F and T 
rating of not less than the required fire -resistance 
rating of the wall penetrated and be installed in 
accordance with their listing. 

5. The annular space created by the penetration of an 
automatic sprinkler, provided it is covered by a 
metal escutcheon plate. 

713.3.3 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrating 
items shall not connect to combustible items beyond the 
point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the 
fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained. 

713.4 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations of a floor, 
floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceil- 
ing assembly not required to be enclosed in a shaft by Section 
708.2 shall be protected in accordance with Sections 713.4.1 
through 713.4.2.2. 

713.4.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of 
the fire-resistance-rated floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the 
ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall comply 
with Sections 713.4.1.1 through 713.4.1.4. Penetrations in 
horizontal smoke barriers shall also comply with 713.5. 

713.4.1.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations 
of fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies shall com- 
ply with Section 713.4.1.1.1 or 713.4.1.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper con- 
duits, pipes, tubes or vents or concrete or 
masonry items through a single fire- resistance- 
rated floor assembly where the annular space is 
protected with materials that prevent the pas- 
sage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite 
cotton waste when subjected to ASTM E 1 19 or 
UL 263 time-temperature fire conditions under 
a minimum positive pressure differential of 
0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of 
the penetration for the time period equivalent to 
the fire-resistance rating of the construction 
penetrated. Penetrating items with a maximum 
6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter shall not be 
limited to the penetration of a single fire-resis- 



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I 



tance-rated floor assembly, provided the aggre- 
gate area of the openings through the assembly 
does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 
mm 2 ) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of floor 
area. 

2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, 
ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents 
with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter, provided the concrete, grout or mor- 
tar is installed the full thickness of the floor or 
the thickness required to maintain the 
fire-resistance rating. The penetrating items 
shall not be limited to the penetration of a single 
concrete floor, provided the area of the opening 
through each floor does not exceed 144 square 
inches (92 900 mm2). 

3. Penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any 
material, provided such boxes have been tested 
for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and 
installed in accordance with the instructions 
included in the listing. 

713.4.1.1.1 Installation. Through penetrations shall 
be installed as tested in the approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

113 AAA. 2 Through-penetration firestop system. 
Through penetrations shall be protected by an 
approved through-penetration [irestop system 
installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 
or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differ- 
ential of 0.01 inch of water (2.49 Pa). The system shall 
have an F rating/T rating of not less than 1 hour but not 
less than the required rating of the floor penetrated. 

Exception: Floor penetrations contained and 
located within the cavity of a wall above the floor 
or below the floor do not require a T rating . 

713.4.1.2 Membrane penetrations. Penetrations of 
membranes that are part of a horizontal assembly shall 
comply with Section 713.4.1.1.1 or 713.4.1.1.2. Where 
floor/ceiling assemblies are required to have a fire -resis- 
tance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that 
the required fire resistance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations by steel, ferrous or 
copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents, or con- 
crete or masonry items where the annular space 
is protected either in accordance with Section 
713.4.1.1 or to prevent the free passage of 
flame and the products of combustion. The 
aggregate area of the openings through the 
membrane shall not exceed 100 square inches 
(64 500 mm 2 ) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of 
ceiling area in assemblies tested without pene- 
trations . 

2. Ceiling membrane penetrations of maximum 
2-hour horizontal assemblies by steel electrical 



boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (10 
323 mm 2 ) in area, provided the aggregate area 
of such penetrations does not exceed 100 
square inches (44 500 mm 2 ) in any 100 square 
feet (9.29 m 2 ) of ceiling area, and the annular 
space between the ceiling membrane and the 
box does not exceed i/ 8 inch (3.2 mm). 

3. Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of 
any size or type, which have been listed as part 
of an opening protective material system for 
use in horizontal assemblies and are installed in 
accordance with the instructions included in the 
listing. 

4. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical 
boxes of any material, provided such boxes 
have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies and are installed in accordance with 
the instructions included in the listing. The 
annular space between the ceiling membrane 
and the box shall not exceed i/ 8 inch (3.2 mm) 
unless listed otherwise. 

5. The annular space created by the penetration of 
a fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a 
metal eschutcheon plate. 

713.4.1.3 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetra- 
tions of horizontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer 
openings shall comply with Section 716. 

713.4.1.4 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible pene- 
trating items shall not connect to combustible materials 
beyond the point offirestopping unless it can be demon- 
strated that the fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal 
assembly is maintained. 

713.4.2 Nonfire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions of nonfire-resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling 
assemblies or the ceiling membrane of a nonfire-resistance- 
rated roof/ceiling assembly shall meet the requirements of 
Section 708 or shall comply with Section 713.4.2.1 or 
713.4.2.2. 

713.4.2.1 Noncombustible penetrating items. 
Noncombustible penetrating items that connect not more 
than three stories are permitted, provided that the annu- 
lar space is filled to resist the free passage of flame and 
the products of combustion with an approved 
noncombustible material or with a fill, void or cavity 
material that is tested and classified for use in 
through-penetration firestop systems. 

713.4.2.2 Penetrating items. Penetrating items that con- 
nect not more than two stories are permitted, provided 
that the annular space is filled with an approv edmaterial 
to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

713.5 Penetrations in smoke barriers. Penetrations in smoke 
barriers shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 1479 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the penetration 
assemblies measured at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water in both the 



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ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests, shall not 
exceed: 

1. 5.0 cfm per square foot (0.025m 3 / s . m 2 ) of penetration 
opening for each through-penetration firestop system; or 

2. A total cumulative leakage of 50 cfm (0.024m 3 /s) for any 
100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of wall area, or floor area. 



SECTION 714 
FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEMS 

714.1 General. Joints installed in or between fire-resis- 
tance-rated walls, floor or floor/ceiling assemblies and roofs or 
roof/ceiling assemblies shall be protected by an approved 
fire-resistant) oint system designed to resist the passage of fire 
for a time period not less than the required fire-resistance rat- 
in gof the wall, floor or roof in or between which it is installed. 
Fire-resistant] oint systems shall be tested in accordance with 
Section 714.3. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly 
shall be protected in accordance with Section 714.4. 

Exception: Fire-resistant) oint systems shall not be required 
for joints in all of the following locations: 

1. Floors within a single dwelling unit. 

2. Floors where the joint is protected by a shaft enclo- 
sure in accordance with Section 708. 

3. Floors within atriums where the space adjacent to the 
atrium is included in the volume of the atrium for 
smoke control purposes. 

4. Floors within malls. 

5. Floors and ramps within open and enclosed parking 
garages or structures constructed in accordance with 
Sections 406.3 and 406.4, respectively. 

6. Mezzanine floors. 

7. Walls that are permitted to have unprotected open- 
ings. 

8. Roofs where openings are permitted. 

9. Control joints not exceeding a maximum width of 
0.625 inch (15.9 mm) and tested in accordance with 
ASTME 119 or UL 263. 

714.2 Installation. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not 
to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommo- 
date expected building movements and to resist the passage of 
fire and hot gases. 

714.3 Fire test criteria. Fire-resistant) oint systems shall be 
tested in accordance with the requirements of either ASTM E 
1966 or UL 2079. Nonsymmetrical walljoint systems shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned 
fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained 
from the two tests . When evidence is furnished to show that the 
wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the 



furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall 
need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side. 

Exception: For exterior walls with a horizontal fire separa- 
tion distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the joint system 
shall be required to be tested for interior fire exposure only. 

714.4 Exterior curtain wall/floor intersection. Where fire 
resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies are required, 
voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall 
assemblies and such floor assemblies shall be sealed with an 
approved system to prevent the interior spread of fire. Such 
systems shall be securely installed and tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 2307 to prevent the passage of flame for the time 
period at least equal to the fire-resistance rating of the floor 
assembly and prevent the passage of heat and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste. Height and fire-resistance require- 
ments for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 
705.8.5. 

714.4.1 Exterior curtain wall/nonfire-resistance-rated 
floor assembly intersections. Voids created at the intersec- 
tion of exterior curtain wall assemblies and nonfire-resis- 
tance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies shall be sealed 
with an approved material or system to retard the interior 
spread of fire and hot gases between stories. 

714.5 Spandrel wall. Height and fire-resistance requirements 
for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 705 .8.5 . 
Where Section 705 .8.5 does not require a fire-resistance-rated 
spandrel wall, the requirements of Section 714.4 shall still 
apply to the intersection between the spandrel wall and the 
floor. 

714.6 Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers. 
Fire-resistantjoint systems in smoke barriers, and joints at the 
intersection of a horizontal smoke barrier and an exterior cur- 
tain wall, shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 2079 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the joint shall 
not exceed 5 cfm per lineal foot (0.00775 m 3 /s . m) of joint at 
0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature 
and elevated temperature tests. 



SECTION 715 
OPENING PROTECTIVES 

715.1 General. Opening protectives required by other sections 
of this code shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

715.2 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resistance-rated 
glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall assembly in 
accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 and labeled in accor- 
dance with Section 703.5 shall be permitted in fire doors and 
fire window assemblies in accordance with their listings and 
shall not otherwise be required to comply with this section. 

715.3 Alternative methods for determining fire protection 
ratings. The application of any of the alternative methods 
listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and 
acceptance criteria specified in NFPA 252, NFPA 257 or UL 9. 
The required fire resistance of an opening protective shall be 



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permitted to be established by any of the following methods or 
procedures: 

1. Designs documented in approve d sources. 

2. Calculations performed in an approve d manner. 

3. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of opening 
protective designs having fire protection ratings as 
determined by the test procedures set forth in NFPA 252, 
NFPA 257 or UL 9. 

4. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

715.4 Fire door and shutter assemblies. Approved fire door 
and fire shutter assemblies shall be constructed of any material 
or assembly of component materials that conforms to the test 
requirements of Section 715 .4. 1 ,7 15 .4.2 or 715.4.3 and the fire 
protection rating indicated in Table 715.4. Fire door frames 
with transom lights, sidelights or both shall be permitted in 
accordance with Section 715.4.5. Fire door assemblies and 
shutters shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of 
this section and NFPA 80. 

Exceptions: 

1. Labeled protective assemblies that conform to the 
requirements of this section or UL 10 A, UL 14B and 
UL 14C for tin-clad fire door assemblies. 

2. Floor fire door assemblies in accordance with Section 

712.8. 

715.4.1 Side-hinged or pivoted swinging doors. Fire door 
assemblies with side-hinged and pivoted swinging doors 
shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL IOC. 
After 5 minutes into the NFPA 252 test, the neutral pressure 



level in the furnace shall be established at 40 inches (1016 
mm) or less above the sill. 

715.4.2 Other types of assemblies. Fire door assemblies 
with other types of doors, including swinging elevator doors 
and fire shutter assemblies, shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL 10B . The pressure in the furnace shall 
be maintained as nearly equal to the atmospheric pressure as 
possible. Once established, the pressure shall be maintained 
during the entire test period. 

715.4.3 Door assemblies in corridors and smoke barri- 
ers. Fire door assemblies required to have a minimum fire 
protection rating of 20 minutes where located in corridor 
walls or smoke barrierwalls having afire-resistance rating 
in accordance with Table 715.4 shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL 10C without the hose stream test. 

Exceptions: 

1. Viewports that require a hole not larger than 1 inch 
(25 mm) in diameter through the door, have at least 
a 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) glass disc and the 
holder is of metal that will not melt out where sub- 
ject to temperatures of 1,700°F (927°C). 

2. Corridordoor assemblies in occupancies of Group 
1-2 shall be in accordance with Section 407.3.1. 

3. Unprotected openings shall be permitted for corri- 
dors in multitheater complexes where each motion 
picture auditorium has at least one-half of its 
required exit or exit access doorways opening 
directly to the exterior or into an exitpassageway. 

4. Horizontal sliding doors in smoke barriers that 
comply with Sections 408.3 and 408.8.4 in occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3. 



TABLE 715.4 
FIRE DOOR AND FIRE SHUTTER FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED ASSEMBLY RATING 

(hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE DOOR AND FIRE 
SHUTTER ASSEMBLY RATING (hours) 


Fire walls and fire barriers having a required fire-resistance 
rating greater than 1 hour 


4 

3 

2 

lV 2 


3 
3 a 
1V 2 
lV 2 


Fire barriers having a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour: 
Shaft, exit enclosure and exit passageway walls 
Other fire barriers 


1 
1 


1 

3/ 4 


Fire partitions: 
Corridor walls 

Other fire partitions 


1 

0.5 

1 

0.5 


l/ 3 b 

I/3 b 

3/ 4 
17 3 


Exterior walls 


3 
2 

1 


1V 2 
lV 2 

3/ 4 


Smoke barriers 


1 


I/3 b 



a. Two doors, each with a fire protection rating of 1 V 2 hours, installed on opposite sides of the same opening in a fire wall, shall be deemed equivalent in fire protection 
rating to one 3 -hour fire door. 

b. For testing requirements, see Section 715.4.3. 



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715.4.3.1 Smoke and draft control. Fire door assem- 
blies shall also meet the requirements for a smoke and 
draft control door assembly tested in accordance with 
UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall 
not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot 
(0.01524 m 3 /s . m 2 ) of door opening at 0.10 inch (24.9 
Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature and ele- 
vated temperature tests. Louvers shall be prohibited. 
Installation of smoke doors shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 105. 

715.4.3.2 Glazing in door assemblies. In a 20-minute 
fire door assembly, the glazing material in the door itself 
shall have a minimum fire-protection-rated glazing of 20 
minutes and shall be exempt from the hose stream test. 
Glazing material in any other part of the door assembly, 
including transom lights and sidelights, shall be tested in 
accordance with NFPA 257 or UL 9, including the hose 
stream test, in accordance with Section 715.5. 

715.4.4 Doors in exit enclosures and exit passageways. 
Fire door assemblies in exit enclosures and exit passage- 
ways shall have a maximum transmitted temperature end 
point of not more than 450°F (250°C) above ambient at the 
end of 30 minutes of standard fire test exposure. 

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature rise 
is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

715.4.4.1 Glazing in doors. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m 2 ) shall be 
permitted mfire door assemblies when tested as compo- 
nents of the door assemblies and not as glass lights, and 
shall have a maximum transmitted temperature rise of 
450°F (250°C) in accordance with Section 715.4.4. 

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature 
rise is not required in buildings equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

715.4.5 Fire door frames with transom lights and side- 
lights. Door frames with transom lights, sidelights, or both, 
shall be permitted where a 3/ 4 -hour fire protection rating or 
less is required in accordance with Table 715.4. Where afire 
protection rating exceeding 3/4-hour is required in accor- 
dance with Table 715.4, fire door frames with transom 
lights, sidelights, or both, shall be permitted where installed 
with fire-resistance-rated glazing tested as an assembly in 
accordance with ASTM El 19 or UL 263. 

715.4.6 Labeled protective assemblies. Fire door assem- 
blies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The labels 
shall comply with NFPA 80, and shall be permanently 
affixed to the door or frame. 

715.4.6.1 Fire door labeling requirements. Fire doors 
shall be labeled showing the name of the manufacturer or 
other identification readily traceable back to the manu- 
facturer, the name or trademark of the third-party inspec- 
tion agency, the fire protection rating and, where 



required for fire doors in exit enclosures and exit 
passageways by Section 715.4.4, the maximum trans- 
mitted temperature end point. Smoke and draft control 
doors complying with UL 1784 shall be labeled as such 
and shall also comply with Section 715.4.6.3. Labels 
shall be approved and permanently affixed. The label 
shall be applied at the factory or location where fabrica- 
tion and assembly are performed. 

715.4.6.2 Oversized doors. Oversized fire doors shall 
bear an oversized fire doorlabelby an approved agency 
or shall be provided with a certificate of inspection fur- 
nished by an approvedte sting agency. When a certificate 
of inspection is furnished by an approvedtesting agency, 
the certificate shall state that the door conforms to the 
requirements of design, materials and construction, but 
has not been subjected to the fire test. 

715.4.6.3 Smoke and draft control door labeling 
requirements. Smoke and draft control doors comply- 
ing with UL 1784 shall be labeled in accordance with 
Section 715.4.6.1 and shall show the letter" S" on the fire 
rating label of the door. This marking shall indicate that 
the door and frame assembly are in compliance when 
listed or labeled gasketing is also installed. 

715.4.6.4 Fire door frame labeling requirements. Fire 
door frames shall be labeled showing the names of the 
manufacturer and the third-party inspection agency. 

715.4.7 Glazing material. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
conforming to the opening protection requirements in Sec- 
tion 715.4 shall be permitted in fire Jo or assemblies. 

715.4.7.1 Size limitations. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
used in fire doors shall comply with the size limitations 
ofNFPA80. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire-protection-rated glazing in fire doors 
located in fire walls shall be prohibited except 
where serving in afire door in a horizontal exit, 
a self-closing swinging door shall be permitted 
to have a vision panel of not more than 100 
square inches (0.065 m 2 ) without a dimension 
exceeding 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall not be 
installed in fire doors having a l 1 / 2 -hour fire 
protection rating intended for installation in 
fire barriers, unless the glazing is not more than 

100 square inches (0.065 m 2 ) in area. 

715.4.7.2 Exit and elevator protectives. Approved 
fire-protection-rated glazing used mfire door assemblies 
in elevator and exit enclosures shall be so located as to 
furnish clear vision of the passageway or approach to the 
elevator, ramp or stairway. 

715.4.7.3 Labeling. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
bear a label or other identification showing the name of 
the manufacturer, the test standard and information 
required in Section 715.5.9.1 that shall be issued by an 



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approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the 
glazing. 

715.4.7.3.1 Identification. For fire protection-rated 
glazing, the label shall bear the following four-part 
identification: "D - H or NH - T or NT - XXX. " "D" 
indicates that the glazing shall be used in fire door 
assemblies and that the glazing meets the fire protec- 
tion requirements of NFPA 252 . "H" shall indicate 
that the glazing meets the hose stream requirements of 
NFPA 252. "NH" shall indicate that the glazing does 
not meet the hose stream requirements of the test. "T" 
shall indicate that the glazing meets the temperature 
requirements of Section 715.4.4.1. "NT" shall indi- 
cate that the glazing does not meet the temperature 
requirements of Section 715.4.4.1. The placeholder 
"XXX" shall specify the fire-protection-rating 
period, in minutes. 

715.4.7.4 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire doors in areas subject to human impact in 
hazardous locations shall comply with Chapter 24. 

715.4.8 Door closing. Fire doors shall be self- or auto- 
matic-closing in accordance with this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire doors located in common walls separating 
sleeping units in Group R-l shall be permitted 
without automatic- or self-closing devices. 

2. The elevator car doors and the associated hoistway 
enclosure doors at the floor level designated for 
recall in accordance with Section 3003.2 shall be 
permitted to remain open during Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation. 

715.4.8.1 Latch required. Unless otherwise specifically 
permitted, single fire doors and both leaves of pairs of 
side-hinged swinging fire doors shall be provided with 
an active latch bolt that will secure the door when it is 
closed. 

715.4.8.2 Automatic-closing fire door assemblies. 
Automatic-closing fire door assemblies shall be 
self-closing in accordance with NFPA 80. 

715.4.8.3 Smoke-activated doors. Automatic-closing 
doors installed in the following locations shall be auto- 
matic-closing by the actuation of smoke detectors 
installed in accordance with Section 907.3 or by loss of 
power to the smoke detector or hold-open device. Doors 
that are automatic-closing by smoke detection shall not 
have more than a 10- second delay before the door starts 
to close after the smoke detector is actuated: 

1. Doors installed across a corridor. 

2. Doors that protect openings in exits or corridors 
required to be of fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 



3. Doors that protect openings in walls that are 
capable of resisting the passage of smoke in 
accordance with Section 508.2.5.2. 

4. Doors installed in smoke barriers in accordance 
with Section 710.5. 

5. Doors installed in fire partitions in accordance 
with Section 709.6. 

6. Doors installed in a fire wall in accordance with 
Section 706.8. 

7. Doors installed in shaft enclosures in accordance 
with Section 708.7. 

8. Doors installed in refuse and laundry chutes and 
access and termination rooms in accordance with 
Section 708.13. 

9. Doors installed in the walls for 
compartmentation of underground buildings in 
accordance with Section 405.4.2. 

10. Doors installed in the elevator lobby walls of 
underground buildings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 405.4.3. 

1 1 . Doors installed in smoke partitions in accordance 
with Section 711.5.3. 

715.4.8.4 Doors in pedestrian ways. Vertical sliding or 
vertical rolling steel fire doors in openings through 
which pedestrians travel shall be heat activated or acti- 
vated by smoke detectors with alarm verification. 

715.4.9 Swinging fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
swinging type are installed in exterior openings, not less 
than one row in every three vertical rows shall be arranged to 
be readily opened from the outside, and shall be identified 
by distinguishing marks or letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high. 

715.4.10 Rolling fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
rolling type are installed, such shutters shall include 
approved automatic-closing devices. 

715.5 Fire-protection-rated glazing. Glazing in fire window 
assemblies shall be fire-protection rated in accordance with 
this section and Table 715.5. Glazing in fire door assemblies 
shall comply with Section 715.4.7. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing shall be tested in accordance with and shall meet the accep- 
tance criteria of NFPA 257 or UL 9. Fire-protection-rated 
glazing shall also comply with NFPA 80. Openings in 
nonfire-resistance-rated exterior wall assemblies that require 
protection in accordance with Section 705.3, 705.8, 705.8.5 or 
705.8.6 shall have a fire-protection rating of not less than 3/ 4 
hour. 

Exceptions: 

1. Wired glass in accordance with Section 715.5.4. 

2. Fire protection-rated glazing in 0.5 -hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated partitions is permitted to have an 
0.33-hour fire-protection rating. 



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TABLE 715.5 
FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TABLE 715.5.4 
LIMITING SIZES OF WIRED GLASS PAN 



ELS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED 

ASSEMBLY 

RATING (hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE 

WINDOW 

ASSEMBLY 

RATING (hours) 


Interior walls: 


Fire walls 


All 


Npa 


Fire barriers 


> 1 
1 


Npa 

3/ 4 


Smoke barriers 


1 


3/ 4 


Fire partitions 


1 

l/ 2 


3/ 4 
l/ 3 


Exterior walls 


> 1 
1 


1V 2 

3/4 


Party wall 


All 


NP 



NP = Not Permitted. 

a. Not permitted except as specified in Section 715.2. 

715.5.1 Testing under positive pressure. NFPA 257 orUL 
9 shall evaluate fire-protection-rated glazing under positive 
pressure. Within the first 10 minutes of a test, the pressure in 
the furnace shall be adjusted so at least two-thirds of the test 
specimen is above the neutral pressure plane, and the neutral 
pressure plane shall be maintained at that height for the bal- 
ance of the test. 

715.5.2 Nonsymmetrical glazing systems. Nonsymmetri- 
cal fire-protection-rated glazing systems in fire partitions, 
fire barriers or in exterior walls with a fire separation dis- 
tance of 5 feet (1524 mm) or less pursuant to Section 705 
shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and 
the assigned, fire protection rating shall be the shortest dura- 
tion obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance 
with NFPA 257 or UL 9. 

715.5.3 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire window assemblies in areas subject to 
human impact in hazardous locations shall comply with 
Chapter 24. 

715.5.4 Wired glass. Steel window frame assemblies of 
0.125-inch (3.2 mm) minimum solid section or of not less 
than nominal 0.048 -inch-thick (1.2 mm) formed sheet steel 
members fabricated by pressing, mitering, riveting, inter- 
locking or welding and having provision for glazing with 
1/4-inch (6.4 mm) wired glass where securely installed in the 
building construction and glazed with i/ 4 -inch (6.4 mm) 
labeled wired glass shall be deemed to meet the require- 
ments for a 3i A -ho\xi fire window assembly. Wired glass pan- 
els shall conform to the size limitations set forth in Table 
715.5.4. 

715.5.5 Nonwired glass. Glazing other than wired glass in 
fire window assemblies shall be fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing installed in accordance with and complying with the size 
limitations set forth in NFPA 80. 

715.5.6 Installation. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be 
in the fixed position or be automatic-closing and shall be 
installed in approved frames. 



OPENING FIRE 

PROTECTION 

RATING 


MAXIMUM 
AREA 

(square inches) 


MAXIMUM 
HEIGHT 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM 
WIDTH 

(inches) 


3 hours 











yV 2 -hour doors in 
exterior walls 











1 and l 1 / 2 hours 


100 


33 


10 


3/4 hour 


1,296 


54 


54 


20 minutes 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Fire window 
assemblies 


1,296 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645 .2 mm 2 - 

715.5.7 Window mullions. Metal mullions that exceed a 
nominal height of 12 feet (3658 mm) shall be protected with 
materials to afford the same fire-resistance rating as 
required for the wall construction in which the protective is 
located. 

715.5.8 Interior fire window assemblies. Fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing used in/ire window assemblies located in 
fire partitions and fire barriers shall be limited to use in 
assemblies with a maximum fire -resistance rating of 1 hour 
in accordance with this section. 

715.5.8.1 Where 3/ 4 -hour fire protection window 
assemblies permitted. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
requiring 45-minute opening protection in accordance 
with Table 715.5 shall be limited to fire partitions 
designed in accordance with Section 709 and fire barri- 
ers utilized in the applications set forth in Sections 
707.3.6 and 707.3.8 where the fire-resistance rating does 
not exceed 1 hour. 

715.5.8.2 Area limitations. The total area of windows 
shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of a common wall 
with any room. 

715.5.9 Labeling requirements. Fire-protection-rated 
glazing shall bear a label 01 other identification showing the 
name of the manufacturer, the test standard and information 
required in Section 715.5.9.1 that shall be issued by an 
approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the 
glazing. 

715.5.9.1 Identification. For fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing, the labelshall bear the following two-part identifica- 
tion: "OH - XXX." "OH" indicates that the glazing 
meets both the fire protection and the hose- stream 
requirements of NFPA 257 or UL 9 and is permitted to be 
used in openings. "XXX" represents the fire-protection 
rating period, in minutes, that was tested. 



SECTION 716 
DUCTS AND AIR TRANSFER OPENINGS 

716.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
protection of duct penetrations and air transfer openings in 
assemblies required to be protected. 



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1 



716.1.1 Ducts that penetrate fire- resistance-rated 
assemblies without dampers. Ducts that penetrate 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are not required by this 
section to have dampers shall comply with the requirements 
of Sections 713.2 through 713.3.3. Ducts that penetrate hor- 
izontal assemblies not required to be contained within a 
shaft and not required by this section to have dampers shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 713.4 through 
713.4.2.2. 

716.1.1.1 Ducts that penetrate nonfire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies. The space around a duct pene- 
trating a nonfire-resistance-rated floor assembly shall 
comply with Section 716.6.3. 

716.2 Installation. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combina- 
tion fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers located 
within air distribution and smoke control systems shall be 
installed in accordance with the requirements of this section, 
the manufacturer's installation instructions and the dampers' 
listing. 

716.2.1 Smoke control system. Where the installation of a 
fire damper will interfere with the operation of a required 
smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, 
approved alternative protection shall be utilized. Where 
mechanical systems including ducts and dampers utilized 
for normal building ventilation serve as part of the smoke 
control system, the expected performance of these systems 
in smoke control mode shall be addressed in the rational 
analysis required by Section 909.4. 

716.2.2 Hazardous exhaust ducts. Fire dampers for haz- 
ardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

716.3 Damper testing, ratings and actuation. Damper test- 
ing, ratings and actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 
716.3.1 through 716.3.3. 

716.3.1 Damper testing. Dampers shall be listed and bear 
the label of an approved testing agency indicating compli- 
ance with the standards in this section. Fire dampers shall 
comply with the requirements ofUL 555. Only fire dampers 
labeled for use in dynamic systems shall be installed in heat- 
ing, ventilation and air-conditioning systems designed to 
operate with fans on during a fire. Smoke dampers shall 
comply with the requirements of UL 555S. Combination 
fire/smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of 
both UL 555 and UL 555S. Ceiling radiation dampers shall 
comply with the requirements of UL 555C. 

716.3.2 Damper rating. Damperratings shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 716.3.2.1 through 716.3.2.3. 

716.3.2.1 Fire damper ratings. Fire dampers shall have 
the minimum fire protection rating specified in Table 

716.3.2.1 for the type of penetration. 

716.3.2.2 Smoke damper ratings. Smoke damperieak- 
age ratings shall not be less than Class II. Elevated tem- 
perature ratings shall not be less than 250°F (121°C). 



TABLE 716.3.2.1 
FIRE DAMPER RATING 



TYPE OF 
PENETRATION 


MINIMUM DAMPER RATING 
(hours) 


Less than 3-hour fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies 


1.5 


3-hour or greater fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies 


3 



716.3.2.3 Combination fire/smoke damper ratings. 
Combination fire/smoke dampers shall have the mini- 
mum fire protection rating specified for fire dampers in 
Table 716.3.2.1 for the type of penetration and shall also 
have a minimum Class II leakage rating and a minimum 
elevated temperature rating of 250°F (121°C) . 

716.3.3 Damper actuation. Damper actuation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 716.3.3.1 through 716.3.3.4 as 
applicable. 

716.3.3.1 Fire damper actuation device. The fire 
damper actuation device shall meet one of the following 
requirements: 

1. The operating temperature shall be approximately 
50°F (10°C) above the normal temperature within 
the duct system, but not less than 160°F (71 °C) . 

2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 
350°F (177°C) where located in a smoke control 
system complying with Section 909. 

716.3.3.2 Smoke damper actuation. The smoke 
damper shall close upon actuation of a listed smoke 
detector or detectors installed in accordance with Section 
907.3 and one of the following methods, as applicable: 

1. Where a smoke damperis installed within a duct, a 
smoke detector shall be installed in the duct within 
5 feet (1524 mm) of the damperwith no air outlets 
or inlets between the detector and the damper. The 
detector shall be listedfor the air velocity, temper- 
ature and humidity anticipated at the point where it 
is installed. Other than in mechanical smoke con- 
trol systems, dampers shall be closed upon fan 
shutdown where local smoke detectors require a 
minimum velocity to operate. 

2. Where a smoke damper is installed above smoke 
barrier doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type 
detector listed for releasing service shall be 
installed on either side of the smoke barrier door 
opening. 

3. Where a smoke damper is installed within an air 
transfer opening in a wall, a spot-type detector 
listedfor releasing service shall be installed within 
5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally of the damper. 

4. Where a smoke damper is installed in a corridor 
wall or ceiling, the dampershall be permitted to be 



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controlled by a smoke detection system installed in 
the corridor. 

5. Where a total-coverage smoke detector system is 
provided within areas served by a heating, ventila- 
tion and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, smoke 
dampers shall be permitted to be controlled by the 
smoke detection system. 

716.3.3.3 Combination fire/smoke damper actuation. 
Combination fire/smoke damper actuation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 716.3.3.1 and 716.3.3.2. Com- 
bination fire/smoke dampers installed in smoke control 
system shaft penetrations shall not be activated by local 
area smoke detection unless it is secondary to the smoke 
management system controls. 

716.3.3.4 Ceiling radiation damper actuation. The 
operating temperature of a ceiling radiation damper 
actuation device shall be 50°F (27.8°C) above the normal 
temperature within the duct system, but not less than 
160°F (71°C). 

716.4 Access and identification. Fire and smoke dampers 
shall be provided with an approved means of access, which is 
large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the 
damper Mid its operating parts. The access shall not affect the 
integrity of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access open- 
ings shall not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. 
Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior 
by a label having letters not less than i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) in 
height reading: FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, SMOKE DAMPER 
or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting 
and suitable for the required duct construction. 

716.5 Where required. Fire dampers, smoke dampers and 
combination fire/smoke dampers shall be provided at the loca- 
tions prescribed in Sections 716.5.1 through 716.5.7 and 
716.6. Where an assembly is required to have both fire dampers 
and smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers or afire 
damper and a smoke damper shall be required. 

716.5.1 Fire walls. Ducts and air transfer openings permit- 
ted in fire walls in accordance with Section 706.11 shall be 
protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance 
with their listing. 

716.5.1.1 Horizontal exits. A listed smoke damper 
designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided 
at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a 
fire wall that serves as a horizontal exit. 

716.5.2 Fire barriers. Ducts and air transfer openings of 
fire barriers shall be protected with approved fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. Ducts and air 
transfer openings shall not penetrate ex/renclosures and exit 
passageways except as permitted by Sections 1022.4 and 
1023.6, respectively. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required at penetra- 
tions of fire barriers where any of the following apply: 

1. Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 119 or UL 263 as part of the fire-resistance-rated 
assembly. 



2. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909 and 
where the use of afire damperwould interfere with 
the operation of a smoke control system. 

3. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC sys- 
tems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour or less, are in areas of other than Group Hand 
are in buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. For the purposes of this 
exception, a ducted HVAC system shall be a duct 
system for conveying supply, return or exhaust air 
as part of the structure's HVAC system. Such a 
duct system shall be constructed of sheet steel not 
less than No. 26 gage thickness and shall be con- 
tinuous from the air-handling appliance or equip- 
ment to the air outlet and inlet terminals. 

716.5.2.1 Horizontal exits. A listed smoke damper 
designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided 
at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a 
fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit. 

716.5.3 Shaft enclosures. Shaft enclosures that are permit- 
ted to be penetrated by ducts and air transfer openings shall 
be protected with approved fire and smoke dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where: 

1.1. Steel exhaust subducts are extended at 
least 22 inches (559 mm) vertically in 
exhaust shafts, provided there is a continu- 
ous airflow upward to the outside ; or 

1.2. Penetrations are tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 as part of the 
fire-resistance-rated assembly; or 

1.3. Ducts are used as part of an approved 
smoke control system designed and 
installed in accordance with Section 909 
and where the fire damper will interfere 
with the operation of the smoke control 
system; or 

1.4. The penetrations are in parking garage 
exhaust or supply shafts that are separated 
from other building shafts by not less than 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

2. In Group Band R occupancies equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke dampers are 
not required at penetrations of shafts where: 

2.1. Kitchen, clothes dryer, bathroom and toilet 
room exhaust openings are installed with 
steel exhaust subducts, having a minimum 
wall thickness ofO. 187-inch (0.4712 mm) 
(No. 26 gage); 

2.2. The subducts extend at least 22 inches (559 
mm) vertically; and 



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2.3. An exhaust fan is installed at the upper ter- 
minus of the shaft that is powered continu- 
ously in accordance with the provisions of 
Section 909.11, so as to maintain a contin- 
uous upward airflow to the outside. 

3. Smoke dampers are not required at penetration of 
exhaust or supply shafts in parking garages that are 
separated from other building shafts by not less 
than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

4. Smoke dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where ducts are used as part of an approved 
mechanical smoke control system designed in 
accordance with Section 909 and where the smoke 
damper will interfere with the operation of the 
smoke control system. 

5. Fire dampers and combination fire/smoke damp- 
ers are not required in kitchen and clothes dryer 
exhaust systems when installed in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

716.5.4 Fire partitions. Ducts and air transfer openings 
that penetrate fire partitions shall be protected with listed 
fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing. 

Exceptions: In occupancies other than Group H, fire 
dampers are not required where any of the following 
apply: 

1. Corridor walls in buildings equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the duct is 
protected as a through penetration in accordance 
with Section 713. 

2. Tenant partitions in coveredmall buildings where 
the walls are not required by provisions elsewhere 
in the code to extend to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, slab or deck above. 

3. The duct system is constructed of approved mate- 
rials in accordance with the International Mechan- 
ical Code and the duct penetrating the wall 
complies with all of the following requirements: 

3.1. The duct shall not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.06 m 2 ). 

3.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel a 
minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in 
thickness. 

3.3. The duct shall not have openings that com- 
municate the corridorwith adjacent spaces 
or rooms. 

3 .4. The duct shall be installed above a ceiling. 

3.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall regis- 
ter in the fire-resistance-rated wall. 

3.6. A minimum 12-inch-long (305 mm) by 
0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve 
shall be centered in each duct opening. The 
sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the 
wall and all four sides of the sleeve with 
minimum l 1 / 2 -inch by l 1 / 2 -inch by 



0.060-inch (38 mm by 38 mm by 1.52 mm) 
steel retaining angles. The retaining angles 
shall be secured to the sleeve and the wall 
with No. 10 (M5) screws. The annular 
space between the steel sleeve and the wall 
opening shall be filled with mineral wool 
batting on all sides. 

716.5.4.1 Corridors. A listed smoke damper designed to 
resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each 
point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a corridor 
enclosure required to have smoke and draft control doors 
in accordance with Section 715.4.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke dampers are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an 
app roved smoke control system in accordance 
with Section 909, and smoke dampers are not 
necessary for the operation and control of the 
system. 

2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of 
steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in 
thickness and there are no openings serving the 
corridor. 

716.5.5 Smoke barriers. A listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point 
a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke barrier. 
Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall 
comply with Section 716.3.3.2. 

Exception: Smoke dampers are not required where the 
openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke compart- 
ment and the ducts are constructed of steel. 

716.5.6 Exterior walls. Ducts and air transfer openings in 
fire-resistance-rated exterior walls required to have pro- 
tected openings in accordance with Section 705 . 10 shall be 
protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance 
with their listing. 

716.5.7 Smoke partitions. A listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point 
that an air transfer opening penetrates a smoke partition. 
Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall 
comply with Section 716.3.3.2. 

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper 
will interfere with the operation of a required smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909, approved 
alternative protection shall be utilized. 

716.6 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations by ducts and air 
transfer openings of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceil- 
ing membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected by 
a shaft enclosure that complies with Section 708 or shall com- 
ply with Sections 716.6.1 through 716.6.3. 

716.6.1 Through penetrations. In occupancies other than 
Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a duct constructed of approvedmaterials 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code that 
penetrates a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assembly 
that connects not more than two stories is permitted without 



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I 



shaft enclosure protection, provided a listed fire damper is 
installed at the floor line or the duct is protected in accor- 
dance with Section 713.4. For air transfer openings, see 
Exception 7 to Section 708.2. 

Exception: A duct is permitted to penetrate three floors 
or less without afire damper at each floor, provided such 
duct meets all of the following requirements: 

1. The duct shall be contained and located within the 
cavity of a wall and shall be constructed of steel 
having a minimum wall thickness of 0.187 inches 
(0.4712 mm) (No. 26 gage). 

2. The duct shall open into only one dwelling or 
sleeping unit and the duct system shall be continu- 
ous from the unit to the exterior of the building. 

3. The duct shall not exceed 4-inch (102 mm) nomi- 
nal diameter and the total area of such ducts shall 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m 2 ) in any 
100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of floor area. 

4. The annular space around the duct is protected 
with materials that prevent the passage of flame 
and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste 
where subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 
time-temperature conditions under a minimum 
positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) 
of water at the location of the penetration for the 
time period equivalent to the fire -resistance rating 
of the construction penetrated. 

5. Grille openings located in a ceiling of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
shall be protected with a listed ceiling radiation 
damper installed in accordance with Section 
716.6.2.1. 

716.6.2 Membrane penetrations. Ducts and air transfer 
openings constructed of approve d materials in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code that penetrate the 
ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected with one of the fol- 
lowing: 

1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708. 

2. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceil- 
ing line where a duct penetrates the ceiling of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling 
assembly. 

3. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceil- 
ing line where a diffuser with no duct attached pene- 
trates the ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling or roof /ceiling assembly. 

716.6.2.1 Ceiling radiation dampers. Ceiling radiation 
dampers shall be tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly in accordance with 
ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263. Ceilingradiation dampers shall 
be installed in accordance with the details listed in the 
fire-resistance-rated assembly and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions and the listing. Ceilingradiation 



dampers are not required where either of the following 
applies: 

1. Tests in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 
have shown that ceilingradiation dampers are not 
necessary in order to maintain the fire-resistance 
rating of the assembly. 

2. Where exhaust duct penetrations are protected in 
accordance with Section 713.4.1.2, are located 
within the cavity of a wall and do not pass through 
another dwelling unit or tenant space. 

716.6.3 Nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies. Duct 
systems constructed of approved materials in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code that penetrate 
nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies shall be protected 
by any of the following methods: 

1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708. 

2. The duct connects not more than two stories, and the 
annular space around the penetrating duct is pro- 
tected with an approvednoncombustible material that 
resists the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

3. The duct connects not more than three stories, and the 
annular space around the penetrating duct is pro- 
tected with an approvednoncombustibie material that 
resists the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion and afire dampens installed at each floor 
line. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required in ducts 
within individual residential dwelling units. 

716.7 Flexible ducts and air connectors. Flexible ducts and 
air connectors shall not pass through any fire-resistance-rated 
assembly. Flexible air connectors shall not pass through any 
wall, floor or ceiling. 



SECTION 717 
CONCEALED SPACES 

717.1 General. Fireblocking and draftstopping shall be 
installed in combustible concealed locations in accordance 
with this section. Fireblocking shall comply with Section 
717.2. Draftstopping in floor/ceiling spaces and attic spaces 
shall comply with Sections 717.3 and 717.4, respectively. The 
permitted use of combustible materials in concealed spaces of 
buildings of Type I or II construction shall be limited to the 
applications indicated in Section 717.5. 

717.2 Fireblocking. In combustible construction, fireblocking 
shall be installed to cut off concealed draft openings (both ver- 
tical and horizontal) and shall form an effective barrier between 
floors, between a top story and a roof or attic space. 
Fireblocking shall be installed in the locations specified in Sec- 
tions 717.2.2 through 111 2.1. 

111.2.1 Fireblocking materials. Fireblocking shall consist 
of the following materials: 

1. Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber. 



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2. Two thicknesses of I-inch (25 mm) nominal lumber 
with broken lap joints. 

3. One thickness of 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood struc- 
tural panels with joints backed by 0.719-inch (18.3 
mm) wood structural panels. 

4. One thickness of0.7S-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard 
with joints backed by 0.7S-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard. 

5. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 

6. One-fourth-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard. 

7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool, mineral fiber or 
other approv edmateriais installed in such a manner as 
to be securely retained in place. 

717.2. LIB atts or blankets of mineral wool or mineral 
fiber. Batts or blankets of mineral wool or mineral fiber 
or other approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted 
for compliance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal 
fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of 
studs or staggered studs. 

717.2.1.2 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass batt 
insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross 
section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 
inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, con- 
duit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insula- 
tion shall be packed tightly around the obstruction. 

717.2.1.3 Loose-fill insulation material. Loose-fill 
insulation material, insulating foam sealants and caulk 
materials shall not be used as a fireblock unless specifi- 
cally tested in the form and manner intended for use to 
demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to retard the 
spread of fire and hot gases. 

717.2.1.4 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of 
fireblocks shall be maintained. 

717.2.1.5 Double stud walls. Batts or blankets of min- 
eral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials 
shall be allowed as fireblocking in walls constructed 
using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 

717.2.2 Concealed wall spaces. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, 
including furred spaces, and parallel rows of studs or stag- 
gered studs, as follows: 

1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels. 

2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 
mm). 

717.2.3 Connections between horizontal and vertical 
spaces. Fireblocking shall be provided at interconnections 
between concealed vertical stud wall or partition spaces and 
concealed horizontal spaces created by an assembly of floor 
joists or trusses, and between concealed vertical and hori- 
zontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings, cove 
ceilings and similar locations. 

717.2.4 Stairways. Fireblocking shall be provided in con- 
cealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom 



of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall also comply 
with Section 1009.6.3. 

717.2.5 Ceiling and floor openings. Where required by 
Exception 6 of Section 708.2, Exception 1 of Section 
713.4.1.2 or Section 713.4.2, fireblocking of the annular 
space around vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at 
ceilings and floor levels shall be installed with a material 
specifically tested in the form and manner intended for use 
to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and resist the 
free passage of flame and the products of combustion. 

717.2.5.1 Factory-built chimneys and fireplaces. Fac- 
tory-built chimneys and fireplaces shall be fireblocked in 
accordance with UL 103 and UL 127. 

717.2.6 Architectural trim. Fireblocking shall be installed 
within concealed spaces of exterior wall finish and other 
exterior architectural elements where permitted to be of 
combustible construction as specified in Section 1406 or 
where erected with combustible frames, at maximum inter- 
vals of 20 feet (6096 mm), so that there will be no open 
space exceeding 100 square feet (9.3 m 3 ). Where wood fur- 
ring strips are used, they shall be of approvedwood of natu- 
ral decay resistance or preservative-treated wood. If 
noncontinuous, such elements shall have closed ends, with 
at least 4 inches (102 mm) of separation between sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking of cornices is not required in sin- 
gle-family dwellings. Fireblocking of cornices of a 
two -family dwelling is required only at the line of 
dwelling unit separation. 

2. Fireblocking shall not be required where installed 
on noncombustible framing and the face of the 
exterior wall finish exposed to the concealed space 
is covered by one of the following materials: 

2.1. Aluminum having a minimum thickness of 
0.019 inch (0.5 mm). 

2.2. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base 
metal thickness not less than 0.016 inch 
(0.4 mm) at any point. 

2.3. Other approved noncombustible materi- 
als. 

717.2.7 Concealed sleeper spaces. Where wood sleepers 
are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete 
fire-resistance-rated floors, the space between the floor slab 
and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with an 
approved material to resist the free passage of flame and 
products of combustion or fireblocked in such a manner that 
there will be no open spaces under the flooring that will 
exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) in area and such space shall 
be filled solidly under permanent partitions so that there is 
no communication under the flooring between adjoining 
rooms. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking is not required for slab-on-grade 
floors in gymnasiums. 



122 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



2. Fireblocking is required only at the juncture of 
each alternate lane and at the ends of each lane in a 
bowling facility. 

717.3 Draftstopping in floors. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide floor/ceiling 
assemblies in the locations prescribed in Sections 717.3.2 
through 717.3.3. 

717.3.1 Draftstopping materials. Draftstopping materials 
shall not be less thanl/z-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 
3/ s -inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 3/ s -inch (9.5 mm) 
particleboard, I-inch (2S-mm) nominal lumber, cement 
fiberboard, batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber, 
or other approved materials adequately supported. The 
integrity of draftstops shall be maintained. 

717.3.2 Groups R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4. Draftstopping 
shall be provided in floor/ceiling spaces in Group R-l build- 
ings, in Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling 
units, in Group R-3 buildings with two dwelling units and in 
Group R-4 buildings. Draftstopping shall be located above 
and in line with the dwelling unit and sleeping unit separa- 
tions. 

Exceptions: 

1. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717.3.3 Other groups. In other groups, draftstopping shall 
be installed so that horizontal floor areas do not exceed 
1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ). 

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

717.4 Draftstopping in attics. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide attic spaces and 
concealed roof spaces in the locations prescribed in Sections 
71 7.4.2 and 71 7.4.3. Ventilation of concealed roof spaces shall 
be maintained in accordance with Section 1203.2. 

717.4.1 Draftstopping materials. Materials utilized for 
draftstopping of attic spaces shall comply with Section 

717.3.1. 

Ill AAA Openings. Openings in the partitions shall be 
protected by self-closing doors with automatic latches 
constructed as required for the partitions. 

717.4.2 Groups R-l and R-2. Draftstopping shall be pro- 
vided in attics, mansards, overhangs or other concealed roof 
spaces of Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling 
units and in all Group R-l buildings. Draftstopping shall be 
installed above, and in line with, sleeping unit and dwelling 



unit separation walls that do not extend to the underside of 
the roof sheathing above. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where corridor walls provide a sleeping unit or 
dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only 
be required above one of the corridor walls. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed 
four stories above grade plane, the attic space 
shall be subdivided by draftstops into areas not 
exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m^ or above 
every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller. 

4. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717.4.3 Other groups. Draftstopping shall be installed in 
attics and concealed roof spaces, such that any horizontal 
area does not exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m 7 ). 

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

717.5 Combustible materials in concealed spaces in Type I 
or II construction. Combustible materials shall not be permit- 
ted in concealed spaces of buildings of Type I or II construc- 
tion. 

Exceptions: 

1. Combustible materials in accordance with Section 
603. 

2. Combustible materials exposed within plenums com- 
plying with Section 602 of the International Mechan- 
ical Code. 

3. Class A interior finish materials classified in accor- 
dance with Section 803. 

4. Combustible piping within partitions or shaft enclo- 
sures installed in accordance with the provisions of 
this code. 

5. Combustible piping within concealed ceiling spaces 
installed in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code and the International Plumbing 
Code. 

6. Combustible insulation and covering on pipe and tub- 
ing, installed in concealed spaces other than plenums, 
complying with Section 719.7. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



123 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



SECTION 718 

FIRE-RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS 

FOR PLASTER 

718.1 Thickness of plaster. The minimum thickness of gyp- 
sum plaster or portland cement plaster used in a fire- resis- 
tance-rated system shall be determined by the prescribed fire 
tests. The plaster thickness shall be measured from the face of 
the lath where applied to gypsum lath or metal lath. 

718.2 Plaster equivalents. For fire-resistance purposes, i/ 2 
inch (12.7 mm) of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed 
equivalent to 3/ 4 inch (19.1 mm) of one-to-three gypsum sand 
plaster or 1 inch (25 mm) of portland cement sand plaster. 

718.3 Noncombustible furring. In buildings of Type I and II 
construction, plaster shall be applied directly on concrete or 
masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and 
furring. 

718.4 Double reinforcement. Plaster protection more than 1 
inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be reinforced with an addi- 
tionallayer of approve d lath embedded at least 3/ 4 inch (19.1 
mm) from the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 

Exception: Solid plaster partitions or where otherwise 
determined by fire tests. 

718.5 Plaster alternatives for concrete. In reinforced con- 
crete construction, gypsum plaster or portland cement plaster is 
permitted to be substituted for i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) of the 
required poured concrete protection, except that a minimum 
thickness of 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm) of poured concrete shall be pro- 
vided in reinforced concrete floors and 1 inch (25 mm) in rein- 
forced concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish. The 
concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with Section 
2510.7. 



SECTION 719 
THERMAL- AND SOUND-INSULATING MATERIALS 

719.1 General. Insulating materials, including facings such as 
vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes, similar cov- 
erings and all layers of single and multilayer reflective foil 
insulations, shall comply with the requirements of this section. 
Where a flame spread index or a smoke-developed index is 
specified in this section, such index shall be determined in 
accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Any material that is 
subject to an increase in flame spread index or smoke-devel- 
oped index beyond the limits herein established through the 
effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions shall 
not be permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fiberboard insulation shall comply with Chapter 23. 

2. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Chapter 26. 

3. Duct and pipe insulation and duct and pipe coverings 
and linings in plenums shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

4. All layers of single and multilayer reflective plastic 
core insulation shall comply with Section 2613. 



719.2 Concealed installation. Insulating materials, where 
concealed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, 
shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Section 719.6, 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719.2.1 Facings. Where such materials are installed in con- 
cealed spaces in buildings of Type III, IV or V construction, 
the flame spread and smoke-developed limitations do not 
apply to facings, coverings, and layers of reflective foil 
insulation that are installed behind and in substantial contact 
with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, wall or floor fin- 
ish. 

Exception: All layers of single and multilayer reflective 
plastic core insulation shall comply with Section 2613. 

719.3 Exposed installation. Insulating materials, where 
exposed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, 
shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied complying with the requirements of Section 719.6 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719.3.1 Attic floors. Exposed insulation materials installed 
on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux of not less 
than 0.12 watt per square centimeter when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 970. 

719.4 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials 
that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 723 apparatus 
without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with the 
flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Sections 719.2 
and 719.3 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be 
required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S 102.2, 
provided such insulation complies with the requirements of 
Section 719.2 or 719.3, as applicable, and Section 719.6. 

719.5 Roofinsulation. The use of combustible roof insulation 
not complying with Sections 719.2 and 719.3 shall be permit- 
ted in any type of construction provided it is covered with 
approved roof coverings directly applied thereto. 

719.6 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill insu- 
lation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1209 and CPSC 
16 CFR, Part 1404. Each package of such insulating material 
shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 
1209 and CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1404. 

719.7 Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing. Insula- 
tion and covering on pipe and tubing shall have a flame spread 
index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not 
more than 450. 

Exception: Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing 
installed in plenums shall comply with the International 
Mechanical Code. 



124 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



SECTION 720 
PRESCRIPTIVE FIRE RESISTANCE 

720.1 General. The provisions of this section contain prescrip- 
tive details of fire-resistance-rated building elements, compo- 
nents or assemblies. The materials of construction listed in 
Tables 720.1 (1), 720.1 (2), and 720.1 (3) shall be assumed to 
have the fire-resistance ratings prescribed therein. Where 
materials that change the capacity for heat dissipation are 
incorporated into a fire-resistance-rated assembly, fire test 
results or other substantiating data shall be made available to 
the bUilding official to show that the required fire-resis- 
tance-rating time period is not reduced. 

720.1.1 Thickness of protective coverings. The thickness 
of fire-resistant materials required for protection of struc- 
tural members shall be not less than set forth in Table 
720.1 (1), except as modified in this section. The figures 
shown shall be the net thickness of the protecting materials 
and shall not include any hollow space in back of the protec- 
tion. 

720.1.2 Unit masonry protection. Where required, metal 
ties shall be embedded in bedjoints of unit masonry for pro- 
tection of steel columns. Such ties shall be as set forth in 
Table 720.1 (1) or be equivalent thereto. 

720.1.3 Reinforcement for cast-in-place concrete col- 
umn protection. Cast-in-place concrete protection for steel 
columns shall be reinforced at the edges of such members 
with wire ties of not less than 0. 18 inch (4.6 mm) in diameter 
wound spirally around the columns on a pitch of not more 
than 8 inches (203 mm) or by equivalent reinforcement. 

720.1.4 Plaster application. The finish coat is not required 
for plaster protective coatings where they comply with the 
design mix and thickness requirements of Tables 720.1 (1), 
720.1(2) and 720.1 (3). 

720.1.5 Bonded prestressed concrete tendons. For mem- 
bers having a single tendon or more than one tendon 
installed with equal concrete cover measured from the near- 
est surface, the cover shall not be less than that set forth in 
Table 720.1 (1). For members having multiple tendons 
installed with variable concrete cover, the average tendon 
cover shall not be less than that set forth in Table 720.1 (1), 
provided: 

1. The clearance from each tendon to the nearest 
exposed surface is used to determine the average 
cover. 

2. In no case can the clear cover for individual tendons 
be less than one-half of that set forth in Table 
720.1(1). A minimum cover of 3/ 4 inch (19.1 mm) for 
slabs and 1 inch (25 mm) for beams is required for any 
aggregate concrete. 

3. For the purpose of establishing a fire-resistance rat- 
ing, tendons having a clear covering less than that set 
forth in Table 720. 1(1) shall not contribute more than 
50 percent of the required ultimate moment capacity 
for members less than 350 square inches (0.226 m 2 ) in 
cross-sectional area and 65 percent for larger mem- 
bers. For structural design purposes, however, ten- 



dons having a reduced cover are assumed to be fully 
effective. 



SECTION 721 
CALCULATED FIRE RESISTANCE 

721.1 General. The provisions of this section contain proce- 
dures by which the fire resistance of specific materials or com- 
binations of materials is established by calculations. These 
procedures apply only to the information contained in this sec- 
tion and shall not be otherwise used. The calculated fire resis- 
tance of concrete, concrete masonry and clay masonry 
assemblies shall be permitted in accordance with ACI 
216.1/TMS 0216. The calculated/^ resistance of steel assem- 
blies shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 5 of ASCE 
29. The calculated fire resistance of exposed wood members 
and wood decking shall be permitted in accordance with Chap- 
ter 16 of ANSI/AF&PA National Design Specification for 
Wood Construction (NDS). 

721.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A mineral wool insula- 
tion material made of alumina-silica fibers and weighing 4 
to 10 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m 3 ). 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with aggregates consisting mainly of calcium or mag- 
nesium carbonate, such as limestone or dolomite, and con- 
taining 40 percent or less quartz, chert or flint. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. A lightweight insulating 
concrete made by mixing a preformed foam with portland 
cement slurry and having a dry unit weight of approxi- 
mately 30 pcf (480 kg/m 3 ). 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. Con- 
crete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or 
slate or sintered fly ash or any natural lightweight aggregate 
meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resis- 
tance properties and weighing 85 to 115 pcf (1360 to 1840 
kg/m 3 ). 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. A lightweight insulating con- 
crete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 
kg/m 3 ) made with perlite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggre- 
gate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, 
expands to form a glass-like material of cellular structure. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. Concrete made 
with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, 
sintered fly ash, or any natural lightweight aggregate meet- 
ing ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance 
properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally 
between 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m 3 ). 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of 
silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium car- 
bonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert 
or flint. 

(Section 721. 1.1, Definitions, continued on page 146) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



125 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1(1) 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS" 1 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



INSULATING MATERIAL USED 



MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



1 
hour 



1. Steel columns 
and all of primary 

trusses 



1-1.1 



1-1.2 



1-1.3 



1-1.4 



1-1.5 



1-1.6 



1-2.1 



1-3.1 



1-3.2 



1-3.3 



1-3.4 



1-4.1 



1-5.1 



1-6.1 



1-6.2 



1-6.3 



1-6.4 



Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 6" x 6" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel). a 



2V, 



IV, 



Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members ! 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel), a 



IV, 



Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 
12" x 12" or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel) .a 



Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 6" 
or greater .a 



x6" 



Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members ! 
or greater .a 



2V, 



Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 
12" x 12" or greater. a 



Clay or shale brick with brick and mortar fill. a 



4" hollow clay tile in two 2" layers; i/ 2 " mortar between tile and column; 3/ 8 " metal 
mesh 0.046" wire diameter in horizontalj pints; tile fill. a 



2" hollow clay tile; 3/ 4 " mortar between tile and column; 3/ 8 " metal mesh 0.046" wire 
diameter in horizontal joints; limestone concrete fill; a plastered with 3/ 4 " gypsum 
plaster. 



2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile or 3/ 8 ' 
metal mesh 0.046" diameter wire in horizontalj oints; limestone or trap-rock 
concrete fill a extending 1" outside column on all sides. 



2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile with or 
without concrete fill; 3/ 4 " mortar between tile and column. 



Cement plaster over metal lath wire tied to 3/ 4 " cold-rolled vertical channels with 

0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 

1:2 i/ 2 by volume, cement to sand. 



Vermiculite concrete, 1:4 mix by volume over paperbacked wire fabric lath wrapped 
directly around column with additional 2" x 2" 0.065 70.065" (No. 16/16 B.W. gage) 
wire fabric placed 3/ 4 " from outer concrete surface. Wire fabric tied with 0.049" (No. 
18 B.W. gage) wire spaced 6" on center for inner layer and 2" on center for outer 
layer. 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over metal lath wrapped around column and 
furred l 1 / 4 " from column flanges. Sheets lapped at ends and tied at 6" intervals with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) tie wire. Plaster pushed through to flanges. 



lV, 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over self-furring metal lath wrapped directly 
around column, lapped 1" and tied at 6" intervals with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) 
wire. 



l 3 /4 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath applied to 3/ 4 " cold-rolled 
channels spaced 24" apart vertically and wrapped flatwise around column. 



IV, 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over two layers of i/ 2 " plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath wrapped with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 
20 gage wire and tied with doubled 0.035" diameter (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 
spaced 23" on center. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall 
not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2 l / 2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 3-hour 
system. 



2V, 



(continued) 



126 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (1 )--continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS" 1 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



INSULATING MATERIAL USED 



MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 

A 3 2 1 

hour hour hour hour 



1-6.5 



Perlite or vermiculate gypsum plaster over one layer of i/ 2 " plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath tied with doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. 
gage) wire ties spaced 23" on center and scratch coat wrapped with 1" hexagonal 
mesh 0.035" (No. 20 B.W. gage) wire fabric. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for 
the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2h 2 cubic feet of 
aggregate. 



1-7.1 



Multiple layers of i/ 2 " gypsum wallboard c adhesivelyd secured to column flanges and 
successive layers. Wallboard applied without horizontal joints. Corner edges of each 
layer staggered. Wallboard layer below outer layer secured to column with doubled 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel wire ties spaced 15" on center. Exposed corners 
taped and treated. 



1-7.2 



Three layers of 5/ s " Type X gypsum wallboard. First and second layer held in place 
by i/ s " diameter by l 3 / s " long ring shank nails with 5/ 16 " diameter heads spaced 24" 
on center at corners. Middle layer also secured with metal straps at mid-height and 
18" from each end, and by metal corner bead at each corner held by the metal straps. 
Third layer attached to corner bead with 1" long gypsum wallboard screws spaced 
12" on center. 



i% 



1. Steel columns 
and all of 
primary trusses 
(continued) 



1-7.3 



Three layers of 5/ s " Type X gypsum wallboard,c each layer screw attached to l 5 / s " 
steel studs 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) at each corner of column. 
Middle layer also secured with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) double-strand steel wire 
ties, 24" on center. Screws are No. 6 by 1" spaced 24" on center for inner layer, No. 
6 by l 5 / s " spaced 12" on center for middle layer and No. 8 by 2 1 / 4 " spaced 12" on 
center for outer layer. 



l 7 /. 



1-8.1 



Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum-to-sand aggregate 
applied over metal lath. Lath lapped 1" and tied 6" on center at all end, edges and 
spacers with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Lath applied over i/ 2 " spacers 
made of 3/ 4 " furring channel with 2" legs bent around each corner. Spacers located 1" 
from top and bottom of member and a maximum of 40" on center and wire tied with 
a single strand of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Corner bead tied to the 
lath at 6" on center along each corner to provide plaster thickness. 



P/, 



1-9.1 



Minimum W8x35 wide flange steel column (w/d > 0.75) with each web cavity filled 
even with the flange tip with normal weight carbonate or siliceous aggregate 
concrete (3,000 psi minimum compressive strength with 145 pcf ± 3 pcf unit 
weight). Reinforce the concrete in each web cavity with a minimum No. 4 deformed 
reinforcing bar installed vertically and centered in the cavity, and secured to the 
column web with a minimum No . 2 horizontal deformed reinforcing bar welded to 
the web every 18" on center vertically. As an alternative to the No. 4 rebar, 3/ 4 " 
diameter by 3" long headed studs, spaced at 12" on center vertically, shall be welded 
on each side of the web midway between the column flanges. 



See 

Note 

n 



2. Webs or 
flanges of 
steel beams and 
girders 



2-1.1 



2-1.2 



Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete (not including 
sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel) with 3" or finer metal mesh placed 1" from 
the finished surface anchored to the top flange and providing not less than 0.025 
square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 

Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 2-1.1 with 3" or finer 
metal mesh placed 1" from the finished surface anchored to the top flange and 
providing not less than 0.025 square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 



IV, 



2 1 /, 



1% 



2-2.1 



Cement plaster on metal lath attached to 3/ 4 " cold-rolled channels with 0.04" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 i/ 2 by volume, 
cement to sand. 



2V 2 b 



(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



127 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (1 )--continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS" 1 









MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 








INSULATING MATERIAL 








FOR THE FOLLOWING 








FIRE-RESISTANCE 


STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 


ITEM 




PERIODS (inches) 


4 


3 


2 


1 


PROTECTED 


NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


hour 


hour 


hour 


hour 






Vermiculite gypsum plaster on a metal lath cage, wire tied to 0.165" diameter (No. 8 












2-3.1 


B.W. gage) steel wire hangers wrapped around beam and spaced 16" on center. 
Metal lath ties spaced approximately 5" on center at cage sides and bottom. 


- 


7/ 8 


- 


- 




Two layers of 5/ 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard c are attached to U-shaped brackets 














spaced 24" on center. 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) l 5 / 8 " deep by 1" 














galvanized steel runner channels are first installed parallel to and on each side of the 














top beam flange to provide a i/ 2 " clearance to the flange. The channel runners are 














attached to steel deck or concrete floor construction with approved fasteners spaced 














12" on center. U-shaped brackets are formed from members identical to the channel 














runners. At the bent portion of the U-shaped bracket, the flanges of the channel are 














cut out so that l 5 / 8 " deep corner channels can be inserted without attachment parallel 














to each side of the lower flange. 












2-4.1 


As an alternate, 0.021" thick (No. 24 carbon sheet steel gage) l"x 2" runner and 






I 1 /, 






corner angles may be used in lieu of channels, and the web cutouts in the U-shaped 






i M 








brackets may be omitted. Each angle is attached to the bracket with i/ 2 "-long No. 8 










2. Webs or 




self-drilling screws. The vertical legs of the U-shaped bracket are attached to the 










flanges of steel 




runners with one i/ 2 " long No. 8 self-drilling screw. The completed steel framing 










beams and 




provides a 2 1 / 8 " and l 1 / 2 '' space between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides 










girders 




and bottom of the steel beam, respectively. The inner layer of wallboard is attached 










(continued) 




to the top runners and bottom corner channels or corner angles with l 1 / 4 "-long No. 6 
self-drilling screws spaced 16" on center. The outer layer of wallboard is applied 
with l 3 / 4 "-long No. 6 self-drilling screws spaced 8" on center. The bottom corners 
are reinforced with metal corner beads. 












Three layers of 5/ 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard attached to a steel suspension system 














as described immediately above utilizing the 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel 














gage) 1" x 2" lower corner angles. The framing is located so that a 2 1 / 8 " and 2" space 














is provided between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the 














beam, respectively. The first two layers of wallboard are attached as described 












2-4.2 


immediately above. A layer of 0.035" thick (No. 20 B.W. gage) 1" hexagonal 




l 7 /« 








galvanized wire mesh is applied under the soffit of the middle layer and up the sides 




x ' 8 










approximately 2". The mesh is held in position with the No. 6 l 5 / 8 "-long screws 














installed in the vertical leg of the bottom corner angles. The outer layer of wallboard 














is attached with No. 6 2 1 / 4 "-long screws spaced 8" on center. One screw is also 














installed at the mid-depth of the bracket in each layer. Bottom corners are finished as 














described above. 










3. Bonded 




Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous f aggregate concrete 


4§ 


3 g 


2 1 /, 


1V 2 


pretensioned 




Beams or girders 


z, / 2 


reinforcement in 


3-1.1 












prestressed 








2 


l 1 /, 


1 


concrete e 




Solid slabs 11 






x ' 2 






Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous f aggregate concrete 














Unrestrained members: 












4-1.1 


Solid slabs' 1 


- 


2 


1V 2 


- 


4. Bonded or 




Beams and girders^ 










unbonded 




8" wide 




4V 2 


2V 2 


1% 


post-tensioned 
tendons in 




greater than 12" wide 


3 


2 1 /? 


2 


l 1 /? 




Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous aggregate 










prestressed 




Restrained members: k 










concretee,i 


4-1.2 


Solid slabs' 1 
Beams and girder^ 


iv 4 


1 


3/ 4 








8" wide 


2V 2 


2 


1% 








greater than 12" wide 


2 


l 3 / 4 


l 1 /? 


- 



(continued) 



128 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (1 )--continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS" 1 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


5. Reinforcing 
steel in reinforced 
concrete columns, 
beams girders and 
trusses 


5-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 12" or 
larger, square or round. (Size limit does not apply to beams and girders monolithic 
with floors.) 

Siliceous aggregate concrete, members 12" or larger, square or round. (Size limit 
does not apply to beams and girders monolithic with floors.) 


1V 2 

2 


1V 2 
1V 2 




1V 2 
1V 2 


6. Reinforcing 
steel in reinforced 
concrete joists 1 


6-1.1 
6-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


1V 4 

1^4 


l'/4 

1V 2 


1 
1 


3/ 4 


7. Reinforcing and 
tie rods in floor 
and roof slabs 1 


7-1.1 

7-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


1 

1''4 


1 
1 


^4 
1 


3/4 

3/ 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm z , 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m 3 , 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m 3 - 

a. Reentrant parts of protected members to be filled solidly. 

b. Two layers of equal thickness with a 3/ 4 -inch airspace between. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in Table 720.1(1), gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be 
permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard and thejoints on the face layer are reinforced, 
and the entire surface is covered with a minimum of i/ 16 -inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. An approved adhesive qualified under ASTM E 119 or UL 263. 

e. Where lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete having an oven-dry weight of 1 10 pounds per cubic foot or less is used, the tabulated minimum cover shall be per- 
mitted to be reduced 25 percent, except that in no case shall the cover be less than 3/ 4 inch in slabs or l 1 /^ inches in beams or girders. 

f. For solid slabs of siliceous aggregate concrete, increase tendon cover 20 percent. 

g. Adequate provisions against spalling shall be provided by U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member with a clear cover of 1 inch, 
h. Prestressed slabs shall have a thickness not less than that required in Table 720.1 (3) for the respective fire -resistance time period. 

i . Fire coverage and end anchorages shall be as follows: Cover to the prestressing steel at the anchor shall be //zinch greater than that required away from the anchor. 
Minimum cover to steel-bearing plate shall be 1 inch in beams and 3/ 4 inch in slabs. 

j . For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, cover thickness shall be permitted to be determined by interpolation. 

k. Interior spans of continuous slabs, beams and girders shall be permitted to be considered restrained. 

1. For use with concrete slabs having a comparable fire endurance where members are framed into the structure in such a manner as to provide equivalent perfor- 
mance to that of monolithic concrete construction. 

m. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 

n. No additional insulating material is required on the exposed outside face of the column flange to achieve a I-hour fire-resistance rating. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



129 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 





TABLE 720.1 (2) 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a,a, 


p 








MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE b 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


1. Brick of clay or 
shale 


1-1.1 


Solid brick of clay or shale - 


6 


4.9 


3.8 


2.7 


1-1.2 


Hollow brick, not filled. 


5.0 


4.3 


3.4 


2.3 


1-1.3 


Hollow brick unit wall, grout or filled with perlite vermiculite or expanded shale 
aggregate. 


6.6 


5.5 


4.4 


3.0 


1-2.1 


4" nominal thick units at least 75 percent solid backed with a hat-shaped metal 
furring channel 3/ 4 " thick formed from 0.021" sheet metal attached to the brick 
wall on 24" centers with approved fasteners , and i/ 2 " Type X gypsum wallboard 
attached to the metal furring strips with l"-long Type S screws spaced 8" on 
center. 






5d 




2. Combination of 
clay brick and 
load-bearing 
hollow clay tile 


2-1.1 


4" solid brick and 4" tile (at least 40 percent solid) . 




8 






2-1.2 


4" solid brick and 8" tile (at least 40 percent solid) . 


12 


- 


- 


- 


3. Concrete 
masonry units 


3-l.lf.g 


Expanded slag or pumice. 


4.7 


4.0 


3.2 


2.1 


3-1.2f, g 


Expanded clay, shale or slate . 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.6 


3-1.3 f 


Limestone, cinders or air-cooled slag. 


5.9 


5.0 


4.0 


2.7 


3-1.4f, g 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel. 


6.2 


5.3 


4.2 


2.8 


4. Solid concrete 11 ,! 


4-1.1 


Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


Carbonate aggregate concrete. 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


Sand-lightweight concrete. 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 


Lightweight concrete. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 


5. Glazed or 
unglazed facing 
tile, nonload- 
bearing 


5-1.1 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 25 percent 
maximum with 3/ 4 " mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions reversed in alternate 
courses. 




6 3 / 8 






5-1.2 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 40 percent 
maximum with 3/ 4 " mortar-filled collarjoint. Unit positions side with 3/ 4 " gypsum 
plaster. Two wythes tied together every fourth course with No . 22 gage 
corrugated metal ties. 


- 


6 3 / 4 


- 


- 


5-1.3 


One unit with three cells in wall thickness, cored 29 percent maximum. 


- 


- 


6 


- 


5-1.4 


One 2" unit cored 22 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 41 percent 
maximum with i/ 4 " mortar-filled collarjoint. Two wythes tied together every 
third course with 0.030" (No. 22 galvanized sheet steel gage) corrugated metal 
ties. 






6 




5-1.5 


One 4" unit cored 25 percent maximum with 3/ 4 " gypsum plaster on one side. 






4% 




5-1.6 


One 4" unit with two cells in wall thickness, cored 22 percent maximum. 


- 


- 


- 


4 


5-1.7 


One 4" unit cored 30 percent maximum with 3/ 4 " vermiculite gypsum plaster on 
one side. 


- 


- 


4>/ 2 


- 


5-1.8 


One 4" unit cored 39 percent maximum with 3/ 4 " gypsum plaster on one side. 


- 


- 


- 


4V 2 



(continued) 



130 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 





TABLE 720.1 (2)-continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a,a, 


p 








MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS 

FACE-TO-FACE b 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


l 
hour 


6. Solid gypsum 
plaster 


6-1.1 


3/ 4 " by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" 
on center with 2.6-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" 
(No. 18 B.W. Gage) wire at 6" spacing. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by 
weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 








2 d 


6-1.2 


3/ 4 " by 0.05" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels 16" on center 
with metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire 
at 6" spacing. Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster each side. For three-coat 
work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum 
to 2h 2 cubic feet of aggregate for the I-hour system. 


- 


- 


2 7 // 


2 d 


6-1.3 


3/ 4 " by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" 
on center with 3/ 8 " gypsum lath applied to one face and attached with sheet metal 
clips. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 








2 d 


6-2.1 


Studless with i/ 2 " full-length plain gypsum lath and gypsum plaster each side. 
Plaster mixed 1: 1 for scratch coat and 1:2 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


- 


- 


- 


2 d 


6-2.2 


Studless with i/ 2 " full-length plain gypsum lath and perlite or vermiculite gypsum 
plaster each side. 


- 


- 


2V 


2 d 


6-2.3 


Studless partition with 3/ 8 " rib metal lath installed vertically adjacent edges tied 
6" on center with No. 18 gage wire ties, gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by 
weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 








2 d 


7. Solid perlite 
and portland 
cement 


7-1.1 


Perlite mixed in the ratio of 3 cubic feet to 100 pounds of portland cement and 
machine applied to stud side of 1i L / 2 n mesh by 0.OS8-inch (No. 17 B.W. gage) 
paper-backed woven wire fabric lath wire-tied to 4" -deep steel trussed wire^ studs 
16" on center. Wire ties of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) galvanized steel wire 6" on 
center vertically. 


- 


- 


J / 8 


- 


8. Solid neat wood 
fibered gypsum 
plaster 


8-1.1 


3/ 4 " by QOSS-inch (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels, 12" on 
center with 2. S -pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" 
(No. 18 B.W. gage) wire at 6" spacing. Neat gypsum plaster applied each side. 






2 d 




9. Solid wallboard 
partition 


9-1.1 


One full-length layer i/ 2 " Type X gypsum wallboard 6 laminated to each side of 1" 
full-length V-edge gypsum coreboard with approved laminating compound. 
Vertical joints of face layer and coreboard staggered at least 3". 






2 d 




10. Hollow 
(studless) gypsum 
wallboard 
partition 


10-1.1 


One full-length layer of 5/ 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard 6 attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners laminated to each side of 1" x 6" 
full-length gypsum coreboard ribs spaced 2" on center with approved laminating 
compound. Ribs centered at vertical joints of face plies andjoints staggered 24" 
in opposing faces. Ribs may be recessed 6" from the top and bottom. 


- 


- 


- 


2V 


10-1.2 


1" regular gypsum V-edge full-length backing board attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners with nails or 1 5 / 8 " drywall screws at 24" 
on center. Minimum width of rumors 1 5 / 8 " . Face layer of n 2 " regular full-length 
gypsum wallboard laminated to outer faces of backing board with approved 
laminating compound. 






4V 





(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



131 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 





TABLE 720.1 (2)-continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a,a, 


p 








MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE b 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


11. Noncombustible 
studs-interior 
partition with plaster 
each side 


11-1.1 


3%" x 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 24" on center. 
5/ 8 " gypsum plaster on metal lath each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 








4 3 // 


11-1.2 


3v§" x 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable k studs spaced 
24" on center. 5/ 8 " neat gypsum wood-fibered plaster each side over 3/ 8 " rib 
metal lath nailed to studs with 6d common nails, 8" on center. Nails driven 
/%" and bent over. 


- 


- 


&8 


- 


11-1.3 


4" x 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) channel- shaped steel studs at 16" 
on center. On each side approved resilient clips pressed onto stud flange at 16" 
vertical spacing, i/ 4 " pencil rods snapped into or wire tied onto outer loop of 
clips, metal lath wire-tied to pencil rods at 6" intervals, 1" perlite gypsum 
plaster, each side. 




7%« 






11-1.4 


2V 2 " x 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 16" on center. 
Wood fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1: 1 by weight gypsum to sand aggregate 
applied on 3 / 4 -pound metal lath wire tied to studs, each side. 3/ 4 " plaster applied 
over each face, including finish coat. 


- 


- 


4 1 // 


- 


12. Wood studs 
interior partition 
with plaster each 
side 


12-1.11, m 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with 5/ 8 " gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached by 4d common nails bent over or No. 14 gage by 7 7 / 4 " by 31 4 n crown 
width staples spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed /:/ l / 2 for scratch coat and 1:3 
for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 








5\ 


12-1.21 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and 7/ 8 " neat wood-fibered 
gypsum plaster each side. Lath attached by 6d common nails, 7" on center. 
Nails driven P/4" and bent over. 


- 


- 


5V 


- 


12-1.31 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with 3/ 8 " perforated or plain gypsum lath and 
i/ 2 " gypsum plaster each side. Lath nailed with P/g" by No. 13 gage by 19 / M " 
head plasterboard blued nails, 4" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum to sand aggregate. 


- 


- 


- 


5% 


12-1.41 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with J 8 " Type X gypsum lath and i/ 2 " gypsum 
plaster each side. Lath nailed with 1 1 / 8 " by No. 13 gage by 19 / M " head 
plasterboard blued nails, S" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 








5% 


1 3 .Noncombustible 
studs -interior 
partition with 
gypsum wallboard 
each side 


13-1.1 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel- shaped studs 24" on center 
with one full-length layer of 5/ 8 Type X gypsum wallboard 6 applied vertically 
attached with 1" long No. 6 drywall screws to each stud. Screws are 8" on 
center around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. The 
wallboard may be applied horizontally when attached to 3 5 / 8 " studs and the 
horizontal joints are staggered with those on the opposite side. Screws for the 
horizontal application shall be 8" on center at vertical edges and 12" on center 
at intermediate studs. 


- 


- 


- 


2V 


13-1.2 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 25" on center 
with two full-length layers of i/ 2 " Type X gypsum wallboard 6 applied vertically 
each side. First layer attached with l"-long, No. 6 drywall screws, 8" on center 
around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. Second layer 
applied with vertical joints offset one stud space from first layer using 1 5 / 8 " 
long, No. 6 drywall screws spaced 9" on center along verticaljoints, 12" on 
center at intermediate studs and 24" on center along top and bottom runners . 


- 


- 


3V 


- 


13-1.3 


0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable metal studs 6 24" on 
center with full-length 5/ 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard 6 applied vertically and 
nailed 7" on center with 6d cement-coated common nails. Approved metal 
fastener grips used with nails at vertical butt joints along studs. 








4 ? /8 



(continued) 



132 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 





TABLE 720.1 (2)-continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a )£ 


i,p 








MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE b 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


14. Wood 
studs -interior 
partition with 
gypsum wallboard 
each side 


14-1. ln,m 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers of 3/ s " regular gypsum 
wallboard 6 each side, 4d cooler 11 or wallboard 11 nails at 8" on center first layer, 5d 
cooler 11 or wallboard 11 nails at 8" on center second layer with laminating 
compound between layers, joints staggered. First layer applied full length 
vertically, second layer applied horizontally or vertically. 








5 


14-1.21,m 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers V 2 ' regular gypsum wallboard 6 
applied vertically or horizontally each side k , joints staggered. Nail base layer 
with 5d cooler 11 or wallboard 11 nails at 8" on center face layer with 8d cooler 11 or 
wallboard 11 nails at 8" on center. 


- 


- 


- 


5h 2 


14-1.31, m 


2" x 4" wood studs 24" on center with sis" Type X gypsum wallboard 6 applied 
vertically or horizontally nailed with 6d cooler 11 or wallboard 11 nails at 7" on 
renter with end joints; on nailing members Staggerjnints; earn side 








4 3 U 


14-1.4 1 


2" x 4" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
sis" Type X gypsum wallboard 6 applied with face paper grain (long dimension) 
parallel to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cooler 11 or wallboard 11 nails at 7" on 
center. 


- 


- 


- 


4 3 / 4 d 


14-1.51, m 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers Sis" Type X gypsum 
wallboard 6 each side. Base layers applied vertically and nailed with 6d cooler 11 
or wallboard 11 nails at 9" on center. Face layer applied vertically or horizontally 
and nailed with 8d cooler 11 or wallboard 11 nails at 7" on center. For nail-adhesive 
application, base layers are nailed 6" on center. Face layers applied with coating 
of approved wallboard adhesive and nailed 12" on center. 






6 




14-1.6 1 


2" x 3" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard 6 applied with face paper grain (long dimension) 
at right angles to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cement-coated box nails 
spaced 7" on center. 


- 


- 


- 


&d 


15 . Exterior or 
interior walls 


15-1.11, m 


Exterior surface with 3i 4 " drop siding over i/ 2 " gypsum sheathing on 2" x 4" 
wood studs at 16" on center, interior surface treatment as required for 
I-hour-rated exterior or interior 2" x 4" wood stud partitions. Gypsum sheathing 
nailed with 1 3 / 4 " by No. 11 gage by 7i 16 " head galvanized nails at 8" on center. 
Siding nailed with 7d galvanized smooth box nails. 








Varies 


15-1.21,m 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and 3/ 4 " cement plaster on each 
side. Lath attached with 6d common nails 7" on center driven to 1" minimum 
penetration and bent over. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown 
coat, by volume, cement to sand. 


- 


- 


- 


?'s 


15-1.31,m 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with 7is" cement plaster (measured from the 
face of studs) on the exterior surface with interior surface treatment as required 
for interior wood stud partitions in this table . Plaster mix 1 :4 for scratch coat and 
1:5 for brown coat, by volume, cement to sand. 








Varies 


15-1.4 


3^/s" No. 16 gage noncombustible studs 16" on center with 71 s" cement plaster 
(measured from the face of the studs) on the exterior surface with interior 
surface treatment as required for interior, nonbearing, noncombustible stud 
partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, 
by volume, cement to sand. 


- 


- 


- 


Varies d 



(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



133 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (2)-continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a,o, P 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE b 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



1 
hour 



15-1.5 n 



2 1 / 4 " x $/ 4 " clay face brick with cored holes over n 2 " gypsum sheathing on 
exterior surface of 2" x 4" wood studs at 16" on center and two layers 5/ 8 " Type 
X gypsum wallboard 6 on interior surface. Sheathing placed horizontally or 
vertically with vertical joints over studs nailed 6" on center with 1 3 / 4 " x No. 11 
gage by 7/ 16 " head galvanized nails. Inner layer of wallboard placed horizontally 
or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails. Outer 
layer of wallboard placed horizontally or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 
8d cooler" or wallboard" nails. All joints staggered with vertical joints over 
studs. Outer layer joints taped and finished with compound. Nail heads covered 
with joint compound. 0.035 inch (No. 20 galvanized sheet gage) corrugated 
galvanized steel wall ties 3/ 4 " by 6 5 / 8 " attached to each stud with two 8d cooler" 
or wallboard" nails every sixth course of bricks. 



15-1.61, m 



2" x 6" fire-retardant-treated wood studs 16" on center. Interior face has two 
layers of 5/ 8 " Type X gypsum with the base layer placed vertically and attached 
with 6d box nails 12" on center. The face layer is placed horizontally and 
attached with 8d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. 
The exterior face has a base layer of 5/ 8 " Type X gypsum sheathing placed 
vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. 
An approved building paper is next applied, followed by self- furred exterior lath 
attached with 2 1 / 2 ", No. 12 gage galvanized roofing nails with a 3i 8 " diameter 
head and spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of a i/ 2 " 
brown coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by 
weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of 
approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed 
in the proportion of 1:4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of 
hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



15-1.71, m 



2" x 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of 5/ 8 " Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed 
by 1" by No. 18 gage self- furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2 i / 2 " long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of alh" scratch coat, a bonding agent and alh" brown coat and a 
finish coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by 
weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of 
approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed 
in the proportion of 1:4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of 
hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. 
The interior is covered with 3/ 8 " gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of 0.035 
inch (No. 20 B.W. gage) woven wire lath furred out 5/ 16 " and 1" perlite or 
vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with /%" by No. 13 gage by 19 / 64 " head 
plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by 1 3 / 4 " by No. 12 
gage by 3/ 8 " head nails with 3/ 8 " furrings, spaced 8" on center. The plaster mix 
shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2 7? cubic feet of aggregate. 



15-1.81, n 



2" x 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of 5/ 8 " Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed 
by V/f by No. 17 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2 1 / 2 " long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of alh" scratch coat, and alh" brown coat is then applied. The 
plaster may be placed by machine. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 
1:4 by weight, plastic cement to sand. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion 
of 1:5 by weight, plastic cement to sand. The interior is covered with 3/ 8 
gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 gage woven wire lath furred out 
5/ 16 " and 1" perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 7%" by No. 
13 gage by l9 /^" head plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh 
attached by 1 3 / 4 " by No. 12 gage by 3i 8 " head nails with 3/ 8 " furrings, spaced 8" 
on center. The plaster mix shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2 1 i 2 cubic 
feet of aggregate. 



10 



#/, 



#/, 



{continued) 



134 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (2)-continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a.a.p 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE b 

(inches) 

4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



15-1.9 



4" No. 18 gage, nonload-bearing metal studs, 16" on center, with I" portland 
cement lime plaster [measured from the back side of the 3/^-pound expanded 
metal lath] on the exterior surface. Interior surface to be covered with 1" of 
gypsum plaster on 3/4-pound expanded metal lath proportioned by weight- 1 :2 
for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown, gypsum to sand. Lath on one side of the partition 
fastened to II4" diameter pencil rods supported by No. 20 gage metal clips, 
located 16" on center vertically, on each stud. 3" thick mineral fiber insulating 
batts friction fitted between the studs. 



15-1.10 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, with liz" Glass Fiber 
Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is attached with flex 
anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two l/ z "-long 
flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with Sis" thick GFRC 
bonding pads that extend 2ht beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. Interior 
surface to have two layers of liz" Type X gypsum wallboard. 6 The first layer of 
wallboard to be attached with l"-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 24" on 
center and the second layer is attached with P/ s "-long Type S screws spaced at 
12" on center. Cavity is to be filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. 
GFRC has / y~" returns packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



15-1.11 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, respectively, with 
liz" Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is 
attached with flex anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two 
l/ z "-long flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with 5/ s " -thick 
GFRC bonding pads that extend 2 / z " beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. 
Interior surface to have one layer of Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard 6 , attached 
with V/4-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 12" on center. Cavity is to be 
filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. GFRC has I / z " returns 
packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



15-1. 12q 



2" x 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. Cavity to be filled with 5 / z " 
mineral wool insulation. 



2" x 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
15-1. 13^| vertically with all joints over framing or blocking and fastened with 2y/' Type S 
drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. R-19 mineral fiber insulation installed in 
stud cavity. 



15-1. 14^ 



2" x 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S drywall screws, spaced 7" on center. 



15-1.15Q 



2" x 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard and sheathing, 
respectively, 4' wide, applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over 
studs, and fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. 
Cavity to be filled with 3 / z " mineral wool insulation. 



15-1. 16Q 



2" x 6" wood studs at 24" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; 
interior and exterior side covered with two layers of sis" Type X gypsum 
wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally with vertical joints over studs. Base layer 
fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 24" on center and face layer 
fastened with Type S drywall screws, spaced 8" on center, wallboard joints 
covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads covered with joint 
compound. Cavity to be filled with 5 / z " mineral wool insulation. 



&* 



6+/ 7 



6 1 /, 



6 3 / 4 



6 3 / 4 



6 3 / 4 



4 3 / 4 



A4 



(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



135 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (2)-continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a, op 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE b 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



15-2. l d 



3 5 / s " No. 16 gage steel studs at 24" on center or 2" x 4" wood studs at 24" on 
center. Metal lath attached to the exterior side of studs with minimum 1" long 
No. 6 dry wall screws at 6" on center and covered with minimum 3/ 4 " thick 
Portland cement plaster. Thin veneer brick units of clay or shale complying with 
ASTM C 1088, Grade TBS or better, installed in running bond in accordance 
with Section 1405.10. Combined total thickness of the portland cement plaster, 
mortar and thin veneer brick units shall be not less than l 3 / 4 " . Interior side 
covered with one layer of s/ s n thick Type X gypsum wallboard attached to studs 
with I" long No. 6 dry wall screws at 12" on center. 



15-2. 2 d 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



3 5 / s - No. 16 gage steel studs at 24" on center or 2" x 4" wood studs at 24" on 
center. Metal lath attached to the exterior side of studs with minimum 1" long 
No. 6 dry wall screws at 6" on center and covered with minimum 3/ 4 " thick 
portland cement plaster. Thin veneer brick units of clay or shale complying with 
ASTM C 1088, Grade TBS or better, installed in running bond in accordance 
with Section 1405.10. Combined total thickness of the portland cement plaster, 
mortar and thin veneer brick units shall be not less than 2". Interior side covered 
with two layers of 5/ s " thick Type X gypsum wallboard. Bottom layer attached to 
studs with I" long No. 6 dry wall screws at 24" on center. Top layer attached to 
studs with l 5 / s " long No. 6 dry wall screws at 12" on center. 



15-2.3 d 



3 5 / s " No. 16 gage steel studs at 16" on center or 2" x 4" wood studs at 16" on 
center. Where metal lath is used, attach to the exterior side of studs with 
minimum I" long No. 6 dry wall screws at 6" on center. Brick units of clay or 
shale not less than 2 5 / s " thick complying with ASTM C 216 installed in 
accordance with Section 1405.6 with a minimum I" air space. Interior side 
covered with one layer of s/ s n thick Type X gypsum wallboard attached to studs 
with I" long No. 6 dry wall screws at 12" on center. 



15-2.4 d 



3 5 / s " No. 16 gage steel studs at 16" on center or 2" x 4" wood studs at 16" on 
center. Where metal lath is used, attach to the exterior side of studs with 
minimum I" long No. 6 dry wall screws at 6" on center. Brick units of clay or 
shale not less than 2 5 /s" thick complying with ASTM C 216 installed in 
accordance with Section 1405.6 with a minimum I" air space. Interior side 
covered with two layers of 5/s" thick Type X gypsum wallboard. Bottom layer 
attached to studs with I" long No. 6 dry wall screws at 24" on center. Top layer 
attached to studs with l 5 / s " long No. 6 dry wall screws at 12" on center. 



7 7 / s 



16. Exterior walls 
rated for fire 
resistance from 
the inside only in 
accordance with 
Section 705.5. 



16-1. lq 



2" x 4" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; 
interior side covered with 5/ s " Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally unblocked, and fastened with 2 1 / 4 " Type S dry wall screws, spaced 
12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, 
fastener heads covered with joint compound. Exterior covered with 3/s" wood 
structural panels, applied vertically, horizontal joints blocked and fastened with 
6d common nails (bright) - 12" on center in the field, and 6" on center panel 
edges. Cavity to be filled with 3 1 / 2 " r 
for exposure from interior side only. 



4V, 



(continued) 



136 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (2)-continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a, op 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE b 

(inches) 

4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



16-1.2° 



16. Exterior walls 
rated for fire 
resistance from 
the inside only in 
accordance with 
Section 705.5. 
(continued) 



16-1.3 



2" x 6" (51mm x 152 mm) wood studs at 16 " centers with double top plates, single 
bottom plate; interior side covered with 5/ 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, 
applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs and fastened with 
2V 4 " Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center, wallboard joints covered with 
paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads covered with joint compound, exterior 
side covered with 7/ 16 " wood structural panels fastened with 6d common nails (bright) 
spaced 12" on center in the field and 6" on center along the panel edges. Cavity to be 
filled with 5 l / 2 " mineral wool insulation. Rating established from the gypsum-covered 
side only. 

2" x 6" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plates; 
interior side covered with 5/ 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
vertically with alljoints over framing or blocking and fastened with 2 1 / 4 " Type S 
drywall screws spaced 7" on center. Joints to be covered with tape andjoint 
compound. Exterior covered with 3/ 8 " wood structural panels, applied vertically 
with edges over framing or blocking and fastened with 6d common nails (bright) 
at 12" on center in the field and 6" on center on panel edges. R-19 mineral fiber 
insulation installed in stud cavity. Rating established from the gypsum-covered 
side only. 



6 9 / 



6% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645 .2 mm 2 , 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m 3 - 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. Thickness shown for brick and clay tile is nominal thicknesses unless plastered, in which case thicknesses are net. Thickness shown for concrete masonry and clay 
masonry is equivalent thickness defined in Section 721 .3. 1 for concrete masonry and Section 721 .4.1.1 for clay masonry. Where all cells are solid grouted or filled 
with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, the equivalent thickness 
shall be the thickness of the block or brick using specified dimensions as defined in Chapter 21 . Equivalent thickness may also include the thickness of applied plas- 
ter and lath or gypsum wallboard, where specified. 

c. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 

d. Shall be used for nonbearing purposes only. 

e. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size , thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of 1/16-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

f. The fire-resistance time period for concrete masonry units meeting the equivalent thicknesses required for a 2-hour fire-resistance rating in Item 3, and having a 
thickness of not less than 7 5 / 8 inches is 4 hours when cores which are not grouted are filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill 
insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, sand or slag having a maximum particle size of 3/ 8 inch. 

g. The fire-resistance rating of concrete masonry units composed of a combination of aggregate types or where plaster is applied directly to the concrete masonry 
shall be determined in accordance with ACI 216.1ITMS 0216. Lightweight aggregates shall have a maximum combined density of 65 pounds per cubic foot. 

h. See also Note b. The equivalent thickness shall be permitted to include the thickness of cement plaster or 1.5 times the thickness of gypsum plaster applied in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Chapter 25 . 

i. Concrete walls shall be reinforced with horizontal and vertical temperature reinforcement as required by Chapter 19. 

j. Studs are welded truss wire studs with 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W gage) flange wire and 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W gage) truss wires. 

k. Nailable metal studs consist of two channel studs spot welded back to back with a crimped web forming a nailing groove. 

1. Wood structural panels shall be permitted to be installed between the fire protection and the wood studs on either the interior or exterior side of the wood frame 
assemblies in this table , provided the length of the fasteners used to attach the fire protection is increased by an amount at least equal to the thickness of the wood 
structural panel. 

m.The design stress of studs shall be reduced to 78 percent of allowable P cwith the maximum not greater than 78 percent of the calculated stress with studs having a 
slenderness ratio I id of 33. 

n. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 514, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

o. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 

p. NCMA TEK 5-8A shall be permitted for the design of fire walls. 

q. The design stress of studs shall be equal to a maximum of 100 percent of the allowable P ccalculated in accordance with Section 2306. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



137 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 





TABLE 720.1 (3) 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMSa, 


q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 

hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


1. Siliceous 
aggregate concrete 


1-1.1 


Slab (no ceiling required) . Minimum cover over 
nonprestressed reinforcement shall not be less than 

3/ 4 " b. 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 










2. Carbonate 
aggregate concrete 


2-1.1 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 










3. Sand-lightweight concrete 


3-1.1 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4. Lightweight concrete 


4-1.1 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


5 . Reinforced 
concrete 


5-1.1 


Slab with suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum 
plaster over metal lath attached to 3/ 4 " cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center. Ceiling located 6" 
minimum below joists. 


3 


2 


- 


- 


1 


3/ 4 


- 


- 


5-2.1 


3/ 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard c attached to 0.018 
inch (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) by7/ 8 " deep by 
2 5 / 8 " hat-shaped galvanized steel channels with 
l"-long No. 6 screws. The channels are spaced 24" 
on center, span 35" and are supported along their 
length at 35" intervals by 0.033" (No. 21 galvanized 
sheet gage) galvanized steel flat strap hangers 
having formed edges that engage the lips of the 
channel. The strap hangers are attached to the side 
of the concrete joists with 5/ 32 " by IV4" long 
power-driven fasteners. The wallboard is installed 
with the long dimension perpendicular to the 
channels. All end joints occur on channels and 
supplementary channels are installed parallel to the 
main channels, 12" each side, at end joint 
occurrences. The finished ceiling is located 
approximately 12" below the soffit of the floor slab. 


- 


- 


2V 2 


- 


- 


- 


5/ 8 


- 


6. Steel joists constructed with 
a poured reinforced concrete 
slab on metal lath forms or 
steel form units d , e 


6-1.1 


Gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to the bottom 
cord with single No. 16 gage or doubled No. 18 
gage wire ties spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 
for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown coat, by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate for 2-hour system. For 
3-hour system plaster is neat. 






2V 2 


2V 4 






3/ 4 


5/ 8 


6-2.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to 
the bottom chord with single No. 16 gage or doubled 
0.049-inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 6" on center. 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


5/ 8 


- 


- 


6-3.1 


Cement plaster over metal lath attached to the 
bottom chord of joists with single No. 16 gage or 
doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 
6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat, 1:3 
for brown coat for I-hour system and 1 : 1 for scratch 
coat, 1:1 V 2 for brown coat for 2-hour system, by 
weight, cement to sand. 








2 








5/ f 


6-4.1 


Ceiling of 5/ 8 " Type X wallboard attached to 7/ 8 " 
deep by 2 5 / 8 " by 0.021 inch (No. 25 carbon sheet 
steel gage) hat- shaped furring channels 12" on 
center with 1" long No. 6 wallboard screws at 8" on 
center. Channels wire tied to bottom chord of joists 
with doubled 0.049 inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire or 
suspended below] oists on wire hangers. 8 


- 


- 


2V 2 


- 


- 


- 


5/ 8 


- 


6-5.1 


Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight 
gypsum to sand aggregate applied over metal lath. 
Lath tied 6" on center to 3/ 4 " channels spaced 13 1 / 2 '' 
on center. Channels secured to joists at each 
intersection with two strands of 0.049 inch (No. 18 
B.W. gage) galvanized wire. 


- 


- 


2V 2 


- 


- 


- 


3/ 4 


- 



(continued) 



138 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 





TABLE 720.1 (3)-continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SVSTEMSa, 


q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


i 

hour 


7. Reinforced concrete slabs 
and joists with hollow clay tile 
fillers laid end to end in rows 
2 1 / 2 " or more apart; 
reinforcement placed between 
rows and concrete cast around 
and over tile. 


7-1.1 


5/s" gypsum plaster on bottom of floor or roof 
construction. 






8 h 








sis 




7-1.2 


None 


- 


- 


- 


5hi 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8. Steel joists constructed with 
a reinforced concrete slab on 
top poured on allv deep steel 
deck. 6 


8-1.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached 
to 3/ 4 " cold-rolled channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. 


2^ 








^ 








9.3" deep cellular steel deck 
with concrete slab on top. Slab 
thickness measured to top. 


9-1.1 


Suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum plaster 
base coat and vermiculite acoustical plaster on metal 
lath attached at 6" intervals to 31 4 cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center and secured to I 1 // 
cold-rolled channels spaced 36" on center with 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire. i l / 2 " channels 
supported by No. 8 gage wire hangers at 36" on 
center. Beams within envelope and with a 2 i / 2 " 
airspace between beam soffit and lath have a 4-hour 
rating . 


2% 


- 


- 


- 


yy 


- 


- 


- 


10. 1 l / 2 "-deep steel roof deck 
on steel framing. Insulation 
board, 30 pcf density, 
composed of wood fibers with 
cement binders of thickness 
shown bonded to deck with 
unified asphalt adhesive. 
Covered with a Class A or B 
roof covering. 


10-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached to 31 4 furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. 31 4 
channel saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle-tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 


- 


- 


1 7 's 


1 


- 


- 


V 


V 


11. 7 7 / 2 " -deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing wood fiber 
insulation board, 17.5 pcf 
density on top applied over a 
15-lb asphalt-saturated felt. 
Class A or B roof covering. 


11-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached to 3/ 4 " furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. 3/ 4 " 
channels saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 
1:3 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum-to-sand 
aggregate for I-hour system. For 2-hour system, 
plaster mix is 1:2 by weight, gypsum-to-sand 
aggregate. 


- 


- 


1*'2 


1 


- 


- 


7/ i 


y 4 1 



{continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



139 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 





TABLE 720.1 (3)-continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SVSTEMSa,q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


12. lV 2 " deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing insulation of 
rigid board consisting of 
expanded perlite and fibers 
impregnated with integral 
asphalt waterproofing ; density 
9 to 12 pcf secured to metal 
roof deck by i/ 2 " wide ribbons 
of waterproof, cold-process 
liquid adhesive spaced 6" 
apart. Steel joist or light steel 
construction with metal roof 
deck, insulation, and Class A 
or B built-up roof covering. 6 


12-1.1 


Gypsum-vermiculite plaster on metal lath wire tied 
at 6" intervals to 3/ 4 " furring channels spaced 12" on 
center and wire tied to 2" runner channels spaced 
32" on center. Runners wire tied to bottom chord of 
steeljoists. 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


7/ 8 


- 


13. Double wood floor over 
woodjoists spaced 16" on 
center.ffi,n 


13-1.1 


Gypsum plaster over 3/ 8 " Type X gypsum lath. Lath 
initially applied with not less than four lV 8 " by No. 
13 gage by i9/ 64 " head plasterboard blued nails per 
bearing. Continuous stripping over lath along all 
joist lines. Stripping consists of 3" wide strips of 
metal lath attached by l 1 / 2 " by No. 11 gage by i/ 2 " 
head roofing nails spaced 6" on center. Alternate 
stripping consists of 3" wide 0.049" diameter wire 
stripping weighing 1 pound per square yard and 
attached by No. 16 gage by 1 1 / 2 M by 3/ 4 " crown width 
staples, spaced 4" on center. Where alternate 
stripping is used, the lath nailing may consist of two 
nails at each end and one nail at each intermediate 
bearing. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 
















7/ 8 


13-1.2 


Cement or gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
fastened with lV 2 " by No. 11 gage by 7/ 16 " head 
barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 
Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 1:3 for brown 
coat, by weight, cement to sand aggregate. 
















5/ 8 


13-1.3 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath 
secured to joists with lV 2 " by No. 11 gage by 7/ 16 " 
head barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5/ 8 


13-1.4 


i/ 2 " Type X gypsum wallboard c nailed to joists with 
5d coolero or wallboardo nails at 6" on center. End 
ioints of wallboard centered on ioists. 
















17 2 


14. Plywood stressed skin 
panels consisting of 5/ 8 "-thick 
interior C-D (exterior glue) 
top stressed skin on 2" x 6" 
nominal (minimum) stringers. 
Adjacent panel edges joined 
with 8d common wire nails 
spaced 6" on center. Stringers 
spaced 12" maximum on 
center. 


14-1.1 


i/ 2 " -thick wood fiberboard weighing 15 to 18 
pounds per cubic foot installed with long dimension 
parallel to stringers or 3/ 8 " C-D (exterior glue) 
plywood glued and/or nailed to stringers. Nailing to 
be with 5d coolero or wallboardo nails at 12" on 
center. Second layer of i/ 2 " Type X gypsum 
wallboard applied with long dimension 
perpendicular to joists and attached with 8d coolero 
or wallboardo nails at 6" on center at end joints and 
8" on center elsewhere. Wallboard joints staggered 
with respect to fiberboard ioints. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 



(continued) 



140 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 





TABLE 720.1 (3)-continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SVSTEMSa, 


q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


l 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


15 . Vermiculite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:4 (portland 
cement to vermiculite 
aggregate) on a lyf-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected steel 
framing. Maximum span of 
deck 6'- 10" where deck is less 
than 0.019 inch (No. 26 
carbon steel sheet gage) or 
greater. Slab reinforced with 
4" x 8" 0.109/0.083" (No. 12 /u 
B.W. gage) welded wire mesh. 


15-1.1 


None 


- 


- 


- 


3J 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16. Perlite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite aggregate) 
on a 1V4 '-deep steel deck 
supported on individually 
protected steel framing. Slab 
reinforced with 4" x 8" 
0.109/0.083" (No. i2 /j4B.W. 
gage) welded wire mesh. 


16-1.1 


None 


- 


- 


- 


Ml 


- 


- 


- 


- 


17. Perlite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite aggregate) 
on a 9/]^ "-deep steel deck 
supported by steel joists 4' on 
center. Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 


17-1.1 


Perlite gypsum plaster on metal lath wire tied to 3/4' 
furring channels attached with 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. 
gage) wire ties to lower chord ofjoists. 


- 


2P 


2P 


- 


- 


7/ s 


3/ 4 


- 


18. Perlite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite aggregate) 
on 1 //'-deep steel deck 
supported on individually 
protected steel framing. 
Maximum span of deck 6'- 10" 
where deck is less than 0.019" 
(No. 26 carbon sheet steel 
gage) and 8'-0" where deck is 
0.019" (No. 26 carbon sheet 
steel gage) or greater. Slab 
reinforced with 0.042" (No. 19 
B.W. gage) hexagonal wire 
mesh. Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 


18-1.1 


None 


- 


2V 4 p 


2V 4 p 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



141 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (3)-continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SVSTEMSa,q 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 



2 hour 



1 hour 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 



1 hour 



19. Floor and beam 
construction consisting of 
3" -deep cellular steel floor 
unit mounted on steel 
members with 1:4 
(proportion of portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) perlite-concrete 
floor slab on top . 



19-1.1 



Suspended envelope ceiling of perlite 
gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to 
3/ 4 " cold-rolled channels, secured to 1 1 / 2 " 
cold-rolled channels spaced 42" on center 
supported by 0.203 inch (No. 6 B.W. gage) 
wire 36" on center. Beams in envelope with 
3" minimum airspace between beam soffit 
and lath have a 4- hour rating. 



2P 



20 . Perlite concrete 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) poured to i/ 8 " 
thickness above top of 
corrugations of 7 5 / /6 "-deep 
galvanized steel deck 
maximum span 8'-0" for 
0.024" (No. 24 galvanized 
sheet gage) or 6' 0" for 
0.019" (No. 26 galvanized 
sheet gage) with deck 
supported by individually 
protected steel framing . 
Approved polystyrene 
foam plastic insulation 
board having a flame 
spread not exceeding 75 
(1" to 4" thickness) with 
vent holes that 
approximate 3 percent of 
the board surface area 
placed on top of perlite 
slurry. A 2' by 4' insulation 
board contains six 2 3 / 4 " 
diameter holes. Board 
covered with 2 1 / 4 " 
minimum perlite concrete 
slab. 



20-1.1 



None 



Varies 



(continued) 



142 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (3)-continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SVSTEMSa,q 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


(continued) 
20. Slab reinforced with mesh 
consisting of 0.042" (No. 19 
B.W. gage) galvanized steel 
wire twisted together to form 
2" hexagons with straight 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) 
galvanized steel wire woven 
into mesh and spaced 3". 
Alternate slab reinforcement 
shall be permitted to consist of 
4" x8", 0.109/0.238" (No. 12/4 
B.W. gage), or 2" x 2", 
0.083/0.083" (No. 14/14 B.W. 
gage) welded wire fabric. Class 
A or B roof covering on top. 


20-1.1 


None 


- 


- 


Varies 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


21. Woodjoists, wood I-joists, 
floor trusses and flat or pitched 
roof trusses spaced a maximum 
24" o.c. with i/ 2 " wood 
structural panels with exterior 
glue applied at right angles to 
top ofjoist or top chord of 
trusses with 8d nails. The wood 
structural panel thickness shall 
not be less than nominal i/ 2 " 
nor less than required by 
Chapter 23. 


21-1.1 


Base layer 5/ s " Type X gypsum wallboard applied 
at right angles to joist or truss 24" o.c. with IV4" 
Type S or Type W dry wall screws 24" o.c. Face 
layer 5/s" Type X gypsum wallboard or veneer 
base applied at right angles to joist or truss 
through base layer with l 7 / s " Type S or Type W 
drywall screws 12" o.c. at joints and intermediate 
joist or truss. Face layer Type G drywall screws 
placed 2" back on either side of face layer end 
joints, 12" o.c. 








Varies 








iv 4 


22. Steel joists, floor trusses 
and flat or pitched roof trusses 
spaced a maximum 24" o.c. 
with i/ 2 " wood structural panels 
with exterior glue applied at 
right angles to top ofjoist or 
top chord of trusses with No. 8 
screws. The wood structural 
panel thickness shall not be less 
than nominal i/ 2 " nor less than 
required by Chapter 23. 


22-1.1 


Base layer 5/ s " Type X gypsum board applied at 
right angles to steel framing 24" on center with 1" 
Type S drywall screws spaced 24" on center. Face 
layer 5/s" Type X gypsum board applied at right 
angles to steel framing attached through base 
layer with l 5 / s " Type S drywall screws 12" on 
center at end joints and intermediate joints and 
l 1 / 2 " Type G drywall screws 12 inches on center 
placed 2" back on either side of face layer end 
joints. Joints of the face layer are offset 24" from 
theioints of the base layer. 








Varies 








iv 4 


23. Wood I-joist (minimum 
joist depth 9 1 / 4 " with a 
minimum flange depth of 15/ 16 " 
and a minimum flange cross- 
sectional area of 2.3 square 
inches) at 24" o.c. spacing with 
1 inch by 4 inch (nominal) 
wood furring strip spacer 
applied parallel to and covering 
the bottom of the bottom flange 
of each member, tacked in 
place . 2" mineral wool 
insulation, 3.5 pcf (nominal) 
installed adjacent to the bottom 
flange of the I-joist and 
supported by the 1" x 4" 
furring strip spacer. 


23-1.1 


i/ 2 " deep single leg resilient channel 16" on center 
(channels doubled at wallboard endjoints), placed 
perpendicular to the furring strip and joist and 
attached to each joist by l 7 / s " Type S drywall 
screws. 5/ s " Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with endjoints 
staggered at least 4' and fastened with 1 V s " Type 
S drywall screws spaced 7" on center. Wallboard 
joints to be taped and covered with joint 
compound. 


- 


- 


- 


Varies 


- 


- 


- 


5/ s 



(continued) 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



143 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 720.1 (3)-continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SVSTEMSa,q 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


24. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9 1 / 4 " with a 
minimum flange depth of 1 V 2 " 
and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 5.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of 3/ 8 „) @ 24" o.c, 
1 l i 2 mineral wool insulation 
(2.5 pcf-nominal) resting on 
hat-shaped furring channels . 


24-1.1 


Minimum 0.026" thick hat-shaped channel 16" 
o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard endjoints), 
placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to 
eachjoistby l 5 / 8 " Type S drywall screws. 5/ 8 " 
Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with endjoints 
staggered and fastened with 1 V 8 " Type S 
drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 
8" o.c. at the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints 
to be taped and covered with joint compound. 


- 


- 


- 


Varies 


- 


- 


- 


5/ 8 


25. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9 1 / 4 " with a 
minimum flange depth of lV 2 " 
and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 5.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of 7/ 16 ") @ 24" o.c, 
1 l i 2 " mineral wool insulation 
(2.5 pcf-nominal) resting on 
resilient channels. 


25-1.1 


Minimum 0.019" thick resilient channel 16" o.c. 
(channels doubled at wallboard endjoints), 
placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to 
eachjoistby l 5 / 8 " Type S drywall screws. 5/ 8 " 
Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with endjoints 
staggered and fastened with 1" Type S drywall 
screws spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. at 
the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints to be taped 
and covered with joint compound. 


- 


- 


- 


Varies 


- 


- 


- 


5/ 8 


26. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9 1 / 4 " with a 
minimum flange thickness of 
l 1 / 2 " and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 2.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of 3/ 8 „) @ 24" o.c. 


26-1.1 


Two layers of i/ 2 " Type X gypsum wallboard 
applied with the long dimension perpendicular 
to the I-joists with endjoints staggered. The 
base layer is fastened with l 5 / 8 - Type S drywall 
screws spaced 12" o.c. and the face layer is 
fastened with 2" Type S drywall screws spaced 
12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. on the edges. 
Face layer endjoints shall not occur on the same 
I-joist as base layer endjoints and edge joints 
shall be offset 24" from base layerjoints. Face 
layer to also be attached to base layer with l 1 / 2 " 
Type G drywall screws spaced 8" o.c. placed 6" 
from face layer endjoints. Face layer wallboard 
joints to be taped and covered with joint 
compound. 








Varies 








1 


27. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9 1 / 2 " with a 
minimum flange depth of 
l 15 / 16 " and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 1.95 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of 3/ 8 ") @ 24" o.c. 


27-1.1 


Minimum 0.019" thick resilient channel 16" o.c. 
(channels doubled at wallboard endjoints), 
placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to 
eachjoist by l 5 / 8 " Type S drywall screws. Two 
layers of i/ 2 " Type X gypsum wallboard applied 
with the long dimension perpendicular to the 
I-joists with endjoints staggered. The base layer 
is fastened with l 1 / 4 " Type S drywall screws 
spaced 12" o.c. and the face layer is fastened 
with l 5 / 8 - Type S drywall screws spaced 12" 
o.c. Face layer endjoints shall not occur on the 
same I-joist as base layer endjoints and edge 
joints shall be offset 24" from base layerjoints. 
Face layer to also be attached to base layer with 
l 1 / 2 " Type G drywall screws spaced 8" o.c. 
placed 6" from face layer endjoints. Face layer 
wallboard joints to be taped and covered with 
joint compound. 


- 


- 


- 


Varies 


- 


- 


- 


1 



(continued) 



144 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



28. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9 1 / 4 M with a 
minimum flange depth of 
1 h 2 and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 2.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of 3/s") @ 24" o.c, 
Unfaced fiberglass insulation 
is installed between the 
I-joists supported on the 
upper surface of the flange b^ 
stay wires spaced 12" o.c. 



29. Channel-shaped 18 gage 
steel joists (minimum depth 
8") spaced a maximum 24" 
o.c. supporting 
tongue-and-groove wood 
structural panels (nominal 
minimum 3/ 4 " thick) applied 
perpendicular to framing 
members. Structural panels 
attached with l- 5 /s" Type 
S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. 



TABLE 720.1 (3)-continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOFNVM^ROOF SVSTEMSa,q 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



28-1.1 



29-1.1 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 

Base layer of 5/s" Type C gypsum wallboard 
attached directly to I-joists with l 5 / s " Type S 
drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. with ends 
staggered. Minimum 0.0179" thick hat-shaped 
7/ s -inch furring channel 16" o.c. (channels 
doubled at wallboard end joints), placed 
perpendicular to the joist and attached to each 
joist by l 5 / s " Type S drywall screws after the 
base layer of gypsum wallboard has been 
applied. The middle and face layers of 5/s" Type 
C gypsum wallboard applied perpendicular to 
the channel with end joints staggered. The 
middle layer is fastened with 1" Type S drywall 
screws spaced 12" o.c. The face layer is applied 
parallel to the middle layer but with the edge 
joints offset 24" from those of the middle layer 
and fastened with l 5 / s " Type S drywall screws 
8" o.c. Thejoints shall be taped and covered 
withioint compound. 

Base layer 5/s" Type X gypsum board applied 
perpendicular to bottom of framing members 
with 1 V s" Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. 
Second layer 5/s" Type X gypsum board 
attached perpendicular to framing members with 
l 5 / 8 " Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Second 
layer joints offset 24" from base layer. Third 
layer 5/ s " Type X gypsum board attached 
perpendicular to framing members with 2 3 / s " 
Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Third layer 
joints offset 12" from second layerjoints. 
Hat- shaped 7/s-inch rigid furring channels 
applied at right angles to framing members over 
third layer with two 2 3 /s" Type S-12 screws at 
each framing member. Face layer 5/s" Type X 
gypsum board applied at right angles to furring 
channels with lV s " Type S screws spaced 12" 



THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



Varies 



1 
hour 



Varies 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

finches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



2 3 / 4 



3 3 /, 



l 
hour 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



145 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



Table 720.1(3) Notes. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283m 3 , 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per lineal foot = 1.4882 kg/m. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. When the slab is in an unrestrained condition, minimum reinforcement cover shall not be less than I Ss inches for 4-hour (siliceous aggregate only); f/ 4 inches for 
4- and 3-hour; 1 inch for 2-hour (siliceous aggregate only) ; and 3/ 4 inch for all other restrained and unrestrained conditions. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of r/ y6 -inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. Slab thickness over steel joists measured at the joists for metal lath form and at the top of the form for steel form units. 

e. (a) The maximum allowable stress level for H-Seriesjoists shall not exceed 22,000 psi. 

(b) The allowable stress for K-Seriesjoists shall not exceed 26,000 psi, the nominal depth of suchjoist shall not be less than 10 inches and the nominaljoist weight 
shall not be less than 5 pounds per lineal foot. 

f. Cement plaster with 15 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admixtures per bag of cement. 

g. Gypsum wallboard ceilings attached to steel framing shall be permitted to be suspended with 1 / z -inch cold-formed carrying channels spaced 48 inches on center, 
which are suspended with No. 8 SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 
SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 SWG galvanized wire (double 
strand) and spaced as required for direct attachment to the framing. This alternative is also applicable to those steel framing assemblies recognized under 
Noteq. 

h. Six-inch hollow clay tile with 2-inch concrete slab above. 

i. Four-inch hollow clay tile with 1 7 z -inch concrete slab above . 

j . Thickness measured to bottom of steel form units . 

k. Five-eighths inch of vermiculite gypsum plaster plus //zinch of approved vermiculite acoustical plastic. 

1. Furring channels spaced 12 inches on center. 

m. Double wood floor shall be permitted to be either of the following: 

(a) Subfloor of I-inch nominal boarding, a layer of asbestos paper weighing not less than 14 pounds per 100 square feet and a layer of I-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring; or 

(b) Subfloor of I-inch nominal tongue-and-groove boarding or ls/3z-inch wood structural panels with exterior glue and a layer of I-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring or l^z-inch wood structural panel finish flooring or a layer of Type I Grade M-l particleboard not less than sis-inch thick. 

n. The ceiling shall be permitted to be omitted over unusable space, and flooring shall be permitted to be omitted where unusable space occurs above. 

o. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 514, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

p. Thickness measured on top of steel deck unit. 

q. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 



(Section 721.1.1 continued from page 125) 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. A lightweight insulating 
concrete made with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is 
laminated micaceous material produced by expanding the 
ore at high temperatures. When added to a portland cement 
slurry the resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approx- 
imately 30 pcf (480 kg/m 3 ). 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. Fibrous glass roof insulation 
consisting of inorganic glass fibers formed into rigid boards 
using a binder. The board has a top surface faced with 
asphalt and kraft reinforced with glass fiber. 

MINERAL BOARD. A rigid felted thermal insulation 
board consisting of either felted mineral fiber or cellular 
beads of expanded aggregate formed into flat rectangular 
units. 

721.2 Concrete assemblies. The provisions of this section 
contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of con- 
crete assemblies are established by calculations. 

721.2.1 Concrete walls. Cast-in-place and precast concrete 
walls shall comply with Section 72 1 .2. 1 . 1 . Multiwythe con- 
crete walls shall comply with Section 721.2.1.2. Joints 
between precast panels shall comply with Section 
721.2.1.3. Concrete walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster 
finish shall comply with Section 721.2.1.4. 

721.2.1.1 Cast-in-place or precast walls. The mini- 
mum equivalent thicknesses of cast-in-place or precast 
concrete walls for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 
hours are shown in Table 721.2.1.1. For solid walls with 



flat vertical surfaces, the equivalent thickness is the same 
as the actual thickness. The values in Table 721.2.1.1 
apply to plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete walls. 

TABLE 721.2.1.1 

MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS OF CAST-IN-PLACE OR 

PRECAST CONCRETE WALLS, LOAD-BEARING OR 

NONLOAD-BEARING 



CONCRETE 
TYPE 


MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 


l-hour 


1 l / 2 -hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand-Lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



721.2.1.1.1 Hollow-core precast wall panels. For 
hollow-core precast concrete wall panels in which the 
cores are of constant cross section throughout the 
length, calculation of the equivalent thickness by 
dividing the net cross-sectional area (the gross cross 
section minus the area of the cores) of the panel by its 
width shall be permitted. 

721.2.1.1.2 Core spaces filled. Where all of the core 
spaces of hollow-core wall panels are filled with 
loose-fill material, such as expanded shale, clay, or 
slag, or vermiculite or perlite, the fire-resistance rat- 



146 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



ing of the wall is the same as that of a solid wall of the 
same concrete type and of the same overall thickness. 

721.2.1.1.3 Tapered cross sections. The thickness of 
panels with tapered cross sections shall be that deter- 
mined at a distance 2 tor 6 inches (152 mm), which- 
ever is less, from the point of minimum thickness, 
where tis the minimum thickness. 

721.2.1.1.4 Ribbed or undulating surfaces. The 
equivalent thickness of panels with ribbed or undulat- 
ing surfaces shall be determined by one of the follow- 
ing expressions: 

For s > At, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s<2t, the thickness to be used shall be t e 

For At > s > It, the thickness to be used shall be 



INSIDEWYTHE 
CARBONATE 



INSIDEWYTHE 
SILICEOUS 




1 ^3^5 



1 ^3^1- :5 



THICKNESS OF INSIDEWYTHE, INCHES 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 

CARBONATE 
. I V I I I I 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 
SILICEOUS 
I I 




12345 12345 

THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE, INCHES 



t + 



At 



-1 



t -t 
e 



(Equation 7-3) 



where: 

s Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

Minimum thickness. 

t e Equivalent thickness of the panel calculated 

as the net cross-sectional area of the panel di- 
vided by the width, in which the maximum 
thickness used in the calculation shall not ex- 
ceed 2t. 

721.2.1.2 Multiwythe walls. For walls that consist of 
two wythes of different types of concrete, the fire -resis- 
tance ratings shall be permitted to be determined from 
Figure 721.2.1.2. 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 721.2.1.2 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS OF 
TWO-WYTHE CONCRETE WALLS 



721.2.1.2.1 Two or more wythes. The fire-resistance 
ratingforwaU panels consisting of two or more wythes 
shall be permitted to be determined by the formula : 



R= (R f .59 + Ra59 + ... + R 



o.59) 1.7 



(Equation 7-4) 



where: 

R = The fire endurance of the assembly, minutes. 

R p R 2 , and R n =The fire endurances of the individual 
wythes, minutes. Values of R n o.59 for use in Equation 7-4 
are given in Table 721.2.1.2(1). Calculated fire-resis- 
tance ratings are shown in Table 721.2.1.2(2). 



TABLE 721.2.1.2(1) 
VALUES OF Ro. 59 FOR USE IN EQUATION 7-4 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 


THICKNESS OF MATERIAL (inches) 


l\ 


2 


2% 


3 


3\ 


4 


4% 


5 


5\ 


6 


6 l / 2 


7 


Siliceous aggregate 
concrete 


5.3 


6.5 


8.1 


9.5 


11.3 


13.0 


14.9 


16.9 


18.8 


20.7 


22.8 


25.1 


Carbonate aggregate 
concrete 


5.5 


7.1 


8.9 


10.4 


12.0 


14.0 


16.2 


18.1 


20.3 


21.9 


24.7 


27.2 C 


Sand-lightweight 
concrete 


6.5 


8.2 


10.5 


12.8 


15.5 


18.1 


20.7 


23.3 


26.0° 


Note c 


Note c 


Note c 


Lightweight concrete 


6.6 


8.8 


11.2 


13.7 


16.5 


19.1 


21.9 


24.7 


27.8 C 


Note c 


Note c 


Note c 


Insulating concrete 3 


9.3 


13.3 


16.6 


18.3 


23.1 


26. 5 C 


Note c 


Note c 


Note c 


Note c 


Note c 


Note c 


Airspace b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m 3 . 

a. Dry unit weight of 35 pcf or less and consisting of cellular, perlite or vermiculite concrete. 

b. The R n o. value for one V 2 " to 3 V 2 " airspace is 3.3. The R n o. value for two V 2 " to 3 7 2 " airspaces is 6.7. 

c. The fire-resistance rating for this thickness exceeds 4 hours. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



147 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.2.1.2(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS BASED ON RO. 5 



R a , MINUTES 


RO.59 


60 
120 
180 
240 


11.20 
16.85 
21.41 

25.37 



a. Based on Equation 7-4. 

721.2.1.2.2 Foam plastic insulation. The fire-resis- 
tance ratings of precast concrete wall panels consist- 
ing of a layer of foam plastic insulation sandwiched 
between two wythes of concrete shall be permitted to 
be determined by use of Equation 7-4. Foam plastic 
insulation with a total thickness of less than 1 inch (25 
mm) shall be disregarded. The R n value for thickness 
of foam plastic insulation of 1 inch (25 mm) or 
greater, for use in the calculation, is 5 minutes; there- 
fore R n °59 = 2.5. 

721.2.1.3 Joints between precast wall panels. Joints 
between precast concrete wall panels which are not insu- 
lated as required by this section shall be considered as 
openings in walls. Uninsulatedjoints shall be included in 
determining the percentage of openings permitted by 
Table 705.8. Where openings are not permitted or are 
required by this code to be protected, the provisions of 
this section shall be used to determine the amount ofjoint 
insulation required. Insulatedjoints shall not be consid- 
ered openings for purposes of determining compliance 
with the allowable percentage of openings in Table 
705.8. 

721.2.1.3.1 Ceramic fiber joint protection. Figure 
721.2.1.3.1 shows thicknesses of ceramic fiber blan- 
kets to be used to insulate joints between precast con- 
crete wall panels for various panel thicknesses and for 
joint widths of 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 mm) 



for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours. For 
joint widths between 3/ 8 inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 
mm), the thickness of ceramic fiber blanket is allowed 
to be determined by direct interpolation. Other tested 
and labeled materials are acceptable in place of 
ceramic fiber blankets. 

721 .2. 1 .4 Walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster fin- 
ishes. The fire-resistance rating of cast-in-place or pre- 
cast concrete walls with finishes of gypsum wallboard or 
plaster applied to one or both sides shall be permitted to 
be calculated in accordance with the provisions of this 
section. 

721.2.1.4.1 Nonfire-exposed side. Where the finish 
of gypsum wallboard or plaster is applied to the side 
of the wall not exposed to fire, the contribution of the 
finish to the total fire-resistance rating shall be deter- 
mined as follows: The thickness of the finish shall 
first be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness 
of the finish by the applicable factor determined from 
Table 721.2.1.4(1) based on the type of aggregate in 
the concrete. The corrected thickness of finish shall 
then be added to the actual or equivalent thickness of 
concrete and fire-resistance rating of the concrete and 
finish determined from Table 721.2.1.1, Figure 
721.2.1.2 or Table 721.2.1.2(1). 

721.2.1.4.2 Fire-exposed side. Where gypsum wall- 
board or plaster is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: 
The time assigned to the finish as established by Table 
721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rat- 
ing determined from Table 721.2.1.1 or Figure 
721.2.1.2, or Table 721.2.1.2(1) for the concrete 
alone, or to the rating determined in Section 
721.2.1.4.1 for the concrete and finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side. 



1 IN( 


:h joir 
\ 
\ 


JT WID1 
\> 


"H \ 


^ 


\ 
\ 


A 




\\o 1 






^N 




V 




^ 


JJir^ 


% 







3 4 5 6 7 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



3 ,... 




For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mini. 



3 4 5 6 7 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



I 
u 

z 



Q 



1 INCH MAXIMUM REGARDLESS 
OF OPENING RATING 



CERAMIC FIBER 
BLANKET 



H3 



JOINT 
WIDTH 



CARBONATE OR 

SILICEOUS AGGREGATE 

CONCRETE 

SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT 

OR LIGHTWEIGHT 

CONCRETE 



FIGURE 721.2.1.3.1 
CERAMIC FIBER JOINT PROTECTION 



148 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.2.1.4(1) 
MULTIPLYING FACTOR FOR FINISHES ON NON FIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 



TYPE OF FINISH APPLIED TO CONCRETE OR 
CONCRETE MASONRY WALL 


TYPE OF AGGREGATE USED IN CONCRETE OR CONCRETE MASONRY 


Concrete: siliceous 

or carbonate 

Concrete Masonry: 

siliceous or carbonate; 

solid clay brick 


Concrete: sand-lightweight 
Concrete Masonry: clay tile; 
hollow clay brick; concrete 
masonry units of expanded 
shale and <20% sand 


Concrete: lightweight 

Concrete Masonry: 

concrete masonry units 

of expanded shale, 

expanded clay, 
expanded slag, or 
pumice < 20% sand 


Concrete Masonry: 
concrete masonry units 

of expanded slag, 
expanded clay, or pumice 


Portland cement-sand plaster 


1.00 


0.75 3 


0.75 3 


0.50 3 


Gypsum- sand plaster 


1.25 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


Gypsum-vermiculite or perlite plaster 


1.75 


1.50 


1.25 


1.25 


Gypsum wallboard 


3.00 


2.25 


2.25 


2.25 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For portland cement-sand plaster 5/ 8 inch or less in thickness and applied directly to the concrete or concrete masonry on the nonfire-exposed side of the wall, the 
multiplying factor shall be 1.00. 

TABLE 721.2.1.4(2) 
TIME ASSIGNED TO FINISH MATERIALS ON FIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 



I 



FINISH DESCRIPTION 


TIME (minute) 


Gypsum wallboard 




3/ 8 inch 


10 


i/ 2 inch 


15 


5/ 8 inch 


20 


2 layers of 3/ 8 inch 


25 


1 layer 3/ 8 inch, 1 layer i/ 2 inch 


35 


2 layers i/ ? inch 


40 


Type X gypsum wallboard 




i/ 2 inch 


25 


5/ 8 inch 


40 


Portland cement-sand plaster applied directly to concrete masonry 


See Note a 


Portland cement- sand plaster on metal lath 




3/ 4 inch 


20 


7/ 8 inch 


25 


1 inch 


30 


Gypsum sand plaster on 3/ 8 -inch gypsum lath 




i/ 2 inch 


35 


5/ 8 inch 


40 


3/ 4 inch 


50 


Gypsum sand plaster on metal lath 




3/ 4 inch 


50 


7/ 8 inch 


60 


1 inch 


80 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The actual thickness of portland cement-sand plaster, provided i t is 5/ 8 inch or less in thickness, shall be permitted to be included in determining the equivalent 
thickness of the masonry for use in Table 721 .3.2. 



721.2.1.4.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall 
having no finish on one side or different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation pro- 
cedures of Sections 721.2.1.4.1 and 721.2.1.4.2 shall 
be performed twice, assuming either side of the wall 
to be the fire-exposed side. The fire-resistance rating 
of the wall shall not exceed the lower of the two val- 
ues. 

Exception: For an exterior wall with afire separa- 
tion distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) the fire 
shall be assumed to occur on the interior side only. 



721.2.1.4.4 Minimum concrete fire-resistance rat- 
ing. Where finishes applied to one or both sides of a 
concrete wall contribute to the fire-resistance rating, 
the concrete alone shall provide not less than one-half 
of the total required fire-resistance rating. Addition- 
ally, the contribution to the fire resistance of the finish 
on the nonfire-exposed side of a load-bearing wall 
shall not exceed one-half the contribution of the con- 
crete alone. 

721. 2.1 .4. 5 Concrete finishes. Finishes on concrete 
walls that are assumed to contribute to the total 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



149 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



fire-resistance rating of the wall shall comply with the 
installation requirements of Section 721.3.2.5. 

721.2.2 Concrete floor and roof slabs. Reinforced and 
prestressed floors and roofs shall comply with Section 
721.2.2.1. Multicourse floors and roofs shall comply with 
Sections 721.2.2.2 and 721.2.2.3, respectively. 

721.2.2.1 Reinforced and prestressed floors and 
roofs. The minimum thicknesses of reinforced and pre- 
stressed concrete floor or roof slabs for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours are shown in Table 72 1 .2.2. 1 . 

TABLE 721.2.2.1 
MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) 



CONCRETE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hour) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


S and-lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721.2.2.1.1 Hollow-core prestressed slabs. For hol- 
low-core prestressed concrete slabs in which the cores 
are of constant cross section throughout the length, 
the equivalent thickness shall be permitted to be 
obtained by dividing the net cross-sectional area of 
the slab including grout in the joints, by its width. 

721.2.2.1.2 Slabs with sloping soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with sloping soffits (see Figure 721.2.2.1.2) 
shall be determined at a distance 2t or 6 inches (152 
mm), whichever is less, from the point of minimum 
thickness, where tis the minimum thickness. 



DETERMINE THICKNESS HERE 



t + 



At 



-1 



t -t 
e 



(Equation 7-5) 



where: 

s - Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

= Minimum thickness. 

t e = Equivalent thickness of the slab calculated as 
the net area of the slab divided by the width, in 
which the maximum thickness used in the cal- 
culation shall not exceed 2t. 




•;iiai :>^j-!i h i- i ^. i :i.i « i:m ii iiwu i ni iiik:kn ks 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721.2.2.1.3 
SLABS WITH RIBBED OR UNDULATING SOFFITS 

721.2.2.2 Multicourse floors. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of floors that consist of a base slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of a different type of concrete shall 
comply with Figure 721.2.2.2. 

CARBONATE BASE 



fey 



^s, 


T 1 1 1 


— 1 — 


- 


>vjx4ht 


- 








" 


^Sjhr. ^v X. 


\ 


- 


i i i\ i 


1J 





SILICEOUS BASE 




*%. 


1 1 1 1 


1 


^ 


\ \4hr. 


" 




^\2 hrN. X^ 






^S^lhr. X. Xw 






j i X i 





-2tOR 6 INCHES, 
WHICHEVER IS LESS 



1 "> 3 5 3 5 

THICKNESS OF NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 721.2.2.1.2 

DETERMINATION OF SLAB THICKNESS 

FOR SLOPING SOFFITS 

721.2.2.1.3 Slabs with ribbed soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with ribbed or undulating soffits (see Figure 
721.2.2.1.3) shall be determined by one of the follow- 
ing expressions, whichever is applicable: 

For s> 4t, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s<2t, the thickness to be used shall be t e 

For At > s > 2t, the thickness to be used shall be 



CARBONATE OVERLAY 

-i r 



SILICEOUS OVERLAY 




THICKNESS OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 

For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721.2.2.2 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR TWO-COURSE 

CONCRETE FLOORS 



150 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



721.2.2.3 Multicourse roofs. The fire-resistance ratings 
of roofs which consist of a base slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of an insulating concrete or with an 
insulating board and built-up roofing shall comply with 
Figures 721.2.2.3(1) and 721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.3.1 Heat transfer. For the transfer of heat, 
three-ply built-up roofing contributes 10 minutes to 
the fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating 
for concrete assemblies such as those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(1) shall be increased by 10 minutes. This 
increase is not applicable to those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.4 Joints in precast slabs. Joints between adja- 
cent precast concrete slabs need not be considered in cal- 
culating the slab thickness provided that a concrete 
topping at least 1 inch (25 mm) thick is used. Where no 
concrete topping is used, joints must be grouted to a 
depth of at least one-third the slab thickness at the joint, 
but not less than 1 inch (25 mm), or the joints must be 
made fire resistant by other app rove d methods. 

721.2.3 Concrete cover over reinforcement. The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover over reinforcement in con- 
crete slabs, reinforced beams and prestressed beams shall 
comply with this section. 

721.2.3.1 Slab cover. The minimum thickness of con- 
crete cover to the positive moment reinforcement shall 
comply with Table 721.2.3(1) for reinforced concrete 
and Table 721.2.3(2) for prestressed concrete. These 
tables are applicable for solid or hollow-core one-way or 
two-way slabs with flat under surf aces. These tables are 
applicable to slabs that are either cast in place or precast. 
For precast prestressed concrete not covered elsewhere, 
the procedures contained in PCI MNL 124 shall be 
acceptable. 

721.2.3.2 Reinforced beam cover. The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment reinforce- 
ment (bottom steel) for reinforced concrete beams is 
shown in Table 721.2.3(3) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 
hour to 4 hours. 



CELLULAR CONCRETE 



4 CONCRETE *■ 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



PERLITE CONCRETE 



4 CONCRETE t 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



VERMICULITE CONCRETE 



W 1% 2 
°6 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 



_ 1hr. ^Os, 







THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 721.2.2.3(1) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



^Y\NA\\ MINERAL BOARD ggg 



CARBONATE BASE 




SILICEOUS BASE SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 
3 u I 1 






"1 hr. 



THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB. INCHES 



721.2.3.3 Prestressed beam cover. The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment 
prestressing tendons (bottom steel) for restrained and 
unrestrained prestressed concrete beams and stemmed 
units shall comply with the values shown in Tables 
721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5) for fire -resistance ratings of 1 
hour to 4 hours. Values in Table 721.2.3(4) apply to 
beams 8 inches (203 mm) or greater in width. Values in 
Table 721.2.3(5) apply to beams or stems of any width, 
provided the cross-section area is not less than 40 square 
inches (25 806 mm 2 ). In case of differences between the 
values determined from Table 721.2.3(4) or 721.2.3(5), 
it is permitted to use the smaller value. The concrete 
cover shall be calculated in accordance with Section 
721.2.3.3.1. The minimum concrete cover for 
nonprestressed reinforcement in prestressed concrete 
beams shall comply with Section 721.2.3.2. 



STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILD-UP ROOFING 



mm 



.GLASS FIBER BOARD, 



WML 



SILICEOUS BASE SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 
3 u \) V I 1 1 3r 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB. INCHES 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 721.2.2.3(2) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



151 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.2.3(1) 
COVER THICKNESS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


l\, 


2 


3 


4 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


1 


l'/ 4 


1% 


Carbonate 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/4 


3/4 


3/4 


3/4 


l'/ 4 


l'/ 4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


l'/ 4 


l'/ 4 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



TABLE 721.2.3(2) 
COVER THICKNESS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


l'/ 8 


l>/ 2 


1% 


2% 


2% 


Carbonate 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/4 


1 


1% 


l 5 / 8 


2V g 


2'/ 4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 


1 


1% 


l>/ 2 


2 


2'/ 4 



For 51: 1 inch =25.4i 



TABLE 721.2.3(3) 

MINIMUM COVER FOR MAIN REINFORCING BARS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS C 

(APPLICABLE TO ALL TYPES OF STRUCTURAL CONCRETE) 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED" 


BEAMWIDTH" 
(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 




5 


3/4 


3/4 




3/4 




la 


1 1/ a 

i / 4 


Restrained 


7 


3/ 4 


3/4 




3/4 




3/4 


3/4 




>10 


3/4 


3/4 




3/4 




3/4 


3/4 




5 


3/ 4 


1 




1V 4 








Unrestrained 


7 


3/4 


3/4 




3/4 




1% 


3 




>10 


3/ 4 


3/ 4 




3/ 4 




1 


1% 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of 3/4 inch is adequate for ratings of 4 hours or less. 

b. For beam widths between the tabulated values, the minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c . The cover for an individual reinforcing bar is the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface of the bar and the fire-exposed surface of the beam. For beams 
in which several bars are used, the cover for corner bars used in the calculation shall be reduced to one-half of the actual value. The cover for an individual bar must 
be not less than one-half of the value given in Table 721.2.3(3) nor less than 3/ 4 inch. 

TABLE 721.2.3(4) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS 8 INCHES OR GREATER IN WIDTH 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED 3 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAMWIDTH b 
(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 




1% 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 

Carbonate or siliceous 

Sand lightweight 

Sand lightweight 


8 

> 12 
8 

> 12 


lV 2 
lV 2 
lV 2 
iV 2 


1V 2 
1V 2 
1V 2 
1V 2 


l»/ 2 
1V 2 

i'/ 2 
l»/ 2 


1V 2 
l'/ 2 
l»/ 2 


2V 

2 a 

i5, a 

1 7 8 


Unrestrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 

Carbonate or siliceous 

Sand lightweight 

Sand lightweight 


8 

> 12 
8 

> 12 


iV 2 
lV 2 

lV 2 
lV 2 


1% 

1V 2 

1V 2 
1V 2 


2V 2 

i7, a 
1 7 8 

2 

1% 


5 C 

3V 4 

2 


3 

2V 2 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of 3/4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. Not practical for 8-inch-wide beam but shown for purposes of interpolation. 



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TABLE 721.2.3(5) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS OF ALL WIDTHS 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED a 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM AREA b 
A (square inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1V 2 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


All 


40<A<150 


iv 2 


1V 2 


2 


2V 2 


- 


Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150<A<300 


IV, 


IV, 


l 1 /, 


1% 

iv 2 


2V 2 

2 


300<A 


iv 2 


iv 2 


1V 2 


Sand lightweight 


150 <A 


iv 2 


iv 2 


1V 2 


iv 2 


2 


Unrestrained 


All 


40<A<150 


2 


2V 2 


- 


- 


- 


Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150<A<300 


l 1 /. 


1% 


2Vo 


. 


. 


300<A 


iv 2 


1V 2 


2 


3 C 


4 c 


Sand lightweight 


150 <A 


iv 2 


iv 2 


2 


3 C 


4 c 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of 3/ 4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. The cross-sectional area of a stem is permitted to include a portion of the area in the flange, provided the width of the flange used in the calculation does not exceed 
three times the average width of the stem. 

c. U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member and having a minimum cover of 1 inch shall be provided. 



721.2.3.3.1 Calculating concrete cover. The con- 
crete cover for an individual tendon is the minimum 
thickness of concrete between the surface of the ten- 
don and the fire-exposed surface of the beam, except 
that for ungrouted ducts, the assumed cover thick- 
ness is the minimum thickness of concrete between 
the surface of the duct and the fire-exposed surface 
of the beam. For beams in which two or more ten- 
dons are used, the cover is assumed to be the average 
of the minimum cover of the individual tendons. For 
corner tendons (tendons equal distance from the bot- 
tom and side), the minimum cover used in the calcu- 
lation shall be one-half the actual value. For 
stemmed members with two or more prestressing 
tendons located along the vertical centerline of the 
stem, the average cover shall be the distance from the 
bottom of the member to the centroid of the tendons. 
The actual cover for any individual tendon shall not 
be less than one-half the smaller value shown in 
Tables 721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5), or 1 inch (25 mm), 
whichever is greater. 

721.2.4 Concrete columns. Concrete columns shall com- 
ply with this section. 

TABLE 721.2.4 
MINIMUM DIMENSION OF CONCRETE COLUMNS (inches) 



TYPES OF 
CONCRETE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1% 


2 a 


3 a 


4 b 


Siliceous 


8 


9 


10 


12 


14 


Carbonate 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Sand-lightweight 


8 


8V 2 


9 


IOV2 


12 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25 mm. 

a. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 8 inches for rectangu- 
lar columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

b. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 10 inches for rectan- 
gular columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 



721.2.4.1 Minimum size. The minimum overall dimen- 
sions of reinforced concrete columns for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours for exposure to fire on all 
sides shall comply with this section. 

721.2.4.1.1 Concrete strength less than or equal to 
12,000 psi. For columns made with concrete having a 
specified compressive strength, I'c of less than or 
equal to 12,000 psi (82.7 MPa) , the minimum dimen- 
sion shall comply with Table 721.2.4. 

721.2.4.1.2 Concrete strength greater than 12,000 
psi. For columns made with concrete having a speci- 
fied compressive strength, I'c greater than 12,000 psi 
(82.7 MPa) , for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 
hours the minimum dimension shall be 24 inches (610 
mm). 

721.2.4.2 Minimum cover for RIC columns. The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover to the main longitudi- 
nal reinforcement in columns, regardless of the type of 
aggregate used in the concrete and the specified com- 
pressive strength of concrete, I'c shall not be less than 1 
inch (25 mm) times the number of hours of required fire 
resistance or 2 inches (51 mm), whichever is less. 

721.2.4.3 Tie and spiral reinforcement. For concrete 
columns made with concrete having a specified com- 
pressive strength, I'c greater than 12,000 psi (82.7 MPa) , 
tie and spiral reinforcement shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The free ends of rectangular ties shall terminate 
with a 135-degree (2.4 rad) standard tie hook. 

2. The free ends of circular ties shall terminate with a 
gO-degree (1.6 rad) standard tie hook. 

3. The free ends of spirals, including at lap splices, 
shall terminate with a gO-degree (1.6 rad) standard 
tie hook. 



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153 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



The hook extension at the free end of ties and spirals 
shall be the larger of six bar diameters and the extension 
required by Section 7.1.3 of ACI 318. Hooks shall pro- 
ject into the core of the column. 

721.2.4.4 Columns built into walls. The minimum 
dimensions of Table 721.2.4 do not apply to a reinforced 
concrete column that is built into a concrete or masonry 
wall provided all of the following are met: 

1. The fire-resistance rating for the wall is equal to or 
greater than the required rating of the column; 

2. The main longitudinal reinforcing in the column 
has cover not less than that required by Section 
721.2.4.2; and 

3. Openings in the wall are protected in accordance 
with Table 715.4. 

Where openings in the wall are not protected as 
required by Section 715.4, the minimum dimension of 
columns required to have a fire-resistance rating of 3 
hours or less shall be 8 inches (203 mm), and 10 inches 
(254 mm) for columns required to have a fire-resistance 
rating of 4 hours, regardless of the type of aggregate used 
in the concrete. 

721.2.4.5 Precast cover units for steel columns. See 
Section 721.5.1.4. 

721.3 Concrete masonry. The provisions of this section con- 
tain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of concrete 
masonry are established by calculations. 

721.3.1 Equivalent thickness. The equivalent thickness of 
concrete masonry construction shall be determined in 
accordance with the provisions of this section. 

721.3.1.1 Concrete masonry unit plus finishes. The 
equivalent thickness of concrete masonry assemblies, 
Tea' shall be computed as the sum of the equivalent thick- 
ness of the concrete masonry unit, T e , as determined by 
Section 721.3.1.2, 721.3.1.3 or 721.3.1.4, plus the equiv- 
alent thickness of finishes, T efi determined in accordance 



with Section 721.3.2: 



(Equation 7-6) 



721.3.1.2 Ungrouted or partially grouted construc- 
tion. T e shall be the value obtained for the concrete 
masonry unit determined in accordance with ASTM C 
140. 

721.3.1.3 Solid grouted construction. The equivalent 
thickness, T e , of solid grouted concrete masonry units is 
the actual thickness of the unit. 

721.3.1.4 Airspaces and cells filled with loose-fill 
material. The equivalent thickness of completely filled 
hollow concrete masonry is the actual thickness of the 
unit when loose-fill materials are: sand, pea gravel, 
crushed stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 require- 
ments; pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, 
expanded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or cin- 
ders that comply with ASTM C 33 1 ; or perlite or vermic- 
ulite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 549 and 
ASTM C 516, respectively. 

721.3.2 Concrete masonry walls. The fire-resistance rat- 
ing of walls and partitions constructed of concrete masonry 
units shall be determined from Table 721.3.2. The rating 
shall be based on the equivalent thickness of the masonry 
and type of aggregate used. 

721.3.2.1 Finish on nonfire-exposed side. Where plas- 
ter or gypsum wallboard is applied to the side of the wall 
not exposed to fire, the contribution of the finish to the 
total fire-resistance rating shall be determined as fol- 
lows: The thickness of gypsum wallboard or plaster shall 
be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of the 
finish by applicable factor determined from Table 
721.2.1.4(1). This corrected thickness of finish shall be 
added to the equivalent thickness of masonry and the 
fire-resistance rating of the masonry and finish deter- 
mined from Table 721.3.2. 

721.3.2.2 Finish on fire-exposed side. Where plaster or 
gypsum wallboard is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: The 
time assigned to the finish as established by Table 
721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating 
determined in Section 721.3.2 for the masonry alone, or 



TABLE 721.3.2 
MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS (inches) OF BEARING OR NONBEARING CONCRETE MASONRY WALLSa,b,c 


:,d 




TYPE OF AGGREGATE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


V 2 


3/ 4 


1 


1% 


l ! / 2 


1% 


2 


2\ 


l\ 


2\ 


3 


3 ! / 4 


3h 2 


3 3 / 4 


4 


Pumice or expanded slag 


1.5 


1.9 


2.1 


2.5 


2.7 


3.0 


3.2 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.5 


4.7 


Expanded shale, clay or slate 


1.8 


2.2 


2.6 


2.9 


3.3 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.6 


4.8 


4.9 


5.1 


Limestone, cinders or unexpanded slag 


1.9 


2.3 


2.7 


3.1 


3.4 


3.7 


4.0 


4.3 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.5 


5.7 


5.9 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


3.2 


3.6 


3.9 


4.2 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.3 


5.5 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values between those shown in the table can be determined by direct interpolation. 

b. Where combustible members are framed into the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between 
members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shewn in the table. 

I c. Requirements of ASTM C 55, ASTM C 73, ASTM C 90 or ASTM C 744 shall apply. 

d. Minimum required equivalent thickness corresponding to the hourly fire-resistance rating for units with a combination of aggregate shall be determined by linear 
interpolation based on the percent by volume of each aggregate used in manufacture. 



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in Section 721.3.2.1 for the masonry and finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side. 

721.3.2.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall hav- 
ing no finish on one side or having different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation proce- 
dures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming 
either side of the wall to be the fire-exposed side. The 
fire-resistance rating of the wall shall not exceed the 
lower of the two values calculated. 

Exception: For exterior walls with afire separation 
distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) the fire shall 
be assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

721.3.2.4 Minimum concrete masonry fire-resistance 
rating. Where the finish applied to a concrete masonry 
wall contributes to its fire-resistance rating, the masonry 
alone shall provide not less than one-half the total 
required fire-resistance rating. 



TABLE 721.3.4 

MINIMUM COVER OF LONGITUDINAL 

REINFORCEMENT IN FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 

REINFORCED CONCRETE MASONRY LINTELS (inches) 



721.3.2.5 Attachment of finishes, 
ishes shall be as follows: 



Installation of fin- 



1. Gypsum wallboard and gypsum lath applied to 
concrete masonry or concrete walls shall be 
secured to wood or steel furring members spaced 
not more than 16 inches (406mm) on center (o.c). 

2. Gypsum wallboard shall be installed with the long 
dimension parallel to the furring members and 
shall have all joints finished. 

3. Other aspects of the installation of finishes shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of Chapters 

7 and 25. 

721.3.3 Multiwythe masonry walls. The fire-resistance 
rating of wall assemblies constructed of multiple wythes of 
masonry materials shall be permitted to be based on the 
fire-resistance rating period of each wythe and the continu- 
ous airspace between each wythe in accordance with the fol- 
lowing formula: 

R A = (RjO.59 + R 2 o.59 + ... + Rtf)59 + Al + A 2 + ... + Afjl.7 

(Equation 7-7) 



where: 
Ra = 

RpR? 

A/, Ao> 



Fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours). 

..., R n = Fire-resistance rating of wythes for 1,2, n 
(hours), respectively. 

...., An =0.30, factor for each continuous airspace 
for 1, 2, .. .n, respectively, having a depth of 
i/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) or more between 
wythes. 

721.3.4 Concrete masonry lintels. Fire-resistance ratings for 
concrete masonry lintels shall be determined based upon the 
nominal thickness of the lintel and the minimum thickness of 
concrete masonry or concrete, or any combination thereof, 
covering the main reinforcing bars, as determined accord- 
ing to Table 721.3.4, or by approved alternate methods. 



NOMINAL WIDTH 
OF LINTEL (inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


iV 2 


2 






8 


IV, 


1V 2 


l 3 U 


3 


10 or greater 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


13/ 

1 / 4 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mini. 

721 .3.5 Concrete masonry columns. The fire-resistance 
rating of concrete masonry columns shall be determined 
based upon the least plan dimension of the column in accor- 
dance with Table 721.3.5 or by approvedalternate methods. 

TABLE 721.3.5 

MINIMUM DIMENSION OF 

CONCRETE MASONRY COLUMNS (inches) 



FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


I 2 | 3 | 


4 


8 inches 


I 10 inches | 12 inches | 


14 inches 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mini. 

721.4 Clay brick and tile masonry. The provisions of this sec- 
tion contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of 
clay brick and tile masonry are established by calculations. 

721 .4.1 Masonry walls. The fire-resistance rating of 
masonry walls shall be based upon the equivalent thickness 
as calculated in accordance with this section. The calcula- 
tion shall take into account finishes applied to the wall and 
airspaces between wythes in multiwythe construction. 

721.4.1.1 Equivalent thickness. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of walls or partitions constructed of solid or hollow 
clay masonry units shall be determined from Table 
721.4.1 (1) or 721.4.1 (2). The equivalent thickness of the 
clay masonry unit shall be determined by Equation 7-8 
when using Table 721.4.1 (1). The fire-resistance rating 
determined from Table 721.4.1 (1) shall be permitted to 
be used in the calculated fire-resistance rating procedure 
in Section 721.4.2. 

T e =V n /LH (Equation 7-8) 

where: 

T e = The equivalent thickness of the clay masonry unit 
(inches) . 

V n = The net volume of the clay masonry unit (inch 3). 

L = The specified length of the clay masonry unit 
(inches) . 

H = The specified height of the clay masonry unit 
(inches) . 

721.4.1.1.1 Hollow clay units. The equivalent thick- 
ness, T e , shall be the value obtained for hollow clay 
units as determined in accordance with Equation 7-8. 
The net volume, V n , of the units shall be determined 
using the gross volume and percentage of void area 
determined in accordance with ASTM C 67. 



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TABLE 721.4.1(1) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS OF CLAY MASONRY WALLS 



MATERIAL TYPE 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS FOR FIRE RESISTANCES, c (inches) 


1 hour 


2 hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


Solid brick of clay or shale d 


2.7 


3.8 


4.9 


6.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, unfilled 


2.3 


3.4 


4.3 


5.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, grouted or filled with 
materials specified in Section 721.4.1.1.3 


3.0 


4.4 


5.5 


6.6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Equivalent thickness as determined from Section 721.4.1.1. 

b. Calculated fire resistance between the hourly increments listed shall be determined by linear interpolation. 

c. Where combustible members are framed in the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between 
members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown. 

d. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 

TABLE 721.4.1 (2) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR BEARING STEEL FRAME 

BRICK VENEER WALLS OR PARTITIONS 



WALL OR PARTITION ASSEMBLY 


PLASTER SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


BRICK FACED SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


Outside facing of steel studs : 

i/ 2 " wood fiberboard sheathing next to studs, 3/ 4 " airspace formed with 

3/ 4 " x 1 5/ 8 " wood strips placed over the fiberboard and secured to the studs; 

metal or wire lath nailed to such strips, 3 3 / 4 " brick veneer held in place by filling 3/4" 

airspace between the brick and lath with mortar. Inside facing of studs: 3/ 4 " unsanded 

gypsum plaster on metal or wire lath attached to 5/ 16 " wood strips secured to edges of the 

studs. 


1.5 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

1" insulation board sheathing attached to studs, 1" airspace, and 3 3 / 4 " brick veneer 

attached to steel frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: 7/ 8 " 

sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied on metal or wire lath attached directly to the 

studs. 


1.5 


4 


Same as above except use 7/ 8 " vermiculite-gypsum plaster or 1" sanded gypsum plaster 
(1:2 mix) applied to metal or wire. 


2 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs : 

i/ 2 " gypsum sheathing board, attached to studs, and 3 3 / 4 " brick veneer attached to steel 
frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: i/ 2 " sanded gypsum plaster 
(1:2 mix) applied to i/ 2 " perforated gypsum lath securely attached to studs and having 
strips of metal lath 3 inches wide applied to all horizontal joints of gypsum lath. 


2 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



721.4.1.1.2 Solid grouted clay units. The equivalent 
thickness of solid grouted clay masonry units shall be 
taken as the actual thickness of the units. 

721.4.1.1.3 Units with filled cores. The equivalent 
thickness of the hollow clay masonry units is the 
actual thickness of the unit when completely filled 
with loose-fill materials of: sand, pea gravel, crushed 
stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 requirements; 
pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, 
expanded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or 
cinders in compliance with ASTM C 33 1 ; or perlite or 
vermiculite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 
549 and ASTM C 516, respectively. 

721.4.1.2 Plaster finishes. Where plaster is applied to 
the wall, the total fire-resistance rating shall be deter- 
mined by the formula: 



where: 

R = The fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours). 

R n = The fire-resistance rating of the individual wall 
(hours). 

pi = Coefficient for thickness of plaster. 

Values for R n o.59 for use in Equation 7-9 are given in 
Table 721.4.1(3). Coefficients for thickness of plaster 
shall be selected from Table 721.4.1 (4) based on the 
actual thickness of plaster applied to the wall or partition 
and whether one or two sides of the wall are plastered. 

721.4.1.3 Multiwythe walls with airspace. Where a 
continuous airspace separates multiple wythes of the 
wall or partition, the total fire-resistance rating shall be 
determined by the formula: 



R={R n °™ + pl) 1J 



(Equation 7-9) 



R=(Ri° 



-R 2 °- 59 + ...+R n °- 59 +as) u 



(Equation 7-10) 



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where: 

R The fire-resistance rating of the assem- 

bly (hours). 

R P R 2 and R n = The fire-resistance rating of the individ- 
ual wythes (hours). 

as Coefficient for continuous airspace. 

Values for R n o.59 for use in Equation 7-10 are given in 
Table 721.4.1 (3). The coefficient for each continuous 
airspace of V 2 inch to 3V 2 inches (12.7 to 89 mm) separat- 
ing two individual wythes shall be 0.3. 

TABLE 721.4.1 (3) 
VALUES OF R o. 59 



R 0.59 
n 


R(hours) 


1 


1.0 


2 


1.50 


3 


1.91 


4 


2.27 



TABLE 721.4.1 (4) 
COEFFICIENTS FOR PLASTER, pia 


THICKNESS OF 
PLASTER (inch) 


ONE SIDE 


TWO SIDE 


17 2 


0.3 


0.6 


5/ 8 


0.37 


0.75 


3/ 4 


0.45 


0.90 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values listed in table are for 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

TABLE 721.4.1 (5) 
REINFORCED MASONRY LINTELS 



NOMINAL 

LINTEL WIDTH 

(inches) 


MINIMUM L 


DNGITUDINAL 
FOR FIRF RFS 


REINFORCEMENT COVER 
STANP.F (inohO 


1 hour 


2hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


6 


lV 2 


2 


NP 


NP 


8 


1V 2 


1V 2 


1% 


3 


10 or more 


1V 2 


1V 2 


lV 2 


1% 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NP =Not permitted. 



TABLE 721.4.1 (6) 
REINFORCED CLAY MASONRY COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 
(hour) 


1 | 2 | 3 | 4 


Minimum column dimension (inches) 


8 i 10 I 12 I 14 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



721.4.1.4 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall hav- 
ing no finish on one side or having different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation proce- 
dures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming 



either side to be the fire-exposed side of the wall. The fire 
resistance of the wall shall not exceed the lower of the 
two values determined. 

Exception: For exterior walls with a fire separation 
distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the fire shall 
be assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

721.4.2 Multiwythe walls. The fire-resistance rating for 
walls or partitions consisting of two or more dissimilar 
wythes shall be permitted to be determined by the formula: 



R= (Rf.59 + R 2 o.59 + ... +R n c 



where: 
R 



(Equation 7-11) 



= The fire-resistance rating of the assembly 
(hours). 

Rj, R 2 and R n = The fire-resistance rating of the individual 
wythes (hours). 

Values for R n o.59 for use in Equation 7-11 are given in 
Table 721.4.1 (3). 

121 A. 2.1 Multiwythe walls of different material. For 
walls that consist of two or more wythes of different 
materials (concrete or concrete masonry units) in combi- 
nation with clay masonry units, the, fire-resistance rating 
of the different materials shall be permitted to be deter- 
mined from Table 721.2.1.1 for concrete; Table 721.3.2 
for concrete masonry units or Table 721.4.1 (1) or 
721.4.1 (2) for clay and tile masonry units. 

721.4.3 Reinforced clay masonry lintels. Fire-resistance 
ratings for clay masonry lintels shall be determined based 
on the nominal width of the lintel and the minimum cover- 
ing for the longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with 
Table 721.4.1 (5). 

721.4.4 Reinforced clay masonry columns. The fire-resis- 
tance ratings shall be determined based on the last plan 
dimension of the column in accordance with Table 
721.4.1 (6). The minimum cover for longitudinal reinforce- 
ment shall be 2 inches (51 mm). 

721.5 Steel assemblies. The provisions of this section contain 
procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of steel assem- 
blies are established by calculations. 

721.5.1 Structural steel columns. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of steel columns shall be based on the size of the ele- 
ment and the type of protection provided in accordance with 
this section. 

721.5.1.1 General. These procedures establish a basis 
for determining the fire resistance of column assemblies 
as a function of the thickness of fire-resistant material 
and, the weight, Wand heated perimeter, D, of steel col- 
umns. As used in these sections, Wis the average weight 
of a structural steel column in pounds per linear foot. The 
heated perimeter, D, is the inside perimeter of the 
fire-resistant material in inches as illustrated in Figure 
721.5.1 (1). 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



157 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 




mm* 



D=4bf+2d-2t w 



D=2(a+d) 



D=2(bf+ d} 



FIGURE 721.5.1(1) 

DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER 

OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 



721.5.1.1.1 Nonload-bearing protection. The appli- 
cation of these procedures shall be limited to column 
assemblies in which the fire-resistant material is not 
designed to carry any of the load acting on the col- 
umn. 

721.5.1.1.2 Embedments. In the absence of substan- 
tiating fire-endurance test results, ducts, conduit, pip- 
ing, and similar mechanical, electrical, and plumbing 
installations shall not be embedded in any required 
fire-resistant materials. 

721.5.1.1.3 Weight-to-perimeter ratio. Table 
721.5.1 (1) contains weight- to-heated-perimeter ratios 
(WID) for both contour and box fire-resistant profiles, 
for the wide flange shapes most often used as columns. 
For different fire-resistant protection profiles or col- 
umn cross sections, the weight-to-heated-perimeter 
ratios (WID) shall be determined in accordance with 
the definitions given in this section. 

721.5.1.2 Gypsum wallboard protection. The fire 
resistance of structural steel columns with weight- 
to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID) less than or equal to 
3.65 and which are protected with Type X gypsum wall- 
board shall be permitted to be determined from the fol- 
lowing expression: 



h(w,D)]0.75 

R=I30 [ 2 



721.5.1.2.1 Attachment. The gypsum wallboard 
shall be supported as illustrated in either Figure 
721.5.1 (2) for fire-resistance ratings of 4 hours or 
less, or Figure 721.5.1 (3) for fire-resistance ratings of 
3 hours or less. 







f 


1> 






f 




^ 






























/ 






■ 


ft 












SHEET STEEL 


A 'b — 

L 5ffl " .i 


I 


7 " 

No.8x112" 


, L i 


-A 


»|jb*J 


c 




\ 




5/16" 
MIN. 




I 

3/4" 




SNAP-LOCK 


PITISBURGH SEAM 
CORNER JOINT DETAILS (A) 


LAP 







(Equation 7-12) 



FIGURE 721.5.1(2) 
GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 
COLUMNS WITH SHEET STEEL COLUMN COVERS 
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm. 

1. Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 36. For single-layer 
applications, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no horizontal 
joints. For multiple-layer applications, horizontal joints are permitted at a 
minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in successive layers are 
staggered at least 12 inches. The total required thickness of wallboard shall 
be determined on the basis of the specified fire -resistance rating and the 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (WID) of the column. For fire-resistance 
ratings of 2 hours or less, one of the required layers of gypsum wallboard 
may be applied to the exterior of the sheet steel column covers with 1-inch- 
long Type S screws spaced 1 inch from the wallboard edge and 8 inches on 
center. For such installations, 0.0149-inch minimum thickness galvanized 
steel corner beads with l 1 / 2 -inch legs shall be attached to the wallboard with 
Type S screws spaced 12 inches on center. 

3. For fire-resistance ratings of 3 hours or less, the column covers shall be fabri- 
cated from 0.0239-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless steel. 
For 4-hourfire-resistance ratings, the column covers shall be fabricated from 
0.0239-inch minimum thickness stainless steel. The column covers shall be 
erected with the Snap Lock or Pittsburgh joint details. 

For fire-resistance ratings of 2 hours or less, column covers fabricated from 
0.0269-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless steel shall be permit- 
ted to be erected with lapjoints. The lap joints shall be permitted to be located 
anywhere around the perimeter of the column cover. The lapjoints shall be 
secured with i/ 2 -inch-Iong No. 8 sheet metal screws spaced 12 inches on cen- 
ter. 

The column covers shall be provided with a minimum expansion clearance 
of i/ 8 inch per linear foot between the ends of the cover and any restraining 
construction. 



where: 
R 
h 
D 



W 



W 



Fire resistance (minutes). 

Total thickness of gypsum wallboard (inches) . 

Heated perimeter of the structural steel column 
(inches) . 

Total weight of the structural steel column and 
gypsum wallboard protection (pounds per linear 
foot). 

W+ 50HD/I44. 



721.5.1.2.2 Gypsum wallboard equivalent to con- 
crete. The determination of the fire resistance of 
structural steel columns from Figure 721.5.1(4) is 
permitted for various thicknesses of gypsum wall- 
board as a function of the weight-to- heated-perimeter 
ratio (WID) of the column. For structural steel col- 
umns with weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID) 
greater than 3.65, the thickness of gypsum wallboard 
required for specified fire -resistance ratings shall be 
the same as the thickness determined for a W14 x 233 
wide flange shape. 



158 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



721.5.1.3 Sprayed fire-resistant materials. The fire 
resistance of wide-flange structural steel columns pro- 
tected with sprayed fire-resistant materials, as illustrated 
in Figure 721.5.1 (5), shall be permitted to be determined 
from the following expression: 

R=\C X (Wl D) + C 2 ] h (Equation 7-13) 

where: 

R = Fire resistance (minutes). 

h = Thickness of sprayed fire-resistant material 
(inches) . 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel column 
(inches) . 

Q and Q = Material-dependent constants. 

W = Weight of structural steel columns (pounds per lin- 
ear foot). 

The fire resistance of structural steel columns pro- 
tected with intumescent or mastic fire-resistant coatings 





shall be determined on the basis of fire-resistance tests in 
accordance with Section 703.2. 

721.5.1.3.1 Material-dependent constants. The 

material-dependent constants, Q and C 2 , shall be 
determined for specific fire-resistant materials on the 
basis of standard fire endurance tests in accordance 
with Section 703.2. Unless evidence is submitted to 
the building official substantiating a broader applica- 
tion, this expression shall be limited to determining 
the fire resistance of structural steel columns with 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID) between the 
largest and smallest columns for which standard 
fire-resistance test results are available. 



2lfT 



1 






-■«■ 



as 



1.0 



1.5 



3Q 



25 



3*1 



35 



3 LAYERS = 1 7/8" OR 1 1/2" 



4 LAYERS = 21/2" OR 2" 



FIGURE 721.5.1(3) 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 

COLUMNS WITH STEEL STUD/SCREW ATTACHMENT SYSTEM 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = -305 mm. 

1. Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. I s / 8 -inch deep studs fabricated from 0.0179-inch minimum thickness galva- 
nized steel with IS/16 or l 7 / 16 -inch legs. The length of the steel studs shall be 
l/zinch less than the height of the assembly. 

3. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 36. For single-layer 
applications, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no horizontal 
joints. For multiple-layer applications, horizontal joints are permitted at a 
minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in successive layers are 
staggered at least 12 inches. The total required thickness of wallboard shall 
be determined on the basis of the specified fire-resistance rating and the 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (WID) of the column. 

4. Galvanized 0.0149-inch minimum thickness steel corner beads with 
lV^inch legs attached to the wallboard with 1-inch-Iong Type S screws 
spaced 12 inches on center. 

5. No. 18 SWG steel tie wires spaced 24 inches on center. 

6. Sheet metal angles with 2-inch legs fabricated from 0.0221 -inch minimum 
thickness galvanized steel. 

7. Type S screws, 1 inch long, shall be used for attaching the first layer of wall- 
board to the steel studs and the third layer to the sheet metal angles at 24 inches 
on center. Type S screws l 3 / 4 -inch long shall be used for attaching the second 
layer of wallboard to the steel studs and the fourth layer to the sheet metal 
angles at 12 inches on center. Type S screws 2v 4 inches long shall be used for 
attaching the third layer of wallboard to the steel studs at 12 inches on center. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per linear foot/inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 

FIGURE 721.5.1 (4) 

FIRE RESISTANCE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 

PROTECTED WITH VARIOUS THICKNESSES OF 

TYPE X GYPSUM WALLBOARD 

a. The WID ratios for typical wide flange columns are listed in Table 
721.5 . 1(1) . For other column shapes, the WID ratios shall be determined in 
accordance with Section 720.5.1.1. 




FIGURE 721.5.1(5) 

WIDE FLANGE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS WITH 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



159 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



121.5.13.2 Identification. Sprayed fire-resistant 
materials shall be identified by density and thickness 
required for a given fire-resistance rating. 

721.5.1.4 Concrete-protected columns. The fire resis- 
tance of structural steel columns protected with con- 
crete, as illustrated in Figure 721.5.1(6) (a) and (b), shall 
be permitted to be determined from the following expres- 
sion: 

R= R (1 + 0.03 J (Equation 7-14) 

where: 

R = 10 ( W/Dj o.7 + 17 (#-6/jy>.2) x [1 + 26 {H/p cC( h (L + h)}o.«\ 

As used in these expressions: 

R = Fire endurance at equilibrium moisture conditions 
(minutes). 

R = Fire endurance at zero moisture content (minutes). 

m = Equilibrium moisture content of the concrete by 
volume (percent). 

W = Average weight of the steel column (pounds per 
linear foot). 

= Heated perimeter of the steel column (inches). 

= Thickness of the concrete cover (inches). 



: Ambient temperature thermal conductivity of the 
concrete (Btu/hr ft OF). 

H = Ambient temperature thermal capacity of the steel 
column = 0. 1 1 W (Btu/ ft OF). 

Pc = Concrete density (pounds per cubic foot). 

cc = Ambient temperature specific heat of concrete 
(Btu/lb OF). 

L = Interior dimension of one side of a square concrete 
box protection (inches). 

721.5.1.4.1 Reentrant space filled. For wide-flange 
steel columns completely encased in concrete with all 
reentrant spaces filled [Figure 721.5.1 (6) (c)], the 
thermal capacity of the concrete within the reentrant 
spaces shall be permitted to be added to the thermal 
capacity of the steel column, as follows: 



H=0.ll W+ (Pocjl44) (bjd-A) 
where: 



(Equation 7-15) 



b r Flange width of the steel column (inches). 

d Depth of the steel column (inches). 

As Cross-sectional area of the steel column 
(square inches). 

721.5.1.4.2 Concrete properties unknown. If spe- 
cific data on the properties of concrete are not avail- 
able, the values given in Table 721.5.1 (2) are 
permitted. 

721.5.1.4.3 Minimum concrete cover. For structural 
steel column encased in concrete with all reentrant 
spaces filled, Figure 721.5.1(6)(c) and Tables 
721.5.1(7) and 721.5.1(8) indicate the thickness of 



concrete cover required for various fire -resistance 
ratings for typical wide-flange sections. The thick- 
nesses of concrete indicated in these tables also apply 
to structural steel columns larger than those listed. 

721.5.1.4.4 Minimum precast concrete cover. For 
structural steel columns protected with precast con- 
crete column covers as shown in Figure 
721.5. l(6)(a), Tables 721.5.1(9) and 721.5.1(10) 
indicate the thickness of the column covers required 
for various fire-resistance ratings for typical 
wide-flange shapes. The thicknesses of concrete 
given in these tables also apply to structural steel col- 
umns larger than those listed. 



ff*ff 




*m 



tm 



**■ 



wmi—*- 



-A s 



(a) 


(b) 


(c) 


PRECAST 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


ENCASED 


ENCASED 


COLUMN 


STRUCTURAL 


WIDE-FLANGE 


COVERS 


TUBE 


SHAPE 



FIGURE 721.5.1(6) 
CONCRETE PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNSa,b 

. When the inside perimeter of the concrete protection is not square , L shall be 

taken as the average of L t and L z . When the thickness of concrete cover is not 

constant, h shall be taken as the average of hi and h z . 
». Joints shall be protected with a minimum 1 inch thickness of ceramic fiber 

blanket but in no case less than one-half the thickness of the column cover 

(see Section 720.2.1.3). 

721.5.1.4.5 Masonry protection. The fire resistance 
of structural steel columns protected with concrete 
masonry units or clay masonry units as illustrated in 
Figure 721.5.1(7), shall be permitted to be deter- 
mined from the following expression: 

R= 0.17 (W/D)0.7+ [0.285 (T e h VK° 2 ) ] 

[1.0 + 42.7 { (A/d m T e) i (0.25p + Tj j o.s ] 

(Equation 7-16) 



where: 
R 

W 



K 



Fire-resistance rating of column assembly 
(hours). 

Average weight of steel column (pounds per 
foot) . 

Heated perimeter of steel column (inches) 
[see Figure 721.5.1 (7)]. 

Equivalent thickness of concrete or clay ma- 
sonry unit (inches) (see Table 721.3.2 Note a 
or Section 721.4.1). 

Thermal conductivity of concrete or clay ma- 
sonry unit (Btu/hr ft OF) [see Table 
721.5.1(3)]. 

Cross-sectional area of steel column (square 
inches). 



160 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



Density of the concrete or clay masonry unit 
(pounds per cubic foot). 

Inner perimeter of concrete or clay masonry 
protection (inches) [see Figure 721.5.1 (7)]. 









_ » _ 












1 


1 1 


1 


a 
a 
n 


DDG 




■" 


~ir 


D 


- 


L - 


o 


1 

L 
C 


- 






1 1 


1 


coa 




ii 



_BEfc_ 
STfctLFFFCGfcLiNN - 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721.5.1(7) 

CONCRETE OR CLAY MASONRY PROTECTED 

STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 

d = Depth of a wide flange column, outside diameter of pipe column, or out- 
side dimension of structural tubing column (inches) . 
t Vfi) = Thickness of web of wide flange column (inches). 
w = Width of flange of wide flange column (inches). 

721.5.1.4.6 Equivalent concrete masonry thick- 
ness. For structural steel columns protected with con- 
crete masonry, Table 721.5.1 (5) gives the equivalent 
thickness of concrete masonry required for various 
fire-resistance ratings for typical column shapes. For 
structural steel columns protected with clay masonry, 
Table 721.5.1 (6) gives the equivalent thickness of 
concrete masonry required for various fire-resistance 
ratings for typical column shapes. 

721.5.2 Structural steel beams and girders. The 
fire-resistance ratings of steel beams and girders shall be 
based upon the size of the element and the type of protection 
provided in accordance with this section. 

721.5.2.1 Determination of fire resistance. These pro- 
cedures establish a basis for determining resistance of 
structural steel beams and girders which differ in size 
from that specified in approved fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies as a function of the thickness of fire-resistant 
material and the weight ( W) and heated perimeter (D) of 
the beam or girder. As used in these sections, Wis the 
average weight of a structural steel member in pounds 
per linear foot (plf). The heated perimeter, D, is the inside 
perimeter of the fire-resistant material in inches as illus- 
trated in Figure 721.5.2. 

721.5.2.1.1 Weight-to-heated perimeter. The 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID), for both 
contour and box fire-resistant protection profiles, for 
the wide flange shapes most often used as beams or 
girders are given in Table 721.5.1(4). For different 
shapes, the weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID) 
shall be determined in accordance with the definitions 
given in this section. 




D-at + H^, 



U T / I * fa , 



FIGURE 721.5.2 
DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER 
OF STRUCTURAL STEEL BEAMS AND GIRDERS 

721.5.2.1.2 Beam and girder substitutions. Except 
as provided for in Section 721.5.2.2, structural steel 
beams in approved fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
shall be considered the minimum permissible size. 
Other beam or girder shapes shall be permitted to be 
substituted provided that the weight-to-heated-perim- 
eter ratio (WID) of the substitute beam is equal to or 
greater than that of the beam specified in the approved 
assembly. 

721.5.2.2 Sprayed fire-resistant materials. The provi- 
sions in this section apply to structural steel beams and 
girders protected with sprayed fire-resistant materials. 
Larger or smaller beam and girder shapes shall be per- 
mitted to be substituted for beams specified in approved 
unrestrained or restrained fire-resistance-rated assem- 
blies, provided that the thickness of the fire-resistant 
material is adjusted in accordance with the following 
expression: 

h 2 =h, [(W, I Dj)+ 0.60] / [(W 2 1 D 2) + 0.60] 



(Equation 7-17) 



where: 



h = Thickness of sprayed fire-resistant material in 
inches. 

W = Weight of the structural steel beam or girder in 
pounds per linear foot. 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel beam in 
inches. 

Subscript 1 refers to the beam and fire-resistant mate- 
rial thickness in the approved assembly. 

Subscript 2 refers to the substitute beam or girder and 
the required thickness of fire-resistant material. 

The //re resistance of structural steel beams and gird- 
ers protected with intumescent or mastic fire-resistant 
coatings shall be determined on the basis of fire- resis- 
tance tests in accordance with Section 703.2. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



161 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.5.1 (1) 
WID RATIOS FOR STEEL COLUMNS 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


W14 x 233 


2.49 


3.65 


WlOx 112 


1.78 


2.57 


x211 


2.28 


3.35 


x 100 


1.61 


2.33 


x 193 


2.10 


3.09 


x 88 


1.43 


2.08 


x 176 


1.93 


2.85 


x 77 


1.26 


1.85 


x 159 


1.75 


2.60 


x 68 


1.13 


1.66 


x 145 


1.61 


2.39 


x 60 


1.00 


1.48 


x 132 


1.52 


2.25 


x 54 


0.91 


1.34 


x 120 


1.39 


2.06 


x 49 


0.83 


1.23 


x 109 


1.27 


1.88 


x 45 


0.87 


1.24 


x 99 


1.16 


1.72 


x 39 


0.76 


1.09 


x 90 


1.06 


1.58 


x 33 


0.65 


0.93 


x 82 


1.20 


1.68 




x 74 


1.09 


1.53 


W8 x67 


1.34 


1.94 


x 68 


1.01 


1.41 


x58 


1.18 


1.71 


x 61 


0.91 


1.28 


x48 


0.995 


1.44 


x 53 


0.89 


1.21 


x40 


0.83 


1.23 


x 48 


0.81 


1.10 


x 35 


0.73 


1.08 


x 43 


0.73 


0.99 


x 31 


0.65 


0.97 




x 28 


0.67 


0.96 


W12 x 190 


2.46 


3.51 


x 24 


0.58 


0.83 


x 170 


2.22 


3.20 


x 21 


0.57 


0.77 


x 152 


2.01 


2.90 


x 18 


0.49 


0.67 


x 136 


1.82 


2.63 




x 120 


1.62 


2.36 


W6x25 


0.69 


1.00 


x 106 


1.44 


2.11 


x20 


0.56 


0.82 


x 96 


1.32 


1.93 


x 16 


0.57 


0.78 


x 87 


1.20 


1.76 


x 15 


0.42 


0.63 


x 79 


1.10 


1.61 


x 12 


0.43 


0.60 


x 72 


1.00 


1.48 


x 9 


0.33 


0.46 


x 65 


0.91 


1.35 




x 58 


0.91 


1.31 


W5 x 19 


0.64 


0.93 


x 53 


0.84 


1.20 


x 16 


0.54 


0.80 


x 50 


0.89 


1.23 




x 45 


0.81 


1.12 


W4x 13 


0.54 


0.79 


x 40 


0.72 


1.00 





For SI: 1 pound per linear foot per inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



162 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.5.1 (2) 
PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 



PROPERTY 


NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE 


STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE 


Thermal conductivity (k) 


0.95 Btu/hr . ft . OF 


0.35 Btu/hr . ft . OF 


Specific heat (cj 


0.20 Btu/lb of 


0.20 Btu/lb of 


Density (P) 


145lb/ft 3 


HOlb/ft 3 


Equilibrium (free) moisture 
content (m) by volume 


4% 


5% 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 lb/ft 3 = 16.0185 kg/m 3 , Btu/hr- ft- of = 1.731 W/(m- K). 



TABLE 721.5.1 (3) 

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CONCRETE OR CLAY 

MASONRY UNITS 



DENSITY (dj OF UNITS (lb/ft 3 ) 


THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (K) OF UNITS (Btu/hr .ft . OF) 


Concrete Masonry Units 


80 


0.207 


85 


0.228 


90 


0.252 


95 


0.278 


100 


0.308 


105 


0.340 


110 


0.376 


115 


0.416 


120 


0.459 


125 


0.508 


130 


0.561 


135 


0.620 


140 


0.685 


145 


0.758 


150 


0.837 


Clay Masonry Units 


120 


1.25 


130 


2.25 



For 51: 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.0185 kg/m 3 , Btu per hour- foot- OF = 1.731 W/(m- K). 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



163 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.5.1 (4) 

WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIOS (WID) 

FOR TYPICAL WIDE FLANGE BEAM AND GIRDER SHAPES 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


W36 x 300 


2.47 


3.33 


x 68 


0.92 


1.21 


x280 


2.31 


3.12 


x 62 


0.92 


1.14 


x260 


2.16 


2.92 


x 55 


0.82 


1.02 


x245 


2.04 


2.76 








x230 


1.92 


2.61 


W21 x 147 


1.83 


2.60 


x210 


1.94 


2.45 


x 132 


1.66 


2.35 


x 194 


1.80 


2.28 


x 122 


1.54 


2.19 


x 182 


1.69 


2.15 


xlll 


1.41 


2.01 


x 170 


1.59 


2.01 


x 101 


1.29 


1.84 


x 160 


1.50 


1.90 


x 93 


1.38 


1.80 


x 150 


1.41 


1.79 


x 83 


1.24 


1.62 


x 135 


1.28 


1.63 


x 73 


1.10 


1.44 




x 68 


1.03 


1.35 


W33 x 241 


2.11 


2.86 


x 62 


0.94 


1.23 


x221 


1.94 


2.64 


x 57 


0.93 


1.17 


x201 


1.78 


2.42 


x 50 


0.83 


1.04 


x 152 


1.51 


1.94 


x 44 


0.73 


0.92 


x 141 


1.41 


1.80 




x 130 


1.31 


1.67 


W18 x 119 


1.69 


2.42 


x 118 


1.19 


1.53 


x 106 


1.52 


2.18 




x 97 


1.39 


2.01 


W30x211 


2.00 


2.74 


x 86 


1.24 


1.80 


x 191 


1.82 


2.50 


x 76 


1.11 


1.60 


x 173 


1.66 


2.28 


x 71 


1.21 


1.59 


x 132 


1.45 


1.85 


x 65 


1.11 


1.47 


x 124 


1.37 


1.75 


x 60 


1.03 


1.36 


x 116 


1.28 


1.65 


x 55 


0.95 


1.26 


x 108 


1.20 


1.54 


x 50 


0.87 


1.15 


x 99 


1.10 


1.42 


x 46 


0.86 


1.09 




x 40 


0.75 


0.96 


W27 x 178 


1.85 


2.55 


x 35 


0.66 


0.85 


x 161 


1.68 


2.33 




x 146 


1.53 


2.12 


W16 x 100 


1.56 


2.25 


x 114 


1.36 


1.76 


x 89 


1.40 


2.03 


x 102 


1.23 


1.59 


x 77 


1.22 


1.78 


x 94 


1.13 


1.47 


x 67 


1.07 


1.56 


x 84 


1.02 


1.33 


x 57 


1.07 


1.43 




x 50 


0.94 


1.26 




x 45 


0.85 


1.15 


W24 x 162 


1.85 


2.57 


x 40 


0.76 


1.03 


x 146 


1.68 


2.34 


x 36 


0.69 


0.93 


x 131 


1.52 


2.12 


x 31 


0.65 


0.83 


x 117 


1.36 


1.91 


x 26 


0.55 


0.70 


x 104 


1.22 


1.71 




x 94 


1.26 


1.63 


W14 x 132 


1.83 


3.00 


x 84 


1.13 


1.47 


x 120 


1.67 


2.75 


x 76 


1.03 


1.34 


x 109 


1.53 


2.52 



(continued) 



164 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.5.1 (4)-continued 

WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIOS (WID) 

FOR TYPICAL WIDE FLANGE BEAM AND GIRDER SHAPES 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


x 99 


1.39 


2.31 


x 30 


0.79 


1.12 


x 90 


1.27 


2.11 


x 26 


0.69 


0.98 


x 82 


1.41 


2.12 


x 22 


0.59 


0.84 


x 74 


1.28 


1.93 


x 19 


0.59 


0.78 


x 68 


1.19 


1.78 


x 17 


0.54 


0.70 


x 61 


1.07 


1.61 


x 15 


0.48 


0.63 


x 53 


1.03 


1.48 


x 12 


0.38 


0.51 


x 48 


0.94 


1.35 




x 43 


0.85 


1.22 


W8 x 67 


1.61 


2.55 


x 38 


0.79 


1.09 


x 58 


1.41 


2.26 


x 34 


0.71 


0.98 


x 48 


1.18 


1.91 


x 30 


0.63 


0.87 


x 40 


1.00 


1.63 


x 26 


0.61 


0.79 


x 35 


0.88 


1.44 


x 22 


0.52 


0.68 


x 31 


0.79 


1.29 




x 28 


0.80 


1.24 


W12 x 87 


1.44 


2.34 


x 24 


0.69 


1.07 


x 79 


1.32 


2.14 


x 21 


0.66 


0.96 


x 72 


1.20 


1.97 


x 18 


0.57 


0.84 


x 65 


1.09 


1.79 


x 15 


0.54 


0.74 


x 58 


1.08 


1.69 


x 13 


0.47 


0.65 


x 53 


0.99 


1.55 


X 10 


0.37 


0.51 


x 50 


1.04 


1.54 




x 45 


0.95 


1.40 


W6 x 25 


0.82 


1.33 


x 40 


0.85 


1.25 


x 20 


0.67 


1.09 


x 35 


0.79 


1.11 


x 16 


0.66 


0.96 


x 30 


0.69 


0.96 


x 15 


0.51 


0.83 


x 26 


0.60 


0.84 


x 12 


0.51 


0.75 


x 22 


0.61 


0.77 


x 9 


0.39 


0.57 


x 19 


0.53 


0.67 




x 16 


0.45 


0.57 


W5 x 19 


0.76 


1.24 


x 14 


0.40 


0.50 


x 16 


0.65 


1.07 






WlOx 112 


2.14 


3.38 


W4 x 13 


0.65 


1.05 


x 100 


1.93 


3.07 




x 88 


1.70 


2.75 


x 77 


1.52 


2.45 


x 68 


1.35 


2.20 


x 60 


1.20 


1.97 


x 54 


1.09 


1.79 


x 49 


0.99 


1.64 


x 45 


1.03 


1.59 


x 39 


0.94 


1.40 


x 33 


0.77 


1.20 









For 51 : Pounds per linear foot per inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



165 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.5.1 (5) 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



COLUMN 
SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 

THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE MASONRY 

PRQTEC" 1 " 1 ™ 1 ASSFMRI V T /inrhoc^ 


COLUMN 
SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 

THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE MASONRY 

PRQTEC" 1 " 1 ™ 1 AQQFMRI V T (\nr*hnc\ 


l-hour 


2-hour 


... ^ . , . e 
3-hour 


4-hour 


l-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


W14 x 82 


80 


0.74 


1.61 


2.36 


3.04 


W10 x 68 


80 


0.72 


1.58 


2.33 


3.01 


100 


0.89 


1.85 


2.67 


3.40 


100 


0.87 


1.83 


2.65 


3.38 


110 


0.96 


1.97 


2.81 


3.57 


110 


0.94 


1.95 


2.79 


3.55 


120 


1.03 


2.08 


2.95 


3.73 


120 


1.01 


2.06 


2.94 


3.72 


W14x 68 


80 


0.83 


1.70 


2.45 


3.13 


WlOx 54 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.53 


3.21 


100 


0.99 


1.95 


2.76 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.57 


110 


1.06 


2.06 


2.91 


3.66 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.98 


3.73 


120 


1.14 


2.18 


3.05 


3.82 


120 


1.19 


2.24 


3.12 


3.90 


W14 x 53 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W10 x 45 


80 


0.92 


1.83 


2.60 


3.30 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.08 


2.07 


2.90 


3.64 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.16 


2.18 


3.04 


3.80 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3.16 


3.94 


120 


1.23 


2.29 


3.18 


3.96 


W14 x 43 


80 


1.01 


1.93 


2.71 


3.41 


W10 x 33 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.79 


3.49 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.00 


3.74 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


110 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.30 


2.34 


3.20 


3.96 


120 


1.32 


2.38 


3.27 


4.05 


120 


1.37 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12 x 72 


80 


0.81 


1.66 


2.41 


3.09 


W8 x40 


80 


0.94 


1.85 


2.63 


3.33 


100 


0.91 


1.88 


2.70 


3.43 


100 


1.10 


2.10 


2.93 


3.67 


110 


0.99 


1.99 


2.84 


3.60 


110 


1.18 


2.21 


3.07 


3.83 


120 


1.06 


2.10 


2.98 


3.76 


120 


1.25 


2.32 


3.20 


3.99 


W12 x 58 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.52 


3.21 


W8 x 31 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.78 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.56 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.97 


3.73 


110 


1.29 


2.33 


3.20 


3.97 


120 


1.19 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.36 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12 x 50 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W8 x 24 


80 


1.14 


2.09 


2.89 


3.59 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.29 


2.31 


3.16 


3.90 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.36 


2.42 


3.28 


4.05 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3.16 


3.94 


120 


1.43 


2.52 


3.41 


4.20 


W12 x 40 


80 


1.01 


1.94 


2.72 


3.41 


W8 x 18 


80 


1.22 


2.20 


3.01 


3.72 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.01 


3.75 


100 


1.36 


2.40 


3.25 


4.01 


110 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.42 


2.50 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.32 


2.39 


3.27 


4.06 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.49 


4.28 



(continued) 



166 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.5.1 (5)-continued 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



NOMINAL TUBE 
SIZE 

(inches) 


CONCRETE MASONRY 

DENSITY, POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED 

EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 

FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE 

MASONRY PROTECTION 

ASQFMRI V T t\nnhnc\ 


NOMINAL PIPE 
SIZE 

(inches) 


CONCRETE MASONRY 
DENSITY, POUNDS 
PER CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED 

EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 

FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE 

MASONRY PROTECTION 

ASQFMRI V T t\nnhnc\ 


l-hour 


2-hour 


■e v 

3-hour 


4-hour 


l-hour 


2-hour 


■e v 

3-hour 


4-hour 


4 x 4 x i/ 2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.93 


1.90 


2.71 


3.43 


4 double extra 

strong 0.674 

wall thickness 


80 


0.80 


1.75 


2.56 


3.28 


100 


1.08 


2.13 


2.99 


3.76 


100 


0.95 


1.99 


2.85 


3.62 


110 


1.16 


2.24 


3.13 


3.91 


110 


1.02 


2.10 


2.99 


3.78 


120 


1.22 


2.34 


3.26 


4.06 


120 


1.09 


2.20 


3.12 


3.93 


4 x 4 x 3/ 8 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.05 


2.03 


2.84 


3.57 


4 extra strong 
0.337 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.12 


2.11 


2.93 


3.65 


100 


1.20 


2.25 


3.11 


3.88 


100 


1.26 


2.32 


3.19 


3.95 


110 


1.27 


2.35 


3.24 


4.02 


110 


1.33 


2.42 


3.31 


4.09 


120 


1.34 


2.45 


3.37 


4.17 


120 


1.40 


2.52 


3.43 


4.23 


4 x 4 x i/ 4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.21 


2.20 


3.01 


3.73 


4 standard 
0.237 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.26 


2.25 


3.07 


3.79 


100 


1.35 


2.40 


3.26 


4.02 


100 


1.40 


2.45 


3.31 


4.07 


110 


1.41 


2.50 


3.38 


4.16 


110 


1.46 


2.55 


3.43 


4.21 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.50 


4.30 


120 


1.53 


2.64 


3.54 


4.34 


6 x 6 x i/ 2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.82 


1.75 


2.54 


3.25 


5 double extra 

strong 0.750 

wall thickness 


80 


0.70 


1.61 


2.40 


3.12 


100 


0.98 


1.99 


2.84 


3.59 


100 


0.85 


1.86 


2.71 


3.47 


110 


1.05 


2.10 


2.98 


3.75 


110 


0.91 


1.97 


2.85 


3.63 


120 


1.12 


2.21 


3.11 


3.91 


120 


0.98 


2.02 


2.99 


3.79 


6 x 6 x 3/ 8 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.96 


1.91 


2.71 


3.42 


5 extra strong 
0.375 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.54 


100 


1.12 


2.14 


3.00 


3.75 


100 


1.19 


2.23 


3.09 


3.85 


110 


1.19 


2.25 


3.13 


3.90 


110 


1.26 


2.34 


3.22 


4.00 


120 


1.26 


2.35 


3.26 


4.05 


120 


1.32 


2.44 


3.34 


4.14 


6 x 6 x i/ 4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.11 


2.92 


3.63 


5 standard 
0.258 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.20 


2.19 


3.00 


3.72 


100 


1.29 


2.32 


3.18 


3.93 


100 


1.34 


2.39 


3.25 


4.00 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.30 


4.08 


110 


1.41 


2.49 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.42 


2.52 


3.43 


4.22 


120 


1.47 


2.58 


3.49 


4.28 


8 x 8 x i/ 2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.77 


1.66 


2.44 


3.13 


6 double extra 

strong 0.864 

wall thickness 


80 


0.59 


1.46 


2.23 


2.92 


100 


0.92 


1.91 


2.75 


3.49 


100 


0.73 


1.71 


2.54 


3.29 


110 


1.00 


2.02 


2.89 


3.66 


110 


0.80 


1.82 


2.69 


3.47 


120 


1.07 


2.14 


3.03 


3.82 


120 


0.86 


1.93 


2.83 


3.63 


8 x 8 x 3/ 8 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.91 


1.84 


2.63 


3.33 


6 extra strong 
0.432 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.94 


1.90 


2.70 


3.42 


100 


1.07 


2.08 


2.92 


3.67 


100 


1.10 


2.13 


2.98 


3.74 


110 


1.14 


2.19 


3.06 


3.83 


110 


1.17 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.21 


2.29 


3.19 


3.98 


120 


1.24 


2.34 


3.24 


4.04 


8 x 8 x i/ 4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.10 


2.06 


2.86 


3.57 


6 standard 
0.280 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.12 


2.93 


3.64 


100 


1.25 


2.28 


3.13 


3.87 


100 


1.29 


2.33 


3.19 


3.94 


110 


1.32 


2.38 


3.25 


4.02 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.31 


4.08 


120 


1.39 


2.48 


3.38 


4.17 


120 


1.42 


2.53 


3.43 


4.22 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic feet = 16.02 kglm 3 - 

Note: Tabulated values assume I-inch air gap between masonry and steel section. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



167 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.5.1 (6) 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CLAY MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 

THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 

PROTEC TinM A.Q.QPMRI V T fin<-hoc\ 


COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 

THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 

PROTEC TinM A.Q.QPMRI V T fin<-hoc\ 


l-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


l-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


W14 x 82 


120 


1.23 


2.42 


3.41 


4.29 


W10 x 68 


120 


1.27 


2.46 


3.26 


4.35 


130 


1.40 


2.70 


3.78 


4.74 


130 


1.44 


2.75 


3.83 


4.80 


W14 x 68 


120 


1.34 


2.54 


3.54 


4.43 


W10 x 54 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.62 


4.51 


130 


1.51 


2.82 


3.91 


4.87 


130 


1.58 


2.89 


3.98 


4.95 


W14 x 53 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.65 


4.54 


W10 x 45 


120 


1.44 


2.66 


3.67 


4.57 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.98 


130 


1.62 


2.95 


4.04 


5.01 


W14 x 43 


120 


1.54 


2.76 


3.77 


4.66 


WlOx 33 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.72 


3.04 


4.13 


5.09 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.13 


W12 x 72 


120 


1.32 


2.52 


3.51 


4.40 


W8 x40 


120 


1.47 


2.70 


3.71 


4.61 


130 


1.50 


2.80 


3.88 


4.84 


130 


1.65 


2.98 


4.08 


5.04 


W12 x 58 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.61 


4.50 


W8 x 31 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.57 


2.89 


3.98 


4.94 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.17 


W12 x 50 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.66 


4.55 


W8 x 24 


120 


1.66 


2.90 


3.92 


4.82 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.99 


130 


1.84 


3.18 


4.28 


5.25 


W12 x 40 


120 


1.54 


2.77 


3.78 


4.67 


W8 x 18 


120 


1.75 


3.00 


4.01 


4.91 


130 


1.72 


3.05 


4.14 


5.10 


130 


1.93 


3.27 


4.37 


5.34 


STEEL TUBING 


STEEL PIPE 


NOMINAL TUBE 
SIZE (inches) 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 

THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 

PROTEC TinM A.Q.QPMRI V T /'inrh»c\ 


NOMINAL PIPE 
SIZE (inches) 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 

THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 

PROTEC TinM A.Q.QPMRI V T (\nnhac\ 


l-hour 


2-hour 


. , . e 

3-hour 


4-hour 


l-hour 


2-hour 


. , . e 

3-hour 


4-hour 


4 x 4 x i/ 2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.44 


2.72 


3.76 


4.68 


4 double extra 

strong 0.674 

wall thickness 


120 


1.26 


2.55 


3.60 


4.52 


130 


1.62 


3.00 


4.12 


5.11 


130 


1.42 


2.82 


3.96 


4.95 


4 x 4 x 3/ 8 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.56 


2.84 


3.88 


4.78 


4 extra strong 

0.337 
wall thickness 


120 


1.60 


2.89 


3.92 


4.83 


130 


1.74 


3.12 


4.23 


5.21 


130 


1.77 


3.16 


4.28 


5.25 


4 x 4 x i/ 4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.72 


2.99 


4.02 


4.92 


4 standard 

0.237 

wall thickness 


120 


1.74 


3.02 


4.05 


4.95 


130 


1.89 


3.26 


4.37 


5.34 


130 


1.92 


3.29 


4.40 


5.37 


6 x 6 x i/ 2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.33 


2.58 


3.62 


4.52 


5 double extra 

strong 0.750 

wall thickness 


120 


1.17 


2.44 


3.48 


4.40 


130 


1.50 


2.86 


3.98 


4.96 


130 


1.33 


2.72 


3.84 


4.83 


6 x 6 x 3/ 8 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.48 


2.74 


3.76 


4.67 


5 extra strong 

0.375 
wall thickness 


120 


1.55 


2.82 


3.85 


4.76 


130 


1.65 


3.01 


4.13 


5.10 


130 


1.72 


3.09 


4.21 


5.18 


6 x 6 x i/ 4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.66 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


5 standard 

0.258 

wall thickness 


120 


1.71 


2.97 


4.00 


4.90 


130 


1.83 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 


130 


1.88 


3.24 


4.35 


5.32 


8 x 8 x i/ 2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.27 


2.50 


3.52 


4.42 


6 double extra 

strong 0.864 

wall thickness 


120 


1.04 


2.28 


3.32 


4.23 


130 


1.44 


2.78 


3.89 


4.86 


130 


1.19 


2.60 


3.68 


4.67 


8 x 8 x 3/ 8 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.43 


2.67 


3.69 


4.59 


6 extra strong 

0.432 
wall thickness 


120 


1.45 


2.71 


3.75 


4.65 


130 


1.60 


2.95 


4.05 


5.02 


130 


1.62 


2.99 


4.10 


5.08 


8 x 8 x i/ 4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.62 


2.87 


3.89 


4.78 


6 standard 

0.280 

wall thickness 


120 


1.65 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


130 


1.79 


3.14 


4.24 


5.21 


130 


1.82 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 



168 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE 721.5.1(7) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

ENCASED IN NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE 3 

[FIGURE 721.5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


l\ 


2 


3 


4 


W14 x233 


1 


1 


1 


iV 2 


2 


x 176 


2 i/ 2 


x 132 


2 


x 90 


lV 2 


x 61 


3 


x 48 


iS, 


2 i/ 2 


x 43 


W12 x 152 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 i/ 2 


x 96 


x 65 


1% 


lV 2 


3 


x 50 


2 i/ 2 


x 40 


WIO x 88 


1 


1V 2 


iV 2 


2 


3 


x 49 


1 


2 i/ 2 


x 45 


x 39 


3 i/ 2 


x 33 


2 


W8 x 67 


1 


i 


1 l/ 2 


2 i/ 2 


3 


x 58 


x 48 


1V 2 


3 i/ 2 


x 31 


2 


3 


x 21 


x 18 


4 


W6 x 25 


1 


1% 


2 


3 
3 i/ 2 


3 i/ 2 


x 20 


2 


2 i/ 2 


4 


x 16 


x 15 


\\ 


x 9 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.5.1(8) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

ENCASED IN STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE 8 

[FIGURE 721.5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 


1 


l\ 


2 


3 


4 


W14 x233 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1V 2 


x 193 


1 l/ 2 


x 74 


2 


x 61 


2 i/ 2 


x 43 


1V 2 


2 


W12 x 65 


1 


1 


1 


1 i/ 2 


2 


x 53 


2 


2 i/ 2 


x 40 


1V 2 


WIOx 112 


1 


1 


1 


1V 2 


2 


x 88 


x 60 


2 


2 i/ 2 


x 33 


I 1 /, 


W8 x 35 


1 


1 


1V 2 


2 


2 i/ 2 


x 28 


3 


x 24 


2 i/ 2 


x 18 


1V 2 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of struc- 
turallightweight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



For 51 : 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of nor- 
mal-weight concrete given in Table 721 .5.1(2) . 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



169 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.5.1 (9) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

IN NORMAL-WEIGHT PRECAST COVERS a 

[FIGURE 721.5.1 (6)(a)] 



TABLE 721.5.1 (10) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

IN STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT PRECAST COVERS a 

[FIGURE 721.5.1 (6)(a)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


l\ 


2 


3 


4 


W14 x 233 


iv 2 


1V 2 


1 l/ 2 


2i/ 2 


3 


x211 


3 i/ 2 


x 176 


2 


x 145 


3 


x 109 


2 


2i/ 2 


x 99 


4 


x 61 


3 i/ 2 


x 43 


4 i/ 2 


W12 x 190 


iv 2 


1V 2 


l\ 


2i/ 2 


3 i/ 2 


x 152 


2 


x 120 


3 


4 


x 96 


x 87 


2 


2i/ 2 


3 i/ 2 


x 58 


4 i/ 2 


x 40 


W10 x 112 


1 l/ 2 


1V 2 


2 


3 


3 i/ 2 


x 88 


4 


x 77 


2 


2i/ 2 


x 54 


3 i/ 2 


x 33 


4 i/ 2 


W8 x 67 


\\ 


1V 2 


2 


3 


4 


x 58 


2 


2i/ 2 


3V 2 


x 48 


x 28 


4 i/ 2 


x 21 


2V 2 


3 


x 18 


4 


W6 x 25 


1 l/ 2 


2 


2i/ 2 


3 i/ 2 


4 i/ 2 


x 20 


2i/ 2 


3 


x 16 


4 


x 12 


2 


x 9 


5 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1 '/, 


2 


3 


4 


W14 x 233 


1V 2 


1V 2 


1V 2 


2 


2i/ 2 


x 176 


3 


x 145 


2i/ 2 


x 132 


x 109 


x 99 


2 


x 68 


3 i/ 2 


x 43 


3 


W12 x 190 


1 l/ 2 


1V 2 


1 i/ 2 


2 


2i/ 2 


x 152 


x 136 


3 


x 106 


2i/ 2 


x 96 


3 i/ 2 


x 87 


x 65 


2 


x 40 


3 


WlOx 112 


1V 2 


1 l/ 2 


1V 2 


2 


3 


x 100 


2i/ 2 


x 88 


x 77 


2 


3 i/ 2 


x 60 


x 39 


3 


x 33 


2 


W8 x 67 


1V 2 


1V 2 


1V 2 


2i/ 2 


3 


x 48 


2 


3 


3 i/ 2 


x 35 


x 28 


2 


x 18 


2i/ 2 


4 


W6 x 25 


1V 2 


2 


2 


3 


3 i/ 2 


x 15 


2i/ 2 


4 


x 9 


3 i/ 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of nor- 
mal-weight concrete given in Table 721 .5.1(2) . 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of struc- 
turallightweight concrete given in Table 721.5 . 1(2) . 



170 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



721.5.2.2.1 Minimum thickness. The use of Equa- 
tion 7-17 is subject to the following conditions: 

1. The weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio for the 
substitute beam or girder (W/L> 2 ) shall not be 
less than 0.37. 

2. The thickness of fire protection materials calcu- 
lated for the substitute beam or girder (Tj) shall 
not be less than 3/ s inch (9.5 mm). 

3. The unrestrained or restrained beam rating shall 
not be less than 1 hour. 

4. When used to adjust the material thickness for a 
restrained beam, the use of this procedure is 
limited to steel sections classified as compact in 
accordance with the AISC Specification for 
Structural Steel Buildings, (AISC 360-05). 

721.5.2.3 Structural steel trusses. The fire resistance of 
structural steel trusses protected with fire-resistant mate- 
rials sprayed to each of the individual truss elements 
shall be permitted to be determined in accordance with 
this section. The thickness of the fire-resistant material 
shall be determined in accordance with Section 
721.5.1.3. The weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (WID) 
of truss elements that can be simultaneously exposed to 
fire on all sides shall be determined on the same basis as 
columns, as specified in Section 721.5.1.1. The weight- 
to-heated-perimeter ratio (WID) of truss elements that 
directly support floor or roof assembly shall be deter- 
mined on the same basis as beams and girders, as speci- 
fied in Section 721.5.2.1. 

The fire resistance of structural steel trusses protected 
with intumescent or mastic fire-resistant coatings shall 
be determined on the basis of fire-resistance tests in 
accordance with Section 703.2. 

721.6 Wood assemblies. The provisions of this section contain 
procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of wood 
assemblies are established by calculations. 

721.6.1 General. This section contains procedures for cal- 
culating the fire-resistance ratings of walls, floor/ceiling 
and roof/ceiling assemblies based in part on the standard 
method of testing referenced in Section 703.2. 

721.6.1.1 Maximum fire-resistance rating. Fire resis- 
tance ratings calculated for assemblies using the meth- 
ods in Section 721 .6 shall be limited to a maximum of 1 
hour. 

721.6.1.2 Dissimilar membranes. Where dissimilar 
membranes are used on a wall assembly, the calculation 
shall be made from the least fire-resistant (weaker) side. 

721.6.2 Walls, floors and roofs. These procedures apply to 
both load-bearing and nonload-bearing assemblies. 

721.6.2.1 Fire-resistance rating of wood frame assem- 
blies. The fire-resistance rating of a wood frame assem- 
bly is equal to the sum of the time assigned to the 
membrane on the fire-exposed side, the time assigned to 
the framing members and the time assigned for addi- 
tional contribution by other protective measures such as 



insulation. The membrane on the unexposed side shall 
not be included in determining the fire resistance of the 
assembly. 

721.6.2.2 Time assigned to membranes. Table 
721.6.2(1) indicates the time assigned to membranes on 
the fire-exposed side. 

721.6.2.3 Exterior walls. For an exterior wallwith afire 
separation distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the 
wall is assigned a rating dependent on the interior mem- 
brane and the framing as described in Tables 721.6.2(1) 
and 721.6.2(2). The membrane on the outside of the 
nonfire-exposed side of exterior walls with afire separa- 
tion distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) may consist 
of sheathing, sheathing paper and siding as described in 
Table 721.6.2(3). 

TABLE 721.6.2(1) 
TIME ASSIGNED TO WALLBOARD MEMBRANESa,b,c,d 



DESCRIPTION OF FINISH 


TIME e (minutes) 


i/s-inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


5 


15 / 32 -inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


10 


19 / 32 -inch wo °d structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


15 


3/ s -inch gypsum wallboard 


10 


V 2 -inch gypsum wallboard 


15 


5/ s -inch gypsum wallboard 


30 


V 2 -inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


25 


5/s-inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


40 


Double 3/ s -inch gypsum wallboard 


25 


V 2 -inch + 3/ s -inch gypsum wallboard 


35 


Double ll 2 -inch gypsum wallboard 


40 



For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. These values apply only when membranes are installed on framing members 
which are spaced 16 inches o.c. 

b. Gypsum wallboard installed over framing or furring shall be installed so that 
all edges are supported, except s/8-inch Type X gypsum wallboard shall be 
permitted to be installed horizontally with the horizontaljoints staggered 24 
inches each side and unsupported but finished. 

c. On wood frame floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies, gypsum board shall 
be installed with the long dimension perpendicular to framing members and 
shall have all joints finished. 

d. The membrane on the unexposed side shall not be included in determining the fire 
resistance of the assembly. When dissimilar membranes are used on a wall assem- 
bly, the calculation shall be made from the least fire-resistant (weaker) side. 

e. The time assigned is not a finished rating. 

721.6.2.4 Floors and roofs. In the case of a floor or roof, 
the standard test provides only for testing for fire expo- 
sure from below. Except as noted in Section 703.3, Item 
5, floor or roof assemblies of wood framing shall have an 
upper membrane consisting of a subfloor and finished 
floor conforming to Table 721.6.2(4) or any other mem- 
brane that has a contribution to fire resistance of at least 
15 minutes in Table 721.6.2(1). 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



171 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.6.2(2) 
TIME ASSIGNED FOR CONTRIBUTION OF WOOD FRAME a.b.c 



DESCRIPTION 


TIME ASSIGNED TO FRAME (minutes) 


Wood studs 16 inches o.c. 


20 


Wood floor and roof joists 16 inches o.c. 


10 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table does not apply to studs orjoists spaced more than 16 inches o.c. 

b. All studs shall be nominal 2x4 and all joists shall have a nominal thickness of at least 2 inches. 

c. Allowable spans for joists shall be determined in accordance with Sections 2308.8,2308.10.2 and 2308.10.3. 



TABLE 721.6.2(3) 
MEMBRANEa ON EXTERIOR FACE OF WOOD STUD WALLS 


SHEATHING 


PAPER 


EXTERIOR FINISH 


5/8-inch T & G lumber 




Lumber siding 


5/j6-inch exterior glue wood structural panel 


Sheathing paper 


Wood shingles and shakes 


V 2 -inch gypsum wallboard 




L/ 4 -inch wood structural panels -exterior type 


5/ 8 -inch gypsum wallboard 




l/4-inch hardboard 


l/ 2 -inch fiberboard 




Metal siding 
Stucco on metal lath 
Masonry veneer 
Vinyl siding 


None 


- 


3^ 8 -inch exterior-grade wood structural panels 



For SI: 1 pound/cubic foot = 16.0185 kg/m 2 - 

a. Any combination of sheathing, paper and exterior finish is permitted. 



TABLE 721.6.2(4) 
FLOORING OR ROOFING OVER WOOD FRAMINGa 



ASSEMBLY 


STRUCTURAL 
MEMBERS 


SUBFLOOR OR ROOF DECK 


FINISHED FLOORING OR ROOFING 


Floor 


Wood 


15 / 32 ~ mc ri wood structural panels or 
111 16 inch T & G softwood 


Hardwood or softwood flooring on building paper resilient 
flooring, parquet floor felted- synthetic fiber floor coverings, 
carpeting, or ceramic tile on 3/ 8 -inch-thick panel-type underlay 

Ceramic tile on 1 V 4 -inch mortar bed 


Roof 


Wood 


15 / 32 -inch wood structural panels or 
111 16 inch T & G softwood 


Finished roofing material with or without insulation 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table applies only to wood joist construction. It is not applicable to wood truss construction. 

TABLE 721.6.2(5) 
TIME ASSIGNED FOR ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 



DESCRIPTION OF ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 


FIRE RESISTANCE (minutes) 


Add to the fire-resistance rating of wood stud walls if the spaces between the studs are completely filled 
with glass fiber mineral wool batts weighing not less than 2 pounds per cubic foot (0.6 pound per square 
foot of wall surface) or rockwool or slag material wool batts weighing not less than 3.3 pounds per cubic 
foot (1 pound per square foot of wall surface), or cellulose insulation having a nominal density not less 
than 2.6 pounds per cubic foot. 


15 



For SI: 1 pound/cubic foot = 16.0185 kg/m 3 . 



172 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



721.6.2.5 Additional protection. Table 721.6.2(5) indi- 
cates the time increments to be added to the fire resis- 
tance where glass fiber, rockwool, slag mineral wool or 
cellulose insulation is incorporated in the assembly. 

721.6.2.6 Fastening. Fastening of wood frame assemblies 
and the fastening of membranes to the wood framing 
members shall be done in accordance with Chapter 23. 

721.6.3 Design of fire-resistant exposed wood members. 
The fire-resistance rating, in minutes, of timber beams and 
columns with a minimum nominal dimension of 6 inches 
(152 mm) is equal to: 

Beams: 2.54Zb [4 -2(b/d)\ for beams which may be 
exposed to fire on four sides. 

(Equation 7-18) 

2.54Zb [4 ~{b/d)\ for beams which may be 
exposed to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7-19) 

Columns: 2.54Zd [3 -(d/b)] for columns which may be 
exposed to fire on four sides 

(Equation 7-20) 

2.54Zd [3 -(d/2b)] for columns which may be 
exposed to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7-21) 

where: 

b The breadth (width) of a beam or larger side of a 

column before exposure to fire (inches). 

d The depth of a beam or smaller side of a column 

before exposure to fire (inches). 

Z = Load factor, based on Figure 721.6.3(1). 

721.6.3.1 Equation 7-21. Equation 7-21 applies only 
where the unexposed face represents the smaller side of 
the column. If a column is recessed into a wall, its full 
dimension shall be used for the purpose of these calcula- 
tions. 

721 .6.3.2 Allowable loads. Allowable loads on beams 
and columns are determined using design values given in 
AF&PANDS. 

721.6.3.3 Fastener protection. Where minimum I-hour 
fire resistance is required, connectors and fasteners shall 
be protected from fire exposure by 1V 2 inches (38 mm) of 
wood, or other approve ^covering or coating for a I-hour 
rating. Typical details for commonly used fasteners and 
connectors are shown in AITC Technical Note 7. 

721 .6.3.4 Minimum size. Wood members are limited to 
dimensions of 6 inches (152 mm) nominal or greater. 
Glued-laminated timber beams utilize standard laminat- 
ing combinations except that a core lamination is 
removed. The tension zone is moved inward and the 
equivalent of an extra nominal 2-inch-thick (51 mm) 
outer tension lamination is added. 



1.6Q 



iw 



1,40 



Z 130 



<20 















CCtUMN& K^-s.11 




















RrAMS 


- COLUMNS *N 
11 













































110 



1.0 

40 M BO TO 80 W 100 

LOAD ON MEMBERS AS A PERCEMT OF D£5lG** LOAp 

FIGURE 721.6.3(1) 
LOAD FIGURE 

K e = The effective length factor as noted in Figure 721.6.3(2). 
1 = The unsupported length of columns (inches) . 



BUCKLING MODES 



THEORETICAL Ke VALUE 



RECOMMENDED DESIGN Ke 
WHEN IDEAL CONDITIONS 
APPROXIMATED 



END CONDITION CODE 



2L 



T 



0.5 



0.65 



T 
t 



4 



t 



0.7 



0.80 



J J 



f 



1.0 



1.2 



i 



J 



1.0 



1.0 



T 






2.10 



k 



t 









ROTATION FIXED, TRANSLATION FIXED 
ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FIXED 

ROTATION FIXED, TRANSLATION FREE 
ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FREE 



FIGURE 721.6.3(2) 
EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTORS 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



173 



174 2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 8 

INTERIOR FINISHES 



SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. Provisions of this chapter shall govern the use of 
materials used as interior finishes, trim and decorative materi- 
als 

801.2 Interior wall and ceiling finish. The provisions of Sec- 
tion 803 shall limit the allowable fire performance and smoke 
development of interior wall and ceiling finish materials based 
on occupancy classification. 

801.3 Interior floor finish. The provisions of Section 804 
shall limit the allowable fire performance of interior floor fin- 
ish materials based on occupancy classification. 

[F] 801.4 Decorative materials and trim. Decorative materi- 
als and trim shall be restricted by combustibility and the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701, in accordance 
with Section 806. 

801.5 Applicability. For buildings in flood hazard areas as 
established in Section 1612.3, interior finishes, trim and deco- 
rative materials below the design flood elevation shall be 
flood-damage-resistant materials. 

801.6 Application. Combustible materials shall be permitted 
to be used as finish for walls, ceilings, floors and other interior 
surfaces of buildings. 

801.7 Windows. Show windows in the exterior walls of the 
first story above grade shall be permitted to be of wood or of 
unprotected metal framing. 

801.8 Foam plastics. Foam plastics shall not be used as inte- 
rior finish except as provided in Section 803.4. Foam plastics 
shall not be used as interior trim except as provided in Section 
806.3 or 2604.2. This section shall apply both to exposed foam 
plastics and to foam plastics used in conjunction with a textile 
or vinyl facing or cover. 



measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 

INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior wall 
and ceiling finish and interior floor finish. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. The exposed floor surfaces of 
buildings including coverings applied over a finished floor or 
stair, including risers. 

[F] INTERIOR FLOOR- WALL BASE. Interior floor finish 
trim used to provide a functional and/or decorative border at the 
intersection of walls and floors. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed 
interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: 
fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy parti- 
tions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, paneling or 
other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical 
correction, surface insulation, structural fire resistance or simi- 
lar purposes, but not including trim. 

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. A system, fab 
ricated on site and intended for acoustical, tackable or aesthetic 
purposes, that is comprised of three elements: (a) a frame (con- 
structed of plastic, wood, metal or other material) used to hold 
fabric in place, (b) a core material (infill, with the correct prop- 
erties for the application), and (c) an outside layer, comprised 
of a textile, fabric or vinyl, that is stretched taunt and held in 
place by tension or mechanical fasteners via the frame. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measure- 
ments of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84. 

TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door 
and window frames and similar decorative or protective mate- 
rials used in fixed applications. 



i 



SECTION 802 
DEFINITIONS 

802.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. Wall covering 
consisting of a woven textile backing, an expanded vinyl base 
coat layer and a nonexpanded vinyl skin coat. The expanded 
base coat layer is a homogeneous vinyl layer that contains a 
blowing agent. During processing, the blowing agent decom- 
poses, causing this layer to expand by forming closed cells . The 
total thickness of the wall covering is approximately 0.055 inch 
to 0.070 inch (1.4 mm to 1.78 mm). 

FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual 



SECTION 803 
WALL AND CEILING FINISHES 

803.1 General. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials shall 
be classified for fire performance and smoke development in 
accordance with Section 803.1.1 or 803.1.2, except as shown in 
Sections 803.2 through 803.13. Materials tested in accordance 
with Section 803.1.2 shall not be required to be tested in accor- 
dance with Section 803.1.1. 

803.1.1 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials. Interior 
wall and ceiling finish materials shall be classified in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Such interior finish 
materials shall be grouped in the following classes in accor- 
dance with their flame spread and smoke-developed 
indexes. 

Class A: Flame spread index 0-25; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



175 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



Class B: Flame spread index 26-75; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

Class C: Flame spread index 76-200; smoke-devel- 
oped index 0-450. 

Exception: Materials tested in accordance with Sec- 
tion 803.1.2. 

803.1.2 Room corner test for interior wall or ceiling fin- 
ish materials. Interior wall or ceiling finish materials shall 
be permitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. 
Interior wall or ceiling finish materials tested in accordance 
with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 803.1.2.1. 

803.1.2.1 Acceptance criteria for NFPA 286. During 
the 40 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with 
Item 1. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the inte- 
rior finish shall comply with Items 3 and 4. 

1. During the 40kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with the following: 

2.1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extrem- 
ity of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall 
not occur. 

3. The peak rate of heat release throughout the NFPA 
286 test shall not exceed 800 kW. 

4. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 
286 test shall not exceed 1,000 m 2 . 

803.1.3 Room corner test for textile wall coverings and 
expanded vinyl wall coverings. Textile wall coverings and 
expanded vinyl wall coverings shall meet the criteria of Sec- 
tion 803.1.3.1 when tested in the manner intended for use in 
accordance with the Method B protocol ofNFPA 265 using 
the product-mounting system, including adhesive. 

803.1.3.1 Acceptance criteria for NFPA 265. During 
the 40 kW exposure the interior finish shall comply with 
Item 1. During the 150 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the inte- 
rior finish shall comply with Item 3. 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. During the 150 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with the following: 

2.1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremi- 
ties of the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot 
(203 mm by 305 mm) walls. 

2.2. Flashover, as described in NFPA 265, shall 
not occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 
265 test shall not exceed 1,000 m 2 . 

803.1.4 Acceptance criteria for textile and expanded 
vinyl wall or ceiling coverings tested to ASTM E 84 or 



UL 723. Textile wall and ceiling coverings and expanded 
vinyl wall and ceiling coverings shall have a Class A flame 
spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or U L 723 and 
be protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. Test speci- 
men preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with 
ASTM E 2404. 

803.2 Thickness exemption. Materials having a thickness less 
than 0.036 inch (0.9 mm) applied directly to the surface of 
walls or ceilings shall not be required to be tested. 

803.3 Heavy timber exemption. Exposed portions of struc- 
tural members complying with the requirements for buildings 
of Type IV construction in Section 602.4 shall not be subject to 
interior finish requirements. 

803.4 Foam plastics. Foam plastics shall not be used as inte- 
rior finish except as provided in Section 2603.9. This section 
shall apply both to exposed foam plastics and to foam plastics 
used in conjunction with a textile or vinyl facing or cover. 

803.5 Textile wall coverings. Where used as interior wall fin- 
ish materials, textile wall coverings, including materials having 
woven or nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface 
and carpet and similar textile materials, shall be tested in the 
manner intended for use, using the product mounting system, 
including adhesive, and shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 803.1.2, 803.1.3 or 803.1.4. 

803.6 Textile ceiling coverings. Where used as interior ceiling 
finish materials, textile ceiling coverings, including materials 
having woven or nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar 
surface and carpet and similar textile materials, shall be tested 
in the manner intended for use, using the product mounting 
system, including adhesive, and shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 803.1.2 or 803.1.4. 

803.7 Expanded vinyl wall coverings. Where used as interior 
wall finish materials, expanded vinyl wall coverings shall be 
tested in the manner intended for use, using the product mount- 
ing system, including adhesive, and shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 803.1.2, 803.1.3 or 803.1.4. 

803.8 Expanded vinyl ceiling coverings. Where used as inte- 
rior ceiling finish materials, expanded vinyl ceiling coverings 
shall be tested in the manner intended for use, using the product 
mounting system, including adhesive, and shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 803.1.2 or 803.1.4. 

803.9 Interior finish requirements based on group. Interior 
wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index not 
greater than that specified in Table 803.9 for the group and 
location designated. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and meeting the accep- 
tance criteria of Section 803 .1.2.1, shall be permitted to be used 
where a Class A classification in accordance with ASTM E 84 
or U L 723 is required. 

803.10 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this 
chapter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner 
that such materials will not readily become detached where 
subjected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for not less 
than 30 minutes. 



176 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



TABLE 803.9 
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCy k 



GROUP 


SPRINKLEREO 1 


NONSPRINKLEREO 


Exit enclosures and 
exit passagewaysa, b 


Corridors 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces 


Exit enclosures and 
exit passagewaysa, b 


Corridors 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces 


A-I & A-2 


B 


B 


c 


A 


Ad 


Be 


A-3 f , A-4, A-5 


B 


B 


c 


A 


Ad 


C 


B,E,M, R-I 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


C 


R-4 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


B 


F 


C 


C 


c 


B 


C 


C 


H 


B 


B 


eg 


A 


A 


B 


1-1 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


B 


1-2 


B 


B 


Bhj 


A 


A 


B 


1-3 


A 


Aj 


C 


A 


A 


B 


1-4 


B 


B 


Bhj 


A 


A 


B 


R-2 


C 


C 


C 


B 


B 


C 


R-3 


C 


C 


C 


C 


C 


C 


S 


C 


C 


c 


B 


B 


C 


U 


No restrictions 


No restrictions 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929nr- 

a. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted for wainscotting or paneling of not more than 1,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby where 
applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.11 .1. 

b. In exit enclosures of buildings less than three stories above grade plane of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C 
interior finish for sprinklered buildings shall be permitted. 

c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, 
the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered enclosing spaces and the rooms or 
spaces on both sides shall be considered one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy thereof shall be the 
governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. 

d. Lobby areas in Group A-I , A-2 and A- 3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials. 

e. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in places of assembly with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. 

f. For places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be permitted. 

g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories. 

h. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in administrative spaces. 

i. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less. 

j. Class B materials shall be permitted as wainscotting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in corridors, 
k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. 

1 . Applies when the exit enclosures, exit passageways, corridors or rooms and enclosed spaces are protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 



803.11 Application of interior finish materials to fire-resis- 
tance-rated structural elements. Where interior finish mate- 
rials are applied on walls, ceilings or structural elements 
required to have a fire-resistance rating or to be of 
noncombustible construction, they shall comply with the pro- 
visions of this section. 

803.11.1 Direct attachment and furred construction. 
Where walls and ceilings are required by any provision in 
this code to be of fire-resistance-rated or noncombustible 
construction, the interior finish material shall be applied 
directly against such construction or to furring strips not 
exceeding l 3 / 4 inches (44 mm) applied directly against such 
surfaces. The intervening spaces between such furring 
strips shall comply with one of the following: 

1. Be filled with material that is inorganic or non- 
combustible; 



2. Be filled with material that meets the requirements 
of a Class A material in accordance with Section 
803.1.1 or 803.1.2; or 

3. Be fireblocked at a maximum of 8 feet (2438 mm) 
in any direction in accordance with Section 717. 

803.11.2 Set-out construction. Where walls and ceilings 
are required to be offire-resistance-rated or noncombustible 
construction and walls are set out or ceilings are dropped 
distances greater than specified in Section 803.11.1, Class 
A finish materials, in accordance with Section 803.1.1 or 
803.1.2, shall be used except where interior finish materials 
are protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, or 
attached to noncombustible backing or furring strips 
installed as specified in Section 803.11.1. The hangers and 
assembly members of such dropped ceilings that are below 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



177 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



the main ceiling line shall be of noncombustible materials, 
except that in Types III and V construction, fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood shall be permitted. The construction of 
each set-out wall shall be of fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion as required elsewhere in this code. 

803.1 1.3 Heavy timber construction. Wall and ceiling fin- 
ishes of all classes as permitted in this chapter that are 
installed directly against the wood decking or planking of 
Type IV construction or to wood furring strips applied 
directly to the wood decking or planking shall be 
fireblocked as specified in Section 803.11.1. 

803. 1 1.4 Materials. An interior wall or ceiling finish that is 
not more than i/ 4 inch (6.4 mm) thick shall be applied 
directly against a noncombustible backing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Noncombustible materials. 

2. Materials where the qualifying tests were made 
with the material suspended or furred out from the 
noncombustible backing. 

803.12 High-density polyethylene (HDPE). Where 
high-density polyethylene is used as an interior finish, it shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 803.1.2. 

803.13 Site-fabricated stretch systems. Where used as inte- 
rior wall or interior ceiling finish materials, site-fabricated 
stretch systems shall be tested in the manner intended for use, 
and shall comply with the requirements of Section 803.1.1 or 
803.1.2. If the materials are tested in accordance with ASTM E 
84 or UL 723, specimen preparation and mounting shall be in 
accordance with ASTM E 2573. 



SECTION 804 
INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH 

804.1 General. Interior floor finish and floor covering materi- 
als shall comply with Sections 804.2 through 804.4.1. 

Exception: Floor finishes and coverings of a traditional 
type, such as wood, vinyl, linoleum or terrazzo, and resilient 
floor covering materials that are not comprised of fibers. 

804.2 Classification. Interior floor finish and floor covering 
materials required by Section 804.4.1 to be of Class I or II 
materials shall be classified in accordance with NFPA 253. The 
classification referred to herein corresponds to the classifica- 
tions determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 0.45 
watts/cm 2 or greater; Class n, 0.22 watts /cm 2 or greater. 

804.3 Testing and identification. Interior floor finish and 
floor covering materials shall be tested by an agency in accor- 
dance with NFPA 253 and identified by a hang tag or other suit- 
able method so as to identify the manufacturer or supplier and 
style, and shall indicate the interior floor finish or floor cover- 
ing classification according to Section 804.2. Carpet-type floor 
coverings shall be tested as proposed for use, including 
underlayment. Test reports confirming the information pro- 
vided in the manufacturer's product identification shall be fur- 
nished to the building official upon request. 

804.4 Interior floor finish requirements. In all occupancies, 
interior floor finish and floor covering materials in exit enclo- 



sures, exitpassageways, corridors and rooms or spaces not sep- 
arated from corridors by full-height partitions extending from 
the floor to the underside of the ceiling shall withstand a mini- 
mum critical radiant flux as specified in Section 804.4.1. 

804.4.1 Minimum critical radiant flux. Interior floor fin- 
ish and floor covering materials in exit enclosures, exitpas- 
sageways and corridors shall not be less than Class I in 
Groups 1-1,1-2 and 1-3 and not less than Class II in Groups 
A, B, E, H, 1-4, M, R-l, R-2 and S. In all areas, floor cover- 
ing materials shall comply with the DOCFF-1 "pill test" 
(CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1630). 

Exception: Where a building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or903.3.1.2, Class II materials are per- 
mitted in any area where Class I materials are required, 
and materials complying with the DOC FF-1 "pill test" 
(CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1630) are permitted in any area 
where Class II materials are required. 



SECTION 805 
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS IN 
TYPES I AND II CONSTRUCTION 

805.1 Application. Combustible materials installed on or 
embedded in floors of buildings of Type I or II construction 
shall comply with Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.3. 

Exception: Stages and platforms constructed in accordance 
with Sections 410.3 and 410.4, respectively. 

805.1.1 Sub floor construction. Floor sleepers, bucks and 
nailing blocks shall not be constructed of combustible mate- 
rials, unless the space between the fire-resistance-rated 
floor assembly and the flooring is either solidly filled with 
noncombustible materials or fireblocked in accordance with 
Section 717, and provided that such open spaces shall not 
extend under or through permanent partitions or walls. 

805.1.2 Wood finish flooring. Wood finish flooring is per- 
mitted to be attached directly to the embedded or 
fireblocked wood sleepers and shall be permitted where 
cemented directly to the top surface of fire-resistance-rated 
floor assemblies or directly to a wood subfloor attached to 
sleepers as provided for in Section 805.1.1. 

805.1.3 Insulating boards. Combustible insulating boards 
not more than ;/ 2 inch (12.7 mm) thick and covered with fin- 
ish flooring are permitted where attached directly to a 
noncombustible floor assembly or to wood subflooring 
attached to sleepers as provided for in Section 805.1.1. 



[F] SECTION 806 
DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND TRIM 

[F] 806.1 General requirements. In occupancies in Groups A, 
E, I and R-l and dormitories in Group R-2, curtains, draperies, 
hangings and other decorative materials suspended from walls 
or ceilings shall meet the flame propagation performance crite- 
ria of NFPA 701 in accordance with Section 806.2 or be 
noncombustible. 



178 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



In Groups 1-1 and 1-2, combustible decorative materials 
shall meet the flame propagation criteria of NFPA 701 unless 
the decorative materials, including, but not limited to, photo- 
graphs and paintings, are of such limited quantities that a haz- 
ard of fire development or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, 
combustible decorative materials are prohibited. 

Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads 
and crash pads applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical 
correction, surface insulation or other purposes shall be consid- 
ered interior finish if they cover 10 percent or more of the wall 
or of the ceiling area, and shall not be considered decorative 
materials or furnishings. 

In Group Band M occupancies, fabric partitions suspended 
from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall meet the 
flame propagation performance criteria in accordance with 
Section 806.2 and NFPA 701 or shall be noncombustible. 

[F] 806.1.1 Noncombustible materials. The permissible 
amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be 
limited. 

[F] 806.1.2 Combustible decorative materials. The per- 
missible amount of decorative materials meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall not 
exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to 
which it is attached. 

Exceptions: 

1. In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible 
amount of decorative material meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 
shall not exceed 75 percent of the aggregate wall 
area where the building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 and where the material is 
installed in accordance with Section 803.11. 

2. The amount of fabric partitions suspended from 
the ceiling and not supported by the floor in Group 
Band M occupancies shall not be limited. 

[F] 806.2 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required 
by Section 806.1, decorative materials shall be tested by an 
agency and meet the flame propagation performance criteria of 
NFPA 701 or such materials shall be noncombustible. Reports 
of test results shall be prepared in accordance with NFPA 701 
and furnished to the building official upon request. 

[F] 806.3 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as trim in any occu- 
pancy shall comply with Section 2604.2. 

\F] 806.4 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other material 
consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazardous 
base shall not be used in Group A occupancies. 

[F] 806.5 Interior trim. Material, other than foam plastic used 
as interior trim, shall have a minimum Class C flame spread 
and smoke-developed index when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 or UL 723, as described in Section 803.1.1. Com- 
bustible trim, excluding handrails and guardrails, shall not 
exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area in which it 
is attached. 

[F] 806.6 Interior floor- wall base. Interior floor-wall base 
that is 6 inches (152 mm) or less in height shall be tested in 



accordance with Section 804.2 and shall not be less than Class 
II. Where a Class I floor finish is required, the floor-wall base 
shall be Class I. 

Exception: Interior trim materials that comply with Section 
806.5. 



SECTION 807 
INSULATION 

807.1 Insulation. Thermal and acoustical insulation shall 
comply with Section 719. 



SECTION 808 
ACOUSTICAL CEILING SYSTEMS 

808.1 Acoustical ceiling systems. The quality, design, fabrica- 
tion and erection of metal suspension systems for acoustical 
tile and lay-in panel ceilings in buildings or structures shall 
conform with generally accepted engineering practice, the pro- 
visions of this chapter and other applicable requirements of this 
code. 

808.1.1 Materials and installation. Acoustical materials 
complying with the interior finish requirements of Section 
803 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
recommendations and applicable provisions for applying 
interior finish. 

808.1.1.1 Suspended acoustical ceilings. Suspended 
acoustical ceiling systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of ASTM C 635 and ASTM C 
636. 

808.1.1.2 Fire-resistance-rated construction. Acousti- 
cal ceiling systems that are part of fire-resistance-rated 
construction shall be installed in the same manner used 
in the assembly tested and shall comply with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 7. 



i 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



179 



180 2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 9 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



I 



SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901 . 1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify where 
fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the 
design, installation and operation of fire protection systems. 

901.2 Fire protection systems. Fire protection systems shall 
be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance 
with this code and the International Fire Code. 

Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduc- 
tion to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be con- 
sidered to be a required system. 

Exception: Any fire protection system or portion thereof 
not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed 
for partial or complete protection provided that such system 
meets the requirements of this code. 

901.3 Modifications. No person shall remove or modify any 
fire protection system installed or maintained under the provi- 
sions of this code or the International Fire Code without 
approval by the building official. 

901.4 Threads. Threads provided for fire department connec- 
tions to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or any 
other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connec- 
tions used by the local fire department. 

901.5 Acceptance tests. Fire protection systems shall be tested 
in accordance with the requirements of this code and the Inter- 
national Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be con- 
ducted in the presence of the building official. Tests required by 
this code, the International Fire Code and the standards listed 
in this code shall be conducted at the expense of the owner or 
the owner's representative. It shall be unlawful to occupy por- 
tions of a structure until the required fire protection systems 
within that portion of the structure have been tested and 
approved. 

901.6 Supervisory service. Where required, fire protection 
systems shall be monitored by an supervising station in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

901.6.1 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprin- 
kler systems shall be monitored by an approvedsupervising 
station. 

Exceptions: 

1. A supervising station is not required for automatic 
sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family 
dwellings. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

901.6.2 Fire alarm systems. Fire alarm systems required 
by the provisions of Section 907.2 of this code and Sections 
907.2 and 907.3 of the International Fire Code shall be 



monitored by an approved supervising station in accor- 
dance with Section 907.6.5. 

Exceptions: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms 
required by Section 907.2.11. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Supervisory service is not required for automatic 
sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwell- 
ings. 

901.6.3 Group H. Manual fire alarm, automatic fire-extin- 
guishing and emergency alarm systems in Group H occu- 
pancies shall be monitored by an approved supervising 
station. 

Exception: When approved by the bUilding official, 
on-site monitoring at a constantly attendedlocation shall 
be permitted provided that notifications to the fire 
department will be equal to those provided by an 
app roved supervising station. 

901.7 Fire areas. Where buildings, or portions thereof, are 
divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established 
for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this 
chapter, swch. fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both, 
having & fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined 
in accordance with Section 707.3.9. 

SECTION 902 
DEFINITIONS 

902.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm 
system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text 
display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any 
combination thereof. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency 
requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative offire. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of 
automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted 
alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a 
minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a 
given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be 
accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indica- 
tor lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in 
which each indication provides status information about a cir- 
cuit, condition or location. 



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I 



[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. 

[F] AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a 
device or system providing an emergency function without the 
necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a 
predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or 
combustion products. 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

An approve ^system of devices and equipment which automat- 
ically detects afire and discharges an approvedfire-extinguish- 
ing agent onto or in the area of a fire. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire 
alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke 
detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with 
detectors to provide early warning of fire. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic 
sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated 
system of underground and overhead piping designed in accor- 
dance with fire protection engineering standards. The system 
includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system 
above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydrauli- 
cally designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally 
overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a 
systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat 
from a fire and discharges water over the fire area. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean 
square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 
24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever 
time period is less. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 
A system supplying carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) from a pressurized 
vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a 
manual- or automatic- actuating mechanism. 

[F] CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an 
air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed, as pub- 
lished in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or 
gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon 
evaporation. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A desig- 
nated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a 
continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are moni- 
tored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire 
department or other emergency services. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open 
sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water sup- 
ply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detec- 
tion system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When 
this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and dis- 
charges from all sprinklers attached thereto. 

I[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat- 
either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A 

powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicar- 
bonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicar- 



I 



bonate, potassium chloride or mono ammonium phosphate, 
with added particulate material supplemented by special treat- 
ment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture 
absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities. 

[F] ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a build- 
ing located adjacent or directly across from one another that 
responds to a common hall call button(s). 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide 
indication and warning of emergency situations involving haz- 
ardous materials. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA- 
TIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originat- 
ing and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and 
evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occu- 
pants of a building. 

[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual fire alarm 
box. " 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component 
that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm 
devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection 
devices and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter (s). The 
control unit may be capable of providing a transfer of power to 
the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays or 
devices. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire 
alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, auto- 
matic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose 
activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a com- 
bination system consisting of components and circuits 
arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or 
supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appro- 
priate response to those signals. 

[F] FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and 
bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizon- 
tal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided 
with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such 
areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof 
or floor next above. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or 
unattended location where the status of detection, alarm com- 
munications and control systems is displayed, and from which 
the system(s) can be manually controlled. 

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed 
to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, 
equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to 
detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, con- 
trol or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination 
thereof. 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control 
functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for 
occupants or to control the spread of harmful effects of fire. 



182 



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I 



[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system 
discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechani- 
cally or chemically, over the area to be protected. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 

fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an ele- 
ment from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine. 

\F] INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that origi- 
nates transmission of a change-of- state condition, such as in a 
smoke detector, manual fire alarm box or supervisory switch. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated 
device used to initiate an alarm signal. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or 
more single- station alarm devices that are capable of intercon- 
nection such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate 
audible alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-sta- 
tion alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a 
manual fire alarm box. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more 
single- station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal 
to operate in all interconnected alarms . 

[F] NOTIFICATION ZONE. See "Zone, notification." 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical 
failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper 
maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be 
determined. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that doc- 
ument the location of all devices, appliances, wiring 
sequences, wiring methods and connections of the components 
of a fire alarm system as installed. 

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly 
incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the 
alarm -sounding device in one unit, operated from a power sup- 
ply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 

I[F] SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple- station alarm 
responsive to smoke. 

\F] SMOKE DETECTOR. A liste d device that senses visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. 

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway designed 
and constructed so that the movement of the products of com- 
bustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building 
into the enclosure is limited. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe 
classes are as follows: 

Class I system. A system providing 2 l i T mch (64 mm) hose 
connections to supply water for use by fire departments and 
those trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

Class II system. A system providing lV 2 -inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the build- 
ing occupants or by the fire department during initial 
response. 

Class III system. A system providing lV^inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants 



and 2 1 / T inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger 
volume of water for use by fire departments and those 
trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

[FT STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows: 

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled 
with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a 
device, such as dry pipe valve, to admit water into the sys- 
tem piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. 
The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system 
shall be capable of supplying the system demand. 

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water 
supply that is capable of supplying the system demand auto- 
matically. 

Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a 
permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry 
standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire 
department connection in order to meet the system demand. 

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water 
supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the sys- 
tem but does not have a water supply capable of delivering 
the system demand attached to the system. Manual-wet 
standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to 
meet the system demand. 

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is 
arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, 
to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a 
remote control device located at a hose connection. A 
remote control activation device shall be provided at each 
hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry 
standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system 
demand. 

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives sig- 
nals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to 
respond to these signals. 

[FT SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to 
monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condi- 
tion of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the pro- 
tection of life and property. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need 
of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the 
fire suppression systems or equipment or the maintenance fea- 
tures of related systems. 

[FT SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An 
initiation device, such as a valve supervisory switch, 
water-level indicator or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe 
sprinkler system, whose change of state signals an off-normal 
condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or 
life safety system, or a need for action in connection with guard 
tours, fire suppression systems or equipment or maintenance 
features of related systems. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the 
area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m 3 ). 



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[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm 
system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or 
component. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. 

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 

solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, 
potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, 
forming an extinguishing agent. 

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a 
part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without 
the aid of wire. 

\F] ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A 
zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an 
area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of 
control can be executed. 

[F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building or 
facility covered by notification appliances which are activated 
simultaneously. 



SECTION 903 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

[F] 903.1 General. A utomatic sprinkler systems shall comply 
with this section. 

[F] 903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 
shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection 
where recognized by the applicable standard and approved 
by the fire code official. 

[F] 903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the 
locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12. 

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications build- 
ings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equipment, batter- 
ies and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are 
equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated 
from the remainder of the building by not less than I-hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 
not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. 

\F] 903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used 
as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For 
Group A-I, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor area 
where the Group A-I, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is 
located, and in all floors from the Group A occupancy to, 
and including, the nearest level of exit discharge serving the 
Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indi- 
cated in Section 903.2.1.5. 



[F] 903.2.1.1 Group A-I. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-I occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 



2. The fire area has an occupantloadof 300 or more; 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level 
of exit discharge serving such occupancies; or 

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex. 

[F] 903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464.5 
m 2 ); 

2. The fire area has an occupantloadof 100 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level 
of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

[F] 903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m 2 ); 

2. The fire area has an occupantloadof 300 or more; 
or 

3. The //re area is located on a floor other than a level 
of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

[F] 903.2.1.4 Group A-4. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 



2. The fire area has an occupantloadof 300 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level 
of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

\F] 903.2.1.5 Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the 
following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press 
boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 
square feet (93 m 2 ) . 

[F] 903.2.2 Group B ambulatory health care facilities. 
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout 
all fire areas containing a Group B ambulatory health care 
facility occupancy when either of the following conditions 
exists at any time: 

1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self- 
preservation. 

2. One or more care recipients who are incapable of self- 
preservation are located at other than the level of exit 
discharge serving such an occupancy. 



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[F] 903.2.3 Group E. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided for Group E occupancies as follows: 

1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 
12,000 square feet (1115 m 2 ) in area. 

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings 
below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that 
portion of the building. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not 
required in any area below the lowest level of exit 
discharge serving that area where every classroom 
throughout the building has at least one exterior 
exit door at ground level. 

[F] 903.2.4 Group F-l. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a 
Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following condi- 
tions exists: 

1. A Group F-l fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m 2 ). 

2. A Group F-l fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane. 

3. The combined area of all Group F-l fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m 2 ). 

[F] 903.2.4.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group 
F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking 
operations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m 2 ) in area 
which generate finely divided combustible waste or use 
finely divided combustible materials. 

[F] 903.2.5 Group H. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sec- 
tions 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3. 

[F] 903.2.5.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be installed in Group H occupancies. 

[F] 903.2.5.2 Group H-5. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout buildings containing 
Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler sys- 
tem shall not be less than that required by this code for 
the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with 
Table 903.2.5.2. Where the design area of the sprinkler 
system consists of a corridor protected by one row of 
sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required 
to be calculated is 13 . 

[F] TABLE 903.2.5.2 
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA 



LOCATION 


OCCUPANCY HAZARD 
CLASSIFICATION 


Fabrication areas 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Service corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms without dispensing 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms with dispensing 


Extra Hazard Group 2 


Corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 



[F] 903.2.5.3 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions 
thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics 
are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities 
exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg). 

[F] 903.2.6 Group I. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 shall be 
allowed in Group 1-1 facilities. 

[F] 903.2.7 Group M. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m 2 ). 

2. A Group Mfire area is located more than three stories 
above grade plane. 

3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m 2 ). 

4. A Group M occupancy is used for the display and sale 
of upholstered furniture. 

[F] 903.2.7.1 High-piled storage. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided in accordance with the 
International Fire Code in all buildings of Group M 
where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack 
storage arrays. 

[F] 903.2.8 Group R. An automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided 
throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area. 

[F] 903.2.9 Group 5-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group 
S-l occupancy where one of the following conditions 
exists: 

1. A Group S-l fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m 2 ). 

2. A Group S-l fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane. 

3. The combined area of all Group S-l fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m 2 ). 

4. A Group S-l fire area used for the storage of com- 
mercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 
5,000 square feet (464 m 2 ). 

[F] 903.2.9.1 Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as 
repair garages in accordance with Section 406, as shown: 

1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade 
plane, including basements, with a fire area con- 
taining a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square 
feet (929 m 2 ). 

2. Buildings no more than one story above grade 
plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage 
exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2). 



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3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles 
parked in basements. 

4. A Group S-l fire area used for the repair of com- 
mercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 
5,000 square feet (464 m 2 ). 

[F] 903.2.9.2 Bulk storage of tires. Buildings and struc- 
tures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 
20,000 cubic feet (566 m 3 ) shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

[F] 903.2.10 Group S-2 enclosed parking garages. An 
automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout 
buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accor- 
dance with Section 406.4 as follows: 

1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage 
exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m 2 ); or 

2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath 
other groups. 

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located 
beneath Group R-3 occupancies. 

[F] 903.2.10.1 Commercial parking garages. Anauto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout 
buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses 
where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m 2 ). 

[F] 903.2.11 Specific building areas and hazards. In all 
occupancies an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed 
for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in 
Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6. 

Exception: Groups R-3 and U. 

[F] 903.2.11.1 Stories without openings. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, 
including basements, of all buildings where the floor 
area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m 2 ) and where 
there is not provided at least one of the following types of 
exterior wall openings: 

1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground 
level by an exterior stairway complying with Sec- 
tion 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Sec- 
tion 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 
linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of 
exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The 
required openings shall be distributed such that the 
lineal distance between adjacent openings does 
not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground 
level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m 2 ) in 
each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction 
thereof, of exterior wallin the story on at least one 
side. The required openings shall be distributed 
such that the lineal distance between adjacent 
openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

[F] 903.2.11.1.1 Opening dimensions and access. 
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be 
accessible to the fire department from the exterior and 



shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or 
rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. 

[F] 903.2.11.1 .2 Openings on one side only. Where 
openings in a story are provided on only one side and 
the opposite wall of such storyis more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall 
be provided on at least two sides of the story. 

[F] 903.2.11.1.3 Basements. Where any portion of a 
basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, the 
basement shall be equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

[F] 903.2. 11.2 Rubbish and linen chutes. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish 
and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes 
extending through three or more floors shall have addi- 
tional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at 
alternate floors. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for 
servicing. 

[F] 903.2.11.3 Buildings 55 feet or more in height. An 
automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout 
buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 
30 or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport control towers. 

2. Open parking structures. 

3. Occupancies in Group F-2. 

[F] 903.2.11.4 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts. 
Where required by the International Mechanical Code, 
automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts convey- 
ing hazardous exhaust, or flammable or combustible 
materials. 

Exception: Ducts in which the largest cross-sectional 
diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm). 

[F] 903.2.11.5 Commercial cooking operations. An 
automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commer- 
cial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an 
automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Sec- 
tion 904. 

[F] 903.2.11.6 Other required suppression systems. In 
addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provi- 
sions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 also require the 
installation of a fire suppression system for certain build- 
ings and areas. 

[F] 903.2.12 During construction. Automatic sprinkler 
systems required during construction, alteration and demo- 
lition operations shall be provided in accordance with Chap- 
ter 14 of the International Fire Code. 

\F] 903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 903.3.1 through 903.3.6. 



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[F] TABLE 903.2.11.6 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


402.9 


Covered malls 


403.2,403.3 


High-rise buildings 


404.3 


Atriums 


405.3 


Underground structures 


407.5 


Group 1-2 


410.6 


Stages 


411.4 


Special amusement buildings 


412.4.6,412.4.6.1, 
412.6.5 


Aircraft hangars 


415.6.2.4 


Group H-2 


416.4 


Flammable finishes 


417.4 


Drying rooms 


507 


Unlimited area buildings 


508.2.5 


Incidental accessory occupancies 


1028.6.2.3 


Smoke-protected assembly seating 


IFC 


Sprinkler system requirements as set forth in 
Section 903.2.11.6 of the International Fire 
Code 



[F] 903.3.1 Standards. Sprinkler systems shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

[F] 903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the 
provisions of this code require that a building or portion 
thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers 
shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 
13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1. 

[F] 903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. Automatic sprin- 
klers shall not be required in the following rooms or 
areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an 
approved automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall 
not be omitted from any room merely because it is 
damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or con- 
tains electrical equipment. 

1. Any room where the application of water, or 
flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire 
hazard. 

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are consid- 
ered undesirable because of the nature of the 
contents, when approvedby the fire code offi- 
cial. 

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated 
from the remainder of the building by walls and 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having 
afire-resistance rating of notiess than 2 hours. 



4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible con- 
struction with wholly noncombustible con- 
tents. 

5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and 
machinery spaces. 

[F] 903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Where 
allowed in buildings of Group R,up to and including four 
stories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R. 

[F] 903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and decks. Sprinkler pro- 
tection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks 
and ground floor patios of dwelling units where the 
building is of Type V construction, provided there is a 
roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used 
to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located 
such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 
6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and 
a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the 
deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are con- 
structed of open wood joist construction. 

[F] 903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Where 
allowed, automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- 
and two-family dwellings and townhouses shall be 
installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D. 

[F] 903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers. 
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this 
code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1 and their listings: 

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment 
containing patient sleeping units in Group 1-2 in 
accordance with this code. 

2. Dwelling units, and sleeping units in Group Rand 1-1 
occupancies. 

3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 

[F] 903.3.3 Obstructed locations. Automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will 
delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. 
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered 
kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment 
that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot 
(914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic 
sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers. 

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods 
protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Section 904. 

[F] 903.3.4 Actuation. Automatic sprinkler systems shall 
be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in 
this code. 

[F] 903.3.5 Water supplies. Water supplies for automatic 
sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the 
standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water 
supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Plumbing Code. 



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[F] 903.3.5.1 Domestic services. Where the domestic 
service provides the water supply for the automatic 
sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with 
this section. 

[F] 903.3.5.1.1 Limited area sprinkler systems. 
Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 
sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to 
be connected to the domestic service where a wet 
automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area 
sprinkler systems connected to domestic water sup- 
plies shall comply with each of the following require- 
ments: 

1. Valves shall not be installed between the 
domestic water riser control valve and the 
sprinklers. 

Exception: An approved indicating control 
valve supervised in the open position in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

2. The domestic service shall be capable of sup- 
plying the simultaneous domestic demand and 
the sprinkler demand required to be hydrauli- 
cally calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or 
NFPA 13D. 

\F] 903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. A 
single combination water supply shall be allowed pro- 
vided that the domestic demand is added to the sprin- 
kler demand as required by NFPA 13R. 

\F] 903.3.5.2 Secondary water supply. A secondary 
on-site water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated 
sprinkler demand, including the hose stream require- 
ment, shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned 
to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined 
by this code. The secondary water supply shall have a 
duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the 
occupancy hazard classification in accordance with 
NFPA 13. 

Exception: Existing buildings. 

[F] 903.3.6 Hose threads. Fire hose threads and fittings 
used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall 
be as prescribed by the fire code official. 

[F] 903.4 Sprinkler system supervision and alarms. All 
valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air 
pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall 
be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit. 



Exceptions: 

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- 
two-family dwellings. 



and 



Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance 
with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used 
to supply both domestic water and the automatic 



sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the 
automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked 
in the open position. 

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint 
spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump 
engines that are sealed or locked in the open position. 

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and 
deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

[F] 903.4.1 Monitoring. Alarm, supervisory and trouble 
signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automati- 
cally transmitted to an approved supervising station or, 
when approvedby the fire code official, shall sound an audi- 
ble signal at a constantly attended location. 

Exceptions: 

1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes 
provided by the municipality or public utility are 
not required to be monitored. 

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in 
limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall 
be locked in the open position. In occupancies 
required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, 
the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically 
supervised by a tamper switch installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated. 

[F] 903.4.2 Alarms. Approved audible devices shall be con- 
nected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler 
waterflow alarm devices shall be activated by waterflow 
equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest 
orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall be 
provided on the exterior of the building in an approvedloca- 
tion. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the 
automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire 
alarm system. 

[F] 903.4.3 Floor control valves. Approved supervised 
indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of 
connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings. 

[F] 903.5 Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall 
be tested and maintained in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 



SECTION 904 

ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC 

FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

[F] 904.1 General. Automatic fire- extinguishing systems, 
other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, 
installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with 
the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced 
standards. 

[F] 904.2 Where required. Automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprin- 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



kler systems of Section 903 shall be approvedby the fire code 
official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be con- 
sidered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reduc- 
tions allowed by other requirements of this code. 

\F] 904.2.1 Commercial hood and duct systems. Each 
required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system 
required by Section 609 of the International Fire Code or 
Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code to have a 
Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic 
fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this 
code. 

[F] 904.3 Installation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be installed in accordance with this section. 

\F] 904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 70. 

\F] 904.3.2 Actuation. Automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a 
manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 
904.11.1. 

\F] 904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment 
interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door 
closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and 
heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation 
of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as 
required by the design and installation standard utilized for 
the hazard. 

\F] 904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are 
required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms and 
warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent 
discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing 
agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to 
ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, 
a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occu- 
pants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall 
be in accordance with Section 907.6.2. 

\F] 904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm sys- 
tem is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall 
be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fire-extinguish- 
ing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with 
the provisions of this section prior to acceptance. 

[F] 904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final accep- 
tance tests, the following items shall be inspected: 

1. Hazard specification for consistency with design haz- 
ard. 

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and man- 
ual-initiating devices. 

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge 
orifices. 

4. Location and identification of audible and visible 
alarm devices. 

5. Identification of devices with proper designations. 



6. Operating instructions. 

[F] 904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, con- 
nections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved 
supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this 
section and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 

[F] 904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibil- 
ity and visibility of notification appliances signaling 
agent discharge or system operation, where required, 
shall be verified. 

\F] 904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to protected pre- 
mises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be 
tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of 
alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

\F] 904.5 Wet-chemical systems. Wet-chemical extinguish- 
ing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically 
inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their 
listing. 

[F] 904.6 Dry-chemical systems. Dry-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. 

[F] 904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in 
accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. 

[F] 904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide extin- 
guishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically 
inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their list- 
ing. 

[F] 904.9 Halon systems. Halogenated extinguishing systems 
shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested 
in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. 

[F] 904.10 Clean-agent systems. Clean- agent fire-extinguish- 
ing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically 
inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their 
listing. 

[F] 904.11 Commercial cooking systems. The automatic 
fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems 
shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial 
cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and 
arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and 
wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accor- 
dance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended 
application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection 
for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be 
installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manu- 
facturer's installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguish- 
ing systems of the following types shall be installed in 
accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows: 

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12. 

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13. 

3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray sys- 
tems, NFPA 16. 

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17. 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A. 

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculat- 
ing systems that are tested in accordance with UL 71 OB and 
listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 
304.1 of the International Mechanical Code. 

[F] 904.11.1 Manual system operation. A manual actua- 
tion device shall be located at or near a means of egress hora 
the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a 
maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust 
system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not 
more than 48 inches (1200 mm) or less than 42 inches (1067 
mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard 
protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum 
force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 
inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be 
required to be equipped with manual actuation means. 

[F] 904.11.2 System interconnection. The actuation of the 
fire suppression system shall automatically shut down the 
fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. 
The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. 

[F] 904.11.3 Carbon dioxide systems. When carbon diox- 
ide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the 
ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically 
arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed 
within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and hori- 
zontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall 
be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and 
shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation 
of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is 
installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be imme- 
diately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to pro- 
tect against all hazards venting through a common duct 
simultaneously. 

\F] 904.11.3.1 Ventilation system. Commercial-type 
cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon 
dioxide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut 
off the ventilation system upon activation. 

\F] 904.11.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler 
systems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commer- 
cial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a sepa- 
rate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is 
identified. 

[F] 904.11.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinklers used for 
the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with 
UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in 
accordance with their listing. 



SECTION 905 
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

[F] 905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire 
hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall 
be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose 
threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall 



be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible 
storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 905.2 Installation standard. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. 

[F] 905.3 Required installations. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.7 
and in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 905.5 and 
905.6. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with 
automatic sprinkler systems. 

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group 
R-3 occupancies. 

[F] 905.3.1 Height. Class III standpipe systems shall be 
installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the 
highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above 
the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where 
the floor level of the lowest storyis located more than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages where the highest floor is located 
not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the low- 
est level of fire department vehicle access. 

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages that are subject to freezing tem- 
peratures, provided that the hose connections are 
located as required for Class II standpipes in accor- 
dance with Section 905.5. 

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

5. In determining the lowest level of fire department 
vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider: 

5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles 
or less; and 

5.2. Conditions where topography makes 
access from the fire department vehicle to 
the building impractical or impossible. 

[F] 905.3.2 Group A. Class I automatic wet standpipes 
shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings hav- 
ing an occupant loa d exceeding 1,000 persons. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces. 

2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry 
standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed 
in buildings where the highest floor surface used 
for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or 
less above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. 



190 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



[F] 905.3.3 Covered mall buildings. A coveredmall build- 
ing shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system 
where required by Section 905.3.1. Coveredmall buildings 
not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Sec- 
tion 905.3. 1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections 
connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver 
water at 250 gallons per minute (946 A L/min) at the most 
hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently 
supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The 
standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 50 
pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure 
loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) 
from the fire department connection to the hydraulically 
most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be 
provided at each of the following locations: 

1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passage- 
way or corridor. 

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways 
opening directly on the mall. 

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall. 

4. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to 
reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 
200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection. 

[F] 905.3.4 Stages. Stages greater than 1,000 square feet in 
area (93 m 2 ) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe 
system with l 1 / 2 -inch and 2 1 / 2 -inch (38 mm and 64 mm) 
hose connections on each side of the stage. 

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 
l 1 / 2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in 
accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 
14 for Class II or III standpipe s. 

\F] 905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. The l 1 / 2 -inch (38 mm) 
hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient 
lengths of l 1 / 2 -inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protec- 
tion for the stage area. Hose connections shall be 
equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be 
mounted in a cabinet or on a rack. 

[F] 905.3.5 Underground buildings. Underground build- 
ings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic 
wet or manual wet standpipe system. 

[F] 905.3.6 Helistops and heliports. Buildings with a 
helistop or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall 
extend the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop 
or heliport is located in accordance with Section 1107.5 of 
the International Fire Code. 

[F] 905.3.7 Marinas and boatyards. Standpipes in mari- 
nas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 45 of the Inter- 
national Fire Code. 

[F] 905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections. 
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of 
the following locations: 

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be 
provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose 
connections shall be located at an intermediate floor 



level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved 
by the fire code official. 

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a 
horizontal exit. 

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizon- 
talexit are reachable from exit stairwayhose connec- 
tions by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a 
nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a 
hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal 
exit. 

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit 
passageway to other areas of a building. 

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exitpas- 
sageway are reachable from exit stairway hose con- 
nections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a 
nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a 
hose connection shall not be required at the entrance 
from the exit passageway to other areas of the build- 
ing. 

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior pub- 
lic entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance 
from an exzYpassageway or exit corridor to the mall. 

5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), each standpipe 
shall be provided with a hose connection located either 
on the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with 
stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection 
shall be provided at the top of the most hydraulically 
remote standpipe for testing purposes. 

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor 
or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose 
connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered 
floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a 
hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to 
require that additional hose connections be provided in 
approved locations. 

[F] 905.4.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class I 
standpipe systems not located within an enclosed stairway 
or pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of 
fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures 
in the building in which they are located. 

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are 
not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized 
enclosure are not required to be enclosed within 
fire-resistance-rated construction. 

\F] 905.4.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than 
one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be intercon- 
nected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

[F] 905.5 Location of Class II standpipe hose connections. 
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and 
located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet 
(9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of 
hose. 

\F] 905.5.1 Groups A-I and A-2. In Group A-I and A-2 
occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose 



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connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on 
each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the 
balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms. 

[F] 905.5.2 Protection. Fire-resistance-rated protection of 
risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not 
required. 

[F] 905.5.3 Class II system I-inch hose. A minimum 
I-inch (25 mm) hose shall be permitted to be used for hose 
stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and 
listed for this service and where approved by the fire code 
official. 

[F] 905.6 Location of Class III standpipe hose connections. 
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections 
located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and 
shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 
905.5. 

[F] 905.6.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class III 
standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I 
systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1. 

[F] 905.6.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than 
one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be 
interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

[F] 905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equip- 
ment such as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or fire 
department valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured 
from view. 

[F] 905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification. Cabinets 
shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently 
attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
high in a color that contrasts with the background color, 
indicating the equipment contained therein. 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written 
sign shall be marked with a permanently attached 
pictogram of the equipment contained therein. 

2. Doors that have either an approvedvisual identifi- 
cation clear glass panel or a complete glass door 
panel are not required to be marked. 

[F] 905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors. Cabinets shall be 
unlocked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other 
approved transparent frangible material that is 
easily broken and allows access. 

2. Approve d locking arrangements. 

3. Group 1-3. 

[F] 905.8 Dry standpipes. Dry standpipes shall not be 
installed. 

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance 
with NFPA 14. 

[F] 905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water sup- 
plies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in 
the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory sig- 



nal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where 
a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmit- 
ted to the control unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway 
boxes provided by the municipality or public utility 
do not require supervision. 

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as 
provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a 
fire alarm system. 

[F] 905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required 
during construction and demolition operations shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 3311. 



SECTION 906 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

\F] 906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
installed in the following locations. 

1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-I, R-2, 
R-4 and S occupancies. 

Exception: In new and existing Group A, Band E 
occupancies equipped throughout with quick 
response sprinklers, portable fire extinguishers shall 
be required only in locations specified in Items 2 
through 6. 

2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equip- 
ment. 

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are 
stored, used or dispensed. 

4. On each floor of structures under construction, except 
Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 
1415.1 of the International Fire Code. 

5. Where required by the International Fire Code sections 
indicated in Table 906.1. 

6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to labora- 
tories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where 
required by the fire code official. 

[F] TABLE 906.1 

ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS IN 

THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



IFC SECTION 


SUBJECT 


303.5 


Asphalt kettles 


307.5 


Open burning 


308.1.3 


Open flames-torches 


309.4 


Powered industrial trucks 


1105.2 


Aircraft towing vehicles 


1105.3 


Aircraft welding apparatus 


1105.4 


Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles 


1105.5 


Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles 


1105.6 


Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations 



(continued) 



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[F] TABLE 906.1 -continued 

ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS IN 

THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



IFC SECTION 


SUBJECT 


1107.7 


Heliports and helistops 


1208.4 


Dry cleaning plants 


1415.1 


Buildings under construction or demolition 


1417.3 


Roofing operations 


1504.4.1 


Spray-finishing operations 


1505.4.2 


Dip-tank operations 


1506.4.2 


Powder-coating areas 


1904.2 


Lumberyards/woodworking facilities 


1908.8 


Recycling facilities 


1909.5 


Exterior lumber storage 


2003.5 


Organic-coating areas 


2106.3 


Industrial ovens 


2205.5 


Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2210.6.4 


Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2211.6 


Repair garages 


2306.1 


Rack storage 


2404.12 


Tents and membrane structures 


2508.2 


Tire rebuilding/storage 


2604.2.6 


Welding and other hot work 


2903.6 


Combustible fibers 


3403.2.1 


Flammable and combustible liquids , general 


3404.3.3.1 


Indoor storage of flammable and combustible 
liquids 


3404.3.7.5.2 


Liquid storage rooms for flammable and 
combustible liquids 


3405.4.9 


Solvent distillation units 


3406.2.7 


Farms and construction sites-flammable and 
combustible liquids storage 


3406.4.10.1 


Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and 
combustible liquids 


3406.5.4.5 


Commercial, industrial, governmental or 
manufacturing establishments-fuel dispensing 


3406.6.4 


Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible 
liquids 


3606.5.7 


Flammable solids 


3808.2 


LP-gas 


4504.4 


Marinas 



\F] 906.2 General requirements. Portable fire extinguishers 
shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with 
this section and NFPA 10. 

Exceptions: 

1. The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not 
apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 
occupancies. 



2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and 
maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three 
years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable 
fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and 
approved electronic monitoring device, provided that 
all of the following conditions are met: 

2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that 
extinguishers are properly positioned, prop- 
erly charged and unobstructed. 

2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the elec- 
tronic monitoring device shall initiate a trou- 
ble signal. 

2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a 
building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environ- 
ment. 

2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervi- 
sory circuits shall be tested every three years 
when extinguisher maintenance is performed. 

2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates 
for extinguishers shall be maintained by the 
owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are con- 
ducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10. 

3. In Group 1-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be per- 
mitted to be located at staff locations. 

\F] 906.3 Size and distribution. The size and distribution of 
portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 
906.3.1 through 906.3.4. 

[F] 906.3.1 Class A fire hazards. The minimum sizes and 
distribution of portable fire extinguishers for occupancies 
that involve primarily Class A fire hazards shall comply 
with Table 906.3(1). 

[F] TABLE 906.3(1) 
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS 





LIGHT 

(Low) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


ORDINARY 

(Moderate) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


EXTRA 

(High) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


Minimum Rated Single 
Extinguisher 


2-Ac 


2-A 


4-Aa 


Maximum Floor Area 
Per Unit of A 


3,000 square 
feet 


1,500 square 
feet 


1,000 square 
feet 


Maximum Floor Area for 
Extinguisher 15 


11,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


Maximum Travel 
Distance to Extinguisher 


75 feet 


75 feet 


75 feet 



For 51 : I foot = 304.8 mm, I square foot = 0.0929m z , I gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Two 2 1 / z -gallon water- type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of 
one 4-A rated extinguisher. 

b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the 
maximum floor area criteria. 

c. Two water- type extinguishers each with a I -A rating shall be deemed the 
equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupan- 
cies. 

[F] 906.3.2 Class B fire hazards. Portable fire 
extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or com- 
bustible liquids with depths less than or equal to 0.25-inch 



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(6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with 
Table 906.3 (2). 

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving 
flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater 
than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in 
accordance with NFPA 10. 

[F] TABLE 906.3(2) 

FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH 

DEPTHS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25 INCH 



TYPE OF 
HAZARD 


BASIC MINIMUM 
EXTINGUISHER RATING 


MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE 
TO EXTINGUISHERS (feet) 


Light (Low) 


5-B 
10-B 


30 
50 


Ordinary 

(Moderate) 


10-B 

20-B 


30 
50 


Extra (High) 


40-B 
80-B 


30 
50 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

Note: For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative 

sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10. 

\F] 906.3.3 Class C fire hazards. Portable fire 
extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and 
placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard. 

\F] 906.3.4 Class D fire hazards. Portable fire 
extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible met- 
als shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 
10. 

\F] 906.4 Cooking grease fires. Fire extinguishers provided 
for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an 
approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguish- 
ing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.11 .5 of 
the International Fire Code. 

[F] 906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers 
shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be 
readily accessible and immediately available for use. These 
locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire 
code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the 
need for placement away from normal paths of travel. 

[F] 906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In 
rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be com- 
pletely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the loca- 
tions of extinguishers. 

[F] 906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire 
extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the 
hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be 
securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with 
the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

[F] 906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be locked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to mali- 
cious use or damage are provided with a means of 
ready access. 



2. In Group 1-3 occupancies and in mental health areas 
in Group 1-2 occupancies, access to portable fire 
extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be 
located in staff locations provided the staff has keys. 

[F] 906.9 Extinguisher installation. The installation of porta- 
ble fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 
906.9.1 through 906.9.3. 

[F] 906.9.1 Extinguishers weighing 40 pounds or less. 
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not 
exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their 
tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. 

[F] 906.9.2 Extinguishers weighing more than 40 
pounds. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a 
gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed 
so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above 
the floor. 

[F] 906.9.3 Floor clearance. The clearance between the 
floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm). 

[F] 906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be 
conspicuously located in a designated location. 



SECTION 907 
FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 

[F] 907.1 General. This section covers the application, instal- 
lation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and 
their components. 

[F] 907.1.1 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments fox fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to 
indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed 
and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of 
this code, the International Fire Code, and relevant laws, 
ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire 
code official. 

[F] 907.1.2 Fire alarm shop drawings. Shop drawings for 
fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and 
approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but 
not be limited to, all of the following: 

1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms. 

2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices. 

3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, includ- 
ing candela ratings for visible alarm notification 
appliances. 

4. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and 
notification power supplies. 

5. Annunciators. 

6. Power connection. 

7. Battery calculations. 

8. Conductor type and sizes. 

9. Voltage drop calculations. 



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10. Manufacturers' data sheets indicating model num- 
bers and listing information for equipment, devices 
and materials. 

11. Details of ceiling height and construction. 

12. The interface of fire safety control functions. 

13. Classification of the supervising station. 

[F] 907.1.3 Equipment. Systems and components shall be 
listed and approved for the purpose for which they are 
installed. 

[F] 907.2 Where required-new buildings and structures. 
An approved Tire alarm system installed in accordance with the 
provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 
through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accor- 
dance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are pro- 
vided by another section of this code. 

A minimum of one manual fire alarm box shall be provided 
in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire 
alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow 
detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow 
elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire 
alarm box shall be installed. 

Exceptions: 

1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire 
alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and 
supervisory service. 

2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group 
R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code offi- 
cial to provide a means for fire watch personnel to ini- 
tiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment 
event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box 
shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the 
public. 

[F] 907.2.1 Group A. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with 
Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies 
having an occupant load of 300 or more. Portions of Group 
E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E 
occupancy. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances 
will activate throughout the notification zones upon 
sprinkler waterflow. 

[F] 907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupan- 
cies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activa- 
tion of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an 
occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal 
using an emergency voice/alarm communications sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded 
announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated 
for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the 



sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement 
from an approved, constantly attended location. 

[F] 907.2.2 Group B. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group B occupancies where one of the follow- 
ing conditions exists: 

1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 
500 or more. 

2. The Group B occupant loadis more than 100 persons 
above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

3. The Group B fire area contains a Group B ambulatory 
health care facility. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances 
will activate throughout the notification zones upon 
sprinkler waterflow. 

[F] 907.2.2.1 Group B ambulatory health care facili- 
ties. Fire areas containing Group B ambulatory health 
care facilities shall be provided with an electronically 
supervised automatic smoke detection system installed 
within the ambulatory health care facility and in public 
use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public cor- 
ridors and elevator lobbies. 

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1, provided the occupant notification 
appliances will activate throughout the notification 
zones upon sprinkler waterflow. 

[F] 907.2.3 Group E. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with 
Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. 
When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are 
installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the 
building fire alarm system. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E 
occupancies with an occupant load of "less than 50. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E 
occupancies where all of the following apply: 

2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke de- 
tectors. 

2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and 
similar areas are protected by heat detectors 
or other approve d detection devices. 

2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or va- 
pors are protected by heat detectors or other 
approve d detection devices. 

2.4. The capability to activate the evacuation sig- 
nal from a central point is provided. 

2.5. In buildings where normally occupied spaces 
are provided with a two-way communication 
system between such spaces and a constantly 
attended receiving station from where a gen- 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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eral evacuation alarm can be sounded, except 
in locations specifically designated by the fire 
code official. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in 
Group E occupancies where the building is equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, the notification appliances will activate on 
sprinkler waterflow and manual activation is pro- 
vided from a normally occupied location. 

[F] 907.2.4 Group F. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with 
Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies 
where both of the following conditions exist: 

1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in 
height; and 

2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant 
loadof500 or more above or below the lowest level of 
exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances 
will activate throughout the notification zones upon 
sprinkler waterflow. 

[F] 907.2.5 Group H. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system shall be installed in 
Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the 
manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke 
detection system that activates the occupant notification 
system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic per- 
oxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 37, 39 
and 40, respectively, of the International Fire Code. 

[F] 907.2.6 Group I . A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system shall be installed in 
Group 1 occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system 
that activates the occupant notification system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 
907.2.6.3.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient 
sleeping areas of Group 1-1 and 1-2 occupancies 
shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' 
control stations or other constantly attended staff 
locations, provided such stations are visible and 
continuously accessible and that travel distances 
required in Section 907.4.2 are not exceeded. 

2. Occupant notification systems are not required to 
be activated where private mode signaling 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved 
by the fire code official. 

[F] 907.2.6.1 Group 1-1. An automatic smoke detection 
system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open 
to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping 



units and kitchens. The system shall be activated in 
accordance with Section 907.5. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not 
required where the facility is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior 
balconies. 

[F] 907.2.6.1.1 Smoke alarms. Single- and multi- 
ple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.11. 

[F] 907.2.6.2 Group 1-2. An automatic smoke detection 
system shall be installed in corridors in nursing homes 
(both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), 
detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open 
to the corridors by Section 407.2. The system shall be 
activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Hospitals 
shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in 
Section 407. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing units where such units are provided with 
smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. 
Such detectors shall provide a visual display on 
the corridor side of each patient sleeping unit 
and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at 
the nursing station attending each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing units where patient sleeping unit doors are 
equipped with automatic door-closing devices 
with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides 
installed in accordance with their listing, pro- 
vided that the integral detectors perform the 
required alerting function. 

[F] 907.2.6.3 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occu- 
pancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm sys- 
tem and automatic smoke detection system installed for 
alerting staff. 

[F] 907.2.6.3.1 System initiation. Actuation of an 
automatic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire 
alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved 
fire alarm signal which automatically notifies staff. 

[F] 907.2.6.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual 
fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in 
accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm 
boxes are provided at staff- attended locations having 
direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm 
boxes have been omitted. 

907.2.6.3.2.1 Manual fire alarm boxes in 
detainee areas. Manual fire alarm boxes are 
allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detain- 



196 



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ees, provided that staff members are present within 
the subj ect area and have keys readily available to 
operate the manual fire alarm boxes. 

[F] 907.2.6.3.3 Automatic smoke detection system. 
An automatic smoke detection system shall be 
installed throughout resident housing areas, including 
sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activ- 
ity spaces and other common spaces normally acces- 
sible to residents. 

Exceptions: 

1. Other approved smoke detection arrange- 
ments providing equivalent protection, 
including, but not limited to, placing detec- 
tors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind 
protective guards listed for the purpose, are 
allowed when necessary to prevent damage 
or tampering. 

2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as 
described in Section 308. 

3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping 
units with four or fewer occupants in smoke 
compartments that are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

[F] 907.2.7 Group M. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with 
Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies 
where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 
500 or more persons. 

2. The Group M occupantloadis more than 100 persons 
above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in cov- 
ered mall buildings complying with Section 402. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appli- 
ances will automatically activate throughout the 
notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow. 

[F] 907.2.7.1 Occupant notification. During times that 
the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a 
manual fire alarm box or from a waterflow switch shall 
not be required to activate the alarm notification appli- 
ances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly 
attended location from which evacuation instructions 
shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system installed in accordance with Section 
907.5.2.2. 

[F] 907.2.8 Group R-l. Fire alarm systems and smoke 
alarms shall be installed in Group R-l occupancies as 
required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3. 



[F] 907.2.8.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system that activates the occupant notification sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in 
Group R-l occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual sleeping units and contigu- 
ous atticand crawl spaces to those units are sep- 
arated from each other and public or common 
areas by at least I-hour fire partitions and each 
individual sleeping unithas an exit directly to a 
public way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when all of the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2; 

2.2. The notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler waterflow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is 
installed at an approvediocation. 

[F] 907.2.8.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An 
automatic smoke detection system that activates the 
occupant notification system in accordance with Section 
907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors 
serving sleeping units. 

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is 
not required in buildings that do not have interior cor- 
ridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping 
unithas a means of egress door opening directly to an 
exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to 
an exit. 

[F] 907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple- sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 907.2.11. 

[F] 907.2.9 Group R-2. Fire alarm systems and smoke 
alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as 
required in Sections 907.2.9.1 and 907.9.2. 

[F] 907.2.9.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system that activates the occupant notification sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in 
Group R-2 occupancies where: 

1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three 
or more stories above the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge; 

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more 
than one story below the highest level of exit dis- 
charge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleep- 
ing unit, or 



2009 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units 
or sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings 
not more than two stories in height where all 
dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous 
attic and crawl spaces are separated from each 
other and public or common areas by at least 
I-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public 
way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where 
the building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and 
the occupant notification appliances will auto- 
matically activate throughout the notification 
zones upon a sprinkler waterflow. 

3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings 
that do not have interior corridors serving 
dwelling units and are protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903 .3 . 1.1 or 903 .3 .1.2, pro- 
vided that dwelling units either have a means of 
egress door opening directly to an exterior exit 
access that leads directly to the exits or are 
served by open-ended corridors designed in 
accordance with Section 1026.6, Exception 4. 

[F] 907.2.9.2 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 907.2.11. 

\F] 907.2.10 Group R-4. Fire alarm systems and smoke 
alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as 
required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3. 

[F] 907.2.10.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual 
fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification 
system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be 
installed in Group R-4 occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual sleeping units and contigu- 
ous atticand crawl spaces to those units are sep- 
arated from each other and public or common 
areas by at least I-hour fire partitions and each 
individual sleeping unithas an exit directly to a 
public way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 



installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2; 

2.2. The notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler waterflow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is 
installed at an approvedlocation. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient 
sleeping areas shall not be required at exits 
where located at all nurses' control stations or 
other constantly attended staff locations, pro- 
vided such stations are visible and continuously 
accessible and that travel distances required in 
Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded. 

\F] 907.2.10.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An 
automatic smoke detection system that activates the 
occupant notification system in accordance with Section 
907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open 
to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping 
units and kitchens. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not 
required where the facility is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. An automatic smoke detection system is not 
required in buildings that do not have interior 
corridors serving sleeping units and where 
each sleeping unit has a means of egress door 
opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit 
access that leads directly to an exit. 

\F] 907.2.10.3 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 907.2.11. 

[F] 907.2.11 Single- and multiple- station smoke alarms. 
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms comply- 
ing with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.4 and NFPA 72. 

\F] 907.2.11.1 Group R-l. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following 
locations in Group R-l: 

1. In sleeping areas. 

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress 
from the sleeping area to the door leading from the 
sleeping unit. 

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including 
basements. For sleeping units with split levels and 
without an intervening door between the adjacent 
levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level 
shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided 
that the lower level is less than one full storybelow 
the upper level. 



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[F] 907.2.11.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and 1-1. Single- or 
multiple- station smoke alarms shall be installed and 
maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and 1-1 regardless of 
occupant load at all of the following locations: 

1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate 
sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bed- 
rooms. 

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes. 

Exception: Single- or multiple- station smoke 
alarms in Group 1-1 shall not be required where 
smoke detectors are provided in the sleeping 
rooms as part of an automatic smoke detection 
system. 

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including 
basements but not including crawl spaces and 
uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units 
with split levels and without an intervening door 
between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm 
installed on the upper level shall suffice for the 
adjacent lower level provided that the lower level 
is less than one full sto ry below the upper level. 

[F] 907.2.11.3 Interconnection. Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individ- 
ual dwelling unitor sleeping unitin Group R-l, R-2, R-3 
or R-4, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such 
a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all 
of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be 
clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise 
levels with all intervening doors closed. 

[F] 907.2.11.4 Power source. In new construction, 
required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power 
from the building wiring where such wiring is served 
from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a 
battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that 
are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected 
to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall 
emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be 
permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than 
as required for overcurrent protection. 

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be 
equipped with battery backup where they are con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system. 

[F] 907.2.12 Special amusement buildings. An automatic 
smoke detection system shall be provided in special amuse- 
ment buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1 
through 907.2.12.3. 

[F] 907.2.12.1 Alarm. Activation of any single smoke 
detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other 
automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound 
an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location 
from which emergency action can be initiated, including 
the capability of manual initiation of requirements in 
Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 907.2.12.2 System response. The activation of two 
or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector 
equipped with an alarm verification feature, the auto- 



matic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection 
device shall automatically: 

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with 
light of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the 
walking surface level; 

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and 
visual distractions; 

3. Activate an approved directional exzYmarking that 
will become apparent in an emergency; and 

4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible through- 
out the special amusement bUilding, instructing 
patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm sig- 
nals used in conjunction with the prerecorded mes- 
sage shall produce a sound which is distinctive 
from other sounds used during normal operation. 

[F] 907.2.12.3 Emergency voice/alarm communica- 
tion system. An emergency voice/alarm communication 
system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address 
system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 
907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special 
amusement bUilding. 

[Fl 907.2.13 High-rise buildings. Buildings with a floor 
used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle 
access shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, afire depart- 
ment communication system in accordance with Section 
907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication 
system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with 
Sections 907.2.22 and 412. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in 
accordance with Section 303.1. 

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance 
with Section 503.1.1. 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-l, H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415 . 

6. In Group 1-1 and 1-2 occupancies, the alarm shall 
sound at a constantly attended location and gen- 
eral occupant notification shall be broadcast by the 
emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

[F] 907.2.13.1 Automatic smoke detection. Automatic 
smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2. 

[F] 907.2.13.1.1 Area smoke detection. Area smoke 
detectors shall be provided in accordance with this 
section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an 
automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any 
detector required by this section shall operate the 
emergency voice/alarm communication system in 



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accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. Smoke detectors 
shall be located as follows: 

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, 
transformer, telephone equipment or similar 
room which is not provided with sprinkler pro- 
tection. 

2. In each elevator machine room and in elevator 
lobbies. 

[F] 907.2.13.1 .2 Duct smoke detection. Duct smoke 
detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be 
located as follows: 

1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of 
each air-conditioning system having a capacity 
greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) 
(0.94 m 3 /s). Such detectors shall be located in a 
serviceable area downstream of the last duct 
inlet. 

2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser 
serving two or more stories from a return air 
duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. 
In Group R-l and R-2 occupancies, a smoke 
detector is allowed to be used in each return air 
riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 
m 3 /s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet 
openings. 

[F] 907.2.13.2 Fire department communication sys- 
tem. Where a wired communication system is approved 
in lieu of a radio coverage system in accordance with 
Section 510 of the International Fire Code, the wired fire 
department communication system shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall oper- 
ate between a fire command center complying with Sec- 
tion 911, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and 
standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas ofrefuge 
and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department 
communication device shall be provided at each floor 
level within the enclosed exit stairway. 

[F] 907.2.14 Atriums connecting more than two stories. 
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an 
atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke 
detection installed throughout the atrium. The system shall 
be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occu- 
pancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system complying with 
the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2. 

[F] 907.2.15 High-piled combustible storage areas. An 
automatic smoke detection system shall be installed 
throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where 
required by Section 2306.5 of the International Fire Code. 

[F] 907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses. Aerosol storage rooms 
and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall 
be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system 
where required by the International Fire Code. 

[F] 907.2.17 Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer 
mills. Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall 
be provided with a manual fire alarm system. 



[F] 907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke control 
systems. Where a smoke control system is installed in an 
underground building in accordance with this code, auto- 
matic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 907.2.18.1. 

[F] 907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. A minimum of one 
smoke detector listed fox the intended purpose shall be 
installed in the following areas : 

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, 
telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar 
rooms. 

2. Elevator lobbies. 

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each 
air-conditioning system serving more than one 
story and located in a serviceable area downstream 
of the last duct inlet. 

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving 
two or more floors from return air ducts or ple- 
nums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a 
listedsmoke detector is allowed to be used in each 
return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm 
(2.4 m 3 /s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet 
openings. 

\F] 907.2.18.2 Alarm required. Activation of the smoke 
control system shall activate an audible alarm at a con- 
stantly attended location. 

[F] 907.2.19 Deep underground buildings. Where the 
lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) 
below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, 
the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual 
fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm 
communication system installed in accordance with Section 
907.5.2.2. 

[F] 907.2.20 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall build- 
ings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) in total floor 
area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system. An emergency voice/alarm communi- 
cation system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be 
accessible to the fire department. The system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 

[F] 907.2.21 Residential aircraft hangars. A minimum of 
one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a 
residential aircraft hangar as defined in Section 412.3.1 and 
shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or 
other sounding device to provide an alarm which will be 
audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling. 

[F] 907.2.22 Airport traffic control towers. An automatic 
smoke detection system that activates the occupant notifica- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be pro- 
vided in airport control towers in all occupiable and 
equipment spaces. 

Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed 
within the control tower cab. 



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[F] 907.2.23 Battery rooms. An automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be installed in areas containing stationary 
storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 
50 gallons (189 L). 

[F] 907.3 Fire safety functions. Automatic fire detectors uti- 
lized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall 
be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit where a 
fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the 
alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible 
supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In build- 
ings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire 
detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors 
shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72 . 

[F] 907.3.1 Duct smoke detectors. Smoke detectors 
installed in ducts shall be listedfor the air velocity, tempera- 
ture and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors 
shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit 
when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Acti- 
vation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and 
audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location 
and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accor- 
dance with this code and the International Mechanical 
Code. Duct smoke detectors shall not be used as a substitute 
for required open area detection. 

Exceptions: 

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended 
location is not required where duct smoke detec- 
tors activate the building's alarm notification 
appliances. 

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a 
fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector 
shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an 
approvediocation. Smoke detector trouble condi- 
tions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an 
approved location and shall be identified as air 
duct detector trouble. 

[F] 907.3.2 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress 
locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance 
with Section 1008.1.9.6, an automatic smoke or heat detec- 
tion system shall be installed as required by that section. 

[F] 907.3.3 Elevator emergency operation. Automatic 
fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation 
shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of 
ASME A17.1 and NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.3.4 Wiring. The wiring to the auxiliary devices and 
equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety func- 
tions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with 
NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.4 Initiating devices. Where manual or automatic 
alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the 
initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 
907.4.1 through 907.4.3. 

[F] 907.4.1 Protection of fire alarm control unit. In areas 
that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector 



shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control 
unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders, and 
supervising station transmitting equipment. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of 
a smoke detector, a heatdetec tor shall be permit- 
ted. 

2. The smoke detector shall not be required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

[F] 907.4.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Where a manual fire 
alarm system is required by another section of this code, it 
shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance 
with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.5. 

[F] 907.4.2.1 Location. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be 
located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the 
entrance to each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes 
shall be located so that travel distance to the nearest box 
does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

[F] 907.4.2.2 Height. The height of the manual fire 
alarm boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) 
and a maximum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured verti- 
cally, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever 
of the box. 

[F] 907.4.2.3 Color. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red 
in color. 

[F] 907.4.2.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not 
monitored by a supervising station, an approved perma- 
nent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire 
alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS CALL 
FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently 
provided this information on the manual fire alarm 
box. 

[F] 907.4.2.5 Protective covers. The fire code official is 
authorized to require the installation of listedmanuai fire 
alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false 
alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with pro- 
tection from physical damage. The protective cover shall 
be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to 
permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover 
shall include proper operating instructions. A protective 
cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed 
unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more 
than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3. 

[F] 907.4.3 Automatic smoke detection. Where an auto- 
matic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize 
smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an 
installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be uti- 
lized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat 
detectors shall be permitted. 

907.4.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. For conditions 
other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 
907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the 



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installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire 
alarm system shall be approvedas automatic heat detec- 
tion. 

[F] 907.5 Occupant notification systems. A fire alarm system 
shall annunciate at the panel and shall initiate occupant notifi- 
cation upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 
through 907.5.2.3.4. Where a fire alarm system is required by 
another section of this code, it shall be activated by: 

1. Automatic fire detectors. 

2. Sprinkler waterflow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed else- 
where in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended 
location. 

\F] 907.5.1 Pre signal feature. A presignal feature shall not 
be installed unless approve dby the fire code official and the 
fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a 
signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location 
approvedby the fire department, in order that occupant noti- 
fication can be activated in the event of fire or other emer- 
gency. 

[F] 907.5.2 Alarm notification appliances. Alarm notifi- 
cation appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for 
their purpose. 

[F] 907.5.2.1 Audible alarms. Audible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive 
sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than 
that of a fire alarm. 

Exception: Visible alarm notification appliances 
shall be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification 
appliances in critical care areas of Group 1-2 occupan- 
cies. 

907.5.2.1.1 Average sound pressure. The audible 
alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound 
pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average 
ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum 
sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, 
whichever is greater, in every occupiable space 
within the building. The minimum sound pressure 
levels shall be: 75 dBA in occupancies in Groups R 
and 1-1; 90 dBA in mechanical equipment rooms and 
60 dBA in other occupancies. 

907.5.2.1.2 Maximum sound pressure. The maxi- 
mum sound pressure level for audible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum 
hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where 
the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, vis- 
ible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in 
accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall not be required. 

907.5.2.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
systems. Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 



tems required by this code shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any auto- 
matic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual 
fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone fol- 
lowed by voice instructions giving approved information 
and directions for a general or staged evacuation in 
accordance with the building's fire safety and evacuation 
plans required by Section 404. In high-rise buildings, the 
system shall operate on a minimum of the alarming floor, 
the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be 
provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a 
minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows: 

1. Elevator groups. 

2. Exit stairways. 

3. Each floor. 

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002.1. 

Exception: In Group 1-1 and 1-2 occupancies, the 
alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a 
general occupant notification shall be broadcast over 
the overhead page. 

[F] 907.5.2.2.1 Manual override. A manual override 
for emergency voice communication shall be pro- 
vided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging 
zones. 

[F] 907.5.2.2.2 Live voice messages. The emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall also have 
the capability to broadcast live voice messages by 
paging zones on a selective and all-call basis. 

[F] 907.5.2.2.3 Alternate uses. The emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed 
to be used for other announcements, provided the 
manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other 
use. 

[F] 907.5.2.2.4 Emergency power. Emergency 
voice/alarm communications systems shall be pro- 
vided with an approved emergency power source. 

[F] 907.5.2.3 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not 
required in alterations, except where an exist- 
ing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, 
or a new fire alarm system is installed. 

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not 
be required in exits as defined in Section 
1002.1. 

3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not 
be required in elevator cars. 

[F] 907.5.2.3.1 Public and common areas. Visible 
alarm notification appliances shall be provided in 
public areas and common areas. 

[F] 907.5.2.3.2 Employee work areas. Where 
employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, 



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the notification appliance circuits serving the 
employee work areas shall be initially designed with a 
minimum of 20-percent spare capacity to account for 
the potential of adding visible notification appliances 
in the future to accommodate hearing impaired 
employee(s) . 

\F] 907.5.2.3.3 Groups 1-1 and R-l. Group 1-1 and 
R-l dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance 
with Table 907.5.2.3.3 shall be provided with a visible 
alarm notification appliance, activated by both the 
in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm sys- 
tem. 

[F] TABLE 907.5.2.3.3 
VISIBLE ALARMS 



NUMBER OF SLEEP UNITS 


SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH 
VISIBLE ALARMS 


6 to 25 


2 


26 to 50 


4 


51 to 75 


7 


76 to 100 


9 


101 to 150 


12 


151 to 200 


14 


201 to 300 


17 


301 to 400 


20 


401 to 500 


22 


501 to 1,000 


5% of total 


1,001 and over 


50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000 



[F] 907.5.2.3.4 Group R-2. In Group R-2 occupan- 
cies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm sys- 
tem, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be 
provided with the capability to support visible alarm 
notification appliances in accordance with ICC 
AI17.1. 

[F] 907.6 Installation. A fire alarm system shall be installed in 
accordance with this section and NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.6.1 Wiring. Wiring shall comply with the require- 
ments of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection sys- 
tems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall 
comply with the special requirements for supervision of 
low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.6.2 Power supply. The primary and secondary 
power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in 
accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Back-up power for single- station and multi- 
ple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 
907.2.11.4. 

[F] 907.6.3 Zones. Each floor shall be zoned separately and 
a zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m 2 ). The 



length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in 
any direction. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not 
exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13. 

[F] 907.6.3.1 Zoning indicator panel. A zoning indica- 
tor panel and the associated controls shall be provided in 
an approved location. The visual zone indication shall 
lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled 
by the operation of an audible-alarm silencing switch. 

[F] 907.6.3.2 High-rise buildings. In high-rise build- 
ings, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each 
of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where 
provided: 

1. Smoke detectors. 

2. Sprinkler waterflow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection 
devices or suppression systems. 

[F] 907.6.4 Access. Access shall be provided to each fire 
alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspec- 
tion, maintenance and testing. 

\F] 907.6.5 Monitoring. Fire alarm systems required by 
this chapter or by the International Fire Code shall be moni- 
tored by an approved supervising station in accordance with 
NFPA 72. 

Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not 
required for: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms 
required by Section 907.2.11. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-fam- 
ily dwellings. 

[F] 907.6.5.1 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. 
Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an 
emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire 
department telephone number unless approved by the 
fire chief. 

[F] 907.7 Acceptance tests and completion. Upon comple- 
tion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm 
components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72. 

\F] 907.7.1 Single- and multiple-station alarm devices. 
When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each 
device and interconnecting wiring for multiple- station 
alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke 
alarm provisions of NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.7.2 Record of completion. A record of completion 
in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has 
been installed and tested in accordance with the approved 
plans and specifications shall be provided. 

[F] 907.7.3 Instructions. Operating, testing and mainte- 
nance instructions and record drawings ("as-builts") and 



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equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved 
location. 

[F] 907.8 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The mainte- 
nance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and 
fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Section 
907.9 of the International Fire Code. 



SECTION 908 
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS 

[F] 908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the 
detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group 
H occupancies shall be provided in accordance with Section 
414.7. 

[F] 908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for noti- 
fication of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be 
provided as required in Section 415.8.4.6. A continuous 
gas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in 
accordance with Section 415.8.7. 

[F] 908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. A gas detection 
system shall be provided to detect the presence of highly toxic 
or toxic gas at or below the permissible exposure limit (PEL) or 
ceiling limit of the gas for which detection is provided. The sys- 
tem shall be capable of monitoring the discharge from the treat- 
ment system at or below one-half the immediately dangerous to 
life and health (IDLH) limit. 

Exception: A gas-detection system is not required for toxic 
gases when the physiological warning threshold level for 
the gas is at a level below the accepted PEL for the gas. 

[F] 908.3.1 Alarms. The gas detection system shall initiate 
a local alarm and transmit a signal to a constantly attended 
control station when a short-term hazard condition is 
detected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and 
shall provide warning both inside and outside the area 
where gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct 
from all other alarms. 

Exception: Signal transmission to a constantly attended 
control station is not required when not more than one 
cylinder of highly toxic or toxic gas is stored. 

[F] 908.3.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas detection sys- 
tem shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source 
on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being 
monitored for whichever gas is detected. 

Exception: Automatic shutdown is not required for 
reactors utilized for the production of highly toxic or 
toxic compressed gases where such reactors are: 

1. Operated at pressures less than 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa). 

2. Constantly attended. 

3. Provided with readily accessible emergency shut- 
off valves. 

[F] 908.3.3 Valve closure. The automatic closure of shutoff 
valves shall be in accordance with the following: 

1. When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or 



exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabi- 
net or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas 
detected shall automatically close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a gas room and 
compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or 
exhausted enclosures, the shutoff valves on all gas 
lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically 
close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribu- 
tion manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve for the 
compressed container of specific gas detected supply- 
ing the manifold shall automatically close. 

Exception: When the gas-detection sampling point initi- 
ating the gas-detection system alarm is at a use location 
or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line down- 
stream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff 
valve in the gas valve enclosure for the branch line 
located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure 
shall automatically close. 

[F] 908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. Ozone gas-generator 
rooms shall be equipped with a continuous gas-detection sys- 
tem that will shut off the generator and sound a local alarm 
when concentrations above the PEL occur. 

[F] 908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 406.6.6. 

[F] 908.6 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall con- 
tain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The 
detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall 
be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concen- 
trate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the 
corresponding TLV-TWA values for the refrigerant classifica- 
tion indicated in the International Mechanical Code. Detectors 
and alarms shall be placed in approve d locations. 



SECTION 909 
SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

[F] 909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechan- 
ical or passive smoke control systems when they are required 
by other provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is 
to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation 
and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are 
intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or 
relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for 
the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of opera- 
tions or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. 
Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a differ- 
ent purpose than the smoke- and heat-venting provisions found 
in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be 
considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

[F] 909.2 General design requirements. Buildings,